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Sample records for magellanic cloud clusters

  1. OGLE Collection of Star Clusters. New Objects in the Magellanic Bridge and the Outskirts of the Small Magellanic Cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Sitek, M.; Szymański, M. K.; Udalski, A.; Skowron, D. M.; Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z.; Skowron, J.; Karczmarek, P.; Cieślar, M.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Kozłowski, S.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Soszyński, I.; Mróz, P.; Pawlak, M.; Poleski, R.

    2018-01-01

    The Magellanic System (MS) encompasses the nearest neighbors of the Milky Way, the Large (LMC) and Small (SMC) Magellanic Clouds, and the Magellanic Bridge (MBR). This system contains a diverse sample of star clusters. Their parameters, such as the spatial distribution, chemical composition and age distribution yield important information about the formation scenario of the whole Magellanic System. Using deep photometric maps compiled in the fourth phase of the Optical Gravitational Lensing E...

  2. Evolutionary population synthesis - An application to Magellanic Cloud clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battinelli, P.; Capuzzo-Dolcetta, R.

    1989-01-01

    Synthetic models are computed in order to study the evolution with time of integrated luminosities and colors for stellar systems spanning ranges of total mass and metal abundance similar to those characteristic of the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds (SMC and LMC) globular-like clusters. General aspects of this synthetic approach, results relative to the integral bolometric and U, B, V fluxes and colors, and indications on the reliability of photometric synthesis in giving informations on the stellar content of star clusters are discussed. A picture for the formation and evolution of the Cloud clusters is discussed on the basis of the comparison between theory and observations. In particular, an evaluation of the masses for a sample of MC clusters based on the models is given, a discussion of the problem of the gap in the integral color distributions is reported, and a possible solution on the basis of the synthetic models is suggested. 114 refs

  3. OGLE Collection of Star Clusters. New Objects in the Outskirts of the Large Magellanic Cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Sitek, M.; Szymański, M. K.; Skowron, D. M.; Udalski, A.; Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z.; Skowron, J.; Karczmarek, P.; Cieślar, M.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Kozłowski, S.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Soszyński, I.; Mróz, P.; Pawlak, M.; Poleski, R.

    2016-01-01

    The Magellanic System (MS), consisting of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) and the Magellanic Bridge (MBR), contains diverse sample of star clusters. Their spatial distribution, ages and chemical abundances may provide important information about the history of formation of the whole System. We use deep photometric maps derived from the images collected during the fourth phase of The Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE-IV) to construct the most com...

  4. Electronographic photometry of star clusters in the Magellanic Clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, M.F.

    1979-01-01

    Electronographic magnitudes and colours of 78 stars in the cluster Hodge 11 in the Large Magellanic Cloud have been measured to V = 21.5 on electrographs taken with a Spectracon image-converter attached to the focus of the 1.5-m (60-inch) Cerro Tololo reflector. The zero point of the electronographic photometry was provided by photoelectric observations of four stars in the cluster field using the same telescope. The colour-magnitude diagram of the cluster consists of an evolved main sequence, whose termination point corresponds to an age of about 6 x 10 8 yr, but with a giant branch which is displaced blueward by about Δ(B-V) 0 = 0.4 from the positions of the giant branches of open clusters of similar age in our Galaxy. (author)

  5. Sizing the star cluster population of the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatti, Andrés E.

    2018-04-01

    The number of star clusters that populate the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) at deprojected distances knowledge of the LMC cluster formation and dissolution histories, we closely revisited such a compilation of objects and found that only ˜35 per cent of the previously known catalogued clusters have been included. The remaining entries are likely related to stellar overdensities of the LMC composite star field, because there is a remarkable enhancement of objects with assigned ages older than log(t yr-1) ˜ 9.4, which contrasts with the existence of the LMC cluster age gap; the assumption of a cluster formation rate similar to that of the LMC star field does not help to conciliate so large amount of clusters either; and nearly 50 per cent of them come from cluster search procedures known to produce more than 90 per cent of false detections. The lack of further analyses to confirm the physical reality as genuine star clusters of the identified overdensities also glooms those results. We support that the actual size of the LMC main body cluster population is close to that previously known.

  6. OGLE Collection of Star Clusters. New Objects in the Outskirts of the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitek, M.; Szymański, M. K.; Skowron, D. M.; Udalski, A.; Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z.; Skowron, J.; Karczmarek, P.; Cieślar, M.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Kozłowski, S.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Soszyński, I.; Mróz, P.; Pawlak, M.; Poleski, R.; Ulaczyk, K.

    2016-09-01

    The Magellanic System (MS), consisting of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) and the Magellanic Bridge (MBR), contains diverse sample of star clusters. Their spatial distribution, ages and chemical abundances may provide important information about the history of formation of the whole System. We use deep photometric maps derived from the images collected during the fourth phase of the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE-IV) to construct the most complete catalog of star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud using the homogeneous photometric data. In this paper we present the collection of star clusters found in the area of about 225 square degrees in the outer regions of the LMC. Our sample contains 679 visually identified star cluster candidates, 226 of which were not listed in any of the previously published catalogs. The new clusters are mainly young small open clusters or clusters similar to associations.

  7. Variable Stars in Large Magellanic Cloud Globular Clusters. III. Reticulum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Charles A.; Dame, Kyra; Smith, Horace A.; Catelan, Márcio; Jeon, Young-Beom; Nemec, James M.; Walker, Alistair R.; Kunder, Andrea; Pritzl, Barton J.; De Lee, Nathan; Borissova, Jura

    2013-06-01

    This is the third in a series of papers studying the variable stars in old globular clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The primary goal of this series is to look at how the characteristics and behavior of RR Lyrae stars in Oosterhoff-intermediate systems compare to those of their counterparts in Oosterhoff-I/II systems. In this paper we present the results of our new time-series BVI photometric study of the globular cluster Reticulum. We found a total of 32 variables stars (22 RRab, 4 RRc, and 6 RRd stars) in our field of view. We present photometric parameters and light curves for these stars. We also present physical properties, derived from Fourier analysis of light curves, for some of the RR Lyrae stars. We discuss the Oosterhoff classification of Reticulum and use our results to re-derive the distance modulus and age of the cluster. Based on observations taken with the SMARTS 1.3 m telescope operated by the SMARTS Consortium and observations taken at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  8. OGLE Collection of Star Clusters. New Objects in the Magellanic Bridge and the Outskirts of the Small Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitek, M.; Szymański, M. K.; Udalski, A.; Skowron, D. M.; Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z.; Skowron, J.; Karczmarek, P.; Cieślar, M.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Kozłowski, S.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Soszyński, I.; Mróz, P.; Pawlak, M.; Poleski, R.; Ulaczyk, K.

    2017-12-01

    The Magellanic System (MS) encompasses the nearest neighbors of the Milky Way, the Large (LMC) and Small (SMC) Magellanic Clouds, and the Magellanic Bridge (MBR). This system contains a diverse sample of star clusters. Their parameters, such as the spatial distribution, chemical composition and age distribution yield important information about the formation scenario of the whole Magellanic System. Using deep photometric maps compiled in the fourth phase of the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE-IV) we present the most complete catalog of star clusters in the Magellanic System ever constructed from homogeneous, long time-scale photometric data. In this second paper of the series, we show the collection of star clusters found in the area of about 360 square degrees in the MBR and in the outer regions of the SMC. Our sample contains 198 visually identified star cluster candidates, 75 of which were not listed in any of the previously published catalogs. The new discoveries are mainly young small open clusters or clusters similar to associations.

  9. Photoelectric UBVRI sequences in the Magellanic Cloud clusters Lindsay 1, NGC 339, NGC 361, and NGC 1466

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaino, G.; Alvarado, F.; Wenderoth, E.; Liller, W.

    1990-01-01

    UBVRI sequences in three Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) clusters Lindsay 1, NGC 339, NGC 361, and in NGC 1466, which lies between the two Magellanic Clouds, are presented. These sequences are appropriate for charge-coupled device (CCD) coverage. Only BV standards have been published in NGC 339 and UBV in NGC 1466; no sequences exist for the two other clusters. 15 refs

  10. Star clouds of Magellan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucker, W.

    1981-01-01

    The Magellanic Clouds are two irregular galaxies belonging to the local group which the Milky Way belongs to. By studying the Clouds, astronomers hope to gain insight into the origin and composition of the Milky Way. The overall structure and dynamics of the Clouds are clearest when studied in radio region of the spectrum. One benefit of directly observing stellar luminosities in the Clouds has been the discovery of the period-luminosity relation. Also, the Clouds are a splendid laboratory for studying stellar evolution. It is believed that both Clouds may be in the very early stage in the development of a regular, symmetric galaxy. This raises a paradox because some of the stars in the star clusters of the Clouds are as old as the oldest stars in our galaxy. An explanation for this is given. The low velocity of the Clouds with respect to the center of the Milky Way shows they must be bound to it by gravity. Theories are given on how the Magellanic Clouds became associated with the galaxy. According to current ideas the Clouds orbits will decay and they will spiral into the Galaxy

  11. Interacting star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Overmerging problem solved by cluster group formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Stéphane; Bergond, Gilles; Vallenari, Antonella

    1999-04-01

    We present the tidal tail distributions of a sample of candidate binary clusters located in the bar of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). One isolated cluster, SL 268, is presented in order to study the effect of the LMC tidal field. All the candidate binary clusters show tidal tails, confirming that the pairs are formed by physically linked objects. The stellar mass in the tails covers a large range, from 1.8x 10(3) to 3x 10(4) \\msun. We derive a total mass estimate for SL 268 and SL 356. At large radii, the projected density profiles of SL 268 and SL 356 fall off as r(-gamma ) , with gamma = 2.27 and gamma =3.44, respectively. Out of 4 pairs or multiple systems, 2 are older than the theoretical survival time of binary clusters (going from a few 10(6) years to 10(8) years). A pair shows too large age difference between the components to be consistent with classical theoretical models of binary cluster formation (Fujimoto & Kumai \\cite{fujimoto97}). We refer to this as the ``overmerging'' problem. A different scenario is proposed: the formation proceeds in large molecular complexes giving birth to groups of clusters over a few 10(7) years. In these groups the expected cluster encounter rate is larger, and tidal capture has higher probability. Cluster pairs are not born together through the splitting of the parent cloud, but formed later by tidal capture. For 3 pairs, we tentatively identify the star cluster group (SCG) memberships. The SCG formation, through the recent cluster starburst triggered by the LMC-SMC encounter, in contrast with the quiescent open cluster formation in the Milky Way can be an explanation to the paucity of binary clusters observed in our Galaxy. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile}

  12. The Distribution and Ages of Star Clusters in the Small Magellanic Cloud: Constraints on the Interaction History of the Magellanic Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsakis, Theodoros; González-Lópezlira, R. A.; Bonfini, P.; Bruzual, G.; Maravelias, G.; Zaritsky, D.; Charlot, S.; Ramírez-Siordia, V. H.

    2018-02-01

    We present a new study of the spatial distribution and ages of the star clusters in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). To detect and estimate the ages of the star clusters we rely on the new fully automated method developed by Bitsakis et al. Our code detects 1319 star clusters in the central 18 deg2 of the SMC we surveyed (1108 of which have never been reported before). The age distribution of those clusters suggests enhanced cluster formation around 240 Myr ago. It also implies significant differences in the cluster distribution of the bar with respect to the rest of the galaxy, with the younger clusters being predominantly located in the bar. Having used the same setup, and data from the same surveys as for our previous study of the LMC, we are able to robustly compare the cluster properties between the two galaxies. Our results suggest that the bulk of the clusters in both galaxies were formed approximately 300 Myr ago, probably during a direct collision between the two galaxies. On the other hand, the locations of the young (≤50 Myr) clusters in both Magellanic Clouds, found where their bars join the H I arms, suggest that cluster formation in those regions is a result of internal dynamical processes. Finally, we discuss the potential causes of the apparent outside-in quenching of cluster formation that we observe in the SMC. Our findings are consistent with an evolutionary scheme where the interactions between the Magellanic Clouds constitute the major mechanism driving their overall evolution.

  13. The Magellanic clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    As the two galaxies nearest to our own, the Magellanic Clouds hold a special place in studies of the extragalactic distance scale, of stellar evolution and the structure of galaxies. In recent years, results from the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) and elsewhere have shown that it is possible to begin understanding the three dimensional structure of the Clouds. Studies of Magellanic Cloud Cepheids have continued, both to investigate the three-dimensional structure of the Clouds and to learn more about Cepheids and their use as extragalactic distance indicators. Other research undertaken at SAAO includes studies on Nova LMC 1988 no 2 and red variables in the Magellanic Clouds

  14. IDENTIFICATION OF A NEW RELATIVELY OLD STAR CLUSTER IN THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piatti, Andres E., E-mail: andres@iafe.uba.ar [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, CC 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-09-10

    We present results on the age and metallicity estimates of the astonishingly unstudied Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) cluster (ESO 51-SC09), from CCD BVI photometry obtained at the ESO NTT with the EMMI attached. ESO 51-SC09 turns out to be a relatively small cluster (FWHM = 10 {+-} 1 pc) located {approx}4 Degree-Sign northward from the galaxy center. We report for the first time a mean cluster age of 7.0 {+-} 1.3 Gyr and a mean cluster metallicity of [Fe/H] = -1.00 {+-} 0.15 dex, concluding that ESO 51-SC09 belongs to the group of the oldest SMC clusters. We found that the cluster is projected onto an older (age {approx}10-13 Gyr) and more metal-poor ([Fe/H] = -1.3 {+-} 0.2 dex) dominant field stellar population, so that the cluster could have reached its current location because of its orbital motion.

  15. The age calibration of integrated ultraviolet colors and young stellar clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbero, J.; Brocato, E.; Cassatella, A.; Castellani, V.; Geyer, E.H.

    1990-01-01

    Integrated colors in selected far-UV bands are presented for a large sample of Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) clusters. Theoretical calculations of these integrated colors are derived and discussed. The location in the two-color diagram C(18-28), C(15-31) is expected to be a sensitive but smooth function of cluster age for ages in the range 5 to 800 million yr. Theoretical results appear in very good agreement with the observed colors of LMC clusters. From this comparison, the gap in the observed colors is suggested to be caused by the lack of LMC clusters in the range of ages between 200 million to one billion yr. The two-color location of old globulars is discussed, also in connection with available data for the M31 clusters. 36 refs

  16. Multiple stellar generations in the Large Magellanic Cloud Star Cluster NGC 1846

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milone, Antonino

    2010-09-01

    The recent discovery of multiple stellar populations in massive Galactic globular clusters poses a serious challenge for models of star cluster formation and evolution. The finding of multiple main sequences in the massive clusters NGC 2808 and omega Centauri, and multiple sub-giant-branch in NGC 1851 and many other globulars have demonstrated that star clusters are not as simple as we have imagined for decades. Surprisingly the only way to explain the main sequence splitting appears to be Helium enrichment, up to an astonishingly high Y 0.40.An unique angle on this problem can be provided by intermediate-age clusters in the Magellanic Clouds with peculiar main-sequence turn-off morphologies. Recent discoveries, based on ACS data of unparalleled photometric accuracy, have demonstrated that the CMDs of a large fraction of these clusters { 70 %} are not consistent with the simple, single stellar population hypothesis. Explanations for what conditions could give rise to multiple populations in Galactic Globular Clusters remain controversial; this is even more the case for LMC clustersTo properly constraint the multipopulation phenomenon in Magellanic Cloud star clusters, we propose deep UV/IR imaging of NGC 1846, a star cluster where multiple populations have already been identified. The proposed observation will allow us to accurately measure the age difference between the stellar populations providing fundamental clues on the formation mechanism. Our simulations of WFC3 performance suggest that we will be able to detect even the main sequence splitting caused by small He differences {Delta Y 0.02}.

  17. Discovery of Extended Main-sequence Turnoffs in Four Young Massive Clusters in the Magellanic Clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chengyuan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); De Grijs, Richard [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics and Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Yi He Yuan Lu 5, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100871 (China); Deng, Licai [Key Laboratory for Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Milone, Antonino P. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Mt. Stromlo Observatory, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2017-08-01

    An increasing number of young massive clusters (YMCs) in the Magellanic Clouds have been found to exhibit bimodal or extended main sequences (MSs) in their color–magnitude diagrams (CMDs). These features are usually interpreted in terms of a coeval stellar population with different stellar rotational rates, where the blue and red MS stars are populated by non- (or slowly) and rapidly rotating stellar populations, respectively. However, some studies have shown that an age spread of several million years is required to reproduce the observed wide turnoff regions in some YMCs. Here we present the ultraviolet–visual CMDs of four Large and Small Magellanic Cloud YMCs, NGC 330, NGC 1805, NGC 1818, and NGC 2164, based on high-precision Hubble Space Telescope photometry. We show that they all exhibit extended main-sequence turnoffs (MSTOs). The importance of age spreads and stellar rotation in reproducing the observations is investigated. The observed extended MSTOs cannot be explained by stellar rotation alone. Adopting an age spread of 35–50 Myr can alleviate this difficulty. We conclude that stars in these clusters are characterized by ranges in both their ages and rotation properties, but the origin of the age spread in these clusters remains unknown.

  18. Colour-magnitude diagrams of star clusters in the Magellanic Clouds from wide-field electronography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, J.; Walker, M.F.

    1984-01-01

    Utilizing the good image quality and large field available with the 9-cm McMullan electronographic camera when attached to the Danish 1.54-m Ritchey-Chretien reflector at La Silla, Chile, a number of star clusters in the Magellanic Clouds have been observed in order to determine their colour-magnitude diagrams with proper correction for the field star contribution. In Hodge 11, the first cluster to be reported from this programme, good measurements have been obtained of 180 stars in the annular field 34 <= R <= 71 arcsec of the cluster itself, and of 154 stars in a nearby control field of similar area, to a limit of V of the order of 22. (author)

  19. AGE DETERMINATION OF SIX INTERMEDIATE-AGE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD STAR CLUSTERS WITH HST/ACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glatt, Katharina; Kayser, Andrea; Grebel, Eva K.; Sabbi, Elena; Gallagher, John S. III; Harbeck, Daniel; Nota, Antonella; Sirianni, Marco; Clementini, Gisella; Tosi, Monica; Koch, Andreas; Da Costa, Gary

    2008-01-01

    We present a photometric analysis of the star clusters Lindsay 1, Kron 3, NGC 339, NGC 416, Lindsay 38, and NGC 419 in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), observed with the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) in the F555W and F814W filters. Our color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) extend ∼3.5 mag deeper than the main-sequence turnoff points, deeper than any previous data. Cluster ages were derived using three different isochrone models: Padova, Teramo, and Dartmouth, which are all available in the ACS photometric system. Fitting observed ridgelines for each cluster, we provide a homogeneous and unique set of low-metallicity, single-age fiducial isochrones. The cluster CMDs are best approximated by the Dartmouth isochrones for all clusters, except for NGC 419 where the Padova isochrones provided the best fit. Using Dartmouth isochrones we derive ages of 7.5 ± 0.5 Gyr (Lindsay 1), 6.5 ± 0.5 Gyr (Kron 3), 6 ± 0.5 Gyr (NGC 339), 6 ± 0.5 Gyr (NGC 416), and 6.5 ± 0.5 Gyr (Lindsay 38). The CMD of NGC 419 shows several main-sequence turnoffs, which belong to the cluster and to the SMC field. We thus derive an age range of 1.2-1.6 Gyr for NGC 419. We confirm that the SMC contains several intermediate-age populous star clusters with ages unlike those of the Large Magellanic Cloud and the Milky Way. Interestingly, our intermediate-age star clusters have a metallicity spread of ∼0.6 dex, which demonstrates that the SMC does not have a smooth, monotonic age-metallicity relation. We find an indication for centrally-concentrated blue straggler star candidates in NGC 416, while these are not present for the other clusters. Using the red clump magnitudes, we find that the closest cluster, NGC 419 (∼50 kpc), and the farthest cluster, Lindsay 38 (∼67 kpc), have a relative distance of ∼17 kpc, which confirms the large depth of the SMC. The three oldest SMC clusters (NGC 121, Lindsay 1, and Kron 3) lie in the northwestern part of the SMC, while the youngest

  20. EXTENDED STAR FORMATION IN THE INTERMEDIATE-AGE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD STAR CLUSTER NGC 2209

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, Stefan C.; Mackey, A. Dougal; Da Costa, Gary S.

    2012-01-01

    We present observations of the 1 Gyr old star cluster NGC 2209 in the Large Magellanic Cloud made with the GMOS imager on the Gemini South Telescope. These observations show that the cluster exhibits a main-sequence turnoff that spans a broader range in luminosity than can be explained by a single-aged stellar population. This places NGC 2209 amongst a growing list of intermediate-age (1-3 Gyr) clusters that show evidence for extended or multiple epochs of star formation of between 50 and 460 Myr in extent. The extended main-sequence turnoff observed in NGC 2209 is a confirmation of the prediction in Keller et al. made on the basis of the cluster's large core radius. We propose that secondary star formation is a defining feature of the evolution of massive star clusters. Dissolution of lower mass clusters through evaporation results in only clusters that have experienced secondary star formation surviving for a Hubble time, thus providing a natural connection between the extended main-sequence turnoff phenomenon and the ubiquitous light-element abundance ranges seen in the ancient Galactic globular clusters.

  1. The age distributions of clusters and field stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud — implications for star formation histories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruijssen, J.M.D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/325799911; Lamers, H.J.G.L.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072834870

    2008-01-01

    Differences between the inferred star formation histories (SFHs) of star clusters and field stars seem to suggest distinct star formation processes for the two. The Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) is an example of a galaxy where such a discrepancy is observed. We model the observed age distributions of

  2. AGE AND MASS FOR 920 LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD CLUSTERS DERIVED FROM 100 MILLION MONTE CARLO SIMULATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, Bogdan; Hanson, M. M.; Elmegreen, Bruce G.

    2012-01-01

    We present new age and mass estimates for 920 stellar clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) based on previously published broadband photometry and the stellar cluster analysis package, MASSCLEANage. Expressed in the generic fitting formula, d 2 N/dMdt∝M α t β , the distribution of observed clusters is described by α = –1.5 to –1.6 and β = –2.1 to –2.2. For 288 of these clusters, ages have recently been determined based on stellar photometric color-magnitude diagrams, allowing us to gauge the confidence of our ages. The results look very promising, opening up the possibility that this sample of 920 clusters, with reliable and consistent age, mass, and photometric measures, might be used to constrain important characteristics about the stellar cluster population in the LMC. We also investigate a traditional age determination method that uses a χ 2 minimization routine to fit observed cluster colors to standard infinite-mass limit simple stellar population models. This reveals serious defects in the derived cluster age distribution using this method. The traditional χ 2 minimization method, due to the variation of U, B, V, R colors, will always produce an overdensity of younger and older clusters, with an underdensity of clusters in the log (age/yr) = [7.0, 7.5] range. Finally, we present a unique simulation aimed at illustrating and constraining the fading limit in observed cluster distributions that includes the complex effects of stochastic variations in the observed properties of stellar clusters.

  3. Star cluster formation history along the minor axis of the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatti, Andrés E.; Cole, Andrew A.; Emptage, Bryn

    2018-01-01

    We analysed Washington CMT1 photometry of star clusters located along the minor axis of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), from the LMC optical centre up to ∼39° outwards to the North-West. The data base was exploited in order to search for new star cluster candidates, to produce cluster CMDs cleaned from field star contamination and to derive age estimates for a statistically complete cluster sample. We confirmed that 146 star cluster candidates are genuine physical systems, and concluded that an overall ∼30 per cent of catalogued clusters in the surveyed regions are unlikely to be true physical systems. We did not find any new cluster candidates in the outskirts of the LMC (deprojected distance ≳ 8°). The derived ages of the studied clusters are in the range 7.2 < log(t yr-1) ≤ 9.4, with the sole exception of the globular cluster NGC 1786 (log(t yr-1) = 10.10). We also calculated the cluster frequency for each region, from which we confirmed previously proposed outside-in formation scenarios. In addition, we found that the outer LMC fields show a sudden episode of cluster formation (log(t yr-1) ∼7.8-7.9) which continued until log(t yr-1) ∼7.3 only in the outermost LMC region. We link these features to the first pericentre passage of the LMC to the Milky Way (MW), which could have triggered cluster formation due to ram pressure interaction between the LMC and MW halo.

  4. ASSESSMENT OF STELLAR STRATIFICATION IN THREE YOUNG STAR CLUSTERS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouliermis, Dimitrios A.; Rochau, Boyke; Mackey, Dougal; Xin Yu

    2010-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of stellar stratification in young star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). We apply our recently developed effective radius method for the assessment of stellar stratification on imaging data obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys of three young LMC clusters to characterize the phenomenon and develop a comparative scheme for its assessment in such clusters. The clusters of our sample, NGC 1983, NGC 2002, and NGC 2010, are selected on the basis of their youthfulness, and their variety in appearance, structure, stellar content, and surrounding stellar ambient. Our photometry is complete for magnitudes down to m 814 ≅ 23 mag, allowing the calculation of the structural parameters of the clusters, the estimation of their ages, and the determination of their stellar content. Our study shows that each cluster in our sample demonstrates stellar stratification in a quite different manner and at different degree from the others. Specifically, NGC 1983 shows partial segregation, with the effective radius increasing with fainter magnitudes only for the faintest stars of the cluster. Our method on NGC 2002 provides evidence of strong stellar stratification for both bright and faint stars; the cluster demonstrates the phenomenon with the highest degree in the sample. Finally, NGC 2010 is not segregated, as its bright stellar content is not centrally concentrated, the relation of effective radius to magnitude for stars of intermediate brightness is rather flat, and we find no evidence of stratification for its faintest stars. For the parameterization of the phenomenon of stellar stratification and its quantitative comparison among these clusters, we propose the slope derived from the change in the effective radius over the corresponding magnitude range as indicative parameter of the degree of stratification in the clusters. A positive value of this slope indicates mass segregation in the cluster, while a negative or zero value

  5. Age determination of 15 old to intermediate-age small Magellanic cloud star clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parisi, M. C.; Clariá, J. J.; Piatti, A. E.; Geisler, D.; Leiton, R.; Carraro, G.; Costa, E.; Grocholski, A. J.; Sarajedini, A.

    2014-01-01

    We present color-magnitude diagrams in the V and I bands for 15 star clusters in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) based on data taken with the Very Large Telescope (VLT, Chile). We selected these clusters from our previous work, wherein we derived cluster radial velocities and metallicities from calcium II infrared triplet (CaT) spectra also taken with the VLT. We discovered that the ages of six of our clusters have been appreciably underestimated by previous studies, which used comparatively small telescopes, graphically illustrating the need for large apertures to obtain reliable ages of old and intermediate-age SMC star clusters. In particular, three of these clusters, L4, L6, and L110, turn out to be among the oldest SMC clusters known, with ages of 7.9 ± 1.1, 8.7 ± 1.2, and 7.6 ± 1.0 Gyr, respectively, helping to fill a possible 'SMC cluster age gap'. Using the current ages and metallicities from Parisi et al., we analyze the age distribution, age gradient, and age-metallicity relation (AMR) of a sample of SMC clusters measured homogeneously. There is a suggestion of bimodality in the age distribution but it does not show a constant slope for the first 4 Gyr, and we find no evidence for an age gradient. Due to the improved ages of our cluster sample, we find that our AMR is now better represented in the intermediate/old period than we had derived in Parisi et al., where we simply took ages available in the literature. Additionally, clusters younger than ∼4 Gyr now show better agreement with the bursting model of Pagel and Tautvaišienė, but we confirm that this model is not a good representation of the AMR during the intermediate/old period. A more complicated model is needed to explain the SMC chemical evolution in that period.

  6. Washington photometry of 14 intermediate-age to old star clusters in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatti, Andrés E.; Clariá, Juan J.; Bica, Eduardo; Geisler, Doug; Ahumada, Andrea V.; Girardi, Léo

    2011-10-01

    We present CCD photometry in the Washington system C, T1 and T2 passbands down to T1˜ 23 in the fields of L3, L28, HW 66, L100, HW 79, IC 1708, L106, L108, L109, NGC 643, L112, HW 84, HW 85 and HW 86, 14 Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) clusters, most of them poorly studied objects. We measured T1 magnitudes and C-T1 and T1-T2 colours for a total of 213 516 stars spread throughout cluster areas of 14.7 × 14.7 arcmin2 each. We carried out an in-depth analysis of the field star contamination of the colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) and statistically cleaned the cluster CMDs. Based on the best fits of isochrones computed by the Padova group to the (T1, C-T1) CMDs, as well as from the δ(T1) index and the standard giant branch procedure, we derived ages and metallicities for the cluster sample. With the exception of IC 1708, a relatively metal-poor Hyades-age cluster, the remaining 13 objects are between intermediate and old age (from 1.0 to 6.3 Gyr), their [Fe/H] values ranging from -1.4 to -0.7 dex. By combining these results with others available in the literature, we compiled a sample of 43 well-known SMC clusters older than 1 Gyr, with which we produced a revised age distribution. We found that the present clusters' age distribution reveals two primary excesses of clusters at t˜ 2 and 5 Gyr, which engraves the SMC with clear signs of enhanced formation episodes at both ages. In addition, we found that from the birth of the SMC cluster system until approximately the first 4 Gyr of its lifetime, the cluster formation resembles that of a constant formation rate scenario.

  7. VARIABLE STARS IN LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. II. NGC 1786

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehn, Charles A.; Smith, Horace A.; De Lee, Nathan; Catelan, Márcio; Pritzl, Barton J.; Borissova, Jura

    2012-01-01

    This is the second in a series of papers studying the variable stars in Large Magellanic Cloud globular clusters. The primary goal of this series is to study how RR Lyrae stars in Oosterhoff-intermediate systems compare to their counterparts in Oosterhoff I/II systems. In this paper, we present the results of our new time-series B–V photometric study of the globular cluster NGC 1786. A total of 65 variable stars were identified in our field of view. These variables include 53 RR Lyraes (27 RRab, 18 RRc, and 8 RRd), 3 classical Cepheids, 1 Type II Cepheid, 1 Anomalous Cepheid, 2 eclipsing binaries, 3 Delta Scuti/SX Phoenicis variables, and 2 variables of undetermined type. Photometric parameters for these variables are presented. We present physical properties for some of the RR Lyrae stars, derived from Fourier analysis of their light curves. We discuss several different indicators of Oosterhoff type which indicate that the Oosterhoff classification of NGC 1786 is not as clear cut as what is seen in most globular clusters.

  8. Morphologies and ages of star cluster pairs and multiplets in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, M. R.; Dutra, C. M.; Bica, E.; Dottori, H.

    2000-10-01

    An isophotal atlas of 75 star cluster pairs and multiplets in the Small Magellanic Cloud is presented, comprising 176 objects. They are concentrated in the SMC main body. The isophotal contours were made from Digitized Sky Survey* images and showed relevant structural features possibly related to interactions in about 25% of the sample. Previous N-body simulations indicate that such shapes could be due to tidal tails, bridges or common envelopes. The diameter ratio between the members of a pair is preferentially in the range 1 - 2, with a peak at 1. The projected separation is in the range ~ 3 - 22 pc with a pronounced peak at ~ 13 pc. For 91 objects it was possible to derive ages from Colour-Magnitude Diagrams using the OGLE-II photometric survey. The cluster multiplets in general occur in OB stellar associations and/or HII region complexes. This indicates a common origin and suggests that multiplets coalesce into pairs or single clusters in a short time scale. Pairs in the SMC appear to be mostly coeval and consequently captures are a rare phenomenon. We find evidence that star cluster pairs and multiplets may have had an important role in the dynamical history of clusters presently seen as large single objects. The images in this study are based on photographic data obtained using the UK Schmidt Telescope, which was operated by the Royal Observatory Edinburgh, with funding from the UK Science and Engineering Research Council, until 1988 June, and thereafter by the Anglo-Australian Observatory. Original plate material is copyright by the Royal Observatory Edinburgh and the Anglo-Australian Observatory. The plates were processed into the present compressed digital form with their permission. The Digitized Sky Survey was produced at the Space Telescope Science Institute under US Government grant NAG W-2166.

  9. THE EXTENDED MAIN-SEQUENCE TURNOFF CLUSTERS OF THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD-MISSING LINKS IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER EVOLUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, Stefan C.; Mackey, A. Dougal; Da Costa, Gary S.

    2011-01-01

    Recent observations of intermediate-age (1-3 Gyr) massive star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud have revealed that the majority possess bifurcated or extended main-sequence turnoff (EMSTO) morphologies. This effect can be understood to arise from subsequent star formation among the stellar population with age differences between constituent stars amounting to 50-300 Myr. Age spreads of this order are similarly invoked to explain the light-element abundance variations witnessed in ancient globular clusters (GCs). In this paper, we explore the proposition that the clusters exhibiting the EMSTO phenomenon are a general phase in the evolution of massive clusters, one that naturally leads to the particular chemical properties of the ancient GC population. We show that the isolation of EMSTO clusters to intermediate ages is the consequence of observational selection effects. In our proposed scenario, the EMSTO phenomenon is identical to that which establishes the light-element abundance variations that are ubiquitous in the ancient GC population. Our scenario makes a strong prediction: EMSTO clusters will exhibit abundance variations in the light-elements characteristic of the ancient GC population.

  10. Variable Stars in Large Magellanic Cloud Globular Clusters. II. NGC 1786

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Charles A.; Smith, Horace A.; Catelan, Márcio; Pritzl, Barton J.; De Lee, Nathan; Borissova, Jura

    2012-12-01

    This is the second in a series of papers studying the variable stars in Large Magellanic Cloud globular clusters. The primary goal of this series is to study how RR Lyrae stars in Oosterhoff-intermediate systems compare to their counterparts in Oosterhoff I/II systems. In this paper, we present the results of our new time-series B-V photometric study of the globular cluster NGC 1786. A total of 65 variable stars were identified in our field of view. These variables include 53 RR Lyraes (27 RRab, 18 RRc, and 8 RRd), 3 classical Cepheids, 1 Type II Cepheid, 1 Anomalous Cepheid, 2 eclipsing binaries, 3 Delta Scuti/SX Phoenicis variables, and 2 variables of undetermined type. Photometric parameters for these variables are presented. We present physical properties for some of the RR Lyrae stars, derived from Fourier analysis of their light curves. We discuss several different indicators of Oosterhoff type which indicate that the Oosterhoff classification of NGC 1786 is not as clear cut as what is seen in most globular clusters. Based on observations taken with the SMARTS 1.3 m telescope operated by the SMARTS Consortium and observations taken at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  11. Comparisons between observational color-magnitude diagrams and synthetic cluster diagrams for young star clusters in the Magellanic Clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recker, S.A.; Brunish, W.M.; Mathews, G.J.

    1984-01-01

    Young star clusters ( 8 yr) in the Magellanic Clouds (MC) can be used to test the current status of the theory of stellar evolution as applied to intermediate and massive stars. The color-magnitude diagram of many young clusters in the MC shows large numbers of stars in both the main sequence and post main sequence evolutionary phases. Using a grid of stellar evolution models, synthetic cluster H-R diagrams are constructed and compared to observed color-magnitude diagrams to determine the age, age spread, and composition for any given cluster. In addition, for those cases where the data is of high quality, detailed comparisons between theory and observation can provide a diagnostic of the accuracy of the stellar evolution models. Initial indications of these comparisons suggest that the theoretical models should be altered to include: a larger value for the mixing length parameter, a larger rate of mass loss during the asymptotic giant branch phase, and possibly convective overshoot during the core burning phases. (Auth.)

  12. Ca II TRIPLET SPECTROSCOPY OF SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD RED GIANTS. I. ABUNDANCES AND VELOCITIES FOR A SAMPLE OF CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parisi, M. C.; Claria, J. J.; Grocholski, A. J.; Geisler, D.; Sarajedini, A.

    2009-01-01

    We have obtained near-infrared spectra covering the Ca II triplet lines for a large number of stars associated with 16 Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) clusters using the VLT + FORS2. These data compose the largest available sample of SMC clusters with spectroscopically derived abundances and velocities. Our clusters span a wide range of ages and provide good areal coverage of the galaxy. Cluster members are selected using a combination of their positions relative to the cluster center as well as their location in the color-magnitude diagram, abundances, and radial velocities (RVs). We determine mean cluster velocities to typically 2.7 km s -1 and metallicities to 0.05 dex (random errors), from an average of 6.4 members per cluster. By combining our clusters with previously published results, we compile a sample of 25 clusters on a homogeneous metallicity scale and with relatively small metallicity errors, and thereby investigate the metallicity distribution, metallicity gradient, and age-metallicity relation (AMR) of the SMC cluster system. For all 25 clusters in our expanded sample, the mean metallicity [Fe/H] = -0.96 with σ = 0.19. The metallicity distribution may possibly be bimodal, with peaks at ∼-0.9 dex and -1.15 dex. Similar to the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), the SMC cluster system gives no indication of a radial metallicity gradient. However, intermediate age SMC clusters are both significantly more metal-poor and have a larger metallicity spread than their LMC counterparts. Our AMR shows evidence for three phases: a very early (>11 Gyr) phase in which the metallicity reached ∼-1.2 dex, a long intermediate phase from ∼10 to 3 Gyr in which the metallicity only slightly increased, and a final phase from 3 to 1 Gyr ago in which the rate of enrichment was substantially faster. We find good overall agreement with the model of Pagel and Tautvaisiene, which assumes a burst of star formation at 4 Gyr. Finally, we find that the mean RV of the cluster system

  13. Magellanic Clouds Cepheids: Thorium Abundances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeuncheol Jeong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the high-resolution spectra of 31 Magellanic Clouds Cepheid variables enabled the identification of thorium lines. The abundances of thorium were found with spectrum synthesis method. The calculated thorium abundances exhibit correlations with the abundances of other chemical elements and atmospheric parameters of the program stars. These correlations are similar for both Clouds. The correlations of iron abundances of thorium, europium, neodymium, and yttrium relative to the pulsational periods are different in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC and the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC, namely the correlations are negative for LMC and positive or close to zero for SMC. One of the possible explanations can be the higher activity of nucleosynthesis in SMC with respect to LMC in the recent several hundred million years.

  14. GLOBULAR CLUSTER ABUNDANCES FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION, INTEGRATED-LIGHT SPECTROSCOPY. III. THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD: Fe AND AGES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colucci, Janet E.; Bernstein, Rebecca A.; Cameron, Scott A.; McWilliam, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we refine our method for the abundance analysis of high-resolution spectroscopy of the integrated light of unresolved globular clusters (GCs). This method was previously demonstrated for the analysis of old (>10 Gyr) Milky Way (MW) GCs. Here, we extend the technique to young clusters using a training set of nine GCs in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Depending on the signal-to-noise ratio of the data, we use 20-100 Fe lines per cluster to successfully constrain the ages of old clusters to within a ∼5 Gyr range, the ages of ∼2 Gyr clusters to a 1-2 Gyr range, and the ages of the youngest clusters (0.05-1 Gyr) to a ∼200 Myr range. We also demonstrate that we can measure [Fe/H] in clusters with any age less than 12 Gyr with similar or only slightly larger uncertainties (0.1-0.25 dex) than those obtained for old MW GCs (0.1 dex); the slightly larger uncertainties are due to the rapid evolution in stellar populations at these ages. In this paper, we present only Fe abundances and ages. In the next paper in this series, we present our complete analysis of ∼20 elements for which we are able to measure abundances. For several of the clusters in this sample, there are no high-resolution abundances in the literature from individual member stars; our results are the first detailed chemical abundances available. The spectra used in this paper were obtained at Las Campanas with the echelle on the du Pont Telescope and with the MIKE spectrograph on the Magellan Clay Telescope.

  15. A Novel Method to Automatically Detect and Measure the Ages of Star Clusters in Nearby Galaxies: Application to the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bitsakis, J.; Bonfini, P.; Gonzalez-Lopezlira, R.A.; Ramirez-Siordia, V.H.; Bruzual, G.; Charlot, S.; Maravelias, Grigorios; Zaritsky, D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 845, č. 1 (2017), 56/1-56/12 ISSN 0004-637X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-21373S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : catalogs * star clusters * Magellanic Cloud s Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 5.533, year: 2016

  16. CA II TRIPLET SPECTROSCOPY OF SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD RED GIANTS. III. ABUNDANCES AND VELOCITIES FOR A SAMPLE OF 14 CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parisi, M. C.; Clariá, J. J.; Marcionni, N. [Observatorio Astronómico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Laprida 854, Córdoba, CP 5000 (Argentina); Geisler, D.; Villanova, S. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Concepción Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Sarajedini, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida P.O. Box 112055, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Grocholski, A. J., E-mail: celeste@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: claria@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: nmarcionni@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: dgeisler@astro-udec.cl, E-mail: svillanova@astro-udec.cl, E-mail: ata@astro.ufl.edu, E-mail: grocholski@phys.lsu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University 202 Nicholson Hall, Tower Drive, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4001 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    We obtained spectra of red giants in 15 Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) clusters in the region of the Ca ii lines with FORS2 on the Very Large Telescope. We determined the mean metallicity and radial velocity with mean errors of 0.05 dex and 2.6 km s{sup −1}, respectively, from a mean of 6.5 members per cluster. One cluster (B113) was too young for a reliable metallicity determination and was excluded from the sample. We combined the sample studied here with 15 clusters previously studied by us using the same technique, and with 7 clusters whose metallicities determined by other authors are on a scale similar to ours. This compilation of 36 clusters is the largest SMC cluster sample currently available with accurate and homogeneously determined metallicities. We found a high probability that the metallicity distribution is bimodal, with potential peaks at −1.1 and −0.8 dex. Our data show no strong evidence of a metallicity gradient in the SMC clusters, somewhat at odds with recent evidence from Ca ii triplet spectra of a large sample of field stars. This may be revealing possible differences in the chemical history of clusters and field stars. Our clusters show a significant dispersion of metallicities, whatever age is considered, which could be reflecting the lack of a unique age–metallicity relation in this galaxy. None of the chemical evolution models currently available in the literature satisfactorily represents the global chemical enrichment processes of SMC clusters.

  17. A VLT/FLAMES STUDY OF THE PECULIAR INTERMEDIATE-AGE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD STAR CLUSTER NGC 1846. I. KINEMATICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, A. D.; Da Costa, G. S.; Yong, D.; Ferguson, A. M. N.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present high-resolution VLT/FLAMES observations of red giant stars in the massive intermediate-age Large Magellanic Cloud star cluster NGC 1846, which, on the basis of its extended main-sequence turnoff (EMSTO), possesses an internal age spread of ≈300 Myr. We describe in detail our target selection and data reduction procedures, and construct a sample of 21 stars possessing radial velocities indicating their membership of NGC 1846 at high confidence. We consider high-resolution spectra of the planetary nebula Mo-17, and conclude that this object is also a member of the cluster. Our measured radial velocities allow us to conduct a detailed investigation of the internal kinematics of NGC 1846, the first time this has been done for an EMSTO system. The key result of this work is that the cluster exhibits a significant degree of systemic rotation, of a magnitude comparable to the mean velocity dispersion. Using an extensive suite of Monte Carlo models we demonstrate that, despite our relatively small sample size and the substantial fraction of unresolved binary stars in the cluster, the rotation signal we detect is very likely to be genuine. Our observations are in qualitative agreement with the predictions of simulations modeling the formation of multiple populations of stars in globular clusters, where a dynamically cold, rapidly rotating second generation is a common feature. NGC 1846 is less than one relaxation time old, so any dynamical signatures encoded during its formation ought to remain present.

  18. Blue straggler stars beyond the Milky Way: a non-segregated population in the Large Magellanic Cloud cluster NGC 2213

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengyuan; Hong, Jongsuk

    2018-06-01

    Using the high-resolution observations obtained by the Hubble Space Telescope, we analysed the blue straggler stars (BSSs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud cluster NGC 2213. We found that the radial distribution of BSSs is consistent with that of the normal giant stars in NGC 2213, showing no evidence of mass segregation. However, an analytic calculation carried out for these BSSs shows that they are already dynamically old, because the estimated half-mass relaxation time for these BSSs is significantly shorter than the isochronal age of the cluster. We also performed direct N-body simulations for an NGC 2213-like cluster to understand the dynamical processes that lead to this non-segregated radial distribution of BSSs. Our numerical simulation shows that the presence of black hole subsystems inside the cluster centre can significantly affect the dynamical evolution of BSSs. The combined effects of the delayed segregation, binary disruption, and exchange interactions of BSS progenitor binaries may result in this non-segregated radial distribution of BSSs in NGC 2213.

  19. FIRST OBSERVATIONAL SIGNATURE OF ROTATIONAL DECELERATION IN A MASSIVE, INTERMEDIATE-AGE STAR CLUSTER IN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Xiaohan [School of Physics, Peking University, Yi He Yuan Lu 5, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100871 (China); Li, Chengyuan; De Grijs, Richard [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics and Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Yi He Yuan Lu 5, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100871 (China); Deng, Licai, E-mail: grijs@pku.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2016-07-20

    While the extended main-sequence turnoffs (eMSTOs) found in almost all 1–2 Gyr old star clusters in the Magellanic Clouds are often explained by postulating extended star formation histories (SFHs), the tight subgiant branches (SGBs) seen in some clusters challenge this popular scenario. Puzzlingly, the SGB of the eMSTO cluster NGC 419 is significantly broader at bluer than at redder colors. We carefully assess and confirm the reality of this observational trend. If we would assume that the widths of the features in color–magnitude space were entirely owing to a range in stellar ages, the SFHs of the eMSTO stars and the blue SGB region would be significantly more prolonged than that of the red part of the SGB. This cannot be explained by assuming an internal age spread. We show that rotational deceleration of a population of rapidly rotating stars, a currently hotly debated alternative scenario, naturally explains the observed trend along the SGB. Our analysis shows that a “converging” SGB could be produced if the cluster is mostly composed of rapidly rotating stars that slow down over time owing to the conservation of angular momentum during their evolutionary expansion from main-sequence turnoff stars to red giants.

  20. Chemical evolution of the Magellanic Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbuy, B.; de Freitas Pacheco, J. A.; Idiart, T.

    We have obtained integrated spectra for 14 clusters in the Magellanic Clouds, on which the spectral indices Hβ, Mg2, Fe5270, Fe5335 were measured. Selecting indices whose behaviour depends essentially on age and metallicity (Hβ and ), together with (B-V) and (V-K) colours, we were able to determine age and metallicities for these clusters, using calibrations based on single stellar population models (Borges et al. 1995). A chemical evolution model which follows a star formation history as indicated by the field population is checked with the age and metallicity data for our sample star clusters.

  1. POPULATION PARAMETERS OF INTERMEDIATE-AGE STAR CLUSTERS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD. II. NEW INSIGHTS FROM EXTENDED MAIN-SEQUENCE TURNOFFS IN SEVEN STAR CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goudfrooij, Paul; Kozhurina-Platais, Vera; Puzia, Thomas H.; Chandar, Rupali

    2011-01-01

    We discuss new photometry from high-resolution images of seven intermediate-age (1-2 Gyr) star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud taken with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on board the Hubble Space Telescope. We fit color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) with several different sets of theoretical isochrones and determine systematic uncertainties for population parameters when derived using any one set of isochrones. The cluster CMDs show several interesting features, including extended main-sequence turnoff (MSTO) regions, narrow red giant branches, and clear sequences of unresolved binary stars. We show that the extended MSTOs are not caused by photometric uncertainties, contamination by field stars, or the presence of binary stars. Enhanced helium abundances in a fraction of cluster stars are also ruled out as the reason for the extended MSTOs. Quantitative comparisons with simulations indicate that the MSTO regions are better described by a spread in ages than by a bimodal age distribution, although we cannot formally rule out the latter for the three lowest-mass clusters in our sample (which have masses lower than ∼3 x 10 4 M sun ). This conclusion differs from that of some previous works which suggested that the age distribution in massive clusters in our sample is bimodal. This suggests that any secondary star formation occurred in an extended fashion rather than through short bursts. We discuss these results in the context of the nature of multiple stellar populations in star clusters.

  2. Using Star Clusters as Tracers of Star Formation and Chemical Evolution: The Chemical Enrichment History of the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilingarian, Igor V.; Asa’d, Randa

    2018-05-01

    The star formation (SFH) and chemical enrichment (CEH) histories of Local Group galaxies are traditionally studied by analyzing their resolved stellar populations in a form of color–magnitude diagrams obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope. Star clusters can be studied in integrated light using ground-based telescopes to much larger distances. They represent snapshots of the chemical evolution of their host galaxy at different ages. Here we present a simple theoretical framework for the chemical evolution based on the instantaneous recycling approximation (IRA) model. We infer a CEH from an SFH and vice versa using observational data. We also present a more advanced model for the evolution of individual chemical elements that takes into account the contribution of supernovae type Ia. We demonstrate that ages, iron, and α-element abundances of 15 star clusters derived from the fitting of their integrated optical spectra reliably trace the CEH of the Large Magellanic Cloud obtained from resolved stellar populations in the age range 40 Myr age–metallicity relation. Moreover, the present-day total gas mass of the LMC estimated by the IRA model (6.2× {10}8 {M}ȯ ) matches within uncertainties the observed H I mass corrected for the presence of molecular gas (5.8+/- 0.5× {10}8 {M}ȯ ). We briefly discuss how our approach can be used to study SFHs of galaxies as distant as 10 Mpc at the level of detail that is currently available only in a handful of nearby Milky Way satellites. .

  3. Core expansion in young star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elson, R.A.W.; Freeman, K.C.; Lauer, T.R.

    1989-01-01

    The core radii of 18 rich star clusters in the LMC with ages from 10 Myr to 1 Gyr. Data for an additional 17 clusters with ages from 1 Myr to 10 Gyr are available in the literature. The combined sample shows that the core radii increase from about 0 to about 5 pc between about 1 Myr and 1 Gyr, and then begin to decrease again. The expansion of the cores is probably driven by mass loss from evolving stars. Models of cluster evolution show that the rate of increase in core radius is sensitive to the slope of the initial mass function. The observed core radius-age relation for the LMC clusters favors an intial mass function with slope slightly flatter than the Salpeter value. 20 refs

  4. Analysis of color-magnitude diagrams from three large Magellanic Cloud clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    The color-magnitude diagrams of three LMC clusters and a field were derived from photographic and CCD data provided by Dr. P.J. Flower of Clemson University and Dr. R. Schommer of Rutgers University. The photographic data were scanned and converted to intensity images at KPNO. The stellar photometry program RICHFLD was used to measure the raw magnitudes from these images. Problems with the standard sequence on the plate kept the color terms for the photographic data from being well determined. A version of DAOPHOT was installed on the VAX 11/280s at Clemson and was used to measure the magnitudes from the CCD images of NGC 2249. These magnitudes were used to define another photoelectric sequence for the photographic data which were used to determine a well defined transformation into the standard BV system. The CMDs derived from both the photographic and CCD images of NGC 2249 showed a gap near the tip of the MS. This gap was taken to be the period of rapid evolution just after core hydrogen exhaustion. Using a true distance modulus of 18.3 for the LMC and a reddening taken from the literature, an age of 600 +/- 75 million years was found for NGC 2249. Comparing the CMD of SL 889 to that of NGC 2249 gives a similar age for this small LMC cluster. A subgiant branch was identified in the CMD of NGC 2241. Comparison to old metal poor galactic clusters gave an age near 4 billion years, favoring the short distance scale to the LMC

  5. THE CLUSTERED NATURE OF STAR FORMATION. PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE CLUSTERS IN THE STAR-FORMING REGION NGC 602/N90 IN THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouliermis, Dimitrios A.; Gennaro, Mario; Schmeja, Stefan; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Tognelli, Emanuele; Prada Moroni, Pier Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    Located at the tip of the wing of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), the star-forming region NGC 602/N90 is characterized by the H II nebular ring N90 and the young cluster of pre-main-sequence (PMS) and early-type main-sequence stars NGC 602, located in the central area of the ring. We present a thorough cluster analysis of the stellar sample identified with Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys in the region. We show that apart from the central cluster low-mass PMS stars are congregated in 13 additional small, compact sub-clusters at the periphery of NGC 602, identified in terms of their higher stellar density with respect to the average background density derived from star counts. We find that the spatial distribution of the PMS stars is bimodal, with an unusually large fraction (∼60%) of the total population being clustered, while the remaining is diffusely distributed in the intercluster area, covering the whole central part of the region. From the corresponding color-magnitude diagrams we disentangle an age difference of ∼2.5 Myr between NGC 602 and the compact sub-clusters, which appear younger, on the basis of comparison of the brighter PMS stars with evolutionary models, which we accurately calculated for the metal abundance of the SMC. The diffuse PMS population appears to host stars as old as those in NGC 602. Almost all detected PMS sub-clusters appear to be centrally concentrated. When the complete PMS stellar sample, including both clustered and diffused stars, is considered in our cluster analysis, it appears as a single centrally concentrated stellar agglomeration, covering the whole central area of the region. Considering also the hot massive stars of the system, we find evidence that this agglomeration is hierarchically structured. Based on our findings, we propose a scenario according to which the region NGC 602/N90 experiences an active clustered star formation for the last ∼5 Myr. The central cluster NGC 602 was formed first

  6. Interferometric study of the small magellanic cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, G.; Carranza, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    Hα interferometric observations of the general radial velocity field in the small magellanic cloud are being carried out. We present preliminary results in reasonable agreement with H I measurements. (author)

  7. Discovery of a new Wolf-Rayet star and a candidate star cluster in the Large Magellanic Cloud with Spitzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.; Chené, A.-N.; Kniazev, A. Y.; Schnurr, O.; Shenar, T.; Sander, A.; Hainich, R.; Langer, N.; Hamann, W.-R.; Chu, Y.-H.; Gruendl, R. A.

    2014-08-01

    We report the first-ever discovery of a Wolf-Rayet (WR) star in the Large Magellanic Cloud via detection of a circular shell with the Spitzer Space Telescope. Follow-up observations with Gemini-South resolved the central star of the shell into two components separated from each other by ≈2 arcsec (or ≈0.5 pc in projection). One of these components turns out to be a WN3 star with H and He lines both in emission and absorption (we named it BAT99 3a using the numbering system based on extending the Breysacher et al. catalogue). Spectroscopy of the second component showed that it is a B0 V star. Subsequent spectroscopic observations of BAT99 3a with the du Pont 2.5-m telescope and the Southern African Large Telescope revealed that it is a close, eccentric binary system, and that the absorption lines are associated with an O companion star. We analysed the spectrum of the binary system using the non-LTE Potsdam WR (POWR) code, confirming that the WR component is a very hot (≈90 kK) WN star. For this star, we derived a luminosity of log L/ L⊙ = 5.45 and a mass-loss rate of 10- 5.8 M⊙ yr- 1, and found that the stellar wind composition is dominated by helium with 20 per cent of hydrogen. Spectroscopy of the shell revealed an He III region centred on BAT99 3a and having the same angular radius (≈15 arcsec) as the shell. We thereby add a new example to a rare class of high-excitation nebulae photoionized by WR stars. Analysis of the nebular spectrum showed that the shell is composed of unprocessed material, implying that the shell was swept-up from the local interstellar medium. We discuss the physical relationship between the newly identified massive stars and their possible membership of a previously unrecognized star cluster.

  8. The Magellanic Stream and debris clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    For, B.-Q.; Staveley-Smith, L. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Matthews, D. [Centre for Materials and Surface Science, La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC 3086 (Australia); McClure-Griffiths, N. M., E-mail: biqing.for@icrar.org [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia)

    2014-09-01

    We present a study of the discrete clouds and filaments in the Magellanic Stream using a new high-resolution survey of neutral hydrogen (H I) conducted with the H75 array of the Australia Telescope Compact Array, complemented by single-dish data from the Parkes Galactic All-Sky Survey. From the individual and combined data sets, we have compiled a catalog of 251 clouds and listed their basic parameters, including a morphological description useful for identifying cloud interactions. We find an unexpectedly large number of head-tail clouds in the region. The implication for the formation mechanism and evolution is discussed. The filaments appear to originate entirely from the Small Magellanic Cloud and extend into the northern end of the Magellanic Bridge.

  9. Globular Cluster Abundances from High-resolution, Integrated-light Spectroscopy. IV. The Large Magellanic Cloud: α, Fe-peak, Light, and Heavy Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, Janet E.; Bernstein, Rebecca A.; Cameron, Scott A.; McWilliam, Andrew

    2012-02-01

    We present detailed chemical abundances in eight clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). We measure abundances of 22 elements for clusters spanning a range in age of 0.05-12 Gyr, providing a comprehensive picture of the chemical enrichment and star formation history of the LMC. The abundances were obtained from individual absorption lines using a new method for analysis of high-resolution (R ~ 25,000), integrated-light (IL) spectra of star clusters. This method was developed and presented in Papers I, II, and III of this series. In this paper, we develop an additional IL χ2-minimization spectral synthesis technique to facilitate measurement of weak (~15 mÅ) spectral lines and abundances in low signal-to-noise ratio data (S/N ~ 30). Additionally, we supplement the IL abundance measurements with detailed abundances that we measure for individual stars in the youngest clusters (age +0.5) and increases with decreasing age, indicating a strong contribution of low-metallicity asymptotic giant branch star ejecta to the interstellar medium throughout the later history of the LMC. We also find a correlation of IL Na and Al abundances with cluster mass in the sense that more massive, older clusters are enriched in the light elements Na and Al with respect to Fe, which implies that these clusters harbor star-to-star abundance variations as is common in the MW. Lower mass, intermediate-age, and young clusters have Na and Al abundances that are lower and more consistent with LMC field stars. Our results can be used to constrain both future chemical evolution models for the LMC and theories of globular cluster formation. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  10. Evolution of S stars in the Magellanic Clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, T.L.

    1984-01-01

    Early S stars occur between M and C stars in the colour magnitude diagrams of intermediate age globular clusters in the Magellanic Clouds. Most have -4.2 >= Msub(bol) >= -4.8 and are probably brighter in younger or more metal rich clusters. The galactic globular cluster NGC 6723 contains two marginal S stars at Msub(bol) approx. -3.3. The rare CS stars have Msub(bol) approx. -6, with no faint examples. (Auth.)

  11. The search for multiple populations in Magellanic Cloud Clusters IV: Coeval multiple stellar populations in the young star cluster NGC 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martocchia, S.; Niederhofer, F.; Dalessandro, E.; Bastian, N.; Kacharov, N.; Usher, C.; Cabrera-Ziri, I.; Lardo, C.; Cassisi, S.; Geisler, D.; Hilker, M.; Hollyhead, K.; Kozhurina-Platais, V.; Larsen, S.; Mackey, D.; Mucciarelli, A.; Platais, I.; Salaris, M.

    2018-04-01

    We have recently shown that the ˜2 Gyr old Large Magellanic Cloud star cluster NGC 1978 hosts multiple populations in terms of star-to-star abundance variations in [N/Fe]. These can be seen as a splitting or spread in the sub-giant and red giant branches (SGB and RGB) when certain photometric filter combinations are used. Due to its relative youth, NGC 1978 can be used to place stringent limits on whether multiple bursts of star-formation have taken place within the cluster, as predicted by some models for the origin of multiple populations. We carry out two distinct analyses to test whether multiple star-formation epochs have occurred within NGC 1978. First, we use UV CMDs to select stars from the first and second population along the SGB, and then compare their positions in optical CMDs, where the morphology is dominantly controlled by age as opposed to multiple population effects. We find that the two populations are indistinguishable, with age differences of 1 ± 20 Myr between them. This is in tension with predictions from the AGB scenario for the origin of multiple populations. Second, we estimate the broadness of the main sequence turnoff (MSTO) of NGC 1978 and we report that it is consistent with the observational errors. We find an upper limit of ˜65 Myr on the age spread in the MSTO of NGC 1978. This finding is in conflict with the age spread scenario as origin of the extendend MSTO in intermediate age clusters, while it fully supports predictions from the stellar rotation model.

  12. GLOBULAR CLUSTER ABUNDANCES FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION, INTEGRATED-LIGHT SPECTROSCOPY. IV. THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD: α, Fe-PEAK, LIGHT, AND HEAVY ELEMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colucci, Janet E.; Bernstein, Rebecca A.; Cameron, Scott A.; McWilliam, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    We present detailed chemical abundances in eight clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). We measure abundances of 22 elements for clusters spanning a range in age of 0.05-12 Gyr, providing a comprehensive picture of the chemical enrichment and star formation history of the LMC. The abundances were obtained from individual absorption lines using a new method for analysis of high-resolution (R ∼ 25,000), integrated-light (IL) spectra of star clusters. This method was developed and presented in Papers I, II, and III of this series. In this paper, we develop an additional IL χ 2 -minimization spectral synthesis technique to facilitate measurement of weak (∼15 mÅ) spectral lines and abundances in low signal-to-noise ratio data (S/N ∼ 30). Additionally, we supplement the IL abundance measurements with detailed abundances that we measure for individual stars in the youngest clusters (age +0.5) and increases with decreasing age, indicating a strong contribution of low-metallicity asymptotic giant branch star ejecta to the interstellar medium throughout the later history of the LMC. We also find a correlation of IL Na and Al abundances with cluster mass in the sense that more massive, older clusters are enriched in the light elements Na and Al with respect to Fe, which implies that these clusters harbor star-to-star abundance variations as is common in the MW. Lower mass, intermediate-age, and young clusters have Na and Al abundances that are lower and more consistent with LMC field stars. Our results can be used to constrain both future chemical evolution models for the LMC and theories of globular cluster formation.

  13. Not-so-simple stellar populations in the intermediate-age Large Magellanic Cloud star clusters NGC 1831 and NGC 1868

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chengyuan; De Grijs, Richard [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics and Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Yi He Yuan Lu 5, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100871 (China); Deng, Licai, E-mail: joshuali@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: grijs@pku.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2014-04-01

    Using a combination of high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope/Wide-Field and Planetary Camera-2 observations, we explore the physical properties of the stellar populations in two intermediate-age star clusters, NGC 1831 and NGC 1868, in the Large Magellanic Cloud based on their color-magnitude diagrams. We show that both clusters exhibit extended main-sequence turn offs. To explain the observations, we consider variations in helium abundance, binarity, age dispersions, and the fast rotation of the clusters' member stars. The observed narrow main sequence excludes significant variations in helium abundance in both clusters. We first establish the clusters' main-sequence binary fractions using the bulk of the clusters' main-sequence stellar populations ≳ 1 mag below their turn-offs. The extent of the turn-off regions in color-magnitude space, corrected for the effects of binarity, implies that age spreads of order 300 Myr may be inferred for both clusters if the stellar distributions in color-magnitude space were entirely due to the presence of multiple populations characterized by an age range. Invoking rapid rotation of the population of cluster members characterized by a single age also allows us to match the observed data in detail. However, when taking into account the extent of the red clump in color-magnitude space, we encounter an apparent conflict for NGC 1831 between the age dispersion derived from that based on the extent of the main-sequence turn off and that implied by the compact red clump. We therefore conclude that, for this cluster, variations in stellar rotation rate are preferred over an age dispersion. For NGC 1868, both models perform equally well.

  14. The Magellan Final Report on Cloud Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ,; Coghlan, Susan; Yelick, Katherine

    2011-12-21

    The goal of Magellan, a project funded through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), was to investigate the potential role of cloud computing in addressing the computing needs for the DOE Office of Science (SC), particularly related to serving the needs of mid- range computing and future data-intensive computing workloads. A set of research questions was formed to probe various aspects of cloud computing from performance, usability, and cost. To address these questions, a distributed testbed infrastructure was deployed at the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF) and the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC). The testbed was designed to be flexible and capable enough to explore a variety of computing models and hardware design points in order to understand the impact for various scientific applications. During the project, the testbed also served as a valuable resource to application scientists. Applications from a diverse set of projects such as MG-RAST (a metagenomics analysis server), the Joint Genome Institute, the STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, and the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO), were used by the Magellan project for benchmarking within the cloud, but the project teams were also able to accomplish important production science utilizing the Magellan cloud resources.

  15. Interstellar extinction in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandy, K.; McLachlan, A.; Thompson, G.I.; Morgan, D.H.; Willis, A.J.; Wilson, R.; Gondhalekar, P.M.; Houziaux, L.

    1982-01-01

    IUE observations of three considerably reddened stars located near the core of the Small Magellanic Cloud and of two comparison stars which are also SMC members are presented. This region contains a considerable amount of dust. The UV spectrum of one of the reddened stars (BBB 338) shows the lambda 2200 feature characteristic of the Galactic extinction curve. This absorption feature is not obvious in the UV spectra of the other two reddened stars. Due to lack of a suitable comparison star it has not been possible to measure the UV extinction of BBB 338. The extinction curves derived for the other two reddened SMC members differ from the mean Galactic law in that they exhibit very weak or absent lambda 2200 and much higher values of far-UV extinction. These differences are greater than have been found for stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud, confirming earlier observations by others. (author)

  16. HOW COMMON ARE THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Lulu; Gerke, Brian F.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Behroozi, Peter S.; Busha, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a probabilistic approach to the problem of counting dwarf satellites around host galaxies in databases with limited redshift information. This technique is used to investigate the occurrence of satellites with luminosities similar to the Magellanic Clouds around hosts with properties similar to the Milky Way (MW) in the object catalog of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Our analysis uses data from SDSS Data Release 7, selecting candidate MW-like hosts from the spectroscopic catalog and candidate analogs of the Magellanic Clouds from the photometric catalog. Our principal result is the probability for an MW-like galaxy to host N sat close satellites with luminosities similar to the Magellanic Clouds. We find that 81% of galaxies like the MW have no such satellites within a radius of 150 kpc, 11% have one, and only 3.5% of hosts have two. The probabilities are robust to changes in host and satellite selection criteria, background-estimation technique, and survey depth. These results demonstrate that the MW has significantly more satellites than a typical galaxy of its luminosity; this fact is useful for understanding the larger cosmological context of our home galaxy.

  17. THE STAR FORMATION HISTORY OF THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Jason; Zaritsky, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    We present the first ever global, spatially resolved reconstruction of the star formation history (SFH) of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), based on the application of our StarFISH analysis software to the multiband photometry of 20 million of its stars from the Magellanic Clouds Photometric Survey. The general outlines of our results are consistent with previously published results: following an initial burst of star formation, there was a quiescent epoch from approximately 12 to 5 Gyr ago. Star formation then resumed and has proceeded until the current time at an average rate of roughly 0.2 M sun yr -1 , with temporal variations at the factor of 2 level. The re-ignition of star formation about 5 Gyr ago, in both the LMC and Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), is suggestive of a dramatic event at that time in the Magellanic system. Among the global variations in the recent star formation rate are peaks at roughly 2 Gyr, 500 Myr, 100 Myr, and 12 Myr. The peaks at 500 Myr and 2 Gyr are nearly coincident with similar peaks in the SFH of the SMC, suggesting a joint history for these galaxies extending back at least several Gyr. The chemical enrichment history recovered from our StarFISH analysis is in broad agreement with that inferred from the LMC's star cluster population, although our constraints on the ancient chemical enrichment history are weak. We conclude from the concordance between the star formation and chemical enrichment histories of the field and cluster populations that the field and cluster star formation modes are tightly coupled.

  18. Study of a few cluster candidates in the Magellanic Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Samyaday; Subramaniam Subramaniam, Annapurni; Sohn, Young-Jong

    2018-06-01

    The Magellanic Clouds (LMC & SMC) are gas rich, metal poor, dwarf satellite galaxies to our Milky Way that are interacting with each other. The Magellanic Bridge (MB), joining the larger and smaller Cloud is considered to be a signature of this interaction process. Studies have revealed that the MB, apart from gas also hosts stellar populations and star clusters. The number of clusters, with well-estimated parameters within the MB is still underway. In this work, we study a sample of 9 previously cataloged star clusters in the MB region. We use Washington C, Harris R and Cousins I bands data from literature, taken using the 4-m Blanco telescope to estimate the cluster properties (size, age, reddening). We also identify and separate out genuine cluster candidates from possible clusters/asterism. The increase in number of genuine cluster candidates with well-estimated parameters is important in the context of understanding cluster formation and evolution in such low-metallicity, and tidally disrupted environment. The clusters studied here can also help estimate distances to different parts of the MB, as recent studies indicate that portions of MB near the SMC is a closer to us, than the LMC.

  19. VARIABLE STARS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD GLOBULAR CLUSTER NGC 2257. I. RESULTS BASED ON 2007-2008 B, V PHOTOMETRY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemec, James M.; Walker, Alistair; Jeon, Young-Beom

    2009-01-01

    The variable stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud star cluster NGC 2257 are reinvestigated using photometry (to ∼20th mag) of over 400 new B, V CCD images taken with the CTIO 0.9 m telescope on 14 nights in 2007 December and 2008 January. New period searches have been made using two independent algorithms (CLEAN, Period04); the resultant periods of most of the stars are consistent with the pulsation periods derived previously, and where there are discrepancies these have been resolved. For the B and V light curves, accurate Fourier coefficients and parameters are given. Six new variable stars have been discovered (V45-50), including a bright candidate long-period variable star showing secondary oscillations (V45) and two anomalously bright RRc stars (V48 and V50), which are shown to be brightened and reddened by nearby red giant stars. Also discovered among the previously known variable stars are three double-mode RR Lyrae stars (V8, V16, and V34) and several Blazhko variables. Archival Hubble Space Telescope images and the photometry by Johnson et al. have been used to define better the properties of the most crowded variable stars. The total number of cluster variable stars now stands at forty-seven: 23 RRab stars, four of which show Blazhko amplitude variations; 20 RRc stars, one showing clear Blazhko variations and another showing possible Blazhko variations; the three RRd stars, all having the dominant period ∼0.36 day and period ratios P 1 /P 0 ∼0.7450; and an LPV star located near the tip of the red giant branch. A comparison of the RRd stars with those in other environments shows them to be most similar to those in IC4499.

  20. Interstellar extinction in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandy, K.; Morgan, D.H.; Willis, A.J.; Wilson, R.; Gondhalekar, P.M.; Houziaux, L.

    1980-01-01

    Recent UV observations together with complementary visible data of several reddened and comparison stars of similar spectral types in the Large Magellanic Cloud have been used to study the interstellar extinction in that galaxy. Most of the reddened stars studied here are located within 2 0 of 30 Doradus and show remarkably high extinction in the far UV, suggesting a large abundance of small particles. From the optical wavelength to 2,600 A the normalised extinction curves of the LMC stars are similar to the mean galactic extinction law. (author)

  1. MODELING DUST IN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zonca, Alberto; Casu, Silvia; Mulas, Giacomo; Aresu, Giambattista [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Cagliari, Via della Scienza 5, I-09047 Selargius (Italy); Cecchi-Pestellini, Cesare, E-mail: azonca@oa-cagliari.inaf.it, E-mail: silvia@oa-cagliari.inaf.it, E-mail: gmulas@oa-cagliari.inaf.it, E-mail: garesu@oa-cagliari.inaf.it, E-mail: cecchi-pestellini@astropa.inaf.it [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, P.za Parlamento 1, I-90134 Palermo (Italy)

    2015-09-01

    We model the extinction profiles observed in the Small and Large Magellanic clouds with a synthetic population of dust grains consisting of core-mantle particles and a collection of free-flying polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). All different flavors of the extinction curves observed in the Magellanic Clouds (MCs) can be described by the present model, which has been previously (successfully) applied to a large sample of diffuse and translucent lines of sight in the Milky Way. We find that in the MCs the extinction produced by classical grains is generally larger than absorption by PAHs. Within this model, the nonlinear far-UV rise is accounted for by PAHs, whose presence in turn is always associated with a gap in the size distribution of classical particles. This hints either at a physical connection between (e.g., a common cause for) PAHs and the absence of middle-sized dust particles or the need for an additional component in the model that can account for the nonlinear far-UV rise without contributing to the UV bump at ∼217 nm such as, e.g., nanodiamonds.

