WorldWideScience

Sample records for macrotis blunt-nosed leopard

  1. Population structure of Blunt-nosed leopard lizards Gambelia silus at Pixley National Wildlife Refuge Tulare County California

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Abstract. Seasonal mark-recapture population estimates and relative abundance indices for the blunt-nosed leopard lizard (Gambelia silus) were calculated on eight...

  2. Contemporary Drought and Future Effects of Climate Change on the Endangered Blunt-Nosed Leopard Lizard, Gambelia sila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Michael F; Stewart, Joseph A E; Tennant, Erin N; Butterfield, H Scott; Sinervo, Barry

    2016-01-01

    Extreme weather events can provide unique opportunities for testing models that predict the effect of climate change. Droughts of increasing severity have been predicted under numerous models, thus contemporary droughts may allow us to test these models prior to the onset of the more extreme effects predicted with a changing climate. In the third year of an ongoing severe drought, surveys failed to detect neonate endangered blunt-nosed leopard lizards in a subset of previously surveyed populations where we expected to see them. By conducting surveys at a large number of sites across the range of the species over a short time span, we were able to establish a strong positive correlation between winter precipitation and the presence of neonate leopard lizards over geographic space. Our results are consistent with those of numerous longitudinal studies and are in accordance with predictive climate change models. We suggest that scientists can take immediate advantage of droughts while they are still in progress to test patterns of occurrence in other drought-sensitive species and thus provide for more robust models of climate change effects on biodiversity.

  3. General Reynolds Analogy for Blunt-nosed Bodies in Hypersonic Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xing-Xing; Yu, Yong-Liang

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the relation between skin friction and heat transfer along windward sides of blunt-nosed bodies in hypersonic flows is investigated. The self-similar boundary layer analysis is accepted to figure out the distribution of the ratio of skin friction to heat transfer coefficients along the wall. It is theoretically obtained that the ratio depends linearly on the local slope angle of the wall surface, and an explicit analogy expression is presented for circular cylinders, although the linear distribution is also found for other nose shapes and even in gas flows with chemical reactions. Furthermore, based on the theoretical modelling of the second order shear and heat transfer terms in Burnett equations, a modified analogy is derived in the near continuum regime by considering the rarefied gas effects. And a bridge function is also constructed to describe the nonlinear analogy in the transition flow regime. At last, the direct simulation Monte Carlo method is used to validate the theoretical results....

  4. Effect of trap color and height on captures of blunt-nosed and sharp-nosed leafhoppers (hemiptera: cicadellidae) and non-target arthropods in cranberry bogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of field experiments were conducted in cranberry bogs in 2006-2010 to determine adult attraction of the two most economically important leafhopper pests of cultivated Vaccinium spp. in the northeast USA, the blunt-nosed leafhopper, Limotettix vaccinii, and sharp-nosed leafhopper, Scaphytopi...

  5. LEOPARD syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... L, Strano S, Carbone A, Calvieri C, Giustini S. LEOPARD syndrome. Dermatol Online J . 2008;14(3):7. PMID: 18627709 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18627709 . Sarkozy A, Digilio MC, Dallapiccola B. LEOPARD syndrome. Orphanet J Rare Dis . 2008;3:13. PMID: ...

  6. Numerical simulation of adiabatic shear in blunt nose projectile plugging target*%平头弹冲塞靶板的绝热剪切数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋东; 李永池

    2011-01-01

    Experiments have shown that during the formation of adiabatic shear, because of highly localized deformation, the heat generated by plastic work causes localized high temperatures, and sometimes the process may be accompanied by the phenomenon of dynamic re-crystallization. Based on this phenomenon, numerical simulations are performed to simulate a Arne tool-steel blunt nose projectile plugging a Weldox 460 thin target, using the finite element method. The adiabatic shear failure criterion is based on the hypothesis that material inside the shear band region undergoes a dynamic re-crystallization process. Numerical simulation reveals the adiabatic shear generation and propagation process. The temperature distribution shows that the adiabatic shear bands can provide physical conditions for a dynamic recrystallization process.%针对绝热剪切形成时由于变形高度局域化,塑性功产生的热导致局部高温,有时会伴随动态再结晶(DRX)的现象,采用一种考虑动态再结晶过程的绝热剪切破坏准则,利用有限元方法模拟了Arne工具钢平头弹冲塞Weldox 460 E钢靶板的实验.数值模拟揭示了剪切带产生、传播的过程,温度分布情况表明在绝热剪切带中具备动态再结晶形成的物理条件.

  7. Leopard syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dallapiccola Bruno

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract LEOPARD syndrome (LS, OMIM 151100 is a rare multiple congenital anomalies condition, mainly characterized by skin, facial and cardiac anomalies. LEOPARD is an acronym for the major features of this disorder, including multiple Lentigines, ECG conduction abnormalities, Ocular hypertelorism, Pulmonic stenosis, Abnormal genitalia, Retardation of growth, and sensorineural Deafness. About 200 patients have been reported worldwide but the real incidence of LS has not been assessed. Facial dysmorphism includes ocular hypertelorism, palpebral ptosis and low-set ears. Stature is usually below the 25th centile. Cardiac defects, in particular hypertrophic cardiomyopathy mostly involving the left ventricle, and ECG anomalies are common. The lentigines may be congenital, although more frequently manifest by the age of 4–5 years and increase throughout puberty. Additional common features are café-au-lait spots (CLS, chest anomalies, cryptorchidism, delayed puberty, hypotonia, mild developmental delay, sensorineural deafness and learning difficulties. In about 85% of the cases, a heterozygous missense mutation is detected in exons 7, 12 or 13 of the PTPN11 gene. Recently, missense mutations in the RAF1 gene have been found in two out of six PTPN11-negative LS patients. Mutation analysis can be carried out on blood, chorionic villi and amniotic fluid samples. LS is largely overlapping Noonan syndrome and, during childhood, Neurofibromatosis type 1-Noonan syndrome. Diagnostic clues of LS are multiple lentigines and CLS, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and deafness. Mutation-based differential diagnosis in patients with borderline clinical manifestations is warranted. LS is an autosomal dominant condition, with full penetrance and variable expressivity. If one parent is affected, a 50% recurrence risk is appropriate. LS should be suspected in foetuses with severe cardiac hypertrophy and prenatal DNA test may be performed. Clinical management should

  8. Take control of customizing Leopard

    CERN Document Server

    Neuburg, Matt

    2009-01-01

    Come up to speed quickly on Leopard's new features! So, what's new in Leopard? What's all the fuss about? This book shows you, through a hands-on guided tour of the adjustments, tweaks, and customizations you can make in the System and the Finder. Apple boasts of 300 new features in Leopard, but to make the most of those features, turn to Matt Neuburg for a road map on how to customize Leopard so it's right for you. Matt shows you how to protect your data with Time Machine, including instructions for searching through previous files with Spotlight. You'll also learn how to peek at files with

  9. Field Investigations on Snow Leopards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The snow leopard (Uncia uncia) is a rare and endangered species of large feline animals. Although sharing its name with the common leopard, it is not believed to be closely related to the leopard or the other members of the Pantherine group and is classified as the sole member of its genus. Its total number in the world is generally estimated at somewhere between 3,500 to 7,000, and experts say the figure is far more outdated. Although it is believed that China is home to more snow leopards than any of the other 11 countries in which they occur, such as Afghanistan, India, Pakistan,Tajikistan, Kazakstan, Kyrgyzstan and Mongolia, no one knows exactly how many of them are there in this country.

  10. Semi-automated identification of leopard frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovska-Delacrétaz, Dijana; Edwards, Aaron; Chiasson, John; Chollet, Gérard; Pilliod, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Principal component analysis is used to implement a semi-automatic recognition system to identify recaptured northern leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens). Results of both open set and closed set experiments are given. The presented algorithm is shown to provide accurate identification of 209 individual leopard frogs from a total set of 1386 images.

  11. Livestock Husbandry and Snow Leopard Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohammad, Ghulam; Mostafawi, Sayed Naqibullah; Dadul, Jigmet; Rosen, Tatjana; Mishra, Charudutt; Bhatnagar, Yash Veer; Trivedi, Pranav; Timbadia, Radhika; Bijoor, Ajay; Murali, Ranjini; Sonam, Karma; Thinley, Tanzin; Namgail, Tsewang; Prins, Herbert H.T.; Nawaz, Muhammad Ali; Ud Din, Jaffar; Buzdar, Hafeez

    2016-01-01

    Livestock depredation is a key source of snow leopard mortality across much of the species' range. Snow leopards break into livestock corrals, killing many domestic animals and thereby inflicting substantial economic damage. Locals may retaliate by killing the cat and selling its parts.

  12. Livestock Husbandry and Snow Leopard Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohammad, Ghulam; Mostafawi, Sayed Naqibullah; Dadul, Jigmet; Rosen, Tatjana; Mishra, Charudutt; Bhatnagar, Yash Veer; Trivedi, Pranav; Timbadia, Radhika; Bijoor, Ajay; Murali, Ranjini; Sonam, Karma; Thinley, Tanzin; Namgail, Tsewang; Prins, Herbert H.T.; Nawaz, Muhammad Ali; Ud Din, Jaffar; Buzdar, Hafeez

    2016-01-01

    Livestock depredation is a key source of snow leopard mortality across much of the species' range. Snow leopards break into livestock corrals, killing many domestic animals and thereby inflicting substantial economic damage. Locals may retaliate by killing the cat and selling its parts. Predator-

  13. Livestock Husbandry and Snow Leopard Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohammad, Ghulam; Mostafawi, Sayed Naqibullah; Dadul, Jigmet; Rosen, Tatjana; Mishra, Charudutt; Bhatnagar, Yash Veer; Trivedi, Pranav; Timbadia, Radhika; Bijoor, Ajay; Murali, Ranjini; Sonam, Karma; Thinley, Tanzin; Namgail, Tsewang; Prins, Herbert H.T.; Nawaz, Muhammad Ali; Ud Din, Jaffar; Buzdar, Hafeez

    2016-01-01

    Livestock depredation is a key source of snow leopard mortality across much of the species' range. Snow leopards break into livestock corrals, killing many domestic animals and thereby inflicting substantial economic damage. Locals may retaliate by killing the cat and selling its parts. Predator-

  14. Mac OS X Snow Leopard pocket guide

    CERN Document Server

    Seiblod, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Whether you're new to the Mac or a longtime user, this handy book is the quickest way to get up to speed on Snow Leopard. Packed with concise information in an easy-to-read format, Mac OS X Snow Leopard Pocket Guide covers what you need to know and is an ideal resource for problem-solving on the fly. This book goes right to the heart of Snow Leopard, with details on system preferences, built-in applications, and utilities. You'll also find configuration tips, keyboard shortcuts, guides for troubleshooting, lots of step-by-step instructions, and more. Learn about new features and changes s

  15. Region 6 Northern Leopard Frog Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains a collection of completed questionnaires and related additional data regarding the status review of the northern leopard frog. On July 1,...

  16. Do you know this syndrome? Leopard syndrome*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cançado, Flávio Heleno da Silva Queiroz; da Silva, Luis Candido Pinto; Taitson, Paulo Franco; de Andrade, Ana Carolina Dias Viana; Pithon, Matheus Melo; Oliveira, Dauro Douglas

    2017-01-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is known as Leopard syndrome, which is a mnemonic rule for multiple lentigines (L), electrocardiographic conduction abnormalities (E), ocular hypertelorism (O), pulmonary stenosis (P), abnormalities of genitalia (A), retardation of growth (R), and deafness (D). We report the case of a 12-year-old patient with some of the abovementioned characteristics: hypertelorism, macroglossia, lentigines, hypospadias, cryptorchidism, subaortic stenosis, growth retardation, and hearing impairment. Due to this set of symptoms, we diagnosed Leopard syndrome. PMID:28225973

  17. Erythristic leopards Panthera pardus in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara J. Pirie

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leopards (Panthera pardus show genetically determined colour variation. Erythristic (strawberry morphs, where individuals are paler and black pigment in the coat is replaced by a red-brown colour, are exceptionally rare in the wild. Historically, few records exist, with only five putative records known from India.Objectives: To record the presence of erythristic leopards in our study site (Thaba Tholo Wilderness Reserve, Mpumalanga and to collate records from across South Africa. Method: A network of camera traps was used to record individual leopards at Thaba Tholo. We also surveyed local experts, searched the popular South African press, and used social media to request observations.Results: Two out of 28 individual leopards (7.1% recorded in our study site over 3 years were of this colour morph. We obtained records of five other erythristic leopards in the North West and Mpumalanga regions, with no reports outside of this population.Conclusions: Erythristic leopards are widely dispersed across north-east South Africa, predominantly in the Lydenburg region, Mpumalanga. The presence of this rare colour morph may reflect the consequences of population fragmentation.

  18. Erythristic leopards Panthera pardus in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara J. Pirie

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leopards (Panthera pardus show genetically determined colour variation. Erythristic (strawberry morphs, where individuals are paler and black pigment in the coat is replaced by a red-brown colour, are exceptionally rare in the wild. Historically, few records exist, with only five putative records known from India.Objectives: To record the presence of erythristic leopards in our study site (Thaba Tholo Wilderness Reserve, Mpumalanga and to collate records from across South Africa. Method: A network of camera traps was used to record individual leopards at Thaba Tholo. We also surveyed local experts, searched the popular South African press, and used social media to request observations.Results: Two out of 28 individual leopards (7.1% recorded in our study site over 3 years were of this colour morph. We obtained records of five other erythristic leopards in the North West and Mpumalanga regions, with no reports outside of this population.Conclusions: Erythristic leopards are widely dispersed across north-east South Africa, predominantly in the Lydenburg region, Mpumalanga. The presence of this rare colour morph may reflect the consequences of population fragmentation.

  19. Learn Mac OS X Snow Leopard

    CERN Document Server

    Meyers, Scott

    2009-01-01

    You're smart and savvy, but also busy. This comprehensive guide to Apple's Mac OS X 10.6, Snow Leopard, gives you everything you need to know to live a happy, productive Mac life. Learn Mac OS X Snow Leopard will have you up and connected lickity split. With a minimum of overhead and a maximum of useful information, you'll cover a lot of ground in the time it takes other books to get you plugged in. If this isn't your first experience with Mac OS X, skip right to the "What's New in Snow Leopard" sections. You may also find yourself using this book as a quick refresher course or a way

  20. Mac OS X Snow Leopard for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    LeVitus, Bob

    2010-01-01

    Get to know Snow Leopard and make the most of your Mac Snow Leopard has a few new tricks up its sleeve, so whether you're new to Mac or a longtime Mac-thusiast, Mac expert Bob LeVitus has tips you'll appreciate. Learn how to start up your Mac, get to know the Dock and Finder, work your way through windows and dialogs, and organize and manage files and folders. Open the book and find: How to navigate around the Finder, Dock, and desktop Tips for opening, closing, resizing, and moving windows Steps for keeping Snow Leopard organized How to back up your system with Time Machine® Troubleshooting a

  1. Tangential injection to a supersonic flow on a blunted nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuvakhov, P. V.; Egorov, I. V.; Ezhov, I. V.; Ezhov, I. V.; Novikov, I. V.; Vasilevskiy, E. B.

    2017-06-01

    The flow pattern and the heat §ux to a body surface at a tangential gas injecting have been investigated. The cooling air was injected to a §ow through the tangential axisymmetric slot on the spherically blunted cylinder. The experiments were conducted at M∞ = 6, Re∞,Rw = 0.76 · 106, angle of attack α = 0°-30°, and the slot width hk/Rw = 0-0.021. The mass rate of the injecting gas was G∗ = gj/(πρ∞ u2∞w) = 0- 0.16. It has been shown that maximum of the heat §ux toward the sphere surface can be sufficiently decreased. Numerical investigations have been carried out using the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for axisymmetric two-dimensional (2D) viscous compressible unsteady §ows at α = 0.

  2. Take Control of Fonts in Leopard

    CERN Document Server

    Zardetto, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    Install, organize, and use fonts with ease in Leopard! In this essential ebook, long-time Mac author Sharon Zardetto reveals all the details about how fonts work in Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard. She explains what folders your fonts reside in, in what order they load, and how to deal with font duplication. You'll also learn the ins and outs of different font installation methods; how to use Font Book to manage, validate, and organize fonts; how to make the most of character-rich Unicode fonts; and more. Whether you work in a font-intensive profession, use Unicode fonts for non-Roman languages, or wa

  3. Take control of syncing data in Leopard

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Michael E

    2009-01-01

    With clear directions and a humorous touch, Take Control of Syncing Data in Leopard explains how to sync data from a Mac running Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard with a variety of devices from Apple and other companies. Whether you want to sync phone numbers between your Mac and your mobile phone, share calendars and keychains between Macs, or move only new podcast episodes to an iPod, syncing expert Michael Cohen has the answers. You'll learn what software and gear you need and the best ways to move data between devices. The ebook also explains how syncing works under the hood and p

  4. Take control of upgrading to Leopard

    CERN Document Server

    Kissell, Joe

    2009-01-01

    Start on the right foot with Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard! Little is more exciting and unnerving than a major operating system upgrade for your Mac, but thousands of people have upgraded to Panther and Tiger calmly and successfully with the advice in Joe Kissell's previous hit Take Control of Upgrading... titles. Joe's expert guidance, developed over innumerable test installations, walks you through the six steps necessary before upgrading, which of Leopard's three installation options is right for you, how to perform the actual upgrade, and post-installation checking and cleanup.

  5. Take control of permissions in Leopard

    CERN Document Server

    Tanaka, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Permissions problems got you down? Turn to Unix expert Brian Tanaka's unique guide to the permissions in Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard that control access to your files, folders, and disks. You'll learn how to keep files private, when to set Ignore Permissions, what happens when you repair permissions, how to delete stuck files, and the best ways to solve permissions-related problems. Advanced concepts include the sticky bit, Leopard's more-important access control lists, bit masks, and symbolic versus absolute ways to set permissions. The book covers how to take control of permissions via the Finder

  6. Take control of Apple Mail in Leopard

    CERN Document Server

    Kissell, Joe

    2009-01-01

    Go under the hood with new (and old) features in Apple Mail in Leopard! Are you using Apple Mail in Leopard effectively? In this book, completely updated from its previous Panther and Tiger editions, author Joe Kissell provides comprehensive guidance, with a focus on new and updated features. You'll learn how to use and customize the Mail window, control the size and styling of incoming messages, and make rules to move messages into different mailboxes automatically. The book covers outgoing mail, showing you smart ways to address messages, send attachments, and send HTML-based messages. Bu

  7. Leopard in a tea-cup: A study of leopard habitat-use and human-leopard interactions in north-eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kshettry, Aritra; Vaidyanathan, Srinivas; Athreya, Vidya

    2017-01-01

    There is increasing evidence of the importance of multi-use landscapes for the conservation of large carnivores. However, when carnivore ranges overlap with high density of humans, there are often serious conservation challenges. This is especially true in countries like India where loss of peoples' lives and property to large wildlife are not uncommon. The leopard (Panthera pardus) is a large felid that is widespread in India, often sharing landscapes with high human densities. In order to understand the ecology of leopards in a human use landscape and the nature of human-leopard interactions, we studied (i) the spatial and temporal distribution and the characteristics of leopard attacks on people, (ii) the spatial variability in the pattern of habitat use by the leopard, and (iii) the spatial relationship between attack locations and habitat use by leopards. The study site, located in northern West Bengal, India, is a densely populated mixed-use landscape of 630 km2, comprising of forests, tea plantations, agriculture fields, and human settlements. A total of 171 leopard attacks on humans were reported between January 2009 and March 2016, most of which occurred within the tea-gardens. None of the attacks was fatal. We found significant spatial clustering of locations of leopard attacks on humans. However, most of the attacks were restricted to certain tea estates and occurred mostly between January and May. Analysis of habitat use by leopards showed that the probability of use of areas with more ground vegetation cover was high while that of areas with high density of buildings was low. However, locations of leopard attacks on people did not coincide with areas that showed a higher probability of use by leopards. This indicates that an increased use of an area by leopards, by itself, does not necessarily imply an increase in attacks on people. The spatial and temporal clustering of attack locations allowed us to use this information to prioritize areas to focus

  8. A spotlight on snow leopard conservation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Justine S; Zhang, Chengcheng; Shi, Kun; Riordan, Philip

    2016-07-01

    China holds the greatest proportion of the snow leopard's (Panthera uncia) global range and is central to their conservation. The country is also undergoing unprecedented economic growth, which increases both the threats to the snow leopard and the opportunities for its conservation. In this paper we aim to review published literature (from 1950 to 2014) in English and Mandarin on snow leopard ecology and conservation in China in order to identify thematic and geographic research gaps and propose research priorities. We first retrieved all published items that considered snow leopards in China (n = 106). We extracted from these papers 274 reports of snow leopard presence in China. We then reviewed a subset of papers (n = 33) of this literature, which specifically focused on snow leopard ecology and conservation within China. We introduced a thematic framework that allows a structured and comprehensive assessment of findings. This framework recognizes 4 critical and interrelated topics underpinning snow leopard ecology and conservation: habitat (distribution and protected area coverage); prey (distribution and abundance, predator-prey relationships); human interactions (hunting and trade, livestock interactions and conflicts); and the underlying policy context. Significant gains in knowledge as well as research gaps and priorities are discussed with reference to our framework. The modest quantity and limited scope of published research on the snow leopard in China calls for a continued and intensified effort to inform and support national conservation policies.

  9. Mac OS X for Unix Geeks (Leopard)

    CERN Document Server

    Rothman, Ernest E; Rosen, Rich

    2009-01-01

    If you've been lured to Mac OS X because of its Unix roots, this invaluable book serves as a bridge between Apple's Darwin OS and the more traditional Unix systems. The new edition offers a complete tour of Mac OS X's Unix shell for Leopard and Tiger, and helps you find the facilities that replace or correspond to standard Unix utilities. Learn how to compile code, link to libraries, and port Unix software to Mac OS X and much more with this concise guide.

  10. Take control of upgrading to Snow Leopard

    CERN Document Server

    Kissell, Joe

    2009-01-01

    Installing a major new version of Mac OS X should be exciting and fun, but without proper guidance you may find it nerve-wracking or even risk losing valuable files. Fortunately, many thousands of people have upgraded Mac OS X calmly and successfully with Joe Kissell's previous best-selling Take Control of Upgrading... titles. Joe's friendly, expert steps-developed over innumerable test installations-help you to avoid trouble, understand what's going on when you install Snow Leopard, and easily recover from problem

  11. Take control of font problems in Leopard

    CERN Document Server

    Zardetto, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    Are you suffering from mysterious font problems using Microsoft Office, the Adobe Creative Suite, or other programs in Mac OS X Leopard? Help is at hand, with troubleshooting steps and real-world advice that help you solve problems fast. If you've experienced seemingly inexplicable trouble with characters displaying incorrectly, being unable to type a particular character, fonts missing from Font menus, Font Book crashing, or Character Palette misbehaving, turn to font expert Sharon Zardetto for help. Read this ebook to find the answers to questions such as: Where do fonts belong on my hard

  12. Applicability of age-based hunting regulations for African leopards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balme, Guy Andrew; Hunter, Luke; Braczkowski, Alex Richard

    2012-01-01

    In species in which juvenile survival depends strongly on male tenure, excessive trophy hunting can artificially elevate male turnover and increase infanticide, potentially to unsustainable levels. Simulation models show that the likelihood of safe harvests can be improved by restricting offtakes to males old enough to have reared their first cohort of offspring to independence; in the case of African leopards, males were ≥7 years old. Here, we explore the applicability of an age-based approach for regulating trophy hunting of leopards. We conducted a structured survey comprising photographs of known-age leopards to assess the ability of wildlife practitioners to sex and age leopards. We also evaluated the utility of four phenotypic traits for use by trophy hunters to age male leopards in the field. Our logistic regression models showed that male leopard age affected the likelihood of survey respondents identifying the correct sex; notably, males trophy galleries suggested its wider utility as an aging criterion. Our study demonstrated that an age-based hunting approach is practically applicable for leopards. However, implementation would require major reform within the regulatory framework and the hunting industry.

  13. Applicability of age-based hunting regulations for African leopards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Andrew Balme

    Full Text Available In species in which juvenile survival depends strongly on male tenure, excessive trophy hunting can artificially elevate male turnover and increase infanticide, potentially to unsustainable levels. Simulation models show that the likelihood of safe harvests can be improved by restricting offtakes to males old enough to have reared their first cohort of offspring to independence; in the case of African leopards, males were ≥7 years old. Here, we explore the applicability of an age-based approach for regulating trophy hunting of leopards. We conducted a structured survey comprising photographs of known-age leopards to assess the ability of wildlife practitioners to sex and age leopards. We also evaluated the utility of four phenotypic traits for use by trophy hunters to age male leopards in the field. Our logistic regression models showed that male leopard age affected the likelihood of survey respondents identifying the correct sex; notably, males <2 years were typically misidentified as females, while mature males (≥4 years were sexed correctly. Mature male leopards were also more likely to be aged correctly, as were portrait photographs. Aging proficiency was also influenced by the profession of respondents, with hunters recording the lowest scores. A discriminant model including dewlap size, the condition of the ears, and the extent of facial scarring accurately discriminated among male leopard age classes. Model classification rates were considerably higher than the respective scores attained by survey respondents, implying that the aging ability of hunters could theoretically improve with appropriate training. Dewlap size was a particularly reliable indicator of males ≥7 years and a review of online trophy galleries suggested its wider utility as an aging criterion. Our study demonstrated that an age-based hunting approach is practically applicable for leopards. However, implementation would require major reform within the regulatory

  14. Mac OS X Snow Leopard Server For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Rizzo, John

    2009-01-01

    Making Everything Easier!. Mac OS® X Snow Leopard Server for Dummies. Learn to::;. Set up and configure a Mac network with Snow Leopard Server;. Administer, secure, and troubleshoot the network;. Incorporate a Mac subnet into a Windows Active Directory® domain;. Take advantage of Unix® power and security. John Rizzo. Want to set up and administer a network even if you don't have an IT department? Read on!. Like everything Mac, Snow Leopard Server was designed to be easy to set up and use. Still, there are so many options and features that this book will save you heaps of time and effort. It wa

  15. Snow Leopard: Ecology and Conservation Issues in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abhishek Ghoshal

    2017-07-01

    Snow leopard, an elusive mammal species of the cat family,is the top-predator of the Central and South Asian, highaltitudeecosystem. Snow leopards occur at low densities acrossthe Central Asian mountains and the Indian Himalayan region.Owing to their secretive nature and inaccessible habitat,little is known about its ecology and distribution. Due toits endangered status and high aesthetic value, the snow leopardis considered as an ‘umbrella species’ for wildlife conservationin the Indian Himalayas. This article summarizes thecurrent knowledge on snow leopard ecology and conservationissues in the Indian context.

  16. Trichinella britovi in a leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor) in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowlavi, Gholamreza; Marucci, Gianluca; Mobedi, Iraj; Zahabiioon, Farzaneh; Mirjalali, Hamed; Pozio, Edoardo

    2009-10-14

    Nematodes of the genus Trichinella are zoonotic parasites with a cosmopolitan distribution. In Iran, these parasites have mainly been detected in carnivorous mammals, yet information on the Trichinella taxa circulating in this country date back to a time when biochemical and molecular tests were not available. We describe the first detection of Trichinella larvae in a leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor) in Asia and its identification at the species level. The larvae recovered from the leopard muscles were identified as Trichinella britovi using multiplex PCR. The detection of Trichinella infection in a leopard confirms literature data on the high prevalence of infection in carnivorous mammals in Iran.

  17. Multivariate analysis of the hunting tactics of Kalahari leopards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. du P. Bothma

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The hunting tactics of male and female leopards in the southern Kalahari were analysed for prey-specific patterns. The field study was based on tracking leopard spoor in the sandy substrate of the Kalahari. Visual profiles for each type of prey were compiled for various facets of hunting. Data sets were analysed further, using Correspondence Analysis and Detrended Correspondence Analysis. The results indicate that multivariate analysis can be used to demonstrate prey-specific hunting tactics in Kalahari leopards. In using a scarce prey base, Kalahari leopards seem to be number maximisers as they are unselective of prey type, age or sex. The presence of prey-specific hunting tactics may indicate a move along a continuum towards some degree of energy maximisation.

  18. Eesti tankivalikud: Abrams või Leopard 2 / Holger Roonemaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roonemaa, Holger

    2010-01-01

    Ametlikku otsust kaitseväele tankide ostmiseks veel ei ole, kuid kui Eesti kaitsevägi asub tanke ostma, siis tõenäoliselt hakatakse valima Leopard 2 ja Abrams vahel. Tankidega seotud kuludest ja olukorrast Norras

  19. Final Critical Habitat for the Leopard darter (Percina pantherina)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for Leopard darter (Percina pantherina) occur based on the description provided in the...

  20. Calcitonin produces hypercalcemia in leopard sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacki, J; O'Sullivan, J; Miller, M; Wilkie, D W; Deftos, L J

    1985-02-01

    Calcitonin was detected by RIA in sera from four marine species, leopard sharks (Triakis semifasciata), horn sharks (Heterodontus francisci), thornback rays (Platyrhinoides triseriata), and kelp bass (Paralabrax clathratus). These animals have levels of calcitonin and calcium higher than freshwater and terrestrial species have. The administration of salmon calcitonin to bass (4 micrograms/kg BW) produced hypocalcemia and hypophosphatemia as has been reported for other bony vertebrates. In marked contrast, calcitonin produced a prompt hypercalcemia in sharks; the average was 9.8% increase in serum calcium in nine animals with no attendant change in phosphorus. These findings demonstrate that calcitonin can increase serum calcium in sharks. Because shark skeleton is composed of cartilage, this hypercalcemic effect of calcitonin does not require a bony skeleton.

  1. Gastroesophageal intussusception in a leopard (Panthera pardus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettlich, Bianca F; Hobson, H Phil; Snakard, Eileen P; Johnson, James H

    2010-09-01

    An 8-yr-old male leopard (Panthera pardus) was presented with a 4-day history of lethargy, vomiting, and anorexia. Thoracic and abdominal radiographs revealed a soft-tissue mass cranial to the diaphragm and atypical appearance of the gastric fundus. Esophagoscopy revealed gastric mucosa in the lumen of the esophagus, which confirmed gastroesophageal intussusception. An exploratory celiotomy with manual reduction of the intussusception was performed. Reduction was verified by intraoperative esophagoscopy and gastroscopy. An incisional fundic gastropexy to the left abdominal wall was performed to reduce the chance of a recurrence of the intussusception. No postoperative complications related to the surgery were observed, and the animal resumed eating within 48 hr of surgery. A subsequent recurrence of clinical signs was not noted by the owner.

  2. Resurrecting an Extinct Species: Archival DNA, Taxonomy, and Conservation of the Vegas Valley Leopard Frog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggestions that the extinct Vegas Valley leopard frog (Rana fisheri = Lithobates fisheri) may have been synonymous with one of several declining species has complicated recovery planning for imperiled leopard frogs in southwestern North America. To address this concern, we recon...

  3. Blood characteristics of San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes velox macrotis) at Camp Roberts Army National Guard Training Site, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Standley, W.G.; McCue, P.M.

    1992-09-01

    Hematology, serum chemistry, and prevalence of antibodies against selected, pathogens in a San Joaquin kit fox population (Vulpes velox macrotis) were investigated at Camp Roberts Army National Guard Training Site, California, in 1989 and 1990. Samples from 18 (10 female, 8 male) adult kit foxes were used to establish normal hematology and serum chemistry values for this population. Average values were all within the normal ranges reported for kit foxes in other locations. Three hematology parameters had significant differences between male and female values; males had higher total white blood cell and neutrophil counts, and lower lymphocyte counts. There were no significant differences between serum chemistry values from male and female foxes. Prevalence of antibodies was determined from serum samples from 47 (26 female, 21 male) adult kit foxes and eight (4 female, 4 male) juveniles. Antibodies were detected against five of the eight pathogens tested: canine parvovirus, Toxoplasma gondii Leptospira interrogans, canine distemper virus, and canine hepatitis virus. Antibodies were not detected against Brucella, canis, Coccidioides immitis, or Yersinia pestis.

  4. Reproduction of the San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes velox macrotis) on Camp Roberts Army National Guard Training Site, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, K A; Berry, W H; Standley, W G; O`Farrell, T P

    1992-09-01

    The reproduction of a San Joaquin kit fox population (Vulpes velox macrotis) was investigated at Camp Roberts Army National Guard Training Site, California, from November 1988 through September 1991. Of 38 vixens radiocollared prior to parturition, 12 (32%) were successful in raising pups from conception to the point where pups were observed above ground. No yearling vixens were known tb be reproductively active. The mean litter size during 1989 - 1991 was 3.0 (n = 21, SE = 0.28) and ranged from one to six pups. Both the proportion of vixens successfully raising pups and the mean litter size observed at Camp Roberts during this study were lower than those reported at other locations. Sex ratios of kit fox pups were male biased two of the three years, but did not differ statistically from 1:1 throughout the study. Whelping was estimated to occur between February 15 and March 5. Results of this study support previous reports that kit foxes are primarily monogamous, although one case of polygamy may have occurred. Both the proportion of dispersing radiocollared juveniles (26%) and the mean dispersal distance (5.9 km) of juveniles at Camp Roberts appeared low compared to other locations.

  5. Clostridium perfringens enterotoxicosis in two Amur leopards (Panthera pardus orientalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiffer, D L

    2001-03-01

    Two 6-yr-old male sibling Amur leopards (Panthera pardus orientalis) housed together at the Pittsburgh Zoo presented for acute onset of diarrhea with no changes in appetite or behavior. Heat-fixed modified Wright-stained and Gram-stained fecal smears revealed a mixed bacterial population with a large number of gram-positive Clostridium perfringens-like spores (>20 per high-power oil immersion field). In addition, C. perfringens enterotoxin was isolated from one leopard at 1:256, confirming the presence of C. perfringens enterotoxicosis. Treatment with oral metronidazole, tylosin tartrate, and psyllium fiber was prescribed, with return of more normal stool by the third day of treatment. Fecal consistency steadily improved and was considered normal by the time all prescribed treatments were complete. Diarrhea has not recurred. Partially thawed meat in the leopards' diet may have precipitated the production of an endogenous clostridial enterotoxicosis by disrupting digestive tract flora with resultant clostridial overgrowth and sporulation.

  6. Muerte súbita en paciente con síndrome LEOPARD / Sudden death in patients with LEOPARD syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliany Rodríguez Moreno

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available LEOPARD or Moynahan syndrome, also called multiple lentigines, is a rare genetic disease which causes multiple visceral abnormalities, including heart abnormalities, and may trigger sudden death. The case of a 26-year-old woman with a history of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy since early childhood is reported. She was referred to consultation due to loss of consciousness, associated with moderate exertion, and a resuscitated sudden death episode. The study revealed the presence of LEOPARD syndrome with subvalvular pulmonary stenosis and left ventricular hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, both of which cause sudden cardiac death.

  7. The taxonomic status of two West African Leptopelis species: L. macrotis Schiøtz, 1967 and L. spiritusnoctis Rödel, 2007 (Amphibia: Anura: Arthroleptidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark-Oliver Roedel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We herein examine the taxonomic status of two West African forest-dwelling Leptopelis species. The small L. spiritusnoctis, described from the Upper Guinean forests of West Africa, was recently synonymized with L. aubryi, described from Gabon. The large L. macrotis, known from Ghana to Sierra Leone, was downgraded to a subspecies of L. millsoni, ranging from the Niger Delta to eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. These taxonomic decisions are in contrast to the general biogeographic pattern of African forest anurans and we consequently tested if the morphologically similar taxon pairs are indeed conspecifics by applying acoustic and molecular techniques. Both techniques confirmed that populations from West Africa differ significantly from their Central African morphological equivalents. Consequently, we herein resurrect L. spiritusnoctis as a valid species. The acoustic data indicate that L. aubryi may comprise a complex of cryptic species. We further advocate using the name L. macrotis for West African and L. millsoni for Central African populations of these larger arboreal frogs. However, we had neither genetic nor acoustic data from the type locality of L. millsoni available and could not clarify if these frogs belong to the more western or eastern taxon or even represent a Nigerian endemic. Thus, it is possible that West African populations need to be termed L. millsoni in the future. For populations east of the Cross River, Nigeria, the name L. guineensis would be available.

  8. Face Value: Towards Robust Estimates of Snow Leopard Densities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine S Alexander

    Full Text Available When densities of large carnivores fall below certain thresholds, dramatic ecological effects can follow, leading to oversimplified ecosystems. Understanding the population status of such species remains a major challenge as they occur in low densities and their ranges are wide. This paper describes the use of non-invasive data collection techniques combined with recent spatial capture-recapture methods to estimate the density of snow leopards Panthera uncia. It also investigates the influence of environmental and human activity indicators on their spatial distribution. A total of 60 camera traps were systematically set up during a three-month period over a 480 km2 study area in Qilianshan National Nature Reserve, Gansu Province, China. We recorded 76 separate snow leopard captures over 2,906 trap-days, representing an average capture success of 2.62 captures/100 trap-days. We identified a total number of 20 unique individuals from photographs and estimated snow leopard density at 3.31 (SE = 1.01 individuals per 100 km2. Results of our simulation exercise indicate that our estimates from the Spatial Capture Recapture models were not optimal to respect to bias and precision (RMSEs for density parameters less or equal to 0.87. Our results underline the critical challenge in achieving sufficient sample sizes of snow leopard captures and recaptures. Possible performance improvements are discussed, principally by optimising effective camera capture and photographic data quality.

  9. Face Value: Towards Robust Estimates of Snow Leopard Densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Justine S; Gopalaswamy, Arjun M; Shi, Kun; Riordan, Philip

    2015-01-01

    When densities of large carnivores fall below certain thresholds, dramatic ecological effects can follow, leading to oversimplified ecosystems. Understanding the population status of such species remains a major challenge as they occur in low densities and their ranges are wide. This paper describes the use of non-invasive data collection techniques combined with recent spatial capture-recapture methods to estimate the density of snow leopards Panthera uncia. It also investigates the influence of environmental and human activity indicators on their spatial distribution. A total of 60 camera traps were systematically set up during a three-month period over a 480 km2 study area in Qilianshan National Nature Reserve, Gansu Province, China. We recorded 76 separate snow leopard captures over 2,906 trap-days, representing an average capture success of 2.62 captures/100 trap-days. We identified a total number of 20 unique individuals from photographs and estimated snow leopard density at 3.31 (SE = 1.01) individuals per 100 km2. Results of our simulation exercise indicate that our estimates from the Spatial Capture Recapture models were not optimal to respect to bias and precision (RMSEs for density parameters less or equal to 0.87). Our results underline the critical challenge in achieving sufficient sample sizes of snow leopard captures and recaptures. Possible performance improvements are discussed, principally by optimising effective camera capture and photographic data quality.

  10. Prey preferences of the snow leopard (Panthera uncia: regional diet specificity holds global significance for conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Lyngdoh

    Full Text Available The endangered snow leopard is a large felid that is distributed over 1.83 million km(2 globally. Throughout its range it relies on a limited number of prey species in some of the most inhospitable landscapes on the planet where high rates of human persecution exist for both predator and prey. We reviewed 14 published and 11 unpublished studies pertaining to snow leopard diet throughout its range. We calculated prey consumption in terms of frequency of occurrence and biomass consumed based on 1696 analysed scats from throughout the snow leopard's range. Prey biomass consumed was calculated based on the Ackerman's linear correction factor. We identified four distinct physiographic and snow leopard prey type zones, using cluster analysis that had unique prey assemblages and had key prey characteristics which supported snow leopard occurrence there. Levin's index showed the snow leopard had a specialized dietary niche breadth. The main prey of the snow leopard were Siberian ibex (Capra sibrica, blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur, Himalayan tahr (Hemitragus jemlahicus, argali (Ovis ammon and marmots (Marmota spp. The significantly preferred prey species of snow leopard weighed 55±5 kg, while the preferred prey weight range of snow leopard was 36-76 kg with a significant preference for Siberian ibex and blue sheep. Our meta-analysis identified critical dietary resources for snow leopards throughout their distribution and illustrates the importance of understanding regional variation in species ecology; particularly prey species that have global implications for conservation.

  11. Impacts of people and tigers on leopard spatiotemporal activity patterns in a global biodiversity hotspot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Carter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Leopard population declines largely occur in areas where leopards and people frequently interact. Research on how leopards respond to human presence and competitors, like other predators, can provide important insights on leopard ecology and conservation in human-dominated regions; however, such research is lacking. Here we used data from field cameras in 2010 and 2011 to examine how human presence, prey, and tigers influence leopard spatiotemporal activity patterns in and around Nepal’s Chitwan National Park, part of a global biodiversity hotspot. We found that leopards were adjusting their spatiotemporal activity patterns to both tigers and people, but by different mechanisms. Leopards spatially avoided tigers in 2010, but were generally active at the same times of day that tigers were. Despite pervasive human presence, people on foot and vehicles had no significant effect on leopard detection and space use, but leopard temporal activity was displaced from those periods of time with highest human activity. Temporal displacement from humans was especially pronounced outside the park, where there is a much greater prevalence of natural resource collection by local people. Continuing to evaluate the interconnections among leopards, tigers, prey, and people across different land management regimes is needed to develop robust landscape-scale conservation strategies.

  12. Aspects of the ecology and the behaviour of the Leopard Panthera pardus in the Kalahari desert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J du P Bothma

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Tracking in sand revealed data on hunting and kill rates, range, movements, activity, cover and water use, reproduction and interactions with other carnivores, by the leopard Panthera pardus in the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park. For leopards in the interior, 812,5 km of tracks were followed for 54 days, and 205,1 km for 15 days for females with cubs. In the Nossob riverbed 30,2 km of tracks were folowed in eight days. Medium-sized mammals featured prominently in the diet of all leopards, with prey used influenced by habitat type. Leopards in the interior moved greater distances than those in the Nossob riverbed. Leopards rested frequently at the onset and end of activity and used dense vegetation and aardvark Orycteropus afer and porcupine Hystrix africaeaustralis burrows as daytime cover. Leopards are independent of water, and females apparently have no definite breeding season. Lions Panthera leo dominate leopards, but the outcome of leopard/spotted hyaena Crocuta crocuta encounters depend on the size of the leopard and the number of hyaenas in the pack. Leopards in the Kalahari Desert are opportunists which occupy this harsh envi- ronment successfully.

  13. A panel of microsatellites to individually identify leopards and its application to leopard monitoring in human dominated landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvaraj Velu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leopards are the most widely distributed of the large cats, ranging from Africa to the Russian Far East. Because of habitat fragmentation, high human population densities and the inherent adaptability of this species, they now occupy landscapes close to human settlements. As a result, they are the most common species involved in human wildlife conflict in India, necessitating their monitoring. However, their elusive nature makes such monitoring difficult. Recent advances in DNA methods along with non-invasive sampling techniques can be used to monitor populations and individuals across large landscapes including human dominated ones. In this paper, we describe a DNA-based method for leopard individual identification where we used fecal DNA samples to obtain genetic material. Further, we apply our methods to non-invasive samples collected in a human-dominated landscape to estimate the minimum number of leopards in this human-leopard conflict area in Western India. Results In this study, 25 of the 29 tested cross-specific microsatellite markers showed positive amplification in 37 wild-caught leopards. These loci revealed varied levels of polymorphism (four-12 alleles and heterozygosity (0.05-0.79. Combining data on amplification success (including non-invasive samples and locus specific polymorphisms, we showed that eight loci provide a sibling probability of identity of 0.0005, suggesting that this panel can be used to discriminate individuals in the wild. When this microsatellite panel was applied to fecal samples collected from a human-dominated landscape, we identified 7 individuals, with a sibling probability of identity of 0.001. Amplification success of field collected scats was up to 72%, and genotype error ranged from 0-7.4%. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that the selected panel of eight microsatellite loci can conclusively identify leopards from various kinds of biological samples. Our methods can be used to

  14. Redescription of the Frog Bladder Fluke Gorgoderina attenuata from the Northern Leopard Frog, Rana pipiens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matthew G. Bolek; Scott D. Snyder; John Janovy Jr

    2009-01-01

    .... Morphological comparisons between gravid G. attenuata recovered from bullfrogs and northern leopard frogs indicated statistically significant differences in 11 of 28 morphological characters examined...

