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Sample records for magnesium alloy plates

  1. Preparation, characterization and wear behavior of carbon coated magnesium alloy with electroless plating nickel interlayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Yan; Li, Zhuguo; Feng, Kai; Guo, Xingwu; Zhou, Zhifeng; Dong, Jie; Wu, Yixiong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The carbon film with nickel interlayer (Ni + C coating) is deposited on GW83. • In Ni + C composite coating the carbon coating has good adhesion with the nickel interlayer. • The wear track of Ni + C coating is narrower compared to the bare one. • The wear resistance of GW83 is greatly improved by the Ni + C coating. - Abstract: Poor wear resistance of rare earth magnesium alloys has prevented them from wider application. In this study, composite coating (PVD carbon coating deposited on electroless plating nickel interlayer) is prepared to protect GW83 magnesium alloys against wear. The Ni + C composite coating has a dense microstructure, improved adhesion strength and hardness due to the effective support of Ni interlayer. The wear test result shows that the Ni + C composite coating can greatly prolong the wear life of the magnesium alloy. The wear track of the Ni + C coated magnesium alloy is obviously narrower and shows less abrasive particles as compared with the bare one. Abrasive wear is the wear mechanism of the coatings at the room temperature. In conclusion, the wear resistance of the GW83 magnesium alloy can be greatly improved by the Ni + C composite coating

  2. The Effect of Adding Corrosion Inhibitors into an Electroless Nickel Plating Bath for Magnesium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Rong; Su, Yongyao; Liu, Hongdong; Cheng, Jiang; Yang, Xin; Shao, Zhongcai

    2016-10-01

    In this work, corrosion inhibitors were added into an electroless nickel plating bath to realize nickel-phosphorus (Ni-P) coating deposition on magnesium alloy directly. The performance of five corrosion inhibitors was evaluated by inhibition efficiency. The results showed that only ammonium hydrogen fluoride (NH4HF2) and ammonium molybdate ((NH4)2MoO4) could be used as corrosion inhibitors for magnesium alloy in the bath. Moreover, compounding NH4HF2 and (NH4)2MoO4, the optimal concentrations were both at 1.5 ~ 2%. The deposition process of Ni-P coating was observed by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). It showed corrosion inhibitors inhibited undesired dissolution of magnesium substrate during the electroless plating process. In addition, SEM observation indicated that the corrosion inhibition reaction and the Ni2+ replacement reaction were competitive at the initial deposition time. Both electrochemical analysis and thermal shock test revealed that the Ni-P coating exhibited excellent corrosion resistance and adhesion properties in protecting the magnesium alloy.

  3. Fabrication of hydrophobic/super-hydrophobic nanofilms on magnesium alloys by polymer plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Zhixin; Lai Xiaoming; Sang Jing; Li Yuanyuan

    2011-01-01

    Hydrophobic/super-hydrophobic nanofilms with improved corrosion resistance were fabricated on the surfaces of Mg–Mn–Ce magnesium alloy by a surface modification technique, named as polymer plating, which has been developed to modify superficial characteristics of magnesium alloys with polymeric nanofilms through synthesized organic compounds of triazine dithiol containing functional groups. The nanofilms were prepared by the electrochemical and polymerization reactions during polymer plating analyzed from characteristics of Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The fabricated nanofilms changed the surface wettability of blank magnesium alloy from hydrophilic to hydrophobic with contact angle 119.0° of distilled water with lower surface free energy of 20.59 mJ/m 2 and even super-hydrophobic with contact angle 158.3° with lowest surface free energy of 4.68 mJ/m 2 by different functional nanofilms on their surfaces. Alteration of wettability from hydrophilic to hydrophobic and super-hydrophobic resulted from their low surface free energy and surface morphology with micro- and nano-rough structures. The corrosion behaviors from potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) show that the super-hydrophobic nanofilm has higher corrosion resistance and stability in 0.1 mol/L NaCl solution and lower corrosion current density (I corr ) with R ct increasing two orders of magnitude of 16,500 Ω·cm 2 compared to that obtained for blank of 485 Ω·cm 2 .

  4. Fabrication of hydrophobic/super-hydrophobic nanofilms on magnesium alloys by polymer plating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang Zhixin, E-mail: zxkang@scut.edu.cn; Lai Xiaoming; Sang Jing; Li Yuanyuan

    2011-11-01

    Hydrophobic/super-hydrophobic nanofilms with improved corrosion resistance were fabricated on the surfaces of Mg-Mn-Ce magnesium alloy by a surface modification technique, named as polymer plating, which has been developed to modify superficial characteristics of magnesium alloys with polymeric nanofilms through synthesized organic compounds of triazine dithiol containing functional groups. The nanofilms were prepared by the electrochemical and polymerization reactions during polymer plating analyzed from characteristics of Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The fabricated nanofilms changed the surface wettability of blank magnesium alloy from hydrophilic to hydrophobic with contact angle 119.0 Degree-Sign of distilled water with lower surface free energy of 20.59 mJ/m{sup 2} and even super-hydrophobic with contact angle 158.3 Degree-Sign with lowest surface free energy of 4.68 mJ/m{sup 2} by different functional nanofilms on their surfaces. Alteration of wettability from hydrophilic to hydrophobic and super-hydrophobic resulted from their low surface free energy and surface morphology with micro- and nano-rough structures. The corrosion behaviors from potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) show that the super-hydrophobic nanofilm has higher corrosion resistance and stability in 0.1 mol/L NaCl solution and lower corrosion current density (I{sub corr}) with R{sub ct} increasing two orders of magnitude of 16,500 {Omega}{center_dot}cm{sup 2} compared to that obtained for blank of 485 {Omega}{center_dot}cm{sup 2}.

  5. High corrosion resistance of electroless composite plating coatings on AZ91D magnesium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Y.W.; Shan, D.Y.; Han, E.H.

    2008-01-01

    The process of electroless plating Ni-P on AZ91D magnesium alloys was improved. The Ni-P-ZrO 2 composite coatings and multilayer coatings were investigated based on the new electroless plating process. The coatings surface and cross-section morphologies were observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The chemical compositions were analyzed by EDXS. The corrosion behaviors were evaluated by immersion, salt spray and electrochemical tests. The experimental results indicated that the Ni-P-ZrO 2 composite coatings suffered attack in NaCl solution but displayed passivation characteristics in NaOH and Na 2 SO 4 solutions. The corrosion resistance of Ni-P-ZrO 2 coatings was superior to Ni-P coatings due to the effect of ZrO 2 nano-particle. The multilayer coatings consisting of Ni-P-ZrO 2 /electroplating nickel/Ni-P (from substrate to surface) can protect magnesium alloys from corroding more than 1000 h for the salt spray test

  6. Initial deposition mechanism of electroless nickel plating on AZ91D magnesium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Y.; Shan, D.; Han, E.

    2006-01-01

    The pretreatment processes and initial deposition mechanism of electroless nickel plating on AZ91D magnesium alloy were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). The results showed that alkaline cleaning could remove the greases and oils from the substrate surface. Acid etching could wipe off the metal chippings and oxides. The hydrofluoric acid activating process which could improve the adhesion of coating to substrate played a key role in the subsequent process of electroless nickel plating. The nickel coating was deposited preferentially on the primary α phase and then spread to the eutectic α phase and β phase. The nickel initially nucleated on the primary α phase by a replacement reaction, then grew depending on the autocatalysis function of nickel. The coating on the β phase displayed better adhesion than that on the α phase due to the nails fixing effect. (author)

  7. Wetting Behavior of Molten AZ61 Magnesium Alloy on Two Different Steel Plates Under the Cold Metal Transfer Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZENG Cheng-zong

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The wetting behavior and interfacial microstructures of molten magnesium AZ61 alloy on the surface of two different Q235 and galvanized steel plates under the condition of cold metal transfer were investigated by using dynamic sessile drop method. The results show that the wetting behavior is closely related to the wire feed speed. Al-Fe intermetallic layer was observed whether the substrate is Q235 steel or galvanized steel, and the formation of Al-Fe intermetallic layer should satisfy the thermodynamic condition of such Mg-Al/Fe system. The wettability of molten AZ61 magnesium alloy is improved with the increase of wire feed speed whether on Q235 steel surface or on galvanized steel surface, good wettability on Q235 steel surface is due to severe interface reaction when wire feed speed increases, good wettability on galvanized steel surface is attributed to the aggravating zinc volatilization. When the wire feed speed is ≤10.5m·min-1, the wettability of Mg alloy on Q235 steel plate is better than on galvanized steel plate. However, Zn vapor will result in instability for metal transfer process.

  8. Oxide films on magnesium and magnesium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, T.-S.; Liu, J.-B.; Wei, P.-S.

    2007-01-01

    Magnesium alloys are very active and readily ignite during heating and melting. In this study, we discuss the combustion of magnesium and magnesium alloys and propose prospective anti-ignition mechanisms for magnesium alloys during the heating process. When magnesium and magnesium alloys were heated in air, the sample surfaces produced layers of thermally formed oxides. These thermally formed oxides played an important role in affecting the combustion of the magnesium and magnesium alloys. When magnesium was heated in air, brucite that formed in the early stage was then transformed into periclase by dehydroxylation. By extending the heating time, more periclase formed and increased in thickness which was associated with microcracks formation. When magnesium was heated in a protective atmosphere (SF 6 ), a film of MgF 2 formed at the interface between the oxide layer and the Mg substrate. This film generated an anti-ignition behavior which protected the substrate from oxidation. When solution-treated AZ80 alloy was heated, spinel developed at the interface between the thermally formed oxide layer and the Mg substrate, improving the anti-ignition properties of the substrate. In addition, we also explain the effects of beryllium in an AZB91 alloy on the ignition-proofing behavior

  9. INVESTIGATION OF MAGNESIUM ALLOYS MACHINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berat Barıs BULDUM

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium is the lightest structural metal. Magnesium alloys have a hexagonal lattice structure, which affects the fundamental properties of these alloys. Plastic deformation of the hexagonal lattice is more complicated than in cubic latticed metals like aluminum, copper and steel. Magnesium alloy developments have traditionally been driven by industry requirements for lightweight materials to operate under increasingly demanding conditions. Magnesium alloys have always been attractive to designers due to their low density, only two thirds that of aluminium and its alloys [1]. The element and its alloys take a big part of modern industry needs. Especially nowadays magnesium alloys are used in automotive and mechanical (trains and wagons manufacture, because of its lightness and other features. Magnesium and magnesium alloys are the easiest of all metals to machine, allowing machining operations at extremely high speed. All standard machining operations such as turning, drilling, milling, are commonly performed on magnesium parts.

  10. Magnesium, magnesium alloys, and magnesium composites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, M; Sharon, Nai Mui Ling

    2011-01-01

    "Properties of Magnesium Composites for Material Scientists, Engineers and Selectors is the first book-length reference to provide an insight into current and future magnesium-based materials in terms...

  11. Preparation and characterization of inorganic and organic coatings on AZ91D magnesium alloy with electroless plating pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, S.Y.; Li, Q.; Zhang, H.X.; Wang, S.Y.; Liu, F. [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University Chongqing, 400715 (China); Yang, X.K. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University Chongqing, 400715 (China)

    2011-09-15

    In this paper, a protective coating scheme was applied for the corrosion protection of AZ91D magnesium alloy. Electroless Ni coating (EN coating) as bottom layer, electrodeposited Ni coating (ENN coating), and silane-based coating (ENS coating) as top layer, respectively, were successfully prepared on AZ91D magnesium alloy by combination techniques. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were employed to investigate the surface and phase structure of coatings, respectively. The electrochemical corrosion behaviors of coatings in neutral 3.5 wt% NaCl solution were evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization techniques. The corrosion testing showed that the three kinds of coatings all could provide corrosion protection for AZ91D magnesium alloy to a certain extent, and the corrosion resistance of ENN and ENS was superior to EN. In order to further study the corrosion protection properties of ENN and ENS, a comparative investigation on the evolution of EIS of ENN and ENS was carried out by dint of immersion test in neutral 3.5 wt% NaCl solution. The results indicated that, compared with ENN, the ENS could provide longer corrosion protection for AZ91D magnesium alloy. It is significant to determine the barrier effect of each coating, which could provide reference for industry applications. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Magnesium, magnesium alloys, and magnesium composites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, M; Sharon, Nai Mui Ling

    2011-01-01

    .... With the popularity of magnesium-based materials in the automotive, aerospace, electronics, and sports equipment industries, and its unique role as a lightweight, energy-saving and high-performance...

  13. Magnesium, magnesium alloys, and magnesium composites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, M; Sharon, Nai Mui Ling

    2011-01-01

    ... of science, characteristics, and applications. It emphasizes the properties of magnesium-based composites and the effects of different types of reinforcements, from micron length to nanometer scale, on the properties of the resulting composites...

  14. Electroless Ni-P/Nano-SiO2 Composite Plating on Dual Phase Magnesium-Lithium Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Y.; Zhang, Z. W.; Zhang, M. L.

    The application of Mg-Li alloys is restricted in practice due to mainly poor corrosion resistance and wear resistance. Electroless nickel plating is one of the common and effective ways to protect alloys from corrosion. In this study, nano-SiO2 particles with Ni-P matrix have been successfully co-deposited onto dual phase Mg-8Li base alloy through electroless plating, generating homogeneously Ni-P/nano-SiO2 composite coating. The morphology, elemental composition and structures of coatings were investigated. Coating performances were evaluated using hardness tests and electrochemical analysis. The results indicate that the Ni-P/nano-SiO2 composite coating can significantly improve the wear and corrosion resistance.

  15. Hydrostatic extrusion of magnesium alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sillekens, W.H.; Bohlen, J.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter deals with the capabilities and limitations of the hydrostatic extrusion process for the manufacturing of magnesium alloy sections. Firstly, the process basics for the hydrostatic extrusion of materials in general and of magnesium in particular are introduced. Next, some recent research

  16. Development of a Ballistic Specification for Magnesium Alloy AZ31B

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Tyrone L; DeLorme, Richard D

    2008-01-01

    .... The magnesium alloy plates were parametrically compared with the minimum performance requirements of aluminum alloy 5083-H131 temper rolled plate using various armor-piercing and fragment-simulating projectiles (FSPs...

  17. A highly ductile magnesium alloy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, W; Liu, H

    2009-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) alloys are finding increasing applications in industry mainly due to their high strength-to-weight ratio. However, they have intrinsically poor plastic deformation ability at room temperature. Therefore, the vast majority of Mg alloys are used only in cast state, severely limiting the development of their applications. We have recently discovered a new Mg alloy system that possesses exceptionally high ductility as well as good mechanical strength. The superior plasticity allows this alloy system to be mechanically deformed at room temperature, directly from an as-cast alloy plate, sheet or ingot into working parts. This type of cold mechanical forming properties has never been reported with any other Mg alloy systems.

  18. Applicability of existing magnesium alloys as biomedical implant materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erinc, M.; Sillekens, W.H.; Mannens, R.G.T.M.; Werkhoven, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Being biocompatible and biodegradable, magnesium alloys are considered as the new generation biomedical implant materials, such as for stents, bone fixtures, plates and screws. A major drawback is the poor chemical stability of metallic magnesium; it corrodes at a pace that is too high for most

  19. Magnesium and related low alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, J.; Caillat, R.; Darras, R.

    1959-01-01

    In the first part the authors examine the comparative corrosion of commercial magnesium, of a magnesium-zirconium alloy (0,4 per cent ≤ Zr ≤ 0,7 per cent) of a ternary magnesium-zinc-zirconium alloy (0,8 per cent ≤ Zn ≤ 1,2 per cent) and of english 'Magnox type' alloys, in dry carbon dioxide-free air, in damp carbon dioxide-free air, and in dry and damp carbon dioxide, at temperatures from 300 to 600 deg. C. In the second part the structural stability of these materials is studied after annealings, of 10 to 1000 hours at 300 to 450 deg. C. Variations in grain after these heat treatments and mechanical stretching properties at room temperature are presented. Finally various creep rate and life time diagrams are given for these materials, for temperatures ranging from 300 to 450 deg. C. (author) [fr

  20. Development of a Ballistic Specification for Magnesium Alloy AZ31B

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Tyrone L; DeLorme, Richard D

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and Magnesium Elektron North America (MENA) have conducted a joint effort to develop and evaluate rolled plate in commercially available magnesium alloy-temper AZ31B-H24...

  1. Fracture healing using degradable magnesium fixation plates and screws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaya, Amy; Yoshizawa, Sayuri; Verdelis, Kostas; Noorani, Sabrina; Costello, Bernard J; Sfeir, Charles

    2015-02-01

    Internal bone fixation devices made with permanent metals are associated with numerous long-term complications and may require removal. We hypothesized that fixation devices made with degradable magnesium alloys could provide an ideal combination of strength and degradation, facilitating fracture fixation and healing while eliminating the need for implant removal surgery. Fixation plates and screws were machined from 99.9% pure magnesium and compared with titanium devices in a rabbit ulnar fracture model. Magnesium device degradation and the effect on fracture healing and bone formation were assessed after 4 weeks. Fracture healing with magnesium device fixation was compared with that of titanium devices using qualitative histologic analysis and quantitative histomorphometry. Micro-computed tomography showed device degradation after 4 weeks in vivo. In addition, 2-dimensional micro-computed tomography slices and histologic staining showed that magnesium degradation did not inhibit fracture healing or bone formation. Histomorphology showed no difference in bone-bridging fractures fixed with magnesium and titanium devices. Interestingly, abundant new bone was formed around magnesium devices, suggesting a connection between magnesium degradation and bone formation. Our results show potential for magnesium fixation devices in a loaded fracture environment. Furthermore, these results suggest that magnesium fixation devices may enhance fracture healing by encouraging localized new bone formation. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Magnesium and related low alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, J; Caillat, R; Darras, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    In the first part the authors examine the comparative corrosion of commercial magnesium, of a magnesium-zirconium alloy (0,4 per cent {<=} Zr {<=} 0,7 per cent) of a ternary magnesium-zinc-zirconium alloy (0,8 per cent {<=} Zn {<=} 1,2 per cent) and of english 'Magnox type' alloys, in dry carbon dioxide-free air, in damp carbon dioxide-free air, and in dry and damp carbon dioxide, at temperatures from 300 to 600 deg. C. In the second part the structural stability of these materials is studied after annealings, of 10 to 1000 hours at 300 to 450 deg. C. Variations in grain after these heat treatments and mechanical stretching properties at room temperature are presented. Finally various creep rate and life time diagrams are given for these materials, for temperatures ranging from 300 to 450 deg. C. (author) [French] Dans une premiere partie les auteurs etudient la corrosion comparee du magnesium commercial, d'un alliage magnesium-zirconium (0,4 pour cent {<=} Zr {<=} 0,7 pour cent), d'un alliage ternaire magnesium-zinc-zirconium (0,8 pour cent {<=} Zn {<=} 1,2 pour cent), et d'alliages anglais 'type Magnox', dans l'air sec decarbonate, l'air humide decarbonate, le gaz carbonique sec et humide a des temperatures de 300 a 600 deg. C. Dans une seconde partie, est etudiee la stabilite structurale de ces materiaux apres des recuits de 300 a 450 deg. C, et de 10 a 1000 heures. Sont presentees les variations, apres ces traitements thermiques, de la grosseur du grain, et des caracteristiques mecaniques de traction a la temperature ambiante. Enfin, quelques diagrammes de vitesse de fluage et de durees de vie sont presentes sur ces materiaux pour des temperatures variant entre 300 et 450 deg. C. (auteur)

  3. Alloying principles for magnesium base heat resisting alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drits, M.E.; Rokhlin, L.L.; Oreshkina, A.A.; Nikitina, N.I.

    1982-01-01

    Some binary systems of magnesium-base alloys in which solid solutions are formed, are considered for prospecting heat resistant alloys. It is shown that elements having essential solubility in solid magnesium strongly decreasing with temperature should be used for alloying maqnesium base alloys with high strength properties at increased temperatures. The strengthening phases in these alloys should comprise essential quantity of magnesium and be rather refractory

  4. Imparting passivity to vapor deposited magnesium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Ryan C.

    Magnesium has the lowest density of all structural metals. Utilization of low density materials is advantageous from a design standpoint, because lower weight translates into improved performance of engineered products (i.e., notebook computers are more portable, vehicles achieve better gas mileage, and aircraft can carry more payload). Despite their low density and high strength to weight ratio, however, the widespread implementation of magnesium alloys is currently hindered by their relatively poor corrosion resistance. The objective of this research dissertation is to develop a scientific basis for the creation of a corrosion resistant magnesium alloy. The corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys is affected by several interrelated factors. Among these are alloying, microstructure, impurities, galvanic corrosion effects, and service conditions, among others. Alloying and modification of the microstructure are primary approaches to controlling corrosion. Furthermore, nonequilibrium alloying of magnesium via physical vapor deposition allows for the formation of single-phase magnesium alloys with supersaturated concentrations of passivity-enhancing elements. The microstructure and surface morphology is also modifiable during physical vapor deposition through the variation of evaporation power, pressure, temperature, ion bombardment, and the source-to-substrate distance. Aluminum, titanium, yttrium, and zirconium were initially chosen as candidates likely to impart passivity on vapor deposited magnesium alloys. Prior to this research, alloys of this type have never before been produced, much less studied. All of these metals were observed to afford some degree of corrosion resistance to magnesium. Due to the especially promising results from nonequilibrium alloying of magnesium with yttrium and titanium, the ternary magnesium-yttrium-titanium system was investigated in depth. While all of the alloys are lustrous, surface morphology is observed under the scanning

  5. Irradiation effects in magnesium and aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturcken, E.F.

    1979-01-01

    Effects of neutron irradiation on microstructure, mechanical properties and swelling of several magnesium and aluminium alloys were studied. The neutron fluences of 2-3 X 10 22 n/cm 2 , >0.2 MeV produced displacement doses of 20 to 45 displacements per atom (dpa). Ductility of the magnesium alloys was severely reduced by irradiation induced recrystallization and precipitation of various forms. Precipitation of transmuted silicon occurred in the aluminium alloys. However, the effect on ductility was much less than for the magnesium alloys. The magnesium and aluminium alloys had excellent resistance to swelling: The best magnesium alloy was Mg/3.0 wt% Al/0.19 wt% Ca; its density decreased by only 0.13%. The best aluminium alloy was 6063, with a density decrease of 0.22%. (Auth.)

  6. Corrosion Screening of EV31A Magnesium and Other Magnesium Alloys using Laboratory-Based Accelerated Corrosion and Electro-Chemical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Spray. Journal of Failure Analysis and Prevention 2008, 8 (2), 164–175. 34. Aluminium Alloy 5083, Plate and Sheet; SAE-AMS-QQ-A-250/6S; SAE...Corrosion Screening of EV31A Magnesium and Other Magnesium Alloys Using Laboratory-Based Accelerated Corrosion and Electro-chemical Methods...Magnesium and Other Magnesium Alloys Using Laboratory-Based Accelerated Corrosion and Electro-chemical Methods Brian E. Placzankis, Joseph P

  7. Plating on some difficult-to-plate metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dini, J.W.; Johnson, H.R.

    1980-02-01

    Electrodeposition of coatings on metals such as beryllium, beryllium-copper, Kovar, lead, magnesium, thorium, titanium, tungsten, uranium, zirconium, and their alloys can be problematic. This is due in most cases to a natural oxide surface film that readily reforms after being removed. The procedures we recommend for plating on these metals rely on replacing the oxide film with a displacement coating, or etching to allow mechanical keying between the substrate and plated deposit. The effectiveness of the procedures is demonstrated by interface bond strengths found in ring-shear and conical-head tensile tests

  8. Corrosion and protection of magnesium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghali, E. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Mining and Metallurgy

    2000-07-01

    The oxide film on magnesium offers considerable surface protection in rural and some industrial environments and the corrosion rate lies between that of aluminum and low carbon steels. Galvanic coupling of magnesium alloys, high impurity content such as Ni, Fe, Cu and surface contamination are detrimental for corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys. Alloying elements can form secondary particles which are noble to the Mg matrix, thereby facilitating corrosion, or enrich the corrosion product thereby possibly inhibiting the corrosion rate. Bimetallic corrosion resistance can be increased by fluxless melt protection, choice of compatible alloys, insulating materials, and new high-purity alloys. Magnesium is relatively insensible to oxygen concentration. Pitting, corrosion in the crevices, filiform corrosion are observed. Granular corrosion of magnesium alloys is possible due to the cathodic grain-boundary constituent. More homogeneous microstructures tend to improve corrosion resistance. Under fatigue loading conditions, microcrack initiation in Mg alloys is related to slip in preferentially oriented grains. Coating that exclude the corrosive environments can provide the primary defense against corrosion fatigue. Magnesium alloys that contain neither aluminum nor zinc are the most SCC resistant. Compressive surface residual stresses as that created by short peening increase SCC resistance. Cathodic polarization or cladding with a SCC resistant sheet alloy are good alternatives. Effective corrosion prevention for magnesium alloy components and assemblies should start at the design stage. Selective surface preparation, chemical treatment and coatings are recommended. Oil application, wax coating, anodizing, electroplating, and painting are possible alternatives. Recently, it is found that a magnesium hydride layer, created on the magnesium surface by cathodic charging in aqueous solution is a good base for painting. (orig.)

  9. Microstructure of MCMgAl12Zn1 magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrzański L. A.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is presented the structure of the cast magnesium alloys as cast state and after heat treatment cooled with different cooling rate, depending on the cooling medium (furnace, water, air. For investigations samples in shape of 250x150x25 mm plates were used. The structure have been study in the light microscope, scanning electron microscope equipped with an electron back scattering facility. The effects of the addition of Al on the microstructure were also studied. In the analysed alloys a structure of α solid solution and fragile phase β(Mg17Al12 occurred mainly on grain borders as well as eutectic and phase with Mn, Fe and Si. Investigation are carried out for the reason of chemical composition influence and precipitation processes influence to the structure and mechanical properties of the magnesium cast alloys with different chemical composition in as cast alloys and after heat treatment.

  10. Precipitation and Hardening in Magnesium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jian-Feng

    2012-11-01

    Magnesium alloys have received an increasing interest in the past 12 years for potential applications in the automotive, aircraft, aerospace, and electronic industries. Many of these alloys are strong because of solid-state precipitates that are produced by an age-hardening process. Although some strength improvements of existing magnesium alloys have been made and some novel alloys with improved strength have been developed, the strength level that has been achieved so far is still substantially lower than that obtained in counterpart aluminum alloys. Further improvements in the alloy strength require a better understanding of the structure, morphology, orientation of precipitates, effects of precipitate morphology, and orientation on the strengthening and microstructural factors that are important in controlling the nucleation and growth of these precipitates. In this review, precipitation in most precipitation-hardenable magnesium alloys is reviewed, and its relationship with strengthening is examined. It is demonstrated that the precipitation phenomena in these alloys, especially in the very early stage of the precipitation process, are still far from being well understood, and many fundamental issues remain unsolved even after some extensive and concerted efforts made in the past 12 years. The challenges associated with precipitation hardening and age hardening are identified and discussed, and guidelines are outlined for the rational design and development of higher strength, and ultimately ultrahigh strength, magnesium alloys via precipitation hardening.

  11. Magnesium secondary alloys: Alloy design for magnesium alloys with improved tolerance limits against impurities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blawert, C., E-mail: carsten.blawert@gkss.d [GKSS Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH, Max-Planck-Str. 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Fechner, D.; Hoeche, D.; Heitmann, V.; Dietzel, W.; Kainer, K.U. [GKSS Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH, Max-Planck-Str. 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Zivanovic, P.; Scharf, C.; Ditze, A.; Groebner, J.; Schmid-Fetzer, R. [TU Clausthal, Institut fuer Metallurgie, Robert-Koch-Str. 42, 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    The development of secondary magnesium alloys requires a completely different concept compared with standard alloys which obtain their corrosion resistance by reducing the levels of impurities below certain alloy and process depending limits. The present approach suitable for Mg-Al based cast and wrought alloys uses a new concept replacing the {beta}-phase by {tau}-phase, which is able to incorporate more impurities while being electro-chemically less detrimental to the matrix. The overall experimental effort correlating composition, microstructure and corrosion resistance was reduced by using thermodynamic calculations to optimise the alloy composition. The outcome is a new, more impurity tolerant alloy class with a composition between the standard AZ and ZC systems having sufficient ductility and corrosion properties comparable to the high purity standard alloys.

  12. The prospects of biodegradable magnesium-based alloys in osteosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Chorny

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the analytical review of the literature the main stages of development of biodegradable magnesium alloys in surgery and traumatology were discussed. The analysis revealed the main problems: there is no way to control the speed of the biological resorption alloys, the effects of products of magnesium degradation on the tissues and the organism in general are not studied, there is no information on the characteristics of the regeneration of bone tissue when implanted magnesium implanted magnesium alloys Materials for osteosynthesis with metal clamps made of steel X18H9T are used in 25,0-52,2% of cases, the corrosion of fasteners reaches 18-21%. Corrosion of the metal clips leads to the increase of the concentration of iron, chromium, nickel and titanium in the surrounding tissue. Electrochemical processes in metallic implants occurs due to their structural and chemical inhomogeneous. The microstructure of stainless steel is presented by differently oriented grains. Therefore, the question remains relevant to finding biodegradable materials suitable for implants for osteosynthesis, which could be completely metabolized by the organism, without causing of the pathological effects on the surrounding tissue and the body. The property of magnesium metal dissolved in the tissues of a living organism is known since the 19th century. Payr suggested the use of magnesium metal needles for the treatment of angiomas, in order to achieve thrombosis surrounding the tumor. In 1937 Lambotte made a post in the French Surgical Academy on the application of the osteosynthesis of the shin bone clamps with alloy Dow-metal (magnesium - 92% Aluminum - 8% + traces of manganese, made in the form of loops and screws. In 1938, Earl D. Mc.Braid and published their positive experience with plates and screws made of material similar in composition to the Dow-metal for osteosynthesis of fractures of the arm and forearm bones. Magnesium alloys may be used as a material for

  13. Friction welding of AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujino, R.; Ochi, H. [Osaka Inst. of Tech., Osaka (Japan); Kawai, G. [Osaka Sangyo Univ., Osaka (Japan); Yamaguchi, H.; Ogawa, K. [Osaka Prefecture Univ., Osaka (Japan); Suga, Y. [Keio Univ., Kanagawa (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    In this paper, for an acceleration of utilization of magnesium alloy which is being interested in recent years, friction welding of AZ31 magnesium alloy was carried out, and the joint performance was discussed in relation to the deformation heat input in the upset stage and upset loss as a evaluation factor. Where, the deformation heat input in the upset stage is mechanical work represented by the product of upset speed and axial pressure. As a result, it was made clear that the friction welding of AZ31 magnesium alloy was easy in the atmosphere, and good welded joints without a non- adhesion area at the weld interface could de obtained. Moreover, the evaluation factors discussed were possible to evaluate to joint performance. (orig.)

  14. Fatigue Analysis of Magnesium Alloys Components for Car Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsavina, Liviu; Rusu, Lucian; Șerban, Dan Andrei; Negru, Radu Marcel; Cernescu, Anghel

    2017-12-01

    The use of magnesium alloys in the automotive industry increased in the last decade because of their low weight and relative good mechanical properties. However, the variable loading conditions require a good fatigue behavior. This paper summaries the fatigue properties of magnesium alloys and presents new fatigue curve results for die cast AM50 magnesium alloy.

  15. A review on magnesium alloys as biodegradable materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xue-Nan; Zheng, Yu-Feng

    2010-06-01

    Magnesium alloys attracted great attention as a new kind of degradable biomaterials. One research direction of biomedical magnesium alloys is based on the industrial magnesium alloys system, and another is the self-designed biomedical magnesium alloys from the viewpoint of biomaterials. The mechanical, biocorrosion properties and biocompatibilities of currently reported Mg alloys were summarized in the present paper, with the mechanical properties of bone tissue, the healing period postsurgery, the pathophysiology and toxicology of the alloying elements being discussed. The strategy in the future development of biomedical Mg alloys was proposed.

  16. Anticorrosive magnesium hydroxide coating on AZ31 magnesium alloy by hydrothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yanying; Wu Guangming; Xing Guangjian; Li Donglin; Zhao Qing; Zhang Yunhong

    2009-01-01

    Magnesium alloys are potential biodegradable biomaterials in orthopedic surgery. However, the rapid degradation rate has limited their application in biomedical field. A great deal of studies have been done to improve the resistance of magnesium alloys. In this article, An anticorrosive magnesium hydroxide coating with a thickness of approximately 100μm was formed on an AZ31 magnesium alloy by hydrothermal method. The morphology of the coatings were observed by an optical microscope and SEM. And the samples were soaked in hank's solution (37 deg. C) to investigate the corrosion resistance. Magnesium alloy AZ31 with magnesium hydroxide coatings present superior corrosion resistance than untreated samples.

  17. Corrosion fatigue and stress corrosion cracking of magnesium alloys in a simulated physiological environment

    OpenAIRE

    Jafari, Sajjad

    2017-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) alloys have attracted great attention as potential materials for temporary implants in uses such as pins, screws, plates and stents. The usage of Mg alloys is appealing as it avoids the need for a follow-up surgery commonly undertaken when implants are constructed out of traditional materials such as titanium alloys, stainless steels and cobalt-chromium alloys. This reduces health care costs and inconvenience for patients. However, the poor corrosion resistanc...

  18. Studies on influence of zinc immersion and fluoride on nickel electroplating on magnesium alloy AZ91D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ziping; Yu Gang; Ouyang Yuejun; He Xiaomei; Hu Bonian; Zhang Jun; Wu Zhenjun

    2009-01-01

    The effect of zinc immersion and the role of fluoride in nickel plating bath were mainly investigated in nickel electroplating on magnesium alloy AZ91D. The state of zinc immersion, the composition of zinc film and the role of fluoride in nickel plating bath were explored from the curves of open circuit potential (OCP) and potentiodynamic polarization, the images of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the patterns of energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). Results show that the optimum zinc film mixing small amount of Mg(OH) 2 and MgF 2 is obtained by zinc immersion for 30-90 s. The corrosion potential of magnesium alloy substrate attached zinc film will be increased in nickel plating bath and the quantity of MgF 2 sandwiched between magnesium alloy substrate and nickel coating will be reduced, which contributed to produce nickel coating with good performance. Fluoride in nickel plating bath serves as an activator of nickel anodic dissolution and corrosion inhibitor of magnesium alloy substrate. 1.0-1.5 mol dm -3 of F - is the optimum concentration range for dissolving nickel anode and protecting magnesium alloy substrate from over-corrosion in nickel plating bath. The nickel coating with good adhesion and high corrosion resistance on magnesium alloy AZ91D is obtained by the developed process of nickel electroplating. This nickel layer can be used as the rendering coating for further plating on magnesium alloys.

  19. A review on hot tearing of magnesium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangfeng Song

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hot tearing is often a major casting defect in magnesium alloys and has a significant impact on the quality of their casting products. Hot tearing of magnesium alloys is a complex solidification phenomenon which is still not fully understood, it is of great importance to investigate the hot tearing behaviour of magnesium alloys. This review attempts to summarize the investigations on hot tearing of magnesium alloys over the past decades. The hot tearing criteria including recently developed Kou's criterion are summarized and compared. The numeric simulation and assessing methods of hot tearing, factors influencing hot tearing, and hot tearing susceptibility (HTS of magnesium alloys are discussed.

  20. Blood compatibility of magnesium and its alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyerabend, Frank; Wendel, Hans-Peter; Mihailova, Boriana; Heidrich, Stefanie; Agha, Nezha Ahmad; Bismayer, Ulrich; Willumeit-Römer, Regine

    2015-10-01

    Blood compatibility analysis in the field of biomaterials is a highly controversial topic. Especially for degradable materials like magnesium and its alloys no established test methods are available. The purpose of this study was to apply advanced test methodology for the analysis of degrading materials to get a mechanistic insight into the corrosion process in contact with human blood and plasma. Pure magnesium and two magnesium alloys were analysed in a modified Chandler-Loop setup. Standard clinical parameters were determined, and a thorough analysis of the resulting implant surface chemistry was performed. The contact of the materials to blood evoked an accelerated inflammatory and cell-induced osteoconductive reaction. Corrosion products formed indicate a more realistic, in vivo like situation. The active regulation of corrosion mechanisms of magnesium alloys by different cell types should be more in the focus of research to bridge the gap between in vitro and in vivo observations and to understand the mechanism of action. This in turn could lead to a better acceptance of these materials for implant applications. The presented study deals with the first mechanistic insights during whole human blood contact and its influence on a degrading magnesium-based biomaterial. The combination of clinical parameters and corrosion layer analysis has been performed for the first time. It could be of interest due to the intended use of magnesium-based stents and for orthopaedic applications for clinical applications. An interest for the readers of Acta Biomaterialia may be given, as one of the first clinically approved magnesium-based devices is a wound-closure device, which is in direct contact with blood. Moreover, for orthopaedic applications also blood contact is of high interest. Although this is not the focus of the manuscript, it could help to rise awareness for potential future applications. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All

  1. Multi-functional magnesium alloys containing interstitial oxygen atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, H; Choi, H J; Kang, S W; Shin, S E; Choi, G S; Bae, D H

    2016-03-15

    A new class of magnesium alloys has been developed by dissolving large amounts of oxygen atoms into a magnesium lattice (Mg-O alloys). The oxygen atoms are supplied by decomposing titanium dioxide nanoparticles in a magnesium melt at 720 °C; the titanium is then completely separated out from the magnesium melt after solidification. The dissolved oxygen atoms are located at the octahedral sites of magnesium, which expand the magnesium lattice. These alloys possess ionic and metallic bonding characteristics, providing outstanding mechanical and functional properties. A Mg-O-Al casting alloy made in this fashion shows superior mechanical performance, chemical resistance to corrosion, and thermal conductivity. Furthermore, a similar Mg-O-Zn wrought alloy shows high elongation to failure (>50%) at room temperature, because the alloy plastically deforms with only multiple slips in the sub-micrometer grains (alloys are expected to open a new paradigm in commercial alloy design.

  2. The influence of surface microchemistry in protective film formation on multi-phase magnesium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray-Munro, J.E.; Luan, B.; Huntington, L.

    2008-01-01

    The high strength:weight ratio of magnesium alloys makes them an ideal metal for automotive and aerospace applications where weight reduction is of significant concern. Unfortunately, magnesium alloys are highly susceptible to corrosion particularly in salt-spray conditions. This has limited their use in the automotive and aerospace industries, where exposure to harsh service conditions is unavoidable. The simplest way to avoid corrosion is to coat the magnesium-based substrate by a process such as electroless plating, which is a low-cost, non line of sight process. Magnesium is classified as a difficult to plate metal due to its high reactivity. This means that in the presence of air magnesium very quickly forms a passive oxide layer that must be removed prior to plating. Furthermore, high aluminium content alloys are especially difficult to plate due to the formation of intermetallic species at the grain boundaries, resulting in a non-uniform surface potential across the substrate and thereby further complicating the plating process. The objective of this study is to understand how the magnesium alloy microstructure influences the surface chemistry of the alloy during both pretreatment and immersion copper coating of the substrate. A combination of scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and scanning Auger microscopy has been used to study the surface chemistry at the various stages of the coating process. Our results indicate that the surface chemistry of the alloy is different on the aluminum rich β phase of the material compared to the magnesium matrix which leads to preferential deposition of the metal on the aluminum rich phase of the alloy

  3. The microstructure, mechanical and friction properties of protective diamond like carbon films on magnesium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Y. S.; Wu, Y. F.; Yang, H.; Cang, K.; Song, G. H.; Li, Z. X.; Zhou, K.

    2011-12-01

    Protective hard coatings deposited on magnesium alloys are believed to be effective for overcoming their poor wear properties. In this work, diamond-like carbon (DLC) films as hard protective films were deposited on AZ91 magnesium alloy by arc ion plating under negative pulse bias voltages ranging from 0 to -200 V. The microstructure, composition and mechanical properties of the DLC films were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and nanoindentation. The tribological behavior of uncoated and coated AZ91 magnesium alloy was investigated using a ball-on-disk tribotester. The results show that the negative pulse bias voltage used for film deposition has a significant effect on the sp3 carbon content and mechanical properties of the deposited DLC films. A maximum sp3 content of 33.3% was obtained at -100 V, resulting in a high hardness of 28.6 GPa and elastic modulus of 300.0 GPa. The DLC films showed very good adhesion to the AZ91 magnesium alloy with no observable cracks and delamination even during friction testing. Compared with the uncoated AZ91 magnesium alloy, the magnesium alloy coated with DLC films exhibits a low friction coefficient and a narrow, shallow wear track. The wear resistance and surface hardness of AZ91 magnesium alloy can be significantly improved by coating a layer of DLC protective film due to its high hardness and low friction coefficient.

  4. The microstructure, mechanical and friction properties of protective diamond like carbon films on magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Y.S.; Wu, Y.F.; Yang, H.; Cang, K.; Song, G.H.; Li, Z.X.; Zhou, K.

    2011-01-01

    Protective hard coatings deposited on magnesium alloys are believed to be effective for overcoming their poor wear properties. In this work, diamond-like carbon (DLC) films as hard protective films were deposited on AZ91 magnesium alloy by arc ion plating under negative pulse bias voltages ranging from 0 to -200 V. The microstructure, composition and mechanical properties of the DLC films were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and nanoindentation. The tribological behavior of uncoated and coated AZ91 magnesium alloy was investigated using a ball-on-disk tribotester. The results show that the negative pulse bias voltage used for film deposition has a significant effect on the sp 3 carbon content and mechanical properties of the deposited DLC films. A maximum sp 3 content of 33.3% was obtained at -100 V, resulting in a high hardness of 28.6 GPa and elastic modulus of 300.0 GPa. The DLC films showed very good adhesion to the AZ91 magnesium alloy with no observable cracks and delamination even during friction testing. Compared with the uncoated AZ91 magnesium alloy, the magnesium alloy coated with DLC films exhibits a low friction coefficient and a narrow, shallow wear track. The wear resistance and surface hardness of AZ91 magnesium alloy can be significantly improved by coating a layer of DLC protective film due to its high hardness and low friction coefficient.

  5. The microstructure, mechanical and friction properties of protective diamond like carbon films on magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Y.S., E-mail: yshzou75@gmail.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210094 (China); Wu, Y.F.; Yang, H.; Cang, K. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210094 (China); Song, G.H. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenyang University of Technology, Shenyang, Liaoning, 110178 (China); Li, Z.X.; Zhou, K. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210094 (China)

    2011-12-01

    Protective hard coatings deposited on magnesium alloys are believed to be effective for overcoming their poor wear properties. In this work, diamond-like carbon (DLC) films as hard protective films were deposited on AZ91 magnesium alloy by arc ion plating under negative pulse bias voltages ranging from 0 to -200 V. The microstructure, composition and mechanical properties of the DLC films were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and nanoindentation. The tribological behavior of uncoated and coated AZ91 magnesium alloy was investigated using a ball-on-disk tribotester. The results show that the negative pulse bias voltage used for film deposition has a significant effect on the sp{sup 3} carbon content and mechanical properties of the deposited DLC films. A maximum sp{sup 3} content of 33.3% was obtained at -100 V, resulting in a high hardness of 28.6 GPa and elastic modulus of 300.0 GPa. The DLC films showed very good adhesion to the AZ91 magnesium alloy with no observable cracks and delamination even during friction testing. Compared with the uncoated AZ91 magnesium alloy, the magnesium alloy coated with DLC films exhibits a low friction coefficient and a narrow, shallow wear track. The wear resistance and surface hardness of AZ91 magnesium alloy can be significantly improved by coating a layer of DLC protective film due to its high hardness and low friction coefficient.

  6. Plating on stainless steel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dini, J.W.; Johnson, H.R.

    1981-01-01

    Quantitative adhesion data are presented for a variety of electroplated stainless steel type alloys. Results show that excellent adhesion can be obtained by using a Wood's nickel strike or a sulfamate nickel strike prior to final plating. Specimens plated after Wood's nickel striking failed in the deposit rather than at the interface between the substrate and the coating. Flyer plate quantitative tests showed that use of anodic treatment in sulfuric acid prior to Wood's nickel striking even further improved adhesion. In contrast activation of stainless steels by immersion or cathodic treatment in hydrochloric acid resulted in very reduced bond strengths with failure always occurring at the interface between the coating and substrate

  7. Recent research and developments on wrought magnesium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihang You

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Wrought magnesium alloys attract special interests as lightweight structural material due to their homogeneous microstructure and enhanced mechanical properties compared to as-cast alloys. In this contribution, recent research and developments on wrought magnesium alloys are reviewed from the viewpoint of the alloy design, focusing on Mg-Al, Mg-Zn and Mg-rare earth (RE systems. The effects of different alloying elements on the microstructure and mechanical properties are described considering their strengthening mechanisms, e.g. grain refinement, precipitation and texture hardening effect. Finally, the new alloy design and also the future research of wrought magnesium alloys to improve their mechanical properties are discussed.

  8. The Corrosion of Magnesium and of the Magnesium Aluminum Alloys Containing Manganese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, J A

    1927-01-01

    The extensive use of magnesium and its alloys in aircraft has been seriously handicapped by the uncertainties surrounding their resistance to corrosion. This problem has been given intense study by the American Magnesium Corporation and at the request of the Subcommittee on Materials for Aircraft of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics this report was prepared on the corrosion of magnesium. The tentative conclusions drawn from the experimental facts of this investigation are as follows: the overvoltage of pure magnesium is quite high. On immersion in salt water the metal corrodes with the liberation of hydrogen until the film of corrosion product lowers the potential to a critical value. When the potential reaches this value it no longer exceeds the theoretical hydrogen potential plus the overvoltage of the metal. Rapid corrosion consequently ceases. When aluminum is added, especially when in large amounts, the overvoltage is decreased and hydrogen plates out at a much lower potential than with pure magnesium. The addition of small amount of manganese raises the overvoltage back to practically that of pure metal, and the film is again negative.

  9. On the shock response of the magnesium alloy Elektron 675

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazell, Paul; Appleby-Thomas, Gareth; Siviour, Clive; Wielewski, Euan

    2011-06-01

    Alloying elements such as aluminium, zinc or rare-earths allow precipitation hardening of magnesium (Mg). The low densities of such strengthened Mg alloys have led to their adoption as aerospace materials and (more recently) they are being considered as armour materials. Consequently, understanding their response to high-strain rate loading is becoming increasingly important. Here, the plate-impact technique was employed to measure longitudinal stress evolution in armour-grade wrought Mg-alloy Elektron 675 under 1D shock loading. The strength and spall behaviour was interrogated, with an estimate made of the material's Hugoniot elastic limit. Finally, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) techniques were employed to investigate post-shock microstructural changes.

  10. Blood triggered corrosion of magnesium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geis-Gerstorfer, J., E-mail: juergen.geis-gerstorfer@uni-tuebingen.de [Section Medical Materials and Technology, University Hospital Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Schille, Ch.; Schweizer, E.; Rupp, F.; Scheideler, L. [Section Medical Materials and Technology, University Hospital Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Reichel, H.-P. [Weisensee Company, Eichenzell (Germany); Hort, N. [GKSS Research Center, Institute of Materials Research, Geesthacht (Germany); Nolte, A.; Wendel, H.-P. [Div. Congenital and Paediatric Cardiac Surgery, University Children' s Hospital, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Intravascular stents manufactured out of bioabsorbable magnesium (Mg) or Mg-alloys are considered as auspicious candidates for the next stent generation. However, before clinical application numerous physical and biological tests, especially to predict the clinically highly important degradation kinetics in vivo, have to be performed. In a Chandler-Loop model, the initial degradation of eight different magnesium alloys during 6 h in contact with human whole blood was investigated. The magnesium release varied between 0.91 {+-} 0.33 mg/cm{sup 2} (MgAl9Zn1) and 2.57 {+-} 0.38 mg/cm{sup 2} (MgZn1). No correlation could be found with Mg release data obtained after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF). This pilot study showed that Mg corrosion is highly influenced by the biological test environment (SBF or blood, etc.) and that a modified Chandler-Loop model with human whole blood may be superior to predict corrosion of Mg alloys under clinical conditions than the SBF models presently used.

  11. Properties isotropy of magnesium alloy strip workpieces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Р. Кавалла

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the issue of obtaining high quality cast workpieces of magnesium alloys produced by strip roll-casting. Producing strips of magnesium alloys by combining the processes of casting and rolling when liquid melt is fed continuously to fast rolls is quite promising and economic. In the process of sheet stamping considerable losses of metal occur on festoons formed due to anisotropy of properties of foil workpiece, as defined by the macro- and microstructure and modes of rolling and annealing. The principal causes of anisotropic mechanical properties of metal strips produced by the combined casting and rolling technique are the character of distribution of intermetallic compounds in the strip, orientation of phases of metal defects and the residual tensions. One of the tasks in increasing the output of fit products during stamping operations consists in minimizing the amount of defects. To lower the level of anisotropy in mechanical properties various ways of treating the melt during casting are suggested. Designing the technology of producing strips of magnesium alloys opens a possibility of using them in automobile industry to manufacture light-weight body elements instead of those made of steel.

  12. Mechanistic origin and prediction of enhanced ductility in magnesium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhaoxuan; Ahmad, Rasool; Yin, Binglun; Sandlöbes, Stefanie; Curtin, W. A.

    2018-01-01

    Development of ductile magnesium alloys is key to their use in reducing the weight of vehicles and other applications. Wu et al. tackle this issue by determining the underlying mechanisms in unprocessed magnesium alloys. Dilute amounts of solutes enhanced certain ductility-improving mechanisms over ones that cause brittle fracture. From this, the authors developed a theory that may be helpful for screening the large number of potential magnesium alloy compositions.

  13. Biodegradable magnesium-alloy stent:current situation in research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hua; Zhao Xianxian

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, permanent metal stents are employed in the majority of interventional therapies; nevertheless, such kind of stents carries the problems of thrombosis and restenosis. Therefore, the biodegradable magnesium alloy stent has become the focus of attention. Theoretically, it has overcome the problems caused by permanent metal stents, so it is the development direction to use the biodegradable magnesium alloy in future. The authors believe that biodegradable magnesium alloy stents will be widely used in interventional procedures for many diseases. (authors)

  14. Research Progress in Plasma arc welding of Magnesium Alloys and Magnesium Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Li; Yang, Zou; Yongbo, Li; Lei, Jiao; Ruijun, Hou

    2017-11-01

    Magnesium alloys and magnesium matrix composites by means of its excellent performance have wide application prospect in electronics, automotive, biotechnology, aerospace field, and welding technology has become a key of restricting its application. This paper describes the welding characteristics of magnesium, the obvious advantages in the application and the domestic and foreign research advance technology of plasma arc welding of magnesium, and summarizes the existing problems and development trends of plasma arc welding technology of magnesium.

  15. Grain refinement of AZ31 magnesium alloy by electromagnetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Low-frequency electromagnetic field; AZ31 magnesium alloy; Al4C3; grain refinement. Abstract. The effects of electromagnetic stirring and Al4C3 grain refiner on the grain refinement of semicontinuously cast AZ31 magnesium alloy were discussed in this investigation. The results indicate that electromagnetic stirring has an ...

  16. Application of YAG Laser TIG Arc Hybrid Welding to Thin AZ31B Magnesium Alloy Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taewon; Kim, Jongcheol; Hasegawa, Yu; Suga, Yasuo

    A magnesium alloy is said to be an ecological material with high ability of recycling and lightweight property. Especially, magnesium alloys are in great demand on account of outstanding material property as a structural material. Under these circumstances, research and development of welding process to join magnesium alloy plates are of great significance for wide industrial application of magnesium. In order to use it as a structure material, the welding technology is very important. TIG arc welding process is the most ordinary process to weld magnesium alloy plates. However, since the heat source by the arc welding process affects the magnesium alloy plates, HAZ of welded joint becomes wide and large distortion often occurs. On the other hand, a laser welding process that has small diameter of heat source seems to be one of the possible means to weld magnesium alloy in view of the qualitative improvement. However, the low boiling point of magnesium generates some weld defects, including porosity and solidification cracking. Furthermore, precise edge preparation is very important in butt-welding by the laser welding process, due to the small laser beam diameter. Laser/arc hybrid welding process that combines the laser beam and the arc is an effective welding process in which these two heat sources influence and assist each other. Using the hybrid welding, a synegistic effect is achievable and the disadvantages of the respective processes can be compensated. In this study, YAG laser/TIG arc hybrid welding of thin magnesium alloy (AZ31B) sheets was investigated. First of all, the effect of the irradiation point and the focal position of laser beam on the quality of a weld were discussed in hybrid welding. Then, it was confirmed that a sound weld bead with sufficient penetration is obtained using appropriate welding conditions. Furthermore, it was made clear that the heat absorption efficiency is improved with the hybrid welding process. Finally, the tensile tests

  17. The microstructure of the surface layer of magnesium laser alloyed with aluminum and silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dziadoń, Andrzej [Faculty of Mechatronics and Mechanical Engineering, Kielce University of Technology, Al. Tysiąclecia P.P. 7, 25-314 Kielce (Poland); Mola, Renata, E-mail: rmola@tu.kielce.pl [Faculty of Mechatronics and Mechanical Engineering, Kielce University of Technology, Al. Tysiąclecia P.P. 7, 25-314 Kielce (Poland); Błaż, Ludwik [Department of Structure and Mechanics of Solids, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland)

    2016-08-15

    The surface layer under analysis was formed as a result of diffusion bonding of a thin AlSi20 plate to a magnesium substrate followed by laser melting. Depending on the process parameters, the laser beam melted the AlSi20 plate only or the AlSi20 plate and a layer of the magnesium surface adjacent to it. Two types of microstructure of the remelted layer were thus analyzed. If the melting zone was limited to the AlSi20 plate, the microstructure of the surface layer was typical of a rapidly solidified hypereutectic Al–Si alloy. Since, however, the liquid AlSi20 reacted with the magnesium substrate, the following intermetallic phases formed: Al{sub 3}Mg{sub 2}, Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12} and Mg{sub 2}Si. The microstructure of the modified surface layer of magnesium was examined using optical, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy. The analysis of the surface properties of the laser modified magnesium revealed that the thin layer has a microstructure of a rapidly solidified Al–Si alloy offering good protection against corrosion. By contrast, the surface layer containing particles of intermetallic phases was more resistant to abrasion but had lower corrosion resistance than the silumin type layer. - Highlights: •A CO{sub 2} laser was used for surface alloying of Mg with AlSi20. •Before alloying, an AlSi20 plate was diffusion bonded with the Mg substrate. •The process parameters affected the alloyed layer microstructure and properties. •With melting limited to AlSi20, the layer had a structure of rapidly solidified AlSi20. •Mg–Al and Mg–Si phases were present when both the substrate and the plate were melted.

  18. The microstructure of the surface layer of magnesium laser alloyed with aluminum and silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dziadoń, Andrzej; Mola, Renata; Błaż, Ludwik

    2016-01-01

    The surface layer under analysis was formed as a result of diffusion bonding of a thin AlSi20 plate to a magnesium substrate followed by laser melting. Depending on the process parameters, the laser beam melted the AlSi20 plate only or the AlSi20 plate and a layer of the magnesium surface adjacent to it. Two types of microstructure of the remelted layer were thus analyzed. If the melting zone was limited to the AlSi20 plate, the microstructure of the surface layer was typical of a rapidly solidified hypereutectic Al–Si alloy. Since, however, the liquid AlSi20 reacted with the magnesium substrate, the following intermetallic phases formed: Al 3 Mg 2 , Mg 17 Al 12 and Mg 2 Si. The microstructure of the modified surface layer of magnesium was examined using optical, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy. The analysis of the surface properties of the laser modified magnesium revealed that the thin layer has a microstructure of a rapidly solidified Al–Si alloy offering good protection against corrosion. By contrast, the surface layer containing particles of intermetallic phases was more resistant to abrasion but had lower corrosion resistance than the silumin type layer. - Highlights: •A CO 2 laser was used for surface alloying of Mg with AlSi20. •Before alloying, an AlSi20 plate was diffusion bonded with the Mg substrate. •The process parameters affected the alloyed layer microstructure and properties. •With melting limited to AlSi20, the layer had a structure of rapidly solidified AlSi20. •Mg–Al and Mg–Si phases were present when both the substrate and the plate were melted.

  19. Magnesium mechanical alloys for hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.; Konstanchuk, I.; Stepanov, A.; Boldyrev, V.

    1985-01-01

    Metal hybrides are currently being used to store and handle hydrogen and its isotopes. They are also being tested in hydrogen compressors and in heat energy, refrigerators and in hydrogen and thermal storage devices. Metal hydrides have been proposed as one of the possible media for hydrogen storage to overcome the limitations of other techniques in regard to safety hydrogen weight and volume ration. The suitability of metal hybrides as a hydrogen storage media depends on a number of factors such as storage capacity, reactivity with hydrogen at various pressures and temperatures, and the cost of base materials. Magnesium based alloys are promising materials for storing hydrogen. They are generally made by argon melting and no attention has been payed to other fabrication techniques such as mechanical alloying or powder technique

  20. Characterization of Aluminum Magnesium Alloy Reverse Sensitized via Heat Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    when magnesium comes out of solution as a second phase, Al3Mg2, on the grain boundaries, eventually forming a continuous network and increasing...alloys. Al-Mg alloys can become sensitized when magnesium comes out of solution as a second phase, Al3Mg2, on the grain boundaries, eventually...THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 1 I. INTRODUCTION A. MOTIVATION Aluminum alloys are attractive ship-building materials. They are lightweight

  1. Structure and Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Weld Joints of Magnesium Alloy AZ31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, T.; Otsuka, M.; Yokota, T.; Ueki, T.

    The applicability of friction stir welding to hot rolled sheet of commercial magnesium alloy AZ31 plates has been investigated. Friction stir weld joint showed mechanical strength comparable to that of base material, though the ductility remained at one half of that of the latter. The results are consistent with the microstructure which is characterized by a fine grained bond layer bounded by-intermediate grained base metals. It is found that both anodizing treatment and insertion of aluminum foil between batting faces do not degrade the joint properties at all. The results suggest that friction stir welding can be potentially applied to magnesium alloy.

  2. Features of solid solutions composition in magnesium with yttrium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drits, M.E.; Rokhlin, L.L.; Tarytina, I.E.

    1983-01-01

    Additional data on features of yttrium solid solutions composition in magnesium in the course of their decomposition investigation in the case of aging are obtianed. The investigation has been carried out on the base of a binary magnesium-yttrium alloy the composition of which has been close to maximum solubility (at eutectic temperature) and magnesium-yttrium alloys additionally doped with zinc. It is shown that higher yttrium solubility in solid magnesium than it has been expected, issueing from the difference in atomic radii of these metals indicates electron yttrium-magnesium atoms interaction. In oversaturated magnesium-yttrium solid solutions at earlier decomposition stages Mg 3 Cd type ordering is observed. At aging temperatures up to 250 deg C and long exposures corresponding to highest strengthening in oversaturated magnesium yttrium solid solutions a rhombic crystal lattice phase with three symmetric orientations is formed

  3. In vitro mechanical integrity of hydroxyapatite coated magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, M Bobby; Orr, Lynnley

    2011-01-01

    The mechanical integrity of resorbable implants during service, especially in load bearing orthopaedic applications, is critical. The high degradation rate of resorbable magnesium and magnesium-based implants in body fluid may potentially cause premature in-service failure. In this study, a magnesium alloy (AZ91) was potentiostatically coated with hydroxyapatite at different cathodic voltages in an attempt to enhance the mechanical integrity. The mechanical integrity of the uncoated and hydroxyapatite coated alloys was evaluated after in vitro testing of the coated samples in simulated body fluid (SBF). The uncoated alloy showed 40% loss in the mechanical strength after five days exposure to SBF. However, the hydroxyapatite coated alloy exposed to SBF showed 20% improvement in the mechanical strength as compared to that of the uncoated alloy. The alloy coated potentiostatically at -2 V performed better than the -3 V coated alloy. The cross-sectional analysis of the coatings revealed relatively uniform coating thickness for the -2 V coated alloy, whereas the -3 V coated alloy exhibited areas of uneven coating. This can be attributed to the increase in hydrogen evolution on the alloy during -3 V coating as compared to -2 V coating. The scanning electron micrographs of the in vitro tested alloy revealed that hydroxyapatite coating significantly reduced the localized corrosion of the alloy, which is critical for better in-service mechanical integrity. Thus, the study suggests that the in vitro mechanical integrity of resorbable magnesium-based alloy can be improved by potentiostatic hydroxyapatite coating.

  4. In vitro mechanical integrity of hydroxyapatite coated magnesium alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, M Bobby; Orr, Lynnley

    2011-08-01

    The mechanical integrity of resorbable implants during service, especially in load bearing orthopaedic applications, is critical. The high degradation rate of resorbable magnesium and magnesium-based implants in body fluid may potentially cause premature in-service failure. In this study, a magnesium alloy (AZ91) was potentiostatically coated with hydroxyapatite at different cathodic voltages in an attempt to enhance the mechanical integrity. The mechanical integrity of the uncoated and hydroxyapatite coated alloys was evaluated after in vitro testing of the coated samples in simulated body fluid (SBF). The uncoated alloy showed 40% loss in the mechanical strength after five days exposure to SBF. However, the hydroxyapatite coated alloy exposed to SBF showed 20% improvement in the mechanical strength as compared to that of the uncoated alloy. The alloy coated potentiostatically at -2 V performed better than the -3 V coated alloy. The cross-sectional analysis of the coatings revealed relatively uniform coating thickness for the -2 V coated alloy, whereas the -3 V coated alloy exhibited areas of uneven coating. This can be attributed to the increase in hydrogen evolution on the alloy during -3 V coating as compared to -2 V coating. The scanning electron micrographs of the in vitro tested alloy revealed that hydroxyapatite coating significantly reduced the localized corrosion of the alloy, which is critical for better in-service mechanical integrity. Thus, the study suggests that the in vitro mechanical integrity of resorbable magnesium-based alloy can be improved by potentiostatic hydroxyapatite coating. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd

  5. In vitro mechanical integrity of hydroxyapatite coated magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannan, M Bobby; Orr, Lynnley, E-mail: bobby.mathan@jcu.edu.au [Discipline of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland 4811 (Australia)

    2011-08-15

    The mechanical integrity of resorbable implants during service, especially in load bearing orthopaedic applications, is critical. The high degradation rate of resorbable magnesium and magnesium-based implants in body fluid may potentially cause premature in-service failure. In this study, a magnesium alloy (AZ91) was potentiostatically coated with hydroxyapatite at different cathodic voltages in an attempt to enhance the mechanical integrity. The mechanical integrity of the uncoated and hydroxyapatite coated alloys was evaluated after in vitro testing of the coated samples in simulated body fluid (SBF). The uncoated alloy showed 40% loss in the mechanical strength after five days exposure to SBF. However, the hydroxyapatite coated alloy exposed to SBF showed 20% improvement in the mechanical strength as compared to that of the uncoated alloy. The alloy coated potentiostatically at -2 V performed better than the -3 V coated alloy. The cross-sectional analysis of the coatings revealed relatively uniform coating thickness for the -2 V coated alloy, whereas the -3 V coated alloy exhibited areas of uneven coating. This can be attributed to the increase in hydrogen evolution on the alloy during -3 V coating as compared to -2 V coating. The scanning electron micrographs of the in vitro tested alloy revealed that hydroxyapatite coating significantly reduced the localized corrosion of the alloy, which is critical for better in-service mechanical integrity. Thus, the study suggests that the in vitro mechanical integrity of resorbable magnesium-based alloy can be improved by potentiostatic hydroxyapatite coating.

  6. Simulation of dendritic growth of magnesium alloys with fluid flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-wu Wu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Fluid flow has a significant impact on the microstructure evolution of alloys during solidification. Based on the previous work relating simulation of the dendritic growth of magnesium alloys with hcp (hexagonal close-packed structure, an extension was made to the formerly established CA (cellular automaton model with the purpose of studying the effect of fluid flow on the dendritic growth of magnesium alloys. The modified projection method was used to solve the transport equations of flow field. By coupling the flow field with the solute field, simulation results of equiaxed and columnar dendritic growth of magnesium alloys with fluid flow were achieved. The simulated results were quantitatively compared with those without fluid flow. Moreover, a comparison was also made between the present work and previous works conducted by others. It can be concluded that a deep understanding of the dendritic growth of magnesium alloys with fluid flow can be obtained by applying the present numerical model.