  2. MODELING DUST IN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zonca, Alberto; Casu, Silvia; Mulas, Giacomo; Aresu, Giambattista; Cecchi-Pestellini, Cesare

    2015-01-01

    We model the extinction profiles observed in the Small and Large Magellanic clouds with a synthetic population of dust grains consisting of core-mantle particles and a collection of free-flying polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). All different flavors of the extinction curves observed in the Magellanic Clouds (MCs) can be described by the present model, which has been previously (successfully) applied to a large sample of diffuse and translucent lines of sight in the Milky Way. We find that in the MCs the extinction produced by classical grains is generally larger than absorption by PAHs. Within this model, the nonlinear far-UV rise is accounted for by PAHs, whose presence in turn is always associated with a gap in the size distribution of classical particles. This hints either at a physical connection between (e.g., a common cause for) PAHs and the absence of middle-sized dust particles or the need for an additional component in the model that can account for the nonlinear far-UV rise without contributing to the UV bump at ∼217 nm such as, e.g., nanodiamonds

  3. Symbiotic and VV Cephei stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, A.R.

    1983-01-01

    Three symbiotic stars, including a carbon symbiotic star, are identified in the Small Magellanic Cloud, thus two out of five known symbiotic stars in the Magellanic Clouds have C rather than M components, compared to our own Galaxy where the proportion is much lower. This supports the assertion that the symbiotic phenomenon follows the higher C:M star ratio in the Magellanic Clouds and is not a property of M binaries alone. Two other emission-line stars are discussed; one is the only known VV Cephei star in the SMC while the second is a composite Be + K supergiant system. (author)

  4. THE MAGELLANIC MOPRA ASSESSMENT (MAGMA). I. THE MOLECULAR CLOUD POPULATION OF THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Tony; Chu, You-Hua; Gruendl, Robert A.; Looney, Leslie W.; Seale, Jonathan; Welty, Daniel E.; Hughes, Annie; Maddison, Sarah; Ott, Jürgen; Muller, Erik; Fukui, Yasuo; Kawamura, Akiko; Mizuno, Yoji; Pineda, Jorge L.; Bernard, Jean-Philippe; Paradis, Deborah; Henkel, Christian; Klein, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    We present the properties of an extensive sample of molecular clouds in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) mapped at 11 pc resolution in the CO(1-0) line. Targets were chosen based on a limiting CO flux and peak brightness as measured by the NANTEN survey. The observations were conducted with the ATNF Mopra Telescope as part of the Magellanic Mopra Assessment. We identify clouds as regions of connected CO emission and find that the distributions of cloud sizes, fluxes, and masses are sensitive to the choice of decomposition parameters. In all cases, however, the luminosity function of CO clouds is steeper than dN/dL∝L –2 , suggesting that a substantial fraction of mass is in low-mass clouds. A correlation between size and linewidth, while apparent for the largest emission structures, breaks down when those structures are decomposed into smaller structures. We argue that the correlation between virial mass and CO luminosity is the result of comparing two covariant quantities, with the correlation appearing tighter on larger scales where a size-linewidth relation holds. The virial parameter (the ratio of a cloud's kinetic to self-gravitational energy) shows a wide range of values and exhibits no clear trends with the CO luminosity or the likelihood of hosting young stellar object (YSO) candidates, casting further doubt on the assumption of virialization for molecular clouds in the LMC. Higher CO luminosity increases the likelihood of a cloud harboring a YSO candidate, and more luminous YSOs are more likely to be coincident with detectable CO emission, confirming the close link between giant molecular clouds and massive star formation.

  5. Interstellar extinction in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandy, K.; Morgan, D.H.; Willis, A.J.; Wilson, R.; Gondhalekar, P.M.

    1981-01-01

    A systematic investigation of interstellar extinction in the ultraviolet as a function of position in the Large Magellanic Cloud has been made from an enlarged sample of reddened and comparison stars distributed throughout the cloud. Except for one star SK-69-108, the most reddened star of our sample, the shape of the extinction curves for the LMC stars do not show significant variations. All curves show an increase in extinction towards 2200 A, but some have maxima near 2200 A, some near 1900 A. It has been shown that the feature of the extinction curve near 1900 A is caused by the mismatch of the stellar F III 1920 A feature. The strength of this 1920 A feature as a function of luminosity and spectral type has been determined. The extinction curves have been corrected for the mismatch of the 1920 feature and a single mean extinction curve for the LMC normalized to Asub(V) = 0 and Esub(B-V) = 1 is presented. For the same value of Esub(B-V) the LMC stars show the 2200 A feature weaker by a factor 2 as compared with the galactic stars. Higher extinction shortward of 2000 A in the LMC extinction curves than that in our Galaxy, as reported in earlier papers, is confirmed. (author)

  6. MAD about the Large Magellanic Cloud Preparing for the era of Extremely Large Telescopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiorentino, G.; Tolstoy, E.; Diolaiti, E.; Valenti, E.; Cignoni, M.; Mackey, A. D.

    We present J, H, K-s photometry from the the Multi conjugate Adaptive optics Demonstrator (MAD), a visitor instrument at the VLT, of a resolved stellar population in a small crowded field in the bar of the Large Magellanic Cloud near the globular cluster NGC 1928. In a total exposure time of 6, 36

  7. THE Onfp CLASS IN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walborn, Nolan R.; Howarth, Ian D.; Evans, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    The Onfp class of rotationally broadened, hot spectra was defined some time ago in the Galaxy, where its membership to date numbers only eight. The principal defining characteristic is a broad, centrally reversed He II λ 4686 emission profile; other emission and absorption lines are also rotationally broadened. Recent surveys in the Magellanic Clouds (MCs) have brought the class membership there, including some related spectra, to 28. We present a survey of the spectral morphology and rotational velocities, as a first step toward elucidating the nature of this class. Evolved, rapidly rotating hot stars are not expected theoretically, because the stellar winds should brake the rotation. Luminosity classification of these spectra is not possible, because the principal criterion (He II λ4686) is peculiar; however, the MCs provide reliable absolute magnitudes, which show that they span the entire range from dwarfs to supergiants. The Onfp line-broadening distribution is distinct and shifted toward larger values from those of normal O dwarfs and supergiants with >99.99% confidence. All cases with multiple observations show line-profile variations, which even remove some objects from the class temporarily. Some of them are spectroscopic binaries; it is possible that the peculiar profiles may have multiple causes among different objects. The origin and future of these stars are intriguing; for instance, they could be stellar mergers and/or gamma-ray-burst progenitors.

  8. THE MAGELLANIC QUASARS SURVEY. III. SPECTROSCOPIC CONFIRMATION OF 758 ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI BEHIND THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozłowski, Szymon; Udalski, Andrzej; Szymański, M. K.; Kubiak, M.; Pietrzyński, G.; Soszyński, I.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Ulaczyk, K.; Poleski, R.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Skowron, J.; Onken, Christopher A.; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Meixner, M.; Bonanos, A. Z.

    2013-01-01

    The Magellanic Quasars Survey (MQS) has now increased the number of quasars known behind the Magellanic Clouds by almost an order of magnitude. All survey fields in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and 70% of those in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) have been observed. The targets were selected from the third phase of the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE-III) based on their optical variability, mid-IR, and/or X-ray properties. We spectroscopically confirmed 758 quasars (565 in the LMC and 193 in the SMC) behind the clouds, of which 94% (527 in the LMC and 186 in the SMC) are newly identified. The MQS quasars have long-term (12 yr and growing for OGLE), high-cadence light curves, enabling unprecedented variability studies of quasars. The MQS quasars also provide a dense reference grid for measuring both the internal and bulk proper motions of the clouds, and 50 quasars are bright enough (I ∼< 18 mag) for absorption studies of the interstellar/intergalactic medium of the clouds

  9. A Cosmic Zoo in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Astronomers often turn their telescopes to the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), one of the closest galaxies to our own Milky Way, in their quest to understand the Universe. In this spectacular new image from the Wide Field Imager (WFI) at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile, a celestial menagerie of different objects and phenomena in part of the LMC is on display, ranging from vast globular clusters to the remains left by brilliant supernovae explosions. This fascinating observation provides data for a wide variety of research projects unravelling the life and death of stars and the evolution of galaxies. The Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) is only about 160 000 light-years from our own Milky Way - very close on a cosmic scale. This proximity makes it a very important target as it can be studied in far more detail than more distant systems. The LMC lies in the constellation of Dorado (the Swordfish), deep in the southern sky and well placed for observations from ESO's observatories in Chile. It is one of the galaxies forming the Local Group surrounding the Milky Way [1]. Though enormous on a human scale, the LMC is less than one tenth the mass of our home galaxy and spans just 14 000 light-years compared to about 100 000 light-years for the Milky Way. Astronomers refer to it as an irregular dwarf galaxy [2]. Its irregularity, combined with its prominent central bar of stars suggests to astronomers that tidal interactions with the Milky Way and fellow Local Group galaxy, the Small Magellanic Cloud, could have distorted its shape from a classic barred spiral into its modern, more chaotic form. This image is a mosaic of four pictures from the Wide Field Imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory in Chile. The image covers a region of sky more than four times as large as the full Moon. The huge field of view of this camera makes it possible to see a very wide range of objects in the LMC in a single picture, although only a small part of the entire

  10. Angular diameters of Magellanic Cloud plantary nebulae. I. Speckle interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, P.R.; Bessell, M.S.; Dopita, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    Speckle interferometric angular diameters of Magellanic Cloud planetary nebulae are presented. The mass of ionized gas in each nebula has been derived from the angular diameter and published H-beta line fluxes; the derives masses range from less than 0.006 to more than 0.19 solar mass. The planetary nebulae observed were the brightest in the Magellanic Clouds; consequently, they are all relatively small, young, bright, and dense. They are almost certainly only partially ionized, so that the masses derived for the ionized parts of the nebula are lower limits to the total nebula mass. The properties of the Magellanic Cloud nebulae are compared with those of planetary nebulae at the galactic center. 27 references

  11. INFRARED DARK CLOUDS IN THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Min-Young; Stanimirovic, Snezana; Devine, Kathryn E.; Ott, Juergen; Van Loon, Jacco Th.; Oliveira, Joana M.; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Jones, Paul A.; Cunningham, Maria R.

    2009-01-01

    We have applied the unsharp-masking technique to the 24 μm image of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope, to search for high-extinction regions. This technique has been used to locate very dense and cold interstellar clouds in the Galaxy, particularly infrared dark clouds (IRDCs). Fifty-five candidate regions of high extinction, namely, high-contrast regions (HCRs), have been identified from the generated decremental contrast image of the SMC. Most HCRs are located in the southern bar region and mainly distributed in the outskirts of CO clouds, but most likely contain a significant amount of H 2 . HCRs have a peak contrast at 24 μm of 2%-2.5% and a size of 8-14 pc. This corresponds to the size of typical and large Galactic IRDCs, but Galactic IRDCs are 2-3 times darker at 24 μm than our HCRs. To constrain the physical properties of the HCRs, we have performed NH 3 , N 2 H + , HNC, HCO + , and HCN observations toward one of the HCRs, HCR LIRS36-east, using the Australia Telescope Compact Array and the Mopra single-dish radio telescope. We did not detect any molecular line emission, however, our upper limits to the column densities of molecular species suggest that HCRs are most likely moderately dense with n ∼ 10 3 cm -3 . This volume density is in agreement with predictions for the cool atomic phase in low-metallicity environments. We suggest that HCRs may be tracing clouds at the transition from atomic to molecule-dominated medium, and could be a powerful way to study early stages of gas condensation in low-metallicity galaxies. Alternatively, if made up of dense molecular clumps <0.5 pc in size, HCRs could be counterparts of Galactic IRDCs, and/or regions with highly unusual abundance of very small dust grains.

  12. Photometric Metallicities of the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Amy Elizabeth

    2018-06-01

    In the field of astronomy, the study of galaxies is vitally important to understanding the structure and evolution of the universe. Within the study of galaxies, of particular interest are the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds (SMC and LMC, respectively), two of the Milky Way’s closest and most massive satellite galaxies. Their close proximity make them ideal candidates for understanding astrophysical processes such as galaxy interactions. In order to fully understand the Magellanic Clouds, it is imperative that the metallicity of the clouds be mapped in detail. In order to accomplish this task, I will use data from the Survey of Magellanic Stellar History (SMASH) which is a deep, multi-band (ugriz) photometric survey of the Magellanic Clouds that contains approximately 400 million objects in 197 fully-calibrated fields. SMASH is an extensive and deep photometric data set that enables the full-scale study of the galactic structure in the Clouds. The SMASH u-band is sensitive to metallicity for main-sequence turn-off stars which we calibrate using SDSS spectroscopy in overlapping regions (mainly standard star fields). The final steps will be to make metallicity maps of the main bodies and peripheries of the LMC and SMC. Ultimately, these metallicity maps will help us trace out population gradients in the Clouds and uncover the origin of their very extended stellar peripheries.

  13. THE MAGELLANIC INTER-CLOUD PROJECT (MAGIC). I. EVIDENCE FOR INTERMEDIATE-AGE STELLAR POPULATIONS IN BETWEEN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noeel, N. E. D.; Read, J. I. [ETH Zuerich, Institute for Astronomy, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Conn, B. C.; Rix, H.-W. [Max Planck Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Carrera, R. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, C/Via Lactea s/n, E-38200, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Dolphin, A., E-mail: noelia@phys.ethz.ch [Raytheon Company, P.O. Box 11337, Tucson, AZ 85734-1337 (United States)

    2013-05-10

    The origin of the gas in between the Magellanic Clouds (MCs)-known as the ''Magellanic Bridge'' (MB)-is puzzling. Numerical simulations suggest that the MB formed from tidally stripped gas and stars in a recent interaction between the MCs. However, the apparent lack of stripped intermediate- or old-age stars associated with the MB is at odds with this picture. In this paper, we present the first results from the MAGellanic Inter-Cloud program (MAGIC) aimed at probing the stellar populations in the inter-Cloud region. We present observations of the stellar populations in two large fields located in between the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC/SMC), secured using the WFI camera on the 2.2 m telescope in La Silla. Using a synthetic color-magnitude diagram technique, we present the first quantitative evidence for the presence of intermediate-age and old stars in the inter-Cloud region. The intermediate-age stars-which make up {approx}28% of all stars in the region-are not present in fields at a similar distance from the SMC in a direction pointing away from the LMC. This provides potential evidence that these intermediate-age stars could have been tidally stripped from the SMC. However, spectroscopic studies will be needed to confirm or rule out the tidal origin for the inter-Cloud gas and stars.

  14. SPATIAL MOTION OF THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS: TIDAL MODELS RULED OUT?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruzicka, Adam; Palous, Jan; Theis, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Recently, Kallivayalil et al. derived new values of the proper motion for the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC, respectively). The spatial velocities of both Clouds are unexpectedly higher than their previous values resulting from agreement between the available theoretical models of the Magellanic System and the observations of neutral hydrogen (H I) associated with the LMC and the SMC. Such proper motion estimates are likely to be at odds with the scenarios for creation of the large-scale structures in the Magellanic System suggested so far. We investigated this hypothesis for the pure tidal models, as they were the first ones devised to explain the evolution of the Magellanic System, and the tidal stripping is intrinsically involved in every model assuming the gravitational interaction. The parameter space for the Milky Way (MW)-LMC-SMC interaction was analyzed by a robust search algorithm (genetic algorithm) combined with a fast, restricted N-body model of the interaction. Our method extended the known variety of evolutionary scenarios satisfying the observed kinematics and morphology of the Magellanic large-scale structures. Nevertheless, assuming the tidal interaction, no satisfactory reproduction of the H I data available for the Magellanic Clouds was achieved with the new proper motions. We conclude that for the proper motion data by Kallivayalil et al., within their 1σ errors, the dynamical evolution of the Magellanic System with the currently accepted total mass of the MW cannot be explained in the framework of pure tidal models. The optimal value for the western component of the LMC proper motion was found to be μ W lmc ∼> -1.3 mas yr -1 in case of tidal models. It corresponds to the reduction of the Kallivayalil et al. value for μ W lmc by ∼ 40% in its magnitude.

  15. Discovery of a protostar in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatley, I.; Becklin, E.E.; Hyland, A.R.; Jones, T.J.

    1981-01-01

    A near infrared search of the H II region/molecular cloud complex N 159 in the Large Magellanic Cloud has revealed a very red (H-K = 2.1, K-L' = 2.7) compact object. The location, brightness, colour and 2.1 to 2.4 μm spectrum of this source suggest that it is very young, and similar to the galactic infrared 'protostars'. This is the first identification of an infrared protostar in an external galaxy. Its discovery provides direct evidence of current star formation in the Large Magellanic Cloud, and suggests that regions of star formation in external galaxies will appear similar to those in the Milky Way. (author)

  16. OGLE ATLAS OF CLASSICAL NOVAE. II. MAGELLANIC CLOUDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mróz, P.; Udalski, A.; Poleski, R.; Soszyński, I.; Szymański, M. K.; Pietrzyński, G.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Ulaczyk, K.; Kozłowski, S.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Skowron, J., E-mail: pmroz@astrouw.edu.pl [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa (Poland)

    2016-01-15

    The population of classical novae in the Magellanic Clouds was poorly known because of a lack of systematic studies. There were some suggestions that nova rates per unit mass in the Magellanic Clouds were higher than in any other galaxy. Here, we present an analysis of data collected over 16 years by the OGLE survey with the aim of characterizing the nova population in the Clouds. We found 20 eruptions of novae, half of which are new discoveries. We robustly measure nova rates of 2.4 ± 0.8 yr{sup −1} (LMC) and 0.9 ± 0.4 yr{sup −1} (SMC) and confirm that the K-band luminosity-specific nova rates in both Clouds are 2–3 times higher than in other galaxies. This can be explained by the star formation history in the Magellanic Clouds, specifically the re-ignition of the star formation rate a few Gyr ago. We also present the discovery of the intriguing system OGLE-MBR133.25.1160, which mimics recurrent nova eruptions.

  17. Massive runaway stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.; Pflamm-Altenburg, J.; Kroupa, P.

    2011-01-01

    Using archival Spitzer Space Telescope data, we identified for the first time a dozen runaway OB stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) through the detection of their bow shocks. The geometry of detected bow shocks allows us to infer the direction of motion of the associated stars and to determine their possible parent clusters and associations. One of the identified runaway stars, AzV 471, was already known as a high-velocity star on the basis of its high peculiar radial velocity, which is offset by ≃ 40 km s-1 from the local systemic velocity. We discuss implications of our findings for the problem of the origin of field OB stars. Several of the bow shock-producing stars are found in the confines of associations, suggesting that these may be “alien” stars contributing to the age spread observed for some young stellar systems. We also report the discovery of a kidney-shaped nebula attached to the early WN-type star SMC-WR3 (AzV 60a). We interpreted this nebula as an interstellar structure created owing to the interaction between the stellar wind and the ambient interstellar medium.

  18. Spectrophotometry of emission-line stars in the magellanic clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannan, Bruce

    1990-01-01

    The strong emission lines in the most luminous stars in the Magellanic Clouds indicate that these stars have such strong stellar winds that their photospheres are so masked that optical absorption lines do not provide an accurate measure of photospheric conditions. In the research funded by this grant, temperatures and gravities of emission-line stars both in the Large (LMC) and Small Magellanic Clouds (SMC) have been measured by fitting of continuum ultraviolet-optical fluxes observed with IUE with theoretical model atmospheres. Preliminary results from this work formed a major part of an invited review 'The Distribution of Types of Luminous Blue Variables'. Interpretation of the IUE observations obtained in this grant and archive data were also included in a talk at the First Boulder-Munich Hot Stars Workshop. Final results of these studies are now being completed for publication in refereed journals.

  19. Population I Cepheids and understanding star formation history of the Small Magellanic Cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Yogesh Chandra; Joshi, Santosh; Mohanty, Auro Prasad

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study the age and spatial distributions of Cepheids in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) as a function of their ages using data from the OGLE III photometric catalogue. A period - age relation derived for Classical Cepheids in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) has been used to find the ages of Cepheids. The age distribution of the SMC Classical Cepheids is found to have a peak at log(Age) = 8.40 ± 0.10 which suggests that a major star formation event might have occurred in the SMC about 250 ± 50 Myr ago. It is believed that this star forming burst had been triggered by close interactions of the SMC with the LMC and/or the Milky Way. A comparison of the observed spatial distributions of the Cepheids and open star clusters has also been carried out to study the star formation scenario in the SMC. (paper)

  20. ROSAT view of the ISM in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, You-Hua

    1996-01-01

    Rosat observations of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) show a large scale unbounded diffuse X-ray emission, as well as an enhanced emission within large shell structures. These observations allow the distribution of hot ionized medium in the LMC to be examined. Moreover, the hot interior of supernova shells and superbubbles, supernova remnants and the multi-phase structure of the interstellar medium (ISM) can be investigated.

  1. Massive runaway stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.; Kroupa, P.; Pflamm-Altenburg, J.

    2010-09-01

    The origin of massive field stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) has long been an enigma. The recent measurements of large offsets (˜ 100 km s-1) between the heliocentric radial velocities of some very massive (O2-type) field stars and the systemic LMC velocity provides a possible explanation of this enigma and suggests that the field stars are runaway stars ejected from their birthplaces at the very beginning of their parent cluster's dynamical evolution. A straightforward way to prove this explanation is to measure the proper motions of the field stars and to show that they are moving away from one of the nearby star clusters or OB associations. This approach is, however, complicated by the long distance to the LMC, which makes accurate proper motion measurements difficult. We used an alternative approach for solving the problem (first applied for Galactic field stars), based on the search for bow shocks produced by runaway stars. The geometry of detected bow shocks would allow us to infer the direction of stellar motion, thereby determining their possible parent clusters. In this paper we present the results of a search for bow shocks around six massive field stars that have been proposed as candidate runaway stars. Using archival Spitzer Space Telescope data, we found a bow shock associated with one of our programme stars, the O2 V((f*)) star BI 237, which is the first-ever detection of bow shocks in the LMC. Orientation of the bow shock suggests that BI 237 was ejected from the OB association LH 82 (located at ≃ 120 pc in projection from the star). A by-product of our search is the detection of bow shocks generated by four OB stars in the field of the LMC and an arc-like structure attached to the candidate luminous blue variable R81 (HD 269128). The geometry of two of these bow shocks is consistent with the possibility that their associated stars were ejected from the 30 Doradus star-forming complex. We discuss implications of our findings for the

  2. Analog of the Milky Way and the Magellanic Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-11-01

    A hunt for merging dwarf galaxies has yielded an intriguing result: 180 million light-years away, a galaxy very similar to the Milky Way with two dwarf-galaxy satellites just like our own Magellanic clouds.Unusual SatellitesThe Large and Small Magellanic clouds, as observed from Earth. [ESO/S. Brunier]The Large and Small Magellanic clouds (LMC and SMC), the only bright and star-forming satellite galaxies around the Milky Way, have proven unusual in the universe: satellite pairs of LMCSMC mass are neither common in observation nor typically produced in numerical simulations of galaxy formation and evolution.Since the probability of having such an interacting pair of satellites in a massive halo is so low, this raises questions about how our system came about. Did the Magellanic clouds form independently around the Milky Way and then interact? Were they more recently captured as an already-merging pair of dwarf galaxies? Or is there some other explanation?If we could find other systems that look like the LMCSMCMilky-Way system, we might be able to learn more about pairs of dwarf galaxies and how they interact near the halos of large galaxies like the Milky Way. Conveniently, two researchers from Yonsei University in South Korea, Sanjaya Paudel and Chandreyee Sengupta, have now identified exactly such a system.The UGC 4703 pair of dwarf galaxies show a stellar bridge connecting them a sign of their past interaction, when tidal forces stripped material from them as they passed each other. [Adapted from Paudel Sengupta 2017]An Interacting PairHunting for merging dwarf galaxies in various environments, Paudel and Sengupta found UGC 4703, an interacting pair of dwarf galaxies that are located near the isolated spiral galaxy NGC 2718. This pair of satellites around the massive spiral bear a striking resemblance to the LMCSMC system around the Milky-Way.The authors performed a multi-wavelength study of the system using archival images from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, The

  3. Planck early results. XVII. Origin of the submillimetre excess dust emission in the Magellanic Clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lähteenmäki, A.; Poutanen, T.; Natoli, P.

    2011-01-01

    The integrated spectral energy distributions (SED) of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) appear significantly flatter than expected from dust models based on their far-infrared and radio emission. The still unexplained origin of this millimetre excess is investigate...

  4. Topology of Neutral Hydrogen within the Small Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepurnov, A.; Gordon, J.; Lazarian, A.; Stanimirovic, S.

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, genus statistics have been applied to an H I column density map of the Small Magellanic Cloud in order to study its topology. To learn how topology changes with the scale of the system, we provide topology studies for column density maps at varying resolutions. To evaluate the statistical error of the genus, we randomly reassign the phases of the Fourier modes while keeping the amplitudes. We find that at the smallest scales studied (40 pc meatball" topology) in four cases and positive (a "swiss cheese" topology) in two cases. In four regions, there is no statistically significant topology shift at large scales.

  5. THE SECOND SURVEY OF THE MOLECULAR CLOUDS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD BY NANTEN. II. STAR FORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Akiko; Mizuno, Yoji; Minamidani, Tetsuhiro; Mizuno, Norikazu; Onishi, Toshikazu; Fukui, Yasuo; Fillipovic, Miroslav D.; Staveley-Smith, Lister; Kim, Sungeun; Mizuno, Akira

    2009-01-01

    We studied star formation activities in the molecular clouds in the Large Magellanic Cloud. We have utilized the second catalog of 272 molecular clouds obtained by NANTEN to compare the cloud distribution with signatures of massive star formation including stellar clusters, and optical and radio H II regions. We find that the molecular clouds are classified into three types according to the activities of massive star formation: Type I shows no signature of massive star formation; Type II is associated with relatively small H II region(s); and Type III with both H II region(s) and young stellar cluster(s). The radio continuum sources were used to confirm that Type I giant molecular clouds (GMCs) do not host optically hidden H II regions. These signatures of massive star formation show a good spatial correlation with the molecular clouds in the sense that they are located within ∼100 pc of the molecular clouds. Among possible ideas to explain the GMC types, we favor that the types indicate an evolutionary sequence; i.e., the youngest phase is Type I, followed by Type II, and the last phase is Type III, where the most active star formation takes place leading to cloud dispersal. The number of the three types of GMCs should be proportional to the timescale of each evolutionary stage if a steady state of massive star and cluster formation is a good approximation. By adopting the timescale of the youngest stellar clusters, 10 Myr, we roughly estimate the timescales of Types I, II, and III to be 6 Myr, 13 Myr, and 7 Myr, respectively, corresponding to a lifetime of 20-30 Myr for the GMCs with a mass above the completeness limit, 5 x 10 4 M sun .

  6. Photometric metallicity map of the Small Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, S.; Subramaniam, A.; Cole, A. A.; Sohn, Y.-J.

    2018-04-01

    We have created an estimated metallicity map of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) using the Magellanic Cloud Photometric Survey (MCPS) and Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE III) photometric data. This is a first of its kind map of metallicity up to a radius of ˜2.5°. We identify the Red Giant Branch (RGB) in the V, (V - I) colour-magnitude diagrams of small sub-regions of varying sizes in both data sets. We use the slope of the RGB as an indicator of the average metallicity of a sub-region and calibrate the RGB slope to metallicity using available spectroscopic data for selected sub-regions. The average metallicity of the SMC is found to be [Fe/H] = -0.94 dex (σ[Fe/H] = 0.09) from OGLE III and [Fe/H] = -0.95 dex (σ[Fe/H] = 0.08) from MCPS. We confirm a shallow but significant metallicity gradient within the inner SMC up to a radius of 2.5° (-0.045 ± 0.004 to -0.067 ± 0.006 dex deg-1).

  7. Ultraviolet interstellar absorption toward stars in the small Magellanic Cloud. III. THe structure and kinematics of Small Magellanic Cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, A.L.

    1985-01-01

    The structure and kinematical properties of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) are investigated by combining ultraviolet data obtained from the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite with existing optical and radio data. The SMC structure is complicated, undoubtedly a result of gravitational interaction with the Milky Way and the Large Magellanic Cloud, and is poorly understood. It has been known for some time that most of the H I in the SMC is concentrated in two complexes at velocities of approximately 134 and 167 km s -1 (heliocentric). Recent 21 cm emission surveys have revealed two additional, widespread H I components at approx.100 and approx.200 km s -1 . With the radio data alone, however, the relative line-of-sight locations of those complexes cannot be determined, nor can the associations of stars with the complexes be deduced. By using the ultraviolet interstellar absorption-line data in conjunction with radio and optical data, the stellar-interstellar kinematical and morphological relationships can be established. We find that in the southwest region of the SMC, most of the stars observed by IUE, including a group with only low-dispersion IUE spectra, are associated with the 134 km s -1 H I complex

  8. Discovery of new planetary nebulae in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drašković, D.; Reid, W. A.; Parker, Q. A.; Stupar, M.

    2016-01-01

    We present six new planetary nebulae (PNe) discovered in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) from deep UK Schmidt telescope (UKST) narrow band Ha and broad-band short- red “SR” continuum images and confirmed spectroscopically. These 6 preliminary discoveries provide a 6% increase to the previously known SMC PN population of ∼⃒100. Once spectroscopic follow-up of all our newly identified candidates is complete, we expect to increase the total number of known SMC PNe by up to 50%. This will permit a significant improvement to determination of the SMC PN luminosity function (PNLF) and enable further insights into the chemical evolution and kinematics of the SMC PN population. (paper)

  9. The population of supernova remnants in the Magellanic Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Dennefeld, M

    1978-01-01

    The detection of SNRs in the Magellanic Clouds is reviewed with emphasis on its limits. A sample of SNRs is then used to derive the mean interval between SN explosions, tau . After the maximum constraints have been put on all the other parameters, the distribution of diameters of remnants with diameter less than 30 pc in the LMC is shown to agree well with theoretical predictions. In adopting a mean value of E/sub 0//n/sub 0/ (energy at explosion over surrounding density) of 5*10/sup 51/ ergs cm/sup 3/, the best value of tau is 300+or-100 years in good agreement with predictions from statistics of supernovae in external galaxies. The small number of remnants in the SMC prevents a similar approach being used with any statistical significance. (20 refs).

  10. NEUTRON-CAPTURE ELEMENT ABUNDANCES IN MAGELLANIC CLOUD PLANETARY NEBULAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashburn, A. L.; Sterling, N. C. [Department of Physics, University of West Georgia, 1601 Maple Street, Carrollton, GA 30118 (United States); Madonna, S. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Departamento Astrofísica, Universidad de La Laguna, E-38206 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Dinerstein, Harriet L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, 2515 Speedway, C1400, Austin, TX 78712-1205 (United States); Roederer, I. U. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Geballe, T. R., E-mail: awhite15@my.westga.edu, E-mail: nsterlin@westga.edu, E-mail: smadonna@iac.es, E-mail: harriet@astro.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: iur@umich.edu, E-mail: tgeballe@gemini.edu [Gemini Observatory, 670 N. A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    We present near-infrared spectra of 10 planetary nebulae (PNe) in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC), acquired with the FIRE and GNIRS spectrometers on the 6.5 m Baade and 8.1 m Gemini South Telescopes, respectively. We detect Se and/or Kr emission lines in eight of these objects, the first detections of n -capture elements in Magellanic Cloud PNe. Our abundance analysis shows large s -process enrichments of Kr (0.6–1.3 dex) in the six PNe in which it was detected, and Se is enriched by 0.5–0.9 dex in five objects. We also estimate upper limits to Rb and Cd abundances in these objects. Our abundance results for the LMC are consistent with the hypothesis that PNe with 2–3 M {sub ⊙} progenitors dominate the bright end of the PN luminosity function in young gas-rich galaxies. We find no significant correlations between s -process enrichments and other elemental abundances, central star temperature, or progenitor mass, though this is likely due to our small sample size. We determine S abundances from our spectra and find that [S/H] agrees with [Ar/H] to within 0.2 dex for most objects, but is lower than [O/H] by 0.2–0.4 dex in some PNe, possibly due to O enrichment via third dredge-up. Our results demonstrate that n -capture elements can be detected in PNe belonging to nearby galaxies with ground-based telescopes, allowing s -process enrichments to be studied in PN populations with well-determined distances.

  11. DD 13 - A very young and heavily reddened early O star in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Peter S.; Fitzpatrick, Edward L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper investigates the Large Magellanic Cloud star DD 13, which is likely the major ionizing source of the nebula N159A. New optical spectroscopy and new estimates of the broadband photometric properties of DD 13 are obtained. A spectral type of O3-O6 V, E(B-V) = 0.64, and M(V) = -6.93 is found. The spectral type cannot be more precisely defined due to contamination of the spectral data by nebular emission, obliterating the important He I classification lines. These results, plus a published estimate of the Lyman continuum photon injection rate into N159A, suggest that DD 13 actually consists of about 2-4 young, early O stars still enshrouded by their natal dust cloud. The star DD 13 may be a younger example of the type of tight cluster represented by the LMC 'star' Sk-66 deg 41, recently revealed to be composed of six or more components.

  12. POPULATION OF BLACK HOLES IN THE MILKY WAY AND IN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Ziółkowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review, I will briefly discuss the different types of black hole (BH populations (supermassive, intermediate mass and stellar mass BHs both in the Galaxy and in the Magellanic Clouds and compare them with each other.

  13. A Runaway Yellow Supergiant Star in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugent, Kathryn F.; Massey, Philip; Morrell, Nidia I.; Skiff, Brian; Georgy, Cyril

    2018-05-01

    We recently discovered a yellow supergiant (YSG) in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) with a heliocentric radial velocity of ∼300 km s‑1, which is much larger than expected for a star at its location in the SMC. This is the first runaway YSG ever discovered and only the second evolved runaway star discovered in a galaxy other than the Milky Way. We classify the star as G5-8 I and use de-reddened broad-band colors with model atmospheres to determine an effective temperature of 4700 ± 250 K, consistent with what is expected from its spectral type. The star’s luminosity is then log L/L ⊙ ∼ 4.2 ± 0.1, consistent with it being a ∼30 Myr 9 M ⊙ star according to the Geneva evolution models. The star is currently located in the outer portion of the SMC’s body, but if the star’s transverse peculiar velocity is similar to its peculiar radial velocity, in 10 Myr the star would have moved 1.°6 across the disk of the SMC and could easily have been born in one of the SMC’s star-forming regions. Based on its large radial velocity, we suggest it originated in a binary system where the primary exploded as a supernovae, thus flinging the runaway star out into space. Such stars may provide an important mechanism for the dispersal of heavier elements in galaxies given the large percentage of massive stars that are runaways. In the future, we hope to look into additional evolved runaway stars that were discovered as part of our other past surveys. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  14. New inclination changing eclipsing binaries in the Magellanic Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juryšek, J.; Zasche, P.; Wolf, M.; Vraštil, J.; Vokrouhlický, D.; Skarka, M.; Liška, J.; Janík, J.; Zejda, M.; Kurfürst, P.; Paunzen, E.

    2018-01-01

    Context. Multiple stellar systems are unique laboratories for astrophysics. Analysis of their orbital dynamics, if well characterized from their observations, may reveal invaluable information about the physical properties of the participating stars. Unfortunately, there are only a few known and well described multiple systems, this is even more so for systems located outside the Milky Way galaxy. A particularly interesting situation occurs when the inner binary in a compact triple system is eclipsing. This is because the stellar interaction, typically resulting in precession of orbital planes, may be observable as a variation of depth of the eclipses on a long timescale. Aims: We aim to present a novel method to determine compact triples using publicly available photometric data from large surveys. Here we apply it to eclipsing binaries (EBs) in Magellanic Clouds from OGLE III database. Our tool consists of identifying the cases where the orbital plane of EB evolves in accord with expectations from the interaction with a third star. Methods: We analyzed light curves (LCs) of 26121 LMC and 6138 SMC EBs with the goal to identify those for which the orbital inclination varies in time. Archival LCs of the selected systems, when complemented by our own observations with Danish 1.54-m telescope, were thoroughly analyzed using the PHOEBE program. This provided physical parameters of components of each system. Time dependence of the EB's inclination was described using the theory of orbital-plane precession. By observing the parameter-dependence of the precession rate, we were able to constrain the third companion mass and its orbital period around EB. Results: We identified 58 candidates of new compact triples in Magellanic Clouds. This is the largest published sample of such systems so far. Eight of them were analyzed thoroughly and physical parameters of inner binary were determined together with an estimation of basic characteristics of the third star. Prior to our

  15. Ultraviolet spectroscopy of planetary nebulae in the Magellanic Clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maran, S.P.; Aller, L.H.; Gull, T.R.; Stecher, T.P.

    1982-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectra of three high excitation planetary nebulae in the Magellanic Clouds (LMC P40, SMC N2, SMC N5) were obtained with the International Ultraviolet Explorer. The results are analyzed together with new visual wavelength spectrophotometry of LMC P40 and published data on SMC N2 and SMC N5 to investigate chemical composition and in particular to make the first reliable estimates of the carbon abundance in extragalactic planetary nebulae. Although carbon is at most only slightly less abundant in the LMC and SMC planetary nebulae than in galactic planetaries, it is almost 40 times more abundant in the SMC planetaries than in the SMC interstellar medium, and is about 6 times more abundant in the LMC planetary than in the LMC interstellar medium. According to our limited sample, the net result of carbon synthesis and convective dredgeup in the progenitors of planetary nebulae, as reflected in the nebular carbon abundance, is roughly the same in the Galaxy, the LMC, and the SMC

  16. Active Luminous Blue Variables in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walborn, Nolan R. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Gamen, Roberto C.; Lajús, Eduardo Fernández [Instituto de Astrofísica de La Plata, CONICET–UNLP and Facultad de Ciencias Astronómicas y Geofísicas, UNLP, Paseo del Bosque s/n, La Plata (Argentina); Morrell, Nidia I. [Las Campanas Observatory, Carnegie Observatories, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile); Barbá, Rodolfo H. [Departamento de Física y Astronomía, Universidad de La Serena, Cisternas 1200 Norte, La Serena (Chile); Angeloni, Rodolfo, E-mail: walborn@stsci.edu, E-mail: rgamen@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar, E-mail: eflajus@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar, E-mail: nmorrell@lco.cl, E-mail: rbarba@dfuls.cl, E-mail: rangelon@gemini.edu [Gemini Observatory, Colina El Pino, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile)

    2017-07-01

    We present extensive spectroscopic and photometric monitoring of two famous and currently highly active luminous blue variables (LBVs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), together with more limited coverage of three further, lesser known members of the class. R127 was discovered as an Ofpe/WN9 star in the 1970s but entered a classical LBV outburst in or about 1980 that is still in progress, thus enlightening us about the minimum state of such objects. R71 is currently the most luminous star in the LMC and continues to provide surprises, such as the appearance of [Ca ii] emission lines, as its spectral type becomes unprecedentedly late. Most recently, R71 has developed inverse P Cyg profiles in many metal lines. The other objects are as follows: HDE 269582, now a “second R127” that has been followed from Ofpe/WN9 to A type in its current outburst; HDE 269216, which changed from late B in 2014 to AF in 2016, its first observed outburst; and R143 in the 30 Doradus outskirts. The light curves and spectroscopic transformations are correlated in remarkable detail and their extreme reproducibility is emphasized, both for a given object and among all of them. It is now believed that some LBVs proceed directly to core collapse. One of these unstable LMC objects may thus oblige in the near future, teaching us even more about the final stages of massive stellar evolution.

  17. CHARACTERIZING MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC TURBULENCE IN THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhart, Blakesley; Stanimirovic, Snezana; Lazarian, A.; Kowal, Grzegorz

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the nature and spatial variations of turbulence in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) by applying several statistical methods on the neutral hydrogen (H I) column density image of the SMC and a database of isothermal numerical simulations. By using the third and fourth statistical moments we derive the spatial distribution of the sonic Mach number (M s ) across the SMC. We find that about 90% of the H I in the SMC is subsonic or transonic. However, edges of the SMC 'bar' have M s ∼4 and may be tracing shearing or turbulent flows. Using numerical simulations we also investigate how the slope of the spatial power spectrum depends on both sonic and Alfven Mach numbers. This allows us to gauge the Alfven Mach number of the SMC and conclude that its hydrodynamic pressure dominates over the magnetic pressure. The trans-Alfvenic nature of the H I gas in the SMC is also highlighted by the bispectrum, a three-point correlation function which characterizes the level of non-Gaussianity in wave modes. We find that the bispectrum of the SMC H I column density displays similar large-scale correlations as numerical simulations; however, it has localized enhancements of correlations. In addition, we find a break in correlations at a scale of ∼160 pc. This may be caused by numerous expanding shells of a similar size.

  18. Photoionization modeling of Magellanic Cloud planetary nebulae. I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopita, M. A.; Meatheringham, S. J.

    1991-01-01

    The results of self-consistent photoionization modeling of 38 Magellanic Cloud PNe are presented and used to construct an H-R diagram for the central stars and to obtain both the nebular chemical abundances and the physical parameters of the nebulae. T(eff)s derived from nebular excitation analysis are in agreement with temperatures derived by the classical Zanstra method. There is a linear correlation between log T(eff) and the excitation class. The majority of the central stars in the sample with optically thick nebulae have masses between 0.55 and 0.7 solar mass and are observed during their hydrogen-burning excursion toward high temperatures. Optically thin objects are found scattered throughout the H-R diagram, but tend to have a somewhat smaller mean mass. Type I PN are found to have high core masses and to lie on the descending branch of the evolutionary tracks. The nebular mass of the optically thick objects is closely related to the nebular radius, and PN with nebular masses over one solar are observed.

  19. Active Luminous Blue Variables in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walborn, Nolan R.; Gamen, Roberto C.; Morrell, Nidia I.; Barbá, Rodolfo H.; Fernández Lajús, Eduardo; Angeloni, Rodolfo

    2017-07-01

    We present extensive spectroscopic and photometric monitoring of two famous and currently highly active luminous blue variables (LBVs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), together with more limited coverage of three further, lesser known members of the class. R127 was discovered as an Ofpe/WN9 star in the 1970s but entered a classical LBV outburst in or about 1980 that is still in progress, thus enlightening us about the minimum state of such objects. R71 is currently the most luminous star in the LMC and continues to provide surprises, such as the appearance of [Ca II] emission lines, as its spectral type becomes unprecedentedly late. Most recently, R71 has developed inverse P Cyg profiles in many metal lines. The other objects are as follows: HDE 269582, now a “second R127” that has been followed from Ofpe/WN9 to A type in its current outburst; HDE 269216, which changed from late B in 2014 to AF in 2016, its first observed outburst; and R143 in the 30 Doradus outskirts. The light curves and spectroscopic transformations are correlated in remarkable detail and their extreme reproducibility is emphasized, both for a given object and among all of them. It is now believed that some LBVs proceed directly to core collapse. One of these unstable LMC objects may thus oblige in the near future, teaching us even more about the final stages of massive stellar evolution.

  20. Active Luminous Blue Variables in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walborn, Nolan R.; Gamen, Roberto C.; Lajús, Eduardo Fernández; Morrell, Nidia I.; Barbá, Rodolfo H.; Angeloni, Rodolfo

    2017-01-01

    We present extensive spectroscopic and photometric monitoring of two famous and currently highly active luminous blue variables (LBVs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), together with more limited coverage of three further, lesser known members of the class. R127 was discovered as an Ofpe/WN9 star in the 1970s but entered a classical LBV outburst in or about 1980 that is still in progress, thus enlightening us about the minimum state of such objects. R71 is currently the most luminous star in the LMC and continues to provide surprises, such as the appearance of [Ca ii] emission lines, as its spectral type becomes unprecedentedly late. Most recently, R71 has developed inverse P Cyg profiles in many metal lines. The other objects are as follows: HDE 269582, now a “second R127” that has been followed from Ofpe/WN9 to A type in its current outburst; HDE 269216, which changed from late B in 2014 to AF in 2016, its first observed outburst; and R143 in the 30 Doradus outskirts. The light curves and spectroscopic transformations are correlated in remarkable detail and their extreme reproducibility is emphasized, both for a given object and among all of them. It is now believed that some LBVs proceed directly to core collapse. One of these unstable LMC objects may thus oblige in the near future, teaching us even more about the final stages of massive stellar evolution.

  1. DUST DESTRUCTION RATES AND LIFETIMES IN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temim, Tea; Dwek, Eli; Boyer, Martha L. [Observational Cosmology Lab, Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Tchernyshyov, Kirill; Meixner, Margaret [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 366 Bloomberg Center, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Gall, Christa [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Roman-Duval, Julia, E-mail: tea.temim@nasa.gov [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The dust budget in galaxies depends on the rate at which dust grains are created in different stellar sources and destroyed by interstellar shocks. Because of their extensive wavelength coverage, proximity, and nearly face-on geometry, the Magellanic Clouds (MCs) provide a unique opportunity to study these processes in great detail. In this paper, we use the complete sample of supernova remnants (SNRs) in the MCs to calculate the lifetimes and destruction efficiencies of silicate and carbon dust. We find dust lifetimes of 22 ± 13 Myr (30 ± 17 Myr) for silicate (carbon) grains in the LMC, and 54 ± 32 Myr (72 ± 43 Myr) for silicate (carbon) grains in the SMC. The corresponding dust destruction rates are 2.3 × 10{sup –2} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} (5.9 × 10{sup –3} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}) and 3.0 × 10{sup –3} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} (5.6 × 10{sup –4} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}) for silicate (carbon) grains in the LMC and SMC, respectively. The significantly shorter lifetimes in the MCs, as compared to the Milky Way, are explained as the combined effect of their lower total dust mass and preferentially higher dust-to-gas (D2G) mass ratios in the vicinity of the SNRs. We find that the maximum dust injection rates by asymptotic giant branch stars and core collapse supernovae are an order of magnitude lower than the dust destruction rates by the SNRs, suggesting that most of the dust may be reconstituted in dense molecular clouds. We also discuss the dependence of the dust destruction rate on the local D2G mass ratio, ambient gas density, and metallicity, as well as the application of our results to other galaxies and dust evolution models.

  2. DUST DESTRUCTION RATES AND LIFETIMES IN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temim, Tea; Dwek, Eli; Boyer, Martha L.; Tchernyshyov, Kirill; Meixner, Margaret; Gall, Christa; Roman-Duval, Julia

    2015-01-01

    The dust budget in galaxies depends on the rate at which dust grains are created in different stellar sources and destroyed by interstellar shocks. Because of their extensive wavelength coverage, proximity, and nearly face-on geometry, the Magellanic Clouds (MCs) provide a unique opportunity to study these processes in great detail. In this paper, we use the complete sample of supernova remnants (SNRs) in the MCs to calculate the lifetimes and destruction efficiencies of silicate and carbon dust. We find dust lifetimes of 22 ± 13 Myr (30 ± 17 Myr) for silicate (carbon) grains in the LMC, and 54 ± 32 Myr (72 ± 43 Myr) for silicate (carbon) grains in the SMC. The corresponding dust destruction rates are 2.3 × 10 –2 M ☉  yr –1 (5.9 × 10 –3 M ☉  yr –1 ) and 3.0 × 10 –3 M ☉  yr –1 (5.6 × 10 –4 M ☉  yr –1 ) for silicate (carbon) grains in the LMC and SMC, respectively. The significantly shorter lifetimes in the MCs, as compared to the Milky Way, are explained as the combined effect of their lower total dust mass and preferentially higher dust-to-gas (D2G) mass ratios in the vicinity of the SNRs. We find that the maximum dust injection rates by asymptotic giant branch stars and core collapse supernovae are an order of magnitude lower than the dust destruction rates by the SNRs, suggesting that most of the dust may be reconstituted in dense molecular clouds. We also discuss the dependence of the dust destruction rate on the local D2G mass ratio, ambient gas density, and metallicity, as well as the application of our results to other galaxies and dust evolution models

  3. TAGGING THE CHEMICAL EVOLUTION HISTORY OF THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD DISK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapenna, Emilio; Mucciarelli, Alessio; Ferraro, Francesco R.; Origlia, Livia

    2012-01-01

    We have used high-resolution spectra obtained with the multifiber facility FLAMES at the Very Large Telescope of the European Southern Observatory to derive kinematic properties and chemical abundances of Fe, O, Mg, and Si for 89 stars in the disk of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). The derived metallicity and [α/Fe], obtained as the average of O, Mg, and Si abundances, allow us to draw a preliminary scheme of the star formation history of this region of the LMC. The derived metallicity distribution shows two main components: one component (comprising ∼84% of the sample) peaks at [Fe/H] = –0.48 dex and it shows an [α/Fe] ratio slightly under solar ([α/Fe] ∼ –0.1 dex). This population probably originated in the main star formation event that occurred 3-4 Gyr ago (possibly triggered by tidal capture of the Small Magellanic Cloud). The other component (comprising ∼16% of the sample) peaks at [Fe/H] ∼ –0 dex and it shows an [α/Fe] ∼0.2 dex. This population was probably generated during the long quiescent epoch of star formation between the first episode and the most recent bursts. Indeed, in our sample we do not find stars with chemical properties similar to the old LMC globular clusters nor to the iron-rich and α-poor stars recently found in the LMC globular cluster NGC 1718 and also predicted to be in the LMC field, thus suggesting that both of these components are small (<1%) in the LMC disk population.

  4. The VMC Survey. XXIX. Turbulence-controlled Hierarchical Star Formation in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ning-Chen; de Grijs, Richard; Cioni, Maria-Rosa L.; Rubele, Stefano; Subramanian, Smitha; van Loon, Jacco Th.; Bekki, Kenji; Bell, Cameron P. M.; Ivanov, Valentin D.; Marconi, Marcella; Muraveva, Tatiana; Oliveira, Joana M.; Ripepi, Vincenzo

    2018-05-01

    In this paper we report a clustering analysis of upper main-sequence stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud, using data from the VMC survey (the VISTA near-infrared YJK s survey of the Magellanic system). Young stellar structures are identified as surface overdensities on a range of significance levels. They are found to be organized in a hierarchical pattern, such that larger structures at lower significance levels contain smaller ones at higher significance levels. They have very irregular morphologies, with a perimeter–area dimension of 1.44 ± 0.02 for their projected boundaries. They have a power-law mass–size relation, power-law size/mass distributions, and a log-normal surface density distribution. We derive a projected fractal dimension of 1.48 ± 0.03 from the mass–size relation, or of 1.4 ± 0.1 from the size distribution, reflecting significant lumpiness of the young stellar structures. These properties are remarkably similar to those of a turbulent interstellar medium, supporting a scenario of hierarchical star formation regulated by supersonic turbulence.

  5. OXYGEN-RICH SUPERNOVA REMNANT IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This is a NASA Hubble Space Telescope image of the tattered debris of a star that exploded 3,000 years ago as a supernova. This supernova remnant, called N132D, lies 169,000 light-years away in the satellite galaxy, the Large Magellanic Cloud. A Hubble Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 image of the inner regions of the supernova remnant shows the complex collisions that take place as fast moving ejecta slam into cool, dense interstellar clouds. This level of detail in the expanding filaments could only be seen previously in much closer supernova remnants. Now, Hubble's capabilities extend the detailed study of supernovae out to the distance of a neighboring galaxy. Material thrown out from the interior of the exploded star at velocities of more than four million miles per hour (2,000 kilometers per second) plows into neighboring clouds to create luminescent shock fronts. The blue-green filaments in the image correspond to oxygen-rich gas ejected from the core of the star. The oxygen-rich filaments glow as they pass through a network of shock fronts reflected off dense interstellar clouds that surrounded the exploded star. These dense clouds, which appear as reddish filaments, also glow as the shock wave from the supernova crushes and heats the clouds. Supernova remnants provide a rare opportunity to observe directly the interiors of stars far more massive than our Sun. The precursor star to this remnant, which was located slightly below and left of center in the image, is estimated to have been 25 times the mass of our Sun. These stars 'cook' heavier elements through nuclear fusion, including oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, iron etc., and the titanic supernova explosions scatter this material back into space where it is used to create new generations of stars. This is the mechanism by which the gas and dust that formed our solar system became enriched with the elements that sustain life on this planet. Hubble spectroscopic observations will be used to determine the exact

  6. Chemical Abundances and Physical Parameters of H II Regions in the Magellanic Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, R. E. C.

    The chemical abundances and physical parameters of H II regions are important pa rameters to determine in order to understand how stars and galaxies evolve. The Magellanic Clouds offer us a unique oportunity to persue such studies in low metallicity galaxies. In this contribution we present the results of the photoionization modeling of 5 H II regions in each of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) sys tems. Optical data were collected from the literature, complemented by our own observa tions (Carlos Reyes et al. 1998), including UV spectra from the new IUE data ban k and infrared fluxes from the IRAS satellite. The chemical abundances of He, C, N, O, Ne, S, Ar and physical parameters like the densities, the ionized masses, the luminosities, the ionization temperatures , the filling factor and optical depth are determined. A comparison of the abundances of these HII regions with those of typical planetary nebulae and supergiants stars is also presented.

  7. A prompt radio burst from supernova 1987A in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turtle, A.J.; Campbell-Wilson, D.; Bunton, J.D.; Jauncey, D.L.; Kesteven, M.J.; Manchester, R.N.; Norris, R.P.; Storey, M.C.; Reynolds, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    The paper concerns a prompt radio burst from supernova 1987A in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Radio emission from the supernova was detected at Australian observatories within two days of the increase in optical brightness. Observations of radio emission at four frequencies i.e. 0.843, 1.415, 2.29 and 8.41 GHz are presented for the region of the Large Magellanic Cloud supernova. At frequencies around 1 GHz the peak flux density was about 150mJy and occurred within four days of the supernova. (U.K.)

  8. THE STELLAR ANCESTRY OF SUPERNOVAE IN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS. I. THE MOST RECENT SUPERNOVAE IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badenes, Carles; Harris, Jason; Zaritsky, Dennis; Prieto, Jose L.

    2009-01-01

    We use the star formation history (SFH) map of the Large Magellanic Cloud recently published by Harris and Zaritsky to study the sites of the eight smallest (and presumably youngest) supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Cloud: SN 1987A, N158A, N49, and N63A (core collapse remnants), 0509 - 67.5, 0519 - 69.0, N103B, and DEM L71 (Type Ia remnants). The local SFHs provide unique insights into the nature of the supernova (SN) progenitors, which we compare with the properties of the SN explosions derived from the remnants themselves and from SN light echoes. We find that all the core collapse SNe that we have studied are associated with vigorous star formation (SF) in the recent past. In the case of SN 1987A, the time of the last peak of SF (12 Myr) matches the lifetime of a star with the known mass of its blue supergiant progenitor (∼20 M sun ). More recent peaks of SF can lead to SNe with more massive progenitors, which opens the possibility of a Type Ib/c origin for SNRs N158A and N63A. Stars more massive than 21.5 M sun are very scarce around SNR N49, implying that the magnetar SGR 0526 - 66 in this SNR was either formed elsewhere or came from a progenitor with a mass well below the 30M sun threshold suggested in the literature. Three of our four Ia SNRs are associated with old, metal-poor stellar populations. This includes SNR 0509 - 67.5, which is known to have been originated by an extremely bright Type Ia event, and yet is located very far away from any sites of recent SF, in a population with a mean age of 7.9 Gyr. The Type Ia SNR N103B, on the other hand, is associated with recent SF, and might have had a relatively younger and more massive progenitor with substantial mass loss before the explosion. We discuss these results in the context of our present understanding of core collapse and Type Ia SN progenitors.

  9. DISCOVERY OF X-RAY EMISSION FROM YOUNG SUNS IN THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oskinova, L. M.; Hainich, R.; Sun, W.; Chen, Y.; Evans, C. J.; Hénault-Brunet, V.; Chu, Y.-H.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gallagher, J. S. III; Guerrero, M. A.; Güdel, M.; Silich, S.; Nazé, Y.; Reyes-Iturbide, J.

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of extended X-ray emission within the young star cluster NGC 602a in the Wing of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) based on observations obtained with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. X-ray emission is detected from the cluster core area with the highest stellar density and from a dusty ridge surrounding the H II region. We use a census of massive stars in the cluster to demonstrate that a cluster wind or wind-blown bubble is unlikely to provide a significant contribution to the X-ray emission detected from the central area of the cluster. We therefore suggest that X-ray emission at the cluster core originates from an ensemble of low- and solar-mass pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars, each of which would be too weak in X-rays to be detected individually. We attribute the X-ray emission from the dusty ridge to the embedded tight cluster of the newborn stars known in this area from infrared studies. Assuming that the levels of X-ray activity in young stars in the low-metallicity environment of NGC 602a are comparable to their Galactic counterparts, then the detected spatial distribution, spectral properties, and level of X-ray emission are largely consistent with those expected from low- and solar-mass PMS stars and young stellar objects (YSOs). This is the first discovery of X-ray emission attributable to PMS stars and YSOs in the SMC, which suggests that the accretion and dynamo processes in young, low-mass objects in the SMC resemble those in the Galaxy.

  10. The Magellanic Stream System. I. Ram-Pressure Tails and the Relics of the Collision Between the Magellanic Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, F.; Yang, Y. B.; Flores, H.; Puech, M.; Fouquet, S.

    2015-11-01

    We have analyzed the Magellanic Stream (MS) using the deepest and the most resolved H i survey of the Southern Hemisphere (the Galactic All-Sky Survey). The overall Stream is structured into two filaments, suggesting two ram-pressure tails lagging behind the Magellanic Clouds (MCs), and resembling two close, transonic, von Karman vortex streets. The past motions of the Clouds appear imprinted in them, implying almost parallel initial orbits, and then a radical change after their passage near the N(H i) peak of the MS. This is consistent with a recent collision between the MCs, 200-300 Myr ago, which has stripped their gas further into small clouds, spreading them out along a gigantic bow shock, perpendicular to the MS. The Stream is formed by the interplay between stellar feedback and the ram pressure exerted by hot gas in the Milky Way (MW) halo with n h = 10-4 cm-3 at 50-70 kpc, a value necessary to explain the MS multiphase high-velocity clouds. The corresponding hydrodynamic modeling provides the currently most accurate reproduction of the whole H i Stream morphology, of its velocity, and column density profiles along L MS. The “ram pressure plus collision” scenario requires tidal dwarf galaxies, which are assumed to be the Cloud and dSph progenitors, to have left imprints in the MS and the Leading Arm, respectively. The simulated LMC and SMC have baryonic mass, kinematics, and proper motions consistent with observations. This supports a novel paradigm for the MS System, which could have its origin in material expelled toward the MW by the ancient gas-rich merger that formed M31.

  11. THE MAGELLANIC STREAM SYSTEM. I. RAM-PRESSURE TAILS AND THE RELICS OF THE COLLISION BETWEEN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, F.; Yang, Y. B.; Flores, H.; Puech, M.; Fouquet, S., E-mail: francois.hammer@obspm.fr [GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, 5 Place Jules Janssen, Meudon F-92195 (France)

    2015-11-10

    We have analyzed the Magellanic Stream (MS) using the deepest and the most resolved H i survey of the Southern Hemisphere (the Galactic All-Sky Survey). The overall Stream is structured into two filaments, suggesting two ram-pressure tails lagging behind the Magellanic Clouds (MCs), and resembling two close, transonic, von Karman vortex streets. The past motions of the Clouds appear imprinted in them, implying almost parallel initial orbits, and then a radical change after their passage near the N(H i) peak of the MS. This is consistent with a recent collision between the MCs, 200–300 Myr ago, which has stripped their gas further into small clouds, spreading them out along a gigantic bow shock, perpendicular to the MS. The Stream is formed by the interplay between stellar feedback and the ram pressure exerted by hot gas in the Milky Way (MW) halo with n{sub h} = 10{sup −4} cm{sup −3} at 50–70 kpc, a value necessary to explain the MS multiphase high-velocity clouds. The corresponding hydrodynamic modeling provides the currently most accurate reproduction of the whole H i Stream morphology, of its velocity, and column density profiles along L{sub MS}. The “ram pressure plus collision” scenario requires tidal dwarf galaxies, which are assumed to be the Cloud and dSph progenitors, to have left imprints in the MS and the Leading Arm, respectively. The simulated LMC and SMC have baryonic mass, kinematics, and proper motions consistent with observations. This supports a novel paradigm for the MS System, which could have its origin in material expelled toward the MW by the ancient gas-rich merger that formed M31.

  12. SUPERGIANT SHELLS AND MOLECULAR CLOUD FORMATION IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, J. R.; Dickey, John M. [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, Sandy Bay Campus, Churchill Avenue, Sandy Bay, TAS 7005 (Australia); McClure-Griffiths, N. M. [Australia Telescope National Facility, CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Marsfield NSW 2122 (Australia); Wong, T. [Astronomy Department, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Hughes, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Fukui, Y. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya (Japan); Kawamura, A., E-mail: joanne.dawson@utas.edu.au [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2013-01-20

    We investigate the influence of large-scale stellar feedback on the formation of molecular clouds in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Examining the relationship between H I and {sup 12}CO(J = 1-0) in supergiant shells (SGSs), we find that the molecular fraction in the total volume occupied by SGSs is not enhanced with respect to the rest of the LMC disk. However, the majority of objects ({approx}70% by mass) are more molecular than their local surroundings, implying that the presence of a supergiant shell does on average have a positive effect on the molecular gas fraction. Averaged over the full SGS sample, our results suggest that {approx}12%-25% of the molecular mass in supergiant shell systems was formed as a direct result of the stellar feedback that created the shells. This corresponds to {approx}4%-11% of the total molecular mass of the galaxy. These figures are an approximate lower limit to the total contribution of stellar feedback to molecular cloud formation in the LMC, and constitute one of the first quantitative measurements of feedback-triggered molecular cloud formation in a galactic system.

  13. Identification of the OGLE Blazars behind the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Żywucka

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the selection of blazar candidates behind the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds. Both flat spectrum radio quasar and BL Lacreate objects were selected based on the long-term, multi-colour Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment photometric data. We cross-correlated the Magellanic Quasar Survey catalogue of spectroscopically confirmed quasars and quasar candidates located behind the Magellanic Clouds with the radio data at six frequencies from 0.8 to 20 GHz. Among the 1654 objects visible in optical range, we identified a sample of 44 newly selected blazar candidates, including 27 flat spectrum radio quasars and 17 BL Lacs. We examined selected objects with respect to their radio, optical, and mid-infrared properties.

  14. SPECTRAL LINE SURVEY TOWARD MOLECULAR CLOUDS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Yuri; Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Yamamoto, Satoshi [Department of Physics, the University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033 (Japan); Shimonishi, Takashi [Frontier Research Institute for Interdisciplinary Sciences, Tohoku University, Aramakiazaaoba 6-3, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi, 980-8578 (Japan); Sakai, Nami [RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Aikawa, Yuri [Center for Computational Sciences, The University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1, Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Kawamura, Akiko [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan)

    2016-02-20

    Spectral line survey observations of seven molecular clouds in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) have been conducted in the 3 mm band with the Mopra 22 m telescope to reveal chemical compositions in low metallicity conditions. Spectral lines of fundamental species such as CS, SO, CCH, HCN, HCO{sup +}, and HNC are detected in addition to those of CO and {sup 13}CO, while CH{sub 3}OH is not detected in any source and N{sub 2}H{sup +} is marginally detected in two sources. The molecular-cloud scale (10 pc scale) chemical composition is found to be similar among the seven sources regardless of different star formation activities, and hence, it represents the chemical composition characteristic of the LMC without influences by star formation activities. In comparison with chemical compositions of Galactic sources, the characteristic features are (1) deficient N-bearing molecules, (2) abundant CCH, and (3) deficient CH{sub 3}OH. Feature (1) is due to a lower elemental abundance of nitrogen in the LMC, whereas features (2) and (3) seem to originate from extended photodissociation regions and warmer temperature in cloud peripheries due to a lower abundance of dust grains in the low metallicity condition. In spite of general resemblance of chemical abundances among the seven sources, the CS/HCO{sup +} and SO/HCO{sup +} ratios are found to be slightly higher in a quiescent molecular cloud. An origin of this trend is discussed in relation to possible depletion of sulfur along the molecular cloud formation.

  15. Survey of red stars in the direction of the large Magellanic cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bappu, M.K.V.; Parthasarathy, M.; Scaria, K.K.

    1977-01-01

    A survey of red stars in the direction of the Large Magellanic Cloud using the technique of ultra-low dispersion spectroscopy is presented. A listing of the red stars in the 30 Doradus region is given for which finding charts and coordinates on the Hodge-Wright Atlas charts are provided. (author)

  16. Observations of X-ray sources in the Large Magellanic cloud by the OSO-7 satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markert, T.H.; Clark, G.W.

    1975-01-01

    Observations of the Large Magellanic Cloud with the 1-40 keV X-ray detectors on the OSO-7 satellite are reported. Results include the discovery of a previously unreported source LMC X-5, measurements of the spectral characteristics of four sources, and observations of their variability on time scales of months

  17. Star Formation History of the Magellanic Clouds: a survey program with DECam@4mCTIO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monteagudo Narvion, L.; Monelli, M.; Galart, C.; Nidever, D.; Olse, K.; Gruendl, R.; Blum, R.; Walker, A.; Saha, A.; Olszewski, E.; Muñoz, R.; Kunder, A.; Kaleida, C.; Conn, B.; Besla, G.; Majewski, S.; Stringfellow, G.; Karitsky, D.; Chu, Y. H.; Van Der Marel, R.; Marcn, N.; Noel, N.; Jin, S.; Kim, H.; Cioni, M. R.; Bell, E.; Monachesi, A.; Vivas, K.; de Boer, T.

    Various recent discoveries have drastically altered our view of the Magellanic Clouds (MCs), the nearest interacting galaxy system formed by a low mass spiral and a dwarf irregular galaxy. The best evidence is now that they are on frst infall into the Milky Way, that their stellar populations extend

  18. THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURE OF THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, Smitha; Subramaniam, Annapurni

    2012-01-01

    The three-dimensional structure of the inner Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) is investigated using the red clump (RC) stars and the RR Lyrae stars (RRLS), which represent the intermediate-age and the old stellar populations of a galaxy. The V- and I-band photometric data from the OGLE III catalog are used for our study. The mean dereddened I 0 magnitude of the RC stars and the RRLS are used to study the relative positions of the different regions in the SMC with respect to the mean SMC distance. This shows that the northeastern part of the SMC is closer to us. The line-of-sight depth (front to back distance) across the SMC is estimated using the dispersion in the I 0 magnitudes of both the RC stars and the RRLS and found to be large (∼14 kpc) for both populations. The similarity in their depth distribution suggests that both of these populations occupy a similar volume of the SMC. The surface density distribution and the radial density profile of the RC stars suggest that they are more likely to be distributed in a nearly spheroidal system. The tidal radius estimated for the SMC system is ∼7-12 kpc. An elongation along the NE-SW direction is seen in the surface density map of the RC stars. The surface density distribution of the RRLS in the SMC is nearly circular. Based on all of the above results the observed structure of the SMC, in which both the RC stars and RRLS are distributed, is approximated as a triaxial ellipsoid. The parameters of the ellipsoid are obtained using the inertia tensor analysis. We estimated the axes ratio, inclination of the longest axis with the line of sight (i), and the position angle (φ) of the longest axis of the ellipsoid on the sky from the analysis of the RRLS. The analysis of the RC stars with the assumption that they are extended up to a depth of 3.5 times the sigma (width of dereddened I 0 magnitude distribution, corrected for intrinsic spread and observational errors) was also found to give similar axes ratio and orientation

  19. The Three-dimensional Structure of the Small Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Smitha; Subramaniam, Annapurni

    2012-01-01

    The three-dimensional structure of the inner Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) is investigated using the red clump (RC) stars and the RR Lyrae stars (RRLS), which represent the intermediate-age and the old stellar populations of a galaxy. The V- and I-band photometric data from the OGLE III catalog are used for our study. The mean dereddened I 0 magnitude of the RC stars and the RRLS are used to study the relative positions of the different regions in the SMC with respect to the mean SMC distance. This shows that the northeastern part of the SMC is closer to us. The line-of-sight depth (front to back distance) across the SMC is estimated using the dispersion in the I 0 magnitudes of both the RC stars and the RRLS and found to be large (~14 kpc) for both populations. The similarity in their depth distribution suggests that both of these populations occupy a similar volume of the SMC. The surface density distribution and the radial density profile of the RC stars suggest that they are more likely to be distributed in a nearly spheroidal system. The tidal radius estimated for the SMC system is ~7-12 kpc. An elongation along the NE-SW direction is seen in the surface density map of the RC stars. The surface density distribution of the RRLS in the SMC is nearly circular. Based on all of the above results the observed structure of the SMC, in which both the RC stars and RRLS are distributed, is approximated as a triaxial ellipsoid. The parameters of the ellipsoid are obtained using the inertia tensor analysis. We estimated the axes ratio, inclination of the longest axis with the line of sight (i), and the position angle (phi) of the longest axis of the ellipsoid on the sky from the analysis of the RRLS. The analysis of the RC stars with the assumption that they are extended up to a depth of 3.5 times the sigma (width of dereddened I 0 magnitude distribution, corrected for intrinsic spread and observational errors) was also found to give similar axes ratio and orientation

  20. Spatial motion of the Magellanic clouds: tidal models rulled out?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžička, Adam; Theis, Ch.; Palouš, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 691, č. 2 (2009), s. 1807-1815 ISSN 0004-637X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06014; GA AV ČR KJB300030801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : galaxies evolution * galaxies interaction * kinematics and dynamics * Magellanic Cculds * methods: N-body simulations Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 7.364, year: 2009

  1. FIRST RESULTS FROM THE NOAO SURVEY OF THE OUTER LIMITS OF THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, Abhijit; Olsen, Knut; Knezek, Patricia; Harris, Jason; Claver, Jennifer; Olszewski, Edward W.; Brondel, Brian; Smith, Chris; Rest, Armin; Subramaniam, Annapurni; Seitzer, Patrick; Cook, Kem H.; Minniti, Dante; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.

    2010-01-01

    We describe the first results from the Outer Limits Survey, an NOAO survey designed to detect, map, and characterize the extended structure of the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC). The survey consists of deep images of 55 0. 0 6 x 0. 0 6 fields distributed at distances up to 20 0 from the Clouds, with 10 fields at larger distances representing controls for contamination by Galactic foreground stars and background galaxies. The field locations probe the outer structure of both the LMC and SMC, as well as exploring areas defined by the Magellanic Stream, the Leading Arm, and the LMC orbit as recently measured from its proper motion. The images were taken with C, M, R, I, and DDO51 filters on the CTIO Blanco 4 m telescope and Mosaic2 camera, with supporting calibration observations taken at the CTIO 0.9 m telescope. The CRI images reach depths below the oldest main-sequence (MS) turnoffs at the distance of the Clouds, thus yielding numerous probes of structure combined with good ability to measure stellar ages and metallicities. The M and DDO51 images allow for discrimination of LMC and SMC giant stars from foreground dwarfs, allowing us to use giants as additional probes of Cloud structure and populations. From photometry of eight fields located at radii of 7 0 -19 0 north of the LMC bar, we find MS stars associated with the LMC out to 16 0 from the LMC center, while the much rarer giants can only be convincingly detected out to 11 0 . In one field, designated as a control, we see the unmistakable signature of the Milky Way (MW) globular cluster NGC 1851, which lies several tidal radii away from the field center. The color-magnitude diagrams show that while at 7 0 radius LMC populations as young as 500 Myr are present, at radii ∼>11 0 only the LMC's underlying old metal-poor ([M/H] ∼-1) population remains, demonstrating the existence of a mean population gradient at these radii. Nevertheless, even at extreme large distances, the dominant age is

  2. Properties of Anomalous and Type II Cepheids in the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurkovic Monika I.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC and Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC give us the possibility to study individual variable star types in a new way. Literature data provide us with photometric information about objects from the ultraviolet to the infrared. Here we would like to show the results of our study of 335 Anomalous and Type II Cepheids in the SMC and LMC detected by OGLE. Using the code More of DUSTY (MoD, a modified version of the DUSTY radiative transfer code, and the assumption that our objects are at a known distance, luminosity and effective temperature were determined. From these data the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram of these objects was compared with the theoretical models. The radius and masses of the examined stars was estimated, too. In the end, we have given the period-luminosity relations for the Anomalous and Type II Cepheids.

  3. LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD DISTANCE AND STRUCTURE FROM NEAR-INFRARED RED CLUMP OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koerwer, Joel F.

    2009-01-01

    We have applied the Infrared Survey Facility Magellanic Clouds Point-Source Catalog to the mapping of the red clump (RC) distance modulus across the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Using the J- (1.25 μm) and H- (1.63 μm) band data to derive a reddening free luminosity function and a theoretical RC absolute magnitude from stellar evolution libraries, we estimate a distance modulus to the LMC of μ = 18.54 ± 0.06. The best fitting plane inclination, i, and the position angle of the line of nodes, φ, have little dependence on the assumed RC absolute magnitude; we find i = 23. 0 5 ± 0. 0 4 and φ = 154. 0 6 ± 1. 0 2. It was also noted that many fields included a significant asymptotic giant branch bump population that must be accounted for.

  4. Large Magellanic Cloud Distance and Structure from Near-Infrared Red Clump Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerwer, Joel F.