  15. Isolamento do vírus rábico em morcego insetívoro, Nyctinomops macrotis, no Município de Diadema, SP (Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passos Estevão C.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado o isolamento do vírus rábico em morcego insetívoro Nyctinomops macrotis capturado próximo à represa Billings e à mata Atlântica, no Município de Diadema, SP (Brasil. A pesquisa do antígeno rábico no tecido cerebral do morcego apresentou resultado positivo na reação de imunofluorescência direta. O isolamento do vírus rábico no tecido cerebral e nas glândulas salivares do morcego foi obtido através da inoculação intracerebral em camundongos. O Município de Diadema não apresentava casos de raiva animal desde 1982, sendo este o primeiro relato da presença do vírus rábico em morcego insetívoro.

  16. Benign gastric neuroendocrine tumors in three snow leopards (Panthera uncia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Elizabeth C; Naydan, Dianne K; Raphael, Bonnie L; McAloose, Denise

    2013-06-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors are relatively rare neoplasms arising from neuroendocrine cells that are distributed throughout the body and are predominant in the gastrointestinal tract. This report describes benign, well-differentiated gastric neuroendocrine tumors in three captive snow leopards (Panthera uncia). All tumors were well circumscribed, were within the gastric mucosa or submucosa, and had histologic and immunohistochemical features of neuroendocrine tumors. Histologic features included packeted cuboidal to columnar epithelial cells that were arranged in palisades or pseudorosettes and contained finely granular cellular cytoplasm with centrally placed, round nuclei. Cytoplasmic granules of neoplastic cells strongly expressed chromogranin A, variably expressed neuron-specific enolase, and did not express synaptophysin or gastrin. Each leopard died or was euthanatized for reasons unrelated to its tumor.

  17. Cheetahs have a stronger constitutive innate immunity than leopards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Sonja K.; Hofer, Heribert; Courtiol, Alexandre; Melzheimer, Jörg; Dehnhard, Martin; Czirják, Gábor Á.; Wachter, Bettina

    2017-01-01

    As a textbook case for the importance of genetics in conservation, absence of genetic variability at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is thought to endanger species viability, since it is considered crucial for pathogen resistance. An alternative view of the immune system inspired by life history theory posits that a strong response should evolve in other components of the immune system if there is little variation in the MHC. In contrast to the leopard (Panthera pardus), the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) has a relatively low genetic variability at the MHC, yet free-ranging cheetahs are healthy. By comparing the functional competence of the humoral immune system of both species in sympatric populations in Namibia, we demonstrate that cheetahs have a higher constitutive innate but lower induced innate and adaptive immunity than leopards. We conclude (1) immunocompetence of cheetahs is higher than previously thought; (2) studying both innate and adaptive components of immune systems will enrich conservation science. PMID:28333126

  18. Range-Wide Snow Leopard Phylogeography Supports Three Subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janecka, Jan E; Zhang, Yuguang; Li, Diqiang; Munkhtsog, Bariushaa; Bayaraa, Munkhtsog; Galsandorj, Naranbaatar; Wangchuk, Tshewang R; Karmacharya, Dibesh; Li, Juan; Lu, Zhi; Uulu, Kubanychbek Zhumabai; Gaur, Ajay; Kumar, Satish; Kumar, Kesav; Hussain, Shafqat; Muhammad, Ghulam; Jevit, Matthew; Hacker, Charlotte; Burger, Pamela; Wultsch, Claudia; Janecka, Mary J; Helgen, Kristofer; Murphy, William J; Jackson, Rodney

    2017-09-01

    The snow leopard, Panthera uncia, is an elusive high-altitude specialist that inhabits vast, inaccessible habitat across Asia. We conducted the first range-wide genetic assessment of snow leopards based on noninvasive scat surveys. Thirty-three microsatellites were genotyped and a total of 683 bp of mitochondrial DNA sequenced in 70 individuals. Snow leopards exhibited low genetic diversity at microsatellites (AN = 5.8, HO = 0.433, HE = 0.568), virtually no mtDNA variation, and underwent a bottleneck in the Holocene (∼8000 years ago) coinciding with increased temperatures, precipitation, and upward treeline shift in the Tibetan Plateau. Multiple analyses supported 3 primary genetic clusters: (1) Northern (the Altai region), (2) Central (core Himalaya and Tibetan Plateau), and (3) Western (Tian Shan, Pamir, trans-Himalaya regions). Accordingly, we recognize 3 subspecies, Panthera uncia irbis (Northern group), Panthera uncia uncia (Western group), and Panthera uncia uncioides (Central group) based upon genetic distinctness, low levels of admixture, unambiguous population assignment, and geographic separation. The patterns of variation were consistent with desert-basin "barrier effects" of the Gobi isolating the northern subspecies (Mongolia), and the trans-Himalaya dividing the central (Qinghai, Tibet, Bhutan, and Nepal) and western subspecies (India, Pakistan, Tajikistan, and Kyrgyzstan). Hierarchical Bayesian clustering analysis revealed additional subdivision into a minimum of 6 proposed management units: western Mongolia, southern Mongolia, Tian Shan, Pamir-Himalaya, Tibet-Himalaya, and Qinghai, with spatial autocorrelation suggesting potential connectivity by dispersing individuals up to ∼400 km. We provide a foundation for global conservation of snow leopard subspecies, and set the stage for in-depth landscape genetics and genomic studies. © The American Genetic Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Multiscale factors affecting human attitudes toward snow leopards and wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryawanshi, Kulbhushansingh R; Bhatia, Saloni; Bhatnagar, Yash Veer; Redpath, Stephen; Mishra, Charudutt

    2014-12-01

    The threat posed by large carnivores to livestock and humans makes peaceful coexistence between them difficult. Effective implementation of conservation laws and policies depends on the attitudes of local residents toward the target species. There are many known correlates of human attitudes toward carnivores, but they have only been assessed at the scale of the individual. Because human societies are organized hierarchically, attitudes are presumably influenced by different factors at different scales of social organization, but this scale dependence has not been examined. We used structured interview surveys to quantitatively assess the attitudes of a Buddhist pastoral community toward snow leopards (Panthera uncia) and wolves (Canis lupus). We interviewed 381 individuals from 24 villages within 6 study sites across the high-elevation Spiti Valley in the Indian Trans-Himalaya. We gathered information on key explanatory variables that together captured variation in individual and village-level socioeconomic factors. We used hierarchical linear models to examine how the effect of these factors on human attitudes changed with the scale of analysis from the individual to the community. Factors significant at the individual level were gender, education, and age of the respondent (for wolves and snow leopards), number of income sources in the family (wolves), agricultural production, and large-bodied livestock holdings (snow leopards). At the community level, the significant factors included the number of smaller-bodied herded livestock killed by wolves and mean agricultural production (wolves) and village size and large livestock holdings (snow leopards). Our results show that scaling up from the individual to higher levels of social organization can highlight important factors that influence attitudes of people toward wildlife and toward formal conservation efforts in general. Such scale-specific information can help managers apply conservation measures at

  20. Endangered species and cultural resources program, Naval Petroleum Reserves in California, annual report FY97

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC) are oil fields administered by the DOE in the southern San Joaquin Valley of California. Four federally endangered animal species and one federally threatened plant species are known to occur on NPRC: San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes macrotis mutica), blunt-nosed leopard lizard (Gambelia silus), giant kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ingens), Tipton kangaroo rat (Dipodomys nitratoides), and Hoover`s wooly-star (Eriastrum hooveri). All five are protected under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973. The DOE/NPRC is obliged to determine whether actions taken by their lessees on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2 (NPR-2) will have any effects on endangered species or their habitats. The primary objective of the Endangered Species and Cultural Resources Program is to provide NPRC with the scientific expertise necessary for compliance with the ESA, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), and the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA). The specific objective of this report is to summarize progress, results, and accomplishments of the program during fiscal year 1997 (FY97).

  1. Effects of endurance training in the leopard shark, Triakis semifasciata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, S J; Dickson, K A

    1997-01-01

    This study is the first to examine the effects of endurance training in an elasmobranch fish. Twenty-four leopard sharks (Triakis semifasciata) were divided randomly into three groups. Eight sharks were killed immediately, eight were forced to swim continuously for 6 wk against a current of 35 cm s-1 (60%-65% of maximal sustainable swimming speed), and eight were held for 6 wk in a tank without induced current. There were no changes due to training in maximal sustainable speed, oxygen consumption rates, percentage of the myotome composed of red and white muscle fibers, blood oxygen-carrying capacity, liver mass, liver lipid, glycogen, and protein concentrations, white muscle protein content, heart ventricle mass, or the specific activities of the enzymes citrate synthase, pyruvate kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase in the heart ventricle. In red myotomal muscle, citrate synthase activity increased 17% as a result of training, but there was no change in muscle fiber diameter. The greatest effects occurred in white myotomal muscle, in which a 34% increase in fiber diameter and a 36% increase in the activities of citrate synthase and lactate dehydrogenase occurred as a result of training. The conditioned fish also had significantly higher growth rates. The observed effects within the myotomal muscle may reflect the higher growth rates of the trained leopard sharks, or they may be a specific response to the increased energetic demands of the training activity, indicating characteristics that limit swimming performance in leopard sharks.

  2. The role of incentive programs in conserving the snow leopard Uncia uncia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mishra, C.; Allen, P.; McCarthy, T.; Madhusudan, M.D.; Bayarjargal, A.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2003-01-01

    Pastoralists and their livestock share much of the habitat of the snow leopard ( Uncia uncia) across south and central Asia. The levels of livestock predation by the snow leopard and other carnivores are high, and retaliatory killing by the herders is a direct threat to carnivore populations. Deplet

  3. Phylogeography of Declining Relict and Lowland Leopard Frogs in the Desert Southwest of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated the phylogeography of the closely related relict leopard frog (Rana onca) and lowland leopard frog (R. yavapaiensis) – two declining anurans from the warm-desert regions of southwestern North America. We used sequence data from two mitochondrial DNA genes to asses...

  4. The role of incentive programs in conserving the snow leopard Uncia uncia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mishra, C.; Allen, P.; McCarthy, T.; Madhusudan, M.D.; Bayarjargal, A.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2003-01-01

    Pastoralists and their livestock share much of the habitat of the snow leopard ( Uncia uncia) across south and central Asia. The levels of livestock predation by the snow leopard and other carnivores are high, and retaliatory killing by the herders is a direct threat to carnivore populations. Deplet

  5. Taxonomic uniqueness of the Javan Leopard; an opportunity for zoos to save it

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gippoliti, S.; Meijaard, E.

    2007-01-01

    The Javan leopard (Panthera pardus melas) is a distinct subspecies, basal to the phylogenetic tree of Asian leopards. At present this taxon is not specifically managed in captive breeding programs in America and Europe. As it is endangered in the wild, and represents a genetically and

  6. Taxonomic uniqueness of the Javan Leopard; an opportunity for zoos to save it

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gippoliti, S.; Meijaard, E.

    2007-01-01

    The Javan leopard (Panthera pardus melas) is a distinct subspecies, basal to the phylogenetic tree of Asian leopards. At present this taxon is not specifically managed in captive breeding programs in America and Europe. As it is endangered in the wild, and represents a genetically and morphologicall

  7. LAPAROSCOPIC SALPINGECTOMY IN TWO CAPTIVE LEOPARDS (PANTHERA PARDUS) USING A SINGLE PORTAL ACCESS SYSTEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Marthinus J; Monnet, Eric; Kirberger, Robert M; Schoeman, Johan P

    2015-12-01

    Laparoscopic salpingectomy was performed in two adult leopards (Panthera pardus) using a single portal access system, with a multicannulated single-incision laparoscopic surgery port, without any complications. The poorly developed ovarian bursa provided easy access to the uterine tube for salpingectomy. Laparoscopic salpingectomy can be safely performed in the leopard using a single portal access system.

  8. Phylogeography of Declining Relict and Lowland Leopard Frogs in the Desert Southwest of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated the phylogeography of the closely related relict leopard frog (Rana onca) and lowland leopard frog (R. yavapaiensis) – two declining anurans from the warm-desert regions of southwestern North America. We used sequence data from two mitochondrial DNA genes to asses...

  9. Bone accumulation by leopards in the Late Pleistocene in the Moncayo massif (Zaragoza, NE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauqué, Víctor; Rabal-Garcés, Raquel; Sola-Almagro, Cristina; Cuenca-Bescós, Gloria

    2014-01-01

    Eating habits of Panthera pardus are well known. When there are caves in its territory, prey accumulates inside them. This helps to prevent its kill from being stolen by other predators like hyenas. Although the leopard is an accumulator of bones in caves, few studies have been conducted on existing lairs. There are, however, examples of fossil vertebrate sites whose main collecting agent is the leopard. During the Late Pleistocene, the leopard was a common carnivore in European faunal associations. Here we present a new locality of Quaternary mammals with a scarce human presence, the cave of Los Rincones (province of Zaragoza, Spain); we show the leopard to be the main accumulator of the bones in the cave, while there are no interactions between humans and leopards. For this purpose, a taphonomic analysis is performed on different bone-layers of the cave.

  10. Bone accumulation by leopards in the Late Pleistocene in the Moncayo massif (Zaragoza, NE Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Sauqué

    Full Text Available Eating habits of Panthera pardus are well known. When there are caves in its territory, prey accumulates inside them. This helps to prevent its kill from being stolen by other predators like hyenas. Although the leopard is an accumulator of bones in caves, few studies have been conducted on existing lairs. There are, however, examples of fossil vertebrate sites whose main collecting agent is the leopard. During the Late Pleistocene, the leopard was a common carnivore in European faunal associations. Here we present a new locality of Quaternary mammals with a scarce human presence, the cave of Los Rincones (province of Zaragoza, Spain; we show the leopard to be the main accumulator of the bones in the cave, while there are no interactions between humans and leopards. For this purpose, a taphonomic analysis is performed on different bone-layers of the cave.

  11. Unusually high predation on chacma baboons (Papio ursinus) by female leopards (Panthera pardus) in the Waterberg Mountains, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jooste, E; Pitman, R T; van Hoven, W; Swanepoel, L H

    2012-01-01

    Leopards do not preferentially favour baboons as prey, but they are considered the primary predators of baboons across Africa. Even in areas where baboons are abundant, their contribution to leopard diet seldom exceeds 5% of biomass. It is suggested that the extreme aggressiveness of baboons, group vigilance and their high mobility when escaping may limit leopard predation. Male baboons are particularly aggressive, and retaliation often leads to the death of the leopard. However, evidence suggests that leopards may learn to catch and kill certain dangerous prey. This study reports predation on chacma baboons by 3 female leopards on a private game reserve in the Waterberg Mountains of South Africa. Potential leopard feeding sites were identified using global positioning system (GPS) location clusters obtained from GPS collars. Over a 5-month period, we investigated 200 potential leopard feeding sites and located 96 leopard feeding/kill sites. Baboons constituted 18.7% of the leopards' biomass intake. The majority of baboons preyed upon were adults and 70% of the kills were diurnal. In terms of the measured variables, there were no significant differences in the way the leopards preyed upon baboons, compared to the rest of the prey species.

  12. Enterprise Mac Security Mac OS X Snow Leopard Security

    CERN Document Server

    Edge, Stephen Charles; Hunter, Beau; Sullivan, Gene; LeBlanc, Dee-Ann

    2010-01-01

    A common misconception in the Mac community is that Mac's operating system is more secure than others. While this might be true in certain cases, security on the Mac is still a crucial issue. When sharing is enabled or remote control applications are installed, Mac OS X faces a variety of security threats. Enterprise Mac Security: Mac OS X Snow Leopard is a definitive, expert-driven update of the popular, slash-dotted first edition and was written in part as a companion to the SANS Institute course for Mac OS X. It contains detailed Mac OS X security information, and walkthroughs on securing s

  13. Cryptosporidium varanii infection in leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dellarupe

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidiosis is observed in reptiles with high morbidity and considerable mortality. The objective of this study was to achieve the molecular identification of Cryptosporidium spp. in pet leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius from a breeder colony in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Oocysts comparable to those of Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in three geckos with a history of diarrhea, anorexia and cachexia. Molecular identification methods confirmed the presence of Cryptosporidium varanii (syn. C. saurophilum. This agent was considered to be the primary cause of the observed clinical disease. This is the first description of C. varanii infection in pet reptiles in Argentina.

  14. On the status of Snow Leopard Panthera uncial (Schreber, 1775 in Annapurna, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.B. Ale

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a status-survey on Snow Leopard Panthera uncia and its main prey, the Blue Sheep Pseudois nayaur, in the Mustang District of Nepal’s Annapurna Conservation Area, in 2010 and 2011. Sign transects, covering a total linear distance of 19.4km, revealed an average density of 5.8 signs per kilometer, which compares with those from other Snow Leopard range countries. This also roughly corresponded with the minimum number of three adult Snow Leopards we obtained from nine remote cameras, deployed to monitor areas of c. 75km2 in extent. We obtained 42 pictures of Snow Leopards during nine capture events. We conclude that Mustang harbors at least three adult Snow Leopards, and probably more, along with a healthy Blue Sheep population (a total of 528 individuals, along 37.6km of Snow Leopard transect lines. We suggest that people-wildlife conflicts exist but that the local people tolerate Snow Leopards based on their Buddhist socio-religious values.

  15. Research on snow leopards (Panthera uncia using camera-trapping in Wolong National Nature Reserve, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Tang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Between November 2013 and March 2016, twenty Ltl-6210MC infrared-triggered camera-traps were installed in Wolong National Nature Reserve, Sichuan, China, to monitor snow leopards(Panthera uncia and other wildlife. A total of 7,056 camera-days of data were collected, including approximately 120,000 photos and video clips. The effective number of snow leopard samples collected by the infrared cameras was 43, and the calculated relative abundance index (RAI for this species was 6.09. During the 28 months of continuous data collection using infrared cameras, records of snow leopards, including leopard cubs, demonstrated that Wolong National Nature Reserve is a relatively hospitable environment for this species. The analytical results indicate that the annual activity peaked in January, and the daily activity peaked between the hours of 18:00–20:00, and daily activity patterns showed seasonal variations. When considering environmental factors, the preferred habitat is the alpine scree where snow leopards appeared most in the ridge areas and the range of preferred reference temperatures for snow leopard activity was found between –10℃ and –3℃. In addition, the lunar-phase relative abundance index was originally created to assess the appearance of wildlife under different night lightness levels. It was found that the snow leopard is fairly active at night, and the lunar-phase has a significant impact on its level of nocturnal activity (P < 0.01. We provided primary sources for further protection and research of snow leopards and the other wildlife. This study could be utilized to comprehensively learn the ecological characteristics and assess snow leopard habitat.

  16. Anterior segment dysgenesis (Peters' anomaly) in two snow leopard (Panthera uncia) cubs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamoudi, Hassan; Rudnick, Jens-Christian; Prause, Jan Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    Two sibling snow leopards, a male and a female, with bilateral anterior segment dysgenesis (ASD), are reported. Both snow leopards also had colobomas of both upper eyelids. All eyes exhibited a central corneal opacity associated with a defect in posterior corneal stroma, endothelium and Descemet...... remnant of the hyaloid artery. The male had hydrocephalus and thus some of the features of Peters' plus syndrome (Peters' anomaly in addition to systemic malformations). The histological findings in the eyes of these snow leopard siblings are identical with those described in humans with Peters' anomaly....

  17. Summer diet composition of the Common Leopard Panthera pardus (Carnivora: Felidae in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Achyut

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The Common Leopard Panthera pardus is one of the most widely distributed of all big cats. It is a threatened species throughout its range due to the degradation of natural habitat, poaching and persecution as a killer of humans and livestock. The purpose of this study was to determine the composition of the Common Leopard diet in the Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve (DHR of Nepal. Among prey species Barking Deer (Muntiacus muntjak were observed most frequently (18% in leopard scats, while Blue Sheep (Pseudois nayaur were observed less frequently (6%.

  18. Summer diet composition of the Common Leopard Panthera pardus (Carnivora: Felidae in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Achyut

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The Common Leopard Panthera pardus is one of the most widely distributed of all big cats. It is a threatened species throughout its range due to the degradation of natural habitat, poaching and persecution as a killer of humans and livestock. The purpose of this study was to determine the composition of the Common Leopard diet in the Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve (DHR of Nepal. Among prey species Barking Deer (Muntiacus muntjak were observed most frequently (18% in leopard scats, while Blue Sheep (Pseudois nayaur were observed less frequently (6%.

  19. Translocation as a tool for mitigating conflict with leopards in human-dominated landscapes of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athreya, Vidya; Odden, Morten; Linnell, John D C; Karanth, K Ullas

    2011-02-01

    We examined the efficacy of a translocation program in which large numbers of leopards (Panthera pardus fusca) were trapped in human-dominated landscapes where livestock attacks were common and human attacks rare and released into adjoining forested areas in an attempt to reduce leopard presence and mitigate conflicts at the capture site. In the year starting in February of 2001, 29 leopards were captured in the human-dominated rural landscape of the Junnar region (4275 km(2) , 185 people/km(2) ), Maharashtra, India, and released an average of 39.5 km away in adjoining forests. Eleven leopards were also relocated to the same forests from other districts. Prior to the large-scale translocation program, an average of four leopard attacks on humans occurred each year between 1993 and 2001. After the translocation program was initiated, the average increased substantially to 17 attacks. Linear and logistic models showed that attack frequency increased in Junnar following nearby releases of leopards and decreased when leopards were removed for releases far away; that attacks became more lethal when the number of leopards introduced from other districts increased; and that attacks were most likely to occur in the regions where the largest number of leopards had been introduced from other areas. These results suggest that leopards did not stay at the release sites and that translocation induced attacks on people. Potential explanations for these results include increased aggression induced by stress of the translocation process, movement through unfamiliar human-dominated landscapes following release, and loss of fear of humans due to familiarity with humans acquired during captivity. Our results show that reactive solutions to attacks on humans by leopards, such as translocation, could in fact increase human-leopard conflict. Measures to reduce human-carnivore conflicts may include more effective compensation procedures to pay livestock owners for the loss of animals to

  20. Serologic survey for disease in endangered San Joaquin kit fox, Vulpes macrotis mutica, inhabiting the Elk Hills Naval Petroleum Reserve, Kern County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCue, P.M.; O' Farrell, T.P.

    1986-07-01

    Serum from endangered San Joaquin kit foxes, Vulpes macrotis mutica, and sympatric wildlife inhabiting the Elk Hills Petroleum Reserve, Kern County, and Elkhorn Plain, San Luis Obispo County, California, was collected in 1981 to 1982 and 1984, and tested for antibodies against 10 infectious disease pathogens. Proportions of kit fox sera containing antibodies against diseases were: canine parvovirus, 100% in 1981 to 1982 and 67% in 1984; infectious canine hepatitis, 6% in 1981 to 1982 and 21% in 1984; canine distemper, 0 in 1981 to 1982 and 14% in 1984; tularemia, 8% in 1981 to 1982 and 31% in 1984; Brucella abortus, 8% in 1981 to 1982 and 3% in 1984; Brucella canis, 14% in 1981 to 1982 and 0 in 1984; toxoplasmosis, 6% in 1981 to 1982; coccidioidomycosis, 3% in 1981 to 1982; and plague and leptospirosis, 0 in 1981 to 1982. High population density, overlapping home ranges, ability to disperse great distances, and infestation by ectoparasites were cited as possible factors in the transmission and maintenance of these diseases in kit fox populations.

  1. Effects of military-authorized activities on the San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes velox macrotis) at Camp Roberts Army National Guard Training Site, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, W.H.; Standley, W.G.; O`Farrell, T.P.; Kato, T.T.

    1992-10-01

    The effects of military-authorized activities on San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes velox macrotis) were investigated at Camp Roberts Army National Guard Training Site from 1988 to 1991. Military-authorized activities included military training exercises, facilities maintenance, new construction, controlled burning, livestock grazing, and public-access hunting. Positive effects of the military included habitat preservation, preactivity surveys, and natural resources management practices designed to conserve kit foxes and their habitat. Perceived negative effects such as entrapment in dens, shootings during military exercises, and accidental poisoning were not observed. Foxes were observed in areas being used simultaneously by military units. Authorized activities were known to have caused the deaths of three of 52 radiocollared foxes recovered dead: one became entangled in concertina wire, one was believed shot by a hunter, and one was struck by a vehicle. Entanglement in communication wire may have contributed to the death of another radiocollared fox that was killed by a predator. Approximately 10% of kit fox dens encountered showed evidence of vehicle traffic, but denning sites did not appear to be a limiting factor for kit foxes.

  2. Living with large carnivores: predation on livestock by the snow leopard (Uncia uncia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagchi, S.; Mishra, C.

    2006-01-01

    Livestock predation by large carnivores and their retaliatory persecution by pastoralists are worldwide conservation concerns. Poor understanding of the ecological and social underpinnings of this human¿wildlife conflict hampers effective conflict management programs. The endangered snow leopard Unc

  3. Living with large carnivores: predation on livestock by the snow leopard (Uncia uncia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagchi, S.; Mishra, C.

    2006-01-01

    Livestock predation by large carnivores and their retaliatory persecution by pastoralists are worldwide conservation concerns. Poor understanding of the ecological and social underpinnings of this human¿wildlife conflict hampers effective conflict management programs. The endangered snow leopard Unc

  4. Evidence of a high density population of harvested leopards in a montane environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia N Chase Grey

    Full Text Available Populations of large carnivores can persist in mountainous environments following extensive land use change and the conversion of suitable habitat for agriculture and human habitation in lower lying areas of their range. The significance of these populations is poorly understood, however, and little attention has focussed on why certain mountainous areas can hold high densities of large carnivores and what the conservation implications of such populations might be. Here we use the leopard (Panthera pardus population in the western Soutpansberg Mountains, South Africa, as a model system and show that montane habitats can support high numbers of leopards. Spatially explicit capture-recapture (SECR analysis recorded the highest density of leopards reported outside of state-protected areas in sub-Saharan Africa. This density represents a temporally high local abundance of leopards and we explore the explanations for this alongside some of the potential conservation implications.

  5. Abundance and Ecology of Leopards (Panthera pardus) in the Udzungwa Mountains, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havmøller, Rasmus Gren

    habitats such as rainforests. The Udzungwa Mountains in South Central Tanzania are covered in both rainforest and more familiar African habitats, holds an incredible number of mammal species and a completely unknown population of leopards. In this study I used automatic camera traps that took photos of all...... I used the time of the day that photos were taken by camera traps to try and understand if leopards actively move around in Udzungwa at the same time space as the species they eat and compete with.......? Or something else? Additionally I collected leopard pooh whenever I stumbled upon one. I did this to investigate what leopards actually eat by using the latest developments in DNA technologies and compared it to the animals I had captured in my camera traps. The results were not quite what I expected. Finally...

  6. Abundance and threats to the survival of the snow leopard – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Anna Valentová

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Snow leopard (Panthera uncia is an endangered species and its population size is steadily declining. This review attempts to introduce and analyse the main factors threatening its survival in each of the countries in which it occurs: China, Bhutan, Nepal, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Russia and Mongolia. To conserve the remaining snow leopard populations, it is necessary to determine where it occurs in the various areas. Here, recent data on its worldwide distribution are presented. Snow leopard has a very secretive lifestyle, which makes it difficult to estimate its abundance. Therefore, I also present an overview of the methods, such as searching for signs of its presence, capture-recapture, predator : prey biomass ratios, photographic-capture rate and genetic analyses, used for estimating the abundance of snow leopard in different studies and discuss their advantages and disadvantages.

  7. People, predators and perceptions: patterns of livestock depredation by snow leopards and wolves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Suryawanshi, Kulbhushansingh R; Bhatnagar, Yash Veer; Redpath, Stephen; Mishra, Charudutt; Pettorelli, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    ... causes of depredation events. Focusing on the endangered snow leopard P anthera uncia and the wolf C anis lupus, we identify the ecological factors that predispose areas within a landscape to livestock depredation...

  8. The Developmental Effects Of A Municipal Wastewater Effluent On The Northern Leopard Frog, Rana pipiens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastewater effluents are complex mixtures containing a variety of anthropogenic compounds, many of which are known endocrine disruptors. In order to characterize the development and behavorial effects of such a complex mixture, northern leopard frogs, Rana pipiens, were e...

  9. Distribution and postbreeding environmental relationships of Northern leopard frogs (Rana [Lithobates] pipiens) in Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germaine, S.S.; Hays, D.W.

    2009-01-01

    Northern leopard frogs (Rana [Lithobates] pipiens) are considered sensitive, threatened, or endangered in all western states and western Canadian provinces. Historically present in eastern Washington in 6 major river drainages, leopard frogs are now only known to occur at 2 localized areas in the Crab Creek drainage in Grant County. During the summers of 2002-2005, we surveyed both areas to document extent of leopard frog distributions and to describe habitat and vertebrate community characteristics associated with leopard frog site occupancy. At Gloyd Seeps, 2 juvenile leopard frogs were observed in a total of 8.2 person-days of searching along a 5-km stream reach. At Potholes Reservoir, we surveyed 243 wetland sites in 7 management units known to have been occupied by leopard frogs during the 1980s. We confirmed leopard frog presence at only 87 sites (36%) in 4 management units. Site occupancy models for individual ponds indicated that, compared to unoccupied sites, occupied sites had slightly greater pond depths, less tall emergent vegetation, more herbaceous vegetative cover, and fewer neighboring ponds containing nonnative predatory fish. Models developed at the 1-km2 scale indicated that occupied areas had greater average midsummer pond depths, fewer ponds occupied by bullfrogs (Rana [Lithobates] catesbeiana) and carp (Cyprinus carpio), and more herbaceous vegetation surrounding ponds. The Gloyd Seeps population now appears defunct, and the Potholes Reservoir population is in sharp decline. Unless management actions are taken to reduce nonnative fish and bullfrogs and to enhance wetland vegetation, leopard frogs may soon be extirpated from both sites and possibly, therefore, from Washington.

  10. 苹果公司预览Mac OS X Server Snow Leopard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    6月8日,苹果公司宣布推出了开发者预览版的Mac OS X Server Snow Leopard,号称全球最简单易用的服务器系统的下一个重要版本。Snow Leopard Server是基于开放标准的全64位UNIX服务器操作系统,

  11. Historical mitochondrial diversity in African leopards (Panthera pardus) revealed by archival museum specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anco, Corey; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Henschel, Philipp; Cunningham, Seth W; Amato, George; Hekkala, Evon

    2017-04-19

    Once found throughout Africa and Eurasia, the leopard (Panthera pardus) was recently uplisted from Near Threatened to Vulnerable by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Historically, more than 50% of the leopard's global range occurred in continental Africa, yet sampling from this part of the species' distribution is only sparsely represented in prior studies examining patterns of genetic variation at the continental or global level. Broad sampling to determine baseline patterns of genetic variation throughout the leopard's historical distribution is important, as these measures are currently used by the IUCN to direct conservation priorities and management plans. By including data from 182 historical museum specimens, faecal samples from ongoing field surveys, and published sequences representing sub-Saharan Africa, we identify previously unrecognized genetic diversity in African leopards. Our mtDNA data indicates high levels of divergence among regional populations and strongly differentiated lineages in West Africa on par with recent studies of other large vertebrates. We provide a reference benchmark of genetic diversity in African leopards against which future monitoring can be compared. These findings emphasize the utility of historical museum collections in understanding the processes that shape present biodiversity. Additionally, we suggest future research to clarify African leopard taxonomy and to differentiate between delineated units requiring monitoring or conservation action.

  12. Identifying ecological corridors for Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) and Amur leopards (Panthera pardus orientalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquelle, Dale G; Rozhnov, Vyachaslav V; Ermoshin, Victor; Murzin, Andre A; Nikolaev, Igor G; Hernandez-Blanco, Jose A; Naidenko, Sergie V

    2015-07-01

    The rapid explosion of human populations and the associated development of human-dominated landscapes have drastically reduced and fragmented habitat for tigers (Panthera tigris) and leopards (Panthera pardus) across Asia, resulting in multiple small populations. However, Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) habitat in Russia has remained largely interconnected, except for a break between tigers in southwest Primorye and the southern Sikhote-Alin Mountains. This habitat patch in southwest Primorye also retains the last population of Amur leopards (Panthera pardus orientalis). Genetic differentiation of tigers in southwest Primorye and the Sikhote-Alin Mountains along with survey data suggest that habitat fragmentation is limiting movement of tigers and leopards across the Razdolnaya River basin. We looked at historical and recent survey data on tigers and leopards and mapped existing cover types to examine land-use patterns of both large felids and humans in the development strip along the Razdolnaya River. We then used least-cost distance analyses to identify the most effective potential corridor to retain connectivity for large felids between Land of the Leopard National Park and Ussuriskii Zapovednik (Reserve). We identified a single potential corridor that still exists with a total distance of 62.5 km from Land of the Leopard National Park to Ussuriskii Zapovednik, mostly (93%) through forested habitat. We recommend formal recognition of a Razdolnaya ecological corridor and provide specific recommendations for each of 3 proposed management sections.

  13. Effects of trophy hunting on lion and leopard populations in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, C; Brink, H; Kissui, B M; Maliti, H; Kushnir, H; Caro, T

    2011-02-01

    Tanzania holds most of the remaining large populations of African lions (Panthera leo) and has extensive areas of leopard habitat (Panthera pardus), and both species are subjected to sizable harvests by sport hunters. As a first step toward establishing sustainable management strategies, we analyzed harvest trends for lions and leopards across Tanzania's 300,000 km(2) of hunting blocks. We summarize lion population trends in protected areas where lion abundance has been directly measured and data on the frequency of lion attacks on humans in high-conflict agricultural areas. We place these findings in context of the rapidly growing human population in rural Tanzania and the concomitant effects of habitat loss, human-wildlife conflict, and cultural practices. Lion harvests declined by 50% across Tanzania between 1996 and 2008, and hunting areas with the highest initial harvests suffered the steepest declines. Although each part of the country is subject to some form of anthropogenic impact from local people, the intensity of trophy hunting was the only significant factor in a statistical analysis of lion harvest trends. Although leopard harvests were more stable, regions outside the Selous Game Reserve with the highest initial leopard harvests again showed the steepest declines. Our quantitative analyses suggest that annual hunting quotas be limited to 0.5 lions and 1.0 leopard/1000 km(2) of hunting area, except hunting blocks in the Selous Game Reserve, where harvests should be limited to 1.0 lion and 3.0 leopards/1000 km(2) .

  14. Diet composition of common leopards in Bardia National Park and the adjacent buffer zones and habitat corridor in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Deo, Rima

    2014-01-01

    The common Leopard (Panthera pardus) is the most widely distributed species among the large felids. It is a great challenge to manage their depredation on livestock at global level. In this study, I examined spatiotemporal patterns of leopard diet composition in Bardia National Park, Nepal, the buffer zones surrounding the park and a recently established habitat corridor that extends towards a protected area in India. Based on analyses of leopard scat contents, I investigated how the proporti...

  15. ASPECTS OF LEOPARD CORAL GROUPER (Plectropomus leopardus REPRODUCTION IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Andamari

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Leopard coral grouper, Plectropomus leopardus is one of the most economically important finfish fish in Indonesia and the demand for the grouper is rapidly increasing in Asia and the Pacific. Grouper exports from Bali were 1,613 mt in 2001, 2,082 mt in 2002 and 2,861 mt in 2003. Understanding the reproductive biology of fishes is an important component in developing mariculture and in the management of capture fisheries. This study reports on the reproductive biology of 86 coral groupers collected from various locations in Indonesia. The length and weight of these fish were recorded and related to gonad development. There was a strong relationship between length and weight; weight being proportional to the length raised to the power (b value 3.2. As the value of b was greater than 3, this suggests that growth is allometric. Histological analysis 73% of the fish were immature, 19% were in transition from females to males, only 4% were male, and only 2 fish (2% had mature gonads: these were female. The sex of 2 fish could not be determined. From these data it can be seen that the leopard coralgrouper has asynchronous gonad development. The two fish that were mature contained 343,980 and 429,259 oocytes and three distinct sizes of oocytes could be found. This suggests that the grouper is a multiple spawner. If fish are required for brood stock, this study has shown that only those with a length greater than 35 cm in standard length should be taken from the wild.

  16. Prey preference of snow leopard (Panthera uncia in South Gobi, Mongolia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasim Shehzad

    Full Text Available Accurate information about the diet of large carnivores that are elusive and inhabit inaccessible terrain, is required to properly design conservation strategies. Predation on livestock and retaliatory killing of predators have become serious issues throughout the range of the snow leopard. Several feeding ecology studies of snow leopards have been conducted using classical approaches. These techniques have inherent limitations in their ability to properly identify both snow leopard feces and prey taxa. To examine the frequency of livestock prey and nearly-threatened argali in the diet of the snow leopard, we employed the recently developed DNA-based diet approach to study a snow leopard population located in the Tost Mountains, South Gobi, Mongolia. After DNA was extracted from the feces, a region of ∼100 bp long from mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene was amplified, making use of universal primers for vertebrates and a blocking oligonucleotide specific to snow leopard DNA. The amplicons were then sequenced using a next-generation sequencing platform. We observed a total of five different prey items from 81 fecal samples. Siberian ibex predominated the diet (in 70.4% of the feces, followed by domestic goat (17.3% and argali sheep (8.6%. The major part of the diet was comprised of large ungulates (in 98.8% of the feces including wild ungulates (79% and domestic livestock (19.7%. The findings of the present study will help to understand the feeding ecology of the snow leopard, as well as to address the conservation and management issues pertaining to this wild cat.

  17. Density-dependent natal dispersal patterns in a leopard population recovering from over-harvest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Fattebert

    Full Text Available Natal dispersal enables population connectivity, gene flow and metapopulation dynamics. In polygynous mammals, dispersal is typically male-biased. Classically, the 'mate competition', 'resource competition' and 'resident fitness' hypotheses predict density-dependent dispersal patterns, while the 'inbreeding avoidance' hypothesis posits density-independent dispersal. In a leopard (Panthera pardus population recovering from over-harvest, we investigated the effect of sex, population density and prey biomass, on age of natal dispersal, distance dispersed, probability of emigration and dispersal success. Over an 11-year period, we tracked 35 subadult leopards using VHF and GPS telemetry. Subadult leopards initiated dispersal at 13.6 ± 0.4 months. Age at commencement of dispersal was positively density-dependent. Although males (11.0 ± 2.5 km generally dispersed further than females (2.7 ± 0.4 km, some males exhibited opportunistic philopatry when the population was below capacity. All 13 females were philopatric, while 12 of 22 males emigrated. Male dispersal distance and emigration probability followed a quadratic relationship with population density, whereas female dispersal distance was inversely density-dependent. Eight of 12 known-fate females and 5 of 12 known-fate male leopards were successful in settling. Dispersal success did not vary with population density, prey biomass, and for males, neither between dispersal strategies (philopatry vs. emigration. Females formed matrilineal kin clusters, supporting the resident fitness hypothesis. Conversely, mate competition appeared the main driver for male leopard dispersal. We demonstrate that dispersal patterns changed over time, i.e. as the leopard population density increased. We conclude that conservation interventions that facilitated local demographic recovery in the study area also restored dispersal patterns disrupted by unsustainable harvesting, and that this indirectly improved

  18. Who bites the bullet first? The susceptibility of leopards Panthera pardus to trophy hunting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braczkowski, Alex Richard; Balme, Guy Andrew; Dickman, Amy; Macdonald, David Whyte; Fattebert, Julien; Dickerson, Tristan; Johnson, Paul; Hunter, Luke

    2015-01-01

    Reliable data is fundamentally important for managing large carnivore populations, and vital for informing hunting quota levels if those populations are subject to trophy hunting. Camera-trapping and spoor counts can provide reliable population estimates for many carnivores, but governments typically lack the resources to implement such surveys over the spatial scales required to inform robust quota setting. It may therefore be prudent to shift focus away from estimating population size and instead focus on monitoring population trend. In this paper we assess the susceptibility of African leopards Panthera pardus to trophy hunting. This has management ramifications, particularly if the use of harvest composition is to be explored as a metric of population trend. We explore the susceptibility of different leopard age and sex cohorts to trophy hunting; first by examining their intrinsic susceptibility to encountering trophy hunters using camera-traps as surrogates, and second by assessing their extrinsic susceptibility using photographic questionnaire surveys to determine their attractiveness to hunters. We show that adult male and female leopards share similar incident rates to encountering hunters but adult males are the most susceptible to hunting due to hunter preference for large trophies. In contrast, sub-adult leopards rarely encounter hunters and are the least attractive trophies. We suggest that our findings be used as a foundation for the exploration of a harvest composition scheme in the Kwazulu-Natal and Limpopo provinces where post mortem information is collected from hunted leopards and submitted to the local provincial authorities.

  19. Detection of Hepatozoon sp. in a Persian leopard (Panthera pardus ciscaucasica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshnegah, Javad; Mohri, Mehrdad; Mirshahi, Ali; Mousavi, Seyed Javad

    2012-07-01

    A free-ranging, adult, male Persian leopard (Panthera pardus ciscaucasica) was found at Geloul-Sarani protected zone, province of North-Khorasan, Iran and transported to the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Veterinary Teaching Hospital. The leopard had normal temperature and respiratory and cardiac frequency, but was significantly dehydrated and had elevated capillary perfusion. The animal also was cachectic, with pale mucus membranes, third-eyelid protrusion, and bilaterally enlarged submandibular lymph nodes. The leopard was stabilized by intensive fluid and electrolyte therapy and hospitalized. In 2 days, the leopard had improved clinically but had severe ataxia and head pressing. Blood smears revealed gamonts of Hepatozoon sp. within some neutrophils. Hematologic and plasma chemistry abnormalities included moderate anemia, leukocytosis, hypocholestrolemia, and hypophosphatemia. In radiographic evaluations, no sign of periosteal reactions or new bone formation was seen on the skull, spine, long bones, pelvis, or vertebrae. The leopard was treated successfully with Tazocin and clindamycin for 1 mo. This is the first detection of a Hepatozoon sp. in wild Felidae in Iran. Because most Iranian wild felids and canids are endangered, knowing whether Hepatozoon infection represents a threat for these animals is important.

  20. Who bites the bullet first? The susceptibility of leopards Panthera pardus to trophy hunting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Richard Braczkowski

    Full Text Available Reliable data is fundamentally important for managing large carnivore populations, and vital for informing hunting quota levels if those populations are subject to trophy hunting. Camera-trapping and spoor counts can provide reliable population estimates for many carnivores, but governments typically lack the resources to implement such surveys over the spatial scales required to inform robust quota setting. It may therefore be prudent to shift focus away from estimating population size and instead focus on monitoring population trend. In this paper we assess the susceptibility of African leopards Panthera pardus to trophy hunting. This has management ramifications, particularly if the use of harvest composition is to be explored as a metric of population trend. We explore the susceptibility of different leopard age and sex cohorts to trophy hunting; first by examining their intrinsic susceptibility to encountering trophy hunters using camera-traps as surrogates, and second by assessing their extrinsic susceptibility using photographic questionnaire surveys to determine their attractiveness to hunters. We show that adult male and female leopards share similar incident rates to encountering hunters but adult males are the most susceptible to hunting due to hunter preference for large trophies. In contrast, sub-adult leopards rarely encounter hunters and are the least attractive trophies. We suggest that our findings be used as a foundation for the exploration of a harvest composition scheme in the Kwazulu-Natal and Limpopo provinces where post mortem information is collected from hunted leopards and submitted to the local provincial authorities.

  1. Patterns of Snow Leopard Site Use in an Increasingly Human-Dominated Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Justine Shanti; Gopalaswamy, Arjun M; Shi, Kun; Hughes, Joelene; Riordan, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Human population growth and concomitant increases in demand for natural resources pose threats to many wildlife populations. The landscapes used by the endangered snow leopard (Panthera uncia) and their prey is increasingly subject to major changes in land use. We aimed to assess the influence of 1) key human activities, as indicated by the presence of mining and livestock herding, and 2) the presence of a key prey species, the blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur), on probability of snow leopard site use across the landscape. In Gansu Province, China, we conducted sign surveys in 49 grid cells, each of 16 km2 in size, within a larger area of 3392 km2. We analysed the data using likelihood-based habitat occupancy models that explicitly account for imperfect detection and spatial auto-correlation between survey transect segments. The model-averaged estimate of snow leopard occupancy was high [0.75 (SE 0.10)], but only marginally higher than the naïve estimate (0.67). Snow leopard segment-level probability of detection, given occupancy on a 500 m spatial replicate, was also high [0.68 (SE 0.08)]. Prey presence was the main determinant of snow leopard site use, while human disturbances, in the form of mining and herding, had low predictive power. These findings suggest that snow leopards continue to use areas very close to such disturbances, as long as there is sufficient prey. Improved knowledge about the effect of human activity on large carnivores, which require large areas and intact prey populations, is urgently needed for conservation planning at the local and global levels. We highlight a number of methodological considerations that should guide the design of such research.