  7. Effective and Environmentally Friendly Nickel Coating on the Magnesium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Škugor Rončević

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The low density and good mechanical properties make magnesium and its alloys attractive construction materials in the electronics, automotive, and aerospace industry, together with application in medicine due to their biocompatibility. Magnesium AZ91D alloy is an alloy with a high content of aluminum, whose mechanical properties overshadow the low corrosion resistance caused by the composition of the alloy and the existence of two phases: α magnesium matrix and β magnesium aluminum intermetallic compound. To improve the corrosion resistance, it is necessary to find an effective protection method for the alloy surface. Knowing and predicting electrochemical processes is an essential for the design and optimization of protective coatings on magnesium and its alloys. In this work, the formations of nickel protective coatings on the magnesium AZ91D alloy surface by electrodeposition and chemical deposition, are presented. For this purpose, environmentally friendly electrolytes were used. The corrosion resistance of the protected alloy was determined in chloride medium using appropriate electrochemical techniques. Characterization of the surface was performed with highly sophisticated surface-analytical methods.

  8. Direct-reading spectrochemical analysis of magnesium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roca Adell, M.

    1964-01-01

    A Quantometer has been applied to the determination of aluminum, berylium, calcium, iron, silicon and zinc in magnesium alloys Magnox, after the conversion of the samples to the oxide. For the aluminum, whose concentration is relatively high, the conducting briquets technique with an interrupted discharge is employed, using the magnesium as the internal standard. For the other elements a total burning method with direct current arc is employed, using also the magnesium as the internal standard. (Author) 7 refs

  9. Corrosion of cast and non equilibrium magnesium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathieu, S.; Rapin, C.; Steinmetz, P.; Hazan, J.

    1999-01-01

    Due to their low density, magnesium alloys arc very promising as regards applications in the automotive or aeronautical industry. Their corrosion resistance has however to be increased, particularly for cast alloys which are very often two-phased and thus suffer from internal galvanic corrosion. With use of sputtering methods of elaboration, homogeneous magnesium alloys containing far from equilibrium Al, Zr or valve metals contents can be prepared. Corrosion data for Mg-Al-Zn-Sn alloys and MgZr alloys obtained by sputtering, have been determined and compared to those of cast and thixocast AZ91 alloy. Electrochemical tests have evidenced a significantly better behaviour of non equilibrium alloys which, thanks to XPS measurements, could be correlated to the composition of the superficial oxide scale formed on these alloys. (author)

  10. Casting Porosity-Free Grain Refined Magnesium Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwam, David [Case Western Reserve University

    2013-08-12

    The objective of this project was to identify the root causes for micro-porosity in magnesium alloy castings and recommend remedies that can be implemented in production. The findings confirm the key role played by utilizing optimal gating and risering practices in minimizing porosity in magnesium castings. 

  11. The role of magnesium in the electrochemical behaviour of 5XXX aluminium-magnesium alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores Ramirez, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    An investigation concerning the effects of magnesium on the intergranular corrosion susceptibility of AA5XXX aluminium alloys was carried out. In the present work, magnesium is found to be highly mobile in the bulk metal as well as in the aluminium oxide. This mobility is also found to be dependent

  12. In vitro corrosion and biocompatibility of binary magnesium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xuenan; Zheng, Yufeng; Cheng, Yan; Zhong, Shengping; Xi, Tingfei

    2009-02-01

    As bioabsorbable materials, magnesium alloys are expected to be totally degraded in the body and their biocorrosion products not deleterious to the surrounding tissues. It's critical that the alloying elements are carefully selected in consideration of their cytotoxicity and hemocompatibility. In the present study, nine alloying elements Al, Ag, In, Mn, Si, Sn, Y, Zn and Zr were added into magnesium individually to fabricate binary Mg-1X (wt.%) alloys. Pure magnesium was used as control. Their mechanical properties, corrosion properties and in vitro biocompatibilities (cytotoxicity and hemocompatibility) were evaluated by SEM, XRD, tensile test, immersion test, electrochemical corrosion test, cell culture and platelet adhesion test. The results showed that the addition of alloying elements could influence the strength and corrosion resistance of Mg. The cytotoxicity tests indicated that Mg-1Al, Mg-1Sn and Mg-1Zn alloy extracts showed no significant reduced cell viability to fibroblasts (L-929 and NIH3T3) and osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1); Mg-1Al and Mg-1Zn alloy extracts indicated no negative effect on viabilities of blood vessel related cells, ECV304 and VSMC. It was found that hemolysis and the amount of adhered platelets decreased after alloying for all Mg-1X alloys as compared to the pure magnesium control. The relationship between the corrosion products and the in vitro biocompatibility had been discussed and the suitable alloying elements for the biomedical applications associated with bone and blood vessel had been proposed.

  13. Effects of segregation of primary alloying elements on the creep response in magnesium alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Y.D.; Dieringa, H.; Hort, N.

    2008-01-01

    The segregation of primary alloying elements deteriorates the high temperature creep resistance of magnesium alloys. Annealing at high temperatures alleviating their segregations can improve the creep resistance. Present investigation on the effect of segregation of primary alloying elements...... on the creep response may provide some useful information about how to improve the creep resistance of magnesium alloys in the future. (c) 2008 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  14. Surface characterization and cytotoxicity response of biodegradable magnesium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pompa, Luis; Rahman, Zia Ur; Munoz, Edgar; Haider, Waseem

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium alloys have raised an immense amount of interest to many researchers because of their evolution as a new kind of third generation materials. Due to their biocompatibility, density, and mechanical properties, magnesium alloys are frequently reported as prospective biodegradable implant materials. Moreover, magnesium alloys experience a natural phenomenon to biodegrade in aqueous solutions due to its corrosion activity, which is excellent for orthopedic and cardiovascular applications. However, a major concern with such alloys is fast and non-uniform corrosion degradation. Controlling the degradation rate in the physiological environment determines the success of biodegradable implants. In this investigation, three different grades of magnesium alloys: AZ31B, AZ91E and ZK60A were studied for their corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and contact angle meter are used to study surface morphology, chemistry, roughness and wettability, respectively. Additionally, the cytotoxicity of the leached metal ions was evaluated by using a tetrazolium based bio-assay, MTS. - Highlights: • Micro-textured features formed after the anodization of magnesium alloys. • Contact angle increased and surface free energy decreased by anodization. • Corrosion rate increased for anodized surfaces compared to untreated samples. • Cell viability was greater than 75% implying the cytocompatibility of Mg alloys

  15. Surface characterization and cytotoxicity response of biodegradable magnesium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pompa, Luis; Rahman, Zia Ur; Munoz, Edgar; Haider, Waseem, E-mail: haiderw@utpa.edu

    2015-04-01

    Magnesium alloys have raised an immense amount of interest to many researchers because of their evolution as a new kind of third generation materials. Due to their biocompatibility, density, and mechanical properties, magnesium alloys are frequently reported as prospective biodegradable implant materials. Moreover, magnesium alloys experience a natural phenomenon to biodegrade in aqueous solutions due to its corrosion activity, which is excellent for orthopedic and cardiovascular applications. However, a major concern with such alloys is fast and non-uniform corrosion degradation. Controlling the degradation rate in the physiological environment determines the success of biodegradable implants. In this investigation, three different grades of magnesium alloys: AZ31B, AZ91E and ZK60A were studied for their corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and contact angle meter are used to study surface morphology, chemistry, roughness and wettability, respectively. Additionally, the cytotoxicity of the leached metal ions was evaluated by using a tetrazolium based bio-assay, MTS. - Highlights: • Micro-textured features formed after the anodization of magnesium alloys. • Contact angle increased and surface free energy decreased by anodization. • Corrosion rate increased for anodized surfaces compared to untreated samples. • Cell viability was greater than 75% implying the cytocompatibility of Mg alloys.

  16. Research of Plasma Spraying Process on Aluminum-Magnesium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricija Kavaliauskaitė

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article examines plasma sprayed 95Ni-5Al coatings on alu-minum-magnesium (Mg ≈ 2,6‒3,6 % alloy substrate. Alumi-num-magnesium samples prior spraying were prepared with mechanical treatment (blasting with Al2O3. 95Ni-5Al coatings on aluminum-magnesium alloys were sprayed with different parameters of process and coating‘s thickness, porosity, micro-hardness and microstructure were evaluated. Also numerical simulations in electric and magnetic phenomena of plasma spray-ing were carried out.

  17. Properties of boride-added powder metallurgy magnesium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Atsushi; Yoshimura, Syota; Fujima, Takuya; Takagi, Ken-ichi

    2009-06-01

    Magnesium alloys with metallic borides, magnesium diboride (MgB2) or aluminum diboride (AlB2), were investigated regarding their mechanical properties, transverse rupture strength (TRS) and micro Vickers hardness (HV). The alloys were made from pure Mg, Al and B powders by mechanical alloying and hot pressing to have boride content of between 2.0 and 20 vol%. The alloy with AlB2 exhibited an obvious improvement of HV around a boride content of 6 vol% though the other alloy, with MgB2, did not. TRS showed moderate maxima around the same boride content region for the both alloys. X-ray diffraction measurements indicated an intermetallic compound, Mg17Al12, formed in the alloy with AlB2, which was consistent with its higher hardness.

  18. Properties of boride-added powder metallurgy magnesium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Atsushi; Yoshimura, Syota; Fujima, Takuya; Takagi, Ken-ichi [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo City University 1-28-1 Tamazutsumi, Setagaya, Tokyo 158-8557 (Japan)], E-mail: ktakagi@tcu.ac.jp

    2009-06-01

    Magnesium alloys with metallic borides, magnesium diboride (MgB{sub 2}) or aluminum diboride (AlB{sub 2}), were investigated regarding their mechanical properties, transverse rupture strength (TRS) and micro Vickers hardness (HV). The alloys were made from pure Mg, Al and B powders by mechanical alloying and hot pressing to have boride content of between 2.0 and 20 vol%. The alloy with AlB{sub 2} exhibited an obvious improvement of HV around a boride content of 6 vol% though the other alloy, with MgB{sub 2}, did not. TRS showed moderate maxima around the same boride content region for the both alloys. X-ray diffraction measurements indicated an intermetallic compound, Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12}, formed in the alloy with AlB{sub 2}, which was consistent with its higher hardness.

  19. Properties of boride-added powder metallurgy magnesium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Atsushi; Yoshimura, Syota; Fujima, Takuya; Takagi, Ken-ichi

    2009-01-01

    Magnesium alloys with metallic borides, magnesium diboride (MgB 2 ) or aluminum diboride (AlB 2 ), were investigated regarding their mechanical properties, transverse rupture strength (TRS) and micro Vickers hardness (HV). The alloys were made from pure Mg, Al and B powders by mechanical alloying and hot pressing to have boride content of between 2.0 and 20 vol%. The alloy with AlB 2 exhibited an obvious improvement of HV around a boride content of 6 vol% though the other alloy, with MgB 2 , did not. TRS showed moderate maxima around the same boride content region for the both alloys. X-ray diffraction measurements indicated an intermetallic compound, Mg 17 Al 12 , formed in the alloy with AlB 2 , which was consistent with its higher hardness.

  20. Machinability of magnesium and aluminium alloys. Part I: cutting resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balout, B.; Songmene, V.; Masounave, J.

    2002-01-01

    Aluminium (2.7 g/cm 3 ) and magnesium (1.7 g/cm 3 ) are two competing light metals with similar mechanical properties and excellent possibilities for recycling. The forming of magnesium is often seen as an impediment to its use. New forming techniques using magnesium shavings are being developed, particularly in Japan. The machining of magnesium alloys by removal of metal raises safety concerns (risk of fire), which limits many potential applications of magnesium. The purpose of this work is to clarify and compare the machining properties of these two types of metal and better understand the mechanisms that may explain the differences in behaviour. Such a comparison could eventually provide an estimate of the cost of producing shavings for the manufacture of aluminium and magnesium parts through forging and extrusion, which would limit environmental pollution. Based on an analysis of cutting resistance during machining, it was demonstrated that magnesium alloys are easier to machine than similar aluminium alloys. Magnesium shavings are shorter than those of 6061-T6, but are especially more regular than those of A356, and their size is independent of cutting speed. It was also demonstrated that the fragility of materials can be characterized based on the results of cutting resistance produced during drilling

  1. Hydrogenations of alloys and intermetallic compounds of magnesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavra, Z.

    1981-08-01

    A kinetic and thermodynamic study of the hydrogenation of alloys and intermetallic compounds of magnesium is presented. It was established that the addition of elements of the IIIA group (Al, Ga, In) to magnesium catalyses its hydrogenation. This is explained by the mechanism of diffusion of magnesium cation vacancies. The hydride Mg 2 NiH 4 was characterized by thermal analysis, x-ray diffraction and NMR measurements. The possibility of forming pseudo-binary compounds of Mg 2 Ni by the substitution of nickel or magnesium was examined. The hydrogenation of the inter-metallic compounds of the Mg-Al system was investigated. It was found that the addition of indium and nickel affected the hydrogenation kinetics. A preliminary study of the hydrogenation of various binary and ternary alloys of magnesium was carried out. (Author)

  2. REGENERATION OF FISSION-PRODUCT-CONTAINING MAGNESIUM-THORIUM ALLOYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiotti, P.

    1964-02-01

    A process of regenerating a magnesium-thorium alloy contaminated with fission products, protactinium, and uranium is presented. A molten mixture of KCl--LiCl-MgCl/sub 2/ is added to the molten alloy whereby the alkali, alkaline parth, and rare earth fission products (including yttrium) and some of the thorium and uranium are chlorinated and

  3. Al2O3 Coatings on Magnesium Alloy Deposited by the Fluidized Bed (FB Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Baiocco

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium alloys are widely employed in several industrial domains for their outstanding properties. They have a high strength-weight ratio, with a density that is lower than aluminum (33% less, and feature good thermal properties, dimensional stability, and damping characteristics. However, they are vulnerable to oxidation and erosion-corrosion phenomena when applied in harsh service conditions. To avoid the degradation of magnesium, several coating methods have been presented in the literature; however, all of them deal with drawbacks that limit their application in an industrial environment, such as environmental pollution, toxicity of the coating materials, and high cost of the necessary machinery. In this work, a plating of Al2O3 film on a magnesium alloy realized by the fluidized bed (FB technique and using alumina powder is proposed. The film growth obtained through this cold deposition process is analyzed, investigating the morphology as well as tribological and mechanical features and corrosion behavior of the plated samples. The resulting Al2O3 coatings show consistent improvement of the tribological and anti-corrosive performance of the magnesium alloy.

  4. Al₂O₃ Coatings on Magnesium Alloy Deposited by the Fluidized Bed (FB) Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiocco, Gabriele; Rubino, Gianluca; Tagliaferri, Vincenzo; Ucciardello, Nadia

    2018-01-09

    Magnesium alloys are widely employed in several industrial domains for their outstanding properties. They have a high strength-weight ratio, with a density that is lower than aluminum (33% less), and feature good thermal properties, dimensional stability, and damping characteristics. However, they are vulnerable to oxidation and erosion-corrosion phenomena when applied in harsh service conditions. To avoid the degradation of magnesium, several coating methods have been presented in the literature; however, all of them deal with drawbacks that limit their application in an industrial environment, such as environmental pollution, toxicity of the coating materials, and high cost of the necessary machinery. In this work, a plating of Al₂O₃ film on a magnesium alloy realized by the fluidized bed (FB) technique and using alumina powder is proposed. The film growth obtained through this cold deposition process is analyzed, investigating the morphology as well as tribological and mechanical features and corrosion behavior of the plated samples. The resulting Al₂O₃ coatings show consistent improvement of the tribological and anti-corrosive performance of the magnesium alloy.

  5. Deformation behaviour of a new magnesium ternary alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmi, P.; Kaya, A. Arslan; Sorgente, D.; Palumbo, G.

    2018-05-01

    Magnesium based alloys are yet to fill a greater niche especially in the automotive and aeronautical industry. In fact, such alloys have a big weight saving potential, together with good damping characteristics. However, nowadays about 90% of Magnesium products are produced by casting, mainly using two alloy systems, namely Mg-Al-Zn (AZ91D) and Mg-Al (AM50, AM60). Now the emphasis, especially after having achieved considerable success in creep resistance and understanding of the deformation behaviour of Magnesium, has been shifted towards wrought alloys; AZ31, in this case, is the most popular. In this work a multi-element Magnesium alloy, developed to improve the deformation capacity of such a lightweight material, has been investigated and compared to a commercial AZ31B. The possibility of adopting such a multi-element Magnesium alloy for manufacturing components via unconventional sheet forming (such as superplastic forming, warm hydroforming, incremental forming) has been proved in the present work focusing the attention on the superplastic field. Free inflation tests were thus conducted at 450°C setting constant pressure to investigate the superplastic behaviour (in terms of dome height and strain rate sensitivity index) of both the multi-element Magnesium alloy (Mg-2Zn-Ce) and the commercial one (AZ31B). To enhance information on the thickness distribution and investigate the microstructure evolution, metallographic analyses on the samples used to carry out free inflation tests were also performed. The developed ternary alloy manifested quite a good deformation behaviour (high strain rate sensitivity index), even being tested in the as cast condition; in addition a limited grain coarsening was observed in the specimens after deformation.

  6. Wide Strip Casting Technology of Magnesium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, W.-J.; Kim, J. J.; Kim, I. J.; Choo, D.

    Extensive investigations relating to the production of high performance and low cost magnesium sheet by strip casting have been performed for the application to automotive parts and electronic devices. Research on magnesium sheet production technology started in 2004 by Research Institute of Industrial Science and Technology (RIST) with support of Pohang Iron and Steel Company (POSCO). POSCO has completed the world's first plant to manufacture magnesium coil. Another big project in order to develop wide strip casting technology for the automotive applications of magnesium sheets was started in succession.

  7. On the corrosion of binary magnesium-rare earth alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birbilis, N. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Design in Light Metals, Monash University (Australia); CAST Co-operative Research Centre (Australia); Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Wellington Road, Clayton, Vic. 3800 (Australia)], E-mail: nick.birbilis@eng.monash.edu.au; Easton, M.A. [CAST Co-operative Research Centre (Australia); Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Wellington Road, Clayton, Vic. 3800 (Australia); Sudholz, A.D. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Design in Light Metals, Monash University (Australia); Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Wellington Road, Clayton, Vic. 3800 (Australia); Zhu, S.M. [CAST Co-operative Research Centre (Australia); Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Wellington Road, Clayton, Vic. 3800 (Australia); Gibson, M.A. [CAST Co-operative Research Centre (Australia); CSIRO Division of Materials Science and Engineering (Australia)

    2009-03-15

    The corrosion properties of high-pressure die cast (HPDC) magnesium-rare earth (RE) based alloys have been studied. Binary additions of La, Ce and Nd to commercially pure Mg were made up to a nominal 6 wt.%. It was found that the intermetallic phases formed in the eutectic were Mg{sub 12}La, Mg{sub 12}Ce and Mg{sub 3}Nd, respectively. Results indicated that increasing RE alloying additions systematically increased corrosion rates. This was also described in the context of the electrochemical response of Mg-RE intermetallics - which were independently assessed by the electrochemical microcapillary technique. This study is a discrete effort towards revealing the electrochemical effect of carefully controlled binary alloying additions to magnesium in order to elucidate the microstructure-corrosion relationship more generally for HPDC Mg alloys. Such fundamental information is seen to not only be useful in understanding the corrosion of alloys which presently contain RE additions, but may be exploited in the design of magnesium alloys with more predictable corrosion behaviour. There is a special need to understand this relationship - particularly for magnesium that commonly displays poor corrosion resistance.

  8. Biodegradable Magnesium Alloys: A Review of Material Development and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud-Sharma, Dharam; McGoron, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Magnesium based alloys possess a natural ability to biodegrade due to corrosion when placed within aqueous substances, which is promising for cardiovascular and orthopedic medical device applications. These materials can serve as a temporary scaffold when placed in vivo, which is desirable for treatments when temporary supportive structures are required to assist in the wound healing process. The nature of these materials to degrade is attributed to the high oxidative corrosion rates of magnesium. In this review, a summary is presented for magnesium material development, biocorrosion characteristics, as well as a biological translation for these results. PMID:22408600

  9. Influence of Magnesium Alloy Degradation on Undifferentiated Human Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchinato, Francesca; Agha, Nezha Ahmad; Martinez-Sanchez, Adela Helvia; Luthringer, Berengere Julie Christine; Feyerabend, Frank; Jimbo, Ryo; Willumeit-Römer, Regine; Wennerberg, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium alloys are of particular interest in medical science since they provide compatible mechanical properties with those of the cortical bone and, depending on the alloying elements, they have the capability to tailor the degradation rate in physiological conditions, providing alternative bioresorbable materials for bone applications. The present study investigates the in vitro short-term response of human undifferentiated cells on three magnesium alloys and high-purity magnesium (Mg). The degradation parameters of magnesium-silver (Mg2Ag), magnesium-gadolinium (Mg10Gd) and magnesium-rare-earth (Mg4Y3RE) alloys were analysed after 1, 2, and 3 days of incubation in cell culture medium under cell culture condition. Changes in cell viability and cell adhesion were evaluated by culturing human umbilical cord perivascular cells on corroded Mg materials to examine how the degradation influences the cellular development. The pH and osmolality of the medium increased with increasing degradation rate and it was found to be most pronounced for Mg4Y3RE alloy. The biological observations showed that HUCPV exhibited a more homogeneous cell growth on Mg alloys compared to high-purity Mg, where they showed a clustered morphology. Moreover, cells exhibited a slightly higher density on Mg2Ag and Mg10Gd in comparison to Mg4Y3RE, due to the lower alkalinisation and osmolality of the incubation medium. However, cells grown on Mg10Gd and Mg4Y3RE generated more developed and healthy cellular structures that allowed them to better adhere to the surface. This can be attributable to a more stable and homogeneous degradation of the outer surface with respect to the incubation time.

  10. Influence of Magnesium Alloy Degradation on Undifferentiated Human Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Cecchinato

    Full Text Available Magnesium alloys are of particular interest in medical science since they provide compatible mechanical properties with those of the cortical bone and, depending on the alloying elements, they have the capability to tailor the degradation rate in physiological conditions, providing alternative bioresorbable materials for bone applications. The present study investigates the in vitro short-term response of human undifferentiated cells on three magnesium alloys and high-purity magnesium (Mg.The degradation parameters of magnesium-silver (Mg2Ag, magnesium-gadolinium (Mg10Gd and magnesium-rare-earth (Mg4Y3RE alloys were analysed after 1, 2, and 3 days of incubation in cell culture medium under cell culture condition. Changes in cell viability and cell adhesion were evaluated by culturing human umbilical cord perivascular cells on corroded Mg materials to examine how the degradation influences the cellular development.The pH and osmolality of the medium increased with increasing degradation rate and it was found to be most pronounced for Mg4Y3RE alloy. The biological observations showed that HUCPV exhibited a more homogeneous cell growth on Mg alloys compared to high-purity Mg, where they showed a clustered morphology. Moreover, cells exhibited a slightly higher density on Mg2Ag and Mg10Gd in comparison to Mg4Y3RE, due to the lower alkalinisation and osmolality of the incubation medium. However, cells grown on Mg10Gd and Mg4Y3RE generated more developed and healthy cellular structures that allowed them to better adhere to the surface. This can be attributable to a more stable and homogeneous degradation of the outer surface with respect to the incubation time.

  11. In vitro and in vivo studies on biodegradable magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lida Hou

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The microstructure, mechanical property, electrochemical behavior and biocompatibility of magnesium alloy (BioDe MSM™ were studied in the present work. The experimental results demonstrated that grain refining induced by extrusion improves the alloy strength significantly from 162 MPa for the as-cast alloy to 241 MPa for the as-extruded one. The anticorrosion properties of the as-extruded alloy also increased. Furthermore, the hemolysis ratio was decreased from 4.7% for the as-cast alloy to 2.9% for the as-extruded one, both below 5%. BioDe MSM™ alloy shows good biocompatibility after being implanted into the dorsal muscle and the femoral shaft of the New Zealand rabbit, respectively, and there are no abnormalities after short-term implantation. In vivo observation indicated that the corrosion rate of this alloy varies with different implantation positions, with higher degradation rate in the femur than in the muscle.

  12. Mechanical properties and structure of magnesium alloy AS31

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hanus

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary materials should possess high mechanical properties, physical and chemical, as well as technological ones, to ensure long and reliable use. The non-ferrous metals alloys used nowadays, including the magnesium alloys, meet the above-mentioned requirements and expectations regarding the contemporary materials.Magnesium alloys are primarily used in aeronautical and automobile industry in wide variety of structural characteristics because of their favorable combination of tensile strength (160 to 365 MPa, elastic modulus (45 GPa, and low density (1 740 kg/m3, which is two-thirds that of aluminum. Magnesium alloys have high strength-to-weight ratio (tensile strength/density, comparable to those of other structural metals. [1-6]Knowledge of the relaxation properties of metal materials at high temperatures is necessary for the verification of susceptibility of castings to the creation of defects during the production process. Temperature limits of materials where highest tension values are generated may be detected with tensile tests under high temperatures. The generated tensions in the casting are a cause of the creation and development of defects. At acoustic emission (hereinafter called the "AE" use, tensile tests at high temperatures may, among other things, be used for analysis of the AE signal sources and set, in more detail, the temperature limit of elastic-plastic deformations existence in the material under examination. The results of the temperature drop where tension at casting cooling is generated or its release at heating are basic data for controlled cooling mode (and temperature of casting knocking out of the form as well as necessary for the thermal mode for the casting tension reduction. [7-9]Knowledge of elastic-plastic properties at elevated temperatures is often important for complex evaluation of magnesium alloys. Objective of the work was focused on determination of changes of elastic-plastic properties of magnesium

  13. Corrosion resistance of titanium ion implanted AZ91 magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chenglong; Xin Yunchang; Tian Xiubo; Zhao, J.; Chu, Paul K.

    2007-01-01

    Degradable metal alloys constitute a new class of materials for load-bearing biomedical implants. Owing to their good mechanical properties and biocompatibility, magnesium alloys are promising in degradable prosthetic implants. The objective of this study is to improve the corrosion behavior of surgical AZ91 magnesium alloy by titanium ion implantation. The surface characteristics of the ion implanted layer in the magnesium alloys are examined. The authors' results disclose that an intermixed layer is produced and the surface oxidized films are mainly composed of titanium oxide with a lesser amount of magnesium oxide. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that the oxide has three layers. The outer layer which is 10 nm thick is mainly composed of MgO and TiO 2 with some Mg(OH) 2 . The middle layer that is 50 nm thick comprises predominantly TiO 2 and MgO with minor contributions from MgAl 2 O 4 and TiO. The third layer from the surface is rich in metallic Mg, Ti, Al, and Ti 3 Al. The effects of Ti ion implantation on the corrosion resistance and electrochemical behavior of the magnesium alloys are investigated in simulated body fluids at 37±1 deg. C using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and open circuit potential techniques. Compared to the unimplanted AZ91 alloy, titanium ion implantation significantly shifts the open circuit potential (OCP) to a more positive potential and improves the corrosion resistance at OCP. This phenomenon can be ascribed to the more compact surface oxide film, enhanced reoxidation on the implanted surface, as well as the increased β-Mg 12 Al 17 phase

  14. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of TIG Weld Joint of ZM5 Magnesium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QIN Ren-yao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The ZM5 magnesium alloy plates were welded by TIG welding method. The microstructural characteristics and mechanical properties of ZM5 magnesium alloy joint were studied by optical microscopy, microhardness and tensile testers. The results show that the TIG weld joint of ZM5 magnesium alloy is composed of heat affected zone, partially melted zone and weld metal. The heat affected zone is consisted of primary α-Mg phase and eutectic phase that is composed of eutectic α-Mg and eutectic β-Mg17Al12 phase and mainly precipitated at grain boundaries. In the partially melted zone, the eutectic phase is not only increasingly precipitated at grain boundaries, but also dispersed in grains, and the growth of the β-Mg17Al12 phase is obviously observed. The microstructure in the weld is the typical dendritic morphology. The dendrites are considered as primary α-Mg phase, and the interdendritic regions are α+β eutectic phase. The difference in the microstructure of the heat affected zone, partially melted zone and weld results in their various microhardness values, and leads to the smaller tensile strength and ductility in the ZM5 alloy weld joint than parent metal.

  15. Ballistic Characterization of the Scalability of Magnesium Alloy AMX602

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Magnesium Alloy AMX602 by Tyrone L Jones Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL Katsuyoshi Kondoh Joining and Welding Research...formed a collaborative partnership with Osaka University Joining and Welding Research Institute (JWRI), Taber Extrusions, Epson Atmix, Pacific Sowa...Powder Metallurgy 4 5. Fabrication Procedure 4 6. Mechanical Property Analysis 5 7. Ballistic Experimental Procedures 6 8. Ballistic Experimental

  16. Experimental and numerical analyses of magnesium alloy hot workability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Abbassi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to their hexagonal crystal structure, magnesium alloys have relatively low workability at room temperature. In this study, the hot workability behavior of cast-extruded AZ31B magnesium alloy is studied through hot compression testing, numerical modeling and microstructural analyses. Hot deformation tests are performed at temperatures of 250 °C to 400 °C under strain rates of 0.01 to 1.0 s−1. Transmission electron microscopy is used to reveal the presence of dynamic recrystallization (DRX, dynamic recovery (DRY, cracks and shear bands. To predict plastic instabilities during hot compression tests of AZ31B magnesium alloy, the authors use Johnson–Cook damage model in a 3D finite element simulation. The optimal hot workability of magnesium alloy is found at a temperature (T of 400 °C and strain rate (ε˙ of 0.01 s−1. Stability is found at a lower strain rate, and instability is found at a higher strain rate.

  17. Numerical analysis of twin thickening process in magnesium alloys

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šiška, Filip; Stratil, Luděk; Čížek, J.; Ghaderi, A.; Barnett, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 124, FEB (2017), s. 9-16 ISSN 1359-6454 R&D Projects: GA ČR GJ15-21292Y Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Magnesium alloy * Twinning * Crystal plastic ity * FEM Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy OBOR OECD: Materials engineering Impact factor: 5.301, year: 2016

  18. Corrosion Monitoring of PEO-Pretreated Magnesium Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnedenkov, A. S.; Sinebryukhov, S. L.; Mashtalyar, D. V.; Gnedenkov, S. V.; Sergienko, V. I. [Institute of Chemistry, Vladivostok (Russian Federation)

    2017-06-15

    The MA8 alloy (formula Mg-Mn-Ce) has been shown to have greater corrosion stability than the VMD10 magnesium alloy (formula Mg-Zn-Zr-Y) in chloride-containing solutions by Scanning Vibrating Electrode Technique (SVET) and by optical microscopy, gravimetry, and volumetry. It has been established that the crucial factor for the corrosion activity of these samples is the occurrence of microgalvanic coupling at the sample surface. The peculiarities of the kinetics and mechanism of the corrosion in the local heterogeneous regions of the magnesium alloy surface were investigated by localized electrochemical techniques. The stages of the corrosion process in artificial defects in the coating obtained by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) at the surface of the MA8 magnesium alloy were also studied. The analysis of the experimental data enabled us to determine that the corrosion process in the defect zone develops predominantly at the magnesium/coating interface. Based on the measurements of the corrosion rate of the samples with PEO and composite polymer-containing coatings, the best anticorrosion properties were displayed by the composite polymer-containing coatings.

  19. Ceramic coated Y1 magnesium alloy surfaces by microarc oxidation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The magnesium alloys occupy an important place in marine applications, but their poor corrosion resistance, wear resistance, hardness and so on, have limited their application. To meet these defects, some techniques are developed. Microarc oxidation is a one such recently developed surface treatment technology under ...

  20. Grain refinement of AZ31 magnesium alloy by electromagnetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to improve the mechanical properties of magnesium alloys. (Lahaie and Bouchard 2001; ... superheating, carbon inoculation, addition of solute elements ... microscope (SEM) for morphological characterization. 3. Results and ... C. Figures 2(d), (e) and (f) show the ... It is widely appreciated that the microstructure of a casting.

  1. Nanomechanical analysis of AZ31 magnesium alloy and pure magnesium correlated with crystallographic orientation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bočan, Jiří; Maňák, Jan; Jäger, Aleš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 644, Sep (2015), s. 114-120 ISSN 0921-5093 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP108/12/G043 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : EBSD * electron microscopy * hardness measurement * magnesium alloys * mechanical characterization * nanoindentation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.647, year: 2015

  2. Development of biodegradable magnesium alloy stents with coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza Petrini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable stents are attracting the attention of many researchers in biomedical and materials research fields since they can absolve their specific function for the expected period of time and then gradually disappear. This feature allows avoiding the risk of long-term complications such as restenosis or mechanical instability of the device when the vessel grows in size in pediatric patients. Up to now biodegradable stents made of polymers or magnesium alloys have been proposed. However, both the solutions have limitations. The polymers have low mechanical properties, which lead to devices that cannot withstand the natural contraction of the blood vessel: the restenosis appears just after the implant, and can be ascribed to the compliance of the stent. The magnesium alloys have much higher mechanical properties, but they dissolve too fast in the human body. In this work we present some results of an ongoing study aiming to the development of biodegradable stents made of a magnesium alloy that is coated with a polymer having a high corrosion resistance. The mechanical action on the blood vessel is given by the magnesium stent for the desired period, being the stent protected against fast corrosion by the coating. The coating will dissolve in a longer term, thus delaying the exposition of the magnesium stent to the corrosive environment. We dealt with the problem exploiting the potentialities of a combined approach of experimental and computational methods (both standard and ad-hoc developed for designing magnesium alloy, coating and scaffold geometry from different points of views. Our study required the following steps: i selection of a Mg alloy suitable for stent production, having sufficient strength and elongation capability; ii computational optimization of the stent geometry to minimize stress and strain after stent deployment, improve scaffolding ability and corrosion resistance; iii development of a numerical model for studying stent

  3. A Survey on Friction Stir Welding Of Dissimilar Magnesium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unnikrishnan, M. A.; Raja, Dhas. J. Edwin

    2017-10-01

    There is a consistent demand for superior materials in every industry. The areas on demand are automobile and aerospace sectors in major.. The most commonly used material in these fields is Aluminium.Though it possess all the properties up to some extent constant demand is pushing for alternate materials. Dissimilar alloys have been a relatively new approach towards these fields.. Friction stir welding dissimilar alloys is a big leap in Automobile sector. In this paper a detailed review of Friction stir welding of Dissimilar Magnesium alloys has been done. This work will serve as a reference to subsequent researchers.

  4. Emerging Applications Using Magnesium Alloy Powders: A Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Rajiv; Madan, Deepak

    The use of powder metallurgy offers a potential processing route based on tailored compositions and unique microstructures to achieve high performance in magnesium alloys. This paper highlights recent advances in the production, qualification, and characterization of gas atomized AZ91E, WE43 and Elektron21 alloy powders. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to understand the bulk and surface structure of the atomized powder. The potential for using these magnesium alloy powders for emerging applications involves establishing compatibility with viable consolidation processes such as cold spray, laser assisted deposition, forging and extrusion. This study summarizes the preliminary results for various ongoing investigations using WE43 powder as an example. Results show that powder metallurgy processed WE43 results in comparable properties to those obtained from cast and wrought and offers potential for improvement.

  5. Effect of aluminum coatings on corrosion properties of AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu Liuho; Lin Hsingan; Chen Chunchin; Yang Chihfu [Dept. of materials engineering, Tatung Univ., Taipei (Taiwan); Chang Chiahua; Wu Jenchin [Physical chemistry section, chemical systems research div., Chung-Shan Inst. of Science and Technology, Tao-Yuan (Taiwan)

    2003-07-01

    This investigation aimed to increase the corrosion resistance of an AZ31 magnesium alloy by an aluminum arc spray coating and a post-treatment consisted of hot pressing and anodizing. It was found that the aluminum arc spraying alone was incapable of protection against corrosion due to the high amount of pores present in the coating layer. In order to solve the problem, densification of the Al arc-sprayed layer was carried out by hot pressing the coated AZ31 Mg alloy plate under an appropriate range of temperature, time and pressure. After hot pressing the Al coated AZ31 Mg alloy plate exhibited a much improved corrosion resistance. A final anodizing treatment applied to the AZ31 alloy with the dense Al coating further improved its resisting to corrosion. The results showed that, by adopting the Al arc spraying, hot pressing and anodizing process, the corrosion current density of the AZ31 alloy in a 3.5 wt% NaCl solution was from 2.1 x 10{sup -6} A/cm{sup 2} (original AZ31) to 3.7 x 10{sup -7} A/cm{sup 2} (after the surface treatment), which value is close to that of an anodized aluminum plate. (orig.)

  6. The influence of modification on the thermophysical properties of magnesium wrought alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moldovan, P.; Popescu, G.; Miculescu, M.; Bojin, D.; Dimitriu, S.; Sillekens, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    Magnesium is the lightest engineering metal and has a great potential due to its raw material large natural reverse and interesting properties. Magnesium alloys are attracting increasing attention for industry for weight reduction and high fuel efficiency. Magnesium alloys are attractive

  7. Biodegradable Magnesium Alloys Developed as Bone Repair Materials: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone repair materials are rapidly becoming a hot topic in the field of biomedical materials due to being an important means of repairing human bony deficiencies and replacing hard tissue. Magnesium (Mg alloys are potentially biocompatible, osteoconductive, and biodegradable metallic materials that can be used in bone repair due to their in situ degradation in the body, mechanical properties similar to those of bones, and ability to positively stimulate the formation of new bones. However, rapid degradation of these materials in physiological environments may lead to gas cavities, hemolysis, and osteolysis and thus, hinder their clinical orthopedic applications. This paper reviews recent work on the use of Mg alloy implants in bone repair. Research to date on alloy design, surface modification, and biological performance of Mg alloys is comprehensively summarized. Future challenges for and developments in biomedical Mg alloys for use in bone repair are also discussed.

  8. Corrosion of magnesium and some magnesium alloys in gas cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caillat, R.; Darras, R.

    1958-01-01

    The results of corrosion tests on magnesium and some magnesium alloys (Mg-Zr and Mg-Zr-Zn) in moist air (like G1 reactor) and in CO 2 : (like G2, G3, EDF1 reactors) are reported. The maximum temperature for exposure of magnesium to moist air without any risk of corrosion is 350 deg. C. Indeed, the oxidation rate follows a linear law above 350 deg. C although it reaches a constant level and keeps on very low under 350 deg. C. However, as far as corrosion is concerned this temperature limit can be raised up to 500 deg. C if moist air is very slightly charged with fluorinated compounds. Under pressure of CO 2 , these three materials oxidate much more slowly even if 500 deg. C is reached. The higher is the temperature, the higher is the constant level of the weight increase and the quicker is reached this one. However, Mg-Zr alloy behaves quite better than pure magnesium and especially than Mg-Zr-Zn alloy. (author) [fr

  9. Developments and challenges in the utilisation of magnesium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahle, A.K.; StJohn, D.H.; Dunlop, G.L.

    2000-01-01

    Magnesium's largest growth market, the automotive industry, is providing many challenges that have to be met if the metal is to reach its full potential as a significant structural material for light weight vehicles. The paper outlines these challenges and describes the current situation with respect to alloys, properties, manufacturing processes and recycling. It is emphasised that concerted R and D is required along the whole value-adding chain, from metal producer to end-user, if magnesium is to achieve its full potential

  10. Precipitation Behavior of Magnesium Alloys Containing Neodymium and Yttrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Ellen L. S.

    Magnesium is the lightest of the structural metals and has great potential for reducing the weight of transportation systems, which in turn reduces harmful emissions and improves fuel economy. Due to the inherent softness of Mg, other elements are typically added in order to form a fine distribution of precipitates during aging, which improves the strength by acting as barriers to moving dislocations. Mg-RE alloys are unique among other Mg alloys because they form precipitates that lie parallel to the prismatic planes of the Mg matrix, which is an ideal orientation to hinder dislocation slip. However, RE elements are expensive and impractical for many commercial applications, motivating the rapid design of alternative alloy compositions with comparable mechanical properties. Yet in order to design new alloys reproducing some of the beneficial properties of Mg-RE alloys, we must first fully understand precipitation in these systems. Therefore, the main objectives of this thesis are to identify the roles of specific RE elements (Nd and Y) on precipitation and to relate the precipitate microstructure to the alloy strength. The alloys investigated in this thesis are the Mg-Nd, Mg-Y, and Mg-Y-Nd systems, which contain the main alloying elements of commercial WE series alloys (Y and Nd). In all three alloy systems, a sequence of metastable phases forms upon aging. Precipitate composition, atomic structure, morphology, and spatial distribution are strongly controlled by the elastic strain energy originating from the misfitting coherent precipitates. The dominating role that strain energy plays in these alloy systems gives rise to very unique microstructures. The evolution of the hardness and precipitate microstructure with aging revealed that metastable phases are the primary strengthening phases of these alloys, and interact with dislocations by shearing. Our understanding of precipitation mechanisms and commonalities among the Mg-RE alloys provide future avenues to

  11. Mechanical Properties of Magnesium-Rare Earth Alloy Systems: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sravya Tekumalla

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium-rare earth based alloys are increasingly being investigated due to the formation of highly stable strengthening phases, activation of additional deformation modes and improvement in mechanical properties. Several investigations have been done to study the effect of rare earths when they are alloyed to pure magnesium and other Mg alloys. In this review, the mechanical properties of the previously investigated different magnesium-rare earth based binary alloys, ternary alloys and other higher alloys with more than three alloying elements are presented.

  12. HOW TO MAKE MAGNESIUM ALLOYS BE RESISTANT TO OPERATIONAL RISKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Chigrinova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies regularities and mechanisms of structure and phase formation in the surface layers of magnesium alloys when they are processed by method of micro-arc oxidation [MAO]. It has been determined that the same specific features of structure formation, namely: existence of a thin dense inner sublayer and a thicker outer sublayer with developed porosity are common for all types of coatings on the surface of magnesium and aluminum alloys. Such structural state of a protective coating can not be considered as a guaranteed protection against operational impacts, taking into account the fields of their primary application that is aviation construction, automotive construction, instrumentation, building construction, etc. The paper has analyzed the effect of alkaline electrolytes with varying chemical composition due to additions of sodium fluoride or potassium on the structure and properties of these alloys as well as on the level of basic performance characteristics of the layers formed in such electrolytes. On the basis of the analysis a conclusion has been made that it is possible to extend their life-span under operational conditions. It has been revealed that the existing techniques and methods for process control of MAO aluminum and magnesium alloys, particularly processing modes and technological equipment capacity determine a nature of structure formation and changes in a phase composition of the formed coatings.

  13. Mechanical Behavior of an Ultrafine/Nano Grained Magnesium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mahmood Fatemi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The application of magnesium alloys is greatly limited because of their relatively low strength and ductility. An effective way to improve the mechanical properties of magnesium alloy is to refine the grains. As the race for better materials performance is never ending, attempts to develop viable techniques for microstructure refinement continue. Further refining of grain size requires, however, application of extreme value of plastic deformation on material. In this work, an AZ31 wrought magnesium alloy was processed by employing multipass accumulative back extrusion process. The obtained microstructure, texture, and room temperature compressive properties were characterized and discussed. The results indicated that grains of 80 nm to 1 μm size were formed during accumulative back extrusion, where the mean grain size of the experimental material was reduced by applying successive ABE passes. The fraction of DRX increased and the mean grain size of the ABEed alloy markedly lowered, as subsequent passes were applied. This helped to explain the higher yield stress govern the occurrence of twinning during compressive loading. Compressive yield and maximum compressive strengths were measured to increase by applying successive extrusion passes, while the strain-to-fracture dropped. The evolution of mechanical properties was explained relying on the grain refinement effect as well as texture change.

  14. THE FORMING OF MAGNESIUM ALLOY FORGINGS FOR AIRCRAFT AND AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Dziubińska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the theoretical and technological aspects of forming magnesium alloy parts for aircraft and automotive applications. The main applications of magnesium alloys in the aircraft and automotive industries are discussed. In addition, the forging technology for magnesium alloys is generally described, with a particular emphasis on wrought alloys. A brief outline of the state of the art in the forging of magnesium alloys is given based on a survey of the specialist literature and the results of previous research by the authors.

  15. Additive Manufacturing of Magnesium (Mg) Alloys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed work is to investigate additive manufacturing techniques for Mg alloys.  It will leverage off research being conducted at University of Florida and...

  16. The influence of microstructure on the shock and spall behaviour of the magnesium alloy, Elektron 675

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazell, P.J.; Appleby-Thomas, G.J.; Wielewski, E.; Stennett, C.; Siviour, C.

    2012-01-01

    Alloying elements such as aluminium, zinc and rare earth metals allow precipitation hardening of magnesium (Mg). The low densities of such strengthened Mg alloys have led to their adoption as aerospace materials and (more recently) they are being considered as armour materials. Consequently, understanding their response to high strain-rate loading is becoming increasingly important. Here, the plate-impact technique was employed to measure stress evolution in an armour-grade wrought Mg alloy (Elektron 675) under one-dimensional shock loading. The effects of sample orientation and heat treatment were examined. The spall behaviour was interrogated using a heterodyne velocimeter system, with an estimate made of the material’s spall strength and Hugoniot elastic limit (HEL) for both aged and unaged materials. In particular, it is shown that the HEL and spall strength values are higher along the extrusion direction. It is thought that this is caused by striations of relatively small grains that run along the extrusion direction.

  17. Behaviour of magnesium and two magnesium alloys heated in a carbon dioxide flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussion, M.-L.; Darras, R.; Leclercq, D.

    1959-01-01

    Magnesium is a particularly attractive material for sheathing uranium fuel elements in nuclear reactors in order to avoid uranium hot temperature oxidation by the cooling fluid. As this cooling fluid will be carbon dioxide at the (future) Marcoule plants, a thorough study of magnesium and magnesium alloys behaviour when heated by carbon dioxide at a 400 C temperature, have been completed. Tests on three materials (Mg, Mg-Zr and Mg-Zr-Zn) have been performed with CO 2 up to a temperature of 550 C, at atmospheric pressure in the presence of a certain amount of oxygen and nitrogen (in order to study the influence of these impurities), and at a pressure of 15 kg / cm 2 . Oxidation results are detailed. Reprint of a paper published in 'Revue de Metallurgie', LVI, n. 1, 1959, p. 61-67

  18. High speed cutting of AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwei Lu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Using LBR-370 numerical control lathe, high speed cutting was applied to AZ31 magnesium alloy. The influence of cutting parameters on microstructure, surface roughness and machining hardening were investigated by using the methods of single factor and orthogonal experiment. The results show that the cutting parameters have an important effect on microstructure, surface roughness and machine hardening. The depth of stress layer, roughness and hardening present a declining tendency with the increase of the cutting speed and also increase with the augment of the cutting depth and feed rate. Moreover, we established a prediction model of the roughness, which has an important guidance on actual machining process of magnesium alloy.

  19. Microstructural Aspects in FSW and TIG Welding of Cast ZE41A Magnesium Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlone, Pierpaolo; Astarita, Antonello; Rubino, Felice; Pasquino, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, magnesium ZE41A alloy plates were butt joined through friction stir welding (FSW) and Tungsten Inert Gas welding processes. Process-induced microstructures were investigated by optical and SEM observations, EDX microanalysis and microhardness measurements. The effect of a post-welded T5 heat treatment on FSW joints was also assessed. Sound joints were produced by means of both techniques. Different elemental distributions and grain sizes were found, whereas microhardness profiles reflect microstructural changes. Post-welding heat treatment did not induce significant alterations in elemental distribution. The FSW-treated joint showed a more homogeneous hardness profile than the as-welded FSW joint.

  20. Changes in hardness of magnesium alloys due to precipitation hardening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Oršulová

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the evaluation of changes in hardness of magnesium alloys during precipitation hardening that are nowadays widely used in different fields of industry. It focuses exactly on AZ31, AZ61 and AZ91 alloys. Observing material hardness changes serves as an effective tool for determining precipitation hardening parameters, such as temperature and time. Brinell hardness measurement was chosen based on experimental needs. There was also necessary to make chemical composition analysis and to observe the microstructures of tested materials. The obtained results are presented and discussed in this paper.

  1. Application of electroless Ni-P coating on magnesium alloy via CrO3/HF free titanate pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabalizadeh, Z.; Seifzadeh, D.

    2017-11-01

    The titanate conversion coating was applied as CrO3/HF free pretreatment for the electroless Ni-P plating on AM60B magnesium alloy. The microscopic images revealed that the alloy surface was completely covered by a cracked conversion film after titanate pretreatment which was mainly composed of Mg(OH)2/MgO, MgF2, TiO2, SiO2, and Al2O3/Al(OH)3. The microscopic images also revealed that numerous Ni nucleation centers were formed over the titanate film after short electroless plating times. The nucleation centers were created not only on the cracked area but also over the whole pretreated surface due to the catalytic action of the titanate film. Also, uniform, dense, and defect-free Ni-P coating with fine structure was achieved after 3 h plating. The Ni-P coating showed mixed crystalline-amorphous structure due to its moderate phosphorus content. The results of two traditional corrosion monitoring methods indicated that the Ni-P coating significantly increases the corrosion resistance of the magnesium alloy. Moreover, Electrochemical Noise (EN) method was used as a non-polarized technique to study the corrosion behavior of the electroless coating at different immersion times. The results of the EN tests were clearly showed the localized nature of the corrosion process. Micro-hardness value of the magnesium alloy was remarkably enhanced after the electroless plating. Finally, suitable adhesion between the Ni-P coating and the magnesium alloy substrate was confirmed by thermal shock and pull-off-adhesion tests.

  2. The Corrosion Protection of Magnesium Alloy AZ31B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danford, M. D.; Mendrek, M. J.; Mitchell, M. L.; Torres, P. D.

    1997-01-01

    Corrosion rates for bare and coated Magnesium alloy AZ31B have been measured. Two coatings, Dow-23(Trademark) and Tagnite(Trademark), have been tested by electrochemical methods and their effectiveness determined. Electrochemical methods employed were the scanning reference electrode technique (SRET), the polarization resistance technique (PR) and the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique (EIS). In addition, general corrosion and stress corrosion methods were employed to examine the effectiveness of the above coatings in 90 percent humidity. Results from these studies are presented.

  3. Notch sensitivity of cast AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kunz, Ludvík; Lukáš, Petr; Estrin, Y.; Zúberová, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 3 (2005), s. 88-91 ISSN 1335-0803. [Degradácia konštrukčných materiálov 2005. Terchová - Biely Potok, 05.09.2005-07.09.2005] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1P05ME804 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : notch sensitivity * magnesium alloy * fatigue lifetime Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy

  4. Thermodynamic and volumetric databases and software for magnesium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Youn-Bae; Aliravci, Celil; Spencer, Philip J.; Eriksson, Gunnar; Fuerst, Carlton D.; Chartrand, Patrice; Pelton, Arthur D.

    2009-05-01

    Extensive databases for the thermodynamic and volumetric properties of magnesium alloys have been prepared by critical evaluation, modeling, and optimization of available data. Software has been developed to access the databases to calculate equilibrium phase diagrams, heat effects, etc., and to follow the course of equilibrium or Scheil-Gulliver cooling, calculating not only the amounts of the individual phases, but also of the microstructural constituents.

  5. Microstructure analysis of magnesium alloy melted by laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, S.Y.; Hu, J.D.; Yang, Y.; Guo, Z.X.; Wang, H.Y.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of laser surface melting (LSM) on microstructure of magnesium alloy containing Al8.57%, Zn 0.68%, Mn0.15%, Ce0.52% were investigated. In the present work, a pulsed Nd:YAG laser was used to melt and rapidly solidify the surface of the magnesium alloy with the objective of changing microstructure and improving the corrosion resistance. The results indicate that laser-melted layer contains the finer dendrites and behaviors good resistance corrosion compared with the untreated layer. Furthermore, the absorption coefficient of the magnesium alloy has been estimated according to the numeral simulation of the thermal conditions. The formation process of fine microstructure in melted layers was investigated based on the experimental observation and the theoretical analysis. Some simulation results such as the re-solidification velocities are obtained. The phase constitutions of the melted layers determined by X-ray diffraction were β-Mg 17 Al 12 and α-Mg as well as some phases unidentified

  6. Study on Hydroforming of Magnesium Alloy Tube under Temperature Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinsong; Wang, Shouren; Zhang, Yongliang; Wang, Gaoqi; Guo, Peiquan; Qiao, Yang

    2018-01-01

    First of all, under 100 °C, 150 °C, 200 °C, 250 °C, 300 °C and 350 °C, respectively do the test of magnesium alloy AZ31B temperature tensile and the fracture of SEM electron microscopic scanning, studying the plastic forming ability under six different temperature. Secondly, observe and study the real stress-strain curves and fracture topography. Through observation and research can concluded that with the increase of temperature, the yield strength and tensile strength of AZ31B was increased, and the elongation rate and the plastic deformation capacity are increased obviously. Taking into account the actual production, energy consumption, and mold temperature resistance, 250 °Cwas the best molding temperature. Finally, under the temperature condition of 250 °C, the finite element simulation and simulation of magnesium alloy profiled tube were carried out by Dynaform, and the special wall and forming limit diagram of magnesium alloy were obtained. According to the forming wall thickness and forming limit diagram, the molding experiment can be optimized continuously.

  7. R-HPDC of magnesium alloys

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Curle, UA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Flexibility of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research’s Rheocasting System (CSIR-RCS) and its rheo-high pressure die casting (R-HPDC) technology is again demonstrated, as with aluminium alloys, by processing and shape casting of three...

  8. Effect of magnesium hydride on the corrosion behavior of an AZ91 magnesium alloy in sodium chloride solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jian; Dong Junhua; Wang Jianqiu; Han Enhou; Ke Wei

    2008-01-01

    The effect of magnesium hydride on the corrosion behavior of an as-cast AZ91 alloy in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution was investigated using gas collection method and potentiostatic test. The Pourbaix diagram of Mg-H 2 O system was built using thermodynamic calculation. It was possible that magnesium hydride could form in the whole pH range in theory. The experimental results showed that at cathodic region, magnesium hydride formed on surface, which was the controlling process for the corrosion behavior of AZ91 alloy; at anodic region and free corrosion potential, magnesium hydride model and partially protective film model, monovalent magnesium ion model and particle undermining model were responsible for the corrosion process of AZ91 alloy

  9. Magnesium Alloys as a Biomaterial for Degradable Craniofacial Screws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Sarah E.; Verdelis, Konstantinos; Maiti, Spandan; Pal, Siladitya; Chung, William L.; Chou, Da-Tren; Kumta, Prashant N.; Almarza, Alejandro J.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, magnesium (Mg) alloys have received significant attention as a potential biomaterial for degradable implants, and this study was directed at evaluating the suitability of Mg for craniofacial bone screws. The objective was to implant screws fabricated from commercially available Mg-alloys (pure Mg and AZ31) in-vivo in a rabbit mandible. First, Mg-alloy screws were compared to stainless steel screws in an in-vitro pull-out test and determined to have a similar holding strength (~40N). A finite element model of the screw was created using the pull-out test data, and the model can be used for future Mg-alloy screw design. Then, Mg-alloy screws were implanted for 4, 8, and 12 weeks, with two controls of an osteotomy site (hole) with no implant and a stainless steel screw implanted for 12 weeks. MicroCT (computed tomography) was used to assess bone remodeling and Mg-alloy degradation, both visually and qualitatively through volume fraction measurements for all time points. Histologic analysis was also completed for the Mg-alloys at 12 weeks. The results showed that craniofacial bone remodeling occurred around both Mg-alloy screw types. Pure Mg had a different degradation profile than AZ31, however bone growth occurred around both screw types. The degradation rate of both Mg-alloy screw types in the bone marrow space and the muscle were faster than in the cortical bone space at 12 weeks. Furthermore, it was shown that by alloying Mg, the degradation profile could be changed. These results indicate the promise of using Mg-alloys for craniofacial applications. PMID:24384125

  10. Micromorphological effect of calcium phosphate coating on compatibility of magnesium alloy with osteoblast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiromoto, Sachiko; Yamazaki, Tomohiko

    2017-12-01

    Octacalcium phosphate (OCP) and hydroxyapatite (HAp) coatings were developed to control the degradation speed and to improve the biocompatibility of biodegradable magnesium alloys. Osteoblast MG-63 was cultured directly on OCP- and HAp-coated Mg-3Al-1Zn (wt%, AZ31) alloy (OCP- and HAp-AZ31) to evaluate cell compatibility. Cell proliferation was remarkably improved with OCP and HAp coatings which reduced the corrosion and prevented the H2O2 generation on Mg alloy substrate. OCP-AZ31 showed sparse distribution of living cell colonies and dead cells. HAp-AZ31 showed dense and homogeneous distribution of living cells, with dead cells localized over and around corrosion pits, some of which were formed underneath the coating. These results demonstrated that cells were dead due to changes in the local environment, and it is necessary to evaluate the local biocompatibility of magnesium alloys. Cell density on HAp-AZ31 was higher than that on OCP-AZ31 although there was not a significant difference in the amount of Mg ions released in medium between OCP- and HAp-AZ31. The outer layer of OCP and HAp coatings consisted of plate-like crystal with a thickness of around 0.1 μm and rod-like crystals with a diameter of around 0.1 μm, respectively, which grew from a continuous inner layer. Osteoblasts formed focal contacts on the tips of plate-like OCP and rod-like HAp crystals, with heights of 2-5 μm. The spacing between OCP tips of 0.8-1.1 μm was wider than that between HAp tips of 0.2-0.3 μm. These results demonstrated that cell proliferation depended on the micromorphology of the coatings which governed spacing of focal contacts. Consequently, HAp coating is suitable for improving cell compatibility and bone-forming ability of the Mg alloy.

  11. Microstructure and Thermomechanical Properties of Magnesium Alloys Castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lichý

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium alloys thanks to their high specific strength have an extensive potential of the use in a number of industrial applications. The most important of them is the automobile industry in particular. Here it is possible to use this group of materials for great numbers of parts from elements in the car interior (steering wheels, seats, etc., through exterior parts (wheels particularly of sporting models, up to driving (engine blocks and gearbox mechanisms themselves. But the use of these alloys in the engine structure has its limitations as these parts are highly thermally stressed. But the commonly used magnesium alloys show rather fast decrease of strength properties with growing temperature of stressing them. This work is aimed at studying this properties both of alloys commonly used (of the Mg-Al-Zn, Mn type, and of that ones used in industrial manufacture in a limited extent (Mg-Al-Sr. These thermomechanical properties are further on complemented with the microstructure analysis with the aim of checking the metallurgical interventions (an effect of inoculation. From the studied materials the test castings were made from which the test bars for the tensile test were subsequently prepared. This test took place within the temperature range of 20°C – 300°C. Achieved results are summarized in the concluding part of the contribution.

  12. One-step electrodeposition process to fabricate corrosion-resistant superhydrophobic surface on magnesium alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qin; Chen, Dexin; Kang, Zhixin

    2015-01-28

    A simple, one-step method has been developed to construct a superhydrophobic surface by electrodepositing Mg-Mn-Ce magnesium plate in an ethanol solution containing cerium nitrate hexahydrate and myristic acid. Scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were employed to characterize the surfaces. The shortest electrodeposition time to obtain a superhydrophobic surface was about 1 min, and the as-prepared superhydrophobic surfaces had a maximum contact angle of 159.8° and a sliding angle of less than 2°. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements demonstrated that the superhydrophobic surface greatly improved the corrosion properties of magnesium alloy in 3.5 wt % aqueous solutions of NaCl, Na2SO4, NaClO3, and NaNO3. Besides, the chemical stability and mechanical durability of the as-prepared superhydrophobic surface were also examined. The presented method is rapid, low-cost, and environmentally friendly and thus should be of significant value for the industrial fabrication of anticorrosive superhydrophobic surfaces and should have a promising future in expanding the applications of magnesium alloys.

  13. Semi-solid twin-roll casting process of magnesium alloy sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watari, H.; Davey, K.; Rasgado, M.T. Alonso; Haga, T.; Koga, N.

    2004-01-01

    An experimental approach has been performed to ascertain the effectiveness of semi-solid strip casting using a horizontal twin roll caster. The demand for light-weight products with high strength has grown recently due to the rapid development of automobile and aircraft technology. One key to such development has been utilization of magnesium alloys, which can potentially reduce the total product weight. However, the problems of utilizing magnesium alloys are still mainly related to high manufacturing cost. One of the solutions to this problem is to develop magnesium casting-rolling technology in order to produce magnesium sheet products at competitive cost for commercial applications. In this experiment, magnesium alloy AZ31B was used to ascertain the effectiveness of semi-solid roll strip casting for producing magnesium alloy sheets. The temperature of the molten magnesium, and the roll speeds of the upper and lower rolls, (which could be changed independently), were varied to find an appropriate manufacturing condition. Rolling and heat treatment conditions were changed to examine which condition would be appropriate for producing wrought magnesium alloys with good formability. Microscopic observation of the crystals of the manufactured wrought magnesium alloys was performed. It has been found that a limiting drawing ratio of 2.7 was possible in a warm deep drawing test of the cast magnesium alloy sheets after being hot rolled

  14. Strength and deformation behaviour of magnesium die casting alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regener, D.; Schick, E.; Wagner, I.; Heyse, H.

    1999-01-01

    Modern magnesium die casting alloys are used for the manufacturing of automotive parts due to their low density, fortunate mechanical and physical properties as well as good castability and machinability. However, in comparison to other materials the automotive application of these alloys is still low. The reasons for this are among other things the shortage of relevant materials values, insufficient knowledge concerning the correlation between the microstructure and the mechanical properties as well as deficits in relation to the die cast technology. This paper investigates the influence of the microstructure and manufacture-induced defects like micro-shrinkage and gas pores on the strength and deformability of the alloys AZ91, AM50 and AE42 under tensile and bend loading. To characterise the microstructure in the dependence on the wall thickness, the investigations are mainly carried out using in situ specimens obtained from die castings. (orig.)

  15. Corrosion and Corrosion-Assisted Cracking of a Magnesium Alloy under Appropriate Mechano-Chemical Conditions for Temporary Bioimplant Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Harandi, Shervin Eslami

    2017-01-01

    In the recent years, magnesium (Mg) and its alloys have attracted great research interest as temporary implants devices such as screws, wires, plates and stents, as they possess one of the best biocompatibilities, and their degradation products are not at all harmful to human physiology. In addition, Mg has the required mechanical strength as well as its density and elastic modulus are respectively close to those of natural bone which result in alleviation of the stress s...

  16. Shot peening influence on corrosion resistance of AE21 magnesium alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    "Evaluation of the electrochemical characteristics of the AE21 magnesium alloy is presented in the article. : The surfaces of tested alloys were treated by grinding and grinding followed by sodium bicarbonate shotpeening. : The specimens were evaluat...

  17. Toxicity of magnesium alloy biodegradation products in experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. M. Neryanov

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents information on the study of possible toxic effects of biodegradation products of original magnesium-based alloy on laboratory rats. The used laboratory methods of investigation are described. Author has examined biochemical parameters of plasma on the base of which endogenous intoxication in rats was studied. It was found out that products of alloy biological resorption don’t cause toxic effects on tissues and don’t enhance cell destruction, that is evidenced by the absence of signs of endogenous intoxication and oxidative damage of functional macromolecules. Materials and methods. We used white mongrel male rats weighing 220-270 g (n = 20. Fixator consisting of a modified magnesium alloy ML-10 was implanted into the femur muscle mass of the animals of the experimental group (n = 14. The control group consisted of white mongrel male rats weighing 230-250 g (n = 6, which were not subjected to surgery (intact group. The degree of oxidative damage to proteins, the content of the average molecular weight, nucleic acids and the stable metabolites of nitric oxide were evaluated in plasma. Results and discussion. The studies revealed the reliable (relative to the intact group increase in the content of all fractions of middle molecules in the plasma of the experimental group of rats, the increase shows only that the immune system of animals with magnesium implants is in a reactive state and responds with minor release of biologically active substances into the bloodstream. At this rate of endogenous intoxication this exponent usually increases tenfold, but we have not seen that. Levels of stable metabolites of nitric oxide increase insignificantly(1,4 times, that likely indicates more on the start of adaptive signaling processes than a pathological condition. The experimental data concerning the content of nucleic acids in the plasma of animals with magnesium implants testifies in support of this hypothesis. There were no

  18. Biomedical coatings on magnesium alloys - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberger, H; Virtanen, S; Boccaccini, A R

    2012-07-01

    This review comprehensively covers research carried out in the field of degradable coatings on Mg and Mg alloys for biomedical applications. Several coating methods are discussed, which can be divided, based on the specific processing techniques used, into conversion and deposition coatings. The literature review revealed that in most cases coatings increase the corrosion resistance of Mg and Mg alloys. The critical factors determining coating performance, such as corrosion rate, surface chemistry, adhesion and coating morphology, are identified and discussed. The analysis of the literature showed that many studies have focused on calcium phosphate coatings produced either using conversion or deposition methods which were developed for orthopaedic applications. However, the control of phases and the formation of cracks still appear unsatisfactory. More research and development is needed in the case of biodegradable organic based coatings to generate reproducible and relevant data. In addition to biocompatibility, the mechanical properties of the coatings are also relevant, and the development of appropriate methods to study the corrosion process in detail and in the long term remains an important area of research. Copyright © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of inorganic acid pickling on the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloy AZ31 sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Blawert, C.; Scharnagl, N.