    2009-07-01

    We have applied the Infrared Survey Facility Magellanic Clouds Point-Source Catalog to the mapping of the red clump (RC) distance modulus across the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Using the J- (1.25 μm) and H- (1.63 μm) band data to derive a reddening free luminosity function and a theoretical RC absolute magnitude from stellar evolution libraries, we estimate a distance modulus to the LMC of μ = 18.54 ± 0.06. The best fitting plane inclination, i, and the position angle of the line of nodes, phi, have little dependence on the assumed RC absolute magnitude; we find i = 23fdg5 ± 0fdg4 and phi = 154fdg6 ± 1fdg2. It was also noted that many fields included a significant asymptotic giant branch bump population that must be accounted for.

  5. An LTE effective temperature scale for red supergiants in the Magellanic clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabernero, H. M.; Dorda, R.; Negueruela, I.; González-Fernández, C.

    2018-05-01

    We present a self-consistent study of cool supergiants (CSGs) belonging to the Magellanic clouds. We calculated stellar atmospheric parameters using LTE KURUCZ and MARCS atmospheric models for more than 400 individual targets by fitting a careful selection of weak metallic lines. We explore the existence of a Teff scale and its implications in two different metallicity environments (each Magellanic cloud). Critical and in-depth tests have been performed to assess the reliability of our stellar parameters (i.e. internal error budget, NLTE systematics). In addition, several Monte Carlo tests have been carried out to infer the significance of the Teff scale found. Our findings point towards a unique Teff scale that seems to be independent of the environment.

  6. The ROSAT All-Sky Survey view of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, W.; Denner, K.; Kahabka, P.; Pakull, M.; Schaeidt, S.

    1996-01-01

    During the Rosat all sky survey, centered on the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), 516 X-ray sources were detected. The field was covered from July 1990 to January 1991. The X-ray parameters of the sources, involving position, count rates, hardness ratios, extent, and time variability during the observations, are discussed. Identifications with objects from optical, radio and infrared wavelength allow the LMC candidates to be separated from the foreground stars and the background objects.

  7. Far-infrared observations of Large Magellanic Cloud H II regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, M.W.; Becklin, E.E.; Gatley, I.; Ellis, M.J.; Hyland, A.R.; Robinson, G.; Thomas, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    Far-infrared emission has been measured from four Large Magellanic Cloud H II regions: the 30 Doradus nebula, MC75, MC76 and MC77. The far-infrared radiation is thermal emission from dust heated by starlight. The results show that the LMC H II regions, like H II regions in the Galaxy, have far-infrared luminosities comparable to the total luminosity of their exciting stars. (author)

  8. Cosmic rays in the large and small Magellanic clouds and the relationship to our galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fichtel, C.E.; Sreekumar, P.

    1991-01-01

    Information on the cosmic rays in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds may be obtained from measurements of the synchrotron radiation related to the energetic electrons, which are believed to contain only about 1% of the cosmic ray energy. Assuming the same ratio as in our galaxy between the cosmic ray electrons and nucleons, the energy density distribution may be estimated. This prediction is compared to that deduced from the matter density distribution, the concept of dynamic galance, and an appropriate coupling scale. For the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), the condition of quasi-equilibrium seems satisfied as is required for dynamic balance to be a valid concept, but for the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), this seems not to be the case. For the LMC, the scale of coupling is calculated to be about 2 1/2 kiloparsecs, within the range of estimates for our own galaxy, and the intensity level of the cosmic rays in the central region is similar to that in the local region of our own galaxy. In the SMC, the cosmic ray density seems to be lower than in our galaxy and lower than if the conditions required for dynamic equilibrium were in place for the SMC as a whole

  9. The VMC survey - XXVI. Structure of the Small Magellanic Cloud from RR Lyrae stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraveva, T.; Subramanian, S.; Clementini, G.; Cioni, M.-R. L.; Palmer, M.; van Loon, J. Th.; Moretti, M. I.; de Grijs, R.; Molinaro, R.; Ripepi, V.; Marconi, M.; Emerson, J.; Ivanov, V. D.

    2018-01-01

    We present results from the analysis of 2997 fundamental mode RR Lyrae variables located in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). For these objects, near-infrared time series photometry from the VISTA survey of the Magellanic Clouds system (VMC) and visual light curves from the OGLE IV (Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment IV) survey are available. In this study, the multi-epoch Ks-band VMC photometry was used for the first time to derive intensity-averaged magnitudes of the SMC RR Lyrae stars. We determined individual distances to the RR Lyrae stars from the near-infrared period-absolute magnitude-metallicity (PM_{K_s}Z) relation, which has some advantages in comparison with the visual absolute magnitude-metallicity (MV-[Fe/H]) relation, such as a smaller dependence of the luminosity on interstellar extinction, evolutionary effects and metallicity. The distances we have obtained were used to study the three-dimensional structure of the SMC. The distribution of the SMC RR Lyrae stars is found to be ellipsoidal. The actual line-of-sight depth of the SMC is in the range 1-10 kpc, with an average depth of 4.3 ± 1.0 kpc. We found that RR Lyrae stars in the eastern part of the SMC are affected by interactions of the Magellanic Clouds. However, we do not see a clear bimodality observed for red clump stars, in the distribution of RR Lyrae stars.

  10. Multicolor optical polarimetry of reddened stars in the small Magellanic cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magalhaes, A.M.; Coyne, G.V.; Piirola, V.; Rodrigues, C.V.

    1989-01-01

    First results of an on-going program to determine the wavelength dependence of the interstellar optical polarization of reddened stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) are presented. IUE observations of reddened stars in the SMC (Bouchet et al. 1985) generally show marked differences in the extinction law as compared to both the Galaxy and the Large Megallanic Cloud. The aim here is to determine the wavelength dependence of the optical linear polarization in the direction of several such stars in the SMC in order to further constrain the dust composition and size distribution in that galaxy

  11. Geometry and distance of the Magellanic Clouds from Cepheid variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, J A.R.; Coulson, I M

    1986-01-15

    Period, luminosity and colour data on LMC and SMC Cepheids are analysed. A geometrical model for the LMC and the SMC is presented based on the Cepheids. The distance modulus of each Cloud is redetermined and its dependence upon the assumed abundance deficiency in the Clouds is made explicit. New, independent abundances are inferred based on the Cepheids alone, and are found to agree well with the known HII region abundance deficiencies. The luminosity laws in both galaxies, suitably corrected for abundance, are mutually consistent, enabling a 'universal' PLC and PL relation to be obtained which incorporates all the photoelectric data. (author).

  12. Dense molecular clumps associated with the Large Magellanic Cloud supergiant shells LMC 4 and LMC 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Kosuke; Mizuno, Norikazu [Department of Astronomy, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 133-0033 (Japan); Minamidani, Tetsuhiro [Nobeyama Radio Observatory, 462-2 Nobeyama Minamimaki-mura, Minamisaku-gun, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan); Onishi, Toshikazu; Muraoka, Kazuyuki [Department of Physical Science, Osaka Prefecture University, Gakuen 1-1, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Kawamura, Akiko; Muller, Erik; Tatematsu, Ken' ichi; Hasegawa, Tetsuo; Miura, Rie E.; Ezawa, Hajime [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Dawson, Joanne [Australia Telescope National Facility, CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Tosaki, Tomoka [Joetsu University of Education, Yamayashiki-machi, Joetsu, Niigata 943-8512 (Japan); Sakai, Takeshi [Graduate School of Informatics and Engineering, The University of Electro-Communications, Chofu, Tokyo 182-8585 (Japan); Tsukagoshi, Takashi [College of Science, Ibaraki University, Bunkyo 2-1-1, Mito 310-8512 (Japan); Tanaka, Kunihiko [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan); Fukui, Yasuo, E-mail: kosuke.fujii@nao.ac.jp [Department of Astrophysics, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the effects of supergiant shells (SGSs) and their interaction on dense molecular clumps by observing the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) star-forming regions N48 and N49, which are located between two SGSs, LMC 4 and LMC 5. {sup 12}CO (J = 3-2, 1-0) and {sup 13}CO(J = 1-0) observations with the ASTE and Mopra telescopes have been carried out toward these regions. A clumpy distribution of dense molecular clumps is revealed with 7 pc spatial resolution. Large velocity gradient analysis shows that the molecular hydrogen densities (n(H{sub 2})) of the clumps are distributed from low to high density (10{sup 3}-10{sup 5} cm{sup –3}) and their kinetic temperatures (T {sub kin}) are typically high (greater than 50 K). These clumps seem to be in the early stages of star formation, as also indicated from the distribution of Hα, young stellar object candidates, and IR emission. We found that the N48 region is located in the high column density H I envelope at the interface of the two SGSs and the star formation is relatively evolved, whereas the N49 region is associated with LMC 5 alone and the star formation is quiet. The clumps in the N48 region typically show high n(H{sub 2}) and T {sub kin}, which are as dense and warm as the clumps in LMC massive cluster-forming areas (30 Dor, N159). These results suggest that the large-scale structure of the SGSs, especially the interaction of two SGSs, works efficiently on the formation of dense molecular clumps and stars.

  13. Proper motion separation of Be stars in the Milky Way and the Magellanic Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, K.; García, A.; Sabogal, B.

    2018-01-01

    We present a proper motion investigation of a sample of Be stars candidates towards the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), which has resulted in the identification of two separate populations, in the Galactic foreground and in the Magellanic background. OGLE BVI and 2MASS JHK photometry were used with the SPM4 proper motions to discriminate the different populations located towards the LMC. Two populations with distinctive infrared colours and noticeable different kinematics were found, the bluer sample is consistent with being in the LMC and the redder one with belonging to the Milky Way (MW) disk. This settles the nature of the redder sample which had been described in previous publications as a possible unknown subclass of stars among the Be candidates in the LMC.

  14. The chemical composition of three planetary nebulae in the Magellanic clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufour, R.J.; Killen, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    Emission-line intensities in the planetary nebulae Henize 67 in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) and Henize 97 and 153 in the LMC along with the small SMC H II regions Henize 9, 61, and 81 were measured from photographic image-tube spectra taken with the 1.5 m telescope at Cerro Tololo. The relative abundances of H, He, N, O, Ne, S, and Ar in the nebulae were estimated and compared with the compositions of galactic planetary nebulae and previously studied H II regions in the Clouds. The results show that (1) the N/O ratios in the planetary nebulae are substantially higher than found in the H II regions of each Cloud; (2) He/H approx. = 0.18 in the SMC planetary nebula, but seems normal (approx.0.10) in the two LMC planetaries; and (3) the compositions of the three small SMC H II regions are similar to that of larger SMC H II regions studied previously. It is concluded that the N/H values in the shells of planetary nebulae may not depend on the metal content of the progenitor star as much as recent theoretical models suggest and that the N content of the gas in the Magellanic Clouds arises primarily from sources other than planetary nebulae

  15. THE VMC SURVEY. XIX. CLASSICAL CEPHEIDS IN THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ripepi, V.; Marconi, M. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, via Moiariello 16, I-80131, Naples (Italy); Moretti, M. I. [IAASARS, National Observatory of Athens, 15236 Penteli (Greece); Clementini, G. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani, I-40127, Bologna (Italy); Cioni, M.-R. L. [Universität Potsdam, Institut für Physik und Astronomie, Karl-Liebknecht-Strasse 24/25, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany); Grijs, R. de [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics and Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Yi He Yuan Lu 5, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100871 (China); Emerson, J. P. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Groenewegen, M. A. T. [Koninklijke Sterrenwacht van België, Ringlaan 3, B-1180, Brussel (Belgium); Ivanov, V. D. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Piatti, A. E., E-mail: ripepi@oacn.inaf.it [Observatorio Astronómico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Laprida 854, 5000, Córdoba (Argentina)

    2016-06-01

    The “VISTA near-infrared YJK {sub s}  survey of the Magellanic Clouds System” (VMC) is collecting deep K {sub s}-band time-series photometry of pulsating variable stars hosted by the two Magellanic Clouds and their connecting Bridge. In this paper, we present Y , J , K {sub s} light curves for a sample of 4172 Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) Classical Cepheids (CCs). These data, complemented with literature V values, allowed us to construct a variety of period–luminosity (PL), period–luminosity–color (PLC), and period–Wesenheit (PW) relationships, which are valid for Fundamental (F), First Overtone (FO), and Second Overtone (SO) pulsators. The relations involving the V , J , K {sub s} bands are in agreement with their counterparts in the literature. As for the Y band, to our knowledge, we present the first CC PL, PW, and PLC relations ever derived using this filter. We also present the first near–infrared PL, PW, and PLC relations for SO pulsators to date. We used PW( V , K {sub s}) to estimate the relative SMC–LMC distance and, in turn, the absolute distance to the SMC. For the former quantity, we find a value of Δ μ  = 0.55 ± 0.04 mag, which is in rather good agreement with other evaluations based on CCs, but significantly larger than the results obtained from older population II distance indicators. This discrepancy might be due to the different geometric distributions of young and old tracers in both Clouds. As for the absolute distance to the SMC, our best estimates are μ {sub SMC} = 19.01 ± 0.05 mag and μ {sub SMC} = 19.04 ± 0.06 mag, based on two distance measurements to the LMC which rely on accurate CC and eclipsing Cepheid binary data, respectively.

  16. Additional radial velocities of supergiants in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thackeray, A.D.

    1978-01-01

    Additional radial velocities of 28 SMC supergiants determined in the years 1959-69 at the Radcliffe Observatory are presented. These and other measures from ESO and elsewhere are intercompared. The mean Radcliffe velocities have an internal standard error of +- 4.7 km/s and a systematic error exceeding 4 km/s is regarded as unlikely. Eight stars in the SMC core have a corrected velocity dispersion of only 6.9 km/s, similar to Feast's values for H II regions in the core. But the core H II regions have a velocity differential of -20 km/s relative to these stars. The velocity dispersion for stars in other parts of the Cloud is of the order 15 km/s as previously found. Two possibly variable-velocity stars are discussed, without reaching a satisfactory conclusion. (author)

  17. A modern search for Wolf-Rayet stars in the Magellanic Clouds: First results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massey, Philip; Neugent, Kathryn F. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Morrell, Nidia [Las Campanas Observatory, Carnegie Observatories, Casilla 601 La Serena (Chile); Hillier, D. John, E-mail: phil.massey@lowell.edu, E-mail: kneugent@lowell.edu, E-mail: nmorrell@lco.cl, E-mail: hillier@pitt.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Pittsburgh Particle Physics, Astrophysics, and Cosmology Center (PITT PACC), University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States)

    2014-06-10

    Over the years, directed surveys and incidental spectroscopy have identified 12 Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) and 139 in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), numbers which are often described as 'essentially complete'. Yet, new WRs are discovered in the LMC almost yearly. We have therefore initiated a new survey of both Magellanic Clouds using the same interference-filter imaging technique previously applied to M31 and M33. We report on our first observing season, in which we have successfully surveyed ∼15% of our intended area of the SMC and LMC. Spectroscopy has confirmed nine newly found WRs in the LMC (a 6% increase), including one of WO-type, only the third known in that galaxy and the second to be discovered recently. The other eight are WN3 stars that include an absorption component. In two, the absorption is likely from an O-type companion, but the other six are quite unusual. Five would be classified naively as 'WN3+O3 V', but such a pairing is unlikely given the rarity of O3 stars, the short duration of this phase (which is incommensurate with the evolution of a companion to a WN star), and because these stars are considerably fainter than O3 V stars. The sixth star may also fall into this category. CMFGEN modeling suggests these stars are hot, bolometrically luminous, and N-rich like other WN3 stars, but lack the strong winds that characterize WNs. Finally, we discuss two rare Of?p stars and four Of supergiants we found, and propose that the B[e] star HD 38489 may have a WN companion.

  18. A dearth of OH/IR stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Steven R.; van Loon, Jacco Th.; Gómez, José F.; Green, James A.; Zijlstra, Albert A.; Nanni, Ambra; Imai, Hiroshi; Whitelock, Patricia A.; Groenewegen, Martin A. T.; Oliveira, Joana M.

    2018-01-01

    We present the results of targeted observations and a survey of 1612-, 1665- and 1667-MHz circumstellar OH maser emission from asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and red supergiants (RSGs) in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), using the Parkes and Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) radio telescopes. No clear OH maser emission has been detected in any of our observations targeting luminous, long-period, large-amplitude variable stars, which have been confirmed spectroscopically and photometrically to be mid- to late-M spectral type. These observations have probed 3-4 times deeper than any OH maser survey in the SMC. Using a bootstrapping method with Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and Galactic OH/IR star samples and our SMC observation upper limits, we have calculated the likelihood of not detecting maser emission in any of the two sources considered to be the top maser candidates to be less than 0.05 per cent, assuming a similar pumping mechanism as the LMC and Galactic OH/IR sources. We have performed a population comparison of the Magellanic Clouds and used Spitzer IRAC and MIPS photometry to confirm that we have observed all high luminosity SMC sources that are expected to exhibit maser emission. We suspect that, compared to the OH/IR stars in the Galaxy and LMC, the reduction in metallicity may curtail the dusty wind phase at the end of the evolution of the most massive cool stars. We also suspect that the conditions in the circumstellar envelope change beyond a simple scaling of abundances and wind speed with metallicity.

  19. The Most Metal-poor Stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaufman, Kevin C.

    2018-06-01

    The chemical abundances of the most metal-poor stars in a galaxy can be used to investigate the earliest stages of its formation and chemical evolution. Differences between the abundances of the most metal-poor stars in the Milky Way and in its satellite dwarf galaxies have been noted and provide the strongest available constraints on the earliest stages of general galactic chemical evolution models. However, the masses of the Milky Way and its satellite dwarf galaxies differ by four orders of magnitude, leaving a gap in our knowledge of the early chemical evolution of intermediate mass galaxies like the Magellanic Clouds. To close that gap, we have initiated a survey of the metal-poor stellar populations of the Magellanic Clouds using the mid-infrared metal-poor star selection of Schlaufman & Casey (2014). We have discovered the three most metal-poor giant stars known in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and reobserved the previous record holder. The stars have metallicities in the range -2.70 < [Fe/H] < -2.00 and three show r-process enhancement: one has [Eu II/Fe] = +1.65 and two others have [Eu II/Fe] = +0.65. The probability that four randomly selected very metal-poor stars in the halo of the Milky Way are as r-process enhanced is 0.0002. For that reason, the early chemical enrichment of the heaviest elements in the LMC and Milky Way were qualitatively different. It is also suggestive of a possible chemical link between the LMC and the ultra-faint dwarf galaxies nearby with evidence of r-process enhancement (e.g., Reticulum II and Tucana III). Like Reticulum II, the most metal-poor star in our LMC sample is the only one not enhanced in r-process elements.

  20. THE AGE-METALLICITY RELATIONSHIP OF THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD FIELD STAR POPULATION FROM WIDE-FIELD WASHINGTON PHOTOMETRY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piatti, Andrés E.; Geisler, Doug

    2013-01-01

    We analyze age and metallicity estimates for an unprecedented database of some 5.5 million stars distributed throughout the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) main body, obtained from CCD Washington CT 1 photometry, reported on in Piatti et al. We produce a comprehensive field star age-metallicity relationship (AMR) from the earliest epoch until ∼1 Gyr ago. This AMR reveals that the LMC has not evolved chemically as either a closed-box or bursting system, exclusively, but as a combination of both scenarios that have varied in relative strength over the lifetime of the galaxy, although the bursting model falls closer to the data in general. Furthermore, while old and metal-poor field stars have been preferentially formed in the outer disk, younger and more metal-rich stars have mostly been formed in the inner disk, confirming an outside-in formation. We provide evidence for the formation of stars between 5 and 12 Gyr, during the cluster age gap, although chemical enrichment during this period was minimal. We find no significant metallicity gradient in the LMC. We also find that the range in the metallicity of an LMC field has varied during the lifetime of the LMC. In particular, we find only a small range of the metal abundance in the outer disk fields, whereas an average range of Δ[Fe/H] = +0.3 ± 0.1 dex appears in the inner disk fields. Finally, the cluster and field AMRs show a satisfactory match only for the last 3 Gyr, while for the oldest ages (>11 Gyr), the cluster AMR is a remarkable lower envelope to the field AMR. Such a difference may be due to the very rapid early chemical evolution and lack of observed field stars in this regime, whereas the globular clusters are easily studied. This large difference is not easy to explain as coming from stripped ancient Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) clusters, although the field SMC AMR is on average ∼0.4 dex more metal-poor at all ages than that of the LMC but otherwise very similar.

  1. THE AGE-METALLICITY RELATIONSHIP OF THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD FIELD STAR POPULATION FROM WIDE-FIELD WASHINGTON PHOTOMETRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piatti, Andres E. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, CC 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Geisler, Doug, E-mail: andres@iafe.uba.ar [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile)

    2013-01-01

    We analyze age and metallicity estimates for an unprecedented database of some 5.5 million stars distributed throughout the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) main body, obtained from CCD Washington CT{sub 1} photometry, reported on in Piatti et al. We produce a comprehensive field star age-metallicity relationship (AMR) from the earliest epoch until {approx}1 Gyr ago. This AMR reveals that the LMC has not evolved chemically as either a closed-box or bursting system, exclusively, but as a combination of both scenarios that have varied in relative strength over the lifetime of the galaxy, although the bursting model falls closer to the data in general. Furthermore, while old and metal-poor field stars have been preferentially formed in the outer disk, younger and more metal-rich stars have mostly been formed in the inner disk, confirming an outside-in formation. We provide evidence for the formation of stars between 5 and 12 Gyr, during the cluster age gap, although chemical enrichment during this period was minimal. We find no significant metallicity gradient in the LMC. We also find that the range in the metallicity of an LMC field has varied during the lifetime of the LMC. In particular, we find only a small range of the metal abundance in the outer disk fields, whereas an average range of {Delta}[Fe/H] = +0.3 {+-} 0.1 dex appears in the inner disk fields. Finally, the cluster and field AMRs show a satisfactory match only for the last 3 Gyr, while for the oldest ages (>11 Gyr), the cluster AMR is a remarkable lower envelope to the field AMR. Such a difference may be due to the very rapid early chemical evolution and lack of observed field stars in this regime, whereas the globular clusters are easily studied. This large difference is not easy to explain as coming from stripped ancient Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) clusters, although the field SMC AMR is on average {approx}0.4 dex more metal-poor at all ages than that of the LMC but otherwise very similar.

  2. The Wolf-Rayet eclipsing binary HD 5980 in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breysacher, J.; Moffat, A.F.J.

    1982-01-01

    The Wolf-Rayet star HD 5980, which is probably associated with the bright HII region NGC 346 of the Small Magellanic Cloud, was found to be an eclipsing binary by Hoffmann, Stift and Moffat (1978). Breysacher and Perrier (1980) determined the orbital period, P=19.26 +- 0.003d, of the system whose light curve reveals a strongly eccentric orbit (e=0.47 for i=80 0 ). The behaviour of the light curve outside the eclipses shows that one is dealing with a rather complex binary system. An analysis of the spectroscopic data is presented here. (Auth.)

  3. Model nebulae and determination of the chemical composition of the Magellanic Clouds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aller, L H; Keyes, C D; Czyzak, S J

    1979-04-01

    An analysis of previously presented photoelectric spectrophotometry of HII regions (emission-line diffuse nebulae) in the two Magellanic Clouds is carried out with the aid of theoretical nebular models, which are used primarily as interpolation devices. Some advantages and limitations of such theoretical models are discussed. A comparison of the finally obtained chemical compositions with those found by other observers shows generally a good agreement, suggesting that it is possible to obtain reliable chemical compositions from low excitation gaseous nebulae in our own galaxy as well as in distant stellar systems.

  4. Large Magellanic Cloud Near-infrared Synoptic Survey. V. Period–Luminosity Relations of Miras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Wenlong; Macri, Lucas M.; He, Shiyuan; Huang, Jianhua Z.; Kanbur, Shashi M.; Ngeow, Chow-Choong

    2017-01-01

    We study the near-infrared properties of 690 Mira candidates in the central region of the Large Magellanic Cloud, based on time-series observations at JHK s . We use densely sampled I -band observations from the OGLE project to generate template light curves in the near-infrared and derive robust mean magnitudes at those wavelengths. We obtain near-infrared Period–Luminosity relations for oxygen-rich Miras with a scatter as low as 0.12 mag at K s . We study the Period–Luminosity–Color relations and the color excesses of carbon-rich Miras, which show evidence for a substantially different reddening law.

  5. An extremely bright gamma-ray pulsar in the Large Magellanic Cloud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-13

    Pulsars are rapidly spinning, highly magnetized neutron stars, created in the gravitational collapse of massive stars. We report the detection of pulsed giga-electron volt gamma rays from the young pulsar PSR J0540-6919 in the Large Magellanic Cloud, a satellite galaxy of the Milky Way. This is the first gamma-ray pulsar detected in another galaxy. It has the most luminous pulsed gamma-ray emission yet observed, exceeding the Crab pulsar's by a factor of 20. PSR J0540-6919 presents an extreme test case for understanding the structure and evolution of neutron star magnetospheres. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  6. Discovery of a 50 millisecond pulsar in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seward, F. D.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Helfand, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with the discovery of a new pulsed X-ray source in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) supernova remnant 0540 - 693. The SNR 0540 - 693 is one of three suspected Crab-like remnants in the LMC. The existing X-ray, optical, and radio observations of the remnant itself are discussed, and an analysis is conducted of the implications of the period, period derivative, and X-ray pulse shape of the new source. It is concluded that the pulsed X-ray source is almost certainly a young, isolated pulsar. Many of its properties are very similar to those of the Crab pulsar.

  7. Observation of near-infrared surface brightness of the large Magellanic cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Satio; Koizumi, Yutaka; Matsumoto, Toshio; Murakami, Hiroshi; Uyama, Kiichiro.

    1981-01-01

    The near-infrared surface brightness of the large Magellanic cloud was observed by an infrared telescope carried by a balloon. The balloon flight was made at Australian Balloon Launching Station. The brightness distribution of 2.4 Mu m radiation was obtained. A part of Bar was bright, and the expansion of the contour at the east end of Bar corresponded to the 30 Dor region. Many near-infrared sources distribute in this region. Discussions on the color and brightness of the center of Bar and the 30 Dor region are presented. (Kato, T.)

  8. A new study of N66 in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Taisheng; Turtle, A J [Sydney Univ. (Australia). School of Physics; Kennicutt, Jr, R C [Steward Observatory, Tucson, AZ (USA)

    1991-04-15

    A new sensitive method of searching for distinguishing supernova remnants (SNRs) from H II regions is described and applied to multi-frequency radio observations and narrow-band H {alpha} observations of the H II region N66 in the Small Magellanic Cloud. One SNR is identified and one SNR candidate is suggested at radio wavelengths. On an unsharp masked H{alpha} plate, the H II region shows a fascinating structure which might be described by a 'champagne model'. From this and other evidence, we suggested that giant HII regions are often associated with SNRs. (author).

  9. The MACHO Project 9 Million Star Color-Magnitude Diagram of the Large Magellanic Cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcock, C.; Allsman, R. A.; Alves, D. R.; Axelrod, T. S.; Basu, A.; Becker, A. C.; Bennett, D. P.; Cook, K. H.; Drake, A. J.; Freeman, K. C.

    2000-01-01

    We present a 9 million star color-magnitude diagram (9M CMD) of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) bar. The 9M CMD reveals a complex superposition of different-age and -metallicity stellar populations, with important stellar evolutionary phases occurring over 3 orders of magnitude in number density. First, we count the nonvariable red and blue supergiants and the associated Cepheid variables and measure the stellar effective temperatures defining the Cepheid instability strip. Lifetime predictions of stellar evolution theory are tested, with implications for the origin of low-luminosity Cepheids. The highly evolved asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in the 9M CMD have a bimodal distribution in brightness, which we interpret as discrete old populations ((greater-or-similar sign)1 Gyr). The faint AGB sequence may be metal-poor and very old. Comparing the mean properties of giant branch and horizontal-branch (HB) stars in the 9M CMD with those of clusters, we identify NGC 411 and M3 as templates for the admixture of old stellar populations in the bar. However, there are several indications that the old and metal-poor field population has a red HB morphology: the RR Lyrae variables lie preferentially on the red edge of the instability strip, the AGB bump is very red, and the ratio of AGB bump stars to RR Lyrae variables is quite large. If the HB second parameter is age, the old and metal-poor field population in the bar likely formed after the oldest LMC clusters. Lifetime predictions of stellar evolution theory lead us to associate a significant fraction of the ∼1 million red HB clump giants in the 9M CMD with the same old and metal-poor population producing the RR Lyrae stars and the AGB bump. In this case, compared with the age-dependent luminosity predictions of stellar evolution theory, the red HB clump is too bright relative to the RR Lyrae stars and AGB bump. Last, we show that the surface density profile of RR Lyrae variables is fitted by an exponential

  10. The MACHO Project 9 Million Star Color-Magnitude Diagram of the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcock, C.; Allsman, R. A.; Alves, D. R.; Axelrod, T. S.; Basu, A.; Becker, A. C.; Bennett, D. P.; Cook, K. H.; Drake, A. J.; Freeman, K. C. (and others)

    2000-05-01

    We present a 9 million star color-magnitude diagram (9M CMD) of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) bar. The 9M CMD reveals a complex superposition of different-age and -metallicity stellar populations, with important stellar evolutionary phases occurring over 3 orders of magnitude in number density. First, we count the nonvariable red and blue supergiants and the associated Cepheid variables and measure the stellar effective temperatures defining the Cepheid instability strip. Lifetime predictions of stellar evolution theory are tested, with implications for the origin of low-luminosity Cepheids. The highly evolved asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in the 9M CMD have a bimodal distribution in brightness, which we interpret as discrete old populations ((greater-or-similar sign)1 Gyr). The faint AGB sequence may be metal-poor and very old. Comparing the mean properties of giant branch and horizontal-branch (HB) stars in the 9M CMD with those of clusters, we identify NGC 411 and M3 as templates for the admixture of old stellar populations in the bar. However, there are several indications that the old and metal-poor field population has a red HB morphology: the RR Lyrae variables lie preferentially on the red edge of the instability strip, the AGB bump is very red, and the ratio of AGB bump stars to RR Lyrae variables is quite large. If the HB second parameter is age, the old and metal-poor field population in the bar likely formed after the oldest LMC clusters. Lifetime predictions of stellar evolution theory lead us to associate a significant fraction of the {approx}1 million red HB clump giants in the 9M CMD with the same old and metal-poor population producing the RR Lyrae stars and the AGB bump. In this case, compared with the age-dependent luminosity predictions of stellar evolution theory, the red HB clump is too bright relative to the RR Lyrae stars and AGB bump. Last, we show that the surface density profile of RR Lyrae variables is fitted by an exponential

  11. YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD STAR-FORMING REGION N206

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romita, Krista Alexandra; Meixner, M.; Sewilo, M.; Shiao, B.; Carlson, Lynn Redding; Whitney, B.; Babler, B.; Meade, M.; Indebetouw, R.; Hora, J. L.

    2010-01-01

    We present analysis of the energetic star-forming region Henize 206 (N206) located near the southern edge of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) based on photometric data from the Spitzer Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution (SAGE-LMC; IRAC 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0 μm and MIPS 24 μm), Infrared Survey Facility near-infrared survey (J, H, K s ), and the Magellanic Clouds Photometric Survey (MCPS UBVI) covering a wavelength range of 0.36-24 μm. Young stellar object (YSO) candidates are identified based upon their location in infrared color-magnitude space and classified by the shapes of their spectral energy distributions in comparison with a pre-computed grid of YSO models. We identify 116 YSO candidates: 102 are well characterized by the YSO models, predominately Stage I, and 14 may be multiple sources or young sources with transition disks. Careful examination of the individual sources and their surrounding environment allows us to identify a factor of ∼14.5 more YSO candidates than have already been identified. The total mass of these well-fit YSO candidates is ∼520 M sun . We calculate a current star formation rate of 0.27 x 10 -1 M sun yr -1 kpc -2 . The distribution of YSO candidates appears to follow shells of neutral material in the interstellar medium.

  12. The VMC survey. XXX. Stellar proper motions in the central parts of the Small Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederhofer, F.; Cioni, M.-R. L.; Rubele, S.; Schmidt, T.; Bekki, K.; Grijs, R. de; Emerson, J.; Ivanov, V. D.; Marconi, M.; Oliveira, J. M.; Petr-Gotzens, M. G.; Ripepi, V.; van Loon, J. Th.; Zaggia, S.

    2018-05-01

    We present the first spatially resolved map of stellar proper motions within the central ( 3.1 × 2.4 kpc) regions of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). The data used for this study encompasses four tiles from the ongoing near-infrared VISTA survey of the Magellanic Clouds system and covers a total contiguous area on the sky of 6.81 deg2. Proper motions have been calculated independently in two dimensions from the spatial offsets in the Ks filter over time baselines between 22 and 27 months. The reflex motions of approximately 33 000 background galaxies are used to calibrate the stellar motions to an absolute scale. The resulting catalog is composed of more than 690 000 stars which have been selected based on their position in the (J - Ks, Ks) color-magnitude diagram. For the median absolute proper motion of the SMC, we find (μαcos(δ), μδ) = (1.087 ± 0.192 (sys.) ± 0.003 (stat.), -1.187 ± 0.008 (sys.) ± 0.003 (stat.)) mas yr-1, consistent with previous studies. Mapping the proper motions as a function of position within the SMC reveals a nonuniform velocity pattern indicative of a tidal feature behind the main body of the SMC and a flow of stars in the south-east moving predominantly along the line-of-sight. Based on observations made with VISTA at the Paranal Observatory under program ID 179.B-2003.

  13. Optical spectra of radio planetary nebulae in the large Magellanic Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payne J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We present 11 spectra from 12 candidate radio sources co-identified with known planetary nebulae (PNe in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC. Originally found in Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA LMC surveys at 1.4, 4.8 and 8.64 GHz and confirmed by new high resolution ATCA images at 6 and 3 cm (4' /2' , these complement data recently presented for candidate radio PNe in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC. Their spectra were obtained using the Radcliff 1.9-meter telescope in Sutherland (South Africa. All of the optical PNe and radio candidates are within 2' and may represent a population of selected radio bright sample only. Nebular ionized masses of these objects are estimated to be as high as 1.8 Mfi, supporting the idea that massive PNe progenitor central stars lose much of their mass in the asymptotic giant branch (AGB phase or prior. We also identify a sub-population (33% of radio PNe candidates with prominent ionized iron emission lines.

  14. Optical Spectra of Radio Planetary Nebulae in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payne, J. L.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We present 11 spectra from 12 candidate radio sources co-identified with known planetary nebulae (PNe in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC. Originally found in Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA LMC surveys at 1.4, 4.8 and 8.64~GHz and confirmed by new high resolution ATCA images at 6 and 3~cm (4arcsec/2arcsec, these complement data recently presented for candidate radio PNe in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC. Their spectra were obtained using the Radcliffe 1.9-meter telescope in Sutherland (South Africa. All of the optical PNe and radio candidates are within 2arcsec and may represent a population of selected radio bright sample only. Nebular ionized masses of these objects are estimated to be as high as 1.8~$M_odot$, supporting the idea that massive PNe progenitor central stars lose much of their mass in the asymptotic giant branch (AGB phase or prior. We also identify a sub-population (33\\% of radio PNe candidates with prominent ionized iron emission lines.

  15. MAGNETIC FIELD STRUCTURE OF THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD FROM FARADAY ROTATION MEASURES OF DIFFUSE POLARIZED EMISSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, S. A. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; McConnell, D. [Australia Telescope National Facility, CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Gaensler, B. M. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Haverkorn, M. [Department of Astrophysics, Radboud University, P.O. Box 9010, 6500-GL Nijmegen (Netherlands); Beck, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Wolleben, M. [Square Kilometre Array South Africa, The Park, Pinelands 7405 (South Africa); Stanimirovic, S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Dickey, J. M. [Physics Department, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS 7001 (Australia); Staveley-Smith, L., E-mail: mao@astro.wisc.edu [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2012-11-01

    We present a study of the magnetic field of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), carried out using diffuse polarized synchrotron emission data at 1.4 GHz acquired at the Parkes Radio Telescope and the Australia Telescope Compact Array. The observed diffuse polarized emission is likely to originate above the LMC disk on the near side of the galaxy. Consistent negative rotation measures (RMs) derived from the diffuse emission indicate that the line-of-sight magnetic field in the LMC's near-side halo is directed coherently away from us. In combination with RMs of extragalactic sources that lie behind the galaxy, we show that the LMC's large-scale magnetic field is likely to be of quadrupolar geometry, consistent with the prediction of dynamo theory. On smaller scales, we identify two brightly polarized filaments southeast of the LMC, associated with neutral hydrogen arms. The filaments' magnetic field potentially aligns with the direction toward the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). We suggest that tidal interactions between the SMC and the LMC in the past 10{sup 9} years are likely to have shaped the magnetic field in these filaments.

  16. Observation of interstellar lithium in the low-metallicity Small Magellanic Cloud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howk, J Christopher; Lehner, Nicolas; Fields, Brian D; Mathews, Grant J

    2012-09-06

    The primordial abundances of light elements produced in the standard theory of Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) depend only on the cosmic ratio of baryons to photons, a quantity inferred from observations of the microwave background. The predicted primordial (7)Li abundance is four times that measured in the atmospheres of Galactic halo stars. This discrepancy could be caused by modification of surface lithium abundances during the stars' lifetimes or by physics beyond the Standard Model that affects early nucleosynthesis. The lithium abundance of low-metallicity gas provides an alternative constraint on the primordial abundance and cosmic evolution of lithium that is not susceptible to the in situ modifications that may affect stellar atmospheres. Here we report observations of interstellar (7)Li in the low-metallicity gas of the Small Magellanic Cloud, a nearby galaxy with a quarter the Sun's metallicity. The present-day (7)Li abundance of the Small Magellanic Cloud is nearly equal to the BBN predictions, severely constraining the amount of possible subsequent enrichment of the gas by stellar and cosmic-ray nucleosynthesis. Our measurements can be reconciled with standard BBN with an extremely fine-tuned depletion of stellar Li with metallicity. They are also consistent with non-standard BBN.

  17. Molecular Hydrogen Images of Star Forming Regions in the Magellanic Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Ronald G.; Barba, R.; Bolatto, A.; Chu, Y.; Points, S.; Rubio, M.; Smith, C.

    2011-01-01

    The Large and Small Magellanic Clouds exhibit a variety of star formation physics with multiple phase components in low metallicity, gas rich environments. The 10 K, 100 K, and 104 K regimes are well explored. We are imaging LMC and SMC star forming regions in 2.12 micron H2 emission which arises in the 1000 K transition zone of molecular clouds. This is an NOAO Survey program using the widefield IR camera NEWFIRM on the CTIO 4-m Blanco telescope during its limited southern deployment. The data set will have immediate morphological applications and will provide target selection for followup infrared spectroscopy. We will provide a public archive of fully calibrated images with no proprietary period. NOAO is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

  18. NEW OPTICAL REDDENING MAPS OF THE LARGE AND SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haschke, Raoul; Grebel, Eva K.; Duffau, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    We present new reddening maps of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) and Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) based on the data of the third phase of the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE III). We have used two different methods to derive optical reddening maps. We adopt a theoretical mean unreddened color for the red clump (RC) in the SMC and LMC, respectively. We subdivide the photometric data for both Clouds into subfields and calculate the difference between the observed RC position and the theoretical value for each field, which provides us with the reddening value in (V - I). Furthermore, reddening values are obtained for 13490 LMC RR Lyrae ab and 1529 SMC RR Lyrae ab stars covering the whole OGLE III region of the Magellanic Clouds (MCs). The observed colors (V - I) of the RR Lyrae stars are compared with the color from the absolute magnitudes. The absolute magnitude of each RR Lyrae star is computed using its period and metallicity derived from Fourier decomposition of its light curve. In general, we find a low and uniform reddening distribution in both MCs. The RC method indicates a mean reddening of the LMC of E(V - I) = 0.09 ± 0.07 mag, while for the SMC E(V - I) = 0.04 ± 0.06 mag is obtained. With RR Lyrae stars a median value of E(V - I) = 0.11 ± 0.06 mag for the LMC and E(V - I) = 0.07 ± 0.06 mag for the SMC is found. The LMC shows very low reddening in the bar region, whereas the reddening in the star-forming leading edge and 30 Doradus is considerably higher. In the SMC, three pronounced regions with higher reddening are visible. Two are located along the bar, while the highest reddening is found in the star-forming wing of the SMC. In general, the regions with higher reddening are in good spatial agreement with infrared reddening maps as well as with reddening estimations of other studies. The position-dependent reddening values from the RC method are available via the German Astrophysical Virtual Observatory interface.

  19. Obscured asymptotic giant branch stars in the Magellanic Clouds .2. Near-infrared and mid-infrared counterparts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, AA; Loup, C; Waters, LBFM; Whitelock, PA; vanLoon, JT; Guglielmo, F

    1996-01-01

    We have carried out an infrared search for obscured asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in the Magellanic Clouds. Fields were observed in the vicinity of IRAS sources with colours and flux densities consistent with such a classification. The survey uncovered a number of obscured AGE stars as well as

  20. Spitzer sage survey of the large magellanic cloud. II. Evolved stars and infrared color-magnitude diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blum, R. D.; Mould, J. R.; Olsen, K. A.; Frogel, J. A.; Meixner, M.; Markwick-Kemper, F.; Indebetouw, R.; Whitney, B.; Meade, M.; Babler, B.; Churchwell, E. B.; Gordon, K.; Engelbracht, C.; For, B. -Q.; Misselt, K.; Vijh, U.; Leitherer, C.; Volk, K.; Points, S.; Reach, W.; Hora, J. L.; Bernard, J. -P.; Boulanger, F.; Bracker, S.; Cohen, M.; Fukui, Y.; Gallagher, J.; Gorjian, V.; Harris, J.; Kelly, D.; Kawamura, A.; Latter, W. B.; Madden, S.; Mizuno, A.; Mizuno, N.; Oey, M. S.; Onishi, T.; Paladini, R.; Panagia, N.; Perez-Gonzalez, P.; Shibai, H.; Sato, S.; Smith, L.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Tielens, A.G.G.M; Ueta, T.; Van Dyk, S.; Zaritsky, D.; Werner, M.J.

    Color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) are presented for the Spitzer SAGE (Surveying the Agents of a Galaxy's Evolution) survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). IRAC and MIPS 24 mu m epoch 1 data are presented. These data represent the deepest, widest mid-infrared CMDs of their kind ever produced in

  1. UBV(RI)sub(c) photometry of some standard sequences in the Harvard F regions and in the Magellanic Clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzies, J.W.; Laing, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a photometric programme aimed at improving the UBV(RI)sub(c) standard sequences in the Harvard F regions and in the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds. Magnitudes and colours are given for 99 stars, and they are compared with the current values which were obtained or compiled by a previous author. (author)

  2. A COMPACT HIGH VELOCITY CLOUD NEAR THE MAGELLANIC STREAM: METALLICITY AND SMALL-SCALE STRUCTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumari, Nimisha [Ecole Polytechnique, Route de Saclay, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Fox, Andrew J.; Tumlinson, Jason; Thom, Christopher; Ely, Justin [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Westmeier, Tobias [ICRAR, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley WA 6009 (Australia)

    2015-02-10

    The Magellanic Stream (MS) is a well-resolved gaseous tail originating from the Magellanic Clouds. Studies of its physical properties and chemical composition are needed to understand its role in Galactic evolution. We investigate the properties of a compact HVC (CHVC 224.0-83.4-197) lying close on the sky to the MS to determine whether it is physically connected to the Stream and to examine its internal structure. Our study is based on analysis of HST/COS spectra of three QSOs (Ton S210, B0120-28, and B0117-2837) all of which pass through this single cloud at small angular separation (≲0.°72), allowing us to compare physical conditions on small spatial scales. No significant variation is detected in the ionization structure from one part of the cloud to the other. Using Cloudy photoionization models, toward Ton S210 we derive elemental abundances of [C/H] = –1.21 ± 0.11, [Si/H] = –1.16 ± 0.11, [Al/H] = –1.19 ± 0.17, and [O/H] = –1.12 ± 0.22, which agree within 0.09 dex. The CHVC abundances match the 0.1 solar abundances measured along the main body of the Stream. This suggests that the CHVC (and by extension the extended network of filaments to which it belongs) has an origin in the MS. It may represent a fragment that has been removed from the Stream as it interacts with the gaseous Galactic halo.

  3. Discovery and Characterization of a Caustic Crossing Microlensing Event in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcock, C.; Allsman, R.A.; Alves, D.; Axelrod, T.S.; Becker, A.C.; Bennett, D.P.; Cook, K.H.; Drake, A.J.; Freeman, K.C.; Griest, K.; King, L.J.; Lehner, M.J.; Marshall, S.L.

    1999-01-01

    We present photometric observations and analysis of the second microlensing event detected toward the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), MACHO Alert 98-SMC-1. This event was detected early enough to allow intensive observation of the light curve. These observations revealed 98-SMC-1 to be the first caustic crossing binary microlensing event toward the Magellanic Clouds to be discovered in progress. Frequent coverage of the evolving light curve allowed an accurate prediction for the date of the source crossing out of the lens caustic structure. The caustic crossing temporal width, along with the angular size of the source star, measures the proper motion of the lens with respect to the source and thus allows an estimate of the location of the lens. Lenses located in the Galactic halo would have a velocity projected to the SMC of v∼1500 kms -1 , while an SMC lens would typically have v∼60 kms -1 . The event light curve allows us to obtain a unique fit to the parameters of the binary lens and to estimate the proper motion of the lensing system. We have performed a joint fit to the MACHO/GMAN data presented here, including recent EROS data of this event from Afonso and collaborators. These joint data are sufficient to constrain the time t * for the lens to move an angle equal to the source angular radius: t * =0.116±0.010 days. We estimate a radius for the lensed source of R * =1.1±0.1 R circle-dot from its unblended color and magnitude. This yields a projected velocity of v=76±10 kms -1 . Only 0.12% of halo lenses would be expected to have a v value at least as small as this, while 38% of SMC lenses would be expected to have v as large as this. This implies that the lensing system is more likely to reside in the SMC than in the Galactic halo. Similar observations of future Magellanic Cloud microlensing events will help to determine the contribution of MACHOS to the Galaxy's dark halo. copyright copyright 1999. The American Astronomical Society

  4. ALMA Reveals Molecular Cloud N55 in the Large Magellanic Cloud as a Site of Massive Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naslim, N.; Tokuda, K.; Onishi, T.; Kemper, F.; Wong, T.; Morata, O.; Takada, S.; Harada, R.; Kawamura, A.; Saigo, K.; Indebetouw, R.; Madden, S. C.; Hony, S.; Meixner, M.

    2018-02-01

    We present the molecular cloud properties of N55 in the Large Magellanic Cloud using 12CO(1–0) and 13CO(1–0) observations obtained with Atacama Large Millimeter Array. We have done a detailed study of molecular gas properties, to understand how the cloud properties of N55 differ from Galactic clouds. Most CO emission appears clumpy in N55, and molecular cores that have young stellar objects (YSOs) show larger linewidths and masses. The massive clumps are associated with high and intermediate mass YSOs. The clump masses are determined by local thermodynamic equilibrium and virial analysis of the 12CO and 13CO emissions. These mass estimates lead to the conclusion that (a) the clumps are in self-gravitational virial equilibrium, and (b) the 12CO(1–0)-to-H2 conversion factor, {X}{CO}, is 6.5 × 1020 cm‑2 (K km s‑1)‑1. This CO-to-H2 conversion factor for N55 clumps is measured at a spatial scale of ∼0.67 pc, which is about two times higher than the {X}{CO} value of the Orion cloud at a similar spatial scale. The core mass function of N55 clearly show a turnover below 200 {M}ȯ , separating the low-mass end from the high-mass end. The low-mass end of the 12CO mass spectrum is fitted with a power law of index 0.5 ± 0.1, while for 13CO it is fitted with a power law index 0.6 ± 0.2. In the high-mass end, the core mass spectrum is fitted with a power index of 2.0 ± 0.3 for 12CO, and with 2.5 ± 0.4 for 13CO. This power law behavior of the core mass function in N55 is consistent with many Galactic clouds.

  5. Large Magellanic Cloud Near-infrared Synoptic Survey. V. Period–Luminosity Relations of Miras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Wenlong; Macri, Lucas M. [George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); He, Shiyuan; Huang, Jianhua Z. [Department of Statistics, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Kanbur, Shashi M. [Department of Physics, The State University of New York at Oswego, Oswego, NY 13126 (United States); Ngeow, Chow-Choong, E-mail: lmacri@tamu.edu [Graduate Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, Jhongli 32001, Taiwan (China)

    2017-10-01

    We study the near-infrared properties of 690 Mira candidates in the central region of the Large Magellanic Cloud, based on time-series observations at JHK{sub s}. We use densely sampled I -band observations from the OGLE project to generate template light curves in the near-infrared and derive robust mean magnitudes at those wavelengths. We obtain near-infrared Period–Luminosity relations for oxygen-rich Miras with a scatter as low as 0.12 mag at K{sub s}. We study the Period–Luminosity–Color relations and the color excesses of carbon-rich Miras, which show evidence for a substantially different reddening law.

  6. The early-type strong emission-line supergiants of the Magellanic Clouds - A spectroscopic zoology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, S. N.; Sanduleak, N.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a spectroscopic survey of 21 early-type extreme emission line supergiants of the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds using IUE and optical spectra are presented. The combined observations are discussed and the literature on each star in the sample is summarized. The classification procedures and the methods by which effective temperatures, bolometric magnitudes, and reddenings were assigned are discussed. The derived reddening values are given along with some results concerning anomalous reddening among the sample stars. The derived mass, luminosity, and radius for each star are presented, and the ultraviolet emission lines are described. Mass-loss rates are derived and discussed, and the implications of these observations for the evolution of the most massive stars in the Local Group are addressed.

  7. Detection of water masers toward young stellar objects in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johanson, A. K.; Migenes, V.; Breen, S. L.

    2014-01-01

    We present results from a search for water maser emission toward N4A, N190, and N206, three regions of massive star formation in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Four water masers were detected; two toward N4A, and two toward N190. In the latter region, no previously known maser emission has been reported. Future studies of maser proper motion to determine the galactic dynamics of the LMC will benefit from the independent data points the new masers in N190 provide. Two of these masers are associated with previously identified massive young stellar objects (YSOs), which strongly supports the authenticity of the classification. We argue that the other two masers identify previously unknown YSOs. No masers were detected toward N206, but it does host a newly discovered 22 GHz continuum source, also associated with a massive YSO. We suggest that future surveys for water maser emission in the LMC be targeted toward the more luminous, massive YSOs.

  8. The Of?p stars of the Magellanic Clouds: Are they strongly magnetic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, M.; Wade, G. A.; Nazé, Y.; Bagnulo, S.; Puls, J.

    2018-01-01

    All known Galactic Of?p stars have been shown to host strong, organized, magnetic fields. Recently, five Of?p stars have been discovered in the Magellanic Clouds. They posses photometric (Nazé et al., 2015) and spectroscopic (Walborn et al., 2015) variability compatible with the Oblique Rotator Model (ORM). However, their magnetic fields have yet to be directly detected. We have developed an algorithm allowing for the synthesis of photometric observables based on the Analytic Dynamical Magnetosphere (ADM) model by Owocki et al. (2016). We apply our model to OGLE photometry in order to constrain their magnetic geometries and surface dipole strengths. We predict that the field strengths for some of theses candidate extra-Galactic magnetic stars may be within the detection limits of the FORS2 instrument

  9. The circumstellar envelopes of F and G type supergiants in the large magellanic cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, W.; Humphreys, R.M.; Stencel, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    We have obtained high-dispersion echellograms at 2.5 and 5.1 A/mm of four F and G-type supergiants (Msub(V) approximately -9) in the large Magellanic Cloud for the purpose of studying their outer atmospheres as compared to their Milky Way counterparts. Line doubling at Na I D indicates extensive circumstellar envelopes and mass loss rates in excess of 10 -5 M . yr -1 with outflow velocities of 10-60 km s -1 . Deep exposures at Ca II H and K reveal new information about the chromospheres of extragalactic stars. The presence of H and K wing emission lines augments this, and also provides an independent way of estimating Msub(V). (author)

  10. Optical Spectra of Radio Planetary Nebulae in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payne, J. L.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We present preliminary results from spectral observations of four (4 candidate radio sources co-identified with known planetary nebulae (PNe in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC. These were made using the Radcliffe 1.9-meter telescope in Sutherland, South Africa. These radio PNe were originally found in Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA surveys of the SMC at 1.42 and 2.37~GHz, and were further confirmed by new high resolution ATCA images at 6 and 3 cm (4arcsec/2arcsec. Optical PNe and radio candidates are within 2arcsec and may represent a sub-population of selected radio bright objects. Nebular ionized masses of these objects may be 2.6~$M_odot$ or greater, supporting the existence of PNe progenitor central stars with masses up to 8 $M_odot$.

  11. Optical spectra of radio planetary nebulae in the small Magellanic cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payne J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We present preliminary results from spectral observations of four (4 candidate radio sources co-identified with known planetary nebulae (PNe in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC. These were made using the Radcliffe 1.9-meter telescope in Sutherland, South Africa. These radio PNe were originally found in Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA surveys of the SMC at 1.42 and 2.37 GHz, and were further confirmed by new high resolution ATCA images at 6 and 3 cm (400 /200 . Optical PNe and radio candidates are within 200 and may represent a sub- population of selected radio bright objects. Nebular ionized masses of these objects may be 2.6 Mo or greater, supporting the existence of PNe progenitor central stars with masses up to 8 Mo.

  12. The Mysterious Bar of the Large Magellanic Cloud: What Is It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Annapurni; Subramanian, Smitha

    2009-09-01

    The bar of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) is one of the prominent, but controversial, features regarding its location with respect to the disk of the LMC. In order to study the relative location of the bar with respect to the disk, we present the high-resolution map of the structure across the LMC. We used the reddening corrected mean magnitudes (I 0) of red clump (RC) stars from the OGLE III catalog to map the relative variation in distance (vertical structure) or variation in RC population across the LMC. The bar does not appear as an identifiable vertical feature in the map, as there is no difference in I 0 values between the bar and the disk regions. We conclude that the LMC bar is very much part of the disk (within 0.02 mag), located in the plane of the disk and not a separate component. We identify warps or variation in RC population with increase in radial distance.

  13. Optical pulsations in the Large Magellanic Cloud remnant 0540-69.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleditch, J.; Pennypacker, C.

    1985-01-01

    The X-ray pulsar PSR0540-693 was discovered in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) supernova remnant, 0540-69.3, as a pulse, with repetition period approx. 50 ms, in Einstein Observatory data. Previous workers had noted that this remnant resembles the Crab Nebula because of the X-ray power law spectrum and suggested that the nebular emission was synchrotron radiation powered by a central pulsar. After the announcement of X-ray pulsed emission, other workers measured the broad optical band properties of the nebula and found evidence for synchrotron emission; and reported that the 4.5-arc s continuum emission remnant has only a tenth of the luminosity of the Crab Nebula. The authors have now detected pulsed optical emission for the X-ray pulsar, having a time-averaged magnitude of approx. 22.7. (author)

  14. Estimating dust production rate of carbon-rich stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanni, A.; Marigo, P.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.; Aringer, B.; Pastorelli, G.; Rubele, S.; Girardi, L.; Bressan, A.; Bladh, S.

    We compute a grid of spectra describing dusty Circumstellar Envelopes of Thermally Pulsing Asymptotic Giant Branch carbon-rich stars by employing a physically grounded description for dust growth. The optical constants for carbon dust have been selected in order to reproduce simultaneously the most important color-color diagrams in the Near and Mid Infrared bands. We fit the Spectral Energy Distribution of ≈2000 carbon-rich in the Small Magellanic Cloud and we compute their total dust production rate. We compare our results with the ones in the literature. Different choices of the dust-to-gas ratio and outflow expansion velocity adopted in different works, yield, in some cases, a total dust budget about three times lower than the one derived from our scheme, with the same optical data set for carbon dust.

  15. SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY OF THE N159/N160 COMPLEX IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farina, Cecilia; Bosch, Guillermo L.; Morrell, Nidia I.; Barba, Rodolfo H.; Walborn, Nolan R.

    2009-01-01

    We present a spectroscopic study of the N159/N160 massive star-forming region south of 30 Doradus in the Large Magellanic Cloud, classifying a total of 189 stars in the field of the complex. Most of them belong to O and early B spectral classes; we have also found some uncommon and very interesting spectra, including members of the Onfp class, a Be P Cygni star, and some possible multiple systems. Using spectral types as broad indicators of evolutionary stages, we considered the evolutionary status of the region as a whole. We infer that massive stars at different evolutionary stages are present throughout the region, favoring the idea of a common time for the origin of recent star formation in the N159/N160 complex as a whole, while sequential star formation at different rates is probably present in several subregions.

  16. Energetics and Birth Rates of Supernova Remnants in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, D. A.

    2017-03-01

    Published X-ray emission properties for a sample of 50 supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) are used as input for SNR evolution modeling calculations. The forward shock emission is modeled to obtain the initial explosion energy, age, and circumstellar medium density for each SNR in the sample. The resulting age distribution yields a SNR birthrate of 1/(500 yr) for the LMC. The explosion energy distribution is well fit by a log-normal distribution, with a most-probable explosion energy of 0.5× {10}51 erg, with a 1σ dispersion by a factor of 3 in energy. The circumstellar medium density distribution is broader than the explosion energy distribution, with a most-probable density of ˜0.1 cm-3. The shape of the density distribution can be fit with a log-normal distribution, with incompleteness at high density caused by the shorter evolution times of SNRs.

  17. Discovery of a Possible Symbiotic Binary in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Blesson; Reid, Warren A.; Mennickent, R. E.; Banerjee, D. P. K.

    2017-12-01

    We report the discovery of a possible symbiotic star, in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). The object under consideration here, designated as RP 870, was detected during the course of a comprehensive H$\\alpha$ survey of the LMC by Reid & Parker (2012). The spectrum of RP 870 showed high ionization emission lines of He I, He II and [O III] and molecular absorption bands of TiO $\\lambda$$\\lambda$6180, 7100. The collective signatures of a hot component (high excitation/ionization lines) and of a cool component (TiO molecular bands) are seen in RP 870, from which we propose it as a symbiotic star. Since known symbiotic systems are rare in the LMC, possibly less than a dozen are known, we thought the present detection to be interesting enough to be reported.

  18. Astrophysics. The exceptionally powerful TeV γ-ray emitters in the Large Magellanic Cloud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-23

    The Large Magellanic Cloud, a satellite galaxy of the Milky Way, has been observed with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) above an energy of 100 billion electron volts for a deep exposure of 210 hours. Three sources of different types were detected: the pulsar wind nebula of the most energetic pulsar known, N 157B; the radio-loud supernova remnant N 132D; and the largest nonthermal x-ray shell, the superbubble 30 Dor C. The unique object SN 1987A is, unexpectedly, not detected, which constrains the theoretical framework of particle acceleration in very young supernova remnants. These detections reveal the most energetic tip of a γ-ray source population in an external galaxy and provide via 30 Dor C the unambiguous detection of γ-ray emission from a superbubble. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  19. From gas to stars in energetic environments: dense gas clumps in the 30 Doradus region within the Large Magellanic Cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Crystal N.; Meier, David S.; Ott, Jürgen; Hughes, Annie; Wong, Tony; Looney, Leslie; Henkel, Christian; Chen, Rosie; Indebetouw, Remy; Muller, Erik; Pineda, Jorge L.; Seale, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    We present parsec-scale interferometric maps of HCN(1-0) and HCO + (1-0) emission from dense gas in the star-forming region 30 Doradus, obtained using the Australia Telescope Compact Array. This extreme star-forming region, located in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), is characterized by a very intense ultraviolet ionizing radiation field and sub-solar metallicity, both of which are expected to impact molecular cloud structure. We detect 13 bright, dense clumps within the 30 Doradus-10 giant molecular cloud. Some of the clumps are aligned along a filamentary structure with a characteristic spacing that is consistent with formation via varicose fluid instability. Our analysis shows that the filament is gravitationally unstable and collapsing to form stars. There is a good correlation between HCO + emission in the filament and signatures of recent star formation activity including H 2 O masers and young stellar objects (YSOs). YSOs seem to continue along the same direction of the filament toward the massive compact star cluster R136 in the southwest. We present detailed comparisons of clump properties (masses, linewidths, and sizes) in 30Dor-10 to those in other star forming regions of the LMC (N159, N113, N105, and N44). Our analysis shows that the 30Dor-10 clumps have similar masses but wider linewidths and similar HCN/HCO + (1-0) line ratios as clumps detected in other LMC star-forming regions. Our results suggest that the dense molecular gas clumps in the interior of 30Dor-10 are well shielded against the intense ionizing field that is present in the 30 Doradus region.

  20. SPITZER SAGE-SMC INFRARED PHOTOMETRY OF MASSIVE STARS IN THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonanos, A. Z.; Lennon, D. J.; Massa, D. L.

    2010-01-01

    We present a catalog of 5324 massive stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), with accurate spectral types compiled from the literature, and a photometric catalog for a subset of 3654 of these stars, with the goal of exploring their infrared properties. The photometric catalog consists of stars with infrared counterparts in the Spitzer SAGE-SMC survey database, for which we present uniform photometry from 0.3to24 μm in the UBVIJHK s +IRAC+MIPS24 bands. We compare the color-magnitude diagrams and color-color diagrams to those of stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), finding that the brightest infrared sources in the SMC are also the red supergiants, supergiant B[e] (sgB[e]) stars, luminous blue variables, and Wolf-Rayet stars, with the latter exhibiting less infrared excess, the red supergiants being less dusty and the sgB[e] stars being on average less luminous. Among the objects detected at 24 μm in the SMC are a few very luminous hypergiants, four B-type stars with peculiar, flat spectral energy distributions, and all three known luminous blue variables. We detect a distinct Be star sequence, displaced to the red, and suggest a novel method of confirming Be star candidates photometrically. We find a higher fraction of Oe and Be stars among O and early-B stars in our SMC catalog, respectively, when compared to the LMC catalog, and that the SMC Be stars occur at higher luminosities. We estimate mass-loss rates for the red supergiants, confirming the correlation with luminosity even at the metallicity of the SMC. Finally, we confirm the new class of stars displaying composite A and F type spectra, the sgB[e] nature of 2dFS1804 and find the F0 supergiant 2dFS3528 to be a candidate luminous blue variable with cold dust.

  1. The MACHO Project HST Follow-Up: The Large Magellanic Cloud Microlensing Source Stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, C.A.; /LLNL, Livermore /UC, Berkeley; Drake, A.J.; /Caltech; Cook, K.H.; /LLNL, Livermore /UC, Berkeley; Bennett, D.P.; /Caltech /Notre Dame U.; Popowski, P.; /Garching, Max Planck Inst.; Dalal, N.; /Toronto U.; Nikolaev, S.; /LLNL, Livermore; Alcock, C.; /Caltech /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Axelrod, T.S.; /Arizona U.; Becker, A.C. /Washington U., Seattle; Freeman, K.C.; /Res. Sch. Astron. Astrophys., Weston Creek; Geha, M.; /Yale U.; Griest, K.; /UC, San Diego; Keller, S.C.; /LLNL, Livermore; Lehner, M.J.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Taipei, Inst. Astron. Astrophys.; Marshall, S.L.; /SLAC; Minniti, D.; /Rio de Janeiro, Pont. U. Catol. /Vatican Astron. Observ.; Pratt, M.R.; /Aradigm, Hayward; Quinn, P.J.; /Western Australia U.; Stubbs, C.W.; /UC, Berkeley /Harvard U.; Sutherland, W.; /Oxford U. /Oran, Sci. Tech. U. /Garching, Max Planck Inst. /McMaster U.

    2009-06-25

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WFPC2 photometry of 13 microlensed source stars from the 5.7 year Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) survey conducted by the MACHO Project. The microlensing source stars are identified by deriving accurate centroids in the ground-based MACHO images using difference image analysis (DIA) and then transforming the DIA coordinates to the HST frame. None of these sources is coincident with a background galaxy, which rules out the possibility that the MACHO LMC microlensing sample is contaminated with misidentified supernovae or AGN in galaxies behind the LMC. This supports the conclusion that the MACHO LMC microlensing sample has only a small amount of contamination due to non-microlensing forms of variability. We compare the WFPC2 source star magnitudes with the lensed flux predictions derived from microlensing fits to the light curve data. In most cases the source star brightness is accurately predicted. Finally, we develop a statistic which constrains the location of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) microlensing source stars with respect to the distributions of stars and dust in the LMC and compare this to the predictions of various models of LMC microlensing. This test excludes at {approx}> 90% confidence level models where more than 80% of the source stars lie behind the LMC. Exotic models that attempt to explain the excess LMC microlensing optical depth seen by MACHO with a population of background sources are disfavored or excluded by this test. Models in which most of the lenses reside in a halo or spheroid distribution associated with either the Milky Way or the LMC are consistent which these data, but LMC halo or spheroid models are favored by the combined MACHO and EROS microlensing results.

  2. MEAN AGE GRADIENT AND ASYMMETRY IN THE STAR FORMATION HISTORY OF THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cignoni, M.; Cole, A. A.; Tosi, M.; Gallagher, J. S.; Sabbi, E.; Anderson, J.; Nota, A.; Grebel, E. K.

    2013-01-01

    We derive the star formation history (SFH) in four regions of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) using the deepest VI color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) ever obtained for this galaxy. The images were obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and are located at projected distances of 0.°5-2° from the SMC center, probing the main body and the wing of the galaxy. We derived the SFHs of the four fields using two independent procedures to fit synthetic CMDs to the data. We compare the SFHs derived here with our earlier results for the SMC bar to create a deep pencil-beam survey of the global history of the central SMC. We find in all the six fields observed with HST a slow star formation (SF) pace from 13 to 5-7 Gyr ago, followed by a ≈2-3 times higher activity. This is remarkable because dynamical models do not predict a strong influence of either the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) or the Milky Way at that time. The level of the intermediate-age SF rate enhancement systematically increases toward the center, resulting in a gradient in the mean age of the population, with the bar fields being systematically younger than the outer ones. SF over the most recent 500 Myr is strongly concentrated in the bar, the only exception being the area of the SMC wing. The strong current activity of the latter is likely driven by interaction with the LMC. At a given age, there is no significant difference in metallicity between the inner and outer fields, implying that metals are well mixed throughout the SMC. The age-metallicity relations we infer from our best-fitting models are monotonically increasing with time, with no evidence of dips. This may argue against the major merger scenario proposed by Tsujimoto and Bekki in 2009, although a minor merger cannot be ruled out

  3. Spitzer observations of dust emission from H II regions in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Ian W. [Now at Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, USA. (United States); Evans, Jessica Marie; Xue, Rui; Chu, You-Hua; Gruendl, Robert A.; Segura-Cox, Dominique M., E-mail: ianws@bu.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Massive stars can alter physical conditions and properties of their ambient interstellar dust grains via radiative heating and shocks. The H II regions in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) offer ideal sites to study the stellar energy feedback effects on dust because stars can be resolved, and the galaxy's nearly face-on orientation allows us to unambiguously associate H II regions with their ionizing massive stars. The Spitzer Space Telescope survey of the LMC provides multi-wavelength (3.6-160 μm) photometric data of all H II regions. To investigate the evolution of dust properties around massive stars, we have analyzed spatially resolved IR dust emission from two classical H II regions (N63 and N180) and two simple superbubbles (N70 and N144) in the LMC. We produce photometric spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of numerous small subregions for each region based on its stellar distributions and nebular morphologies. We use DustEM dust emission model fits to characterize the dust properties. Color-color diagrams and model fits are compared with the radiation field (estimated from photometric and spectroscopic surveys). Strong radial variations of SEDs can be seen throughout the regions, reflecting the available radiative heating. Emission from very small grains drastically increases at locations where the radiation field is the highest, while polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) appear to be destroyed. PAH emission is the strongest in the presence of molecular clouds, provided that the radiation field is low.

  4. NEAR-INFRARED POLARIZATION SOURCE CATALOG OF THE NORTHEASTERN REGIONS OF THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jaeyeong; Pak, Soojong [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, 1 Seocheon-dong, Giheung-gu, Yongin, Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Woong-Seob; Park, Won-Kee [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Tamura, Motohide, E-mail: jaeyeong@khu.ac.kr, E-mail: jeongws@kasi.re.kr [The University of Tokyo/National Astronomical Observatory of Japan/Astrobiology Center, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2016-01-15

    We present a near-infrared band-merged photometric and polarimetric catalog for the 39′ × 69′ fields in the northeastern part of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), which were observed using SIRPOL, an imaging polarimeter of the InfraRed Survey Facility. This catalog lists 1858 sources brighter than 14 mag in the H band with a polarization signal-to-noise ratio greater than three in the J, H, or K{sub s} bands. Based on the relationship between the extinction and the polarization degree, we argue that the polarization mostly arises from dichroic extinctions caused by local interstellar dust in the LMC. This catalog allows us to map polarization structures to examine the global geometry of the local magnetic field, and to show a statistical analysis of the polarization of each field to understand its polarization properties. In the selected fields with coherent polarization position angles, we estimate magnetic field strengths in the range of 3−25 μG using the Chandrasekhar–Fermi method. This implies the presence of large-scale magnetic fields on a scale of around 100 parsecs. When comparing mid- and far-infrared dust emission maps, we confirmed that the polarization patterns are well aligned with molecular clouds around the star-forming regions.

  5. Galaxy CloudMan: delivering cloud compute clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afgan, Enis; Baker, Dannon; Coraor, Nate; Chapman, Brad; Nekrutenko, Anton; Taylor, James

    2010-12-21

    Widespread adoption of high-throughput sequencing has greatly increased the scale and sophistication of computational infrastructure needed to perform genomic research. An alternative to building and maintaining local infrastructure is "cloud computing", which, in principle, offers on demand access to flexible computational infrastructure. However, cloud computing resources are not yet suitable for immediate "as is" use by experimental biologists. We present a cloud resource management system that makes it possible for individual researchers to compose and control an arbitrarily sized compute cluster on Amazon's EC2 cloud infrastructure without any informatics requirements. Within this system, an entire suite of biological tools packaged by the NERC Bio-Linux team (http://nebc.nerc.ac.uk/tools/bio-linux) is available for immediate consumption. The provided solution makes it possible, using only a web browser, to create a completely configured compute cluster ready to perform analysis in less than five minutes. Moreover, we provide an automated method for building custom deployments of cloud resources. This approach promotes reproducibility of results and, if desired, allows individuals and labs to add or customize an otherwise available cloud system to better meet their needs. The expected knowledge and associated effort with deploying a compute cluster in the Amazon EC2 cloud is not trivial. The solution presented in this paper eliminates these barriers, making it possible for researchers to deploy exactly the amount of computing power they need, combined with a wealth of existing analysis software, to handle the ongoing data deluge.

  6. A new transient pulsar in the Small Magellanic Cloud with an unusual x-ray spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, John P.

    1994-01-01

    This article reports the discovery of a luminous (3.5 x 10(exp 37) ergs/sec over the 0.2 to 2 keV band) transient X-ray pulsar in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) with an extremely soft component to its X-ray spectrum. This is the first time that a spectrum of this type has been seen in this class of X-ray source. The pulse period is 2.7632 s, and the pulse modulation appears to vary with energy from nearly unpulsed in the low-energy band of the ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) (0.07 to 0.4 keV) to about 50% in the high-energy band (1.0 to 2.4 keV). The object, RX J0059.2-7138, also shows flickering variability in its X-ray emission on timescales of 50 to 100s. The pulse-phase-averaged PSPC X-ray spectrum can be well described by a two-component source model seen through an absorbing column density of approximately 10(exp 21) atoms cm(exp -2). One spectral component is a power law with photon index 2.4. The other component is significantly softer and can be described by either a steeply falling power law or a blackbody with a temperature KT(sub BB) approximately 35 eV. Ths component is transient, but evidently upulsed, and, for the blackbody model fits, requires a large bolometric luminosity: near, or even several times greater than, the Eddington luminosity for a 1.4 solar mass object. When these characteristics of its soft emission are considered, RX J0059.2-7138 appears quite similar to other X-ray sources in the magellanic Clouds, such as CAL 83, CAL 87, and RX J0527.8-6954, which show only extreme ultrasoft (EUS) X-ray spectra. The discovery of RX J0059.2-7138, a probably high-mass X-ray binary, clearly indicates that EUS spectra may arise from accretion-powered neutron-star X-ray sources. This result lends support to the idea that some of the 'pure' EUS sources may be shrouded low-mass X-ray binaries rather than accreting white dwarfs.