  2. Patterns of Snow Leopard Site Use in an Increasingly Human-Dominated Landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine Shanti Alexander

    Full Text Available Human population growth and concomitant increases in demand for natural resources pose threats to many wildlife populations. The landscapes used by the endangered snow leopard (Panthera uncia and their prey is increasingly subject to major changes in land use. We aimed to assess the influence of 1 key human activities, as indicated by the presence of mining and livestock herding, and 2 the presence of a key prey species, the blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur, on probability of snow leopard site use across the landscape. In Gansu Province, China, we conducted sign surveys in 49 grid cells, each of 16 km2 in size, within a larger area of 3392 km2. We analysed the data using likelihood-based habitat occupancy models that explicitly account for imperfect detection and spatial auto-correlation between survey transect segments. The model-averaged estimate of snow leopard occupancy was high [0.75 (SE 0.10], but only marginally higher than the naïve estimate (0.67. Snow leopard segment-level probability of detection, given occupancy on a 500 m spatial replicate, was also high [0.68 (SE 0.08]. Prey presence was the main determinant of snow leopard site use, while human disturbances, in the form of mining and herding, had low predictive power. These findings suggest that snow leopards continue to use areas very close to such disturbances, as long as there is sufficient prey. Improved knowledge about the effect of human activity on large carnivores, which require large areas and intact prey populations, is urgently needed for conservation planning at the local and global levels. We highlight a number of methodological considerations that should guide the design of such research.

  3. Anaplasma sp. and hemoplasma infection in leopard cats (Prionailurus bengalensis euptilurus) from Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jusun; Oh, Dae-Hyun; Lee, Hang; Chun, Myung-Sun

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the occurrence of Anaplasma spp. and hemoplasma infection in leopard cats, Prionailurus bengalensis euptilurus, in Korea. Twenty-nine biological samples were tested by molecular analysis. Two (6.9%) and eight (27.6%) tested specimens were positive for Anaplasma bovis and hemoplasma infection, respectively. Based on our results, Anaplasma/Ehrlichia spp. and hemoplasma are regularly infecting leopard cat populations of Korea. Considering their endangered status, regular monitoring of infection by arthropod-borne pathogens known to cause clinical symptoms in feline hosts such as Anaplasma/Ehrlichia spp. and hemoplasma would be crucial as part of ongoing conservation efforts.

  4. The complete mitochondrial genome of the North Chinese Leopard (Panthera pardus japonensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Hailong; Feng, Limin; Xiao, Wenhong; Wang, Tianming

    2016-01-01

    The North Chinese Leopard (Panthera pardus japonensis) is an endemic subspecies of Panthera pardus to China, living in small and isolated populations with a severely fragmented distribution. Here we first sequenced and annotated its complete mitochondrial genome. The total length of the North Chinese Leopard is of 16,966 base pairs that consist of 2 rRNA gene, 22 tRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 1 OLR and 1 control region (CR). The structures of the genomes were highly similar to other Felidae.

  5. Clinal patterns in genetic variation for northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens): Conservation status and population histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, Craig A.; Fisher, Justin D.L.; McLean, Kyle I.

    2016-01-01

    The security of the northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens) varies spatially with populations east and west of North Dakota considered as secure and at risk, respectively. We used genetic markers to characterize the conservation status of northern leopard frog populations across North Dakota. We used multiple regression analyses and model selection to evaluate correlations of expected heterozygosity (HE) with the direct and additive effects of: i) geographic location,ii) wetland density and iii) average annual precipitation. There was lower genetic diversity in the western portion of the state due to lower levels of diversity for populations southwest of the Missouri River. This may reflect a refugial/colonization signature for the only non-glaciated area of North Dakota. Genetic diversity was also positively associated with wetland densities which is consistent with the reliance of this species on a mosaic of wetlands. Our findings suggest that populations in the southwestern part of North Dakota are of higher conservation concern, a finding consistent with the higher risk noted for northern leopard frog populations in most states west of North Dakota. Our findings also pose the hypothesis that climate change induced changes in wetland densities will reduce genetic diversity of northern leopard frog populations.

  6. Snow leopard found in high-altitude area on "World Roof"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Researchers with the CAS Cold and Arid Region Environmental and Engineering Research Institute shot pictures of a snow leopard on a grassland about 5,100m above the sea level on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.The pictures are precious because they are the first images of the endangered animal in the region.

  7. Leopard range size and conservation area size in the southern Kalahari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobus du P. Bothma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The range use patterns of adult leopards were used to examine the impact of environmental quality on conservation area size in the arid south-western portion of the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park in southern Africa. The ranges of the leopards are the largest recorded in the world, with a mean size of 2104.4 km2 (SEM 995.95 km2 for males and 1258.5 km2 (SEM 541.50 km2 for females. Overlaps in range use within and between the sexes and the size of this conservation area make it possible to sustain a genetically viable population of leopards in this arid environment.Conservation implications: When establishing conservation areas that contain large carnivores in arid and semi-arid regions, prey abundance and range use should be considered for the area to be able to sustain viable populations of such carnivores. The results emphasise the importance of establishing large transfrontier conservation areas where individual conservation areas are too small to do so. This study is the first to do so for leopards in southern Africa.

  8. Diversity and evolutionary patterns of immune genes in free-ranging Namibian leopards (Panthera pardus pardus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Prieto, Aines; Wachter, Bettina; Melzheimer, Joerg; Thalwitzer, Susanne; Sommer, Simone

    2011-01-01

    The genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are a key component of the mammalian immune system and have become important molecular markers for fitness-related genetic variation in wildlife populations. Currently, no information about the MHC sequence variation and constitution in African leopards exists. In this study, we isolated and characterized genetic variation at the adaptively most important region of MHC class I and MHC class II-DRB genes in 25 free-ranging African leopards from Namibia and investigated the mechanisms that generate and maintain MHC polymorphism in the species. Using single-stranded conformation polymorphism analysis and direct sequencing, we detected 6 MHC class I and 6 MHC class II-DRB sequences, which likely correspond to at least 3 MHC class I and 3 MHC class II-DRB loci. Amino acid sequence variation in both MHC classes was higher or similar in comparison to other reported felids. We found signatures of positive selection shaping the diversity of MHC class I and MHC class II-DRB loci during the evolutionary history of the species. A comparison of MHC class I and MHC class II-DRB sequences of the leopard to those of other felids revealed a trans-species mode of evolution. In addition, the evolutionary relationships of MHC class II-DRB sequences between African and Asian leopard subspecies are discussed.

  9. Abundance and Ecology of Leopards (Panthera pardus) in the Udzungwa Mountains, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havmøller, Rasmus Gren

    habitats such as rainforests. The Udzungwa Mountains in South Central Tanzania are covered in both rainforest and more familiar African habitats, holds an incredible number of mammal species and a completely unknown population of leopards. In this study I used automatic camera traps that took photos of all...

  10. Habitat Mapping of the Leopard Cat (Prionailurus bengalensis in South Korea Using GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moung-Jin Lee

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to create maps of potentially sustainable leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis habitats for all of South Korea. The leopard cat, which is on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN Red List, is the only member of the Felidae family in Korea. To create habitat potential maps, we selected various environmental factors potentially affecting the species’ distribution from a spatial database derived from geographic information system (GIS data: elevation, slope, distance from a forest stand, road, or drainage, timber type, age, and land cover. We analyzed the spatial relationships between the distribution of the leopard cat and the environmental factors using a frequency ratio model and a logistic regression model. We then overlaid these relationships to produce a habitat potential map with a species potential index (SPI value. Of the total number of known leopard cat locations, we used 50% for mapping and the remaining 50% for model validation. Our models were relatively successful and showed a high level of accuracy during model validation with existing locations (frequency ratio model 82.15%; logistic regression model 81.48%. The maps can be used to manage and monitor the habitat of mammal species and top predators.

  11. Wild Asian elephants distinguish aggressive tiger and leopard growls according to perceived danger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuppil, Vivek; Coss, Richard G

    2013-10-23

    Prey species exhibit antipredator behaviours such as alertness, aggression and flight, among others, in response to predators. The nature of this response is variable, with animals reacting more strongly in situations of increased vulnerability. Our research described here is the first formal study to investigate night-time antipredator behaviour in any species of elephants, Asian or African. We examined the provocative effects of elephant-triggered tiger and leopard growls while elephants attempted to crop-raid. Tigers opportunistically prey on elephant calves, whereas leopards pose no threat; therefore, we predicted that the elephant response would be reflective of this difference. Elephants reacted similarly cautiously to the simulated presence of felids of both species by eventually moving away, but differed markedly in their more immediate behavioural responses. Elephants retreated silently to tiger-growl playbacks, whereas they responded with aggressive vocalizations, such as trumpets and grunts, to leopard-growl playbacks. Elephants also lingered in the area and displayed alert or investigative behaviours in response to leopard growls when compared with tiger growls. We anticipate that the methods outlined here will promote further study of elephant antipredator behaviour in a naturalistic context, with applications for conservation efforts as well.

  12. Modelling predation by transient leopard seals for an ecosystem-based management of Southern Ocean fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcada, J.; Royle, J. Andrew; Staniland, I.J.

    2009-01-01

    Correctly quantifying the impacts of rare apex marine predators is essential to ecosystem-based approaches to fisheries management, where harvesting must be sustainable for targeted species and their dependent predators. This requires modelling the uncertainty in such processes as predator life history, seasonal abundance and movement, size-based predation, energetic requirements, and prey vulnerability. We combined these uncertainties to evaluate the predatory impact of transient leopard seals on a community of mesopredators (seals and penguins) and their prey at South Georgia, and assess the implications for an ecosystem-based management. The mesopredators are highly dependent on Antarctic krill and icefish, which are targeted by regional fisheries. We used a state-space formulation to combine (1) a mark-recapture open-population model and individual identification data to assess seasonally variable leopard seal arrival and departure dates, numbers, and residency times; (2) a size-based bioenergetic model; and (3) a size-based prey choice model from a diet analysis. Our models indicated that prey choice and consumption reflected seasonal changes in leopard seal population size and structure, size-selective predation and prey vulnerability. A population of 104 (90?125) leopard seals, of which 64% were juveniles, consumed less than 2% of the Antarctic fur seal pup production of the area (50% of total ingested energy, IE), but ca. 12?16% of the local gentoo penguin population (20% IE). Antarctic krill (28% IE) were the only observed food of leopard seal pups and supplemented the diet of older individuals. Direct impacts on krill and fish were negligible, but the ?escapement? due to leopard seal predation on fur seal pups and penguins could be significant for the mackerel icefish fishery at South Georgia. These results suggest that: (1) rare apex predators like leopard seals may control, and may depend on, populations of mesopredators dependent on prey species

  13. Scent Lure Effect on Camera-Trap Based Leopard Density Estimates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Richard Braczkowski

    Full Text Available Density estimates for large carnivores derived from camera surveys often have wide confidence intervals due to low detection rates. Such estimates are of limited value to authorities, which require precise population estimates to inform conservation strategies. Using lures can potentially increase detection, improving the precision of estimates. However, by altering the spatio-temporal patterning of individuals across the camera array, lures may violate closure, a fundamental assumption of capture-recapture. Here, we test the effect of scent lures on the precision and veracity of density estimates derived from camera-trap surveys of a protected African leopard population. We undertook two surveys (a 'control' and 'treatment' survey on Phinda Game Reserve, South Africa. Survey design remained consistent except a scent lure was applied at camera-trap stations during the treatment survey. Lures did not affect the maximum movement distances (p = 0.96 or temporal activity of female (p = 0.12 or male leopards (p = 0.79, and the assumption of geographic closure was met for both surveys (p >0.05. The numbers of photographic captures were also similar for control and treatment surveys (p = 0.90. Accordingly, density estimates were comparable between surveys (although estimates derived using non-spatial methods (7.28-9.28 leopards/100km2 were considerably higher than estimates from spatially-explicit methods (3.40-3.65 leopards/100km2. The precision of estimates from the control and treatment surveys, were also comparable and this applied to both non-spatial and spatial methods of estimation. Our findings suggest that at least in the context of leopard research in productive habitats, the use of lures is not warranted.

  14. Use of xylazine hydrochloride-ketamine hydrochloride for immobilization of wild leopards (Panthera pardus fusca) in emergency situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsare, Aniruddha V; Athreya, Vidya R

    2010-06-01

    In India, leopards (Panthera pardus fusca) inhabit human-dominated landscapes, resulting in encounters that require interventions to prevent harm to people, as well as the leopards. Immobilization is a prerequisite for any such intervention. Such emergency field immobilizations have to be carried out with limited tools, often amidst large uncontrollable crowds. An effective and practicable approach is discussed, based on 55 wild leopard immobilizations undertaken between January 2003 and April 2008. A xylazine hydrochloride (1.4 +/- 0.3 mg/kg)--ketamine hydrochloride (5 +/- 2 mg/kg) mixture was used for immobilization of leopards, based on estimated body weight. When weight could not be estimated, a standard initial dose of 50 mg of xylazine--150 mg of ketamine was used. Supplemental doses (50-75 mg) of only ketamine were used as required. No life-threatening adverse effects of immobilization were documented for at least 1 mo postimmobilization.

  15. A Communal Sign Post of Snow Leopards (Panthera uncia) and Other Species on the Tibetan Plateau, China

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Li; George B. Schaller; Thomas M. McCarthy; Dajun Wang; Zhala Jiagong; Ping Cai; Lamao Basang; Zhi Lu

    2013-01-01

    The snow leopard is a keystone species in mountain ecosystems of Central Asia and the Tibetan Plateau. However, little is known about the interactions between snow leopards and sympatric carnivores. Using infrared cameras, we found a rocky junction of two valleys in Sanjiangyuan area on the Tibetan Plateau where many mammals in this area passed and frequently marked and sniffed the site at the junction. We suggest that this site serves as a sign post to many species in this area, especially s...

  16. [Individual identification of Amur leopards (Panthera pardus orientalis) using molecular-genetic methods and estimation of the population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozhnov, V V; Sorokin, P A; Lukarevskiĭ, V S; Naĭdenko, S V; Ernandes-Blanko, Kh A; Lukarevskiĭ, S V

    2013-01-01

    For the first time, the genetic structure of a population of Amur leopards (Panthera pardus orientalis) in southwest Primorie was analyzed in detail. In 2010-2012, 23 individuals were identified individually. It was shown that the studied microsatellite markers are suitable for individual identification of leopards, monitoring the population numbers, and creating a unified database of genetic profiles of this species to solve research and nature-preserving tasks.

  17. Prevalence and determinants of stereotypic behaviours and physiological stress among tigers and leopards in Indian zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Janice; Narayan, Edward J; Dileep Kumar, R; Thenmozhi, K; Thiyagesan, Krishnamoorthy; Baskaran, Nagarajan

    2017-01-01

    India's charismatic wildlife species are facing immense pressure from anthropogenic-induced environmental perturbations. Zoos play a major role in the conservation of threatened species, but their adaptation in captivity is posing a major challenge globally. Stress from inadequate adaptation could lead to suppression of cognitive functioning and increased display of stereotypic behaviour. It is thus necessary to measure biological traits like behaviour, stress physiology, and contextual factors driving the animals maintained at zoos. In this study, we assessed stereotypic behaviour and stress physiology employing standard behaviour scoring, non-invasive stress monitoring, and their contextual drivers in a sub-population of two large felid species managed in six Indian zoos. The prevalence and intensity of stereotypic behaviours and levels of faecal corticosterone metabolites (FCM) were ascertained among 41 Royal Bengal tigers Panthera tigris tigris and 21 Indian leopards Panthera pardus fusca between April 2014 and March 2015. Behavioural observations showed that tigers spent more time stereotyping (12%) than leopards (7%) during daylight hours. Stress levels assessed using FCM revealed that tigers (23.6 ± 1.62 ng/g) had marginally lower level of corticosterone metabolites than leopards (27.2 ±1.36 ng/g). Stereotypic behaviour increased significantly with FCM level when the effect of heath status was controlled in tigers, and the effects tree cover, stone, den and keeper attitude controlled in leopards. Comparison of stereotypes of tigers with various biological and environmental factors using binary logistic regression revealed that stereotypic prevalence decreased with increased enclosure size, and enclosure enrichments like presence of pools and stones, when managed socially with conspecifics, and with positive keeper attitude, these factors accounting for 43% of variations in stereotypic prevalence among tigers. Stereotype among leopards was significantly

  18. Prevalence and determinants of stereotypic behaviours and physiological stress among tigers and leopards in Indian zoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Janice; Narayan, Edward J.; Dileep Kumar, R.; Thenmozhi, K.; Thiyagesan, Krishnamoorthy

    2017-01-01

    India’s charismatic wildlife species are facing immense pressure from anthropogenic-induced environmental perturbations. Zoos play a major role in the conservation of threatened species, but their adaptation in captivity is posing a major challenge globally. Stress from inadequate adaptation could lead to suppression of cognitive functioning and increased display of stereotypic behaviour. It is thus necessary to measure biological traits like behaviour, stress physiology, and contextual factors driving the animals maintained at zoos. In this study, we assessed stereotypic behaviour and stress physiology employing standard behaviour scoring, non-invasive stress monitoring, and their contextual drivers in a sub-population of two large felid species managed in six Indian zoos. The prevalence and intensity of stereotypic behaviours and levels of faecal corticosterone metabolites (FCM) were ascertained among 41 Royal Bengal tigers Panthera tigris tigris and 21 Indian leopards Panthera pardus fusca between April 2014 and March 2015. Behavioural observations showed that tigers spent more time stereotyping (12%) than leopards (7%) during daylight hours. Stress levels assessed using FCM revealed that tigers (23.6 ± 1.62 ng/g) had marginally lower level of corticosterone metabolites than leopards (27.2 ±1.36 ng/g). Stereotypic behaviour increased significantly with FCM level when the effect of heath status was controlled in tigers, and the effects tree cover, stone, den and keeper attitude controlled in leopards. Comparison of stereotypes of tigers with various biological and environmental factors using binary logistic regression revealed that stereotypic prevalence decreased with increased enclosure size, and enclosure enrichments like presence of pools and stones, when managed socially with conspecifics, and with positive keeper attitude, these factors accounting for 43% of variations in stereotypic prevalence among tigers. Stereotype among leopards was significantly

  19. Costs and benefits of the presence of leopards to the sport-hunting industry and local communities in Niassa National Reserve, Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, Agostinho A; Vanak, Abi T; Thaker, Maria; Begg, Colleen; Slotow, Rob

    2013-08-01

    Sport hunting is often proposed as a tool to support the conservation of large carnivores. However, it is challenging to provide tangible economic benefits from this activity as an incentive for local people to conserve carnivores. We assessed economic gains from sport hunting and poaching of leopards (Panthera pardus), costs of leopard depredation of livestock, and attitudes of people toward leopards in Niassa National Reserve, Mozambique. We sent questionnaires to hunting concessionaires (n = 8) to investigate the economic value of and the relative importance of leopards relative to other key trophy-hunted species. We asked villagers (n = 158) the number of and prices for leopards poached in the reserve and the number of goats depredated by leopard. Leopards were the mainstay of the hunting industry; a single animal was worth approximately U.S.$24,000. Most safari revenues are retained at national and international levels, but poached leopard are illegally traded locally for small amounts ($83). Leopards depredated 11 goats over 2 years in 2 of 4 surveyed villages resulting in losses of $440 to 6 households. People in these households had negative attitudes toward leopards. Although leopard sport hunting generates larger gross revenues than poaching, illegal hunting provides higher economic benefits for households involved in the activity. Sport-hunting revenues did not compensate for the economic losses of livestock at the household level. On the basis of our results, we propose that poaching be reduced by increasing the costs of apprehension and that the economic benefits from leopard sport hunting be used to improve community livelihoods and provide incentives not to poach.

  20. Evaluation of cheetah and leopard spermatozoa developmental capability after interspecific ICSI with domestic cat oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, L N; Sestelo, A J; Salamone, D F

    2014-08-01

    The ICSI procedure is potentially of great value for felids, and it has not been extensively studied in these species. The objectives of this work were to determine the best conditions for ICSI in the domestic cat (DC) to generate interspecific embryos by injecting cheetah (Ch) and leopard (Leo) spermatozoa. Firstly, DC oocytes were matured with insulin-transferrin-selenium (ITS) or without it (MM) and cultured using atmospheric (21%) or low (5%) oxygen tension after ICSI. The group ITS-5%O2 showed the highest blastocyst rate (p cheetah and leopard spermatozoa were able to generate blastocysts without artificial activation, which suggests that developmental capacity of wild felid spermatozoa can be evaluated by interspecific ICSI. This technique should be used to assist wild felid reproduction. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Muerte súbita en paciente con síndrome LEOPARD

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    Eliany Rodríguez Moreno

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome LEOPARD o de Moynahan, también llamado lentiginosis múltiple, es una rara enfermedad de origen genético que origina múltiples anomalías viscerales, que incluye al corazón, y puede ser causa de muerte súbita. Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 26 años de edad, con antecedentes de miocardiopatía hipertrófica diagnosticada desde la infancia temprana que es remitida por pérdida de la conciencia relacionada con esfuerzos físicos moderados y muerte súbita recuperada. El estudio demostró la presencia de un síndrome LEOPARD con estenosis pulmonar subvalvular y miocardiopatía hipertrófica del ventrículo izquierdo como causa de la muerte súbita de origen cardíaco.

  2. A reference system for animal biometrics: application to the northern leopard frog

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    Petrovska-Delacretaz, D.; Edwards, A.; Chiasson, J.; Chollet, G.; Pilliod, D.S.

    2014-01-01

    Reference systems and public databases are available for human biometrics, but to our knowledge nothing is available for animal biometrics. This is surprising because animals are not required to give their agreement to be in a database. This paper proposes a reference system and database for the northern leopard frog (Lithobates pipiens). Both are available for reproducible experiments. Results of both open set and closed set experiments are given.

  3. Two-stage Turing model for generating pigment patterns on the leopard and the jaguar

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    Liu, R. T.; Liaw, S. S.; Maini, P. K.

    2006-07-01

    Based on the results of phylogenetic analysis, which showed that flecks are the primitive pattern of the felid family and all other patterns including rosettes and blotches develop from it, we construct a Turing reaction-diffusion model which generates spot patterns initially. Starting from this spotted pattern, we successfully generate patterns of adult leopards and jaguars by tuning parameters of the model in the subsequent phase of patterning.

  4. Patent ductus arteriosus in an adult amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis).

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    Douay, Guillaume; Drut, Amandine; Ribas, Thibault; Gomis, David; Graille, Mélanie; Lemberger, Karin; Bublot, Isabelle

    2013-03-01

    A clinically healthy 16-yr-old female leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis) was diagnosed with a patent ductus arteriosus on echocardiography and later confirmed on necropsy A murmur was heard on auscultation during a routine examination, and the congenital defect was an incidental finding. The animal had been asymptomatic its entire life. This deformity is rarely observed in nondomestic felids and may be asymptomatic, as has been described in domestic cats.

  5. Threats from the past: Barbados green monkeys (Chlorocebus sabaeus) fear leopards after centuries of isolation.

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    Burns-Cusato, Melissa; Glueck, Amanda C; Merchak, Andrea R; Palmer, Cristin L; Rieskamp, Joshua D; Duggan, Ivy S; Hinds, Rebecca T; Cusato, Brian

    2016-05-01

    Ability to recognize and differentiate between predators and non-predators is a crucial component of successful anti-predator behavior. While there is evidence that both genetic and experiential mechanisms mediate anti-predator behaviors in various animal species, it is unknown to what extent each of these two mechanisms are utilized by the green monkey (Chlorocebus sabaeus). Green monkeys on the West Indies island of Barbados offer a unique opportunity to investigate the underpinnings of anti-predator behaviors in a species that has been isolated from ancestral predators for over 350 years. In the first experiment, monkeys in two free-ranging troops were presented with photographs of an ancestral predator (leopard, Panthera pardus) and a non-predator (African Buffalo, Syncerus caffer). Relative to non-predator stimuli, images of a leopard elicited less approach, more alarm calls, and more escape responses. Subsequent experiments were conducted to determine whether the monkeys were responding to a leopard-specific feature (spotted fur) or a general predator feature (forward facing eyes). The monkeys showed similar approach to images of an unfamiliar non-predator regardless of whether the image had forward facing predator eyes or side facing non-predator eyes. However, once near the images, the monkeys were less likely to reach for peanuts near the predator eyes than the non-predator eyes. The monkeys avoided an image of spotted leopard fur but approached the same image of fur when the dark spots had been removed. Taken together, the results suggest that green monkey anti-predator behavior is at least partially mediated by genetic factors.

  6. Spotted in the News: Using Media Reports to Examine Leopard Distribution, Depredation, and Management Practices outside Protected Areas in Southern India.

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    Vidya Athreya

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence of large carnivore presence outside protected areas, globally. Although this spells conservation success through population recoveries, it makes carnivore persistence in human-use landscapes tenuous. The widespread distribution of leopards in certain regions of India typifies this problem. We obtained information on leopard-human interactions at a regional scale in Karnataka State, India, based on systematic surveys of local media reports. We applied an innovative occupancy modelling approach to map their distribution patterns and identify hotspots of livestock/human depredation. We also evaluated management responses like removals of 'problem' leopards through capture and translocations. Leopards occupied around 84,000 km2 or 47% of the State's geographic area, outside designated national parks and wildlife sanctuaries. Their presence was facilitated by extent of vegetative cover- including irrigated croplands, rocky escarpments, and prey base in the form of feral and free-ranging dogs. Higher probabilities of livestock/human attacks by leopards were associated with similar ecological features as well as with capture/removals of leopards. Of the 56 cases of leopard removals reported, 91% did not involve human attacks, but followed livestock predation or only leopard sightings. The lack of knowledge on leopard ecology in human-use areas has resulted in unscientific interventions, which could aggravate the problem rather than mitigating it. Our results establish the presence of resident, breeding leopards in human-use areas. We therefore propose a shift in management focus, from current reactive practices like removal and translocation of leopards, to proactive measures that ensure safety of human lives and livelihoods.

  7. Spotted in the News: Using Media Reports to Examine Leopard Distribution, Depredation, and Management Practices outside Protected Areas in Southern India.

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    Athreya, Vidya; Srivathsa, Arjun; Puri, Mahi; Karanth, Krithi K; Kumar, N Samba; Karanth, K Ullas

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence of large carnivore presence outside protected areas, globally. Although this spells conservation success through population recoveries, it makes carnivore persistence in human-use landscapes tenuous. The widespread distribution of leopards in certain regions of India typifies this problem. We obtained information on leopard-human interactions at a regional scale in Karnataka State, India, based on systematic surveys of local media reports. We applied an innovative occupancy modelling approach to map their distribution patterns and identify hotspots of livestock/human depredation. We also evaluated management responses like removals of 'problem' leopards through capture and translocations. Leopards occupied around 84,000 km2 or 47% of the State's geographic area, outside designated national parks and wildlife sanctuaries. Their presence was facilitated by extent of vegetative cover- including irrigated croplands, rocky escarpments, and prey base in the form of feral and free-ranging dogs. Higher probabilities of livestock/human attacks by leopards were associated with similar ecological features as well as with capture/removals of leopards. Of the 56 cases of leopard removals reported, 91% did not involve human attacks, but followed livestock predation or only leopard sightings. The lack of knowledge on leopard ecology in human-use areas has resulted in unscientific interventions, which could aggravate the problem rather than mitigating it. Our results establish the presence of resident, breeding leopards in human-use areas. We therefore propose a shift in management focus, from current reactive practices like removal and translocation of leopards, to proactive measures that ensure safety of human lives and livelihoods.

  8. Distribution Range and Population Status of Common Leopard (Panthera Pardus in and Around Machiara National Park, Azad Jammu and Kashmir

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    Muhammad KABIR

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to estimate the status of common leopard (Panthera pardus in and around Machiara National Park (MNP Azad Jammu and Kashmir between May 2007 and July 2008. Fifteen fixed transects were monitored on regular basis. Indirect signs of leopard such as pugmarks and scats were recorded along the transects in addition to people and livestock which were counted as an index of disturbance and mean encounter rate for leopard scats, footprints, livestock and people was calculated. Mean encounter rate for leopard pugmarks was 1.6, for scats 2.11, for livestock 25.03, and for people 22.48. Linear measurements of front and hind pugmarks and strides were classified which indicated that at least six to nine (06-09 individuals are present in the study area (13,532 ha. Questionnaire survey revealed that Leopards were sighted by the locals at 23 locations during the study period including; in the morning (35%, evening (29%, night (21% and daytime (15%. Maximum sightings were recorded between 4765ft to 9634ft elevation presenting moist temperate zone with Pinus wallichiana as a dominant tree species. As a result of increasing biotic pressures, the leopard has become rare with growing threat of further degradation and fragmentation of its habitat. It may cause the species to depend more on the domestic livestock available in and around the area giving way to the problem of human-leopard conflict. The information generated from the study will be helpful for the conservation and management of this critically endangered species.

  9. Ecology driving genetic variation: a comparative phylogeography of jungle cat (Felis chaus and leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis in India.

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    Shomita Mukherjee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Comparative phylogeography links historical population processes to current/ecological processes through congruent/incongruent patterns of genetic variation among species/lineages. Despite high biodiversity, India lacks a phylogeographic paradigm due to limited comparative studies. We compared the phylogenetic patterns of Indian populations of jungle cat (Felis chaus and leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis. Given similarities in their distribution within India, evolutionary histories, body size and habits, congruent patterns of genetic variation were expected. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We collected scats from various biogeographic zones in India and analyzed mtDNA from 55 jungle cats (460 bp NADH5, 141 bp cytochrome b and 40 leopard cats (362 bp NADH5, 202 bp cytochrome b. Jungle cats revealed high genetic variation, relatively low population structure and demographic expansion around the mid-Pleistocene. In contrast, leopard cats revealed lower genetic variation and high population structure with a F(ST of 0.86 between North and South Indian populations. Niche-model analyses using two approaches (BIOCLIM and MaxEnt support absence of leopard cats from Central India, indicating a climate associated barrier. We hypothesize that high summer temperatures limit leopard cat distribution and that a rise in temperature in the peninsular region of India during the LGM caused the split in leopard cat population in India. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that ecological variables describing a species range can predict genetic patterns. Our study has also resolved the confusion over the distribution of the leopard cat in India. The reciprocally monophyletic island population in the South mandates conservation attention.

  10. Leopard (Panthera pardus status, distribution, and the research efforts across its range

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    Andrew P. Jacobson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The leopard’s (Panthera pardus broad geographic range, remarkable adaptability, and secretive nature have contributed to a misconception that this species might not be severely threatened across its range. We find that not only are several subspecies and regional populations critically endangered but also the overall range loss is greater than the average for terrestrial large carnivores. To assess the leopard’s status, we compile 6,000 records at 2,500 locations from over 1,300 sources on its historic (post 1750 and current distribution. We map the species across Africa and Asia, delineating areas where the species is confirmed present, is possibly present, is possibly extinct or is almost certainly extinct. The leopard now occupies 25–37% of its historic range, but this obscures important differences between subspecies. Of the nine recognized subspecies, three (P. p. pardus, fusca, and saxicolor account for 97% of the leopard’s extant range while another three (P. p. orientalis, nimr, and japonensis have each lost as much as 98% of their historic range. Isolation, small patch sizes, and few remaining patches further threaten the six subspecies that each have less than 100,000 km2 of extant range. Approximately 17% of extant leopard range is protected, although some endangered subspecies have far less. We found that while leopard research was increasing, research effort was primarily on the subspecies with the most remaining range whereas subspecies that are most in need of urgent attention were neglected.

  11. Diagnosis, Surgical Treatment, Recovery, and Eventual Necropsy of a Leopard (Panthera pardus with Thyroid Carcinoma

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    Ashley Malmlov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An 18-year-old, male, castrated, captive-born leopard (Panthera pardus presented to Colorado State University’s Veterinary Teaching Hospital with a two-week history of regurgitation. Thoracic radiographs and ultrasound revealed a well-differentiated cranioventral mediastinal mass measuring 7.5 × 10 × 5.5 cm, impinging the esophagus. A sternotomy followed by mass excision was performed. The mass was diagnosed as an ectopic thyroid carcinoma. The leopard recovered from surgery with minimal complications and returned to near-normal activity levels for just under 6 months before rapidly declining. He had an acute onset of severe dyspnea and lethargy and was euthanized. On postmortem examination the tumor was found to involve the lung, liver, thyroid, parietal pleura, bronchial lymph nodes, and the internal intercostal muscles. This case report describes the history, diagnosis, surgical treatment, postoperative care, and recovery as well as the eventual decline, euthanasia, and necropsy of a leopard with thyroid carcinoma. When compared to thyroid carcinomas of domestic animals, the leopard’s disease process more closely resembles the disease process seen in domestic canines compared to domestic cats.

  12. Functional Responses of Retaliatory Killing versus Recreational Sport Hunting of Leopards in South Africa.

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    Swanepoel, Lourens H; Somers, Michael J; Dalerum, Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    Predation strategies in response to altering prey abundances can dramatically influence the demographic effects of predation. Despite this, predation strategies of humans are rarely incorporated into quantitative assessments of the demographic impacts of humans killing carnivores. This scarcity largely seems to be caused by a lack of data. In this study, we contrasted predation strategies exhibited by people involved in retaliatory killing and recreational sport hunting of leopards (Panthera pardus) in the Waterberg District Municipality, South Africa. We predicted a specialist predation strategy exemplified by a type II functional response for retaliatory killing, and a generalist strategy exemplified by a type III functional response for recreational sport hunting. We could not distinguish between a type I, a type II, or a type III functional response for retaliatory killing, but the most parsimonious model for recreational sport hunting corresponded to a type I functional response. Kill rates were consistently higher for retaliatory killing than for recreational sport hunting. Our results indicate that retaliatory killing of leopards may have severe demographic consequences for leopard populations, whereas the demographic consequences of recreational sport hunting likely are less dramatic.

  13. Dissatisfaction with Veterinary Services Is Associated with Leopard (Panthera pardus) Predation on Domestic Animals.

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    Khorozyan, Igor; Soofi, Mahmood; Khaleghi Hamidi, Amirhossein; Ghoddousi, Arash; Waltert, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Human-carnivore conflicts challenge biodiversity conservation and local livelihoods, but the role of diseases of domestic animals in their predation by carnivores is poorly understood. We conducted a human-leopard (Panthera pardus) conflict study throughout all 34 villages around Golestan National Park, Iran in order to find the most important conflict determinants and to use them in predicting the probabilities of conflict and killing of cattle, sheep and goats, and dogs. We found that the more villagers were dissatisfied with veterinary services, the more likely they were to lose livestock and dogs to leopard predation. Dissatisfaction occurred when vaccination crews failed to visit villages at all or, in most cases, arrived too late to prevent diseases from spreading. We suggest that increased morbidity of livestock makes them particularly vulnerable to leopard attacks. Moreover, conflicts and dog killing were higher in villages located closer to the boundaries of the protected area than in distant villages. Therefore, we appeal for improved enforcement and coordination of veterinary services in our study area, and propose several priority research topics such as veterinarian studies, role of wild prey in diseases of domestic animals, and further analysis of potential conflict predictors.

  14. Dissatisfaction with Veterinary Services Is Associated with Leopard (Panthera pardus Predation on Domestic Animals.

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    Igor Khorozyan

    Full Text Available Human-carnivore conflicts challenge biodiversity conservation and local livelihoods, but the role of diseases of domestic animals in their predation by carnivores is poorly understood. We conducted a human-leopard (Panthera pardus conflict study throughout all 34 villages around Golestan National Park, Iran in order to find the most important conflict determinants and to use them in predicting the probabilities of conflict and killing of cattle, sheep and goats, and dogs. We found that the more villagers were dissatisfied with veterinary services, the more likely they were to lose livestock and dogs to leopard predation. Dissatisfaction occurred when vaccination crews failed to visit villages at all or, in most cases, arrived too late to prevent diseases from spreading. We suggest that increased morbidity of livestock makes them particularly vulnerable to leopard attacks. Moreover, conflicts and dog killing were higher in villages located closer to the boundaries of the protected area than in distant villages. Therefore, we appeal for improved enforcement and coordination of veterinary services in our study area, and propose several priority research topics such as veterinarian studies, role of wild prey in diseases of domestic animals, and further analysis of potential conflict predictors.

  15. Genetic diversity of six isolated populations of the leopard moth, Zeuzera pyrina (Lep: Zeuzeridae

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    Raheleh Dolati

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The leopard moth, Zeuzera pyrina (Lep: Zeuzeridae, is an important pest of a wide range of trees and shrubs including walnut and apple across the world. The natural populations of the leopard moth in different geographical areas of Iran show significant differences in some of their biological characteristics such as time of emergence, generation time and host specificity. So, we hypothesized that these populations may represent different subspecies that move toward a speciation event in their evolutionary route. In this study, we evaluated the genetic diversity of six different geographically isolated populations of the leopard moth using the sequence alignment of cytochrome oxidase c subunit one (COI. A fragment of 642 base pairs was amplified in all six populations and the phylogenetic tree was created based on sequenced fragments. Our results revealed significant differences in the nucleotide sequence of COI gene in these populations. Differences in climatic conditions of these regions seem to be the most powerful force driving this diversity among the studied populations.

  16. A new species of leopard frog (Anura: Ranidae) from the urban northeastern US.

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    Newman, Catherine E; Feinberg, Jeremy A; Rissler, Leslie J; Burger, Joanna; Shaffer, H Bradley

    2012-05-01

    Past confusion about leopard frog (genus Rana) species composition in the Tri-State area of the US that includes New York (NY), New Jersey (NJ), and Connecticut (CT) has hindered conservation and management efforts, especially where populations are declining or imperiled. We use nuclear and mitochondrial genetic data to clarify the identification and distribution of leopard frog species in this region. We focus on four problematic frog populations of uncertain species affiliation in northern NJ, southeastern mainland NY, and Staten Island to test the following hypotheses: (1) they are conspecific with Rana sphenocephala or R. pipiens, (2) they are hybrids between R. sphenocephala and R. pipiens, or (3) they represent one or more previously undescribed cryptic taxa. Bayesian phylogenetic and cluster analyses revealed that the four unknown populations collectively form a novel genetic lineage, which represents a previously undescribed cryptic leopard frog species, Rana sp. nov. Statistical support for R. sp. nov. was strong in both the Bayesian (pp=1.0) and maximum-likelihood (bootstrap=99) phylogenetic analyses as well as the Structure cluster analyses. While our data support recognition of R. sp. nov. as a novel species, we recommend further study including fine-scaled sampling and ecological, behavioral, call, and morphological analyses before it is formally described.

  17. Comparison of Subjective Well-Being and Personality Assessments in the Clouded Leopard (Neofelis nebulosa), Snow Leopard (Panthera uncia), and African Lion (Panthera leo).

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    Gartner, Marieke Cassia; Powell, David M; Weiss, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The study of subjective well-being in nonhuman animals is growing in the field of psychology, but there are still only a few published studies and the focus is on primates. To consider whether the construct of subjective well-being could be found in another mammal, this study aimed to assess subjective well-being in felids and to examine its association with personality. Personality is one of the strongest and most consistent predictors of well-being in humans. This relationship could have important implications for other species, because personality has also been shown to affect health outcomes including stress, morbidity, and mortality. As in previous studies in nonhuman animals, the study results revealed that subjective well-being was related to agreeableness/openness and neuroticism in clouded leopards, neuroticism in snow leopards, and impulsiveness and neuroticism in African lions. The implications of these results for health outcomes and the welfare of animals in captivity are discussed. More research on any direct links among personality, subjective well-being, and these outcomes is important to advancing this field and adding another tool for improving captive animals' lives.

  18. Development of a PCR Assay to detect Papillomavirus Infection in the Snow Leopard

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    Eng Curtis

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Papillomaviruses (PVs are a group of small, non-encapsulated, species-specific DNA viruses that have been detected in a variety of mammalian and avian species including humans, canines and felines. PVs cause lesions in the skin and mucous membranes of the host and after persistent infection, a subset of PVs can cause tumors such as cervical malignancies and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in humans. PVs from several species have been isolated and their genomes have been sequenced, thereby increasing our understanding of the mechanism of viral oncogenesis and allowing for the development of molecular assays for the detection of PV infection. In humans, molecular testing for PV DNA is used to identify patients with persistent infections at risk for developing cervical cancer. In felids, PVs have been isolated and sequenced from oral papillomatous lesions of several wild species including bobcats, Asian lions and snow leopards. Since a number of wild felids are endangered, PV associated disease is a concern and there is a need for molecular tools that can be used to further study papillomavirus in these species. Results We used the sequence of the snow leopard papillomavirus UuPV1 to develop a PCR strategy to amplify viral DNA from samples obtained from captive animals. We designed primer pairs that flank the E6 and E7 viral oncogenes and amplify two DNA fragments encompassing these genes. We detected viral DNA for E6 and E7 in genomic DNA isolated from saliva, but not in paired blood samples from snow leopards. We verified the identity of these PCR products by restriction digest and DNA sequencing. The sequences of the PCR products were 100% identical to the published UuPV1 genome sequence. Conclusions We developed a PCR assay to detect papillomavirus in snow leopards and amplified viral DNA encompassing the E6 and E7 oncogenes specifically in the saliva of animals. This assay could be utilized for the molecular

  19. Effects of odors on behaviors of captive Amur leopards Panthera pardus orientalis

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    Shangying YU

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Captive environments often fail to resemble the wild environment in respects of limited space, unchanging habitat, lack of stimulus and contingency. Common animal welfare problems which occur in captive animals include low behavioral diversity, abnormal behavior and excessive inactivity. Environmental enrichment, as an effective strategy to tackle these problems and promote mental health of captive animals, has been recognized as an important principal for captive animal management. Among all the enrichment techniques, olfactory enrichment is a simple and effective method for improving the well-being of the olfactory sensitive felids. Behavioral problems were observed in six Amur leopards Panthera pardus orientalis at Beijing Zoological Garden. These were held in the older type exhibits which have now been rebuilt. These behaviors include stereotypic behavior and excessive inactivity caused by the spatially limited enclosures with low levels of stimuli. To determine the effects of predator, prey, and herb odors as potential enrichment materials for captive leopards, we conducted olfactory enrichment experiments for the leopards and tested the effects of nutmeg Myristica fragrans, feces of roe deer Capreolus capreolus and urine of Amur tiger Panthera tigris altaica to test for an increase in behavioral repertoire and activity. Odors provided in this study were also believed to improve the psychological and physiological health of individuals. To standardize the method of presentation the odors were introduced to the enclosures by rubbing or spraying onto a clean towel. Our results show that the selected three odors effectively increased the behavioral diversity. Ten new behavior types were observed in the nutmeg experiment, eight in the feces of roe deer experiment and six in the tiger urine experiment. Among the three odors, cats responded to nutmeg for the longest duration, followed by tiger urine and feces of roe deer. Leopards showed more

  20. Effects of odors on behaviors of captive Amur leopards Panthera pardus orientalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuangying YU; Zhigang JIANG; Hui ZHU; Chunwang LI; Enquan ZHANG; Jinguo ZHANG; Carin HARRINGTON

    2009-01-01

    Captive environments often fail to resemble the wild environment in respects of limited space,unchanging habitat,lack of stimulus and contingency. Common animal welfare problems which occur in captive animals include low behavioral diversity,abnormal behavior and excessive inactivity. Environmental enrichment,as an effective strategy to tackle these problems and promote mental health of captive animals,has been recognized as an important principal for captive animal management. Among all the enrichment techniques,olfactory enrichment is a simple and effective method for improving the well-being of the olfactory sensitive felids. Behavioral problems were observed in six Amur leopards Panthera pardus orientalis at Beijing Zoological Garden.These were held in the older type exhibits which have now been rebuilt. These behaviors include stereotypic behavior and excessive inactivity caused by the spatially limited enclosures with low levels of stimuli. To determine the effects of predator,prey,and herb odors as potential enrichment materials for captive leopards,we conducted olfactory enrichment experiments for the leopards and tested the effects of nutmeg Myristica fragrans,feces of roe deer Capreolus capreolus and urine of Amur tiger Panthera tigrisaltaica to test for an increase in behavioral repertoire and activity. Odors provided in this study were also believed to improve the psychological and physiological health of individuals. To standardize the method of presentation the odors were introduced to the enclosures by rubbing or spraying onto a clean towel. Our results show that the selected three odors effectively increased the behavioral diversity. Ten new behavior types were observed in the nutmeg experiment,eight in the feces of roe deer experiment and six in the tiger urine experiment. Among the three odors,cats responded to nutmeg for the longest duration,followed by tiger urine and feces of roe deer. Leopards showed more play behavior in presence of nutmeg

  1. Spatio-temporal separation between lions and leopards in the Kruger National Park and the Timbavati Private Nature Reserve, South Africa

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    Nakedi W. Maputla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of the underlying processes that drive coexistence among apex predators is of great importance to landscape managers overseeing their persistence. Two pressing questions stand out. These questions relate to whether space use by subordinate carnivores is a function of resource distribution and shifts in resource availability or fine scale movement associations with sympatric top predators that dominate them. We hypothesized that leopard movements were primarily resource-driven and secondarily, competition driven. Using data from leopards and lions collared in the Kruger National Park (Kruger and the neighboring Timbavati Private Nature Reserve (Timbavati, we investigated the associations between leopard GPS fixes and resource distribution. We built landscapes of movement activities of lions to investigate the relationships with leopard movements. Results suggested that leopard movements were strongly resource-driven. Lion influence did not come out strongly on leopards collared in the Kruger. In the Timbavati however, lion movements appeared to strongly influence the male leopard movements. We concluded that resources were the main driver of leopard movement behavior and that differences in observed behaviors between Kruger and Timbavati were as a result of different management regimes practiced in the two reserves.