    2009-01-01

    Surface contaminants as a result of thermo-mechanical processing of magnesium alloys, e.g. sheet rolling, can have a negative effect on the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys. Especially contaminants such as Fe, Ni and Cu, left on the surface of magnesium alloys result in the formation...... of micro-galvanic couples and can therefore increase corrosion attack on these alloys. Due to this influence they should be removed to obtain good corrosion resistance. In this study, the effect of inorganic acid pickling on the corrosion behaviour of a commercial AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet...... cleaning the AZ31 sheet. However, to obtain reasonable corrosion resistance at least 5 mu m of the surface of AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet have to be removed....

  20. Chemical conversion coating for protecting magnesium alloys from corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Gaurang; Allen, Fred M.; Skandan, Ganesh; Hornish, Peter; Jain, Mohit

    2016-01-05

    A chromate-free, self-healing conversion coating solution for magnesium alloy substrates, composed of 10-20 wt. % Mg(NO.sub.3).sub.2.6H.sub.2O, 1-5 wt. % Al(NO.sub.3).sub.3.9H.sub.2O, and less than 1 wt. % of [V.sub.10O.sub.28].sup.6- or VO.sub.3.sup.- dissolved in water. The corrosion resistance offered by the resulting coating is in several hundreds of hours in salt-spray testing. This prolonged corrosion protection is attributed to the creation of a unique structure and morphology of the conversion coating that serves as a barrier coating with self-healing properties. Hydroxoaluminates form the backbone of the barrier protection offered while the magnesium hydroxide domains facilitate the "slow release" of vanadium compounds as self-healing moieties to defect sites, thus providing active corrosion protection.

  1. Tribological Behaviour of the Ceramic Coating Formed on Magnesium Alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Fei; Zhou Hai; Chen Qiang; Ge Yuanjing; Lv Fanxiu

    2007-01-01

    Micro-arc oxidation is a recently developed surface treatment technology under anodic oxidation. Through micro-arc oxidation, a ceramic coating is directly formed on the surface of magnesium alloy, by which its surface property is significantly improved. In this paper, a dense ceramic oxide coating was prepared on an AZ31 magnesium alloy by micro-arc oxidation in a NaOH-Na 2 SiO 3 -NaB 4 O 7 -(NaPO 3 ) 6 electrolytic solution. Micro-structure, surface morphology and phase composition were analysed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The tribological behavior of the micro-arc oxidation ceramic coating under dry sliding against GCr15 steel was evaluated on a ball-on-disc test rig. The results showed that the AZ31 alloy was characterized by adhesion wear and scuffing under dry sliding against the steel, while the surface micro-arc oxidation ceramic coating experienced much abated adhesion wear and scuffing under the same testing conditions. The micro-arc oxidation ceramic coating showed good friction-reducing and fair antiwear ability in dry sliding against the steel

  2. Metal Injection Molding (MIM of Magnesium and Its Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Wolff

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Current research has highlighted that magnesium and its alloys as biodegradable material are highly suitable for biomedical applications. The new material fully degrades into nontoxic elements and offers material properties matching those of human bone tissue. As biomedical implants are rather small and complex in shape, the metal injection molding (MIM technique seems to be well suited for the near net shape mass production of such parts. Furthermore, MIM of Mg-alloys is of high interest in further technical fields. This study focusses on the performance of MIM-processing of magnesium alloy powders. It includes Mg-specific development of powder blending, feedstock preparation, injection molding, solvent and thermal debinding and final sintering. Even though Mg is a highly oxygen-affine material forming a stable oxide layer on each particle surface, the material can be sintered to nearly dense parts, providing mechanical properties matching those of as cast material. An ultimate tensile strength of 142 MPa, yield strength of 67 MPa, elastic modulus of 40 GPa and 8% elongation at fracture could be achieved using novel organic polymer binders for the feedstock preparation. Thus, first implant demonstrator parts could be successfully produced by the MIM technique.

  3. Microstructural evolution of AZ31 magnesium alloy subjected to sliding friction treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Lu, Jinwen; Huo, Wangtu; Zhang, Yusheng; Wei, Q.

    2018-06-01

    Microstructural evolution and grain refinement mechanism in AZ31 magnesium alloy subjected to sliding friction treatment were investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy. The process of grain refinement was found to involve the following stages: (I) coarse grains were divided into fine twin plates through mechanical twinning; then the twin plates were transformed to lamellae with the accumulation of residual dislocations at the twin boundaries; (II) the lamellae were separated into subgrains with increasing grain boundary misorientation and evolution of high angle boundaries into random boundaries by continuous dynamic recrystallisation (cDRX); (III) the formation of nanograins. The mechanisms for the final stage, the formation of nanograins, can be classified into three types: (i) cDRX; (ii) discontinuous dynamic recrystallisation (dDRX); (iii) a combined mechanism of prior shear-band and subsequent dDRX. Stored strain energy plays an important role in determining deformation mechanisms during plastic deformation.

  4. Manufacturing and characterization of magnesium alloy foils for use as anode materials in rechargeable magnesium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloffer, Daniel; Bozorgi, Salar; Sherstnev, Pavel; Lenardt, Christian; Gollas, Bernhard

    2017-11-01

    The fabrication of thin foils of magnesium for use as anode material in rechargeable magnesium ion batteries is described. In order to improve its workability, the magnesium was alloyed by melting metallurgy with zinc and/or gadolinium, producing saturated solid solutions. The material was extruded to thin foils and rolled to a thickness of approximately 100 μm. The electrochemical behavior of Mg-1.63 wt% Zn, Mg-1.55 wt% Gd and Mg-1.02 wt% Zn-1.01 wt% Gd was studied in (PhMgCl)2-AlCl3/THF electrolyte by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic cycling in symmetrical cells. Analysis of the current-potential curves in the Tafel region and the linear region close to the equilibrium potential show almost no effect of the alloying elements on the exchange current densities (5-45 μA/cm2) and the transfer coefficients. Chemical analyses of the alloy surfaces and the electrolyte demonstrate that the alloying elements not only dissolve with the magnesium during the anodic half-cycles, but also re-deposit during the cathodic half-cycles together with the magnesium and aluminum from the electrolyte. Given the negligible corrosion rate in aprotic electrolytes under such conditions, no adverse effects of alloying elements are expected for the performance of magnesium anodes in secondary batteries.

  5. Determination of thermal conductivity of magnesium-alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    An indirect method, Angstroms method was adopted and an instrument was designed to determine the thermal conductivity of magnesium metal and alloys. Angstroms method is an axial periodic heat flow technique by which the thermal diffusivity can be measured directly. Then thermal conductivity can be obtained with relation to thermal diffusivity. Compared with the recommended data from the literature the fitted values of the thermal diffiusivity correspond with 3%, and the credible probability of the thermal conductivity in the range of 0-450 ℃ is about 95%. The method is applicable in the given temperature range.

  6. Anticorrosive behaviour of Cr(VI)-free surface pretreatments applied on magnesium alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Simancas Peco, Joaquín; Fuente, Daniel de la; Chico, Belén; Madueño, L.; Camón, F.; Blanco, M. C.; Morcillo, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Among the anticorrosive protection technologies for magnesium alloys, the development of paint systems is a pressing need especially for the automotive and aeronautical industries. Conventional technologies are based on the use of Cr(VI) based compounds, both in pretreatments and primers, but for health and environmental reasons these technologies are being abandoned. An added problem in the painting of magnesium alloys is the lack of adhesion and the high reactivity of magnesium substrates, ...

  7. Role of Ca in Modifying Corrosion Resistance and Bioactivity of Plasma Anodized AM60 Magnesium Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anawati, Anawati; Asoh, Hidetaka; Ono, Sachiko [Kogakuin University, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    The effect of alloying element Ca (0, 1, and 2 wt%) on corrosion resistance and bioactivity of the as-received and anodized surface of rolled plate AM60 alloys was investigated. A plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) was carried out to form anodic oxide film in 0.5 mol dm{sup -3} Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} solution. The corrosion behavior was studied by polarization measurements while the in vitro bioactivity was tested by soaking the specimens in Simulated Body Fluid (1.5xSBF). Optical micrograph and elemental analysis of the substrate surfaces indicated that the number of intermetallic particles increased with Ca content in the alloys owing to the formation of a new phase Al2Ca. The corrosion resistance of AM60 specimens improved only slightly by alloying with 2 wt% Ca which was attributed to the reticular distribution of Al2Ca phase existed in the alloy that might became barrier for corrosion propagation across grain boundaries. Corrosion resistance of the three alloys was significantly improved by coating the substrates with anodic oxide film formed by PEO. The film mainly composed of magnesium phosphate with thickness in the range 30 - 40 μm. The heat resistant phase of Al{sub 2}Ca was believed to retard the plasma discharge during anodization and, hence, decreased the film thickness of Ca-containing alloys. The highest apatite forming ability in 1.5xSBF was observed for AM60-1Ca specimens (both substrate and anodized) that exhibited more degradation than the other two alloys as indicated by surface observation. The increase of surface roughness and the degree of supersaturation of 1.5xSBF due to dissolution of Mg ions from the substrate surface or the release of film compounds from the anodized surface are important factors to enhance deposition of Ca-P compound on the specimen surfaces.

  8. Process-Structure-Property Relationship in Magnesium-Based Biodegradable Alloy for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Pramanshu

    Magnesium alloys are considered to be the next generation of biomaterials because of their ability to degrade in the physiological environment. We elucidate here the impact of multiaxial forging of Mg-2Zn-2Gd alloy on grain refinement to sub-micron regime and relate the structure to mechanical properties and biological functionality. As-cast and annealed samples were multiaxial forged (MAF) for a total number of two passes with a true strain of 2/pass. Considering that the microstructure governs the biological response of materials, we studied the constituents of the microstructure in conjunction with the mechanical behavior. The antimicrobial behavior in a Mg-2Zn-2Gd alloy with different grain size in the range of 44 microm to 710 nm was studied by seeding. Surface energy and contact angle measurements using goniometer and wettability were assessed with water, SBF, n-Hexane, and DMEM. The structure-property relationship in Mg-2Zn-2Gd alloy to maintaining mechanical integrity during degradation was studied by seeding Escherichia coli ( E. coli). Furthermore, we studied the effect of degradation behavior in the presence and absence of cells. This was followed by the study of bioactivity in terms of phases present on the surface and degradation products in simulated body fluid (SBF). Magnesium coated with apatite using a biomimetic approach were placed in a 24-well culture plate with alpha-MEM media and the degradation behavior was studied in the absence and presence of cells (seeding density: 10,000 cells/cm2). The change in pH was monitored at regular intervals. Cell attachment was studied by seeding the cells for 4h and cell viability was studied by seeding the cells for up to 1, 3, and 7 days. The study underscores that the fine-grained alloys exhibited superior mechanical properties, antimicrobial resistance, and cell attachment. The degradation rate was also least for fine-grained alloy. The higher surface energy of ultrafine-grained Mg-2Zn-2Gd alloy led to the

  9. The High Strain Rate Deformation Behavior of High Purity Magnesium and AZ31B Magnesium Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livescu, Veronica; Cady, Carl M.; Cerreta, Ellen K.; Henrie, Benjamin L.; Gray, George T.

    The deformation in compression of pure magnesium and AZ31B magnesium alloy, both with a strong basal pole texture, has been investigated as a function of temperature, strain rate, and specimen orientation. The mechanical response of both metals is highly dependent upon the orientation of loading direction with respect to the basal pole. Specimens compressed along the basal pole direction have a high sensitivity to strain rate and temperature and display a concave down work hardening behavior. Specimens loaded perpendicularly to the basal pole have a yield stress that is relatively insensitive to strain rate and temperature and a work hardening behavior that is parabolic and then linearly upwards. Both specimen orientations display a mechanical response that is sensitive to temperature and strain rate. Post mortem characterization of the pure magnesium was conducted on a subset of specimens to determine the microstructural and textural evolution during deformation and these results are correlated with the observed work hardening behavior and strain rate sensitivities were calculated.

  10. Microstructural design of magnesium alloys for elevated temperature performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Zachary Lee

    Magnesium alloys are promising for automotive and aerospace applications requiring lightweight structural metals due to their high specific strength. Weight reductions through material substitution significantly improve fuel efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Challenges to widespread integration of Mg alloys primarily result from their limited ductility and elevated temperature strength. This research presents a microstructurally-driven systems design approach to Mg alloy development for elevated temperature applications. The alloy properties that were targeted included creep resistance, elevated temperature strength, room temperature ductility, and material cost. To enable microstructural predictions during the design process, computational thermodynamics was utilized with a newly developed atomic mobility database for HCP-Mg. The mobilities for Mg self-diffusion, as well as Al, Ag, Sn, and Zn solute diffusion in HCP-Mg were optimized from available diffusion literature using DICTRA. The optimized mobility database was then validated using experimental diffusion couples. To limit dislocation creep mechanisms in the first design iteration, a microstructure consisting of Al solutes in solid solution and a fine dispersion of Mg2Sn precipitates was targeted. The development of strength and diffusion models informed by thermodynamic predictions of phase equilibria led to the selection of an optimum Mg-1.9at%Sn-1.5at%Al (TA) alloy for elevated temperature performance. This alloy was cast, solution treated based upon DICTRA homogenization simulations, and then aged. While the tensile and creep properties were competitive with conventional Mg alloys, the TA mechanical performance was ultimately limited because of abnormal grain growth that occurred during solution treatment and the basal Mg2Sn particle morphology. For the second design iteration, insoluble Mg2Si intermetallic particles were added to the TA alloy to provide enhanced grain boundary pinning

  11. Complex anticorrosion coating for ZK30 magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamaka, S.V.; Knoernschild, G.; Snihirova, D.V.; Taryba, M.G.; Zheludkevich, M.L.; Ferreira, M.G.S.

    2009-01-01

    This work aims at developing a new complex anticorrosion protection system for ZK30 magnesium alloy. This protective coating is based on an anodic oxide layer loaded with corrosion inhibitors in its pores, which is then sealed with a sol-gel hybrid polymer. The porous oxide layer is produced by spark anodizing. The sol-gel film shows good adhesion to the oxide layer as it penetrates through the pores of the anodized layer forming an additional transient oxide-sol-gel interlayer. The thickness of this complex protective coating is about 3.7-7.0 μm. A blank oxide-sol-gel coating system or one doped with Ce 3+ ions proved to be effective corrosion protection for the magnesium alloy preventing corrosion attack after exposure for a relatively long duration in an aggressive NaCl solution. The structure and the thickness of the anodized layer and the sol-gel film were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The corrosion behaviour of the ZK30 substrates pre-treated with the complex coating was tested by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET), and scanning ion-selective electrode techniques (SIET).

  12. Study of Dissimilar Welding AA6061 Aluminium Alloy and AZ31B Magnesium Alloy with ER5356 Filler Using Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahamud, M. I. I.; Ishak, M.; Halil, A. M.

    2017-09-01

    This paper is to study of dissimilar welding AA6061 aluminium alloy and AZ31B magnesium alloy with ER5356 filler using friction stir welding. 2 mm thick plates of aluminium and magnesium were used. Friction stir welding operations were performed at different rotation and travel speeds and used the fixed tilt angle which is 3°. The rotation speeds varied from 800 to 1100 rpm, and the travel speed varied from 80 to 100 mm/min. In the range rotation speed of 800 to 1000 rpm and welding speed of 80 to 100 mm/min there are no defect at the weld. Tensile test show the higher tensile strength is 198 MPa and the welding efficiency is about 76%.

  13. Influence of Friction Stir Welding on Mechanical Properties of Butt Joints of AZ61 Magnesium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Ju Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of heat input on the mechanical properties and fracture behaviors of AZ61 magnesium alloy joints has been studied. Magnesium alloy AZ61 plates with thickness of 5 mm were welded at different ratios of tool rotational speed to welding speed (ω/ν. The average ultimate tensile strength of all weld conditions satisfying a ω/ν ratio of 3 reached 100% of the strength of the base material. Fractures occurred at the interface between the thermomechanical affected zone at advancing side and the stir zone in all welded specimens. From the scanning electron microscope and electron backscatter diffraction analysis, it was determined that the interface between the thermomechanical affected zone and the stir zone, which is the region where the grain orientation changes, was the weakest part; the advancing side region was relatively weaker than the retreating side region because the grain orientation change occurred more dramatically in the advancing side region.

  14. Biocompatibility and Biocorrosion of Hydroxyapatite-Coated Magnesium Plate: Animal Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Kyung Lim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium (Mg has the advantage of being resorbed in vivo, but its resorption rate is difficult to control. With uncontrolled resorption, Magnesium as a bone fixation material has minimal clinical value. During resorption not only is the strength rapidly weakened, but rapid formation of metabolite also occurs. In order to overcome these disadvantages, hydroxyapatite (HA surface coating of pure magnesium plate was attempted in this study. Magnesium plates were inserted above the frontal bone of Sprague-Dawley rats in both the control group (Bare-Mg group and the experimental group (HA-Mg group. The presence of inflammation, infection, hydrogen gas formation, wound dehiscence, and/or plate exposure was observed, blood tests were performed, and the resorption rate and tensile strength of the retrieved metal plates were measured. The HA-Mg group showed no gas formation or plate exposure until week 12. However, the Bare-Mg group showed consistent gas formation and plate exposure beginning in week 2. WBC (White Blood Cell, BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen, Creatinine, and serum magnesium concentration levels were within normal range in both groups. AST (Aspartate Aminotransferase and ALT (Alanine Aminotransferase values, however, were above normal range in some animals of both groups. The HA-Mg group showed statistically significant advantage in resistance to degradation compared to the Bare-Mg group in weeks 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12. Degradation of HA-Mg plates proceeded after week 12. Coating magnesium plates with hydroxyapatite may be a viable method to maintain their strength long enough to allow bony healing and to control the resorption rate during the initial period.

  15. Effectivity of fluoride treatment on hydrogen and corrosion product generation in temporal implants for different magnesium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinidad, Javier; Arruebarrena, Gurutze; Marco, Iñigo; Hurtado, Iñaki; Sáenz de Argandoña, Eneko

    2013-12-01

    The increasing interest on magnesium alloys relies on their biocompatibility, bioabsorbility and especially on their mechanical properties. Due to these characteristics, magnesium alloys are becoming a promising solution to be used, as temporary implants. However, magnesium alloys must overcome their poor corrosion resistance. This article analyses the corrosion behaviour in phosphate-buffered saline solution of three commercial magnesium alloys (AZ31B, WE43 and ZM21) as well as the influence of fluoride treatment on their corrosion behaviour. It is shown that the corrosion rate of all the alloys is decreased by fluoride treatment. However, fluoride treatment affects each alloy differently.

  16. Corrosion assessment and enhanced biocompatibility analysis of biodegradable magnesium-based alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompa, Luis Enrique

    Magnesium alloys have raised immense interest to many researchers because of its evolution as a new third generation material. Due to their biocompatibility, density, and mechanical properties, magnesium alloys are frequently reported as prospective biodegradable implant materials. Moreover, magnesium based alloys experience a natural phenomena to biodegrade in aqueous solutions due to its corrosive activity, which is excellent for orthopedic and cardiovascular applications. However, major concerns with such alloys are fast and non-uniform corrosion degradation. Controlling the degradation rate in the physiological environment determines the success of an implant. In this investigation, three grades of magnesium alloys: AZ31B, AZ91E and ZK60A were studied for their corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and contact angle meter are used to study surface morphology, chemistry, roughness and wettability, respectively. Additionally, the cytotoxicity of the leached metal ions was evaluated by a tetrazolium based bio-assay, MTS.

  17. Solidification, growth mechanisms, and associated properties of Al-Si and magnesium lightweight casting alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosch, Timothy [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Continually rising energy prices have inspired increased interest in weight reduction in the automotive and aerospace industries, opening the door for the widespread use and development of lightweight structural materials. Chief among these materials are cast Al-Si and magnesium-based alloys. Utilization of Al-Si alloys depends on obtaining a modified fibrous microstructure in lieu of the intrinsic flake structure, a process which is incompletely understood. The local solidification conditions, mechanisms, and tensile properties associated with the flake to fiber growth mode transition in Al-Si eutectic alloys are investigated here using bridgman type gradient-zone directional solidification. Resulting microstructures are examined through quantitative image analysis of two-dimensional sections and observation of deep-etched sections showing three-dimensional microstructural features. The transition was found to occur in two stages: an initial stage dominated by in-plane plate breakup and rod formation within the plane of the plate, and a second stage where the onset of out-of-plane silicon rod growth leads to the formation of an irregular fibrous structure. Several microstructural parameters were investigated in an attempt to quantify this transition, and it was found that the particle aspect ratio is effective in objectively identifying the onset and completion velocity of the flake to fiber transition. The appearance of intricate out-of-plane silicon instability formations was investigated by adapting a perturbed-interface stability analysis to the Al-Si system. Measurements of silicon equilibrium shape particles provided an estimate of the anisotropy of the solid Si/liquid Al-Si system and incorporation of this silicon anisotropy into the model was found to improve prediction of the instability length scale. Magnesium alloys share many of the benefits of Al-Si alloys, with the added benefit of a 1/3 lower density and increased machinability. Magnesium castings

  18. Corrosion and impedance studies on magnesium alloy in oxalate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fekry, A.M.; Tammam, Riham H.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Corrosion behavior of AZ91E alloy was investigated in 0.1 M Na 2 C 2 O 4 containing different additives as Br - , Cl - or Silicate. → The corrosion rate of 0.1 M oxalate solution containing silicate ion is lower than the blank (0.1 M Na 2 C 2 O 4 ). This was confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations. → For the other added ions Br - or Cl - , the corrosion rate is higher than the blank. - Abstract: Corrosion behavior of AZ91E alloy was investigated in oxalate solution using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance measurements (EIS). The effect of oxalate concentration was studied, where the corrosion rate increases with increasing oxalate concentration. The effect of added ions (Br - , Cl - or SiO 3 2- ) on the electrochemical behavior of magnesium alloy in 0.1 M Na 2 C 2 O 4 solution at 298 K, was investigated. It was found that the corrosion rate of 0.1 M oxalate solution containing silicate ion is lower than the blank (0.1 M Na 2 C 2 O 4 ). This was confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations. However, for the other added ions Br - or Cl - , the corrosion rate is higher than the blank.

  19. Corrosion and impedance studies on magnesium alloy in oxalate solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fekry, A.M., E-mail: hham4@hotmail.com [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Gamaa Street, Giza 12613 (Egypt); Tammam, Riham H. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Gamaa Street, Giza 12613 (Egypt)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: > Corrosion behavior of AZ91E alloy was investigated in 0.1 M Na{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4} containing different additives as Br{sup -}, Cl{sup -} or Silicate. > The corrosion rate of 0.1 M oxalate solution containing silicate ion is lower than the blank (0.1 M Na{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}). This was confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations. > For the other added ions Br{sup -} or Cl{sup -}, the corrosion rate is higher than the blank. - Abstract: Corrosion behavior of AZ91E alloy was investigated in oxalate solution using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance measurements (EIS). The effect of oxalate concentration was studied, where the corrosion rate increases with increasing oxalate concentration. The effect of added ions (Br{sup -}, Cl{sup -} or SiO{sub 3}{sup 2-}) on the electrochemical behavior of magnesium alloy in 0.1 M Na{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4} solution at 298 K, was investigated. It was found that the corrosion rate of 0.1 M oxalate solution containing silicate ion is lower than the blank (0.1 M Na{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}). This was confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations. However, for the other added ions Br{sup -} or Cl{sup -}, the corrosion rate is higher than the blank.

  20. Biofunctionalized anti-corrosive silane coatings for magnesium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Yue, Zhilian; Romeo, Tony; Weber, Jan; Scheuermann, Torsten; Moulton, Simon; Wallace, Gordon

    2013-11-01

    Biodegradable magnesium alloys are advantageous in various implant applications, as they reduce the risks associated with permanent metallic implants. However, a rapid corrosion rate is usually a hindrance in biomedical applications. Here we report a facile two step procedure to introduce multifunctional, anti-corrosive coatings on Mg alloys, such as AZ31. The first step involves treating the NaOH-activated Mg with bistriethoxysilylethane to immobilize a layer of densely crosslinked silane coating with good corrosion resistance; the second step is to impart amine functionality to the surface by treating the modified Mg with 3-amino-propyltrimethoxysilane. We characterized the two-layer anticorrosive coating of Mg alloy AZ31 by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, static contact angle measurement and optical profilometry, potentiodynamic polarization and AC impedance measurements. Furthermore, heparin was covalently conjugated onto the silane-treated AZ31 to render the coating haemocompatible, as demonstrated by reduced platelet adhesion on the heparinized surface. The method reported here is also applicable to the preparation of other types of biofunctional, anti-corrosive coatings and thus of significant interest in biodegradable implant applications. Copyright © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Essential Magnesium Alloys Binary Phase Diagrams and Their Thermochemical Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mezbahul-Islam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium-based alloys are becoming a major industrial material for structural applications because of their potential weight saving characteristics. All the commercial Mg alloys like AZ, AM, AE, EZ, ZK, and so forth series are multicomponent and hence it is important to understand the phase relations of the alloying elements with Mg. In this work, eleven essential Mg-based binary systems including Mg-Al/Zn/Mn/Ca/Sr/Y/Ni/Ce/Nd/Cu/Sn have been reviewed. Each of these systems has been discussed critically on the aspects of phase diagram and thermodynamic properties. All the available experimental data has been summarized and critically assessed to provide detailed understanding of the systems. The phase diagrams are calculated based on the most up-to-date optimized parameters. The thermodynamic model parameters for all the systems except Mg-Nd have been summarized in tables. The crystallographic information of the intermetallic compounds of different binary systems is provided. Also, the heat of formation of the intermetallic compounds obtained from experimental, first principle calculations and CALPHAD optimizations are provided. In addition, reoptimization of the Mg-Y system has been done in this work since new experimental data showed wider solubility of the intermetallic compounds.

  2. CYCLIC FATIGUE RESISTANCE OF AZ91 MAGNESIUM ALLOY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Němcová

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with determination of principal mechanical properties and the investigation of fatigue behaviour of AZ91 magnesium alloy. The experimental material was made by squeeze casting technique and heat treated to obtain T4 state (solution annealing, when hard, brittle Mg17Al12 intermetallic phase is dissolved. The basic mechanical properties (Young’s modulus, ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, elongation to fracture and reduction of area were determined by static tensile test. Furthermore, fatigue parameters were investigated. The S-N curve on the basis of smooth test bars tested under symmetrical push-pull loading at room temperature was evaluated. The measured data were subsequently used for fitting with suitable regression functions (Kohout & Věchet and Stromeyer for determination of the fatigue parameters. Fatigue limit sigma-c of the studied alloy for 108 cycles is approaching 50 MPa. In addition, the fracture surfaces were observed by scanning electron microscopy. The failure analysis proved that the striations were observed in fatigue crack propagation area and in the area of static fracture was observed the transgranular ductile fracture. The structure of the studied alloy in the basic state and after heat treatment was observed by light and scanning electron microscopy.

  3. Effects of silicon on mechanical properties of AM60 magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Yong

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Silicon was added to improve the tensile, wear and creep behaviors of AM60 magnesium alloy in this study. The investigation has been undertaken by means of universal testing machine, HBE-3000A Brinell hardness tester, M-2000 friction-wear machine, DMA-Q800 creep machine, optical microscopy (OM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results indicate that the Chinese script type Mg2Si particles are formed by adding Si into the AM60 magnesium alloy. The ultimate tensile strength and hardness of the AM60 magnesium alloy increases with the Si addition, and the ultimate tensile strength and hardness of the AM60+1.0wt.%Si alloy are increased by 12% and 19.8%, respectively in comparison with that of the AM60 magnesium alloy. The wear property and the high temperature creep property of the AM60 magnesium alloy are also improved with Si addition. The wear mechanisms of the AM60 and AM60+1.0wt.%Si alloys are adhesive wear and abrasion wear, respectively. While, the elongation of the AM60 magnesium alloy decreases with the addition of Si. The optimum Si addition content is 1.0wt.%.

  4. Influence of heat treatment on magnesium alloys meant to automotive industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popescu, G.; Moldovan, P.; Bojin, D.; Sillekens, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a study concerning the heat treatment realized on magnesium alloys, from AZ80 and ZK60 class. These alloys are destined to replace the conventional ferrous and aluminum alloys in automotive industry. It was realized the heat treatment, T5 - artificially aging, and it were

  5. Corrosion behaviors of Zn/Al-Mn alloy composite coatings deposited on magnesium alloy AZ31B (Mg-Al-Zn)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jifu; Zhang Wei; Yan Chuanwei; Du Keqin; Wang Fuhui

    2009-01-01

    After being pre-plated a zinc layer, an amorphous Al-Mn alloy coating was applied onto the surface of AZ31B magnesium alloy with a bath of molten salts. Then the corrosion performance of the coated magnesium alloy was examined in 3.5% NaCl solution by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results showed that the single Zn layer was active in the test solution with a high corrosion rate while the Al-Mn alloy coating could effectively protect AZ31B magnesium alloy from corrosion in the solution. The high corrosion resistance of Al-Mn alloy coating was ascribed to an intact and stable passive film formed on the coating. The performances of the passive film on Al-Mn alloy were further investigated by Mott-Schottky curve and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. It was confirmed that the passive film exhibited n-type semiconducting behavior in 3.5% NaCl solution with a carrier density two orders of magnitude less than that formed on pure aluminum electrode. The XPS analysis indicated that the passive film was mainly composed of AlO(OH) after immersion for long time and the content of Mn was negligible in the outer part of the passive film. Based on the EIS measurement, electronic structure and composition analysis of the passive film, a double-layer structure, with a compact inner oxide and a porous outer layer, of the film was proposed for understanding the corrosion process of passive film, with which the experimental observations might be satisfactorily interpreted.

  6. Magnesium alloy AZ63A reinforcement by alloying with gallium and using high-disperse ZrO2 particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Khokhlova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to obtain an experimental magnesium alloy by remelting standard AZ63A alloy with addition of gallium ligatures and ZrO2 particles. This allowed reinforcement of alloy and increase its hardness and Young's modulus. The chemical analysis of this alloy shows two types of structures which are evenly distributed in volume. Thus we can conclude that reinforcing effect is the result of formation of intermetallic phase Mg5-Ga2.

  7. The microstructure of mechanically alloyed nanocrystalline aluminium-magnesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubicza, J. [Dept. of General Physics, Eoetvoes Univ., Budapest (Hungary); Dept. of Solid State Physics, Eoetvoes Univ., Budapest (Hungary); Kassem, M. [Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Petroleum and Mining, Suez Canal Univ., Suez (Egypt); Ungar, T. [Dept. of General Physics, Eoetvoes Univ., Budapest (Hungary)

    2004-07-01

    The effect of the nominal Mg content and the milling time on the microstructure of mechanically alloyed Al(Mg) solid solutions is studied. The crystallite size distribution and the dislocation structure are determined by X-ray diffraction peak profile analysis. Magnesium gradually goes into solid solution during ball milling and after 3 h almost all of the Mg atoms are soluted into the Al matrix. With increasing milling time the Mg content in solid solution, the dislocation density as well as the hardness are increasing, whereas the crystallite size is decreasing. A similar tendency of these parameters is observed at a particular duration of ball milling with increasing of the nominal Mg content. At the same time for a long milling period the dislocation density slightly decreases together with a slight reduction of the hardness. (orig.)

  8. Surface modifications of magnesium alloys for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jingxin; Cui, Fuzhai; Lee, In Seop

    2011-07-01

    In recent years, research on magnesium (Mg) alloys had increased significantly for hard tissue replacement and stent application due to their outstanding advantages. Firstly, Mg alloys have mechanical properties similar to bone which avoid stress shielding. Secondly, they are biocompatible essential to the human metabolism as a factor for many enzymes. In addition, main degradation product Mg is an essential trace element for human enzymes. The most important reason is they are perfectly biodegradable in the body fluid. However, extremely high degradation rate, resulting in too rapid loss of mechanical strength in chloride containing environments limits their applications. Engineered artificial biomaterials with appropriate mechanical properties, surface chemistry, and surface topography are in a great demand. As the interaction between the cells and tissues with biomaterials at the tissue--implant interface is a surface phenomenon; surface properties play a major role in determining both the biological response to implants and the material response to the physiological condition. Therefore, the ability to modify the surface properties while preserve the bulk properties is important, and surface modification to form a hard, biocompatible and corrosion resistant modified layer have always been an interesting topic in biomaterials field. In this article, attempts are made to give an overview of the current research and development status of surface modification technologies of Mg alloys for biomedical materials research. Further, the advantages/disadvantages of the different methods and with regard to the most promising method for Mg alloys are discussed. Finally, the scientific challenges are proposed based on own research and the work of other scientists.

  9. Preparation of plate-shape nano-magnesium hydroxide from asbestos tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Gaoxiang; Zheng Shuilin

    2009-01-01

    To prepare magnesium hydroxide is one of the effective methods to the comprehensive utilization of asbestos tailings. Nano-scale magnesium hydroxide was prepared and mechanisms of in-situ surface modification were characterized in the paper. Process conditions of preparation of magnesium hydroxide from purified hydrochloric acid leachate of asbestos tailings were optimized and in-situ surface modification of the product was carried out. Results showed that optimum process conditions for preparing nano-scale magnesium hydroxide were as follows: initial concentration of Mg 2+ in the leachate was 22.75g/L, precipitant was NaOH solution (mass concentration 20%), reaction temperature was 50 deg. C, and reaction time was 5min. The diameter and thickness of the plate nano-scale magnesium hydroxide powder prepared under optimal conditions were about 100 nm and 10 nm, respectively. However, particle agglomeration was obvious, the particle size increased to micron-grade. Dispersity of the magnesium hydroxide powder could be elevated by in-situ modification by silane FR-693, titanate YB-502 and polyethylene glycol and optimum dosages were 1.5%, 1.5% and 0.75% of the mass of magnesium hydroxide, respectively. All of the modifiers adsorbed chemically on surfaces of magnesium hydroxide particles, among which Si-O-Mg bonds formed among silane FR-693 and the particle surfaces and Ti-O-Mg among titanate YB-502 and the surfaces.

  10. Magnesium and its alloys as degradable biomaterials : Corrosion studies using potentiodynamic and EIS electrochemical techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Wolf Dieter; Nascimento, Maria Lucia; Zeddies, Miriam; Córsico, Mariana; Gassa, Liliana Mabel; Fernández Lorenzo de Mele, Mónica Alicia

    2007-01-01

    Magnesium is potentially useful for orthopaedic and cardiovascular applications. However, the corrosion rate of this metal is so high that its degradation occurs before the end of the healing process. In industrial media the behaviour of several magnesium alloys have been probed to be better than magnesium performance. However, the information related to their corrosion behaviour in biological media is insufficient. The aim of this work is to study the influence of the components of organic f...

  11. Magnesium-Nickel alloy for hydrogen storage produced by melt spinning followed by cold rolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rodrigo Leiva

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Severe plastic deformation routes (SPD have been shown to be attractive for short time preparation of magnesium alloys for hydrogen storage, generating refined microstructures and interesting hydrogen storage properties when compared to the same materials processed by high-energy ball milling (HEBM, but with the benefit of higher air resistance. In this study, we present results of a new processing route for Mg alloys for hydrogen storage: rapid solidification followed by cold work. A Mg97Ni3 alloy was processed by melt spinning (MS and by extensive cold rolling (CR. Submitting Mg97Ni3 ribbons between steel plates to cold rolling has shown to be a viable procedure, producing a thin cold welded foil, with little material waste. The as-processed material presents a high level of [002] fiber texture, a sub microcrystalline grain structure with a high density of defects, and also a fine dispersion of Mg2Ni nanoparticles. This refined microstructure allied to the developed texture resulted in enhanced activation and H-sorption kinetics properties.

  12. Influence of surface roughness on the corrosion behaviour of magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, R.; Kannan, M. Bobby

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Surface roughness of AZ91 magnesium alloy plays a critical role in the passivation behaviour of the alloy. → The passivation behaviour of the alloy influences the pitting tendency. → Increase in surface roughness of AZ91 magnesium alloy increases the pitting tendency of the alloy. -- Abstract: In this study, the influence of surface roughness on the passivation and pitting corrosion behaviour of AZ91 magnesium alloy in chloride-containing environment was examined using electrochemical techniques. Potentiodynamic polarisation and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests suggested that the passivation behaviour of the alloy was affected by increasing the surface roughness. Consequently, the corrosion current and the pitting tendency of the alloy also increased with increase in the surface roughness. Scanning electron micrographs of 24 h immersion test samples clearly revealed pitting corrosion in the highest surface roughness (Sa 430) alloy, whereas in the lowest surface roughness (Sa 80) alloy no evidence of pitting corrosion was observed. Interestingly, when the passivity of the alloy was disturbed by galvanostatically holding the sample at anodic current for 1 h, the alloy underwent high pitting corrosion irrespective of their surface roughness. Thus the study suggests that the surface roughness plays a critical role in the passivation behaviour of the alloy and hence the pitting tendency.

  13. AN ELECTROPLATING METHOD OF FORMING PLATINGS OF NICKEL, COBALT, NICKEL ALLOYS OR COBALT ALLOYS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    An electroplating method of forming platings of nickel, cobalt, nickel alloys or cobalt alloys with reduced stresses in an electrodepositing bath of the type: Watt's bath, chloride bath or a combination thereof, by employing pulse plating with periodic reverse pulse and a sulfonated naphthalene...

  14. An investigation into the sealing of magnesium alloy cans by argon-arc welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, A.F.

    1964-05-15

    The weldability of several magnesium alloys, which may be suitable as canning materials has been investigated. The most suitable welding conditions necessary for sealing Magnox C cans are recommended.

  15. Corrosion protection of AM60B magnesium alloy by application of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    it appears that more investigation is needed to develop safe and effective routes for ... conversion film on the magnesium alloy as an environment- friendly alternative for ... Prior to the electrochemical measurements, working elec- trodes were ...

  16. Preparation and corrosion resistance of electroless Ni-P/SiC functionally gradient coatings on AZ91D magnesium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-Long; Liu, Ling-Yun; Dou, Yong; Zhang, Wen-Zhu; Jiang, Wen-Feng

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, the protective electroless Ni-P/SiC gradient coatings on AZ91D magnesium alloy substrate were successfully prepared. The prepared Ni-P/SiC gradient coatings were characterized for its microstructure, morphology, microhardness and adhesion to the substrate. The deposition reaction kinetics was investigated and an empirical rate equation for electroless Ni-P/SiC plating on AZ91D magnesium alloy was developed. The anticorrosion properties of the Ni-P/SiC gradient coatings in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution were evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) studies. The potentiodynamic polarization measurements revealed that the SiC concentration in the bath and heat treatment can influence the corrosion protection performance of electroless deposited Ni-P/SiC gradient coatings. EIS studies indicated that higher charge transfer resistance and slightly lower capacitance values were obtained for Ni-P/SiC gradient coatings compared to Ni-P coatings. The corrosion resistance of the Ni-P/SiC gradient coatings increases initially and decreases afterwards with the sustained increasing of immersion time in the aggressive medium. The electroless Ni-P/SiC gradient coatings can afford better corrosion protection for magnesium alloy substrate compared with Ni-P coatings.

  17. Effect of copper content on the properties of electroless Ni–Cu–P coatings prepared on magnesium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Junjun; Wang, Xudong; Tian, Zhiyong; Yuan, Ming; Ma, Xijuan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Electroless Ni–Cu–P coatings were obtained on ZK61M magnesium alloys. • The crystallinity and compactness increases with the increasing of copper content. • The introduction of copper element in the coatings contributes to the formation of passivation film. • The coatings with higher corrosion resistance were obtained from the solution with a higher CuSO 4 concentration. - Abstract: The Ni–Cu–P coatings were obtained by electroless plating method on ZK61M magnesium alloys. The effect of copper content on the properties of electroless Ni–Cu–P coatings on magnesium alloys was further studied. The coatings surface and cross-section morphologies were observed with scanning electron microscope. The crystal structure and corrosion resistance of Ni–Cu–P coatings were evaluated by X-ray diffractometer and electrochemical tests. The experimental results showed that the Ni–Cu–P coatings were uniform and compact, and the corrosion resistance of these coatings was superior to Ni–P coatings owing to the introduction of copper. The crystallinity and compactness of the Ni–Cu–P coatings gradually enhanced with the increasing of copper content in the coatings. The introduction of copper element in the Ni–Cu–P coatings contributes to the formation of passivation film. The Ni–Cu–P coatings with higher corrosion resistance were obtained from the solution with a higher CuSO 4 concentration.

  18. Preparation and corrosion resistance of magnesium phytic acid/hydroxyapatite composite coatings on biodegradable AZ31 magnesium alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Cai, Shu; Zhang, Feiyang; Xu, Guohua; Wang, Fengwu; Yu, Nian; Wu, Xiaodong

    2017-06-01

    In this work, a magnesium phytic acid/hydroxyapatite composite coating was successfully prepared on AZ31 magnesium alloy substrate by chemical conversion deposition technology with the aim of improving its corrosion resistance and bioactivity. The influence of hydroxyapatite (HA) content on the microstructure and corrosion resistance of the coatings was investigated. The results showed that with the increase of HA content in phytic acid solution, the cracks on the surface of the coatings gradually reduced, which subsequently improved the corrosion resistance of these coated magnesium alloy. Electrochemical measurements in simulated body fluid (SBF) revealed that the composite coating with 45 wt.% HA addition exhibited superior surface integrity and significantly improved corrosion resistance compared with the single phytic acid conversion coating. The results of the immersion test in SBF showed that the composite coating could provide more effective protection for magnesium alloy substrate than that of the single phytic acid coating and showed good bioactivity. Magnesium phytic acid/hydroxyapatite composite, with the desired bioactivity, can be synthesized through chemical conversion deposition technology as protective coatings for surface modification of the biodegradable magnesium alloy implants. The design idea of the new type of biomaterial is belong to the concept of "third generation biomaterial". Corrosion behavior and bioactivity of coated magnesium alloy are the key issues during implantation. In this study, preparation and corrosion behavior of magnesium phytic acid/hydroxyapatite composite coatings on magnesium alloy were studied. The basic findings and significance of this paper are as follows: 1. A novel environmentally friendly, homogenous and crack-free magnesium phytic acid/hydroxyapatite composite coating was fabricated on AZ31 magnesium alloy via chemical conversion deposition technology with the aim of enhancing its corrosion resistance and

  19. Preparation and characterization of the micro-arc oxidation composite coatings on magnesium alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Yanfeng Ge; Bailing Jiang; Ming Liu; Congjie Wang; Wenning Shen

    2014-01-01

    The magnesium alloys attract the light-weight manufacture due to its high strength to weight ratio, however the poor corrosion resistance limits the application in automobile industry. The Micro-arc Composite Ceramic (MCC) coatings on AZ91D magnesium alloys were prepared by Micro-arc Oxidation (MAO) and electrophoresis technologies. The microstructure, corrosion resistance, abrasion resistance, stone impact resistance and adhesion of MCC coatings were studied respectively. The cross section m...

  20. Polyaspartic acid as a corrosion inhibitor for WE43 magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihui Yang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition behavior of polyaspartic acid (PASP as an environment-friendly corrosion inhibitor for WE43 magnesium alloy was investigated in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution by means for EIS measurement, potentiodynamic polarization curve, and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that PASP can inhibit the corrosion of WE43 magnesium alloy. The maximum inhibition efficiency is achieved when PASP concentration is 400 ppm in this study.

  1. Polyaspartic acid as a corrosion inhibitor for WE43 magnesium alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Lihui Yang; Yantao Li; Bei Qian; Baorong Hou

    2015-01-01

    The inhibition behavior of polyaspartic acid (PASP) as an environment-friendly corrosion inhibitor for WE43 magnesium alloy was investigated in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution by means for EIS measurement, potentiodynamic polarization curve, and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that PASP can inhibit the corrosion of WE43 magnesium alloy. The maximum inhibition efficiency is achieved when PASP concentration is 400 ppm in this study.

  2. Influence of Heat Treatment on the Corrosion Behavior of Purified Magnesium and AZ31 Alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Khalifeh, Sohrab; Burleigh, T. David

    2017-01-01

    Magnesium and its alloys are ideal for biodegradable implants due to their biocompatibility and their low-stress shielding. However, they can corrode too rapidly in the biological environment. The objective of this research was to develop heat treatments to slow the corrosion of high purified magnesium and AZ31 alloy in simulated body fluid at 37{\\deg}C. Heat treatments were performed at different temperatures and times. Hydrogen evolution, weight loss, PDP, and EIS methods were used to measu...

  3. Microstructure and corrosion resistance of Ce–V conversion coating on AZ31 magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Xiao; Guo, Ruiguang; Jiang, Shuqin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Through simple chemical conversion process, a Ce–V conversion coating is prepared on AZ31 magnesium alloy. The coating (∼2 μm thick) has a duplex structure and is composed of Mg, Al, Ce, V and O in the outer layer and Mg, Al, V, F and O in the inner layer. • The Ce–V conversion coating can increase the E corr by 157 mV and decrease the i corr by 80 times compared to AZ31 magnesium alloy substrate. Moreover, the performance of the Ce–V conversion coating excels the chromate conversion coating on AZ31 magnesium alloy. • The EIS results of Ce–V conversion coating indicate an increase of 10× in the corrosion resistance and a delay in the corrosion process kinetics compared to uncoated AZ31 magnesium alloy in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. • The ball cratering is a simple and effective technique of thickness measurement for chemical conversion coating. - Abstract: A Ce–V conversion coating was developed to improve the corrosion resistance of AZ31 magnesium alloy. Scanning electronic microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS), grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and the ball cratering test were adopted to study the morphology, chemical composition, structure and thickness of the coating. The coating has duplex structure with network and its thickness is about 2 μm. The coating contains high contents of Ce and V, which exhibits amorphous structure. Potentiodynamic polarization shows the coating can increase the corrosion potential and reduce the corrosion current density of AZ31 magnesium alloy. Moreover, the electrochemical impedance spectra exhibit the coating significantly improves the corrosion resistance of AZ31 magnesium alloy. Results indicate that the Ce–V conversion coating can provide effective protection to AZ31 magnesium alloy

  4. Microstructure and corrosion resistance of Ce–V conversion coating on AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Xiao, E-mail: xiaoxiao217@126.com; Guo, Ruiguang; Jiang, Shuqin

    2015-06-30

    Highlights: • Through simple chemical conversion process, a Ce–V conversion coating is prepared on AZ31 magnesium alloy. The coating (∼2 μm thick) has a duplex structure and is composed of Mg, Al, Ce, V and O in the outer layer and Mg, Al, V, F and O in the inner layer. • The Ce–V conversion coating can increase the E{sub corr} by 157 mV and decrease the i{sub corr} by 80 times compared to AZ31 magnesium alloy substrate. Moreover, the performance of the Ce–V conversion coating excels the chromate conversion coating on AZ31 magnesium alloy. • The EIS results of Ce–V conversion coating indicate an increase of 10× in the corrosion resistance and a delay in the corrosion process kinetics compared to uncoated AZ31 magnesium alloy in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. • The ball cratering is a simple and effective technique of thickness measurement for chemical conversion coating. - Abstract: A Ce–V conversion coating was developed to improve the corrosion resistance of AZ31 magnesium alloy. Scanning electronic microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS), grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and the ball cratering test were adopted to study the morphology, chemical composition, structure and thickness of the coating. The coating has duplex structure with network and its thickness is about 2 μm. The coating contains high contents of Ce and V, which exhibits amorphous structure. Potentiodynamic polarization shows the coating can increase the corrosion potential and reduce the corrosion current density of AZ31 magnesium alloy. Moreover, the electrochemical impedance spectra exhibit the coating significantly improves the corrosion resistance of AZ31 magnesium alloy. Results indicate that the Ce–V conversion coating can provide effective protection to AZ31 magnesium alloy.

  5. The use of boron trifluoride and alkoxiboroxines as extinguishants for magnesium alloy fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, R.N.

    1987-11-01

    The extinguishants currently available for putting out magnesium alloy fires work by covering the burning fuel and excluding both the oxygen and nitrogen from the reaction zone. It has been reported that boron trifluoride and trimethoxi-and tributoxi-boroxine may act in a more specific chemical way on the combustion reactions. In this report an investigation into the effectiveness of these compounds on magnesium alloy fires is described. (author)

  6. Characterization of Al-Cu-Mg-Ag Alloy RX226-T8 Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lach, Cynthia L.; Domack, Marcia S.

    2003-01-01

    Aluminum-copper-magnesium-silver (Al-Cu-Mg-Ag) alloys that were developed for thermal stability also offer attractive ambient temperature strength-toughness combinations, and therefore, can be considered for a broad range of airframe structural applications. The current study evaluated Al-Cu-Mg-Ag alloy RX226-T8 in plate gages and compared performance with sheet gage alloys of similar composition. Uniaxial tensile properties, plane strain initiation fracture toughness, and plane stress tearing resistance of RX226-T8 were examined at ambient temperature as a function of orientation and thickness location in the plate. Properties were measured near the surface and at the mid-plane of the plate. Tensile strengths were essentially isotropic, with variations in yield and ultimate tensile strengths of less than 2% as a function of orientation and through-thickness location. However, ductility varied by more than 15% with orientation. Fracture toughness was generally higher at the mid-plane and greater for the L-T orientation, although the differences were small near the surface of the plate. Metallurgical analysis indicated that the microstructure was primarily recrystallized with weak texture and was uniform through the plate with the exception of a fine-grained layer near the surface of the plate. Scanning electron microscope analysis revealed Al-Cu-Mg second phase particles which varied in composition and were primarily located on grain boundaries parallel to the rolling direction. Fractography of toughness specimens for both plate locations and orientations revealed that fracture occurred predominantly by transgranular microvoid coalescence. Introduction High-strength, low-density Al-Cu-Mg-Ag alloys were initially developed to replace conventional 2000 (Al-Cu-Mg) and 7000 (Al-Zn-Cu-Mg) series aluminum alloys for aircraft structural applications [1]. During the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) program, improvements in thermal stability were demonstrated for candidate

  7. Improving Corrosion Resistance and Biocompatibility of Magnesium Alloy by Sodium Hydroxide and Hydrofluoric Acid Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Jiang Pan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Owing to excellent mechanical property and biodegradation, magnesium-based alloys have been widely investigated for temporary implants such as cardiovascular stent and bone graft; however, the fast biodegradation in physiological environment and the limited surface biocompatibility hinder their clinical applications. In the present study, magnesium alloy was treated by sodium hydroxide (NaOH and hydrogen fluoride (HF solutions, respectively, to produce the chemical conversion layers with the aim of improving the corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. The results of attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS indicated that the chemical conversion layers of magnesium hydroxide or magnesium fluoride were obtained successfully. Sodium hydroxide treatment can significantly enhance the surface hydrophilicity while hydrogen fluoride treatment improved the surface hydrophobicity. Both the chemical conversion layers can obviously improve the corrosion resistance of the pristine magnesium alloy. Due to the hydrophobicity of magnesium fluoride, HF-treated magnesium alloy showed the relative better corrosion resistance than that of NaOH-treated substrate. According to the results of hemolysis assay and platelet adhesion, the chemical surface modified samples exhibited improved blood compatibility as compared to the pristine magnesium alloy. Furthermore, the chemical surface modified samples improved cytocompatibility to endothelial cells, the cells had better cell adhesion and proliferative profiles on the modified surfaces. Due to the excellent hydrophilicity, the NaOH-treated substrate displayed better blood compatibility and cytocompatibility to endothelial cells than that of HF-treated sample. It was considered that the method of the present study can be used for the surface modification of the magnesium alloy to enhance the corrosion resistance and biocompatibility.

  8. A review on the effect of welding on the corrosion of magnesium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, N. S.; Alias, J.

    2017-10-01

    Welding is an important joining technique for lightweight alloys with their increasing applications in aerospace, aircraft, automotive, electronics and other industries. The applications of lightweight alloys particularly magnesium alloys increased rapidly due to their beneficial properties such as low density, high strength-to-mass ratio, good dimensional stability, electromagnetic shielding and good recyclability. The effect of welding on the corrosion of magnesium alloys are reviewed in this paper, which closely related to the developed microstructure by the welding process. The paper focuses particularly on friction stir and laser welding. The basic principles of friction stir and laser welding are discussed, to present the likelihood of defects which significantly affect the corrosion of magnesium alloy. The finding in corrosion demonstrated the morphology of corrosion occurrence on each welded region, and observation on the potential and current values are also included.

  9. Effect of Zn content on the chemical conversion treatments of AZ91D magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Lifang; Meng Qingsen; Chen Shaoping; Wang Hao

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The effect of Zn content on the chemical conversion process of Mg alloy was studied. ► The coating thickness grows up with the increase of the Zn content. ► The corrosion resistance of the coating is comparable if the Zn content below 2 wt.%. ► The corrosion resistance of the coating became poorer if the Zn content beyond 2 wt.%. - Abstract: In this study, four AZ91D magnesium plates with different Zn content were treated with chemical conversion treatments. The chemical conversion coating was examined using scanning electron microscope, optical microscope and glow discharge optical emission spectrometer. The testing results indicated that increase in Zn content produced a thicker chemical conversion coating. However, when the Zn content exceeded 2 wt.%, the thickness of the chemical conversion coating decreased. To investigate the chemical conversion mechanism, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were employed to evaluate the corrosion resistance of the magnesium substrate in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution.

  10. A Study of Magnesium-Base Metallic Systems and Development of Principles for Creation of Corrosion-Resistant Magnesium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhina, I. Yu.

    2014-11-01

    The effect of 26 alloying elements on the corrosion resistance of high-purity magnesium in a 0.5-n solution of sodium chloride and in a humid atmosphere (0.005 n) is studied. The Mg - Li, Mg - Ag, Mg - Zn, Mg - Cu, Mg - Gd, Mg - Al, Mg - Zr, Mg - Mn and other binary systems, which present interest as a base for commercial or perspective castable magnesium alloys, are studied. The characteristics of corrosion resistance of the binary alloys are analyzed in accordance with the group and period of the Mendeleev's periodic law. The roles of the electrochemical and volume factors and of the factor of the valence of the dissolved element are determined.

  11. Effect of HCl pre-treatment on corrosion resistance of cerium-based conversion coatings on magnesium and magnesium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunelli, Katya; Dabala, Manuele; Calliari, Irene; Magrini, Maurizio

    2005-01-01

    The corrosion protection afforded by a cerium conversion coating, formed by immersion in a solution containing rare earth salt and hydrogen peroxide, on pure magnesium and two magnesium alloys, AZ91 and AM50, has been studied. The effect of HCl pre-treatments on the morphology and on the corrosion resistance of the cerium conversion layer was investigated. A thicker and more homogeneous distribution of the conversion coating was obtained when the sample surface was pre-treated with acid. Higher amounts of cerium on the surface of the pre-treated samples were detected. The cerium conversion coating increased the corrosion resistance of the alloys because it ennobled the corrosion potential and decreased both the anodic and cathodic current. The acid pre-treatment further increased the corrosion resistance of the coated alloys. After five days of immersion in chloride environment the untreated samples showed localized corrosion while the chemical conversion coated samples appeared unaffected

  12. Improved surface corrosion resistance of WE43 magnesium alloy by dual titanium and oxygen ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Ying [Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Wu, Guosong; Lu, Qiuyuan [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Wu, Jun [Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong (China); Xu, Ruizhen [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Yeung, Kelvin W.K., E-mail: wkkyeung@hku.hk [Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong (China); Chu, Paul K., E-mail: paul.chu@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2013-02-01

    Magnesium alloys are potential biodegradable materials and have attracted much attention due to their outstanding biological performance and mechanical properties. However, their rapid degradation inside the human body cannot meet clinical needs. In order to improve the corrosion resistance, dual titanium and oxygen ion implantation is performed to modify the surface of the WE43 magnesium alloy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is used to characterize the microstructures in the near surface layer and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, potentiodynamic polarization, and immersion tests are employed to investigate the corrosion resistance of the implanted alloys in simulated body fluids. The results indicate that dual titanium and oxygen ion implantation produces a TiO{sub 2}-containing surface film which significantly enhances the corrosion resistance of WE43 magnesium alloy. Our data suggest a simple and practical means to improve the corrosion resistance of degradable magnesium alloys. - Highlights: ► Surface modification of WE43 magnesium alloy using dual ion implantation ► Dual Ti and O ion implantation produces a homogeneous TiO{sub 2}-containing surface film ► Significant improvement of the alloy corrosion resistance after the dual ion implantation.

  13. Enhanced antimicrobial properties, cytocompatibility, and corrosion resistance of plasma-modified biodegradable magnesium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ying; Jamesh, Mohammed Ibrahim; Li, Wing Kan; Wu, Guosong; Wang, Chenxi; Zheng, Yufeng; Yeung, Kelvin W K; Chu, Paul K

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium alloys are potential biodegradable materials and have received increasing attention due to their outstanding biological performance and mechanical properties. However, rapid degradation in the physiological environment and potential toxicity limit clinical applications. Recently, special magnesium-calcium (Mg-Ca) and magnesium-strontium (Mg-Sr) alloys with biocompatible chemical compositions have been reported, but the rapid degradation still does not meet clinical requirements. In order to improve the corrosion resistance, a rough, hydrophobic and ZrO(2)-containing surface film is fabricated on Mg-Ca and Mg-Sr alloys by dual zirconium and oxygen ion implantation. Weight loss measurements and electrochemical corrosion tests show that the corrosion rate of the Mg-Ca and Mg-Sr alloys is reduced appreciably after surface treatment. A systematic investigation of the in vitro cellular response and antibacterial capability of the modified binary magnesium alloys is performed. The amounts of adherent bacteria on the Zr-O-implanted and Zr-implanted samples diminish remarkably compared to the unimplanted control. In addition, significantly enhanced cell adhesion and proliferation are observed from the Zr-O-implanted sample. The results suggest that dual zirconium and oxygen ion implantation, which effectively enhances the corrosion resistance, in vitro biocompatibility and antimicrobial properties of Mg-Ca and Mg-Sr alloys, provides a simple and practical means to expedite clinical acceptance of biodegradable magnesium alloys. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Hemolysis and cytotoxicity mechanisms of biodegradable magnesium and its alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Zhen; Liu, Xiaoli; Huang, Tao; Xi, TingFei; Zheng, Yufeng

    2015-01-01

    Good hemocompatibility and cell compatibility are essential requirements for coronary stents, especially for biodegradable magnesium alloy stents, which could change the in situ environment after implanted. In this work, the effects of magnesium ion concentration and pH value on the hemolysis and cytotoxicity have been evaluated. Solution with different Mg(2+) concentration gradients and pH values of normal saline and cell culture media DMEM adjusted by MgCl2 and NaOH respectively were tested for the hemolysis and cell viability. Results show that even when the concentration of Mg(2+) reaches 1000 μg/mL, it has little destructive effect on erythrocyte, and the high pH value over 11 caused by the degradation is the real reason for the high hemolysis ratio. Low concentrations of Mg(2+) (300 μg/mL) could induce obvious death of the L929 cells. The pH of the extract plays a synergetic effect on cytotoxicity, due to the buffer action of the cell culture medium. To validate this conclusion, commercial pure Mg using normal saline and PBS as extract was tested with the measurement of pH and Mg(2+) concentration. Pure Mg leads to a higher hemolysis ratio in normal saline (47.76%) than in buffered solution (4.38%) with different pH values and low concentration of Mg(2+). The Mg extract culture media caused no cytotoxicity, with pH=8.44 and 47.80 μg/mL Mg(2+). It is suggested that buffered solution and dynamic condition should be adopted in the hemolysis evaluation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Corrosion resistance of multilayered magnesium phosphate/magnesium hydroxide film formed on magnesium alloy using steam-curing assisted chemical conversion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizaki, Takahiro; Kudo, Ruriko; Omi, Takeshi; Teshima, Katsuya; Sonoda, Tsutomu; Shigematsu, Ichinori; Sakamoto, Michiru

    2012-01-01

    Anticorrosive multilayered films were successfully prepared on magnesium alloy AZ31 by chemical conversion treatment, followed by steam curing treatment. The crystal structures, chemical composition, surface morphologies, chemical bonding states of the film was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) measurements. All the films had thicknesses of ranging from 24 to 32 μm. The film had two layers that were composed of crystalline NH 4 MgPO 4 ·H 2 O, Mg 2 PO 4 OH·3H 2 O, Mg(OH) 2 and amorphous MgO. The outer layers include magnesium, oxygen, and phosphorous, and the inner layers include magnesium and oxygen. The corrosion resistant performances of the multilayered films in 5 wt% NaCl aqueous solution were investigated by electrochemical and gravimetric measurements. The potentiodynamic polarization curves revealed that the corrosion current density (j corr ) of all the film coated magnesium alloys decreased by more than four orders of magnitude as compared to that of the bare magnesium alloy, indicating that all the films had an inhibiting effect of corrosion reaction. Gravimetric measurements showed that the average corrosion rates obtained from the weight loss rates were estimated to be in the ranges of ca. 0.085–0.129 mm/y. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard D 3359-02 cross cut tape test revealed that the adhesion of our anticorrosive multilayered film to the magnesium alloy surface was very good.

  16. Effect of fiber laser parameters on laser welded AZ31B Magnesium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mat Salleh Naqiuddin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the usage of Magnesium (Mg alloys has been hugely applied in the industrial application such as in automotive, marine, and electronic due to its advantages of recyclability and lightweight. This alloys required low heat input to be weld since it is easily evaporated due to the Magnesium Oxide (MgO at the surface and it also possesses lower melting point compared to steel. Laser welding is more convenient to weld Mg alloys due to its high power and lower heat input. AZ31B was selected since it has strong mechanical properties among others Mg alloys due to the major alloying elements; Aluminium (Al and Zinc (Zn. Low power fiber laser machine with wavelength of 900 nm was used in this experiment. The intention of this work was to investigate the effect of low power fiber laser parameters and effect of shielding gas on weld penetration and microstructure. Another aim in this work was to produce the joint for this thin sheets metal. Penetration depth and microstructure evaluation were emphasized in the analysis section. Bead-on-Plate (BOP and laser lap welding was conducted on AZ31B with thicknesses of 1.0 mm and 0.6 mm for feasibility study using pulsed wave (PW mode. Defocusing features was used in order to find better focal position, which has less occurrence of evaporation (underfill. The effect of different angle of irradiation was also investigated. Two types of shielding gases, Argon (Ar and Nitrogen (N2 were used in order to study the effect of shielding gas. Lastly, the effect of pulsed energy on penetration types and depth of BOP welded samples was investigated. Focus point was found at focal length of 156 mm with 393.75 μm. For BOP experiment, higher pulsed energy used contributes to melt through defect. Meanwhile, Ns shielding gas proved to be better shielding gas in laser welding the AZ31B. Higher angle of irradiation could reduce the underfill defect. Fillet Lap joint of similar metal was successfully done where 2.0 J of

  17. Degradation of magnesium and its alloys: dependence on the composition of the synthetic biological media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Wolf-Dieter; de Mele, Monica Fernández Lorenzo; Nascimento, Maria Lucia; Zeddies, Miriam

    2009-08-01

    Magnesium and its alloys are highly degradable metals that are potentially useful as biomaterials, especially in orthopaedic and cardiovascular applications. However, the in vivo corrosion has proved to be too high. Because of the complexity of in vivo conditions, a careful study of the corrosion of magnesium in synthetic solutions that simulate the in vivo environment is necessary as a first approach to predict the actual in vivo situation. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of the electrolyte composition on the corrosion behavior of magnesium and two Mg-alloys in synthetic biological media. Pure magnesium and its alloys (AZ31 and LAE442) were employed in the experiments. Electrochemical potentiodynamic polarization curves were recorded in sodium chloride and PBS electrolytes with different chloride ion and albumin concentration. Optical and SEM observations complemented by EDX analysis were made. The results showed that magnesium corrosion is localized in chloride- and albumin-containing buffer solutions. They also showed that the chloride concentration and the presence of buffer and protein strongly affect the electrochemical behavior of magnesium and magnesium alloys.

  18. Investigation of Interface Bonding Mechanism of an Explosively Welded Tri-Metal Titanium/Aluminum/Magnesium Plate by Nanoindentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T. T.; Wang, W. X.; Zhou, J.; Cao, X. Q.; Yan, Z. F.; Wei, Y.; Zhang, W.

    2018-04-01

    A tri-metal titanium/aluminum/magnesium (Ti/Al/Mg) cladding plate, with an aluminum alloy interlayer plate, was fabricated for the first time by explosive welding. Nanoindentation tests and associated microstructure analysis were conducted to investigate the interface bonding mechanisms of the Ti/Al/Mg cladding plate. A periodic wavy bonding interface (with an amplitude of approximately 30 μm and a wavelength of approximately 160 μm) without a molten zone was formed between the Ti and Al plates. The bonding interface between the Al and the Mg demonstrated a similar wavy shape, but the wave at this location was much larger with an amplitude of approximately 390 μm and a wavelength of approximately 1580 μm, and some localized melted zones also existed at this location. The formation of the wavy interface was found to result from a severe deformation at the interface, which was caused by the strong impact or collision. The nanoindentation tests showed that the material hardness decreased with increasing distance from the bonding interface. Material hardness at a location was found to be correlated with the degree of plastic deformation at that site. A larger plastic deformation was correlated with an increase in hardness.