  7. AKARI INFRARED CAMERA SURVEY OF THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD. II. THE NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC CATALOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimonishi, Takashi; Onaka, Takashi; Kato, Daisuke; Sakon, Itsuki; Ita, Yoshifusa; Kawamura, Akiko; Kaneda, Hidehiro

    2013-01-01

    We performed a near-infrared spectroscopic survey toward an area of ∼10 deg 2 of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) with the infrared satellite AKARI. Observations were carried out as part of the AKARI Large-area Survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LSLMC). The slitless multi-object spectroscopic capability of the AKARI/IRC enabled us to obtain low-resolution (R ∼ 20) spectra in 2-5 μm for a large number of point sources in the LMC. As a result of the survey, we extracted about 2000 infrared spectra of point sources. The data are organized as a near-infrared spectroscopic catalog. The catalog includes various infrared objects such as young stellar objects (YSOs), asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, supergiants, and so on. It is shown that 97% of the catalog sources have corresponding photometric data in the wavelength range from 1.2 to 11 μm, and 67% of the sources also have photometric data up to 24 μm. The catalog allows us to investigate near-infrared spectral features of sources by comparison with their infrared spectral energy distributions. In addition, it is estimated that about 10% of the catalog sources are observed at more than two different epochs. This enables us to study a spectroscopic variability of sources by using the present catalog. Initial results of source classifications for the LSLMC samples are presented. We classified 659 LSLMC spectra based on their near-infrared spectral features by visual inspection. As a result, it is shown that the present catalog includes 7 YSOs, 160 C-rich AGBs, 8 C-rich AGB candidates, 85 O-rich AGBs, 122 blue and yellow supergiants, 150 red super giants, and 128 unclassified sources. Distributions of the classified sources on the color-color and color-magnitude diagrams are discussed in the text. Continuous wavelength coverage and high spectroscopic sensitivity in 2-5 μm can only be achieved by space observations. This is an unprecedented large-scale spectroscopic survey toward the LMC in the near

  8. Characterizing the X-ray Emission in Small Magellanic Cloud Supernova Remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Nicole; Auchettl, Katie; Lopez, Laura

    2018-01-01

    The Small Magellanic Cloud is a close, metal-poor galaxy with active star formation, and it has a diverse population of 24 supernova remnants (SNRs) that have been identified at several wavelengths. Past work has characterized the X-ray emission in these sources separately and aimed to constrain their explosive origins from observations with Chandra and XMM-Newton. Three SNRs have possible evidence for Type Ia explosions based on strong Fe-L emission in their X-ray spectra, although the environments and intermediate-mass element abundances are more consistent with those of core-collapse SNe. In this poster, we analyze the archival Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of the SMC SNR sample, and we model the sources' X-ray spectra in a systematic way to derive the plasma properties and to constrain the nature of the explosions. In one SNR, we note the presence of an X-ray binary near the source's geometric center, suggesting the compact object was produced in the SN explosion. As one of only three SNRs known in the Local Group to host a binary system, this source is worthy of follow-up investigations to probe explosions of massive stars in binary systems.

  9. THE DUSTIEST POST-MAIN SEQUENCE STARS IN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Olivia C.; Meixner, Margaret; Roman-Duval, Julia [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Sargent, Benjamin A. [Center for Imaging Science and Laboratory for Multiwavelength Astrophysics, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Boyer, Martha L. [Observational Cosmology Lab, Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Sewiło, Marta [The Johns Hopkins University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 366 Bloomberg Center, 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Hony, Sacha [Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Zentrum für Astronomie, Universitt Heidelberg, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-10-01

    Using observations from the Herschel Inventory of The Agents of Galaxy Evolution (HERITAGE) survey of the Magellanic Clouds (MC), we have found 35 evolved stars and stellar end products that are bright in the far-infrared. These 28 (LMC) and 7 (SMC) sources were selected from the 529 evolved star candidates in the HERITAGE far-infrared point source catalogs. Our source identification method is based on spectral confirmation, spectral energy distribution characteristics, careful examination of the multiwavelength images and includes constraints on the luminosity, resulting in a thoroughly vetted list of evolved stars. These sources span a wide range in luminosity and hence initial mass. We found 13 low- to intermediate-mass evolved stars, including asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, post-AGB stars, planetary nebulae, and a symbiotic star. We also identify 10 high mass stars, including 4 of the 15 known B[e] stars in the MC, 3 extreme red supergiants that are highly enshrouded by dust, a Luminous Blue Variable, a Wolf–Rayet star, and two supernova remnants. Further, we report the detection of 9 probable evolved objects which were previously undescribed in the literature. These sources are likely to be among the dustiest evolved objects in the MC. The Herschel emission may either be due to dust produced by the evolved star or it may arise from swept-up interstellar medium material.

  10. The Detection of Hot Cores and Complex Organic Molecules in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewiło, Marta; Indebetouw, Remy; Charnley, Steven B.; Zahorecz, Sarolta; Oliveira, Joana M.; van Loon, Jacco Th.; Ward, Jacob L.; Chen, C.-H. Rosie; Wiseman, Jennifer; Fukui, Yasuo; Kawamura, Akiko; Meixner, Margaret; Onishi, Toshikazu; Schilke, Peter

    2018-02-01

    We report the first extragalactic detection of the complex organic molecules (COMs) dimethyl ether (CH3OCH3) and methyl formate (CH3OCHO) with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). These COMs, together with their parent species methanol (CH3OH), were detected toward two 1.3 mm continuum sources in the N 113 star-forming region in the low-metallicity Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Rotational temperatures ({T}{rot}∼ 130 K) and total column densities ({N}{rot}∼ {10}16 cm‑2) have been calculated for each source based on multiple transitions of CH3OH. We present the ALMA molecular emission maps for COMs and measured abundances for all detected species. The physical and chemical properties of two sources with COMs detection, and the association with H2O and OH maser emission, indicate that they are hot cores. The fractional abundances of COMs scaled by a factor of 2.5 to account for the lower metallicity in the LMC are comparable to those found at the lower end of the range in Galactic hot cores. Our results have important implications for studies of organic chemistry at higher redshift.

  11. SAGE-VAR: AN INFRARED SURVEY OF VARIABILITY IN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riebel, D. [Department of Physics, United States Naval Academy, 572 C Holloway Road, Annapolis, MD 21402 (United States); Boyer, M. L. [Observational Cosmology Laboratory, Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Srinivasan, S. [Academia Sinica, Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Whitelock, P.; Feast, M. [Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre, Astronomy Department, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Meixner, M.; Shiao, B. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Babler, B.; Meade, M.; Whitney, B. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Groenewegen, M. A. T. [Royal Observatory of Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium); Ita, Y., E-mail: riebel.d@gmail.com [Astronomical Institute, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aramaki Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan)

    2015-07-01

    We present the first results from the Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution (SAGE)-Var program, a follow up to the Spitzer legacy program SAGE (Meixner et al.). We obtained four epochs of photometry at 3.6 and 4.5 μm covering the bar of the LMC and the central region of the SMC in order to probe the variability of extremely red sources missed by variability surveys conducted at shorter wavelengths, and to provide additional epochs of observation for known variables. Our six total epochs of observations allow us to probe infrared (IR) variability on 15 different timescales ranging from ∼20 days to ∼5 yr. Out of a full catalog of 1 717 554 (LMC) and 457 760 (SMC) objects, we find 10 (LMC) and 6 (SMC) large amplitude Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) variables without optically measured variability owing to circumstellar dust obscuration. The catalog also contains multiple observations of known AGB variables, type I and II Cepheids, eclipsing variables, R CrB stars, and young stellar objects, which will be discussed in following papers. Here we present IR Period–Luminosity (PL) relations for classical Cepheids in the Magellanic Clouds, as well as improved PL relationships for AGB stars pulsating in the fundamental mode using mean magnitudes constructed from six epochs of observations.

  12. THE MASS DISTRIBUTION AND ASSEMBLY OF THE MILKY WAY FROM THE PROPERTIES OF THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busha, Michael T.; Marshall, Philip J.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Klypin, Anatoly; Primack, Joel

    2011-01-01

    We present a new measurement of the mass of the Milky Way (MW) based on observed properties of its largest satellite galaxies, the Magellanic Clouds (MCs), and an assumed prior of a ΛCDM universe. The large, high-resolution Bolshoi cosmological simulation of this universe provides a means to statistically sample the dynamical properties of bright satellite galaxies in a large population of dark matter halos. The observed properties of the MCs, including their circular velocity, distance from the center of the MW, and velocity within the MW halo, are used to evaluate the likelihood that a given halo would have each or all of these properties; the posterior probability distribution function (PDF) for any property of the MW system can thus be constructed. This method provides a constraint on the MW virial mass, 1.2 +0.7 –0.4 (stat.) +0.3 –0.3 (sys.) × 10 12 M ☉ (68% confidence), which is consistent with recent determinations that involve very different assumptions. In addition, we calculate the posterior PDF for the density profile of the MW and its satellite accretion history. Although typical satellites of 10 12 M ☉ halos are accreted over a wide range of epochs over the last 10 Gyr, we find a ∼72% probability that the MCs were accreted within the last Gyr, and a 50% probability that they were accreted together.

  13. DETECTION OF AN ULTRA-BRIGHT SUBMILLIMETER GALAXY BEHIND THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takekoshi, Tatsuya; Minamidani, Tetsuhiro; Sorai, Kazuo; Habe, Asao [Department of Cosmosciences, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Tamura, Yoichi; Kohno, Kotaro [Institute of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Oogi, Taira [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Ezawa, Hajime; Komugi, Shinya; Mizuno, Norikazu; Muller, Erik; Kawamura, Akiko [Chile Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Oshima, Tai [Nobeyama Radio Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Minamimaki, Minamisaku, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan); Scott, Kimberly S. [North American ALMA Science Center, National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Austermann, Jason E. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Tosaki, Tomoka [Joetsu University of Education, Joetsu, Niigata 943-8512 (Japan); Onishi, Toshikazu [Department of Physical Science, Osaka Prefecture University, Gakuen 1-1, Sakai, 599-8531 Osaka (Japan); Fukui, Yasuo [Department of Astrophysics, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Matsuo, Hiroshi [Advanced Technology Center, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Aretxaga, Itziar [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE), 72000 Puebla (Mexico); and others

    2013-09-10

    We report the discovery of a new ultra-bright submillimeter galaxy (SMG) behind the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). This SMG is detected as a 43.3 {+-} 8.4 mJy point source (MM J01071-7302, hereafter MMJ0107) in the 1.1 mm continuum survey of the SMC by AzTEC on the ASTE telescope. MMJ0107 is also detected in the radio (843 MHz), Herschel/SPIRE, Spitzer MIPS 24 {mu}m, all IRAC bands, Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, and near-infrared (J, H, K{sub S} ). We find an optical (U, B, V) source, which might be the lensing object, at a distance of 1.''4 from near-infrared and IRAC sources. Photometric redshift estimates for the SMG using representative spectral energy distribution templates show the redshifts of 1.4-3.9. We estimate total far-infrared luminosity of (0.3-2.2) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} {mu}{sup -1} L{sub Sun} and a star formation rate of 5600-39, 000 {mu}{sup -1} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, where {mu} is the gravitational magnification factor. This apparent extreme star formation activity is likely explained by a highly magnified gravitational lens system.

  14. A parsec-scale optical jet from a massive young star in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Anna F.; Reiter, Megan; Kuiper, Rolf; Klaassen, Pamela D.; Evans, Christopher J.

    2018-02-01

    Highly collimated parsec-scale jets, which are generally linked to the presence of an accretion disk, are commonly observed in low-mass young stellar objects. In the past two decades, a few of these jets have been directly (or indirectly) observed from higher-mass (larger than eight solar masses) young stellar objects, adding to the growing evidence that disk-mediated accretion also occurs in high-mass stars, the formation mechanism of which is still poorly understood. Of the observed jets from massive young stars, none is in the optical regime (massive young stars are typically highly obscured by their natal material), and none is found outside of the Milky Way. Here we report observations of HH 1177, an optical ionized jet that originates from a massive young stellar object located in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The jet is highly collimated over its entire measured length of at least ten parsecs and has a bipolar geometry. The presence of a jet indicates ongoing, disk-mediated accretion and, together with the high degree of collimation, implies that this system is probably formed through a scaled-up version of the formation mechanism of low-mass stars. We conclude that the physics that govern jet launching and collimation is independent of stellar mass.

  15. A parsec-scale optical jet from a massive young star in the Large Magellanic Cloud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Anna F; Reiter, Megan; Kuiper, Rolf; Klaassen, Pamela D; Evans, Christopher J

    2018-02-15

    Highly collimated parsec-scale jets, which are generally linked to the presence of an accretion disk, are commonly observed in low-mass young stellar objects. In the past two decades, a few of these jets have been directly (or indirectly) observed from higher-mass (larger than eight solar masses) young stellar objects, adding to the growing evidence that disk-mediated accretion also occurs in high-mass stars, the formation mechanism of which is still poorly understood. Of the observed jets from massive young stars, none is in the optical regime (massive young stars are typically highly obscured by their natal material), and none is found outside of the Milky Way. Here we report observations of HH 1177, an optical ionized jet that originates from a massive young stellar object located in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The jet is highly collimated over its entire measured length of at least ten parsecs and has a bipolar geometry. The presence of a jet indicates ongoing, disk-mediated accretion and, together with the high degree of collimation, implies that this system is probably formed through a scaled-up version of the formation mechanism of low-mass stars. We conclude that the physics that govern jet launching and collimation is independent of stellar mass.

  16. INFRARED PERIOD-LUMINOSITY RELATIONS OF EVOLVED VARIABLE STARS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riebel, David; Meixner, Margaret; Fraser, Oliver; Srinivasan, Sundar; Cook, Kem; Vijh, Uma

    2010-01-01

    We combine variability information from the MAssive Compact Halo Objects survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud with infrared photometry from the Spitzer Space Telescope Surveying the Agents of a Galaxy's Evolution survey to create a data set of ∼30,000 variable red sources. We photometrically classify these sources as being on the first ascent of the red giant branch, or as being in one of three stages along the asymptotic giant branch (AGB): oxygen-rich, carbon-rich, or highly reddened with indeterminate chemistry ('extreme' AGB candidates). We present linear period-luminosity (P-L) relationships for these sources using eight separate infrared bands (J, H, K s , 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, and 24 μm) as proxies for the luminosity. We find that the wavelength dependence of the slope of the P-L relationship is different for different photometrically determined classes of AGB stars. Stars photometrically classified as O-rich show the least variation of slope with wavelength, while dust enshrouded extreme AGB stars show a pronounced trend toward steeper slopes with increasing wavelength. We find that O-rich AGB stars pulsating in the fundamental mode obey a period-magnitude relation with a slope of -3.41 ± 0.04 when magnitude is measured in the 3.6 μm band, in contrast to C-rich AGB stars, which obey a relation of slope -3.77 ± 0.05.

  17. Optical pulsar in the Large Magellanic Cloud remnant 0540-69.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleditch, J.; Pennypacker, C.R.

    1984-01-01

    We have detected pulsed optical emission from the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) X-ray pulsar PSR 0540-693 (Seward et al. 1984). The pulsed emission has a time averaged magnitude of approximately 22.7. The X-ray pulsar was discovered in the LMC remnant, 0540-69.3 as a pulse repetition period of approx. 50 milliseconds (ms) in Einstein Obsrvatory data (Seward et al. 1984). Earlier, Clark et al. (1982) had noted that this remnant resembles the Crab Nebula because of the X-ray power law spectrum, and suggested that the nebular emission was synchrotron radiation powered by a central pulsar. After the announcement of X-ray pulsed emission, Chanan et al. (1984) measured the broad optical band properties of the nebula and found evidence for synchrotron emission. They reported that the 4.5 arc second continuum emission remnant has only a tenth the luminosity of the Crab Nebula. We have recorded broad-band optical time-series data at 1 ms intervals with the 4-m and 1.5-m Cerro Tololo telescopes and have found strong pulsations, employing the usual Fourier transform methods. A summary of the observations, including magnitudes, barycentric frequencies and times of arrival is given

  18. Radial velocity curves of ellipsoidal red giant binaries in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie, J. D.; Wood, P. R.

    2014-01-01

    Ellipsoidal red giant binaries are close binary systems where an unseen, relatively close companion distorts the red giant, leading to light variations as the red giant moves around its orbit. These binaries are likely to be the immediate evolutionary precursors of close binary planetary nebula and post-asymptotic giant branch and post-red giant branch stars. Due to the MACHO and OGLE photometric monitoring projects, the light variability nature of these ellipsoidal variables has been well studied. However, due to the lack of radial velocity curves, the nature of their masses, separations, and other orbital details has so far remained largely unknown. In order to improve this situation, we have carried out spectral monitoring observations of a large sample of 80 ellipsoidal variables in the Large Magellanic Cloud and we have derived radial velocity curves. At least 12 radial velocity points with good quality were obtained for most of the ellipsoidal variables. The radial velocity data are provided with this paper. Combining the photometric and radial velocity data, we present some statistical results related to the binary properties of these ellipsoidal variables.

  19. Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer Observations of the Supernova Remnant N49 in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Blair, W P; Shelton, R; Sembach, K R; Moos, H W; Raymond, J C; York, D G; Feldman, P D; Chayer, P; Murphy, E M; Sahnow, D J; Wilkinson, E; Blair, William P.; Sankrit, Ravi; Shelton, Robin; Sembach, Kenneth R.; Raymond, John C.; York, Donald G.; Feldman, Paul D.; Chayer, Pierre; Murphy, Edward M.; Sahnow, David J.; Wilkinson, Erik

    2001-01-01

    We report a Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer satellite observation of the supernova remnant N49 in the Large Magellanic Cloud, covering the 905 -- 1187 A spectral region. A 30'' square aperture was used, resulting in a velocity resolution of ~100 km/s. The purpose of the observation was to examine several bright emission lines expected from earlier work and to demonstrate diffuse source sensitivity by searching for faint lines never seen previously in extragalactic supernova remnant UV spectra. Both goals were accomplished. Strong emission lines of O VI 1031.9 A, 1037.6 A and C III 977.0 A were seen, Doppler broadened to +/- 225 km/s and with centroids red-shifted to 350 km/s, consistent with the LMC. Superimposed on the emission lines are absorptions by C III and O VI 1031.9 at +260 km/s, which are attributed to warm and hot gas (respectively) in the LMC. The O VI 1037.6 A line is more severely affected by overlying interstellar and H2 absorption from both the LMC and our galaxy. N III 989.8 A is not s...

  20. SAGE-VAR: AN INFRARED SURVEY OF VARIABILITY IN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riebel, D.; Boyer, M. L.; Srinivasan, S.; Whitelock, P.; Feast, M.; Meixner, M.; Shiao, B.; Babler, B.; Meade, M.; Whitney, B.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.; Ita, Y.

    2015-01-01

    We present the first results from the Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution (SAGE)-Var program, a follow up to the Spitzer legacy program SAGE (Meixner et al.). We obtained four epochs of photometry at 3.6 and 4.5 μm covering the bar of the LMC and the central region of the SMC in order to probe the variability of extremely red sources missed by variability surveys conducted at shorter wavelengths, and to provide additional epochs of observation for known variables. Our six total epochs of observations allow us to probe infrared (IR) variability on 15 different timescales ranging from ∼20 days to ∼5 yr. Out of a full catalog of 1 717 554 (LMC) and 457 760 (SMC) objects, we find 10 (LMC) and 6 (SMC) large amplitude Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) variables without optically measured variability owing to circumstellar dust obscuration. The catalog also contains multiple observations of known AGB variables, type I and II Cepheids, eclipsing variables, R CrB stars, and young stellar objects, which will be discussed in following papers. Here we present IR Period–Luminosity (PL) relations for classical Cepheids in the Magellanic Clouds, as well as improved PL relationships for AGB stars pulsating in the fundamental mode using mean magnitudes constructed from six epochs of observations

  1. Spectral types, color indices, and abundances for Cepheids in the Magellanic Clouds and the Galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laney, C.D.

    1982-01-01

    Accurate MK spectral types have been obtained for 58 Cepheids in the Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds form 121 spectrograms. Simultaneous uvbyβ photometry has been obtained with many of the spectrograms. The spectra of galactic and LMC Cepheids are found to be very similar, and Cepheids in both systems appear to obey the same (B-V) 0 vs. spectral type relation. The low E(B-V) values of Feltz and McNamara (1980) and certain other recent authors are confirmed. The spectra of SMC Cepheids show slightly weaker metal lines, and SMC Cepheids average about 1.3 subclasses earlier in spectral type than LMC and galactic Cepheids at the same value of (B-V) 0 . Spectral types of LMC and SMC Cepheids at minimum light are found to be later than those reported by Feast (1974) when luminosity effects are allowed for. Curves of growth have been constructed for 7 SMC Cepheids, 5 LMC Cepheids, and 13 Milky Way Cepheids and spectral standards. Comparison indicates that [Fe/H]/sub LMC/ = -0.06 +/- 0.10 and [Fe/H]/sub SMC/ = -0.50 +/- 0.08

  2. The Mass Distribution and Assembly of the Milky Way from the Properties of the Magellanic Clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busha, Michael T.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Zurich U.; Marshall, Philip J.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Oxford U.; Wechsler, Risa H.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Klypin, Anatoly; /New Mexico State U.; Primack, Joel; /UC, Santa Cruz, Phys. Dept.

    2012-02-29

    We present a new measurement of the mass of the Milky Way (MW) based on observed properties of its largest satellite galaxies, the Magellanic Clouds (MCs), and an assumed prior of a {Lambda}CDM universe. The large, high-resolution Bolshoi cosmological simulation of this universe provides a means to statistically sample the dynamical properties of bright satellite galaxies in a large population of dark matter halos. The observed properties of the MCs, including their circular velocity, distance from the center of the MW, and velocity within the MW halo, are used to evaluate the likelihood that a given halo would have each or all of these properties; the posterior probability distribution function (PDF) for any property of the MW system can thus be constructed. This method provides a constraint on the MW virial mass, 1.2{sup +0.7} - {sub 0.4}(stat.){sup +0.3} - {sub 0.3}(sys.) x 10{sup 12} M {circle_dot} (68% confidence), which is consistent with recent determinations that involve very different assumptions. In addition, we calculate the posterior PDF for the density profile of the MW and its satellite accretion history. Although typical satellites of 10{sup 12} M {circle_dot} halos are accreted over a wide range of epochs over the last 10 Gyr, we find a {approx}72% probability that the MCs were accreted within the last Gyr, and a 50% probability that they were accreted together.

  3. A LUMINOUS GAMMA-RAY BINARY IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbet, R. H. D. [University of Maryland, Baltimore County, and X-ray Astrophysics Laboratory, Code 662 NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt Rd., MD 20771 (United States); Chomiuk, L.; Strader, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Coe, M. J. [University of Southampton, School of Physics and Astronomy, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Coley, J. B. [NASA Postdoctoral Program, and Astroparticle Physics Laboratory, Code 661 NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt Rd., MD 20771 (United States); Dubus, G. [Institut de Planétologie et d’Astrophysique de Grenoble, Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Edwards, P. G.; Stevens, J. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping, New South Wales 1710 (Australia); Martin, P. [Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planétologie, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, F-31028 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); McBride, V. A.; Townsend, L. J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Udalski, A. [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa (Poland)

    2016-10-01

    Gamma-ray binaries consist of a neutron star or a black hole interacting with a normal star to produce gamma-ray emission that dominates the radiative output of the system. Only a handful of such systems have been previously discovered, all within our Galaxy. Here, we report the discovery of a luminous gamma-ray binary in the Large Magellanic Cloud, found with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT), from a search for periodic modulation in all sources in the third Fermi LAT catalog. This is the first such system to be found outside the Milky Way. The system has an orbital period of 10.3 days, and is associated with a massive O5III star located in the supernova remnant DEM L241, previously identified as the candidate high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) CXOU J053600.0–673507. X-ray and radio emission are also modulated on the 10.3 day period, but are in anti-phase with the gamma-ray modulation. Optical radial velocity measurements suggest that the system contains a neutron star. The source is significantly more luminous than similar sources in the Milky Way, at radio, optical, X-ray, and gamma-ray wavelengths. The detection of this extra-galactic system, but no new Galactic systems, raises the possibility that the predicted number of gamma-ray binaries in our Galaxy has been overestimated, and that HMXBs may be born containing relatively slowly rotating neutron stars.

  4. CANDIDATES OF H{alpha} EMITTING REGIONS IN THE MAGELLANIC STREAM IV CLOUD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagi, Masafumi; Komiyama, Yutaka [Optical and Infrared Astronomy Division, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Yoshida, Michitoshi, E-mail: YAGI.Masafumi@nao.ac.jp [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan)

    2012-04-10

    From H{alpha} narrowband observations, we identified three H{alpha} emitting regions in the direction of Magellanic Stream IV (MS IV). They consist of three parallel filaments of 2 arcmin width and 6-30 arcmin length at 12 arcmin intervals. Their mean surface brightness (SB) is {approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -18} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} arcsec{sup -2}. Because of their low SB, the regions were not detected in previous H{alpha} surveys. In the H I map, the position of the filaments overlap MS, suggesting that they are parts of the MS, but there also exists a local H I structure. If the filaments are associated with the MS, the sizes are 30 pc Multiplication-Sign 100-500 pc. The filaments lie at the leading edge of a downstream cloud, which supports shock heating and its propagation (shock cascade) model for the ionizing source. If they are local objects, on the other hand, Fossil Stroemgren Trails of more than two stars is a possible interpretation, and the sizes would be 0.1 pc Multiplication-Sign 0.3-1.5 pc at 180 pc distance. The positional information of the H{alpha} filaments presented in this Letter enables future spectroscopic observations to clarify their nature.

  5. Young star clusters in nearby molecular clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getman, K. V.; Kuhn, M. A.; Feigelson, E. D.; Broos, P. S.; Bate, M. R.; Garmire, G. P.

    2018-06-01

    The SFiNCs (Star Formation in Nearby Clouds) project is an X-ray/infrared study of the young stellar populations in 22 star-forming regions with distances ≲ 1 kpc designed to extend our earlier MYStIX (Massive Young Star-Forming Complex Study in Infrared and X-ray) survey of more distant clusters. Our central goal is to give empirical constraints on cluster formation mechanisms. Using parametric mixture models applied homogeneously to the catalogue of SFiNCs young stars, we identify 52 SFiNCs clusters and 19 unclustered stellar structures. The procedure gives cluster properties including location, population, morphology, association with molecular clouds, absorption, age (AgeJX), and infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) slope. Absorption, SED slope, and AgeJX are age indicators. SFiNCs clusters are examined individually, and collectively with MYStIX clusters, to give the following results. (1) SFiNCs is dominated by smaller, younger, and more heavily obscured clusters than MYStIX. (2) SFiNCs cloud-associated clusters have the high ellipticities aligned with their host molecular filaments indicating morphology inherited from their parental clouds. (3) The effect of cluster expansion is evident from the radius-age, radius-absorption, and radius-SED correlations. Core radii increase dramatically from ˜0.08 to ˜0.9 pc over the age range 1-3.5 Myr. Inferred gas removal time-scales are longer than 1 Myr. (4) Rich, spatially distributed stellar populations are present in SFiNCs clouds representing early generations of star formation. An appendix compares the performance of the mixture models and non-parametric minimum spanning tree to identify clusters. This work is a foundation for future SFiNCs/MYStIX studies including disc longevity, age gradients, and dynamical modelling.

  6. Modeling CO, CO2, and H2O Ice Abundances in the Envelopes of Young Stellar Objects in the Magellanic Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Tyler; Garrod, Robin T.

    2018-02-01

    Massive young stellar objects (MYSOs) in the Magellanic Clouds show infrared absorption features corresponding to significant abundances of CO, CO2, and H2O ice along the line of sight, with the relative abundances of these ices differing between the Magellanic Clouds and the Milky Way. CO ice is not detected toward sources in the Small Magellanic Cloud, and upper limits put its relative abundance well below sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud and the Milky Way. We use our gas-grain chemical code MAGICKAL, with multiple grain sizes and grain temperatures, and further expand it with a treatment for increased interstellar radiation field intensity to model the elevated dust temperatures observed in the MCs. We also adjust the elemental abundances used in the chemical models, guided by observations of H II regions in these metal-poor satellite galaxies. With a grid of models, we are able to reproduce the relative ice fractions observed in MC MYSOs, indicating that metal depletion and elevated grain temperature are important drivers of the MYSO envelope ice composition. Magellanic Cloud elemental abundances have a subgalactic C/O ratio, increasing H2O ice abundances relative to the other ices; elevated grain temperatures favor CO2 production over H2O and CO. The observed shortfall in CO in the Small Magellanic Cloud can be explained by a combination of reduced carbon abundance and increased grain temperatures. The models indicate that a large variation in radiation field strength is required to match the range of observed LMC abundances. CH3OH abundance is found to be enhanced in low-metallicity models, providing seed material for complex organic molecule formation in the Magellanic Clouds.

  7. Heavy-element yields and abundances of asymptotic giant branch models with a Small Magellanic Cloud metallicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakas, Amanda I.; Lugaro, Maria; Carlos, Marília; Cseh, Borbála; Kamath, Devika; García-Hernández, D. A.

    2018-06-01

    We present new theoretical stellar yields and surface abundances for asymptotic giant branch (AGB) models with a metallicity appropriate for stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC, Z = 0.0028, [Fe/H] ≈ -0.7). New evolutionary sequences and post-processing nucleosynthesis results are presented for initial masses between 1 and 7 M⊙, where the 7 M⊙ is a super-AGB star with an O-Ne core. Models above 1.15 M⊙ become carbon rich during the AGB, and hot bottom burning begins in models M ≥ 3.75 M⊙. We present stellar surface abundances as a function of thermal pulse number for elements between C to Bi and for a selection of isotopic ratios for elements up to Fe and Ni (e.g. 12C/13C), which can be compared to observations. The integrated stellar yields are presented for each model in the grid for hydrogen, helium, and all stable elements from C to Bi. We present evolutionary sequences of intermediate-mass models between 4 and 7 M⊙ and nucleosynthesis results for three masses (M = 3.75, 5, and 7 M⊙) including s-process elements for two widely used AGB mass-loss prescriptions. We discuss our new models in the context of evolved AGB and post-AGB stars in the SMCs, barium stars in our Galaxy, the composition of Galactic globular clusters including Mg isotopes with a similar metallicity to our models, and to pre-solar grains which may have an origin in metal-poor AGB stars.

  8. A Chandra Study of Supernova Remnants in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenck, Andrew Corey

    2017-08-01

    In the first part of this thesis we measure the interstellar abundances for the elements O, Ne, Mg, Si, and Fe in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), based on the observational data of sixteen supernova remnants (SNRs) in the LMC as available in the public archive of the Chandra X-ray Observatory (Chandra). We find lower abundances than previous measurements based on a similar method using data obtained with the Advanced Satellite for Astrophysics and Cosmology (ASCA). We discuss the origins of the discrepancy between our Chandra and the previous ASCA measurements. We conclude that our measurements are generally more reliable than the ASCA results thanks to the high-resolution imaging spectroscopy with our Chandra data, although there remain some systematic uncertainties due to the use of different spectral modelings between the previous work and ours. We also discuss our results in comparison with the LMC abundance measurements based on optical observations of stars. The second part of this thesis is a detailed study of a core-collapse SNR B0049-73.6 in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). Based on our deep Chandra observation, we detect metal-rich ejecta features extending out to the outermost boundary of B0049-73.6, which were not seen in the previous data. We find that the central nebula is dominated by emission from reverse-shocked ejecta material enriched in O, Ne, Mg, and Si. O-rich ejecta distribution is relatively smooth throughout the central nebula. In contrast the Si-rich material is highly structured. These results suggest that B0049-73.6 was produced by an asymmetric core-collapse explosion of a massive star. The estimated abundance ratios among these ejecta elements are in plausible agreement with the nucleosynthesis products from the explosion of a 13-15M. progenitor. We reveal that the central ring-like (in projection) ejecta nebula extends to ˜9 pc from the SNR center. This suggests that the contact discontinuity (CD) may be located at a further

  9. HERschel key program heritage: A far-infrared source catalog for the Magellanic Clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seale, Jonathan P.; Meixner, Margaret; Sewiło, Marta [The Johns Hopkins University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 366 Bloomberg Center, 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Babler, Brian [Department of Astronomy, 475 North Charter St., University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Engelbracht, Charles W.; Misselt, Karl; Montiel, Edward [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Gordon, Karl; Roman-Duval, Julia [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Hony, Sacha; Okumura, Koryo; Panuzzo, Pasquale; Sauvage, Marc [CEA, Laboratoire AIM, Irfu/SAp, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Boyer, Martha L. [Observational Cosmology Laboratory, Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Chen, C.-H. Rosie [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Indebetouw, Remy [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Matsuura, Mikako [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Oliveira, Joana M.; Loon, Jacco Th. van [School of Physical and Geographical Sciences, Lennard-Jones Laboratories, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Srinivasan, Sundar [UPMC-CNRS UMR7095, Institute d' Astrophysique de Paris, F-75014 Paris (France); and others

    2014-12-01

    Observations from the HERschel Inventory of the Agents of Galaxy Evolution (HERITAGE) have been used to identify dusty populations of sources in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC). We conducted the study using the HERITAGE catalogs of point sources available from the Herschel Science Center from both the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS; 100 and 160 μm) and Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE; 250, 350, and 500 μm) cameras. These catalogs are matched to each other to create a Herschel band-merged catalog and then further matched to archival Spitzer IRAC and MIPS catalogs from the Spitzer Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution (SAGE) and SAGE-SMC surveys to create single mid- to far-infrared (far-IR) point source catalogs that span the wavelength range from 3.6 to 500 μm. There are 35,322 unique sources in the LMC and 7503 in the SMC. To be bright in the FIR, a source must be very dusty, and so the sources in the HERITAGE catalogs represent the dustiest populations of sources. The brightest HERITAGE sources are dominated by young stellar objects (YSOs), and the dimmest by background galaxies. We identify the sources most likely to be background galaxies by first considering their morphology (distant galaxies are point-like at the resolution of Herschel) and then comparing the flux distribution to that of the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (ATLAS) survey of galaxies. We find a total of 9745 background galaxy candidates in the LMC HERITAGE images and 5111 in the SMC images, in agreement with the number predicted by extrapolating from the ATLAS flux distribution. The majority of the Magellanic Cloud-residing sources are either very young, embedded forming stars or dusty clumps of the interstellar medium. Using the presence of 24 μm emission as a tracer of star formation, we identify 3518 YSO candidates in the LMC and 663 in the SMC. There are far fewer far-IR bright YSOs in the SMC than the LMC

  10. HERschel key program heritage: A far-infrared source catalog for the Magellanic Clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seale, Jonathan P.; Meixner, Margaret; Sewiło, Marta; Babler, Brian; Engelbracht, Charles W.; Misselt, Karl; Montiel, Edward; Gordon, Karl; Roman-Duval, Julia; Hony, Sacha; Okumura, Koryo; Panuzzo, Pasquale; Sauvage, Marc; Boyer, Martha L.; Chen, C.-H. Rosie; Indebetouw, Remy; Matsuura, Mikako; Oliveira, Joana M.; Loon, Jacco Th. van; Srinivasan, Sundar

    2014-01-01

    Observations from the HERschel Inventory of the Agents of Galaxy Evolution (HERITAGE) have been used to identify dusty populations of sources in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC). We conducted the study using the HERITAGE catalogs of point sources available from the Herschel Science Center from both the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS; 100 and 160 μm) and Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE; 250, 350, and 500 μm) cameras. These catalogs are matched to each other to create a Herschel band-merged catalog and then further matched to archival Spitzer IRAC and MIPS catalogs from the Spitzer Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution (SAGE) and SAGE-SMC surveys to create single mid- to far-infrared (far-IR) point source catalogs that span the wavelength range from 3.6 to 500 μm. There are 35,322 unique sources in the LMC and 7503 in the SMC. To be bright in the FIR, a source must be very dusty, and so the sources in the HERITAGE catalogs represent the dustiest populations of sources. The brightest HERITAGE sources are dominated by young stellar objects (YSOs), and the dimmest by background galaxies. We identify the sources most likely to be background galaxies by first considering their morphology (distant galaxies are point-like at the resolution of Herschel) and then comparing the flux distribution to that of the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (ATLAS) survey of galaxies. We find a total of 9745 background galaxy candidates in the LMC HERITAGE images and 5111 in the SMC images, in agreement with the number predicted by extrapolating from the ATLAS flux distribution. The majority of the Magellanic Cloud-residing sources are either very young, embedded forming stars or dusty clumps of the interstellar medium. Using the presence of 24 μm emission as a tracer of star formation, we identify 3518 YSO candidates in the LMC and 663 in the SMC. There are far fewer far-IR bright YSOs in the SMC than the LMC

  11. Structure of the Large Magellanic Cloud from near infrared magnitudes of red clump stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, S.; Subramaniam, A.

    2013-04-01

    Context. The structural parameters of the disk of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) are estimated. Aims: We used the JH photometric data of red clump (RC) stars from the Magellanic Cloud Point Source Catalog (MCPSC) obtained from the InfraRed Survey Facility (IRSF) to estimate the structural parameters of the LMC disk, such as the inclination, i, and the position angle of the line of nodes (PAlon), φ. Methods: The observed LMC region is divided into several sub-regions, and stars in each region are cross-identified with the optically identified RC stars to obtain the near infrared magnitudes. The peak values of H magnitude and (J - H) colour of the observed RC distribution are obtained by fitting a profile to the distributions and by taking the average value of magnitude and colour of the RC stars in the bin with largest number. Then the dereddened peak H0 magnitude of the RC stars in each sub-region is obtained from the peak values of H magnitude and (J - H) colour of the observed RC distribution. The right ascension (RA), declination (Dec), and relative distance from the centre of each sub-region are converted into x,y, and z Cartesian coordinates. A weighted least square plane fitting method is applied to this x,y,z data to estimate the structural parameters of the LMC disk. Results: An intrinsic (J - H)0 colour of 0.40 ± 0.03 mag in the Simultaneous three-colour InfraRed Imager for Unbiased Survey (SIRIUS) IRSF filter system is estimated for the RC stars in the LMC and a reddening map based on (J - H) colour of the RC stars is presented. When the peaks of the RC distribution were identified by averaging, an inclination of 25°.7 ± 1°.6 and a PAlon = 141°.5 ± 4°.5 were obtained. We estimate a distance modulus, μ = 18.47 ± 0.1 mag to the LMC. Extra-planar features which are both in front and behind the fitted plane are identified. They match with the optically identified extra-planar features. The bar of the LMC is found to be part of the disk within 500

  12. A SEARCH FOR RAPIDLY ACCRETING WHITE DWARFS IN THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepo, Kelly; Van Kerkwijk, Marten

    2013-01-01

    The nature of the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) is still a mystery. While plausible candidates are known for both the single-degenerate and double-degenerate models, the observed numbers fall significantly short of what is required to reproduce the SNe Ia rate. Some of the most promising single-degenerate Type Ia progenitors are recurrent novae and super-soft sources (SSS). White dwarfs (WDs) with higher mass transfer rates can also be SN Ia progenitors. For these rapidly accreting white dwarfs (RAWDs), more material than is needed for steady burning accretes on the WD, and extends the WD's photosphere. Unlike SSS, such objects will likely not be detectable at soft X-ray energies, but will be bright at longer wavelengths, such as the far-ultraviolet (UV). Possible examples include LMC N66 and the V Sagittae stars. We present a survey using multi-object spectrographs looking for RAWDs in the central core of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), from objects selected to be bright in the far-UV and with blue far UV – V colors. While we find some unusual objects, and recover known planetary nebula and Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars, we detect no candidate RAWD. The upper limits from this non-detection depend on our expectations of what an RAWD should look like, as well assumptions about the internal extinction of the SMC. Assuming they resemble LMC N66 or fainter versions of WR stars we set an upper limit of 10-14 RAWDs in the SMC. However, our survey is unlikely to detect objects like V Sge, and hence we cannot set meaningful upper limits if RAWDs generally resemble V Sge.

  13. CHARACTERIZING THE POPULATION OF BRIGHT INFRARED SOURCES IN THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer, K. E.; Sloan, G. C.; Wood, P. R.; Jones, O. C.; Egan, M. P.

    2017-01-01

    We have used the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on the Spitzer Space Telescope to observe stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) selected from the Point Source Catalog of the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX). We concentrate on the dust properties of the oxygen-rich evolved stars. The dust composition has smaller contributions from alumina compared to the Galaxy. This difference may arise from the lower metallicity in the SMC, but it could be a selection effect, as the SMC sample includes more stars that are brighter and thus more massive. The distribution of the SMC stars along the silicate sequence looks more like the Galactic sample of red supergiants than asymptotic giant branch stars (AGBs). While many of the SMC stars are definitively on the AGB, several also show evidence of hot bottom burning. Three of the supergiants show PAH emission at 11.3 μ m. Two other sources show mixed chemistry, with both carbon-rich and oxygen-rich spectral features. One, MSX SMC 134, may be the first confirmed silicate/carbon star in the SMC. The other, MSX SMC 049, is a candidate post-AGB star. MSX SMC 145, previously considered a candidate OH/IR star, is actually an AGB star with a background galaxy at z  = 0.16 along the same line of sight. We consider the overall characteristics of all the MSX sources, the most infrared-bright objects in the SMC, in light of the higher sensitivity and resolution of Spitzer , and compare them with the object types expected from the original selection criteria. This population represents what will be seen in more distant galaxies by the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope ( JWST ). Color–color diagrams generated from the IRS spectra and the mid-infrared filters on JWST show how one can separate evolved stars from young stellar objects (YSOs) and distinguish among different classes of YSOs.

  14. Dust in the small Magellanic cloud. 1: Interstellar polarization and extinction data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhaes, A. M.; Rodrigues, C. V.; Coyne, C. V.; Piirola, V.

    1996-01-01

    The typical extinction curve for the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), in contrast to that for the Galaxy, has no bump at 2175 A and has a steeper rise into the far ultraviolet. For the Galaxy the interpretation of the extinction and, therefore, the dust content of the interstellar medium has been greatly assisted by measurements of the wavelength dependence of the polarization. For the SMC no such measurements existed. Therefore, to further elucidate the dust properties in the SMC we have for the first time measured linear polarization with five colors in the optical region of the spectrum for a sample of reddened stars. For two of these stars, for which there were no existing UV spectrophotometric measurements, but for which we measured a relatively large polarization, we have also obtained data from the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) in order to study the extinction. We also attempt to correlate the SMC extinction and polarization data. The main results are: the wavelength of maximum polarization, lambda(sub max), in the SMC is typically smaller than that in the Galaxy; however, AZC 456, which shows the UV extinction bump, has a lambda(sub max) typical of that in the Galaxy, but its polarization curve is narrower and its bump is shifted to shorter wavelengths as compared to the Galaxy; and from an analysis of both the extinction and polarization data it appears that the SMC has typically smaller grains than those in the Galaxy. The absence of the extinction bump in the SMC has generally been thought to imply a lower carbon abundance in the SMC compared to the Galaxy. We interpret our results to mean that te size distribution of the interstellar grains, and not only the carbon abundance, is different in the SMC as compared to the Galaxy. In Paper 2 we present dust model fits to these observations.

  15. Dust in the small Magellanic Cloud. 2: Dust models from interstellar polarization and extinction data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, C. V.; Magalhaes, A. M.; Coyne, G. V.

    1995-01-01

    We study the dust in the Small Magellanic Cloud using our polarization and extinction data (Paper 1) and existing dust models. The data suggest that the monotonic SMC extinction curve is related to values of lambda(sub max), the wavelength of maximum polarization, which are on the average smaller than the mean for the Galaxy. On the other hand, AZV 456, a star with an extinction similar to that for the Galaxy, shows a value of lambda(sub max) similar to the mean for the Galaxy. We discuss simultaneous dust model fits to extinction and polarization. Fits to the wavelength dependent polarization data are possible for stars with small lambda(sub max). In general, they imply dust size distributions which are narrower and have smaller mean sizes compared to typical size distributions for the Galaxy. However, stars with lambda(sub max) close to the Galactic norm, which also have a narrower polarization curve, cannot be fit adequately. This holds true for all of the dust models considered. The best fits to the extinction curves are obtained with a power law size distribution by assuming that the cylindrical and spherical silicate grains have a volume distribution which is continuous from the smaller spheres to the larger cylinders. The size distribution for the cylinders is taken from the fit to the polarization. The 'typical', monotonic SMC extinction curve can be fit well with graphite and silicate grains if a small fraction of the SMC carbon is locked up in the grain. However, amorphous carbon and silicate grains also fit the data well. AZV456, which has an extinction curve similar to that for the Galaxy, has a UV bump which is too blue to be fit by spherical graphite grains.

  16. SPITZER SAGE INFRARED PHOTOMETRY OF MASSIVE STARS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonanos, A. Z.; Massa, D. L.; Sewilo, M.

    2009-01-01

    We present a catalog of 1750 massive stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), with accurate spectral types compiled from the literature, and a photometric catalog for a subset of 1268 of these stars, with the goal of exploring their infrared properties. The photometric catalog consists of stars with infrared counterparts in the Spitzer SAGE survey database, for which we present uniform photometry from 0.3 to 24 μm in the UBVIJHK s +IRAC+MIPS24 bands. The resulting infrared color-magnitude diagrams illustrate that the supergiant B[e], red supergiant, and luminous blue variable (LBV) stars are among the brightest infrared point sources in the LMC, due to their intrinsic brightness, and at longer wavelengths, due to dust. We detect infrared excesses due to free-free emission among ∼900 OB stars, which correlate with luminosity class. We confirm the presence of dust around 10 supergiant B[e] stars, finding the shape of their spectral energy distributions (SEDs) to be very similar, in contrast to the variety of SED shapes among the spectrally variable LBVs. The similar luminosities of B[e] supergiants (log L/L sun ≥ 4) and the rare, dusty progenitors of the new class of optical transients (e.g., SN 2008S and NGC 300 OT), plus the fact that dust is present in both types of objects, suggests a common origin for them. We find the infrared colors for Wolf-Rayet stars to be independent of spectral type and their SEDs to be flatter than what models predict. The results of this study provide the first comprehensive roadmap for interpreting luminous, massive, resolved stellar populations in nearby galaxies at infrared wavelengths.

  17. MAPS OF THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS FROM COMBINED SOUTH POLE TELESCOPE AND PLANCK DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, T. M.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Crites, A. T.; Hou, Z.; Keisler, R. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Chown, R.; Holder, G. P.; Haan, T. de; Dobbs, M. A. [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8 (Canada); Aird, K. A.; Hrubes, J. D. [University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Cho, H-M. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); George, E. M.; Harrington, N. L.; Holzapfel, W. L. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Halverson, N. W. [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences and Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Knox, L., E-mail: tcrawfor@kicp.uchicago.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); and others

    2016-12-01

    We present maps of the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds from combined South Pole Telescope (SPT) and Planck data. The Planck satellite observes in nine bands, while the SPT data used in this work were taken with the three-band SPT-SZ camera, The SPT-SZ bands correspond closely to three of the nine Planck bands, namely those centered at 1.4, 2.1, and 3.0 mm. The angular resolution of the Planck data ranges from 5 to 10 arcmin, while the SPT resolution ranges from 1.0 to 1.7 arcmin. The combined maps take advantage of the high resolution of the SPT data and the long-timescale stability of the space-based Planck observations to deliver robust brightness measurements on scales from the size of the maps down to ∼1 arcmin. In each band, we first calibrate and color-correct the SPT data to match the Planck data, then we use noise estimates from each instrument and knowledge of each instrument’s beam to make the inverse-variance-weighted combination of the two instruments’ data as a function of angular scale. We create maps assuming a range of underlying emission spectra and at a range of final resolutions. We perform several consistency tests on the combined maps and estimate the expected noise in measurements of features in them. We compare maps from this work to those from the Herschel HERITAGE survey, finding general consistency between the data sets. All data products described in this paper are available for download from the NASA Legacy Archive for Microwave Background Data Analysis server.

  18. CHARACTERIZING THE POPULATION OF BRIGHT INFRARED SOURCES IN THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraemer, K. E. [Institute for Scientific Research, Boston College, 140 Commonwealth Avenue, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467 (United States); Sloan, G. C. [Center for Astrophysics and Planetary Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Wood, P. R. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston Creek ACT 2611 (Australia); Jones, O. C. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Egan, M. P., E-mail: kathleen.kraemer@bc.edu, E-mail: sloan@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: wood@mso.anu.edu.au, E-mail: michael.p.egan@nga.mil [National Geospatial Intelligence Agency, 7500 GEOINT Drive, Springfield, VA 22150 (United States)

    2017-01-10

    We have used the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on the Spitzer Space Telescope to observe stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) selected from the Point Source Catalog of the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX). We concentrate on the dust properties of the oxygen-rich evolved stars. The dust composition has smaller contributions from alumina compared to the Galaxy. This difference may arise from the lower metallicity in the SMC, but it could be a selection effect, as the SMC sample includes more stars that are brighter and thus more massive. The distribution of the SMC stars along the silicate sequence looks more like the Galactic sample of red supergiants than asymptotic giant branch stars (AGBs). While many of the SMC stars are definitively on the AGB, several also show evidence of hot bottom burning. Three of the supergiants show PAH emission at 11.3 μ m. Two other sources show mixed chemistry, with both carbon-rich and oxygen-rich spectral features. One, MSX SMC 134, may be the first confirmed silicate/carbon star in the SMC. The other, MSX SMC 049, is a candidate post-AGB star. MSX SMC 145, previously considered a candidate OH/IR star, is actually an AGB star with a background galaxy at z  = 0.16 along the same line of sight. We consider the overall characteristics of all the MSX sources, the most infrared-bright objects in the SMC, in light of the higher sensitivity and resolution of Spitzer , and compare them with the object types expected from the original selection criteria. This population represents what will be seen in more distant galaxies by the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope ( JWST ). Color–color diagrams generated from the IRS spectra and the mid-infrared filters on JWST show how one can separate evolved stars from young stellar objects (YSOs) and distinguish among different classes of YSOs.

  19. Morphology and metallicity of the Small Magellanic Cloud using RRab stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Sukanta; Singh, Harinder P.; Kumar, Subhash; Kanbur, Shashi M.

    2015-05-01

    We present a study of three-dimensional structure of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). The V- and I-band light curves of the fundamental mode RR Lyrae (RRab) stars obtained by the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment-III project were utilized in order to comprehend the SMC structure. The [Fe/H]-P-φ31 relation of Jurcsik & Kovacs is exploited to obtain the metallicities. From the three-dimensional RRab distance distributions, north-east arm and main body of the galaxy are identified. Combining metallicities with spatial distribution of these tracers, no radial metallicity gradient in the SMC has been detected. Dividing the entire sample into three parts: north-eastern, central and south-western, we find that the central part has a significantly larger line of sight depth as compared to rest of the parts, indicating that the SMC may have a bulge. Results obtained from the I-band data seem to be reliable and were further substantiated using the Smolec relation. Distribution of SMC RRab stars was modelled as a triaxial ellipsoid. Errors in structural parameters of the SMC ellipsoid were obtained from Monte Carlo simulations. We estimated the axes ratios of the galaxy as 1.00 ± 0.000: 1.310 ± 0.029: 8.269 ± 0.934, the inclination of the longest axis with line of sight i = 2.265° ± 0.784° and the position angle of the line of nodes θlon = 74.307° ± 0.509° from the variance weighted I-band determinations.

  20. THE DETECTION OF A HOT MOLECULAR CORE IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD WITH ALMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimonishi, Takashi; Onaka, Takashi; Kawamura, Akiko; Aikawa, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    We report the first detection of a hot molecular core outside our Galaxy based on radio observations with ALMA toward a high-mass young stellar object (YSO) in a nearby low metallicity galaxy, the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Molecular emission lines of CO, C 17 O, HCO + , H 13 CO + , H 2 CO, NO, SiO, H 2 CS, 33 SO, 32 SO 2 , 34 SO 2 , and 33 SO 2 are detected from a compact region (∼0.1 pc) associated with a high-mass YSO, ST11. The temperature of molecular gas is estimated to be higher than 100 K based on rotation diagram analysis of SO 2 and 34 SO 2 lines. The compact source size, warm gas temperature, high density, and rich molecular lines around a high-mass protostar suggest that ST11 is associated with a hot molecular core. We find that the molecular abundances of the LMC hot core are significantly different from those of Galactic hot cores. The abundances of CH 3 OH, H 2 CO, and HNCO are remarkably lower compared to Galactic hot cores by at least 1–3 orders of magnitude. We suggest that these abundances are characterized by the deficiency of molecules whose formation requires the hydrogenation of CO on grain surfaces. In contrast, NO shows a high abundance in ST11 despite the notably low abundance of nitrogen in the LMC. A multitude of SO 2 and its isotopologue line detections in ST11 imply that SO 2 can be a key molecular tracer of hot core chemistry in metal-poor environments. Furthermore, we find molecular outflows around the hot core, which is the second detection of an extragalactic protostellar outflow. In this paper, we discuss the physical and chemical characteristics of a hot molecular core in the low metallicity environment.

  1. The luminosities of cool supergiants in the Magellanic Clouds, and the Humphreys-Davidson limit revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Ben; Crowther, Paul A.; Beasor, Emma R.

    2018-05-01

    The empirical upper luminosity boundary Lmax of cool supergiants, often referred to as the Humphreys-Davidson limit, is thought to encode information on the general mass-loss behaviour of massive stars. Further, it delineates the boundary at which single stars will end their lives stripped of their hydrogen-rich envelope, which in turn is a key factor in the relative rates of Type-II to Type-Ibc supernovae from single star channels. In this paper we have revisited the issue of Lmax by studying the luminosity distributions of cool supergiants (SGs) in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC/SMC). We assemble samples of cool SGs in each galaxy which are highly-complete above log L/L⊙=5.0, and determine their spectral energy distributions from the optical to the mid-infrared using modern multi-wavelength survey data. We show that in both cases Lmax appears to be lower than previously quoted, and is in the region of log L/L⊙=5.5. There is no evidence for Lmax being higher in the SMC than in the LMC, as would be expected if metallicity-dependent winds were the dominant factor in the stripping of stellar envelopes. We also show that Lmax aligns with the lowest luminosity of single nitrogen-rich Wolf-Rayet stars, indicating of a change in evolutionary sequence for stars above a critical mass. From population synthesis analysis we show that the Geneva evolutionary models greatly over-predict the numbers of cool SGs in the SMC. We also argue that the trend of earlier average spectral types of cool SGs in lower metallicity environments represents a genuine shift to hotter temperatures. Finally, we use our new bolometric luminosity measurements to provide updated bolometric corrections for cool supergiants.

  2. Photometric abundances of cepheid variables in the galaxy and the small magellanic cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, H.C.

    1980-01-01

    Washington system colors and V magnitudes are described for classical and Type II cepheids. The sample includes 102 classical cepheids and 63 Type II cepheids with a wide range of positions in the Galaxy and 45 classical cepheids in the Small Magellanic Cloud. Period-color relations are derived of each type of cepheid and, with period-magnitude relations, are used to determine reddenings and distances. The colors are interpreted in terms of abundances of heavy elements, with a calibration based on observed stars with known abundances and on model-atmosphere colors. The classical cepheids in the Galaxy show a gradient in the Galactic disk of d[A/H]/dR = -0.07 kpc -1 , approximately linear over 10 kpc, small scatter in the abundances of most stars at a given galactocentric radius, and a few stars indicating peculiar abundances. The Type II cepheids show a wide range of abundances with only a small fraction representing a true halo population, a gradient in the abundance distribution with distance from the galactic plane, and at most a weak gradient with distance from the galactic center outside of 2 kpc. Their origin and relation to the metal-rich RR Lyraes is discussed. The cepheids in the SMC show a mean value relative to the Sun of [A/H] = -0.54, with weak evidence that short-period stars are more metal-poor, but with no correlation with projected position in the SMC. The consistency of their colors, temperatures, abundances, and reddenings is discussed

  3. Geometry of the Large Magellanic Cloud Using Multi- wavelength Photometry of Classical Cepheids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Sukanta; Ngeow, Chow-Choong; Kanbur, Shashi M.; Singh, Harinder P.; Wysocki, Daniel; Kumar, Subhash

    2018-05-01

    We determine the geometrical and viewing angle parameters of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) using the Leavitt law based on a sample of more than 3500 common classical Cepheids (FU and FO) in optical (V, I), near-infrared (JHKs) and mid-infrared ([3.6] μm and [4.5] μm) photometric bands. Statistical reddening and distance modulus free from the effect of reddening to each of the individual Cepheids are obtained using the simultaneous multi-band fit to the apparent distance moduli from the analysis of the resulting Leavitt laws in these seven photometric bands. A reddening map of the LMC obtained from the analysis shows good agreement with the other maps available in the literature. Extinction free distance measurements along with the information of the equatorial coordinates (α, δ) for individual stars are used to obtain the corresponding Cartesian coordinates with respect to the plane of the sky. By fitting a plane solution of the form z = f(x, y) to the observed three dimensional distribution, the following viewing angle parameters of the LMC are obtained: inclination angle i = 25°.110 ± 0°.365, position angle of line of nodes θlon = 154°.702 ± 1°.378. On the other hand, modelling the observed three dimensional distribution of the Cepheids as a triaxial ellipsoid, the following values of the geometrical axes ratios of the LMC are obtained: 1.000 ± 0.003: 1.151 ± 0.003: 1.890 ± 0.014 with the viewing angle parameters: inclination angle of i = 11°.920 ± 0°.315 with respect to the longest axis from the line of sight and position angle of line of nodes θlon = 128°.871 ± 0°.569. The position angles are measured eastwards from north.

  4. A SEARCH FOR RAPIDLY ACCRETING WHITE DWARFS IN THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepo, Kelly; Van Kerkwijk, Marten, E-mail: lepo@astro.utoronto.ca, E-mail: mhvk@astro.utoronto.ca [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 Saint George St., Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    The nature of the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) is still a mystery. While plausible candidates are known for both the single-degenerate and double-degenerate models, the observed numbers fall significantly short of what is required to reproduce the SNe Ia rate. Some of the most promising single-degenerate Type Ia progenitors are recurrent novae and super-soft sources (SSS). White dwarfs (WDs) with higher mass transfer rates can also be SN Ia progenitors. For these rapidly accreting white dwarfs (RAWDs), more material than is needed for steady burning accretes on the WD, and extends the WD's photosphere. Unlike SSS, such objects will likely not be detectable at soft X-ray energies, but will be bright at longer wavelengths, such as the far-ultraviolet (UV). Possible examples include LMC N66 and the V Sagittae stars. We present a survey using multi-object spectrographs looking for RAWDs in the central core of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), from objects selected to be bright in the far-UV and with blue far UV - V colors. While we find some unusual objects, and recover known planetary nebula and Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars, we detect no candidate RAWD. The upper limits from this non-detection depend on our expectations of what an RAWD should look like, as well assumptions about the internal extinction of the SMC. Assuming they resemble LMC N66 or fainter versions of WR stars we set an upper limit of 10-14 RAWDs in the SMC. However, our survey is unlikely to detect objects like V Sge, and hence we cannot set meaningful upper limits if RAWDs generally resemble V Sge.

  5. Metals and dust in the neutral ISM: the Galaxy, Magellanic Clouds, and damped Lyman-α absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cia, Annalisa

    2018-05-01

    Context. The presence of dust in the neutral interstellar medium (ISM) dramatically changes the metal abundances that we measure. Understanding the metal content in the neutral ISM, and a direct comparison between different environments, has been hampered to date because of the degeneracy to the observed ISM abundances caused by the effects of metallicity, the presence of dust, and nucleosynthesis. Aims: We study the metal and dust content in the neutral ISM consistently in different environments, and assess the universality of recently discovered sequences of relative abundances. We also intend to assess the validity of [Zn/Fe] as a tracer of dust in the ISM. This has recently been cast into doubt based on observations of stellar abundances, and needs to be addressed before we can safely use it to study the ISM. Methods: In this letter we present a simple comparison of relative abundances observed in the neutral ISM in the Galaxy, the Magellanic Clouds, and damped Lyman-α absorbers (DLAs). The main novelty in this comparison is the inclusion of the Magellanic Clouds. Results: The same sequences of relative abundances are valid for the Galaxy, Magellanic Clouds, and DLAs. These sequences are driven by the presence of dust in the ISM and seem "universal". Conclusions: The metal and dust properties in the neutral ISM appear to follow a similar behaviour in different environments. This suggests that a dominant fraction of the dust budget is built up from grain growth in the ISM depending of the physical conditions and regardless of the star formation history of the system. In addition, the DLA gas behaves like the neutral ISM, at least from a chemical point of view. Finally, despite the deviations in [Zn/Fe] observed in stellar abundances, [Zn/Fe] is a robust dust tracer in the ISM of different environments, from the Galaxy to DLAs.

  6. ON THE DISTANCE OF THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS USING CEPHEID NIR AND OPTICAL-NIR PERIOD-WESENHEIT RELATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inno, L.; Bono, G.; Buonanno, R.; Genovali, K.; Matsunaga, N.; Caputo, F.; Laney, C. D.; Marconi, M.; Piersimoni, A. M.; Primas, F.; Romaniello, M.

    2013-01-01

    We present the largest near-infrared (NIR) data sets, JHKs, ever collected for classical Cepheids in the Magellanic Clouds (MCs). We selected fundamental (FU) and first overtone (FO) pulsators, and found 4150 (2571 FU, 1579 FO) Cepheids for Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) and 3042 (1840 FU, 1202 FO) for Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Current sample is 2-3 times larger than any sample used in previous investigations with NIR photometry. We also discuss optical VI photometry from OGLE-III. NIR and optical-NIR Period-Wesenheit (PW) relations are linear over the entire period range (0.0 FU ≤ 1.65) and their slopes are, within the intrinsic dispersions, common between the MCs. These are consistent with recent results from pulsation models and observations suggesting that the PW relations are minimally affected by the metal content. The new FU and FO PW relations were calibrated using a sample of Galactic Cepheids with distances based on trigonometric parallaxes and Cepheid pulsation models. By using FU Cepheids we found a true distance moduli of 18.45 ± 0.02(random) ± 0.10(systematic) mag (LMC) and 18.93 ± 0.02(random) ± 0.10(systematic) mag (SMC). These estimates are the weighted mean over 10 PW relations and the systematic errors account for uncertainties in the zero point and in the reddening law. We found similar distances using FO Cepheids (18.60 ± 0.03(random) ± 0.10(systematic) mag (LMC) and 19.12 ± 0.03(random) ± 0.10(systematic) mag (SMC)). These new MC distances lead to the relative distance, Δμ = 0.48 ± 0.03 mag (FU, log P = 1) and Δμ = 0.52 ± 0.03 mag (FO, log P = 0.5), which agrees quite well with previous estimates based on robust distance indicators.

  7. SURVEYING THE AGENTS OF GALAXY EVOLUTION IN THE TIDALLY STRIPPED, LOW METALLICITY SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD (SAGE-SMC). I. OVERVIEW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, K. D.; Meixner, M.; Boyer, M. L.; Lawton, B.; Meade, M. R.; Whitney, B.; Babler, B.; Bracker, S.; Engelbracht, C.; Block, M.; Misselt, K.; Bot, C.; Sewilo, M.; Bernard, J.-P.; Blum, R.; Harris, J.; Bolatto, A.; Bonanos, A.; Hora, J. L.; Indebetouw, R.

    2011-01-01

    The Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) provides a unique laboratory for the study of the lifecycle of dust given its low metallicity (∼1/5 solar) and relative proximity (∼60 kpc). This motivated the SAGE-SMC (Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution in the Tidally Stripped, Low Metallicity Small Magellanic Cloud) Spitzer Legacy program with the specific goals of studying the amount and type of dust in the present interstellar medium, the sources of dust in the winds of evolved stars, and how much dust is consumed in star formation. This program mapped the full SMC (30 deg 2 ) including the body, wing, and tail in seven bands from 3.6 to 160 μm using IRAC and MIPS on the Spitzer Space Telescope. The data were reduced and mosaicked, and the point sources were measured using customized routines specific for large surveys. We have made the resulting mosaics and point-source catalogs available to the community. The infrared colors of the SMC are compared to those of other nearby galaxies and the 8 μm/24 μm ratio is somewhat lower than the average and the 70 μm/160 μm ratio is somewhat higher than the average. The global infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) shows that the SMC has approximately 1/3 the aromatic emission/polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon abundance of most nearby galaxies. Infrared color-magnitude diagrams are given illustrating the distribution of different asymptotic giant branch stars and the locations of young stellar objects. Finally, the average SED of H II/star formation regions is compared to the equivalent Large Magellanic Cloud average H II/star formation region SED. These preliminary results will be expanded in detail in subsequent papers.

  8. New 20-cm radio-continuum study of the small Magellanic cloud - part III: Compact Hii regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong G.F.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present and discuss a new catalogue of 48 compact Hii regions in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC and a newly created deep 1420 MHz (λ=20 cm radio-continuum image of the N19 region located in the southwestern part of the SMC. The new images were created by merging 1420 MHz radiocontinuum archival data from the Australian Telescope Compact Array. The majority of these detected radio compact Hii regions have rather flat spectral indices which indicates, as expected, that the dominant emission mechanism is of thermal nature.

  9. Computing networks from cluster to cloud computing

    CERN Document Server

    Vicat-Blanc, Pascale; Guillier, Romaric; Soudan, Sebastien

    2013-01-01

    "Computing Networks" explores the core of the new distributed computing infrastructures we are using today:  the networking systems of clusters, grids and clouds. It helps network designers and distributed-application developers and users to better understand the technologies, specificities, constraints and benefits of these different infrastructures' communication systems. Cloud Computing will give the possibility for millions of users to process data anytime, anywhere, while being eco-friendly. In order to deliver this emerging traffic in a timely, cost-efficient, energy-efficient, and

  10. THE MID-INFRARED PERIOD-LUMINOSITY RELATIONS FOR THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD CEPHEIDS DERIVED FROM SPITZER ARCHIVAL DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngeow, Chow-Choong; Kanbur, Shashi M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we derive the Spitzer IRAC band period-luminosity (P-L) relations for the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) Cepheids, by matching the Spitzer archival SAGE-SMC data with the OGLE-III SMC Cepheids. We find that the 3.6 μm and 4.5 μm band P-L relations can be better described using two P-L relations with a break period at log(P) = 0.4: this is consistent with similar results at optical wavelengths for SMC P-L relations. The 5.8 μm and 8.0 μm band P-L relations do not extend to sufficiently short periods to enable a similar detection of a slope change at log(P) = 0.4. The slopes of the SMC P-L relations, for log(P) > 0.4, are consistent with their Large Magellanic Cloud counterparts that were derived from a similar data set. They are also in agreement with those obtained from a small sample of Galactic Cepheids with parallax measurements.

  11. THE MID-INFRARED EXTINCTION LAW IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Jian; Jiang, B. W.; Xue, M. Y. [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Li, Aigen, E-mail: jiangao@bnu.edu.cn, E-mail: bjiang@bnu.edu.cn, E-mail: lia@missouri.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

    2013-10-10

    Based on photometric data from the Spitzer/SAGE survey, using red giants as extinction tracers, the mid-infrared (MIR) extinction laws in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) are derived for the first time in the form of A{sub λ}/A{sub K{sub S}}. This quantity refers to the extinction in the four Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) bands (i.e., [3.6], [4.5], [5.8], and [8.0] μm) relative to the Two Micron All Sky Survey K{sub S} band at 2.16 μm. We obtain the near-infrared extinction coefficient to be E(J – H)/E(H – K{sub S} ) ≈ 1.29 ± 0.04 and E(J – K{sub S} )/E(H – K{sub S} ) ≈ 1.94 ± 0.04. The wavelength dependence of the MIR extinction A{sub λ}/A{sub K{sub S}} in the LMC varies from one sightline to another. The overall mean MIR extinction is A{sub [3.6]}/A{sub K{sub S}}∼0.72±0.03, A{sub [4.5]}/A{sub K{sub S}}∼0.94±0.03, A{sub [5.8]}/A{sub K{sub S}}∼0.58±0.04, and A{sub [8.0]}/A{sub K{sub S}}∼0.62±0.05. Except for the extinction in the IRAC [4.5] μm band, which may be contaminated by the 4.6 μm CO gas absorption of red giants used to trace LMC extinction, the extinction in the other three IRAC bands show a flat curve, close to the Milky Way R{sub V} = 5.5 model extinction curve, where R{sub V} is the optical total-to-selective extinction ratio. The possible systematic bias caused by the correlated uncertainties of K{sub S} – λ and J – K{sub S} is explored in terms of Monte Carlo simulations. We find that this bias could lead to an overestimation of A{sub λ}/A{sub K{sub S}} in the MIR.

  12. A WASHINGTON PHOTOMETRIC SURVEY OF THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD FIELD STAR POPULATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piatti, Andrés E.; Geisler, Doug; Mateluna, Renee

    2012-01-01

    We present photometry for an unprecedented database of some 5.5 million stars distributed throughout the Large Magellanic Cloud main body, from 21 fields covering a total area of 7.6 deg 2 , obtained from Washington CT 1 T 2 CTIO 4 m MOSAIC data. Extensive artificial star tests over the whole mosaic image data set and the observed behavior of the photometric errors with magnitude demonstrate the accuracy of the morphology and clearly delineate the position of the main features in the color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs). The representative T 1 (MS TO) mags are on average ∼0.5 mag brighter than the T 1 mags for the 100% completeness level of the respective field, allowing us to derive an accurate age estimate. We have analyzed the CMD Hess diagrams and used the peaks in star counts at the main sequence turnoff and red clump (RC) locations to age date the most dominant sub-population (or 'representative' population) in the stellar population mix. The metallicity of this representative population is estimated from the locus of the most populous red giant branch track. We use these results to derive age and metallicity estimates for all of our fields. The analyzed fields span age and metallicity ranges covering most of the galaxy's lifetime and chemical enrichment, i.e., ages and metallicities between ∼1 and 13 Gyr and ∼–0.2 and –1.2 dex, respectively. We show that the dispersions associated with the mean ages and metallicities represent in general a satisfactory estimate of the age/metallicity spread (∼1-3 Gyr/0.2-0.3 dex), although a few subfields have a slightly larger age/metallicity spread. Finally, we revisit the study of the vertical structure (VS) phenomenon, a striking feature composed of stars that extend from the bottom, bluest end of the RC to ∼0.45 mag fainter. We confirm that the VS phenomenon is not clearly seen in most of the studied fields and suggest that its occurrence is linked to some other condition(s) in addition to the appropriate age

  13. Deep Chandra Survey of the Small Magellanic Cloud. II. Timing Analysis of X-Ray Pulsars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, JaeSub; Antoniou, Vallia; Zezas, Andreas; Drake, Jeremy J.; Plucinsky, Paul P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Haberl, Frank [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbach straße, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Sasaki, Manami [Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Sternwartstrasse 7, 96049 Bamberg (Germany); Laycock, Silas, E-mail: jaesub@head.cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts Lowell, MA 01854 (United States)

    2017-09-20

    We report the timing analysis results of X-ray pulsars from a recent deep Chandra survey of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). We analyzed a total exposure of 1.4 Ms from 31 observations over a 1.2 deg{sup 2} region in the SMC under a Chandra X-ray Visionary Program. Using the Lomb–Scargle and epoch-folding techniques, we detected periodic modulations from 20 pulsars and a new candidate pulsar. The survey also covered 11 other pulsars with no clear sign of periodic modulation. The 0.5–8 keV X-ray luminosity ( L {sub X} ) of the pulsars ranges from 10{sup 34} to 10{sup 37} erg s{sup −1} at 60 kpc. All of the Chandra sources with L {sub X} ≳ 4 × 10{sup 35} erg s{sup −1} exhibit X-ray pulsations. The X-ray spectra of the SMC pulsars (and high-mass X-ray binaries) are in general harder than those of the SMC field population. All but SXP 8.02 can be fitted by an absorbed power-law model with a photon index of Γ ≲ 1.5. The X-ray spectrum of the known magnetar SXP 8.02 is better fitted with a two-temperature blackbody model. Newly measured pulsation periods of SXP 51.0, SXP 214, and SXP 701, are significantly different from the previous XMM-Newton and RXTE measurements. This survey provides a rich data set for energy-dependent pulse profile modeling. Six pulsars show an almost eclipse-like dip in the pulse profile. Phase-resolved spectral analysis reveals diverse spectral variations during pulsation cycles: e.g., for an absorbed power-law model, some exhibit an (anti)-correlation between absorption and X-ray flux, while others show more intrinsic spectral variation (i.e., changes in photon indices).