  2. Noninvasive genetic population survey of snow leopards (Panthera uncia in Kangchenjunga conservation area, Shey Phoksundo National Park and surrounding buffer zones of Nepal

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    Karmacharya Dibesh B

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The endangered snow leopard is found throughout major mountain ranges of Central Asia, including the remote Himalayas. However, because of their elusive behavior, sparse distribution, and poor access to their habitat, there is a lack of reliable information on their population status and demography, particularly in Nepal. Therefore, we utilized noninvasive genetic techniques to conduct a preliminary snow leopard survey in two protected areas of Nepal. Results A total of 71 putative snow leopard scats were collected and analyzed from two different areas; Shey Phoksundo National Park (SPNP in the west and Kangchanjunga Conservation Area (KCA in the east. Nineteen (27% scats were genetically identified as snow leopards, and 10 (53% of these were successfully genotyped at 6 microsatellite loci. Two samples showed identical genotype profiles indicating a total of 9 individual snow leopards. Four individual snow leopards were identified in SPNP (1 male and 3 females and five (2 males and 3 females in KCA. Conclusions We were able to confirm the occurrence of snow leopards in both study areas and determine the minimum number present. This information can be used to design more in-depth population surveys that will enable estimation of snow leopard population abundance at these sites.

  3. Scent marking in Sunda clouded leopards (Neofelis diardi): novel observations close a key gap in understanding felid communication behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Maximilian L.; Wittmer, Heiko U.; Setiawan, Endro; Jaffe, Sarah; Marshall, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Intraspecific communication is integral to the behavioural ecology of solitary carnivores, but observing and quantifying their communication behaviours in natural environments is difficult. Our systematic literature review found that basic information on scent marking is completely lacking for 23% of all felid species, and information on 21% of other felid species comes solely from one study of captive animals. Here we present results of the first systematic investigation of the scent marking behaviours of Sunda clouded leopards in the wild. Our observations using motion-triggered video cameras in Indonesian Borneo are novel for clouded leopards, and contrary to previous descriptions of their behaviour. We found that clouded leopards displayed 10 distinct communication behaviours, with olfaction, scraping, and cheek rubbing the most frequently recorded. We also showed that males make repeated visits to areas they previously used for marking and that multiple males advertise and receive information at the same sites, potentially enhancing our ability to document and monitor clouded leopard populations. The behaviours we recorded are remarkably similar to those described in other solitary felids, despite tremendous variation in the environments they inhabit, and close a key gap in understanding and interpreting communication behaviours of clouded leopards and other solitary felids. PMID:27739507

  4. 泰国Khao Yai国家公园豹猫和云豹的生态和保护%Ecology and conservation of the leopard cat Prionailurus bengalensis and clouded leopard Neofelis nebulosa in Khao Yai National Park, Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sean C. AUSTIN; Michael E. TEWES; Lon I. GRASSMAN Jr.; Nova J. SILVY

    2007-01-01

    The spatial and temporal ecology of 2 sympatric felid species, the leopard cat Prionailurus bengalensis and clouded leopard Neofelis nebulosa, was studied from October 1997 to October 1999 in Khao Yai National Park, Thailand. Felids were captured using baited box traps, were anesthetized, sexed, aged, and fitted with a radio collar. Six female and 4 male leopard cats were radio-tracked for 1-18 months. Leopard cats used larger areas during the wet season than dry season and males used larger areas than females. Most leopard cats used vegetation types in proportion to their presence. Leopard cats exhibited arrhythmic activity with increased activity during nocturnal and crepuscular periods. Dry and wet season activity was similar for all leopard cats; however, males showed greater diurnal activity than females. Travel distance for leopard cats during a 24-hour period differed by sex but not season. Murids dominated prey consumed by leopard cats. A female and male clouded leopard were radio-tracked for 17 and 7 months, respectively. Area used by the female was 39.4 km2, whereas the male used 42.2 km2 and both had core areas of 2.9 km2. Clouded leopards used semi-evergreen forest greater than other vegetation types. Clouded leopard activity was arrhythmic with increased levels during crepuscular and nocturnal periods. Some conservation aspects for felids in Thailand are discussed.%于1997年10月到1999年10月在泰国Khao Yai国家公园对两种同域分布的物种(即豹猫和云豹)进行了研究.使用带诱饵的陷阱捕捉了这些动物,进行麻醉,确定了性别、年龄,并戴上了无线电项圈,对6只雌性豹猫和4只雄性豹猫进行了1-18个月的无线电追踪.豹猫在干旱季节的利用区域大于雨季,雄性利用的区域大于雌性.在夜间和晨昏时节,豹猫活动增加,但是并没有节律性活动.所有豹猫个体在旱季和雨季的活动都相似,但雄性个体的白天活动多于雌性.豹猫的行走距离有性

  5. PREVALENCE OF VALVULAR REGURGITATIONS IN CLINICALLY HEALTHY CAPTIVE LEOPARDS AND CHEETAHS: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY FROM THE WILDLIFE CARDIOLOGY (WLC) GROUP (2008-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Norin; Petit, Thierry; Kohl, Muriel; Bourgeois, Aude; Gouni, Vassiliki; Trehiou-Sechi, Emilie; Misbach, Charlotte; Petit, Amandine; Damoiseaux, Cécile; Garrigou, Audrey; Guepin, Raphaëlle; Pouchelon, Jean Louis; Chetboul, Valérie

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate transthoracic echocardiograms from clinically healthy large felids for the presence of valvular regurgitations (VR). Physiologic VR commonly occur in normal dogs and cats, but the percentage of large felids with VR has not been previously reported. During a 5-yr study period (2008-2013), 28 healthy animals were evaluated under general anesthesia: 16 cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus soemmeringuii) with a mean age of 1.5±0.8 yr (range 0.7-3.5 yr), 5 Amur leopards (Panthera pardus orientalis), 1 snow leopard (Uncia uncia), and 6 clouded leopards (Neofelis nebulosa). For this study, all the leopards were gathered in one so-called "leopards group" with a mean age of 2.8±3.4 yr (range 0.3-10.7 yr). All valves observed in each view were examined for evidence of regurgitant jets and turbulent blood flow using the color-flow Doppler mode. Valves were also examined for structural changes. Mitral valve and aortic cusp abnormalities were considered to be of congenital origin. Mitral valve lesions led to mitral insufficiency in all the felids. Aortic cusp abnormalities led to aortic regurgitation in 94% of the cheetahs and 67% of the leopards. Leopards showed a predominance of early systolic mitral regurgitations, whereas all the mitral regurgitation jets in cheetahs were holosystolic. Tricuspid regurgitation was found in 81% of the cheetahs and in 50% of the leopards, whereas pulmonic regurgitation was detected in 44% of the cheetahs and 33% of the leopards. Interestingly, none of these tricuspid and pulmonic regurgitations were associated with two-dimensional structural valve abnormalities, thus suggesting their physiologic origin, as described in humans, cats, and dogs. In conclusion, subclinical valvular diseases are common in apparently healthy leopards and cheetahs. Longitudinal follow-up of affected animals is therefore required to assess their clinical outcome.

  6. Use of positive reinforcement conditioning to monitor pregnancy in an unanesthetized snow leopard (Uncia uncia) via transabdominal ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broder, Jacqueline M; Macfadden, Annabell J; Cosens, Lindsay M; Rosenstein, Diana S; Harrison, Tara M

    2008-01-01

    Closely monitoring snow leopard (Uncia uncia) fetal developments via transabdominal ultrasound, with minimal stress to the animal, was the goal of this project. The staff at Potter Park Zoo has used the principles of habituation, desensitization, and positive reinforcement to train a female snow leopard (U. uncia). Ultrasound examinations were preformed on an unanesthetized feline at 63 and 84 days. The animal remained calm and compliant throughout both procedures. Fetuses were observed and measured on both occasions. The absence of anesthesia eliminated components of psychologic and physiologic stress associated with sedation. This was the first recorded instance of transabdominal ultrasound being carried out on an unanesthetized snow leopard. It documents the feasibility of detecting pregnancy and monitoring fetal development via ultrasound. Zoo Biol 27:78-85, 2008. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Vigorous dynamics underlie a stable population of the endangered snow leopard Panthera uncia in Tost Mountains, South Gobi, Mongolia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koustubh Sharma

    Full Text Available Population monitoring programmes and estimation of vital rates are key to understanding the mechanisms of population growth, decline or stability, and are important for effective conservation action. We report, for the first time, the population trends and vital rates of the endangered snow leopard based on camera trapping over four years in the Tost Mountains, South Gobi, Mongolia. We used robust design multi-season mark-recapture analysis to estimate the trends in abundance, sex ratio, survival probability and the probability of temporary emigration and immigration for adult and young snow leopards. The snow leopard population remained constant over most of the study period, with no apparent growth (λ = 1.08+-0.25. Comparison of model results with the "known population" of radio-collared snow leopards suggested high accuracy in our estimates. Although seemingly stable, vigorous underlying dynamics were evident in this population, with the adult sex ratio shifting from being male-biased to female-biased (1.67 to 0.38 males per female during the study. Adult survival probability was 0.82 (SE+-0.08 and that of young was 0.83 (SE+-0.15 and 0.77 (SE +-0.2 respectively, before and after the age of 2 years. Young snow leopards showed a high probability of temporary emigration and immigration (0.6, SE +-0.19 and 0.68, SE +-0.32 before and after the age of 2 years though not the adults (0.02 SE+-0.07. While the current female-bias in the population and the number of cubs born each year seemingly render the study population safe, the vigorous dynamics suggests that the situation can change quickly. The reduction in the proportion of male snow leopards may be indicative of continuing anthropogenic pressures. Our work reiterates the importance of monitoring both the abundance and population dynamics of species for effective conservation.

  8. 服务器也可如此精致——Apple Mac mini with Snow Leopard Server

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Frank.C.

    2010-01-01

    今年年初我们曾经向大家介绍过Apple推出的Mac OS X Snow Leopard Server服务器操作系统,当时的硬件平台是上一代Macmini。最近Apple推出了升级更新后的Apple Macmini with Snow Leopard Server(简称Macmini Server)。这款定位于小型企业及工作组用户的迷你服务器究竟有何特色呢?

  9. Generation of nuclear constants of the TRIGA reactor with the Leopard code; Generacion de constantes nucleares del reactor TRIGA con el codigo Leopard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar H, F.; Perusquia del C, R. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1983-09-15

    The reactor core was divided in 12 regions, this was made in function of the composition and temperature and its are: 1) central thimble, 2) B ring, 3) C ring, 4) D ring, 5) E ring, 6) F ring, 7) G ring, 8) superior caps of fuel elements (E.C. s) standard, 9) inferior caps of E.C.'s standard, 10) superior and inferior reflector of the core, 11) lateral reflector and 12) superior and inferior caps of the E.C.'s graphite. Likewise the constants of the followers' of fuel cell, of the empty follower and of the conduits of the gamma camera were obtained. For the obtaining of the enter data of the LEOPARD the dimensions and the composition of the different regions are required, this is consigned in the IT/E21-83 report. (Author)

  10. Population status and population genetics of northern leopard frogs in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theimer, Tad C.; Drost, Charles A.; O'Donnell, Ryan P.; Mock, Karen E.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing isolation of populations by habitat fragmentation threatens the persistence of many species, both from stochastic loss of small isolated populations, and from inbreeding effects in populations that have become genetically isolated. In the southwestern United States, amphibian habitat is naturally patchy in occurrence because of the prevailing aridity of the region. Streams, rivers, and other wetlands are important both as habitat and as corridors that connect populations. However, populations of some species have become more fragmented and isolated by habitat degradation and loss. Northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) have experienced serious declines in the Southwest. We conducted an extensive survey across the known range of northern leopard frogs in Arizona to determine the current distribution and abundance of the species. From a range that once spanned much of the northern and central part of the State, northern leopard frogs have been reduced to three or four widely separated populations, near Lyman Lake in east-central Arizona, in the Stoneman Lake area south of Flagstaff, along Truxton Wash near Peach Springs, and a population of uncertain extent on Navajo Nation lands. The Lyman Lake and Truxton Wash populations are small and extremely isolated. The Stoneman Lake population, however, is an extensive metapopulation spread across several stream drainages, including numerous ponds, wetlands, and artificial tanks. This is the only population in Arizona that is increasing in extent and numbers, but there is concern about the apparent introduction of nonnative genetic stock from eastern North America into this area. We analyzed genetic diversity within and genetic divergence among populations of northern leopard frogs, across both extant and recently extirpated populations in Arizona. We also analyzed mitochondrial DNA to place these populations into a larger phylogenetic framework and to determine whether any populations contained genetic material

  11. Survival estimates for reintroduced populations of the Chiricahua Leopard Frog (Lithobates chiricahuensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Paige E; Hossack, Blake R.; Muths, Erin L.; Sigafus, Brent H.; Chandler, Richard B.

    2016-01-01

    Global amphibian declines have been attributed to a number of factors including disease, invasive species, habitat degradation, and climate change. Reintroduction is one management action that is commonly used with the goal of recovering imperiled species. The success of reintroductions varies widely, and evaluating their efficacy requires estimates of population viability metrics, such as underlying vital rates and trends in abundance. Although rarely quantified, assessing vital rates for recovering populations provides a more mechanistic understanding of population growth than numerical trends in population occupancy or abundance. We used three years of capture-mark-recapture data from three breeding ponds and a Cormack-Jolly-Seber model to estimate annual apparent survival for reintroduced populations of the federally threatened Chiricahua Leopard Frog (Lithobates chiricahuensis) at the Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge (BANWR), in the Altar Valley, Arizona, USA. To place our results in context, we also compiled published survival estimates for other ranids. Average apparent survival of Chiricahua Leopard Frogs at BANWR was 0.27 (95% CI [0.07, 0.74]) and average individual capture probability was 0.02 (95% CI [0, 0.05]). Our apparent survival estimate for Chiricahua Leopard Frogs is lower than for most other ranids and is not consistent with recent research that showed metapopulation viability in the Altar Valley is high. We suggest that low apparent survival may be indicative of high emigration rates. We recommend that future research should estimate emigration rates so that actual, rather than apparent, survival can be quantified to improve population viability assessments of threatened species following reintroduction efforts.

  12. Bilateral lenticular Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection in a snow leopard (Panthera uncia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scurrell, Emma Jane; Holding, Ellen; Hopper, Jane; Denk, Daniela; Fuchs-Baumgartinger, Andrea; Silbermayr, Katja; Nell, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral phacoclastic uveitis caused by lenticular infection with Encephalitozoon cuniculi is described in a snow leopard. The diagnosis was made on histopathological and immunohistological examination of both eyes submitted after postmortem examination. There was a positive antibody titer for E. cuniculi (1:320). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequence analysis of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded ocular tissue detected the DNA of E. cuniculi, strain III. No other systemic lesions attributable to the E. cuniculi infection were identified.

  13. Inducing pluripotency in somatic cells from the snow leopard (Panthera uncia), an endangered felid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, R; Holland, M K; Temple-Smith, P; Verma, P J

    2012-01-01

    Induced pluripotency is a new approach to produce embryonic stem-like cells from somatic cells that provides a unique means to understand both pluripotency and lineage assignment. To investigate whether this technology could be applied to endangered species, where the limited availability of gametes makes production and research on embryonic stem cells difficult, we attempted generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from snow leopard (Panthera uncia) fibroblasts by retroviral transfection with Moloney-based retroviral vectors (pMXs) encoding four factors (OCT4, SOX2, KLF4 and cMYC). This resulted in the formation of small colonies of cells, which could not be maintained beyond four passages (P4). However, addition of NANOG, to the transfection cocktail produced stable iPS cell colonies, which formed as early as D3. Colonies of cells were selected at D5 and expanded in vitro. The resulting cell line was positive for alkaline phosphatase (AP), OCT4, NANOG, and Stage-Specific embryonic Antigen-4 (SSEA-4) at P14. RT-PCR also confirmed that endogenous OCT4 and NANOG were expressed by snow leopard iPS cells from P4. All five human transgenes were transcribed at P4, but OCT4, SOX2 and NANOG transgenes were silenced as early as P14; therefore, reprogramming of the endogenous pluripotent genes had occurred. When injected into immune-deficient mice, snow leopard iPS cells formed teratomas containing tissues representative of the three germ layers. In conclusion, this was apparently the first derivation of iPS cells from the endangered snow leopard and the first report on induced pluripotency in felid species. Addition of NANOG to the reprogramming cocktail was essential for derivation of iPS lines in this felid. The iPS cells provided a unique source of pluripotent cells with utility in conservation through cryopreservation of genetics, as a source of reprogrammed donor cells for nuclear transfer or for directed differentiation to gametes in the future.

  14. Naloxone blocks the analgesic action of levorphanol but not of dextrorphan in the leopard frog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, C W; Pezalla, P D

    1984-05-28

    Intraspinal injection of levorphanol (3 micrograms) at the lumbar area of the leopard frog, Rana pipiens, induced analgesia which was completely blocked by co-injection of naloxone (3 micrograms), whereas dextrorphan (3 micrograms) induced analgesia which was unaffected by naloxone. Subcutaneous levorphanol (20 or 80 mg/kg) induced a dose-dependent analgesia which was blocked by concurrent naloxone (2 mg/kg), while only the higher dose of dextrorphan (80 mg/kg) induced analgesia which was unaffected by concurrent naloxone at 8 or 80 mg/kg. These data are the first to indicate naloxone-insensitive, dextrorphan-induced analgesia.

  15. First Report of Taenia taeniaeformis in Persian Leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Esfandiari and M. R.Youssefi1*

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Taenia taeniaeformis is synonym of Taenia infantis, Hydatigera taeniaeformis and Multiceps longihamatus. It has worldwide distribution. The leopard, a young female 2-3 years and body weight of 35 Kg, was shot unwillingly in a frighteningly close encounter with villagers in Ahovan County, Damghan city, Iran. One cestode obtained was identified as Taenia taeniaeformis. The worm was white, thick bodied and about 15 cm in length. The rostellum was short and armed with a double row of 28 hooks of two sizes.

  16. Predicting the Distribution of Asiatic Cheetah, Persian Leopard and Brown Bear in Response to EnvironmentalFactors in Isfahan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Hemami

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Distribution modelling is important for assessing threats and conservation status of species and for planning conservation programs. We studied the distribution of suitable habitats of Asiatic cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus venaticus, Persian leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor and brown bear (Ursus arctos in Isfahan province within and outside the protected areas. Suitable habitats of the three studied carnivores in Isfahan province were mapped in relation to climatic, topographic and anthropogenic variables using MAXENT. Assessing the developed model using the area under the ROC function showed that predictions for the three carnivore species were significantly better than random. Potential suitable habitats of Asiatic cheetah, Persian leopard and brown bear constituted 5.2%, 12% and 3.4% of the Isfahan province area, respectively. Slope was the most important factor determining Persian leopard habitat suitability, while climatic factors (mainly mean autumn and mean annual precipitation were the most important determinants of Asiatic cheetah and brown bear distribution. The protected area network within the province covers 55.7%, 23.7%, and 11.6% of the suitable habitats for Asiatic cheetah, Persian leopard and brown bear, respectively. Parts of suitable habitats of the three species are located outside the protected areas, which could be considered in planning conservation programs as potential movement corridors.

  17. A Communal Sign Post of Snow Leopards (Panthera uncia and Other Species on the Tibetan Plateau, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The snow leopard is a keystone species in mountain ecosystems of Central Asia and the Tibetan Plateau. However, little is known about the interactions between snow leopards and sympatric carnivores. Using infrared cameras, we found a rocky junction of two valleys in Sanjiangyuan area on the Tibetan Plateau where many mammals in this area passed and frequently marked and sniffed the site at the junction. We suggest that this site serves as a sign post to many species in this area, especially snow leopards and other carnivores. The marked signs may also alert the animals passing by to temporally segregate their activities to avoid potential conflicts. We used the Schoener index to measure the degree of temporal segregation among the species captured by infrared camera traps at this site. Our research reveals the probable ways of both intra- and interspecies communication and demonstrates that the degree of temporal segregation may correlate with the degree of potential interspecies competition. This is an important message to help understand the structure of animal communities. Discovery of the sign post clarifies the importance of identifying key habitats and sites of both snow leopards and other species for more effective conservation.

  18. Complex spatial dynamics maintain northern leopard frog (Lithobates pipiens) genetic diversity in a temporally varying landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushet, David M.; Euliss, Ned H.; Chen, Yongjiu; Stockwell, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to most local amphibian populations, northeastern populations of the Northern Leopard Frog (Lithobates pipiens) have displayed uncharacteristically high levels of genetic diversity that have been attributed to large, stable populations. However, this widely distributed species also occurs in areas known for great climatic fluctuations that should be reflected in corresponding fluctuations in population sizes and reduced genetic diversity. To test our hypothesis that Northern Leopard Frog genetic diversity would be reduced in areas subjected to significant climate variability, we examined the genetic diversity of L. pipiens collected from 12 sites within the Prairie Pothole Region of North Dakota. Despite the region's fluctuating climate that includes periods of recurring drought and deluge, we found unexpectedly high levels of genetic diversity approaching that of northeastern populations. Further, genetic structure at a landscape scale was strikingly homogeneous; genetic differentiation estimates (Dest) averaged 0.10 (SD = 0.036) across the six microsatellite loci we studied, and two Bayesian assignment tests (STRUCTURE and BAPS) failed to reveal the development of significant population structure across the 68 km breadth of our study area. These results suggest that L. pipiens in the Prairie Pothole Region consists of a large, panmictic population capable of maintaining high genetic diversity in the face of marked climate variability.

  19. Syndrome de Leopard, distúrbio da crista neural: relato de um caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurelio Lana Peixoto

    1981-06-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome de Leopard é uma condição autosoma dominante de variável expressão fenotípica. Uma minoria apenas dos pacientes apresenta todos os componentes da síndrome, ou seja, lentigenes múltiplas (L, alterações eletrocardiográficos (E, hipertelorismo ocular (O, estenose pulmonar (P, anormalidades genitais (A, retardo de crescimento (R, e surdez neurosensorial (D. Descrevemos o caso de uma criança com todos os componentes da síndrome além de outras anomalias não descritas anteriormente, tais como macroglossia, alterações dentárias, megacolon, ectopia anal e hipertrofia do clitoris, impressão basilar e platibasia. A presença de alterações dentárias e megacolon, representando envolvimento das papilas dentárias e de plexo mioentérico, derivados da crista neural, constitui nova evidência que favorece a hipótese de ser a síndrome de Leopard resultante de anomalia dos elementos da crista neural.

  20. How the leopard hides its spots: ASIP mutations and melanism in wild cats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexsandra Schneider

    Full Text Available The occurrence of melanism (darkening of the background coloration is documented in 13 felid species, in some cases reaching high frequencies at the population level. Recent analyses have indicated that it arose multiple times in the Felidae, with three different species exhibiting unique mutations associated with this trait. The causative mutations in the remaining species have so far not been identified, precluding a broader assessment of the evolutionary dynamics of melanism in the Felidae. Among these, the leopard (Panthera pardus is a particularly important target for research, given the iconic status of the 'black panther' and the extremely high frequency of melanism observed in some Asian populations. Another felid species from the same region, the Asian golden cat (Pardofelis temminckii, also exhibits frequent records of melanism in some areas. We have sequenced the coding region of the Agouti Signaling Protein (ASIP gene in multiple leopard and Asian golden cat individuals, and identified distinct mutations strongly associated with melanism in each of them. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP detected among the P. pardus individuals was caused by a nonsense mutation predicted to completely ablate ASIP function. A different SNP was identified in P. temminckii, causing a predicted amino acid change that should also induce loss of function. Our results reveal two additional cases of species-specific mutations implicated in melanism in the Felidae, and indicate that ASIP mutations may play an important role in naturally-occurring coloration polymorphism.

  1. CARCINOMA IN THE LEOPARD FROG: ITS PROBABLE CAUSATION BY A VIRUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucké, Balduin

    1938-01-01

    An epithelial tumor with acidophilic intranuclear inclusions frequently occurs in the kidneys of leopard frogs. This tumor usually has the appearance of an infiltrating and destructive adenocarcinoma, which, when large, not uncommonly metastasizes; less often it is more orderly and adenomatous. When inoculated as living fragments or cell suspensions into the lymph sacs, the cranial cavity, or the abdomen, no significant local growth results and the implanted material is resorbed. However, in approximately 20 per cent of the frogs surviving inoculation for more than 6 months, tumors develop in the kidney, which are like the "spontaneous" neoplasms. The incidence far exceeds that in the controls. Desiccated and glycerinated tumor injected into the abdomen gives the same result as inoculation with living tumor; in somewhat over 20 per cent of animals surviving more than 6 months kidney tumors occur. In alien species of frogs, no such tumors are produced by inoculation either with living or with desiccated tumor. These experiments indicate the probability that the kidney tumor of the leopard frog is caused by an inclusion-forming, organ-specific virus. PMID:19870798

  2. Scar-free cutaneous wound healing in the leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Hanna M; Gilbert, Emily A B; Vickaryous, Matthew K

    2015-11-01

    Cutaneous wounds heal with two possible outcomes: scarification or near-perfect integumentary restoration. Whereas scar formation has been intensively investigated, less is known about the tissue-level events characterising wounds that spontaneously heal scar-free, particularly in non-foetal amniotes. Here, a spatiotemporal investigation of scar-free cutaneous wound healing following full-thickness excisional biopsies to the tail and body of leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) is provided. All injuries healed without scarring. Cutaneous repair involves the development of a cell-rich aggregate within the wound bed, similar to scarring wounds. Unlike scar formation, scar-free healing involves a more rapid closure of the wound epithelium, and a delay in blood vessel development and collagen deposition within the wound bed. It was found that, while granulation tissue of scarring wounds is hypervascular, scar-free wound healing conspicuously does not involve a period of exuberant blood vessel formation. In addition, during scar-free wound healing the newly formed blood vessels are typically perivascular cell-supported. Immunohistochemistry revealed widespread expression of both the pro-angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor A and the anti-angiogenic factor thrombospondin-1 within the healing wound. It was found that scar-free wound healing is an intrinsic property of leopard gecko integument, and involves a modulation of the cutaneous scar repair program. This proportional revascularisation is an important factor in scar-free wound healing.

  3. Absence of neurotoxic effects in leopard sharks, Triakis semifasciata, following domoic acid exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, P; Reeves, C; Casper, D R; Davis, C R

    2006-06-01

    Domoic acid (DA), a potent neurotoxin produced by select species of algae and diatoms, kills neurons bearing kainic acid-type glutamate receptors. Studies have shown that DA bioaccumulates in invertebrates and fish that consume the diatoms. In every vertebrate species tested or observed in the wild, dietary or systemic DA causes neuronal damage or clinical signs of neurotoxicity. Sharks, like marine birds and mammals, are exposed to DA through their diet; however, no research has demonstrated the effect of DA on shark behavior or physiology. In this study, juvenile leopard sharks (Triakis semifasciata) were given DA by intracoelomic injection at doses of 0, 1, 3, 9, and 27 mg/kg and observed for 7 days. The sharks failed to demonstrate behavioral or histological changes in response to the toxin. We identified putative brain glutamate receptors by probing western blots with an antibody specific for kainic acid-type glutamate receptors and demonstrated receptor localization in the cerebellum with immunohistochemistry. Blood levels of DA in three sharks dosed at 9 mg/kg fell rapidly within 1.5h of injection. We show that leopard sharks possess the molecular target for DA but are resistant to doses of DA known to be toxic to other vertebrates.

  4. Examining Temporal Sample Scale and Model Choice with Spatial Capture-Recapture Models in the Common Leopard Panthera pardus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Joshua F; Tempa, Tshering; Norbu, Nawang; Hebblewhite, Mark; Mills, L Scott; Wangchuk, Tshewang R; Lukacs, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Many large carnivores occupy a wide geographic distribution, and face threats from habitat loss and fragmentation, poaching, prey depletion, and human wildlife-conflicts. Conservation requires robust techniques for estimating population densities and trends, but the elusive nature and low densities of many large carnivores make them difficult to detect. Spatial capture-recapture (SCR) models provide a means for handling imperfect detectability, while linking population estimates to individual movement patterns to provide more accurate estimates than standard approaches. Within this framework, we investigate the effect of different sample interval lengths on density estimates, using simulations and a common leopard (Panthera pardus) model system. We apply Bayesian SCR methods to 89 simulated datasets and camera-trapping data from 22 leopards captured 82 times during winter 2010-2011 in Royal Manas National Park, Bhutan. We show that sample interval length from daily, weekly, monthly or quarterly periods did not appreciably affect median abundance or density, but did influence precision. We observed the largest gains in precision when moving from quarterly to shorter intervals. We therefore recommend daily sampling intervals for monitoring rare or elusive species where practicable, but note that monthly or quarterly sample periods can have similar informative value. We further develop a novel application of Bayes factors to select models where multiple ecological factors are integrated into density estimation. Our simulations demonstrate that these methods can help identify the "true" explanatory mechanisms underlying the data. Using this method, we found strong evidence for sex-specific movement distributions in leopards, suggesting that sexual patterns of space-use influence density. This model estimated a density of 10.0 leopards/100 km2 (95% credibility interval: 6.25-15.93), comparable to contemporary estimates in Asia. These SCR methods provide a guide to

  5. A complex approach to study the Amur leopard using camera traps in Protected Areas in the southwest of Primorsky krai (Russian Far East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna V. Vitkalova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the methodology and preliminary results of a complex camera trap study of the Amur leopard. The main studies were concentrated on protected areas: the Land of the Leopard National Park with its buffer zone and the Kedrovaya Pad' Biosphere Reserve, a total area of 3600 sq.km. The first results of the 2014–2015 survey period are presented. According to spatial capture-recapture analysis at least 57 adult Amur leopards occupied the Russian protected areas with the density of about 0.98 individuals/100 sq.km. The sex ratio (male : female was 1:1.2. Five breeding females with 11 cubs were registered in 2014 and 9 females with 16 cubs in 2015. The basis was founded for long-term monitoring of and fundamental research on the Amur leopard in the protected areas in Primorsky Krai.

  6. A picture is worth a thousand data points: an imagery dataset of paired shrub-open microsites within the Carrizo Plain National Monument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Taylor J; Lortie, Christopher J; Westphal, Michael; Butterfield, H Scott

    2016-09-27

    Carrizo Plain National Monument (San Joaquin Desert, California, USA) is home to many threatened and endangered species including the blunt-nosed leopard lizard (Gambelia sila). Vegetation is dominated by annual grasses, and shrubs such as Mormon tea (Ephedra californica), which is of relevance to our target species, the federally listed blunt-nosed leopard lizard, and likely also provides key ecosystem services. We used relatively nonintrusive camera traps, or trail cameras, to capture interactions between animals and these shrubs using a paired shrub-open deployment. Cameras were placed within the shrub understory and in open microhabitats at ground level to estimate animal activity and determine species presence. Twenty cameras were deployed from April 1st, 2015 to July 5th, 2015 at paired shrub-open microsites at three locations. Over 425,000 pictures were taken during this time, of which 0.4 % detected mammals, birds, insects, and reptiles including the blunt-nosed leopard lizard. Trigger rate was very high on the medium sensitivity camera setting in this desert ecosystem, and rates did not differ between microsites. Camera traps are an effective, less invasive survey method for collecting data on the presence or absence of desert animals in shrub and open microhabitats. A more extensive array of cameras within an arid region would thus be an effective tool to estimate the presence of desert animals and potentially detect habitat use patterns.

  7. Who's behind that mask and cape? The Asian leopard cat's Agouti (ASIP) allele likely affects coat colour phenotype in the Bengal cat breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershony, L C; Penedo, M C T; Davis, B W; Murphy, W J; Helps, C R; Lyons, L A

    2014-12-01

    Coat colours and patterns are highly variable in cats and are determined mainly by several genes with Mendelian inheritance. A 2-bp deletion in agouti signalling protein (ASIP) is associated with melanism in domestic cats. Bengal cats are hybrids between domestic cats and Asian leopard cats (Prionailurus bengalensis), and the charcoal coat colouration/pattern in Bengals presents as a possible incomplete melanism. The complete coding region of ASIP was directly sequenced in Asian leopard, domestic and Bengal cats. Twenty-seven variants were identified between domestic and leopard cats and were investigated in Bengals and Savannahs, a hybrid with servals (Leptailurus serval). The leopard cat ASIP haplotype was distinguished from domestic cat by four synonymous and four non-synonymous exonic SNPs, as well as 19 intronic variants, including a 42-bp deletion in intron 4. Fifty-six of 64 reported charcoal cats were compound heterozygotes at ASIP, with leopard cat agouti (A(P) (be) ) and domestic cat non-agouti (a) haplotypes. Twenty-four Bengals had an additional unique haplotype (A2) for exon 2 that was not identified in leopard cats, servals or jungle cats (Felis chaus). The compound heterozygote state suggests the leopard cat allele, in combination with the recessive non-agouti allele, influences Bengal markings, producing a darker, yet not completely melanistic coat. This is the first validation of a leopard cat allele segregating in the Bengal breed and likely affecting their overall pelage phenotype. Genetic testing services need to be aware of the possible segregation of wild felid alleles in all assays performed on hybrid cats.

  8. Reversible immobilization of free-ranging snow leopards (panthera uncia) with a combination of medetomidine and tiletamine-zolazepam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Örjan; Malmsten, Jonas; Mishra, Charudutt; Lkhagvajav, Purevjav; McCarthy, Tom

    2013-04-01

    Conservation and research of the elusive snow leopard (Panthera uncia) have been hampered by inadequate knowledge about its basic life history. Global positioning system (GPS) collars can provide useful information, but there has been limited information available on safe capture methods, drug doses, and efficacy for effective immobilization of free-ranging snow leopards. We describe a drug protocol using a combination of medetomidine and tiletamine-zolazepam for the chemical immobilization of free-ranging snow leopards. We also describe physiologic responses to immobilization drugs, including rectal temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, and relative hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SpO2) recorded every 10 min. Our study was carried out in the Tost Mountains adjacent to the Great Gobi Desert, in southern Mongolia, between August 2008 and April 2012. Eighteen snow leopards were captured or recaptured with foot-snares on 42 occasions and anesthetized for marking with GPS collars. The snow leopards received on average (±SD) 0.020±0.04 mg/kg body mass medetomidine and 2.17±0.45 mg/kg tiletamine-zolazepam. The duration of ensuing anesthesia was 69±13 min, including an induction period of 10 (±4) min. Anesthesia was reversed with 4 mg (0.10±0.04 mg/kg) atipamezole administered intramuscularly. The mean value for SpO2 for the 37 captures where we could record physiologic values was 91±4. The SpO2 increased significantly during anesthesia (+0.06±0.02%/min), whereas rectal temperature (average 38.1±0.7 C/min, change -0.04±0.003 C/min), heart rate (average 97±9 beats/min, change -0.20±0.03 beats/min), and respiratory rate (average 26±6 breaths/min, change -0.11±0.03 breaths/min) decreased significantly. A dose of 80 mg tiletamine-zolazepam (2 mg/kg body weight) and 0.72 mg medetomidine (0.02 mg/kg body weight) safely immobilized all adult and subadult snow leopards (weight 25-45 kg) in our study. All measured physiologic values remained within clinically

  9. Specific Identification of a Taeniid Cestode from Snow Leopard, Uncia uncia Schreber, 1776 (Felidae in Mongolia

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    Sumiya Ganzorig

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available An unknown taeniid cestode, resembling Taenia hydatigena, was recovered from a snow leopard, Uncia uncia in Mongolia. Morphology and nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial cytochromec oxidase subunit 1 gene (mt DNA COI ofthe cestode found was examined. The cestode is differed from T hydatigena both morphologically and genetically. The differences between two species were in the gross length, different number of testes, presence of vaginal sphincter and in egg size. The nucleotide sequence of this cestode differed from that of 7: hydatigena at 34 of the 384 (8.6% nucleotide positions examined. The present cestode is very close to 7: kotlani in morphology and size of rostellar hooks. However, the adult stages of the latter species are unknown, and further comparison was unfeasible.

  10. Purulent meningoventriculitis caused by Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus in a snow leopard (Panthera uncia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, R; Nakamura, S; Hori, H; Kato, Y; Une, Y

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (SEZ) is a zoonotic pathogen that causes respiratory tract infections in man and animals. SEZ infections are very rare in felids. This report describes purulent meningoventriculitis caused by SEZ in an approximately 16-year-old male snow leopard (Panthera uncia). The animal exhibited neurological signs and died 1 month after their onset. On necropsy examination, the surface blood vessels of the brain were swollen and there was an increased volume and turbidity of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Microscopically, suppurative inflammation accompanied by gram-positive cocci was observed in the meninges and near the ventricles. SEZ was isolated from the brain tissue and CSF. This is the first report of infection with SEZ in a felid other than a domestic cat. This animal had not had direct contact with horses, but it had been fed horse flesh that may have been the source of infection.

  11. Oxidative stress induced in PCB 126-exposed northern leopard frogs, Rana pipiens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y.-W.; Hoffman, D.J.; Karasov, W.H.

    2007-01-01

    Northern leopard frogs Rana pipiens exposed to PCB 126 (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl) were examined for hepatic oxidative stress. In a dose-response study, northern leopard frogs were injected intraperitoneally with either PCB 126 in corn oil (0.2, 0.7, 2.3, or 7.8 mg/kg body weight) or corn oil alone. In a time-course study, frogs received 7.8 mg/kg or corn oil alone, and were examined at 1, 2, 3, and 4 wk after dosing. Hepatic concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and total sulfhydryls (total SH), as well as activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-P), GSSG reductase (GSSG-R), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH), and glutathione S-transferase (GSH-S-T) were measured. In the dose-response experiment, few effects were apparent 1 wk after dosing. In the time-course experiment, significant changes were observed in the 7.8-mg/kg group at 2 wk or more posttreatment. Hepatic concentrations of GSH and TBARS were higher than in corresponding controls at wk 3 and 4; the activities of GSSG-R and GSH-S-T were higher than in controls at wk 2 and 4; and the activity of G-6-PDH was increased at wk 2 and 4. These data collectively indicate that altered glutathione metabolism and oxidative stress occurred and were indicative of both toxicity and induction of protective mechanisms in frogs exposed to PCB. A similar delay in response was reported in fish and may relate to lower metabolic rate and physiological reactions in ectothermic vertebrates

  12. Behavioral Responses of Northern Leopard Frogs (Rana pipiens to Roads and Traffic: Implications for Population Persistence

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    Julie Bouchard

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A key goal in road ecology is to determine which species are most vulnerable to the negative effects of roads on population persistence. Theory suggests that species that avoid roads are less likely to be negatively affected by roads than those that do not avoid roads. The goal of this study was to take a step toward testing this prediction by evaluating the behavioral response to roads and traffic of a species whose populations are known to be negatively affected by roads and traffic, the northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens. We studied the movement patterns of northern leopard frogs during their spring migration from overwintering sites in a river to various breeding ponds that were disconnected from the river by roads. We performed short-distance translocations of migrating frogs, followed them visually, and documented their movement coordinates following each hop, both near the roads and in non-roaded areas. We found that frogs took longer to move near roads with more traffic and that their movement was quickest in areas without roads nearby. Frogs tended to deviate more from a straight-line course when they were released near roads than compared with control areas, but this response was independent of traffic volume. All frogs released near roads attempted to cross the road. On very low traffic roads (10.86 mean vehicles per hour, 94% of frogs crossed the road successfully, whereas at higher traffic roads (58.29 mean vehicles per hour 72% were successful. Our results suggest that frog's inability to avoid going onto roads and their slow movement combine to make them particularly vulnerable to road mortality, which likely explains the strong negative effects of roads on frog population abundance. Conservation efforts should focus on preventing frogs from accessing the road surface through the use of drift fencing and culverts.

  13. Experimental exposure of adult San Marcos salamanders and larval leopard frogs to the cercariae of Centrocestus formosanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, D C; Cantu, V; Huffman, D G

    2014-04-01

    The gill parasite Centrocestus formosanus (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) is an exotic parasite of concern in Texas because it has been shown to infect multiple threatened and endangered fish species. The purpose of this study was to determine if C. formosanus could present a threat to larval anurans, as well as threatened neotenic salamanders endemic to the spring-fed systems of Texas. We exposed adults of the San Marcos salamander Eurycea nana (Caudata: Plethodontidae) and tadpoles of the Rio Grande leopard frog Lithobates berlandieri (Anura: Ranidae) to the cercariae of C. formosanus . The San Marcos salamander showed no signs of metacercarial infection, suggesting that E. nana may be refractory to C. formosanus cercariae. Centrocestus formosanus readily infects the gills of leopard frog tadpoles, but the metacercariae apparently died prior to reaching maturity in our tadpoles.

  14. Intrauterine insemination with fresh semen in Amur leopard cat (Pionailurus bengalensis eutilura) during non-breeding season

    Science.gov (United States)

    TAJIMA, Hideo; YOSHIZAWA, Madoka; SASAKI, Shinichi; YAMAMOTO, Fujio; NARUSHIMA, Etsuo; TSUTSUI, Toshihiko; FUNAHASHI, Takashi; KUSUDA, Satoshi; DOI, Osamu; TATEYAMA, Yuriko; KOBAYASHI, Masanori; HORI, Tatsuya; KAWAKAMI, Eiichi

    2016-01-01

    Equine and human chorionic gonadotropins were administered to two female Amur leopard cats to induce estrus and ovulation during non-breeding season. Fresh semen collected from male cats was surgically inseminated into the uterine horn of the females. In one animal, two fetal sacs without heartbeats were observed on abdominal ultrasonography 31 days after insemination, which indicated that embryo death had occurred. In the other animal, fetal heartbeats were detected in two fetal sacs 29 days after insemination, which confirmed as pregnancy. This animal delivered two newborns 68 days after insemination; the one of the kittens was assumed to be stillbirth, and the other grew normally. In this study, we successfully obtained a kitten from an Amur leopard cat by artificial breeding for the first time in Japan. PMID:27733725

  15. [Using thin-layer chromatography of fecal bile acid to study the Persian leopard (Panthera pardus ciscaucasica) population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorozian, I G; Cazon, A; Malkhasian, A G; Abramov, A V

    2007-01-01

    Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) of fecal bile acids has been used to confirm visual identification of 30 scat samples found in Armenia from April 2004 to November 2005 and attributed to the Persian leopard (Panthera pardus ciscaucasica). The results of TLC do not differ significantly from those of visual identification, confirming the reliability of the latter method. All samples identified incorrectly (lynx and wolf scats) are from the Meghri Ridge, indicating that the ecological niches of the three predators apparently overlap in this area. Taking into account the frequency and distribution of scats, two priority areas for leopard conservation have been identified: the Central and Khachadzor districts of the Khosrov Nature Reserve and the Nuvadi-Shvanidzor area in eastern Meghri ridge.