  19. Characterization of Coatings on Steel Self-Piercing Rivets for Use with Magnesium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCune, Robert C.; Forsmark, Joy H.; Upadhyay, Vinod; Battocchi, Dante

    Incorporation of magnesium alloys in self-pierce rivet (SPR) joints poses several unique challenges among which are the creation of spurious galvanic cells and aggravated corrosion of adjacent magnesium when coated steel rivets are employed. This work firstly reviews efforts on development of coatings to steel fasteners for the diminution of galvanic corrosion when used with magnesium alloys. Secondly, approaches, based on several electrochemical methods, for the measurement of the galvanic-limiting effect of a number of commercially-available coatings to hardened 10B37 steel self-piercing rivets inserted into alloy couples incorporating several grades of magnesium are reported. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), zero-resistance ammeter (ZRA), corrosion potential and potential-mapping visualization methods (e.g. scanning vibrating electrode technique — SVET) are illustrated for the several rivet coatings considered.

  20. The surface chemistry of 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane films deposited on magnesium alloy AZ91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, A.; Gray-Munro, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    Magnesium and its alloys have desirable physical and mechanical properties for a number of applications. Unfortunately, these materials are highly susceptible to corrosion, particularly in the presence of aqueous solutions. The purpose of this study is to develop a uniform, non-toxic surface treatment to enhance the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys. This paper reports the influence of the coating bath parameters and alloy microstructure on the deposition of 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTS) coatings on magnesium alloy AZ91. The surface chemistry at the magnesium/MPTS interface has also been explored. The results indicate that the deposition of MPTS onto AZ91 was influenced by both the pH and MPTS concentration in the coating bath. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy results showed that the MPTS film deposited uniformly on all phases of the magnesium alloy surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies revealed that at the magnesium/MPTS interface, the molecules bond to the surface through the thiol group in an acid-base interaction with the Mg(OH) 2 layer, whereas in the bulk of the film, the molecules are randomly oriented.

  1. Corrosion mechanism of model zinc-magnesium alloys in atmospheric conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prosek, T.; Nazarov, A.; Bexell, U.; Thierry, D.; Serak, J.

    2008-01-01

    Recently, superior corrosion properties of zinc coatings alloyed with magnesium have been reported. Corrosion behaviour of model zinc-magnesium alloys was studied to understand better the protective mechanism of magnesium in zinc. Alloys containing from 1 to 32 wt.% magnesium, pure zinc, and pure magnesium were contaminated with sodium chloride and exposed to humid air for 28 days. Composition of corrosion products was analyzed using infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), ion chromatography (IC), and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). The exposure tests were completed with scanning Kelvin probe (SKP) and electrochemical measurements. Weight loss of ZnMg alloys with 1-16 wt.% magnesium was lower than that of pure zinc. Up to 10-fold drop in weight loss was found for materials with 4-8 wt.% Mg in the structure. The improved corrosion stability of ZnMg alloys was connected to the presence of an Mg-based film adjacent to the metal surface. It ensured stable passivity in chloride environment and limited the efficiency of oxygen reduction

  2. Low cycle fatigue behavior of die cast Mg-Al-Mn-Ce magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Wei

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue failure is a main failure mode for magnesium and other alloys. It is beneficial for fatigue design and fatigue life improvement to investigate the low cycle fatigue behavior of magnesium alloys. In order to investigate the low cycle fatigue behavior of die cast Mg-Al-Mn-Ce magnesium alloy, the strain controlled fatigue experiments were performed at room temperature and fatigue fracture surfaces of specimens were observed with scanning election microscopy for the alloys under die-cast and aged states. Cyclic stress response curves, strain amplitude versus reversals to failure curve, total strain amplitude versus fatigue life curves and cyclic stress-strain curves of Mg-Al-Mn-Ce alloys were analyzed. The results show that the Mg-Al-Mn-Ce alloys under die-cast (F and aged (T5 states exhibit cyclic strain hardening under the applied total strain amplitudes, and aging treatment could greatly increase the cyclic stress amplitudes of die cast Mg-Al-Mn-Ce alloys. The relationships between the plastic strain amplitude, the elastic strain amplitude and reversals to failure of Mg-Al-Mn-Ce magnesium alloy under different treatment states could be described by Coffin-Manson and Basquin equations, respectively. Observations on the fatigue fracture surface of specimens reveal that the fatigue cracks initiate on the surface of specimens and propagate transgranularly.

  3. Magnesium alloys for temporary implant applications: stress corrosion cracking and biocompatible coating

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhary, Lokesh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) alloys have emerged as potential candidate materials for construction of biodegradable temporary implant devices particularly due to advantages of favourable mechanical properties, biodegradability and biocompatibility. However, the poor corrosion resistance of Mg alloys in the physiological environment presents a major challenge to their use as biodegradable temporary implants. Furthermore, complex interaction of mechanical loading and aggressive physiological environment may ...

  4. Mechanism and Microstructure of Oxide Fluxes for Gas Tungsten Arc Welding of Magnesium Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L. M.; Zhang, Z. D.; Song, G.; Wang, L.

    2007-03-01

    Five single oxide fluxes—MgO, CaO, TiO2, MnO2, and Cr2O3—were used to investigate the effect of active flux on the depth/width ratio in AZ31B magnesium alloy. The microstructure and mechanical property of the tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding seam were studied. The oxygen content in the weld seam and the arc images during the TIG welding process were analyzed. A series of emission spectroscopy of weld arc for TIG welding for magnesium with and without flux were developed. The results showed that for the five single oxide fluxes, all can increase the weld penetration effectively and grain size in the weld seam of alternating current tungsten inert gas (ACTIG) welding of the Mg alloy. The oxygen content of the welds made without flux is not very different from those produced with oxide fluxes not considering trapped oxide. However, welds that have the best penetration have a relatively higher oxygen content among those produced with flux. It was found that the arc images with the oxide fluxes were only the enlarged form of the arc images without flux; the arc constriction was not observed. The detection of arc spectroscopy showed that the metal elements in the oxides exist as the neutral atom or the first cation in the weld arc. This finding would influence the arc properties. When TIG simulation was carried out on a plate with flux applied only on one side, the arc image video showed an asymmetric arc, which deviated toward the flux free side. The thermal stability, the dissociation energy, and the electrical conductivity of oxide should be considered when studying the mechanism for increased TIG flux weld penetration.

  5. On the Possibility of using Alluminium-Magnesium Alloys with Improved Mechanical Characteristics for Body Elements of Zenit-2S Launch Vehicle Propellant Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitalo, V.; Lytvyshko, T.

    2002-01-01

    Yuzhnoye SDO developed several generations of launch vehicles and spacecraft that are characterized by weight perfection, optimal cost, accuracy of output geometrical characteristics, stable strength characteristics, high tightness. The main structural material of launch vehicles are thermally welded non-strengthened aluminium- magnesium alloys. The aluminium-magnesium alloys in the annealed state have insufficiently high strength characteristics. Considerable increase of yield strength of sheets and plates can be reached by cold working but in this case, plasticity reduces. An effective way to improve strength of aluminium-magnesium alloys is their alloying with scandium. The alloying with scandium leads to modification of the structure of ingots (size reduction of cast grain) and formation of supersaturated solid solutions of scandium and aluminium during crystallization. During subsequent heatings (annealing of the ingots, heating for deformation) the solid solution disintegrates with the formation of disperse particles of Al3Sc type, that cause great strengthening of the alloy. High degree of dispersion and density of distribution in the matrix of secondary Al3Sc particles contribute to the considerable increase of the temperature of recrystallization of deformed intermediate products and to the formation of stable non-recrystallized structure. The alloying of alluminium-magnesium alloys with scandium increases their strength and operational characteristics, preserves their technological and corrosion properties, improves weldability. The alloys can be used within the temperature limits ­196-/+150 0C. The experimental structures of propellant tanks made of alluminium-magnesium alloys with scandium have been manufactured and tested. It was ascertained that the propellant tanks have higher margin of safety during loading with internal pressure and higher stability factor of the shrouds during loading with axial compression force which is caused by higher value

  6. Hard coatings on magnesium alloys by sputter deposition using a pulsed d.c. bias voltage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiners, G. [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung, Berlin (Germany); Griepentrog, M. [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung, Berlin (Germany)

    1995-12-01

    An increasing use of magnesium-based light-metal alloys for various industrial applications was predicted in different technological studies. Companies in different branches have developed machine parts made of magnesium alloys (e.g. cars, car engines, sewing and knitting machines). Hence, this work was started to evaluate the ability of hard coatings obtained by physical vapour deposition (PVD) in combination with coatings obtained by electrochemical deposition to protect magnesium alloys against wear and corrosion. TiN hard coatings were deposited onto magnesium alloys by unbalanced magnetron sputter deposition. A bipolar pulsed d.c. bias voltage was used to limit substrate temperatures to 180 C during deposition without considerable loss of microhardness and adhesion. Adhesion, hardness and load-carrying capacity of TiN coatings deposited directly onto magnesium alloys are compared with the corresponding values of TiN coatings deposited onto substrates which had been coated electroless with an Ni-P alloy interlayer prior to the PVD. (orig.)

  7. Electrodeposition of Al-Mn alloy on AZ31B magnesium alloy in molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jifu; Yan Chuanwei; Wang Fuhui

    2009-01-01

    The Al-Mn alloy coatings were electrodeposited on AZ31B Mg alloy in AlCl 3 -NaCl-KCl-MnCl 2 molten salts at 170 deg. C aiming to improve the corrosion resistance. However, in order to prevent AZ31B Mg alloy from corrosion during electrodeposition in molten salts and to ensure excellent adhesion of coatings to the substrate, AZ31B Mg alloy should be pre-plated with a thin zinc layer as intermediate layer. Then the microstructure, composition and phase constituents of the coatings were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It was indicated that, by adjusting the MnCl 2 content in the molten salts from 0.5 wt% to 2 wt%, the Mn content in the alloy coating was increased and the phase constituents were changed from f.c.c Al-Mn solid solution to amorphous phase. The corrosion resistance of the coatings was evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization measurements in 3.5% NaCl solution. It was confirmed that the Al-Mn alloy coatings exhibited good corrosion resistance with a chear passive region and significantly reduced corrosion current density at anodic potentiodynamic polarization. The corrosion resistance of the alloy coatings was also related with the microstructure and Mn content of the coatings.

  8. Potency of high-intensity ultrasonic treatment for grain refinement of magnesium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.; Qian Ma; Davis, B.; Wilks, T.; StJohn, D.H.

    2008-01-01

    High-intensity ultrasonic treatment (UT) for grain refinement of magnesium alloys has been investigated using a novel theoretical approach in order to better understand its grain-refining potential and the mechanism of nucleation. The process demonstrated significantly superior grain-refining potency to carbon inoculation for Al-containing magnesium alloys but inferior potency to zirconium for Al-free alloys. Details revealed by applying the theoretical approach to ultrasonic grain refinement provide new clues to understanding the mechanism of grain nucleation by UT

  9. Effect of Iron and Magnesium on Alloy AL9M Structure and Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazhenov, V. E.; Koltygin, A. V.; Belov, V. D.

    2017-09-01

    The effect of iron impurity on the structure and properties of aluminum alloy AL9M, especially its action on magnesium distribution within the structure, is studied. The microstructure of a cast component of this alloy broken during operation is analyzed. It is shown that iron impurity has an unfavorable effect on structure and mechanical properties of a casting due to appearance of Al9Fe2Si and Al18Fe2Mg7Si10 intermetallics. Formation of these intermetallics consumes a considerable amount of magnesium and lowers the content of the Q(Al5Cu2Mg8Si6) strengthening phase in the alloy structure.

  10. Divorced eutectic in a HPDC magnesium-aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbagallo, S.; Laukli, H.I.; Lohne, O.; Cerri, E.

    2004-01-01

    The morphology of the eutectic in a thin-wall high pressure die cast (HPDC) U-shape AM60 magnesium box was investigated by light microscope, SEM, TEM and EPMA. The extremely fast cooling rate taking place in the solidification process produces a highly segregated zone near the boundaries of small grains and a fine distribution of β particles, which is typical of a completely divorced eutectic. It was shown that the segregated zone is coherent with the primary α-Mg grain core even if the increased aluminium content produces a deformation of the hexagonal crystal lattice, which was estimated through diffraction patterns (SADP). The variation of the alloying elements content through the grain boundaries was shown by means of EPMA line scanning. The β particle composition was quantitatively investigated and the results show that, in comparison with the equilibrium phase diagram, the non-equilibrium phase boundary of the Mg 17 Al 12 region is moved some percent towards the lower aluminium content, at the high cooling rate that occurs in high pressure die castings. The cubic structure of the β phase was revealed by diffraction pattern. The presence of small Al-Mn particles both inside the grain and in the boundary region was also put in evidence by TEM

  11. Hydrogen storage in thin film magnesium-scandium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niessen, R.A. H.; Notten, P.H. L.

    2005-01-01

    Thorough electrochemical materials research has been performed on thin films of novel magnesium-scandium hydrogen storage alloys. It was found that palladium-capped thin films of Mg x Sc (1-x) with different compositions (ranging from x=0.50 -0.90) show an increase in hydrogen storage capacity of more than 5-20% as compared to their bulk equivalents using even higher discharge rates. The maximum reversible hydrogen storage capacity at the optimal composition (Mg 80 Sc 20 ) amounts to 1795-bar mAh/g corresponding to a hydrogen content of 2.05 H/M or 6.7-bar wt.%, which is close to five times that of the commonly used hydride-forming materials in commercial NiMH batteries. Galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT) measurements show that the equilibrium pressure during discharge is lower than that of bulk powders by one order of magnitude (10 -7 -bar mbar versus 10 -6 -bar mbar, respectively)

  12. Interfacial Reaction During Dissimilar Joining of Aluminum Alloy to Magnesium and Titanium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, J. D.; Panteli, A.; Zhang, C. Q.; Baptiste, D.; Cai, E.; Prangnell, P. B.

    Ultrasonic welding (USW), a solid state joining process, has been used to produce welds between AA6111 aluminum alloy and AZ31 magnesium alloys or titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V. The mechanical properties of the welds have been assessed and it has been shown that it is the nature and thickness of the intermetallic compounds (IMCs) at the joint line that are critical in determining joint strength and particularly fracture energy. Al-Mg welds suffer from a very low fracture energy, even when strength is comparable with that of similar metal Mg-Mg welds, due to a thick IMC layer always being formed. It is demonstrated that in USW of Al-Ti alloy the slow interdiffusion kinetics means that an IMC layer does not form during welding, and fracture energy is greater. A model has been developed to predict IMC formation during welding and provide an understanding of the critical factors that determine the IMC thickness. It is predicted that in Al-Mg welds, most of the lMC thickening occurs whilst the IMC regions grow as separate islands, prior to the formation of a continuous layer.

  13. A Review of Dissimilar Welding Techniques for Magnesium Alloys to Aluminum Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Liu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Welding of dissimilar magnesium alloys and aluminum alloys is an important issue because of their increasing applications in industries. In this document, the research and progress of a variety of welding techniques for joining dissimilar Mg alloys and Al alloys are reviewed from different perspectives. Welding of dissimilar Mg and Al is challenging due to the formation of brittle intermetallic compound (IMC such as Mg17Al12 and Mg2Al3. In order to increase the joint strength, three main research approaches were used to eliminate or reduce the Mg-Al intermetallic reaction layer. First, solid state welding techniques which have a low welding temperature were used to reduce the IMCs. Second, IMC variety and distribution were controlled to avoid the degradation of the joining strength in fusion welding. Third, techniques which have relatively controllable reaction time and energy were used to eliminate the IMCs. Some important processing parameters and their effects on weld quality are discussed, and the microstructure and metallurgical reaction are described. Mechanical properties of welds such as hardness, tensile, shear and fatigue strength are discussed. The aim of the report is to review the recent progress in the welding of dissimilar Mg and Al to provide a basis for follow-up research.

  14. A Review of Dissimilar Welding Techniques for Magnesium Alloys to Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liming; Ren, Daxin; Liu, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Welding of dissimilar magnesium alloys and aluminum alloys is an important issue because of their increasing applications in industries. In this document, the research and progress of a variety of welding techniques for joining dissimilar Mg alloys and Al alloys are reviewed from different perspectives. Welding of dissimilar Mg and Al is challenging due to the formation of brittle intermetallic compound (IMC) such as Mg17Al12 and Mg2Al3. In order to increase the joint strength, three main research approaches were used to eliminate or reduce the Mg-Al intermetallic reaction layer. First, solid state welding techniques which have a low welding temperature were used to reduce the IMCs. Second, IMC variety and distribution were controlled to avoid the degradation of the joining strength in fusion welding. Third, techniques which have relatively controllable reaction time and energy were used to eliminate the IMCs. Some important processing parameters and their effects on weld quality are discussed, and the microstructure and metallurgical reaction are described. Mechanical properties of welds such as hardness, tensile, shear and fatigue strength are discussed. The aim of the report is to review the recent progress in the welding of dissimilar Mg and Al to provide a basis for follow-up research. PMID:28788646

  15. A Review of Dissimilar Welding Techniques for Magnesium Alloys to Aluminum Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liming; Ren, Daxin; Liu, Fei

    2014-05-08

    Welding of dissimilar magnesium alloys and aluminum alloys is an important issue because of their increasing applications in industries. In this document, the research and progress of a variety of welding techniques for joining dissimilar Mg alloys and Al alloys are reviewed from different perspectives. Welding of dissimilar Mg and Al is challenging due to the formation of brittle intermetallic compound (IMC) such as Mg 17 Al 12 and Mg₂Al₃. In order to increase the joint strength, three main research approaches were used to eliminate or reduce the Mg-Al intermetallic reaction layer. First, solid state welding techniques which have a low welding temperature were used to reduce the IMCs. Second, IMC variety and distribution were controlled to avoid the degradation of the joining strength in fusion welding. Third, techniques which have relatively controllable reaction time and energy were used to eliminate the IMCs. Some important processing parameters and their effects on weld quality are discussed, and the microstructure and metallurgical reaction are described. Mechanical properties of welds such as hardness, tensile, shear and fatigue strength are discussed. The aim of the report is to review the recent progress in the welding of dissimilar Mg and Al to provide a basis for follow-up research.

  16. In vivo study of magnesium plate and screw degradation and bone fracture healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaya, Amy; Yoshizawa, Sayuri; Verdelis, Kostas; Myers, Nicole; Costello, Bernard J; Chou, Da-Tren; Pal, Siladitya; Maiti, Spandan; Kumta, Prashant N; Sfeir, Charles

    2015-05-01

    Each year, millions of Americans suffer bone fractures, often requiring internal fixation. Current devices, like plates and screws, are made with permanent metals or resorbable polymers. Permanent metals provide strength and biocompatibility, but cause long-term complications and may require removal. Resorbable polymers reduce long-term complications, but are unsuitable for many load-bearing applications. To mitigate complications, degradable magnesium (Mg) alloys are being developed for craniofacial and orthopedic applications. Their combination of strength and degradation make them ideal for bone fixation. Previously, we conducted a pilot study comparing Mg and titanium devices with a rabbit ulna fracture model. We observed Mg device degradation, with uninhibited healing. Interestingly, we observed bone formation around degrading Mg, but not titanium, devices. These results highlighted the potential for these fixation devices. To better assess their efficacy, we conducted a more thorough study assessing 99.9% Mg devices in a similar rabbit ulna fracture model. Device degradation, fracture healing, and bone formation were evaluated using microcomputed tomography, histology and biomechanical tests. We observed device degradation throughout, and calculated a corrosion rate of 0.40±0.04mm/year after 8 weeks. In addition, we observed fracture healing by 8 weeks, and maturation after 16 weeks. In accordance with our pilot study, we observed bone formation surrounding Mg devices, with complete overgrowth by 16 weeks. Bend tests revealed no difference in flexural load of healed ulnae with Mg devices compared to intact ulnae. These data suggest that Mg devices provide stabilization to facilitate healing, while degrading and stimulating new bone formation. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Insight of magnesium alloys and composites for orthopedic implant applications – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Radha

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium (Mg and its alloys have been widely researched for orthopedic applications recently. Mg alloys have stupendous advantages over the commercially available stainless steel, Co-Cr-Ni alloy and titanium implants. Till date, extensive mechanical, in-vitro and in-vivo studies have been done to improve the biomedical performance of Mg alloys through alloying, processing conditions, surface modification etc. This review comprehensively describes the strategies for improving the mechanical and degradation performance of Mg alloys through properly tailoring the composition of alloying elements, reinforcements and processing techniques. It also highlights the status and progress of research in to (i the selection of nutrient elements for alloying, reinforcement and its effects (ii type of Mg alloy system (binary, ternary and quaternary and composites (iii grain refinement for strengthening through severe plastic deformation techniques. Furthermore it also emphasizes on the importance of Mg composites with regard to hard tissue applications.

  18. Energy investigations on the mechanical properties of magnesium alloyed by X = C, B, N, O and vacancy

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xiaozhi; Liu, Lili; Wang, Rui; Gan, Liyong; Liu, Qing

    2013-01-01

    The generalized stacking fault (GSF) energies and surface energies of magnesium and its alloys with alloying atoms X = C, B, N, O and vacancy have been investigated using the first-principles methods. It is found that the predominant reducing

  19. Corrosion resistance of aluminum-magnesium alloys in glacial acetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaitseva, L.V.; Romaniv, V.I.

    1984-01-01

    Vessels for the storage and conveyance of glacial acetic acid are produced from ADO and AD1 aluminum, which are distinguished by corrosion resistance, weldability and workability in the hot and cold conditions but have low tensile strength. Aluminum-magnesium alloys are stronger materials close in corrosion resistance to technical purity aluminum. An investigation was made of the basic alloying components on the corrosion resistance of these alloys in glacial acetic acid. Both the base metal and the weld joints were tested. With an increase in temperature the corrosion rate of all of the tested materials increases by tens of times. The metals with higher magnesium content show more pitting damage. The relationship of the corrosion resistance of the alloys to magnesium content is confirmed by the similar intensity of failure of the joint metal of all of the investigated alloys and by electrochemical investigations. The data shows that AMg3 alloy is close to technically pure ADO aluminum. However, the susceptibility of even this material to local corrosion eliminates the possibility of the use of aluminum-magnesium alloys as reliable constructional materials in glacial acetic acid

  20. Hemolysis and cytotoxicity mechanisms of biodegradable magnesium and its alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhen, Zhen; Liu, Xiaoli; Huang, Tao; Xi, TingFei; Zheng, Yufeng

    2015-01-01

    Good hemocompatibility and cell compatibility are essential requirements for coronary stents, especially for biodegradable magnesium alloy stents, which could change the in situ environment after implanted. In this work, the effects of magnesium ion concentration and pH value on the hemolysis and cytotoxicity have been evaluated. Solution with different Mg 2+ concentration gradients and pH values of normal saline and cell culture media DMEM adjusted by MgCl 2 and NaOH respectively were tested for the hemolysis and cell viability. Results show that even when the concentration of Mg 2+ reaches 1000 μg/mL, it has little destructive effect on erythrocyte, and the high pH value over 11 caused by the degradation is the real reason for the high hemolysis ratio. Low concentrations of Mg 2+ (< 100 μg/mL) cause no cytotoxicity to L929 cells, of which the cell viability is above 80%, while high concentrations of Mg 2+ (> 300 μg/mL) could induce obvious death of the L929 cells. The pH of the extract plays a synergetic effect on cytotoxicity, due to the buffer action of the cell culture medium. To validate this conclusion, commercial pure Mg using normal saline and PBS as extract was tested with the measurement of pH and Mg 2+ concentration. Pure Mg leads to a higher hemolysis ratio in normal saline (47.76%) than in buffered solution (4.38%) with different pH values and low concentration of Mg 2+ . The Mg extract culture media caused no cytotoxicity, with pH = 8.44 and 47.80 μg/mL Mg 2+ . It is suggested that buffered solution and dynamic condition should be adopted in the hemolysis evaluation. - Highlights: • Mg 2+ and pH have been tested for hemolysis and cytotoxicity of biomedical Mg. • Even 1000 μg/ml Mg 2+ cannot cause hemolysis, but hemolysis reaches 53.8% when pH > 11. • Mg 2+ > 300 μg/mL induces death of L929 and slight alkaline improves the proliferation. • Pure Mg in normal saline induces high hemolysis, but in PBS causes no hemolysis. • True reason

  1. Hemolysis and cytotoxicity mechanisms of biodegradable magnesium and its alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhen, Zhen [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Liu, Xiaoli [School of Material Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Huang, Tao [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex System, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Xi, TingFei, E-mail: xitingfei@pku.edu.cn [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Biomedical Engineering Research Center, Shenzhen Institute, Peking University, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Human Tissue Regeneration and Repair, Shenzhen Institute, Peking University, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Zheng, Yufeng [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex System, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Human Tissue Regeneration and Repair, Shenzhen Institute, Peking University, Shenzhen 518057 (China)

    2015-01-01

    Good hemocompatibility and cell compatibility are essential requirements for coronary stents, especially for biodegradable magnesium alloy stents, which could change the in situ environment after implanted. In this work, the effects of magnesium ion concentration and pH value on the hemolysis and cytotoxicity have been evaluated. Solution with different Mg{sup 2+} concentration gradients and pH values of normal saline and cell culture media DMEM adjusted by MgCl{sub 2} and NaOH respectively were tested for the hemolysis and cell viability. Results show that even when the concentration of Mg{sup 2+} reaches 1000 μg/mL, it has little destructive effect on erythrocyte, and the high pH value over 11 caused by the degradation is the real reason for the high hemolysis ratio. Low concentrations of Mg{sup 2+} (< 100 μg/mL) cause no cytotoxicity to L929 cells, of which the cell viability is above 80%, while high concentrations of Mg{sup 2+} (> 300 μg/mL) could induce obvious death of the L929 cells. The pH of the extract plays a synergetic effect on cytotoxicity, due to the buffer action of the cell culture medium. To validate this conclusion, commercial pure Mg using normal saline and PBS as extract was tested with the measurement of pH and Mg{sup 2+} concentration. Pure Mg leads to a higher hemolysis ratio in normal saline (47.76%) than in buffered solution (4.38%) with different pH values and low concentration of Mg{sup 2+}. The Mg extract culture media caused no cytotoxicity, with pH = 8.44 and 47.80 μg/mL Mg{sup 2+}. It is suggested that buffered solution and dynamic condition should be adopted in the hemolysis evaluation. - Highlights: • Mg{sup 2+} and pH have been tested for hemolysis and cytotoxicity of biomedical Mg. • Even 1000 μg/ml Mg{sup 2+} cannot cause hemolysis, but hemolysis reaches 53.8% when pH > 11. • Mg{sup 2+} > 300 μg/mL induces death of L929 and slight alkaline improves the proliferation. • Pure Mg in normal saline induces high

  2. Effect of heat treatment and number of passes on the microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir processed AZ91C magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadashpour, M.; Yeşildal, R. [University of Ataturk, Erzurum (Turkmenistan); Mostafapour, A.; Rezazade, V. [University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    In this paper, the effect of heat treatment and number of passes on microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir processed AZ91C magnesium alloy samples were investigated. From six samples of as-cast AZ91C magnesium alloy, three plates were pre-heated at temperature of 375°C for 3 hours, and then were treated at temperature of 415°C for 18 hours and finally were cooled down in air. Three plates were relinquished without heat treatment. 8 mm thick as-cast AZ91C magnesium alloy plates were friction stir processed at constant traverse speed of 40 mm/min and tool rotation speed of 1250 rpm. After process, microstructural characterization of samples was analyzed using optical microscopy and tensile and Vickers hardness tests were performed. It was found that heat treated samples had finer grains, higher hardness, improved tensile strength and elongation relative to non-heat treated ones. As the number of passes increased, higher UTS and TE were achieved due to finer grains and more dissolution of β phase (Mg17Al12). The micro-hardness characteristics and tensile improvement of the friction stir processed samples depend significantly on grain size, removal of voids and porosities and dissolution of β phase in the stir zone.

  3. A new method for grain refinement in magnesium alloy: High speed extrusion machining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yao, E-mail: liuyao@ustb.edu.cn [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Cai, Songlin [China Electric Power Research Institute, State Grid Corporation of China, Beijing 100192 (China); Dai, Lanhong [State Key Laboratory of Nonlinear Mechanics, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2016-01-10

    Magnesium alloys have received broad attentions in industry due to their competitive strength to density ratio, but the poor ductility and strength limit their wide range of applications as engineering materials. A novel severe plastic deformation (SPD) technique of high speed extrusion machining (HSEM) was used here. This method could improve the aforementioned disadvantages of magnesium alloys by one single processing step. In this work, systematic HSEM experiments with different chip thickness ratios were conducted for magnesium alloy AZ31B. The microstructure of the chips reveals that HSEM is an effective SPD method for attaining magnesium alloys with different grain sizes and textures. The magnesium alloy with bimodal grain size distribution has increased mechanical properties than initial sample. The electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis shows that the dynamic recrystallization (DRX) affects the grain refinement and resulting hardness in AZ31B. Based on the experimental observations, a new theoretical model is put forward to describe the effect of DRX on materials during HSEM. Compared with the experimental measurements, the theoretical model is effective to predict the mechanical property of materials after HSEM.

  4. Study on fluidity of squeeze cast AZ91D magnesium alloy with different wall thicknesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yun

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Rectangular cross-section specimens with different section thicknesses were prepared to study the influences of pouring temperature, mould temperature and squeeze velocity on the fluidity of squeeze cast AZ91D magnesium alloy by means of orthogonal test design method. The results show that pouring temperature, mould temperature and squeeze velocity can significantly affect the fluidity of magnesium alloy specimens with wall thickness no more than 4 mm, and the pouring temperature is the most influential factor on the fluidity of specimens with wall thickness of 1, 2 and 3 mm, while mould temperature is the one for specimens with wall thickness of 4 mm. Increasing pouring temperature between 700 °C and 750 °C is beneficial to the fluidity of AZ91D magnesium alloy, and increasing mould temperature significantly enhances the filling ability of thick (3 and 4 mm section castings. The fluidity of squeeze cast magnesium alloy increases with the increase of wall thickness. It is not recommended to produce magnesium alloy casting with wall thickness of smaller than 3 mm by squeeze cast process due to the poor fluidity. The software DPS was used to generate the regression model, and linear regression equations of the fluidity of squeeze cast AZ91D with different wall thicknesses are obtained using the test results.

  5. An investigation on the microstructure of an AM50 magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, R.M.; Eliezer, A.; Gutman, E.M.

    2003-01-01

    The microstructure and the dislocation arrangement in the die cast AM50 magnesium alloy as well as in the stressed states have been investigated using conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The microstructure of the die cast AM50 alloy is found to mainly consist of α-Mg, β-Mg 17 Al 12 and Al 8 Mn 5 phases. Two kinds of β-Mg 17 Al 12 particles with different sizes have been found in the stressed AM50 magnesium alloy. Besides the normal β-Mg 17 Al 12 particles with size around several micrometers as in the die-cast AM50 magnesium alloy, some finer β-Mg 17 Al 12 particles in the stressed states of the AM50 alloy have also been found. The finer β-Mg 17 Al 12 particles are found to be only about tens of nanometers with oval or rod-like morphology, which may be formed during deformation. Dislocation pile-ups have been found in the stressed AM50 alloy for the first time. The spacing between each parallel dislocation in the pile-ups is only several nanometers. The dislocations are confined in the slip planes and piled up against grain boundaries. Dislocations in the networks are found to increase with deformation of the alloy. Also, dislocation networks have been found in the β-Mg 17 Al 12 and Al 8 Mn 5 phases as well as in the matrix in the deformed AM50 magnesium alloy. However, the dislocation pile-ups are found to be almost identical from 1.3% deformation to rupture, which explains the stable tensile yield strength of the AM50 magnesium alloy during the deformation

  6. Corrosion of magnesium alloy AZ31 screws is dependent on the implantation site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willbold, E. [Laboratory for Biomechanics and Biomaterials, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hannover Medical School, Anna-von-Borries-Strasse 1-7, D - 30625 Hannover (Germany); Kaya, A.A. [Mugla University, Engineering Faculty, Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department, Mugla (Turkey); Kaya, R.A. [MedicalPark Hospital, Kueltuer Sok No:1, 34160 Bahcelievler, Istanbul (Turkey); Beckmann, F. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Institute of Materials Research, Max-Planck-Str.1, D - 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Witte, F., E-mail: witte.frank@mh-hannover.de [Laboratory for Biomechanics and Biomaterials, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hannover Medical School, Anna-von-Borries-Strasse 1-7, D - 30625 Hannover (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    The corrosion of biodegradable materials is a crucial issue in implant development. Among other materials, magnesium and magnesium based alloys are one of the most promising candidates. Since the corrosion of biodegradable materials depends on different physiological parameters like pH or ion concentrations, the corrosion might be different in different biological environments. To investigate this issue, we produced screws from magnesium alloy AZ31 and implanted them into the hip bone of 14 sheep. After 3 and 6 months, the screws were explanted and analyzed with synchrotron-radiation based micro-computed tomography and hard tissue histology. We found considerable differences in the corrosion behavior of the magnesium screws with respect to its original tissue location. However, we could detect a normal immunological tissue response.

  7. Effect of alternating voltage treatment on corrosion resistance of AZ91D magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, X. [Corrosion and Protection Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology (Harbin Engineering University), Ministry of Education, Harbin (China); Zhang, T.; Shao, Y.; Meng, G.; Wang, F. [Corrosion and Protection Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology (Harbin Engineering University), Ministry of Education, Harbin (China); State Key Laboratory for Corrosion and Protection, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang (China)

    2012-06-15

    AZ91D magnesium alloy was treated by the alternating voltage (AV) treatment technique. The optimal AV-treatment parameters of the alloy were determined by orthogonal experiments. Polarization curve, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) were used to understand the effect of AV-treatment on the corrosion resistance of the alloy. AFM, contact angle, and XPS were employed to investigate further the influence of AV-treatment on the properties of the surface film formed on the alloy after AV-treatment. The results showed that a uniform and stable film was formed and the corrosion resistance of AZ91D magnesium alloy was significantly improved after AV-treatment. This was caused by the noticeable change of the chemical structure and semi-conducting properties of the surface film after AV-treatment. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Fatigue life of the casting-magnesium alloy AZ91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenmeier, G.; Mughrabi, H.; Holzwarth, B.; Hoeppel, H.W.; Ding, H.Z.

    2000-01-01

    The cyclic deformation behaviour of the die-casting magnesium alloy AZ91 was investigated at constant total strain amplitudes between 1.4 x 10 -3 and 2 x 10 -2 at room temperature (20 C) and at 130 C. At low total strain amplitudes, a weak cyclic softening at the beginning of the fatigue tests is followed by cyclic hardening, whereas at high total strain amplitudes a strong cyclic hardening occurs throughout. The fatigue lives at 130 C are slightly longer at high strain amplitudes but shorter at low strain amplitudes than at room temperature. The fatigue life data for both temperatures can be described well by the laws of Manson-Coffin and Basquin. The microstructural investigations performed show the strong influence of several microstructural features on the initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks. In order to understand the fatigue crack propagation behaviour, fatigue tests were interrupted at certain numbers of cycles in order to make replicas of the surface of the samples. It could be verified that crack propagation occurs mainly by the coalescence of smaller cracks. Furthermore, unloading tests, performed within a closed cycle, were carried out in order to capture the changes of stiffness (compliance) during a closed cycle with the aim to ascertain the damage evolution occurring during the fatigue tests and to determine the stresses at which the cracks open and close. Finally, two-step fatigue tests were carried out with the objective to quantify deviations from the linear damage rule (LDR) of Palmgren and Miner. The results obtained in this study will be used to formulate a microstructurally based life-prediction concept for single-step as well as for two-step fatigue loading. (orig.)

  9. Microstructural evolution during dry wear test in magnesium and Mg-Y alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somekawa, Hidetoshi, E-mail: SOMEKAWA.Hidetoshi@nims.go.jp [Research Center for Strategic Materials, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Maeda, Shunsuke; Hirayama, Tomoko; Matsuoka, Takashi [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Doshisha University, 1-3 Miyakodani, Tatara, Kyotanabe 610-0321 (Japan); Inoue, Tadanobu [Research Center for Strategic Materials, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Mukai, Toshiji [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai, Kobe, 657-8501 (Japan)

    2013-01-20

    The friction and wear properties of pure magnesium and the Mg-Y alloy were investigated using the pin-on-disk configuration. The friction and wear resistance of the Mg-Y alloy was superior to those of pure magnesium. The wear mechanism was abrasion under all the conditions. The deformed microstructural evolutions near the surface region were observed by transmission electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction. The stress and strain states were also evaluated by finite element analysis (FEA). The deformed microstructures of both alloys consisted of the {l_brace}10-12{r_brace} twinning formation and the FEA results showed the occurrence of plastic deformation even at the beginning of the test. The formation of low angle grain boundaries was also confirmed with an increase in the applied load in the Mg-Y alloy. On the other hand, grain refinement due to dynamic recrystallization was observed in pure magnesium as the wear test progressed. The different microstructures resulted from difference in the surface temperature during the wear test, which was estimated to be around 393 K and 363 K for pure magnesium and the Mg-Y alloy, respectively. The high increment temperature in the fine-grained alloys brought about the occurrence of grain boundary sliding, i.e., material softening, which led to a decrease in the friction and wear properties. The present results indicated that one of the methods for enhancing the friction and wear properties is to increase the dynamic recrystallization temperature.

  10. Superior light metals by texture engineering: Optimized aluminum and magnesium alloys for automotive applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, J.; Al-Samman, T.

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum and magnesium are two highly important lightweight metals used in automotive applications to reduce vehicle weight. Crystallographic texture engineering through a combination of intelligent processing and alloying is a powerful and effective tool to obtain superior aluminum and magnesium alloys with optimized strength and ductility for automotive applications. In the present article the basic mechanisms of texture formation of aluminum and magnesium alloys during wrought processing are described and the major aspects and differences in deformation and recrystallization mechanisms are discussed. In addition to the crystal structure, the resulting properties can vary significantly, depending on the alloy composition and processing conditions, which can cause drastic texture and microstructure changes. The elementary mechanisms of plastic deformation and recrystallization comprising nucleation and growth and their orientation dependence, either within the homogeneously formed microstructure or due to inhomogeneous deformation, are described along with their impact on texture formation, and the resulting forming behavior. The typical face-centered cubic and hexagonal close-packed rolling and recrystallization textures, and related mechanical anisotropy and forming conditions are analyzed and compared for standard aluminum and magnesium alloys. New aspects for their modification and advanced strategies of alloy design and microstructure to improve material properties are derived

  11. Diffusion Bonding and Post-Weld Heat Treatment of Extruded AZ91 Magnesium Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei LIN

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The grain size of as-extruded AZ91 magnesium alloys was refined to 12.31 μm from 21.41 μm by recrystallization annealing. The vacuum diffusion welding of as-annealed AZ91 magnesium alloys was researched. The results showed that the maximum shear strength of joints reached 64.70 MPa in the situation of 10 MPa bonding pressure, 18 Pa vacuum degree, 470 °C bonding temperature and 90 min bonding time; both bonding temperature and time are the main influence factors on as-extruded AZ91 magnesium alloys diffusion welding. Then the diffusion welded specimens were annealed, and the shear strength of joints was further improved to 76.93 MPa.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.4.9699

  12. Magnesium and its alloys as degradable biomaterials: corrosion studies using potentiodynamic and EIS electrochemical techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Dieter Müller

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium is potentially useful for orthopaedic and cardiovascular applications. However, the corrosion rate of this metal is so high that its degradation occurs before the end of the healing process. In industrial media the behaviour of several magnesium alloys have been probed to be better than magnesium performance. However, the information related to their corrosion behaviour in biological media is insufficient. The aim of this work is to study the influence of the components of organic fluids on the corrosion behaviour of Mg and AZ31 and LAE442 alloys using potentiodynamic, potentiostatic and EIS techniques. Results showed localized attack in chloride containing media. The breakdown potential decreased when chloride concentration increased. The potential range of the passivation region was extended in the presence of albumin. EIS measurements showed that the corrosion behaviour of the AZ31 was very different from that of LAE442 alloy in chloride solutions.

  13. A Comparative Electrochemical Study of AZ31 and AZ91 Magnesium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Salman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study has been carried out on AZ31 and AZ91 magnesium alloys in order to understand the electrochemical behavior in both alkaline and chloride containing solutions. The open circuit potential (OCP was examined in 1 M NaOH and 3.5 mass % NaCl solutions. AZ31 magnesium alloy shows several potential drops throughout the immersion in 1 M NaOH solution, though AZ91 does not show this phenomenon. The specimens were anodized at a constant potential of 3 V for 30 minutes at 298 K in 1 M NaOH solution. The anticorrosion behavior of the anodized specimens was better than those of nonanodized specimens. The anodized AZ91 has better corrosion resistance compared to nonanodized specimen and anodized AZ31 magnesium alloy.

  14. The Degradation Interface of Magnesium Based Alloys in Direct Contact with Human Primary Osteoblast Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezha Ahmad Agha

    Full Text Available Magnesium alloys have been identified as a new generation material of orthopaedic implants. In vitro setups mimicking physiological conditions are promising for material / degradation analysis prior to in vivo studies however the direct influence of cell on the degradation mechanism has never been investigated. For the first time, the direct, active, influence of human primary osteoblasts on magnesium-based materials (pure magnesium, Mg-2Ag and Mg-10Gd alloys is studied for up to 14 days. Several parameters such as composition of the degradation interface (directly beneath the cells are analysed with a scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray and focused ion beam. Furthermore, influence of the materials on cell metabolism is examined via different parameters like active mineralisation process. The results are highlighting the influences of the selected alloying element on the initial cells metabolic activity.

  15. The Degradation Interface of Magnesium Based Alloys in Direct Contact with Human Primary Osteoblast Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Agha, Nezha; Willumeit-Römer, Regine; Laipple, Daniel; Luthringer, Bérengère; Feyerabend, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium alloys have been identified as a new generation material of orthopaedic implants. In vitro setups mimicking physiological conditions are promising for material / degradation analysis prior to in vivo studies however the direct influence of cell on the degradation mechanism has never been investigated. For the first time, the direct, active, influence of human primary osteoblasts on magnesium-based materials (pure magnesium, Mg-2Ag and Mg-10Gd alloys) is studied for up to 14 days. Several parameters such as composition of the degradation interface (directly beneath the cells) are analysed with a scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray and focused ion beam. Furthermore, influence of the materials on cell metabolism is examined via different parameters like active mineralisation process. The results are highlighting the influences of the selected alloying element on the initial cells metabolic activity.

  16. Section thickness-dependent tensile properties of squeeze cast magnesium alloy AM60

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuezhi Zhang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of alternative casting processes is essential for the high demand of light weight magnesium components to be used in the automotive industry, which often contain different section thicknesses. Squeeze casting with its inherent advantages has been approved for the capability of minimizing the gas porosity in magnesium alloys. For advanced engineering design of light magnesium automotive applications, it is critical to understand the effect of section thickness on mechanical properties of squeeze cast magnesium alloys. In this study, magnesium alloy AM60 with different section thicknesses of 6, 10 and 20 mm squeeze cast under an applied pressure of 30 MPa was investigated. The prepared squeeze cast AM60 specimens were tensile tested at room termperature. The results indicate that the mechanical properties including yield strength (YS, ultimate tensile strength (UTS and elongation (A decrease with an increase in section thickness of squeeze cast AM60. The microstructure analysis shows that the improvement in the tensile behavior of squeeze cast AM60 is primarily attributed to the low-gas porosity level and fine grain strucuture which result from the variation of cooling rate of different section thickness. The numerical simulation (Magmasoft? was employed to determine the solidification rates of each step, and the simulated results show that the solidification rate of the alloy decreases with an increase in the section thickness. The computed solidification rates support the experimental observation on grain structural development.

  17. Current status and manufacturing technologies of magnesium alloy parts in Japanese home electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikawa, Y.; Takara, A. [Corporate Production Engineering Div., Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    The Japanese home electronics market has demanded that the newer products must be smaller, thinner and lighter. The use of magnesium alloys for Japanese home electronics has increased since the latter half of the 1990's. Magnesium alloys have been used mainly for the outer cases of portable electric products, because of their lightness and rigidness. Magnesium is also a promising material from the viewpoint of recycling. Magnesium alloy parts have been mass-produced for the outer cases of portable home electronics, such as, mini-disc player, notebook type personal computer or cell phone. The parts have the characteristics of high quality in appearance and thin walled, complicated shape with rib or boss. Most of them are formed by die-casting or injection molding technologies. After casting, the parts are treated precise machining to clear minute surface cracks or voids. Subsequently, they are operated anti-corrosion treatment and spray coating. Recycling have already carried out for magnesium alloy scraps to be cast again. Paint stripping before remelting is performed by alkali solutions or sandblast techniques for coated scraps. Finally, the development of promising press forming technologies is also introduced. (orig.)

  18. Conventional and improved cytotoxicity test methods of newly developed biodegradable magnesium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyung-Seop; Kim, Hee-Kyoung; Kim, Yu-Chan; Seok, Hyun-Kwang; Kim, Young-Yul

    2015-11-01

    Unique biodegradable property of magnesium has spawned countless studies to develop ideal biodegradable orthopedic implant materials in the last decade. However, due to the rapid pH change and extensive amount of hydrogen gas generated during biocorrosion, it is extremely difficult to determine the accurate cytotoxicity of newly developed magnesium alloys using the existing methods. Herein, we report a new method to accurately determine the cytotoxicity of magnesium alloys with varying corrosion rate while taking in-vivo condition into the consideration. For conventional method, extract quantities of each metal ion were determined using ICP-MS and the result showed that the cytotoxicity due to pH change caused by corrosion affected the cell viability rather than the intrinsic cytotoxicity of magnesium alloy. In physiological environment, pH is regulated and adjusted within normal pH (˜7.4) range by homeostasis. Two new methods using pH buffered extracts were proposed and performed to show that environmental buffering effect of pH, dilution of the extract, and the regulation of eluate surface area must be taken into consideration for accurate cytotoxicity measurement of biodegradable magnesium alloys.

  19. Qualitative Research of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Aircraft Brackets Produced by a New Forging Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dziubińska A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports a selection of numerical and experimental results of a new closed-die forging method for producing AZ31 magnesium alloy aircraft brackets with one rib. The numerical modelling of the new forming process was performed by the finite element method.The distributions of stresses, strains, temperature and forces were examined. The numerical results confirmed that the forgings produced by the new forming method are correct. For this reason, the new forming process was verified experimentally. The experimental results showed good agreement with the numerical results. The produced forgings of AZ31 magnesium alloy aircraft brackets with one rib were then subjected to qualitative tests.

  20. Study on the isothermal forging process of MB26 magnesium alloy adaptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Wenchen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The isothermal forging process is an effective method to manufacture complex-shaped components of hard-to-work materials, such as magnesium alloys. This study investigates the isothermal forging process of an MB26 magnesium alloy adaptor with three branches. The results show that two-step forging process is appropriate to form the adaptor forging, which not only improves the filling quality but also reduces the forging load compared with one-step forging process. Moreover, the flow line is distributed along the contour of the complex-shaped adaptor forging.

  1. Conversion Coatings Produced on AZ61 Magnesium Alloy by Low-Voltage Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The resultes of anodic oxide conversion coatings on wrought AZ61 magnesium alloy production are describe. The studies were conducted in a solution containing: KOH (80 g/l and KF (300 g/l using anodic current densities of 3, 5 and 10 A/dm2 and different process durations. The obtained coatings were examined under a microscope and corrosion tests were performed by electrochemical method. Based on these results, it was found that the low-voltage process produces coatings conferring improved corrosion resistance to the tested magnesium alloy.

  2. Microstructure and properties of friction stir butt-welded AZ31 magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xunhong; Wang Kuaishe

    2006-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is a relatively new joining technique particularly for magnesium and aluminum alloys that are difficult to fusion weld. In this paper, an excellent friction stir weld of AZ31 magnesium alloy was obtained at proper parameter. In the friction stir zone (FSZ), the microstructure of the base material (BM) is replaced by fine grains and small particles of intermetallic compounds. The average microhardness of the friction stir zone is higher than that of the base material. The maximum tensile strength of joint can reach 93% that of the base material. And the failure locations are almost at the heating affected zone

  3. Biocorrosion of magnesium alloys: a new principle in cardiovascular implant technology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heublein, B; Rohde, R; Kaese, V; Niemeyer, M; Hartung, W; Haverich, A

    2003-06-01

    To develop and test a new concept of the degradation kinetics of newly developed coronary stents consisting of magnesium alloys. Design of a coronary stent prototype consisting of the non-commercial magnesium based alloy AE21 (containing 2% aluminium and 1% rare earths) with an expected 50% loss of mass within six months. Eleven domestic pigs underwent coronary implantation of 20 stents (overstretch injury). No stent caused major problems during implantation or showed signs of initial breakage in the histological evaluation. There were no thromboembolic events. Quantitative angiography at follow up showed a significant (p biocorrosion seem to be a realistic alternative to permanent implants.

  4. Modelling of hardness prediction of magnesium alloys using artificial neural networks applications

    OpenAIRE

    L.A. Dobrzański; T. Tański; J. Trzaska; L. Čížek

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: In the following paper there have been presented the optimisation of heat treatment condition and structure of the MCMgAl12Zn1, MCMgAl9Zn1, MCMgAl6Zn1, MCMgAl3Zn1 magnesium cast alloy as-cast state and after a heat treatment.Design/methodology/approach: Working out of a neural network model for simulation of influence of temperature, solution heat treatment and ageing time and aluminium content on hardness of the analyzed magnesium cast alloys.Findings: The different heat treatment k...

  5. Thermodynamic criteria for the removal of impurities from end-of-life magnesium alloys by evaporation and flux treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehito Hiraki, Osamu Takeda, Kenichi Nakajima, Kazuyo Matsubae, Shinichiro Nakamura and Tetsuya Nagasaka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the possibility of removing impurities during magnesium recycling with pyrometallurgical techniques has been evaluated by using a thermodynamic analysis. For 25 different elements that are likely to be contained in industrial magnesium alloys, the equilibrium distribution ratios between the metal, slag and gas phases in the magnesium remelting process were calculated assuming binary systems of magnesium and an impurity element. It was found that calcium, gadolinium, lithium, ytterbium and yttrium can be removed from the remelted end-of-life (EoL magnesium products by oxidization. Calcium, cerium, gadolinium, lanthanum, lithium, plutonium, sodium, strontium and yttrium can be removed by chlorination with a salt flux. However, the other elements contained in magnesium alloy scrap are scarcely removed and this may contribute toward future contamination problems. The third technological option for the recycling of EoL magnesium products is magnesium recovery by a distillation process. Based on thermodynamic considerations, it is predicted that high-purity magnesium can be recovered through distillation because of its high vapor pressure, yet there is a limit on recoverability that depends on the equilibrium vapor pressure of the alloying elements and the large energy consumption. Therefore, the sustainable recycling of EoL magnesium products should be an important consideration in the design of advanced magnesium alloys or the development of new refining processes.

  6. Thermodynamic criteria for the removal of impurities from end-of-life magnesium alloys by evaporation and flux treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraki, Takehito; Matsubae, Kazuyo; Nagasaka, Tetsuya; Takeda, Osamu; Nakajima, Kenichi; Nakamura, Shinichiro

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the possibility of removing impurities during magnesium recycling with pyrometallurgical techniques has been evaluated by using a thermodynamic analysis. For 25 different elements that are likely to be contained in industrial magnesium alloys, the equilibrium distribution ratios between the metal, slag and gas phases in the magnesium remelting process were calculated assuming binary systems of magnesium and an impurity element. It was found that calcium, gadolinium, lithium, ytterbium and yttrium can be removed from the remelted end-of-life (EoL) magnesium products by oxidization. Calcium, cerium, gadolinium, lanthanum, lithium, plutonium, sodium, strontium and yttrium can be removed by chlorination with a salt flux. However, the other elements contained in magnesium alloy scrap are scarcely removed and this may contribute toward future contamination problems. The third technological option for the recycling of EoL magnesium products is magnesium recovery by a distillation process. Based on thermodynamic considerations, it is predicted that high-purity magnesium can be recovered through distillation because of its high vapor pressure, yet there is a limit on recoverability that depends on the equilibrium vapor pressure of the alloying elements and the large energy consumption. Therefore, the sustainable recycling of EoL magnesium products should be an important consideration in the design of advanced magnesium alloys or the development of new refining processes.

  7. Thermodynamic criteria for the removal of impurities from end-of-life magnesium alloys by evaporation and flux treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiraki, Takehito; Matsubae, Kazuyo; Nagasaka, Tetsuya [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Takeda, Osamu [Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Nakajima, Kenichi [Research Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba 305-8506 (Japan); Nakamura, Shinichiro, E-mail: hiraki@material.tohoku.ac.jp [Graduate School of Economics, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8050 (Japan)

    2011-06-15

    In this paper, the possibility of removing impurities during magnesium recycling with pyrometallurgical techniques has been evaluated by using a thermodynamic analysis. For 25 different elements that are likely to be contained in industrial magnesium alloys, the equilibrium distribution ratios between the metal, slag and gas phases in the magnesium remelting process were calculated assuming binary systems of magnesium and an impurity element. It was found that calcium, gadolinium, lithium, ytterbium and yttrium can be removed from the remelted end-of-life (EoL) magnesium products by oxidization. Calcium, cerium, gadolinium, lanthanum, lithium, plutonium, sodium, strontium and yttrium can be removed by chlorination with a salt flux. However, the other elements contained in magnesium alloy scrap are scarcely removed and this may contribute toward future contamination problems. The third technological option for the recycling of EoL magnesium products is magnesium recovery by a distillation process. Based on thermodynamic considerations, it is predicted that high-purity magnesium can be recovered through distillation because of its high vapor pressure, yet there is a limit on recoverability that depends on the equilibrium vapor pressure of the alloying elements and the large energy consumption. Therefore, the sustainable recycling of EoL magnesium products should be an important consideration in the design of advanced magnesium alloys or the development of new refining processes.

  8. Corrosion of magnesium and some magnesium alloys in gas cooled reactors; Corrosion du magnesium et de certains de ses alliages dans les piles refroidies par gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caillat, R; Darras, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The results of corrosion tests on magnesium and some magnesium alloys (Mg-Zr and Mg-Zr-Zn) in moist air (like G1 reactor) and in CO{sub 2}: (like G2, G3, EDF1 reactors) are reported. The maximum temperature for exposure of magnesium to moist air without any risk of corrosion is 350 deg. C. Indeed, the oxidation rate follows a linear law above 350 deg. C although it reaches a constant level and keeps on very low under 350 deg. C. However, as far as corrosion is concerned this temperature limit can be raised up to 500 deg. C if moist air is very slightly charged with fluorinated compounds. Under pressure of CO{sub 2}, these three materials oxidate much more slowly even if 500 deg. C is reached. The higher is the temperature, the higher is the constant level of the weight increase and the quicker is reached this one. However, Mg-Zr alloy behaves quite better than pure magnesium and especially than Mg-Zr-Zn alloy. (author)Fren. [French] On expose essentiellement les resultats d'etudes sur la corrosion du magnesium et de certains de ses alliages (Mg-Zr et Mg-Zr-Zn) dans l'air humide (cas de la pile G1) et dans le gaz carbonique (cas des piles G2, G3, EDF1, etc...). La temperature limite d'exposition du magnesium dans l'air humide sans risque de corrosion se situe a 350 deg. C; en effet l'oxydation a un caractere lineaire au-dessus de cette temperature, alors qu'elle atteint un palier et reste tres limitee au-dessous de 350 deg. C. Du point de vue de la corrosion, cette temperature limite d'emploi peut cependant etre elevee jusqu'a 500 deg. C si l'on introduit dans l'air humide de tres faibles teneurs de composes fluores. Dans le gaz carbonique sous pression, l'oxydation est beaucoup plus faible, meme jusqu'a 50g. C pour les trois materiaux: l'augmentation de poids atteint un palier d'autant plus eleve et ceci d'autant plus rapidement que la temperature est elle-meme plus elevee. Cependant, l'alliage Mg-Zr se comporte nettement mieux que le magnesium pur et surtout que l

  9. Corrosion of magnesium and some magnesium alloys in gas cooled reactors; Corrosion du magnesium et de certains de ses alliages dans les piles refroidies par gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caillat, R.; Darras, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The results of corrosion tests on magnesium and some magnesium alloys (Mg-Zr and Mg-Zr-Zn) in moist air (like G1 reactor) and in CO{sub 2}: (like G2, G3, EDF1 reactors) are reported. The maximum temperature for exposure of magnesium to moist air without any risk of corrosion is 350 deg. C. Indeed, the oxidation rate follows a linear law above 350 deg. C although it reaches a constant level and keeps on very low under 350 deg. C. However, as far as corrosion is concerned this temperature limit can be raised up to 500 deg. C if moist air is very slightly charged with fluorinated compounds. Under pressure of CO{sub 2}, these three materials oxidate much more slowly even if 500 deg. C is reached. The higher is the temperature, the higher is the constant level of the weight increase and the quicker is reached this one. However, Mg-Zr alloy behaves quite better than pure magnesium and especially than Mg-Zr-Zn alloy. (author)Fren. [French] On expose essentiellement les resultats d'etudes sur la corrosion du magnesium et de certains de ses alliages (Mg-Zr et Mg-Zr-Zn) dans l'air humide (cas de la pile G1) et dans le gaz carbonique (cas des piles G2, G3, EDF1, etc...). La temperature limite d'exposition du magnesium dans l'air humide sans risque de corrosion se situe a 350 deg. C; en effet l'oxydation a un caractere lineaire au-dessus de cette temperature, alors qu'elle atteint un palier et reste tres limitee au-dessous de 350 deg. C. Du point de vue de la corrosion, cette temperature limite d'emploi peut cependant etre elevee jusqu'a 500 deg. C si l'on introduit dans l'air humide de tres faibles teneurs de composes fluores. Dans le gaz carbonique sous pression, l'oxydation est beaucoup plus faible, meme jusqu'a 50g. C pour les trois materiaux: l'augmentation de poids atteint un palier d'autant plus eleve et ceci d'autant plus rapidement que la temperature est elle-meme plus elevee. Cependant, l

  10. Microstructure and Properties of Selected Magnesium-Aluminum Alloys Prepared for SPD Processing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cizek L.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A growing interest in wrought magnesium alloys has been noticed recently, mainly due to development of various SPD (severe plastic deformation methods that enable significant refinement of the microstructure and – as a result – improvement of various functional properties of products. However, forming as-cast magnesium alloys with the increased aluminum content at room temperature is almost impossible. Therefore, application of heat treatment before forming or forming at elevated temperature is recommended for these alloys. The paper presents the influence of selected heat treatment conditions on the microstructure and the mechanical properties of the as-cast AZ91 alloy. Deformation behaviour of the as-cast AZ61 alloy at elevated temperatures was analysed as well. The microstructure analysis was performed by means of both light microscopy and SEM. The latter one was used also for fracture analysis. Moreover, the effect of chemical composition modification by lithium addition on the microstructure of the AZ31-based alloy is presented. The test results can be helpful in preparation of the magnesium-aluminum alloys for further processing by means of SPD methods.

  11. Current research progress in grain refinement of cast magnesium alloys: A review article

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Yahia; Qiu, Dong; Jiang, Bin; Pan, Fusheng; Zhang, Ming-Xing

    2015-01-01

    Grain refinement of cast magnesium alloys, particularly in magnesium–aluminium (Mg–Al) based alloys, has been an active research topic in the past two decades, because it has been considered as one of the most effective approaches to simultaneously increase the strength, ductility and formability. The development of new grain refiners was normally based on the theories/models that were established through comprehensive and considerable studies of grain refinement in cast Al alloys. Generally, grain refinement in cast Al can be achieved through either inoculation treatment, which is a process of adding, or in situ forming, foreign particles to promote heterogeneous nucleation rate, or restricting grain growth by controlling the constitutional supercooling or both. But, the concrete and tangible grain refinement mechanism in cast metals is still not fully understood and there are a number of controversies. Therefore, most of the new developed grain refiners for Mg–Al based alloys are not as efficient as the commercially available ones, such as zirconium in non-Al containing Mg alloys. To facilitate the research in grain refinement of cast magnesium alloys, this review starts with highlighting the theoretical aspects of grain refinement in cast metals, followed by reviewing the latest research progress in grain refinement of magnesium alloys in terms of the solute effect and potent nucleants

  12. Resistance of WE43 and ZRE1 Magnesium Alloys to Gas Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przeliorz R.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the fact that in most applications, magnesium alloys are intended for operation in environments with room temperature, these alloys are subject to elevated temperature and oxidizing atmosphere in various stages of preparation (casting, welding, thermal treatment. At present, the studies focus on development of alloys with magnesium matrix, intended for plastic forming. The paper presents results of studies on oxidation rate of WE43 and ZRE1 magnesium foundry alloys in dry and humidified atmosphere of N2+1%O2. Measurements of the oxidation rate were carried out using a Setaram thermobalance in the temperature range of 350-480°C. Corrosion products were analyzed by SEM-SEI, BSE and EDS. It was found that the oxide layer on the WE43 alloy has a very good resistance to oxidation. The high protective properties of the layer should be attributed to the presence of yttrium in this alloy. On the other hand, a porous, two-layer scale with a low adhesion to the substrate forms on the ZRE1 alloy. The increase in the sample mass in dry gas is lower than that in humidified gas.

  13. Characterization of fold defects in AZ91D and AE42 magnesium alloy permanent mold castings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bichler, L.; Ravindran, C.

    2010-01-01

    Casting premium-quality magnesium alloy components for aerospace and automotive applications poses unique challenges. Magnesium alloys are known to freeze rapidly prior to filling a casting cavity, resulting in misruns and cold shuts. In addition, melt oxidation, solute segregation and turbulent metal flow during casting contribute to the formation of fold defects. In this research, formation of fold defects in AZ91D and AE42 magnesium alloys cast via the permanent mold casting process was investigated. Computer simulations of the casting process predicted the development of a turbulent metal flow in a critical casting region with abrupt geometrical transitions. SEM and light optical microscopy examinations revealed the presence of folds in this region for both alloys. However, each alloy exhibited a unique mechanism responsible for fold formation. In the AZ91D alloy, melt oxidation and velocity gradients in the critical casting region prevented fusion of merging metal front streams. In the AE42 alloy, limited solubility of rare-earth intermetallic compounds in the α-Mg phase resulted in segregation of Al 2 RE particles at the leading edge of a metal front and created microstructural inhomogeneity across the fold.

  14. Current research progress in grain refinement of cast magnesium alloys: A review article

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Yahia; Qiu, Dong [School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia); Jiang, Bin; Pan, Fusheng [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Zhang, Ming-Xing, E-mail: Mingxing.Zhang@uq.edu.au [School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia)

    2015-01-15

    Grain refinement of cast magnesium alloys, particularly in magnesium–aluminium (Mg–Al) based alloys, has been an active research topic in the past two decades, because it has been considered as one of the most effective approaches to simultaneously increase the strength, ductility and formability. The development of new grain refiners was normally based on the theories/models that were established through comprehensive and considerable studies of grain refinement in cast Al alloys. Generally, grain refinement in cast Al can be achieved through either inoculation treatment, which is a process of adding, or in situ forming, foreign particles to promote heterogeneous nucleation rate, or restricting grain growth by controlling the constitutional supercooling or both. But, the concrete and tangible grain refinement mechanism in cast metals is still not fully understood and there are a number of controversies. Therefore, most of the new developed grain refiners for Mg–Al based alloys are not as efficient as the commercially available ones, such as zirconium in non-Al containing Mg alloys. To facilitate the research in grain refinement of cast magnesium alloys, this review starts with highlighting the theoretical aspects of grain refinement in cast metals, followed by reviewing the latest research progress in grain refinement of magnesium alloys in terms of the solute effect and potent nucleants.