  14. A WASHINGTON PHOTOMETRIC SURVEY OF THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD FIELD STAR POPULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piatti, Andres E. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, CC 67, Suc. 28, 1428, Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Geisler, Doug; Mateluna, Renee, E-mail: andres@iafe.uba.ar [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile)

    2012-10-01

    We present photometry for an unprecedented database of some 5.5 million stars distributed throughout the Large Magellanic Cloud main body, from 21 fields covering a total area of 7.6 deg{sup 2}, obtained from Washington CT{sub 1} T{sub 2} CTIO 4 m MOSAIC data. Extensive artificial star tests over the whole mosaic image data set and the observed behavior of the photometric errors with magnitude demonstrate the accuracy of the morphology and clearly delineate the position of the main features in the color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs). The representative T{sub 1}(MS TO) mags are on average {approx}0.5 mag brighter than the T{sub 1} mags for the 100% completeness level of the respective field, allowing us to derive an accurate age estimate. We have analyzed the CMD Hess diagrams and used the peaks in star counts at the main sequence turnoff and red clump (RC) locations to age date the most dominant sub-population (or 'representative' population) in the stellar population mix. The metallicity of this representative population is estimated from the locus of the most populous red giant branch track. We use these results to derive age and metallicity estimates for all of our fields. The analyzed fields span age and metallicity ranges covering most of the galaxy's lifetime and chemical enrichment, i.e., ages and metallicities between {approx}1 and 13 Gyr and {approx}-0.2 and -1.2 dex, respectively. We show that the dispersions associated with the mean ages and metallicities represent in general a satisfactory estimate of the age/metallicity spread ({approx}1-3 Gyr/0.2-0.3 dex), although a few subfields have a slightly larger age/metallicity spread. Finally, we revisit the study of the vertical structure (VS) phenomenon, a striking feature composed of stars that extend from the bottom, bluest end of the RC to {approx}0.45 mag fainter. We confirm that the VS phenomenon is not clearly seen in most of the studied fields and suggest that its occurrence is linked to

  15. THE MID-INFRARED EXTINCTION LAW IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Jian; Jiang, B. W.; Xue, M. Y.; Li, Aigen

    2013-01-01

    Based on photometric data from the Spitzer/SAGE survey, using red giants as extinction tracers, the mid-infrared (MIR) extinction laws in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) are derived for the first time in the form of A λ /A K S . This quantity refers to the extinction in the four Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) bands (i.e., [3.6], [4.5], [5.8], and [8.0] μm) relative to the Two Micron All Sky Survey K S band at 2.16 μm. We obtain the near-infrared extinction coefficient to be E(J – H)/E(H – K S ) ≈ 1.29 ± 0.04 and E(J – K S )/E(H – K S ) ≈ 1.94 ± 0.04. The wavelength dependence of the MIR extinction A λ /A K S in the LMC varies from one sightline to another. The overall mean MIR extinction is A [3.6] /A K S ∼0.72±0.03, A [4.5] /A K S ∼0.94±0.03, A [5.8] /A K S ∼0.58±0.04, and A [8.0] /A K S ∼0.62±0.05. Except for the extinction in the IRAC [4.5] μm band, which may be contaminated by the 4.6 μm CO gas absorption of red giants used to trace LMC extinction, the extinction in the other three IRAC bands show a flat curve, close to the Milky Way R V = 5.5 model extinction curve, where R V is the optical total-to-selective extinction ratio. The possible systematic bias caused by the correlated uncertainties of K S – λ and J – K S is explored in terms of Monte Carlo simulations. We find that this bias could lead to an overestimation of A λ /A K S in the MIR

  16. Methodologies for Improved Tag Cloud Generation with Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leginus, Martin; Dolog, Peter; Lage, Ricardo Gomes

    2012-01-01

    Tag clouds are useful means for navigation in the social web systems. Usually the systems implement the tag cloud generation based on tag popularity which is not always the best method. In this paper we propose methodologies on how to combine clustering into the tag cloud generation to improve...... coverage and overlap. We study several clustering algorithms to generate tag clouds. We show that by extending cloud generation based on tag popularity with clustering we slightly improve coverage. We also show that if the cloud is generated by clustering independently of the tag popularity baseline we...

  17. EXTINCTION MAP OF THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD BASED ON THE SIRIUS AND 6X 2MASS POINT SOURCE CATALOGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobashi, Kazuhito; Egusa, Fumi; Bernard, Jean-Philippe; Paradis, Deborah; Kawamura, Akiko; Hughes, Annie; Bot, Caroline; Reach, William T.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present the first extinction map of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) constructed using the color excess at near-infrared wavelengths. Using a new technique named X percentile method , which we developed recently to measure the color excess of dark clouds embedded within a star distribution, we have derived an E(J - H) map based on the SIRIUS and 6X Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) star catalogs. Several dark clouds are detected in the map derived from the SIRIUS star catalog, which is deeper than the 6X 2MASS catalog. We have compared the E(J - H) map with a model calculation in order to infer the locations of the clouds along the line of sight, and found that many of them are likely to be located in or elongated toward the far side of the SMC. Most of the dark clouds found in the E(J - H) map have counterparts in the CO clouds detected by Mizuno et al. with the NANTEN telescope. A comparison of the E(J - H) map with the virial mass derived from the CO data indicates that the dust-to-gas ratio in the SMC varies in the range A V /N H = 1-2 x 10 -22 mag H -1 cm 2 with a mean value of ∼1.5 x 10 -22 mag H -1 cm 2 . If the virial mass underestimates the true cloud mass by a factor of ∼2, as recently suggested by Bot et al., the mean value would decrease to ∼8x10 -23 mag H -1 cm 2 , in good agreement with the value reported by Gordon et al., 7.59 x 10 -23 mag H -1 cm 2 .

  18. Deep view of the Large Magellanic Cloud with six years of Fermi -LAT observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, M.

    2016-01-01

    Context. The nearby Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) provides a rare opportunity of a spatially resolved view of an external star-forming galaxy in -rays. The LMC was detected at 0.1–100 GeV as an extended source with CGRO/EGRET and using early observations with the Fermi-LAT. The emission was found to correlate with massive star-forming regions and to be particularly bright towards 30 Doradus. Aims. Studies of the origin and transport of cosmic rays (CRs) in the Milky Way are frequently hampered by line-of-sight confusion and poor distance determination. The LMC offers a complementary way to address these questions by revealing whether and how the -ray emission is connected to specific objects, populations of objects, and structures in the galaxy. Methods. We revisited the -ray emission from the LMC using about 73 months of Fermi-LAT P7REP data in the 0.2–100 GeV range. We developed a complete spatial and spectral model of the LMC emission, for which we tested several approaches: a simple geometrical description, template-fitting, and a physically driven model for CR-induced interstellar emission. Results. In addition to identifying PSR J0540-6919 through its pulsations, we find two hard sources positionally coincident with plerion N 157B and supernova remnant N 132D, which were also detected at TeV energies with H.E.S.S. We detect an additional soft source that is currently unidentified. Extended emission dominates the total flux from the LMC. It consists of an extended component of about the size of the galaxy and additional emission from three to four regions with degree-scale sizes. If it is interpreted as CRs interacting with interstellar gas, the large-scale emission implies a large-scale population of ~1–100GeV CRs with a density of ~30% of the local Galactic value. On top of that, the three to four small-scale emission regions would correspond to enhancements of the CR density by factors 2 to 6 or higher, possibly more energetic and younger populations

  19. HIGH- AND INTERMEDIATE-MASS YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruendl, Robert A.; Chu, Y.-H.

    2009-01-01

    Archival Spitzer Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) and MIPS observations of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) have been used to search for young stellar objects (YSOs). We have carried out independent aperture photometry of these data and merged the results from different passbands to produce a photometric catalog. To verify our methodology we have also analyzed the data from the SAGE and SWIRE Legacy programs; our photometric measurements are in general agreement with the photometry released by these programs. A detailed completeness analysis for our photometric catalog of the LMC shows that the 90% completeness limits are, on average, 16.0, 15.0, 14.3, 13.1, and 9.2 mag at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, and 24 μm, respectively. Using our mid-infrared photometric catalogs and two simple selection criteria, [4.5]-[8.0]>2.0 to exclude normal and evolved stars and [8.0]>14-([4.5]-[8.0]) to exclude background galaxies, we have identified a sample of 2910 sources in the LMC that could potentially be YSOs. We then used the Spitzer observations complemented by optical and near-infrared data to carefully assess the nature of each source. To do so we simultaneously considered multiwavelength images and photometry to assess the source morphology, spectral energy distribution (SED) from the optical through the mid-infrared wavelengths, and the surrounding interstellar environment to determine the most likely nature of each source. From this examination of the initial sample, we suggest that 1172 sources are most likely YSOs. We have also identified 1075 probable background galaxies, consistent with the expected number estimated from the SWIRE survey. Spitzer IRS observations of 269 of the brightest YSOs from our sample have confirmed that ∼>95% are indeed YSOs. An examination of color-color and color-magnitude diagrams shows no simple criteria in color-magnitude space that can unambiguously separate the LMC YSOs from all asymptotic giant branch (AGB)/post-AGB stars, planetary nebulae, and

  20. THE DISCOVERY OF A RARE WO-TYPE WOLF-RAYET STAR IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neugent, Kathryn F.; Massey, Philip [Lowell Observatory, 1400 W Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Morrell, Nidia, E-mail: kneugent@lowell.edu, E-mail: phil.massey@lowell.edu, E-mail: nmorrell@lco.cl [Las Campanas Observatory, Carnegie Observatories, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile)

    2012-12-01

    While observing OB stars within the most crowded regions of the Large Magellanic Cloud, we happened upon a new Wolf-Rayet (WR) star in Lucke-Hodge 41, the rich OB association that contains S Doradus and numerous other massive stars. At first glance the spectrum resembled that of a WC4 star, but closer examination showed strong O VI {lambda}{lambda}3811, 34 lines, leading us to classify it as a WO4. This is only the second known WO in the LMC, and the first known WO4 (the other being a WO3). This rarity is to be expected due to these stars' short lifespans as they represent the most advanced evolutionary stage in a massive star's lifetime before exploding as supernovae. This discovery shows that while the majority of WRs within the LMC have been discovered, there may be a few WRs left to be found.

  1. THE DISCOVERY OF A RARE WO-TYPE WOLF–RAYET STAR IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neugent, Kathryn F.; Massey, Philip; Morrell, Nidia

    2012-01-01

    While observing OB stars within the most crowded regions of the Large Magellanic Cloud, we happened upon a new Wolf-Rayet (WR) star in Lucke-Hodge 41, the rich OB association that contains S Doradus and numerous other massive stars. At first glance the spectrum resembled that of a WC4 star, but closer examination showed strong O VI λλ3811, 34 lines, leading us to classify it as a WO4. This is only the second known WO in the LMC, and the first known WO4 (the other being a WO3). This rarity is to be expected due to these stars' short lifespans as they represent the most advanced evolutionary stage in a massive star's lifetime before exploding as supernovae. This discovery shows that while the majority of WRs within the LMC have been discovered, there may be a few WRs left to be found.

  2. FORBIDDEN IRON LINES AND DUST DESTRUCTION IN SUPERNOVA REMNANT SHOCKS: THE CASE OF N49 IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dopita, Michael A.; Seitenzahl, Ivo R.; Sutherland, Ralph S. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Vogt, Frédéric P. A. [ESO—European Southern Observatory, Av. Alonso de Córdova 3107, 7630355 Vitacura Santiago (Chile); Winkler, P. Frank [Physics Department, Middlebury College, Middlebury, VT 05753 (United States); Blair, William P., E-mail: Michael.Dopita@anu.edu.au [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2016-08-01

    We present the results of a complete integral-field survey of the bright supernova remnant (SNR) N49 in the Large Magellanic Cloud, obtained with the WiFeS instrument mounted on the ANU 2.3 m telescope at Siding Spring Observatory. From theoretical shock modeling with the new MAPPINGS 5.1 code, we have, for the first time, subjected the optical Fe emission line spectrum of an SNR to a detailed abundance and dynamical analysis covering eight separate stages of ionization. This allows us to derive the dust depletion factors as a function of ionization stage. We have shown that there is substantial (30%–90%) destruction of Fe-bearing dust grains in these fast shocks (v{sub s} ∼ 250 km s{sup −1}), and we have confirmed that the dominant dust destruction occurs through the non-thermal sputtering and grain–grain collision mechanisms developed in a number of theoretical works.

  3. A search for β Cephei variable stars in the Magellanic Clouds: motivation and first results for the LMC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterken, C.; Jerzykiewicz, M.

    1988-01-01

    Motivation for starting a programme of detecting and investigating β Cephei variables in the Magellanic Clouds is given. Differential photoelectric observations are then reported of six LMC stars which fall in the instability strip defined by the galactic β Cephei variables. Three programme stars are found to exhibit short-term brightness variations. One of them, showing a sinusoidal light-curve with an amplitude (half-range) equal to 0.0070 ± 0.0011 mag and a period equal to about 5 hr, is a promising β Cephei candidate. In the case of the other two variable programme stars, the interpretation of the results is less straightforward. The remaining three programme stars are shown to be constant on a short time-scale, two to within ± 0.010 mag, and one to within ± 0.005 magn. (author)

  4. The Near-infrared Tip of the Red Giant Branch. II. An Absolute Calibration in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Taylor J.; Freedman, Wendy L.; Madore, Barry F.; Seibert, Mark; Beaton, Rachael L.; Hatt, Dylan; Jang, In Sung; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Monson, Andrew J.; Rich, Jeffrey A.

    2018-05-01

    We present a new empirical JHK absolute calibration of the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). We use published data from the extensive Near-Infrared Synoptic Survey containing 3.5 million stars, 65,000 of which are red giants that fall within one magnitude of the TRGB. Adopting the TRGB slopes from a companion study of the isolated dwarf galaxy IC 1613, as well as an LMC distance modulus of μ 0 = 18.49 mag from (geometric) detached eclipsing binaries, we derive absolute JHK zero points for the near-infrared TRGB. For a comparison with measurements in the bar alone, we apply the calibrated JHK TRGB to a 500 deg2 area of the 2MASS survey. The TRGB reveals the 3D structure of the LMC with a tilt in the direction perpendicular to the major axis of the bar, which is in agreement with previous studies.

  5. A MODERN SEARCH FOR WOLF–RAYET STARS IN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS. II. A SECOND YEAR OF DISCOVERIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massey, Philip; Neugent, Kathryn F. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 W Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Morrell, Nidia, E-mail: phil.massey@lowell.edu, E-mail: kneugent@lowell.edu, E-mail: nmorrell@lco.cl [Las Campanas Observatory, Carnegie Observatories, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile)

    2015-07-01

    The numbers and types of evolved massive stars found in nearby galaxies provide an exacting test of stellar evolution models. Because of their proximity and rich massive star populations, the Magellanic Clouds have long served as the linchpins for such studies. Yet the continued accidental discoveries of Wolf–Rayet (WR) stars in these systems demonstrate that our knowledge is not as complete as usually assumed. Therefore, we undertook a multi-year survey for WRs in the Magellanic Clouds. Our results from our first year (reported previously) confirmed nine new LMC WRs. Of these, six were of a type never before recognized, with WN3-type emission combined with O3-type absorption features. Yet these stars are 2–3 mag too faint to be WN3+O3 V binaries. Here we report on the second year of our survey, including the discovery of four more WRs, two of which are also WN3/O3s, plus two “slash” WRs. This brings the total of known LMC WRs to 152, 13 (8.2%) of which were found by our survey, which is now ∼60% complete. We find that the spatial distribution of the WN3/O3s is similar to that of other WRs in the LMC, suggesting that they are descended from the same progenitors. We call attention to the fact that 5 of the 12 known SMC WRs may in fact be similar WN3/O3s rather than the binaries they have often assumed to be. We also discuss our other discoveries: a newly discovered Onfp-type star, and a peculiar emission-line object. Finally, we consider the completeness limits of our survey.

  6. Clustering, randomness, and regularity in cloud fields. 4: Stratocumulus cloud fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Chou, J.; Weger, R. C.; Welch, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    To complete the analysis of the spatial distribution of boundary layer cloudiness, the present study focuses on nine stratocumulus Landsat scenes. The results indicate many similarities between stratocumulus and cumulus spatial distributions. Most notably, at full spatial resolution all scenes exhibit a decidedly clustered distribution. The strength of the clustering signal decreases with increasing cloud size; the clusters themselves consist of a few clouds (less than 10), occupy a small percentage of the cloud field area (less than 5%), contain between 20% and 60% of the cloud field population, and are randomly located within the scene. In contrast, stratocumulus in almost every respect are more strongly clustered than are cumulus cloud fields. For instance, stratocumulus clusters contain more clouds per cluster, occupy a larger percentage of the total area, and have a larger percentage of clouds participating in clusters than the corresponding cumulus examples. To investigate clustering at intermediate spatial scales, the local dimensionality statistic is introduced. Results obtained from this statistic provide the first direct evidence for regularity among large (more than 900 m in diameter) clouds in stratocumulus and cumulus cloud fields, in support of the inhibition hypothesis of Ramirez and Bras (1990). Also, the size compensated point-to-cloud cumulative distribution function statistic is found to be necessary to obtain a consistent description of stratocumulus cloud distributions. A hypothesis regarding the underlying physical mechanisms responsible for cloud clustering is presented. It is suggested that cloud clusters often arise from 4 to 10 triggering events localized within regions less than 2 km in diameter and randomly distributed within the cloud field. As the size of the cloud surpasses the scale of the triggering region, the clustering signal weakens and the larger cloud locations become more random.

  7. Clustering, randomness, and regularity in cloud fields. 4. Stratocumulus cloud fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Chou, J.; Weger, R. C.; Welch, R. M.

    1994-07-01

    To complete the analysis of the spatial distribution of boundary layer cloudiness, the present study focuses on nine stratocumulus Landsat scenes. The results indicate many similarities between stratocumulus and cumulus spatial distributions. Most notably, at full spatial resolution all scenes exhibit a decidedly clustered distribution. The strength of the clustering signal decreases with increasing cloud size; the clusters themselves consist of a few clouds (less than 10), occupy a small percentage of the cloud field area (less than 5%), contain between 20% and 60% of the cloud field population, and are randomly located within the scene. In contrast, stratocumulus in almost every respect are more strongly clustered than are cumulus cloud fields. For instance, stratocumulus clusters contain more clouds per cluster, occupy a larger percentage of the total area, and have a larger percentage of clouds participating in clusters than the corresponding cumulus examples. To investigate clustering at intermediate spatial scales, the local dimensionality statistic is introduced. Results obtained from this statistic provide the first direct evidence for regularity among large (>900 m in diameter) clouds in stratocumulus and cumulus cloud fields, in support of the inhibition hypothesis of Ramirez and Bras (1990). Also, the size compensated point-to-cloud cumulative distribution function statistic is found to be necessary to obtain a consistent description of stratocumulus cloud distributions. A hypothesis regarding the underlying physical mechanisms responsible for cloud clustering is presented. It is suggested that cloud clusters often arise from 4 to 10 triggering events localized within regions less than 2 km in diameter and randomly distributed within the cloud field. As the size of the cloud surpasses the scale of the triggering region, the clustering signal weakens and the larger cloud locations become more random.

  8. THE 1.1 mm CONTINUUM SURVEY OF THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD: PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND EVOLUTION OF THE DUST-SELECTED CLOUDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takekoshi, Tatsuya; Minamidani, Tetsuhiro; Sorai, Kazuo [Department of Cosmosciences, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Komugi, Shinya; Muller, Erik; Mizuno, Norikazu; Kawamura, Akiko; Ezawa, Hajime [Chile Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS), 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Kohno, Kotaro [Institute of Astronomy, The University of Tokyo, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Tosaki, Tomoka [Joetsu University of Education, Joetsu, Niigata 943-8512 (Japan); Onishi, Toshikazu [Department of Physical Science, Osaka Prefecture University, Gakuen 1-1, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Fukui, Yasuo [Department of Astrophysics, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Oshima, Tai; Kawabe, Ryohei [Nobeyama Radio Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS), 462-2, Nobeyama, Minamimaki, Minamisaku, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan); Scott, Kimberly S.; Austermann, Jason E.; Wilson, Grant W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Matsuo, Hiroshi [Department of Astronomical Science, School of Physical Science, SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies), 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Aretxaga, Itziar; Hughes, David H. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica (INAOE), 72000 Puebla (Mexico); and others

    2017-01-20

    The first 1.1 mm continuum survey toward the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) was performed using the AzTEC instrument installed on the ASTE 10 m telescope. This survey covered 4.5 deg{sup 2} of the SMC with 1 σ noise levels of 5–12 mJy beam{sup −1}, and 44 extended objects were identified. The 1.1 mm extended emission has good spatial correlation with Herschel 160 μ m, indicating that the origin of the 1.1 mm extended emission is thermal emission from a cold dust component. We estimated physical properties using the 1.1 mm and filtered Herschel data (100, 160, 250, 350, and 500 μ m). The 1.1 mm objects show dust temperatures of 17–45 K and gas masses of 4 × 10{sup 3}–3 × 10{sup 5} M {sub ⊙}, assuming single-temperature thermal emission from the cold dust with an emissivity index, β , of 1.2 and a gas-to-dust ratio of 1000. These physical properties are very similar to those of giant molecular clouds (GMCs) in our galaxy and the Large Magellanic Cloud. The 1.1 mm objects also displayed good spatial correlation with the Spitzer 24 μ m and CO emission, suggesting that the 1.1 mm objects trace the dense gas regions as sites of massive star formation. The dust temperature of the 1.1 mm objects also demonstrated good correlation with the 24 μ m flux connected to massive star formation. This supports the hypothesis that the heating source of the cold dust is mainly local star-formation activity in the 1.1 mm objects. The classification of the 1.1 mm objects based on the existence of star-formation activity reveals the differences in the dust temperature, gas mass, and radius, which reflects the evolution sequence of GMCs.

  9. Photometric studies of two solar type marginal contact binaries in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanti Priya, Devarapalli; Rukmini, Jagirdar

    2018-04-01

    Using the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment catalogue, two contact binaries were studied using data in the V and I bands. The photometric solutions for the V and I bands are presented for two contact binaries OGLE 003835.24-735413.2 (V1) and OGLE 004619.65-725056.2 (V2) in Small Maglellanic Cloud. The presented light curves are analyzed using the Wilson-Devinney code. The results show that the variables are in good thermal and marginal geometrical contact with features like the O’Connell effect in V1. The absolute dimensions are estimated and its dynamical evolution is inferred. They tend to be solar type marginal contact binaries. The 3.6-m Devasthal Optical Telescope and the 4.0-m International Liquid Mirror Telescope of the Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences (ARIES, Nainithal) can facilitate the continuous monitoring of such kind of objects which will help in finding the reasons behind their period changes and their impact on the evolution of the clusters.

  10. INDICATORS FOR CLUSTER SURVIVABILITY IN A DISPERSING CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H.-C.; Ko, C.-M.

    2009-01-01

    We use N-body simulations to survey the response of embedded star clusters to the dispersal of their parent molecular cloud. The final stages of the clusters can be divided into three classes: the cluster (1) is destroyed, (2) has a loose structure, and (3) has a compact core. We are interested in three of the governing parameters of the parent cloud: (1) the mass, (2) the size, and (3) the dispersing rate. It is known that the final stage of the cluster is well correlated with the star formation efficiency (SFE) for systems with the same cluster and cloud profile. We deem that the SFE alone is not enough to address systems with clouds of different sizes. Our result shows that the initial cluster-cloud mass ratio at a certain Lagrangian radius and the initial kinetic energy are better indicators for the survivability of embedded clusters.

  11. ULTRA-LOW AMPLITUDE VARIABLES IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD-CLASSICAL CEPHEIDS, POP. II CEPHEIDS, RV TAU STARS, AND BINARY VARIABLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert Buchler, J.; Wood, Peter R.; Soszynski, Igor

    2009-01-01

    A search for variable stars with ultra-low amplitudes (ULAs), in the millimagnitude range, has been made in the combined MACHO and OGLE databases in the broad vicinity of the Cepheid instability strip in the HR diagram. A total of 25 singly periodic and 4 multiply periodic ULA objects have been uncovered. Our analysis does not allow us to distinguish between pulsational and ellipsoidal (binary) variabilities, nor between Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and foreground objects. However, the objects are strongly clustered and appear to be associated with the pulsational instability strips of LMC Pop. I and II variables. When combined with the ULA variables of Buchler et al., a total of 20 objects fall close to the classical Cepheid instability strip. However, they appear to fall on parallel period-magnitude (PM) relations that are shifted to slightly higher magnitude which would confer them a different evolutionary status. Low-amplitude RV Tauri and Pop. II Cepheids have been uncovered that do not appear in the MACHO or OGLE catalogs. Interestingly, a set of binaries seem to lie on a PM relation that is essentially parallel to that of the RV Tauri/Pop. II Cepheids.

  12. The SAGE-Spec Spitzer Legacy program: the life-cycle of dust and gas in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Point source classification - III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, O. C.; Woods, P. M.; Kemper, F.; Kraemer, K. E.; Sloan, G. C.; Srinivasan, S.; Oliveira, J. M.; van Loon, J. Th.; Boyer, M. L.; Sargent, B. A.; McDonald, I.; Meixner, M.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Ruffle, P. M. E.; Lagadec, E.; Pauly, T.; Sewiło, M.; Clayton, G. C.; Volk, K.

    2017-09-01

    The Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on the Spitzer Space Telescope observed nearly 800 point sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), taking over 1000 spectra. 197 of these targets were observed as part of the SAGE-Spec Spitzer Legacy program; the remainder are from a variety of different calibration, guaranteed time and open time projects. We classify these point sources into types according to their infrared spectral features, continuum and spectral energy distribution shape, bolometric luminosity, cluster membership and variability information, using a decision-tree classification method. We then refine the classification using supplementary information from the astrophysical literature. We find that our IRS sample is comprised substantially of YSO and H II regions, post-main-sequence low-mass stars: (post-)asymptotic giant branch stars and planetary nebulae and massive stars including several rare evolutionary types. Two supernova remnants, a nova and several background galaxies were also observed. We use these classifications to improve our understanding of the stellar populations in the LMC, study the composition and characteristics of dust species in a variety of LMC objects, and to verify the photometric classification methods used by mid-IR surveys. We discover that some widely used catalogues of objects contain considerable contamination and others are missing sources in our sample.

  13. SPITZER VIEW OF YOUNG MASSIVE STARS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD H II COMPLEXES. II. N 159

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.-H. Rosie; Indebetouw, Remy; Chu, You-Hua; Gruendl, Robert A.; Seale, Jonathan P.; Testor, Gerard; Heitsch, Fabian; Meixner, Margaret; Sewilo, Marta

    2010-01-01

    The H II complex N 159 in the Large Magellanic Cloud is used to study massive star formation in different environments, as it contains three giant molecular clouds (GMCs) that have similar sizes and masses but exhibit different intensities of star formation. We identify candidate massive young stellar objects (YSOs) using infrared photometry, and model their spectral energy distributions to constrain mass and evolutionary state. Good fits are obtained for less evolved Type I, I/II, and II sources. Our analysis suggests that there are massive embedded YSOs in N 159B, a maser source, and several ultracompact H II regions. Massive O-type YSOs are found in GMCs N 159-E and N 159-W, which are associated with ionized gas, i.e., where massive stars formed a few Myr ago. The third GMC, N 159-S, has neither O-type YSOs nor evidence of previous massive star formation. This correlation between current and antecedent formation of massive stars suggests that energy feedback is relevant. We present evidence that N 159-W is forming YSOs spontaneously, while collapse in N 159-E may be triggered. Finally, we compare star formation rates determined from YSO counts with those from integrated Hα and 24 μm luminosities and expected from gas surface densities. Detailed dissection of extragalactic GMCs like the one presented here is key to revealing the physics underlying commonly used star formation scaling laws.

  14. Examining the infrared variable star population discovered in the Small Magellanic Cloud using the SAGE-SMC survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polsdofer, Elizabeth; Marengo, M. [Iowa State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 12 Physics Hall, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Seale, J.; Sewiło, M. [The Johns Hopkins University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 366 Bloomberg Center, 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Vijh, U. P.; Terrazas, M. [Ritter Astrophysical Research Center, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Meixner, M., E-mail: empolsdofer@gmail.com [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    We present our study on the infrared variability of point sources in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). We use the data from the Spitzer Space Telescope Legacy Program “Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution in the Tidally Stripped, Low Metallicity Small Magellanic Cloud” (SAGE-SMC) and the “Spitzer Survey of the Small Magellanic Cloud” (S{sup 3}MC) survey, over three different epochs, separated by several months to 3 years. Variability in the thermal infrared is identified using a combination of Spitzer’s InfraRed Array Camera 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 μm bands, and the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer 24 μm band. An error-weighted flux difference between each pair of three epochs (“variability index”) is used to assess the variability of each source. A visual source inspection is used to validate the photometry and image quality. Out of ∼2 million sources in the SAGE-SMC catalog, 814 meet our variability criteria. We matched the list of variable star candidates to the catalogs of SMC sources classified with other methods, available in the literature. Carbon-rich Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars make up the majority (61%) of our variable sources, with about a third of all of our sources being classified as extreme AGB stars. We find a small, but significant population of oxygen-rich (O-rich) AGB (8.6%), Red Supergiant (2.8%), and Red Giant Branch (<1%) stars. Other matches to the literature include Cepheid variable stars (8.6%), early type stars (2.8%), Young-stellar objects (5.8%), and background galaxies (1.2%). We found a candidate OH maser star, SSTISAGE1C J005212.88-730852.8, which is a variable O-rich AGB star, and would be the first OH/IR star in the SMC, if confirmed. We measured the infrared variability of a rare RV Tau variable (a post-AGB star) that has recently left the AGB phase. 59 variable stars from our list remain unclassified.

  15. Examining the infrared variable star population discovered in the Small Magellanic Cloud using the SAGE-SMC survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polsdofer, Elizabeth; Marengo, M.; Seale, J.; Sewiło, M.; Vijh, U. P.; Terrazas, M.; Meixner, M.

    2015-01-01

    We present our study on the infrared variability of point sources in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). We use the data from the Spitzer Space Telescope Legacy Program “Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution in the Tidally Stripped, Low Metallicity Small Magellanic Cloud” (SAGE-SMC) and the “Spitzer Survey of the Small Magellanic Cloud” (S 3 MC) survey, over three different epochs, separated by several months to 3 years. Variability in the thermal infrared is identified using a combination of Spitzer’s InfraRed Array Camera 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 μm bands, and the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer 24 μm band. An error-weighted flux difference between each pair of three epochs (“variability index”) is used to assess the variability of each source. A visual source inspection is used to validate the photometry and image quality. Out of ∼2 million sources in the SAGE-SMC catalog, 814 meet our variability criteria. We matched the list of variable star candidates to the catalogs of SMC sources classified with other methods, available in the literature. Carbon-rich Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars make up the majority (61%) of our variable sources, with about a third of all of our sources being classified as extreme AGB stars. We find a small, but significant population of oxygen-rich (O-rich) AGB (8.6%), Red Supergiant (2.8%), and Red Giant Branch (<1%) stars. Other matches to the literature include Cepheid variable stars (8.6%), early type stars (2.8%), Young-stellar objects (5.8%), and background galaxies (1.2%). We found a candidate OH maser star, SSTISAGE1C J005212.88-730852.8, which is a variable O-rich AGB star, and would be the first OH/IR star in the SMC, if confirmed. We measured the infrared variability of a rare RV Tau variable (a post-AGB star) that has recently left the AGB phase. 59 variable stars from our list remain unclassified.

  16. Clustering, randomness, and regularity in cloud fields: 2. Cumulus cloud fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, T.; Lee, J.; Weger, R. C.; Welch, R. M.

    1992-12-01

    During the last decade a major controversy has been brewing concerning the proper characterization of cumulus convection. The prevailing view has been that cumulus clouds form in clusters, in which cloud spacing is closer than that found for the overall cloud field and which maintains its identity over many cloud lifetimes. This "mutual protection hypothesis" of Randall and Huffman (1980) has been challenged by the "inhibition hypothesis" of Ramirez et al. (1990) which strongly suggests that the spatial distribution of cumuli must tend toward a regular distribution. A dilemma has resulted because observations have been reported to support both hypotheses. The present work reports a detailed analysis of cumulus cloud field spatial distributions based upon Landsat, Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer, and Skylab data. Both nearest-neighbor and point-to-cloud cumulative distribution function statistics are investigated. The results show unequivocally that when both large and small clouds are included in the cloud field distribution, the cloud field always has a strong clustering signal. The strength of clustering is largest at cloud diameters of about 200-300 m, diminishing with increasing cloud diameter. In many cases, clusters of small clouds are found which are not closely associated with large clouds. As the small clouds are eliminated from consideration, the cloud field typically tends towards regularity. Thus it would appear that the "inhibition hypothesis" of Ramirez and Bras (1990) has been verified for the large clouds. However, these results are based upon the analysis of point processes. A more exact analysis also is made which takes into account the cloud size distributions. Since distinct clouds are by definition nonoverlapping, cloud size effects place a restriction upon the possible locations of clouds in the cloud field. The net effect of this analysis is that the large clouds appear to be randomly distributed, with only weak tendencies towards

  17. The relation between radio flux density and ionizing ultra-violet flux for HII regions and supernova remnants in the Large Magellanic cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović M.D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a comparison between the Parkes radio surveys (Filipović et al 1995 and Vacuum Ultra-Violet (VUV surveys (Smith et al. 1987 of the Large Magellanic Clouds (LMC. We have found 72 sources in common in the LMC which are known HII regions (52 and supernova remnants (SNRs (19. Some of these radio sources are associated with two or more UV stellar associations. A comparison of the radio flux densities and ionizing UV flux for HII regions shows a very good correlation, as expected from theory. Many of the Magellanic Clouds (MCs SNRs are embedded in HII regions, so there is also a relation between radio and UV which we attribute to the surrounding HII regions.

  18. SPECTRAL VARIATIONS OF Of?p OBLIQUE MAGNETIC ROTATOR CANDIDATES IN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walborn, Nolan R. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Morrell, Nidia I. [Las Campanas Observatory, Carnegie Observatories, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile); Nazé, Yaël [GAPHE, Département AGO, Université de Liège, Allée du 6 Août 19c, Bat. B5C, B-4000-Liège (Belgium); Wade, Gregg A. [Department of Physics, Royal Military College of Canada, P.O. Box 17000 Station Forces, Kingston, ON, Canada K7K 7B4 (Canada); Bagnulo, Stefano [Armagh Observatory, College Hill, Armagh BT61 9DG (United Kingdom); Barbá, Rodolfo H. [Departamento de Física y Astronomía, Universidad de La Serena, Cisternas 1200 Norte, La Serena (Chile); Apellániz, Jesús Maíz [Centro de Astrobiología, CSIC-INTA, Campus ESAC, Apartado Postal 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain); Howarth, Ian D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Evans, Christopher J. [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Sota, Alfredo, E-mail: walborn@stsci.edu, E-mail: nmorrell@lco.cl, E-mail: naze@astro.ulg.ac.be, E-mail: wade-g@rmc.ca, E-mail: sba@arm.ac.uk, E-mail: rbarba@dfuls.cl, E-mail: jmaiz@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: idh@star.ucl.ac.uk [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía—CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, E-18008 Granada (Spain)

    2015-10-15

    Optical spectroscopic monitoring has been conducted of two O stars in the SMC and one in the LMC, the spectral characteristics of which place them in the Of?p category, which has been established in the Galaxy to consist of oblique magnetic rotators. All of these Magellanic stars show systematic spectral variations typical of the Of?p class, further strengthening their magnetic candidacy to the point of virtual certainty. The spectral variations are related to photometric variations derived from Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment data by Nazé et al. in a parallel study, which yields rotational periods for two of them. Now circular spectropolarimetry is required to measure their fields, and ultraviolet spectroscopy to further characterize their low-metallicity, magnetically confined winds, in support of hydrodynamical analyses.

  19. SPECTRAL VARIATIONS OF Of?p OBLIQUE MAGNETIC ROTATOR CANDIDATES IN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walborn, Nolan R.; Morrell, Nidia I.; Nazé, Yaël; Wade, Gregg A.; Bagnulo, Stefano; Barbá, Rodolfo H.; Apellániz, Jesús Maíz; Howarth, Ian D.; Evans, Christopher J.; Sota, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Optical spectroscopic monitoring has been conducted of two O stars in the SMC and one in the LMC, the spectral characteristics of which place them in the Of?p category, which has been established in the Galaxy to consist of oblique magnetic rotators. All of these Magellanic stars show systematic spectral variations typical of the Of?p class, further strengthening their magnetic candidacy to the point of virtual certainty. The spectral variations are related to photometric variations derived from Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment data by Nazé et al. in a parallel study, which yields rotational periods for two of them. Now circular spectropolarimetry is required to measure their fields, and ultraviolet spectroscopy to further characterize their low-metallicity, magnetically confined winds, in support of hydrodynamical analyses

  20. The Magellanic Bridge Cluster NGC 796: Deep Optical AO Imaging Reveals the Stellar Content and Initial Mass Function of a Massive Open Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalari, Venu M.; Carraro, Giovanni; Evans, Christopher J.; Rubio, Monica

    2018-04-01

    NGC 796 is a massive young cluster located 59 kpc from us in the diffuse intergalactic medium of the 1/5–1/10 Z⊙ Magellanic Bridge, allowing us to probe variations in star formation and stellar evolution processes as a function of metallicity in a resolved fashion, and providing a link between resolved studies of nearby solar-metallicity and unresolved distant metal-poor clusters located in high-redshift galaxies. In this paper, we present adaptive optics griHα imaging of NGC 796 (at 0.″5, which is ∼0.14 pc at the cluster distance) along with optical spectroscopy of two bright members to quantify the cluster properties. Our aim is to explore whether star formation and stellar evolution vary as a function of metallicity by comparing the properties of NGC 796 to higher-metallicity clusters. We find an age of {20}-5+12 Myr from isochronal fitting of the cluster main sequence in the color–magnitude diagram. Based on the cluster luminosity function, we derive a top-heavy stellar initial mass function (IMF) with a slope α = 1.99 ± 0.2, hinting at a metallicity and/or environmental dependence of the IMF, which may lead to a top-heavy IMF in the early universe. Study of the Hα emission-line stars reveals that classical Be stars constitute a higher fraction of the total B-type stars when compared with similar clusters at greater metallicity, providing some support to the chemically homogeneous theory of stellar evolution. Overall, NGC 796 has a total estimated mass of 990 ± 200 M⊙, and a core radius of 1.4 ± 0.3 pc, which classifies it as a massive young open cluster, unique in the diffuse interstellar medium of the Magellanic Bridge.

  1. Pleiades cluster. IV. The visit of a molecular CO cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breger, M.

    1987-01-01

    The location, size, and mass of the CO molecular cloud seen in the direction of the Pleiades cluster is determined from a study of the polarization and reddening of cluster members and nonmembers. Arguments are presented against both a foreground and background location of the molecular cloud, so that the cloud should be presently situated inside the cluster. Stellar reddening determinations with the appropriate value of R = 3.3 for the region, as well as star counts, lead to a determination of a total extinction of A(V) in the range of 1.0-1.6 mag for the central region of the CO cloud. The extinction determinations for cluster members and background stars indicate a mass of 20 solar masses for the CO cloud visiting the Pleiades cluster. 20 references

  2. SPITZER ANALYSIS OF H II REGION COMPLEXES IN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS: DETERMINING A SUITABLE MONOCHROMATIC OBSCURED STAR FORMATION INDICATOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawton, B.; Gordon, K. D.; Meixner, M.; Sewilo, M.; Shiao, B.; Babler, B.; Bracker, S.; Meade, M.; Block, M.; Engelbracht, C. W.; Misselt, K.; Bolatto, A. D.; Carlson, L. R.; Hora, J. L.; Robitaille, T.; Indebetouw, R.; Madden, S. C.; Oey, M. S.; Oliveira, J. M.; Vijh, U. P.

    2010-01-01

    H II regions are the birth places of stars, and as such they provide the best measure of current star formation rates (SFRs) in galaxies. The close proximity of the Magellanic Clouds allows us to probe the nature of these star forming regions at small spatial scales. To study the H II regions, we compute the bolometric infrared flux, or total infrared (TIR), by integrating the flux from 8 to 500 μm. The TIR provides a measure of the obscured star formation because the UV photons from hot young stars are absorbed by dust and re-emitted across the mid-to-far-infrared (IR) spectrum. We aim to determine the monochromatic IR band that most accurately traces the TIR and produces an accurate obscured SFR over large spatial scales. We present the spatial analysis, via aperture/annulus photometry, of 16 Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and 16 Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) H II region complexes using the Spitzer Space Telescope's IRAC (3.6, 4.5, 8 μm) and MIPS (24, 70, 160 μm) bands. Ultraviolet rocket data (1500 and 1900 A) and SHASSA Hα data are also included. All data are convolved to the MIPS 160 μm resolution (40 arcsec full width at half-maximum), and apertures have a minimum radius of 35''. The IRAC, MIPS, UV, and Hα spatial analysis are compared with the spatial analysis of the TIR. We find that nearly all of the LMC and SMC H II region spectral energy distributions (SEDs) peak around 70 μm at all radii, from ∼10 to ∼400 pc from the central ionizing sources. As a result, we find the following: the sizes of H II regions as probed by 70 μm are approximately equal to the sizes as probed by TIR (∼70 pc in radius); the radial profile of the 70 μm flux, normalized by TIR, is constant at all radii (70 μm ∼ 0.45TIR); the 1σ standard deviation of the 70 μm fluxes, normalized by TIR, is a lower fraction of the mean (0.05-0.12 out to ∼220 pc) than the normalized 8, 24, and 160 μm normalized fluxes (0.12-0.52); and these results are the same for the LMC and the

  3. New limits on the population of normal and millisecond pulsars in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, J. P.; Lorimer, D. R.

    2010-07-01

    We model the potentially observable populations of normal and millisecond radio pulsars in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC, respectively) where the known population currently stands at 19 normal radio pulsars. Taking into account the detection thresholds of previous surveys, and assuming optimal period and luminosity distributions based on studies of Galactic pulsars, we estimate that there are (1.79 +/- 0.20) × 104 and (1.09 +/- 0.16) × 104 normal pulsars in the LMC and SMC, respectively. When we attempt to correct for beaming effects, and the fraction of high-velocity pulsars which escape the clouds, we estimate birth rates in both the LMC and SMC to be comparable and in the range of 0.5-1 pulsars per century. Although higher than estimates for the rate of core-collapse supernovae in the clouds, these pulsar birth rates are consistent with historical supernova observations in the past 300 yr. A substantial population of active radio pulsars (of the order of a few hundred thousand) has escaped the LMC and SMC and populates the local intergalactic medium. For the millisecond pulsar (MSP) population, the lack of any detections from current surveys leads to respective upper limits (at the 95 per cent confidence level) of 15000 for the LMC and 23000 for the SMC. Several MSPs could be detected by a currently ongoing survey of the SMC with improved time and frequency resolution using the Parkes multibeam system. Giant-pulse emitting neutron stars could also be seen by this survey.

  4. THE INFLUENCE OF FAR-ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION ON THE PROPERTIES OF MOLECULAR CLOUDS IN THE 30 DOR REGION OF THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineda, Jorge L.; Klein, Ulrich; Ott, Juergen; Wong, Tony; Muller, Erik; Hughes, Annie

    2009-01-01

    We present a complete 12 CO J = 1 → 0 map of the prominent molecular ridge in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) obtained with the 22 m ATNF Mopra Telescope. The region stretches southward by ∼2 deg. (or 1.7 kpc) from 30 Doradus, the most vigorous star-forming region in the Local Group. The location of this molecular ridge is unique insofar as it allows us to study the properties of molecular gas as a function of the ambient radiation field in a low-metallicity environment. We find that the physical properties of CO-emitting clumps within the molecular ridge do not vary with the strength of the far-ultraviolet radiation field. Since the peak CO brightness of the clumps shows no correlation with the radiation field strength, the observed constant value for CO-to-H 2 conversion factor along the ridge seems to require an increase in the kinetic temperature of the molecular gas that is offset by a decrease in the angular filling factor of the CO emission. We find that the difference between the CO-to-H 2 conversion factor in the molecular ridge and the outer Milky Way is smaller than has been reported by previous studies of the CO emission: applying the same cloud identification and analysis methods to our CO observations of the LMC molecular ridge and CO data from the outer Galaxy survey by Dame et al., we find that the average CO-to-H 2 conversion factor in the molecular ridge is X CO ≅ (3.9 ± 2.5) x 10 20 cm -2 (K km s -1 ) -1 , approximately twice the value that we determine for the outer Galaxy clouds. The mass spectrum and the scaling relations between the properties of the CO clumps in the molecular ridge are similar, but not identical, to those that have been established for Galactic molecular clouds.

  5. The 100 strongest radio point sources in the field of the Large Magellanic Cloud at 1.4 GHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payne J.L.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the 100 strongest 1.4 GHz point sources from a new mosaic image in the direction of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC. The observations making up the mosaic were made using Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA over a ten year period and were combined with Parkes single dish data at 1.4 GHz to complete the image for short spacing. An initial list of co-identifications within 1000 at 0.843, 4.8 and 8.6 GHz consisted of 2682 sources. Elimination of extended objects and artifact noise allowed the creation of a refined list containing 1988 point sources. Most of these are presumed to be background objects seen through the LMC; a small portion may represent compact H ii regions, young SNRs and radio planetary nebulae. For the 1988 point sources we find a preliminary average spectral index (α of -0.53 and present a 1.4 GHz image showing source location in the direction of the LMC.

  6. The 100 Strongest Radio Point Sources in the Field of the Large Magellanic Cloud at 1.4 GHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payne, J. L.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We present the 100 strongest 1.4~GHz point sources from a new mosaicimage in the direction of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC. The observationsmaking up the mosaic were made using Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCAover a ten year period and were combined with Parkes single dish data at 1.4 GHz to complete the image for short spacing. An initial list of co-identifications within 10arcsec at 0.843, 4.8 and 8.6 GHz consisted of 2682 sources. Elimination of extended objects and artifact noise allowed the creation of a refined list containing 1988 point sources. Most of these are presumed to be background objects seen through the LMC; a small portion may represent compact HII regions, young SNRs and radio planetary nebulae. For the 1988 point sources we find a preliminary average spectral index ($alpha$ of -0.53 and present a 1.4 GHz image showing source locationin the direction of the LMC.

  7. On the Nature of Bright Infrared Sources in the Small Magellanic Cloud: Interpreting MSX through the Lens of Spitzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Kathleen E.; Sloan, G. C.

    2015-01-01

    We compare infrared observations of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) by the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) and the Spitzer Space Telescope to better understand what components of a metal-poor galaxy dominate radiative processes in the infrared. The SMC, at a distance of ~60 kpc and with a metallicity of ~0.1-0.2 solar, can serve as a nearby proxy for metal-poor galaxies at high redshift. The MSX Point Source Catalog contains 243 objects in the SMC that were detected at 8.3 microns, the most sensitive MSX band. Multi-epoch, multi-band mapping with Spitzer, supplemented with observations from the Two-Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), provides variability information, and, together with spectra from Spitzer for ~15% of the sample, enables us to determine what these luminous sources are. How many remain simple point sources? What fraction break up into multiple stars? Which are star forming regions, with both bright diffuse emission and point sources? How do evolved stars and stellar remnants contribute at these wavelengths? What role do young stellar objects and HII regions play? Answering these questions sets the stage for understanding what we will see with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST).

  8. THE DUST BUDGET OF THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD: ARE ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH STARS THE PRIMARY DUST SOURCE AT LOW METALLICITY?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, M. L.; Gordon, K. D.; Meixner, M.; Sargent, B. A.; Srinivasan, S.; Riebel, D.; McDonald, I.; Van Loon, J. Th.; Clayton, G. C.; Sloan, G. C.

    2012-01-01

    We estimate the total dust input from the cool evolved stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud, using the 8 μm excess emission as a proxy for the dust-production rate (DPR). We find that asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and red supergiant (RSG) stars produce (8.6-9.5) × 10 –7 M ☉ yr –1 of dust, depending on the fraction of far-infrared sources that belong to the evolved star population (with 10%-50% uncertainty in individual DPRs). RSGs contribute the least ( –3 M ☉ of dust each, then the total SN dust input and AGB input are roughly equivalent. We consider several scenarios of SN dust production and destruction and find that the interstellar medium (ISM) dust can be accounted for solely by stellar sources if all SNe produce dust in the quantities seen around the dustiest examples and if most SNe explode in dense regions where much of the ISM dust is shielded from the shocks. We find that AGB stars contribute only 2.1% of the ISM dust. Without a net positive contribution from SNe to the dust budget, this suggests that dust must grow in the ISM or be formed by another unknown mechanism.

  9. KMTNet Time-series Photometry of the Doubly Eclipsing Binary Stars Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Kyeongsoo; Koo, Jae-Rim; Lee, Jae Woo; Kim, Seung-Lee; Lee, Chung-Uk; Park, Jang-Ho; Kim, Hyoun-Woo; Lee, Dong-Joo; Kim, Dong-Jin; Han, Cheongho

    2018-05-01

    We report the results of photometric observations for doubly eclipsing binaries OGLE-LMC-ECL-15674 and OGLE-LMC-ECL-22159, both of which are composed of two pairs (designated A&B) of a detached eclipsing binary located in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The light curves were obtained by high-cadence time-series photometry using the Korea Microlensing Telescope Network 1.6 m telescopes located at three southern sites (CTIO, SAAO, and SSO) between 2016 September and 2017 January. The orbital periods were determined to be 1.433 and 1.387 days for components A and B of OGLE-LMC-ECL-15674, respectively, and 2.988 and 3.408 days for OGLE-LMC-ECL-22159A and B, respectively. Our light curve solutions indicate that the significant changes in the eclipse depths of OGLE-LMC-ECL-15674A and B were caused by variations in their inclination angles. The eclipse timing diagrams of the A and B components of OGLE-LMC-ECL-15674 and OGLE-LMC-ECL-22159 were analyzed using 28, 44, 28, and 26 new times of minimum light, respectively. The apsidal motion period of OGLE-LMC-ECL-15674B was estimated by detailed analysis of eclipse timings for the first time. The detached eclipsing binary OGLE-LMC-ECL-15674B shows a fast apsidal period of 21.5 ± 0.1 years.

  10. Probing the nature of AX J0043-737: Not an 87 ms pulsar in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitra, C.; Ballet, J.; Esposito, P.; Haberl, F.; Tiengo, A.; Filipović, M. D.; Acero, F.

    2018-05-01

    Aims: AX J0043-737 is a source in the ASCA catalogue whose nature is uncertain. It is most commonly classified as a Crab-like pulsar in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) following apparent detection of pulsations at 87 ms from a single ASCA observation. A follow-up ASCA observation was not able to confirm this, and the X-ray detection of the source has not been reported since. Methods: We studied the nature of the source with a dedicated XMM-Newton observation. We ascertained the source position, searched for the most probable counterpart, and studied the X-ray spectrum. We also analysed other archival observations with the source in the field of view to study its long-term variability. Results: With the good position localisation capability of XMM-Newton, we identify the counterpart of the source as MQS J004241.66-734041.3, an active galactic nucleus (AGN) behind the SMC at a redshift of 0.95. The X-ray spectrum can be fitted with an absorbed power law with a photon-index of Γ = 1.7, which is consistent with that expected from AGNs. By comparing the current XMM-Newton observation with an archival XMM-Newton and two other ASCA observations of the source, we find signatures of long-term variability, another common phenomenon in AGNs. All of the above are consistent with AX J0043-737 being an AGN behind the SMC.

  11. The WR/LBV system HD 5980 in the Small Magellanic Cloud: What is its evolutionary status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenigsberger, Gloria; Morrell, Nidia; Hillier, D. John; Barba, Rodolfo; Gamen, Roberto

    2013-06-01

    HD 5980 is located in the Small Magellanic Cloud and consists of two binary systems which, if physically associated, are very widely separated. Their orbital periods are 19.3d and 97d and each of these systems contains very luminous massive stars. The P=19.3d binary is peculiar in that it consists of two WR stars, one of which underwent an LBV eruption in 1994. Because this binary is eclipsing and because it has been monitored since the 1950s, we now have a good grasp on the fundamental parameters of the LBV component. Particularly noteworthy is the fact that its bolometric luminosity increased during the 1994 eruption. In this poster we will summarize our current knowledge of HD 5980, including recent results derived from observations at Las Campanas Observatory which yield an improved orbital solution for the two binary systems and strong limits on the mass of the LBV. With these data, it should now be possible to constrain the evolutionary path that has been followed by the LBV and speculate on its properties as it approaches the supernova stage.

  12. Spatial Variations of Turbulent Properties of Neutral Hydrogen Gas in the Small Magellanic Cloud Using Structure-function Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nestingen-Palm, David; Stanimirović, Snežana; González-Casanova, Diego F.; Babler, Brian [Astronomy Department, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706-1582 (United States); Jameson, Katherine; Bolatto, Alberto, E-mail: sstanimi@astro.wisc.edu [Astronomy Department and Laboratory for Millimeter-wave Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2017-08-10

    We investigate spatial variations of turbulent properties in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) by using neutral hydrogen (H i) observations. With the goal of testing the importance of stellar feedback on H i turbulence, we define central and outer SMC regions based on the star formation rate (SFR) surface density, as well as the H i integrated intensity. We use the structure function and the velocity channel analysis to calculate the power-law index ( γ ) for both underlying density and velocity fields in these regions. In all cases, our results show essentially no difference in γ between the central and outer regions. This suggests that H i turbulent properties are surprisingly homogeneous across the SMC when probed at a resolution of 30 pc. Contrary to recent suggestions from numerical simulations, we do not find a significant change in γ due to stellar feedback as traced by the SFR surface density. This could be due to the stellar feedback being widespread over the whole of the SMC, but more likely due to a large-scale gravitational driving of turbulence. We show that the lack of difference between central and outer SMC regions cannot be explained by the high optical depth H I.

  13. Long-period variables in the Large Magellanic Cloud. II. Infrared photometry, spectral classification, AGB evolution, and spatial distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, S.M.G.; Wood, P.R.

    1990-01-01

    Infrared JHK photometry and visual spectra have been obtained for a large sample of long-period variables (LPVs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Various aspects of the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) evolution of LPVs are discussed using these data. The birth/death rate of LPVs of different ages in the LMC is compared with the birth rates of appropriate samples of planetary nebulas, clump stars, Cepheids, and OH/IR stars. It appears that there are much fewer large-amplitude LPVs per unit galactic stellar mass in the LMC than in the Galaxy. It is suggested that this may be due to the fact that the evolved intermediate-age AGB stars in the LMC often turn into carbon stars, which tend to have smaller pulsation amplitudes than M stars. There is also a major discrepancy between the number of LPVs in the LMC (and in the Galaxy) and the number predicted by the theories of AGB evolution, pulsation, and mass loss. A distance modulus to the LMC of 18.66 + or - 0.05 is derived by comparing the LMC LPVs with P about 200 days with the 47 Tucanae Mira variables in the (K, log P) plane. 64 refs

  14. Anti-correlation between X-ray luminosity and pulsed fraction in the Small Magellanic Cloud pulsar SXP 1323

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Zezas, Andreas; Coe, Malcolm J.; Drake, Jeremy J.; Hong, JaeSub; Laycock, Silas G. T.; Wik, Daniel R.

    2018-05-01

    We report the evidence for the anti-correlation between pulsed fraction (PF) and luminosity of the X-ray pulsar SXP 1323, found for the first time in a luminosity range 1035-1037 erg s-1 from observations spanning 15 years. The phenomenon of a decrease in X-ray PF when the source flux increases has been observed in our pipeline analysis of other X-ray pulsars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). It is expected that the luminosity under a certain value decreases as the PF decreases due to the propeller effect. Above the propeller region, an anti-correlation between the PF and flux might occur either as a result of an increase in the un-pulsed component of the total emission or a decrease of the pulsed component. Additional modes of accretion may also be possible, such as spherical accretion and a change in emission geometry. At higher mass accretion rates, the accretion disk could also extend closer to the neutron star (NS) surface, where a reduced inner radius leads to hotter inner disk emission. These modes of plasma accretion may affect the change in the beam configuration to fan-beam dominant emission.

  15. Case Study of Data Mining in Observational Astronomy: The Search for New OB Stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Cormac; Vink, Jorick; Kalari, Venu; Groh, Jose

    2018-01-01

    OB stars are the most luminous and massive stars, living short lives and exerting a disproportionate influence on their environments. They are key to understanding progenitors of gravitational wave sources and reionization of the early Universe. To detect new OB stars, we combine photometric catalog data with TLUSTY and ATLAS9 stellar atmospheres. This method is also believed to be sensitive to elusive “stripped” stars, thought to lose their hydrogen envelope through binary interaction.OB stars are intrinsically luminous, so complete populations are assumed for local group galaxies such as the Small Magellanic Cloud. Our findings challenge this, as we find 26 new OB candidates. Spectroscopy of 7 candidates shows a 100% detection rate. Most interestingly, 5 of our candidates are consistent with “stripped” stars.To date only 5 “stripped” candidates have been found serendipitously (e.g. HD 45166) as current methods are not sensitive to them. Our work doubles the sample of detected candidates, highlighting that our approach is the first to identify them in a targeted, systematic way. The finding of “stripped” stars could rewrite our understanding of the early Universe, offering an alternative hypothesis to Wolf-Rayet driven cosmic reionization.

  16. A Precision Determination of the Effect of Metallicity on Cepheid Absolute Magnitudes in VIJHK Bands from Magellanic Cloud Cepheids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wielgórski, Piotr; Pietrzyński, Grzegorz; Zgirski, Bartłomiej; Graczyk, Dariusz [Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Bartycka 18, 00-716 Warsaw (Poland); Gieren, Wolfgang; Górski, Marek [Universidad de Concepción, Departamento de Astronomía, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Bresolin, Fabio [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Storm, Jesper [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam, An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482, Potsdam (Germany); Matsunaga, Noriyuki [Department of Astronomy, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Soszyński, Igor, E-mail: pwielgor@camk.edu.pl [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00-478 Warsaw (Poland)

    2017-06-20

    Using high-quality observed period–luminosity ( P – L ) relations in both Magellanic Clouds in the VIJHK s bands and optical and near-infrared Wesenheit indices, we determine the effect of metallicity on Cepheid P – L relations by comparing the relative distance between the LMC and SMC as determined from the Cepheids to the difference in distance between the Clouds that has been derived with very high accuracy from late-type eclipsing binary systems. Within an uncertainty of 3%, which is dominated by the uncertainty on the mean difference in metallicity between the Cepheid populations in the LMC and SMC, we find metallicity effects smaller than 2% in all bands and in the Wesenheit indices, consistent with a zero metallicity effect. This result is valid for the metallicity range from −0.35 dex to −0.75 dex corresponding to the mean [Fe/H] values for classical Cepheids in the LMC and SMC, respectively. Yet most Cepheids in galaxies beyond the Local Group and located in the less crowded outer regions of these galaxies do fall into this metallicity regime, making our result important for applications to determine the distances to spiral galaxies well beyond the Local Group. Our result supports previous findings that indicated a very small metallicity effect on the near-infrared absolute magnitudes of classical Cepheids, and resolves the dispute about the size and sign of the metallicity effect in the optical spectral range. It also resolves one of the most pressing problems in the quest toward a measurement of the Hubble constant with an accuracy of 1% from the Cepheid–supernova Ia method.

  17. Evaluating the Efficacy of the Cloud for Cluster Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, David; Shams, Khawaja; Chang, George; Soderstrom, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Computing requirements vary by industry, and it follows that NASA and other research organizations have computing demands that fall outside the mainstream. While cloud computing made rapid inroads for tasks such as powering web applications, performance issues on highly distributed tasks hindered early adoption for scientific computation. One venture to address this problem is Nebula, NASA's homegrown cloud project tasked with delivering science-quality cloud computing resources. However, another industry development is Amazon's high-performance computing (HPC) instances on Elastic Cloud Compute (EC2) that promises improved performance for cluster computation. This paper presents results from a series of benchmarks run on Amazon EC2 and discusses the efficacy of current commercial cloud technology for running scientific applications across a cluster. In particular, a 240-core cluster of cloud instances achieved 2 TFLOPS on High-Performance Linpack (HPL) at 70% of theoretical computational performance. The cluster's local network also demonstrated sub-100 ?s inter-process latency with sustained inter-node throughput in excess of 8 Gbps. Beyond HPL, a real-world Hadoop image processing task from NASA's Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project (LMMP) was run on a 29 instance cluster to process lunar and Martian surface images with sizes on the order of tens of gigapixels. These results demonstrate that while not a rival of dedicated supercomputing clusters, commercial cloud technology is now a feasible option for moderately demanding scientific workloads.

  18. OLD MAIN-SEQUENCE TURNOFF PHOTOMETRY IN THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD. II. STAR FORMATION HISTORY AND ITS SPATIAL GRADIENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, Noelia E. D.; Gallart, Carme; Hidalgo, Sebastian L.; Aparicio, Antonio; Costa, Edgardo; Mendez, Rene A.

    2009-01-01

    We present a quantitative analysis of the star formation history (SFH) of 12 fields in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) based on unprecedented deep [(B - R), R] color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs). Our fields reach down to the oldest main-sequence turnoff with a high photometric accuracy, which is vital for obtaining accurate SFHs, particularly at intermediate and old ages. We use the IAC-pop code to obtain the SFH, using synthetic CMDs generated with IAC-star. We obtain the SFH as a function ψ(t, z) of age and metallicity. We also consider several auxiliary functions: the initial mass function (IMF), φ(m), and a function accounting for the frequency and relative mass distribution of binary stars, β(f, q). We find that there are several main periods of enhancement of star formation: a young one peaked at ∼0.2-0.5 Gyr old, only present in the eastern and in the central-most fields; two at intermediate ages present in all fields: a conspicuous one peaked at ∼4-5 Gyr, and a less significant one peaked at ∼1.5-2.5; and an old one, peaked at ∼10 Gyr in all fields but the western ones. In the western fields, this old enhancement splits into two, one peaked at ∼8 Gyr old and another at ∼12 Gyr old. This 'two-enhancement' zone is unaffected by our choice of stellar evolutionary library but more data covering other fields of the SMC are necessary in order to ascertain its significancy. Correlation between star formation rate enhancements and SMC-Milky Way encounters is not clear. Some correlation could exist with encounters taken from the orbit determination of Kallivayalil et al. But our results would also fit in a first pericenter passage scenario like the one claimed by Besla et al. For SMC-Large Magellanic Cloud encounters, we find a correlation only for the most recent encounter ∼0.2 Gyr ago. This coincides with the youngest ψ(t) enhancement peaked at these ages in our eastern fields. The population younger than 1 Gyr represents ∼7%-12% of the total

  19. SPITZER IRS SPECTRA OF LUMINOUS 8 μm SOURCES IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD: TESTING COLOR-BASED CLASSIFICATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, Catherine L.; Kastner, Joel H.; Hrivnak, Bruce J.; Sahai, Raghvendra

    2009-01-01

    We present archival Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) spectra of 19 luminous 8 μm selected sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). The object classes derived from these spectra and from an additional 24 spectra in the literature are compared with classifications based on Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS)/MSX (J, H, K, and 8 μm) colors in order to test the 'JHK8' (Kastner et al.) classification scheme. The IRS spectra confirm the classifications of 22 of the 31 sources that can be classified under the JHK8 system. The spectroscopic classification of 12 objects that were unclassifiable in the JHK8 scheme allow us to characterize regions of the color-color diagrams that previously lacked spectroscopic verification, enabling refinements to the JHK8 classification system. The results of these new classifications are consistent with previous results concerning the identification of the most infrared-luminous objects in the LMC. In particular, while the IRS spectra reveal several new examples of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars with O-rich envelopes, such objects are still far outnumbered by carbon stars (C-rich AGB stars). We show that Spitzer IRAC/MIPS color-color diagrams provide improved discrimination between red supergiants and oxygen-rich and carbon-rich AGB stars relative to those based on 2MASS/MSX colors. These diagrams will enable the most luminous IR sources in Local Group galaxies to be classified with high confidence based on their Spitzer colors. Such characterizations of stellar populations will continue to be possible during Spitzer's warm mission through the use of IRAC [3.6]-[4.5] and 2MASS colors.

  20. Dust Abundance Variations in the Magellanic Clouds: Probing the Life-cycle of Metals with All-sky Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman-Duval, Julia; Bot, Caroline; Chastenet, Jeremy; Gordon, Karl

    2017-06-01

    Observations and modeling suggest that dust abundance (gas-to-dust ratio, G/D) depends on (surface) density. Variations of the G/D provide timescale constraints for the different processes involved in the life cycle of metals in galaxies. Recent G/D measurements based on Herschel data suggest a factor of 5-10 decrease in dust abundance between the dense and diffuse interstellar media (ISM) in the Magellanic Clouds. However, the relative nature of the Herschel measurements precludes definitive conclusions as to the magnitude of those variations. We investigate variations of the dust abundance in the LMC and SMC using all-sky far-infrared surveys, which do not suffer from the limitations of Herschel on their zero-point calibration. We stack the dust spectral energy distribution (SED) at 100, 350, 550, and 850 microns from IRAS and Planck in intervals of gas surface density, model the stacked SEDs to derive the dust surface density, and constrain the relation between G/D and gas surface density in the range 10-100 M ⊙ pc-2 on ˜80 pc scales. We find that G/D decreases by factors of 3 (from 1500 to 500) in the LMC and 7 (from 1.5× {10}4 to 2000) in the SMC between the diffuse and dense ISM. The surface-density-dependence of G/D is consistent with elemental depletions, and with simple modeling of the accretion of gas-phase metals onto dust grains. This result has important implications for the sub-grid modeling of galaxy evolution, and for the calibration of dust-based gas-mass estimates, both locally and at high redshift.

  1. Wolf-Rayet stars in the Magellanic Clouds: Spectroscopic binaries and masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moffat, A.F.J.

    1982-01-01

    Repeated spectra to V-mag 13.0 (13.5) have been obtained since 1978 for the 25 (5) brightest WR stars in the LMC (SMC). More than half of these are orbiting spectroscopic binaries, mainly SB1 for the luminous subclasses WN6-9, and SB2 for the rest. Together with galactic data, the Cloud SB2's lead to a correlation between mass ratio WR/OB and WR spectral subclass for each of the WN and WC sequences. This correlation is interpreted as an evolutionary sequence in which the peeling-off process of the strong stellar wind exposes successively hotter regions and eventually converts WN to WC at a point in time which appears to depend on the ambient metal abundance. (Auth.)

  2. Application of microarray analysis on computer cluster and cloud platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernau, C; Boulesteix, A-L; Knaus, J

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of recent high-dimensional biological data tends to be computationally intensive as many common approaches such as resampling or permutation tests require the basic statistical analysis to be repeated many times. A crucial advantage of these methods is that they can be easily parallelized due to the computational independence of the resampling or permutation iterations, which has induced many statistics departments to establish their own computer clusters. An alternative is to rent computing resources in the cloud, e.g. at Amazon Web Services. In this article we analyze whether a selection of statistical projects, recently implemented at our department, can be efficiently realized on these cloud resources. Moreover, we illustrate an opportunity to combine computer cluster and cloud resources. In order to compare the efficiency of computer cluster and cloud implementations and their respective parallelizations we use microarray analysis procedures and compare their runtimes on the different platforms. Amazon Web Services provide various instance types which meet the particular needs of the different statistical projects we analyzed in this paper. Moreover, the network capacity is sufficient and the parallelization is comparable in efficiency to standard computer cluster implementations. Our results suggest that many statistical projects can be efficiently realized on cloud resources. It is important to mention, however, that workflows can change substantially as a result of a shift from computer cluster to cloud computing.

  3. The Abundances of the Fe Group Elements in AV 304, an Abundance Standard in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Geraldine J.; Lanz, Thierry; Bouret, Jean-Claude; Proffitt, Charles R.; Adelman, Saul J.; Hubeny, Ivan

    2018-06-01

    AV 304 is a B0.5 IV field star in the Small Magellanic Cloud with ultra-sharp spectral lines that has emerged as an abundance standard. We have combined recent spectroscopic observations from the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on the Hubble Space Telescope with archival data from the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) and ESO’s VLT/UVES to determine the abundances of the Fe group elements (Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, & Ni). The analysis was carried through using the Hubeny/Lanz NLTE programs TLUSTY/SYNSPEC. The COS observations were secured with the G130M, G160M, G185M, and G225M gratings. Combined with the FUSE data, we have achieved spectral coverage in the UV from 950 to 2400 A. Measurable lines from the Fe group, except for a very few multiplets of Fe II, III are not observed in optical spectra. The following stellar parameters were found: Teff = 27500±500 K, log g = 3.7±0.1 cm/s2, Vturb= 1±1 km/s, and v sin i = 8 ±2 km/s. The Fe abundance appears to be only slightly lower than the mean depletion in the SMC, but the other Fe group elements are underabundant by 0.3 dex or more. This study confirmed the low abundance of nitrogen (-1.25 dex relative to the solar value) that was reported by Peters & Adelman (ASP Conf. Series, 348, p. 136, 2006). Whereas the light elements are delivered to the ISM by core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe), the Fe group elements are believed to come mostly from low/intermediate mass binaries containing white dwarfs that undergo SNe Ia explosions. A single SNe Ia can deliver 0.5 solar masses of pure Fe (and maybe Mn) to the ISM compared with about 0.07 solar masses from a CCSNe. It appears that there is very little processed material from its interior in the atmosphere of AV 304 and that the star did not form from an interstellar cloud that was enriched by material from earlier supernova activity. Support from STScI grants HST-GO-14081.002 and HST-GO-13346.022, and USC’s Women in Science and Engineering (WiSE) program is

  4. Dynamic Extension of a Virtualized Cluster by using Cloud Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberst, Oliver; Hauth, Thomas; Kernert, David; Riedel, Stephan; Quast, Günter

    2012-01-01

    The specific requirements concerning the software environment within the HEP community constrain the choice of resource providers for the outsourcing of computing infrastructure. The use of virtualization in HPC clusters and in the context of cloud resources is therefore a subject of recent developments in scientific computing. The dynamic virtualization of worker nodes in common batch systems provided by ViBatch serves each user with a dynamically virtualized subset of worker nodes on a local cluster. Now it can be transparently extended by the use of common open source cloud interfaces like OpenNebula or Eucalyptus, launching a subset of the virtual worker nodes within the cloud. This paper demonstrates how a dynamically virtualized computing cluster is combined with cloud resources by attaching remotely started virtual worker nodes to the local batch system.

  5. Formation of the Small Magellanic Cloud: ancient major merger as a solution to the kinematical differences between old stars and HI gas

    OpenAIRE

    Bekki, Kenji; Chiba, Masashi

    2008-01-01

    Recent observations of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) have revealed that the HI gas shows a significant amount of rotation (V_c 60 km/s), while no or little rotation is evident for the old stellar populations. We suggest that this unique kinematical difference between these components in the SMC can be caused by a major merger event which occurred in the early stage of the SMC formation. Our simulations show that dissipative dwarf-dwarf merging can transform two gas-rich dwarf irregulars in...

  6. Long-period variables in the Magellanic Clouds: Supergiants, AGB stars, supernova precursors, planetary nebula precursors, and enrichment of the interstellar medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, P.; Bessell, M.S.; Fox, M.W.

    1983-01-01

    Infrared JHK magnitudes and low-dispersion red spectra have been obtained for 90 long-period variables (LPVs) in the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds. The LPVs fall into two distinct groups, core helium (or carbon) burning supergiants and stars on the asymptotic giant branch (AGB). The supergiants have small pulsation amplitudes in K ( or approx. =5 M/sub sun/ produce supernovae while less massive stars produce planetary nebulae with nebula masses from approx.0.1--2.1 M/sub sun/. The coreburning red supergiants appear highly overluminous for their pulsation mass, indicating that they have lost up to half their mass since the main-sequence phase

  7. Discovery of a New Dusty B[E] Star in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, John P.; Bjorkman, Karen S.; Bjorkman, Jon E.; Clampin, Mark

    2007-01-01

    We present new optical spectroscopic and Spitzer IRAC photometric observations of a B-type star in the SMC cluster NGC 346, NGC 346:KWBBe 200. We detect numerous Fe II, [O I], [Fe II], as well as strong P-Cygni profile H I emission lines in its optical spectrum. The star's near-IR color and optical to IR SED clearly indicate the presence of an infrared excess, consistent with the presence of gas and warm, T -800 K, circumstellar dust. Based on a crude estimate of the star's luminosity and the observed spectroscopic line profile morphologies, we find that the star is likely to be a B-type supergiant. We suggest that NGC 346:KWBBe 200 is a newly discovered B[e] supergiant star, and represents the fifth such object to be identified in the SMC.