  16. Temporal occurrence and community structure of helminth parasites in southern leopard frogs, Rana sphenocephala, from north central Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vhora, M Suhail; Bolek, Matthew G

    2015-03-01

    Currently, little information is available about the temporal recruitment of helminth communities in amphibian hosts. We examined the helminth community structure and temporal recruitment of helminth parasites in southern leopard frogs, Rana sphenocephala. Specifically, we were interested in how host life history such as habitat, age and/or size, diet, sex, and temporal variation in abiotic factors (precipitation and temperature) were important in determining monthly infection patterns of helminth populations and communities in southern leopard frogs. From May to September 2011, 74 southern leopard frogs were collected from Teal Ridge in Stillwater Payne County, OK, USA. Sixty-nine (93 %) of 74 frogs were infected with 1 or more helminth species. During our collecting period, the average monthly temperature was lowest in May and highest in July, and monthly precipitation was highest in May and lowest during the first week of September. The component community consisted of 11 species of helminth, including 1 larval and 1 adult cestode, 2 larval and 3 adult trematodes, and 1 juvenile and 3 adult nematodes. Of the 1790 helminths recovered, 51 % (911) were nematodes, 47 % (842) were cestodes, and 2 % (37) were trematodes. There were significant differences in the total abundance and mean species richness of helminths acquired by skin contact or through frog diet in monthly component communities of southern leopard frogs. A positive correlation existed for percentage of all helminths acquired by skin contact and monthly precipitation (r = 0.94, P < 0.01). Conversely, a negative correlation existed for monthly precipitation and percentage of helminths acquired by diet (r = -0.94, P < 0.01). Our results indicate that abiotic conditions such as precipitation have a major influence on the avenues for and constraints on the transmission of helminths with life cycles associated with water/moisture or terrestrial intermediate/paratenic hosts and are important in structuring

  17. Twenty-five thousand years of fluctuating selection on leopard complex spotting and congenital night blindness in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Arne; Reissmann, Monika; Benecke, Norbert; Bellone, Rebecca; Sandoval-Castellanos, Edson; Cieslak, Michael; Fortes, Gloria G; Morales-Muñiz, Arturo; Hofreiter, Michael; Pruvost, Melanie

    2015-01-19

    Leopard complex spotting is inherited by the incompletely dominant locus, LP, which also causes congenital stationary night blindness in homozygous horses. We investigated an associated single nucleotide polymorphism in the TRPM1 gene in 96 archaeological bones from 31 localities from Late Pleistocene (approx. 17 000 YBP) to medieval times. The first genetic evidence of LP spotting in Europe dates back to the Pleistocene. We tested for temporal changes in the LP associated allele frequency and estimated coefficients of selection by means of approximate Bayesian computation analyses. Our results show that at least some of the observed frequency changes are congruent with shifts in artificial selection pressure for the leopard complex spotting phenotype. In early domestic horses from Kirklareli-Kanligecit (Turkey) dating to 2700-2200 BC, a remarkably high number of leopard spotted horses (six of 10 individuals) was detected including one adult homozygote. However, LP seems to have largely disappeared during the late Bronze Age, suggesting selection against this phenotype in early domestic horses. During the Iron Age, LP reappeared, probably by reintroduction into the domestic gene pool from wild animals. This picture of alternating selective regimes might explain how genetic diversity was maintained in domestic animals despite selection for specific traits at different times.

  18. Comparison of tiletamine and zolazepam pharmacokinetics in tigers (Panthera tigris) and leopards (Panthera pardus): do species differences account for adverse effects in tigers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, J C M; Teale, P; Webber, G; Sear, J W; Taylor, P M

    2014-09-01

    Serious post-operative neurological complications of unknown aetiology are reported in tigers after immobilisation using tiletamine and zolazepam. These complications may arise from the persistent effects of tiletamine or active metabolites of tiletamine or zolazepam. Concentrations of tiletamine, zolazepam and some metabolites were measured using high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in plasma from captive tigers (n = 8) and leopards (n = 9; an unaffected species, for comparison) during anaesthesia for routine clinical procedures. The zolazepam:tiletamine (Z:T) ratio was calculated. Peak concentrations occurred at 9-33 min and ranged from 83.5 to 379.2 ng/mL for tiletamine and 301.1 to 1239.3 ng/mL for zolazepam after correction for dose by weight. There were no significant differences between tigers and leopards. The Z:T ratio was generally <5 and did not differ between species. In both tigers and leopards, zolazepam metabolism appeared to be primarily via demethylation. There was evidence for hydroxylation in leopards, but much less in tigers than leopards. No major differences between the species in parent pharmacokinetics were identified. The metabolism of tiletamine could not be defined with any degree of certainty for either species.

  19. Notes on the diet and habitat selection of the Sri Lankan Leopard Panthera pardus kotiya (Mammalia: Felidae in the central highlands of Sri Lanka

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    A.M. Kittle

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The endangered Sri Lankan Leopard Panthera pardus kotiya occupies the island’s highly fragmented central hills where data on its feeding ecology and habitat use is largely absent. This study’s objective was to investigate diet and resource selection of leopards here with a focus on the extent of potential interactions with humans in this heavily populated, largely unprotected landscape. Fecal sample analysis was undertaken to investigate diet and sign index counts and selectivity index analysis to determine habitat and landscape features important to fine scale leopard utilization. Results indicated that leopards in the central hills hunt a wide range of prey (at least 10 genera, including larger species where available (e.g., Sambar Rusa unicolor and smaller, more specialized prey (e.g., Porcupine Hystrix indica where necessary. No domestic species were recorded in scat analysis (N=35 despite the availability of dogs Canis familiaris, suggesting such predation may be atypical in Sri Lanka. Leopards use a range of landscapes within the region including established and regenerating forests, plantation lands (e.g., pine, eucalyptus, tea, and areas in close proximity to human settlement. At a fine scale, areas of dense undergrowth including tall grasslands were preferred to more open forest, as well as to Pine Pinus caribaea monocultures. Avoidance of humans may be influencing these patterns. This study has important implications as researchers and managers necessarily expand beyond focusing on protected areas toward integrated, landscape-level conservation strategies.

  20. Notes on the diet and habitat selection of the Sri Lankan Leopard Panthera pardus kotiya (Mammalia: Felidae in the central highlands of Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Kittle

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The endangered Sri Lankan Leopard Panthera pardus kotiya occupies the island’s highly fragmented central hills where data on its feeding ecology and habitat use is largely absent. This study’s objective was to investigate diet and resource selection of leopards here with a focus on the extent of potential interactions with humans in this heavily populated, largely unprotected landscape. Fecal sample analysis was undertaken to investigate diet and sign index counts and selectivity index analysis to determine habitat and landscape features important to fine scale leopard utilization. Results indicated that leopards in the central hills hunt a wide range of prey (at least 10 genera, including larger species where available (e.g., Sambar Rusa unicolor and smaller, more specialized prey (e.g., Porcupine Hystrix indica where necessary. No domestic species were recorded in scat analysis (N=35 despite the availability of dogs Canis familiaris, suggesting such predation may be atypical in Sri Lanka. Leopards use a range of landscapes within the region including established and regenerating forests, plantation lands (e.g., pine, eucalyptus, tea, and areas in close proximity to human settlement. At a fine scale, areas of dense undergrowth including tall grasslands were preferred to more open forest, as well as to Pine Pinus caribaea monocultures. Avoidance of humans may be influencing these patterns. This study has important implications as researchers and managers necessarily expand beyond focusing on protected areas toward integrated, landscape-level conservation strategies.

  1. Modeling habitat connectivity to inform reintroductions: a case study with the Chiricahua Leopard Frog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarchow, Christopher J.; Hossack, Blake R.; Sigafus, Brent H.; Schwalbe, Cecil R.; Muths, Erin L.

    2016-01-01

    Managing species with intensive tools such as reintroduction may focus on single sites or entire landscapes. For vagile species, long-term persistence will require colonization and establishment in neighboring habitats. Therefore, both suitable colonization sites and suitable dispersal corridors between sites are required. Assessment of landscapes for both requirements can contribute to ranking and selection of reintroduction areas, thereby improving management success. Following eradication of invasive American Bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) from most of Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge (BANWR; Arizona, United States), larval Chiricahua Leopard Frogs (Lithobates chiricahuensis) from a private pond were reintroduced into three stock ponds. Populations became established at all three reintroduction sites followed by colonization of neighboring ponds in subsequent years. Our aim was to better understand colonization patterns by the federally threatened L. chiricahuensis which could help inform other reintroduction efforts. We assessed the influence of four landscape features on colonization. Using surveys from 2007 and information about the landscape, we developed a habitat connectivity model, based on electrical circuit theory, that identified potential dispersal corridors after explicitly accounting for imperfect detection of frogs. Landscape features provided little insight into why some sites were colonized and others were not, results that are likely because of the uniformity of the BANWR landscape. While corridor modeling may be effective in more-complex landscapes, our results suggest focusing on local habitat will be more useful at BANWR. We also illustrate that existing data, even when limited in spatial or temporal resolution, can provide information useful in formulating management actions.

  2. Branchial blood flow distribution in the blue shark (Prionace glauca) and the leopard shark (Triakis semifasciata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, N C; Graham, J B; Bhargava, V; Lowell, W R; Shabetai, R

    1989-01-01

    Electromagnetic flow (EMF) quantification of total cardiac stroke flow is not feasible for most elasmobranchs because the vascular anatomy precludes probe placement adjacent to the heart and proximal to all afferent branchial arteries (aba). Most previous studies report a fractional cardiac flow, made with the EMF probe placed on the ventral aorta between the innominate arteries and aba 3. Estimation of total cardiac stroke flow from such data requires a flow correction factor obtained by sacrificing the fish, and carrying out a two step in situ/in vitro flow calibration procedure which is based on tenuous assumptions. Ventral aortic blood flow measurements using the EMF techniques were carried out on large blue sharks, and radiographic imaging studies of ventral aortic and branchial blood flow were done on leopard sharks to verify previously estimated fractional cardiac stroke flow correction factors. The innominate flow fraction determined for both species in these studies are similar and agree with previous estimates for elasmobranchs. EMF data for Prionace show 38% of cardiac stroke flow goes to the innominate arteries, 23% into aba 3, 12% into aba 4, and 27% into aba 5. Radiographic analyses with Triakis reveal that 32% of its cardiac stroke volume flows into the innominate arteries which is in agreement with the in situ/in vitro fractional flow estimate (33%).

  3. Tissue-specific transcriptome characterization for developing tadpoles of the northern leopard frog (Lithobates pipiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Row, Jeffrey R; Donaldson, Michael E; Longhi, Jessica N; Saville, Barry J; Murray, Dennis L

    2016-12-01

    A potential cause of amphibian population declines are the impacts of environmental degradation on tadpole development. We conducted RNA sequencing on developing northern leopard frog tadpoles and through de novo transcriptome assembly we annotated a large number of open reading frames comparable in number and extent to genes identified in Xenopus. Using our transcriptome, we found transcript level changes between early (Gosner 26-31) and late (Gosner 36-41) stage tadpoles were the greatest in the tail, which is reabsorbed throughout development. There was an up-regulation of immunity genes in both the head and tail of the late tadpoles and a down-regulation of genes associated with the energy pathways of the mitochondria and the production of myosin. Overall, transcript level changes across development were consistent with studies on Xenopus and our findings highlight the broader utility of using RNA-seq to identify genes differentially expressed throughout development and in response to environmental pressures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Evidences Dependent Population Distribution Patterns of Tiger and Leopard in Similipal Tiger Reserve, Odisha, India

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    Sandeep Ranjan Mishra

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Tiger (Panthera tigris is an endangered carnivore with uncertain demographic status spanning 13 Asian countries. Due to its larger body size and carnivorous diet in nature it always occurs at low population densities. Further prey depletion due to overhunting (Karanth & Stith, 1998, poaching, habitat shrinkage (Kenny et al., 1995, Wcs, 1995 and direct killing altogether have also become a major factor for depletion of wild tiger populations tiger. Monitoring the abundance and its alteration is always important for the effective management of endangered species. Tiger is categorized as “Endangered” on the IUCN Red List (IUCN, 2008 and listed under Schedule-I of Wildlife (Protection Act, 1972 in India and Appendix-I of the CITES. Leopard (Panthera pardus is also included in the Schedule- I of the Indian Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 and is placed under “Least Concern” category of 2002 IUCN Red List of threatened animals. Similipal Tiger Reserve is one of the largest Tiger Reserves of India with an area of 2750 km2. Therefore we have to depend mainly on the direct sightings and evidence records of the animals to analysis the status and distribution pattern of these two big cats in the core area of this Tiger Reserve.

  5. Unlikely remedy: fungicide clears infection from pathogenic fungus in larval southern leopard frogs (Lithobates sphenocephalus.

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    Shane M Hanlon

    Full Text Available Amphibians are often exposed to a wide variety of perturbations. Two of these, pesticides and pathogens, are linked to declines in both amphibian health and population viability. Many studies have examined the separate effects of such perturbations; however, few have examined the effects of simultaneous exposure of both to amphibians. In this study, we exposed larval southern leopard frog tadpoles (Lithobates sphenocephalus to the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and the fungicide thiophanate-methyl (TM at 0.6 mg/L under laboratory conditions. The experiment was continued until all larvae completed metamorphosis or died. Overall, TM facilitated increases in tadpole mass and length. Additionally, individuals exposed to both TM and Bd were heavier and larger, compared to all other treatments. TM also cleared Bd in infected larvae. We conclude that TM affects larval anurans to facilitate growth and development while clearing Bd infection. Our findings highlight the need for more research into multiple perturbations, specifically pesticides and disease, to further promote amphibian heath.

  6. Using landscape and bioclimatic features to predict the distribution of lions, leopards and spotted hyaenas in Tanzania's Ruaha landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abade, Leandro; Macdonald, David W; Dickman, Amy J

    2014-01-01

    Tanzania's Ruaha landscape is an international priority area for large carnivores, supporting over 10% of the world's lions and important populations of leopards and spotted hyaenas. However, lack of ecological data on large carnivore distribution and habitat use hinders the development of effective carnivore conservation strategies in this critical landscape. Therefore, the study aimed to (i) identify the most significant ecogeographical variables influencing the potential distribution of lions, leopards and spotted hyaenas across the Ruaha landscape; (ii) identify zones with highest suitability for harbouring those species; and (iii) use species distribution modelling algorithms (SDMs) to define important areas for conservation of large carnivores. Habitat suitability was calculated based on environmental features from georeferenced presence-only carnivore location data. Potential distribution of large carnivores appeared to be strongly influenced by water availability; highly suitable areas were situated close to rivers and experienced above average annual precipitation. Net primary productivity and tree cover also exerted some influence on habitat suitability. All three species showed relatively narrow niche breadth and low tolerance to changes in habitat characteristics. From 21,050 km2 assessed, 8.1% (1,702 km2) emerged as highly suitable for all three large carnivores collectively. Of that area, 95.4% (1,624 km2) was located within 30 km of the Park-village border, raising concerns about human-carnivore conflict. This was of particular concern for spotted hyaenas, as they were located significantly closer to the Park boundary than lions and leopards. This study provides the first map of potential carnivore distribution across the globally important Ruaha landscape, and demonstrates that SDMs can be effective for understanding large carnivore habitat requirements in poorly sampled areas. This approach could have relevance for many other important wildlife

  7. Movement of leopard tortoises in response to environmental and climatic variables in a semi-arid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabik-Hamshare, Martyn; Downs, Colleen T

    2017-01-01

    Tortoises (Testudinidae) occur in a wide range of environments, providing important ecosystem functions, such as seed dispersal and refuge in the form of burrows. Tortoise movement has previously been shown to be related to resource availability, reproductive status and local environmental conditions. However, understanding of the variables that drive their movement remains comparatively low. We investigated aspects of movement in leopard tortoises Stigmochelys pardalis-the largest and most abundant tortoise species in sub-Saharan Africa-in response to environmental, climatic and individual variables in the semi-arid Karoo, South Africa. We used GPS telemetry to calculate bihourly and daily movement and used generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) to ascertain important predictor variables. Temperature, distance from water sources, and month were important variables for predicting both bihourly and daily movement. Our results showed that movement increased when individuals were close to known water sources, indicating that individuals close to water resources make regular long distance movements. Movement showed a positive relationship for temperature in both models, whilst rainfall was an important predictor for bihourly movement. Our results displayed aspects of seasonality, with movement highest in spring months, likely related to reproductive activities, although no sex differences were observed. We identified temporal and spatial conditions in which leopard tortoise movement increased. Our results further support the relationship between water as a resource and movement in leopard tortoises. Individuals used one of two basic movement behaviours in relation to water in this water scarce environment. Either an individual's home range and movements included permanent water resources allowing internal water storage replenishment, or excluded these with reliance on food resources (such as grasses, forbs, and succulents) for water.

  8. Using landscape and bioclimatic features to predict the distribution of lions, leopards and spotted hyaenas in Tanzania's Ruaha landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Abade

    Full Text Available Tanzania's Ruaha landscape is an international priority area for large carnivores, supporting over 10% of the world's lions and important populations of leopards and spotted hyaenas. However, lack of ecological data on large carnivore distribution and habitat use hinders the development of effective carnivore conservation strategies in this critical landscape. Therefore, the study aimed to (i identify the most significant ecogeographical variables influencing the potential distribution of lions, leopards and spotted hyaenas across the Ruaha landscape; (ii identify zones with highest suitability for harbouring those species; and (iii use species distribution modelling algorithms (SDMs to define important areas for conservation of large carnivores. Habitat suitability was calculated based on environmental features from georeferenced presence-only carnivore location data. Potential distribution of large carnivores appeared to be strongly influenced by water availability; highly suitable areas were situated close to rivers and experienced above average annual precipitation. Net primary productivity and tree cover also exerted some influence on habitat suitability. All three species showed relatively narrow niche breadth and low tolerance to changes in habitat characteristics. From 21,050 km2 assessed, 8.1% (1,702 km2 emerged as highly suitable for all three large carnivores collectively. Of that area, 95.4% (1,624 km2 was located within 30 km of the Park-village border, raising concerns about human-carnivore conflict. This was of particular concern for spotted hyaenas, as they were located significantly closer to the Park boundary than lions and leopards. This study provides the first map of potential carnivore distribution across the globally important Ruaha landscape, and demonstrates that SDMs can be effective for understanding large carnivore habitat requirements in poorly sampled areas. This approach could have relevance for many other

  9. Effects of shepherds and dogs on livestock depredation by leopards (Panthera pardus) in north-eastern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorozyan, Igor; Soofi, Mahmood; Soufi, Mobin; Hamidi, Amirhossein Khaleghi; Ghoddousi, Arash; Waltert, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Human-carnivore conflicts over livestock depredation are increasingly common, yet little is understood about the role of husbandry in conflict mitigation. As shepherds and guarding dogs are most commonly used to curb carnivore attacks on grazing livestock, evaluation and improvement of these practices becomes an important task. We addressed this issue by studying individual leopard (Panthera pardus) attacks on sheep and goats in 34 villages near Golestan National Park, Iran. We obtained and analyzed data on 39 attacks, which included a total loss of 31 sheep and 36 goats in 17 villages. We applied non-parametric testing, Poisson Generalized Linear Modelling (GLM) and model selection to assess how numbers of sheep and goats killed per attack are associated with the presence and absence of shepherds and dogs during attacks, depredation in previous years, villages, seasons, ethnic groups, numbers of sheep and goats kept in villages, and distances from villages to the nearest protected areas. We found that 95.5% of losses were inflicted in forests when sheep and goats were accompanied by shepherds (92.5% of losses) and dogs (77.6%). Leopards tended to kill more sheep and goats per attack (surplus killing) when dogs were absent in villages distant from protected areas, but still inflicted most losses when dogs were present, mainly in villages near protected areas. No other variables affected numbers of sheep and goats killed per attack. These results indicate that local husbandry practices are ineffectual and the mere presence of shepherds and guarding dogs is not enough to secure protection. Shepherds witnessed leopard attacks, but could not deter them while dogs did not exhibit guarding behavior and were sometimes killed by leopards. In an attempt to make practical, low-cost and socially acceptable improvements in local husbandry, we suggest that dogs are raised to create a strong social bond with livestock, shepherds use only best available dogs, small flocks are

  10. Phylogenetic relationships of leopard frogs (Rana pipiens complex) from an isolated coastal mountain range in southern Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiler, E; Markow, T A

    2008-10-01

    Mitochondrial DNA sequence data from the control region and 12S rRNA in leopard frogs from the Sierra El Aguaje of southern Sonora, Mexico, together with GenBank sequences, were used to infer taxonomic identity and provide phylogenetic hypotheses for relationships with other members of the Rana pipiens complex. We show that frogs from the Sierra El Aguaje belong to the Rana berlandieri subgroup, or Scurrilirana clade, of the R. pipiens group, and are most closely related to Rana magnaocularis from Nayarit, Mexico. We also provide further evidence that Rana magnaocularis and R. yavapaiensis are close relatives.

  11. Effects of shepherds and dogs on livestock depredation by leopards (Panthera pardus in north-eastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Khorozyan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Human-carnivore conflicts over livestock depredation are increasingly common, yet little is understood about the role of husbandry in conflict mitigation. As shepherds and guarding dogs are most commonly used to curb carnivore attacks on grazing livestock, evaluation and improvement of these practices becomes an important task. We addressed this issue by studying individual leopard (Panthera pardus attacks on sheep and goats in 34 villages near Golestan National Park, Iran. We obtained and analyzed data on 39 attacks, which included a total loss of 31 sheep and 36 goats in 17 villages. We applied non-parametric testing, Poisson Generalized Linear Modelling (GLM and model selection to assess how numbers of sheep and goats killed per attack are associated with the presence and absence of shepherds and dogs during attacks, depredation in previous years, villages, seasons, ethnic groups, numbers of sheep and goats kept in villages, and distances from villages to the nearest protected areas. We found that 95.5% of losses were inflicted in forests when sheep and goats were accompanied by shepherds (92.5% of losses and dogs (77.6%. Leopards tended to kill more sheep and goats per attack (surplus killing when dogs were absent in villages distant from protected areas, but still inflicted most losses when dogs were present, mainly in villages near protected areas. No other variables affected numbers of sheep and goats killed per attack. These results indicate that local husbandry practices are ineffectual and the mere presence of shepherds and guarding dogs is not enough to secure protection. Shepherds witnessed leopard attacks, but could not deter them while dogs did not exhibit guarding behavior and were sometimes killed by leopards. In an attempt to make practical, low-cost and socially acceptable improvements in local husbandry, we suggest that dogs are raised to create a strong social bond with livestock, shepherds use only best available dogs, small

  12. Long-term monitoring of fecal steroid hormones in female snow leopards (Panthera uncia during pregnancy or pseudopregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodzue Kinoshita

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the basic reproductive physiology of snow leopards is required urgently in order to develop a suitable management conditions under captivity. In this study, the long-term monitoring of concentrations of three steroid hormones in fecal matter of three female snow leopards was performed using enzyme immunoassays: (1 estradiol-17β, (2 progesterone and (3 cortisol metabolite. Two of the female animals were housed with a male during the winter breeding season, and copulated around the day the estradiol-17β metabolite peaked subsequently becoming pregnant. The other female was treated in two different ways: (1 first housed with a male in all year round and then (2 in the winter season only. She did not mate with him on the first occasion, but did so latter around when estradiol-17β metabolite peaked, and became pseudopregnant. During pregnancy, progesterone metabolite concentrations increased for 92 or 94 days, with this period being approximately twice as long as in the pseudopregnant case (31, 42, 49 and 53 days. The levels of cortisol metabolite in the pseudopregnant female (1.35 µg/g were significantly higher than in the pregnant females (0.33 and 0.24 µg/g (P<0.05. Similarly, during the breeding season, the levels of estradiol-17β metabolite in the pseudopregnant female (2.18 µg/g were significantly higher than those in the pregnant females (0.81 and 0.85 µg/g (P<0.05. Unlike cortisol the average levels of estradiol-17β during the breeding season were independent of reproductive success.The hormone levels may also be related to housing conditions and the resulting reproductive success in female leopards. The female housed with a male during the non-breeding season had high levels of cortisol metabolites and low levels of estradiol-17β in the breeding season, and failed to become pregnant. This indicates that housing conditions in snow leopards may be an important factor for normal endocrine secretion and resulting breeding

  13. Interactive effects of competition and predator cues on immune responses of leopard frogs at metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groner, Maya L; Rollins-Smith, Louise A; Reinert, Laura K; Hempel, John; Bier, Mark E; Relyea, Rick A

    2014-02-01

    Recent hypotheses suggest that immunosuppression, resulting from altered environmental conditions, may contribute to the increased incidence of amphibian disease around the world. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in amphibian skin are an important innate immune defense against fungal, viral and bacterial pathogens. Their release is tightly coupled with release of the stress hormone noradrenaline (norepinephrine). During metamorphosis, AMPs may constitute the primary immune response in the skin of some species because acquired immune functions are temporarily suppressed in order to prevent autoimmunity against new adult antigens. Suppression of AMPs during this transitional stage may impact disease rates. We exposed leopard frog tadpoles (Lithobates pipiens) to a factorial combination of competitor and caged-predator environments and measured their development, growth and production of hydrophobic skin peptides after metamorphosis. In the absence of predator cues, or if the exposure to predator cues was late in ontogeny, competition caused more than a 250% increase in mass-standardized hydrophobic skin peptides. Predator cues caused a decrease in mass-standardized hydrophobic skin peptides when the exposure was late in ontogeny under low competition, but otherwise had no effect. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry of the skin peptides showed that they include six AMPs in the brevinin and temporin families and at least three of these peptides are previously uncharacterized. Both of these peptide families have previously been shown to inhibit harmful microbes including Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, the fungal pathogen associated with global amphibian declines. Our study shows that amphibians may be able to adjust their skin peptide defenses in response to stressors that are experienced early in ontogeny and that these effects extend through an important life-history transition.

  14. Toxic effects of endrin and toxaphene on the southern leopard frog Rana sphenocephala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, R.J.; Swineford, D.

    1980-01-01

    Eggs, larvae and sub-adults of the southern leopard frog Rana sphenocephala were exposed to endrin and toxaphene. Exposure was in water by a continuous-flow technique, following standards that have been used successfully in the study of fish and invertebrates. R. sphenocephala is more sensitive to both pesticides than are higher vertebrates but is slightly less sensitive than fish. Eggs seem to be resistant to the effects of both pesticides and are probably poor indicators of environmental hazard. The toxic level of endrin is about equal in larvae and transformed frogs (LC50, 0?005-0?015 ppm). Toxaphene is less toxic to sub-adults (LC50, 0?37-0?790 ppm) than to larvae (LC50, 0?032-0?054 ppm). Delayed mortality, behavioural aberrations and effects on growth have been seen in toxaphene-dosed larvae observed over 30-day periods. Behavioural effects are more severe than those reported in other groups of animals. Effects on growth resulting from a 96-h exposure begin in the 0?013-0?018 ppm range. The maximum accumulation of residues observed for each chemical represented bioconcentration factors of about 100. Endrin residues are apparently lost more readily than toxaphene residues; relative depuration rates correlate well with the time course of toxic action in each chemical. Although less sensitive to these pesticides than fish, amphibians may not be protected in their natural habitats. Future studies of the effects of toxicants on amphibians should employ larvae if only one stage can be tested, should expose subjects for at least 96 h and should continue observations for a total of at least 30 days.

  15. Heterocercal tail function in leopard sharks: a three-dimensional kinematic analysis of two models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry; Lauder

    1996-01-01

    Two different models have been proposed to explain the function of the heterocercal tail in shark locomotion. The classical model proposes that, as a result of lift generated by the tail as it beats, the net force acting on the tail is directed dorsally and anteriorly. In contrast, Thomson's model suggests that the tail generates a net force directed through the shark's center of gravity, i.e. ventrally and anteriorly. In this study, we evaluate these two models by describing the three-dimensional kinematics of the heterocercal tail in the leopard shark Triakis semifasciata during swimming. Lateral and posterior views of the tail were examined from four individuals swimming in a flow tank at 1.2 L s-1 (where L is total length) using two high-speed video cameras filming simultaneously at 250 fields s-1. These two simultaneous views allowed eight landmarks on the tail to be followed in three dimensions through time. These landmarks allowed the tail to be divided into separate surfaces whose orientation over time was calculated. Points located anteriorly on the tail go through significantly smaller excursions and reach their maximum lateral excursion significantly earlier in the beat cycle than points on the trailing edge of the tail. Three-dimensional angle calculations show that the terminal lobe leads the ventral lobe through a beat, as predicted by the classical model. Dye-stream visualizations confirmed that this pattern of movement deflects water ventrally and posteriorly to the moving tail, providing strong support for the classical model. Additionally, our results show that a three-dimensional analysis is critical to understanding the function of the heterocercal tail.

  16. A novel amniote model of epimorphic regeneration: the leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLean Katherine E

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epimorphic regeneration results in the restoration of lost tissues and structures from an aggregation of proliferating cells known as a blastema. Among amniotes the most striking example of epimorphic regeneration comes from tail regenerating lizards. Although tail regeneration is often studied in the context of ecological costs and benefits, details of the sequence of tissue-level events are lacking. Here we investigate the anatomical and histological events that characterize tail regeneration in the leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius. Results Tail structure and tissue composition were examined at multiple days following tail loss, revealing a conserved pattern of regeneration. Removal of the tail results in a consistent series of morphological and histological events. Tail loss is followed by a latent period of wound healing with no visible signs of regenerative outgrowth. During this latent period basal cells of the epidermis proliferate and gradually cover the wound. An additional aggregation of proliferating cells accumulates adjacent to the distal tip of the severed spinal cord marking the first appearance of the blastema. Continued growth of the blastema is matched by the initiation of angiogenesis, followed by the re-development of peripheral axons and the ependymal tube of the spinal cord. Skeletal tissue differentiation, corresponding with the expression of Sox9, and muscle re-development are delayed until tail outgrowth is well underway. Conclusions We demonstrate that tail regeneration in lizards involves a highly conserved sequence of events permitting the establishment of a staging table. We show that tail loss is followed by a latent period of scar-free healing of the wound site, and that regeneration is blastema-mediated. We conclude that the major events of epimorphic regeneration are highly conserved across vertebrates and that a comparative approach is an invaluable biomedical tool for ongoing

  17. A review of the proposed reintroduction program for the Far Eastern leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis) and the role of conservation organizations, veterinarians, and zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Paul; Stack, David; Harley, Jessica

    2013-11-01

    The Amur leopard is at the point of extinction. At present there are fewer than 35 in the wild. Their natural habitat ranges from China to the North Korean peninsula to Primorsky Krai in Russia. A reintroduction plan has been proposed to increase the population in the wild; however, this proposed plan still has many questions to be answered as to how effective it will be. The main objective is to reintroduce animals from a select group within the Far Eastern leopard programme or the Species Survival programme, which consist of leopards from select populations in the Northern Hemisphere. Zoos are central to the success of this plan, providing suitable breeding pairs to breed animals for reintroduction and also raising much needed funds to finance the project. Zoos are also central in educating the public about the critical status of the Amur leopard and other endangered animals of the world. Veterinary surgeons, by the very nature of their professional skills, are at the forefront of this seemingly endless battle against extinction of thousands of species that are critical to maintaining the balance of our fragile ecosystem. Veterinarians can analyze the health risks and health implications of reintroduction on the animals to be reintroduced and also on the native population. A world without large cats is a world hard to imagine. If we look closer at the implications of extinction, we see the domino effect of their loss and an ecosystem out of control.

  18. Perspectives provided by leopard and other cat genomes: how diet determined the evolutionary history of carnivores, omnivores, and herbivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soonok; Cho, Yun Sung; Bhak, Jong; O’Brian, Stephen J.; Yeo, Joo-Hong

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in genome sequencing technologies have enabled humans to generate and investigate the genomes of wild species. This includes the big cat family, such as tigers, lions, and leopards. Adding the first high quality leopard genome, we have performed an in-depth comparative analysis to identify the genomic signatures in the evolution of felid to become the top predators on land. Our study focused on how the carnivore genomes, as compared to the omnivore or herbivore genomes, shared evolutionary adaptations in genes associated with nutrient metabolism, muscle strength, agility, and other traits responsible for hunting and meat digestion. We found genetic evidence that genomes represent what animals eat through modifying genes. Highly conserved genetically relevant regions were discovered in genomes at the family level. Also, the Felidae family genomes exhibited low levels of genetic diversity associated with decreased population sizes, presumably because of their strict diet, suggesting their vulnerability and critical conservation status. Our findings can be used for human health enhancement, since we share the same genes as cats with some variation. This is an example how wildlife genomes can be a critical resource for human evolution, providing key genetic marker information for disease treatment. PMID:28042784

  19. Chemical characterization of milk oligosaccharides of an African lion (Panthera leo) and a clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senda, Akitsugu; Hatakeyama, Emi; Kobayashi, Rui; Fukuda, Kenji; Uemura, Yusuke; Saito, Tadao; Packer, Craig; Oftedal, Olav T; Urashima, Tadasu

    2010-12-01

    The Carnivora include the superfamilies Canoidea and Feloidea. In species of Canoidea other than the domestic dog, Canis lupus, the milk contains only traces of lactose and much larger concentrations of oligosaccharides. In this study, lactose was found to be the dominant saccharide in the milk or colostrum of two species of Feloidea, namely the African lion (Panthera leo) and the clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa). In addition to lactose, the following oligosaccharides were characterized in the milk of a lion; Neu5Gc(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (3'-NGc-SL), Fuc(α1-2)Gal(β1-4)Glc (2'-fucosyllactose) and GalNAc(α1-3)[Fuc(α1-2)]Gal(β1-4)Glc (A-tetrasaccharide). The colostrum of a clouded leopard contained 3'-NGc-SL, Gal(α1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (isoglobotriose) and A-tetrasaccharide. These oligosaccharides differ in some respects from those previously identified in another species of Feloidea, the spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta). These milks contained 3'-NGc-SL and A-tetrasaccharide, while spotted hyena colostrum did not; however, it contained Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (3'-NAc-SL) and Gal(α1-3)[Fuc(α1-2)]Gal(β1-4)Glc (B-tetrasaccharide).

  20. The regenerated tail of juvenile leopard geckos (Gekkota: Eublepharidae: Eublepharis macularius) preferentially stores more fat than the original.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Anthony P; Lynn, Sabrina E; Powell, G Lawrence; Cottle, Andrew

    2015-06-01

    The tail of many species of lizard is used as a site of fat storage, and caudal autotomy is a widespread phenomenon among lizards. This means that caudal fat stores are at risk of being lost if the tail is autotomized. For fat-tailed species, such as the leopard gecko, this may be particularly costly. Previous work has shown that tail regeneration in juveniles of this species is rapid and that it receives priority for energy allocation, even when dietary resources are markedly reduced. We found that the regenerated tails of juvenile leopard geckos are more massive than their original counterparts, regardless of dietary intake, and that they exhibit greater amounts of skeleton, inner fat, muscle and subcutaneous fat than original tails (as assessed through cross-sectional area measurements of positionally equivalent stations along the tail). Autotomy and regeneration result in changes in tail shape, mass and the pattern of tissue distribution within the tail. The regenerated tail exhibits enhanced fat storage capacity, even in the face of a diet that results in significant slowing of body growth. Body growth is thus sacrificed at the expense of rapid tail growth. Fat stores laid down rapidly in the regenerating tail may later be used to fuel body growth or reproductive investment. The regenerated tail thus seems to have adaptive roles of its own, and provides a potential vehicle for studying trade-offs that relate to life history strategy.

  1. Determination of in vivo toxicity and in vitro cytotoxicity of venom from the Cypriot blunt-nosed viper Macrovipera lebetina lebetina and antivenom production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nalbantsoy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The venomous Levantine viper, Macrovipera lebetina lebetina is endemic to Cyprus. The objective of this study was to investigate in vitro cytotoxicity, in vivo lethality, and antivenom production followed by a re-immunization schedule in mice against Macrovipera lebetina lebetina venom. The LD50 value was estimated as 7.58 mg/kg within 24 hours by different venom doses administrated intraperitoneally in mice. Freund's complete and incomplete adjuvants were used for first and second immunization of mice in antivenom production. A cell-based assay was performed to determine the effects of Macrovipera lebetina lebetina venom and antivenom neutralizing potency on L929 cell viability. The snake venom toxicity and cytotoxicity were examined and comparison of results showed good correlation, the LD50 value was tenfold higher than the IC50 value. The IC50 value was 0.62 ± 0.18 mL after 48 hours treatment while the calculated value was 1.62 ± 0.25 mL for the culture media totally refreshed after two hours treatment with venom. The in vitro efficacy of antivenom against Macrovipera lebetina lebetina venom was found to be low. This is the first report that describes the in vivo and in vitro toxic effects of Macrovipera lebetina lebetina venom and antivenom production against this species.

  2. Low Pressure Flame Blowoff from the Forward Stagnation Region of a Blunt-Nosed Cast PMMA Cylinder in Axial Mixed Convective Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcum, J. W.; Rachow, P.; Ferkul, P. V.; Olson, S. L.

    2017-01-01

    Low-pressure blowoff experiments were conducted with a stagnation flame stabilized on the forward tip of cast PMMA rods in a vertical wind tunnel. Pressure, forced flow velocity, gravity, and ambient oxygen concentration were varied. Stagnation flame blowoff is determined from a time-stamped video recording of the test. The blowoff pressure is determined from test section pressure transducer data that is synchronized with the time stamp. The forced flow velocity is also determined from the choked flow orifice pressure. Most of the tests were performed in normal gravity, but a handful of microgravity tests were also conducted to determine the influence of buoyant flow velocity on the blowoff limits. The blowoff limits are found to have a linear dependence between the partial pressure of oxygen and the total pressure, regardless of forced flow velocity and gravity level. The flow velocity (forced and/or buoyant) affects the blowoff pressure through the critical Damkohler number residence time, which dictates the partial pressure of oxygen at blowoff. This is because the critical stretch rate increases linearly with increasing pressure at low pressure (sub-atmospheric pressures) since a second-order overall reaction rate with two-body reactions dominates in this pressure range.

  3. Effect of temperature on electrical resonance in leopard frog saccular hair cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smotherman, M S; Narins, P M

    1998-01-01

    Leopard frog saccular hair cells exhibit an electrical resonance in response to a depolarizing stimulus that has been proposed to contribute to the tuning properties of the frog sacculus by acting as an electrical band-pass filter. With the whole cell patch-clamp technique, we have investigated the effect of temperature on electrical resonances in isolated saccular hair cells, and we have described the effects of temperature on the currents and channel kinetics underlying electrical resonance. A hair cell's onset resonant frequency in response to a constant depolarizing current pulse increases linearly with temperature at a rate of 11 Hz/1 degrees C, exhibiting a mean Q10 of 1.7 between 15 and 35 degrees C. However, offset resonant frequencies continue to double every 10 degrees C, exhibiting a mean Q10 of 2.1. If steady-state voltage during the stimulus is held constant, all oscillatory frequencies increase with a mean Q10 of 2.1. The average level of steady-state depolarization during a +150-pA depolarizing current pulse decreases with increasing temperature (-6 mV from 15 to 25 degrees C). This temperature-dependent reduction of the steady-state membrane potential causes a shift in the voltage-dependent channel kinetics to slower rates, thus reducing the apparent Q10 for onset resonant frequencies. The peak outward tail current and net steady-state outward current, which is the sum of a voltage-dependent inward calcium current (ICa) and an outward calcium-dependent potassium current (IK(Ca)), increase with temperature, exhibiting a mean Q10 of 1.7 between 15 and 25 degrees C. The activation rate (T1/2) of the outward current exhibits a mean Q10 of 2.3 between 15 and 25 degrees C, while the deactivation rate (taurel) exhibits a mean Q10 of 2.9 over the same temperature range. These results support previous models of the molecular determination of resonant frequency, which have proposed that a combination of IK(Ca) channel kinetics and the overall magnitude of the

  4. 新疆托木尔峰国家级自然保护区雪豹的种群密度%Population density of snow leopards (Panthera uncia) in Tomur National Nature Reserve of Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐峰; 马鸣; 吴逸群

    2011-01-01

    @@ 雪豹(Panthera uncia)是一种仅公布于中亚高山地区的珍稀濒危大型猫科动物,被IUCN红皮书列为濒危物种,并被收录入CITES公约附录Ⅰ,在中国雪豹被列为国家一级重点保护动物(杨奇森和冯祚建,1998).%Tomur National Nature Reserve ( TNNR) is located in northwestern Xinjiang near the border between China and Kyrgyzstan, and is one of the largest nature reserves associated with snow leopards ( Panthera uncial ) in China.We surveyed snow leopards from October 2004 to December 2005 to investigate their population density and number in TNNR.Using a sign survey and a prey availability survey, we estimated the snow leopard population density and compared the results with camera trap survey results in TNNR, and tried to find a less laborintensive and relatively accurate method to estimate snow leopard population density.By sign surveys, we recorded the snow leopard sign density about 8.63/km.With this sign density, we estimated the snow leopard population density in TNNR was 2 - 5/100km2 with the total number of 47.52 - 118.8 using Jackson's method, and 1.99 -3.47/100km2 for population density and 47.28 - 82.45 for total number using Formozov's method.We estimated the population density of the main snow leopard prey species, ibex, in the TNNR was 270/100km2.Using McCarthy's methods, we estimated the snow leopard population density according to ibex density was 1.59-3.23/100km2 and thus the total number 37.78 -76.46.Compared with the camera trap results which showed that the snow leopard population density was 2.0 -3.2/100km2 , we found Formozov's sign survey and prey availability survey were relatively accurate for estimating snow leopard population density.In the absence of enough labor and effort, these methods are suggested for investigating snow leopard population density.

  5. Síndrome Leopard e miocardiopatia hipertrófica: uma associação relacionada à morte súbita Síndrome leopard y miocardiopatía hipertrófica: una asociación relacionada a la muerte súbita Leopard syndrome and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: an association related to sudden death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murillo de Oliveira Antunes

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Relatamos a rara associação entre síndrome Leopard e miocardiopatia hipertrófica em mulher de 27 anos, pouco sintomática, que veio para estratificação e prevenção de risco de morte súbita. Portadora de uma síndrome rara, que se manifesta com pequenas máculas disseminadas pelo corpo, além de alterações oculares, genitais, cardíacas e de crescimento. A associação de miocardiopatia hipertrófica com fatores de risco de morte súbita determinou a indicação do implante de cardiodesfibrilador (CDI para prevenção primária.Relatamos la rara asociación entre síndrome Leopard y miocardiopatía hipertrófica en una mujer de 27 años, poco sintomática, que vino para estratificación y prevención de riesgo de muerte súbita. Portadora de un síndrome raro, que se manifiesta con pequeñas manchas diseminadas por el cuerpo, además de alteraciones oculares, genitales, cardíacas y de crecimiento. La asociación de miocardiopatía hipertrófica con factores de riesgo de muerte súbita determinó la indicación del implante de cardiodesfibrilador (CDI para prevención primaria.We describe an uncommon association between Leopard syndrome and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in a 27-year-old woman, who was little symptomatic and came for sudden death risk stratification and prevention. She has a rare syndrome, whose symptoms are maculae over the body and abnormalities in eyes, genital organs, heart and in growth. Association of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with sudden death risk factors determined the implantation of cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD for primary prevention.

  6. COMBINATION THERAPY WITH FLUOXETINE AND ALPRAZOLAM TO CONTROL ANXIETY IN A HAND-REARED SNOW LEOPARD (UNCIA UNCIA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Holly J

    2016-09-01

    A captive hand-reared adult male snow leopard ( Uncia uncia ) was treated for anxiety associated with taunting from visitors, the presence of large crowds, and introduction to a female for breeding. Behaviors included shaking, chewing on tail, panting, panicking, and bouncing off the viewing glass, pacing, and avoidance of the female. Combination therapy of oral fluoxetine and alprazolam were administered initially to minimize anxious behaviors while the fluoxetine achieved therapeutic levels. The alprazolam was tapered completely and was only used episodically on two occasions. Although a palatability issue with alprazolam initially prevented consistent dosing, anxious behavior was eliminated and successful breeding behavior was achieved for the first time. After 44 mo of therapy, there have been no anxious behaviors requiring additional medications, two additional breeding behaviors observed, and no evidence of adverse side effects with long-term use.