  15. Surface treatment of new type aluminum lithium alloy and fatigue crack behaviors of this alloy plate bonded with Ti–6Al–4V alloy strap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Zhen-Qi; Huang, Ming-Hui; Hu, Guo-Huai

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new generation aluminum lithium alloy which special made for Chinese commercial plane was investigated. ► Pattern of aluminum lithium alloy and Ti alloy were shown after anodization. ► Crack propagation of samples bonded with different wide Ti straps were studied in this paper. -- Abstract: Samples consisting of new aluminum lithium alloy (Al–Li alloy) plate developed by the Aluminum Company of America and Ti–6Al–4V alloy (Ti alloy) plate were investigated. Plate of 400 mm × 140 mm × 2 mm with single edge notch was anodized in phosphoric solution and Ti alloy plate of 200 mm × 20 (40) mm × 2 mm was anodized in alkali solution. Patterns of two alloys were studied at original/anodized condition. And then, aluminum alloy and Ti alloy plates were assembled into a sample with FM 94 film adhesive. Fatigue crack behaviors of the sample were investigated under condition of nominal stress σ = 36 MPa and 54 MPa, stress ratio of 0.1. Testing results show that anodization treatment modifies alloys surface topography. Ti alloy bonding to Al–Li alloy plate effectively retards crack growth than that of Al–Li alloy plate. Fatigue life of sample bonded with Ti alloy strap improves about 62.5% than that of non-strap plate.

  16. Characteristic values for the forming of the magnesium alloy AZ31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doege, E.; Janssen, S.; Wieser, J.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of investigation and development at the institute for metal forming and metal forming machine tools (IFUM) at the University of Hanover, Germany is to advance magnesium forming scientifically which has so far been based on experience and empirically determined process data only. Optimized process parameter with a sound material scientific and process control base have to be determined for the deformation of magnesium wrought alloys in order to broaden the technical use of such alloys. Aim of the investigations introduced in this paper is the determination of characteristic values as well-founded basis for the forming technological processing of magnesium wrought alloys in massive forming processes. The basic data for the description of the deformation ability in the form of friction factor and flow curve is to be detected, especially in connection with the integration into an FEM-simulation. In order to achieve such data for the magnesium wrought alloy AZ31 the flow curve at temperatures between 250 and 300 C and the deformation ratio 1, 10, 20 and 30 are presented. On the other hand a ring upsetting test for the determination of the friction factor at altitude reductions of 30, 50, 70%, a tool temperature of 200 C, a work piece temperature between 300 and 400 C and different lubricants are shown for the said alloy. (orig.)

  17. Plasma plume induced during laser welding of Magnesium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, J.; Szymanski, Z.; Azharonok, V.

    2005-01-01

    The laser welding process is influenced by the plasma produced by laser irradiation. When the pressure of the metal vapour reaches 1 atm and the plasma temperature is 10-15 kK then the electron density is about 2-3x10 23 m -3 . Under these conditions the absorption coefficient can reach several cm -1 . This means that dense plasma over the keyhole can block the laser radiation within the path of a few millimetres. Knowledge of plasma parameters helps to control technological process. The emission spectra were registered during laser welding of magnesium alloy using of a CCD camera connected to a spectrograph of focal length 1.3 m. The entrance slit of the spectrograph was perpendicular to the metal surface, so that successive tracks of the detector recorded the radiation from the plasma slices situated at different distances (heights) from the metal surface. The space-averaged electron densities are determined from the Stark broadening of the 5528.41 A Mg I spectral line and 4481.16 A Mg II line. The Stark widths of magnesium lines are taken from other paper. It has been found that the plasma density reaches 1x10 23 m -3 . Experimentally measured line broadening is obtained from the profiles of the spectral lines integrated along the line of sight (plasma diameter) and does not correspond to the maximum plasma density. Since the plasma is non-uniform, both the electron densities and temperatures obtained from spatially integrated line profiles are lower than their maximum values in the plasma centre. This effect is much stronger for the atomic line because its intensity reaches the maximum on the plasma periphery while the maximum intensity of the ionic line originates from the plasma centre. Therefore, the absorption of the laser beam evaluated from the space-averaged plasma parameters is underestimated. To find the maximum plasma density and temperature the radial temperature distribution in the plasma plume has to be reproduced. This has been done numerically by

  18. Evaluation of magnesium ions release, biocorrosion, and hemocompatibility of MAO/PLLA-modified magnesium alloy WE42.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ping; Cao, Lu; Liu, Yin; Xu, Xinhua; Wu, Xiangfeng

    2011-01-01

    Magnesium alloys may potentially be applied as biodegradable metallic materials in cardiovascular stent. However, the high corrosion rate hinders its clinical application. In this study, a new approach was adopted to control the corrosion rate by fabricating a biocompatible micro-arc oxidation/poly-L-lactic acid (MAO/PLLA) composite coating on the magnesium alloy WE42 substrate and the biocompatibility of the modified samples was investigated. The scanning electronic microscope (SEM) images were used to demonstrate the morphology of the samples before and after being submerged in hanks solution for 4 weeks. The degradation was evaluated through the magnesium ions release rate and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) test. The biocompatibility of the samples was demonstrated by coagulation time and hemolysis behavior. The result shows that the poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) effectively improved the corrosion resistance by sealing the microcracks and microholes on the surface of the MAO coating. The modified samples had good compatibility. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. A comparison of corrosion inhibition of magnesium aluminum and zinc aluminum vanadate intercalated layered double hydroxides on magnesium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lian; Zhang, Fen; Lu, Jun-Cai; Zeng, Rong-Chang; Li, Shuo-Qi; Song, Liang; Zeng, Jian-Min

    2018-04-01

    The magnesium aluminum and zinc aluminum layered double hydroxides intercalated with NO3 -(MgAl-NO3-LDH and ZnAl-NO3-LDH) were prepared by the coprecipitation method, and the magnesium aluminum and the zinc aluminum layered double hydroxides intercalated with VO x -(MgAl-VO x -LDH and ZnAl-VO x -LDH) were prepared by the anion-exchange method. Morphologies, microstructures and chemical compositions of LDHs were investigated by SEM, EDS, XRD, FTIR, Raman and TG analyses. The immersion tests were carried to determine the corrosion inhibition properties of MgAl-VO x -LDH and ZnAl-VO x -LDH on AZ31 Mg alloys. The results showed that ZnAl-VO x -LDH possesses the best anion-exchange and inhibition abilities. The influence of treatment parameters on microstructures of LDHs were discussed. Additionally, an inhibition mechanism for ZnAl-VO x -LDH on the AZ31 magnesium alloy was proposed and discussed.

  20. The corrosion behaviour of rare-earth containing magnesium alloys in borate buffer solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, R. [ICEMS, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon (Portugal); Ferreira, M.G.S. [ICEMS, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon (Portugal); CICECO, Universidade de Aveiro (Portugal); Carmezim, M.J. [ICEMS, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon (Portugal); Instituto Politecnico de Setubal, ESTSetubal, DEM (Portugal); Montemor, M.F., E-mail: mfmontemor@ist.utl.p [ICEMS, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon (Portugal)

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the corrosion behaviour of magnesium alloys ZK31, EZ33 and WE54 was studied in sodium borate buffer solution at pH 9.2. The electrochemical processes were studied by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The composition and morphology of the alloys and corrosion products formed were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The experimental findings highlighted the differences in the corrosion mechanisms of the different alloys tested. The results showed that the presence of rare-earth elements (RE) only increases the corrosion resistance when present in solid solution, as is the case of the WE54 alloy. At pH 9.2, an amorphous yttrium oxide/hydroxide thick film was formed, which possesses greater stability when compared to magnesium oxide/hydroxide. The role of RE in the corrosion mechanism was discussed.

  1. Corrosion resistance and cytocompatibility of biodegradable surgical magnesium alloy coated with hydrogenated amorphous silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Yunchang; Jiang, Jiang; Huo, Kaifu; Tang, Guoyi; Tian, Xiubo; Chu, Paul K

    2009-06-01

    The fast degradation rates in the physiological environment constitute the main limitation for the applications of surgical magnesium alloys as biodegradable hard-tissue implants. In this work, a stable and dense hydrogenated amorphous silicon coating (a-Si:H) with desirable bioactivity is deposited on AZ91 magnesium alloy using magnetron sputtering deposition. Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy reveal that the coating is mainly composed of hydrogenated amorphous silicon. The hardness of the coated alloy is enhanced significantly and the coating is quite hydrophilic as well. Potentiodynamic polarization results show that the corrosion resistance of the coated alloy is enhanced dramatically. In addition, the deterioration process of the coating in simulated body fluids is systematically investigated by open circuit potential evolution and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The cytocompatibility of the coated Mg is evaluated for the first time using hFOB1.19 cells and favorable biocompatibility is observed. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg-6Al magnesium alloy with yttrium and neodymium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jun

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of rare earth (RE elements Y and Nd on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg-6Al magnesium alloy were investigated. The results show that a proper level of RE elements can obviously refi ne the microstructure of Mg-6Al magnesium alloys, reduce the quantity of β-Mg17Al12 phase and form Al2Y and Al2Nd phases. The combined addition of Y and Nd dramatically enhances the tensile strength of the alloys in the temperature range of 20-175℃. When the content of RE elements is up to 1.8%, the values of tensile strength at room temperature and at 150℃ simultaneously reach their maximum of 253 MPa and 196 MPa, respectively. The main mechanisms of enhancement in the mechanical properties of Mg-6Al alloy with Y and Nd are the grain refi ning strengthening and the dispersion strengthening.

  3. Cyclic deformation and fatigue of rolled AZ80 magnesium alloy along different material orientations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Ying, E-mail: yxiong@zjut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Special Purpose Equipment and Advanced Processing Technology, Ministry of Education, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310032 (China); College of Mechanical Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310032 (China); Jiang, Yanyao, E-mail: yjiang@unr.edu [University of Nevada, Reno, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Reno, NV 89557 (United States)

    2016-11-20

    The effect of material orientation on cyclic deformation and fatigue behavior of rolled AZ80 magnesium (Mg) alloy was experimentally investigated under fully reversed strain-controlled loading in ambient. The testing specimens were taken from a rolled AZ80 Mg plate at four orientations with respect to rolled plane: 0°(ND, normal direction), 30°(ND30), 60°(ND60), and 90°(RD, rolled direction). Fatigue fracture morphologies of specimens along different orientation were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Overall cyclic hardening was observed for the material loaded in different directions. For a given strain amplitude, the ND specimens had the lowest fatigue resistance among the specimens of all material orientations. The fatigue life of an ND30 specimens is similar to that of an ND60 specimen at a given strain amplitude and both are higher than that of an RD specimen when the strain amplitude is higher than 0.4%, whereas an RD specimen exhibits a better fatigue resistance when the strain amplitude is lower than 0.4%. A mixed fracture mode with transgranular and intergranular cracking related to lamellar-like features occurred during stable crack growth, and an intergranular fracture mode related to dimple-like features exhibited in the fast fracture region. A multiaxial fatigue model based on the strain energy density can correlate all the fatigue experiments of the material at different material orientations.

  4. Textural states of a hot-worked MA2-1 magnesium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebryany, V. N.; Kochubei, A. Ya.; Kurtasov, S. F.; Mel'Nikov, K. E.

    2007-02-01

    Quantitative texture analysis is used to study texture formation in an MA2-1 magnesium alloy subjected to axisymmetric upsetting at temperatures of 250-450°C and strain rates of 10-4-100 -1. The deformed structure is examined by optical microscopy, and the results obtained are used to plot the structural-state diagram of the alloy after 50% upsetting. The experimental textures are compared with the textures calculated in terms of a thermoactivation model.

  5. Nanostructured calcium phosphate coatings on magnesium alloys: characterization and cytocompatibility with mesenchymal stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Iskandar, Maria Emil; Aslani, Arash; Tian, Qiaomu; Liu, Huinan

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the deposition and characterization of nanostructured calcium phosphate (nCaP) on magnesium–yttrium alloy substrates and their cytocompatibility with bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). The nCaP coatings were deposited on magnesium and magnesium–yttrium alloy substrates using proprietary transonic particle acceleration process for the dual purposes of modulating substrate degradation and BMSC adhesion. Surface morphology and feature size were analyzed usin...

  6. Effect of ECAP on microstructure and mechanical properties of cast AZ91 magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, C W; Gao, W; Ding, R G; Chiu, Y L

    2010-01-01

    An as-cast AZ91 magnesium alloy was processed by Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) at 320 0 C. The microstructure and mechanical properties were studied. It has been found that ECAP refines both the grains and precipitates, thus modifies the strength and ductility of the processed alloy. After the first pass of ECAP, the yield stress improves significantly from 71 MPa to 140 MPa.

  7. Rapid coating of AZ31 magnesium alloy with calcium deficient hydroxyapatite using microwave energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Yufu; Zhou, Huan; Nabiyouni, Maryam; Bhaduri, Sarit B.

    2015-01-01

    Due to their unique biodegradability, magnesium alloys have been recognized as suitable metallic implant materials for degradable bone implants and bioresorbable cardiovascular stents. However, the extremely high degradation rate of magnesium alloys in physiological environment has restricted its practical application. This paper reports the use of a novel microwave assisted coating technology to improve the in vitro corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of Mg alloy AZ31. Results indicate that a dense calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) layer was uniformly coated on a AZ31 substrate in less than 10 min. Weight loss measurement and SEM were used to evaluate corrosion behaviors in vitro of coated samples and of non-coated samples. It was seen that CDHA coatings remarkably reduced the mass loss of AZ31 alloy after 7 days of immersion in SBF. In addition, the prompt precipitation of bone-like apatite layer on the sample surface during immersion demonstrated a good bioactivity of the CDHA coatings. Proliferation of osteoblast cells was promoted in 5 days of incubation, which indicated that the CDHA coatings could improve the cytocompatibility of the AZ31 alloy. All the results suggest that the CDHA coatings, serving as a protective layer, can enhance the corrosion resistance and biological response of magnesium alloys. Furthermore, this microwave assisted coating technology could be a promising method for rapid surface modification of biomedical materials. - Highlights: • A microwave assisted coating process for biodegradable Mg alloy. • CDHA coatings were successfully developed on AZ31 alloy in minutes. • The as-deposited CDHA coatings significantly reduced the degradation rate of AZ31 alloy. • The CDHA coated AZ31 alloy showed good bioactivity and biocompatibility in vitro. • The microwave assisted coating process can be used as rapid surface modification for bioimplants

  8. Rapid coating of AZ31 magnesium alloy with calcium deficient hydroxyapatite using microwave energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Yufu, E-mail: Yufu.Ren@rockets.utoledo.edu [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Zhou, Huan [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Health Sciences, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu (China); Nabiyouni, Maryam [Department of Bioengineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Bhaduri, Sarit B. [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Division of Dentistry, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Due to their unique biodegradability, magnesium alloys have been recognized as suitable metallic implant materials for degradable bone implants and bioresorbable cardiovascular stents. However, the extremely high degradation rate of magnesium alloys in physiological environment has restricted its practical application. This paper reports the use of a novel microwave assisted coating technology to improve the in vitro corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of Mg alloy AZ31. Results indicate that a dense calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) layer was uniformly coated on a AZ31 substrate in less than 10 min. Weight loss measurement and SEM were used to evaluate corrosion behaviors in vitro of coated samples and of non-coated samples. It was seen that CDHA coatings remarkably reduced the mass loss of AZ31 alloy after 7 days of immersion in SBF. In addition, the prompt precipitation of bone-like apatite layer on the sample surface during immersion demonstrated a good bioactivity of the CDHA coatings. Proliferation of osteoblast cells was promoted in 5 days of incubation, which indicated that the CDHA coatings could improve the cytocompatibility of the AZ31 alloy. All the results suggest that the CDHA coatings, serving as a protective layer, can enhance the corrosion resistance and biological response of magnesium alloys. Furthermore, this microwave assisted coating technology could be a promising method for rapid surface modification of biomedical materials. - Highlights: • A microwave assisted coating process for biodegradable Mg alloy. • CDHA coatings were successfully developed on AZ31 alloy in minutes. • The as-deposited CDHA coatings significantly reduced the degradation rate of AZ31 alloy. • The CDHA coated AZ31 alloy showed good bioactivity and biocompatibility in vitro. • The microwave assisted coating process can be used as rapid surface modification for bioimplants.

  9. Influence of Cobalt on the Properties of Load-Sensitive Magnesium Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Kerber

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, magnesium is alloyed with varying amounts of the ferromagnetic alloying element cobalt in order to obtain lightweight load-sensitive materials with sensory properties which allow an online-monitoring of mechanical forces applied to components made from Mg-Co alloys. An optimized casting process with the use of extruded Mg-Co powder rods is utilized which enables the production of magnetic magnesium alloys with a reproducible Co concentration. The efficiency of the casting process is confirmed by SEM analyses. Microstructures and Co-rich precipitations of various Mg-Co alloys are investigated by means of EDS and XRD analyses. The Mg-Co alloys’ mechanical strengths are determined by tensile tests. Magnetic properties of the Mg-Co sensor alloys depending on the cobalt content and the acting mechanical load are measured utilizing the harmonic analysis of eddy-current signals. Within the scope of this work, the influence of the element cobalt on magnesium is investigated in detail and an optimal cobalt concentration is defined based on the performed examinations.

  10. Influence of aggressive ions on the degradation behavior of biomedical magnesium alloy in physiological environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Yunchang; Huo, Kaifu; Tao, Hu; Tang, Guoyi; Chu, Paul K

    2008-11-01

    Various electrochemical approaches, including potentiodynamic polarization, open circuit potential evolution and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), are employed to investigate the degradation behavior of biomedical magnesium alloy under the influence of aggressive ions, such as chloride, phosphate, carbonate and sulfate, in a physiological environment. The synergetic effects and mutual influence of these ions on the degradation behavior of Mg are revealed. Our results demonstrate that chloride ions can induce porous pitting corrosion. In the presence of phosphates, the corrosion rate decreases and the formation of pitting corrosion is significantly delayed due to precipitation of magnesium phosphate. Hydrogen carbonate ions are observed to stimulate the corrosion of magnesium alloy during the early immersion stage but they can also induce rapid passivation on the surface. This surface passivation behavior mainly results from the fast precipitation of magnesium carbonate in the corrosion product layer that can subsequently inhibit pitting corrosion completely. Sulfate ions are also found to stimulate magnesium dissolution. These results improve our understanding on the degradation mechanism of surgical magnesium in the physiological environment.

  11. Plate-shaped transformation products in zirconium-base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, S.; Dey, G.K.; Srivastava, D.

    1997-01-01

    Plate-shaped products resulting from martensitic, diffusional, and mixed mode transformations in zirconium-base alloys are compared in the present study. These alloys are particularly suitable for the comparison in view of the fact that the lattice correspondence between the parent β (bcc) and the product α (hcp) or γ-hydride (fct) phases are remarkably similar for different types of transformations. Crystallographic features such as orientation relations, habit planes, and interface structures associated with these transformations have been compared, with a view toward examining whether the transformation mechanisms have characteristic imprints on these experimental observables

  12. Tribological Behaviors of Graphene and Graphene Oxide as Water-Based Lubricant Additives for Magnesium Alloy/Steel Contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Xie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The tribological behaviors of graphene and graphene oxide (GO as water-based lubricant additives were evaluated by use of a reciprocating ball-on-plate tribometer for magnesium alloy-steel contacts. Three sets of test conditions were examined to investigate the effect of concentration, the capacity of carrying load and the endurance of the lubrication film, respectively. The results showed that the tribological behaviors of water can be improved by adding the appropriate graphene or GO. Compared with pure deionized water, 0.5 wt.% graphene nanofluids can offer reduction of friction coefficient by 21.9% and reduction of wear rate by 13.5%. Meanwhile, 0.5 wt.% GO nanofluids were found to reduce the friction coefficient and wear rate up to 77.5% and 90%, respectively. Besides this, the positive effect of the GO nanofluids was also more pronounced in terms of the load-carrying capacity and the lubrication film endurance. The wear mechanisms have been tentatively proposed according to the observation of the worn surfaces by field emission scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive spectrometer (FESEM-EDS and Raman spectrum as well as the wettability of the nanofluids on the magnesium alloy surface by goniometer.

  13. Tribological Behaviors of Graphene and Graphene Oxide as Water-Based Lubricant Additives for Magnesium Alloy/Steel Contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hongmei; Jiang, Bin; Dai, Jiahong; Peng, Cheng; Li, Chunxia; Li, Quan; Pan, Fusheng

    2018-01-29

    The tribological behaviors of graphene and graphene oxide (GO) as water-based lubricant additives were evaluated by use of a reciprocating ball-on-plate tribometer for magnesium alloy-steel contacts. Three sets of test conditions were examined to investigate the effect of concentration, the capacity of carrying load and the endurance of the lubrication film, respectively. The results showed that the tribological behaviors of water can be improved by adding the appropriate graphene or GO. Compared with pure deionized water, 0.5 wt.% graphene nanofluids can offer reduction of friction coefficient by 21.9% and reduction of wear rate by 13.5%. Meanwhile, 0.5 wt.% GO nanofluids were found to reduce the friction coefficient and wear rate up to 77.5% and 90%, respectively. Besides this, the positive effect of the GO nanofluids was also more pronounced in terms of the load-carrying capacity and the lubrication film endurance. The wear mechanisms have been tentatively proposed according to the observation of the worn surfaces by field emission scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive spectrometer (FESEM-EDS) and Raman spectrum as well as the wettability of the nanofluids on the magnesium alloy surface by goniometer.

  14. A two-step superplastic forging forming of semi-continuously cast AZ70 magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A two-step technology combined forging with superplastic forming has been developed to enhance the forgeability of semi-continuously cast AZ70 magnesium alloy and realize the application of the as-cast magnesium alloy in large deformation bullet shell. In the first step, fine-grained microstructure preforms that are suitable for superplastic forming were obtained by reasonably designing the size of the initial blanks with the specific height-to-diameter ratio, upsetting the blanks and subsequent annealing. In the second step, the heat treated preforms were forged into the end products at the superplastic conditions. The end products exhibit high quality surface and satisfied microstructure. Consequently, this forming technology that not only avoids complicating the material preparation but also utilizes higher strain rate superplastic provides a near net-shaped novel method on magnesium forging forming technology using as-cast billet.

  15. A novel simple strategy for in situ deposition of apatite layer on AZ31B magnesium alloy for bone tissue regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousa, Hamouda M. [Department of Bionanosystem Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Engineering Materials and Mechanical Design, Faculty of Engineering, South Valley University, Qena 83523 (Egypt); Lee, Do Hee [Department of Bionanosystem Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chan Hee, E-mail: biochan@jbnu.ac.kr [Department of Bionanosystem Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Division of Mechanical Design Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Cheol Sang, E-mail: chskim@jbnu.ac.kr [Department of Bionanosystem Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Division of Mechanical Design Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Anodizing process was used for the surface modification of AZ31B magnesium alloy. • An appetite-like film was deposited on the surface of AZ31B magnesium alloy. • Ceramic film was investigated by XRD and XPS. • Nano-plates growth are observed though the implemented experimental design. • Significant increase in the substrate hardness and surface roughness was observed. - Abstract: In this study, for the first time, the degradation performance of AZ31B Mg alloy was tuned by an in situ deposition of apatite thin layer within a short time in one step. Using Taguchi method for experimental design, anodization process was designed under control conditions (time and voltage), and simulated body fluid (SBF) was used as the electrolyte to nucleate apatite-like compounds. The coated alloy was characterized through field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), EDS, X-ray diffraction and XPS analysis. The results show that the applied voltage has a significant effect on the formation of apatite-like layers. Compared to the uncoated samples, microhardness and surface roughness of the coated samples showed remarkably different values. The potentiodynamic polarization results demonstrate that the polarization resistance of the anodized samples is higher than the substrate polarization resistance, thus improving the alloy corrosion resistant. Based on the experimental results, the proposed nanostructure apatite-like coating can offer a promising way to improve the biocompatibility and degradability properties of the Mg alloy for bone tissue regeneration.

  16. Modeling of microstructure evolution of magnesium alloy during the high pressure die casting process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Mengwu; Xiong Shoumei

    2012-01-01

    Two important microstructure characteristics of high pressure die cast magnesium alloy are the externally solidified crystals (ESCs) and the fully divorced eutectic which form at the filling stage of the shot sleeve and at the last stage of solidification in the die cavity, respectively. Both of them have a significant influence on the mechanical properties and performance of magnesium alloy die castings. In the present paper, a numerical model based on the cellular automaton (CA) method was developed to simulate the microstructure evolution of magnesium alloy during cold-chamber high pressure die casting (HPDC) process. Modeling of dendritic growth of magnesium alloy with six-fold symmetry was achieved by defining a special neighbourhood configuration and calculating of the growth kinetics from complete solution of the transport equations. Special attention was paid to establish a nucleation model considering both of the nucleation of externally solidified crystals in the shot sleeve and the massive nucleation in the die cavity. Meanwhile, simulation of the formation of fully divorced eutectic was also taken into account in the present CA model. Validation was performed and the capability of the present model was addressed by comparing the simulated results with those obtained by experiments.

  17. Volta potential of second phase particles in extruded AZ80 magnesium alloy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andreatta, F.; Apachitei, I.; Kodentsov, A.; Dzwonczyk, J.; Duszcyk, J.

    2006-01-01

    Magnesium alloys show strong susceptibility to localized corrosion when immersed in aggressive solutions (e.g. chlorides). The existence of second phase particles in the microstructure might represent initiation sites for localized corrosion. This is due to the formation of galvanic couples between

  18. Fault-tolerant epoxy-silane coating for corrosion protection of magnesium alloy AZ31

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamaka, S.V.; Xue, H.B.; Meis, N.N.A.H.; Esteves, A.C.C.; Ferreira, M.G.S.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a hybrid epoxy-silane coating was developed for corrosion protection of magnesium alloy AZ31. The average thickness of the film produced by dip-coating procedure was 14 µm. The adhesion strength of the epoxy-silane coating to the Mg substrate was evaluated by pull-off tests and was

  19. Corrosion resistance of plasma-anodized AZ91D magnesium alloy by electrochemical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barchiche, C.-E.; Rocca, E.; Juers, C.; Hazan, J.; Steinmetz, J.

    2007-01-01

    Anodic coatings formed on magnesium alloys by plasma anodization process are mainly used as protective coatings against corrosion. The effects of KOH concentration, anodization time and current density on properties of anodic layers formed on AZ91D magnesium alloy were investigated to obtain coatings with improved corrosion behaviour. The coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron dispersion X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The film is porous and cracked, mainly composed of magnesium oxide (MgO), but contains all the elements present in the electrolyte and alloy. The corrosion behaviour of anodized Mg alloy was examined by using stationary and dynamic electrochemical techniques in corrosive water. The best corrosion resistance measured by electrochemical methods is obtained in the more concentrated electrolyte 3 M KOH + 0.5 M KF + 0.25 M Na 3 PO 4 .12 H 2 O, with a long anodization time and a low current density. A double electrochemical effects of the anodized layer on the magnesium corrosion is observed: a large inhibition of the cathodic process and a stabilization of a large passivation plateau

  20. Laser cladding of Zr-based coating on AZ91D magnesium alloy for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    based coating made of Zr powder was fabricated on AZ91D magnesium alloy by laser cladding. The microstructure of the coating was characterized by XRD, SEM and TEM techniques. The wear resistance of the coating was evaluated under dry ...

  1. Distinguishing between slip and twinning events during nanoindentation of magnesium alloy AZ31

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Guo, T.; Šiška, Filip; Barnett, M.R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 110, JAN (2016), s. 10-13 ISSN 1359-6462 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0197 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Magnesium alloy * Nanoindentation * AFM * CPFEM Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 3.747, year: 2016

  2. Laser cladding of Zr-based coating on AZ91D magnesium alloy for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3Hubei Key Laboratory of Hydroelectric Machinery Design & Maintenance, ... To improve the wear and corrosion resistance of AZ91D magnesium alloy, Zr-based coating made of ... process that lead to inflammatory cascades which reduce bio- ... tions regarding their application as protective films on load- ... Experimental.

  3. Fatigue properties of magnesium alloy AZ91 processed by severe plastic deformation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fintová, Stanislava; Kunz, Ludvík

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 42, FEB (2015), s. 219-228 ISSN 1751-6161 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/10/2001 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : AZ91 magnesium alloy * ECAP * Fatigue * Crack initiation Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 2.876, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1751616114003713

  4. Study on Thermal Conductivity of Personal Computer Aluminum-Magnesium Alloy Casing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, MeiHong

    With the rapid development of computer technology, micro-state atoms by simulating the movement of material to analyze the nature of the macro-state have become an important subject. Materials, especially aluminium-magnesium alloy materials, often used in personal computer case, this article puts forward heat conduction model of the material, and numerical methods of heat transfer performance of the material.

  5. Hot forging of roll-cast high aluminum content magnesium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, Tomohiro; Watari, Hisaki; Suzuki, Mayumi; Haga, Toshio

    2017-10-01

    This paper reports on hot forging of high aluminum content magnesium alloy sheets manufactured using horizontal twin-roll casting. AZ111 and AZ131 were applied for twin-roll casting, and a hot-forging test was performed to manufacture high-strength magnesium alloy components economically. For twin-roll casting, the casting conditions of a thick sheet for hot forging were investigated. It was found that twin-roll casting of a 10mm-thick magnesium alloy sheet was possible at a roll speed of 2.5m/min. The grain size of the cast strip was 50 to 70µm. In the hot-forging test, blank material was obtained from as-cast strip. A servo press machine with a servo die cushion was used to investigate appropriate forging conditions (e.g., temperature, forging load, and back pressure) for twin-roll casts (TRCs) AZ111 and AZ131. It was determined that high aluminum content magnesium alloy sheets manufactured using twin-roll casting could be forged with a forging load of 150t and a back pressure of 3t at 420 to 430°C. Applying back pressure during hot forging effectively forged a pin-shaped product.

  6. Comparison of Electrochemical Methods for the Evaluation of Cast AZ91 Magnesium Alloy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tkacz, J.; Minda, J.; Fintová, Stanislava; Wasserbauer, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 11 (2016), č. článku 925. ISSN 1996-1944 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : AZ91 magnesium alloy * cathodic polarization curve * anodic polarization curve * linear polarization curve Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 2.654, year: 2016 http://www.mdpi.com/1996-1944/9/11/925

  7. Tempering effect on corrosion performance of magnesium alloys for biomedical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Ferrari, G.M.; Erinc, M.; Sillekens, W.H.

    2010-01-01

    The corrosion resistances for magnesium alloys AZ80, AE82 and ZM21 treated at 200 and 330°C for 2 hours, and for AZ80 and AE82 at 415°C for 8 hours were investigated using potentiodynamic polarization measurements in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution at 37°C. The morphology and the Volta potential

  8. The ignition of magnesium and magnox alloys. A review of data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, R.J.

    1987-07-01

    Available data on the ignition temperatures of magnesium and the Magnox alloys of interest in CEGB Magnox reactor operations have been reviewed. Two basic ignition modes, instantaneous where a continuing and high rate of temperature rise is applied to the metal and delayed where the metal is held at a predetermined ambient temperature until ignition occurs, are identified. (author)

  9. Nucleation and growth of fatigue cracks in magnesium alloys of different structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinberg, N.M.; Serdyuk, V.A.; Malinkina, T.I.; Kamyshkov, A.S.

    1982-01-01

    Duration of the fatigue crack nucleation and growth rate have been in a wide range of stress intensity factor variations for MA2-1, MA2-1 hp (higher purity), MA12, (T2, T6 and T8), MA15, IMB6, MA21 magnesium alloys of different composition and structural state. The threshold and criti- cal values of stress intensity factors, Ksub(th) and Ksub(fc) are determined for those alloys, and morphology of fracture is studied at different stages of crack growth. Duration of the nucleation stage of a fatigue crack, the rate and micromechanisms of its growth are found to depedend on alloying and structural state of magnesium alloys. The best crack resistance characteristics has the MA2-1 alloy, the poorest - MA12 (T2) alloy. It is stated that thermal treatment by hardening and ageing increases the resistance of the MA12 alloy to fatigue fracture and the MA2-1 alloy of higher purity gives poorer parameters of crack resistance [ru

  10. High-strength wrought magnesium alloy with dense nano-scale spherical precipitate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU WenBin; CHEN ZhiQian; CHENG NanPu; GAN BingTai; HE Hong; LI XueLian; HU JinZhu

    2007-01-01

    This paper reported the influences of Yb addition on the precipitate and mechanical properties of wrought magnesium alloy ZK60. The ingots of ZK60-1.78Yb (wt%,0.26 at%) alloys were cast using permanent mould and extruded at 370℃. By means of TEM and HRTEM,it was observed that Yb affected the precipitate and precipitation of ZK60-1.78Yb alloys significantly. Dynamic precipitation occurred in the as-extruded alloy and spherical nano-scale precipitate with high density and homogeneity exhibited in the aged alloys. The precipitate particles were about 5-20 nm in diameter,10-30 nm in average space length. The tensile test results showed that the ZK60-1.78Yb alloy had excellent precipitation strengthening response with the maximum tensile strength 417.5 MPa at ambient temperature.

  11. High-Throughput Study of Diffusion and Phase Transformation Kinetics of Magnesium-Based Systems for Automotive Cast Magnesium Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Alan A [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Zhao, Ji-Cheng [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Riggi, Adrienne [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Joost, William [US Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2017-10-02

    The objective of the proposed study is to establish a scientific foundation on kinetic modeling of diffusion, phase precipitation, and casting/solidification, in order to accelerate the design and optimization of cast magnesium (Mg) alloys for weight reduction of U.S. automotive fleet. The team has performed the following tasks: 1) study diffusion kinetics of various Mg-containing binary systems using high-throughput diffusion multiples to establish reliable diffusivity and mobility databases for the Mg-aluminum (Al)-zinc (Zn)-tin (Sn)-calcium (Ca)-strontium (Sr)-manganese (Mn) systems; 2) study the precipitation kinetics (nucleation, growth and coarsening) using both innovative dual-anneal diffusion multiples and cast model alloys to provide large amounts of kinetic data (including interfacial energy) and microstructure atlases to enable implementation of the Kampmann-Wagner numerical model to simulate phase transformation kinetics of non-spherical/non-cuboidal precipitates in Mg alloys; 3) implement a micromodel to take into account back diffusion in the solid phase in order to predict microstructure and microsegregation in multicomponent Mg alloys during dendritic solidification especially under high pressure die-casting (HPDC) conditions; and, 4) widely disseminate the data, knowledge and information using the Materials Genome Initiative infrastructure (http://www.mgidata.org) as well as publications and digital data sharing to enable researchers to identify new pathways/routes to better cast Mg alloys.

  12. Study of fatigue crack propagation in magnesium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarema, S.Ya.; Zinyuk, O.D.; Ostash, O.P.; Kudryashov, V.G.; Elkin, F.M.

    1981-01-01

    Fatigue crack propagation in standard (MA2-1, MA8) and super light (MA21, MA18) alloys has been investigated in the whole range of load amplitude changes-from threshold to critical; the materials have been compared by cyclic crack resistance, fractographic analysis has been made. It is shown that MA2-1 alloy crack resistance is slightly lower than the resistance of the other three alloys. MA8 and MA21 alloys having similar mechanical properties almost do not differ in cyclic crack resistance as well. MA18 alloy has the highest resistance to fatigue crack propagation in the whole range of Ksub(max) changes. The presented results on cyclic crack resistance of MA21 and MA18 alloys agree with the data on statistic fracture toughness. The fractures have been also investigated using a scanning electron microscope. Fracture microrelieves of MA8 and MA21 alloys are very similar. At low crack propagation rates (v - 7 m/cycle) it develops through grains, in MA2-1 alloy fracture intergrain fracture areas can be observed. In MA8 and MA21 alloy fractures groove covered areas can be seen alonside with areas of slipping plane laminatron; their specific weight increases with #betta# decrease. Lower crack propagation rates and higher values of threshold stress intensity factors for MA8 and MA21 alloys than for MA2-1 alloy are caused by the absence of intergrain fracture

  13. Effect of Iron Impurity on the Phase Composition, Structure and Properties of Magnesium Alloys Containing Manganese and Aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, E. F.

    2017-07-01

    Results of a study of the interaction between iron impurity and manganese and aluminum alloying elements during formation of phase composition in alloys of the Mg - Mn, Mg - Al, Mg - Al - Mn, and Mg - Al - Zn - Mn systems are presented. It is proved that this interaction results in introduction of Fe into the intermetallic phase. The phase compositions of model magnesium alloys and commercial alloys MA2-1 and MA5 are studied. It is shown that both manganese and aluminum may bind the iron impurity into phases. Composite Fe-containing intermetallic phases of different compositions influence differently the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys.

  14. Biomimetic hydrophobic surface fabricated by chemical etching method from hierarchically structured magnesium alloy substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yan; Yin, Xiaoming; Zhang, Jijia [Key Laboratory of Bionic Engineering (Ministry of Education), Jilin University, Changchun 130022 (China); Wang, Yaming [Institute for Advanced Ceramics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Han, Zhiwu, E-mail: zwhan@jlu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Bionic Engineering (Ministry of Education), Jilin University, Changchun 130022 (China); Ren, Luquan [Key Laboratory of Bionic Engineering (Ministry of Education), Jilin University, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2013-09-01

    As one of the lightest metal materials, magnesium alloy plays an important role in industry such as automobile, airplane and electronic product. However, magnesium alloy is hindered due to its high chemical activity and easily corroded. Here, inspired by typical plant surfaces such as lotus leaves and petals of red rose with super-hydrophobic character, the new hydrophobic surface is fabricated on magnesium alloy to improve anti-corrosion by two-step methodology. The procedure is that the samples are processed by laser first and then immersed and etched in the aqueous AgNO{sub 3} solution concentrations of 0.1 mol/L, 0.3 mol/L and 0.5 mol/L for different times of 15 s, 40 s and 60 s, respectively, finally modified by DTS (CH{sub 3}(CH{sub 2}){sub 11}Si(OCH{sub 3}){sub 3}). The microstructure, chemical composition, wettability and anti-corrosion are characterized by means of SEM, XPS, water contact angle measurement and electrochemical method. The hydrophobic surfaces with microscale crater-like and nanoscale flower-like binary structure are obtained. The low-energy material is contained in surface after DTS treatment. The contact angles could reach up to 138.4 ± 2°, which hydrophobic property is both related to the micro–nano binary structure and chemical composition. The results of electrochemical measurements show that anti-corrosion property of magnesium alloy is improved. Furthermore, our research is expected to create some ideas from natural enlightenment to improve anti-corrosion property of magnesium alloy while this method can be easily extended to other metal materials.

  15. Carbon fiber reinforced magnesium alloy in a Ti-6Al-4V shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astanin Vasily

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous carbon fiber reinforced magnesium alloy pieces in SMC Ti-6Al-4V shell have been fabricated using pressure infiltration. Similar temperatures (~700°C for superplastic formation of the shell and melting of the alloy allow this to be done in one step. The quality of infiltration of the molten alloys is found to be proportional to load. A limiting parameter in increasing the infiltration pressure is the strength of the welded bonds. Structure, fracture parameters and mechanical properties are discussed.

  16. About some corrosion mechanisms of AZ91D magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballerini, Gaia; Bardi, Ugo; Bignucolo, Roberto; Ceraolo, Giuseppe

    2005-01-01

    The present work is dedicated to a study of the corrosion resistance of AZ91D (91% Mg) alloy in wet environments. Three industrial alloys obtained by die-casting or sand casting were subjected to salt spray corrosion tests (ASTM-B117 standard) and immersion tests. Weight loss kinetic curves were measured. Surface analysis was performed by X-ray photoelectron diffraction (XPS). After corrosion the sand cast alloy presents a surface mainly enriched in hydroxides and carbonates while the die-cast alloy presents a surface enriched also in mixed Mg-Al oxides. The quantitative analysis of the rate Mg/Al shows an enrichment in aluminium for the die-cast alloys in comparison to the sand cast alloy

  17. Research activities of biomedical magnesium alloys in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yufeng; Gu, Xuenan

    2011-04-01

    The potential application of Mg alloys as bioabsorable/biodegradable implants have attracted much recent attention in China. Advances in the design and biocompatibility evaluation of bio-Mg alloys in China are reviewed in this paper. Bio-Mg alloys have been developed by alloying with the trace elements existing in human body, such as Mg-Ca, Mg-Zn and Mg-Si based systems. Additionally, novel structured Mg alloys such as porous, composited, nanocrystalline and bulk metallic glass alloys were tried. To control the biocorrosion rate of bio-Mg implant to match the self-healing/regeneration rate of the surrounding tissue in vivo, surface modification layers were coated with physical and chemical methods.

  18. Improving the Corrosion Resistance of Biodegradable Magnesium Alloys by Diffusion Coating Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Galit Katarivas; Aghion, Eli

    Magnesium alloys suffer from accelerated corrosion in physiological environment and hence their use as a structural material for biodegradable implants is limited. The present study focuses on a diffusion coating treatment that amplifies the beneficial effect of Neodymium on the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys. The diffusion coating layer was obtained by applying 1 µm Nd coating on EW10X04 magnesium alloy using Electron-gun evaporator and PVD process. The coated alloy was heat treated at 350°C for 3 hours in a protective atmosphere of N2+0.2%SF6. The micro structure characteristics were evaluated by SEM, XRD, and XPS; the corrosion resistance was examined by potentiodynamic polarization and EIS analysis. The corrosion resistance of the diffusion coated alloy was significantly improved compared to the uncoated material. This was related to: (i) formation of Nd2O3 in the outer scale, (ii) integration of Nd in the MgO oxide layer, and (iii) formation of secondary phase Mg41Nd5 along the grain boundaries of α-Mg.

  19. Microstructural development of diffusion-brazed austenitic stainless steel to magnesium alloy using a nickel interlayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elthalabawy, Waled M.; Khan, Tahir I.

    2010-01-01

    The differences in physical and metallurgical properties of stainless steels and magnesium alloys make them difficult to join using conventional fusion welding processes. Therefore, the diffusion brazing of 316L steel to magnesium alloy (AZ31) was performed using a double stage bonding process. To join these dissimilar alloys, the solid-state diffusion bonding of 316L steel to a Ni interlayer was carried out at 900 deg. C followed by diffusion brazing to AZ31 at 510 deg. C. Metallographic and compositional analyses show that a metallurgical bond was achieved with a shear strength of 54 MPa. However, during the diffusion brazing stage B 2 intermetallic compounds form within the joint and these intermetallics are pushed ahead of the solid/liquid interface during isothermal solidification of the joint. These intermetallics had a detrimental effect on joint strengths when the joint was held at the diffusion brazing temperature for longer than 20 min.

  20. Factors Influencing Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation(PEO) Coatings on Magnesium Alloys: A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Gunchoo [KISTI ReSEAT Program, Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    Magnesium alloys, which possess excellent specific strength and castability, are highly susceptible to corrosion. Although anodizing is widely used to resolve this problem, it requires toxic electrolytes and produces relatively thin and weak surface coatings. Recently, plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) has emerged as an alternative to anodizing. Although it is derived from conventional anodizing, it uses eco-friendly electrolytes and forms thicker, denser, and harder coatings on the surface of magnesium alloys. However, PEO is a complex process involving physical, chemical, and electrochemical reactions, and it is influenced by various factors such as the alloy substrate composition, electrolyte/additive composition, and the electrical variables including the mode of power supply, applied voltage/current density, frequency, and duty cycle. In this article, the detailed effects of these parameters on the microstructure and properties of the PEO coatings are reviewed, and methods of improving the coatings are proposed.

  1. An integrated approach to model strain localization bands in magnesium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxevanakis, K. P.; Mo, C.; Cabal, M.; Kontsos, A.

    2018-02-01

    Strain localization bands (SLBs) that appear at early stages of deformation of magnesium alloys have been recently associated with heterogeneous activation of deformation twinning. Experimental evidence has demonstrated that such "Lüders-type" band formations dominate the overall mechanical behavior of these alloys resulting in sigmoidal type stress-strain curves with a distinct plateau followed by pronounced anisotropic hardening. To evaluate the role of SLB formation on the local and global mechanical behavior of magnesium alloys, an integrated experimental/computational approach is presented. The computational part is developed based on custom subroutines implemented in a finite element method that combine a plasticity model with a stiffness degradation approach. Specific inputs from the characterization and testing measurements to the computational approach are discussed while the numerical results are validated against such available experimental information, confirming the existence of load drops and the intensification of strain accumulation at the time of SLB initiation.

  2. Study on microstructure and strengthening mechanism of AZ91-Y magnesium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Huisheng; Guo, Feng; Su, Juan; Liu, Liang; Chen, Baodong

    2018-03-01

    AZ91-Y magnesium alloy with different thicknesses were prepared by die casting process. The main existence forms of Y in alloy and the effects of Y on microstructure and mechanical properties of alloy were studied, the main reason for the change of mechanical properties and fracture mechanism were analyzed. The results show that, yttrium exists mainly in the forms of Al2Y phase and trace solid solution in α-Mg. Yttrium can refine the grain of α-Mg, reduce the amount of eutectic β-Mg17Al12 phase and promote its discrete distribution. The room temperature tensile strength and elongation of alloy increased first and then decreased with the increase of Y content. The designed alloys containing 0.6% Y (measured containing 0.63% Y) have better mechanical properties. The change of mechanical properties of alloy is a comprehensive reflection of the effect of solid solution, grain refinement and second phase. The cracking of Al2Y phase and β-Mg17Al12 phase and crack propagation through Al2Y phase and β-Mg17Al12 phase are the main fracture mechanism of magnesium alloy containing yttrium. The cooling rate does not change the trend of the influence of Y, but affects the degree of influence of Y.

  3. Microstructure and Mechanical Property of Aluminum Alloy Plate AA 7055

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Junzhou

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Through-thickness microstructure and mechanical property of AA 7055-T7751 aluminum alloy plate were investigated by using electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD, transmission electron microscope (TEM and small angle X-ray scattering(SAXS. The results indicate an inhomogeneous distribution of microstructure through the thickness. The degree of recrystallization decreases gradually from 69% to 19.1%, as deepening from the surface to the center of the plate. The size of subgrains decreases from 10 μm at the surface to around 2 μm at the center. Strong texture of rolling type is observed near the center but the intensity decreases gradually as nearing the surface and the shear texture becomes the dominant. High density of plate-like η' phases are observed in the alloy, indicating the sufficient precipitation. η' precipitates of this condition are around 3.7 nm in radius, 1-3 nm in thickness and are found coherent with the Al matrix with a coherent strain of 0.0133, showing a strong strengthening effect. The heterogeneity in grain scale does not influence the distribution and the morphology of precipitates. The yield strength (L direction varies linearly along the thickness direction of the plate, fitting an equation of σy=-38.7S+604.8 (0≤S≤1. The variation of yield strength is related to the heterogeneity of grain structure.

  4. Influence of the microstructural changes and induced residual stresses on tensile properties of wrought magnesium alloy friction stir welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commin, Loreleï; Dumont, Myriam; Rotinat, René; Pierron, Fabrice; Masse, Jean-Eric; Barrallier, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Study of AZ31 FSW mechanical behaviour. ► Early yielding occurs in the TMAZ, the nugget and base metal zones undergo almost no plastic strains. ► Texture gradient in the TMAZ localises the deformations in this area. ► Residual stresses have a major influence in FSW mechanical behaviour. - Abstract: Friction stir welding induces a microstructural evolution and residual stresses that will influence the resulting mechanical properties. Friction stir welds produced from magnesium alloy hot rolled plates were studied. Electron back scattered diffraction was used to determine the texture evolution, residual stresses were analysed using X ray diffraction and tensile tests coupled with speckle interferometry were performed. The residual stresses induced during friction stir welding present a major influence on the final mechanical properties.

  5. Magnesium–Gold Alloy Formation by Underpotential Deposition of Magnesium onto Gold from Nitrate Melts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna S. Cvetković

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium underpotential deposition on gold electrodes from magnesium nitrate –ammonium nitrate melts has been investigated. Linear sweep voltammetry and potential step were used as electrochemical techniques. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS and X-ray diffraction (XRD were used for characterization of obtained electrode surfaces. It was observed that reduction processes of nitrate, nitrite and traces of water (when present, in the Mg underpotential range studied, proceeded simultaneously with magnesium underpotential deposition. There was no clear evidence of Mg/Au alloy formation induced by Mg UPD from the melt made from eutectic mixture [Mg(NO32·6H2O + NH4NO3·XH2O]. However, EDS and XRD analysis showed magnesium present in the gold substrate and four different Mg/Au alloys being formed as a result of magnesium underpotential deposition and interdiffusion between Mg deposit and Au substrate from the melt made of a nonaqueous [Mg(NO32 + NH4NO3] eutectic mixture at 460 K.

  6. The forming process of magnesium alloy for Japanese home electric components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takara, A. [Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Kadoma, Osaka (Japan); Higashi, K. [Osaka Prefecture Univ., Sakai, Osaka (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    Magnesium alloys have replaced resins as a material for the components of electronic products such as cell phone and notebook personal computer mainly, because of their lightness and rigidity. Thin walls, a complicated shape, and high appearance quality are all needed in the external parts. Die-casting and injection molding are the main method of manufacturing magnesium alloy parts. The optimal cast conditions and mold design have been investigated in order that a few defects such as surface cracks and mold cavities in casting parts would be reduced. Instead of cast, plastic forming technologies such as warm drawing and hot forging have been developed to form thinner walls and less defects. Plastic formability of magnesium alloy in hot working is dependent on a grain size of material. The material with fine grains has advantage of being formed at high strain rate. The characteristics of forming processes of magnesium parts for Japanese home electric appliances are compared in the viewpoint of quality, cost, and productivity. (orig.)

  7. Novel magnesium alloy Mg–2La caused no cytotoxic effects on cells in physiological conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weizbauer, Andreas, E-mail: weizbauer.andreas@mh-hannover.de [Laboratory for Biomechanics and Biomaterials, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hannover Medical School, Anna-von-Borries-Straße 1-7, 30625 Hannover (Germany); CrossBIT, Center for Biocompatibility and Implant-Immunology, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hannover Medical School, Feodor-Lynen-Str. 31, 30625 Hannover (Germany); Seitz, Jan-Marten [Institute of Materials Science, Leibniz Universität Hannover, An der Universität 2, 30823 Garbsen (Germany); Werle, Peter [ABB AG, Trafoweg 4, 06112 Halle (Germany); Hegermann, Jan [Institute of Functional and Applied Anatomy, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Straße 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany); Willbold, Elmar [Laboratory for Biomechanics and Biomaterials, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hannover Medical School, Anna-von-Borries-Straße 1-7, 30625 Hannover (Germany); CrossBIT, Center for Biocompatibility and Implant-Immunology, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hannover Medical School, Feodor-Lynen-Str. 31, 30625 Hannover (Germany); Eifler, Rainer [Institute of Materials Science, Leibniz Universität Hannover, An der Universität 2, 30823 Garbsen (Germany); Windhagen, Henning [Laboratory for Biomechanics and Biomaterials, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hannover Medical School, Anna-von-Borries-Straße 1-7, 30625 Hannover (Germany); Reifenrath, Janin [Small Animal Clinic, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Bünteweg 9, 30559 Hannover (Germany); Waizy, Hazibullah [Laboratory for Biomechanics and Biomaterials, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hannover Medical School, Anna-von-Borries-Straße 1-7, 30625 Hannover (Germany)

    2014-08-01

    Using several different in vitro assays, a new biodegradable magnesium alloy Mg–2La, composed of 98% magnesium and 2% lanthanum, was investigated as a possible implant material for biomedical applications. An in vitro cytotoxicity test, according to EN ISO 10993-5/12, with L929 and human osteoblastic cells identified no toxic effects on cell viability at physiological concentrations (at 50% dilutions and higher). The metabolic activity of human osteoblasts in the 100% extract was decreased to < 70% and was therefore rated as cytotoxic. The degradation rates of Mg–2La were evaluated in phosphate buffered saline and four different cell culture media. The degradation rates were shown to be influenced by the composition of the solution, and the addition of fetal bovine serum slightly accelerated the corrosive process. The results of these in vitro experiments suggest that Mg–2La is a promising candidate for use as an orthopedic implant material. - Highlights: • A new magnesium alloy (Mg–2La) has been developed. • Magnesium alloy Mg–2La revealed no toxic effect in physiological concentrations. • Degradation rates were influenced by the corrosion media. • The addition of fetal bovine serum increased the corrosive process slightly.

  8. Novel magnesium alloy Mg–2La caused no cytotoxic effects on cells in physiological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weizbauer, Andreas; Seitz, Jan-Marten; Werle, Peter; Hegermann, Jan; Willbold, Elmar; Eifler, Rainer; Windhagen, Henning; Reifenrath, Janin; Waizy, Hazibullah

    2014-01-01

    Using several different in vitro assays, a new biodegradable magnesium alloy Mg–2La, composed of 98% magnesium and 2% lanthanum, was investigated as a possible implant material for biomedical applications. An in vitro cytotoxicity test, according to EN ISO 10993-5/12, with L929 and human osteoblastic cells identified no toxic effects on cell viability at physiological concentrations (at 50% dilutions and higher). The metabolic activity of human osteoblasts in the 100% extract was decreased to < 70% and was therefore rated as cytotoxic. The degradation rates of Mg–2La were evaluated in phosphate buffered saline and four different cell culture media. The degradation rates were shown to be influenced by the composition of the solution, and the addition of fetal bovine serum slightly accelerated the corrosive process. The results of these in vitro experiments suggest that Mg–2La is a promising candidate for use as an orthopedic implant material. - Highlights: • A new magnesium alloy (Mg–2La) has been developed. • Magnesium alloy Mg–2La revealed no toxic effect in physiological concentrations. • Degradation rates were influenced by the corrosion media. • The addition of fetal bovine serum increased the corrosive process slightly

  9. Biodegradable magnesium alloys for orthopaedic applications: A review on corrosion, biocompatibility and surface modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Sankalp [Centre for Research in Engineering and Surface Technology, FOCAS Institute, Dublin Institute of Technology (Ireland); School of Food Science and Environmental Health, Cathal Brugha Street, Dublin Institute of Technology (Ireland); Curtin, James [School of Food Science and Environmental Health, Cathal Brugha Street, Dublin Institute of Technology (Ireland); Duffy, Brendan [Centre for Research in Engineering and Surface Technology, FOCAS Institute, Dublin Institute of Technology (Ireland); Jaiswal, Swarna, E-mail: swarna.jaiswal@dit.ie [Centre for Research in Engineering and Surface Technology, FOCAS Institute, Dublin Institute of Technology (Ireland)

    2016-11-01

    Magnesium (Mg) and its alloys have been extensively explored as potential biodegradable implant materials for orthopaedic applications (e.g. Fracture fixation). However, the rapid corrosion of Mg based alloys in physiological conditions has delayed their introduction for therapeutic applications to date. The present review focuses on corrosion, biocompatibility and surface modifications of biodegradable Mg alloys for orthopaedic applications. Initially, the corrosion behaviour of Mg alloys and the effect of alloying elements on corrosion and biocompatibility is discussed. Furthermore, the influence of polymeric deposit coatings, namely sol-gel, synthetic aliphatic polyesters and natural polymers on corrosion and biological performance of Mg and its alloy for orthopaedic applications are presented. It was found that inclusion of alloying elements such as Al, Mn, Ca, Zn and rare earth elements provides improved corrosion resistance to Mg alloys. It has been also observed that sol-gel and synthetic aliphatic polyesters based coatings exhibit improved corrosion resistance as compared to natural polymers, which has higher biocompatibility due to their biomimetic nature. It is concluded that, surface modification is a promising approach to improve the performance of Mg-based biomaterials for orthopaedic applications. - Highlights: • The Mg based alloys are promising candidates for orthopaedic applications. • The rapid corrosion of Mg can affect human cells, and causes infection and implant failure. • The various physiological factors and Mg alloying elements affect the corrosion and mechanical properties of implants. • The polymeric deposit coatings enhance the corrosion resistance and biocompatibility.

  10. Biodegradable magnesium alloys for orthopaedic applications: A review on corrosion, biocompatibility and surface modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Sankalp; Curtin, James; Duffy, Brendan; Jaiswal, Swarna

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) and its alloys have been extensively explored as potential biodegradable implant materials for orthopaedic applications (e.g. Fracture fixation). However, the rapid corrosion of Mg based alloys in physiological conditions has delayed their introduction for therapeutic applications to date. The present review focuses on corrosion, biocompatibility and surface modifications of biodegradable Mg alloys for orthopaedic applications. Initially, the corrosion behaviour of Mg alloys and the effect of alloying elements on corrosion and biocompatibility is discussed. Furthermore, the influence of polymeric deposit coatings, namely sol-gel, synthetic aliphatic polyesters and natural polymers on corrosion and biological performance of Mg and its alloy for orthopaedic applications are presented. It was found that inclusion of alloying elements such as Al, Mn, Ca, Zn and rare earth elements provides improved corrosion resistance to Mg alloys. It has been also observed that sol-gel and synthetic aliphatic polyesters based coatings exhibit improved corrosion resistance as compared to natural polymers, which has higher biocompatibility due to their biomimetic nature. It is concluded that, surface modification is a promising approach to improve the performance of Mg-based biomaterials for orthopaedic applications. - Highlights: • The Mg based alloys are promising candidates for orthopaedic applications. • The rapid corrosion of Mg can affect human cells, and causes infection and implant failure. • The various physiological factors and Mg alloying elements affect the corrosion and mechanical properties of implants. • The polymeric deposit coatings enhance the corrosion resistance and biocompatibility.

  11. Study of magnesium bismuth alloys with a composition close to Mg3Bi2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tournier, Jean

    1964-01-01

    The author reports the study of magnesium-bismuth alloys with a high bismuth content. These alloys were aimed to be irradiated in a pile at a temperature of about 300 C, and thus had specific requirements regarding their bismuth content, a high density, a high fusion point with also a pressure strength constraint. The author first reports the determination of an alloy grade which could meet these requirements, and then reports issues related to their elaboration by performing optical micrography and X ray analysis in order to investigate their homogeneity. Then, the alloy hot compression strength has been assessed under significantly higher constraining conditions. Fusion point and density have also been measured. As a fast alloy degradation has been noticed, brief corrosion tests have been performed

  12. Evaluation of magnesium alloys with alternative surface finishing for the proliferation and chondro-differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinidad, J; Arruebarrena, G; De Argandona, E Saenz; De Eguino, G Ruiz; Infante, A; RodrIguez, C I

    2010-01-01

    Articular cartilage has little capacity for self-repair. As a result, continuous mechanical stress can lead to the degradation of articular cartilage, culminating in progressive damage and joint degeneration. Tissue engineering has arisen as a promising therapeutic approach to cartilage repair. Magnesium alloys are one of the most important metallic biomaterials emerging in this area due to their biocompatibility, bio-absorbability and especially to their mechanical properties. These properties make magnesium alloys a promising biomaterial in the regeneration of cartilage tissue. Objective. This study was undertaken to analyze the influence of surface characteristics of magnesium alloys in the adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Methods. Two commercial magnesium alloys (AZ31B and ZM21) were subjected to different treatments in order to obtain four different surfaces in each alloy. Human MSCs were seeded into the magnesium alloys and analyzed for their proliferation and chondrogenesis differentiation ability. Results. Human MSCs showed a greater proliferation and chondro-differentiation when cultured in the ZM21 magnesium alloy with a surface finishing of fine sanding, polishing, and etching.

  13. Fabrication of a Delaying Biodegradable Magnesium Alloy-Based Esophageal Stent via Coating Elastic Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianwen Yuan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal stent implantation can relieve esophageal stenosis and obstructions in benign esophageal strictures, and magnesium alloy stents are a good candidate because of biodegradation and biological safety. However, biodegradable esophageal stents show a poor corrosion resistance and a quick loss of mechanical support in vivo. In this study, we chose the elastic and biodegradable mixed polymer of Poly(ε-caprolactone (PCL and poly(trimethylene carbonate (PTMC as the coated membrane on magnesium alloy stents for fabricating a fully biodegradable esophageal stent, which showed an ability to delay the degradation time and maintain mechanical performance in the long term. After 48 repeated compressions, the mechanical testing demonstrated that the PCL-PTMC-coated magnesium stents possess good flexibility and elasticity, and could provide enough support against lesion compression when used in vivo. According to the in vitro degradation evaluation, the PCL-PTMC membrane coated on magnesium was a good material combination for biodegradable stents. During the in vivo evaluation, the proliferation of the smooth muscle cells showed no signs of cell toxicity. Histological examination revealed the inflammation scores at four weeks in the magnesium-(PCL-PTMC stent group were similar to those in the control group (p > 0.05. The α-smooth muscle actin layer in the media was thinner in the magnesium-(PCL-PTMC stent group than in the control group (p < 0.05. Both the epithelial and smooth muscle cell layers were significantly thinner in the magnesium-(PCL-PTMC stent group than in the control group. The stent insertion was feasible and provided reliable support for at least four weeks, without causing severe injury or collagen deposition. Thus, this stent provides a new stent for the treatment of benign esophageal stricture and a novel research path in the development of temporary stents in other cases of benign stricture.

  14. Plastic Deformation Characteristics Of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Sheets At Elevated Temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jingee; Lee, Jongshin; You, Bongsun; Choi, Seogou; Kim, Youngsuk

    2007-01-01

    Using lightweight materials is the emerging need in order to reduce the vehicle's energy consumption and pollutant emissions. Being a lightweight material, magnesium alloys are increasingly employed in the fabrication of automotive and electronic parts. Presently, magnesium alloys used in automotive and electronic parts are mainly processed by die casting. The die casting technology allows the manufacturing of parts with complex geometry. However, the mechanical properties of these parts often do not meet the requirements concerning the mechanical properties (e.g. endurance strength and ductility). A promising alternative can be forming process. The parts manufactured by forming could have fine-grained structure without porosity and improved mechanical properties such as endurance strength and ductility. Because magnesium alloy has low formability resulted form its small slip system at room temperature it is usually formed at elevated temperature. Due to a rapid increase of usage of magnesium sheets in automotive and electronic industry it is necessary to assure database for sheet metal formability and plastic yielding properties in order to optimize its usage. Especially, plastic yielding criterion is a critical property to predict plastic deformation of sheet metal parts in optimizing process using CAE simulation. Von-Mises yield criterion generally well predicts plastic deformation of steel sheets and Hill'1979 yield criterion predicts plastic deformation of aluminum sheets. In this study, using biaxial tensile test machine yield loci of AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet were obtained at elevated temperature. The yield loci ensured experimentally were compared with the theoretical predictions based on the Von-Mises, Hill, Logan-Hosford, and Barlat model

  15. A fundamental study on the structural integrity of magnesium alloys joined by friction stir welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Harish Mangebettu

    The goal of this research is to study the factors that influence the physical and mechanical properties of lap-shear joints produced using friction stir welding. This study focuses on understanding the effect of tool geometry and weld process parameters including the tool rotation rate, tool plunge depth and dwell time on the mechanical performance of similar magnesium alloy and dissimilar magnesium to aluminum alloy weld joints. A variety of experimental activities were conducted including tensile and fatigue testing, fracture surface and failure analysis, microstructure characterization, hardness measurements and chemical composition analysis. An investigation on the effect of weld process conditions in friction stir spot welding of magnesium to magnesium produced in a manner that had a large effective sheet thickness and smaller interfacial hook height exhibited superior weld strength. Furthermore, in fatigue testing of friction stir spot welded of magnesium to magnesium alloy, lap-shear welds produced using a triangular tool pin profile exhibited better fatigue life properties compared to lap-shear welds produced using a cylindrical tool pin profile. In friction stir spot welding of dissimilar magnesium to aluminum, formation of intermetallic compounds in the stir zone of the weld had a dominant effect on the weld strength. Lap-shear dissimilar welds with good material mixture and discontinues intermetallic compounds in the stir zone exhibited superior weld strength compared to lap-shear dissimilar welds with continuous formation of intermetallic compounds in the stir zone. The weld structural geometry like the interfacial hook, hook orientation and bond width also played a major role in influencing the weld strength of the dissimilar lap-shear friction stir spot welds. A wide scatter in fatigue test results was observed in friction stir linear welds of aluminum to magnesium alloys. Different modes of failure were observed under fatigue loading including crack

  16. Magnesium alloy and graphite wastes encapsulated in cementitious materials - Experimental approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chartier, D.; Sanchez-Canet, J.; Muzeau, B.; Monguillon, C.; Stefan, L.