  8. KINEMATIC STRUCTURE OF MOLECULAR GAS AROUND HIGH-MASS YSO, PAPILLON NEBULA, IN N159 EAST IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD: A NEW PERSPECTIVE WITH ALMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saigo, Kazuya; Harada, Ryohei; Kawamura, Akiko [Chile Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, National Institutes of Natural Science, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Onishi, Toshikazu; Tokuda, Kazuki; Morioka, Yuuki [Department of Physical Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Nayak, Omnarayani; Meixner, Margaret [The Johns Hopkins University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 366 Bloomberg Center, 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Sewiło, Marta [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Indebetouw, Remy [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Torii, Kazufumi; Ohama, Akio; Hattori, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Tachihara, Kengo [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Minamidani, Tetsuhiro [Nobeyama Radio Observatory, 462-2 Nobeyama Minamimaki-mura, Minamisaku-gun, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan); Inoue, Tsuyoshi [Division of Theoretical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatory (Japan); Madden, Suzanne; Lebouteiller, Vianney [Laboratoire AIM, CEA, Universite Paris VII, IRFU/Service d’Astrophysique, Bat. 709, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Galametz, Maud [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); and others

    2017-01-20

    We present the ALMA Band 3 and Band 6 results of {sup 12}CO(2-1), {sup 13}CO(2-1), H30 α recombination line, free–free emission around 98 GHz, and the dust thermal emission around 230 GHz toward the N159 East Giant Molecular Cloud (N159E) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). LMC is the nearest active high-mass star-forming face-on galaxy at a distance of 50 kpc and is the best target for studing high-mass star formation. ALMA observations show that N159E is the complex of filamentary clouds with the width and length of ∼1 pc and several parsecs. The total molecular mass is 0.92 × 10{sup 5} M {sub ⊙} from the {sup 13}CO(2-1) intensity. N159E harbors the well-known Papillon Nebula, a compact high-excitation H ii region. We found that a YSO associated with the Papillon Nebula has the mass of 35 M {sub ⊙} and is located at the intersection of three filamentary clouds. It indicates that the formation of the high-mass YSO was induced by the collision of filamentary clouds. Fukui et al. reported a similar kinematic structure toward two YSOs in the N159 West region, which are the other YSOs that have the mass of ≳35 M {sub ⊙}. This suggests that the collision of filamentary clouds is a primary mechanism of high-mass star formation. We found a small molecular hole around the YSO in Papillon Nebula with a sub-parsec scale. It is filled by free–free and H30 α emission. The temperature of the molecular gas around the hole reaches ∼80 K. It indicates that this YSO has just started the distruction of parental molecular cloud.

  9. KINEMATIC STRUCTURE OF MOLECULAR GAS AROUND HIGH-MASS YSO, PAPILLON NEBULA, IN N159 EAST IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD: A NEW PERSPECTIVE WITH ALMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saigo, Kazuya; Harada, Ryohei; Kawamura, Akiko; Onishi, Toshikazu; Tokuda, Kazuki; Morioka, Yuuki; Nayak, Omnarayani; Meixner, Margaret; Sewiło, Marta; Indebetouw, Remy; Torii, Kazufumi; Ohama, Akio; Hattori, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Tachihara, Kengo; Minamidani, Tetsuhiro; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Madden, Suzanne; Lebouteiller, Vianney; Galametz, Maud

    2017-01-01

    We present the ALMA Band 3 and Band 6 results of 12 CO(2-1), 13 CO(2-1), H30 α recombination line, free–free emission around 98 GHz, and the dust thermal emission around 230 GHz toward the N159 East Giant Molecular Cloud (N159E) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). LMC is the nearest active high-mass star-forming face-on galaxy at a distance of 50 kpc and is the best target for studing high-mass star formation. ALMA observations show that N159E is the complex of filamentary clouds with the width and length of ∼1 pc and several parsecs. The total molecular mass is 0.92 × 10 5 M ⊙ from the 13 CO(2-1) intensity. N159E harbors the well-known Papillon Nebula, a compact high-excitation H ii region. We found that a YSO associated with the Papillon Nebula has the mass of 35 M ⊙ and is located at the intersection of three filamentary clouds. It indicates that the formation of the high-mass YSO was induced by the collision of filamentary clouds. Fukui et al. reported a similar kinematic structure toward two YSOs in the N159 West region, which are the other YSOs that have the mass of ≳35 M ⊙ . This suggests that the collision of filamentary clouds is a primary mechanism of high-mass star formation. We found a small molecular hole around the YSO in Papillon Nebula with a sub-parsec scale. It is filled by free–free and H30 α emission. The temperature of the molecular gas around the hole reaches ∼80 K. It indicates that this YSO has just started the distruction of parental molecular cloud.

  10. Coarse Point Cloud Registration by Egi Matching of Voxel Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinhu; Lindenbergh, Roderik; Shen, Yueqian; Menenti, Massimo

    2016-06-01

    Laser scanning samples the surface geometry of objects efficiently and records versatile information as point clouds. However, often more scans are required to fully cover a scene. Therefore, a registration step is required that transforms the different scans into a common coordinate system. The registration of point clouds is usually conducted in two steps, i.e. coarse registration followed by fine registration. In this study an automatic marker-free coarse registration method for pair-wise scans is presented. First the two input point clouds are re-sampled as voxels and dimensionality features of the voxels are determined by principal component analysis (PCA). Then voxel cells with the same dimensionality are clustered. Next, the Extended Gaussian Image (EGI) descriptor of those voxel clusters are constructed using significant eigenvectors of each voxel in the cluster. Correspondences between clusters in source and target data are obtained according to the similarity between their EGI descriptors. The random sampling consensus (RANSAC) algorithm is employed to remove outlying correspondences until a coarse alignment is obtained. If necessary, a fine registration is performed in a final step. This new method is illustrated on scan data sampling two indoor scenarios. The results of the tests are evaluated by computing the point to point distance between the two input point clouds. The presented two tests resulted in mean distances of 7.6 mm and 9.5 mm respectively, which are adequate for fine registration.

  11. Molecular clouds toward the super star cluster NGC 3603; possible evidence for a cloud-cloud collision in triggering the cluster formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukui, Y.; Ohama, A.; Hanaoka, N.; Furukawa, N.; Torii, K.; Hasegawa, K.; Fukuda, T.; Soga, S.; Moribe, N.; Kuroda, Y.; Hayakawa, T.; Kuwahara, T.; Yamamoto, H.; Okuda, T. [Department of Astrophysics, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Dawson, J. R. [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, Sandy Bay Campus, Churchill Avenue, Sandy Bay, TAS 7005 (Australia); Mizuno, N.; Kawamura, A. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Onishi, T.; Maezawa, H. [Department of Astrophysics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Mizuno, A., E-mail: fukui@a.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Solar-terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan)

    2014-01-01

    We present new large field observations of molecular clouds with NANTEN2 toward the super star cluster NGC 3603 in the transitions {sup 12}CO(J = 2-1, J = 1-0) and {sup 13}CO(J = 2-1, J = 1-0). We suggest that two molecular clouds at 13 km s{sup –1} and 28 km s{sup –1} are associated with NGC 3603 as evidenced by higher temperatures toward the H II region, as well as morphological correspondence. The mass of the clouds is too small to gravitationally bind them, given their relative motion of ∼20 km s{sup –1}. We suggest that the two clouds collided with each other 1 Myr ago to trigger the formation of the super star cluster. This scenario is able to explain the origin of the highest mass stellar population in the cluster, which is as young as 1 Myr and is segregated within the central sub-pc of the cluster. This is the second super star cluster along with Westerlund 2 where formation may have been triggered by a cloud-cloud collision.

  12. Observational calibration of the projection factor of Cepheids. IV. Period-projection factor relation of Galactic and Magellanic Cloud Cepheids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallenne, A.; Kervella, P.; Mérand, A.; Pietrzyński, G.; Gieren, W.; Nardetto, N.; Trahin, B.

    2017-11-01

    Context. The Baade-Wesselink (BW) method, which combines linear and angular diameter variations, is the most common method to determine the distances to pulsating stars. However, the projection factor, p-factor, used to convert radial velocities into pulsation velocities, is still poorly calibrated. This parameter is critical on the use of this technique, and often leads to 5-10% uncertainties on the derived distances. Aims: We focus on empirically measuring the p-factor of a homogeneous sample of 29 LMC and 10 SMC Cepheids for which an accurate average distances were estimated from eclipsing binary systems. Methods: We used the SPIPS algorithm, which is an implementation of the BW technique. Unlike other conventional methods, SPIPS combines all observables, i.e. radial velocities, multi-band photometry and interferometry into a consistent physical modelling to estimate the parameters of the stars. The large number and their redundancy insure its robustness and improves the statistical precision. Results: We successfully estimated the p-factor of several Magellanic Cloud Cepheids. Combined with our previous Galactic results, we find the following P-p relation: -0.08± 0.04(log P-1.18) + 1.24± 0.02. We find no evidence of a metallicity dependent p-factor. We also derive a new calibration of the period-radius relation, log R = 0.684± 0.007(log P-0.517) + 1.489± 0.002, with an intrinsic dispersion of 0.020. We detect an infrared excess for all stars at 3.6 μm and 4.5 μm, which might be the signature of circumstellar dust. We measure a mean offset of Δm3.6 = 0.057 ± 0.006 mag and Δm4.5 = 0.065 ± 0.008 mag. Conclusions: We provide a new P-p relation based on a multi-wavelength fit that can be used for the distance scale calibration from the BW method. The dispersion is due to the LMC and SMC width we took into account because individual Cepheids distances are unknown. The new P-R relation has a small intrinsic dispersion: 4.5% in radius. This precision will

  13. Dynamic integration of remote cloud resources into local computing clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleig, Georg; Erli, Guenther; Giffels, Manuel; Hauth, Thomas; Quast, Guenter; Schnepf, Matthias [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In modern high-energy physics (HEP) experiments enormous amounts of data are analyzed and simulated. Traditionally dedicated HEP computing centers are built or extended to meet this steadily increasing demand for computing resources. Nowadays it is more reasonable and more flexible to utilize computing power at remote data centers providing regular cloud services to users as they can be operated in a more efficient manner. This approach uses virtualization and allows the HEP community to run virtual machines containing a dedicated operating system and transparent access to the required software stack on almost any cloud site. The dynamic management of virtual machines depending on the demand for computing power is essential for cost efficient operation and sharing of resources with other communities. For this purpose the EKP developed the on-demand cloud manager ROCED for dynamic instantiation and integration of virtualized worker nodes into the institute's computing cluster. This contribution will report on the concept of our cloud manager and the implementation utilizing a remote OpenStack cloud site and a shared HPC center (bwForCluster located in Freiburg).

  14. Hybrid cloud and cluster computing paradigms for life science applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Judy; Ekanayake, Jaliya; Gunarathne, Thilina; Choi, Jong Youl; Bae, Seung-Hee; Li, Hui; Zhang, Bingjing; Wu, Tak-Lon; Ruan, Yang; Ekanayake, Saliya; Hughes, Adam; Fox, Geoffrey

    2010-12-21

    Clouds and MapReduce have shown themselves to be a broadly useful approach to scientific computing especially for parallel data intensive applications. However they have limited applicability to some areas such as data mining because MapReduce has poor performance on problems with an iterative structure present in the linear algebra that underlies much data analysis. Such problems can be run efficiently on clusters using MPI leading to a hybrid cloud and cluster environment. This motivates the design and implementation of an open source Iterative MapReduce system Twister. Comparisons of Amazon, Azure, and traditional Linux and Windows environments on common applications have shown encouraging performance and usability comparisons in several important non iterative cases. These are linked to MPI applications for final stages of the data analysis. Further we have released the open source Twister Iterative MapReduce and benchmarked it against basic MapReduce (Hadoop) and MPI in information retrieval and life sciences applications. The hybrid cloud (MapReduce) and cluster (MPI) approach offers an attractive production environment while Twister promises a uniform programming environment for many Life Sciences applications. We used commercial clouds Amazon and Azure and the NSF resource FutureGrid to perform detailed comparisons and evaluations of different approaches to data intensive computing. Several applications were developed in MPI, MapReduce and Twister in these different environments.

  15. SURVEYING THE AGENTS OF GALAXY EVOLUTION IN THE TIDALLY STRIPPED, LOW METALLICITY SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD (SAGE-SMC). II. COOL EVOLVED STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, Martha L.; Meixner, Margaret; Gordon, Karl D.; Shiao, Bernie; Srinivasan, Sundar; Van Loon, Jacco Th.; McDonald, Iain; Kemper, F.; Zaritsky, Dennis; Block, Miwa; Engelbracht, Charles W.; Misselt, Karl; Babler, Brian; Bracker, Steve; Meade, Marilyn; Whitney, Barbara; Hora, Joe; Robitaille, Thomas; Indebetouw, Remy; Sewilo, Marta

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the infrared (IR) properties of cool, evolved stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), including the red giant branch (RGB) stars and the dust-producing red supergiant (RSG) and asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars using observations from the Spitzer Space Telescope Legacy program entitled 'Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution in the Tidally Stripped, Low Metallicity SMC', or SAGE-SMC. The survey includes, for the first time, full spatial coverage of the SMC bar, wing, and tail regions at IR wavelengths (3.6-160 μm). We identify evolved stars using a combination of near-IR and mid-IR photometry and point out a new feature in the mid-IR color-magnitude diagram that may be due to particularly dusty O-rich AGB stars. We find that the RSG and AGB stars each contribute ∼20% of the global SMC flux (extended + point-source) at 3.6 μm, which emphasizes the importance of both stellar types to the integrated flux of distant metal-poor galaxies. The equivalent SAGE survey of the higher-metallicity Large Magellanic Cloud (SAGE-LMC) allows us to explore the influence of metallicity on dust production. We find that the SMC RSG stars are less likely to produce a large amount of dust (as indicated by the [3.6] - [8] color). There is a higher fraction of carbon-rich stars in the SMC, and these stars appear to reach colors as red as their LMC counterparts, indicating that C-rich dust forms efficiently in both galaxies. A preliminary estimate of the dust production in AGB and RSG stars reveals that the extreme C-rich AGB stars dominate the dust input in both galaxies, and that the O-rich stars may play a larger role in the LMC than in the SMC.

  16. Formation of the young compact cluster GM 24 triggered by a cloud-cloud collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Yasuo; Kohno, Mikito; Yokoyama, Keiko; Nishimura, Atsushi; Torii, Kazufumi; Hattori, Yusuke; Sano, Hidetoshi; Ohama, Akio; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Tachihara, Kengo

    2018-05-01

    High-mass star formation is an important step which controls galactic evolution. GM 24 is a heavily obscured star cluster including a single O9 star with more than ˜100 lower-mass stars within a 0.3 pc radius toward (l, b) ˜ (350.5°, 0.96°), close to the Galactic mini-starburst NGC 6334. We found two velocity components associated with the cluster by new observations of 12CO J =2-1 emission, whereas the cloud was previously considered to be single. We found that the distribution of the two components of 5 {km}s-1 separation shows complementary distribution; the two fit well with each other if a relative displacement of 3 pc is applied along the Galactic plane. A position-velocity diagram of the GM 24 cloud is explained by a model based on numerical simulations of two colliding clouds, where an intermediate velocity component created by the collision is taken into account. We estimate the collision time scale to be ˜Myr in projection of a relative motion tilted to the line of sight by 45°. The results lend further support for cloud-cloud collision as an important mechanism of high-mass star formation in the Carina-Sagittarius Arm.

  17. A study of the cool gas in the Large Magellanic Cloud. I. Properties of the cool atomic phase - a third H i absorption survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx-Zimmer, M.; Herbstmeier, U.; Dickey, J. M.; Zimmer, F.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Mebold, U.

    2000-02-01

    The cool atomic interstellar medium of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) seems to be quite different from that in the Milky Way. In a series of three papers we study the properties of the cool atomic hydrogen in the LMC (Paper I), its relation to molecular clouds using SEST-CO-observations (Paper II) and the cooling mechanism of the atomic gas based on ISO-[\\CII]-investigations (Paper III). In this paper we present the results of a third 21 cm absorption line survey toward the LMC carried out with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). 20 compact continuum sources, which are mainly in the direction of the supergiant shell LMC 4, toward the surroundings of 30 Doradus and toward the eastern steep \\HI\\ boundary, have been chosen from the 1.4 GHz snapshot continuum survey of Marx et al. We have identified 20 absorption features toward nine of the 20 sources. The properties of the cool \\HI\\ clouds are investigated and are compared for the different regions of the LMC taking the results of Dickey et al. (survey 2) into account. We find that the cool \\HI\\ gas in the LMC is either unusually abundant compared to the cool atomic phase of the Milky Way or the gas is clearly colder (\\Tc\\ ~ 30 K) than that in our Galaxy (\\Tc\\ ~ 60 K). The properties of atomic clouds toward 30 Doradus and LMC 4 suggest a higher cooling rate in these regions compared to other parts of the LMC, probably due to an enhanced pressure near the shock fronts of LMC 4 and 30 Doradus. The detected cool atomic gas toward the eastern steep \\HI\\ boundary might be the result of a high compression of gas at the leading edge. The Australia Telescope is funded by the Commonwealth of Australia for operation as a National Facility managed by CSIRO.

  18. Integration of cloud, grid and local cluster resources with DIRAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifield, Tom; Sevior, Martin; Carmona, Ana; Casajús, Adrián; Graciani, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    Grid computing was developed to provide users with uniform access to large-scale distributed resources. This has worked well, however there are significant resources available to the scientific community that do not follow this paradigm - those on cloud infrastructure providers, HPC supercomputers or local clusters. DIRAC (Distributed Infrastructure with Remote Agent Control) was originally designed to support direct submission to the Local Resource Management Systems (LRMS) of such clusters for LHCb, matured to support grid workflows and has recently been updated to support Amazon's Elastic Compute Cloud. This raises a number of new possibilities - by opening avenues to new resources, virtual organisations can change their resources with usage patterns and use these dedicated facilities for a given time. For example, user communities such as High Energy Physics experiments, have computing tasks with a wide variety of requirements in terms of CPU, data access or memory consumption, and their usage profile is never constant throughout the year. Having the possibility to transparently absorb peaks on the demand for these kinds of tasks using Cloud resources could allow a reduction in the overall cost of the system. This paper investigates interoperability by following a recent large-scale production exercise utilising resources from these three different paradigms, during the 2010 Belle Monte Carlo run. Through this, it discusses the challenges and opportunities of such a model.

  19. Enhanced K-means clustering with encryption on cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Iqjot; Dwivedi, Prerna; Gupta, Taru; Shynu, P. G.

    2017-11-01

    This paper tries to solve the problem of storing and managing big files over cloud by implementing hashing on Hadoop in big-data and ensure security while uploading and downloading files. Cloud computing is a term that emphasis on sharing data and facilitates to share infrastructure and resources.[10] Hadoop is an open source software that gives us access to store and manage big files according to our needs on cloud. K-means clustering algorithm is an algorithm used to calculate distance between the centroid of the cluster and the data points. Hashing is a algorithm in which we are storing and retrieving data with hash keys. The hashing algorithm is called as hash function which is used to portray the original data and later to fetch the data stored at the specific key. [17] Encryption is a process to transform electronic data into non readable form known as cipher text. Decryption is the opposite process of encryption, it transforms the cipher text into plain text that the end user can read and understand well. For encryption and decryption we are using Symmetric key cryptographic algorithm. In symmetric key cryptography are using DES algorithm for a secure storage of the files. [3

  20. H I cloud in the Pleiades: A cloud-cluster collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, K.J.; Arny, T.T.

    1984-01-01

    We have mapped the neutral hydrogen 21-cm line from an area 5 0 on a side centered on the Pleiades using the NRAO 140-ft. telescope. A strong feature appears in the spectra at a velocity of V/sub LSR/ = 7 km s -1 , corresponding to the velocity of the optical interstellar lines. This cloud appears to be curved around the west side of the cluster. The feature is much weaker in the direction of the molecular cloud southwest of the cluster and is virtually absent from the central regions. The contours of the 7-km s -1 feature match the visible nebulosity reasonably well. The evidence for gas and dust between the observer and the stars suggests it may be necessary to revise the ''standard'' model of this reflection nebula in which it is assumed the nebulosity lies behind the illuminating stars

  1. THE MASS LOSS RETURN FROM EVOLVED STARS TO THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD: EMPIRICAL RELATIONS FOR EXCESS EMISSION AT 8 AND 24 μm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, Sundar; Meixner, Margaret; Leitherer, Claus; Vijh, Uma; Gordon, Karl D.; Sewilo, Marta; Volk, Kevin; Blum, Robert D.; Harris, Jason; Babler, Brian L.; Bracker, Steve; Meade, Marilyn; Block, Miwa; Engelbracht, Charles W.; For, Bi-Qing; Misselt, Karl A.; Cohen, Martin; Hora, Joseph L.; Indebetouw, Remy; Markwick-Kemper, Francisca

    2009-01-01

    We present empirical relations describing excess emission from evolved stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) using data from the Spitzer Space Telescope Surveying the Agents of a Galaxy's Evolution (SAGE) survey which includes the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 μm and Multiband Imaging Photometer (MIPS) 24, 70, and 160 μm bands. We combine the SAGE data with the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS; J, H, and K s ) and the optical Magellanic Cloud Photometric Survey (MCPS; U, B, V, and I) point source catalogs in order to create complete spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star candidates in the LMC. AGB star outflows are among the main producers of dust in a galaxy, and this mass loss results in an excess in the fluxes observed in the 8 and 24 μm bands. The aim of this work is to investigate the mass loss return by AGB stars to the interstellar medium of the LMC by studying the dependence of the infrared excess flux on the total luminosity. We identify oxygen-rich, carbon-rich, and extreme AGB star populations in our sample based on their 2MASS and IRAC colors. The SEDs of oxygen- and carbon-rich AGB stars are compared with appropriate stellar photosphere models to obtain the excess flux in all the IRAC bands and the MIPS 24 μm band. Extreme AGB stars are dominated by circumstellar emission at 8 and 24 μm; thus we approximate their excesses with the flux observed in these bands. We find about 16,000 O-rich, 6300 C-rich, and 1000 extreme sources with reliable 8 μm excesses, and about 4500 O-rich, 5300 C-rich, and 960 extreme sources with reliable 24 μm excesses. The excesses are in the range 0.1 mJy to 5 Jy. The 8 and 24 μm excesses for all three types of AGB candidates show a general increasing trend with luminosity. The color temperature of the circumstellar dust derived from the ratio of the 8 and 24 μm excesses decreases with an increase in excess, while the 24 μm optical depth increases with

  2. Integration of Openstack cloud resources in BES III computing cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haibo; Cheng, Yaodong; Huang, Qiulan; Cheng, Zhenjing; Shi, Jingyan

    2017-10-01

    Cloud computing provides a new technical means for data processing of high energy physics experiment. However, the resource of each queue is fixed and the usage of the resource is static in traditional job management system. In order to make it simple and transparent for physicist to use, we developed a virtual cluster system (vpmanager) to integrate IHEPCloud and different batch systems such as Torque and HTCondor. Vpmanager provides dynamic virtual machines scheduling according to the job queue. The BES III use case results show that resource efficiency is greatly improved.

  3. Cluster analysis of midlatitude oceanic cloud regimes: mean properties and temperature sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Gordon

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Clouds play an important role in the climate system by reducing the amount of shortwave radiation reaching the surface and the amount of longwave radiation escaping to space. Accurate simulation of clouds in computer models remains elusive, however, pointing to a lack of understanding of the connection between large-scale dynamics and cloud properties. This study uses a k-means clustering algorithm to group 21 years of satellite cloud data over midlatitude oceans into seven clusters, and demonstrates that the cloud clusters are associated with distinct large-scale dynamical conditions. Three clusters correspond to low-level cloud regimes with different cloud fraction and cumuliform or stratiform characteristics, but all occur under large-scale descent and a relatively dry free troposphere. Three clusters correspond to vertically extensive cloud regimes with tops in the middle or upper troposphere, and they differ according to the strength of large-scale ascent and enhancement of tropospheric temperature and humidity. The final cluster is associated with a lower troposphere that is dry and an upper troposphere that is moist and experiencing weak ascent and horizontal moist advection.

    Since the present balance of reflection of shortwave and absorption of longwave radiation by clouds could change as the atmosphere warms from increasing anthropogenic greenhouse gases, we must also better understand how increasing temperature modifies cloud and radiative properties. We therefore undertake an observational analysis of how midlatitude oceanic clouds change with temperature when dynamical processes are held constant (i.e., partial derivative with respect to temperature. For each of the seven cloud regimes, we examine the difference in cloud and radiative properties between warm and cold subsets. To avoid misinterpreting a cloud response to large-scale dynamical forcing as a cloud response to temperature, we require horizontal and vertical

  4. Spitzer SAGE-Spec: Near infrared spectroscopy, dust shells, and cool envelopes in extreme Large Magellanic Cloud asymptotic giant branch stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, R. D. [NOAO, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Srinivasan, S.; Kemper, F.; Ling, B. [Academia Sinica, Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 11F of Astronomy-Mathematics Building, NTU/AS, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Volk, K. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    K-band spectra are presented for a sample of 39 Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) SAGE-Spec sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The spectra exhibit characteristics in very good agreement with their positions in the near-infrared—Spitzer color-magnitude diagrams and their properties as deduced from the Spitzer IRS spectra. Specifically, the near-infrared spectra show strong atomic and molecular features representative of oxygen-rich and carbon-rich asymptotic giant branch stars, respectively. A small subset of stars was chosen from the luminous and red extreme ''tip'' of the color-magnitude diagram. These objects have properties consistent with dusty envelopes but also cool, carbon-rich ''stellar'' cores. Modest amounts of dust mass loss combine with the stellar spectral energy distribution to make these objects appear extreme in their near-infrared and mid-infrared colors. One object in our sample, HV 915, a known post-asymptotic giant branch star of the RV Tau type, exhibits CO 2.3 μm band head emission consistent with previous work that demonstrates that the object has a circumstellar disk.

  5. QUASI-STELLAR OBJECT SELECTION ALGORITHM USING TIME VARIABILITY AND MACHINE LEARNING: SELECTION OF 1620 QUASI-STELLAR OBJECT CANDIDATES FROM MACHO LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD DATABASE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae-Won; Protopapas, Pavlos; Alcock, Charles; Trichas, Markos; Byun, Yong-Ik; Khardon, Roni

    2011-01-01

    We present a new quasi-stellar object (QSO) selection algorithm using a Support Vector Machine, a supervised classification method, on a set of extracted time series features including period, amplitude, color, and autocorrelation value. We train a model that separates QSOs from variable stars, non-variable stars, and microlensing events using 58 known QSOs, 1629 variable stars, and 4288 non-variables in the MAssive Compact Halo Object (MACHO) database as a training set. To estimate the efficiency and the accuracy of the model, we perform a cross-validation test using the training set. The test shows that the model correctly identifies ∼80% of known QSOs with a 25% false-positive rate. The majority of the false positives are Be stars. We applied the trained model to the MACHO Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) data set, which consists of 40 million light curves, and found 1620 QSO candidates. During the selection none of the 33,242 known MACHO variables were misclassified as QSO candidates. In order to estimate the true false-positive rate, we crossmatched the candidates with astronomical catalogs including the Spitzer Surveying the Agents of a Galaxy's Evolution LMC catalog and a few X-ray catalogs. The results further suggest that the majority of the candidates, more than 70%, are QSOs.

  6. Interstellar Gas-phase Element Depletions in the Small Magellanic Cloud: A Guide to Correcting for Dust in QSO Absorption Line Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, Edward B. [Princeton University Observatory, Princeton, NJ 08544-1001 (United States); Wallerstein, George, E-mail: ebj@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: walleg@u.washington.edu [University of Washington, Seattle, Dept. of Astronomy, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    We present data on the gas-phase abundances for 9 different elements in the interstellar medium of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), based on the strengths of ultraviolet absorption features over relevant velocities in the spectra of 18 stars within the SMC. From this information and the total abundances defined by the element fractions in young stars in the SMC, we construct a general interpretation on how these elements condense into solid form onto dust grains. As a group, the elements Si, S, Cr, Fe, Ni, and Zn exhibit depletion sequences similar to those in the local part of our Galaxy defined by Jenkins. The elements Mg and Ti deplete less rapidly in the SMC than in the Milky Way, and Mn depletes more rapidly. We speculate that these differences might be explained by the different chemical affinities to different existing grain substrates. For instance, there is evidence that the mass fractions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the SMC are significantly lower than those in the Milky Way. We propose that the depletion sequences that we observed for the SMC may provide a better model for interpreting the element abundances in low-metallicity Damped Lyman Alpha (DLA) and sub-DLA absorption systems that are recorded in the spectra of distant quasars and gamma-ray burst afterglows.

  7. AN X-RAY UPPER LIMIT ON THE PRESENCE OF A NEUTRON STAR FOR THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD SUPERNOVA REMNANT 1E0102.2-7219

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutkowski, M. J.; Windhorst, R. A.; Schlegel, E. M.; Keohane, J. W.

    2010-01-01

    We present Chandra X-ray Observatory archival observations of the supernova remnant 1E0102.2-7219, a young oxygen-rich remnant in the Small Magellanic Cloud. Combining 28 ObsIDs for 324 ks of total exposure time, we present an Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer image with an unprecedented signal-to-noise ratio (mean S/N ≅√S∼ 6; maximum S/N > 35). We search within the remnant, using the source detection software WAVDETECT, for point sources which may indicate a compact object. Despite finding numerous detections of high significance in both broad and narrowband images of the remnant, we are unable to satisfactorily distinguish whether these detections correspond to emission from a compact object. We also present upper limits to the luminosity of an obscured compact stellar object which were derived from an analysis of spectra extracted from the high signal-to-noise image. We are able to further constrain the characteristics of a potential neutron star for this remnant with the results of the analysis presented here, though we cannot confirm the existence of such an object for this remnant.

  8. The Carnegie Hubble Program: The Leavitt Law at 3.6 microns and 4.5 microns in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scowcroft, Victoria; Freedman, Wendy L.; Madore, Barry F.; Monson, Andrew J.; Persson, S. E.; Seibert, Mark; Rigby, Jane R.; Sturch, Laura

    2011-01-01

    The Carnegie Hubble Program (CHP) is designed to improve the extragalactic distance scale using data from the post-cryogenic era of Spitzer. The ultimate goal is a determination of the Hubble constant to an accuracy of 2%. This paper is the first in a series on the Cepheid population of the Large Magellanic Cloud, and focuses on the period-luminosity relations (Leavitt laws) that will be used, in conjunction with observations of Milky Way Cepheids, to set the slope and zero-point of the Cepheid distance scale in the mid-infrared. To this end, we have obtained uniformly-sampled light curves for 85 LMC Cepheids, having periods between 6 and 140 days. Period- luminosity and period-color relations are presented in the 3.6 micron and 4.5 micron bands. We demonstrate that the 3.6 micron band is a superb distance indicator. The cyclical variation of the [3.6]-[4.5] color has been measured for the first time. We attribute the amplitude and phase of the color curves to the dissociation and recombination of CO molecules in the Cepheid s atmosphere. The CO affects only the 4.5 micron flux making it a potential metallicity indicator.

  9. THE CARNEGIE HUBBLE PROGRAM: THE LEAVITT LAW AT 3.6 μm AND 4.5 μm IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scowcroft, Victoria; Freedman, Wendy L.; Madore, Barry F.; Monson, Andrew J.; Persson, S. E.; Seibert, Mark; Rigby, Jane R.; Sturch, Laura

    2011-01-01

    The Carnegie Hubble Program is designed to improve the extragalactic distance scale using data from the post-cryogenic era of Spitzer. The ultimate goal is a determination of the Hubble constant to an accuracy of 2%. This paper is the first in a series on the Cepheid population of the Large Magellanic Cloud, and focusses on the period-luminosity (PL) relations (Leavitt laws) that will be used, in conjunction with observations of Milky Way Cepheids, to set the slope and zero point of the Cepheid distance scale in the mid-infrared. To this end, we have obtained uniformly sampled light curves for 85 LMC Cepheids, having periods between 6 and 140 days. PL and period-color relations are presented in the 3.6 μm and 4.5 μm bands. We demonstrate that the 3.6 μm band is a superb distance indicator. The cyclical variation of the [3.6]–[4.5] color has been measured for the first time. We attribute the amplitude and phase of the color curves to the dissociation and recombination of CO molecules in the Cepheid's atmosphere. The CO affects only the 4.5 μm flux making it a potential metallicity indicator.

  10. A TWO-COMPONENT POWER LAW COVERING NEARLY FOUR ORDERS OF MAGNITUDE IN THE POWER SPECTRUM OF SPITZER FAR-INFRARED EMISSION FROM THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, David L.; Puerari, Ivanio; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Bournaud, Frederic

    2010-01-01

    Power spectra of Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) emission at 24, 70, and 160 μm observed with the Spitzer Space Telescope have a two-component power-law structure with a shallow slope of -1.6 at low wavenumber, k, and a steep slope of -2.9 at high k. The break occurs at k -1 ∼ 100-200 pc, which is interpreted as the line-of-sight thickness of the LMC disk. The slopes are slightly steeper for longer wavelengths, suggesting the cooler dust emission is smoother than the hot emission. The power spectrum (PS) covers ∼3.5 orders of magnitude, and the break in the slope is in the middle of this range on a logarithmic scale. Large-scale driving from galactic and extragalactic processes, including disk self-gravity, spiral waves, and bars, presumably causes the low-k structure in what is effectively a two-dimensional geometry. Small-scale driving from stellar processes and shocks causes the high-k structure in a three-dimensional geometry. This transition in dimensionality corresponds to the observed change in PS slope. A companion paper models the observed power law with a self-gravitating hydrodynamics simulation of a galaxy like the LMC.

  11. An X-ray Expansion and Proper Motion Study of the Magellanic Cloud Supernova Remnant J0509-6731 with the Chandra X-ray Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Quentin; Filipovi, Miroslav; Allen, Glenn E.; Sano, Hidetoshi; Park, Laurence; Pannuti, Thomas G.; Sasaki, Manami; Haberl, Frank; Kavanagh, Patrick J.; Yamane, Yumiko; Yoshiike, Satoshi; Fujii, Kosuke; Fukui, Yasuo; Seitenzahl, Ivo R.

    2018-05-01

    Using archival Chandra data consisting of a total of 78.46 ksec over two epochs seven years apart, we have measured the expansion of the young (˜400 years old) type Ia Large Magellanic Cloud supernova remnant (SNR) J0509-6731. In addition, we use radial brightness profile matching to detect proper-motion expansion of this SNR, and estimate an speed of 7 500±1 700 km s-1. This is one of the only proper motion studies of extragalactic SNRs expansion that is able to derive an expansion velocity, and one of only two such studies of an extragalactic SNR to yield positive results in the X-rays. We find that this expansion velocity is consistent with an optical expansion study on this object. In addition, we examine the medium into which the SNR is expanding by examining the CO and neutral H I gas using radio data obtained from Mopra, the Australia Telescope Compact Array and Parkes radio telescopes. We also briefly compare this result with a recent radio survey, and find that our results predict a radio spectral index α of -0.67±0.07. This value is consistent with high frequency radio observations of MCSNR J0509-6731.

  12. Spitzer SAGE-Spec: Near infrared spectroscopy, dust shells, and cool envelopes in extreme Large Magellanic Cloud asymptotic giant branch stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, R. D.; Srinivasan, S.; Kemper, F.; Ling, B.; Volk, K.

    2014-01-01

    K-band spectra are presented for a sample of 39 Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) SAGE-Spec sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The spectra exhibit characteristics in very good agreement with their positions in the near-infrared—Spitzer color-magnitude diagrams and their properties as deduced from the Spitzer IRS spectra. Specifically, the near-infrared spectra show strong atomic and molecular features representative of oxygen-rich and carbon-rich asymptotic giant branch stars, respectively. A small subset of stars was chosen from the luminous and red extreme ''tip'' of the color-magnitude diagram. These objects have properties consistent with dusty envelopes but also cool, carbon-rich ''stellar'' cores. Modest amounts of dust mass loss combine with the stellar spectral energy distribution to make these objects appear extreme in their near-infrared and mid-infrared colors. One object in our sample, HV 915, a known post-asymptotic giant branch star of the RV Tau type, exhibits CO 2.3 μm band head emission consistent with previous work that demonstrates that the object has a circumstellar disk.

  13. Integrating PROOF Analysis in Cloud and Batch Clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Y; Fernández-del-Castillo, Enol; López García, Álvaro; Marco de Lucas, Jesús; Matorras Weinig, Francisco; González Caballero, Isidro; Cuesta Noriega, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    High Energy Physics (HEP) analysis are becoming more complex and demanding due to the large amount of data collected by the current experiments. The Parallel ROOT Facility (PROOF) provides researchers with an interactive tool to speed up the analysis of huge volumes of data by exploiting parallel processing on both multicore machines and computing clusters. The typical PROOF deployment scenario is a permanent set of cores configured to run the PROOF daemons. However, this approach is incapable of adapting to the dynamic nature of interactive usage. Several initiatives seek to improve the use of computing resources by integrating PROOF with a batch system, such as Proof on Demand (PoD) or PROOF Cluster. These solutions are currently in production at Universidad de Oviedo and IFCA and are positively evaluated by users. Although they are able to adapt to the computing needs of users, they must comply with the specific configuration, OS and software installed at the batch nodes. Furthermore, they share the machines with other workloads, which may cause disruptions in the interactive service for users. These limitations make PROOF a typical use-case for cloud computing. In this work we take profit from Cloud Infrastructure at IFCA in order to provide a dynamic PROOF environment where users can control the software configuration of the machines. The Proof Analysis Framework (PAF) facilitates the development of new analysis and offers a transparent access to PROOF resources. Several performance measurements are presented for the different scenarios (PoD, SGE and Cloud), showing a speed improvement closely correlated with the number of cores used.

  14. SAGE-SMC: Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution in the Tidally-Disrupted, Low-Metallicity Small Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Karl; Babler, Brian; Bernard, Jean-Philippe; Block, Miwa; Blum, Robert; Bolatto, Alberto; Bot, Caroline; Bracker, Steve; Carlson, Lynn; Churchwell, Ed; Clayton, Geoffrey; Cohen, Martin; Engelbracht, Charles; Fukui, Yasuo; Gorjian, Varoujan; Harris, Jason; Hony, Sacha; Hora, Joseph; Indebetouw, Remy; Israel, Frank; Kawamura, Akiko; Leroy, Adam; Li, Aigen; Madden, Suzanne; Markwick-Kemper, Ciska; Meade, Marilyn; Meixner, Margaret; Misselt, Karl; Mizuno, Norikazu; Mizuno, Akira; Muller, Erik; Oliveira, Joana; Olsen, Knut; Onishi, Toshikazu; Paladini, Roberta; Points, Sean; Reach, William; Robitaille, Thomas; Rubin, Douglas; Sandstrom, Karin; Sato, Shuji; Sewilo, Marta; Shibai, Hiroshi; Simon, Josh; Smith, Linda; Srinivasan, Sundar; Tielens, Xander; van Dyk, Schuyler; van Loon, Jacco; Vijh, Uma; Volk, Kevin; Whitney, Barbara; Zaritsky, Dennis

    2007-05-01

    The observable properties of galaxy evolution are largely driven by the life-cycle of baryonic matter: stars precipitate out of a complex, multi-phase interstellar medium; and eventually, evolved stellar populations return enriched material back to the ISM via stellar winds or supernova explosions. As demonstrated by the SAGE-LMC survey, comprehensive Spitzer imaging of a nearby galaxy provides an incredibly rich view of this baryonic lifecycle, allowing for an unprecedented understanding of the physical processes which drive galaxy evolution. This proposal will extend the SAGE analysis to the whole SMC (Bar, Wing, and high-density portion of the Magellanic Bridge), a galaxy whose properties are uniquely similar to those of star-forming galaxies at high redshift. Specifically, the SMC's metallicity is below the critical threshold (1/3-1/4 Z_sun) where interstellar medium properties are observed to change dramatically (sharp reduction in the PAH dust mass fraction, reduced dust-to-gas ratio, and extreme ultraviolet extinction curve variations). In addition, the SMC has been profoundly influenced by past interactions with the LMC and Milky Way, allowing us to study the impact of periodic interactions on the structure of the ISM and the physical processes of star formation. We will gain crucial insight into the ISM and star formation in a known tidal debris structure (Bridge portion of SMC), which has a metallicity 4 times lower than the rest of the SMC. When combined with observations of the Milky Way (GLIMPSE, MIPSGAL) and the LMC (SAGE-LMC), our survey of the SMC (SAGE-SMC) will provide a complete and detailed picture of the life-cycle of baryons in galactic environments spanning orders of magnitude in metallicity, and wide ranges in star formation history. This understanding will equip us to properly interpret the infrared properties of more distant galaxies, both in the local (e.g., SINGS) and high-redshift (e.g., GOODS and SWIRE) universe.

  15. SMASH: Survey of the MAgellanic Stellar History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidever, David L.; Olsen, Knut; Walker, Alistair R.; Vivas, A. Katherina; Blum, Robert D.; Kaleida, Catherine; Choi, Yumi; Conn, Blair C.; Gruendl, Robert A.; Bell, Eric F.; Besla, Gurtina; Muñoz, Ricardo R.; Gallart, Carme; Martin, Nicolas F.; Olszewski, Edward W.; Saha, Abhijit; Monachesi, Antonela; Monelli, Matteo; de Boer, Thomas J. L.; Johnson, L. Clifton; Zaritsky, Dennis; Stringfellow, Guy S.; van der Marel, Roeland P.; Cioni, Maria-Rosa L.; Jin, Shoko; Majewski, Steven R.; Martinez-Delgado, David; Monteagudo, Lara; Noël, Noelia E. D.; Bernard, Edouard J.; Kunder, Andrea; Chu, You-Hua; Bell, Cameron P. M.; Santana, Felipe; Frechem, Joshua; Medina, Gustavo E.; Parkash, Vaishali; Serón Navarrete, J. C.; Hayes, Christian

    2017-11-01

    The Large and Small Magellanic Clouds are unique local laboratories for studying the formation and evolution of small galaxies in exquisite detail. The Survey of the MAgellanic Stellar History (SMASH) is an NOAO community Dark Energy Camera (DECam) survey of the Clouds mapping 480 deg2 (distributed over ˜2400 square degrees at ˜20% filling factor) to ˜24th mag in ugriz. The primary goals of SMASH are to identify low surface brightness stellar populations associated with the stellar halos and tidal debris of the Clouds, and to derive spatially resolved star formation histories. Here, we present a summary of the survey, its data reduction, and a description of the first public Data Release (DR1). The SMASH DECam data have been reduced with a combination of the NOAO Community Pipeline, the PHOTRED automated point-spread-function photometry pipeline, and custom calibration software. The astrometric precision is ˜15 mas and the accuracy is ˜2 mas with respect to the Gaia reference frame. The photometric precision is ˜0.5%-0.7% in griz and ˜1% in u with a calibration accuracy of ˜1.3% in all bands. The median 5σ point source depths in ugriz are 23.9, 24.8, 24.5, 24.2, and 23.5 mag. The SMASH data have already been used to discover the Hydra II Milky Way satellite, the SMASH 1 old globular cluster likely associated with the LMC, and extended stellar populations around the LMC out to R ˜ 18.4 kpc. SMASH DR1 contains measurements of ˜100 million objects distributed in 61 fields. A prototype version of the NOAO Data Lab provides data access and exploration tools.

  16. SMASH: Survey of the MAgellanic Stellar History

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nidever, David L.; Olsen, Knut; Blum, Robert D.; Saha, Abhijit [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Walker, Alistair R.; Vivas, A. Katherina [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Kaleida, Catherine [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Choi, Yumi; Besla, Gurtina; Olszewski, Edward W. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson AZ, 85721 (United States); Conn, Blair C. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Gruendl, Robert A. [National Center for Supercomputing Applications, 1205 West Clark Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Bell, Eric F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 S. University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1107 (United States); Muñoz, Ricardo R. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Camino del Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Gallart, Carme; Monelli, Matteo [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Martin, Nicolas F. [Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, Observatoire astronomique de Strasbourg, UMR 7550, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Monachesi, Antonela [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); De Boer, Thomas J. L. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Johnson, L. Clifton, E-mail: dnidever@noao.edu [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, UC San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA, 92093-0424 (United States); and others

    2017-11-01

    The Large and Small Magellanic Clouds are unique local laboratories for studying the formation and evolution of small galaxies in exquisite detail. The Survey of the MAgellanic Stellar History (SMASH) is an NOAO community Dark Energy Camera (DECam) survey of the Clouds mapping 480 deg{sup 2} (distributed over ∼2400 square degrees at ∼20% filling factor) to ∼24th mag in ugriz . The primary goals of SMASH are to identify low surface brightness stellar populations associated with the stellar halos and tidal debris of the Clouds, and to derive spatially resolved star formation histories. Here, we present a summary of the survey, its data reduction, and a description of the first public Data Release (DR1). The SMASH DECam data have been reduced with a combination of the NOAO Community Pipeline, the PHOTRED automated point-spread-function photometry pipeline, and custom calibration software. The astrometric precision is ∼15 mas and the accuracy is ∼2 mas with respect to the Gaia reference frame. The photometric precision is ∼0.5%–0.7% in griz and ∼1% in u with a calibration accuracy of ∼1.3% in all bands. The median 5 σ point source depths in ugriz are 23.9, 24.8, 24.5, 24.2, and 23.5 mag. The SMASH data have already been used to discover the Hydra II Milky Way satellite, the SMASH 1 old globular cluster likely associated with the LMC, and extended stellar populations around the LMC out to R  ∼ 18.4 kpc. SMASH DR1 contains measurements of ∼100 million objects distributed in 61 fields. A prototype version of the NOAO Data Lab provides data access and exploration tools.

  17. The Orbital and Physical Parameters, and the Distance of the Eclipsing Binary System OGLE-LMC-ECL-25658 in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgueta, S. S.; Graczyk, D.; Gieren, W.; Pietrzyński, G.; Thompson, I. B.; Konorski, P.; Pilecki, B.; Villanova, S.; Udalski, A.; Soszyński, I.; Suchomska, K.; Karczmarek, P.; Górski, M.; Wielgórski, P.

    2016-08-01

    We present an analysis of a new detached eclipsing binary, OGLE-LMC-ECL-25658, in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). The system consists of two late G-type giant stars on an eccentric orbit with an orbital period of ˜200 days. The system shows total eclipses and the components have similar temperatures, making it ideal for a precise distance determination. Using multi-color photometric and high resolution spectroscopic data, we have performed an analysis of light and radial velocity curves simultaneously using the Wilson-Devinney code. We derived orbital and physical parameters of the binary with a high precision of \\lt 1%. The masses and surface metallicities of the components are virtually the same and equal to 2.23+/- 0.02 {M}⊙ and [{Fe}/{{H}}]\\=\\-0.63+/- 0.10 dex. However, their radii and rates of rotation show a distinct trace of differential stellar evolution. The distance to the system was calculated using an infrared calibration between V-band surface brightness and (V-K) color, leading to a distance modulus of (m-M)\\=\\18.452+/- 0.023 (statistical) ± 0.046 (systematic). Because OGLE-LMC-ECL-25658 is located relatively far from the LMC barycenter, we applied a geometrical correction for its position in the LMC disk using the van der Marel et al. model of the LMC. The resulting barycenter distance to the galaxy is {d}{{LMC}}\\=\\50.30+/- 0.53 (stat.) kpc, and is in perfect agreement with the earlier result of Pietrzyński et al.

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF SUPERNOVA REMNANTS ON THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD SEEN AT 20-600 μm WAVELENGTHS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakićević, Maša; Van Loon, Jacco Th.; Meixner, Margaret; Gordon, Karl; Roman-Duval, Julia; Seale, Jonathan; Bot, Caroline; Babler, Brian; Bolatto, Alberto; Engelbracht, Chad; Misselt, Karl; Montiel, Edward; Filipović, Miroslav; Hony, Sacha; Okumura, K.; Panuzzo, Pasquale; Sauvage, Marc; Indebetouw, Remy; Patat, Ferdinando; Sonneborn, George

    2015-01-01

    We present the analysis of supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and their influence on the environment at far-infrared (FIR) and submillimeter wavelengths. We use new observations obtained with the Herschel Space Observatory and archival data obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope, to make the first FIR atlas of these objects. The SNRs are not clearly discernible at FIR wavelengths; however, their influence becomes apparent in maps of dust mass and dust temperature, which we constructed by fitting a modified blackbody to the observed spectral energy distribution in each sightline. Most of the dust that is seen is pre-existing interstellar dust in which SNRs leave imprints. The temperature maps clearly reveal SNRs heating surrounding dust, while the mass maps indicate the removal of 3.7 −2.5 +7.5 M ☉ of dust per SNR. This agrees with the calculations by others that significant amounts of dust are sputtered by SNRs. Under the assumption that dust is sputtered and not merely pushed away, we estimate a dust destruction rate in the LMC of 0.037 −0.025 +0.075 M ☉ yr –1 due to SNRs, yielding an average lifetime for interstellar dust of 2 −1.3 +4.0 ×10 7 yr. We conclude that sputtering of dust by SNRs may be an important ingredient in models of galactic evolution, that supernovae may destroy more dust than they produce, and that they therefore may not be net producers of long lived dust in galaxies

  19. THE INFLUENCE OF SUPERNOVA REMNANTS ON THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD SEEN AT 20-600 μm WAVELENGTHS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakićević, Maša; Van Loon, Jacco Th. [Lennard-Jones Laboratories, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Meixner, Margaret; Gordon, Karl; Roman-Duval, Julia; Seale, Jonathan [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Bot, Caroline [Observatoire astronomique de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l' université, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Babler, Brian [Department of Astronomy, 475 north Charter St., University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Bolatto, Alberto [Laboratory of Millimeter Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 29742 (United States); Engelbracht, Chad; Misselt, Karl; Montiel, Edward [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Filipović, Miroslav [University of Western Sydney, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith South DC, NSW 1797 (Australia); Hony, Sacha; Okumura, K.; Panuzzo, Pasquale; Sauvage, Marc [CEA, Laboratoire AIM, Irfu/SAp, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Indebetouw, Remy [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Patat, Ferdinando [European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO), Karl-Schwarzschild-Straße 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Sonneborn, George, E-mail: m.lakicevic@keele.ac.uk [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); and others

    2015-01-20

    We present the analysis of supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and their influence on the environment at far-infrared (FIR) and submillimeter wavelengths. We use new observations obtained with the Herschel Space Observatory and archival data obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope, to make the first FIR atlas of these objects. The SNRs are not clearly discernible at FIR wavelengths; however, their influence becomes apparent in maps of dust mass and dust temperature, which we constructed by fitting a modified blackbody to the observed spectral energy distribution in each sightline. Most of the dust that is seen is pre-existing interstellar dust in which SNRs leave imprints. The temperature maps clearly reveal SNRs heating surrounding dust, while the mass maps indicate the removal of 3.7{sub −2.5}{sup +7.5} M {sub ☉} of dust per SNR. This agrees with the calculations by others that significant amounts of dust are sputtered by SNRs. Under the assumption that dust is sputtered and not merely pushed away, we estimate a dust destruction rate in the LMC of 0.037{sub −0.025}{sup +0.075} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} due to SNRs, yielding an average lifetime for interstellar dust of 2{sub −1.3}{sup +4.0}×10{sup 7} yr. We conclude that sputtering of dust by SNRs may be an important ingredient in models of galactic evolution, that supernovae may destroy more dust than they produce, and that they therefore may not be net producers of long lived dust in galaxies.

  20. DUST AND GAS IN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS FROM THE HERITAGE HERSCHEL KEY PROJECT. I. DUST PROPERTIES AND INSIGHTS INTO THE ORIGIN OF THE SUBMILLIMETER EXCESS EMISSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, Karl D.; Roman-Duval, Julia; Meixner, Margaret [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Bot, Caroline [Observatoire astronomique de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l Université, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Babler, Brian [Department of Astronomy, 475 North Charter Street, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Bernard, Jean-Philippe [CESR, Université de Toulouse, UPS, 9 Avenue du Colonel Roche, F-31028 Toulouse, Cedex 4 (France); Bolatto, Alberto; Jameson, Katherine [Department of Astronomy, Lab for Millimeter-wave Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Boyer, Martha L. [Observational Cosmology Lab, Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Clayton, Geoffrey C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, 233-A Nicholson Hall, Tower Drive, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Engelbracht, Charles [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Fukui, Yasuo [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Galametz, Maud [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching-bei-Mnchen (Germany); Galliano, Frederic; Hony, Sacha; Lebouteiller, Vianney [CEA, Laboratoire AIM, Irfu/SAp, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Hughes, Annie [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Indebetouw, Remy [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, and National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Israel, Frank P. [Sterrewacht Leiden, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Kawamura, Akiko [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan); and others

    2014-12-20

    The dust properties in the Large and Small Magellanic clouds (LMC/SMC) are studied using the HERITAGE Herschel Key Project photometric data in five bands from 100 to 500 μm. Three simple models of dust emission were fit to the observations: a single temperature blackbody modified by a power-law emissivity (SMBB), a single temperature blackbody modified by a broken power-law emissivity (BEMBB), and two blackbodies with different temperatures, both modified by the same power-law emissivity (TTMBB). Using these models, we investigate the origin of the submillimeter excess, defined as the submillimeter emission above that expected from SMBB models fit to observations <200 μm. We find that the BEMBB model produces the lowest fit residuals with pixel-averaged 500 μm submillimeter excesses of 27% and 43% for the LMC and SMC, respectively. Adopting gas masses from previous works, the gas-to-dust ratios calculated from our fitting results show that the TTMBB fits require significantly more dust than are available even if all the metals present in the interstellar medium (ISM) were condensed into dust. This indicates that the submillimeter excess is more likely to be due to emissivity variations than a second population of colder dust. We derive integrated dust masses of (7.3 ± 1.7) × 10{sup 5} and (8.3 ± 2.1) × 10{sup 4} M {sub ☉} for the LMC and SMC, respectively. We find significant correlations between the submillimeter excess and other dust properties; further work is needed to determine the relative contributions of fitting noise and ISM physics to the correlations.

  1. THE SPITZER SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY OF THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD (S{sup 4}MC): PROBING THE PHYSICAL STATE OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN A LOW-METALLICITY ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstrom, Karin M. [Max Planck Institut fuer Astronomie, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Bolatto, Alberto D. [Department of Astronomy and Laboratory for Millimeter-wave Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Bot, Caroline [Universite de Strasbourg, Observatoire Astronomique de Strasbourg, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Draine, B. T. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Ingalls, James G. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Israel, Frank P.; Tielens, A. G. G. M. [Sterrewacht Leiden, Leiden University, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Jackson, James M. [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Leroy, Adam K. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Li, Aigen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65213 (United States); Rubio, Monica [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Simon, Joshua D. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Smith, J. D. T. [Ritter Astrophysical Research Center, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43603 (United States); Stanimirovic, Snezana [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Madison, WI 53703 (United States); Van Loon, Jacco Th., E-mail: sandstrom@mpia.de [Astrophysics Group, Lennard-Jones Laboratories, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-01

    We present results of mid-infrared spectroscopic mapping observations of six star-forming regions in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) from the Spitzer Spectroscopic Survey of the SMC (S{sup 4}MC). We detect the mid-IR emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in all of the mapped regions, greatly increasing the range of environments where PAHs have been spectroscopically detected in the SMC. We investigate the variations of the mid-IR bands in each region and compare our results to studies of the PAH bands in the SINGS sample and in a sample of low-metallicity starburst galaxies. PAH emission in the SMC is characterized by low ratios of the 6-9 {mu}m features relative to the 11.3 {mu}m feature and weak 8.6 and 17.0 {mu}m features. Interpreting these band ratios in the light of laboratory and theoretical studies, we find that PAHs in the SMC tend to be smaller and less ionized than those in higher metallicity galaxies. Based on studies of PAH destruction, we argue that a size distribution shifted toward smaller PAHs cannot be the result of processing in the interstellar medium, but instead reflects differences in the formation of PAHs at low metallicity. Finally, we discuss the implications of our observations for our understanding of the PAH life-cycle in low-metallicity galaxies-namely that the observed deficit of PAHs may be a consequence of PAHs forming with smaller average sizes and therefore being more susceptible to destruction under typical interstellar medium conditions.

  2. The OGLE view of microlensing towards the Magellanic Clouds - I. A trickle of events in the OGLE-II LMC data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Kozłowski, S.; Skowron, J.; Belokurov, V.; Smith, M. C.; Udalski, A.; Szymański, M. K.; Kubiak, M.; Pietrzyński, G.; Soszyński, I.; Szewczyk, O.; Żebruń, K.

    2009-08-01

    We present the results from the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment II (OGLE-II) survey (1996-2000) towards the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), which has the aim of detecting the microlensing phenomena caused by dark matter compact objects in the Galactic halo [massive compact halo objects (MACHOs)]. We use high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope images of the OGLE fields and derive the correction for the number of monitored stars in each field. This also yields blending distributions which we use in `catalogue-level' Monte Carlo simulations of the microlensing events in order to calculate the detection efficiency of the events. We detect two candidates for microlensing events in the All Stars Sample, which translates into an optical depth of 0.43 +/- 0.33 × 10-7. If both events were due to MACHO, the fraction of mass of compact dark matter objects in the Galactic halo would be 8 +/- 6 per cent. This optical depth, however, along with the characteristics of the events seems to be consistent with the self-lensing scenario, i.e. self-lensing alone is sufficient to explain the observed microlensing signal. Our results indicate the non-detection of MACHOs lensing towards the LMC with an upper limit on their abundance in the Galactic halo of 19 per cent for M = 0.4Msolar and 10 per cent for masses between 0.01 and 0.2Msolar. Based on observations obtained with the 1.3-m Warsaw Telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory of the Carnegie Institution of Washington. E-mail: wyrzykow@ast.cam.ac.uk ‡ Name pronunciation: Woocash Vizhikovsky.

  3. Identification of a jet-driven supernova remnant in the Small Magellanic Cloud: Possible evidence for the enhancement of bipolar explosions at low metallicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Laura A.; Castro, Daniel; Slane, Patrick O.; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Badenes, Carles

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence has suggested that the supernova remnant (SNR) 0104–72.3 in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) may be the result of a 'prompt' Type Ia SN on the basis of enhanced iron abundances and its association with a star-forming region. In this paper, we present evidence that SNR 0104–72.3 arose from a jet-driven bipolar core-collapse (CC) SN. Specifically, we use serendipitous Chandra data of SNR 0104–72.3 taken because of its proximity to the calibration source SNR E0102–72.3. We analyze 56 Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) observations of SNR 0104–72.3 to produce imaging and spectra with an effective exposure of 528.6 ks. We demonstrate that SNR 0104–72.3 is highly elliptical relative to other nearby young SNRs, suggesting a CC SN origin. Furthermore, we compare ejecta abundances derived from spectral fits to nucleosynthetic yields of Type Ia and CC SNe, and we find that the iron, neon, and silicon abundances are consistent with either a spherical CC SN of a 18-20 M ☉ progenitor or an aspherical CC SN of a 25 M ☉ progenitor. We show that the star formation history at the site of SNR 0104–72.3 is also consistent with a CC origin. Given the bipolar morphology of the SNR, we favor the aspherical CC SN scenario. This result may suggest jet-driven SNe occur frequently in the low-metallicity environment of the SMC, consistent with the observational and theoretical work on broad-line Type Ic SNe and long-duration gamma-ray bursts.

  4. THE SPITZER SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY OF THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD (S4MC): PROBING THE PHYSICAL STATE OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN A LOW-METALLICITY ENVIRONMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandstrom, Karin M.; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Bot, Caroline; Draine, B. T.; Ingalls, James G.; Israel, Frank P.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Jackson, James M.; Leroy, Adam K.; Li, Aigen; Rubio, Mónica; Simon, Joshua D.; Smith, J. D. T.; Stanimirović, Snežana; Van Loon, Jacco Th.

    2012-01-01

    We present results of mid-infrared spectroscopic mapping observations of six star-forming regions in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) from the Spitzer Spectroscopic Survey of the SMC (S 4 MC). We detect the mid-IR emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in all of the mapped regions, greatly increasing the range of environments where PAHs have been spectroscopically detected in the SMC. We investigate the variations of the mid-IR bands in each region and compare our results to studies of the PAH bands in the SINGS sample and in a sample of low-metallicity starburst galaxies. PAH emission in the SMC is characterized by low ratios of the 6-9 μm features relative to the 11.3 μm feature and weak 8.6 and 17.0 μm features. Interpreting these band ratios in the light of laboratory and theoretical studies, we find that PAHs in the SMC tend to be smaller and less ionized than those in higher metallicity galaxies. Based on studies of PAH destruction, we argue that a size distribution shifted toward smaller PAHs cannot be the result of processing in the interstellar medium, but instead reflects differences in the formation of PAHs at low metallicity. Finally, we discuss the implications of our observations for our understanding of the PAH life-cycle in low-metallicity galaxies—namely that the observed deficit of PAHs may be a consequence of PAHs forming with smaller average sizes and therefore being more susceptible to destruction under typical interstellar medium conditions.

  5. REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS Rotational explosion mechanism for collapsing supernovae and the two-stage neutrino signal from supernova 1987A in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imshennik, Vladimir S.

    2011-02-01

    The two-stage (double) signal produced by the outburst of the close supernova (SN) in the Large Magellanic Cloud, which started on and involved two neutrino signals during the night of 23 February 1987 UT, is theoretically interpreted in terms of a scenario of rotationally exploding collapsing SNs, to whose class the outburst undoubtedly belongs. This scenario consists of a set of hydrodynamic and kinetic models in which key results are obtained by numerically solving non-one-dimensional and nonstationary problems. Of vital importance in this context is the inclusion of rotation effects, their role being particularly significant precisely in terms of the question of the transformation of the original collapse of the presupernova iron core to the explosion of the SN shell, with an energy release on a familiar scale of 1051 erg. The collapse in itself leads to the birth of neutron stars (black holes) emitting neutrino and gravitational radiation signals of gigantic intensity, whose total energy significantly (by a factor of hundreds) exceeds the above-cited SN burst energy. The proposed rotational scenario is described briefly by artificially dividing it into three (or four) characteristic stages. This division is dictated by the physical meaning of the chain of events a rotating iron core of a sufficiently massive (more than 10M) star triggers when it collapses. An attempt is made to quantitatively describe the properties of the associated neutrino and gravitational radiations. The review highlights the interpretation of the two-stage neutrino signal from SN 1987A, a problem which, given the present status of theoretical astrophysics, cannot, in the author's view, be solved without including rotation effects.

  6. Surveying the agents of galaxy evolution in the tidally stripped, low metallicity small Magellanic Cloud (SAGE-SMC). III. Young stellar objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewiło, M.; Carlson, L. R.; Seale, J. P.; Meixner, M.; Gordon, K.; Shiao, B.

    2013-01-01

    The Spitzer Space Telescope Legacy Program SAGE-SMC allows global studies of resolved stellar populations in the SMC in a different environment than our Galaxy. Using the SAGE-SMC IRAC (3.6-8.0 μm) and MIPS (24 and 70 μm) catalogs and images combined with near-infrared (JHK s ) and optical (UBVI) data, we identified a population of ∼1000 intermediate- to high-mass young stellar objects (YSOs) in the SMC (three times more than previously known). Our method of identifying YSO candidates builds on the method developed for the Large Magellanic Cloud by Whitney et al. with improvements based on what we learned from our subsequent studies and techniques described in the literature. We perform (1) color-magnitude cuts based on five color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs), (2) visual inspection of multi-wavelength images, and (3) spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting with YSO models. For each YSO candidate, we use its photometry to calculate a measure of our confidence that the source is not a non-YSO contaminant, but rather a true YSO, based on the source's location in the color-magnitude space with respect to non-YSOs. We use this CMD score and the SED fitting results to define two classes of sources: high-reliability YSO candidates and possible YSO candidates. We found that, due to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission, about half of our sources have [3.6]-[4.5] and [4.5]-[5.8] colors not predicted by previous YSO models. The YSO candidates are spatially correlated with gas tracers.

  7. Surveying the agents of galaxy evolution in the tidally stripped, low metallicity small Magellanic Cloud (SAGE-SMC). III. Young stellar objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sewiło, M. [The Johns Hopkins University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 366 Bloomberg Center, 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Carlson, L. R. [Sterrewacht Leiden, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Seale, J. P.; Meixner, M.; Gordon, K.; Shiao, B., E-mail: mmsewilo@pha.jhu.edu, E-mail: carlson@strw.leidenuniv.nl, E-mail: seale@stsci.edu, E-mail: meixner@stsci.edu, E-mail: kgordon@stsci.edu, E-mail: shiao@stsci.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); and others

    2013-11-20

    The Spitzer Space Telescope Legacy Program SAGE-SMC allows global studies of resolved stellar populations in the SMC in a different environment than our Galaxy. Using the SAGE-SMC IRAC (3.6-8.0 μm) and MIPS (24 and 70 μm) catalogs and images combined with near-infrared (JHK {sub s}) and optical (UBVI) data, we identified a population of ∼1000 intermediate- to high-mass young stellar objects (YSOs) in the SMC (three times more than previously known). Our method of identifying YSO candidates builds on the method developed for the Large Magellanic Cloud by Whitney et al. with improvements based on what we learned from our subsequent studies and techniques described in the literature. We perform (1) color-magnitude cuts based on five color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs), (2) visual inspection of multi-wavelength images, and (3) spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting with YSO models. For each YSO candidate, we use its photometry to calculate a measure of our confidence that the source is not a non-YSO contaminant, but rather a true YSO, based on the source's location in the color-magnitude space with respect to non-YSOs. We use this CMD score and the SED fitting results to define two classes of sources: high-reliability YSO candidates and possible YSO candidates. We found that, due to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission, about half of our sources have [3.6]-[4.5] and [4.5]-[5.8] colors not predicted by previous YSO models. The YSO candidates are spatially correlated with gas tracers.

  8. Carbon stars in lmc clusters revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Marigo, Paola; Girardi, Leo Alberto; Chiosi, Cesare

    1996-01-01

    Examining the available data for AGB stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) clusters, we address the question about the mass interval of low- and intermediate-mass stars which eventually evolve into carbon stars (C stars) during the TP-AGB phase. We combine the data compiled by Frogel, Mould & Blanco (1990) - near infrared photometry and spectral classification for luminous AGB stars in clusters - with the ages for individual clusters derived from independent methods. The resulting distrib...

  9. PC-Cluster based Storage System Architecture for Cloud Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Yee, Tin Tin; Naing, Thinn Thu

    2011-01-01

    Design and architecture of cloud storage system plays a vital role in cloud computing infrastructure in order to improve the storage capacity as well as cost effectiveness. Usually cloud storage system provides users to efficient storage space with elasticity feature. One of the challenges of cloud storage system is difficult to balance the providing huge elastic capacity of storage and investment of expensive cost for it. In order to solve this issue in the cloud storage infrastructure, low ...

  10. DUST AND GAS IN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS FROM THE HERITAGE HERSCHEL KEY PROJECT. II. GAS-TO-DUST RATIO VARIATIONS ACROSS INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM PHASES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman-Duval, Julia; Gordon, Karl D.; Meixner, Margaret; Bot, Caroline; Bolatto, Alberto; Jameson, Katherine; Hughes, Annie; Hony, Sacha; Wong, Tony; Babler, Brian; Bernard, Jean-Philippe; Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Fukui, Yasuo; Galametz, Maud; Galliano, Frederic; Lebouteiller, Vianney; Lee, Min-Young; Glover, Simon; Israel, Frank; Li, Aigen

    2014-01-01

    The spatial variations of the gas-to-dust ratio (GDR) provide constraints on the chemical evolution and lifecycle of dust in galaxies. We examine the relation between dust and gas at 10-50 pc resolution in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC) based on Herschel far-infrared (FIR), H I 21 cm, CO, and Hα observations. In the diffuse atomic interstellar medium (ISM), we derive the GDR as the slope of the dust-gas relation and find GDRs of 380 −130 +250 ± 3 in the LMC, and 1200 −420 +1600 ± 120 in the SMC, not including helium. The atomic-to-molecular transition is located at dust surface densities of 0.05 M ☉  pc –2 in the LMC and 0.03 M ☉  pc –2 in the SMC, corresponding to A V ∼ 0.4 and 0.2, respectively. We investigate the range of CO-to-H 2 conversion factor to best account for all the molecular gas in the beam of the observations, and find upper limits on X CO to be 6 × 10 20  cm –2  K –1  km –1 s in the LMC (Z = 0.5 Z ☉ ) at 15 pc resolution, and 4 × 10 21  cm –2  K –1  km –1 s in the SMC (Z = 0.2 Z ☉ ) at 45 pc resolution. In the LMC, the slope of the dust-gas relation in the dense ISM is lower than in the diffuse ISM by a factor ∼2, even after accounting for the effects of CO-dark H 2 in the translucent envelopes of molecular clouds. Coagulation of dust grains and the subsequent dust emissivity increase in molecular clouds, and/or accretion of gas-phase metals onto dust grains, and the subsequent dust abundance (dust-to-gas ratio) increase in molecular clouds could explain the observations. In the SMC, variations in the dust-gas slope caused by coagulation or accretion are degenerate with the effects of CO-dark H 2 . Within the expected 5-20 times Galactic X CO range, the dust-gas slope can be either constant or decrease by a factor of several across ISM phases. Further modeling and observations are required to break the degeneracy between dust grain coagulation, accretion, and CO-dark H 2

  11. DUST AND GAS IN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS FROM THE HERITAGE HERSCHEL KEY PROJECT. II. GAS-TO-DUST RATIO VARIATIONS ACROSS INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM PHASES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman-Duval, Julia; Gordon, Karl D.; Meixner, Margaret [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Bot, Caroline [Observatoire astronomique de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l' université, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Bolatto, Alberto; Jameson, Katherine [Department of Astronomy, Lab for Millimeter-wave Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Hughes, Annie; Hony, Sacha [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Wong, Tony [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 W. Green St., Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Babler, Brian [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 475 North Charter St., Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Bernard, Jean-Philippe [CNRS, IRAP, 9 Av. colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Clayton, Geoffrey C. [Louisiana State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 233-A Nicholson Hall, Tower Dr., Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4001 (United States); Fukui, Yasuo [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Galametz, Maud [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Galliano, Frederic; Lebouteiller, Vianney; Lee, Min-Young [CEA, Laboratoire AIM, Irfu/SAp, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Glover, Simon [Zentrum für Astronomie, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Universität Heidelberg, Albert-Ueberle Strasse 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Israel, Frank [Sterrewacht Leiden, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Li, Aigen, E-mail: duval@stsci.edu [314 Physics Building, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); and others

    2014-12-20

    The spatial variations of the gas-to-dust ratio (GDR) provide constraints on the chemical evolution and lifecycle of dust in galaxies. We examine the relation between dust and gas at 10-50 pc resolution in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC) based on Herschel far-infrared (FIR), H I 21 cm, CO, and Hα observations. In the diffuse atomic interstellar medium (ISM), we derive the GDR as the slope of the dust-gas relation and find GDRs of 380{sub −130}{sup +250} ± 3 in the LMC, and 1200{sub −420}{sup +1600} ± 120 in the SMC, not including helium. The atomic-to-molecular transition is located at dust surface densities of 0.05 M {sub ☉} pc{sup –2} in the LMC and 0.03 M {sub ☉} pc{sup –2} in the SMC, corresponding to A {sub V} ∼ 0.4 and 0.2, respectively. We investigate the range of CO-to-H{sub 2} conversion factor to best account for all the molecular gas in the beam of the observations, and find upper limits on X {sub CO} to be 6 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup –2} K{sup –1} km{sup –1} s in the LMC (Z = 0.5 Z {sub ☉}) at 15 pc resolution, and 4 × 10{sup 21} cm{sup –2} K{sup –1} km{sup –1} s in the SMC (Z = 0.2 Z {sub ☉}) at 45 pc resolution. In the LMC, the slope of the dust-gas relation in the dense ISM is lower than in the diffuse ISM by a factor ∼2, even after accounting for the effects of CO-dark H{sub 2} in the translucent envelopes of molecular clouds. Coagulation of dust grains and the subsequent dust emissivity increase in molecular clouds, and/or accretion of gas-phase metals onto dust grains, and the subsequent dust abundance (dust-to-gas ratio) increase in molecular clouds could explain the observations. In the SMC, variations in the dust-gas slope caused by coagulation or accretion are degenerate with the effects of CO-dark H{sub 2}. Within the expected 5-20 times Galactic X {sub CO} range, the dust-gas slope can be either constant or decrease by a factor of several across ISM phases. Further modeling

  12. Color excesses, intrinsic colors, and absolute magnitudes of Galactic and Large Magellanic Cloud Wolf-Rayet stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacca, W.D.; Torres-Dodgen, A.V.