  7. Prevalence of the pathogenic chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, in an endangered population of northern leopard frogs, Rana pipiens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govindarajulu Purnima

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emerging infectious diseases threaten naïve host populations with extinction. Chytridiomycosis, an emerging infectious disease of amphibians, is caused by the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd and has been linked to global declines in amphibians. Results We monitored the prevalence of Bd for four years in the Northern leopard frog, Rana pipiens, which is critically imperiled in British Columbia (BC, Canada. The prevalence of Bd initially increased and then remained constant over the last three years of the study. Young of the year emerging from breeding ponds in summer were rarely infected with Bd. Some individuals cleared their Bd infections and the return rate between infected and uninfected individuals was not significantly different. Conclusions The BC population of R. pipiens appears to have evolved a level of resistance that allows it to co-exist with Bd. However, this small population of R. pipiens remains vulnerable to extinction.

  8. Understanding the role of representations of human-leopard conflict in Mumbai through media-content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Saloni; Athreya, Vidya; Grenyer, Richard; MacDonald, David W

    2013-06-01

    Attempts to minimize the effects of human-wildlife conflict (HWC) on conservation goals require an understanding of the mechanisms by which such conflicts are caused and sustained. This necessitates looking beyond the natural sciences to the human dimensions of wildlife management. Public dissemination of information regarding HWC occurs largely through the mass media. We conducted a content analysis of print media articles on human-leopard conflict in Mumbai, India. We sought to understand the framing of HWC and the changes in media coverage over a 10-year period (2001-2011) during which a large number of attacks on people prior to 2005 were followed by a program of trapping and relocation. After 2005, when there was a decrease in the level of conflict, the tone of English-language media reports changed. The perpetrator framing was over 5 times more likely before 2005, whereas a neutral framing was twice as likely after 2005. English-language and non-English-language print media differed significantly in their framing of HWC and in the kinds of solutions advocated. Our results also suggest the print mass media in Mumbai could be an influential conduit for content that diminishes HWC. These media outlets seem attentive to human-leopard conflict, capable of correcting erroneous perceptions and facilitating mitigation and effective management. We believe better contact and mutual understanding between conservation professionals and the mass media could be an important component of managing HWC. We further suggest that in such interactions conservation professionals need to be aware of cultural and linguistic differences in reporting within the country. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  9. 安全文化之“人人都是安全员”%The leopard ditch coal safety culture:“everyone is safe”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德军; 赵文杰

    2013-01-01

    豹子沟煤业公司系统地开展了“人人都是安全员”的安全文化建设,达到了提高所有员工安全知识的根本目的,确保了生产、生活安全,实现了自建矿以来安全生产“零”事故的好成绩。%Mountain Coal Group leopard ditch coal.safety emergency exercise enhances the mine disaster resilience,systematically. “Everyone is a secur-ity guard”of safety culture construction,improve staff safety knowledge,safety culture and safety skills,to ensure that the underground,Inoue safety,pro-duction,leopard ditch coal maintained since building mine safety accident“zero”.

  10. Sex difference in choice of concealed or exposed refuge sites by preschool children viewing a model leopard in a playground simulation of antipredator behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G. Coss

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study of preschool children characterizes a semi-natural extension of experimental questions on how human ancestors evaded predation when encountering dangerous felids. In a pretend game on a playground, we presented full-size leopard and deer models to children (N = 39 in a repeatedmeasures experimental design. Prior to viewing the model presented 15-m away, each child was instructed by the experimenter to go where she or he would feel safe. The rationale for this study was based on the anthropological construct of “sexual dinichism,” positing that, during the Pliocene, smaller-bodied hominin females engaged in more arboreal behavior than larger-bodied males. Consistent with this construct, our previous simulation research using images of an African rock outcrop showed that, after viewing a lion, girls preferred a tree as refuge rather than a crevice or large boulder whereas boys did not differentiate these refuge sites. In this follow-up study, we predicted that, after viewing the model leopard, the preschool girls would differ from the boys by not choosing enclosed refuge sites analogous to the crevice. Analyses of a contingency table for the leopard model supported this hypothesis by yielding a significant interaction of sex and refuge location (p = .031, d = .76, the source of which was a reliably larger percentage of girls not choosing concealed refuge (p = .005, d = 2.3. The interaction of sex and refuge location for the model deer was not significant (p > .5. Our findings suggest that, in contrast to the deer, the girls selected exposed playground refuge sites rather than concealing ones to maintain visual contact with the leopard as a contingency for future action

  11. 近60年来雪豹(Uncia uncia)研究的文献分析%Literature analysis on snow leopard research during last six decades

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彦; 马鸣; 买尔旦·吐尔干

    2012-01-01

    The statistical analysis on the bibliographic record of scientific thesis on the snow leopard from international and domestic publications from 1950 -2010 and 1964 -2010 was conducted respectively. The philological principles and methods from different aspects such as year, author, institution and key word were used to investigate the distribution pattern, current status of snow leopard research thesis to reveal the current progress in this thematic research field worldwide. Results showed that the year 2008 was the most prosperous year with the highest record in the published literature both in China and overseas. The nations with relatively high output are China, Norway, the United States, India and Mongolia. China's specific research on the snow leopard was highly concentrated on the two major research teams as Xinjiang institute of Ecology and Geography and Beijing Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The hot topics of snow leopard research were those like conservation, ecology, human and wildlife conflict, biodiversity, endangered animal, gene, habitat, population density and food resource; the hot spots are such areas like the Qinghai Tibetan Plateau, Al-tuntagh National Reserve, the Altay Mountain, Hengduan Mountain, Tashkurghan, the Mount Everest and the Tomur Peak Natural Reserve.%应用文献计量学的原理和方法,就外文1950-2010年,中文1964-2010年公开发表的雪豹生物学研究文献进行统计和分析.分别从雪豹研究文献的发文年代、作者、机构和

  12. Characterization of major histocompatibility complex class I, and class II DRB loci of captive and wild Indian leopards (Panthera pardus fusca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Drashti R; Mitra, Siuli; Bhadouriya, Snehalata; Rao, Tirupathi; Kunteepuram, Vaishnavi; Gaur, Ajay

    2017-08-22

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC), in vertebrate animals, is a multi-genic protein complex that encodes various receptors. During a disease, MHC interacts with the antigen and triggers a cascade of adaptive immune responses to overcome a disease outbreak. The MHC is very important region from immunological point of view, but it is poorly characterized among Indian leopards. During this investigation, we examined genetic diversity for MHC class I (MHC-I) and MHC class II-DRB (MHC-II) among wild and captive Indian leopards. This study estimated a pool of 9 and 17 alleles for MHC-I and MHC-II, respectively. The wild group of individuals showed higher nucleotide diversity and amino acid polymorphism compared to the captive group. A phylogenetic comparison with other felids revealed a clustering in MHC-I and interspersed presence in MHC-II sequences. A test for selection also revealed a deviation from neutrality at MHC-II DRB loci and higher non-synonymous substitution rate (dN) among the individuals from wild group. Further, the wild individuals showed higher dN for both MHC I and II genes compared to the group that was bred under captive conditions. These findings suggest the role of micro-evolutionary forces, such as pathogen-mediated selection, to cause MHC variations among the two groups of Indian leopards, because the two groups have been bred in two different environments for a substantial period of time. Since, MHC diversity is often linked with the quality of immunological health; the results obtained from this study fill the gap of knowledge on disease predisposition among wild and captive Indian leopards.

  13. First report of a mixed infection of Trichinella nelsoni and Trichinella T8 in a leopard (Panthera pardus from the Greater Kruger National Park, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis J. La Grange

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available At least three Trichinella species, namely Trichinella nelsoni, Trichinella britovi and Trichinella zimbabwensis, and one genotype (Trichinella T8, have been isolated from sylvatic carnivores on the African continent. With the exception of T. britovi, the other species are known to circulate in wildlife of the Kruger National Park (KNP, South Africa, and KNP neighbouring game reserves (collectively known as the greater KNP area. Lions (Panthera leo and spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta appear to be the most important reservoirs of T. nelsoni and Trichinella T8 in the KNP and surrounding areas. Interspecies predation between lions and hyenas has been implicated as a primary mode of maintaining the life cycles of these two Trichinella species. This is the first report of a mixed natural infection of T. nelsoni and Trichinella T8 in a leopard (Panthera pardus from South Africa. Trichinella muscle larvae were identified to species level by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Probable sources of infection, based on the known dietary preference and prey species’ range of leopards, are also discussed. The described occurrence of Trichinella species in a leopard from the greater KNP area raises the question of possible sources of infection for this predator species.

  14. First report of a mixed infection of Trichinella nelsoni and Trichinella T8 in a leopard (Panthera pardus) from the Greater Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Grange, Louis J; Reininghaus, Björn; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2014-11-20

    At least three Trichinella species, namely Trichinella nelsoni, Trichinella britovi and Trichinella zimbabwensis, and one genotype (Trichinella T8), have been isolated from sylvatic carnivores on the African continent. With the exception of T. britovi, the other species are known to circulate in wildlife of the Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa, and KNP neighbouring game reserves (collectively known as the greater KNP area). Lions (Panthera leo) and spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) appear to be the most important reservoirs of T. nelsoni and Trichinella T8 in the KNP and surrounding areas. Interspecies predation between lions and hyenas has been implicated as a primary mode of maintaining the life cycles of these two Trichinella species. This is the first report of a mixed natural infection of T. nelsoni and Trichinella T8 in a leopard (Panthera pardus) from South Africa. Trichinella muscle larvae were identified to species level by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Probable sources of infection, based on the known dietary preference and prey species' range of leopards, are also discussed. The described occurrence of Trichinella species in a leopard from the greater KNP area raises the question of possible sources of infection for this predator species.

  15. Survival of a native mammalian carnivore, the leopard cat Prionailurus bengalensis Kerr, 1792 (Carnivora: Felidae, in an agricultural landscape on an oceanic Philippine island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R.P. Lorica

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about vulnerability of mammalian carnivores to extinction, especially on small islands, appear to conflict with prior reports of endemic populations of leopard cat Prionailurus bengalensis (Kerr, 1792 surviving in agricultural landscapes on oceanic islands. We investigated the persistence of the Visayan leopard cat (P. b. rabori in the sugarcane fields on Negros, an oceanic island in central Philippines. A population remained throughout the year at our study site on a sugarcane farm, and reproduction was noted. Non-native rodents form the bulk of the cat diet, followed by reptiles, birds, amphibians, and insects. Prey species identified from the samples commonly occur in agricultural areas in the Philippines. Prey composition did not vary significantly with respect to wet and dry season, or sugarcane harvest cycle. This study provides evidence that an intensively managed agricultural landscape on this oceanic island supports a native obligate carnivore that subsists primarily on exotic rats. This study supports a prior prediction that leopard cats will show flexibility in prey selection on islands with few or no native small mammal prey species, but in this case they do so not by switching to other vertebrates and invertebrates, but rather to exotic pest species of rodents.

  16. Feeding induces translocation of vacuolar proton ATPase and pendrin to the membrane of leopard shark (Triakis semifasciata) mitochondrion-rich gill cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roa, Jinae N; Munévar, Christian L; Tresguerres, Martin

    2014-08-01

    In this study we characterized mitochondrion-rich (MR) cells and regulation of acid/base (A/B) relevant ion-transporting proteins in leopard shark (Triakis semifasciata) gills. Immunohistochemistry revealed that leopard shark gills posses two separate cell populations that abundantly express either Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase (NKA) or V-H⁺-ATPase (VHA), but not both ATPases together. Co-immunolocalization with mitochondrial Complex IV demonstrated, for the first time in shark gills, that both NKA- and VHA-rich cells are also MR cells, and that all MR cells are either NKA- or VHA-rich cells. Additionally we localized the anion exchanger pendrin to VHA-rich cells, but not NKA-rich cells. In starved sharks, VHA was localized throughout the cell cytoplasm and pendrin was present at the apical pole (but not in the membrane). However, in a significant number of gill cells from fed leopard sharks, VHA translocated to the basolateral membrane (as previously described in dogfish), and pendrin translocated to the apical membrane. Our results highlight the importance of translocation of ion-transporting proteins to the cell membrane as a regulatory mechanism for A/B regulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Efficient induction of spawning of Northern leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens) during and outside the natural breeding season

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Amphibian declines are now recognized globally. It is also well known that many anurans do not reproduce easily in captivity, especially when held over long periods, or if they require hibernation before breeding. A simple method to induce spawning and subsequent development of large numbers of healthy tadpoles is therefore required to meet research and conservation goals. Methods The method is based on simultaneous injection of both female and male leopard frogs, Lithobates pipiens (formerly called Rana pipiens) with a cocktail of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-A) and a dopamine antagonist. We call this the AMPHIPLEX method, which is derived from the combination of the words amphibian and amplexus. Following injection, the animals are thereby induced, and perform amplexus and natural fertilization under captive conditions. Results We tested combinations of a GnRH agonist with 2 different dopamine antagonists in L. pipiens in the breeding season. The combination of des-Gly10, D-Ala6, Pro-NHEt9-GnRH (0.4 micrograms/g body weight; GnRH-A) with metoclopramide hydrochloride (10 micrograms/g body weight; MET) or domperidone (DOM) were equally effective, producing 89% and 88% successful spawning, respectively. This yielded more than 44,000 eggs for the 16/18 females that ovulated in the GnRH-A+MET group, and more than 39,000 eggs for the 15/17 females that ovulated in the GnRH-A+DOM group. We further tested the GnRH-A+MET in frogs collected in the wild in late autumn and hibernated for a short period under laboratory conditions, and report a low spawning success (43%). However, GnRH-A priming 24 hours prior to injections of the GnRH-A+MET cocktail in animals hibernated for 5–6 weeks produced out-of-season spawning (89%) and fertilization (85%) comparable to those we observed for in-season spawning. Assessment of age and weight at metamorphosis indicated that L. pipiens tadpoles resulting from out-of-season spawning grew normally and

  18. Effects of predatory fish on survival and behavior of larval gopher frogs (Rana capito) and Southern Leopard Frogs (Rana sphenocephala)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoire, D.R.; Gunzburger, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    Southern Leopard Frogs, Rana sphenocephala, are habitat generalists occurring in virtually all freshwater habitats within their geographic range, whereas Gopher Frogs, Rana capito, typically breed in ponds that do not normally contain fish. To evaluate the potential for predation by fish to influence the distribution of these species, we conducted a randomized factorial experiment. We examined the survival rate and behavior of tadpoles when exposed to Warmouth Sunfish, Lepomis gulosus, Banded Sunfish, Enneacanthus obesus, and Eastern Mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki. We also conducted a choice experiment to examine the survival rate of the two species of tadpoles when a predator is given a choice of both species simultaneously. Lepomis gulosus consumed the most tadpoles and ate significantly more tadpoles of R. capito than R. sphenocephala. Gambusia holbrooki injured the most tadpoles, especially R. capito. Enneacanthus obesus did not have an effect on behavior or survival of either anuran species. Tadpoles of both anurans increased hiding when in the presence of L. gulosus and G. holbrooki, but a greater proportion of R. capito hid than did R. sphenocephala. Our results suggest that R. capito are more vulnerable to predation by fish than are R. sphenocephala. The introduction of fish may play a role in population declines of certain anurans breeding in normally fish-free wetlands, and even small fish, such as mosquitofish, may have significant negative effects on the tadpoles of R. capito. Copyright 2008 Society for the Study or Amphibians and Reptiles.

  19. Heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis infection in a leopard (Panthera pardus pardus housed in a zoological park in north-eastern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frangipane di Regalbono Antonio

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Canine heartworm (cHW disease is now recognised as potential cause of serious disease in cats and other felids, especially in endemic areas. In March 2009, a 23-years-old male African leopard (Panthera pardus pardus housed in a zoological park located in the Province of Padova (Veneto Region, a cHW endemic area of the north-eastern Italy, died and was immediately necropsied. A cloth completely occluding the pyloric lumen was considered the presumptive cause of death. During necropsy, six nematodes (4 males and 2 females were found within the right ventricle of the heart and the pulmonary artery. Diagnosis of HW (Dirofilaria immitis infection was carried out by morphological features of adult worms and microfilariae, and then confirmed by detection of circulating HW antigens using a commercial SNAP kit (IDEXX Laboratories inc., USA. D. immitis infection was also confirmed by PCR amplification of the 5S ribosomal spacer region, performed on worm fragments and microfilaraemic blood samples obtained from the right ventricle of the heart. A glomerulonephritis of immuno-mediated origin and most likely associated with the HW infection is also reported. HW chemoprophylaxis and annual serological testing on wild felids housed outdoors in endemic cHW disease areas are recommended. This is the first diagnosis of D. immitis infection in an exotic felid in Italy.

  20. Atomic physics of relativistic high contrast laser-produced plasmas in experiments on Leopard laser facility at UNR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safronova, A. S.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Faenov, A. Y.; Safronova, U. I.; Wiewior, P.; Renard-Le Galloudec, N.; Esaulov, A. A.; Weller, M. E.; Stafford, A.; Wilcox, P.; Shrestha, I.; Ouart, N. D.; Shlyaptseva, V.; Osborne, G. C.; Chalyy, O.; Paudel, Y.

    2012-06-01

    The results of the recent experiments focused on study of x-ray radiation from multicharged plasmas irradiated by relativistic (I > 1019 W/cm2) sub-ps laser pulses on Leopard laser facility at NTF/UNR are presented. These shots were done under different experimental conditions related to laser pulse and contrast. In particular, the duration of the laser pulse was 350 fs or 0.8 ns and the contrast was varied from high (10-7) to moderate (10-5). The thin laser targets (from 4 to 750 μm) made of a broad range of materials (from Teflon to iron and molybden to tungsten and gold) were utilized. Using the x-ray diagnostics including the high-precision spectrometer with resolution R ˜ 3000 and a survey spectrometer, we have observed unique spectral features that are illustrated in this paper. Specifically, the observed L-shell spectra for Fe targets subject to high intensity lasers (˜1019 W/cm2) indicate electron beams, while at lower intensities (˜1016 W/cm2) or for Cu targets there is much less evidence for an electron beam. In addition, K-shell Mg features with dielectronic satellites from high-Rydberg states, and the new K-shell F features with dielectronic satellites including exotic transitions from hollow ions are highlighted.

  1. Swimming fundamentals: turning performance of leopard sharks (Triakis semifasciata) is predicted by body shape and postural reconfiguration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Marianne E; Roque, Cassandra M; Long, John H

    2011-12-01

    Turns are essential maneuvers that sharks employ when foraging, feeding, and migrating. How well any individual performs in turning is determined, in part, by the static form and postural reconfiguration of its body. Since the importance of postural reconfiguration in determining turning performance is not well understood, our goal was to examine how body form and posture correlate with turning performance in juvenile leopard sharks, Triakis semifasciata. From videos of sharks turning laterally in yaw, performance was measured as turning radius, turning angle, angular speed of the head, and translational speed of the body along its path. Body form variables included the body's length, mass, width, second moment of area, and mass moment of inertia. Postural variables included body-bending coefficient, body flexion at different longitudinal positions, and lag time between body flexion and turning of the center of rotation. Using step-wise linear regression followed by multiple regression, each performance variable was regressed onto three pools of independent variables: (i) all form variables alone, (ii) all postural variables alone, and (iii) a combination of all form and postural variables. From these correlations, it appears that turning performance may be controlled primarily by the magnitude and timing of the flexion of the body. In other words, sharks alter how they turn by changing the pattern in which they bend their bodies; the body acts as a dynamically reconfiguring rudder.

  2. Next generation sequencing yields complete mitogenomes of Leopard whipray (Himantura leoparda) and Blue-spotted stingray (Neotrygon kuhlii) (Chondrichthyes: Dasyatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Kang-Ning; Chang, Chih-Wei; Tsai, Shiou-Yi; Wu, Shan-Chun; Lin, Zi-Han; Chan, Yen-Fan; Chen, Ching-Hung; Hsiao, Chung-Der; Borsa, Philippe

    2016-07-01

    The Leopard whipray (Himantura leoparda) and Blue-spotted stingray (Neotrygon kuhlii) are distributed in the Indian and West Pacific Ocean and considered as complex species based on morphological and molecular evidences. In this study, we used the next-generation sequencing method to decode two complete mitogenomes of H. leoparda and N. kuhlii. The assembled mitogenome, consisting lengths of 17,690 bp for H. leoparda and 17,974 bp for N. kuhlii, shows 78% identity to each other. Both mitogenomes follow the typical vertebrate arrangement, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs genes and a non-coding control region of D-loop. D-loop with the lengths 1931 bp (H. leoparda) and 2243 bp (N. kuhlii) is located between tRNA-Pro and tRNA-Phe. The overall GC content is 40.3% for H. leoparda and 39.8% for N. kuhlii. The complete mitogenome of H. leoparda and N. kuhlii provides essential and important DNA molecular data for further phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses for stingray species complex.

  3. Monitoring of Population Density of Snow Leopard in Xinjiang.%新疆雪豹种群密度监测方法探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马鸣; 徐峰; Bariushaa Munkhtsog; 吴逸群; Tomas McCarthy; Kyle McCarthy

    2011-01-01

    2004-2010年间,前后累计270多天,新疆雪豹研究小组在新疆北塔山、阿尔泰山、昆仑山、天山东部和托木尔峰地区20多个地点(山谷),对雪豹(Uncia uncia)的痕迹进行了全面调查,共计完成150多条样线,总长度接近190 km,痕迹数平均为1~3个·km-1.记录到的痕迹有粪团、嗅痕(气味标记)、足迹链、刨痕(刨坑)、爪痕、卧迹、毛发、尿迹、血迹、剩余食物(动物尸体)和吼声等.通过痕迹学的分析,初步掌握雪豹的领域范围、分布规律和相对密度.之后开展了红外相机拍摄、雪豹食物资源普查、市场毛皮调查、贸易通道调查、杀戮案件搜集、民间问卷调查、非政府组织(NGO)社区服务与牧业冲突调研等工作.同期布设红外相机36台,约2094个照相日,计50 256 h,回收胶卷71个,回收清晰雪豹照片32张,平均拍摄率或"捕获率"(capture rate)达1.53%.确定在托木尔峰250 km2范围内有5~8只雪豹活动,密度为2.0~3.2只·(100 km2)-1.在比较分析各种监测结果的基础上,讨论了新疆雪豹种群密度不同监测方法的优点与局限性.%The snow leopard ( Uncia uncia) is a very rare species in China. The survey of traces of snow leopard in Kunlun, Ahay and Tianshan is the main step of the "Project of Snow Leopard in Xinjiang" supported by the International Snow Leopard Trust (SLT) and the Xinjiang Conservation Fund (XCF). During the field survey from 2004 to 2010, the Xinjiang Snow Leopard Group (XSLG) spent about 270 days in over 20 different places, covering over 150 transects totaling nearly 190 kin, and found 1 -3 traces per kilometer. The traces of snow leopard recorded include dung, odor, chains of footprints, scraping, paw nail marks, lying mark, fur, urine, bloodstain, leftover of prey corpse, roaring and others.Based on tracerima analyses, the XSLG got to know primarily scopes of the domains, distribution and relative density of the snow leopard in these areas. Then

  4. Successive deaths of a captive snow leopard (Uncia uncia) and a serval (Leptailurus serval) by infection with feline panleukopenia virus at Sapporo Maruyama Zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassa, Yukiko; Yamamoto, Hideaki; Mochizuki, Masami; Umemura, Takashi; Horiuchi, Motohiro; Ishiguro, Naotaka; Miyazawa, Takayuki

    2011-04-01

    Feline parvoviruses were isolated from frozen samples of intestines taken from a snow leopard (Uncia uncia) and a serval (Leptailurus serval) that died successively at Sapporo Maruyama Zoo in Hokkaido, Japan. Isolates possessed an antigenic epitope for both the feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV) and mink enteritis virus, identified with a hemagglutination inhibition test. Sequencing analyses of the VP2 region of the isolates revealed that the two isolates were identical and of the FPLV-type. These results suggested that FPLV was introduced from a feral cat which entered the zoo and transmitted the virus inside the zoo.

  5. Interspecies nuclear transfer using fibroblasts from leopard, tiger, and lion ear piece collected postmortem as donor cells and rabbit oocytes as recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelisetti, Uma Mahesh; Komjeti, Suman; Katari, Venu Charan; Sisinthy, Shivaji; Brahmasani, Sambasiva Rao

    2016-06-01

    Skin fibroblast cells were obtained from a small piece of an ear of leopard, lion, and tiger collected postmortem and attempts were made to synchronize the skin fibroblasts at G0/G1 of cell cycle using three different approaches. Efficiency of the approaches was tested following interspecies nuclear transfer with rabbit oocytes as recipient cytoplasm. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting revealed that the proportion of G0/G1 cells increased significantly (P tiger were successfully synchronized and used for the development of blastocysts using rabbit oocytes as recipient cytoplasm.

  6. Cryptic invasion of Northern Leopard Frogs (Rana pipiens) across phylogeographic boundaries and a dilemma for conservation of a declining amphibian

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Ryan P.; Drost, Charles A.; Mock, Karen E.

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic introduction of species is a major contributor to loss of biodiversity. Translocations within the range of a species are less frequently recognized, but have the potential for negative effects as well. Genetic mixing may lead to loss of local adaptations or further decline through outbreeding depression. These cryptic invasions may be quite difficult to recognize, but genetic tools can be used to recognize and monitor such intraspecific introductions. Conversely, translocations within species can be an important conservation tool to reduce inbreeding depression and replace lost genetic diversity. Thus, cryptic invasions can be either an aid or a hindrance to conservation efforts. We tested for the presence of non-native genotypes and assessed the extent and nature of introgression in populations of Northern Leopard Frog (Rana pipiens) in the southwestern US, where populations have declined to a few remnant populations. The most abundant and diverse complex of populations in the region contained a mitochondrial haplotype that was not native to the western US, probably resulting from the introduction of released pets, laboratory animals, or release during fish stocking. These non-native haplotypes were well integrated into a large complex of ponds and lakes, contributing to high genetic diversity in this area. Logistically, the geographic extent of non-native genetic influence within this population precludes eliminating or controlling the non-native component of this population. We recommend assessing the progress and fate of the introgression over time—along with population fitness parameters—to determine whether this introduction is beneficial or detrimental to population persistence. Meanwhile, translocations from nearby locations with similar environmental conditions have the best prospects for avoiding problems with outbreeding depression in other declining populations and will also most effectively preserve regional genetic diversity.

  7. Effects of host species and life stage on the helminth communities of sympatric northern leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens) and wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) in the Sheyenne National Grasslands, North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Kyle D; Newman, Robert A; Tkach, Vasyl V

    2013-08-01

    We studied helminth communities in sympatric populations of leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens) and wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) and assessed the effects of host species and life stage on helminth community composition and helminth species richness. We examined 328 amphibians including 218 northern leopard frogs and 110 wood frogs collected between April and August of 2009 and 2010 in the Sheyenne National Grasslands of southeastern North Dakota. Echinostomatid metacercariae were the most common helminths found, with the highest prevalence in metamorphic wood frogs. Host species significantly influenced helminth community composition, and host life stage significantly influenced the component community composition of leopard frogs. In these sympatric populations, leopard frogs were common hosts for adult trematodes whereas wood frogs exhibited a higher prevalence of nematodes with direct life cycles. Metamorphic frogs were commonly infected with echinostomatid metacercariae and other larval trematodes whereas juvenile and adult frogs were most-frequently infected with directly transmitted nematodes and trophically transmitted trematodes. Accordingly, helminth species richness increased with the developmental life stage of the host.

  8. Tricaine (MS-222) is a safe anesthetic compound compared to benzocaine and pentobarbital to induce anesthesia in leopard frogs (Rana pipiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, Yavuz; Strauch, Stephen M

    2005-01-01

    Tricaine (MS-222) is used commonly for sedation, immobilization, and anesthesia of poikilothermic animals. The anesthetic efficacy of different concentrations of MS-222 was compared to benzocaine and pentobarbital on the physiological changes, heart rate and ECG (electrocardiogram) parameters in the leopard frog, Rana pipiens. Loss of righting reflex (RR), loss of pain response (NR = nociceptor response) and recovery time were measured. Heart rate and ECG parameters were also tested before and during anesthesia. The time to loss of RR and NR decreased while recovery time markedly increased with the increasing concentration of MS-222. Benzocaine at 200 mg/l induced a rapid anesthesia, but all frogs needed resuscitation. Pentobarbital at 300 mg/l induced a slow anesthesia, however, all of the frogs also needed resuscitation. All anesthetics at the mentioned concentrations decreased heart rate significantly as well as altered the ECG parameters. All anesthetics prolonged the Q-T interval, and MS-222 at 800 mg/l and benzocaine at 200 mg/l were the most effective anesthetic concentrations in increasing the Q-T interval. Frogs anesthetized by benzocaine and pentobarbital and high concentrations of MS-222 required resuscitation due to hypoxia. Pentobarbital and benzocaine seem to be very effective compounds, but their safety margins are narrow because of ventilatory failure. Therefore, MS-222 at a concentration of 200 mg/l or less is highly recommended for leopard frogs because prolonged recovery, high mortality rate and significant ECG changes are observed with higher concentrations of MS-222.

  9. Primary structures of skin antimicrobial peptides indicate a close, but not conspecific, phylogenetic relationship between the leopard frogs Lithobates onca and Lithobates yavapaiensis (Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, J Michael; Coquet, Laurent; Leprince, Jérôme; Jouenne, Thierry; Vaudry, Hubert; King, Jay D

    2010-04-01

    The phylogenetic relationship between the relict leopard frog Lithobates (Rana) onca (Cope, 1875) and the lowland leopard frog Lithobates (Rana) yavapaiensis (Platz and Frost, 1984) is unclear. Chromatographic analysis of norepinephrine-stimulated skin secretions from L. onca led to the identification of six peptides with antimicrobial activity. Determination of their primary structures indicated that four of the peptides were identical to brevinin-1Ya, brevinin-1Yb, brevinin-1Yc and ranatuerin-2Ya previously isolated from skin secretions of L. yavapaiensis. However, a peptide belonging to the temporin family (temporin-ONa: FLPTFGKILSGLF.NH(2)) and an atypical member of the ranatuerin-2 family containing a C-terminal cyclic heptapeptide domain (ranatuerin-2ONa: GLMDTVKNAAKNLAGQMLDKLKCKITGSC) were isolated from the L. onca secretions but were not present in the L. yavapaiensis secretions. Ranatuerin-2ONa inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli (MIC=50muM) and Candida albicans (MIC=100muM ) and showed hemolytic activity (LC(50)=90muM) but was inactive against Staphylococcus aureus. The data indicate a close phylogenetic relationship between L. onca and L. yavapaiensis but suggest that they are not conspecific species.

  10. Effect of mono-ortho and di-ortho substituted polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners on leopard frog survival and sexual development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jofré, Mariana Beatriz; Karasov, William H

    2008-02-01

    We tested the effect of mono-ortho and di-ortho PCB congeners on northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens) hatching success, survival and sexual development. Embryos and tadpoles were exposed to two levels (0.5 and 50 microg/l) of two PCBs. PCBs 101 and 70 were selected because they were present in amphibians collected in the Fox River-Green Bay ecosystem and they have the theoretical structural requirements to be able to bind to the estrogen receptor and mediate estrogenic responses. The exposure of leopard frog embryos and tadpoles to PCB 70 and 101 did not significantly affect hatchability, survival, deformities or growth. There were significant departures from the expected 50:50 sex ratio in tadpoles/froglets exposed to PCB 101 and PCB 70. In all the cases of significant departure, the bias was towards higher number of females. Decrease in the proportion of male gonads and increase in the proportion of intersex gonads were observed with increasing PCB tissue concentrations. The effects of PCB congeners on sexual differentiation occur at concentrations higher than observed in frogs in the Fox River/Green Bay ecosystem.

  11. Small frogs get their worms first: the role of nonodonate arthropods in the recruitment of Haematoloechus coloradensis and Haematoloechus complexus in newly metamorphosed northern leopard frogs, Rana pipiens, and woodhouse's toads, Bufo woodhousii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolek, Matthew G; Janovy, John

    2007-04-01

    Studies on the life cycles and epizootiology of North American frog lung flukes indicate that most species utilize odonates as second intermediate hosts; adult frogs become infected by ingesting odonate intermediate hosts. Newly metamorphosed frogs are rarely infected with these parasites, predominantly because they are gape-limited predators that cannot feed on large intermediate hosts such as dragonflies. We examined the role of the frog diet and potential intermediate hosts in the recruitment of the frog lung fluke, Haematoloechus coloradensis, to metamorphosed northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens), Woodhouse's toads (Bufo woodhousii), and bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) from western Nebraska. Because of the uncertain validity of H. coloradensis as a distinct species from Haematoloechus complexus, morphological characters of both species were reevaluated and the life cycles of both species were completed in the laboratory. The morphological data on H. coloradensis and H. coimplexus indicate that they differ in their oral sucker to pharynx ratio, uterine loop distribution, and placement of vitelline follicles. However, in terms of their life cycles, both species are quite similar in their use of physid snails as first intermediate hosts, a wide range of nonodonate and odonate arthropods as second intermediate hosts, and leopard frogs and toads as definitive hosts. These results indicate that H. coloradensis and H. complexus are generalists at the second intermediate host level and might be able to infect newly metamorphosed leopard frogs and toads by using small nonodonate arthropods more commonly than other frog lung fluke species. Comparisons of population structure of adult flukes in newly metamorphosed leopard frogs indicate that the generalist nature of H. coloradensis metacercariae enables it to colonize young of the year leopard frogs more commonly than other Haematoloechus spp. that only use odonates as second intermediate hosts. In this respect, the

  12. Alteration of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in estrogen- and androgen-treated adult male leopard frog, Rana pipiens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Jeremy T

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gonadal steroids, in particular 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT and 17 beta-estradiol (E2, have been shown to feed back on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis of the ranid frog. However, questions still remain on how DHT and E2 impact two of the less-studied components of the ranid HPG axis, the hypothalamus and the gonad, and if the feedback effects are consistently negative. Thus, the goal of the study was to examine the effects of DHT and E2 upon the HPG axis of the gonadally-intact, sexually mature male leopard frogs, Rana pipiens. Methods R. pipiens were implanted with silastic capsules containing either cholesterol (Ch, a control, DHT, or E2 for 10 or 30 days. At each time point, steroid-induced changes in hypothalamic GnRH and pituitary LH concentrations, circulating luteinizing hormone (LH, and testicular histology were examined. Results Frogs implanted with DHT or E2 for 10 days did not show significant alterations in the HPG axis. In contrast, frogs implanted with hormones for 30 days had significantly lower circulating LH (for both DHT and E2, decreased pituitary LH concentration (for E2 only, and disrupted spermatogenesis (for both DHT and E2. The disruption of spermatogenesis was qualitatively similar between DHT and E2, although the effects of E2 were consistently more potent. In both DHT and E2-treated animals, a marked loss of all pre-meiotic germ cells was observed, although the loss of secondary spermatogonia appeared to be the primary cause of disrupted spermatogenesis. Unexpectedly, the presence of post-meiotic germ cells was either unaffected or enhanced by DHT or E2 treatment. Conclusions Overall, these results showed that both DHT and E2 inhibited circulating LH and disrupted spermatogenesis progressively in a time-dependent manner, with the longer duration of treatment producing the more pronounced effects. Further, the feedback effects exerted by both steroid hormones upon the HPG axis were

  13. Part I: Sound color in the music of Gyorgy Kurtag, Part II: "Leopard's Path," thirteen visions for chamber ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iachimciuc, Igor

    The dissertation is in two parts, a theoretical study and a musical composition. In Part I the music of Gyorgy Kurtag is analyzed from the point of view of sound color. A brief description of what is understood by the term sound color, and various ways of achieving specific coloristic effects, are presented in the Introduction. An examination of Kurtag's approaches to the domain of sound color occupies the chapters that follow. The musical examples that are analyzed are selected from Kurtag's different compositional periods, showing a certain consistency in sound color techniques, the most important of which are already present in the String Quartet, Op. 1. The compositions selected for analysis are written for different ensembles, but regardless of the instrumentation, certain principles of the formation and organization of sound color remain the same. Rather than relying on extended instrumental techniques, Kurtag creates a large variety of sound colors using traditional means such as pitch material, register, density, rhythm, timbral combinations, dynamics, texture, spatial displacement of the instruments, and the overall musical context. Each sound color unit in Kurtag's music is a separate entity, conceived as a complete microcosm. Sound color units can either be juxtaposed as contrasting elements, forming sound color variations, or superimposed, often resulting in a Klangfarbenmelodie effect. Some of the same gestural figures (objets trouves) appear in different compositions, but with significant coloristic modifications. Thus, the principle of sound color variations is not only a strong organizational tool, but also a characteristic stylistic feature of the music of Gyorgy Kurtag. Part II, Leopard's Path (2010), for flute, clarinet, violin, cello, cimbalom, and piano, is an original composition inspired by the painting of Jesse Allen, a San Francisco based artist. The composition is conceived as a cycle of thirteen short movements. Ten of these movements are

  14. Induction of cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenases in northern leopard frogs, Rana pipiens, by 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y.-W.; Melancon, M.J.; Jung, R.E.; Karasov, W.H.

    1998-01-01

    Northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) were injected intraperitoneally either with a solution of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 126 in corn oil at a concentration of 0.2, 0.7, 2.3 and 7.8 mg/kg body weight or with corn oil alone. Appropriate assay conditions with hepatic microsomes were determined for four cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenases: ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD), methoxy-ROD (MROD), benzyloxy-ROD (BROD) and pentoxy-ROD (PROD). One week after PCB administration, the specific activities of EROD, MROD, BROD and PROD were not elevated at doses ? 0.7 mg/kg (p > 0.05), but were significantly increased at doses ? 2.3 mg/kg compared to the control groups (p frogs.

  15. Single or combined effects of Lactobacillus sakei and inulin on growth, non-specific immunity and IgM expression in leopard grouper (Mycteroperca rosacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Becerril, Martha; Ascencio, Felipe; Gracia-Lopez, Vicente; Macias, Ma Esther; Roa, Marcos Cadena; Esteban, María Ángeles

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the single or combined effects of Lactobacillus sakei with inulin suitable for immunological in vivo studies in farmed fish. By in vitro assays, L. sakei strain 5-4 showed antibacterial activities against all assayed fish pathogens (except the Vibrio harveyi strain CAIM-1793). L. sakei was able to survive at high fish bile concentrations. Fermentation of the agave inulin resulted in a large increase in number of lactobacilli. For the in vivo study, fish were fed for 8 weeks four practical diets: control diet (control), L. sakei 5-4 (10(7) CFU/g), inulin (1% or 10 g/kg) and L. sakei + inulin (10(7) CFU/g + 10 g/kg). The weight gain showed clearly the synergistic effect of L. sakei 5-4 and inulin at 6 and 8 weeks of treatments. Leopard grouper fed with L. sakei alone or combined with inulin have significantly increased the assayed physiological and humoral immune parameters. By real-time PCR assays, the mRNA transcripts of immunoglobulin M (IgM) were found to be higher expressed in intestine, head kidney, mucus, gill, spleen and skin. Moreover, mRNA expression levels of IgM in head kidney and anterior intestine were measured by real-time PCR. L. sakei 5-4 and L. sakei + inulin supplemented diet up-regulated the expression of IgM at week 4 and 8 in intestine and head kidney, respectively. These results support the idea that the L. sakei 5-4 alone or combined with agave inulin improved growth performance and stimulates the immune system of leopard grouper.

  16. Effect of feeding Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) root as prebiotic on nutrient utilization, fecal characteristics and serum metabolite profile of captive Indian leopard (Panthera pardus fusca) fed a meat-on-bone diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, S K; Das, A; Kullu, S S; Saini, M; Pattanaik, A K; Dutta, N; Sharma, A K

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of incorporating Jerusalem artichoke (JA) as a prebiotic in the diet of Indian leopards (n = 11 adults) fed a meat-on-bone diet. The trial consisted of three periods (A1 , B, and A2 ). Each period comprised 17 days of adaptation and four days of collection. During the control periods (A1 and A2 ), the leopards were fed their normal zoo diets of 2.5-3 kg of buffalo meat-on-bone six days a week without any supplement. During trial B, meat-on-bone diets of the leopards were supplemented with JA at 2% of dietary dry matter (DM). Meat consumption was similar among the treatments. Supplementation of JA decreased the digestibility of crude protein (P < 0.01). Digestibilities of organic matter and ether extract were similar among the treatments. Serum concentrations of urea and triglycerides were lower (P < 0.05) when JA was added to the diet. Incorporation of JA to the basal diet increased fecal concentrations of acetate (P < 0.01), butyrate (P < 0.01), lactate (P < 0.01), Lactobacillus spp., and Bifidobacterium spp. (P < 0.01) with a simultaneous decrease in the concentration of ammonia (P < 0.01), Clostridia spp. (P < 0.01), and fecal pH (P < 0.01). Fecal microbial profiles and hind gut fermentation were improved, without any adverse effects on feed consumption, nutrient utilization, and serum metabolite profiles. Results of this experiment showed that feeding JA at 2% DM in the whole diet could be potentially beneficial for captive Indian leopards fed meat-on-bone diets.

  17. Leopards with Changing Spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renwick, W. L.

    The centralized, federally controlled, public educational systems of New Zealand and Australia are in a state of disequilibrium and change. While the federal departments of education still remain the one institution in the education system capable of an informed, overall view of the entire scene, the pressures toward decentralization (including…

  18. Exposure of northern leopard frogs in the Green Bay ecosystem to polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans is measured by direct chemistry but not hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Y.W.; Karasov, W.H.; Patnode, K.A.; Jefcoate, C.R.

    1999-10-01

    The authors measured concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in northern leopard frogs collected from the Green Bay ecosystem and explored the catalytic activity of hepatic cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenase (P450 enzyme) as a biomarker for exposure to aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. The two hypotheses tested were PCH concentrations in northern leopard frogs would be positively correlated with sediment polychlorinated hydrocarbon (PCH) levels in wetland habitats along a contamination gradient and hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity of northern leopard frogs, which is presumably mediated by aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), would be positively correlated with PCH concentrations in frog carcasses from different collection sites. In 1994 and 1995, frogs from seven sites along the lower Fox River and Green Bay, USA, were assayed for hepatic EROD activities and whole carcass concentrations of PCBs, PCDDs, and PCDFs. Tissue total PCB concentrations ranging from 3 to 154 ng/g were significantly correlated with sediment PCB levels. Only one PCDD and two PCDFs at concentrations of 6 to 8 pg/g were found in the frogs collected with frog body weight and was similar among sites except for Peter's Marsh. No significant correlation was found between EROD activity and carcass PCB concentration. This result was consistent with the fact that the frogs collected from the Green Bay ecosystem had relatively low PCB concentrations compared with what was required for induction in the laboratory.

  19. 雪豹(Uncia uncia)研究的文献计量评价%A bibliometric evaluation of research on Snow Leopard ( Uncia uncia)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彦; 马鸣; 买尔旦·吐尔干

    2012-01-01

    通过对1950-2010年SCI收录和1989-2010年CSCD收录的雪豹(Uncia uncia)研究文献分析,从年度文献数量变化、国家/地区分布、主要研究机构、期刊分布、发表文献作者、基金资助机构、刊载文献类型、学科类别和语种分布9个方面,对雪豹研究文献的分布规律和研究现状进行了统计分析.结果表明:在SCI上发表雪豹研究论文的国家排名依次是美(50.6%)、英(16.5%)、印度(12.5%)和中国(5.6%);在文献量机构排名方面,国际雪豹基金会和英国爱丁堡大学并列第一,中国科学院排名第五;中国的主要合作国家中包括了美、英和中亚国家(吉尔吉斯斯坦、蒙古).无论是分布范围还是数量,中国雪豹资源都居于世界第一,而研究却不相匹配,国内在这方面还仍需努力.%Based on the analysis of the literatures indexed by the Science Citation Index (SCI) in 1950-2010 and by the Chinese Science Citation Database (CSCD) in 1980-2010, a biblio-metric evaluation was conducted on the distribution patterns of the literatures about snow leopard ( Uncia uncia) from the aspects of annual number, authors and their country origin, research in-stitutions, journal distribution, funding agencies, literature types, subject categories, and lan-guages. According to the quantities of the papers cited by SCI, the top four nations are the USA (50.6% ) , Britain (16.5% ), India (12.5% ), and China (5.6%). International Snow Leop-ard Trust and Edinburgh University are the first ranked paper-production institutions, and the Chinese Academy of Sciences takes the fifth place. The main research partners of China are from Britain, USA, and China neighboring countries such as Kyrgyzstan and Mongolia. In terms of the distribution range and the quantity of the snow leopard resources in the world, China ranks the first, but the related researches in this country do not match this situation, and need to do much more.