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium alloys (Mg-0.8%Zr and Mg-1.2%Mn) and graphite from spent nuclear fuel, that have been used in the former French gas cooled reactors, have been stored together in AREVA La Hague plant. The recovery and packaging of these wastes is currently studied and several solutions are under consideration. One of the developed solutions would be to mix these wastes in a grout composed of industrially available cement, e.g. OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement), OPC blended with blast furnace slag or aluminous cement. Within the alkaline pore solution of these matrixes, magnesium alloys are imperfectly protected by a layer of magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH) 2 , Brucite) resulting in a slow process of corrosion releasing hydrogen. As the production of this gas must be considered for the storage safety, it is important to select a cement matrix capable of lowering the corrosion kinetics of magnesium alloys. This is especially true when magnesium alloys are conditioned together with graphite wastes. Indeed, galvanic coupling phenomena may increase early age corrosion of the mixed waste, as magnesium and graphite will be found in electrical contact in the same electrolyte. Many types of common cements have been tested. All of them have shown strong hydrogen production when magnesium alloys and graphite are conditioned together into such cement pastes. Corrosion patterns, observed and analyzed by SEM/EDS, at the metal-binder interfaces, reveal important corrosion products layers as well as bubbles and cracks in the binder. Attempts to reduce corrosion by lowering water to cement ratio have been performed. W/C ratios as low as 0.2 have been tested but galvanic corrosion is not significantly reduced at early age when compared to a common ratio of 0.4. Best results were obtained by the use of laboratory synthesized tricalcium silicate (C 3 S) with an ordinary W/C ratio of 0.4 and also with white Portland clinker ground without additives such as gypsum and grinding agent. (authors)

  17. Reversible motion of twin boundaries in AZ31 alloy and new design of magnesium alloys as smart materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Molnár, Peter; Ostapovets, Andriy; Jäger, Aleš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 56, APR (2014), s. 509-516 ISSN 0261-3069 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP108/12/G043; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026; GA ČR GPP108/12/P054 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : magnesium alloy * twinning * texture * smart material Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.501, year: 2014

  18. Direct-reading spectrochemical analysis of magnesium alloys; Analisis espectroquimico de lectura directa de aleaciones de magnesio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roca Adell, M

    1964-07-01

    A Quantometer has been applied to the determination of aluminum, berylium, calcium, iron, silicon and zinc in magnesium alloys Magnox, after the conversion of the samples to the oxide. For the aluminum, whose concentration is relatively high, the conducting briquets technique with an interrupted discharge is employed, using the magnesium as the internal standard. For the other elements a total burning method with direct current arc is employed, using also the magnesium as the internal standard. (Author) 7 refs.

  19. Bio-Corrosion of Magnesium Alloys for Orthopaedic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily K. Brooks

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Three Mg alloys, Mg–1.34% Ca–3% Zn (MCZ, Mg–1.34% Ca–3% Zn–0.2% Sr (MCZS, and Mg–2% Sr (MS, were examined to understand their bio-corrosion behavior. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and polarization scans were performed after 6 days of immersion in cell culture medium, and ion release and changes in media pH were tracked over a 28 day time period. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM of alloy microstructure was performed to help interpret the results of the electrochemical testing. Results indicate that corrosion resistance of the alloys is as follows: MCZ > MCZS > MS.

  20. Bio-Corrosion of Magnesium Alloys for Orthopaedic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Emily K.; Ehrensberger, Mark T.

    2017-01-01

    Three Mg alloys, Mg–1.34% Ca–3% Zn (MCZ), Mg–1.34% Ca–3% Zn–0.2% Sr (MCZS), and Mg–2% Sr (MS), were examined to understand their bio-corrosion behavior. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and polarization scans were performed after 6 days of immersion in cell culture medium, and ion release and changes in media pH were tracked over a 28 day time period. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of alloy microstructure was performed to help interpret the results of the electrochemical testing. Results indicate that corrosion resistance of the alloys is as follows: MCZ > MCZS > MS. PMID:28862647

  1. Magnesium alloys as body implants: fracture mechanism under dynamic and static loadings in a physiological environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Lokesh; Raman, R K Singh

    2012-02-01

    It is essential that a metallic implant material possesses adequate resistance to cracking/fracture under the synergistic action of a corrosive physiological environment and mechanical loading (i.e. stress corrosion cracking (SCC)), before the implant can be put to actual use. This paper presents a critique of the fundamental issues with an assessment of SCC of a rapidly corroding material such as magnesium alloys, and describes an investigation into the mechanism of SCC of a magnesium alloy in a physiological environment. The SCC susceptibility of the alloy in a simulated human body fluid was established by slow strain rate tensile (SSRT) testing using smooth specimens under different electrochemical conditions for understanding the mechanism of SCC. However, to assess the life of the implant devices that often possess fine micro-cracks, SCC susceptibility of notched specimens was investigated by circumferential notch tensile (CNT) testing. CNT tests also produced important design data, i.e. threshold stress intensity for SCC (KISCC) and SCC crack growth rate. Fractographic features of SCC were examined using scanning electron microscopy. The SSRT and CNT results, together with fractographic evidence, confirmed the SCC susceptibility of both smooth and notched specimens of a magnesium alloy in the physiological environment. Copyright © 2011 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Magnesium-based hydrogen alloy anodes for a nickel metal hydrides secondary battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, N.; Luan, B.; Zhao, H.J.; Liu, H.K.; Dou, S.X. [Univ of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW (Australia). Centre for Superconducting and Electronic Materials

    1996-12-31

    Extensive work has been carried out in our group to try utilizing magnesium-based hydrogen storage alloys as a low cost and high performance anode materials for Ni-MH battery. It was found that the modified Mg{sub 2}Ni alloy anodes were able to be charged-discharged effectively in a KOH aqueous solution at ambient temperature. The discharge capacity and cycle have been substantially improved in four ways: (1) by partial substitution of La, Ti, V, Zr, Ca for Mg and Fe, Co, Cu, Al, Si, Y, Mn for Ni in Mg{sub 2}Ni; (2) by composite of Mg{sub 2}Ni with another hydrogen storage alloys; (3) by room-temperature surface microencapsulation and, (4) by ultrasound treatment of alloy powders. A discharge capacity of 170 mAh/g has been obtained from the modified Mg{sub 2}Ni-type alloy electrode, and the cycle life has exceeded 350 cycles. The high rate dischargeability was also significantly improved by the modification. It was concluded that magnesium-based hydrogen storage alloys would become promising anode materials for Ni- MH secondary battery with further improvement of discharge capacity and cycling performance

  3. Biodegradable Orthopedic Magnesium-Calcium (MgCa Alloys, Processing, and Corrosion Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuebin Guo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium-Calcium (Mg-Ca alloy has received considerable attention as an emerging biodegradable implant material in orthopedic fixation applications. The biodegradable Mg-Ca alloys avoid stress shielding and secondary surgery inherent with permanent metallic implant materials. They also provide sufficient mechanical strength in load carrying applications as opposed to biopolymers. However, the key issue facing a biodegradable Mg-Ca implant is the fast corrosion in the human body environment. The ability to adjust degradation rate of Mg-Ca alloys is critical for the successful development of biodegradable orthopedic implants. This paper focuses on the functions and requirements of bone implants and critical issues of current implant biomaterials. Microstructures and mechanical properties of Mg-Ca alloys, and the unique properties of novel magnesium-calcium implant materials have been reviewed. Various manufacturing techniques to process Mg-Ca based alloys have been analyzed regarding their impacts on implant performance. Corrosion performance of Mg-Ca alloys processed by different manufacturing techniques was compared. In addition, the societal and economical impacts of developing biodegradable orthopedic implants have been emphasized.

  4. New high pressure die cast magnesium alloy AM-HP2 for powertrain applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, M.A. [Queensland Univ., Brisbane (Australia). CAST CRC]|[CSIRO Manufacturing and Materials Technology, Clayton (Australia); Zhu, S.M.; Nie, J.F. [Queensland Univ., Brisbane (Australia). CAST CRC]|[Monash Univ., Monash (Australia). Dept. of Materials Engineering

    2007-07-01

    In order to improve the benefits available through weight savings on engine emissions, magnesium alloys must gain wider acceptance in transmission and engine applications. This paper provided details of a new alloy with exceptional creep properties developed for automotive powertrain applications. The AM-HP2 alloy was developed as part of a broader research program investigating the relationship between the composition, structure and properties of magnesium rare earth (Mg-RE) based alloys and high-pressure die casting (HPDC). Cylindrical test specimens of various alloys were produced on a cold chamber HPDC machine. Tensile creep tests were then conducted under a constant load at 177 degrees C for a period of 600 hours. Microstructures of specimens were characterized using a CM20 transmission electron microscope. Results of the tests indicated that near-grain boundary microstructure was an important parameter in securing optimum elevated temperature properties. The RE element had a significant effect on the creep behaviour of the HPDC Mg-RE alloys. It was concluded that further research is needed to investigate the influence of the RE mixture in improving creep performance. 15 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  5. Magnesium-based hydrogen alloy anodes for a nickel metal hydrides secondary battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, N.; Luan, B.; Zhao, H.J.; Liu, H.K.; Dou, S.X.

    1996-01-01

    Extensive work has been carried out in our group to try utilizing magnesium-based hydrogen storage alloys as a low cost and high performance anode materials for Ni-MH battery. It was found that the modified Mg 2 Ni alloy anodes were able to be charged-discharged effectively in a KOH aqueous solution at ambient temperature. The discharge capacity and cycle have been substantially improved in four ways: (1) by partial substitution of La, Ti, V, Zr, Ca for Mg and Fe, Co, Cu, Al, Si, Y, Mn for Ni in Mg 2 Ni; (2) by composite of Mg 2 Ni with another hydrogen storage alloys; (3) by room-temperature surface microencapsulation and, (4) by ultrasound treatment of alloy powders. A discharge capacity of 170 mAh/g has been obtained from the modified Mg 2 Ni-type alloy electrode, and the cycle life has exceeded 350 cycles. The high rate dischargeability was also significantly improved by the modification. It was concluded that magnesium-based hydrogen storage alloys would become promising anode materials for Ni- MH secondary battery with further improvement of discharge capacity and cycling performance

  6. Corrosion of experimental magnesium alloys in blood and PBS: A gravimetric and microscopic evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schille, Ch., E-mail: Christine.Schille@med.uni-tuebingen.de [University Hospital Tuebingen, Center for Dentistry, Oral Medicine and Maxillofacial Surgery, Section Medical Materials and Technology, Osianderstr. 2-8, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Braun, M.; Wendel, H.P. [University Hospital Tuebingen, Div. Congenital and Paediatric Cardiac Surgery, University Children' s Hospital, Tuebingen, Germany, Calwerstr. 7/1, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Scheideler, L. [University Hospital Tuebingen, Center for Dentistry, Oral Medicine and Maxillofacial Surgery, Section Medical Materials and Technology, Osianderstr. 2-8, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Hort, N. [GKSS Research Centre, Institute of Materials Research, Max-Planck-Str. 1, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Reichel, H.-P. [Weissensee Company, Buergermeister-Ebert-Str. 30-32, D-36124 Eichenzell (Germany); Schweizer, E.; Geis-Gerstorfer, J. [University Hospital Tuebingen, Center for Dentistry, Oral Medicine and Maxillofacial Surgery, Section Medical Materials and Technology, Osianderstr. 2-8, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Corrosion of eight Mg-based Biomaterials was tested in saline and human blood. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Corrosion behaviour in physiological saline and in blood was entirely different. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al and Zn had the highest influence on corrosion behaviour in both electrolytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MgAl9 and MgAl9Zn1 showed least corrosion in human whole blood. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tests in buffered corrosion media are not sufficient to predict corrosion in vivo. - Abstract: Corrosion tests for medical materials are often performed in simulated body fluids (SBF). When SBF are used for corrosion measurement, the open question is, how well they match the conditions in the human body. The aim of the study was to compare the corrosion behaviour of different experimental magnesium alloys in human whole blood and PBS{sup minus} (phosphate buffered saline w/o Ca and Mg) as a simulated body fluid by gravimetric weight measurements and microscopic evaluation. Eight different experimental magnesium alloys, containing neither Mn nor other additives, were manufactured. With these alloys, a static immersion test in PBS{sup minus} and a dynamic test using the Chandler-loop model with human whole blood over 6 h were performed. During the static immersion test, the samples were weighed every hour. During the dynamic test, the specimens were weighed before and after the 6 h incubation period in the Chandler-loop. From both tests, the total mass change was calculated for each alloy and the values were compared. Additionally, microscopic pictures from the samples were taken at the end of the test period. All alloys showed different corrosion behaviour in both tests, especially the alloys with high aluminium content, MgAl9 and MgAl9Zn1. Generally, alloys in PBS showed a weight gain due to generation of a microscopically visible corrosion layer, while in the blood test system a more or less distinct weight

  7. Corrosion of experimental magnesium alloys in blood and PBS: A gravimetric and microscopic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schille, Ch.; Braun, M.; Wendel, H.P.; Scheideler, L.; Hort, N.; Reichel, H.-P.; Schweizer, E.; Geis-Gerstorfer, J.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Corrosion of eight Mg–based Biomaterials was tested in saline and human blood. ► Corrosion behaviour in physiological saline and in blood was entirely different. ► Al and Zn had the highest influence on corrosion behaviour in both electrolytes. ► MgAl9 and MgAl9Zn1 showed least corrosion in human whole blood. ► Tests in buffered corrosion media are not sufficient to predict corrosion in vivo. - Abstract: Corrosion tests for medical materials are often performed in simulated body fluids (SBF). When SBF are used for corrosion measurement, the open question is, how well they match the conditions in the human body. The aim of the study was to compare the corrosion behaviour of different experimental magnesium alloys in human whole blood and PBS minus (phosphate buffered saline w/o Ca and Mg) as a simulated body fluid by gravimetric weight measurements and microscopic evaluation. Eight different experimental magnesium alloys, containing neither Mn nor other additives, were manufactured. With these alloys, a static immersion test in PBS minus and a dynamic test using the Chandler-loop model with human whole blood over 6 h were performed. During the static immersion test, the samples were weighed every hour. During the dynamic test, the specimens were weighed before and after the 6 h incubation period in the Chandler-loop. From both tests, the total mass change was calculated for each alloy and the values were compared. Additionally, microscopic pictures from the samples were taken at the end of the test period. All alloys showed different corrosion behaviour in both tests, especially the alloys with high aluminium content, MgAl9 and MgAl9Zn1. Generally, alloys in PBS showed a weight gain due to generation of a microscopically visible corrosion layer, while in the blood test system a more or less distinct weight loss was observed. When alloys are ranked according to corrosion susceptibility, the results differ also between the test systems. The

  8. Development of Rolling Schedules for AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Materials 2 2.2 Hot Rolling 3 2.2 Sample Characterization: Microstructure and Tensile Properties 3 3. Rolling Experiments 5 3.1 High-Temperature...material systems for protective and structural applications, especially in ground vehicles. Magnesium (Mg), due to its low density (~25% that of steel ...applications, wrought Mg is difficult to produce in thin sheets because of its inherently low ductility . As a result, Mg sheet is often produced at

  9. Magnesium alloys as bioresorbable biomaterials with drug delivery capabilities

    OpenAIRE

    JESSICA ANNE LYNDON

    2017-01-01

    Magnesium is one of the most active metals and is prone to corrosion. In construction, automotive and aerospace industries this is seen as a detrimental property. However, coupling corrosion with magnesiums’s favourable strength, weight and density a new type of temporary implants are being developed to rehabilitate damaged bone, without the need for surgery to remove the implant. Taking this concept further, this thesis uses the corrosion mechanism to deliver drugs from the implant as it is ...

  10. In vitro degradation and mechanical integrity of calcium-containing magnesium alloys in modified-simulated body fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, M Bobby; Raman, R K Singh

    2008-05-01

    The successful applications of magnesium-based alloys as degradable orthopaedic implants are mainly inhibited due to their high degradation rates in physiological environment and consequent loss in the mechanical integrity. This study examines the degradation behaviour and the mechanical integrity of calcium-containing magnesium alloys using electrochemical techniques and slow strain rate test (SSRT) method, respectively, in modified-simulated body fluid (m-SBF). Potentiodynamic polarisation and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) results showed that calcium addition enhances the general and pitting corrosion resistances of magnesium alloys significantly. The corrosion current was significantly lower in AZ91Ca alloy than that in AZ91 alloy. Furthermore, AZ91Ca alloy exhibited a five-fold increase in the surface film resistance than AZ91 alloy. The SSRT results showed that the ultimate tensile strength and elongation to fracture of AZ91Ca alloy in m-SBF decreased only marginally (approximately 15% and 20%, respectively) in comparison with these properties in air. The fracture morphologies of the failed samples are discussed in the paper. The in vitro study suggests that calcium-containing magnesium alloys to be a promising candidate for their applications in degradable orthopaedic implants, and it is worthwhile to further investigate the in vivo corrosion behaviour of these alloys.

  11. Correlation between the surface chemistry and the atmospheric corrosion of AZ31, AZ80 and AZ91D magnesium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feliu, S.; Pardo, A.; Merino, M.C.; Coy, A.E.; Viejo, F.; Arrabal, R.

    2009-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used in order to investigate the correlation between the surface chemistry and the atmospheric corrosion of AZ31, AZ80 and AZ91D magnesium alloys exposed to 98% relative humidity at 50 deg. C. Commercially pure magnesium, used as the reference material, revealed MgO, Mg(OH) 2 and tracers of magnesium carbonate in the air-formed film. For the AZ80 and AZ91D alloys, the amount of magnesium carbonate formed on the surface reached similar values to those of MgO and Mg(OH) 2 . A linear relation between the amount of magnesium carbonate formed on the surface and the subsequent corrosion behaviour in the humid environment was found. The AZ80 alloy revealed the highest amount of magnesium carbonate in the air-formed film and the highest atmospheric corrosion resistance, even higher than the AZ91D alloy, indicating that aluminium distribution in the alloy microstructure influenced the amount of magnesium carbonate formed.

  12. Effect of Mucin and Bicarbonate Ion on Corrosion Behavior of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy for Airway Stents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongseok Jang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The biodegradable ability of magnesium alloys is an attractive feature for tracheal stents since they can be absorbed by the body through gradual degradation after healing of the airway structure, which can reduce the risk of inflammation caused by long-term implantation and prevent the repetitive surgery for removal of existing stent. In this study, the effects of bicarbonate ion (HCO3− and mucin in Gamble’s solution on the corrosion behavior of AZ31 magnesium alloy were investigated, using immersion and electrochemical tests to systematically identify the biodegradation kinetics of magnesium alloy under in vitro environment, mimicking the epithelial mucus surfaces in a trachea for development of biodegradable airway stents. Analysis of corrosion products after immersion test was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX and X-ray diffraction (XRD. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS was used to identify the effects of bicarbonate ions and mucin on the corrosion behavior of AZ31 magnesium alloys with the temporal change of corrosion resistance. The results show that the increase of the bicarbonate ions in Gamble’s solution accelerates the dissolution of AZ31 magnesium alloy, while the addition of mucin retards the corrosion. The experimental data in this work is intended to be used as foundational knowledge to predict the corrosion behavior of AZ31 magnesium alloy in the airway environment while providing degradation information for future in vivo studies.

  13. Effect of Mucin and Bicarbonate Ion on Corrosion Behavior of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy for Airway Stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yongseok; Owuor, Daniel; Waterman, Jenora T; White, Leon; Collins, Boyce; Sankar, Jagannathan; Gilbert, Thomas W; Yun, Yeoheung

    2014-08-15

    The biodegradable ability of magnesium alloys is an attractive feature for tracheal stents since they can be absorbed by the body through gradual degradation after healing of the airway structure, which can reduce the risk of inflammation caused by long-term implantation and prevent the repetitive surgery for removal of existing stent. In this study, the effects of bicarbonate ion (HCO₃ - ) and mucin in Gamble's solution on the corrosion behavior of AZ31 magnesium alloy were investigated, using immersion and electrochemical tests to systematically identify the biodegradation kinetics of magnesium alloy under in vitro environment, mimicking the epithelial mucus surfaces in a trachea for development of biodegradable airway stents. Analysis of corrosion products after immersion test was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to identify the effects of bicarbonate ions and mucin on the corrosion behavior of AZ31 magnesium alloys with the temporal change of corrosion resistance. The results show that the increase of the bicarbonate ions in Gamble's solution accelerates the dissolution of AZ31 magnesium alloy, while the addition of mucin retards the corrosion. The experimental data in this work is intended to be used as foundational knowledge to predict the corrosion behavior of AZ31 magnesium alloy in the airway environment while providing degradation information for future in vivo studies.

  14. Wear and Corrosion Properties of 316L-SiC Composite Coating Deposited by Cold Spray on Magnesium Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Ma, Bing; Liu, Guang; Song, Hui; Wu, Jinming; Cui, Lang; Zheng, Ziyun

    2017-08-01

    In order to improve the wear and corrosion resistance of commonly used magnesium alloys, 316L stainless steel coating and 316L-SiC composite coating have been deposited directly on commercial AZ80 magnesium alloy using cold spraying technology (CS). The microstructure, hardness and bonding strength of as-sprayed coatings were studied. Their tribological properties sliding against Si3N4 and GCr15 steel under unlubricated conditions were evaluated by a ball-on-disk tribometer. Corrosion behaviors of coated samples were also evaluated and compared to that of uncoated magnesium alloy substrate in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution by electrochemical measurements. Scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the corresponding wear tracks and corroded surfaces to determine wear and corrosion mechanisms. The results showed that the as-sprayed coatings possessed higher microhardness and more excellent wear resistance than magnesium alloy substrate. Meanwhile, 316L and 316L-SiC coating also reduced the corrosion current density of magnesium alloy and the galvanic corrosion of the substrates was not observed after 200-h neutral salt spray exposure, which demonstrated that corrosion resistance of a magnesium alloy substrate could be greatly improved by cold-sprayed stainless steel-based coatings.

  15. Hybrid coating on a magnesium alloy for minimizing the localized degradation for load-bearing biodegradable mini-implant applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannan, M. Bobby, E-mail: bobby.mathan@jcu.edu.au; Liyanaarachchi, S.

    2013-10-01

    The effect of a hybrid coating, calcium phosphate (CaP) + polylactic acid (PLA), on a magnesium alloy on its in vitro degradation (general and localized) behaviour was studied for potential load-bearing biodegradable mini-implant applications. CaP was coated on a magnesium alloy, AZ91, using an electrochemical deposition method. A spin coating method was used to coat PLA on the CaP coated alloy. In vitro degradation performance of the alloy with hybrid coating was evaluated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in simulated body fluid (SBF). The EIS results showed that the hybrid coating enhanced the degradation resistance of the alloy by more than two-order of magnitude as compared to the bare alloy and one-order of magnitude higher than that of the CaP coated alloy, after 1 h exposure in simulated body fluid (SBF). Long-term (48 h) EIS results also confirmed that the hybrid coating performed better than the bare alloy and the CaP coated alloy. Importantly, the hybrid coating improved the localized degradation resistance of the alloy significantly, which is critical for better in service mechanical integrity. - Highlights: • A hybrid coating (CaP + PLA) was applied on a magnesium-based alloy. • The hybrid coating enhanced the in vitro degradation resistance of the alloy. • Localized degradation resistance was also improved by the hybrid coating.

  16. Hybrid coating on a magnesium alloy for minimizing the localized degradation for load-bearing biodegradable mini-implant applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, M. Bobby; Liyanaarachchi, S.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of a hybrid coating, calcium phosphate (CaP) + polylactic acid (PLA), on a magnesium alloy on its in vitro degradation (general and localized) behaviour was studied for potential load-bearing biodegradable mini-implant applications. CaP was coated on a magnesium alloy, AZ91, using an electrochemical deposition method. A spin coating method was used to coat PLA on the CaP coated alloy. In vitro degradation performance of the alloy with hybrid coating was evaluated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in simulated body fluid (SBF). The EIS results showed that the hybrid coating enhanced the degradation resistance of the alloy by more than two-order of magnitude as compared to the bare alloy and one-order of magnitude higher than that of the CaP coated alloy, after 1 h exposure in simulated body fluid (SBF). Long-term (48 h) EIS results also confirmed that the hybrid coating performed better than the bare alloy and the CaP coated alloy. Importantly, the hybrid coating improved the localized degradation resistance of the alloy significantly, which is critical for better in service mechanical integrity. - Highlights: • A hybrid coating (CaP + PLA) was applied on a magnesium-based alloy. • The hybrid coating enhanced the in vitro degradation resistance of the alloy. • Localized degradation resistance was also improved by the hybrid coating

  17. Corrosion Resistance of 7475-T7351 Aluminum Alloy Plate for Aviation

    OpenAIRE

    LIU Ming; LI Hui-qu; CHEN Jun-zhou; LI Guo-ai; CHEN Gao-hong

    2017-01-01

    The intergranular corrosion and exfoliation corrosion properties of 7475-T7351 aluminum alloy plate for aviation were investigated, and the corrosion behaviors of the alloy were analyzed by metallographic analysis(MA) and transmission electron microscope(TEM). The results show that no obvious intergranular corrosion is observed, but exfoliation corrosion grade of 7475-T7351 aluminum alloy increases from EA on surface to EC in the core. The exfoliation corrosion of 7475 alloy plate is mainly b...

  18. Biodegradable behaviors of AZ31 magnesium alloy in simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Yingwei; Shan Dayong; Chen Rongshi; Zhang Fan; Han Enhou

    2009-01-01

    Magnesium alloys have unique advantages to act as biodegradable implants for clinical application. The biodegradable behaviors of AZ31 in simulated body fluid (SBF) for various immersion time intervals were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests and scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation, and then the biodegradable mechanisms were discussed. It was found that a protective film layer was formed on the surface of AZ31 in SBF. With increasing of immersion time, the film layer became more compact. If the immersion time was more than 24 h, the film layer began to degenerate and emerge corrosion pits. In the meantime, there was hydroxyapatite particles deposited on the film layer. The hydroxyapatite is the essential component of human bone, which indicates the perfect biocompatibility of AZ31 magnesium alloy.

  19. Chrome-free Samarium-based Protective Coatings for Magnesium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Legan; Cui, Xiufang; Yang, Yuyun; Lin, Lili; Xiao, Qiang; Jin, Guo

    The microstructure of chrome-free samarium-based conversion coating on magnesium alloy was investigated and the corrosion resistance was evaluated as well. The micro-morphology, transverse section, crystal structure and composition of the coating were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X- ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The corrosion resistance was evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization curve and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results reveal that the morphology of samarium conversion coating is of crack-mud structure. Tiny cracks distribute in the compact coating deposited by samarium oxides. XRD, EDS and XPS results characterize that the coating is made of amorphous and trivalent-samarium oxides. The potentiodynamic polarization curve, EIS and OCP indicate that the samarium conversion coating can improve the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys.

  20. Crystal Plasticity Finite Element Analysis of Loading-Unloading Behaviour in Magnesium Alloy Sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hama, Takayuki; Fujimoto, Hitoshi; Takuda, Hirohiko

    2010-01-01

    Magnesium alloy sheets exhibit strong inelastic response during unloading. In this study crystal plasticity finite element analysis of loading-unloading behaviour during uniaxial tension in a rolled magnesium alloy sheet was carried out, and the mechanism of this inelastic response was examined in detail in terms of macroscopic and mesoscopic deformations. The unloading behaviour obtained by the simulation was in good agreement with the experiment in terms of variation with stress of instantaneous tangent modulus during unloading. Variations of activities of each family of slip systems during the deformation showed that the activation of basal slip systems is the largest during unloading, and the slip direction during unloading is opposite from during loading. These results indicated that one of the factors of the inelastic behaviour during unloading is the fact that the basal slip systems are easily activated during unloading because of their low strengths.

  1. Structure and Properties Investigation of MCMgAl12Zn1 Magnesium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrzański L.A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an influence of cooling rate on crystallization process, structure and mechanical properties of MCMgAl12Zn1 cast magnesium alloy. The experiments were performed using the novel Universal Metallurgical Simulator and Analyzer Platform. The apparatus enabled recording the temperature during refrigerate magnesium alloy with three different cooling rates, i.e. 0.6, 1.2 and 2.4°C/s and calculate a first derivative. Based on first derivative results, nucleation temperature, beginning of nucleation of eutectic and solidus temperature were described. It was fund that the formation temperatures of various thermal parameters, mechanical properties (hardness and ultimate compressive strength and grain size are shifting with an increasing cooling rate.

  2. Microstructure of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy deformed by indentation-flattening compound deformation technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minghao; Wang, Zhongtang; Yu, Xiaolin

    2018-03-01

    Characteristic of indentation-flattening compound deformation technology (IFCDT) is discussed, and the parameters of IFCDT are defined. Performance of magnesium alloy AZ31 sheet deformed by IFCDT is researched. The effect of IFCDT coefficient, temperature and reduction ratio on the microstructure of magnesium alloy sheet is analyzed. The research results show that the volume fraction of the twin crystal decreases gradually and the average grain size increases with increasing of coefficient of IFCDT. With increase of the reduction ratio, the volume fraction of the twin crystal gradually increases, and the average grain size also increases. With increase of deformation temperature, the volume fraction of the twin crystal decreases gradually, and the twin crystal grain size increases.

  3. Surface roughness optimization in machining of AZ31 magnesium alloy using ABC algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijith

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium alloys serve as excellent substitutes for materials traditionally used for engine block heads in automobiles and gear housings in aircraft industries. AZ31 is a magnesium alloy finds its applications in orthopedic implants and cardiovascular stents. Surface roughness is an important parameter in the present manufacturing sector. In this work optimization techniques namely firefly algorithm (FA, particle swarm optimization (PSO and artificial bee colony algorithm (ABC which are based on swarm intelligence techniques, have been implemented to optimize the machining parameters namely cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut in order to achieve minimum surface roughness. The parameter Ra has been considered for evaluating the surface roughness. Comparing the performance of ABC algorithm with FA and PSO algorithm, which is a widely used optimization algorithm in machining studies, the results conclude that ABC produces better optimization when compared to FA and PSO for optimizing surface roughness of AZ 31.

  4. Infrared temperature measurement and interference analysis of magnesium alloys in hybrid laser-TIG welding process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, R.-S.; Liu, L.-M.; Song, G.

    2007-01-01

    Infrared (IR) temperature measurement, as a convenient, non-contact method for making temperature field measurements, has been widely used in the fields of welding, but the problem of interference from radiant reflection is a complicating factor in applying IR temperature sensing to welding. The object of this research is to make a deep understand about the formation of interference, explore a new method to eliminate the interfering radiation during laser-TIG hybrid welding of magnesium alloys and to obtain the distribution of temperature field accurately. The experimental results showed that the interferences caused by radiant specular reflection of arc light, ceramic nozzle, electrode and laser nozzle were transferred out of welding seam while the IR thermography system was placed perpendicularly to welding seam. And the welding temperature distribution captured by IR termography system which had been calibrated by thermocouple was reliable by using this method in hybrid laser-TIG welding process of AZ31B magnesium alloy

  5. Radiation protection considerations of the use of thoriated magnesium alloys in aircrafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schirmer, A.; Kersting, M.; Warnecke, U.

    2016-01-01

    For the improvement of high-temperature properties of Magnesium light-weight alloys for the construction of aircraft engines, research in the US and UK focussed also on Thorium as a constituent. As a result, large components of aircraft jet and shaft engines were made of Thorium-Magnesium alloys. Here the results of dose rate measurements are presented, which were performed by the Bundeswehr over decades. It shows up that type specific maximum values of the dose rate can be specified. In additional measurements the compiled data of the dose H_x (photon-equivalent dose) are related to current dose quantity (H*(10)). Using conservative values for the occupational dwell time near these engines the maximum annual dose for external exposure is estimated below 2 mSv. Dose contributions due to incorporation have not to be considered, since the work does not involve the formation of inhalable dust or smoke.

  6. Investigation of Stress Corrosion Cracking in Magnesium Alloys by Quantitative Fractography Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sozańska M.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article shows that the use of quantitative fracture description may lead to significant progress in research on the phenomenon of stress corrosion cracking of the WE43 magnesium alloy. Tests were carried out on samples in air, and after hydrogenation in 0.1 M Na2SO4 with cathodic polarization. Fracture surfaces were analyzed after different variants of the Slow Strain Rate Test. It was demonstrated that the parameters for quantitative evaluation of fracture surface microcracks can be closely linked with the susceptibility of the WE43 magnesium alloy operating under complex state of the mechanical load in corrosive environments. The final result of the study was the determination of the quantitative relationship between Slow Strain Rate Test parameters, the mechanical properties, and the parameters of the quantitative evaluation of fracture surface (microcracks.

  7. Preparation and characterization of graphite-dispersed styrene-acrylic emulsion composite coating on magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Renhui [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Lanzhou University of Technology, College of Science, Lanzhou 730050 (China); Liang Jun, E-mail: jliang@licp.cas.cn [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wang Qing [Lanzhou University of Technology, College of Science, Lanzhou 730050 (China)

    2012-03-01

    In this work, an electrically conductive, corrosion resistant graphite-dispersed styrene-acrylic emulsion composite coating on AZ91D magnesium alloy was successfully produced by the method of anodic deposition. The microstructure, composition and conductivity of the composite coating were characterized using optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) and four electrode volume resistivity instrument, respectively. The corrosion resistance of the coating was evaluated using potentiodynamic polarization measurements and salt spray tests. It is found that the graphite-dispersed styrene-acrylic emulsion composite coating was layered structure and displayed good electrical conductivity. The potentiodynamic polarization tests and salt spray tests reveal that the composite coating was successful in providing superior corrosion resistance to AZ91D magnesium alloy.

  8. Effect of Ca and Y additions on oxidation behavior of magnesium alloys at high temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Jianfeng; YANG Changlin; XU Bingshe

    2012-01-01

    Oxidation and ignition of magnesium alloys at elevated temperature were successfully retarded by additions of Y and Ca.which could be melted at 1173 K in air without any protection.Thermogravimetric measurements in dry air revealed that the oxidation dynamics curves of Mg-2.5Ca alloy and Mg-3.5Y-0.79Ca alloy at high temperatures followed the parabolic-line law or the ubic-line law.X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis indicated that the oxide film on the surface of Mg-3.5Y-0.79Ca and Mg-2.5Ca alloys exhibited a duplex structure.which agreed with the results of thermodynamic analysis.By comparison,the ignition-proof effect of the combination addition of Y and Ca was better than that of the single addition of Ca.

  9. Resistance of Magnesium Alloys to Corrosion Fatigue for Biodegradable Implant Applications: Current Status and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, R. K. Singh; Harandi, Shervin Eslami

    2017-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) alloys are attracting increasing interest as the most suitable metallic materials for construction of biodegradable and bio-absorbable temporary implants. However, Mg-alloys can suffer premature and catastrophic fracture under the synergy of cyclic loading and corrosion (i.e., corrosion fatigue (CF)). Though Mg alloys are reported to be susceptible to CF also in the corrosive human body fluid, there are very limited studies on this topic. Furthermore, the in vitro test parameters employed in these investigations have not properly simulated the actual conditions in the human body. This article presents an overview of the findings of available studies on the CF of Mg alloys in pseudo-physiological solutions and the employed testing procedures, as well as identifying the knowledge gap. PMID:29144428

  10. Resistance of Magnesium Alloys to Corrosion Fatigue for Biodegradable Implant Applications: Current Status and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, R K Singh; Harandi, Shervin Eslami

    2017-11-16

    Magnesium (Mg) alloys are attracting increasing interest as the most suitable metallic materials for construction of biodegradable and bio-absorbable temporary implants. However, Mg-alloys can suffer premature and catastrophic fracture under the synergy of cyclic loading and corrosion (i.e., corrosion fatigue (CF)). Though Mg alloys are reported to be susceptible to CF also in the corrosive human body fluid, there are very limited studies on this topic. Furthermore, the in vitro test parameters employed in these investigations have not properly simulated the actual conditions in the human body. This article presents an overview of the findings of available studies on the CF of Mg alloys in pseudo-physiological solutions and the employed testing procedures, as well as identifying the knowledge gap.

  11. Molybdate/phosphate composite conversion coating on magnesium alloy surface for corrosion protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong Zhiyi; Zhu Jin; Qiu Cheng; Liu Yali

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a new conversion coating-molybdate/phosphate (Mo/P) coating on magnesium alloy was prepared and investigated by electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and salt-water immersion experiments, respectively. The results demonstrated that the Mo/P coating contained composite phases, which were consisted of metaphosphate as well as molybdate oxide with an 'alveolate-crystallized' structure. The composite Mo/P conversion coating had better corrosion resistance performance than molybdate (Mo) coating, and even had almost comparable corrosion protection for Mg alloy to the traditional chromate-based coating.

  12. Influence of Zeolite Coating on the Corrosion Resistance of AZ91D Magnesium Alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, P Chakraborty; Woo, Ren Ping; Grayson, Sam Matthew; Majumder, Amrita; Raman, R K Singh

    2014-08-22

    The protective performance of zeolite coating on AZ91D magnesium alloy was evaluated using potentiodynamic polarisation and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 0.1 M sodium chloride solution (NaCl). Electrical equivalent circuit (EEC) was developed based upon hypothetical corrosion mechanisms and simulated to correspond to the experimental data. The morphology and the chemical nature of the coating were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Post corrosion morphologies of the zeolite coated and the uncoated AZ91D alloy were investigated using SEM. The corrosion resistance of the zeolite coated specimen was at least one order of magnitude higher than the uncoated specimen.

  13. Effects of organic acid pickling on the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloy AZ31 sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Blawert, C.; Scharnagl, N.

    2010-01-01

    mu m of the contaminated surface was required to reach corrosion rates less than 1 mm/year in salt spray condition. Among the three organic acids examined, acetic acid is the best choice. Oxalic acid can be an alternative while citric acid is not suitable for cleaning AZ31 sheet, because......Organic acids were used to clean AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet and the effect of the cleaning processes on the surface condition and corrosion performance of the alloy was investigated. Organic acid cleanings reduced the surface impurities and enhanced the corrosion resistance. Removal of at least 4...

  14. Effect of Pr addition on microstructure and mechanical properties of AZ61 magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Zhiyong

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available To improve the strength, hardness and heat resistance of Mg-6Al-1Zn (AZ61 alloy, the effects of Pr addition on the as-cast microstructure and mechanical properties of AZ61 alloy were investigated at room and elevated temperatures by means of Brinell hardness measurement, optical microscope (OM, scanning electron microscope (SEM, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, X-ray diffractometer (XRD and DNS100 electronic universal testing machine. The results show that the microstructures of Pr-containing AZ61 alloys were refined, with primary β-Mg17Al12 phase distributed homogeneously. When the addition of Pr is up to 1.2wt.%, the β phase becomes finer, and new needle-like or short-rod shaped Al11Pr3 phase and blocky AlPr phase appear. As a result, optimal tensile properties are obtained. However, greater than 1.2wt.% Pr addition leads to poorer mechanical properties due to the aggregation of the needle-like phase and large size of grains. The present research findings provide a new way for strengthening of magnesium alloys at room and elevated temperatures, and a method of producing thermally-stable AZ61 magnesium alloy.

  15. Biodegradable magnesium alloys for orthopaedic applications: A review on corrosion, biocompatibility and surface modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Sankalp; Curtin, James; Duffy, Brendan; Jaiswal, Swarna

    2016-11-01

    Magnesium (Mg) and its alloys have been extensively explored as potential biodegradable implant materials for orthopaedic applications (e.g. Fracture fixation). However, the rapid corrosion of Mg based alloys in physiological conditions has delayed their introduction for therapeutic applications to date. The present review focuses on corrosion, biocompatibility and surface modifications of biodegradable Mg alloys for orthopaedic applications. Initially, the corrosion behaviour of Mg alloys and the effect of alloying elements on corrosion and biocompatibility is discussed. Furthermore, the influence of polymeric deposit coatings, namely sol-gel, synthetic aliphatic polyesters and natural polymers on corrosion and biological performance of Mg and its alloy for orthopaedic applications are presented. It was found that inclusion of alloying elements such as Al, Mn, Ca, Zn and rare earth elements provides improved corrosion resistance to Mg alloys. It has been also observed that sol-gel and synthetic aliphatic polyesters based coatings exhibit improved corrosion resistance as compared to natural polymers, which has higher biocompatibility due to their biomimetic nature. It is concluded that, surface modification is a promising approach to improve the performance of Mg-based biomaterials for orthopaedic applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Fatigue strength of a magnesium MA2-1 alloy after equal-channel angular pressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terent'ev, V. F.; Dobatkin, S. V.; Prosvirnin, D. V.; Bannykh, I. O.; Kopylov, V. I.; Serebryany, V. N.

    2010-09-01

    The fatigue strength of a magnesium MA2-1 alloy is studied after annealing and equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP). The ultrafine-grained structure formed upon ECAP is shown to increase the plasticity of the material during static tension, to decrease the cyclic life to failure, and not to decrease the fatigue limit. The mechanisms of crack nucleation and growth during cyclic deformation are investigated.

  17. Bio-Corrosion Behavior of Ceramic Coatings Containing Hydroxyapatite on Mg-Zn-Ca Magnesium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Yan Ding

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic coatings containing hydroxyapatite (HA were fabricated on a biodegradable Mg66Zn29Ca5 magnesium alloy through micro-arc oxidation by adding HA particles into the electrolytes. The phase composition and surface morphology of the coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analyses, respectively. Electrochemical experiments and immersion tests were performed in Hank’s solution at 37 °C to measure the corrosion resistance of the coatings. Blood compatibility was evaluated by in vitro blood platelet adhesion tests and static water contact angle measurement. The results show that the typical ceramic coatings with a porous structure were prepared on the magnesium alloy surface with the main phases of MgO and MgSiO3 and a small amount of Mg3(PO42 and HA. The optimal surface morphology appeared at HA concentration of 0.4 g/L. The electrochemical experiments and immersion tests reveal a significant improvement in the corrosion resistance of the ceramic coatings containing HA compared with the coatings without HA or bare Mg66Zn29Ca5 magnesium alloy. The static water contact angle of the HA-containing ceramic coatings is 18.7°, which is lower than that of the coatings without HA (40.1°. The in vitro blood platelet adhesion tests indicate that the HA-containing ceramic coatings possess improved blood compatibility compared with the coatings without HA. Utilizing HA-containing ceramic coatings may be an effective way to improve the surface biocompatibility and corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys.

  18. Influence of Zeolite Coating on the Corrosion Resistance of AZ91D Magnesium Alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, P. Chakraborty; Woo, Ren Ping; Grayson, Sam Matthew; Majumder, Amrita; Raman, R. K. Singh

    2014-01-01

    The protective performance of zeolite coating on AZ91D magnesium alloy was evaluated using potentiodynamic polarisation and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 0.1 M sodium chloride solution (NaCl). Electrical equivalent circuit (EEC) was developed based upon hypothetical corrosion mechanisms and simulated to correspond to the experimental data. The morphology and the chemical nature of the coating were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD...

  19. Metallurgical bond between magnesium AZ91 alloy and aluminium plasma sprayed coatings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubatík, Tomáš František; Pala, Zdeněk; Neufuss, Karel; Vilémová, Monika; Mušálek, Radek; Stoulil, J.; Slepička, P.; Chráska, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 282, November (2015), s. 163-170 ISSN 0257-8972 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-31538P Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Plasma spraying * AZ91 magnesium alloy * Aluminium * Metallurgical bond * X-ray diffraction Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 2.139, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0257897215303297

  20. Controlling corrosion rate of Magnesium alloy using powder mixed electrical discharge machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, M. A.; Rani, A. M. A.; Saad, N. M.; Littlefair, G.; Aliyu, A. A.

    2018-04-01

    Biomedical implant can be divided into permanent and temporary employment. The duration of a temporary implant applied to children and adult is different due to different bone healing rate among the children and adult. Magnesium and its alloys are compatible for the biodegradable implanting application. Nevertheless, it is difficult to control the degradation rate of magnesium alloy to suit the application on both the children and adult. Powder mixed electrical discharge machining (PM-EDM) method, a modified EDM process, has high capability to improve the EDM process efficiency and machined surface quality. The objective of this paper is to establish a formula to control the degradation rate of magnesium alloy using the PM-EDM method. The different corrosion rate of machined surface is hypothesized to be obtained by having different combinations of PM-EDM operation inputs. PM-EDM experiments are conducted using an opened-loop PM-EDM system and the in-vitro corrosion tests are carried out on the machined surface of each specimen. There are four operation inputs investigated in this study which are zinc powder concentration, peak current, pulse on-time and pulse off-time. The results indicate that zinc powder concentration is significantly affecting the response with 2 g/l of zinc powder concentration obtaining the lowest corrosion rate. The high localized temperature at the cutting zone in spark erosion process causes some of the zinc particles get deposited on the machined surface, hence improving the surface characteristics. The suspended zinc particles in the dielectric fluid have also improve the sparking efficiency and the uniformity of sparks distribution. From the statistical analysis, a formula was developed to control the corrosion rate of magnesium alloy within the range from 0.000183 mm/year to 0.001528 mm/year.

  1. The oxidation resistance and ignition temperature of AZ31 magnesium alloy with additions of La2O3 and La

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Shizhe; Zhou, Hong; Zhou, Ti; Zhang, Zhihui; Lin, Pengyu; Ren, Luquan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Using lanthanum and lanthanum oxide (La 2 O 3 ) can improve oxidation resistance of magnesium alloy. ► La 2 O 3 is as effective as La in affecting both alloy microstructure and oxidation resistance. ► The optimum La concentration in alloy is ∼0.7 wt.%. ► We analyzed the oxidation kinetics of AZ31 alloy with both additions. - Abstract: We investigate the oxidation resistance of AZ31 magnesium alloy with additions of La and La oxide (La 2 O 3 ). The contributor is the practical La content in alloy. Both La and La 2 O 3 are effective in improving the oxidation resistance of Mg alloys. The samples with La content of ∼ 0.7 wt.% possess the best resistance to oxidation of all. Oxide scale, ignition temperature and oxidation kinetics are analyzed. However, higher La content is detrimental to the oxidation resistance.

  2. Critically designing today’s melt processed bulk magnesium alloys using boron rich nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paramsothy, Muralidharan; Gupta, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • B 4 C nanoparticles increased the tensile ductility of Mg–Al alloy to about 25%. • SiB 6 nanoparticles increased the tensile ductility of Mg–Zn alloy to about 23%. • ZrB 2 nanoparticles increased the tensile strength of Mg–RE alloy to above 400 MPa. • Hypothetically, 5–10% cold working could significantly increase tensile strength. • Hypothetically, 5–10% cold working could maintain tensile ductility above 10%. - Abstract: In this work, boron rich nanoparticles (B 4 C, SiB 6 and ZrB 2 ) were added to bulk melt processed Mg–Al, Mg–Zn and Mg–RE (Rare Earth) series contemporary magnesium alloys, respectively. The most obvious positive effect when adding B 4 C nanoparticles to the Mg–Al alloy was the significant increase in tensile ductility (to about 25%). Here, there was no significant change in grain size or crystallographic texture due to nanoparticle addition. However, it was observed that stacking faults formed more easily in the magnesium matrix due to nanoparticle addition. Also, it was observed that coarser nanoparticles broke down high strain zones (HSZs) during tensile deformation. The addition of SiB 6 to Mg–Zn alloy also resulted in similar significant increase in tensile ductility (to about 23%). Tensile deformation induced alignment of more rounded and spherical nanoparticles was observed. Stacking faults forming more easily in the alloy matrix was also observed. However, the formation of nanograins (nanoscale recrystallization) during room temperature tensile deformation was observed in this system. This implied that nanograin rotation during deformation was also responsible for the observed enhanced tensile ductility. When ZrB 2 was added to Mg–RE alloy, the tensile strength was significantly enhanced (yield strength >400 MPa) after thermal ageing. Here, the ZrB 2 nanoparticles induced the formation of thermal ageing resistant long period stacking/ordered (LPSO) nanograins and nanolayers in the Mg

  3. Preparation and characterization of the micro-arc oxidation composite coatings on magnesium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfeng Ge

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The magnesium alloys attract the light-weight manufacture due to its high strength to weight ratio, however the poor corrosion resistance limits the application in automobile industry. The Micro-arc Composite Ceramic (MCC coatings on AZ91D magnesium alloys were prepared by Micro-arc Oxidation (MAO and electrophoresis technologies. The microstructure, corrosion resistance, abrasion resistance, stone impact resistance and adhesion of MCC coatings were studied respectively. The cross section morphologies showed that the outer organic coating was filled into the hole on surface of MAO coating, and it acted as a shelter against corrosive products. The copper-accelerated acetic acid salt spray Test, abrasion resistance test, stone impact resistance test, thermal shock resistance test and adhesion test were used to evaluate the protective characterization by the third testing organization which approved by GM. The test results showed the composite coatings meet all the requirements. The MCC coating on Mg presents excellent properties, and it is a promising surface treatment technology on magnesium alloys for production vehicles.

  4. Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy: Grain Refinement by Adjusting Pulse Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Guo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM offers a potential approach to fabricate large-scale magnesium alloy components with low cost and high efficiency, although this topic is yet to be reported in literature. In this study, WAAM is preliminarily applied to fabricate AZ31 magnesium. Fully dense AZ31 magnesium alloy components are successfully obtained. Meanwhile, to refine grains and obtain good mechanical properties, the effects of pulse frequency (1, 2, 5, 10, 100, and 500 Hz on the macrostructure, microstructure and tensile properties are investigated. The results indicate that pulse frequency can result in the change of weld pool oscillations and cooling rate. This further leads to the change of the grain size, grain shape, as well as the tensile properties. Meanwhile, due to the resonance of the weld pool at 5 Hz and 10 Hz, the samples have poor geometry accuracy but contain finer equiaxed grains (21 μm and exhibit higher ultimate tensile strength (260 MPa and yield strength (102 MPa, which are similar to those of the forged AZ31 alloy. Moreover, the elongation of all samples is above 23%.

  5. Novel hybrid sol-gel coatings for corrosion protection of AZ31B magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamaka, S.V.; Montemor, M.F.; Galio, A.F.; Zheludkevich, M.L.; Trindade, C.; Dick, L.F.; Ferreira, M.G.S.

    2008-01-01

    This work aims to develop and study new anticorrosion films for AZ31B magnesium alloy based on the sol-gel coating approach. Hybrid organic-inorganic sols were synthesized by copolymerization of epoxy-siloxane and titanium or zirconium alkoxides. Tris(trimethylsilyl) phosphate was also used as additive to confer additional corrosion protection to magnesium-based alloy. A sol-gel coating, about 5-μm thick, shows good adhesion to the metal substrate and prevents corrosion attack in 0.005 M NaCl solution for 2 weeks. The sol-gel coating system doped with tris(trimethylsilyl)-phosphate revealed improved corrosion protection of the magnesium alloy due to formation of hydrolytically stable Mg-O-P chemical bonds. The structure and the thickness of the sol-gel film were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The corrosion behaviour of AZ31B substrates pre-treated with the sol-gel derived hybrid coatings was tested by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The chemical composition of the silylphosphate-containing sol-gel film at different depths was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) with depth profiling

  6. Environmental friendly anodizing of AZ91D magnesium alloy in alkaline borate-benzoate electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yan [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Department of Chemistry, Tianshui Normal University, Tianshui 741000 (China); Wei Zhongling [Magnesium Technology Co., Ltd., Chinese Academy of Sciences, Jiaxing 314051 (China); Yang Fuwei [Department of Chemistry, Tianshui Normal University, Tianshui 741000 (China); Zhang Zhao, E-mail: eaglezzy@zjuem.zju.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Key Laboratory for Light Alloy Materials Technology, Jiaxing 314051 (China)

    2011-06-02

    Highlights: > Environmental friendly PEO technology for AZ91 magnesium alloy is developed. > NaBz is used as new additive and it is low-cost and environmental friendly. > The effect of NaBz additive on the properties of the anodized film was studied. > Anodized film with excellent corrosion resistance is obtained. > The forming mechanism of anodized film in the presence of NaBz is approached. - Abstract: A kind of environmental friendly anodizing routine for AZ91D magnesium alloy, based on an alkaline borate-sodium benzoate electrolyte (NaBz) was studied. The effect of NaBz on the properties of the anodized film was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), respectively. The results showed that the anodizing process, surface morphology, thickness, phase structure and corrosion resistance of the anodized film were strongly dependent on the concentration of NaBz. In the presence of adequate NaBz, a thick, compact and smoothing anodized film with excellent corrosion resistance was produced. Moreover, the forming mechanism of the anodized film in the presence of NaBz additive was also approached, which was a suppression of arc discharge process by the adsorption of Bz{sup -} on the surface of magnesium alloy substrate.

  7. Corrosion behaviors in physiological solution of cerium conversion coatings on AZ31 magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Xiufang; Yang Yuyun; Liu Erbao; Jin Guo; Zhong Jinggao; Li Qingfen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a non-toxic Ce-based conversion coating was obtained on the surface of bio-medical AZ31 magnesium alloys. The micro-morphology of the coating prepared with optimal technical parameters and immersed in physiological solution (Hank's solution) in different time was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), composition of the cerium conversion coating and corrosion products in Hank's solution were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), respectively. In addition, the corrosion property in Hank's solution was studied by electrochemical experiment and immersion test. The results show that the dense Ce-based conversion coating is obtained on the surface of AZ31 magnesium alloys in optimal technical parameters and the conversion coating consists of a mass of trivalent and tetravalent cerium oxides. The cerium conversion coating can provide obvious protection of magnesium alloys and can effectively reduce the degradation speed in Hank's solution. Also the degradation products have little influence on human body.

  8. Environmental friendly anodizing of AZ91D magnesium alloy in alkaline borate-benzoate electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yan; Wei Zhongling; Yang Fuwei; Zhang Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Environmental friendly PEO technology for AZ91 magnesium alloy is developed. → NaBz is used as new additive and it is low-cost and environmental friendly. → The effect of NaBz additive on the properties of the anodized film was studied. → Anodized film with excellent corrosion resistance is obtained. → The forming mechanism of anodized film in the presence of NaBz is approached. - Abstract: A kind of environmental friendly anodizing routine for AZ91D magnesium alloy, based on an alkaline borate-sodium benzoate electrolyte (NaBz) was studied. The effect of NaBz on the properties of the anodized film was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), respectively. The results showed that the anodizing process, surface morphology, thickness, phase structure and corrosion resistance of the anodized film were strongly dependent on the concentration of NaBz. In the presence of adequate NaBz, a thick, compact and smoothing anodized film with excellent corrosion resistance was produced. Moreover, the forming mechanism of the anodized film in the presence of NaBz additive was also approached, which was a suppression of arc discharge process by the adsorption of Bz - on the surface of magnesium alloy substrate.

  9. Effect of cutting parameters on machinability characteristics in milling of magnesium alloy with carbide tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaining Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium alloy has attracted more attentions due to its excellent mechanical properties. However, in process of dry cutting operation, many problems restrict its further development. In this article, the effect of cutting parameters on machinabilities of magnesium alloy is explored under dry milling condition. This research is an attempt to investigate the impact of cutting speed at multiple feed rates on cutting force and surface roughness, while a statistical analysis is adopted to determine the influential intensities accurately. The results showed that cutting force is affected by the positively constant intensity from feed rate and the increasingly negative intensity from cutting speed. In contrast, surface roughness is determined by the gradually increasing negative tendency from feed rate and the positive effect with constant intensity from cutting speed. Within the range of the experiments, feed rate is the leading contribution for cutting force while the cutting speed is the dominant factor for surface roughness according to the absolute intensity values. Meanwhile, the trends of influencing intensities between cutting force and surface roughness are opposite. Besides, it is also found that in milling magnesium alloy, chip morphology is highly sensitive to cutting speed while the chip quality mainly depends on feed rate.

  10. Yield asymmetry design of magnesium alloys by integrated computational materials engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Dongsheng [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Joshi, Vineet [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lavender, Curt [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Khaleel, Mohammad [Qatar Foundation Research adn Development (Qatar); Ahzi, Said [Univ. of Strasbourg (France)

    2013-11-01

    Deformation asymmetry of magnesium alloys is an important factor on machine design in the automobile industry. Represented by the ratio of compressive yield stress (CYS) against tensile yield stress (TYS), deformation asymmetry is strongly related to texture and grain size. A polycrystalline viscoplasticity model, modified intermediate Φ-model, is used to predict the deformation behavior of magnesium alloys with different grain sizes. Validated with experimental results, integrated computational materials engineering is applied to find out the route in achieving desired asymmetry via thermomechanical processing. For example, CYS/TYS in rolled texture is smaller than 1 under different loading directions. In other textures, such as extruded texture, CYS/TYS is large along the normal direction. Starting from rolled texture, asymmetry will increase to close to 1 along the rolling direction after being compressed to a strain of 0.2. Our modified Φ-model also shows that grain refinement increases CYS/TYS. Along with texture control, grain refinement also can optimize the yield asymmetry. After the grain size decreases to a critical value, CYS/TYS reaches to 1 because CYS increases much faster than TYS. By tailoring the microstructure using texture control and grain refinement, it is achievable to optimize yield asymmetry in wrought magnesium alloys.

  11. Grain refinement of AZ91D magnesium alloy by a new Mg–50%Al4C3 master alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Shengfa; Chen, Yang; Han, Hui

    2015-01-01

    A novel and simple method for preparing Mg–50%Al 4 C 3 (hereafter in wt.%) master alloy has been developed by powder in-situ synthesis process under argon atmosphere. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) results show the existence of Al 4 C 3 particles in this master alloy. After adding 1.8% Mg–50%Al 4 C 3 master alloy, the average grain size of α-Mg decreased from 360 μm to 154 μm. Based on the DTA test results and calculation of the planar disregistry between Al 4 C 3 and α-Mg, Al 4 C 3 particles located in the central regions of magnesium grains can act as the heterogeneous nucleus of primary α-Mg phase

  12. Anodic films grown on magnesium and magnesium alloys in fluoride solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, S. [Dept. of Applied Chemistry, Kogakuin Univ., Tokyo (Japan); Masuko, N. [Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering, Chiba Inst. of Tech., Narashino, Chiba (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    Formation behavior of anodic oxide films on magnesium in fluoride electrolytes was investigated with attention to the effects of anodizing voltage and aluminum content. In the range of voltage between 2 V and 100 V, porous film was formed in alkaline fluoride solution associated with high current density at around 5 V and at breakdown voltage. The critical voltage of breakdown to allow maximum current flow was approximately 60 V and relatively independent on substrate purity. The films formed at breakdown voltage showed a lava-like porous structure similar to those obtained on aluminum and other valve metals. Barrier films or semi-barrier films, which were composed of hydrated outer layer and relatively dense inner layer, were formed at the other voltages. In the case of AZ91D, the critical voltage increased to 70 V and peculiar phenomenon at 5 V was not observed, so that only barrier films were formed at less than the breakdown voltage. These phenomena can be explained by the effects of aluminum incorporation into the film to prevent dissolution and to promote passivation of magnesium. The depth profiles of constituent elements showed that aluminum distributed in whole depth of the film. (orig.)

  13. Production of Magnesium and Aluminum-Magnesium Alloys from Recycled Secondary Aluminum Scrap Melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesing, Adam J.; Das, Subodh K.; Loutfy, Raouf O.

    2016-02-01

    An experimental proof of concept was demonstrated for a patent-pending and trademark-pending RE12™ process for extracting a desired amount of Mg from recycled scrap secondary Al melts. Mg was extracted by electrorefining, producing a Mg product suitable as a Mg alloying hardener additive to primary-grade Al alloys. This efficient electrorefining process operates at high current efficiency, high Mg recovery and low energy consumption. The Mg electrorefining product can meet all the impurity specifications with subsequent melt treatment for removing alkali contaminants. All technical results obtained in the RE12™ project indicate that the electrorefining process for extraction of Mg from Al melt is technically feasible. A techno-economic analysis indicates high potential profitability for applications in Al foundry alloys as well as beverage—can and automotive—sheet alloys. The combination of technical feasibility and potential market profitability completes a successful proof of concept. This economical, environmentally-friendly and chlorine-free RE12™ process could be disruptive and transformational for the Mg production industry by enabling the recycling of 30,000 tonnes of primary-quality Mg annually.

  14. Effect of phase composition on the corrosion properties of alloys of the magnesium-yttrium system in neutral solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnoyarskii, V.V.; Petrova, L.M.; Dobatkina, T.V.; Korol'kova, I.G.

    1992-01-01

    A study is made of the effect of phase composition on the corrosive dissolution of binary alloys of the system magnesium-8.2% yttrium. It is shown that the appearance of the intermetallide Mg 24 Y 5 - being the effective cathode - intensifies self-dissolution of the alloy under conditions of anodic galvanostatic polarization

  15. Fusion welding of Fe-added lap joints between AZ31B magnesium alloy and 6061 aluminum alloy by hybrid laser-tungsten inert gas welding technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Xiao-dong; Liu, Li-ming

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → Hybrid Laser-TIG fusion welding technique was used for joining Mg to Al alloys. → Laser defocusing amount determined penetration depth inside Al alloy of joints. → The addition of Fe interlayer suppressed Mg-Al intermetallics greatly in joints. → A maximum joint strength with optimum thickness of Fe interlayer was obtained. → Excessive addition of Fe interlayer was adverse for the strength improvement. -- Abstract: AZ31B magnesium alloy and 6061-T6 aluminum alloy were lap joined together with the addition of Fe interlayer by fusion welding of hybrid laser-tungsten inert gas (TIG) technique. The influence of location of laser focal spot (LFS) on joint penetration depth and that of the depth on joint strength were investigated. The results showed that when the LFS was just on the surface of Al plate, the deepest penetration could be obtained, which contributed to the improvement of shear strength of Fe-added joints, but not to the elevation of the strength of Mg/Al direct joints. The addition of Fe interlayer suppressed massive production of Mg-Al intermetallics but produced Fe-Al intermetallics in the fusion zone of the joints, whose micro-hardness was extremely high and was also adverse for the enhancement of joint shear strength. The effect of Fe-interlayer thickness on the joint shear strength was also examined, and the maximum shear strength of Fe-added joint could achieve 100 MPa with 0.13 mm thick Fe interlayer. The fracture modes of 0.07 and 0.13 mm Fe-interlayer-added joints were both quasi-cleavage, while those of direct and 0.22 mm interlayer-added joints were completely cleavage. The theoretical shear strength of the Fe-added joints was also discussed.

  16. Oxidation of an aluminium-magnesium alloy in liquid state. Methodology of determination of mechanisms from not necessarily repeatable experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surla, Karine

    1998-01-01

    This research thesis reports the study of the oxidation of an aluminium-5 pc magnesium alloy in its liquid state in an oxygen environment, using thermogravimetric analysis and that of magnesium in its solid state. In a first part, the author reports a thermodynamic and bibliographical study on magnesium transformation in its solid state (Mg/O 2 and Mg/H 2 O systems, transformation with dry and humid synthetic air, oxidation inhibitors) and on Al-Mg alloy transformation in presence of oxygen (thermodynamic properties of aluminium-rich Al-Mg alloys, Al-Mg/O 2 /N 2 and Al-Mg/O 2 /N 2 /H 2 O systems). The next parts address the selection of reaction systems for the different cases (oxidation of solid magnesium in oxygen, oxidation of the Al-Mg alloy in oxygen), the modelling of the formation of magnesia from solid magnesium and from the Al-Mg alloy, and the modelling of the liquid Al-Mg A5182 alloy oxidation in oxygen [fr

  17. A novel method for producing magnesium based hydrogen storage alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, A.; Matthews, J.; Barlow, R.; Almamouri, M.M.; Speight, J.D.; Harris, I.R.

    2003-01-01

    Conventional melt casting techniques for producing Mg 2 Ni often result in no stoichiometric compositions due to the excess Mg which is added to the melt in order to counterbalance sublimation during processing. In this work a vapour phase process known as Low Pressure Pack Sublimation (LPPS) has been used to coat Ni substrates with Mg at 460-600 o C producing layers of single phase Mg 2 Ni. Ni substrates coated to date include powder, foils and wire. Using Ni-Fe substrates it has also been demonstrated that Fe can be distributed through the Mg 2 Ni alloy layer which could have a beneficial effect on the hydrogen storage characteristics. The alloy layers formed have been characterised by XRD and SEM equipped with EDX analysis. Hydrogen storage properties have been evaluated using an Intelligent Gravimetric Analyser (IGA). LPPS avoids most of the sintering of powder particles during processing which is observed in other vapour phase techniques while producing a stoichiometric composition of Mg 2 Ni. It is also a simple, low cost technique for producing these alloys. (author)

  18. Impression creep properties of a semi-solid processed magnesium-aluminum alloy containing calcium and rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nami, B.; Razavi, H.; Miresmaeili, S.M.; Mirdamadi, Sh.; Shabestari, S.G.

    2011-01-01

    The creep properties of a thixoformed magnesium-aluminum alloy containing calcium and rare earth elements were studied under shear modulus-normalized stresses ranging from 0.0225 to 0.035 at temperatures of 150-212 o C using the impression creep technique. Analysis of the creep mechanism based on a power-law equation indicated that pipe diffusion-controlled dislocation climb is the dominant mechanism during creep. The alloy has a better creep resistance than high-pressure die-cast magnesium-aluminum alloy.

  19. Study on isothermal precision forging process of rare earth intensifying magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, Debin; Xu, Wenchen; Han, Xiuzhu; Huang, Xiaolei

    2012-01-01

    A three dimensional rigid-plastic finite element model is established to simulate the isothermal precision forging process of the magnesium alloy bracket based on DEFORM 3D in order to analyze the material flow rule and determine the forging process scheme. Some problems such as underfilling and too large forging pressure are predicted and resolved through optimizing the shapes of the billet successfully. Compared to the initial microstructure, the isothermal-forged microstructure of the alloy refines obviously and amounts of secondary phases precipitate on the matrix during isothermal forging process. In subsequent ageing process, large quantities of secondary phases precipitate from α-Mg matrix with increasing ageing time. The optimal comprehensive mechanical properties of the alloy have been obtained after aged at 473 K, 63 h with the ultimate tensile strength, tensile yield strength and elongation 380 MPa, 243 MPa and 4.07% respectively, which shows good potential for application of isothermal forging process of rare earth intensifying magnesium alloy.