    1990-01-01

    A new method of determining the color excesses of WR stars in the Galaxy and the LMC has been developed and is used to determine the excesses for 44 Galactic and 32 LMC WR stars. The excesses are combined with line-free, narrow-band spectrophotometry to derive intrinsic colors of the WR stars of nearly all spectral subtypes. No correlation of UV spectral index or intrinsic colors with spectral subtype is found for the samples of single WN or WC stars. There is evidence that early WN stars in the LMC have flatter UV continua and redder intrinsic colors than early WN stars in the Galaxy. No separation is found between the values derived for Galactic WC stars and those obtained for LMC WC stars. The intrinsic colors are compared with those calculated from model atmospheres of WR stars and generally good agreement is found. Absolute magnitudes are derived for WR stars in the LMC and for those Galactic WR stars located in clusters and associations for which there are reliable distance estimates. 78 refs

  13. Magellan at NERSC Progress Report for June 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canon, R. Shane; Broughton, Jeff; Draney, Brent; Jackson, Keith

    2010-06-30

    The Magellan Project was funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to investigate the applicability of cloud computing for the Department of Energy's Office of Science (DOE-SC). This report covers the progress for the Magellan Project at NERSC since it began in September 2009and focuses on the research aspects of the project.

  14. Dense Clustered Multi-Channel Wireless Sensor Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivaramakrishnan Sivakumar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Dense Wireless Sensor Network Clouds have an inherent issue of latency and packet drops with regards to data collection. Though there is extensive literature that tries to address these issues through either scheduling, channel contention or a combination of the two, the problem still largely exists. In this paper, a Clustered Multi-Channel Scheduling Protocol (CMSP is designed that creates a Voronoi partition of a dense network. Each partition is assigned a channel, and a scheduling scheme is adopted to collect data within the Voronoi partitions. This scheme collects data from the partitions concurrently and then passes it to the base station. CMSP is compared using simulation with other multi-channel protocols like Tree-based Multi-Channel, Multi-Channel MAC and Multi-frequency Media Access Control for wireless sensor networks. Results indicate CMSP has higher throughput and data delivery ratio at a lower power consumption due to network partitioning and hierarchical scheduling that minimizes load on the network.

  15. METALLICITIES, AGE-METALLICITY RELATIONSHIPS, AND KINEMATICS OF RED GIANT BRANCH STARS IN THE OUTER DISK OF THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrera, R.; Gallart, C.; Aparicio, A.; Hardy, E.

    2011-01-01

    The outer disk of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) is studied in order to unveil clues about its formation and evolution. Complementing our previous studies in innermost fields (3 kpc ∼< R ∼< 7 kpc), we obtained deep color-magnitude diagrams in six fields with galactocentric distances from 5.2 kpc to 9.2 kpc and different azimuths. The comparison with isochrones shows that while the oldest population is approximately coeval in all fields, the age of the youngest populations increases with increasing radius. This agrees with the results obtained in the innermost fields. Low-resolution spectroscopy in the infrared Ca II triplet region has been obtained for about 150 stars near the tip of the red giant branch in the same fields. Radial velocities and stellar metallicities have been obtained from these spectra. The metallicity distribution of each field has been analyzed together with those previously studied. The metal content of the most metal-poor objects, which are also the oldest according to the derived age-metallicity relationships, is similar in all fields independently of the galactocentric distance. However, while the metallicity of the most metal-rich objects measured, which are the youngest ones, remains constant in the inner 6 kpc, it decreases with increasing radius from there on. The same is true for the mean metallicity. According to the derived age-metallicity relationships, which are consistent with being the same in all fields, this result may be interpreted as an outside-in formation scheme in opposition with the inside-out scenario predicted by ΛCDM cosmology for a galaxy like the LMC. The analysis of the radial velocities of our sample of giants shows that they follow a rotational cold disk kinematics. The velocity dispersion increases as metallicity decreases indicating that the most metal-poor/oldest objects are distributed in a thicker disk than the most metal-rich/youngest ones in agreement with the findings in other disks such as that of

  16. UPPER LIMITS ON PULSED RADIO EMISSION FROM THE 6.85 s X-RAY PULSAR XTE J0103-728 IN THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, Fronefield; Devour, Brian M.; Takacs, Brian P.; Lorimer, Duncan R.; Kondratiev, Vladislav I.

    2009-01-01

    X-ray pulsations with a 6.85 s period were recently detected in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) and were subsequently identified as originating from the Be/X-ray binary system XTE J0103-728. The recent localization of the source of the X-ray emission has made a targeted search for radio pulsations from this source possible. The detection of pulsed radio emission from XTE J0103-728 would make it only the second system after PSR B1259-63 that is both a Be/X-ray binary and a radio pulsar. We observed XTE J0103-728 in 2008 February with the Parkes 64 m radio telescope soon after the identification of the source of X-ray pulsations was reported in order to search for corresponding radio pulsations. We used a continuous 6.4 hr observation with a 256 MHz bandwidth centered at 1390 MHz using the center beam of the Parkes multibeam receiver. In the subsequent data analysis, which included a folding search, a Fourier search, a fast-folding algorithm search, and a single pulse search, no pulsed signals were found for trial dispersion measures (DMs) between 0 and 800 pc cm -3 . This DM range easily encompasses the expected values for sources in the SMC. We place an upper limit of ∼45 mJy kpc 2 on the luminosity of periodic radio emission from XTE J0103-728 at the epoch of our observation, and we compare this limit to a range of luminosities measured for PSR B1259-63, the only Be/X-ray binary currently known to emit radio pulses. We also compare our limit to the radio luminosities of neutron stars having similarly long spin periods to XTE J0103-728. Since the radio pulses from PSR B1259-63 are eclipsed and undetectable during the portion of the orbit near periastron, repeated additional radio search observations of XTE J0103-728 may be valuable if it is undergoing similar eclipsing and if such observations are able to sample the orbital phase of this system well.

  17. ON THE EVOLUTIONARY AND PULSATION MASS OF CLASSICAL CEPHEIDS. III. THE CASE OF THE ECLIPSING BINARY CEPHEID CEP0227 IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prada Moroni, P. G.; Gennaro, M.; Bono, G.; Pietrzyński, G.; Gieren, W.; Pilecki, B.; Graczyk, D.; Thompson, I. B.

    2012-01-01

    We present a new Bayesian approach to constrain the intrinsic parameters (stellar mass and age) of the eclipsing binary system—CEP0227—in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). We computed several sets of evolutionary models covering a broad range in chemical compositions and in stellar mass. Independent sets of models were also constructed either by neglecting or by including a moderate convective core overshooting (β ov = 0.2) during central hydrogen-burning phases. Sets of models were also constructed either by neglecting or by assuming a canonical (η = 0.4, 0.8) or an enhanced (η = 4) mass-loss rate. The most probable solutions were computed in three different planes: luminosity-temperature, mass-radius, and gravity-temperature. By using the Bayes factor, we found that the most probable solutions were obtained in the gravity-temperature plane with a Gaussian mass prior distribution. The evolutionary models constructed by assuming a moderate convective core overshooting (β ov = 0.2) and a canonical mass-loss rate (η = 0.4) give stellar masses for the primary (Cepheid)—M = 4.14 +0.04 –0.05 M ☉ —and for the secondary—M = 4.15 +0.04 –0.05 M ☉ —that agree at the 1% level with dynamical measurements. Moreover, we found ages for the two components and for the combined system—t = 151 +4 –3 Myr—that agree at the 5% level. The solutions based on evolutionary models that neglect the mass loss attain similar parameters, while those ones based on models that either account for an enhanced mass loss or neglect convective core overshooting have lower Bayes factors and larger confidence intervals. The dependence on the mass-loss rate might be the consequence of the crude approximation we use to mimic this phenomenon. By using the isochrone of the most probable solution and a Gaussian prior on the LMC distance, we found a true distance modulus—18.53 +0.02 –0.02 mag—and a reddening value—E(B – V) = 0.142 +0.005 –0.010 mag—that agree quite

  18. THE MASS-LOSS RETURN FROM EVOLVED STARS TO THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD. VI. LUMINOSITIES AND MASS-LOSS RATES ON POPULATION SCALES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riebel, D.; Meixner, M.; Srinivasan, S.; Sargent, B.

    2012-01-01

    We present results from the first application of the Grid of Red Supergiant and Asymptotic Giant Branch ModelS (GRAMS) model grid to the entire evolved stellar population of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). GRAMS is a pre-computed grid of 80,843 radiative transfer models of evolved stars and circumstellar dust shells composed of either silicate or carbonaceous dust. We fit GRAMS models to ∼30,000 asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and red supergiant (RSG) stars in the LMC, using 12 bands of photometry from the optical to the mid-infrared. Our published data set consists of thousands of evolved stars with individually determined evolutionary parameters such as luminosity and mass-loss rate. The GRAMS grid has a greater than 80% accuracy rate discriminating between oxygen- and carbon-rich chemistry. The global dust injection rate to the interstellar medium (ISM) of the LMC from RSGs and AGB stars is on the order of 2.1 × 10 –5 M ☉ yr –1 , equivalent to a total mass injection rate (including the gas) into the ISM of ∼6 × 10 –3 M ☉ yr –1 . Carbon stars inject two and a half times as much dust into the ISM as do O-rich AGB stars, but the same amount of mass. We determine a bolometric correction factor for C-rich AGB stars in the K s band as a function of J – K s color, BC K s = -0.40(J-K s ) 2 + 1.83(J-K s ) + 1.29. We determine several IR color proxies for the dust mass-loss rate (M-dot d ) from C-rich AGB stars, such as log M-dot d = (-18.90/((K s -[8.0])+3.37) - 5.93. We find that a larger fraction of AGB stars exhibiting the 'long-secondary period' phenomenon are more O-rich than stars dominated by radial pulsations, and AGB stars without detectable mass loss do not appear on either the first-overtone or fundamental-mode pulsation sequences.

  19. The period-luminosity and period-radius relations of Type II and anomalous Cepheids in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenewegen, M. A. T.; Jurkovic, M. I.

    2017-07-01

    Context. Type II Cepheids (T2Cs) and anomalous Cepheids (ACs) are pulsating stars that follow separate period-luminosity relations. Aims: We study the period-luminosity (PL) and period-radius (PR) relations for T2Cs and ACs in the Magellanic Clouds. Methods: In an accompanying paper we determined the luminosities and effective temperatures for the 335 T2Cs and ACs in the LMC and SMC discovered in the OGLE-III survey, by constructing the spectral energy distribution (SED) and fitting this with model atmospheres and a dust radiative transfer model (in the case of dust excess). Building on these results we studied the PL and PR relations of these sources. Using existing pulsation models for RR Lyrae and classical Cepheids we derive the period-luminosity-mass-temperature-metallicity relations and then estimate the pulsation mass. Results: The PL relation for the T2Cs does not appear to depend on metallicity and is Mbol = + 0.12-1.78log P (for P R = 0.846 + 0.521log P. Relations for fundamental and first overtone LMC ACs are also presented. The pulsation masses from the RR Lyrae and classical Cepheid pulsation models agree well for the short period T2Cs, the BL Her subtype, and ACs, and are consistent with estimates in the literature, I.e. MBLH 0.49M⊙ and MAC 1.3M⊙, respectively. The masses of the W Vir appear similar to the BL Her. The situation for the pWVir and RV Tau stars is less clear. For many RV Tau the masses are in conflict with the standard picture of (single-star) post-AGB evolution, where the masses are either too large (≳1 M⊙) or too small (≲0.4 M⊙). Full Table 3 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/604/A29

  20. The Small Magellanic Cloud in the far infrared. I. ISO's 170 mu m map and revisit of the IRAS 12-100 mu m data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, K.; Stickel, M.; Haas, M.; Herbstmeier, U.; Klaas, U.; Lemke, D.

    2003-04-01

    The ISOPHOT experiment onboard the ISO satellite generated a complete view of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) at 170 mu m with 1.5 arcmin resolution. The map is analysed using an automated photometry program enabling accurate photometric characterization of the far infrared (FIR) emitting regions. An integrated FIR luminosity of 8.5x 107 Lsun is obtained, leading to a star formation rate of SFRFIR=0.015 Msun/yr. With an average dust temperature of TD, 170/100}=20.5 K>, the total dust mass follows to MD=3.7x105 Msun. In this paper, the sources detected at 170 mu m are compared with those obtainable from the IRAS satellite data. For this purpose, the 12 mu m, 25 mu m, 60 mu m, and 100 mu m IRAS high resolution (HiRes) maps of the SMC are re-examined using the same method. In contrast to former studies, this provides an all-band ISO/IRAS source catalog which is no longer based on eyeball classification, but relies on an algorithm which is capable of automated, repeatable photometry, even for irregular sources. In the mid infrared IRAS bands numerous bright FIR emitting regions in the SMC are detected and classified: 73 sources are found at 12 mu m, 135 at 25 mu m (most of them with Fnu =2.0 Jy. Comparable numbers are found for the two FIR IRAS maps at 60 mu m (384) and 100 mu m (338) with fluxes up to 450 Jy. 70 of the 243 170 mu m sources are assigned a general SED type (``cold'', ``warm'', i.e., 30 K) for the first time. A comparison with earlier IRAS results suggests that many source flux densities in those studies have been under- or overestimated because of non-standardized fitting methods. Many sources with flux densities up to 40 Jy listed in former catalogs cannot be identified in our data. Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, The Netherlands and the UK) and with the participation of ISAS and NASA. The tables in Appendices A to E are only available in

  1. A Lagrangian Analysis of Cold Cloud Clusters and Their Life Cycles With Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaili, Rebekah Bradley; Tian, Yudong; Vila, Daniel Alejandro; Kim, Kyu-Myong

    2016-01-01

    Cloud movement and evolution signify the complex water and energy transport in the atmosphere-ocean-land system. Detecting, clustering, and tracking clouds as semi coherent cluster objects enables study of their evolution which can complement climate model simulations and enhance satellite retrieval algorithms, where there are large gaps between overpasses. Using an area-overlap cluster tracking algorithm, in this study we examine the trajectories, horizontal extent, and brightness temperature variations of millions of individual cloud clusters over their lifespan, from infrared satellite observations at 30-minute, 4-km resolution, for a period of 11 years. We found that the majority of cold clouds were both small and short-lived and that their frequency and location are influenced by El Nino. More importantly, this large sample of individually tracked clouds shows their horizontal size and temperature evolution. Longer lived clusters tended to achieve their temperature and size maturity milestones at different times, while these stages often occurred simultaneously in shorter lived clusters. On average, clusters with this lag also exhibited a greater rainfall contribution than those where minimum temperature and maximum size stages occurred simultaneously. Furthermore, by examining the diurnal cycle of cluster development over Africa and the Indian subcontinent, we observed differences in the local timing of the maximum occurrence at different life cycle stages. Over land there was a strong diurnal peak in the afternoon while over the ocean there was a semi-diurnal peak composed of longer-lived clusters in the early morning hours and shorter-lived clusters in the afternoon. Building on regional specific work, this study provides a long-term, high-resolution, and global survey of object-based cloud characteristics.

  2. THE PHYSICAL CONDITIONS IN A PRE-SUPER STAR CLUSTER MOLECULAR CLOUD IN THE ANTENNAE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, K. E.; Indebetouw, R.; Evans, A. S.; Leroy, A. K.; Brogan, C. L.; Hibbard, J.; Sheth, K.; Whitmore, B. C.

    2015-01-01

    We present an analysis of the physical conditions in an extreme molecular cloud in the Antennae merging galaxies. This cloud has properties consistant with those required to form a globular cluster. We have obtained ALMA CO and 870 μm observations of the Antennae galaxy system with ∼0.″5 resolution. This cloud stands out in the data with a radius of ≲24 pc and mass of >5 × 10 6 M ⊙ . The cloud appears capable of forming a globular cluster, but the lack of associated thermal radio emission indicates that star formation has not yet altered the environment. The lack of thermal radio emission places the cloud in an early stage of evolution, which we expect to be short-lived (≲1 Myr) and thus rare. Given its mass and kinetic energy, for the cloud to be confined (as its appearance strongly suggests) it must be subject to an external pressure of P/k B ≳ 10 8 K cm −3 –10,000 times higher than typical interstellar pressure. This would support theories that high pressures are required to form globular clusters and may explain why extreme environments like the Antennae are preferred environments for generating such objects. Given the cloud temperature of ∼25 K, the internal pressure must be dominated by non-thermal processes, most likely turbulence. We expect the molecular cloud to collapse and begin star formation in ≲1 Myr

  3. Survey of the MAgellanic Stellar History -- SMASH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nidever, David; Olsen, Knut; Besla, Gurtina; Gruendl, Robert; Saha, Abhijit; Gallart, Carme; Olszewski, Edward W.; Munoz, Ricardo; Monelli, Matteo; Kunder, Andrea; Kaleida, Catherine; Walker, Alistair; Stringfellow, Guy; Zaritsky, Dennis; van der Marel, Roeland; Blum, Robert; Vivas, Kathy; Chu, You-Hua; Martin, Nicolas; Conn, Blair; Noel, Noelia; Majewski, Steven; Jin, Shoko; Kim, Hwihyun; Cioni, Maria-Rosa; Bell, Eric; Monachesi, Antonela; de Boer, Thomas

    Over the last several years, various discoveries have drastically altered our view of the iconic Magellanic Clouds (MCs), the nearest interacting galaxy system. The best evidence is now that they are on first infall into the Milky Way, that their stellar populations extend much further than

  4. THE MASS-LOSS RETURN FROM EVOLVED STARS TO THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD. II. DUST PROPERTIES FOR OXYGEN-RICH ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargent, Benjamin A.; Meixner, M.; Gordon, Karl D.; Srinivasan, S.; Kemper, F.; Woods, Paul M.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Speck, A. K.; Matsuura, M.; Bernard, J.-Ph.; Hony, S.; Indebetouw, R.; Marengo, M.; Sloan, G. C.

    2010-01-01

    We model multi-wavelength broadband UBVIJHK s and Spitzer IRAC and MIPS photometry and Infrared Spectrograph spectra from the SAGE and SAGE-Spectroscopy observing programs of two oxygen-rich asymptotic giant branch (O-rich AGB) stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) using radiative transfer (RT) models of dust shells around stars. We chose a star from each of the bright and faint O-rich AGB populations found by earlier studies of the SAGE sample in order to derive a baseline set of dust properties to be used in the construction of an extensive grid of RT models of the O-rich AGB stars found in the SAGE surveys. From the bright O-rich AGB population, we chose HV 5715, and from the faint O-rich AGB population we chose SSTISAGE1C J052206.92-715017.6 (SSTSAGE052206). We found the complex indices of refraction of oxygen-deficient silicates from Ossenkopf et al. and a power law with exponential decay grain size distribution like what Kim et al. used but with γ of -3.5, a min of 0.01 μm, and a 0 of 0.1 μm to be reasonable dust properties for these models. There is a slight indication that the dust around the faint O-rich AGB may be more silica-rich than that around the bright O-rich AGB. Simple models of gas emission suggest a relatively extended gas envelope for the faint O-rich AGB star modeled, consistent with the relatively large dust shell inner radius for the same model. Our models of the data require the luminosity of SSTSAGE052206 and HV 5715 to be ∼5100 L sun and ∼36,000 L sun , respectively. This, combined with the stellar effective temperatures of 3700 K and 3500 K, respectively, that we find best fit the optical and near-infrared data, suggests stellar masses of ∼3 M sun and ∼7 M sun . This, in turn, suggests that HV 5715 is undergoing hot-bottom burning and that SSTSAGE052206 is not. Our models of SSTSAGE052206 and HV 5715 require dust shells of inner radius ∼17 and ∼52 times the stellar radius, respectively, with dust temperatures there of

  5. The destruction of an Oort Cloud in a rich stellar cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordlander, T.; Rickman, H.; Gustafsson, B.

    2017-07-01

    Context. It is possible that the formation of the Oort Cloud dates back to the earliest epochs of solar system history. At that time, the Sun was almost certainly a member of the stellar cluster where it was born. Since the solar birth cluster is likely to have been massive (103-104ℳ⊙), and therefore long-lived, an issue concerns the survival of such a primordial Oort Cloud. Aims: We have investigated this issue by simulating the orbital evolution of Oort Cloud comets for several hundred Myr, assuming the Sun to start its life as a typical member of such a massive cluster. Methods: We have devised a synthetic representation of the relevant dynamics, where the cluster potential is represented by a King model, and about 20 close encounters with individual cluster stars are selected and integrated based on the solar orbit and the cluster structure. Thousands of individual simulations are made, each including 3000 comets with orbits with three different initial semi-major axes. Results: Practically the entire initial Oort Cloud is found to be lost for our choice of semi-major axes (5000-20 000 au), independent of the cluster mass, although the chance of survival is better for the smaller cluster, since in a certain fraction of the simulations the Sun orbits at relatively safe distances from the dense cluster centre. Conclusions: For the range of birth cluster sizes that we investigate, a primordial Oort Cloud will likely survive only as a small inner core with semi-major axes ≲3000 au. Such a population of comets would be inert to orbital diffusion into an outer halo and subsequent injection into observable orbits. Some mechanism is therefore needed to accomplish this transfer, in case the Oort Cloud is primordial and the birth cluster did not have a low mass. From this point of view, our results lend some support to a delayed formation of the Oort Cloud, that occurred after the Sun had left its birth cluster.

  6. Star cluster formation in a turbulent molecular cloud self-regulated by photoionization feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavagnin, Elena; Bleuler, Andreas; Rosdahl, Joakim; Teyssier, Romain

    2017-12-01

    Most stars in the Galaxy are believed to be formed within star clusters from collapsing molecular clouds. However, the complete process of star formation, from the parent cloud to a gas-free star cluster, is still poorly understood. We perform radiation-hydrodynamical simulations of the collapse of a turbulent molecular cloud using the RAMSES-RT code. Stars are modelled using sink particles, from which we self-consistently follow the propagation of the ionizing radiation. We study how different feedback models affect the gas expulsion from the cloud and how they shape the final properties of the emerging star cluster. We find that the star formation efficiency is lower for stronger feedback models. Feedback also changes the high-mass end of the stellar mass function. Stronger feedback also allows the establishment of a lower density star cluster, which can maintain a virial or sub-virial state. In the absence of feedback, the star formation efficiency is very high, as well as the final stellar density. As a result, high-energy close encounters make the cluster evaporate quickly. Other indicators, such as mass segregation, statistics of multiple systems and escaping stars confirm this picture. Observations of young star clusters are in best agreement with our strong feedback simulation.

  7. Automated cloud screening of AVHRR imagery using split-and-merge clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallaudet, Timothy C.; Simpson, James J.

    1991-01-01

    Previous methods to segment clouds from ocean in AVHRR imagery have shown varying degrees of success, with nighttime approaches being the most limited. An improved method of automatic image segmentation, the principal component transformation split-and-merge clustering (PCTSMC) algorithm, is presented and applied to cloud screening of both nighttime and daytime AVHRR data. The method combines spectral differencing, the principal component transformation, and split-and-merge clustering to sample objectively the natural classes in the data. This segmentation method is then augmented by supervised classification techniques to screen clouds from the imagery. Comparisons with other nighttime methods demonstrate its improved capability in this application. The sensitivity of the method to clustering parameters is presented; the results show that the method is insensitive to the split-and-merge thresholds.

  8. THE TWO MOLECULAR CLOUDS IN RCW 38: EVIDENCE FOR THE FORMATION OF THE YOUNGEST SUPER STAR CLUSTER IN THE MILKY WAY TRIGGERED BY CLOUD–CLOUD COLLISION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukui, Y.; Torii, K.; Ohama, A.; Hasegawa, K.; Hattori, Y.; Sano, H.; Yamamoto, H.; Tachihara, K. [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Ohashi, S.; Fujii, K.; Kuwahara, S. [Department of Astronomy, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 133-0033 (Japan); Mizuno, N.; Okuda, T. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Dawson, J. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and MQ Research Centre in Astronomy, Astrophysics and Astrophotonics, Macquarie University, NSW 2109 (Australia); Onishi, T. [Department of Astrophysics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Nakaku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Mizuno, A., E-mail: torii@a.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan)

    2016-03-20

    We present distributions of two molecular clouds having velocities of 2 and 14 km s{sup −1} toward RCW 38, the youngest super star cluster in the Milky Way, in the {sup 12}CO J = 1–0 and 3–2 and {sup 13}CO J = 1–0 transitions. The two clouds are likely physically associated with the cluster as verified by the high intensity ratio of the J = 3–2 emission to the J = 1–0 emission, the bridging feature connecting the two clouds in velocity, and their morphological correspondence with the infrared dust emission. The velocity difference is too large for the clouds to be gravitationally bound. We frame a hypothesis that the two clouds are colliding with each other by chance to trigger formation of the ∼20 O stars that are localized within ∼0.5 pc of the cluster center in the 2 km s{sup −1} cloud. We suggest that the collision is currently continuing toward part of the 2 km s{sup −1} cloud where the bridging feature is localized. This is the third super star cluster alongside Westerlund 2 and NGC 3603 where cloud–cloud collision has triggered the cluster formation. RCW 38 is the youngest super star cluster in the Milky Way, holding a possible sign of on-going O star formation, and is a promising site where we may be able to witness the moment of O star formation.

  9. Coarse point cloud registration by EGI matching of voxel clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.; Lindenbergh, R.C.; Shen, Y.; Menenti, M.

    2016-01-01

    Laser scanning samples the surface geometry of objects efficiently and records versatile information as point clouds. However, often more scans are required to fully cover a scene. Therefore, a registration step is required that transforms the different scans into a common coordinate system. The

  10. Globular clusters, old and young

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samus', N.N.

    1984-01-01

    The problem of similarity of and difference in the globular and scattered star clusters is considered. Star clusters in astronomy are related either to globular or to scattered ones according to the structure of Hertzsprung-Russell diagram constructed for star clusters, but not according to the appearance. The qlobular clusters in the Galaxy are composed of giants and subgiants, which testifies to the old age of the globular clusters. The Globular clusters in the Magellanic clouds are classified into ''red'' ones - similar to the globular clusters of the Galaxy, and ''blue'' ones - similar to them in appearance but differing extremely by the star composition and so by the age. The old star clusters are suggested to be called globular ones, while another name (''populous'', for example) is suggested to be used for other clusters similar to globular ones only in appearance

  11. Combinatorial Clustering Algorithm of Quantum-Behaved Particle Swarm Optimization and Cloud Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Yuan Shan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a combinatorial clustering algorithm of cloud model and quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (COCQPSO to solve the stochastic problem. The algorithm employs a novel probability model as well as a permutation-based local search method. We are setting the parameters of COCQPSO based on the design of experiment. In the comprehensive computational study, we scrutinize the performance of COCQPSO on a set of widely used benchmark instances. By benchmarking combinatorial clustering algorithm with state-of-the-art algorithms, we can show that its performance compares very favorably. The fuzzy combinatorial optimization algorithm of cloud model and quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (FCOCQPSO in vague sets (IVSs is more expressive than the other fuzzy sets. Finally, numerical examples show the clustering effectiveness of COCQPSO and FCOCQPSO clustering algorithms which are extremely remarkable.

  12. DATA STORAGE & LOAD BALANCING IN CLOUD COMPUTING USING CONTAINER CLUSTERING

    OpenAIRE

    Trapti Gupta*1 & Abhishek Dwivedi2

    2017-01-01

    At the moment, cloud containers are a hot topic in the IT world in general, and security in particular. The world's top technology companies, including Microsoft, Google and Facebook, all use them. Although it's still early days, containers are seeing increasing use in production environments. Containers promise a streamlined, easy-to-deploy and secure method of implementing specific infrastructure requirements, and they also offer an alternative to virtual machines. The key thing t...

  13. New constraints on the star formation history of the star cluster NGC 1856

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Correnti, M.; Goudfrooij, P.; Puzia, T.H.; de Mink, S.E.

    2015-01-01

    We use the Wide Field Camera 3 onboard the Hubble Space Telescope to obtain deep, high-resolution photometry of the young (age ∼ 300 Myr) star cluster NGC 1856 in the Large Magellanic Cloud. We compare the observed colour-magnitude diagram (CMD), after having applied a correction for differential

  14. Point Cluster Analysis Using a 3D Voronoi Diagram with Applications in Point Cloud Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Ying

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D point analysis and visualization is one of the most effective methods of point cluster detection and segmentation in geospatial datasets. However, serious scattering and clotting characteristics interfere with the visual detection of 3D point clusters. To overcome this problem, this study proposes the use of 3D Voronoi diagrams to analyze and visualize 3D points instead of the original data item. The proposed algorithm computes the cluster of 3D points by applying a set of 3D Voronoi cells to describe and quantify 3D points. The decompositions of point cloud of 3D models are guided by the 3D Voronoi cell parameters. The parameter values are mapped from the Voronoi cells to 3D points to show the spatial pattern and relationships; thus, a 3D point cluster pattern can be highlighted and easily recognized. To capture different cluster patterns, continuous progressive clusters and segmentations are tested. The 3D spatial relationship is shown to facilitate cluster detection. Furthermore, the generated segmentations of real 3D data cases are exploited to demonstrate the feasibility of our approach in detecting different spatial clusters for continuous point cloud segmentation.

  15. Cloud Computing: Virtual Clusters, Data Security, and Disaster Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kai

    Dr. Kai Hwang is a Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science and Director of Internet and Cloud Computing Lab at the Univ. of Southern California (USC). He received the Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science from the Univ. of California, Berkeley. Prior to joining USC, he has taught at Purdue Univ. for many years. He has also served as a visiting Chair Professor at Minnesota, Hong Kong Univ., Zhejiang Univ., and Tsinghua Univ. He has published 8 books and over 210 scientific papers in computer science/engineering.

  16. An unexpected detection of bifurcated blue straggler sequences in the young globular cluster NGC 2173

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chengyuan; Deng, Licai; de Grijs, Richard; Jiang, Dengkai; Xin, Yu

    2018-01-01

    Bifurcated patterns of blue straggler stars in their color--magnitude diagrams have atracted significant attention. This type of special (but rare) pattern of two distinct blue straggler sequences is commonly interpreted as evidence of cluster core-collapse-driven stellar collisions as an efficient formation mechanism. Here, we report the detection of a bifurcated blue straggler distribution in a young Large MagellanicCloud cluster, NGC 2173. Because of the cluster's low central stellar numbe...

  17. CO near the Pleiades: encounter of a star cluster with a small molecular cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bally, J.; White, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    Although there is a large amount of interstellar matter near the Pleiades star cluster, the observed dust and gas is not a remnant of the placental molecular cloud from which the star cluster was formed. Carbon monoxide (CO) associated with the visible reflection nebulae was discovered by Cohen (1975). Its radial velocity differs from that of the cluster by many times the cluster escape velocity, which implies that the cloud-cluster association is the result of a chance encounter. This circumstance and the proximity of the Pleiades to the sun creates an unique opportunity for study of interstellar processes at high spatial resolution. To study the molecular component of the gas, a 1.7 square degree field was mapped with the ATandT Bell Laboratories 7-meter antenna (1.7' beam) on a 1' grid in the J=1.0 C(12)O line, obtaining over 6000 spectra with 50 kHz resolution. The cloud core was mapped in the J=1-0 line of C(13)O. Further observations include an unsuccessful search for CS (J=2-1) at ATandT BL, and some C(12)O J=2-1 spectra obtained at the Millimeter Wave Observatory of the University of Texas

  18. CO near the Pleiades: Encounter of a star cluster with a small molecular cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bally, J.; White, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    Although there is a large amount of interstellar matter near the Pleiades star cluster, the observed dust and gas is not a remnant of the placental molecular cloud from which the star cluster was formed. Carbon monoxide (CO) associated with the visible reflection nebulae was discovered by Cohen (1975). Its radial velocity differs from that of the cluster by many times the cluster escape velocity, which implies that the cloud-cluster association is the result of a chance encounter. This circumstance and the proximity of the Pleiades to the sun creates an unique opportunity for study of interstellar processes at high spatial resolution. To study the molecular component of the gas, a 1.7 square degree field was mapped with the AT&T Bell Laboratories 7-meter antenna (1.7' beam) on a 1' grid in the J=1.0 C(12)O line, obtaining over 6,000 spectra with 50 kHz resolution. The cloud core was mapped in the J=1-0 line of C(13)O. Further observations include an unsuccessful search for CS (J=2-1) at AT&T BL, and some C(12)O J=2-1 spectra obtained at the Millimeter Wave Observatory of the University of Texas.

  19. Potential for supernova-induced chemical enrichment of protoglobular cluster clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dopita, M.A.; Smith, G.H.; Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, Victoria, Canada)

    1986-01-01

    This paper seeks to explain the large internal abundance variations that are seen in the globular cluster Omega Cen in terms of supernova-induced chemical enrichment that occurred when the cluster was still largely in a gaseous phase and star formation was continuing. Using a simple power-law density model of this protoglobular gas cloud, the conditions under which this can occur have been established analytically. Clouds less massive than about 100,000 solar masses are completely disrupted by supernova explosions in their adiabatic phase. In clouds of greater mass, supernova explosions occurring near the tidal radius tend to lose their hot gas and metals to the intercloud medium. For explosions occurring closer to the mass center the ejecta must be slowed below the escape velocity, and this can only occur in clouds more massive than about 3 x 10 to the 6th solar masses. If this condition is met, then the slow isothermal momentum-conserving shocks generated by the supernova explosions may eventually induce secondary star formation. For such shocks converging on the mass center, it is found that a cloud mass of at least 10 to the 7th solar masses is required for this process to be efficient. From the observed properties of Omega Cen, a primordial mass of order 10 to the 8th solar masses is estimated, which emphasizes the unusual character of this object. 39 references

  20. The Effects of Ram Pressure on the Cold Clouds in the Centers of Galaxy Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Ruszkowski, Mateusz; Tremblay, Grant

    2018-02-01

    We discuss the effect of ram pressure on the cold clouds in the centers of cool-core galaxy clusters, and in particular, how it reduces cloud velocity and sometimes causes an offset between the cold gas and young stars. The velocities of the molecular gas in both observations and our simulations fall in the range of 100–400 km s‑1, which is much lower than expected if they fall from a few tens of kiloparsecs ballistically. If the intracluster medium (ICM) is at rest, the ram pressure of the ICM only slightly reduces the velocity of the clouds. When we assume that the clouds are actually “fluffier” because they are co-moving with a warm-hot layer, the velocity becomes smaller. If we also consider the active galactic nucleus wind in the cluster center by adding a wind profile measured from the simulation, the clouds are further slowed down at small radii, and the resulting velocities are in general agreement with the observations and simulations. Because ram pressure only affects gas but not stars, it can cause a separation between a filament and young stars that formed in the filament as they move through the ICM together. This separation has been observed in Perseus and also exists in our simulations. We show that the star-filament offset, combined with line-of-sight velocity measurements, can help determine the true motion of the cold gas, and thus distinguish between inflows and outflows.

  1. ULTRAVIOLET ESCAPE FRACTIONS FROM GIANT MOLECULAR CLOUDS DURING EARLY CLUSTER FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, Corey; Pudritz, Ralph [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada); Klessen, Ralf [Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-01-01

    The UV photon escape fraction from molecular clouds is a key parameter for understanding the ionization of the interstellar medium and extragalactic processes such as cosmic reionization. We present the ionizing photon flux and the corresponding photon escape fraction ( f {sub esc}) arising as a consequence of star cluster formation in a turbulent, 10{sup 6} M {sub ⊙} giant molecular cloud, simulated using the code FLASH. We make use of sink particles to represent young, star-forming clusters coupled with a radiative transfer scheme to calculate the emergent UV flux. We find that the ionizing photon flux across the cloud boundary is highly variable in time and space due to the turbulent nature of the intervening gas. The escaping photon fraction remains at ∼5% for the first 2.5 Myr, followed by two pronounced peaks at 3.25 and 3.8 Myr with a maximum f {sub esc} of 30% and 37%, respectively. These peaks are due to the formation of large H ii regions that expand into regions of lower density, some of which reaching the cloud surface. However, these phases are short-lived, and f {sub esc} drops sharply as the H ii regions are quenched by the central cluster passing through high-density material due to the turbulent nature of the cloud. We find an average f {sub esc} of 15% with factor of two variations over 1 Myr timescales. Our results suggest that assuming a single value for f {sub esc} from a molecular cloud is in general a poor approximation, and that the dynamical evolution of the system leads to large temporal variation.

  2. 3D Viewer Platform of Cloud Clustering Management System: Google Map 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung-Ja; Lee, Gang-Soo

    The new management system of framework for cloud envrionemnt is needed by the platfrom of convergence according to computing environments of changes. A ISV and small business model is hard to adapt management system of platform which is offered from super business. This article suggest the clustering management system of cloud computing envirionments for ISV and a man of enterprise in small business model. It applies the 3D viewer adapt from map3D & earth of google. It is called 3DV_CCMS as expand the CCMS[1].

  3. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. III. A very massive star in apparent isolation from the massive cluster R136

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bestenlehner, J.M.; Vink, J.S.; Gräfener, G.; Najarro, F.; Evans, C.J.; Bastian, N.; Bonanos, A.Z.; Bressert, E.; Crowther, P.A.; Doran, E.; Friedrich, K.; Hénault-Brunet, V.; Herrero, A.; de Koter, A.; Langer, N.; Lennon, D.J.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Sana, H.; Soszynski, I.; Taylor, W.D.

    2011-01-01

    VFTS 682 is located in an active star-forming region, at a projected distance of 29 pc from the young massive cluster R136 in the Tarantula Nebula of the Large Magellanic Cloud. It was previously reported as a candidate young stellar object, and more recently spectroscopically revealed as a

  4. Slow Cooling in Low Metallicity Clouds: An Origin of Globular Cluster Bimodality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Ricardo; Bryan, Greg L.

    2018-05-01

    We explore the relative role of small-scale fragmentation and global collapse in low-metallicity clouds, pointing out that in such clouds the cooling time may be longer than the dynamical time, allowing the cloud to collapse globally before it can fragment. This, we suggest, may help to explain the formation of the low-metallicity globular cluster population, since such dense stellar systems need a large amount of gas to be collected in a small region (without significant feedback during the collapse). To explore this further, we carry out numerical simulations of low-metallicity Bonner-Ebert stable gas clouds, demonstrating that there exists a critical metallicity (between 0.001 and 0.01 Z⊙) below which the cloud collapses globally without fragmentation. We also run simulations including a background radiative heating source, showing that this can also produce clouds that do not fragment, and that the critical metallicity - which can exceed the no-radiation case - increases with the heating rate.

  5. [A cloud detection algorithm for MODIS images combining Kmeans clustering and multi-spectral threshold method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Song, Wei-Guo; Liu, Shi-Xing; Zhang, Yong-Ming; Zheng, Hong-Yang; Tian, Wei

    2011-04-01

    An improved method for detecting cloud combining Kmeans clustering and the multi-spectral threshold approach is described. On the basis of landmark spectrum analysis, MODIS data is categorized into two major types initially by Kmeans method. The first class includes clouds, smoke and snow, and the second class includes vegetation, water and land. Then a multi-spectral threshold detection is applied to eliminate interference such as smoke and snow for the first class. The method is tested with MODIS data at different time under different underlying surface conditions. By visual method to test the performance of the algorithm, it was found that the algorithm can effectively detect smaller area of cloud pixels and exclude the interference of underlying surface, which provides a good foundation for the next fire detection approach.

  6. Assessment of In-Cloud Enterprise Resource Planning System Performed in a Virtual Cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao Rong Chang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a high-performed high-availability in-cloud enterprise resources planning (in-cloud ERP which has deployed in the virtual machine cluster. The proposed approach can resolve the crucial problems of ERP failure due to unexpected downtime and failover between physical hosts in enterprises, causing operation termination and hence data loss. Besides, the proposed one together with the access control authentication and network security is capable of preventing intrusion hacked and/or malicious attack via internet. Regarding system assessment, cost-performance (C-P ratio, a remarkable cost effectiveness evaluation, has been applied to several remarkable ERP systems. As a result, C-P ratio evaluated from the experiments shows that the proposed approach outperforms two well-known benchmark ERP systems, namely, in-house ECC 6.0 and in-cloud ByDesign.

  7. Application of cloud computing in power routing for clusters of microgrids using oblivious network routing algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amini, M. Hadi; Broojeni, Kianoosh G.; Dragicevic, Tomislav

    2017-01-01

    of microgrid while preventing congestion as well as minimizing the power loss. Then, we present a two-layer simulation platform which considers both communication layer and physical layer of the microgrids' cluster. In order to improve the security of communication network, we perform the computations...... regarding the oblivious power routing via a cloud-based network. The proposed framework can be used for further studies that deal with the real-time simulation of the clusters of microgrids. In order to validate the effectiveness of the proposed framework, we implement our proposed oblivious routing scheme...

  8. Clustering the Orion B giant molecular cloud based on its molecular emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bron, Emeric; Daudon, Chloé; Pety, Jérôme; Levrier, François; Gerin, Maryvonne; Gratier, Pierre; Orkisz, Jan H; Guzman, Viviana; Bardeau, Sébastien; Goicoechea, Javier R; Liszt, Harvey; Öberg, Karin; Peretto, Nicolas; Sievers, Albrecht; Tremblin, Pascal

    2018-02-01

    Previous attempts at segmenting molecular line maps of molecular clouds have focused on using position-position-velocity data cubes of a single molecular line to separate the spatial components of the cloud. In contrast, wide field spectral imaging over a large spectral bandwidth in the (sub)mm domain now allows one to combine multiple molecular tracers to understand the different physical and chemical phases that constitute giant molecular clouds (GMCs). We aim at using multiple tracers (sensitive to different physical processes and conditions) to segment a molecular cloud into physically/chemically similar regions (rather than spatially connected components), thus disentangling the different physical/chemical phases present in the cloud. We use a machine learning clustering method, namely the Meanshift algorithm, to cluster pixels with similar molecular emission, ignoring spatial information. Clusters are defined around each maximum of the multidimensional Probability Density Function (PDF) of the line integrated intensities. Simple radiative transfer models were used to interpret the astrophysical information uncovered by the clustering analysis. A clustering analysis based only on the J = 1 - 0 lines of three isotopologues of CO proves suffcient to reveal distinct density/column density regimes ( n H ~ 100 cm -3 , ~ 500 cm -3 , and > 1000 cm -3 ), closely related to the usual definitions of diffuse, translucent and high-column-density regions. Adding two UV-sensitive tracers, the J = 1 - 0 line of HCO + and the N = 1 - 0 line of CN, allows us to distinguish two clearly distinct chemical regimes, characteristic of UV-illuminated and UV-shielded gas. The UV-illuminated regime shows overbright HCO + and CN emission, which we relate to a photochemical enrichment effect. We also find a tail of high CN/HCO + intensity ratio in UV-illuminated regions. Finer distinctions in density classes ( n H ~ 7 × 10 3 cm -3 ~ 4 × 10 4 cm -3 ) for the densest regions are also

  9. CLUSTOM-CLOUD: In-Memory Data Grid-Based Software for Clustering 16S rRNA Sequence Data in the Cloud Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jeongsu; Choi, Chi-Hwan; Park, Min-Kyu; Kim, Byung Kwon; Hwang, Kyuin; Lee, Sang-Heon; Hong, Soon Gyu; Nasir, Arshan; Cho, Wan-Sup; Kim, Kyung Mo

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing can produce hundreds of thousands of 16S rRNA sequence reads corresponding to different organisms present in the environmental samples. Typically, analysis of microbial diversity in bioinformatics starts from pre-processing followed by clustering 16S rRNA reads into relatively fewer operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The OTUs are reliable indicators of microbial diversity and greatly accelerate the downstream analysis time. However, existing hierarchical clustering algorithms that are generally more accurate than greedy heuristic algorithms struggle with large sequence datasets. To keep pace with the rapid rise in sequencing data, we present CLUSTOM-CLOUD, which is the first distributed sequence clustering program based on In-Memory Data Grid (IMDG) technology-a distributed data structure to store all data in the main memory of multiple computing nodes. The IMDG technology helps CLUSTOM-CLOUD to enhance both its capability of handling larger datasets and its computational scalability better than its ancestor, CLUSTOM, while maintaining high accuracy. Clustering speed of CLUSTOM-CLOUD was evaluated on published 16S rRNA human microbiome sequence datasets using the small laboratory cluster (10 nodes) and under the Amazon EC2 cloud-computing environments. Under the laboratory environment, it required only ~3 hours to process dataset of size 200 K reads regardless of the complexity of the human microbiome data. In turn, one million reads were processed in approximately 20, 14, and 11 hours when utilizing 20, 30, and 40 nodes on the Amazon EC2 cloud-computing environment. The running time evaluation indicates that CLUSTOM-CLOUD can handle much larger sequence datasets than CLUSTOM and is also a scalable distributed processing system. The comparative accuracy test using 16S rRNA pyrosequences of a mock community shows that CLUSTOM-CLOUD achieves higher accuracy than DOTUR, mothur, ESPRIT-Tree, UCLUST and Swarm. CLUSTOM-CLOUD is written in JAVA

  10. Efficiency Sustainability Resource Visual Simulator for Clustered Desktop Virtualization Based on Cloud Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Hyuk Park

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Following IT innovations, manual operations have been automated, improving the overall quality of life. This has been possible because an organic topology has been formed among many diverse smart devices grafted onto real life. To provide services to these smart devices, enterprises or users use the cloud. Cloud services are divided into infrastructure as a service (IaaS, platform as a service (PaaS and software as a service (SaaS. SaaS is operated on PaaS, and PaaS is operated on IaaS. Since IaaS is the foundation of all services, algorithms for the efficient operation of virtualized resources are required. Among these algorithms, desktop resource virtualization is used for high resource availability when existing desktop PCs are unavailable. For this high resource availability, clustering for hierarchical structures is important. In addition, since many clustering algorithms show different percentages of the main resources depending on the desktop PC distribution rates and environments, selecting appropriate algorithms is very important. If diverse attempts are made to find algorithms suitable for the operating environments’ desktop resource virtualization, huge costs are incurred for the related power, time and labor. Therefore, in the present paper, a desktop resource virtualization clustering simulator (DRV-CS, a clustering simulator for selecting clusters of desktop virtualization clusters to be maintained sustainably, is proposed. The DRV-CS provides simulations, so that clustering algorithms can be selected and elements can be properly applied in different desktop PC environments through the DRV-CS.

  11. RCW 36 in the Vela Molecular Ridge: Evidence for high-mass star-cluster formation triggered by cloud-cloud collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Hidetoshi; Enokiya, Rei; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Yamagishi, Mitsuyoshi; Saeki, Shun; Okawa, Kazuki; Tsuge, Kisetsu; Tsutsumi, Daichi; Kohno, Mikito; Hattori, Yusuke; Yoshiike, Satoshi; Fujita, Shinji; Nishimura, Atsushi; Ohama, Akio; Tachihara, Kengo; Torii, Kazufumi; Hasegawa, Yutaka; Kimura, Kimihiro; Ogawa, Hideo; Wong, Graeme F.; Braiding, Catherine; Rowell, Gavin; Burton, Michael G.; Fukui, Yasuo

    2018-05-01

    A collision between two molecular clouds is one possible candidate for high-mass star formation. The H II region RCW 36, located in the Vela molecular ridge, contains a young star cluster (˜ 1 Myr old) and two O-type stars. We present new CO observations of RCW 36 made with NANTEN2, Mopra, and ASTE using 12CO(J = 1-0, 2-1, 3-2) and 13CO(J = 2-1) emission lines. We have discovered two molecular clouds lying at the velocities VLSR ˜ 5.5 and 9 km s-1. Both clouds are likely to be physically associated with the star cluster, as verified by the good spatial correspondence among the two clouds, infrared filaments, and the star cluster. We also found a high intensity ratio of ˜ 0.6-1.2 for CO J = 3-2/1-0 toward both clouds, indicating that the gas temperature has been increased due to heating by the O-type stars. We propose that the O-type stars in RCW 36 were formed by a collision between the two clouds, with a relative velocity separation of 5 km s-1. The complementary spatial distributions and the velocity separation of the two clouds are in good agreement with observational signatures expected for O-type star formation triggered by a cloud-cloud collision. We also found a displacement between the complementary spatial distributions of the two clouds, which we estimate to be 0.3 pc assuming the collision angle to be 45° relative to the line-of-sight. We estimate the collision timescale to be ˜ 105 yr. It is probable that the cluster age found by Ellerbroek et al. (2013b, A&A, 558, A102) is dominated by the low-mass members which were not formed under the triggering by cloud-cloud collision, and that the O-type stars in the center of the cluster are explained by the collisional triggering independently from the low-mass star formation.

  12. The Panchromatic High-Resolution Spectroscopic Survey of Local Group Star Clusters. I. General data reduction procedures for the VLT/X-shooter UVB and VIS arm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schönebeck, Frederik; Puzia, Thomas H.; Pasquali, Anna; Grebel, Eva K.; Kissler-Patig, Markus; Kuntschner, Harald; Lyubenova, Mariya; Perina, Sibilla

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Our dataset contains spectroscopic observations of 29 globular clusters in the Magellanic Clouds and the Milky Way performed with VLT/X-shooter over eight full nights. To derive robust results instrument and pipeline systematics have to be well understood and properly modeled. We aim at a

  13. Measurement of the abundance of stellar mass compact objects in the galactic halo by detecting micro-lenses in the Large Magellanic Cloud; Mesure de l'abondance des astres sombres de masse stellaire dans le halo galactique par la recherche de phenomenes de microlentilles vers les nuages de magellan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasserre, Th

    2000-05-09

    Many experimental and theoretical results lead to the conclusion that at least 80 percent of the mass of our Galaxy is dark. Part of this so-called dark matter could be in the form of stellar mass compact objects, called MACHOS; these could be detected using the gravitational microlensing effect. The first generation experiments EROS1 and MACHO have strongly constrained the galactic abundance of objects lighter than 0.01 solar mass to less than 10 percent of the total mass. In parallel, the observation by the MACHO group of massive candidates (half the Sun's mass), numerous enough to constitute 50 percent of galactic dark matter, was a further motivation for the EROS group to extend this search to stellar mass objects in a second phase, EROS2. The present work deals with the analysis of 25 million stellar light curves in the Large Magellanic Cloud, observed for three years in order to extract the rare microlensing candidates and to measure the galactic halo mass fraction in the form of compact objects. After recalling the motivations of this search and the theoretical context, I describe the EROS2 experiment. The observational strategy and the photometric reduction procedures needed to deal with the 1.2 To of data are then presented. A new method to detect micro-lenses is detailed, as well as a discussion of background light curves, poorly known. We do not find enough microlensing candidates to explain the galactic rotation curve; this confirms, and improve on previous EROS1 and EROS2 results. Combining all results from EROS allows to exclude that MACHOS with a mass between 10 e-7 and 10 solar mass are important constituents of the galactic halo. This statement agrees with recent results from the MACHO group, although our interpretations differ, namely on the topics of the location of the lenses, and of a possible contamination of the microlensing ample by background phenomena. (author)

  14. E2 - an intermediate-age LMC cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schommer, R.A.; Olszewski, E.W.; Aaronson, M.; Steward Observatory, Tucson, AZ)

    1986-01-01

    A color-magnitude diagram is presented for the faint star cluster E2, located near the tip of the Magellanic Stream. The main-sequence turnoff, a few giants, and a giant clump can be discerned. Comparisons with VandenBerg models show E2 to be a 1.5 Gyr old cluster with abundance Z of about 0.01 at the distance of the LMC, and thus similar to the more populous intermediate-age LMC clusters. The existence of cluster formation at a large distance from the LMC center (E2 is at almost 8 deg radius) is discussed in the context of the star-formation history, structure, and kinematics of the outer halo of the Large Magellanic Cloud. 42 references

  15. OGLE-ing the Magellanic system: stellar populations in the Magellanic Bridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skowron, D. M.; Jacyszyn, A. M.; Udalski, A.; Szymański, M. K.; Skowron, J.; Poleski, R.; Kozłowski, S.; Kubiak, M.; Pietrzyński, G.; Soszyński, I.; Mróz, P.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Ulaczyk, K.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.

    2014-01-01

    We report the discovery of a young stellar bridge that forms a continuous connection between the Magellanic Clouds. This finding is based on number density maps for stellar populations found in data gathered by OGLE-IV that fully cover over 270 deg 2 of the sky in the Magellanic Bridge area. This is the most extensive optical survey of this region to date. We find that the young population is present mainly in the western half of the MBR, which, together with the newly discovered young population in the eastern Bridge, form a continuous stream of stars connecting both galaxies along δ ∼ –73.5 deg. The young population distribution is clumped, with one of the major densities close to the SMC and the other fairly isolated and located approximately mid-way between the Clouds, which we call the OGLE island. These overdensities are well matched by H I surface density contours, although the newly found young population in the eastern Bridge is offset by ∼2 deg north from the highest H I density contour. We observe a continuity of red clump stars between the Magellanic Clouds which represent an intermediate-age population. Red clump stars are present mainly in the southern and central parts of the Magellanic Bridge, below its gaseous part, and their presence is reflected by a strong deviation from the radial density profiles of the two galaxies. This may indicate either a tidal stream of stars, or that the stellar halos of the two galaxies overlap. On the other hand, we do not observe such an overlap within an intermediate-age population represented by the top of the red giant branch and the asymptotic giant branch stars. We also see only minor mixing of the old populations of the Clouds in the southern part of the Bridge, represented by the lowest part of the red giant branch.

  16. OGLE-ing the Magellanic system: stellar populations in the Magellanic Bridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skowron, D. M.; Jacyszyn, A. M.; Udalski, A.; Szymański, M. K.; Skowron, J.; Poleski, R.; Kozłowski, S.; Kubiak, M.; Pietrzyński, G.; Soszyński, I.; Mróz, P.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Ulaczyk, K.; Wyrzykowski, Ł., E-mail: dszczyg@astrouw.edu.pl [Warsaw University Astronomical Observatory, Aleje Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa (Poland)

    2014-11-10

    We report the discovery of a young stellar bridge that forms a continuous connection between the Magellanic Clouds. This finding is based on number density maps for stellar populations found in data gathered by OGLE-IV that fully cover over 270 deg{sup 2} of the sky in the Magellanic Bridge area. This is the most extensive optical survey of this region to date. We find that the young population is present mainly in the western half of the MBR, which, together with the newly discovered young population in the eastern Bridge, form a continuous stream of stars connecting both galaxies along δ ∼ –73.5 deg. The young population distribution is clumped, with one of the major densities close to the SMC and the other fairly isolated and located approximately mid-way between the Clouds, which we call the OGLE island. These overdensities are well matched by H I surface density contours, although the newly found young population in the eastern Bridge is offset by ∼2 deg north from the highest H I density contour. We observe a continuity of red clump stars between the Magellanic Clouds which represent an intermediate-age population. Red clump stars are present mainly in the southern and central parts of the Magellanic Bridge, below its gaseous part, and their presence is reflected by a strong deviation from the radial density profiles of the two galaxies. This may indicate either a tidal stream of stars, or that the stellar halos of the two galaxies overlap. On the other hand, we do not observe such an overlap within an intermediate-age population represented by the top of the red giant branch and the asymptotic giant branch stars. We also see only minor mixing of the old populations of the Clouds in the southern part of the Bridge, represented by the lowest part of the red giant branch.

  17. Imprint of galaxy formation and evolution on globular cluster properties

    OpenAIRE

    Bekki, Kenji

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the origin of physical properties of globular cluster systems (GCSs) in galaxies in terms of galaxy formation and evolution processes. Based on numerical simulations of dynamical evolution of GCSs in galaxies, we particularly discuss (1) the origin of radial density profiles of GCSs, (2) kinematics of GCSs in elliptical galaxies, (3) transformation from nucleated dwarf galaxies into GCs (e.g., omega Centauri), and (4) the origin of GCSs in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC).

  18. THE MASS-LOSS RETURN FROM EVOLVED STARS TO THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD. IV. CONSTRUCTION AND VALIDATION OF A GRID OF MODELS FOR OXYGEN-RICH AGB STARS, RED SUPERGIANTS, AND EXTREME AGB STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargent, Benjamin A.; Meixner, M.; Srinivasan, S.

    2011-01-01

    To measure the mass loss from dusty oxygen-rich (O-rich) evolved stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), we have constructed a grid of models of spherically symmetric dust shells around stars with constant mass-loss rates using 2Dust. These models will constitute the O-rich model part of the 'Grid of Red supergiant and Asymptotic giant branch star ModelS' (GRAMS). This model grid explores four parameters-stellar effective temperature from 2100 K to 4700 K; luminosity from 10 3 to 10 6 L sun ; dust shell inner radii of 3, 7, 11, and 15 R star ; and 10.0 μm optical depth from 10 -4 to 26. From an initial grid of ∼1200 2Dust models, we create a larger grid of ∼69,000 models by scaling to cover the luminosity range required by the data. These models are available online to the public. The matching in color-magnitude diagrams and color-color diagrams to observed O-rich asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and red supergiant (RSG) candidate stars from the SAGE and SAGE-Spec LMC samples and a small sample of OH/IR stars is generally very good. The extreme AGB star candidates from SAGE are more consistent with carbon-rich (C-rich) than O-rich dust composition. Our model grid suggests lower limits to the mid-infrared colors of the dustiest AGB stars for which the chemistry could be O-rich. Finally, the fitting of GRAMS models to spectral energy distributions of sources fit by other studies provides additional verification of our grid and anticipates future, more expansive efforts.

  19. BeppoSAX and Chandra Observations of SAX J0103.2-7209 = 2E 0101.5-7225: A New Persistent 345 Second X-Ray Pulsar in the Small Magellanic Cloud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel; Campana; Covino; Dal Fiume D; Gaetz; Mereghetti; Oosterbroek; Orlandini; Parmar; Ricci; Stella

    2000-03-10

    We report the results of a 1998 July BeppoSAX observation of a field in the Small Magellanic Cloud which led to the discovery of approximately 345 s pulsations in the X-ray flux of SAX J0103.2-7209. The BeppoSAX X-ray spectrum is well fitted by an absorbed power law with a photon index of approximately 1.0 plus a blackbody component with kT=0.11 keV. The unabsorbed luminosity in the 2-10 keV energy range is approximately 1.2x1036 ergs s-1. In a very recent Chandra observation, the 345 s pulsations are also detected. The available period measurements provide a constant period derivative of -1.7 s yr-1 over the last 3 years, making SAX J0103.2-7209 one of the most rapidly spinning up X-ray pulsars known. The BeppoSAX position (30&arcsec; uncertainty radius) is consistent with that of the Einstein source 2E 0101.5-7225 and the ROSAT source RX J0103.2-7209. This source was detected at a luminosity level of a few times 1035-1036 ergs s-1 in all data sets of past X-ray missions since 1979. The ROSAT HRI and Chandra positions are consistent with that of a mV=14.8 Be spectral-type star already proposed as the likely optical counterpart of 2E 0101.5-7225. We briefly report and discuss photometric and spectroscopic data carried out at the ESO telescopes 2 days before the BeppoSAX observation. We conclude that SAX J0103.2-7209 and 2E 0101.5-7225 are the same source: a relatively young and persistent X-ray pulsar in the SMC.

  20. Clues to the 'Magellanic Galaxy' from cosmological simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sales, Laura V.; Navarro, Julio F.; Cooper, Andrew P.; White, Simon D. M.; Frenk, Carlos S.; Helmi, Amina

    2011-01-01

    We use cosmological simulations from the Aquarius Project to study the orbital history of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and its potential association with other satellites of the Milky Way (MW). We search for dynamical analogues to the LMC and find a subhalo that matches the LMC position and

  1. BVI photometry of star clusters in M33

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, C.A.; Schommer, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    CCD images of candidate star clusters in M33 were obtained for 13 fields in the B, V, and I bandpasses. The integrated visual colors and magnitudes are used to study the clusters, and evidence for extended giant branches and possibly carbon stars in several of the intermediate-aged clusters is presented. The colors, magnitudes, and positions are used to analyze stellar population of M33 and confirm the existence of massive star clusters with a 0.1-10-Gyr age range. That is, the cluster system of M33 shares some similarities to that of the Magellanic Clouds in that relatively massive clusters are found at all ages. In addition, more than 20 true (i.e., old, massive) globulars are identified. A substantial population of intermediate-color clusters are found, and it is argued that the cluster-formation rate for clusters less than 10 Gyr old may be more continuous in M33 than in the Magellanic Clouds. The chemical evolution of M33 as traced by the clusters suggests that an abundance gradient existed at all ages, in that the outer regions of the disk (i.e., R greater than 10 arcmin or 2 kpc) follow a slow enhancement history similar to the SMC, while the inner regions were enriched more dramatically. 59 references

  2. Clustering the Orion B giant molecular cloud based on its molecular emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bron, Emeric; Daudon, Chloé; Pety, Jérôme; Levrier, François; Gerin, Maryvonne; Gratier, Pierre; Orkisz, Jan H.; Guzman, Viviana; Bardeau, Sébastien; Goicoechea, Javier R.; Liszt, Harvey; Öberg, Karin; Peretto, Nicolas; Sievers, Albrecht; Tremblin, Pascal

    2018-02-01

    Context. Previous attempts at segmenting molecular line maps of molecular clouds have focused on using position-position-velocity data cubes of a single molecular line to separate the spatial components of the cloud. In contrast, wide field spectral imaging over a large spectral bandwidth in the (sub)mm domain now allows one to combine multiple molecular tracers to understand the different physical and chemical phases that constitute giant molecular clouds (GMCs). Aims: We aim at using multiple tracers (sensitive to different physical processes and conditions) to segment a molecular cloud into physically/chemically similar regions (rather than spatially connected components), thus disentangling the different physical/chemical phases present in the cloud. Methods: We use a machine learning clustering method, namely the Meanshift algorithm, to cluster pixels with similar molecular emission, ignoring spatial information. Clusters are defined around each maximum of the multidimensional probability density function (PDF) of the line integrated intensities. Simple radiative transfer models were used to interpret the astrophysical information uncovered by the clustering analysis. Results: A clustering analysis based only on the J = 1-0 lines of three isotopologues of CO proves sufficient to reveal distinct density/column density regimes (nH 100 cm-3, 500 cm-3, and >1000 cm-3), closely related to the usual definitions of diffuse, translucent and high-column-density regions. Adding two UV-sensitive tracers, the J = 1-0 line of HCO+ and the N = 1-0 line of CN, allows us to distinguish two clearly distinct chemical regimes, characteristic of UV-illuminated and UV-shielded gas. The UV-illuminated regime shows overbright HCO+ and CN emission, which we relate to a photochemical enrichment effect. We also find a tail of high CN/HCO+ intensity ratio in UV-illuminated regions. Finer distinctions in density classes (nH 7 × 103 cm-3, 4 × 104 cm-3) for the densest regions are also

  3. Arc4nix: A cross-platform geospatial analytical library for cluster and cloud computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jingyin; Matyas, Corene J.

    2018-02-01

    Big Data in geospatial technology is a grand challenge for processing capacity. The ability to use a GIS for geospatial analysis on Cloud Computing and High Performance Computing (HPC) clusters has emerged as a new approach to provide feasible solutions. However, users lack the ability to migrate existing research tools to a Cloud Computing or HPC-based environment because of the incompatibility of the market-dominating ArcGIS software stack and Linux operating system. This manuscript details a cross-platform geospatial library "arc4nix" to bridge this gap. Arc4nix provides an application programming interface compatible with ArcGIS and its Python library "arcpy". Arc4nix uses a decoupled client-server architecture that permits geospatial analytical functions to run on the remote server and other functions to run on the native Python environment. It uses functional programming and meta-programming language to dynamically construct Python codes containing actual geospatial calculations, send them to a server and retrieve results. Arc4nix allows users to employ their arcpy-based script in a Cloud Computing and HPC environment with minimal or no modification. It also supports parallelizing tasks using multiple CPU cores and nodes for large-scale analyses. A case study of geospatial processing of a numerical weather model's output shows that arcpy scales linearly in a distributed environment. Arc4nix is open-source software.

  4. Privacy-Preserving k-Means Clustering under Multiowner Setting in Distributed Cloud Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Rong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of big data era, clients who lack computational and storage resources tend to outsource data mining tasks to cloud service providers in order to improve efficiency and reduce costs. It is also increasingly common for clients to perform collaborative mining to maximize profits. However, due to the rise of privacy leakage issues, the data contributed by clients should be encrypted using their own keys. This paper focuses on privacy-preserving k-means clustering over the joint datasets encrypted under multiple keys. Unfortunately, existing outsourcing k-means protocols are impractical because not only are they restricted to a single key setting, but also they are inefficient and nonscalable for distributed cloud computing. To address these issues, we propose a set of privacy-preserving building blocks and outsourced k-means clustering protocol under Spark framework. Theoretical analysis shows that our scheme protects the confidentiality of the joint database and mining results, as well as access patterns under the standard semihonest model with relatively small computational overhead. Experimental evaluations on real datasets also demonstrate its efficiency improvements compared with existing approaches.

  5. CLUSTOM-CLOUD: In-Memory Data Grid-Based Software for Clustering 16S rRNA Sequence Data in the Cloud Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongsu Oh

    Full Text Available High-throughput sequencing can produce hundreds of thousands of 16S rRNA sequence reads corresponding to different organisms present in the environmental samples. Typically, analysis of microbial diversity in bioinformatics starts from pre-processing followed by clustering 16S rRNA reads into relatively fewer operational taxonomic units (OTUs. The OTUs are reliable indicators of microbial diversity and greatly accelerate the downstream analysis time. However, existing hierarchical clustering algorithms that are generally more accurate than greedy heuristic algorithms struggle with large sequence datasets. To keep pace with the rapid rise in sequencing data, we present CLUSTOM-CLOUD, which is the first distributed sequence clustering program based on In-Memory Data Grid (IMDG technology-a distributed data structure to store all data in the main memory of multiple computing nodes. The IMDG technology helps CLUSTOM-CLOUD to enhance both its capability of handling larger datasets and its computational scalability better than its ancestor, CLUSTOM, while maintaining high accuracy. Clustering speed of CLUSTOM-CLOUD was evaluated on published 16S rRNA human microbiome sequence datasets using the small laboratory cluster (10 nodes and under the Amazon EC2 cloud-computing environments. Under the laboratory environment, it required only ~3 hours to process dataset of size 200 K reads regardless of the complexity of the human microbiome data. In turn, one million reads were processed in approximately 20, 14, and 11 hours when utilizing 20, 30, and 40 nodes on the Amazon EC2 cloud-computing environment. The running time evaluation indicates that CLUSTOM-CLOUD can handle much larger sequence datasets than CLUSTOM and is also a scalable distributed processing system. The comparative accuracy test using 16S rRNA pyrosequences of a mock community shows that CLUSTOM-CLOUD achieves higher accuracy than DOTUR, mothur, ESPRIT-Tree, UCLUST and Swarm. CLUSTOM-CLOUD

  6. CLUSTOM-CLOUD: In-Memory Data Grid-Based Software for Clustering 16S rRNA Sequence Data in the Cloud Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min-Kyu; Kim, Byung Kwon; Hwang, Kyuin; Lee, Sang-Heon; Hong, Soon Gyu; Nasir, Arshan; Cho, Wan-Sup; Kim, Kyung Mo

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing can produce hundreds of thousands of 16S rRNA sequence reads corresponding to different organisms present in the environmental samples. Typically, analysis of microbial diversity in bioinformatics starts from pre-processing followed by clustering 16S rRNA reads into relatively fewer operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The OTUs are reliable indicators of microbial diversity and greatly accelerate the downstream analysis time. However, existing hierarchical clustering algorithms that are generally more accurate than greedy heuristic algorithms struggle with large sequence datasets. To keep pace with the rapid rise in sequencing data, we present CLUSTOM-CLOUD, which is the first distributed sequence clustering program based on In-Memory Data Grid (IMDG) technology–a distributed data structure to store all data in the main memory of multiple computing nodes. The IMDG technology helps CLUSTOM-CLOUD to enhance both its capability of handling larger datasets and its computational scalability better than its ancestor, CLUSTOM, while maintaining high accuracy. Clustering speed of CLUSTOM-CLOUD was evaluated on published 16S rRNA human microbiome sequence datasets using the small laboratory cluster (10 nodes) and under the Amazon EC2 cloud-computing environments. Under the laboratory environment, it required only ~3 hours to process dataset of size 200 K reads regardless of the complexity of the human microbiome data. In turn, one million reads were processed in approximately 20, 14, and 11 hours when utilizing 20, 30, and 40 nodes on the Amazon EC2 cloud-computing environment. The running time evaluation indicates that CLUSTOM-CLOUD can handle much larger sequence datasets than CLUSTOM and is also a scalable distributed processing system. The comparative accuracy test using 16S rRNA pyrosequences of a mock community shows that CLUSTOM-CLOUD achieves higher accuracy than DOTUR, mothur, ESPRIT-Tree, UCLUST and Swarm. CLUSTOM-CLOUD is written in

  7. Discovery of nine extended ionized gas clouds in a z = 0.4 cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, Masafumi; Koyama, Yusei; Kodama, Tadayuki; Gu, Liyi; Nakata, Fumiaki; Hattori, Takashi; Yoshida, Michitoshi

    2015-01-01

    From deep Hα imaging data of Suprime-Cam/Subaru, we discovered nine extended ionized gas clouds (EIG) around galaxies in the Abell 851 cluster (A851) at z = 0.4. We surveyed a 30 × 25 arcmin region, and the EIGs were found only near the cluster center (<2.3 arcmin ∼ 750 kpc). The parent galaxies of the EIGs are star-forming or post-starburst galaxies, all of which are spectroscopically confirmed members of the cluster. Four out of the nine parent galaxies show distortion of stellar distribution in the disk, which can be a sign of recent interaction, and the interaction may have made the EIGs. On the other hand, six parent galaxies (one overlaps those exhibiting distortion) show Hα emission without stars, which implies ram pressure stripping. The spectrum of the brightest parent galaxy shows a post-starburst signature and resembles the Hα stripped galaxies found in the Coma cluster. Meanwhile, two brightest parent galaxies in A851 are more massive than the EIG parent galaxies in the Coma cluster. This is consistent with a “downsizing” of star-forming galaxies, though it is still within the statistical variance. We also analyzed Suprime-Cam data of another z=0.39 cluster, CL0024+17, but found no EIGs. The key difference between A851 and CL0024+17 would be the existence of a subcluster colliding with the main body of A851, in which six or seven out of the nine parent galaxies in A851 exist, and the fraction of EIGs in the subcluster is significantly higher than the main subcluster of A851 and CL0024+17.

  8. Discovery of nine extended ionized gas clouds in a z = 0.4 cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagi, Masafumi; Koyama, Yusei; Kodama, Tadayuki [Optical and Infrared Astronomy Division, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan); Gu, Liyi [Research Center for the Early Universe, School of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0011 (Japan); Nakata, Fumiaki; Hattori, Takashi [Subaru Telescope, 650 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Yoshida, Michitoshi, E-mail: YAGI.Masafumi@nao.ac.jp [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1, Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima, 739-8526 (Japan)

    2015-02-01

    From deep Hα imaging data of Suprime-Cam/Subaru, we discovered nine extended ionized gas clouds (EIG) around galaxies in the Abell 851 cluster (A851) at z = 0.4. We surveyed a 30 × 25 arcmin region, and the EIGs were found only near the cluster center (<2.3 arcmin ∼ 750 kpc). The parent galaxies of the EIGs are star-forming or post-starburst galaxies, all of which are spectroscopically confirmed members of the cluster. Four out of the nine parent galaxies show distortion of stellar distribution in the disk, which can be a sign of recent interaction, and the interaction may have made the EIGs. On the other hand, six parent galaxies (one overlaps those exhibiting distortion) show Hα emission without stars, which implies ram pressure stripping. The spectrum of the brightest parent galaxy shows a post-starburst signature and resembles the Hα stripped galaxies found in the Coma cluster. Meanwhile, two brightest parent galaxies in A851 are more massive than the EIG parent galaxies in the Coma cluster. This is consistent with a “downsizing” of star-forming galaxies, though it is still within the statistical variance. We also analyzed Suprime-Cam data of another z=0.39 cluster, CL0024+17, but found no EIGs. The key difference between A851 and CL0024+17 would be the existence of a subcluster colliding with the main body of A851, in which six or seven out of the nine parent galaxies in A851 exist, and the fraction of EIGs in the subcluster is significantly higher than the main subcluster of A851 and CL0024+17.