  20. 绕大钝头短体外形跨音速大迎角湍流流动计算%Computation of Transonic Turbulent Flow Around a Blunt Nosed Short Body at Large Angle of Attack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴宗成; 朱自强; 李津; 陈泽民

    2002-01-01

    采用数值模拟求解N-S方程方法计算与分析了绕大钝头短体外形的跨音速大迎角时的湍流流动.数值方法中选用Van Leer 分裂格式离散无粘通量项,并构造了一种Limiter函数以保证TVD(Total Variation Diminishing)性质,采用中心差分格式来离散粘性通量项.计算中采用了B-L湍流模型.算例定性地表明绕流的三维分离具有准周期性的非定常特性.

  1. Q235钢板对平头弹抗侵彻特性研究%Ballistic performance of Q235 metal plates subjected to impact by blunt-nosed projectiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓云飞; 张伟; 孟凡柱

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of configuration of target on the ballistic performance, monolithic and three⁃layered targets were normally impacted by blunt⁃nosed projectiles in the velocity range of 190~450 m/s with the help of a gas gun, and also the photos of the impact process were obtained. Based on the tests, the residual velocity versus the initial velocity curves of the projectiles were constructed, and also ballistic limit velocities were obtained. The influence of combination configuration of target on the ballistic characteristic, including the ballistic resistance and failure models were investigated. Moreover, the penetration process of metal plates impacted by rod projectiles had been studied with numerical simulation code ABAQUS/EXPLICIT, and also the validation of models and parameters of materials had been proved by comparing the experiment results with numerical simulations. The results indicated that the ballistic limit velocity of multi⁃layered target was higher than that of monolithic target, and also there were differences between failure models of multi⁃layered targets and monolithic target. Moreover, the failure models of plates of multi⁃layered targets were in relation to their order.%为分析靶体结构对其抗侵彻特性的影响,利用轻气炮进行平头杆弹正撞击单层板和等厚接触式三层板的实验,获取相关的撞击过程图片.通过撞击实验,得到这两种结构靶体的初始-剩余速度曲线以及弹道极限,撞击速度为190~450 m/s.研究靶体结构对抗侵彻特性的影响,包括靶板的失效模式和抗侵彻性能.最后,采用ABAQUS/EXPLICIT软件对杆弹撞击金属板的过程进行数值模拟研究,通过对比数值模拟和实验结果,验证了数值模拟材料模型和参数的有效性.结果表明:多层板的弹道极限高于等厚单层板,并且多层板和单层板的主要失效模式之间存在差异.对于多层板,靶板失效模式与其在靶中位置相关.

  2. Demography and movement patterns of leopard sharks (Triakis semifasciata) aggregating near the head of a submarine canyon along the open coast of southern California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosal, D.C.; Cartamil, D.C.; Long, J.W.; Luhrmann, M.; Wegner, N.C.; Graham, J.B.

    2013-01-01

    The demography, spatial distribution, and movement patterns of leopard sharks (Triakis semifasciata) aggregating near the head of a submarine canyon in La Jolla, California, USA, were investigated to resolve the causal explanations for this and similar shark aggregations. All sharks sampled from the aggregation site (n=140) were sexually mature and 97.1 % were female. Aerial photographs taken during tethered balloon surveys revealed high densities of milling sharks of up to 5470 sharks ha-1. Eight sharks were each tagged with a continuous acoustic transmitter and manually tracked without interruption for up to 48 h. Sharks exhibited strong site-fidelity and were generally confined to a divergence (shadow) zone of low wave energy, which results from wave refraction over the steep bathymetric contours of the submarine canyon. Within this divergence zone, the movements of sharks were strongly localized over the seismically active Rose Canyon Fault. Tracked sharks spent most of their time in shallow water (≤2 m for 71.0 % and ≤10 m for 95.9 % of time), with some dispersing to deeper (max: 53.9 m) and cooler (min: 12.7 °C) water after sunset, subsequently returning by sunrise. These findings suggest multiple functions of this aggregation and that the mechanism controlling its formation, maintenance, and dissolution is complex and rooted in the sharks' variable response to numerous confounding environmental factors.

  3. Cryptic diversity in metropolis: confirmation of a new leopard frog species (Anura: Ranidae from New York City and surrounding Atlantic coast regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy A Feinberg

    Full Text Available We describe a new cryptic species of leopard frog from the New York City metropolitan area and surrounding coastal regions. This species is morphologically similar to two largely parapatric eastern congeners, Rana sphenocephala and R. pipiens. We primarily use bioacoustic and molecular data to characterize the new species, but also examine other lines of evidence. This discovery is unexpected in one of the largest and most densely populated urban parts of the world. It also demonstrates that new vertebrate species can still be found periodically even in well-studied locales rarely associated with undocumented biodiversity. The new species typically occurs in expansive open-canopied wetlands interspersed with upland patches, but centuries of loss and impact to these habitats give some cause for conservation concern. Other concerns include regional extirpations, fragmented extant populations, and a restricted overall geographic distribution. We assign a type locality within New York City and report a narrow and largely coastal lowland distribution from central Connecticut to northern New Jersey (based on genetic data and south to North Carolina (based on call data.

  4. Influence of Ribeiroia ondatrae (Trematoda: Digenea) infection on limb development and survival of northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens): effects of host stage and parasite-exposure level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotthoefer, Anna M.; Koehler, Anson V.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Cole, Rebecca A.

    2003-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that infection by larvae of the trematode Ribeiroia ondatrae accounts for a significant proportion of limb malformations currently observed in amphibian populations of North America. However, the effects of R. ondatrae infection on northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens), one of the species most frequently reported with malformations, have not been adequately explored. Moreover, the risk factors associated with R. ondatrae-induced malformations have not been clearly identified. We examined the effects of timing of infection on tadpole survival and limb development. Rana pipiens tadpoles were individually exposed to R. ondatrae cercariae at the pre-limb-bud (Gosner stages 24 and 25), limb-bud (Gosner stages 27 and 28), or paddle (Gosner stages 31–33) stages of development and monitored through metamorphosis. The effects of infection were stage-specific. Infections acquired at the pre-limb-bud stage resulted in a high mortality rate (47.5–97.5%), whereas tadpoles infected at the limb-bud stage displayed a high malformation rate (16% overall), and the magnitude of effects increased with the level of exposure to cercariae. In contrast, infections acquired at the paddle stage had no effect on limb development or tadpole survival, which suggests that the timing of R. ondatrae infection in relation to the stage structure of tadpole populations in the wild is an important determinant of the degree to which populations are affected by R. ondatrae.

  5. Cryptic diversity in metropolis: confirmation of a new leopard frog species (Anura: Ranidae) from New York City and surrounding Atlantic coast regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Jeremy A; Newman, Catherine E; Watkins-Colwell, Gregory J; Schlesinger, Matthew D; Zarate, Brian; Curry, Brian R; Shaffer, H Bradley; Burger, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new cryptic species of leopard frog from the New York City metropolitan area and surrounding coastal regions. This species is morphologically similar to two largely parapatric eastern congeners, Rana sphenocephala and R. pipiens. We primarily use bioacoustic and molecular data to characterize the new species, but also examine other lines of evidence. This discovery is unexpected in one of the largest and most densely populated urban parts of the world. It also demonstrates that new vertebrate species can still be found periodically even in well-studied locales rarely associated with undocumented biodiversity. The new species typically occurs in expansive open-canopied wetlands interspersed with upland patches, but centuries of loss and impact to these habitats give some cause for conservation concern. Other concerns include regional extirpations, fragmented extant populations, and a restricted overall geographic distribution. We assign a type locality within New York City and report a narrow and largely coastal lowland distribution from central Connecticut to northern New Jersey (based on genetic data) and south to North Carolina (based on call data).

  6. 火针豹文刺法治疗踝关节扭伤的疗效观察%Observation of the Effect of the Fire and Leopard-spot Needling on Ankle Sprain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹震; 张刚

    2009-01-01

    Objeetive To observe the effect of the fire and leopard-spot needling therapy in treating ankle sprain.Methods We randomly selected 59 ankle sprain cascs and divided them into 2 groups,with one contained 30 cases treated hy fire and leopard-spot needling therapy as the treatment group,and another contained 29 cases treated by computerized multa-function therapy apparatus as the control group.After 7 days'treatment,we observed the effects of each group.Results The results snowed that the effect of the treatment group was much better than the control group.Conclusion With the features of collateral vessel pricking and warming and activating meridians,fire and leopard-spot needling therapy can remove swelling and relieve pain rapidly.%目的 观察火针豹文刺法治疗踝关节扭伤的临床疗效.方法 将59例踝关节扭伤患者随机分为两组,治疗组30例采用火针治疗,对照组29例采用电脑中频治疗仪治疗,治疗7 d后评价临床疗效.结果 治疗组疗效优于对照组,经统计学分析,有显著性差异(P<0.05).结论 火针治疗踝关节扭伤,具有刺络法及温经通络法的双重特点,可迅速消肿止痛.

  7. 豹猫和金猫针毛红外光谱比较研究%Comparative Analysis on the Infrared Spectrum of Straight Guard Hair of Leopard Cat and Golden Cat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭海涛

    2013-01-01

    使用傅立叶红外光谱(FT-IR)对豹猫(Leopard cat)和金猫(Golden cat)两种野生动物毛发进行了检测和分析.结果表明,在豹猫和金猫针毛的中部红外图谱及其二阶导数谱均具有明显的种间差异,如648 cm-1和654 cm-1波数处金猫出现明显M形双峰吸收峰,而豹猫没有;金猫的二阶导数谱在709~763cm-1范围内以峰强较大的单峰为主,豹猫则以峰强较小的M形双峰为主,这均说明两种动物毛发的蛋白侧链的构成上则存在较大的差异.所以红外光谱分析方法可以应用于动物毛发的种间识别,在毛发的研究领域有较好的应用前景.%The straight guard hairs of leopard cat and golden cat were detected and analyzed by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy).The results showed significant genotypic difference in the infrared spectrum and second derivative spectra of guard hair's middle part.An evident M-shape bimodal absorption peak appeared at 648 cm-1 and 654 cm-1 of golden cat while did not appear in leopard cat.The second derivative spectra of golden cat at the range of 709 to 763 cm-1 were mainly strong unimodal peak,but weak M-shaped bimodal absorption for leopard cat.It was indicated that there was obvious difference in the structure of protein side chain between the guard hair of the two species.The FTIR analysis showed great application foreground in the research of animal hairs for interspecific recognition.

  8. 豹猫和金猫针毛红外光谱比较研究%Comparative Study on the Infrared Spectra of Straight Guard Hairs of Leopard Cat and Golden Cat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭海涛

    2013-01-01

    [目的]研究比较豹猫和金猫针毛红外光谱。[方法]使用傅立叶红外光谱对豹猫和金猫两种野生动物毛发进行了检测和分析。[结果]在豹猫和金猫针毛的中部红外图谱及其二阶导数谱均具有明显的种间差异,如648 cm-1和654 cm-1波数处金猫出现明显 M 形双峰吸收峰,而豹猫没有;金猫的二阶导数谱在709~763 cm-1范围内以峰强较大的单峰为主,豹猫则以峰强较小的 M 形双峰为主,这均说明两种动物毛发的蛋白侧链的构成上则存在较大的差异。[结论]红外光谱分析方法可以应用于动物毛发的种间识别,在毛发的研究领域有较好的应用前景。%[Objective] The paper was to compare the infrared spectra of straight guard hairs of leopard cat and golden cat. [Method] The straight guard hairs of leopard cat and golden cat were detected and analyzed by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy). [Result] There was significant interspecific difference in the infrared spectra and second derivative spectra for the middle part of guard hair. An evident M-shaped bimodal absorption peak appeared in golden cat at 648 and 654 cm-1, respectively, while did not appear in leopard cat. The second derivative spec-tra of golden cat at wave numbers from 709 to 763 cm -1 were mainly unimodal peaks with strong peak intensity, while that of leopard cat mainly was M-shaped bi-modal absorption peak with weak peak intensity. It indicated that there was obvious difference in the structure of protein side chain in guard hairs of these two animals. [Conclusion] The FTIR analysis showed great application foreground in the study of animal hairs for interspecific identification.

  9. Determination of the catalytic activity of LEOPARD syndrome-associated SHP2 mutants toward parafibromin, a bona fide SHP2 substrate involved in Wnt signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, Saori [Division of Microbiology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokyo University of Science, Chiba (Japan); Takahashi, Atsushi; Hayashi, Takeru [Division of Microbiology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Tanuma, Sei-ichi [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokyo University of Science, Chiba (Japan); Hatakeyama, Masanori, E-mail: mhata@m.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Division of Microbiology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-01-22

    SHP2, encoded by the PTPN11 gene, is a protein tyrosine phosphatase that plays a key role in the proliferation of cells via RAS-ERK activation. SHP2 also promotes Wnt signaling by dephosphorylating parafibromin. Germline missense mutations of PTPN11 are found in more than half of patients with Noonan syndrome (NS) and LEOPARD syndrome (LS), both of which are congenital developmental disorders with multiple common symptoms. However, whereas NS-associated PTPN11 mutations give rise to gain-of-function SHP2 mutants, LS-associated SHP2 mutants are reportedly loss-of-function mutants. To determine the phosphatase activity of LS-associated SHP2 more appropriately, we performed an in vitro phosphatase assay using tyrosine-phosphorylated parafibromin, a biologically relevant substrate of SHP2 and the positive regulator of Wnt signaling that is activated through SHP2-mediated dephosphorylation. We found that LS-associated SHP2 mutants (Y279C, T468M, Q506P, and Q510E) exhibited a substantially reduced phosphatase activity toward parafibromin when compared with wild-type SHP2. Furthermore, each of the LS-associated mutants displayed a differential degree of decrease in phosphatase activity. Deviation of the SHP2 catalytic activity from a certain range, either too strong or too weak, may therefore lead to similar clinical outcomes in NS and LS, possibly through an imbalanced Wnt signal caused by inadequate dephosphorylation of parafibromin. - Highlights: • LS-associated SHP2 mutants dephosphorylate parafibromin on Y290, Y293, and Y315. • LS-associated SHP2 mutants display a reduced tyrosine phosphatase activity. • LS-specific SHP2-Y279C is catalytically less active than LS-specific SHP2-T468M. • NS/LS-associated SHP2-Q506P has both hyper- and hypomorphic enzymatic properties.

  10. 拯救雪山之灵—雪豹:全球雪豹网络(Snow Leopard Network)理事会在巴基斯坦召开

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋志刚

    2006-01-01

    @@ 2006年5月24--25日,新一届全球雪豹网络(Snow Leopard Network)理事会在巴基斯坦纳什瓦伽里召开.会议回顾了全球雪豹网络的历史.听取并讨论了全球雪豹网络科学委员会、联络委员会、政策委员会、财政委员会和网络成员委员会的报告,制定了未来全球雪豹网络的目标和工作计划以及达到这些目标所需的资源.

  11. In vitro growth of uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from a snow leopard treated with homeopathic and isopathic remedies: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania Maria de Carvalho

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of incubation of a strain of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC isolated from a snow leopard - which had died of septicemia secondary to necro-hemorrhagic cystitis - with homeopathic and isopathic remedies. Methods: UPEC was isolated from heart blood and previously typified for virulence factors; it was incubated with homeopathic remedies Cantharis vesicatoria (urinary tract infection affinity, Mercurius solubilis (from symptoms analysis and nosode prepared from the actual strain, all in dilution 12cH. Results: 2 patterns of bacterial growth were observed, associated to the quality of nutrients in the culture medium; in rich-nutrient medium, nosode of E. coli 12cH had a significant inhibitory effect; in poor-nutrient medium, Merc 12cH exerted significant inhibitory effect. Conclusion: results suggest that the previous conditions of prokaryote systems may influence the in vitro response to homeopathic and isopathic remedies. Keywords: urinary tract infection; Felines; Uropathogenic Escherichia coli; Homeopathy; Isopathy.  Estudo do crescimento (in vitro de Escherichia coli uropatogênica isolada a partir de um leopardo das neves e tratada com medicamentos homeopáticos e isopáticos: estudo piloto. ResumoEste artigo relata os resultados da incubação de uma linhagem de Escherichia coli uropatogênica (UPEC isolada a partir de um leopardo das neves, que morreu de septicemia secundária a cistite necrótica-hemorrágica. A UPEC foi tratada com preparados homeopáticos e isopáticos. Métodos: UPEC foi isolada de sangue cardíaco e previamente tipificada para fatores de virulência; foi incubada com o medicamento homeopático Cantharis vesicatoria (afinidade com infecção do trato urinário, Mercurius solubilis (a partir da análise de sintomas e nosódio preparado a partir da

  12. Mitochondrial proton leak rates in the slow, oxidative myotomal muscle and liver of the endothermic shortfin mako shark (Isurus oxyrinchus) and the ectothermic blue shark (Prionace glauca) and leopard shark (Triakis semifasciata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Cindy A; Sepulveda, Chugey A; Graham, Jeffrey B; Dickson, Kathryn A

    2006-07-01

    Mitochondrial proton leak was assessed as a potential heat source in the slow, oxidative (red) locomotor muscle and liver of the shortfin mako shark (Isurus oxyrinchus), a regional endotherm that maintains the temperature of both tissues elevated above ambient seawater temperature. We hypothesized that basal proton leak rates in red muscle and liver mitochondria of the endothermic shortfin mako shark would be greater than those of the ectothermic blue shark (Prionace glauca) and leopard shark (Triakis semifasciata). Respiration rate and membrane potential in isolated mitochondria were measured simultaneously at 20 degrees C using a Clark-type oxygen electrode and a lipophilic probe (triphenylmethylphosphonium, TPMP(+)). Succinate-stimulated respiration was titrated with inhibitors of the electron transport chain, and the non-linear relationship between respiration rate and membrane potential was quantified. Mitochondrial densities of both tissues were measured by applying the point-contact method to electron micrographs so that proton leak activity of the entire tissue could be assessed. In all three shark species, proton leak occurred at a higher rate in red muscle mitochondria than in liver mitochondria. For each tissue, the proton leak curves of the three species overlapped and, at a membrane potential of 160 mV, mitochondrial proton leak rate (nmol H(+) min(-1) mg(-1) protein) did not differ significantly between the endothermic and ectothermic sharks. This finding indicates that red muscle and liver mitochondria of the shortfin mako shark are not specialized for thermogenesis by having a higher proton conductance. However, mako mitochondria did have higher succinate-stimulated respiration rates and membrane potentials than those of the two ectothermic sharks. This means that under in vivo conditions mitochondrial proton leak rates may be higher in the mako than in the ectothermic species, due to greater electron transport activity and a larger proton gradient

  13. 豹源猫杯状病毒ORF2基因的扩增、克隆及原核表达%Amplification, Clone and Prokaryotic Expression of ORF2 Gene of Feline Calicivirus Isolated from Leopard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘秋艳; 应瑛; 王一鸣; 陈小庆; 赵艳丽; 胡桂学

    2015-01-01

    In order to prepare the antigen for serological detection of Feline calicivirus, the primers were designed in according to the gene sequence of 1 FCV isolated from a leopard preserved in our laboratory. The 1 734 nucleotides in open reading frame 2 (ORF2) were amplified and cloned into expression vector pET-28a to construct recombinant plasmid named pET-28a-FCV1 734. The recom-binant plasmid was transformed into E. coli. The expression product induced by IPTG was determined by SDS-PAGE and Western blot. The result proved that the expressed protein had good reactogenicity.%为制备猫杯状病毒血清学检测抗原,本研究根据实验室保存的1株豹源猫杯状病毒基因序列设计引物,扩增了开放阅读框2(ORF2)中1734 bp的核苷酸序列,将其克隆至表达载体pET-28a上,构建了pET-28a-FCV1734重组质粒。将该质粒转化大肠杆菌,诱导表达产物经SDS-PAGE和Western blot检测,证明所表达的蛋白具有良好的反应原性。

  14. The missing leopard lizard: Liolaemus ubaghsi sp. nov., a new species of the leopardinus clade (Reptilia: Squamata: Liolaemidae) from the Andes of the O'Higgins Region in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquerré, Damien; Troncoso-Palacios, Jaime; Garín, Carlos F; Núnez, Herman

    2014-06-17

    Liolaemus is an extremely species rich genus of iguanid lizards from southern South America. Most of the diversity though is found in the Andes Cordillera, between Argentina and Chile. Here we describe Liolaemus ubaghsi sp. nov., from El Teniente Mine, in the Andean mountains of the O'Higgins Region in Chile. This species presents scalation and pattern traits that belong to the leopardinus clade, a group of viviparous, high altitude lizards that inhabit the mountain ranges surrounding Santiago City. The species of this clade in turn belong to the Andean and Patagonian elongatus-kriegi complex. Liolaemus ubaghsi sp. nov. has been previously recognized as L. leopardinus and L. elongatus, nevertheless we present diagnostic traits that allow us to describe it as a new species. It mainly differs from the rest of the leopardinus clade (L. leopardinus, L. ramonensis, L. valdesianus and L. frassinettii) by having the following unique combination of traits: ochre background coloration, a wide dark occipital stripe, dark flanks, white dots dispersed on the dorsum, absence of leopard-like spots and enlarged infralabial scales. 

  15. Evidence of sexual transition in Leopard Grouper (Mycteroperca rosacea individuals held in captivity Evidencia de transición sexual en individuos de cabrilla sardinera (Mycteroperca rosacea mantenidos en cautiverio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Kiewek-Martínez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes histological observations of the gonads of 12 captive leopard grouper, M. rosacea maintained in captivity. Monthly gonad samples during February to April 2003, were obtained by catheterization and analyzed to determine sex and degree of ovarian development. Oocytes were classified into 5 stages of development and the frequencies were obtained to describe the oocyte distribution in the ovary. Two fish that were females in February were in a bisexual stage in March and functional males in April. The transitional stage was observed during the reproductive season and included degeneration of primary oocytes and proliferation of spermatogonia.Este estudio describe las observaciones histológicas del desarrollo gonadal de 12 individuos de la cabrilla sardinera, en condiciones de cautiverio. De febrero a abril del 2003 se obtuvieron muestras mensuales de la gónada mediante un catéter flexible, las cuales fueron analizadas para determinar el sexo del organismo y el estadio de desarrollo gonadal. Los ovocitos fueron clasificados en 5 etapas de desarrollo y se calcularon las frecuencias para determinar su distribución dentro del ovario. Dos individuos que fueron identificados como hembras en febrero, se encontraron en estadio bisexual en marzo y fueron machos funcionales en abril. Este estadio de transición se observó durante el periodo reproductor y se caracterizó por la degeneración de ovocitos primarios y la proliferación de espermatogonias.

  16. STUDY OF LEOPARD FUR DOLOMITE IN MID-ORDOVICIAN MAJIAGOU FORMATION HANCHENG-XUNYI DISTINCT IN SHANXI PROVINCE%陕西韩城-旬邑地区中奥陶统马家沟组豹斑白云岩研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈曦; 吕波; 黄素; 何施雨; 杜亚曦; 朱讯

    2011-01-01

    鄂尔多斯盆地奥陶系马家沟组白石岩是重要的油气储集层从野外露头观察,白云岩斑块多呈管状、不规则状,是生物扰动后留下的虫孔遗迹从镜下观察,斑块主要沿虫孔分布,成分为半自形-自形细粉晶白云石或具雾心亮边,基质为泥晶白云石对研究区全岩C,O同位素和白云石有序度进行分析,得出白云石δ13C平均值为-0.26‰,δ18O平均-5.06‰;白云石CaCO3摩尔百分含量平均为50.4%,有序度为0.81~1结合白云岩形成于半局限石质洼地沉积环境,认为豹斑白云岩发生了两期白石石化一期是通过渗透回流生成泥晶白石岩;二期是在浅埋藏环境下,随着白云石化流体继续供给,虫孔中的泥晶白云石更易继续生长或发生重结晶,形成由细粉晶白云岩构成的斑块.因此,掘穴生物活动形成的潜穴,是造成不均匀白云岩化,形成豹斑的重要原因.%The dolomite of the Ordovician Majiagou Formation is a significant resevoir in the Ordos Basin. The leopard fur dolomites were selected for detailed field and laboratory study. The shapes of leopard spot are tubal and irregular in the field. These wormhole shapes were caused by biology disturb activity. Microscope study indicated that leopard spots were distributed along wormhole, and composed of subhedral-idiomorphic cryptomere dolomites with nebulous-inner and bright-edge. The matrix is micrite dolomite. The average value of C and <518O of dolomite is -0.26%o and -5.06%o. The molar percentage of CaCO3 in dolomite is around 50.4%, and the order degree is range from 0.81 to 1. Combine with the dolomite formation enviroment of the half-confine dolomitic bottomland, it is concluded that leopard fur dolomites were formed with two stages. Firstly, micrite dolomites were formed by seepage reflux dolomitization; secondly, the micrite dolomite in wormhole with a shallow bury environment were much easier to form or to recrystal to cryptomere dolomites, and

  17. Study of x-rays produced from debris-free sources with Ar, Kr and Kr/Ar mixture linear gas jets irradiated by UNR Leopard laser beam with fs and ns pulse duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantsyrev, V. L.; Schultz, K. A.; Shlyaptseva, V. V.; Safronova, A. S.; Shrestha, I. K.; Petrov, G. M.; Moschella, J. J.; Petkov, E. E.; Stafford, A.; Cooper, M. C.; Weller, M. E.; Cline, W.; Wiewior, P.; Chalyy, O.

    2016-06-01

    Experiments of x-ray emission from Ar, Kr, and Ar/Kr gas jet mixture were performed at the UNR Leopard Laser Facility operated with 350 fs pulses at laser intensity of 2 × 1019 W/cm2 and 0.8 ns pulses at an intensity of 1016 W/cm2. Debris free x-ray source with supersonic linear nozzle generated clusters/monomer jet with an average density of ≥1019 cm-3 was compared to cylindrical tube subsonic nozzle, which produced only monomer jet with average density 1.5-2 times higher. The linear (elongated) cluster/gas jet provides the capability to study x-ray yield anisotropy and laser beam self-focusing with plasma channel formation that are interconnecting with efficient x-ray generation. Diagnostics include x-ray diodes, pinhole cameras and spectrometers. It was observed that the emission in the 1-9 keV spectral region was strongly anisotropic depending on the directions of laser beam polarization for sub-ps laser pulse and supersonic linear jet. The energy yield in the 1-3 keV region produced by a linear nozzle was an order of magnitude higher than from a tube nozzle. Non-LTE models and 3D molecular dynamic simulations of Ar and Kr clusters irradiated by sub-ps laser pulses have been implemented to analyze obtained data. A potential evidence of electron beam generation in jets' plasma was discussed. Note that the described debris-free gas-puff x-ray source can generate x-ray pulses in a high repetition regime. This is a great advantage compared to solid laser targets.

  18. Snow Leopard (Uncia uncia)%雪豹

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋志刚; 徐爱春

    2006-01-01

    雪豹( Uncia uncial)是典型的高山猫科动物,属于猫科中的单型属雪豹属,分布在中国、蒙古、俄罗斯、巴基斯坦、印度、不丹、尼泊尔、阿富汗、塔吉克斯坦、哈萨克斯坦、乌兹别克斯坦、土库曼斯坦等12个国家。全球雪豹的潜在适宜生境面积约302万km2。其中60%在中国,约有182万km2,占中国国土面积的18.7%。青海、西藏、新疆、甘肃、四川和云南六省区均有雪豹分布。内蒙古曾有过雪豹,但现在尚未确定阴山山脉是否还有分布。根据现有的数据,中国可能有2000~2500只雪豹,

  19. Northern Leopard Frog Range - CWHR [ds593

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  20. Kazakhstan: the leopard at the crossroads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fco. Martínez Montes

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available On December 16, 2001, Kazakhstan celebrated its ten years as an independent state. This anniversary came at a particularly complex moment in the country’s history with the Central Asian region immersed in a new and changing situation created in the wake of recent events in Afghanistan. Just as it was in the late nineteenth century, the heart of Eurasia is now again becoming the object of open competition among the great powers, and many analysts have revived the term “the Great Game” to refer to the diplomatic maneuvers under way, whose ultimate goal is control of the area’s vast natural resources and its coveted geopolitical position. In this context, despite the growing challenges and the difficulties experienced over the last ten years, common in large measure to the entire post-Soviet space, Kazakhstan has managed to consolidate itselfas one of the main players on the Central Asian game board thanks to its significant hydrocarbon resources and a sophisticated policy of balancing among its powerful neighbors. Contributing to a wider knowledge of Central Asia and specifically of Kazakhstan is the article’s main purpose.

  1. Beginning Mac OS X Snow Leopard programming

    CERN Document Server

    Trent, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Michael Trent is a technical reviewer for numerous books and magazine articles and the coauthor of Beginning Mac OS X Programming with Drew McCormack. Drew McCormack is an experienced computational scientist, founder of the ""The Mental Faculty""-an independent company developing software for the Mac and iPhone-and the coauthor of Beginning Mac OS X Programming with Michael Trent. Wrox Beginning guides are crafted to make learning programming languages and technologies easier than you think, providing a structured, tutorial format that will guide you through all the techniques involved.

  2. Endangered Species Program, Naval Petroleum Reserves in California. Annual report FY93

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    The Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC) are operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Chevron USA. Production Company (CPDN). Four federally-listed endangered animal species and one federally-threatened plant species are known to occur on NPRC: San Joaquin kit fox, blunt-nosed leopard lizard, giant kangaroo rat, Tipton kangaroo rat, and Hoover`s wooly-star. All five are protected under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, which declares that it is ``...the policy of Congress that all Federal departments and agencies shall seek to conserve endangered species and threatened species and shall utilize their authorities in furtherance of the purposes of the Act.`` DOE is also obliged to determine whether actions taken by their lessees on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2 will have any effects on endangered species or their habitats. The major objective of the EG&G Energy Measurements, Inc. Endangered Species Program on NPRC is to provide DOE with the scientific expertise necessary for compliance with the Endangered Species Act. The specific objective of this report is to summarize progress and results of the Endangered Species Program made during fiscal year 1993.

  3. Endangered species and cultural resources program Naval petroleum Reserves in California. Annual report FY96

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    In FY96, Enterprise Advisory Services, Inc. (EASI) continued to support efforts to protect endangered species and cultural resources at the Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC). These efforts are conducted to ensure NPRC compliance with regulations regarding the protection of listed species and cultural resources on federal properties. Population monitoring activities were conducted for San Joaquin kit foxes, giant kangaroo rats, blunt-nosed leopard lizards, and Hoover`s wooly-star. Kit fox abundance and distribution was assessed by live-trapping over a 329-km{sup 2} area. Kit fox reproduction and mortality were assessed by radiocollaring and monitoring 22 adults and two pups. Reproductive success and litter size were determined through live-trapping and den observations. Rates and sources of kit fox mortality were assessed by recovering dead radiocollared kit foxes and conducting necropsies to determine cause of death. Abundance of coyotes and bobcats, which compete with kit foxes, was determined by conducting scent station surveys. Kit fox diet was assessed through analysis of fecal samples collected from live-trapped foxes. Abundance of potential prey for kit foxes was determined by conducting transect surveys for lagornorphs and live-trapping small mammals.

  4. Naval Petroleum Reserves in California site environmental report for calendar year 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    This summary for Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC) is divided into NPR-1 and NPR-2. Monitoring efforts at NPR-1 include handling and disposal of oilfield wastes; environmental preactivity surveys for the protection of endangered species and archaeological resources; inspections of topsoil stockpiling; monitoring of revegetated sites; surveillance of production facilities for hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) emissions; monitoring of oil spill prevention and cleanup; and monitoring of wastewater injection. No major compliance issues existed for NPR-1 during 1989. Oil spills are recorded, reviewed for corrective action, and reported. Environmental preactivity surveys for proposed projects which may disturb or contaminate the land are conducted to prevent damage to the federally protected San Joaquin kit fox, blunt-nosed leopard lizard, Tipton kangaroo rat and the giant kangaroo rat. Projects are adjusted or relocated as necessary to avoid impact to dens, burrows, or flat-bottomed drainages. A major revegetation program was accomplished in 1989 for erosion control enhancement of endangered species habitat. The main compliance issue on NPR-2 was oil and produced water discharges into drainages by lessees. An additional compliance issue on NPR-2 is surface refuse from past oilfield operations. 17 refs.

  5. 生态危机与诗意拯救--《我,雪豹……--献给乔治.夏勒》的生态批评解读%Ecological Crisis and Poetic Rescue--The Interpretation of Ecological Criticism of " I,now leopard"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梅

    2015-01-01

    Ecological criticism is the world a timeless topic, it is to "reveal the cultural history of how it affects the Earth's ecology," while Yi poet Jidimajia "My snow leopard ......" profoundly reflects the author a strong ecological consciousness, beyond the era has historical significance. This article attempts to criticism from the ecological point of view to interpret this poem, the poet of the world to make a strong sense of ethics and ecological consciousness intuitive presented to readers, but also to the poem ecological awareness and ecological thinking ideal has been further sublimation.%生态批评是当今世界上一个历久弥新的话题,它就是要“历史的揭示文化是如何影响地球生态的”,而彝族诗人吉狄马加的《我,雪豹……——献给乔治。夏勒》就深刻的体现了他浓厚的生态意识,具有超越时代的历史意义。文章试图从生态批评的角度来解读这首诗歌,让诗人强烈的世界意识和生态伦理意识直观的呈现在读者面前,同时也让诗中对生态意识的思考和生态理想得到进一步升华。

  6. Comparison of aerodynamic noise from three nose-cylinder combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, R. A.; Reding, M. P.

    1970-01-01

    Results of experiments with three different cylinder and blunted nose combinations are discussed. Combinations include smooth cylinder with single 15 deg cone, smooth cylinder with double cone of 25 and 10 deg, and longitudinally corrugated cylinder with similar double cone.

  7. Persistence of historical population structure in an endangered species despite near-complete biome conversion in California's San Joaquin Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Jonathan Q.; Wood, Dustin A.; Westphal, Michael F.; Vandergast, Amy; Leache, Adam D.; Saslaw, Lawrence; Butterfield, H. Scott; Fisher, Robert N.

    2017-01-01

    Genomic responses to habitat conversion can be rapid, providing wildlife managers with time-limited opportunities to enact recovery efforts that use population connectivity information that reflects predisturbance landscapes. Despite near-complete biome conversion, such opportunities may still exist for the endemic fauna and flora of California's San Joaquin Desert, but comprehensive genetic data sets are lacking for nearly all species in the region. To fill this knowledge gap, we studied the rangewide population structure of the endangered blunt-nosed leopard lizard Gambelia sila, a San Joaquin Desert endemic, using restriction site-associated DNA (RAD), microsatellite and mtDNA data to test whether admixture patterns and estimates of effective migration surfaces (EEMS) can identify land areas with high population connectivity prior to the conversion of native xeric habitats. Clustering and phylogenetic analyses indicate a recent shared history between numerous isolated populations and EEMS reveals latent signals of corridors and barriers to gene flow over areas now replaced by agriculture and urbanization. Conflicting histories between the mtDNA and nuclear genomes are consistent with hybridization with the sister species G. wislizenii, raising important questions about where legal protection should end at the southern range limit of G. sila. Comparative analysis of different data sets also adds to a growing list of advantages in using RAD loci for genetic studies of rare species. We demonstrate how the results of this work can serve as an evolutionary guidance tool for managing endemic, arid-adapted taxa in one of the world's most compromised landscapes.

  8. Endangered species and cultural resources program, Naval Petroleum Reserves in California: Annual report FY95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    In FY95, EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc. (EG and G/EM) continued to support efforts to protect endangered species and cultural resources at the Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC). These efforts are conducted to ensure NPRC compliance with regulations regarding the protection of listed species and cultural resources on Federal properties. Population monitoring activities are conducted annually for San Joaquin kit foxes, giant kangaroo rats, blunt-nosed leopard lizards, and Hoover`s wooly-star. To mitigate impacts of oil field activities on listed species, 674 preactivity surveys covering approximately 211 hectares (521 acres) were conducted in FY95. EG and G/EM also assisted with mitigating effects from third-party projects, primarily by conducting biological and cultural resource consultations with regulatory agencies. EG and G/EM has conducted an applied habitat reclamation program at NPRC since 1985. In FY95, an evaluation of revegetation rates on reclaimed and non-reclaimed disturbed lands was completed, and the results will be used to direct future habitat reclamation efforts at NPRC. In FY95, reclamation success was monitored on 50 sites reclaimed in 1985. An investigation of factors influencing the distribution and abundance of kit foxes at NPRC was initiated in FY94. Factors being examined include habitat disturbance, topography, grazing, coyote abundance, lagomorph abundance, and shrub density. This investigation continued in FY95 and a manuscript on this topic will be completed in FY96. Also, Eg and G/EM completed collection of field data to evaluate the effects of a well blow-out on plant and animal populations. A final report will be prepared in FY96. Finally, EG and G/EM completed a life table analysis on San Joaquin kit foxes at NPRC.

  9. Take Control of Screen Sharing in Snow Leopard

    CERN Document Server

    Fleishman, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    Interested in screen sharing, but only with Back to My Mac? This title has the basics about Back to My Mac, but if you want all the details-and oodles of background info and router help-check out Take Control of Back to My Mac. Read this book to learn the answers to questions like: How can I share the screen of a buddy via iChat?What are iChat's screen-sharing limitations? What are the best alternatives?How can I give a presentation remotely using screen sharing?What's the best way to use screen sharing to do remote tech support?What's the best way to control an unattended Mac remotely?How do

  10. Mac OS X Server Snow Leopard 雪豹

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王炳晨

    2010-01-01

    日前,苹果公司宣布推出Mac OSX Server Snow Leopard服务器系统。这是一个真正意义的全64位操作系统,为充分发挥多核心处理器和内存的性能而设计,且完全兼容32位应用程序。

  11. Heat Stress Mitigation for Leopard 2C Tank Crew

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    Gatorade ® prior to beginning each trial and were instructed to drink ad libitum throughout the test. Both water and Gatorade ® were available for drinking...or a commercial rehydration beverage ( Gatorade ®). Nude body weight was the same or, on some occasions, even somewhat higher after the trial which

  12. A Combined CFD/Characteristic Method for Prediction and Design of Hypersonic Inlet with Nose Bluntness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wenzhi; Li, Zhufei; Yang, Jiming

    Leading edge bluntness is widely used in hypersonic inlet design for thermal protection[1]. Detailed research of leading edge bluntness on hypersonic inlet has been concentrated on shock shape correlation[2], boundary layer flow[3], inlet performance[4], etc. It is well known that blunted noses cause detached bow shocks which generate subsonic regions around the noses and entropy layers in the flowfield.

  13. Journal of the British Ship Research Association. Index to Volume 34, January to December 1979. Abstracts Number 49, 883-52, 042.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    CROSS FLOW IN 51378 IRROTATIONAL FLOWS 50103 OVER BLUNT-NOSED BODIES 50470 THREE-DIMENSIONAL LAMINAR AND TURBULENT: 51583 TURBULENT 51375 BOW BULBS ...MULTIPLEX SYSTEM 51992 DECELERATION: AUTOMATIC CONTROL OF 50351 DECK WETNESS : OF SUPPLY VESSELS 51195 DECKHOUSE/HULL INTERACTION. 50446 DECKS...DOCKS: DRY: CLEANING OF FLOORS. . . . . . . 50319 DESIGN CONCEPT . . . . . . 49939 DUBAI . . . . . . 50686, 50687 FLOATING: AG WESER DOCK VI

  14. Impact perforation of polymer–metal laminates: Projectile nose shape sensitivity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mohagheghian, I; McShane, G.J; Stronge, W.J

    2016-01-01

    ... into the influence of a polymer coating on the resistance to projectile perforation of a target plate remain relatively limited. It has been shown by Mohagheghian et al., in press that a polymer layer can significantly enhance the impact perforation resistance of a thin metallic plate struck by a blunt-nosed projectile. When placed on the impacted (proximal) fa...

  15. Report on the Evaluation Results of the Course "Mechanic Undercarriage Leopard 2"

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    docent , de methode van presentatie, de relevantie van de behandelde stof. Uit onderzoek blijkt dat er verband bestaat nassen positieve reacties op de...interviewer het door de ondervraagde gegeven antwoord [1 = Ja; 2 = Nee; 3 = Soms; 4 = weet niet]. 45.B-4) Gebruikt(e) de docent tijdens de lessen voor...verschillende cursus-onderdelen. Er is tussen de docenten onderling weinig of geen overleg. De docent van de opleiding voor monteur onderstel weet

  16. 最先进的Mac操作系统——SnowLeopard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    大大

    2009-01-01

    苹果公司于8月底正式发布了Mae OS×Snow Leopard(雪豹)。和Microsoft Vista升级Windows7主要升级外观、调整操控界面正好相反,Snow Leopard操作系统的外观和以往的Leopard操作系统基本保持一致,此次升级的重点放在了性能表现方面。综合而言,可以归纳为三项重大改进,七大精彩亮点。

  17. Snow Leopard cloud : A multi-national education training and experimentation cloud and its security challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cayirci, E.; Rong, C.; Huiskamp, W.; Verkoelen, C.A.A.

    2009-01-01

    Military/civilian education training and experimentation networks (ETEN) are an important application area for the cloud computing concept. However, major security challenges have to be overcome to realize an ETEN. These challenges can be categorized as security challenges typical to any cloud and m

  18. Apple推出配置Mac OS X Snow Leopard Server的全新Macmini

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    近日苹果推出了全新设计的Mac mini。新机型采用一体成型,厚度仅3.6cm的超薄正方形铝合金外壳,并且将电源内置,连接更加方便。与标准版相比,针对工作组及中小企业用户的新Macmini去掉了内置光驱而增加了一块硬盘,空载功耗不足11W,更符合企业应用的需求。

  19. 伺机出击的"雪豹"%The "snow leopard" that the opportunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑卫丽

    2003-01-01

    目前,许多经济学家都在分析哈萨克斯坦借鉴最成功经济改革的可能性.本文通过分析亚洲"龙"与"虎"经济发展的特点:自身优势加上政府深思熟虑的运作;哈国自身优势不足,工业化脱离本国实际.二者对比得出:"雪豹"不可照搬外国经验.

  20. Racism in African Children's Literature: A Critique of Eric Campbell's "The Year of the Leopard Song."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osa, Osayimwense

    Eric Campbell, an English teacher, spent most of his working life in New Guinea and in East Africa, where he lived in the shadow of Kilimanjaro. He now lives in England and writes about Africa. People could expect an objective, and perhaps, a dispassionate account or depiction of African children and adults--their individual lives and…

  1. Breeding of the Clouded Leopard in captivity%云豹的饲养与繁殖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕春火

    1983-01-01

    @@ 云豹(Neofelis nebulosa)又名乌云豹、龟纹豹、荷叶豹.产于我国西南及南方各省,江西各地山区均有分布.由于野生云豹少,已列为国家二类保护动物,国际定为"Ⅴ"级(难保级)保护动物,据75年国际年刊调查,国际上有51家展出此种动物,国内(80年血系普查统计)约29家动物园展出.

  2. Snow Leopard cloud : A multi-national education training and experimentation cloud and its security challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cayirci, E.; Rong, C.; Huiskamp, W.; Verkoelen, C.A.A.

    2009-01-01

    Military/civilian education training and experimentation networks (ETEN) are an important application area for the cloud computing concept. However, major security challenges have to be overcome to realize an ETEN. These challenges can be categorized as security challenges typical to any cloud and

  3. Not all spotted cats are leopards: evidence for a Hemilienardia ocellata species complex (Gastropoda: Conoidea: Raphitomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander E. Fedosov

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The small conoidean Hemilienardia ocellata is one of the easily recognizable Indo-Pacific “turrids”, primarily because of its remarkable eyespot colour pattern. Morphological and molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed four species that share this “characteristic” colour pattern but demonstrate consistent differences in size and shell proportions. Three new species – Hemilienardia acinonyx sp. nov. from the Philippines, H. lynx sp. nov. from Papua New Guinea and H. pardus sp. nov. from the Society and Loyalty Islands – are described based on the results of phylogenetic analyses. Although the H. ocellata species complex clade falls in a monophyletic Hemilienardia, H. ocellata and H. acinonyx sp. nov. possess a radula with semi-enrolled or notably flattened triangular marginal teeth, a condition that diverges substantially from the standard radular morphology of Hemilienardia and other raphitomids.