  20. The effect of PVD coatings on the corrosion behaviour of AZ91 magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altun, Hikmet; Sen, Sadri

    2006-01-01

    In this study, multilayered AlN (AlN + AlN + AlN) and AlN + TiN were coated on AZ91 magnesium alloy using physical vapour deposition (PVD) technique of DC magnetron sputtering, and the influence of the coatings on the corrosion behaviour of the AZ91 alloy was examined. A PVD system for coating processes, a potentiostat for electrochemical corrosion tests, X-ray difractometer for compositional analysis of the coatings, and scanning electron microscopy for surface examinations were used. It was determined that PVD coatings deposited on AZ91 magnesium alloy increased the corrosion resistance of the alloy, and AlN + AlN + AlN coating increased the corrosion resistance much more than AlN + TiN coating. However, it was observed that, in the coating layers, small structural defects e.g., pores, pinholes, cracks that could arise from the coating process or substrate and get the ability of protection from corrosion worsened were present

  1. Electrophoretic deposition of nanostructured hydroxyapatite coating on AZ91 magnesium alloy implants with different surface treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojaee, Ramin, E-mail: raminrojaee@aim.com [Biomaterials Research Group, Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fathi, Mohammadhossein [Biomaterials Research Group, Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dental Materials Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Raeissi, Keyvan [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Bio-absorbable magnesium (Mg) based alloys have been introduced as innovative orthopedic implants during recent years. It has been specified that rapid degradation of Mg based alloys in physiological environment should be restrained in order to be utilized in orthopedic trauma fixation and vascular intervention. In this developing field of healthcare materials, micro-arc oxidation (MAO), and MgF{sub 2} conversion coating were exploited as surface pre-treatment of AZ91 magnesium alloy to generate a nanostructured hydroxyapatite (n-HAp) coating via electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques were used to characterize the obtained powder and coatings. The potentiodynamic polarization tests were carried out to evaluate the corrosion behavior of the coated and uncoated specimens, and in vitro bioactivity evaluation were performed in simulated body fluid. Results revealed that the MAO/n-HAp coated AZ91 Mg alloy samples with a rough topography and lower corrosion current density leads to a lower Mg degradation rate accompanied by high bioactivity.

  2. Hydrogen storage in metallic hydrides: the hydrides of magnesium-nickel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, E.P. da.

    1981-01-01

    The massive and common use of hydrogen as an energy carrier requires an adequate solution to the problem of storing it. High pressure or low temperatures are not entirely satisfactory, having each a limited range of applications. Reversible metal hydrides cover a range of applications intermediate to high pressure gas and low temperature liquid hydrogen, retaining very favorable safety and energy density characteristics, both for mobile and stationary applications. This work demonstrates the technical viability of storing hydrogen in metal hydrides of magnesium-nickel alloys. Also, it shows that technology, a product of science, can be generated within an academic environment, of the goal is clear, the demand outstanding and the means available. We review briefly theoretical models relating to metal hydride properties, specially the thermodynamics properties relevant to this work. We report our experimental results on hydrides of magnesium-nickel alloys of various compositions including data on structure, hydrogen storage capacities, reaction kinetics, pressure-composition isotherms. We selected a promising alloy for mass production, built and tested a modular storage tank based on the hydrides of the alloy, with a capacity for storing 10 Nm sup(3) of hydrogen of 1 atm and 20 sup(0)C. The tank weighs 46,3 Kg and has a volume of 21 l. (author)

  3. Fatigue Life Prediction of Self-Piercing Rivet Joints Between Magnesium and Aluminum Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Hong-Tae

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Various light materials including aluminum alloys and magnesium alloys are being used to reduce the weight of vehicle structures. Joining of dissimilar materials is always a challenging task to construct a solid structure. Self-piercing rivet (SPR joint is one of various joining methods for dissimilar materials. Front shock tower structures were constructed with magnesium alloy (AM60 joined to aluminum alloy (Al6082 by SPR joints. To evaluate the durability performance of the SPR joints in the structures, fatigue tests of the front shock tower structures were conducted with constant amplitude loadings. Furthermore, this study investigated fatigue life prediction method of SPR joints and compared the fatigue life prediction results with that of experimental results. For fatigue life prediction of the SPR joints in the front shock tower structures, lap-shear and cross-tension specimens of SPR joint were constructed and tested to characterize the fatigue properties of the SPR joint. Then, the SPR joint was represented with area contact method (ACM in finite element (FE models. The load-life curves of the lap-shear and cross-tension specimens were converted to a structural stress-life (S-N curve of the SPR joints. The S-N curve was used to predict fatigue life of SPR joints in the front shock tower structures. The test results and the prediction results were well correlated.

  4. Electrophoretic deposition of nanostructured hydroxyapatite coating on AZ91 magnesium alloy implants with different surface treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojaee, Ramin; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Raeissi, Keyvan

    2013-01-01

    Bio-absorbable magnesium (Mg) based alloys have been introduced as innovative orthopedic implants during recent years. It has been specified that rapid degradation of Mg based alloys in physiological environment should be restrained in order to be utilized in orthopedic trauma fixation and vascular intervention. In this developing field of healthcare materials, micro-arc oxidation (MAO), and MgF 2 conversion coating were exploited as surface pre-treatment of AZ91 magnesium alloy to generate a nanostructured hydroxyapatite (n-HAp) coating via electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques were used to characterize the obtained powder and coatings. The potentiodynamic polarization tests were carried out to evaluate the corrosion behavior of the coated and uncoated specimens, and in vitro bioactivity evaluation were performed in simulated body fluid. Results revealed that the MAO/n-HAp coated AZ91 Mg alloy samples with a rough topography and lower corrosion current density leads to a lower Mg degradation rate accompanied by high bioactivity.

  5. Electrophoretic deposition of nanostructured hydroxyapatite coating on AZ91 magnesium alloy implants with different surface treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojaee, Ramin; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Raeissi, Keyvan

    2013-11-01

    Bio-absorbable magnesium (Mg) based alloys have been introduced as innovative orthopedic implants during recent years. It has been specified that rapid degradation of Mg based alloys in physiological environment should be restrained in order to be utilized in orthopedic trauma fixation and vascular intervention. In this developing field of healthcare materials, micro-arc oxidation (MAO), and MgF2 conversion coating were exploited as surface pre-treatment of AZ91 magnesium alloy to generate a nanostructured hydroxyapatite (n-HAp) coating via electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques were used to characterize the obtained powder and coatings. The potentiodynamic polarization tests were carried out to evaluate the corrosion behavior of the coated and uncoated specimens, and in vitro bioactivity evaluation were performed in simulated body fluid. Results revealed that the MAO/n-HAp coated AZ91 Mg alloy samples with a rough topography and lower corrosion current density leads to a lower Mg degradation rate accompanied by high bioactivity.

  6. On the notch ductility of a magnesium-rare earth alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondori, B., E-mail: bkondori.13034@tamu.edu [Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Benzerga, A.A. [Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Department of Aerospace Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2015-10-28

    The room-temperature notch ductility of magnesium-rare earth alloy WE43 is investigated for two loading orientations. This material is endowed with quasi-isotropic plastic flow properties, higher strength and similar uniaxial ductility in comparison with other commercially available Mg alloys. The authors have recently shown that the notch ductility of a Mg–Al–Zn alloy is greater than its uniaxial ductility over a wide range of notch geometries. This paper investigates whether the same trends hold for WE43, discusses the orientation dependence of ductility and the propensity for intergranular fracture at high levels of hydrostatic tension. The latter mode of fracture is analyzed by means of detailed fractography in order to elucidate the role of grain-boundary particles and precipitates in the fracture process.

  7. Resistance Element Welding of Magnesium Alloy/austenitic Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manladan, S. M.; Yusof, F.; Ramesh, S.; Zhang, Y.; Luo, Z.; Ling, Z.

    2017-09-01

    Multi-material design is increasingly applied in the automotive and aerospace industries to reduce weight, improve crash-worthiness, and reduce environmental pollution. In the present study, a novel variant of resistance spot welding technique, known as resistance element welding was used to join AZ31 Mg alloy to 316 L austenitic stainless steel. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the joints were evaluated. It was found that the nugget consisted of two zones, including a peripheral fusion zone on the stainless steel side and the main fusion zone. The tensile shear properties of the joints are superior to those obtained by traditional resistance spot welding.

  8. Magnesium alloys and graphite wastes encapsulated in cementitious materials: Reduction of galvanic corrosion using alkali hydroxide activated blast furnace slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chartier, D., E-mail: david.chartier@cea.fr [Commissariat à l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, CEA, DEN, DTCD, SPDE, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Muzeau, B. [DEN-Service d’Etude du Comportement des Radionucléides (SECR), CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Stefan, L. [AREVA NC/D& S - France/Technical Department, 1 place Jean Millier 92084 Paris La Défense (France); Sanchez-Canet, J. [Commissariat à l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, CEA, DEN, DTCD, SPDE, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Monguillon, C. [DEN-Service d’Etude du Comportement des Radionucléides (SECR), CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Embedded in cement, magnesium is corroded by residual water present in porosity of the matrix. • Corrosion is enhanced by galvanic phenomenon when magnesium is in contact with graphite. • Galvanic corrosion of magnesium in contact with graphite debris is shown to be severe with ordinary Portland cement. • Galvanic corrosion is significantly lowered in high alkali medium such as sodium hydroxide. • Sodium hydroxide activated blast furnace slag is a convenient binder to embed magnesium. - Abstract: Magnesium alloys and graphite from spent nuclear fuel have been stored together in La Hague plant. The packaging of these wastes is under consideration. These wastes could be mixed in a grout composed of industrially available cement (Portland, calcium aluminate…). Within the alkaline pore solution of these matrixes, magnesium alloys are imperfectly protected by a layer of Brucite resulting in a slow corrosion releasing hydrogen. As the production of this gas must be considered for the storage safety, and the quality of wasteform, it is important to select a cement matrix capable of lowering the corrosion kinetics. Many types of calcium based cements have been tested and most of them have caused strong hydrogen production when magnesium alloys and graphite are conditioned together because of galvanic corrosion. Exceptions are binders based on alkali hydroxide activated ground granulated blast furnace slag (BFS) which are presented in this article.

  9. Magnesium alloys and graphite wastes encapsulated in cementitious materials: Reduction of galvanic corrosion using alkali hydroxide activated blast furnace slag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chartier, D.; Muzeau, B.; Stefan, L.; Sanchez-Canet, J.; Monguillon, C.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Embedded in cement, magnesium is corroded by residual water present in porosity of the matrix. • Corrosion is enhanced by galvanic phenomenon when magnesium is in contact with graphite. • Galvanic corrosion of magnesium in contact with graphite debris is shown to be severe with ordinary Portland cement. • Galvanic corrosion is significantly lowered in high alkali medium such as sodium hydroxide. • Sodium hydroxide activated blast furnace slag is a convenient binder to embed magnesium. - Abstract: Magnesium alloys and graphite from spent nuclear fuel have been stored together in La Hague plant. The packaging of these wastes is under consideration. These wastes could be mixed in a grout composed of industrially available cement (Portland, calcium aluminate…). Within the alkaline pore solution of these matrixes, magnesium alloys are imperfectly protected by a layer of Brucite resulting in a slow corrosion releasing hydrogen. As the production of this gas must be considered for the storage safety, and the quality of wasteform, it is important to select a cement matrix capable of lowering the corrosion kinetics. Many types of calcium based cements have been tested and most of them have caused strong hydrogen production when magnesium alloys and graphite are conditioned together because of galvanic corrosion. Exceptions are binders based on alkali hydroxide activated ground granulated blast furnace slag (BFS) which are presented in this article.

  10. Understanding effects of microstructural inhomogeneity on creep response – New approaches to improve the creep resistance in magnesium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanding Huang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous investigations indicate that the creep resistance of magnesium alloys is proportional to the stability of precipitated intermetallic phases at grain boundaries. These stable intermetallic phases were considered to be effective to suppress the deformation by grain boundary sliding, leading to the improvement of creep properties. Based on this point, adding the alloying elements to form the stable intermetallics with high melting point became a popular way to develop the new creep resistant magnesium alloys. The present investigation, however, shows that the creep properties of binary Mg–Sn alloy are still poor even though the addition of Sn possibly results in the precipitation of thermal stable Mg2Sn at grain boundaries. That means other possible mechanisms function to affect the creep response. It is finally found that the poor creep resistance is attributed to the segregation of Sn at dendritic and grain boundaries. Based on this observation, new approaches to improve the creep resistance are suggested for magnesium alloys because most currently magnesium alloys have the commonality with the Mg–Sn alloys.

  11. Effect of surface roughness on the in vitro degradation behaviour of a biodegradable magnesium-based alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, R.; Kannan, M. Bobby; He, Y.; Sandham, A.

    2013-08-01

    In this study, the in vitro degradation behaviour of AZ91 magnesium alloy with two different surface finishes was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in simulated body fluid (SBF). The polarisation resistance (Rp) of the rough surface alloy immersed in SBF for 3 h was ~30% lower as compared to that of the smooth surface alloy. After 12 h immersion in SBF, the Rp values for both the surface finishes decreased and were also similar. However, localised degradation occurred sooner, and to a noticeably higher severity in the rough surface alloy as compared to the smooth surface alloy.

  12. Fermi surface changes in dilute magnesium alloys: a pseudopotential band structure model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fung, W.K.

    1976-01-01

    The de Haas-van Alphen effect has been used to study the Fermi surface of pure magnesium and its dilute alloys containing lithium and indium. The quantum oscillations in magnetization were detected by means of a torque magnetometer in magnetic field up to 36 kilogauss and temperature range of 4.2 0 to 1.7 0 K. The results provide information on the effects of lithium and indium solutes on the Fermi surface of magnesium in changes of extremal cross sections and effective masses as well as the relaxation times associated with the orbits. The nonlocal pseudopotential model proposed by Kimball, Stark and Mueller has been fitted to the Fermi surface of magnesium and extended to include the dilute alloys, fitting all the observed de Haas-van Alphen frequencies with an accuracy of better than 1 percent. A modified rigid band interpretation including both Fermi energy and local band edge changes computed from the model, gives an overall satisfactory description of the observed frequency shifts. With the pseudo-wavefunctions provided by the nonlocal model, the relaxation times in terms of Dingle temperatures for several orbits have been predicted using Sorbello's multiple-plane-wave phase shift model. The calculation with phase shifts obtained from a model potential yields a greater anisotropy than has been observed experimentally, while a two-parameter phase shift model provides a good fit to the experimental results

  13. The reactions of magnesium and its alloys with moist gases at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darras, R.

    1963-02-01

    The kinetics and mechanisms of the reaction of pure or low alloyed magnesium with various gas saturated by water vapor: oxygen, argon, nitrogen, air, carbon dioxide, have been studied and compared in the temperature range 350-600 deg C. After picturing the large chemical reactivity of magnesium surface, the more or less properties of the oxide film, always made of magnesia, have been shown depending on the nature of the gas carrying water vapor; in fact, metal sublimation occurs the more easily as the surrounding atmosphere is less oxidizing. Moreover, an activation energy change is systematic, but at a temperature which depends also on the latter. In the case of the alloys, the linear oxidation rate is generally obtained only after short induction periods, parabolic in nature. Two possibilities of corrosion inhibition of magnesium by water vapor are then demonstrated and explained: either by a partial superficial fluoridation, or when the carrier gas is carbon dioxide. Also, the extreme conditions of oxidation were studied, that is the ignition processes that occur at a particular temperature in every gas mixture. Finally, it is tried to evolve the fundamental and practical significance of all the results. (author) [fr

  14. History of the use of industrial magnesium - thorium alloys in Romania. Technological and radio-protection aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzaianu, A.; Olteanu, A.F.; Rusu, I.; Manoliu, V.

    2008-01-01

    The development of the aerospace industry at the beginning of the '90s involved the assimilation of new materials capable to bring reliability and safety in the operation of certain components of the Viper - Rolls-Royce turbo-propeller assimilated by the national industry. In foundries specialized in aeronautical cast components, there exists a special category of magnesium alloys in which the main alloying element is thorium. Alloys based on Mg-Th-Zn are used in the manufacture of jet engine components. Magnesium alloys cast components are required to operate in creep conditions, which determined the elaboration of distinct technological specifications for the use of Mg-Th-Zn alloy systems and of certain restrictions imposed to ensure radiologic protection in the handling of pre-alloys and alloys but also of cast and machined parts that exhibited good operation characteristics at temperatures reaching 350 C. This paper is aimed at presenting some of the general technological prescriptions and measurements performed during the technologic flow involved by the manufacture of thorium alloyed magnesium-based alloy castings, at the Romanian Metallurgical Factory for Aerospace Components in Bucharest. (authors)

  15. Improved hydrogen absorption and desorption kinetics of magnesium-based alloy via addition of yttrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tai; Li, Qiang; Liu, Ning; Liang, Chunyong; Yin, Fuxing; Zhang, Yanghuan

    2018-02-01

    Yttrium (Y) is selected to modify the microstructure of magnesium (Mg) to improve the hydrogen storage performance. Thereby, binary alloys with the nominal compositions of Mg24Yx (x = 1-5) are fabricated by inexpensive casting technique. Their microstructure and phase transformation during hydriding and dehydriding process are characterized by using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis. The isothermal hydrogen absorption and desorption kinetics are also measured by a Sievert's-type apparatus at various temperatures. Typical multiphase structures of binary alloy can be clearly observed. All of these alloys can reversibly absorb and desorb large amount of hydrogen at proper temperatures. The addition of Y markedly promotes the hydrogen absorption kinetics. However, it results in a reduction of reversible hydrogen storage capacity. A maximum value of dehydrogenation rate is observed with the increase of Y content. The Mg24Y3 alloy has the optimal desorption kinetic performance, and it can desorb about 5.4 wt% of hydrogen at 380 °C within 12 min. Combining Johnson-Mehl-Avrami kinetic model and Arrhenius equation, the dehydrogenation activation energy of the alloys are evaluated. The Mg24Y3 alloy also has the lowest dehydrogenation activation energy (119 kJ mol-1).

  16. Plutonium and americium recovery from spent molten-salt-extraction salts with aluminum-magnesium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cusick, M.J.; Sherwood, W.G.; Fitzpatrick, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    Development work was performed to determine the feasibility of removing plutonium and americium from spent molten-salt-extraction (MSE) salts using Al-Mg alloys. If the product buttons from this process are compatible with subsequent aqueous processing, the complex chloride-to-nitrate aqueous conversion step which is presently required for these salts may be eliminated. The optimum alloy composition used to treat spent 8 wt % MSE salts in the past yielded poor phase-disengagement characteristics when applied to 30 mol % salts. After a limited investigation of other alloy compositions in the Al-Mg-Pu-Am system, it was determined that the Al-Pu-Am system could yield a compatible alloy. In this system, experiments were performed to investigate the effects of plutonium loading in the alloy, excess magnesium, age of the spent salt on actinide recovery, phase disengagement, and button homogeneity. Experimental results indicate that 95 percent plutonium recoveries can be attained for fresh salts. Further development is required for backlog salts generated prior to 1981. A homogeneous product alloy, as required for aqueous processing, could not be produced

  17. Synergistic effect of Al and Gd on enhancement of mechanical properties of magnesium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bita Pourbahari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Gd/Al ratio on the properties of as-cast Mg-Gd-Al-Zn alloys was investigated by changing the chemical composition from that of AZ61 to GZ61. At the ratio of 1, the Al2Gd phase becomes predominant and Mg17Al12 is hardly seen in the microstructure. As a potent inoculant, the Al2Gd phase resulted in intense grain refinement and enhancement of strength, ductility and toughness. For instance, the tensile strength and elongation to failure of Mg-3Gd-3Al-1Zn alloy were enhanced by ~4% and 180% compared with those of AZ61 alloy, respectively. However, at high Gd/Al ratios, the Al2Gd phase was replaced by (Mg,Al3Gd and Mg5Gd phases and very large grain sizes were achieved, which led to poor tensile properties and the appearance of cleavage facets on the fracture surfaces. Therefore, it can be deduced that the presence of Gd and Al, in appropriate amounts to reach Gd/Al ratio of ~ 1, is required for the achievement of grain refinement, good ductility, high strength, and the appearance of ductile fracture surfaces in the Mg-Gd-Al-Zn system. Conclusively, the Mg-Gd-Al-Zn alloys can be considered as a new class of structural magnesium alloy and it is superior to both AZ (Mg-Al-Zn and GZ (Mg-Gd-Zn series of alloys.

  18. Coating of biodegradable magnesium alloy bone implants using nanostructured diopside (CaMgSi{sub 2}O{sub 6})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razavi, Mehdi, E-mail: mehdi.razavi@okstate.edu [Biomaterials Research Group, Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Torabinejad Dental Research Center, School of Dentistry, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 81746-73461 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Anatomical Sciences and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 81746-73461 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Helmerich Advanced Technology Research Center, Oklahoma State University, Tulsa, OK 74106 (United States); School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Helmerich Advanced Technology Research Center, Oklahoma State University, Tulsa, OK 74106 (United States); Fathi, Mohammadhossein [Biomaterials Research Group, Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dental Materials Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Savabi, Omid [Torabinejad Dental Research Center, School of Dentistry, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 81746-73461 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Beni, Batoul Hashemi [Department of Anatomical Sciences and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 81746-73461 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Razavi, Seyed Mohammad [School of Dentistry, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 81746-73461 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vashaee, Daryoosh [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Helmerich Advanced Technology Research Center, Oklahoma State University, Tulsa, OK 74106 (United States); and others

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium alloys with their biodegradable characteristic can be a very good candidate to be used in orthopedic implants. However, magnesium alloys may corrode and degrade too fast for applications in the bone healing procedure. In order to enhance the corrosion resistance and the in vitro bioactivity of a magnesium alloy, a nanostructured diopside (CaMgSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}) film was coated on AZ91 magnesium alloy through combined micro-arc oxidation (MAO) and electrophoretic deposition (EPD) methods. The crystalline structures, morphologies and compositions of the coated and uncoated substrates were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and immersion test in simulated body fluid (SBF) were employed to evaluate the corrosion resistance and the in vitro bioactivity of the samples. The results of our investigation showed that the nanostructured diopside coating deposited on the MAO layer increases the corrosion resistance and improves the in vitro bioactivity of the biodegradable magnesium alloy.

  19. Coating of biodegradable magnesium alloy bone implants using nanostructured diopside (CaMgSi2O6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Mehdi; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Savabi, Omid; Beni, Batoul Hashemi; Razavi, Seyed Mohammad; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Tayebi, Lobat

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium alloys with their biodegradable characteristic can be a very good candidate to be used in orthopedic implants. However, magnesium alloys may corrode and degrade too fast for applications in the bone healing procedure. In order to enhance the corrosion resistance and the in vitro bioactivity of a magnesium alloy, a nanostructured diopside (CaMgSi2O6) film was coated on AZ91 magnesium alloy through combined micro-arc oxidation (MAO) and electrophoretic deposition (EPD) methods. The crystalline structures, morphologies and compositions of the coated and uncoated substrates were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and immersion test in simulated body fluid (SBF) were employed to evaluate the corrosion resistance and the in vitro bioactivity of the samples. The results of our investigation showed that the nanostructured diopside coating deposited on the MAO layer increases the corrosion resistance and improves the in vitro bioactivity of the biodegradable magnesium alloy.

  20. Coating of biodegradable magnesium alloy bone implants using nanostructured diopside (CaMgSi2O6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razavi, Mehdi; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Savabi, Omid; Beni, Batoul Hashemi; Razavi, Seyed Mohammad; Vashaee, Daryoosh

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium alloys with their biodegradable characteristic can be a very good candidate to be used in orthopedic implants. However, magnesium alloys may corrode and degrade too fast for applications in the bone healing procedure. In order to enhance the corrosion resistance and the in vitro bioactivity of a magnesium alloy, a nanostructured diopside (CaMgSi 2 O 6 ) film was coated on AZ91 magnesium alloy through combined micro-arc oxidation (MAO) and electrophoretic deposition (EPD) methods. The crystalline structures, morphologies and compositions of the coated and uncoated substrates were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and immersion test in simulated body fluid (SBF) were employed to evaluate the corrosion resistance and the in vitro bioactivity of the samples. The results of our investigation showed that the nanostructured diopside coating deposited on the MAO layer increases the corrosion resistance and improves the in vitro bioactivity of the biodegradable magnesium alloy.

  1. AZ91C magnesium alloy modified by Cd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabadi, R.; Ambat, Rajan; Dwarakadasa, E.S.

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, the effect of Cd on the microstructure, mechanical properties and general corrosion behaviour of AZ91C alloys was investigated. Addition of Cd was found not to be efficient in modifying/refining the microstructure or β-phase. A morphology change in β-phase from fine continuous...... precipitates to discontinuous β-phase upon the addition of Cd was observed. A marginal increment in mechanical properties was observed. General corrosion behaviour was followed with weight loss measurements, potentiostatic polarisation studies and surface studies in 3.5% sodium chloride solution and 3.......5% sodium chloride with 2% potassium dichromate solution. Cd addition deteriorated the corrosion behaviour of AZ91C. This behaviour was attributed to the formation of chunks of β-phase upon the addition of Cd. AZ91C with refined β-phase distribution, performed rather better in the NaCl solutions....

  2. Composites of aluminum alloy and magnesium alloy with graphite showing low thermal expansion and high specific thermal conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddone, Valerio; Boerner, Benji; Reich, Stephanie

    2017-12-01

    High thermal conductivity, low thermal expansion and low density are three important features in novel materials for high performance electronics, mobile applications and aerospace. Spark plasma sintering was used to produce light metal-graphite composites with an excellent combination of these three properties. By adding up to 50 vol.% of macroscopic graphite flakes, the thermal expansion coefficient of magnesium and aluminum alloys was tuned down to zero or negative values, while the specific thermal conductivity was over four times higher than in copper. No degradation of the samples was observed after thermal stress tests and thermal cycling. Tensile strength and hardness measurements proved sufficient mechanical stability for most thermal management applications. For the production of the alloys, both prealloyed powders and elemental mixtures were used; the addition of trace elements to cope with the oxidation of the powders was studied.

  3. The study of a Mg-rich epoxy primer for protection of AZ91D magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Xiangyu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Zuo Yu, E-mail: zuoy@mail.buct.edu.c [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Zhao Xuhui; Tang Yuming; Feng Xingguo [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2011-01-15

    Research highlights: {yields} A Mg-rich epoxy primer was prepared by adding pure magnesium particles in epoxy coating. Cross scratch testing results showed that in 3% NaCl solution the Mg-rich primer showed better protection for AZ91D magnesium alloy than the same epoxy primer without Mg addition. {yields} The open circuit potential of AZ91D alloy in NaCl solution decreased after coated with Mg-rich coating, suggesting that cathodic protection effect of the Mg-rich coating on AZ91D alloy was present. {yields} EIS studies showed that during the immersion tests of AZ91D alloy with Mg-rich coating the magnesium particles in coating dissolved with the charge-transfer resistance R{sub ct} at the magnesium particle/coating interface decreased and the double-layer capacitance Q{sub dl} increased. While the coating resistance remained stable for a long time and corrosion of the AZ91D alloy substrate was obviously delayed. - Abstract: A Mg-rich epoxy primer was prepared by adding pure magnesium particles to an epoxy coating. The coating properties were studied with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The Mg-rich primer showed better protection for AZ91D magnesium alloy than the same epoxy primer without Mg addition. The open circuit potential measurements showed cathodic protection effect of the Mg-rich primer on AZ91D alloy. Cross scratch testing showed that the Mg-rich primer provided better protection for the substrate than original epoxy coating. The precipitation of Mg(OH){sub 2} in the coating also provided some degree of barrier protection.

  4. The study of a Mg-rich epoxy primer for protection of AZ91D magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xiangyu; Zuo Yu; Zhao Xuhui; Tang Yuming; Feng Xingguo

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → A Mg-rich epoxy primer was prepared by adding pure magnesium particles in epoxy coating. Cross scratch testing results showed that in 3% NaCl solution the Mg-rich primer showed better protection for AZ91D magnesium alloy than the same epoxy primer without Mg addition. → The open circuit potential of AZ91D alloy in NaCl solution decreased after coated with Mg-rich coating, suggesting that cathodic protection effect of the Mg-rich coating on AZ91D alloy was present. → EIS studies showed that during the immersion tests of AZ91D alloy with Mg-rich coating the magnesium particles in coating dissolved with the charge-transfer resistance R ct at the magnesium particle/coating interface decreased and the double-layer capacitance Q dl increased. While the coating resistance remained stable for a long time and corrosion of the AZ91D alloy substrate was obviously delayed. - Abstract: A Mg-rich epoxy primer was prepared by adding pure magnesium particles to an epoxy coating. The coating properties were studied with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The Mg-rich primer showed better protection for AZ91D magnesium alloy than the same epoxy primer without Mg addition. The open circuit potential measurements showed cathodic protection effect of the Mg-rich primer on AZ91D alloy. Cross scratch testing showed that the Mg-rich primer provided better protection for the substrate than original epoxy coating. The precipitation of Mg(OH) 2 in the coating also provided some degree of barrier protection.

  5. Corrosion Thermodynamics of Magnesium and Alloys from First Principles as a Function of Solvation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, Krista; Williams, Kristen; Andzelm, Jan

    Thermodynamics of corrosion processes occurring on magnesium surfaces, such as hydrogen evolution and water dissociation, have been examined with density functional theory (DFT) to evaluate the effect of impurities and dilute alloying additions. The modeling of corrosion thermodynamics requires examination of species in a variety of chemical and electronic states in order to accurately represent the complex electrochemical corrosion process. In this study, DFT calculations for magnesium corrosion thermodynamics were performed with two DFT codes (VASP and DMol3), with multiple exchange-correlation functionals for chemical accuracy, as well as with various levels of implicit and explicit solvation for surfaces and solvated ions. The accuracy of the first principles calculations has been validated against Pourbaix diagrams constructed from solid, gas and solvated charged ion calculations. For aqueous corrosion, it is shown that a well parameterized implicit solvent is capable of accurately representing all but the first coordinating layer of explicit water for charged ions.

  6. Corrosion product layers on magnesium alloys AZ31 and AZ61: Surface chemistry and protective ability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feliu, S.; Llorente, I.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Surface chemistry of the corrosion product layers on magnesium alloys. • Influence of the type of alloy on the carbonate surface enrichment. • Relation between surface composition and protection properties. - Abstract: This paper studies the chemical composition of the corrosion product layers formed on magnesium alloys AZ31 and AZ61 following immersion in 0.6 M NaCl, with a view to better understanding their protective action. Relative differences in the chemical nature of the layers were quantified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDX) and low-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD). Corrosion behavior was investigated by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and hydrogen evolution measurement. An inhibitive effect from the corrosion product layers was observed from EIS, principally in the case of AZ31, as confirmed by hydrogen evolution tests. A link was found between carbonate enrichment observed by XPS in the surface of the corrosion product layer, concomitant with the increase in the protective properties observed by EIS

  7. Structure and in vitro bioactivity of ceramic coatings on magnesium alloys by microarc oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huijun; Dong, Qing; Dou, Jinhe; Pan, Yaokun; Chen, Chuanzhong

    2016-12-01

    Magnesium and its alloys have the potential to serve as lightweight, degradable, biocompatible and bioactive orthopedic implants for load-bearing applications. However, severe local corrosion attack and high corrosion rate have prevented their further clinical use. Micro-arc oxidation (MAO) is proved to be a simple, controllable and efficient electrochemistry technique that can prepare protective ceramic coatings on magnesium alloys. In this paper, electrolyte containing silicate salts was used for microarc oxidation to form ceramic bioactive coatings on the ZK61 alloy substrate. The structure characteristics and element distributions of the coating were investigated by XRD, TEM, SEM and EPMA. The MAO samples were immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 7 and 14 days, respectively. The surface characteristic of the immersed coatings was investigated by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results show that these MAO coatings have low crystallinity and are mainly composed of MgO, Mg2SiO4 and Mg2Si2O6. The coating surface is porous. During the SBF immersion period, the nucleation and precipitation of bone-like apatites occur on the MAO coating surface. The corrosion resistance of the substrate is improved by the MAO coatings.

  8. Cyclic crack resistance of magnesium alloys in vacuum, humid an highly desiccated air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarema, S.Ya.; Zinyuk, O.D.

    1986-01-01

    Investigation results on cyclic crack resistance of four structural magnesium alloys in vacuum, humid and highly desiccated air are presented. The regularities obtained are discussed at the background of the known data, using the data on crack closing and hydrogen concenration near its vertex. Diagrams of fatigue fracture of magnesium alloys MA2-1, MA15, MA8 and MA18, produced in vacuum, dry and humid air, on the whole obey the previously established regularities for aluminium alloys and steels. The diagrams of fatigue fracture plotted taking into account crack closing (v-ΔK eff ) for dry and humid air are quite similar. An increase in cyclic crack resistance of the materials in vacuum can not be explained by the change in the crack closing and is evidently conditioned by the absence of hydrogen absorption as the main factor accelerating the crack growth. Effect of vacuum on the threshold K th increases with the increase in σ 0.2 , which testifies to a strong effect of medium on the rate of fatigue crack growth in near the threshold region

  9. Corrosion product layers on magnesium alloys AZ31 and AZ61: Surface chemistry and protective ability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feliu, S., E-mail: sfeliu@cenim.csic.es; Llorente, I.

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • Surface chemistry of the corrosion product layers on magnesium alloys. • Influence of the type of alloy on the carbonate surface enrichment. • Relation between surface composition and protection properties. - Abstract: This paper studies the chemical composition of the corrosion product layers formed on magnesium alloys AZ31 and AZ61 following immersion in 0.6 M NaCl, with a view to better understanding their protective action. Relative differences in the chemical nature of the layers were quantified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDX) and low-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD). Corrosion behavior was investigated by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and hydrogen evolution measurement. An inhibitive effect from the corrosion product layers was observed from EIS, principally in the case of AZ31, as confirmed by hydrogen evolution tests. A link was found between carbonate enrichment observed by XPS in the surface of the corrosion product layer, concomitant with the increase in the protective properties observed by EIS.

  10. Mechanical properties of carbon fibre-reinforced polymer/magnesium alloy hybrid laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Pengpeng; Wu, Xuan; Pan, Yingcai; Tao, Ye; Wu, Guoqing; Huang, Zheng

    2018-04-01

    In this study, we prepared fibre metal laminates (FMLs) consisting of high-modulus carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) prepregs and thin AZ31 alloy sheets by using hot-pressing technology. Tensile and low-velocity impact tests were performed to evaluate the mechanical properties and fracture behaviour of the magnesium alloy-based FMLs (Mg-FMLs) and to investigate the differences in the fracture behaviour between the Mg-FMLs and traditional Mg-FMLs. Results show that the Mg-FMLs exhibit higher specific tensile strength and specific tensile modulus than traditional Mg-FMLs and that the tensile behaviour of the Mg-FMLs is mainly governed by the CFRP because of the combination of high interlaminar shear properties and thin magnesium alloy layers. The Mg-FMLs exhibit excellent bending stiffness. Hence, no significant difference between the residual displacement d r and indentation depth d i , and the permanent deformation is mainly limited to a small zone surrounding the impact location after the impact tests.

  11. Material Behavior Based Hybrid Process for Sheet Draw-Forging Thin Walled Magnesium Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng, Z.Q.; Shivpuri, R.

    2005-01-01

    Magnesium alloys are conventionally formed at the elevated temperatures. The thermally improved formability is sensitive to the temperature and strain rate. Due to limitations in forming speeds, tooling strength and narrow processing windows, complex thin walled parts cannot be made by traditional warm drawing or hot forging processes. A hybrid process, which is based on the deformation mechanism of magnesium alloys at the elevated temperature, is proposed that combines warm drawing and hot forging modes to produce an aggressive geometry at acceptable forming speed. The process parameters, such as temperatures, forming speeds etc. are determined by the FEM modeling and simulation. Sensitivity analysis under the constraint of forming limits of Mg alloy sheet material and strength of tooling material is carried out. The proposed approach is demonstrated on a conical geometry with thin walls and with bottom features. Results show that designed geometry can be formed in about 8 seconds, this cannot be formed by conventional forging while around 1000s is required for warm drawing. This process is being further investigated through controlled experiments

  12. Evaluation of magnesium-yttrium alloy as an extraluminal tracheal stent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luffy, Sarah A; Chou, Da-Tren; Waterman, Jenora; Wearden, Peter D; Kumta, Prashant N; Gilbert, Thomas W

    2014-03-01

    Tracheomalacia is a relatively rare problem, but can be challenging to treat, particularly in pediatric patients. Due to the presence of mechanically deficient cartilage, the trachea is unable to resist collapse under physiologic pressures of respiration, which can lead to acute death if left untreated. However, if treated, the outcome for patients with congenital tracheomalacia is quite good because the cartilage tends to spontaneously mature over a period of 12 to 18 months. The present study investigated the potential for the use of degradable magnesium-3% yttrium alloy (W3) to serve as an extraluminal tracheal stent in a canine model. The host response to the scaffold included the formation of a thin, vascularized capsule consisting of collagenous tissue and primarily mononuclear cells. The adjacent cartilage structure was not adversely affected as observed by bronchoscopic, gross, histologic, and mechanical analysis. The W3 stents showed reproducible spatial and temporal fracture patterns, but otherwise tended to corrode quite slowly, with a mix of Ca and P rich corrosion product formed on the surface and observed focal regions of pitting. The study showed that the approach to use degradable magnesium alloys as an extraluminal tracheal stent is promising, although further development of the alloys is required to improve the resistance to stress corrosion cracking and improve the ductility. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Solidified Structure and Corrosion Behavior of Laser-melt Magnesium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FANG Zhi-hao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The AZ91D magnesium alloy samples were scanned by millisecond pulse Nd:YAG laser under high pure argon protection. The surface morphology, microstructure and composition of the treated magnesium alloy were studied by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy. In addition, the corrosion surface which was corroded using simulated body fluid and the mass fraction of 3.5%NaCl solution was observed and material corrosion rate was calculated. The results show that, at the same corrosion time, compared with the untreated samples, the surface corrosion resistance is improved by the enrichment of Al at the irradiated surface by the joint effect of the combination of refined homogeneous microstructure of α-Mg phase and β-Mg17Al12 phase and the selective vaporization and the chemical composition of base metal in the laser-treated AZ91D alloy; the solidification equation is obtained by calculating the relation between the size of the dendrite cell and the cooling rate in laser melting zone.

  14. High temperature deformation behavior and microstructural evolutions of a high Zr containing WE magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asqardoust, Sh.; Zarei-Hanzaki, A. [School of Metallurgical & Materials Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fatemi, S.M., E-mail: mfatemi@ut.ac.ir [Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moradjoy-Hamedani, M. [School of Metallurgical & Materials Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-06-05

    Magnesium alloys containing RE elements (WE grade) are considered as potential materials for high temperature structural applications. To this end, it is crucial to study the flow behavior and the microstructural evolution of these alloys at high temperatures. In present work, the hot compression testing was employed to investigate the deformation behavior of a rolled WE54 magnesium alloy at elevated temperatures. The experimental material failed to deform to target strain of 0.6 at 250 and 300 °C, while the straining was successfully performed at 350 °C. A flow softening was observed at 350 °C, which was related to the depletion of RE strengthener elements, particularly Y atoms, from the solid solution and dynamic precipitation of β phases. It was suggested that the Zener pinning effect of the latter precipitates might retard the occurrence of dynamic recrystallization. As the temperature increased to 450 and 500 °C, the RE elements dissolved in the matrix and thus dynamic recrystallization could considerably progress in the microstructure. The comparative study of specimens cut along transverse ad normal direction (TD and ND specimens) implied that the presence of RE elements might effectively reduce the yield anisotropy in WE54 rolled alloy. Microstructural observations indicated a higher fraction of dynamically-recrystallized grains for the ND specimens. This was discussed relying on the different shares of deformation mechanism during compressing the TD and ND specimens. - Highlights: • Deformation behavior of a high Zr WE alloy was addressed at low strain rate. • Dynamic precipitation was realized at 350 °C. • The occurrence of DRX was retarded due to Zener pinning effect. • A higher DRX fraction was obtained in ND specimens comparing with TD ones.

  15. Biocorrosion behavior and cell viability of adhesive polymer coated magnesium based alloys for medical implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdal-hay, Abdalla [Departmentt of Bionano System Engineering, College of Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Mechanical Design Engineering, Advanced wind power system research institute, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Dewidar, Montasser [Department of Materials and Mechanical Design, Faculty of Energy Engineering, South Valley University, Aswan (Egypt); Lim, Jae Kyoo, E-mail: jklim@jbnu.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Design Engineering, Advanced wind power system research institute, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The corrosion behavior of magnesium for orthopedic applications is extremely poor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The solvent (DCM, THF and DMF) had a strong effect on the coatings performance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mg bar alloy coated with PVAc/DCM layers provided an excellent bonding strength. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Treated samples indicated significant damping for the degradation rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cytocompatibility on MC3T3 cells of the PVAc/DCM samples revealed a good behavior. - Abstract: The present study was ultimately aimed to design novel adhesive biodegradable polymer, poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc), coatings onto Mg based alloys by the dip-coating technique in order to control the degradation rate and enhance the biocompatibility of magnesium alloys. The influence of various solvents on PVAc surface topography and their protection of Mg alloys were dramatically studied in vitro. Electrochemical polarization, degradation, and PVAc film cytocompatibility were also tested. Our results showed that the solvent had a significant effect on coating quality. PVAc/dichloromethane solution showed a porous structure and solution concentration could control the porous size. The coatings prepared using tetrahydrofuran and dimethylformamide solvents are exceptional in their ability to generate porous morphology even at low polymer concentration. In general, the corrosion performance appears to be different on different PVAc-solvent system. Immersion tests illustrated that the porous morphology on PVAc stabilized corrosion rates. A uniform corrosion attack in artificial simulation body fluid was also exhibited. The cytocompatibility of osteoblast cells (MC3T3) revealed high adherence, proliferation, and survival on the porous structure of PVAc coated Mg alloy, which was not observed for the uncoated samples. This novel PVAc coating is a promising candidate for biodegradable implant materials, which might

  16. Biocorrosion behavior and cell viability of adhesive polymer coated magnesium based alloys for medical implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdal-hay, Abdalla; Dewidar, Montasser; Lim, Jae Kyoo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The corrosion behavior of magnesium for orthopedic applications is extremely poor. ► The solvent (DCM, THF and DMF) had a strong effect on the coatings performance. ► Mg bar alloy coated with PVAc/DCM layers provided an excellent bonding strength. ► Treated samples indicated significant damping for the degradation rate. ► Cytocompatibility on MC3T3 cells of the PVAc/DCM samples revealed a good behavior. - Abstract: The present study was ultimately aimed to design novel adhesive biodegradable polymer, poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc), coatings onto Mg based alloys by the dip-coating technique in order to control the degradation rate and enhance the biocompatibility of magnesium alloys. The influence of various solvents on PVAc surface topography and their protection of Mg alloys were dramatically studied in vitro. Electrochemical polarization, degradation, and PVAc film cytocompatibility were also tested. Our results showed that the solvent had a significant effect on coating quality. PVAc/dichloromethane solution showed a porous structure and solution concentration could control the porous size. The coatings prepared using tetrahydrofuran and dimethylformamide solvents are exceptional in their ability to generate porous morphology even at low polymer concentration. In general, the corrosion performance appears to be different on different PVAc–solvent system. Immersion tests illustrated that the porous morphology on PVAc stabilized corrosion rates. A uniform corrosion attack in artificial simulation body fluid was also exhibited. The cytocompatibility of osteoblast cells (MC3T3) revealed high adherence, proliferation, and survival on the porous structure of PVAc coated Mg alloy, which was not observed for the uncoated samples. This novel PVAc coating is a promising candidate for biodegradable implant materials, which might widen the use of Mg based implants.

  17. Effect of the Strain Rate on the Tensile Properties of the AZ31 Magnesium Alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Seunghun; Park, Jiyoun; Choi, Ildong [Korea Maritime University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sung Hyuk [Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The effect of the strain rate at a range of 10‒4 ⁓ 3 × 10{sup 2}s{sup -}1 on the tensile characteristics of a rolled AZ31 magnesium alloy was studied. The normal tensile specimens were tested using a high rate hydraulic testing machine. Specimens were machined from four sheets with different thicknesses, 1, 1.5, 2 and 3 mm, along three directions, 0°, 45°, and 90° to the rolling direction. The results revealed that all the specimens had a positive strain rate sensitivity of strength, that is, the strength increased with increasing strain rate. This is the same tendency as other automotive steels have. Our results suggest that the AZ31 magnesium alloy has better collision characteristics at high strain rates because of improved strength with an increasing strain rate. Ductility decreased with an increasing strain rate with a strain rate under 1 s{sup -}1, but it increased with an increasing strain rate over 1 s{sup -}1. The mechanical properties of the AZ31 magnesium alloy depend on the different microstructures according to the thickness. Two and 3 mm thickness specimens with a coarse and non-uniform grain structure exhibited worse mechanical properties while the 1.5 mm thickness specimens with a fine and uniform grain structure had better mechanical properties. Specimens machined at 0° and 45° to the rolling direction had higher absorbed energy than that of the 90° specimen. Thus, we demonstrate it is necessary to choose materials with proper thickness and machining direction for use in automotive applications.

  18. Effect of the Strain Rate on the Tensile Properties of the AZ31 Magnesium Alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Seunghun; Park, Jiyoun; Choi, Ildong; Park, Sung Hyuk

    2013-01-01

    The effect of the strain rate at a range of 10‒4 ⁓ 3 × 10"2s"-1 on the tensile characteristics of a rolled AZ31 magnesium alloy was studied. The normal tensile specimens were tested using a high rate hydraulic testing machine. Specimens were machined from four sheets with different thicknesses, 1, 1.5, 2 and 3 mm, along three directions, 0°, 45°, and 90° to the rolling direction. The results revealed that all the specimens had a positive strain rate sensitivity of strength, that is, the strength increased with increasing strain rate. This is the same tendency as other automotive steels have. Our results suggest that the AZ31 magnesium alloy has better collision characteristics at high strain rates because of improved strength with an increasing strain rate. Ductility decreased with an increasing strain rate with a strain rate under 1 s"-1, but it increased with an increasing strain rate over 1 s"-1. The mechanical properties of the AZ31 magnesium alloy depend on the different microstructures according to the thickness. Two and 3 mm thickness specimens with a coarse and non-uniform grain structure exhibited worse mechanical properties while the 1.5 mm thickness specimens with a fine and uniform grain structure had better mechanical properties. Specimens machined at 0° and 45° to the rolling direction had higher absorbed energy than that of the 90° specimen. Thus, we demonstrate it is necessary to choose materials with proper thickness and machining direction for use in automotive applications.

  19. Improving the corrosion resistance of AZ91D magnesium alloy through reinforcement with titanium carbides and borides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Gobara

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A composite consisting of magnesium matrix reinforced with a network of TiC–Ti2AlC–TiB2 particulates has been fabricated using a practical in-situ reactive infiltration technique. The microstructural and phase composition of the magnesium matrix composite (R-Mg was investigated using SEM/EDS and XRD. The analyses revealed the complete formation of TiC, Ti2AlC and TiB2 particles in the magnesium matrix. Comparative compression tests of R-Mg and AZ91D alloy showed that the reinforcing particles improve the mechanical properties of Mg alloy. EIS and potentiodynamic polarization results indicated that the reinforcing particles significantly improve the corrosion resistance of the reinforced alloy in 3.5% NaCl solution.

  20. Texture and microstructure development during hot deformation of ME20 magnesium alloy: Experiments and simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.; Al-Samman, T.; Mu, S.; Gottstein, G.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Second phase precipitates in ME20 hindered activation of tensile twinning at 300 deg. C. → New off-basal sheet texture during c-axis compression at low Z conditions. → Ce amplifies the role of pyramidal -slip over prismatic slip at 0.3T m . → Prismatic slip becomes equally important to deformation at 0.6T m . → Accurate texture predictions using a cluster-type Taylor model with grain interaction. - Abstract: The influence of deformation conditions and starting texture on the microstructure and texture evolution during hot deformation of a commercial rare earth (RE)-containing magnesium alloy sheet ME20 was investigated and compared with a conventional Mg sheet alloy AZ31. For all the investigated conditions, the two alloys revealed obvious distinctions in the flow behavior and the development of texture and microstructure, which was primarily attributed to the different chemistry of the two alloys. The presence of precipitates in the fine microstructure of the ME20 sheet considerably increased the recrystallization temperature and suppressed tensile twinning. This gave rise to an uncommon Mg texture development during deformation. Texture simulation using an advanced cluster-type Taylor approach with consideration of grain interaction was employed to correlate the unique texture development in the ME20 alloy with the activation scenarios of different deformation modes.

  1. Electrochemical deposition and characterization of Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) films on magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Fengxia; Liang, Jun, E-mail: jliang@licp.cas.cn; Peng, Zhenjun; Liu, Baixing

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Zn-Al LDHs film was prepared on AZ91D Mg alloy by electrochemical deposition. • The Zn-Al LDHs film was uniform and dense with some small flaws and cracks. • The Zn-Al LDHs film had high adhesion and good corrosion protection to Mg alloy. - Abstract: A zinc-aluminum layered double hydroxides (Zn-Al LDHs) film was prepared on AZ91D magnesium (Mg) alloy substrate by electrochemical deposition method. The characteristics of the film were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and scanning electronic microscope (SEM). It was found that the electrodeposited film was composed of crystalline Zn-Al LDHs with nitrate intercalation. The Zn-Al LDHs film was uniform and dense though there also presented some small flaws and cracks. The cross cut tape test showed that the film adhered well to the substrate. Polarization and EIS measurements revealed that the LDHs coated Mg alloy had better corrosion resistance compared to that of the uncoated one in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution, indicating that the Zn-Al LDHs film could effectively protect Mg alloy from corrosion.

  2. Passive behavior of magnesium alloys (Mg-Zr) containing rare-earth elements in alkaline media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, R.; Ferreira, M.G.S.; Carmezim, M.J.; Montemor, M.F.

    2010-01-01

    The passive behavior of magnesium alloys ZK31, EZ33 and WE54 was studied in alkaline media (NaOH - pH 13) in the presence and absence of chloride ions. The electrochemical properties were investigated by potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and capacitance measurements. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were employed for the study of the chemical composition and surface morphology of the surface films, respectively. The electrochemical impedance results revealed that the film formed on the surface of the three alloys is characterized by an increasing resistance, which stabilized with time. In the absence of chloride the film resistance was identical for all the three alloys. However, in the presence of chloride, the resistance of the film formed on the EZ33 alloy dropped nearly one order of magnitude comparatively to the other alloys. Generally, in the presence of chloride there was a decrease of the conductive character of the film. The films are homogeneous and, according to the XPS results, the outer layer seemed mainly composed of Mg(OH) 2 and the internal layer composed of MgO, independently of the presence of chloride. The AFM study revealed that the presence of chloride affected film morphology, namely nano-crystallites dimensions and aggregates size that increased.

  3. Electrochemical deposition and characterization of Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) films on magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Fengxia; Liang, Jun; Peng, Zhenjun; Liu, Baixing

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Zn-Al LDHs film was prepared on AZ91D Mg alloy by electrochemical deposition. • The Zn-Al LDHs film was uniform and dense with some small flaws and cracks. • The Zn-Al LDHs film had high adhesion and good corrosion protection to Mg alloy. - Abstract: A zinc-aluminum layered double hydroxides (Zn-Al LDHs) film was prepared on AZ91D magnesium (Mg) alloy substrate by electrochemical deposition method. The characteristics of the film were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and scanning electronic microscope (SEM). It was found that the electrodeposited film was composed of crystalline Zn-Al LDHs with nitrate intercalation. The Zn-Al LDHs film was uniform and dense though there also presented some small flaws and cracks. The cross cut tape test showed that the film adhered well to the substrate. Polarization and EIS measurements revealed that the LDHs coated Mg alloy had better corrosion resistance compared to that of the uncoated one in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution, indicating that the Zn-Al LDHs film could effectively protect Mg alloy from corrosion

  4. Effect of temperature on synthesis and properties of aluminum-magnesium mechanical alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umbrajkar, Swati M.; Schoenitz, Mirko; Jones, Steven R.; Dreizin, Edward L.

    2005-01-01

    The synthesis of an Al 0.7 Mg 0.3 mechanical alloy was studied using a planetary mill. Several distinct temperature regimes of mechanical alloying were achieved using milling jars equipped with finned heat sinks and an external air conditioner installed to cool the entire milling chamber. Wireless temperature sensors were attached to the milling jars to monitor the process temperature. Intermediate and final products were collected and were analyzed by electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The temperature history of the milling jars exhibited two peaks during mechanical alloying. The first peak occurred when particles of the starting powders deformed to produce flakes. The second peak was observed when the flakes agglomerated and re-fragmented forming layered composites that served as precursors for the mechanical alloy. The temperature of milling affected the magnesium solubility of the produced Al-Mg mechanical alloys. Decreasing the milling temperature from ∼70-80 deg. C to 20-30 deg. C resulted in an increase of the dissolved Mg concentration in Al from 2-3 at.% to ∼25 at.% for the Al 0.7 Mg 0.3 composition. The formation of intermetallic phases was favored at higher milling temperatures, where high solubilities cannot be achieved

  5. Effect of temperature on synthesis and properties of aluminum-magnesium mechanical alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umbrajkar, Swati M. [New Jersey Institute of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Newark, NJ 07102-1982 (United States); Schoenitz, Mirko [New Jersey Institute of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Newark, NJ 07102-1982 (United States); Jones, Steven R. [New Jersey Institute of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Newark, NJ 07102-1982 (United States); Dreizin, Edward L. [New Jersey Institute of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Newark, NJ 07102-1982 (United States)]. E-mail: dreizin@njit.edu

    2005-10-27

    The synthesis of an Al{sub 0.7}Mg{sub 0.3} mechanical alloy was studied using a planetary mill. Several distinct temperature regimes of mechanical alloying were achieved using milling jars equipped with finned heat sinks and an external air conditioner installed to cool the entire milling chamber. Wireless temperature sensors were attached to the milling jars to monitor the process temperature. Intermediate and final products were collected and were analyzed by electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The temperature history of the milling jars exhibited two peaks during mechanical alloying. The first peak occurred when particles of the starting powders deformed to produce flakes. The second peak was observed when the flakes agglomerated and re-fragmented forming layered composites that served as precursors for the mechanical alloy. The temperature of milling affected the magnesium solubility of the produced Al-Mg mechanical alloys. Decreasing the milling temperature from {approx}70-80 deg. C to 20-30 deg. C resulted in an increase of the dissolved Mg concentration in Al from 2-3 at.% to {approx}25 at.% for the Al{sub 0.7}Mg{sub 0.3} composition. The formation of intermetallic phases was favored at higher milling temperatures, where high solubilities cannot be achieved.

  6. Workability Limits of Magnesium Alloy AZ31B Subjected to Equal Channel Angular Pressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, M. S.; Chakkingal, Uday

    2018-03-01

    Equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) is an important severe plastic deformation process to produce ultrafine grained microstructures in metals and alloys. Magnesium and its alloys generally possess poor workability at temperatures below 250 °C. This investigation examines the influence of different passes and processing routes of ECAP on improving the workability of Mg alloy AZ31B. ECAP was carried out for three passes using a die of angle 120° using processing routes Bc and C. The operating temperature was 523 K for the first pass and 423 K for the subsequent two passes. The resultant microstructure and mechanical properties were determined. Workability of the alloy at 423 K (150 °C) was determined using upsetting experiments on cylindrical specimens machined from the annealed and ECAPed samples. Workability limit diagrams have been constructed for the various processed conditions. The workability data generated were also analyzed using five different workability criteria (also referred to as ductile fracture models) and the material constants for these five models were evaluated. Specimens processed by two passes through route C (pass 2C) exhibits better workability compared to other passes since the workability limit line after this pass shows maximum safe working area and lies above the other workability lines. Among the five different workability criteria investigated, the Freudenthal workability criterion is more suitable for prediction of failure in this alloy.

  7. Influence of low temperature on kinetics of magnesium alloy fatigue fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serdyuk, V.A.; Grinberg, N.M.; Malinkina, T.I.; Kamyshkov, A.S.

    1980-01-01

    Studied is the effect of low temperature on kinetics of fatigue fracture in a number of magnesium alloys (MA2-1, MA15, IMV6, MA21, MA12). Cylindrical samples have been tested in vacuum at 20 deg C and at -120 deg C using cyclic symmetric tension-compression. Presented is a dependence of residual durability of alloys at low temperature on the number of preliminary deformation reversals at room temperature. It is shown that for the MA15, MA 12 alloys the durability increases at low temperature due to increasing crack initiation duration, and the out-of-grain crack growth rate is higher at low temperature than at room temperature; whereas for the second group alloys (IMV6, MA21, MA2-1) an increase in the crack initiation stage and a decrease in the crack growth at temperature decreasing are characteristic. A conclusion is made that different behavior of Mg alloys at low temperature is conditioned by their different structural states

  8. Magnesium alloys: predicting in vivo corrosion with in vitro immersion testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jemimah; Shadanbaz, Shaylin; Kirkland, Nicholas T; Stace, Edward; Woodfield, Tim; Staiger, Mark P; Dias, George J

    2012-05-01

    Magnesium (Mg) and its alloys have been proposed as degradable replacements to commonly used orthopedic biomaterials such as titanium alloys and stainless steel. However, the corrosion of Mg in a physiological environment remains a difficult characteristic to accurately assess with in vitro methods. The aim of this study was to identify a simple in vitro immersion test that could provide corrosion rates similar to those observed in vivo. Pure Mg and five alloys (AZ31, Mg-0.8Ca, Mg-1Zn, Mg-1Mn, Mg-1.34Ca-3Zn) were immersed in either Earle's balanced salt solution (EBSS), minimum essential medium (MEM), or MEM-containing 40 g/L bovine serum albumin (MEMp) for 7, 14, or 21 days before removal and assessment of corrosion by weight loss. This in vitro data was compared to in vivo corrosion rates of the same materials implanted in a subcutaneous environment in Lewis rats for equivalent time points. The results suggested that, for the alloys investigated, the EBSS buffered with sodium bicarbonate provides a rate of degradation comparable to those observed in vivo. In contrast, the addition of components such as (4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid) (HEPES), vitamins, amino acids, and albumin significantly increased corrosion rates. Based on these findings, it is proposed that with this in vitro protocol, immersion of Mg alloys in EBSS can be used as a predictor of in vivo corrosion. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Investigating deformation processes in AM60 magnesium alloy using the acoustic emission technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathis, K.; Chmelik, F.; Janecek, M.; Hadzima, B.; Trojanova, Z.; Lukac, P.

    2006-01-01

    Microstructure changes in an AM60 magnesium alloy were monitored using the acoustic emission (AE) technique during tensile tests in the temperature range from 20 to 300 deg. C. The correlation of the AE signal and the deformation processes is discussed. It is shown, using transmission electron and light microscopy, that the character of the AE response is associated with various modes of mechanical twinning at lower temperatures, whereas at higher temperatures also the influence of non-basal dislocations on the AE response must be taken into account

  10. Effect of Hydraulic Pressure on Warm Hydro Mechanical Deep Drawing of Magnesium Alloy Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Wu, Linzhi; Yuan, Shijian

    The uniaxial tensile test and hydraulic bulging test of AZ31 magnesium alloy sheets were applied to study the influence of temperature on the material properties and obtain the forming limit curves at different temperatures. Numerical simulations of warm hydro mechanical deep drawing were carried out to investigate the effect of hydraulic pressure on the formability of a cylindrical cup, and the simplified hydraulic pressure profiles were used to simulate the loading procedure of hydraulic pressure. The optimal hydraulic pressure at different temperatures were given and verified by experimental studies at temperature 100°C and 170V.

  11. Electrochemical deposition of Mg(OH)2/GO composite films for corrosion protection of magnesium alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Fengxia Wu; Jun Liang; Weixue Li

    2015-01-01

    Mg(OH)2/graphene oxide (GO) composite film was electrochemical deposited on AZ91D magnesium alloys at constant potential. The characteristics of the Mg(OH)2/GO composite film were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. It was shown that the flaky GO randomly distributed in the composite film. Compared with the Mg(OH)2 film, the Mg(OH)2/GO composite film exhibited more uniform and compac...

  12. Evaluation of microstructural effects on the corrosion behaviour of AZ91D magnesium alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambat, Rajan; Aung, Naing Naing; Zhou, W.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of microconstituents on the corrosion and electrochemical behaviour of AZ91D alloy prepared by die-casting and ingot casting route has been investigated in 3.5% NaCl solution at pH 7.25. The experimental techniques used include constant immersion technique, in-situ corrosion monitoring....... The corrosion products for ingot consisted of Mg(OH)(2) with small amounts beta phase, magnesium-aluminum oxide and MgH2 while for die-cast, the product showed a highly amorphous structure. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  13. Interactions between laser and arc plasma during laser-arc hybrid welding of magnesium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liming; Chen, Minghua

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents the results of the investigation on the interactions between laser and arc plasma during laser-arc hybrid welding on magnesium alloy AZ31B using the spectral diagnose technique. By comparably analyzing the variation in plasma information (the shape, the electron temperature and density) of single tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding with the laser-arc hybrid welding, it is found that the laser affects the arc plasma through the keyhole forming on the workpiece. Depending on the welding parameters there are three kinds of interactions taking place between laser and arc plasma.

  14. A systematic multiscale modeling and experimental approach to protect grain boundaries in magnesium alloys from corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horstemeyer, Mark R. [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States); Chaudhuri, Santanu [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    2015-09-30

    A multiscale modeling Internal State Variable (ISV) constitutive model was developed that captures the fundamental structure-property relationships. The macroscale ISV model used lower length scale simulations (Butler-Volmer and Electronics Structures results) in order to inform the ISVs at the macroscale. The chemomechanical ISV model was calibrated and validated from experiments with magnesium (Mg) alloys that were investigated under corrosive environments coupled with experimental electrochemical studies. Because the ISV chemomechanical model is physically based, it can be used for other material systems to predict corrosion behavior. As such, others can use the chemomechanical model for analyzing corrosion effects on their designs.

  15. Synthesis of hybrid sol-gel coatings for corrosion protection of we54-ae magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernández-Barrios, C A; Peña, D Y; Coy, A E; Duarte, N Z; Hernández, L M; Viejo, F

    2013-01-01

    The present work shows some preliminary results related to the synthesis, characterization and corrosion evaluation of different hybrid sol-gel coatings applied on the WE54-AE magnesium alloy attending to the two experimental variables, i.e. the precursors ratio and the aging time, which may affect the quality and the electrochemical properties of the coatings resultant. The experimental results confirmed that, under some specific experimental conditions, it was possible to obtain homogeneous and uniform, porous coatings with good corrosion resistance that also permit to accommodate corrosion inhibitors

  16. Organic coatings silane-based for AZ91D magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Junying; Li Qing; Zhong Xiankang; Li Longqin; Zhang Liang

    2010-01-01

    Organic coatings silane-based containing electron withdrawing group or electron donating group have been synthesized and evaluated as prospective surface treatments for AZ91D magnesium alloy by hydrolysis and condensation reaction of the different silanes. Electrochemical tests were employed to confirm the corrosion resistance ability of the two kinds of organic coatings. The results showed that the coating with electron donating group had better corrosion protection performance. On the basis of the spatial configuration and the density of charge of those silanes molecules which was obtained through Gaussian 03 procedure based on B3LYP and density functional theory, combining experiment results, the rational explanation was provided.

  17. Improving the corrosion resistance of AZ91D magnesium alloy through reinforcement with titanium carbides and borides

    OpenAIRE

    Gobara, Mohamed; Shamekh, Mohamed; Akid, Robert

    2015-01-01

    A composite consisting of magnesium matrix reinforced with a network of TiC–Ti2AlC–TiB2 particulates has been fabricated using a practical in-situ reactive infiltration technique. The microstructural and phase composition of the magnesium matrix composite (R-Mg) was investigated using SEM/EDS and XRD. The analyses revealed the complete formation of TiC, Ti2AlC and TiB2 particles in the magnesium matrix. Comparative compression tests of R-Mg and AZ91D alloy showed that the reinforcing particle...