  9. THE 'NESSIE' NEBULA: CLUSTER FORMATION IN A FILAMENTARY INFRARED DARK CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, James M.; Finn, Susanna C.; Chambers, Edward T.; Rathborne, Jill M.; Simon, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The 'Nessie' Nebula is a filamentary infrared dark cloud (IRDC) with a large aspect ratio of over 150:1 (1. 0 5 x 0. 0 01 or 80 pc x 0.5 pc at a kinematic distance of 3.1 kpc). Maps of HNC (1-0) emission, a tracer of dense molecular gas, made with the Australia Telescope National Facility Mopra telescope, show an excellent morphological match to the mid-IR extinction. Moreover, because the molecular line emission from the entire nebula has the same radial velocity to within ±3.4 km s -1 , the nebula is a single, coherent cloud and not the chance alignment of multiple unrelated clouds along the line of sight. The Nessie Nebula contains a number of compact, dense molecular cores which have a characteristic projected spacing of ∼4.5 pc along the filament. The theory of gravitationally bound gaseous cylinders predicts the existence of such cores, which, due to the 'sausage' or 'varicose' fluid instability, fragment from the cylinder at a characteristic length scale. If turbulent pressure dominates over thermal pressure in Nessie, then the observed core spacing matches theoretical predictions. We speculate that the formation of high-mass stars and massive star clusters arises from the fragmentation of filamentary IRDCs caused by the 'sausage' fluid instability that leads to the formation of massive, dense molecular cores. The filamentary molecular gas clouds often found near high-mass star-forming regions (e.g., Orion, NGC 6334, etc.) may represent a later stage of IRDC evolution.

  10. The "Nessie" Nebula: Cluster Formation in a Filamentary Infrared Dark Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, James M.; Finn, Susanna C.; Chambers, Edward T.; Rathborne, Jill M.; Simon, Robert

    2010-08-01

    The "Nessie" Nebula is a filamentary infrared dark cloud (IRDC) with a large aspect ratio of over 150:1 (1fdg5 × 0fdg01 or 80 pc × 0.5 pc at a kinematic distance of 3.1 kpc). Maps of HNC (1-0) emission, a tracer of dense molecular gas, made with the Australia Telescope National Facility Mopra telescope, show an excellent morphological match to the mid-IR extinction. Moreover, because the molecular line emission from the entire nebula has the same radial velocity to within ±3.4 km s-1, the nebula is a single, coherent cloud and not the chance alignment of multiple unrelated clouds along the line of sight. The Nessie Nebula contains a number of compact, dense molecular cores which have a characteristic projected spacing of ~4.5 pc along the filament. The theory of gravitationally bound gaseous cylinders predicts the existence of such cores, which, due to the "sausage" or "varicose" fluid instability, fragment from the cylinder at a characteristic length scale. If turbulent pressure dominates over thermal pressure in Nessie, then the observed core spacing matches theoretical predictions. We speculate that the formation of high-mass stars and massive star clusters arises from the fragmentation of filamentary IRDCs caused by the "sausage" fluid instability that leads to the formation of massive, dense molecular cores. The filamentary molecular gas clouds often found near high-mass star-forming regions (e.g., Orion, NGC 6334, etc.) may represent a later stage of IRDC evolution.

  11. TethysCluster: A comprehensive approach for harnessing cloud resources for hydrologic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, J.; Jones, N.; Ames, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    Advances in water resources modeling are improving the information that can be supplied to support decisions affecting the safety and sustainability of society. However, as water resources models become more sophisticated and data-intensive they require more computational power to run. Purchasing and maintaining the computing facilities needed to support certain modeling tasks has been cost-prohibitive for many organizations. With the advent of the cloud, the computing resources needed to address this challenge are now available and cost-effective, yet there still remains a significant technical barrier to leverage these resources. This barrier inhibits many decision makers and even trained engineers from taking advantage of the best science and tools available. Here we present the Python tools TethysCluster and CondorPy, that have been developed to lower the barrier to model computation in the cloud by providing (1) programmatic access to dynamically scalable computing resources, (2) a batch scheduling system to queue and dispatch the jobs to the computing resources, (3) data management for job inputs and outputs, and (4) the ability to dynamically create, submit, and monitor computing jobs. These Python tools leverage the open source, computing-resource management, and job management software, HTCondor, to offer a flexible and scalable distributed-computing environment. While TethysCluster and CondorPy can be used independently to provision computing resources and perform large modeling tasks, they have also been integrated into Tethys Platform, a development platform for water resources web apps, to enable computing support for modeling workflows and decision-support systems deployed as web apps.

  12. Business models and business model innovation in a “Secure and Distributed Cloud Clustering (DISC) Society”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Peter; Taran, Yariv

    2011-01-01

    of secure business models and how business models can be operated and innovated in a secure context have intensified tremendously. The development of new mobile and wireless security technologies gives hopes to really realize a secure cloud clustering society where business models can act and be innovated......The development and innovation of business models to a secure distributed cloud clustering society (DISC)—is indeed still a complex venture and has not been widely researched yet. Numerous types of security technologies are in these years proposed and in the “slip stream” of these the study...... secure—but we still have some steps to go before we reach the final destination. The paper gives a conceptual futuristic outlook on behalf of the input from SW2010 and state of the art business model research to what we can expect of business Model and business model innovation in a future secure cloud...

  13. NGC 1866: First Spectroscopic Detection of Fast-rotating Stars in a Young LMC Cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupree, A. K.; Dotter, A.; Johnson, C. I. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Marino, A. F.; Milone, A. P. [Australian National University, The Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Mount Stromlo Observatory, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Bailey, J. I. III [Leiden Observatory, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands); Crane, J. D. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Mateo, M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Olszewski, E. W. [The University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2017-09-01

    High-resolution spectroscopic observations were taken of 29 extended main-sequence turnoff (eMSTO) stars in the young (∼200 Myr) Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) cluster, NGC 1866, using the Michigan/ Magellan Fiber System and MSpec spectrograph on the Magellan -Clay 6.5 m telescope. These spectra reveal the first direct detection of rapidly rotating stars whose presence has only been inferred from photometric studies. The eMSTO stars exhibit H α emission (indicative of Be-star decretion disks), others have shallow broad H α absorption (consistent with rotation ≳150 km s{sup −1}), or deep H α core absorption signaling lower rotation velocities (≲150 km s{sup −1}). The spectra appear consistent with two populations of stars—one rapidly rotating, and the other, younger and slowly rotating.

  14. Penguins of the Magellan region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bingham

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The Magellan region, including the Falkland Islands, is one of the world´s most important areas for seabirds, and especially penguins. World-wide there are 17 species of penguin; 7 of these regularly breed around the coastal waters of South America, and 5 within the Magellan region. These are the King Penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus, Gentoo Penguin (Pygoscelis papua, Rockhopper Penguin (Eudyptes c. chrysocome, Macaroni Penguin (Eudyptes chrysolophus and Magellanic Penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus. During the last five years, a review of the breeding populations of penguins within the Magellan region was conducted. This work included population censuses of all the surface breeding species throughout the Falkland Islands and southern South America. The results of this work are presented, along with other cited information, to provide a summary of the current knowledge of penguin populations within the Magellan region.

  15. PREDICTED SIZES OF PRESSURE-SUPPORTED HI CLOUDS IN THE OUTSKIRTS OF THE VIRGO CLUSTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkhart, Blakesley; Loeb, Abraham [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St. Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2016-06-10

    Using data from the ALFALFA AGES Arecibo HI survey of galaxies and the Virgo cluster X-ray pressure profiles from XMM-Newton , we investigate the possibility that starless dark HI clumps, also known as “dark galaxies,” are supported by external pressure in the surrounding intercluster medium. We find that the starless HI clump masses, velocity dispersions, and positions allow these clumps to be in pressure equilibrium with the X-ray gas near the virial radius of the Virgo cluster. We predict the sizes of these clumps to range from 1 to 10 kpc, in agreement with the range of sizes found for spatially resolved HI starless clumps outside of Virgo. Based on the predicted HI surface density of the Virgo sources, as well as a sample of other similar resolved ALFALFA HI dark clumps with follow-up optical/radio observations, we predict that most of the HI dark clumps are on the cusp of forming stars. These HI sources therefore mark the transition between starless HI clouds and dwarf galaxies with stars.

  16. A tidally stripped stellar component of the Magellanic bridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nidever, David L.; Monachesi, Antonela; Bell, Eric F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48104 (United States); Majewski, Steven R.; Beaton, Rachael L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Muñoz, Ricardo R., E-mail: dnidever@umich.edu, E-mail: rmunoz@das.uchile.cl [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile)

    2013-12-20

    Deep photometry of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) stellar periphery (R = 4°, 4.2 kpc) is used to study its line-of-sight depth with red clump (RC) stars. The RC luminosity function is affected little by young (≲1 Gyr) blue-loop stars in these regions because their main-sequence counterparts are not observed in the color-magnitude diagrams. The SMCs eastern side is found to have a large line-of-sight depth (∼23 kpc) while the western side has a much shallower depth (∼10 kpc), consistent with previous photographic plate photometry results. We use a model SMC RC luminosity function to deconvolve the observed RC magnitudes and construct the density function in distance for our fields. Three of the eastern fields show a distance bimodality with one component at the 'systemic' ∼67 kpc SMC distance and a second component at ∼55 kpc. Our data are not reproduced well by the various extant Magellanic Cloud and Stream simulations. However, the models predict that the known H I Magellanic Bridge (stretching from the SMC eastward toward the Large Magellanic Cloud, LMC) has a decreasing distance with angle from the SMC and should be seen in both the gaseous and stellar components. From comparison with these models, we conclude that the most likely explanation for our newly identified ∼55 kpc stellar structure in the eastern SMC is a stellar counterpart of the H I Magellanic Bridge that was tidally stripped from the SMC ∼200 Myr ago during a close encounter with the LMC. This discovery has important implications for microlensing surveys of the SMC.

  17. Young Star Cluster Found Aglow With Mysterious X-Ray Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-12-01

    A mysterious cloud of high-energy electrons enveloping a young cluster of stars has been discovered by astronomers using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. These extremely high-energy particles could cause dramatic changes in the chemistry of the disks that will eventually form planets around stars in the cluster. Known as RCW 38, the star cluster covers a region about 5 light years across. It contains thousands of stars formed less than a million years ago and appears to be forming new stars even today. The crowded environment of a star cluster is thought to be conducive to the production of hot gas, but not high-energy particles. Such particles are typically produced by exploding stars, or in the strong magnetic fields around neutron stars or black holes, none of which is evident in RCW 38. "The RCW 38 observation doesn't agree with the conventional picture," said Scott Wolk of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, MA, lead author of an Astrophysical Journal Letters paper describing the Chandra observation. "The data show that somehow extremely high-energy electrons are being produced there, although it is not clear how." RCW 38 RCW 38 X-ray, Radio, Infrared Composite Electrons accelerated to energies of trillions of volts are required to account for the observed X-ray spectrum of the gas cloud surrounding the ensemble of stars, which shows an excess of high-energy X-rays. As these electrons move in the magnetic field that threads the cluster, they produce X-rays. One possible origin for the high-energy electrons is a previously undetected supernova that occurred in the cluster. Although direct evidence for the supernova could have faded away thousands of years ago, a shock wave or a rapidly rotating neutron star produced by the outburst could be acting in concert with stellar winds to produce the high-energy electrons. "Regardless of the origin of the energetic electrons," said Wolk, "their presence would change the chemistry of proto

  18. ROTATION OF THE MILKY WAY AND THE FORMATION OF THE MAGELLANIC STREAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruzicka, Adam; Theis, Christian; Palous, Jan

    2010-01-01

    We studied the impact of the revisited values for the local standard of rest (LSR) circular velocity of the Milky Way on the formation of the Magellanic Stream. The LSR circular velocity was varied within its observational uncertainties as a free parameter of the interaction between the Large (LMC) and the Small Magellanic Clouds (SMC) and the Galaxy. We have shown that the large-scale morphology and kinematics of the Magellanic Stream may be reproduced as tidal features, assuming the recent values of the proper motions of the Magellanic Clouds. Automated exploration of the entire parameter space for the interaction was performed to identify all parameter combinations that allow for modeling the Magellanic Stream. Satisfactory models exist for the dynamical mass of the Milky Way within a wide range of 0.6 x 10 12 -3.0 x 10 12 M sun and over the entire 1σ errors of the proper motions of the Clouds. However, the successful models share a common interaction scenario. The Magellanic Clouds are satellites of the Milky Way, and in all cases two close LMC-SMC encounters occurred within the last 4 Gyr at t < -2.5 Gyr and t ∼ -150 Myr, triggering the formation of the Stream and of the Magellanic Bridge, respectively. The latter encounter is encoded in the observed proper motions and inevitable in any model of the interaction. We conclude that the tidal origin of the Magellanic Stream implies the previously introduced LMC/SMC orbital history, unless the parameters of the interaction are revised substantially.

  19. IC 3475: A stripped dwarf galaxy in the Virgo cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigroux, L.; Thuan, T.X.; Vader, J.P.; Lachieze-Rey, M.

    1986-01-01

    We have obtained B and R CCD and H I observations of the Virgo dwarf galaxy IC 3475. The galaxy is remarkable for its very large diameter (approx.10 kpc for a Virgo distance modulus of 31) and is comparable in size to the large dwarfs discussed by Sandage and Binggeli. Its light profile is best fitted by an exponential law, characteristic of a dwarf Magellanic irregular galaxy. It possesses a central bar with many knots and inclusions concentrated toward the center of the galaxy. These knots and inclusions have the same color (B-Rapprox.1.5) as the rest of the galaxy and are best explained as intermediate-age (1--7 x 10 9 yr) star clusters such as those found in the Magellanic Clouds. Despite possessing the photometric structure of a dwarf Magellanic irregular galaxy, IC 3475 contains less than 5.3 x 10 6 M/sub sun/ of neutral hydrogen. Its hydrogen mass to blue light ratio is less than 0.01, approx.60 times less than the mean value observed for dwarf Magellanic irregulars. It is most likely that IC 3475, which is located near the core of the Virgo cluster, is a stripped dwarf galaxy. The very large size of the galaxy (its diameter is approx.1.8 times larger than that of ''normal'' dwarfs) appears to rule out evolution of IC 3475 from a normal dwarf irregular or to a normal dwarf elliptical

  20. Globular clusters - Fads and fallacies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    The types of globular clusters observed in the Milky Way Galaxy are described together with their known characteristics, with special attention given to correcting the erroneous statements made earlier about globular clusters. Among these are the following statements: the Galaxy is surrounded by many hundreds of globular clusters; all globular clusters are located toward the Galactic center, all globular clusters are metal poor and move about the Galaxy in highly elliptical paths; all globular clusters contain RR Lyrae-type variable stars, and the RR Lyrae stars found outside of globulars have come from cluster dissolution or ejection; all of the stars in a given cluster were born at the same time and have the same chemical composition; X-ray globulars are powered by central black holes; and the luminosity functions for globular clusters are well defined and well determined. Consideration is given to the fact that globular clusters in the Magellanic Clouds differ from those in the Milky Way by their age distribution and that the globulars of the SMC differ from those of the LMC

  1. Multiple Stellar Populations in Star Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotto, G.

    2013-09-01

    For half a century it had been astronomical dogma that a globular cluster (GC) consists of stars born at the same time out of the same material, and this doctrine has borne rich fruits. In recent years, high resolution spectroscopy and high precision photometry (from space and ground-based observations) have shattered this paradigm, and the study of GC populations has acquired a new life that is now moving it in new directions. Evidence of multiple stellar populations have been identified in the color-magnitude diagrams of several Galactic and Magellanic Cloud GCs where they had never been imagined before.

  2. SIMULATIONS OF THE MAGELLANIC STREAM IN A FIRST INFALL SCENARIO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besla, G.; Hernquist, L.; Keres, D.; Kallivayalil, N.; Van der Marel, R. P.; Cox, T. J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent high-precision proper motions from the Hubble Space Telescope suggest that the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC, respectively) are either on their first passage or on an eccentric long period (>6 Gyr) orbit about the Milky Way (MW). This differs markedly from the canonical picture in which the Clouds travel on a quasi-periodic orbit about the MW (period of ∼2 Gyr). Without a short-period orbit about the MW, the origin of the Magellanic Stream, a young (1-2 Gyr old) coherent stream of H I gas that trails the Clouds ∼150 0 across the sky, can no longer be attributed to stripping by MW tides and/or ram pressure stripping by MW halo gas. We propose an alternative formation mechanism in which material is removed by LMC tides acting on the SMC before the system is accreted by the MW. We demonstrate the feasibility and generality of this scenario using an N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulation with cosmologically motivated initial conditions constrained by the observations. Under these conditions, we demonstrate that it is possible to explain the origin of the Magellanic Stream in a first infall scenario. This picture is generically applicable to any gas-rich dwarf galaxy pair infalling toward a massive host or interacting in isolation.

  3. Are there really intergalactic hydrogen clouds in the Sculptor group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, M.P.; Roberts, M.S.

    1979-01-01

    High-sensitivity 21 cm observations of the region of the Sculptor group of galaxies reveal at least 30 H I clouds distributed over only the southern sector of the group. These new data add two striking complications to the picture of the clouds as H I companions of Sculptor galaxies: first, a much wider spatial distribution of clouds in marked contrast with the clustering of clouds around NGC 55 and NGC 300 previously reported by Mathewson, Cleary, and Murray; and second, a cloud velocity distribution which does not match that of the galaxies.We cannot reconcile the spatial and velocity distributions of the H I clouds with those of the group or of any subgroup. We conclude that there are no intergalactic H I clouds of > or =10 8 M/sub sun/ and galactic dimensions within the Sculptor group. Of a number of explanations alternative to group membership, we favor the identification of the clouds as a component of the Magellanic Stream which is seen in projection. Observations reported here of other nearby groups, combined with those of Sculptor, rule out the existence of a significant population of discrete H I clouds having the above properties

  4. Overlapping Open Clusters NGC 1750 and NGC 1758 behind the Taurus Dark Clouds. II. CCD Photometry in the Vilnius System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straižys V.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Seven-color photometry in the Vilnius system has been obtained for 420 stars down to V = 16 mag in the area containing the overlapping open clusters NGC 1750 and NGC 1758 in Taurus. Spectral and luminosity classes, color excesses, interstellar extinctions and distances are given for 287 stars. The classification of stars is based on their reddening-free Q-parameters. 18 stars observed photoelectrically were used as standards. The extinction vs. distance diagram exhibits the presence of one dust cloud at a distance of 175 pc which almost coincides with a distance of other dust clouds in the Taurus complex. The clusters NGC 1750 and NGC 1758 are found to be at the same distance of ~760 pc and may penetrate each other. Their interstellar extinction AV is 1.06 mag which corresponds to EB-V = 0.34 mag.

  5. Formation of the First Star Clusters and Massive Star Binaries by Fragmentation of Filamentary Primordial Gas Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Shingo; Yoshida, Naoki; Sakurai, Yuya; Fujii, Michiko S.

    2018-03-01

    We perform a set of cosmological simulations of early structure formation incorporating baryonic streaming motions. We present a case where a significantly elongated gas cloud with ∼104 solar mass (M ⊙) is formed in a pre-galactic (∼107 M ⊙) dark halo. The gas streaming into the halo compresses and heats the massive filamentary cloud to a temperature of ∼10,000 Kelvin. The gas cloud cools rapidly by atomic hydrogen cooling, and then by molecular hydrogen cooling down to ∼400 Kelvin. The rapid decrease of the temperature and hence of the Jeans mass triggers fragmentation of the filament to yield multiple gas clumps with a few hundred solar masses. We estimate the mass of the primordial star formed in each fragment by adopting an analytic model based on a large set of radiation hydrodynamics simulations of protostellar evolution. The resulting stellar masses are in the range of ∼50–120 M ⊙. The massive stars gravitationally attract each other and form a compact star cluster. We follow the dynamics of the star cluster using a hybrid N-body simulation. We show that massive star binaries are formed in a few million years through multi-body interactions at the cluster center. The eventual formation of the remnant black holes will leave a massive black hole binary, which can be a progenitor of strong gravitational wave sources similar to those recently detected by the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO).

  6. Ionizing feedback from massive stars in massive clusters - III. Disruption of partially unbound clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, J. E.; Ercolano, B.; Bonnell, I. A.

    2013-03-01

    We extend our previous smoothed particle hydrodynamics parameter study of the effects of photoionization from O-stars on star-forming clouds to include initially unbound clouds. We generate a set of model clouds in the mass range 104-106 M⊙ with initial virial ratios Ekin/Epot = 2.3, allow them to form stars and study the impact of the photoionizing radiation produced by the massive stars. We find that, on the 3 Myr time-scale before supernovae are expected to begin detonating, the fraction of mass expelled by ionizing feedback is a very strong function of the cloud escape velocities. High-mass clouds are largely unaffected dynamically, while low-mass clouds have large fractions of their gas reserves expelled on this time-scale. However, the fractions of stellar mass unbound are modest and significant portions of the unbound stars are so only because the clouds themselves are initially partially unbound. We find that ionization is much more able to create well-cleared bubbles in the unbound clouds, owing to their intrinsic expansion, but that the presence of such bubbles does not necessarily indicate that a given cloud has been strongly influenced by feedback. We also find, in common with the bound clouds from our earlier work, that many of the systems simulated here are highly porous to photons and supernova ejecta, and that most of them will likely survive their first supernova explosions.

  7. Magnetic clouds' structure in the magnetosheath as observed by Cluster and Geotail: four case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Turc

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic clouds (MCs are large-scale magnetic flux ropes ejected from the Sun into the interplanetary space. They play a central role in solar–terrestrial relations as they can efficiently drive magnetic activity in the near-Earth environment. Their impact on the Earth's magnetosphere is often attributed to the presence of southward magnetic fields inside the MC, as observed in the upstream solar wind. However, when they arrive in the vicinity of the Earth, MCs first encounter the bow shock, which is expected to modify their properties, including their magnetic field strength and direction. If these changes are significant, they can in turn affect the interaction of the MC with the magnetosphere. In this paper, we use data from the Cluster and Geotail spacecraft inside the magnetosheath and from the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE upstream of the Earth's environment to investigate the impact of the bow shock's crossing on the magnetic structure of MCs. Through four example MCs, we show that the evolution of the MC's structure from the solar wind to the magnetosheath differs largely from one event to another. The smooth rotation of the MC can either be preserved inside the magnetosheath, be modified, i.e. the magnetic field still rotates slowly but at different angles, or even disappear. The alteration of the magnetic field orientation across the bow shock can vary with time during the MC's passage and with the location inside the magnetosheath. We examine the conditions encountered at the bow shock from direct observations, when Cluster or Geotail cross it, or indirectly by applying a magnetosheath model. We obtain a good agreement between the observed and modelled magnetic field direction and shock configuration, which varies from quasi-perpendicular to quasi-parallel in our study. We find that the variations in the angle between the magnetic fields in the solar wind and in the magnetosheath are anti-correlated with the variations in the

  8. Yellow supergiants in open clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowell, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Superluminous giant stars (SLGs) have been reported in young globular clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). These stars appear to be in the post-asymptotic-giant-branch phase of evolution. This program was an investigation of galactic SLG candidates in open clusters, which are more like the LMC young globular clusters. These were chosen because luminosity, mass, and age determinations can be made for members since cluster distances and interstellar reddenings are known. Color magnitude diagrams were searched for candidates, using the same selection criteria as for SLGs in the LMC. Classification spectra were obtained of 115 program stars from McGraw-Hill Observatory and of 68 stars from Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory Chile. These stars were visually classified on the MK system using spectral scans of standard stars taken at the respective observations. Published information was combined with this program's data for 83 stars in 30 clusters. Membership probabilities were assigned to these stars, and the clusters were analyzed according to age. It was seen that the intrinsically brightest supergiants are found in the youngest clusters. With increasing cluster age, the absolute luminosities attained by the supergiants decline. Also, it appears that the evolutionary tracks of luminosity class II stars are more similar to those of class I than of class III

  9. Mesozooplankton communities in the Magellan region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katjia Defren-Janson

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available During the Joint Chilean-German-Italian Magellan Victor Hensen Campaign in November 1994 zooplankton sampling was carried out by means of a multiple opening-closing multinet equipped with 300 µm mesh size. Distribution pattern was studied and community analyses of mesozooplankton were made at seven stations in the Magellan region. Highest numbers of individuals were found in the northern part of the investigation area (Magdalena to Brecknock Channels at stations with a mixed water column. In the southern part (Beagle and Ballenero Channels, lower zooplankton abundances were associated with a stratified water column due to melt water from several glaciers. At all stations holoplankton dominated the assemblages (83 - 97%. Copepods were by far the most abundant taxon encountered during this study, contributing to more than 2/3 of the total zooplankton numbers. They occurred throughout the water column with maxima in middle water layers. Appendicularians ranked second in abundance with their main distribution in the upper 100 m. Euphausiids were found in higher densities only in the Magdalena Channel (St. 1313; their vertical distribution pattern resembled that of copepods. Cladocerans aggregated at all stations in the upper 30 m. Within the meroplankton, echinoderm larvae were most abundant, notably in the upper 100 m under stratified conditions. Cluster analysis separated between a surface community covering all stations, and a northern and southern deep community, respectively.

  10. A Novel Cloud-Based Platform for Implementation of Oblivious Power Routing for Clusters of Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broojeni, Kianoosh; Amini, M. Hadi; Nejadpak, Arash

    2016-01-01

    is verified by MATLAB simulation. We also present a comprehensive cloud-based platform for further implementation of the proposed algorithm on the OPAL-RT real-time digital simulation system. The communication paths between the microgrids and the cloud environment can be emulated by OMNeT++....

  11. When STAR meets the Clouds-Virtualization and Cloud Computing Experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauret, J; Hajdu, L; Walker, M; Balewski, J; Goasguen, S; Stout, L; Fenn, M; Keahey, K

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, Cloud computing has become a very attractive paradigm and popular model for accessing distributed resources. The Cloud has emerged as the next big trend. The burst of platform and projects providing Cloud resources and interfaces at the very same time that Grid projects are entering a production phase in their life cycle has however raised the question of the best approach to handling distributed resources. Especially, are Cloud resources scaling at the levels shown by Grids? Are they performing at the same level? What is their overhead on the IT teams and infrastructure? Rather than seeing the two as orthogonal, the STAR experiment has viewed them as complimentary and has studied merging the best of the two worlds with Grid middleware providing the aggregation of both Cloud and traditional resources. Since its first use of Cloud resources on Amazon EC2 in 2008/2009 using a Nimbus/EC2 interface, the STAR software team has tested and experimented with many novel approaches: from a traditional, native EC2 approach to the Virtual Organization Cluster (VOC) at Clemson University and Condor/VM on the GLOW resources at the University of Wisconsin. The STAR team is also planning to run as part of the DOE/Magellan project. In this paper, we will present an overview of our findings from using truly opportunistic resources and scaling-out two orders of magnitude in both tests and practical usage.

  12. Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of the Formation of Molecular Clouds toward the Stellar Cluster Westerlund 2: Interaction of a Jet with a Clumpy Interstellar Medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asahina, Yuta; Kawashima, Tomohisa; Furukawa, Naoko; Enokiya, Rei; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Fukui, Yasuo; Matsumoto, Ryoji

    2017-01-01

    The formation mechanism of CO clouds observed with the NANTEN2 and Mopra telescopes toward the stellar cluster Westerlund 2 is studied by 3D magnetohydrodynamic simulations, taking into account the interstellar cooling. These molecular clouds show a peculiar shape composed of an arc-shaped cloud on one side of the TeV γ -ray source HESS J1023-575 and a linear distribution of clouds (jet clouds) on the other side. We propose that these clouds are formed by the interaction of a jet with clumps of interstellar neutral hydrogen (H i). By studying the dependence of the shape of dense cold clouds formed by shock compression and cooling on the filling factor of H i clumps, we found that the density distribution of H i clumps determines the shape of molecular clouds formed by the jet–cloud interaction: arc clouds are formed when the filling factor is large. On the other hand, when the filling factor is small, molecular clouds align with the jet. The jet propagates faster in models with small filling factors.

  13. Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of the Formation of Molecular Clouds toward the Stellar Cluster Westerlund 2: Interaction of a Jet with a Clumpy Interstellar Medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asahina, Yuta; Kawashima, Tomohisa [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Furukawa, Naoko; Enokiya, Rei; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Fukui, Yasuo [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Matsumoto, Ryoji, E-mail: asahina@cfca.jp [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan)

    2017-02-20

    The formation mechanism of CO clouds observed with the NANTEN2 and Mopra telescopes toward the stellar cluster Westerlund 2 is studied by 3D magnetohydrodynamic simulations, taking into account the interstellar cooling. These molecular clouds show a peculiar shape composed of an arc-shaped cloud on one side of the TeV γ -ray source HESS J1023-575 and a linear distribution of clouds (jet clouds) on the other side. We propose that these clouds are formed by the interaction of a jet with clumps of interstellar neutral hydrogen (H i). By studying the dependence of the shape of dense cold clouds formed by shock compression and cooling on the filling factor of H i clumps, we found that the density distribution of H i clumps determines the shape of molecular clouds formed by the jet–cloud interaction: arc clouds are formed when the filling factor is large. On the other hand, when the filling factor is small, molecular clouds align with the jet. The jet propagates faster in models with small filling factors.

  14. Why is the Magellanic Stream so Turbulent? - A Simulational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Elliott; Shelton, Robin L.

    2018-06-01

    As the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds travel through the Milky Way (MW) halo, gas is tidally and ram pressure stripped from them, forming the Leading Arm (LA) and Magellanic Stream (MS). The evolution of the LA and MS are an interest to astronomers because there is evidence that the diffuse gas that has been stripped off is able to fall onto the galactic disk and cool enough to fuel star formation in the MW. For et al, 2014 published a catalog of 251 high velocity clouds (HVCs) in the MS, many of which have head-tail morphologies, suggesting interaction with the Milky Way’s halo or other gas in the MS. For et al noticed that the pointing direction of the HVCs are random, which they interpreted as an indication of strong turbulence. They suggested the shock cascade scenario as a contributing process, where ablated cloud material generates turbulence (and H-alpha emission). We take a closer look at this process via simulations. We ran numerical simulations of clouds in the MS using the University of Chicago’s FLASH software. We simulated cases that had two clouds, where one trailed behind the other, and we simulated cases that had one cloud in order to examine the effects of drafting on cloud dynamics and velocity dispersion. Initial cloud temperatures ranged from 100 K to 20,000 K. We have created velocity dispersion maps from the FLASH simulation data to visualize turbulence. We compare these generated maps with 21 cm observations (most recently Westmeier, 2017), in order to search for signatures similar to the small scale turbulence seen in the simulations. We find that if the clouds are initially near to each other, then drafting allows the trailing cloud to catch the leading cloud and mix together. For greater separations, Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities disrupt the clouds enough before impact that drafting has a minimal role. Our velocity dispersion maps of the warmer clouds closely match values published in For et al, 2014; although, thermal broadening

  15. THE GLOBAL EVOLUTION OF GIANT MOLECULAR CLOUDS. II. THE ROLE OF ACCRETION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldbaum, Nathan J.; Krumholz, Mark R.; Matzner, Christopher D.; McKee, Christopher F.

    2011-01-01

    We present virial models for the global evolution of giant molecular clouds (GMCs). Focusing on the presence of an accretion flow and accounting for the amount of mass, momentum, and energy supplied by accretion and star formation feedback, we are able to follow the growth, evolution, and dispersal of individual GMCs. Our model clouds reproduce the scaling relations observed in both galactic and extragalactic clouds. We find that accretion and star formation contribute roughly equal amounts of turbulent kinetic energy over the lifetime of the cloud. Clouds attain virial equilibrium and grow in such a way as to maintain roughly constant surface densities, with typical surface densities of order 50-200 M sun pc -2 , in good agreement with observations of GMCs in the Milky Way and nearby external galaxies. We find that as clouds grow, their velocity dispersion and radius must also increase, implying that the linewidth-size relation constitutes an age sequence. Lastly, we compare our models to observations of GMCs and associated young star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud and find good agreement between our model clouds and the observed relationship between H II regions, young star clusters, and GMCs.

  16. A 3D clustering approach for point clouds to detect and quantify changes at a rock glacier front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheletti, Natan; Tonini, Marj; Lane, Stuart N.

    2016-04-01

    Terrestrial Laser Scanners (TLS) are extensively used in geomorphology to remotely-sense landforms and surfaces of any type and to derive digital elevation models (DEMs). Modern devices are able to collect many millions of points, so that working on the resulting dataset is often troublesome in terms of computational efforts. Indeed, it is not unusual that raw point clouds are filtered prior to DEM creation, so that only a subset of points is retained and the interpolation process becomes less of a burden. Whilst this procedure is in many cases necessary, it implicates a considerable loss of valuable information. First, and even without eliminating points, the common interpolation of points to a regular grid causes a loss of potentially useful detail. Second, it inevitably causes the transition from 3D information to only 2.5D data where each (x,y) pair must have a unique z-value. Vector-based DEMs (e.g. triangulated irregular networks) partially mitigate these issues, but still require a set of parameters to be set and a considerable burden in terms of calculation and storage. Because of the reasons above, being able to perform geomorphological research directly on point clouds would be profitable. Here, we propose an approach to identify erosion and deposition patterns on a very active rock glacier front in the Swiss Alps to monitor sediment dynamics. The general aim is to set up a semiautomatic method to isolate mass movements using 3D-feature identification directly from LiDAR data. An ultra-long range LiDAR RIEGL VZ-6000 scanner was employed to acquire point clouds during three consecutive summers. In order to isolate single clusters of erosion and deposition we applied the Density-Based Scan Algorithm with Noise (DBSCAN), previously successfully employed by Tonini and Abellan (2014) in a similar case for rockfall detection. DBSCAN requires two input parameters, strongly influencing the number, shape and size of the detected clusters: the minimum number of

  17. Kron 3: a fourth intermediate age cluster in the SMC with evidence of multiple populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollyhead, K.; Lardo, C.; Kacharov, N.; Bastian, N.; Hilker, M.; Rejkuba, M.; Koch, A.; Grebel, E. K.; Georgiev, I.

    2018-05-01

    We present the results of a spectroscopic study of the intermediate age (≈6.5 Gyr) massive cluster Kron 3 in the Small Magellanic Cloud. We measure CN and CH band strengths (at ≃3839 and 4300 Å, respectively) using VLT FORS2 spectra of 16 cluster members and find a sub-population of five stars enriched in nitrogen. We conclude that this is evidence for multiple populations in Kron 3, the fourth intermediate age cluster, after Lindsay 1, NGC 416 and NGC 339 (ages 6-8 Gyr), to display this phenomenon originally thought to be a unique characteristic of old globular clusters. At ≈6.5 Gyr this is one of the youngest clusters with multiple populations, indicating that the mechanism responsible for their onset must operate until a redshift of at least 0.75, much later than the peak of globular cluster formation at redshift ˜3.

  18. A DOUBLE CLUSTER AT THE CORE OF 30 DORADUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabbi, E.; De Mink, S. E.; Walborn, N. R.; Anderson, J.; Bellini, A.; Panagia, N.; Van der Marel, R. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Lennon, D. J. [ESA/STScI, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Gieles, M. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Apellaniz, J. Maiz, E-mail: sabbi@stsci.edu [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia-CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomia s/n, E-18008, Granada (Spain)

    2012-08-01

    Based on an analysis of data obtained with the Wide Field Camera 3 on the Hubble Space Telescope we report the identification of two distinct stellar populations in the core of the giant H II region 30 Doradus in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The most compact and richest component coincides with the center of R136 and is {approx}1 Myr younger than a second more diffuse clump, located {approx}5.4 pc toward the northeast. We note that published spectral types of massive stars in these two clumps lend support to the proposed age difference. The morphology and age difference between the two sub-clusters suggests that an ongoing merger may be occurring within the core of 30 Doradus. This finding is consistent with the predictions of models of hierarchical fragmentation of turbulent giant molecular clouds, according to which star clusters would be the final products of merging smaller sub-structures.

  19. The COS/UVES absorption survey of the Magellanic stream. III. Ionization, total mass, and inflow rate onto the Milky Way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, Andrew J.; Thom, Christopher; Tumlinson, Jason; Ely, Justin; Kumari, Nimisha; Wakker, Bart P.; Hernandez, Audra K.; Haffner, L. Matthew; Barger, Kathleen A.; Lehner, Nicolas; Howk, J. Christopher; Richter, Philipp; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Charlton, Jane C.; Westmeier, Tobias; Misawa, Toru; Rodriguez-Hidalgo, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic interactions between the two Magellanic Clouds have flung large quantities of gas into the halo of the Milky Way. The result is a spectacular arrangement of gaseous structures, including the Magellanic Stream, the Magellanic Bridge, and the Leading Arm (collectively referred to as the Magellanic System). In this third paper of a series studying the Magellanic gas in absorption, we analyze the gas ionization level using a sample of 69 Hubble Space Telescope/Cosmic Origins Spectrograph sightlines that pass through or within 30° of the 21 cm emitting regions. We find that 81% (56/69) of the sightlines show UV absorption at Magellanic velocities, indicating that the total cross-section of the Magellanic System is ≈11,000 deg 2 , or around one-quarter of the entire sky. Using observations of the Si III/Si II ratio together with Cloudy photoionization modeling, we calculate the total gas mass (atomic plus ionized) of the Magellanic System to be ≈2.0 × 10 9 M ☉ (d/55 kpc) 2 , with the ionized gas contributing around three times as much mass as the atomic gas. This is larger than the current-day interstellar H I mass of both Magellanic Clouds combined, indicating that they have lost most of their initial gas mass. If the gas in the Magellanic System survives to reach the Galactic disk over its inflow time of ∼0.5-1.0 Gyr, it will represent an average inflow rate of ∼3.7-6.7 M ☉ yr –1 , potentially raising the Galactic star formation rate. However, multiple signs of an evaporative interaction with the hot Galactic corona indicate that the Magellanic gas may not survive its journey to the disk fully intact and will instead add material to (and cool) the corona.

  20. The COS/UVES absorption survey of the Magellanic stream. III. Ionization, total mass, and inflow rate onto the Milky Way

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Andrew J.; Thom, Christopher; Tumlinson, Jason; Ely, Justin; Kumari, Nimisha [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Wakker, Bart P.; Hernandez, Audra K.; Haffner, L. Matthew [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Barger, Kathleen A.; Lehner, Nicolas; Howk, J. Christopher [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Richter, Philipp [Institut für Physik und Astronomie, Universität Potsdam, Haus 28, Karl-Liebknecht-Strasse 24/25, D-14476, Potsdam (Germany); Bland-Hawthorn, Joss [Institute of Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Charlton, Jane C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Westmeier, Tobias [ICRAR, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Misawa, Toru [School of General Education, Shinshu University, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan); Rodriguez-Hidalgo, Paola, E-mail: afox@stsci.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3 (Canada)

    2014-06-01

    Dynamic interactions between the two Magellanic Clouds have flung large quantities of gas into the halo of the Milky Way. The result is a spectacular arrangement of gaseous structures, including the Magellanic Stream, the Magellanic Bridge, and the Leading Arm (collectively referred to as the Magellanic System). In this third paper of a series studying the Magellanic gas in absorption, we analyze the gas ionization level using a sample of 69 Hubble Space Telescope/Cosmic Origins Spectrograph sightlines that pass through or within 30° of the 21 cm emitting regions. We find that 81% (56/69) of the sightlines show UV absorption at Magellanic velocities, indicating that the total cross-section of the Magellanic System is ≈11,000 deg{sup 2}, or around one-quarter of the entire sky. Using observations of the Si III/Si II ratio together with Cloudy photoionization modeling, we calculate the total gas mass (atomic plus ionized) of the Magellanic System to be ≈2.0 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉} (d/55 kpc){sup 2}, with the ionized gas contributing around three times as much mass as the atomic gas. This is larger than the current-day interstellar H I mass of both Magellanic Clouds combined, indicating that they have lost most of their initial gas mass. If the gas in the Magellanic System survives to reach the Galactic disk over its inflow time of ∼0.5-1.0 Gyr, it will represent an average inflow rate of ∼3.7-6.7 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, potentially raising the Galactic star formation rate. However, multiple signs of an evaporative interaction with the hot Galactic corona indicate that the Magellanic gas may not survive its journey to the disk fully intact and will instead add material to (and cool) the corona.

  1. SPB stars in the open SMC cluster NGC 371

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karoff, C.; Arentoft, T.; Glowienka, L.; Coutures, C.; Nielsen, T. B.; Dogan, G.; Grundahl, F.; Kjeldsen, H.

    2008-05-01

    Pulsation in β Cep and slowly pulsating B (SPB) stars are driven by the κ mechanism which depends critically on the metallicity. It has therefore been suggested that β Cep and SPB stars should be rare in the Magellanic Clouds which have lower metallicities than the solar neighbourhood. To test this prediction we have observed the open Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) cluster NGC 371 for 12 nights in order to search for β Cep and SPB stars. Surprisingly, we find 29 short-period B-type variables in the upper part of the main sequence, many of which are probably SPB stars. This result indicates that pulsation is still driven by the κ mechanism even in low-metallicity environments. All the identified variables have periods longer than the fundamental radial period which means that they cannot be β Cep stars. Within an amplitude detection limit of 5 mmag no stars in the top of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram show variability with periods shorter than the fundamental radial period. So if β Cep stars are present in the cluster they oscillate with amplitudes below 5 mmag, which is significantly lower than the mean amplitude of β Cep stars in the Galaxy. We see evidence that multimode pulsation is more common in the upper part of the main sequence than in the lower. We have also identified five eclipsing binaries and three periodic pulsating Be stars in the cluster field.

  2. Explaining the luminosity spread in young clusters: proto and pre-main sequence stellar evolution in a molecular cloud environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Sigurd S.; Haugbølle, Troels

    2018-02-01

    Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams of star-forming regions show a large luminosity spread. This is incompatible with well-defined isochrones based on classic non-accreting protostellar evolution models. Protostars do not evolve in isolation of their environment, but grow through accretion of gas. In addition, while an age can be defined for a star-forming region, the ages of individual stars in the region will vary. We show how the combined effect of a protostellar age spread, a consequence of sustained star formation in the molecular cloud, and time-varying protostellar accretion for individual protostars can explain the observed luminosity spread. We use a global magnetohydrodynamic simulation including a sub-scale sink particle model of a star-forming region to follow the accretion process of each star. The accretion profiles are used to compute stellar evolution models for each star, incorporating a model of how the accretion energy is distributed to the disc, radiated away at the accretion shock, or incorporated into the outer layers of the protostar. Using a modelled cluster age of 5 Myr, we naturally reproduce the luminosity spread and find good agreement with observations of the Collinder 69 cluster, and the Orion Nebular Cluster. It is shown how stars in binary and multiple systems can be externally forced creating recurrent episodic accretion events. We find that in a realistic global molecular cloud model massive stars build up mass over relatively long time-scales. This leads to an important conceptual change compared to the classic picture of non-accreting stellar evolution segmented into low-mass Hayashi tracks and high-mass Henyey tracks.

  3. Opportunistic usage of the CMS online cluster using a cloud overlay

    CERN Document Server

    Chaze, Olivier; Andronidis, Anastasios; Behrens, Ulf; Branson, James; Brummer, Philipp; Contescu, Alexandru-Cristian; Cittolin, Sergio; Craigs, Benjamin; Darlea, Georgiana-Lavinia; Deldicque, Christian; Demiragli, Zeynep; Dobson, M; Doualot, Nicolas; Erhan, Samim; Fulcher, Jonathan Richard; Gigi, Dominique; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Ceballos, Guillelmo; Hegeman, Jeroen; Holzner, Andre Georg; Jimenez-Estupiñán, Raul; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Meschi, Emilio; Mommsen, Remigius; Morovic, Srecko; O'Dell, Vivian; Orsini, Luciano; Paus, Christoph; Pieri, Marco; Racz, Attila; Sakulin, Hannes; Schwick, Christoph; Reis, Thomas; Simelevicius, Dainius; Zejdl, Petr

    2016-01-01

    After two years of maintenance and upgrade, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the largest and most powerful particle accelerator in the world, has started its second three year run. Around 1500 computers make up the CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) Online cluster. This cluster is used for Data Acquisition of the CMS experiment at CERN, selecting and sending to storage around 20 TBytes of data per day that are then analysed by the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG) infrastructure that links hundreds of data centres worldwide. 3000 CMS physicists can access and process data, and are always seeking more computing power and data. The backbone of the CMS Online cluster is composed of 16000 cores which provide as much computing power as all CMS WLCG Tier1 sites (352K HEP-SPEC-06 score in the CMS cluster versus 300K across CMS Tier1 sites). The computing power available in the CMS cluster can significantly speed up the processing of data, so an effort has been made to allocate the resources of the CMS Online cluster to t...

  4. FOREST Unbiased Galactic plane Imaging survey with the Nobeyama 45 m telescope (FUGIN). III. Possible evidence for formation of NGC 6618 cluster in M 17 by cloud-cloud collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Atsushi; Minamidani, Tetsuhiro; Umemoto, Tomofumi; Fujita, Shinji; Matsuo, Mitsuhiro; Hattori, Yusuke; Kohno, Mikito; Yamagishi, Mitsuyoshi; Tsuda, Yuya; Kuriki, Mika; Kuno, Nario; Torii, Kazufumi; Tsutsumi, Daichi; Okawa, Kazuki; Sano, Hidetoshi; Tachihara, Kengo; Ohama, Akio; Fukui, Yasuo

    2018-05-01

    We present 12CO (J = 1-0), 13CO (J = 1-0), and C18O (J = 1-0) images of the M 17 giant molecular clouds obtained as part of the FUGIN (FOREST Ultra-wide Galactic Plane Survey In Nobeyama) project. The observations cover the entire area of the M 17 SW and M 17 N clouds at the highest angular resolution (˜19″) to date, which corresponds to ˜0.18 pc at the distance of 2.0 kpc. We find that the region consists of four different velocity components: a very low velocity (VLV) clump, a low velocity component (LVC), a main velocity component (MVC), and a high velocity component (HVC). The LVC and the HVC have cavities. Ultraviolet photons radiated from NGC 6618 cluster penetrate into the N cloud up to ˜5 pc through the cavities and interact with molecular gas. This interaction is correlated with the distribution of young stellar objects in the N cloud. The LVC and the HVC are distributed complementarily after the HVC is displaced by 0.8 pc toward the east-southeast direction, suggesting that collision of the LVC and the HVC created the cavities in both clouds. The collision velocity and timescale are estimated to be 9.9 km s-1 and 1.1 × 105 yr, respectively. The high collision velocity can provide a mass accretion rate of up to 10^{-3} M_{⊙}yr-1, and the high column density (4 × 1023 cm-2) might result in massive cluster formation. The scenario of cloud-cloud collision likely explains well the stellar population and the formation history of the NGC 6618 cluster proposed by Hoffmeister et al. (2008, ApJ, 686, 310).

  5. Forming clusters within clusters: how 30 Doradus recollapsed and gave birth again

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahner, Daniel; Pellegrini, Eric W.; Glover, Simon C. O.; Klessen, Ralf S.

    2018-01-01

    The 30 Doradus nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) contains the massive starburst cluster NGC 2070 with a massive and probably younger stellar sub clump at its centre: R136. It is not clear how such a massive inner cluster could form several million years after the older stars in NGC 2070, given that stellar feedback is usually thought to expel gas and inhibit further star formation. Using the recently developed 1D feedback scheme WARPFIELD to scan a large range of cloud and cluster properties, we show that an age offset of several million years between the stellar populations is in fact to be expected given the interplay between feedback and gravity in a giant molecular cloud with a density ≳500 cm-3 due to re-accretion of gas on to the older stellar population. Neither capture of field stars nor gas retention inside the cluster have to be invoked in order to explain the observed age offset in NGC 2070 as well as the structure of the interstellar medium around it.

  6. Pillars of Creation among Destruction: Star Formation in Molecular Clouds near R136 in 30 Doradus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalari, Venu M.; Rubio, Mónica; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Guzmán, Viviana V.; Zinnecker, Hans; Herrera, Cinthya N.

    2018-01-01

    We present new sensitive CO(2–1) observations of the 30 Doradus region in the Large Magellanic Cloud. We identify a chain of three newly discovered molecular clouds that we name KN1, KN2, and KN3 lying within 2–14 pc in projection from the young massive cluster R136 in 30 Doradus. Excited H2 2.12 μm emission is spatially coincident with the molecular clouds, but ionized Brγ emission is not. We interpret these observations as the tails of pillar-like structures whose ionized heads are pointing toward R136. Based on infrared photometry, we identify a new generation of stars forming within this structure.

  7. Faint nebulosities in the vicinity of the Magellanic H I Stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.G.; Meaburn, J.; Osman, A.M.I.

    1982-01-01

    Very deep Hα image tube photographs with a wide-field filter camera have been taken of the Magellanic H I Stream. A diffuse region of emission has been detected. Furthermore a mosaic of high contrast prints of IIIaJ survey plates taken with the SRC Schmidt, has been compiled over the same area. A complex region of faint, blue, filamentary nebulosity has been revealed. This appears to be reflection nebulosity either in the galactic plane or less probably, in the vicinity of the Large Magellanic Cloud. A deep Hα 1.2-m Schmidt photograph of these blue filaments reinforces the suggestion that they are reflection nebulae. The reflection and emission nebulosities in this vicinity have been compared to each other and the Magellanic H I Stream. The diffuse region of Hα emission is particularly well correlated with the Stream. (author)

  8. Clustering composite SaaS components in Cloud computing using a Grouping Genetic Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Yusoh, Zeratul Izzah Mohd; Tang, Maolin

    2012-01-01

    Recently, Software as a Service (SaaS) in Cloud computing, has become more and more significant among software users and providers. To offer a SaaS with flexible functions at a low cost, SaaS providers have focused on the decomposition of the SaaS functionalities, or known as composite SaaS. This approach has introduced new challenges in SaaS resource management in data centres. One of the challenges is managing the resources allocated to the composite SaaS. Due to the dynamic environment of ...

  9. Models of Tidally Induced Gas Filaments in the Magellanic Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardy, Stephen A.; D’Onghia, Elena; Fox, Andrew J.

    2018-04-01

    The Magellanic Stream and Leading Arm of H I that stretches from the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC) and over 200° of the Southern sky is thought to be formed from multiple encounters between the LMC and SMC. In this scenario, most of the gas in the Stream and Leading Arm is stripped from the SMC, yet recent observations have shown a bifurcation of the Trailing Arm that reveals LMC origins for some of the gas. Absorption measurements in the Stream also reveal an order of magnitude more gas than in current tidal models. We present hydrodynamical simulations of the multiple encounters between the LMC and SMC at their first pass around the Milky Way, assuming that the Clouds were more extended and gas-rich in the past. Our models create filamentary structures of gas in the Trailing Stream from both the LMC and SMC. While the SMC trailing filament matches the observed Stream location, the LMC filament is offset. In addition, the total observed mass of the Stream in these models is underestimated by a factor of four when the ionized component is accounted for. Our results suggest that there should also be gas stripped from both the LMC and SMC in the Leading Arm, mirroring the bifurcation in the Trailing Stream. This prediction is consistent with recent measurements of spatial variation in chemical abundances in the Leading Arm, which show that gas from multiple sources is present, although its nature is still uncertain.

  10. THE INFRARED SPECTRAL PROPERTIES OF MAGELLANIC CARBON STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloan, G. C. [Cornell Center for Astrophysics and Planetary Science, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Kraemer, K. E. [Institute for Scientific Research, Boston College, 140 Commonwealth Avenue, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467 (United States); McDonald, I.; Zijlstra, A. A. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, Univ. of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Groenewegen, M. A. T. [Koninklijke Sterrenwacht van België, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium); Wood, P. R. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Lagadec, E. [Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, F-06300, Nice (France); Boyer, M. L. [CRESST and Observational Cosmology Lab, Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, 20771 (United States); Kemper, F.; Srinivasan, S. [Academia Sinica, Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 11F Astronomy-Mathematics Building, NTU/AS, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Rd., Taipei 10617, Taiwan, R.O.C. (China); Matsuura, M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Queen’s Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff, CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Sahai, R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, MS 183-900, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Sargent, B. A. [Center for Imaging Science and Laboratory for Multiwavelength Astrophysics, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Van Loon, J. Th. [Lennard Jones Laboratories, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Volk, K., E-mail: sloan@isc.astro.cornell.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2016-07-20

    The Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope observed 184 carbon stars in the Magellanic Clouds. This sample reveals that the dust-production rate (DPR) from carbon stars generally increases with the pulsation period of the star. The composition of the dust grains follows two condensation sequences, with more SiC condensing before amorphous carbon in metal-rich stars, and the order reversed in metal-poor stars. MgS dust condenses in optically thicker dust shells, and its condensation is delayed in more metal-poor stars. Metal-poor carbon stars also tend to have stronger absorption from C{sub 2}H{sub 2} at 7.5 μ m. The relation between DPR and pulsation period shows significant apparent scatter, which results from the initial mass of the star, with more massive stars occupying a sequence parallel to lower-mass stars, but shifted to longer periods. Accounting for differences in the mass distribution between the carbon stars observed in the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds reveals a hint of a subtle decrease in the DPR at lower metallicities, but it is not statistically significant. The most deeply embedded carbon stars have lower variability amplitudes and show SiC in absorption. In some cases they have bluer colors at shorter wavelengths, suggesting that the central star is becoming visible. These deeply embedded stars may be evolving off of the asymptotic giant branch and/or they may have non-spherical dust geometries.

  11. THE INFRARED SPECTRAL PROPERTIES OF MAGELLANIC CARBON STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloan, G. C.; Kraemer, K. E.; McDonald, I.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.; Wood, P. R.; Lagadec, E.; Boyer, M. L.; Kemper, F.; Srinivasan, S.; Matsuura, M.; Sahai, R.; Sargent, B. A.; Van Loon, J. Th.; Volk, K.

    2016-01-01

    The Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope observed 184 carbon stars in the Magellanic Clouds. This sample reveals that the dust-production rate (DPR) from carbon stars generally increases with the pulsation period of the star. The composition of the dust grains follows two condensation sequences, with more SiC condensing before amorphous carbon in metal-rich stars, and the order reversed in metal-poor stars. MgS dust condenses in optically thicker dust shells, and its condensation is delayed in more metal-poor stars. Metal-poor carbon stars also tend to have stronger absorption from C 2 H 2 at 7.5 μ m. The relation between DPR and pulsation period shows significant apparent scatter, which results from the initial mass of the star, with more massive stars occupying a sequence parallel to lower-mass stars, but shifted to longer periods. Accounting for differences in the mass distribution between the carbon stars observed in the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds reveals a hint of a subtle decrease in the DPR at lower metallicities, but it is not statistically significant. The most deeply embedded carbon stars have lower variability amplitudes and show SiC in absorption. In some cases they have bluer colors at shorter wavelengths, suggesting that the central star is becoming visible. These deeply embedded stars may be evolving off of the asymptotic giant branch and/or they may have non-spherical dust geometries.

  12. The complex lives of star clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Stevenson, David

    2015-01-01

    As with the author’s recent books Extreme Explosions and Under a Crimson Sun, the complex topic of star clusters is broken down and made accessible with clear links to other areas of astronomy in a language which the non-specialist can easily read and enjoy. The full range of a star cluster's lifespan is depicted, as both globular and open clusters are tracked from birth to eventual death. Why is it some are dense conglomerates of stars while others are looser associations? Are the young, brilliant clusters seen in neighboring galaxies such as the Large Magellanic Cloud, M33 or M82 analogous to the ancient globulars seen in the Milky Way? How will these clusters change as their stars wane and die? More interestingly, how does living in a dense star cluster affect the fates of the stars and any attendant planets that accompany them?   Star clusters form many of the most dazzling objects in the astronomers’ catalogs. Many amateur astronomers are interested in exploring how these objects are created and wh...

  13. Essentials of cloud computing

    CERN Document Server

    Chandrasekaran, K

    2014-01-01

    ForewordPrefaceComputing ParadigmsLearning ObjectivesPreambleHigh-Performance ComputingParallel ComputingDistributed ComputingCluster ComputingGrid ComputingCloud ComputingBiocomputingMobile ComputingQuantum ComputingOptical ComputingNanocomputingNetwork ComputingSummaryReview PointsReview QuestionsFurther ReadingCloud Computing FundamentalsLearning ObjectivesPreambleMotivation for Cloud ComputingThe Need for Cloud ComputingDefining Cloud ComputingNIST Definition of Cloud ComputingCloud Computing Is a ServiceCloud Computing Is a Platform5-4-3 Principles of Cloud computingFive Essential Charact

  14. SHORT- AND LONG-TERM RADIO VARIABILITY OF YOUNG STARS IN THE ORION NEBULA CLUSTER AND MOLECULAR CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivilla, V. M.; Martín-Pintado, J.; Chandler, C. J.; Sanz-Forcada, J.; Jiménez-Serra, I.; Forbrich, J.

    2015-01-01

    We have used the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) to carry out multi-epoch radio continuum monitoring of the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC) and the background Orion Molecular Cloud (OMC; 3 epochs at Q band and 11 epochs at Ka band). Our new observations reveal the presence of 19 radio sources, mainly concentrated in the Trapezium Cluster and the Orion Hot Core (OHC) regions. With the exception of the Becklin–Neugebauer object and source C (which we identify here as dust emission associated with a proplyd) the sources all show radio variability between the different epochs. We have found tentative evidence of variability in the emission from the massive object related to source I. Our observations also confirm radio flux density variations of a factor >2 on timescales of hours to days in five sources. One of these flaring sources, OHC-E, has been detected for the first time. We conclude that the radio emission can be attributed to two different components: (i) highly variable (flaring) non-thermal radio gyrosynchrotron emission produced by electrons accelerated in the magnetospheres of pre-main-sequence low-mass stars and (ii) thermal emission due to free–free radiation from ionized gas and/or heated dust around embedded massive objects and proplyds. Combining our sample with other radio monitoring at 8.3 GHz and the X-ray catalog provided by Chandra, we have studied the properties of the entire sample of radio/X-ray stars in the ONC/OMC region (51 sources). We have found several hints of a relation between the X-ray activity and the mechanisms responsible for (at least some fraction of) the radio emission. We have estimated a radio flaring rate of ∼0.14 flares day −1 in the dense stellar cluster embedded in the OHC region. This suggests that radio flares are more common events during the first stages of stellar evolution than previously thought. The advent of improved sensitivity with the new VLA and ALMA will dramatically increase the number of stars in

  15. On the distribution of decapod crustaceans from the Magellan Biogeographic Province and the Antarctic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique E. Boschi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of decapod crustaceans in the southernmost areas of South America and the Antarctic is assessed considering the Magellan Biogeographic Province instead of the antiboreal region. Possible associations between decapod crustaceans from the Magellan Biogeographic Province and those from the Antarctic region are analysed. Species records were assigned to seven geographic regions that were clustered using multivariate analyses based on species presence/absence and Bray-Curtis similarity. The results showed two well-established clusters, one of which included the Pacific and Atlantic areas of the Magellan Province, the southern tip of South America and the Kerguelen Arc islands, with the highest similarity between the southern tip and the Atlantic area. Another cluster was well separated and included the Antarctic and South Georgia with the highest similarity index. Earlier studies and results obtained here suggest that the faunas of southern Chile and southern Argentina are biogeographically related. There is a low level of association among decapod species from the circum-Antarctic region and the Magellan Province.

  16. Effective leaf area index retrieving from terrestrial point cloud data: coupling computational geometry application and Gaussian mixture model clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, S.; Tamura, M.; Susaki, J.

    2014-09-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is one of the most important structural parameters of forestry studies which manifests the ability of the green vegetation interacted with the solar illumination. Classic understanding about LAI is to consider the green canopy as integration of horizontal leaf layers. Since multi-angle remote sensing technique developed, LAI obliged to be deliberated according to the observation geometry. Effective LAI could formulate the leaf-light interaction virtually and precisely. To retrieve the LAI/effective LAI from remotely sensed data therefore becomes a challenge during the past decades. Laser scanning technique can provide accurate surface echoed coordinates with densely scanned intervals. To utilize the density based statistical algorithm for analyzing the voluminous amount of the 3-D points data is one of the subjects of the laser scanning applications. Computational geometry also provides some mature applications for point cloud data (PCD) processing and analysing. In this paper, authors investigated the feasibility of a new application for retrieving the effective LAI of an isolated broad leaf tree. Simplified curvature was calculated for each point in order to remove those non-photosynthetic tissues. Then PCD were discretized into voxel, and clustered by using Gaussian mixture model. Subsequently the area of each cluster was calculated by employing the computational geometry applications. In order to validate our application, we chose an indoor plant to estimate the leaf area, the correlation coefficient between calculation and measurement was 98.28 %. We finally calculated the effective LAI of the tree with 6 × 6 assumed observation directions.

  17. MASSCLEANage-STELLAR CLUSTER AGES FROM INTEGRATED COLORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, Bogdan; Hanson, M. M.

    2010-01-01

    We present the recently updated and expanded MASSCLEANcolors, a database of 70 million Monte Carlo models selected to match the properties (metallicity, ages, and masses) of stellar clusters found in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). This database shows the rather extreme and non-Gaussian distribution of integrated colors and magnitudes expected with different cluster age and mass and the enormous age degeneracy of integrated colors when mass is unknown. This degeneracy could lead to catastrophic failures in estimating age with standard simple stellar population models, particularly if most of the clusters are of intermediate or low mass, like in the LMC. Utilizing the MASSCLEANcolors database, we have developed MASSCLEANage, a statistical inference package which assigns the most likely age and mass (solved simultaneously) to a cluster based only on its integrated broadband photometric properties. Finally, we use MASSCLEANage to derive the age and mass of LMC clusters based on integrated photometry alone. First, we compare our cluster ages against those obtained for the same seven clusters using more accurate integrated spectroscopy. We find improved agreement with the integrated spectroscopy ages over the original photometric ages. A close examination of our results demonstrates the necessity of solving simultaneously for mass and age to reduce degeneracies in the cluster ages derived via integrated colors. We then selected an additional subset of 30 photometric clusters with previously well-constrained ages and independently derive their age using the MASSCLEANage with the same photometry with very good agreement. The MASSCLEANage program is freely available under GNU General Public License.

  18. Building an Elastic Parallel OGC Web Processing Service on a Cloud-Based Cluster: A Case Study of Remote Sensing Data Processing Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xicheng Tan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC proposed the geospatial Web Processing Service (WPS, standard OGC Web Service (OWS-based geospatial processing has become the major type of distributed geospatial application. However, improving the performance and sustainability of the distributed geospatial applications has become the dominant challenge for OWSs. This paper presents the construction of an elastic parallel OGC WPS service on a cloud-based cluster and the designs of a high-performance, cloud-based WPS service architecture, the scalability scheme of the cloud, and the algorithm of the elastic parallel geoprocessing. Experiments of the remote sensing data processing service demonstrate that our proposed method can provide a higher-performance WPS service that uses less computing resources. Our proposed method can also help institutions reduce hardware costs, raise the rate of hardware usage, and conserve energy, which is important in building green and sustainable geospatial services or applications.

  19. RECENT STAR FORMATION IN THE LEADING ARM OF THE MAGELLANIC STREAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casetti-Dinescu, Dana I. [Department of Physics, Southern Connecticut State University, 501 Crescent Street, New Haven, CT 06515 (United States); Bidin, Christian Moni [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Católica del Norte, Avenue Angamos 0610, Antofagasta (Chile); Girard, Terrence M.; Van Altena, William F. [Astronomy Department, Yale University, 260 Whitney Avenue, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Méndez, Réne A. [Departmento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Vieira, Katherine [Centro de Investigaciones de Astronomía, Apartado Postal 264, Mérida 5101-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Korchagin, Vladimir I., E-mail: casettid1@southernct.edu, E-mail: dana.casetti@yale.edu, E-mail: terry.girard@yale.edu, E-mail: william.vanaltena@yale.edu, E-mail: chr.moni.bidin@gmail.com, E-mail: ramendez.uchile@gmail.com, E-mail: kvieira@cida.ve, E-mail: vkorchagin@sfedu.ru [Institute of Physics, Southern Federal University, Stachki Street 124, 344090, Rostov-on-Don (Russian Federation)

    2014-04-01

    Strongly interacting galaxies undergo a short-lived but dramatic phase of evolution characterized by enhanced star formation, tidal tails, bridges, and other morphological peculiarities. The nearest example of a pair of interacting galaxies is the Magellanic Clouds, whose dynamical interaction produced the gaseous features known as the Magellanic Stream trailing the pair's orbit about the Galaxy, the bridge between the Clouds, and the leading arm (LA), a wide and irregular feature leading the orbit. Young, newly formed stars in the bridge are known to exist, giving witness to the recent interaction between the Clouds. However, the interaction of the Clouds with the Milky Way (MW) is less well understood. In particular, the LA must have a tidal origin; however, no purely gravitational model is able to reproduce its morphology and kinematics. A hydrodynamical interaction with the gaseous hot halo and disk of the Galaxy is plausible as suggested by some models and supporting neutral hydrogen (H I) observations. Here we show for the first time that young, recently formed stars exist in the LA, indicating that the interaction between the Clouds and our Galaxy is strong enough to trigger star formation in certain regions of the LA—regions in the outskirts of the MW disk (R ∼ 18 kpc), far away from the Clouds and the bridge.

  20. RECENT STAR FORMATION IN THE LEADING ARM OF THE MAGELLANIC STREAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casetti-Dinescu, Dana I.; Bidin, Christian Moni; Girard, Terrence M.; Van Altena, William F.; Méndez, Réne A.; Vieira, Katherine; Korchagin, Vladimir I.

    2014-01-01

    Strongly interacting galaxies undergo a short-lived but dramatic phase of evolution characterized by enhanced star formation, tidal tails, bridges, and other morphological peculiarities. The nearest example of a pair of interacting galaxies is the Magellanic Clouds, whose dynamical interaction produced the gaseous features known as the Magellanic Stream trailing the pair's orbit about the Galaxy, the bridge between the Clouds, and the leading arm (LA), a wide and irregular feature leading the orbit. Young, newly formed stars in the bridge are known to exist, giving witness to the recent interaction between the Clouds. However, the interaction of the Clouds with the Milky Way (MW) is less well understood. In particular, the LA must have a tidal origin; however, no purely gravitational model is able to reproduce its morphology and kinematics. A hydrodynamical interaction with the gaseous hot halo and disk of the Galaxy is plausible as suggested by some models and supporting neutral hydrogen (H I) observations. Here we show for the first time that young, recently formed stars exist in the LA, indicating that the interaction between the Clouds and our Galaxy is strong enough to trigger star formation in certain regions of the LA—regions in the outskirts of the MW disk (R ∼ 18 kpc), far away from the Clouds and the bridge

  1. A comparison of performance of automatic cloud coverage assessment algorithm for Formosat-2 image using clustering-based and spatial thresholding methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Kuo-Hsien

    2012-11-01

    Formosat-2 image is a kind of high-spatial-resolution (2 meters GSD) remote sensing satellite data, which includes one panchromatic band and four multispectral bands (Blue, Green, Red, near-infrared). An essential sector in the daily processing of received Formosat-2 image is to estimate the cloud statistic of image using Automatic Cloud Coverage Assessment (ACCA) algorithm. The information of cloud statistic of image is subsequently recorded as an important metadata for image product catalog. In this paper, we propose an ACCA method with two consecutive stages: preprocessing and post-processing analysis. For pre-processing analysis, the un-supervised K-means classification, Sobel's method, thresholding method, non-cloudy pixels reexamination, and cross-band filter method are implemented in sequence for cloud statistic determination. For post-processing analysis, Box-Counting fractal method is implemented. In other words, the cloud statistic is firstly determined via pre-processing analysis, the correctness of cloud statistic of image of different spectral band is eventually cross-examined qualitatively and quantitatively via post-processing analysis. The selection of an appropriate thresholding method is very critical to the result of ACCA method. Therefore, in this work, We firstly conduct a series of experiments of the clustering-based and spatial thresholding methods that include Otsu's, Local Entropy(LE), Joint Entropy(JE), Global Entropy(GE), and Global Relative Entropy(GRE) method, for performance comparison. The result shows that Otsu's and GE methods both perform better than others for Formosat-2 image. Additionally, our proposed ACCA method by selecting Otsu's method as the threshoding method has successfully extracted the cloudy pixels of Formosat-2 image for accurate cloud statistic estimation.

  2. Are Cloud Environments Ready for Scientific Applications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, P.; Shackleford, K.

    2011-12-01

    Cloud computing environments are becoming widely available both in the commercial and government sectors. They provide flexibility to rapidly provision resources in order to meet dynamic and changing computational needs without the customers incurring capital expenses and/or requiring technical expertise. Clouds also provide reliable access to resources even though the end-user may not have in-house expertise for acquiring or operating such resources. Consolidation and pooling in a cloud environment allow organizations to achieve economies of scale in provisioning or procuring computing resources and services. Because of these and other benefits, many businesses and organizations are migrating their business applications (e.g., websites, social media, and business processes) to cloud environments-evidenced by the commercial success of offerings such as the Amazon EC2. In this paper, we focus on the feasibility of utilizing cloud environments for scientific workloads and workflows particularly of interest to NASA scientists and engineers. There is a wide spectrum of such technical computations. These applications range from small workstation-level computations to mid-range computing requiring small clusters to high-performance simulations requiring supercomputing systems with high bandwidth/low latency interconnects. Data-centric applications manage and manipulate large data sets such as satellite observational data and/or data previously produced by high-fidelity modeling and simulation computations. Most of the applications are run in batch mode with static resource requirements. However, there do exist situations that have dynamic demands, particularly ones with public-facing interfaces providing information to the general public, collaborators and partners, as well as to internal NASA users. In the last few months we have been studying the suitability of cloud environments for NASA's technical and scientific workloads. We have ported several applications to

  3. NGC 346: Looking in the Cradle of a Massive Star Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouliermis, Dimitrios A.; Hony, Sacha

    2017-03-01

    How does a star cluster of more than few 10,000 solar masses form? We present the case of the cluster NGC 346 in the Small Magellanic Cloud, still embedded in its natal star-forming region N66, and we propose a scenario for its formation, based on observations of the rich stellar populations in the region. Young massive clusters host a high fraction of early-type stars, indicating an extremely high star formation efficiency. The Milky Way galaxy hosts several young massive clusters that fill the gap between young low-mass open clusters and old massive globular clusters. Only a handful, though, are young enough to study their formation. Moreover, the investigation of their gaseous natal environments suffers from contamination by the Galactic disk. Young massive clusters are very abundant in distant starburst and interacting galaxies, but the distance of their hosting galaxies do not also allow a detailed analysis of their formation. The Magellanic Clouds, on the other hand, host young massive clusters in a wide range of ages with the youngest being still embedded in their giant HII regions. Hubble Space Telescope imaging of such star-forming complexes provide a stellar sampling with a high dynamic range in stellar masses, allowing the detailed study of star formation at scales typical for molecular clouds. Our cluster analysis on the distribution of newly-born stars in N66 shows that star formation in the region proceeds in a clumpy hierarchical fashion, leading to the formation of both a dominant young massive cluster, hosting about half of the observed pre-main-sequence population, and a self-similar dispersed distribution of the remaining stars. We investigate the correlation between stellar surface density (and star formation rate derived from star-counts) and molecular gas surface density (derived from dust column density) in order to unravel the physical conditions that gave birth to NGC 346. A power law fit to the data yields a steep correlation between these

  4. Guide to Magellan image interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, John P.; Plaut, Jeffrey J.; Weitz, Catherine M.; Farr, Tom G.; Senske, David A.; Stofan, Ellen R.; Michaels, Gregory; Parker, Timothy J.; Fulton, D. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    An overview of Magellan Mission requirements, radar system characteristics, and methods of data collection is followed by a description of the image data, mosaic formats, areal coverage, resolution, and pixel DN-to-dB conversion. The availability and sources of image data are outlined. Applications of the altimeter data to estimate relief, Fresnel reflectivity, and surface slope, and the radiometer data to derive microwave emissivity are summarized and illustrated in conjunction with corresponding SAR image data. Same-side and opposite-side stereo images provide examples of parallax differences from which to measure relief with a lateral resolution many times greater than that of the altimeter. Basic radar interactions with geologic surfaces are discussed with respect to radar-imaging geometry, surface roughness, backscatter modeling, and dielectric constant. Techniques are described for interpreting the geomorphology and surface properties of surficial features, impact craters, tectonically deformed terrain, and volcanic landforms. The morphologic characteristics that distinguish impact craters from volcanic craters are defined. Criteria for discriminating extensional and compressi