  18. Grain refinement of an AZ63B magnesium alloy by an Al-1C master alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yichuan Pan; Xiangfa Liu; Hua Yang [The Key Lab. of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Shandong Univ., Jinan (China)

    2005-12-01

    In order to develop a refiner of Mg-Al alloys, an Al-1C (in wt.%) master alloy was synthesized using a casting method. The microstructure and grain-refining performance of the Al-1C master alloy were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and a grain-refining test. The microstructure of the Al-1C master alloy is composed of {alpha}-Al solid solution, Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} particles, and graphite phases. After grain refinement of AZ63B alloy by the Al-1C master alloy, the mean grain size reached a limit when 2 wt.% Al-C master alloy was added at 800 C and held for 20 min in the melt before casting. The minimum mean grain size is approximately 48 {mu}m at the one-half radius of the ingot and is about 17% of that of the unrefined alloy. The Al-1C master alloy results in better grain refinement than C{sub 2}Cl{sub 6} and MgCO{sub 3} carbon-containing refiners. (orig.)

  19. Corrosion resistance and durability of superhydrophobic surface formed on magnesium alloy coated with nanostructured cerium oxide film and fluoroalkylsilane molecules in corrosive NaCl aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaki, Takahiro; Masuda, Yoshitake; Sakamoto, Michiru

    2011-04-19

    The corrosion resistant performance and durability of the superhydrophobic surface on magnesium alloy coated with nanostructured cerium oxide film and fluoroalkylsilane molecules in corrosive NaCl aqueous solution were investigated using electrochemical and contact angle measurements. The durability of the superhydrophobic surface in corrosive 5 wt% NaCl aqueous solution was elucidated. The corrosion resistant performance of the superhydrophobic surface formed on magnesium alloy was estimated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. The EIS measurements and appropriate equivalent circuit models revealed that the superhydrophobic surface considerably improved the corrosion resistant performance of magnesium alloy AZ31. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard D 3359-02 cross cut tape test was performed to investigate the adhesion of the superhydrophobic film to the magnesium alloy surface. The corrosion formation mechanism of the superhydrophobic surface formed on the magnesium alloy was also proposed. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  20. Grain Refinement and Enhancement of Mechanical Properties of Hot Extruded Rare-Earth Containing Magnesium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bita Pourbahari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of rare earth addition and hot extrusion process on the grain refinement of magnesium alloy were studied. The as-cast Mg-6Al-1Zn (AZ61 alloy had the average grain size of ~ 64 µm and its microstructure consisted of α-Mg and Mg17Al12 phase. By partial substitution of Al with Gd to reach Mg-4.8Gd-1.2Al-1Zn alloy, it was observed that the Mg17Al12 phase disappeared and two new intermetallic phases, i.e. (Mg,Al3Gd and Al2Gd, were identified. The extrusion process showed significant effects on the shape and size of intermetallics and grain size of the matrix. The grain size of the extruded Mg-6Al-1Zn alloy was refined from 64 µm to 13.4 µm as a result of recrystallization. Regarding the Mg-4.8Gd-1.2Al-1Zn alloy, the grain refinement was much more pronounced, where the extruded grain size has been refined from 698 µm to 2.4 µm (extruded at 385 °C and 1.3 µm (extruded at 320 °C. This was related to the presence of fine and widely dispersed intermetallic phases. Tensile strength and total elongation of extruded alloys were much higher than their as-cast counterparts and the extruded Mg-6Zn-1Al alloy showed magnificent mechanical properties. The latter was related to the absence of intermetallic particles, which act as stress risers.

  1. Electrochemical Evaluation of Hydroxyapatite/ZrN Coated Magnesium Biodegradable Alloy in Ringer Solution as a Simulated Body Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Rahim Kiahosseini; Abdollah Afshar; Majid Mojtahedzadeh Larijani; Mardali Yousefpour

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium alloys as biodegradable materials can be used in body as an implant materials but since they have poor corrosion resistance, it is required to decrease their corrosion rate by biocompatible coatings. In this study, hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings in the presence of an intermediate layer of ZrN as a biocompatible material, deposited on AZ91 magnesium alloy by ion beam sputtering method at 300 °C temperature and at different times 180, 240, 300, 360 and 420 min. Then changes in corrosion...

  2. Ni-based amorphous alloy-coating for bipolar plate of PEM fuel cell by electrochemical plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaura, S; Kim, S C; Inoue, A

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the Ni-Cr-P amorphous alloy-coated bipolar plates were produced by electro-plating on the Cu base plates with a flow field. The power generation tests of a single fuel cell with those Ni-Cr-P bipolar plates were conducted at 353 K. It was found that the single fuel cell with those Ni-Cr-P bipolar plates showed excellent I-V performance as well as that with the carbon graphite bipolar plates. It was also found that the single cell with those Ni-Cr-P bipolar plates showed better I-V performance than that with the Ni-P amorphous alloy-coated bipolar plates. Furthermore, the long-time operation test was conducted for 440 h with those Ni-Cr-P bipolar plates at the constant current density of 200 mA·cm −2 . As a result, it was found that the cell voltage gradually decreased at the beginning of the measurement before 300 h and then the voltage was kept constant after 300 h.

  3. Microstructures of friction welded joints of AZ31 to AM60 magnesium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumoto, S.; Ono, T.; Tanaka, S.; Tsubakino, H. [Graduate School of Engineering, Himeji Inst. of Tech., Hyogo (Japan); Tomita, T.; Aritoshi, M. [Hyogo Prefectural Inst. of Industrial Research, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Okita, K. [Inst. of Industrial Research, Osaka Sangyo Univ., Osaka (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    AZ31 magnesium alloy was friction-welded to AM60 and the microstructures and the friction welding process were studied. The microstructures changed near the weld interface. The AZ31 was refined to a grain size of several {mu}m near the weld interface. The nucleation occurred in the shear bands that were introduced during the welding process. On the other hand, the eutectic structure was deformed and the lamellar structure which was composed of {alpha}-Mg and Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12} was formed near the weld interface in AM60 alloy. In the friction process, the adhesion and peel off occurred alternately between AZ31 and AM60. Eventually, bonding was completed during upset process. (orig.)

  4. Chitosan coatings crosslinked with genipin for corrosion protection of AZ31 magnesium alloy sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Y Pozzo, Ludmila; da Conceição, Thiago F; Spinelli, Almir; Scharnagl, Nico; Pires, Alfredo T N

    2018-02-01

    In this study, coatings of chitosan crosslinked with genipin were prepared on sheets of AZ31 magnesium alloy and their corrosion protection properties were characterized by means of potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The coatings were also characterized by means of FTIR and XPS. It was observed that the crosslinking process decreases the corrosion current and shifts the corrosion potential of the alloy to less negative values. The EIS analysis demonstrated that the crosslinking process increases the maximum impedance after short and long exposure times. The superior performance of the crosslinked coatings is related to a lower degree of swelling, as observed in the swelling tests carried out on free-standing films. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of Zeolite Coating on the Corrosion Resistance of AZ91D Magnesium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Chakraborty Banerjee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The protective performance of zeolite coating on AZ91D magnesium alloy was evaluated using potentiodynamic polarisation and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS in 0.1 M sodium chloride solution (NaCl. Electrical equivalent circuit (EEC was developed based upon hypothetical corrosion mechanisms and simulated to correspond to the experimental data. The morphology and the chemical nature of the coating were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis. Post corrosion morphologies of the zeolite coated and the uncoated AZ91D alloy were investigated using SEM. The corrosion resistance of the zeolite coated specimen was at least one order of magnitude higher than the uncoated specimen.

  6. Laser-induced microstructural development and phase evolution in magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan, Y.C.; Zhou, W.; Li, Z.L.; Zheng, H.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Secondary phase evolution caused by laser processing was firstly reported. • Microstructure development was controlled by heat flow thermodynamics and kinetics. • Solid-state transformation resulted in submicron and nano-scale precipitates. • Cluster-shaped particles in overlapped region were due to precipitation coarsening. • Properties of materials can be tailored selectively by laser processing. -- Abstract: Secondary phase plays an important role in determining microstructures and properties of magnesium alloys. This paper focuses on laser-induced microstructure development and secondary phase evolution in AZ91D Mg alloy studied by SEM, TEM and EDS analyses. Compared to bulk shape and lamellar structure of the secondary phase in as-received cast material, rapid-solidified microstructures with various morphologies including nano-precipitates were observed in laser melt zone. Formation mechanisms of microstructural evolution and effect of phase development on surface properties were further discussed

  7. Microstructure Evolution of Mg-Gd-Y-Zn-Zr Magnesium Alloy During Partial Remelting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianquan TAO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the research on the microstructure evolution of Mg-Gd-Y-Zn-Zr magnesium alloy through partial remelting process. It aims at finding out what effects the microstructure of semi-solid Mg-Gd-Y-Zn-Zr alloy will result in under different remelting temperatures and holding times. Based on the results, if to raise the remelting temperature and to prolong the holding time, the size of solid grain will tend to expand and its spheroidization degree also begins to show improvement. In addition, the grain shows tendency of coarsening when the holding time increases. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.4.6483

  8. Influence of temperature on oxidation behaviour of ZE41 magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, M.D.; Munez, C.J.; Carboneras, M.; Rodrigo, P.; Escalera, M.D.; Otero, E.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of temperature on the oxidation behaviour of commercial ZE41 magnesium alloy has been studied. Thermogravimetric tests were carried out to determine the oxidation kinetics in the 350-500 o C range. Morphology and growth of the oxidation films were analysed by Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry (EDS) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). It was found that the oxidation kinetics initially follow a parabolic law, following a linear law for higher exposure times. Results also showed that the protective nature of the oxide layer depends on the oxidation temperature. At temperatures in the range of 350-450 o C the ZE41 alloy is covered by a protective oxide layer, very thin and compact, whereas the oxide layer formed at 500 o C exhibits a non-protective nature, showing an 'oxide sponges' morphology.

  9. The effect of axial external magnetic field on tungsten inert gas welding of magnesium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Caixia; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Jing

    2018-04-01

    The influences of axial external magnetic field on the microstructure and mechanical property of the AZ31 magnesium (Mg) alloy joints were studied. The microstructure of Mg alloy joint consisted of the weld seam, heat affected zone and base metal zone. The average grain size of weld seam welded with magnetic field is 39 μm, which is 38% smaller than that of the joint welded with absence of magnetic field. And the microhardness of weld seam increases with the help of magnetic field treatment, owing to the coarse grain refinement. With coil current of 2.0A, the maximum mechanical property of joint increases 6.7% to 255 MPa over the specimen without magnetic field treatment. Furthermore, fracture location is near heat affected area and the fracture surface is characterized with ductile fracture.

  10. The Influence of Casting Defects on Fatigue Resistance of Elektron 21 Magnesium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pikos I.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Mg-RE alloys are attractive, constructional materials, especially for aircraft and automotive industry, thanks to combination of low density, good mechanical properties, also at elevated temperature, and good castability and machinability. Present paper contains results of fatigue resistance test carried out on Elektron 21 magnesium alloy, followed by microstructural and fractographical investigation of material after test. The as-cast material has been heat treated according to two different procedures. The fatigue resistance test has been conducted with 106 cycles of uniaxial, sine wave form stress between 9 MPa and 90 MPa. Fractures of specimens, which ruptured during the test, have been investigated with scanning electron microscope. The microstructure of specimens has been investigated with light microscopy. Detrimental effect of casting defects, as inclusions and porosity, on fatigue resistance has been proved. Also the influence of heat treatment's parameters has been described.

  11. CO2 and diode laser welding of AZ31 magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jinhong; Li Lin; Liu Zhu

    2005-01-01

    Magnesium alloys are being increasingly used in automotive and aerospace structures. Laser welding is an important joining method in such applications. There are several kinds of industrial lasers available at present, including the conventional CO 2 and Nd:YAG lasers as well as recently available high power diode lasers. A 1.5 kW diode laser and a 2 kW CO 2 laser are used in the present study for the welding of AZ31 alloys. It is found that different welding modes exist, i.e., keyhole welding with the CO 2 laser and conduction welding with both the CO 2 and the diode lasers. This paper characterizes welds in both welding modes. The effect of beam spot size on the weld quality is analyzed. The laser processing parameters are optimized to obtain welds with minimum defects

  12. Processing of a magnesium alloy by equal-channel angular pressing using a back-pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Cheng; Xia Kenong; Langdon, Terence G.

    2009-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on the magnesium AZ31 alloy to evaluate the significance of conducting equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) with a back-pressure. Following processing by ECAP, the values of the Vickers microhardness were recorded on the cross-sectional planes and microstructural observations were undertaken using transmission electron microscopy. The results show an increase in the hardness in the first pass with significant microstructural inhomogeneity and a transition towards a more homogeneous structure with subsequent passes. The grain size was measured as ∼0.9 μm after 8 passes. A comparison with published data on the same alloy processed by ECAP without a back-pressure suggests several advantages in incorporating a back-pressure into ECAP. These advantages include the ability to achieve greater grain refinement, a potential for pressing at lower temperatures and the development of a more rapid evolution towards a homogeneous microstructure.

  13. Dynamic testing at high strain rates of an ultrafine-grained magnesium alloy processed by ECAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, B.; Joshi, S.; Azevedo, K.; Ma, E.; Ramesh, K.T.; Figueiredo, R.B.; Langdon, T.G.

    2009-01-01

    A ZK60 magnesium alloy was processed by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) at 473 K to produce a grain size of ∼0.8 μm and it was then tested under dynamic conditions at strain rates up to 4.0 x 10 3 s -1 using a split-Hopkinson bar. The stress-strain curves in dynamic testing exhibited upwards concave curvature suggesting the occurrence of twinning. Examination by transmission electron microscopy showed that dislocation slip played a major role in the flow behavior with dislocation accumulation as the main source of work hardening. An identification of Burgers vectors revealed the extensive presence of prismatic dislocations. Rod-shaped Mg 1 (Zn,Zr) 1 precipitates present in the as-received alloy become fragmented and overaged during ECAP.

  14. Design and development of self-passivating biodegradable magnesium alloys using selective element oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brar, Harpreet Singh

    Metallic biomaterials such as stainless steels, titanium alloys, and cobalt-chromium alloys have been used as structural implant materials for many years. However, due to their limitations in temporary implant applications, there has been increased interest in the development of a biodegradable structural implant device. Magnesium (Mg) alloys have shown great potential as a material for biodegradable structural implant applications. However, low strength and high degradation rate of Mg under physiological conditions are major limitations, causing the implant to lose its structural integrity before the healing process is complete. The main aim of this work was to investigate the possibility of designing Mg-based alloys with ability to form selective protective oxides, thereby aiding in the reduction of the initial degradation rate. A thermodynamics-driven design was utilized to select three elements, namely Gadolinium (Gd), Scandium (Sc) and Yttrium (Y), due to the low enthalpy of formation associated with their oxide species. First, binary alloys were cast under inert atmosphere, solution treated and investigated for degradation rate in Hanks' solution. The Mg-Gd binary alloy showed the fastest degradation rate whereas the Mg-Sc binary alloy showed the slowest degradation rate. The degradation of Mg-Gd and Mg-Y was 18 and 5 times faster than Mg-Sc alloy, respectively. The microstructural analysis of the alloys was performed using X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Optical Microscopy (OM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). It was observed that the grain size of Mg-Sc alloys is significantly smaller than Mg-Gd and Mg-Y alloys and can be a contributing factor to the reduction in degradation rate. The hardness behavior of the alloys was also investigated using Vickers microhardness Testing. To understand the oxidation behavior and kinetics, samples were oxidized in pure oxygen environment and investigated using microstructural and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Auger

  15. Dynamic behaviors of a Ca–P coated AZ31B magnesium alloy during in vitro and in vivo degradations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qiang; Tan Lili; Xu Wenli; Zhang Bingchun; Yang Ke

    2011-01-01

    Surface modification can be an effective way to control the biodegradation behavior of magnesium alloys and even improve their biological properties. Much attention has been paid to the initial protection ability and biological properties of magnesium alloys coating. In this work, the dynamic behaviors of a Ca–P coated AZ31B magnesium alloy during the degradations in vitro and in vivo, including hemolysis, mechanical loading capability and implantation in animals, were investigated. The hemolytic rates of the alloy with and without coating were all declined to be lower than 5% after more than 20 days immersion in PBS, though an increase happened to the alloy at the early immersion of 3–7 days. Reduction of the mechanical loading capacity was gradually evolved for the coated alloy and the peak load retention of 85% was still maintained after 120 days degradation. The in vivo implantation indicated that the Ca–P coated AZ31B alloy showed a more suitable time dependent degradation behavior which was favorable for growth of the new tissue and the healing dynamics of bones, making it a promising choice for medical application.

  16. Magnesium Cermets and Magnesium-Beryllium Alloys; Cermets au magnesium et au magnesium-beryllium; Metallokeramicheskie magnievye i magnievo-berillievye splavy; Cermets de magnesio y aleaciones de magnesio y berillio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, V. E.; Zelenskij, V. F.; Fajfer, S. I.; Zhdanov, S. M.; Maksimenko, V. I.; Savchenko, V. I. [Fiziko-Tekhnicheskij Institut an USSR, Khar' kov, SSSR (Russian Federation)

    1963-11-15

    The paper describes some results of work on the development of magnesium-magnesium oxide cermets and of super heat-resistant magnesiumberyllium alloys produced by powder metallurgical methods. The introduction of even a minute quantity of finely dispersed magnesium oxide into magnesium results in a strengthening of the material, the degree of which increases with increased magnesium oxide concentration, although variation of this concentration within the limits of 0.3 to 5 wt.% has a comparatively slight effect on the corresponding variation in the short-term strength over the whole range of temperatures investigated. At 20{sup o}C, in the case of the cermets, {sigma}{sub {beta}} = 28 to 31 kg/mm{sup 2} and {delta} = 3 .5 to 4.5%; at 500{sup o}C {sigma}{sub {beta}} = 2.6 to 3.2 kg/mm{sup 2} and {delta} =30 to 40%. The positive effect of the finely dispersed oxide phase is particularly evident in protracted tests. For magnesium cermets, {sigma} (300)/100 = 2.2 kg/mm{sup 2}. Characteristic of the mixtures is the high thermal stability of the strength properties, linked chiefly with the thermodynamic stability of the strength-giving oxide phase in the metal matrix. The use of powder metallurgical methods has yielded super heat-resistant magnesium-beryllium alloys containing heightened concentrations of beryllium (PMB alloys). In their strength characteristics PMB alloys are close to Mg-MgO cermets, but the magnesium-beryllium alloys have a degree and duration of resistance to high temperature oxidation which exceeds the corresponding qualities of the magnesium alloys at present known. Thus, in air of 580{sup o}C, PMB alloys with 2 to 5% beryllium maintain a high resistance to oxidation for a period of over 12000 to 14000 h. This long-term heat resistance is chiefly a result of the amount of beryllium in the alloy, and increases with increasing beryllium content. PMB alloys are also marked by high resistance to short bursts of overheating. Magnesium cermets and

  17. Corrosion electrochemical behaviors of silane coating coated magnesium alloy in NaCl solution containing cerium nitrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, F.; Li, Q.; Zhong, X.K.; Gao, H.; Dai, Y.; Chen, F.N. [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University Chongqing (China)

    2012-02-15

    Sol-gel coatings cannot provide adequate corrosion protection for metal/alloys in the corrosive environments due to their high crack-forming potential. This paper demonstrates the possibility to employ cerium nitrate as inhibitor to decrease the corrosion development of sol-gel-based silane coating on the magnesium alloy in NaCl solution. Cerium nitrate was added into the NaCl solution where the silane coating coated magnesium alloy was immersed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to examine surface morphology of the silane coating coated magnesium alloy immersed in NaCl solutions doped and undoped with cerium nitrate. The corrosion electrochemical behaviors were investigated using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests. The results showed that the introduction of cerium nitrate into NaCl solution could effectively inhibit the corrosion of the silane coating coated magnesium alloy. Moreover, the influence of concentration of cerium nitrate on the corrosion inhibition and the possible inhibiting mechanism were also discussed in detail. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Influence of Nickel Particle Reinforcement on Cyclic Fatigue and Final Fracture Behavior of a Magnesium Alloy Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Gupta

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The microstructure, tensile properties, cyclic stress amplitude fatigue response and final fracture behavior of a magnesium alloy, denoted as AZ31, discontinuously reinforced with nano-particulates of aluminum oxide and micron size nickel particles is presented and discussed. The tensile properties, high cycle fatigue and final fracture behavior of the discontinuously reinforced magnesium alloy are compared with the unreinforced counterpart (AZ31. The elastic modulus and yield strength of the dual particle reinforced magnesium alloy is marginally higher than of the unreinforced counterpart. However, the tensile strength of the composite is lower than the monolithic counterpart. The ductility quantified by elongation to failure over 0.5 inch (12.7 mm gage length of the test specimen showed minimal difference while the reduction in specimen cross-section area of the composite is higher than that of the monolithic counterpart. At the microscopic level, cyclic fatigue fractures of both the composite and the monolithic alloy clearly revealed features indicative of the occurrence of locally ductile and brittle mechanisms. Over the range of maximum stress and at two different load ratios the cyclic fatigue resistance of the magnesium alloy composite is superior to the monolithic counterpart. The mechanisms responsible for improved cyclic fatigue life and resultant fracture behavior of the composite microstructure are highlighted.

  19. Magnesium Alloy WE43 and WE43-T5 - Mechanical and Thermal Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Chongchen

    Magnesium alloys are promising in aerospace, automotive and electronic industries due to low density, high specific strength and excellent machinability. A rare earth element alloy (WE43) is studied in as cast and heat treated conditions. Multiscale characterization is conducted to understand the nanomechanical response using a nanoindentor and microscale behavior using tensile tests. Further, compressive characterization is conducted across six orders of strain rate magnitudes from 10-3 to 3x103 s -1 under the range of liquid nitrogen (-196°C) to room temperature (25°C). Based on the results, a constitutive model is developed to estimate the plastic behavior of as-cast WE43 and WE43-T5 at different strain rates and under different temperatures. In addition, dynamic properties are studied using a dynamic mechanical analyzer at 1-100 Hz loading frequencies and the temperature range from 35°C to 500°C. Only Yttrium-rich cuboidal phase and zirconium-rich phase were present in WE43-T5 alloy and the eutectic phase was absent. Also, the grain size was reduced due to the hot rolling process. The difference in microstructure reflects into the mechanical properties. WE43-T5 specimens have improved mechanical properties over the as-cast alloy. Two transition temperatures are found at 210 and 250°C based on the storage and loss moduli results. The Mg24Y5 peak is found in the high temperature x-ray diffraction results along with a new Mg12Nd peak at those two temperature points. The corrosion behavior, studied by 7-day immersion in 3.5% NaCl solution, shows that the heat treated alloy has significantly lower corrosion rate than the as-cast alloy due to the absence of the eutectic mixture in the microstructure. With rapidly growing applications of magnesium alloys, particularly with rare earth elements, this study is expected to provide critical data and structure-property correlations that will help the scientific community.

  20. Corrosion of AZ91D magnesium alloy with a chemical conversion coating and electroless nickel layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo Hongwei; Li Ying; Wang Fuhui

    2004-01-01

    A chemical conversion treatment and an electroless nickel plating were applied to AZ91D alloy to improve its corrosion resistance. By conversion treatment in alkaline stannate solution, the corrosion resistance of the alloy was improved to some extent as verified by immersion test and potentiodynamic polarization test in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution at pH 7.0. X-ray diffraction patterns of the stannate treated AZ91D alloy showed the presence of MgSnO 3 · H 2 O, and SEM images indicated a porous structure, which provided advantage for the adsorption during sensitisation treatment prior to electroless nickel plating. A nickel coating with high phosphorus content was successfully deposited on the chemical conversion coating pre-applied to AZ91D alloy. The presence of the conversion coating between the nickel coating and the substrate reduced the potential difference between them and enhanced the corrosion resistance of the alloy. An obvious passivation occurred for the nickel coating during anodic polarization in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution

  1. Effect of nickel plating upon tensile tests of uranium--0.75 titanium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemperly, V.C.

    1975-01-01

    Electrolytic-nickel-plated specimens of uranium-0.75 wt percent titanium alloy were tested in air at 20 and 100 percent relative humidities. Tensile-test ductility values were lowered by a high humidity and also by nickel plating alone. Baking the nickel-plated specimens did not eliminate the ductility degradation. Embrittlement because of nickel plating was also evident in tensile tests at -34 0 C. (U.S.)

  2. Silica-Based Sol-Gel Coating on Magnesium Alloy with Green Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Upadhyay

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the performances of several natural organic inhibitors were investigated in a sol-gel system (applied on the magnesium alloy Mg AZ31B substrate. The inhibitors were quinaldic acid (QDA, betaine (BET, dopamine hydrochloride (DOP, and diazolidinyl urea (DZU. Thin, uniform, and defect-free sol-gel coatings were prepared with and without organic inhibitors, and applied on the Mg AZ31B substrate. SEM and EDX were performed to analyze the coating surface properties, the adhesion to the substrate, and the thickness. Electrochemical measurements, including electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and anodic potentiodynamic polarization scan (PDS, were performed on the coated samples to characterize the coatings’ protective properties. Also, hydrogen evolution measurement—an easy method to measure magnesium corrosion—was performed in order to characterize the efficiency of coating protection on the magnesium substrate. Moreover, scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET measurements were performed to examine the efficiency of the coatings loaded with inhibitors in preventing and containing corrosion events in defect areas. From the testing results it was observed that the formulated sol-gel coatings provided a good barrier to the substrate, affording some protection even without the presence of inhibitors. Finally, when the inhibitors’ performances were compared, the QDA-doped sol-gel was able to contain the corrosion event at the defect.

  3. Plasma electrolytic oxidation of magnesium and its alloys: Mechanism, properties and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Barati Darband

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Plasma Electrolyte Oxidation (PEO process has increasingly been employed to improve magnesium surface properties by fabrication of an MgO-based coating. Originating from conventional anodizing procedures, this high-voltage process produces an adhesive ceramic film on the surface. The present article provides a comprehensive review around mechanisms of PEO coatings fabrication and their different properties. Due to complexity of PEO coatings formation, a complete explanation regarding fabrication mechanisms of PEO coatings has not yet been proposed; however, the most important advancements in the field of fabrication mechanisms of PEO coatings were gathered in this work. Mechanisms of PEO coatings fabrication on magnesium were reviewed considering voltage–time plots, optical spectrometry, acoustic emission spectrometry and electronic properties of the ceramic film. Afterwards, the coatings properties, affecting parameters and improvement strategies were discussed. In addition, corrosion resistance of coatings, important factors in corrosion resistance and methods for corrosion resistance improvement were considered. Tribological properties (important factors and improvement methods of coatings were also studied. Since magnesium and its alloys are broadly used in biological applications, the biological properties of PEO coatings, important factors in their biological performance and existing methods for improvement of coatings were explained. Addition of ceramic based nanoparticles and formation of nanocomposite coatings may considerably influence properties of plasma electrolyte oxidation coatings. Nanocomposite coatings properties and nanoparticles adsorption mechanisms were included in a separate sector. Another method to improve coatings properties is formation of hybrid coatings on PEO coatings which was discussed in the end.

  4. Spectroscopic study of plasma during electrolytic oxidation of magnesium- and aluminium-alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovović, J.; Stojadinović, S.; Šišović, N.M.; Konjević, N.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of an optical emission spectroscopy study of Plasma during Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) of magnesium- and aluminum-alloy. Plasma electron number density N e diagnostics is performed either from the H β line shape or from the width or shift of non-hydrogenic ion lines of aluminum and magnesium. The line profile analysis of the H β suggests presence of two PEO processes characterized by relatively low electron number densities N e ≈1.2×10 15 cm −3 and N e ≈2.3×10 16 cm −3 . Apart from these two low N e processes, there is the third one related to the ejection of evaporated anode material through micro-discharge channels. This process is characterized by larger electron density N e =(1.2–1.6)10 17 cm −3 , which is detected from the shape and shift of aluminum and magnesium singly charged ion lines. Two low N e values detected from the H β and large N e measured from the widths and shift of ion lines suggest presence of three types of discharges during PEO with aluminum- and magnesium-alloy anode. On the basis of present and earlier results one can conclude that low N e processes do not depend upon anode material or electrolyte composition. The electron temperature of 4000 K and 33,000 K are determined from relative intensities of Mg I and O II lines, respectively. The attention is drawn to the possibility of N e application for T e evaluation using Saha equation what is of importance for PEO metal plasma characterization. During the course of this study, difficulties in the analysis of spectral line shapes are encountered and the ways to overcome some of the obstacles are demonstrated. -- Highlights: ► Optical emission spectroscopy of plasma during electrolytic oxidation. ► Spectral line profiles of the H-beta and non-hydrogenic singly charged ion lines of aluminum and magnesium. ► Experimental line profiles with complex structure. ► Three plasma processes involved. ► The application of Saha equation for the process

  5. Effect of materials and temperature on the forward extrusion of magnesium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekaran, Margam; John, Yong Ming Shyan

    2004-01-01

    Magnesium alloys are being extensively used in weight-saving applications and as a potential replacement for plastics in electronic and computer applications. However, processing of magnesium has always been a challenge for manufacturing industries owing to their high brittleness despite their good EMI shielding property and high specific strength. Despite these advantages, they are limited by their processability. The present work aims to evaluate lower temperature formability of magnesium alloys. Three different materials were selected for axisymmetric extrusion tests, namely AZ31, AZ61 and the forging alloy, ZK 60. To establish the size and capacity of the press required to perform these forming trials and to know the formability, simulation using finite element analysis was carried on a representative material AZ31 using the properties established based on earlier work. A die set with a die shoe was designed to perform the forward extrusion trials. The area reduction ratio for forward extrusion was fixed at 41% for the die design and simulation. The maximum strain is given as ln(A o /A f ) ∼ 0.88 in the case of forward extrusion. The temperature was varied with a temperature controller built in-house from room temperature (RT) to 300 deg.C. However, the results provided below only include the tests carried out at RT, 100, 150, 175 and 200 deg.C. Although the forming trials were successful above 200 deg.C, there was difficulty in removing the specimens from the die cavity. Secondly, the process of removing the samples in the case of AZ31 and ZK 60 resulted in cracking, so it was difficult to evaluate the samples and the process. However, AZ61 samples did not show any evidence of crack formation during ejection of the formed sample. Simulation results and experimental trials showed that magnesium (AZ31) could be easily formed at elevated temperatures of 300 deg.C. Though there was a good correlation on the yield point prediction between simulation and

  6. High-Speed Rolling of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Having Different Initial Textures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuki, Yusuke; Hara, Kenichiro; Utsunomiya, Hiroshi; Szpunar, Jerzy A.

    2015-02-01

    It is known that magnesium alloys can be rolled up to a large thickness reduction and develop a unique texture when the rolling speed is high (>1000 m/min). In order to understand the texture formation mechanism during high-strain-rate deformation, high-speed rolling of AZ31 magnesium alloy samples having different initial textures was conducted. The main components of the textures after the rolling were the RD-split basal, which consisted of 10°-20° inclining basal poles from the normal direction toward the rolling direction of the sheet, regardless of the different initial textures. With preheating at 473 K, all the samples were rolled without cracking while all were cracked when preheating was not applied. The optical micrographs and EBSD measurements showed a significant amount of twins and the cracks that developed along the shear bands consisted with laminated twins. Based on the texture simulation using the visco-plastic self-consistent model, it is concluded that the rapid development of the RD-split basal component from the initial basal alignment along the transverse direction was attributable to the tension twinning, The effect of the initial texture on the crack formation can be explained by the activation of the twinning system.

  7. Microstructure control during twin roll casting of an AZ31 magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Y; Bayandorian, I; Fan, Z

    2012-01-01

    The existing twin roll casting technique for magnesium alloys suffers heterogeneity in both microstructure and chemistry and downstream processing is required to improve the strip quality, resulting in cost rise. In the present work, twin roll casting was carried out using an AZ31 magnesium alloy, with the application of intensive shearing melt conditioning prior to casting. The effect of process parameters such as pouring temperature and casting speed on microstructure control during casting and subsequent downstream processing was studied. Experimental results showed that the melt conditioning treatment allowed the production of AZ31 strips with uniform and refined microstructure free of centreline segregations. It was also shown that an optimized combination of pouring temperature and casting speed, in conjunction with a strip thickness control operation, resulted in uniformly distributed stored energies due to enhanced plastic deformation, which promoted recrystallization during casting and subsequent heat treatment. Strips prepared by twin roll casting and homogenization developed similar microstructural features to those prepared by twin roll casting followed by lengthy downstream processing by homogenization, hot rolling and annealing and displayed a weaker basal texture, exhibiting a potentially better formability.

  8. Surface modification of steels and magnesium alloy by high current pulsed electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Shengzhi; Gao, Bo; Wu, Aimin; Zou, Jianxin; Qin, Ying; Dong, Chuang; An, Jian; Guan, Qingfeng

    2005-11-01

    High current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB) is now developing as a useful tool for surface modification of materials. When concentrated electron flux transferring its energy into a very thin surface layer within a short pulse time, superfast processes such as heating, melting, evaporation and consequent solidification, as well as dynamic stress induced may impart the surface layer with improved physico-chemical and mechanical properties. This paper presents our research work on surface modification of steels and magnesium alloy with HCPEB of working parameters as electron energy 27 keV, pulse duration ∼1 μs and energy density ∼2.2 J/cm2 per pulse. Investigations performed on carbon steel T8, mold steel D2 and magnesium alloy AZ91HP have shown that the most pronounced changes of phase-structure state and properties occurring in the near-surface layers, while the thickness of the modified layer with improved microhardness (several hundreds of micrometers) is significantly greater than that of the heat-affected zone. The formation mechanisms of surface cratering and non-stationary hardening effect in depth are discussed based on the elucidation of non-equilibrium temperature filed and different kinds of stresses formed during pulsed electron beam melting treatment. After the pulsed electron beam treatments, samples show significant improvements in measurements of wear and corrosion resistance.

  9. Surface modification of steels and magnesium alloy by high current pulsed electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Shengzhi; Gao, Bo; Wu, Aimin; Zou, Jianxin; Qin, Ying; Dong, Chuang; An, Jian; Guan, Qingfeng

    2005-01-01

    High current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB) is now developing as a useful tool for surface modification of materials. When concentrated electron flux transferring its energy into a very thin surface layer within a short pulse time, superfast processes such as heating, melting, evaporation and consequent solidification, as well as dynamic stress induced may impart the surface layer with improved physico-chemical and mechanical properties. This paper presents our research work on surface modification of steels and magnesium alloy with HCPEB of working parameters as electron energy 27 keV, pulse duration ∼1 μs and energy density ∼2.2 J/cm 2 per pulse. Investigations performed on carbon steel T8, mold steel D2 and magnesium alloy AZ91HP have shown that the most pronounced changes of phase-structure state and properties occurring in the near-surface layers, while the thickness of the modified layer with improved microhardness (several hundreds of micrometers) is significantly greater than that of the heat-affected zone. The formation mechanisms of surface cratering and non-stationary hardening effect in depth are discussed based on the elucidation of non-equilibrium temperature filed and different kinds of stresses formed during pulsed electron beam melting treatment. After the pulsed electron beam treatments, samples show significant improvements in measurements of wear and corrosion resistance

  10. Enhancing the Hardness and Compressive Response of Magnesium Using Complex Composition Alloy Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khin Sandar Tun

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports the development of new magnesium composites containing complex composition alloy (CCA particles. Materials were synthesized using a powder metallurgy route incorporating hybrid microwave sintering and hot extrusion. The presence and variation in the amount of ball-milled CCA particles (2.5 wt %, 5 wt %, and 7.5 wt % in a magnesium matrix and their effect on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg-CCA composites were investigated. The use of CCA particle reinforcement effectively led to a significant matrix grain refinement. Uniformly distributed CCA particles were observed in the microstructure of the composites. The refined microstructure coupled with the intrinsically high hardness of CCA particles (406 HV contributed to the superior mechanical properties of the Mg-CCA composites. A microhardness of 80 HV was achieved in a Mg-7.5HEA (high entropy alloy composite, which is 1.7 times higher than that of pure Mg. A significant improvement in compressive yield strength (63% and ultimate compressive strength (79% in the Mg-7.5CCA composite was achieved when compared to that of pure Mg while maintaining the same ductility level. When compared to ball-milled amorphous particle-reinforced and ceramic-particle-reinforced Mg composites, higher yield and compressive strengths in Mg-CCA composites were achieved at a similar ductility level.

  11. Finite element analyses for design evaluation of biodegradable magnesium alloy stents in arterial vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Wei [Laboratory of Biological Structure Mechanics, Structural Engineering Department, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci, 32, 20133 Milan (Italy); Gastaldi, Dario, E-mail: dario.gastaldi@polimi.it [Laboratory of Biological Structure Mechanics, Structural Engineering Department, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci, 32, 20133 Milan (Italy); Yang Ke; Tan Lili [Division of Specialized Materials and Devices, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang (China); Petrini, Lorenza; Migliavacca, Francesco [Laboratory of Biological Structure Mechanics, Structural Engineering Department, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci, 32, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2011-12-15

    Biodegradable magnesium alloy stents (MAS) can provide a great benefit for diseased vessels and avoid the long-term incompatible interactions between vessels and permanent stent platforms. However, the existing MAS showed insufficient scaffolding to the target vessels due to short degradation time. In this study, a three dimensional finite element model combined with a degradable material model of AZ31 (Al 0.03, Zn 0.01, Mn 0.002 and Mg balance, mass percentage) was applied to three different MAS designs including an already implanted stent (Stent A), an optimized design (Stent B) and a patented stent design (Stent C). One ring of each design was implanted through a simulation in a vessel model then degraded with the changing interaction between outer stent surface and the vessel. Results showed that a proper stent design (Stent B) can lead to an increase of nearly 120% in half normalized recoil time of the vessel compared to the Stent A; moreover, the expectation that the MAS design, with more mass and optimized mechanical properties, can increase scaffolding time was verified numerically. The Stent C has more materials than Stent B; however, it only increased the half normalized recoil time of the vessel by nearly 50% compared to the Stent A because of much higher stress concentration than that of Stent B. The 3D model can provide a convenient design and testing tool for novel magnesium alloy stents.

  12. Biological activity evaluation of magnesium fluoride coated Mg-Zn-Zr alloy in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongfeng; Wang, Jingbo; Chen, Minfang; Liu, Debao

    2017-06-01

    To explore the biodegradable characteristics and biological properties, which could promote new bone formation, of MgF 2 coated magnesium alloy (Mg-3wt%Zn-0.5wt%Zr) in rabbits. Magnesium alloy with MgF 2 coating was made and the MgF 2 /Mg-Zn-Zr was implanted in the femoral condyle of rabbits. Twelve healthy adult Japanese white rabbits in weight of 2.8-3.2kg were averagely divided into A(Mg-Zn-Zr) group and B(MgF 2 /MgZn-Zr) group. Indexes such as microstructural evolution, SEM scan, X-ray, Micro-CT and mechanical properties were observed and detected at 1th day, 2th, 4th, 8th, 12th, 24th week after implantation. Low-density regions occurred around the cancellous bone, and the regions gradually expanded during the 12weeks after implantation. The implant was gradually absorbed from 12 to 24weeks. The density of surrounding cancellous bone increased compared with the 12th week data. The degradation rate of B group was lower than that of A group (Pmagnesium ions. The biological properties of the coating itself presented good biocompatibility and bioactivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Stamping of Thin-Walled Structural Components with Magnesium Alloy AZ31 Sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, F.-K.; Chang, C.-K.

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, the stamping process for manufacturing cell phone cases with magnesium alloy AZ31 sheets was studied using both the experimental approach and the finite element analysis. In order to determine the proper forming temperature and set up a fracture criterion, tensile tests and forming limit tests were first conducted to obtain the mechanical behaviors of AZ31 sheets at various elevated temperatures. The mechanical properties of Z31 sheets obtained from the experiments were then adopted in the finite element analysis to investigate the effects of the process parameters on the formability of the stamping process of cell phone cases. The finite element simulation results revealed that both the fracture and wrinkle defects could not be eliminated at the same time by adjusting blank-holder force or blank size. A drawbead design was then performed using the finite element simulations to determine the size and the location of drawbead required to suppress the wrinkle defect. An optimum stamping process, including die geometry, forming temperature, and blank dimension, was then determined for manufacturing the cell phone cases. The finite element analysis was validated by the good agreement between the simulation results and the experimental data. It confirms that the cell phone cases can be produced with magnesium alloy AZ31 sheet by the stamping process at elevated temperatures

  14. Flow behaviour of magnesium alloy AZ31B processed by equal-channel angular pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arun, M S; Chakkingal, U

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium alloys are characterised by their low density, high specific strength and stiffness. But, the potential application of Mg is limited by its low room-temperature ductility and formability. Formability can be improved by developing an ultrafine grained (UFG) structure. Equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) is a well known process that can be used to develop an ultrafine grained microstructure. The aim of this study was to investigate the flow behaviour of AZ31B magnesium alloy after ECAP. The specimen was subjected to three passes of ECAP with a die angle of 120° using processing route Bc. The processing temperature was 523 K for the first pass and 423 K for the subsequent two passes. The microstructure characterisation was done. Compression tests of ECAPed and annealed specimens were carried out at strain rates of 0.01 – 1s −1 and deformation temperatures of 200 – 300°C using computer servo-controlled Gleeble-3800 system. The value of activation energy Q and the empirical materials constants of A and n were determined. The equations relating flow stress and Zener-Hollomon parameter were proposed. In the case annealed AZ31, the activation energy was determined to be 154 kJ/mol, which was slightly higher than the activation energy of 144 kJ/mol for ECAPed AZ31

  15. Flow behaviour of magnesium alloy AZ31B processed by equal-channel angular pressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, M. S.; Chakkingal, U.

    2014-08-01

    Magnesium alloys are characterised by their low density, high specific strength and stiffness. But, the potential application of Mg is limited by its low room-temperature ductility & formability. Formability can be improved by developing an ultrafine grained (UFG) structure. Equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) is a well known process that can be used to develop an ultrafine grained microstructure. The aim of this study was to investigate the flow behaviour of AZ31B magnesium alloy after ECAP. The specimen was subjected to three passes of ECAP with a die angle of 120° using processing route Bc. The processing temperature was 523 K for the first pass and 423 K for the subsequent two passes. The microstructure characterisation was done. Compression tests of ECAPed and annealed specimens were carried out at strain rates of 0.01 - 1s-1 and deformation temperatures of 200 - 300°C using computer servo-controlled Gleeble-3800 system. The value of activation energy Q and the empirical materials constants of A and n were determined. The equations relating flow stress and Zener-Hollomon parameter were proposed. In the case annealed AZ31, the activation energy was determined to be 154 kJ/mol, which was slightly higher than the activation energy of 144 kJ/mol for ECAPed AZ31.

  16. Hybrid organic-inorganic coatings including nanocontainers for corrosion protection of magnesium alloy ZK30

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartsonakis, I. A.; Koumoulos, E. P.; Charitidis, C. A.; Kordas, G.

    2013-08-01

    This study is focused on the fabrication, characterization, and application of corrosion protective coatings to magnesium alloy ZK30. Hybrid organic-inorganic coatings were synthesized using organic-modified silicates together with resins based on bisphenol A diglycidyl ether. Cerium molybdate nanocontainers (ncs) with diameter 100 ± 20 nm were loaded with corrosion inhibitor 2-mercaptobenzothiazole and incorporated into the coatings in order to improve their anticorrosion properties. The coatings were investigated for their anticorrosion and nanomechanical properties. The morphology of the coatings was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The composition was estimated by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. The mechanical integrity of the coatings was studied through nanoindentation and nanoscratch techniques. Scanning probe microscope imaging of the coatings revealed that the addition of ncs creates surface incongruity; however, the hardness to modulus ratio revealed significant strengthening of the coating with increase of ncs. Studies on their corrosion behavior in 0.5 M sodium chloride solutions at room temperature were made using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Artificial defects were formatted on the surface of the films in order for possible self-healing effects to be evaluated. The results showed that the coated magnesium alloys exhibited only capacitive response after exposure to corrosive environment for 16 months. This behavior denotes that the coatings have enhanced barrier properties and act as an insulator. Finally, the scratched coatings revealed a partial recovery due to the increase of charge-transfer resistance as the immersion time elapsed.

  17. Finite element analyses for design evaluation of biodegradable magnesium alloy stents in arterial vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Wei; Gastaldi, Dario; Yang Ke; Tan Lili; Petrini, Lorenza; Migliavacca, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Biodegradable magnesium alloy stents (MAS) can provide a great benefit for diseased vessels and avoid the long-term incompatible interactions between vessels and permanent stent platforms. However, the existing MAS showed insufficient scaffolding to the target vessels due to short degradation time. In this study, a three dimensional finite element model combined with a degradable material model of AZ31 (Al 0.03, Zn 0.01, Mn 0.002 and Mg balance, mass percentage) was applied to three different MAS designs including an already implanted stent (Stent A), an optimized design (Stent B) and a patented stent design (Stent C). One ring of each design was implanted through a simulation in a vessel model then degraded with the changing interaction between outer stent surface and the vessel. Results showed that a proper stent design (Stent B) can lead to an increase of nearly 120% in half normalized recoil time of the vessel compared to the Stent A; moreover, the expectation that the MAS design, with more mass and optimized mechanical properties, can increase scaffolding time was verified numerically. The Stent C has more materials than Stent B; however, it only increased the half normalized recoil time of the vessel by nearly 50% compared to the Stent A because of much higher stress concentration than that of Stent B. The 3D model can provide a convenient design and testing tool for novel magnesium alloy stents.

  18. Hexagonal Boron Nitride Impregnated Silane Composite Coating for Corrosion Resistance of Magnesium Alloys for Temporary Bioimplant Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Al-Saadi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium and its alloys are attractive potential materials for construction of biodegradable temporary implant devices. However, their rapid degradation in human body fluid before the desired service life is reached necessitate the application of suitable coatings. To this end, WZ21 magnesium alloy surface was modified by hexagonal boron nitride (hBN-impregnated silane coating. The coating was chemically characterised by Raman spectroscopy. Potentiodynamic polarisation and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS of the coated alloy in Hanks’ solution showed a five-fold improvement in the corrosion resistance of the alloy due to the composite coating. Post-corrosion analyses corroborated the electrochemical data and provided a mechanistic insight of the improvement provided by the composite coating.

  19. Microstructure and Properties of Cobalt-and Zinc-Containing Magnetic Magnesium Alloys Processed by High-Pressure Die Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, Christian; Demminger, Christian; Maier, Hans Jürgen

    The inherent magnetic properties of lightweight alloys based on magnesium and cobalt offer a novel way in order to measure mechanical loads throughout the entire structural component using the magnetoelastic effect. Because the solubility of cobalt in the magnesium matrix is negligible, the magnetic properties mainly originate from Co-rich precipitates. Thus, the size and distribution of Co-containing phases within the alloy's microstructure wields a major influence on the amplitude of the load-sensitive properties which can be measured by employing the harmonic analysis of eddy-current signals. In this study, Mg-Co-based alloys are produced by several casting methods which allow the application of different cooling rates, e.g. gravity die casting and high-pressure die casting. The differences between the manufactured alloys' micro- and phase structures are compared depending on the applied cooling rate and the superior magnetic and mechanical properties of the high-pressure die cast material are demonstrated.

  20. Use of high energy ball milling to study the role of graphene nanoplatelets and carbon nanotubes reinforced magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashad, Muhammad, E-mail: rashadphy87@gmail.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Pan, Fusheng, E-mail: fspan@cqu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Chongqing Academy of Science and Technology, Chongqing, Chongqing 401123 (China); Zhang, Jianyue [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Asif, Muhammad [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Graphene nanoplatelets (few layer graphene) and carbon nanotubes were used as reinforcement fillers to enhance the mechanical properties of AZ31 magnesium alloy through high energy ball milling, sintering, and hot extrusion techniques. Experimental results revealed that tensile fracture strain of AZ31 magnesium alloy was enhanced by +49.6% with 0.3 wt.% graphene nanoplatelets compared to −8.3% regression for 0.3 wt.% carbon nanotubes. The tensile strength of AZ31 magnesium alloy was decreased (−11.2%) with graphene nanoplatelets addition, while increased (+7.7%) with carbon nanotubes addition. Unlike tensile test, compression tests showed different trend. The compression strength of carbon nanotubes-AZ31 composite was +51.2% greater than AZ31 magnesium alloy as compared to +0.6% increase for graphene nanoplatelets. The compressive fracture strain of carbon nanotubes-AZ31 composite was decreased (−14.1%) while no significant change in fracture strain of graphene nanoplatelets-AZ31 composite was observed. The X-ray diffraction results revealed that addition of reinforcement particles weaken the basal textures which affect the composite's yield asymmetry. Microstructure evaluation revealed the absence of intermetallic phase formation between reinforcements and matrix. The carbon reinforcements in AZ31 magnesium alloy dissolve and isolate β phases throughout the matrix. The increased fracture strain and mechanical strength of graphene nanoplatelets and carbon nanotubes-AZ31 composites are attributed to large specific surface area of graphene nanoplatelets and stiffer nature of carbon nanotubes respectively. - Highlights: • Powder metallurgy method was used to fabricate magnesium composites. • The AZ31-carbon materials composite were blended using ball milling. • The reinforcement particles weaken the basal texture which affects yield asymmetry of composites. • AZ31-graphene nanoplatelets composite exhibited impressive increase in tensile elongation

  1. Use of high energy ball milling to study the role of graphene nanoplatelets and carbon nanotubes reinforced magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashad, Muhammad; Pan, Fusheng; Zhang, Jianyue; Asif, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Graphene nanoplatelets (few layer graphene) and carbon nanotubes were used as reinforcement fillers to enhance the mechanical properties of AZ31 magnesium alloy through high energy ball milling, sintering, and hot extrusion techniques. Experimental results revealed that tensile fracture strain of AZ31 magnesium alloy was enhanced by +49.6% with 0.3 wt.% graphene nanoplatelets compared to −8.3% regression for 0.3 wt.% carbon nanotubes. The tensile strength of AZ31 magnesium alloy was decreased (−11.2%) with graphene nanoplatelets addition, while increased (+7.7%) with carbon nanotubes addition. Unlike tensile test, compression tests showed different trend. The compression strength of carbon nanotubes-AZ31 composite was +51.2% greater than AZ31 magnesium alloy as compared to +0.6% increase for graphene nanoplatelets. The compressive fracture strain of carbon nanotubes-AZ31 composite was decreased (−14.1%) while no significant change in fracture strain of graphene nanoplatelets-AZ31 composite was observed. The X-ray diffraction results revealed that addition of reinforcement particles weaken the basal textures which affect the composite's yield asymmetry. Microstructure evaluation revealed the absence of intermetallic phase formation between reinforcements and matrix. The carbon reinforcements in AZ31 magnesium alloy dissolve and isolate β phases throughout the matrix. The increased fracture strain and mechanical strength of graphene nanoplatelets and carbon nanotubes-AZ31 composites are attributed to large specific surface area of graphene nanoplatelets and stiffer nature of carbon nanotubes respectively. - Highlights: • Powder metallurgy method was used to fabricate magnesium composites. • The AZ31-carbon materials composite were blended using ball milling. • The reinforcement particles weaken the basal texture which affects yield asymmetry of composites. • AZ31-graphene nanoplatelets composite exhibited impressive increase in tensile elongation

  2. Effect of ECAP processing on corrosion resistance of AE21 and AE42 magnesium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minárik, P.; Král, R.; Janeček, M.

    2013-09-01

    Corrosion properties of AE21 and AE42 magnesium alloys were investigated in the extruded state and after subsequent 8 passes of Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) via route Bc, by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) in 0.1 M NaCl solution. The resulting microstructure was observed by the Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Corrosion layer created after 7 days of immersion was observed by (SEM) in order to explain different evolution of the corrosion resistance after ECAP processing in both alloys. It was found that Al-rich Al11RE3 dispersed particles (present in both alloys) strongly influence the corrosion process and enhance the corrosion resistance. Ultra-fine grained structure was found to reduce the corrosion resistance in AE21. On the other hand, the microstructure of AE42 after ECAP and particularly the better distribution of the alloying elements in the matrix enhance the corrosion resistance when compared to the extruded material.

  3. Effect of ECAP processing on corrosion resistance of AE21 and AE42 magnesium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minárik, P., E-mail: peter.minarik@mff.cuni.cz [Charles University, Department of Physics of Materials, Prague (Czech Republic); Král, R.; Janeček, M. [Charles University, Department of Physics of Materials, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2013-09-15

    Corrosion properties of AE21 and AE42 magnesium alloys were investigated in the extruded state and after subsequent 8 passes of Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) via route Bc, by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) in 0.1 M NaCl solution. The resulting microstructure was observed by the Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Corrosion layer created after 7 days of immersion was observed by (SEM) in order to explain different evolution of the corrosion resistance after ECAP processing in both alloys. It was found that Al-rich Al11RE3 dispersed particles (present in both alloys) strongly influence the corrosion process and enhance the corrosion resistance. Ultra-fine grained structure was found to reduce the corrosion resistance in AE21. On the other hand, the microstructure of AE42 after ECAP and particularly the better distribution of the alloying elements in the matrix enhance the corrosion resistance when compared to the extruded material.

  4. Effect of ECAP processing on corrosion resistance of AE21 and AE42 magnesium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minárik, P.; Král, R.; Janeček, M.

    2013-01-01

    Corrosion properties of AE21 and AE42 magnesium alloys were investigated in the extruded state and after subsequent 8 passes of Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) via route Bc, by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) in 0.1 M NaCl solution. The resulting microstructure was observed by the Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Corrosion layer created after 7 days of immersion was observed by (SEM) in order to explain different evolution of the corrosion resistance after ECAP processing in both alloys. It was found that Al-rich Al11RE3 dispersed particles (present in both alloys) strongly influence the corrosion process and enhance the corrosion resistance. Ultra-fine grained structure was found to reduce the corrosion resistance in AE21. On the other hand, the microstructure of AE42 after ECAP and particularly the better distribution of the alloying elements in the matrix enhance the corrosion resistance when compared to the extruded material.

  5. Biocorrosion behavior and cell viability of adhesive polymer coated magnesium based alloys for medical implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdal-hay, Abdalla; Dewidar, Montasser; Lim, Jae Kyoo

    2012-11-01

    The present study was ultimately aimed to design novel adhesive biodegradable polymer, poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc), coatings onto Mg based alloys by the dip-coating technique in order to control the degradation rate and enhance the biocompatibility of magnesium alloys. The influence of various solvents on PVAc surface topography and their protection of Mg alloys were dramatically studied in vitro. Electrochemical polarization, degradation, and PVAc film cytocompatibility were also tested. Our results showed that the solvent had a significant effect on coating quality. PVAc/dichloromethane solution showed a porous structure and solution concentration could control the porous size. The coatings prepared using tetrahydrofuran and dimethylformamide solvents are exceptional in their ability to generate porous morphology even at low polymer concentration. In general, the corrosion performance appears to be different on different PVAc-solvent system. Immersion tests illustrated that the porous morphology on PVAc stabilized corrosion rates. A uniform corrosion attack in artificial simulation body fluid was also exhibited. The cytocompatibility of osteoblast cells (MC3T3) revealed high adherence, proliferation, and survival on the porous structure of PVAc coated Mg alloy, which was not observed for the uncoated samples. This novel PVAc coating is a promising candidate for biodegradable implant materials, which might widen the use of Mg based implants.

  6. Microstructural characterizations and mechanical properties in underwater friction stir welding of aluminum and magnesium dissimilar alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yong; Lu, Zhengping; Yan, Keng; Huang, Linzhao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Aluminum and magnesium alloys were joined by underwater friction stir welding. • Underwater FSW was conducted to improve properties of joint with lower heat input. • Microstructures and mechanical properties of dissimilar joint were investigated. • Intermetallic compounds developed in the fracture interface were analyzed. • Fracture features of the tensile samples were analyzed. - Abstract: Formation of intermetallic compounds in the stir zone of dissimilar welds affects the mechanical properties of the joints significantly. In order to reduce heat input and control the amount and morphological characteristics of brittle intermetallic compounds underwater friction stir welding of 6013 Al alloy and AZ31 Mg alloy was carried out. Microstructures, mechanical properties, elements distribution, and the fracture surface of the joints were analyzed by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, etc. The result shows that sound dissimilar joint with good mechanical properties can be obtained by underwater friction stir welding. Al and Mg alloys were stirred together and undergone the process of recrystallization, forming complex intercalated flow patterns in the stir zone. Tensile strength of the dissimilar joint was up to 152.3 MPa. Maximum hardness (142HV) appeared in the middle of the centerline of the specimen. Intermetallic compounds layer consisting of Al 3 Mg 2 and Mg 17 Al 12 formed in the Al/Mg interface and resulted in the fracture of the joint

  7. Nanostructured calcium phosphate coatings on magnesium alloys: characterization and cytocompatibility with mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskandar, Maria Emil; Aslani, Arash; Tian, Qiaomu; Liu, Huinan

    2015-05-01

    This article reports the deposition and characterization of nanostructured calcium phosphate (nCaP) on magnesium-yttrium alloy substrates and their cytocompatibility with bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). The nCaP coatings were deposited on magnesium and magnesium-yttrium alloy substrates using proprietary transonic particle acceleration process for the dual purposes of modulating substrate degradation and BMSC adhesion. Surface morphology and feature size were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and quantitative image analysis tools. Surface elemental compositions and phases were analyzed using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, respectively. The deposited nCaP coatings showed a homogeneous particulate surface with the dominant feature size of 200-500 nm in the long axis and 100-300 nm in the short axis, and a Ca/P atomic ratio of 1.5-1.6. Hydroxyapatite was the major phase identified in the nCaP coatings. The modulatory effects of nCaP coatings on the sample degradation and BMSC behaviors were dependent on the substrate composition and surface conditions. The direct culture of BMSCs in vitro indicated that multiple factors, including surface composition and topography, and the degradation-induced changes in media composition, influenced cell adhesion directly on the sample surface, and indirect adhesion surrounding the sample in the same culture. The alkaline pH, the indicator of Mg degradation, played a role in BMSC adhesion and morphology, but not the sole factor. Additional studies are necessary to elucidate BMSC responses to each contributing factor.

  8. Wear Resistance Increase by Friction Stir Processing for Partial Magnesium Replacement in Aluminium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balos, Sebastian; Labus Zlatanovic, Danka; Janjatovic, Petar; Dramicanin, Miroslav; Rajnovic, Dragan; Sidjanin, Leposava

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, the influence of friction stir processing (FSP) was evaluated as a way of increasing mechanical properties and a way of replacing the magnesium content in aluminium alloys. FSP was done on AA5754 H111 aluminium alloy, containing 3 % Mg, by using various types of tools and different welding speeds, rotational speeds and tilt angles. Wear test was done against SiC abrasive papers. SiC was used to simulate extreme abrasive wear conditions. The wear test was done on untreated AA5754 specimens, processed AA5754 specimens and untreated AA5083 H111 specimens, the latter containing 4.5 % Mg. AA5083 was chosen as an alternative to AA5754, but with a significantly higher Mg content. Base material microhardness was 60 HV1 and 80 HV1 for AA5754 and AA5083 alloys respectively. To find the effect of FSP on AA5754 alloy, microstructures were studied, mainly grain size in the stir zone. It was found, that an elevated processing and rotational speed, without tilt angle and the tool without a reservoir resulted in an increase in hardness of the AA5754 to 70 HV1, but with the occurrence of tunneling defect and the wear rate of 79.3 mg. Lower FSP parameters and a tilted tool with a reservoir resulted in microhardness of 68 HV1 and wear rate of 68.2 mg without tunneling. These wear values are lower than those obtained with unmodified Al-alloys: AA5754 97.2 mg and AA5083 86.3 mg. An increased wear resistance can be attributed to the combined effect of grain boundary strengthening mechanism and solid solution strengthening, versus only the latter in untreated alloys.

  9. Characterization of coatings formed on AZX magnesium alloys by plasma electrolytic oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anawati, Anawati; Gumelar, Muhammad Dikdik

    2018-05-01

    Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) is an electrochemical anodization process which involves the application of a high voltage to create intense plasma on a metal surface to form a ceramic type of oxide. The resulted coating exhibits high wear resistance and good corrosion barrier which are suitable to enhance the performance of biodegradable Mg alloys. In this work, the role of alloying element Ca in modifying the characteristics of PEO layer formed on AZ61 series magnesium alloys was investigated. PEO treatment was conducted on AZ61, AZX611, and AZX612 alloys in 0.5 M Na3PO4 solution at a constant current of 200 A/m2 at 25°C for 8 min. The resulted coatings were characterized by field emission-scanning electron microscope (FESEM), X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), as well as hardness test. The presence of alloying element Ca in the AZ61 alloys accelerated the PEO coatings formation without altering the coating properties significantly. The coating formed on AZX specimen was slightly thicker ( 14-17 µm) than that of formed onthe AZ specimens ( 13 µm). Longer exposure time to plasma discharge was the reason for faster thickening of the coating layer on AZX specimen. XRD detected a similar crystalline oxide phase of Mg3(PO4)2 in the oxide formed on all of the specimens. Zn was highly incorporated in the coatings with a concentration in the range 24-30 wt%, as analyzed by XRF. Zn compound might exist in amorphous phases. The microhardness test on the coatings revealed similar average hardness 124 HVon all of the specimens.

  10. Bio-Adaption between Magnesium Alloy Stent and the Blood Vessel: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Zhao, Nan; Betts, Lexxus; Zhu, Donghui

    2016-09-01

    Biodegradable magnesium (Mg) alloy stents are the most promising next generation of bio-absorbable stents. In this article, we summarized the progresses on the in vitro studies, animal testing and clinical trials of biodegradable Mg alloy stents in the past decades. These exciting findings led us to propose the importance of the concept "bio-adaption" between the Mg alloy stent and the local tissue microenvironment after implantation. The healing responses of stented blood vessel can be generally described in three overlapping phases: inflammation, granulation and remodeling. The ideal bio-adaption of the Mg alloy stent, once implanted into the blood vessel, needs to be a reasonable function of the time and the space/dimension. First, a very slow degeneration of mechanical support is expected in the initial four months in order to provide sufficient mechanical support to the injured vessels. Although it is still arguable whether full mechanical support in stented lesions is mandatory during the first four months after implantation, it would certainly be a safety design parameter and a benchmark for regulatory evaluations based on the fact that there is insufficient human in vivo data available, especially the vessel wall mechanical properties during the healing/remodeling phase. Second, once the Mg alloy stent being degraded, the void space will be filled by the regenerated blood vessel tissues. The degradation of the Mg alloy stent should be 100% completed with no residues, and the degradation products (e.g., ions and hydrogen) will be helpful for the tissue reconstruction of the blood vessel. Toward this target, some future research perspectives are also discussed.

  11. Bio-Adaption between Magnesium Alloy Stent and the Blood Vessel: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Zhao, Nan; Betts, Lexxus; Zhu, Donghui

    2016-01-01

    Biodegradable magnesium (Mg) alloy stents are the most promising next generation of bio-absorbable stents. In this article, we summarized the progresses on the in vitro studies, animal testing and clinical trials of biodegradable Mg alloy stents in the past decades. These exciting findings led us to propose the importance of the concept “bio-adaption” between the Mg alloy stent and the local tissue microenvironment after implantation. The healing responses of stented blood vessel can be generally described in three overlapping phases: inflammation, granulation and remodeling. The ideal bio-adaption of the Mg alloy stent, once implanted into the blood vessel, needs to be a reasonable function of the time and the space/dimension. First, a very slow degeneration of mechanical support is expected in the initial four months in order to provide sufficient mechanical support to the injured vessels. Although it is still arguable whether full mechanical support in stented lesions is mandatory during the first four months after implantation, it would certainly be a safety design parameter and a benchmark for regulatory evaluations based on the fact that there is insufficient human in vivo data available, especially the vessel wall mechanical properties during the healing/remodeling phase. Second, once the Mg alloy stent being degraded, the void space will be filled by the regenerated blood vessel tissues. The degradation of the Mg alloy stent should be 100% completed with no residues, and the degradation products (e.g., ions and hydrogen) will be helpful for the tissue reconstruction of the blood vessel. Toward this target, some future research perspectives are also discussed. PMID:27698548

  12. Constitutive behavior and microstructure evolution of the as-extruded AE21 magnesium alloy during hot compression testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, L.-X. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Fang, G., E-mail: fangg@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Leeflang, M.A.; Duszczyk, J.; Zhou, J. [Department of Biomechanical Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Constitutive equation of magnesium alloy AE21 for hot deformation is established. • Material processing history affects the activation energy for deformation. • Zener-Hollomon parameter is used to distinguish the shapes of flow stress curves. • Kink band plays an important role in causing a concave shape of the flow curve of AE21. - Abstract: Magnesium alloys containing rare earth elements possess improved corrosion resistance and mechanical properties and therefore have great potential for a wide range of applications including biomedical applications. Hot forming is meant not only for shaping but also for microstructure modification and performance enhancement. It is of great importance to define optimum form