  4. Evidences Dependent Population Distribution Patterns of Tiger and Leopard in Similipal Tiger Reserve, Odisha, India

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeep Ranjan Mishra; H.K. Bisht

    2015-01-01

    The Tiger (Panthera tigris) is an endangered carnivore with uncertain demographic status spanning 13 Asian countries. Due to its larger body size and carnivorous diet in nature it always occurs at low population densities. Further prey depletion due to overhunting (Karanth & Stith, 1998), poaching, habitat shrinkage (Kenny et al., 1995, Wcs, 1995) and direct killing altogether have also become a major factor for depletion of wild tiger populations tiger. Monitoring the abundance and its alter...

  5. A novel amniote model of epimorphic regeneration: the leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius

    OpenAIRE

    McLean Katherine E; Vickaryous Matthew K

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Epimorphic regeneration results in the restoration of lost tissues and structures from an aggregation of proliferating cells known as a blastema. Among amniotes the most striking example of epimorphic regeneration comes from tail regenerating lizards. Although tail regeneration is often studied in the context of ecological costs and benefits, details of the sequence of tissue-level events are lacking. Here we investigate the anatomical and histological events that characte...

  6. Ontogeny and distribution of cells in B lineage in the American leopard frog, Rana pipiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettergren, L D

    1982-01-01

    Two-color immunofluorescence techniques were used in order to trace the development and distribution of cells expressing immunoglobulin in Rana pipiens. Evidence is provided which suggests that (i) embryo-larval urogenital tissues are sites of generation of cells in B lineage, (ii) during ontogeny, there is a sequential expression of immunoglobulin isotypes on B cell surfaces, (iii) larvae are able to produce the full range of immunoglobulin clases found in adults, and (iv) at least two subpopulations of lymphocytes exist in Rana pipiens, sIg+ and sIg-; thymocytes and presumably peripheral T cells lack conventional surface immunoglobulin. Some ontogenetic and phylogenetic implications are discussed.

  7. Effects of exposure to ultraviolet light on the development of Rana pipiens, the northern leopard frog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, J.J.; Wofford, H.W. [Union Univ., Jackson, TN (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The increase in ultraviolet light intensity levels due to ozone depletion recently has been linked to the decline in amphibian population. In this experiment, eggs and larvae of Rana pipiens were subjected to differing amounts of ultraviolet radiation to determine the effects of ultraviolet light on the development of amphibian tadpoles. The total length, length of body without tail, and maximum width of each specimen was recorded for a month of the tadpoles` development, including several measurements after the ultraviolet exposures were concluded. It was found that ultraviolet exposure significantly reduced the size of the organisms in comparison with the control group in all three measured areas. Ultraviolet radiation altered the health and appearance of the exposed organisms and was lethal at large amounts. This experiment showed that ultraviolet radiation could cause many problems in developing amphibians. By slowing their development and physically weakening predation, thus contributing to a decline in overall population levels.

  8. Relationship between isthmotectal fibers and other tectopetal systems in the leopard frog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruberg, E R; Wallace, M T; Waldeck, R F

    1989-10-01

    We studied the relationship of isthmotectal input to other tectal afferent fiber systems in three ways. 1) Using horseradish peroxidase (HRP) histochemistry, we determined the nonretinal inputs to the superficial tectum. In different sets of animals we a) applied HRP to the tectal surface; b) inserted HRP crystals into the tectum; c) injected small volumes of HRP solutions into the superficial tectum. N. isthmi accounts for more than 65% of the nonretinal extrinsic input in the superficial tectal layers. One set of fibers from the contralateral n. isthmi projects to the most superficial layer. Fibers from posterior thalamus and tegmentum project to both superficial and deeper layers in the tectum, but not to the most superficial layer. The ipsilaterally projecting isthmotectal fibers terminate in the deeper superficial layers. 2) We investigated the relationship between retinofugal and contralaterally projecting isthmotectal pathways. We orthogradely labelled n. isthmi fibers by unilateral HRP injections into n. isthmi, and we also labelled retinal fibers by injecting tritiated l-proline into both eyes. In such animals contralaterally projecting isthmotectal fibers cross in the dorsal posterior region of the optic chiasm. From the chiasm to the tectum isthmotectal fibers and retinofugal fibers are admixed. 3) We determined whether other fiber systems cross with contralaterally projecting isthmotectal fibers. We cut the posterior part of the optic chiasm and applied HRP crystals to the cut. Only n. isthmi and retina are retrogradely labelled.

  9. Helminth parasites of the leopard frog Lithobates sp. Colima (Amphibia: Ranidae) from Colima, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Guzmán, Elisa; Garrido-Olvera, Lorena; León-Règagnon, Virginia

    2010-08-01

    The helminth fauna inhabiting Lithobates sp. Colima from Ticuizitán, Colima, Mexico, comprises 10 species: 4 digeneans ( Clinostomum sp., Glypthelmins quieta , Haematoloechus sp., and Langeronia macrocirra ), 5 nematodes ( Aplectana itzocanensis , Cosmocerca podicipinus , Foleyellides striatus , Oswaldocruzia subauricularis , and Rhabdias sp.), and 1 cestode (Cyclophyllidea). Glypthelmins quieta , L. macrocirra , and A. itzocanensis represent new host records. These observations, added to previous records from Acapulco, Guerrero, Mexico, indicate that the helminth fauna of Lithobates sp. from Colima comprises 25 taxa. Frogs are being parasitized by 3 infection routes: ingestion of intermediate host, skin penetration by larval forms, and transmission by vectors. Species of Aplectana , Cosmocerca , Foleyellides , and Oswaldocruzia occurred in high prevalence in Colima, similar to a previous study on the same frog species from Guerrero. In Colima, Glypthelmins , Haematoloechus , and Rhabdias also occurred in high prevalence. Haematoloechus species reached the highest mean intensity in both localities. The semiaquatic habits of this species of frog and the availability of particular feeding resources appear to determine the helminth composition and infection levels; however, co-speciation events also play an important role structuring these helminth communities.

  10. Comparison of carnivore, omnivore, and herbivore mammalian genomes with a new leopard assembly

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Soonok; Cho, Yun Sung; Kim, Hak-Min; Chung, Oksung; Kim, Hyunho; Jho, Sungwoong; Seomun, Hong; Kim, Jeongho; Bang, Woo Young; Kim, Changmu; An, Junghwa; Bae, Chang Hwan; Bhak, Youngjune; Jeon, Sungwon; Yoon, Hyejun

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are three main dietary groups in mammals: carnivores, omnivores, and herbivores. Currently, there is limited comparative genomics insight into the evolution of dietary specializations in mammals. Due to recent advances in sequencing technologies, we were able to perform in-depth whole genome analyses of representatives of these three dietary groups. Results: We investigated the evolution of carnivory by comparing 18 representative genomes from across Mammalia with carnivorou...

  11. Comparison of carnivore, omnivore, and herbivore mammalian genomes with a new leopard assembly

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Soonok; Cho, Yun Sung; Kim, Hak-Min; Chung, Oksung; Kim, Hyunho; Jho, Sungwoong; Seomun, Hong; Kim, Jeongho; Bang, Woo Young; Kim, Changmu; An, Junghwa; Bae, Chang Hwan; Bhak, Youngjune; Jeon, Sungwon; Yoon, Hyejun

    2016-01-01

    Background There are three main dietary groups in mammals: carnivores, omnivores, and herbivores. Currently, there is limited comparative genomics insight into the evolution of dietary specializations in mammals. Due to recent advances in sequencing technologies, we were able to perform in-depth whole genome analyses of representatives of these three dietary groups. Results We investigated the evolution of carnivory by comparing 18 representative genomes from across Mammalia with carnivorous,...

  12. Tuning of the Tectorial Membrane in the Basilar Papilla of the Northern Leopard Frog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoffelen, R. L. M.; Segenhout, J. M.; van Dijk, P.

    The basilar papilla (BP) in the frog inner ear is a relatively simple auditory receptor. Its hair cells are embedded in a stiff support structure, with the stereovilli connecting to a flexible tectorial membrane (TM). Acoustic energy passing the papilla presumably causes displacement of the TM,

  13. Status of bullfrogs and northern leopard frogs at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge, Juab County, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document describes aspects of the ecology and natural history of bullfrogs introduced to Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. The purpose of this study was to...

  14. Mechanism for Influence of Nose Bluntness on Asymmetric Vortices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Gang; LIANG Xin-Gang

    2004-01-01

    @@ Pressure distributions on slender bodies are measured at various roll angles; it is found that the side loads on the blunted-nose slender body are as small as one-third of that on a pointed-nose one, or even zero at some roll angles. Numerical simulation shows that different flow structures are generated on the leeside of the bodies with different noses. The results confirm that a structure of U-shaped horseshoe vortex develops on the top of the blunted nose due to the closed type of surface flow separation. The shear layer separated from the nose is entrapped into the horseshoe vortex core and forms two main vortices on the two sides of the body. The function of this structure is to hold in the two main nose vortices and to restrict the emergence of asymmetry.

  15. 77 FR 38652 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ...) Cottontop tamarin (Saguinus oedipus) Snow leopard (Uncia uncia) Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis) Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) Golden parakeet (Guarouba guarouba) Hooded crane (Grus...

  16. The leopard cannot change his spots, or can he? Culture and the development of lay theories of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Li-Jun

    2008-05-01

    Chinese and Canadian children were compared to examine cultural and developmental differences in lay theories of change: implicit beliefs about how the world develops and changes over time. Chinese and Canadian children (ages 7, 9, and 11 years) made predictions about future performance, relationships, happiness, and parental incomes based on a series of scenarios. Overall, the Chinese children predicted greater change than did the Canadian children, indicating that they believed more in change than did the Canadians. Moreover, cultural differences increased significantly with age: In comparison with their Canadian counterparts, Chinese children made no more change predictions at age 7, made slightly more change predictions at age 9, and made significantly more change predictions at age 11. This was true for questions starting with an extremely positive or negative state and those starting with a neutral state. Reasons for cultural and developmental differences were discussed.

  17. 中国雪豹小组在行动%Chinese Snow Leopard Team Goes into Action

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ 用红外手段首次捕捉到雪豹身影 2004年刚开始雪豹调查的时候,我们都是通过尿迹、卧痕、擦痕、毛发、粪便等痕迹来判断的.我们在托木尔峰考察,在靠近吉尔吉斯斯坦边境的无人区扎营的第二天早晨就发现营地附近有雪豹足迹了,可就是看不到它的身影,它就是这么一种神秘的动物.这时候我们只能是非常间接地说.

  18. Jiangsu Snow Leopard Household Chemical Co.,Ltd.%"雪豹"精神:勇于进取开拓创新

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ 江苏雪豹日化有限公司位于产业集聚度高、高新技术效应明显的无锡江阴开发区,是一家从事日用化学品研发、生产和销售的民营高新技术企业,拥有亚洲地区规模最大、最先进的膏体乳化系统.

  19. 迎风冒雪"雪豹"突击%CAPF Snow Leopard Commando Unit Conducting Anti-Terror Training

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李光印

    2010-01-01

    @@ 岁末年初,雪后京城气温骤然下降至近40年来最低值.武警北京总队雪豹突击队不惧严寒把部队拉到冰天雪地中训练,在恶劣环境中锤炼官兵战斗精神,磨砺官兵意志.

  20. Snow Leopard's Secluded Home on the Plateau%高原上的雪豹隐居之地

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐爱春

    2008-01-01

    @@ "只见雪豹皮,不见雪豹"--这是上个世纪90年代,美国博物学家夏勒博士的痛心呐喊!在我国青海、新疆和西藏野外考察期间,夏勒博士没有看见一只野生的雪豹!据他的估计,青海适宜雪豹生存的6.5万平方公里生境中有雪豹650只,种群密度高于西藏(650只/16.5万平方公里)和新疆(750只/17万平方公里).

  1. Evaluation of the propellant residues emitted during 105-mm Leopard tank live firing at CFB Valcartier, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    the top. The projectile filling consists of approximately 2.1 kg of RDX/ wax 88/12 pressed explosive. For the need of the February 2009 trial, 90...initiation of the trial, a snow sample was taken downrange of the tank position. A 20- cm x 20-cm flat polytetrafluoroethylene ( PTFE ) coated aluminum...surface samples were taken with a 20 x 20 x 2.5 cm PTFE -covered aluminum scoop. The subsurface sample was taken with a similar scoop 10-cm on a side

  2. Raising and Breeding of Leopards in Captivity%金钱豹的饲养与繁殖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱本仁

    1984-01-01

    @@ 金钱貂(Panthera pardus)分布于亚洲和非洲.我国南北各地均有.它毛色花纹美丽,体态强健,骨可入药,是一种价值较高的经济动物,又是一种受人欢迎的观赏动物.随着自然资源开发,野外金钱豹数量日趋减少.我国已将其列为保护动物之一.

  3. 圈养金钱豹的繁育%THE CAPTIVE BREEDING OF CHINESE LEOPARD(PANTHERA PARDUS)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志和; 吕文其; 王行亮; 王成东; 侯蓉; 宋云芳; 何光昕

    1999-01-01

    @@ 金钱豹(Panthera pardus),属猫科食肉兽,活体观赏价值较高,骨骼则具有较高的经济和药用价值;过去它在我国分布较广,数量亦多,但因野外栖息地大幅度缩小,特别是乱捕滥猎致使其种群数量急剧下降,现濒于绝灭状态;(CITES)将其列入附录I,IUCN的已将其东北亚种和华北亚种分别列为濒危等级(E)和易危等级(V),也是我国一级保护动物和优先保护物种.本文报道了成都动物园进行的圈养金钱豹繁育研究情况.

  4. Increasing game prices may alter farmers' behaviours towards leopards (Panthera pardus) and other carnivores in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirie, Tara J; Thomas, Rebecca L; Fellowes, Mark D E

    2017-01-01

    Human-carnivore conflict occurs globally, particularly in regions where large carnivores predate livestock. Retaliatory killings do occur, and although predation of livestock by carnivores happens, losses from other factors such as disease or injury can be misattributed because of landowner perceptions. Game farming for both trophy hunting and eco-tourism is becoming increasingly common in South Africa, and there has been a rapid increase in the cost of game animals (in some species as much as five-fold) between 2010 and 2015. This could result in an increase in conflict between commercial game farmers and carnivores. We conducted two questionnaire surveys of farmers in 2010 and 2015 to investigate this. We asked if there had been changes in farming practices, perceived predator activity, perceived amount of livestock and commercial game losses, and actions taken towards carnivores in a South African farming community. We found no significant change in farming types in the area or losses of livestock between the years. However, there was a significant increase in perceived commercial game losses reported, even though protection of game had increased. Actions taken towards carnivores by livestock/game farmers were also significantly more negative in 2015 compared to farmers growing crops, but there was no such difference in 2010. We suggest that these changes could be a result of the increase in game prices over that period, leading to greater financial losses when an animal is predated, which in turn could increase the likelihood of retaliatory killings of carnivores.

  5. The effects of smoke derivatives on in vitro seed germination and development of the leopard orchid Ansellia africana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papenfus, H B; Naidoo, D; Pošta, M; Finnie, J F; Van Staden, J

    2016-03-01

    Plant-derived smoke and smoke-isolated compounds stimulate germination in seeds from over 80 genera. It has also been reported that smoke affects overall plant vigour and has a stimulatory effect on pollen growth. The effect of smoke on orchid seeds, however, has not been assessed. In South Africa, orchid seeds from several genera may be exposed to smoke when they are released from their seedpods. It is therefore possible that smoke may affect their germination and growth. Therefore, the effects of smoke [applied as smoke-water (SW)] and two smoke-derived compounds, karrikinolide (KAR1 ) and trimethylbutenolide (TMB), were investigated on the germination and growth of orchid seeds in vitro. The effect of SW, KAR1 and TMB were investigated on the endangered epiphytic orchid, Ansellia africana, which is indigenous to tropical areas of Africa. Smoke-water, KAR1 and TMB were infused in half-strength MS medium. The number of germinated seeds and number of seeds and protocorm bodies to reach predetermined developmental stages were recorded on a weekly basis using a dissecting microscope for a 13-week period. Infusing SW 1:250 (v:v) into half-strength MS medium significantly increased the germination rate index (GRI) and the development rate index (DRI) of the A. africana seeds. All the SW treatments significantly increased the number of large protocorm bodies at the final stage of development. Infusing KAR1 into the growing medium had no significant effect on germination or development of the seeds. The TMB treatment, however, significantly reduced the GRI and DRI of A. africana seeds.

  6. PARTIAL LIFE-CYCLE TOXICITY AND BIOCONCENTRATION MODELLING OF PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS) IN THE NORTHERN LEOPARD FROG (RANA PIPIENS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A number of recent monitoring studies have demonstrated elevated concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in humans and wildlife throughout the world. Although no longer manufactured in the U.S., the global distribution and relative persistence of PFOS indicates a need ...

  7. Heat transfer in MHD unsteady stagnation point flow with variable wall temperature

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Soundalgekar, V.M.; Murty, T.V.R.; Takhar, H.S.

    of free-stream oscillations cn the flow of an incompressible viscous fluid past a semi-infinite boay. The small amplituae pheno menon was studied. The unsteady motion of a semi-infinite plate in a viscous fluid was also studied by Cheng and ElJiott 2.... In section2~the mathematical analysis is considered and in section 3 the conclusions are set onto REAT TRANSFER 385 2. MATHBMATICAL ANALYSIS MHO flow of an incompressible viscous fluid near a forward stagnation point of a blunt-nosed two dimensional body...

  8. Markings as Indicator of Snow Leopard in Field Survey, in Xinjiang%新疆雪豹调查中的痕迹分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马鸣; Bariushaa Munkhtsog; 徐峰; 买尔旦; 殷守敬; 魏顺德

    2005-01-01

    雪豹(Uncia uncia)属于中亚高山高度濒危动物,夜行性,极其罕见.新疆雪豹研究小组2004年9~11月,在新疆的北塔山、阿尔泰山东部、天山东部和托木尔峰地区大约9个地点,对雪豹的痕迹进行了全面调查.共计完成67个样线,总长度47 776 m,其中发现遗留痕迹的样线有27条,痕迹数118个,平均为2.47个/km.记录到的痕迹有粪团、嗅痕(气味标记)、足迹、刨痕、卧迹、爪印、毛发、尿迹、血迹、剩余食物(动物尸体)和吼声等.同步还完成了200余份问卷调查表,充分了解雪豹与当地居民的冲突.最后,通过痕迹学的分析,初步掌握雪豹的栖息地选择、领域范围、分布规律和相对密度.这对于种群数量估计和物种的保护管理具有重要意义.

  9. Protecting Snow Leopard Means Protecting a Healthy Eco-system%留住她,就是留住一个健康的系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    智峰

    2008-01-01

    @@ 国际野生生物保护学会(WCS)首席科学家,著名的野生生物学家,乔治·夏勒(George B.Schaller)博士在全球20多个国家公园和保护区致力于濒危野生动物的保护研究,从非洲的大猩猩、狮子到中亚地区的马可波罗盘羊、雪豹、藏羚羊、蒙古黄羊、大熊猫、东北虎等,进行了几十年的研究工作,并努力促进边境地区野生动物的跨界保护.2008年11月,本刊记者就雪豹的保护问题在北京采访了夏勒博士.以下是夏勒博士的谈话内容.

  10. 天山雪豹何以开始偷袭家畜?%Why Have the Snow Leopards in the Tianshan Mountains Begun to Attack Livestock?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐峰; 陈莹; 马鸣; 程芸

    2008-01-01

    @@ 每个明晰的结果背后都可能隐藏着错综复杂的理由.雪豹,这个鬼魅般的物种,长久以来一直雄踞于中亚的崇山峻岭之中,与世隔绝.生性孤僻的它为何在近几年频繁地出现在我们的视线中,并以偷吃家畜的方式一再搅扰牧民的生活呢?

  11. Snow Leopard Survey in Tumor Nature Reserve, Xinjiang%新疆托木尔峰自然保护区雪豹调查初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐峰; 马鸣; 殷守敬; 买尔旦

    2005-01-01

    2004年10 ~11月对新疆托木尔峰国家自然保护区的5个地点进行雪豹痕迹调查,结果显示其中英也尔、库尔干以及塔克拉克地区的雪豹痕迹数量较多,确定是雪豹的活动分布区.通过42条样带调查共发现雪豹痕迹3类57处,其中足迹71.9%,刨痕21.1%,粪便7.0%.痕迹分布表明雪豹在栖息地选择上也有规律,在山谷、山坡、山嵴等不同地貌中雪豹对山谷有偏好;在森林、灌丛、草地和荒漠等植被类型中雪豹会避开荒漠.

  12. Comparing two kinds of artificial rearing methods of snow leopard%雪豹两种人工育幼方式比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程晓明; 由玉岩; 刘学锋; 马骏; 宁宇; 张金国

    2014-01-01

    北京动物园分别采用全人工和人工-狗乳交替哺育的方法,成功哺育6只雪豹幼崽.通过对育幼箱内外温、湿度的监测结果表明,幼崽呼吸频率随年龄增加而呈现周期性波动,9周后接近成年雪豹;幼崽体温0~87日龄呈逐渐下降趋势,50日龄后趋于稳定;排便和排尿量均随年龄增长呈增加趋势,70日龄增长量趋缓;幼崽体重直线增长.通过对两种哺育方式的卡方检验结果表明,两种哺育方式下雪豹幼崽体重生长存在显著差异.育幼箱内温度和幼崽自身体温对体重增长具有显著的影响;体温与幼崽呼吸频率和进食量具有显著的相关性.此外,还应注意饲料转换时机及微量元素对幼年雪豹生长发育的重要性.

  13. 由《雪豹》中的竹下俊看武士道精神%On the Bushido by Zhu Xiajun in Snow Leopard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭慧

    2011-01-01

    2010年上映的电视剧《雪豹》,是一部描述全民族抗日战争奋斗史的影片,其中塑造了一个谦卑真诚,有武士修养的形象——竹下俊.他敬佩对手,甚至不惜牺牲自己.做人,他谦卑真诚,极富修养;待友,他示人以仁,极富真诚;从军,他冷血多智、极富意志.《雪豹》对日本军人形象的塑造更加客观,日军在华的罪行不容抹灭,但是日军的一些优秀的品质也是我们应该了解的.通过分析《雪豹》中竹下俊这一人物形象的性格特点及社会背景,以此来探讨日本的武士道精神,对于我们学习和研究日本文化具有一定的参考价值.

  14. The dummies guide to promoting wildlife conservation in the Middle East: telling tales of unicorns and ossifrages to save the hawk and leopard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Tom

    2011-06-01

    In the Middle East there are great pressures on the environment and wildlife. Indeed, many species are teetering on the edge of extinction. Wildlife health, management, and welfare are poorly understood concepts and are not important priorities for regional governments. What can be done to raise the level of awareness to wildlife health, management, and welfare in a region where most people live in large modern cities detached from nature? In this article, I relate the story of how a small group of colleagues and I harnessed our frustration at the pervasive indifference to conservation to positive effect. We took action to establish Wildlife Middle East News, an information resource to raise awareness of conservation issues and to enable better management and welfare of wildlife. This case study demonstrates how individuals, such as biologists, veterinarians, and environmental educators working with wildlife in narrow professional arenas can play a role in the solution of wider environmental problems.

  15. 50 CFR 14.252 - What definitions do I need to know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... wildlife species means a specimen of any of the following eight species: Lion (Panthera leo), tiger (Panthera tigris), leopard (Panthera pardus), snow leopard (Uncia uncia), clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa), jaguar (Panthera onca), cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), and cougar (Puma concolor) or any hybrids...

  16. The ecology of large carnivores in the highlands of northern Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yirga, Gidey; De Iongh, Hans H.; Leirs, Herwig

    2013-01-01

    to hyaena, leopard and jackal predation over the past 5 years. This loss equated to a total financial loss of U.S.$ 50,381. Livestock predation incidents of spotted hyaena, leopard and jackal demonstrated that spotted hyaena had a preference for dog, donkey, goat and sheep; leopard for goat, dog and sheep...

  17. Snow Leopard or Modern Fables Regarding Death or Life:Reading Jidi Majia's "Me, Snow Leopard and Others"%雪豹,或关乎死生的现代寓言——吉狄马加《我,雪豹……》阅读札记

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王辰龙

    2015-01-01

    "新时期"以来,彝族诗人的创作逐渐成为当代新诗整体风景中由"边缘"突入却不可忽视的重要局部,已涌现出大批有实绩的写作者,他们凭借诗性语言持续地对我们的时代与世界进行着独特的想象和赋形,彝族悠久的历史文化,也经由诗人的灵魂与匠心而得以显形.吉狄马加是彝族诗人中的佼佼者,而他的《我,雪豹……》则是近年来长诗作品中的佳作,诗人恍若借用"雪豹"的目光、身体,对族群的过往和此际,进行逼视与穿越,"雪豹"所历经的灵肉之旅,则构成了对人类普遍处境的隐喻.

  18. Finding of No Significant Impact: Military Family Housing Revitalization Project Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-02-01

    great tailed grackle (Quiscalus major), common rock dove (Columba livia), burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia), house sparrow (Passer domesticus ...macrotis), badger (Taxidea taxus), coyote ( Canis latrans), and bobcat (Lynx rufus). 3.4.5.3 Threatened and Endangered Species. According to the...this EA, include development of federal agency implementation strategies, identification of low- income and minority populations potentially affected

  19. On the genus Rheithrosciurus Gray

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jentink, F.A.

    1881-01-01

    As I wrote my paper on Sciurus (Rheithrosciurus) microtis, see Notes from the Leyden Museum, Part I, 1879, p. 40, I knew Rheithrosciurus macrotis only from the both short annotations of the late Gray about that Squirrel. I here verbally copie his descriptions: Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1856, p. 341,

  20. Optical wavefront distortion due to supersonic flow fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN ZhiQiang; FU Song

    2009-01-01

    The optical wavefront distortion caused by a supersonic flow field around a half model of blunt nose cone was studied in a wind tunnel. A Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor was used to measure the dis-totted optical wavefront. Interesting optical parameters including the peak variation (PV), root of mean square (RMS) and Strehl ratio were obtained under different test conditions during the experiment. During the establishing process of the flow field in the wind tunnel test section, the wavefront shape was unstable. However after the flow field reached the steady flow state, the wavefront shape kept sta-ble, and the relative error of wavefront aberration was found small. The Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor developed was proved to be credible in measuring quantitatively the optical phase change of light traveling through the flow field around model window.

  1. AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON THE IMPACT PERFORATION FAILURE OF WATER-FILLED-PRESSURIZED PIPELINES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LuGuoyun; LeiJianping; ZhangShanyuan

    2004-01-01

    Some experimental data recorded from impact tests on empty and water-filled pressurized mild steel pipes are presented. The pipes were supported as a three-span continuous beam and impacted laterally by a rigid indenter at the mid-span of middle span. Three kinds of indenter nose shapes were used: blunt-nose, hemisphere-nose and 90° conical-nose. The internal pressure ranged up to 20 MPa. The perforation failure modes and corresponding critical impact energies were obtained under different test conditions. The time-history curves of the internal pressure and impact force were given. The experiments show that the media filled in the tube greatly decreased the ballistic limit energy.

  2. Some Aspects of the Modified Newtonian and Prandtl-Meyer-Expansion Method for Axisymmetric Blunt Bodies at Zero Angle of Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Richard D., Jr.

    1959-01-01

    In a recent article on hypersonic flow, Lees and Kubota suggested a modification of the local-expansion method to predict the surface pressures in the region of a nose-cylinder junction where Newtonian theory fails. The modification consists of matching the Newtonian pressure distribution and the Prandtl-Meyer relation at the point on the nose surface where both the pressure and the pressure gradient, predicted by these two solution, are equal. With this approximation, the pressure distribution can be predicted quite accurately up to the nose-cylinder junction for blunt-nosed bodies of continuous curvature, provided centrifugal-force effects are negligible. The purpose of this note is to facilitate the application of Lees' suggestion and to draw attention to some of its consequences.

  3. General Reynolds analogy on curved surfaces in hypersonic rarefied gas flows with non-equilibrium chemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xingxing, Chen; Zhihui, Wang; Yongliang, Yu

    2016-11-01

    Hypersonic chemical non-equilibrium gas flows around blunt nosed bodies are studied in the present paper to investigate the Reynolds analogy relation on curved surfaces. With a momentum and energy transfer model being applied through boundary layers, influences of molecular dissociations and recombinations on skin frictions and heat fluxes are separately modeled. Expressions on the ratio of Cf / Ch (skin friction coefficient to heat flux) are presented along the surface of circular cylinders under the ideal dissociation gas model. The analysis indicates that molecular dissociations increase the linear distribution of Cf / Ch, but the nonlinear Reynolds analogy relation could ultimately be obtained in flows with larger Reynolds numbers and Mach numbers, where the decrease of wall heat flux by molecular recombinations signifies. The present modeling and analyses are also verified by the DSMC calculations on nitrogen gas flows.

  4. 9 CFR 93.701 - Prohibitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... United States from New Zealand. (c) No person may import leopard tortoise (Geochelone pardalis), African spurred tortoise (Geochelone sulcata), or Bell's hingeback tortoise (Kinixys belliana) into the...

  5. INFLUENCE OF RIBEIROIA ONDATRAE (TREMATODA: DIGENEA) INFECTION ON LIMB DEVELOPMENT AND SURVIVAL OF NORTHERN LEOPARD FROGS (RANA PIPIENS): EFFECTS OF HOST STAGE AND PARASITE-EXPOSURE LEVEL. (R825867)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  6. 泰国Khao Yai国家公园豹猫的道路生态学%Road ecology of the leopard cat Prionailurus bengalensis in Khao Yai National Park, Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sean C.AUSTIN; Michael E.TEWES; Lon I.GRASSMAN Jr; Nova J.SILVY

    2007-01-01

    为了解道路对豹猫(Prionailurus bengalensis)空间生态和时间生态的影响,使用无线电追踪技术对6只雌性个体和4只雄性个体进行了为期1-18个月的监测.道路上的车辆主要在白天出现,似乎不影响豹猫的位置或活动,即便在周末或假期车辆增加时,情形也是如此.需要更多的研究来确定本文报道的结果是否代表了该物种的整体情况,或者仅仅特定于Kao Yai国家公园.需要该物种更多的自然性方面的数据为野生动物管理者决策提供根据[动物学报 53(2):373-377,2007].

  7. 中国豹源豚鼠气单胞菌的分子鉴定与毒力基因分析%Molecular Identification and Virulent Gene Analysis of Aeromonas Caviae from China Leopard(Panthera pardus japonensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李婉萍; 彭仕明; 陈武; 胡俊; 李少基; 单芬

    2015-01-01

    从表现为急性出血性败血症的中国豹分离到一株细菌,为了鉴定这株细菌,并对其主要毒力基因进行检测分析,实验中进行了细菌的分离培养、生化鉴定及动物毒力试验;PCR扩增gyrB基因并结合系统发育树的构建和分析进行了菌种的分子鉴定;对分离菌进行了气溶素(aerolysin,aer)、热敏感细胞肠毒素(heat-Labile cytotonic enterotoxin,alt)、细胞毒性肠毒素(cytotoxic enterotoxin,act)、热敏蛋白酶(temperature-sensitive protease,eprCAI)、丝氨酸蛋白酶(serine protease,ahp)5种毒力基因的PCR扩增和测序.结果显示:根据培养特性、生化试验、小白鼠毒力试验鉴定分离菌为豚鼠气单胞菌;中国豹源细菌gyrB基因与豚鼠气单胞菌(JQ815381)的同源性为98.9%,应为豚鼠气单胞菌;具有act、alt、eprACI 3种毒力基因.该研究可为快捷、准确检测气单胞菌引起的疾病提供参考.

  8. Investingation on Snow Leopard (Uncia uncia) and Its Prey in Baytag Mountain Region, Xinjiang%新疆北塔山地区雪豹及其食物资源调查初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐峰; 马鸣; 殷守敬; Bariushaa Munkhtsog

    2007-01-01

    2004年9月对新疆东北部阿勒泰山系北塔山地区进行雪豹调查.主要采用样线调查和问卷调查相结合的方法,对15条样线和5个民族81人次进行了问卷调查.调查共发现雪豹痕迹67处,其中刨迹39处,占58.2%;粪便24处,占35.8%;气味标记1处,占1.5%;爪迹3处,占4.5%.发现雪豹主要食物北山羊4群,共23只;石鸡24群,共418只.被访问的81人次中,亲眼见过雪豹的有11人,占13.58%,没见过雪豹但是听说过的有17人,占20.99%,没有见过也没有听说当地有雪豹的有53人,占65.4%,了解到有雪豹袭击伤害家畜的有10人,占12.35%.

  9. 马克思主义美学:无牙的老虎、娇憨的熊猫还是雪豹%Marxist Aesthetics: Toothless Tiger, Cuddly Panda or Snow Leopard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿列西·艾尔亚维奇; 胡漫

    2014-01-01

    本文通过对马克思主义美学产生的理论来源和发展情况的梳理,结合俄国十月革命时期、20世纪30年代、20世纪50、60年代,苏联美学界对艺术的讨论,分析了马克思主义美学理论的内部矛盾性,即一方面强调理论上的自由与理性的诚实,另一方面强调功利主义与意识形态功能.本文阐述了传统马克思主义更注重艺术的功利性的事实,并指出传统马克思主义美学理论由于无法对当代艺术做出解释和评价,而生发出的两种理论发展模式:一是祛除了“阶级斗争”等概念的社会理论和实践,另一个是普遍理论基础上的社会哲学.本文最后认为,坚持马克思主义美学的基本原则,并正视当代艺术现象的研究,马克思主义美学仍然可能是强劲有力的.

  10. 基于粪便DNA的雪豹种群调查和遗传多样性%Population survey and genetic diversity of snow leopards Panthera uncia as revealed by fecal DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张于光; Jan E.JANECKA; 李迪强; 朵海瑞; R.JACKSON; W.J.MURPHY

    2008-01-01

    雪豹 (Panthera uncia) 是仅分布于亚洲高海拔山区的珍稀濒危猫科动物.本研究在印度西南部(Ladakh)、中国青海和蒙古国的南部(南Gobi)3个独立的雪豹分布区共采集109份粪便样品.应用线粒体DNA(mtDNA) cyt b基因特异性引物对109份粪便样品进行鉴定,发现有31份粪便来自雪豹,其中印度Ladakh、我国青海和蒙古国南Gobi的雪豹样品分别为17份、3份和11份.利用重新筛选设计的7对家猫(Felis catus)微卫星引物,对雪豹粪便样品进行了基因分型分析,结果发现在Ladakh和南Gobi检测到的雪豹粪便样品分别来自4只和5只不同的雪豹个体,而青海的样品则来自同一只雪豹;遗传多样性统计分析表明,蒙古国南Gobi的雪豹微卫星遗传多样性水平低于印度的Ladakh.研究结果表明了粪便DNA在雪豹种群监测和遗传多样性研究中的可行性.

  11. 结识雪域生灵系列之三零距离接触"雪山霸主"--雪豹%Contact with a Snow Leopard, Overlard of a Snowy Mountain within Zero Distance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程起骏

    2006-01-01

    @@ 雪线…… 那最后的银峰超凡脱俗. 成为蓝天晶莹的岛屿, 归属寂寞的雪豹逡巡. --昌耀诗 雪豹,是青藏高原最为珍稀健美的大型食肉目猫科猛兽,向有"雪山霸主"之称号.青海,是雪豹的故乡.它们生息在海拔四千公尺以上的雪山峻岭中.一年中,多数时间都在雪线附近的悬崖绝壁间徘徊觅食,以捕食岩羊、盘羊为主.只有在大雪封山,岩羊、盘羊走向低地时,雪豹才寻迹而来.偶尔也会跳进牧人的羊圈,捕杀绵羊,改善一下口味.平日里不会轻易离开它的老洞.因此,要想在野外看到一只活着的雪豹,可没那么容易.

  12. 青海省都兰县沟里乡智玉村野生雪豹调查%Snow Leopard Preliminary investigation in zhiyucun dulan country of qinghai province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴国生

    2009-01-01

    采用样线法和访问调查法对位于昆仑山余脉布尔汗不达山区的青海省都兰县沟里乡智玉村地区的雪豹进行了初步调查.共设32条样线,在其中的4条样线上发现了雪豹的痕迹(足迹、刨痕、尿迹、粪团和食物残骸),通过调查数据的取得,对该地区雪豹的种群密度做出了初步的估计,同时分析了该地区雪豹种群数量变化的原因,提出了针对雪豹保护工作的建议.

  13. Autumn Habitat Selection by Snow Leopard (Uncia uncia )in Beita Mountain, Xinjiang, China%新疆北塔山雪豹对秋季栖息地的选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐峰; 马鸣; 殷守敬; Bariushaa; Munkhtsog

    2006-01-01

    2004年9~10月,对新疆北塔山地区雪豹(Unica unica)栖息地选择进行了调查.在选定的15条样带上测定了59个利用样方及30个任意样方的6种生境特征(海拔、地形、植被类型、生境平坦度、放牧状况和坡向),其结果如下:Vanderploeg和Scavia选择指数表明:雪豹对海拔、地形、植被类型、生境平坦度和坡向存在选择性:(1)雪豹偏好利用海拔2000~2 200m,而避开2 600~3 000m区域;(2)倾向于悬崖底部和山嵴,避开山坡和山谷;(3)偏好于灌丛,避开森林;(4)避开平坦的开阔地;(5)倾向于选择非放牧区域活动;(6)倾向于选择北坡,避开南坡.对生境特征的主成分分析显示:前3个主成分(海拔、地形和植被类型)的累积贡献率达到75.76%,可以反映雪豹的栖息地特征,同时表明:影响雪豹栖息地选择的主要因素依次为放牧状况、植被类型、地形和生境平坦度.

  14. 托木尔峰自然保护区雪豹种群现状·影响及对策%Population Status, Influence and Conservation Strategies for Snow Leopard in Tomur National Conservation Park

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘浦江; 韩海东

    2015-01-01

    天山托木尔峰地区是雪豹的传统分布区,但其种群密度可能小于0.01只/km2,而种群数量可能少于25只.造成雪豹种群密度低的原因包括原生栖息地狭小、种群可持续性低、雪豹习性影响、食源匮乏、人类活动干扰和气候变化影响等.为了有效保护托木尔峰自然保护区内的雪豹种群,一方面需要强化保护区管理,促进区内生态系统的健康和可持续发展,另一方面可依据保护区的有利条件,开展就地繁育来扩大种群.

  15. 雪豹企业——来自蒙古国的故事%Jennifer Snell Rullman & A.Bayarjargal 70 "Snow Leopard Enterprises"——A Story from Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jennifer Snell Rullman; A.Bayarjargal; 夏树

    2008-01-01

    @@ 蒙古是中亚雪豹栖息地面积最大的国家,阿勒泰山从该国西北角一直蔓延至南部大戈壁,在此区域中大约栖息着1000只野生雪豹,这是世界上最重要的雪豹保护区域之一.在蒙古这片崎岖不平的荒野中,雪豹和游牧民同样在为了生存而挣扎着.

  16. Mac OS X v10.6 Snow Leopard操作系统底层技术分析%The New Technologies under the Fur of Mac OS X v10.6 Snow Leopard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘钊

    2010-01-01

    桌面操作系统随着个人计算机硬件的进步飞速发展.以Unix为基础的Mac OS X在最近一次主要升级Mac OS X 10.6Snow Leopard中对底层技术进行了重要的革新,引入了64位内核、Grand Central Dispatch、OpenCL等新技术.底层技术的更新为开发人员提供了更友好的多线程,更深入的发掘了硬件的潜力,也为操作系统的进一步的发展奠定了基础.

  17. INFLUENCE OF RIBEIROIA ONDATRAE (TREMATODA: DIGENEA) INFECTION ON LIMB DEVELOPMENT AND SURVIVAL OF NORTHERN LEOPARD FROGS (RANA PIPIENS): EFFECTS OF HOST STAGE AND PARASITE-EXPOSURE LEVEL. (R825867)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  18. Reception and Development of French Symbolism by Rainer Maria Rilke from The Leopard%从《豹》看里尔克对法国象征主义的接受与发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈利利

    2009-01-01

    象征主义作为法国文学史上的一个流派,从形成到完善历经了很长的时间,也在法国乃至全世界产生了极其深刻的影响.法国象征主义体现在小说、绘画和戏剧等诸多领域,但其突出的成就则在诗歌方面.20世纪初的后期象征主义在德语诗人中的代表人物之一里尔克在接受法国象征主义影响的同时,也形成了自己一系列独特的风格.

  19. The Lyric Content of Leopard by Rilke and the Contrast between Its Chinese Versions%浅析里尔克《豹》的抒情内容和中译比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佘艺玲

    2005-01-01

    是奥地利象征主义诗人里尔克的一首咏物诗,描写囚禁在铁笼里的豹渴望摆脱命运束缚的深切感受.诗人借助豹这一具体的"物",传达他对"人"的世界、"人"的生存处境的思考以及他在探索人生意义时的迷茫和痛苦.有不同的中译文,对几种中译文的翻译技巧进行探析,和不同中译文进行比较,可以看出,诗歌翻译追求的是情通和形似,译者必须有一种能融入原诗意境的激情,才能达到形似与神似.

  20. 78 FR 14817 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... from wild populations of cheetah, (Acinonyx jubatus) and African wild dog (Lycaon pictus), for the... leopard (Uncia uncia) Leopard (Panthera pardus) Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) South American tapir (Tapirus...), and cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), to enhance their propagation or survival. This notification covers...

  1. 76 FR 61895 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... restricted range. S4 = Apparently Secure: Uncommon but not rare; some cause for long-term concern due to...). There is a small, introduced population in Merced County, near the Merced National Wildlife Refuge (NWR... leopard frogs on the refuge in recent times, and no northern leopard frogs were reported during numerous...

  2. A study of bat populations at Los Alamos National Laboratory and Bandelier National Monument, Jemez Mountains, New Mexico: FY95--97 report to Los Alamos National Laboratory and Bandelier National Monument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogan, M.A.; O`Shea, T.J.; Cryan, P.M.; Ditto, A.M.; Schaedla, W.H.; Valdez, E.W.; Castle, K.T.; Ellison, L. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-12-31

    In 1995, a three-year study was initiated to assess the current status of bat species of concern, elucidate distribution and relative abundance, and obtain information on roosting sites of bats. The authors captured and released 1532 bats of 15 species (Myotis californicus, M. ciliolabrum, M. evotis, M. thysanodes, M. volans, M. yumanensis, Lasiurus cinereus, Lasionycteris noctivagans, Pipistrellus hesperus, Eptesicus fuscus, Euderma maculatum, Corynorhinus townsendii, Antrozous pallidus, Tadarida brasiliensis, and Nyctinomops macrotis) and followed 32 bats of eight species (M. evotis, M. thysanodes, M. volans, E. fuscus, E. maculatum, C. townsendii, A. pallidus, and N. macrotis) to 51 active diurnal roosts. The most abundant species were L. noctivagans, E. fuscus, L. cinereus, M. evotis, M. volans, and M. ciliolabrum. Most of these species are typical inhabitants of ponderosa pine-mixed coniferous forests.

  3. Principal host relationships and evolutionary history of the North American arenaviruses

    OpenAIRE

    Cajimat, Maria N. B.; Milazzo, Mary Louise; Hess, Barry D.; Rood, Michael P.; Fulhorst, Charles F.

    2007-01-01

    A previous study suggested that the genomes of the arenaviruses native to North America are a product of genetic recombination between New World arenaviruses with significantly different phylogenetic histories. The purpose of this study was to extend our knowledge of the principal host relationships and evolutionary history of the North American arenaviruses. The results of this study suggest that the large-eared woodrat (Neotoma macrotis) is a principal host of Bear Canyon virus and that the...

  4. Evaluation of Survey Methods and Development of Species Distribution Models for Kit Foxes in the Great Basin Desert

    OpenAIRE

    Dempsey, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    Historically, kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis) once occupied the desert and semi-arid regions of southwestern North America, ranging from Idaho to central Mexico. Their range-wide decline has warranted the kit fox to be listed as endangered in Colorado, threatened in California and Oregon, and designated as a state sensitive species in Idaho and Utah. Once considered the most abundant carnivore in western Utah, the kit fox has been in steep decline over the past decade, creating a demand to determ...

  5. Final Environmental Assessment Addressing Construction, Operation, and Maintenance of a Security Forces Complex at Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    kit fox (Vulpes macrotis), striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis) and bobcat (Lynx rufus) (KAFB 2003). Amphibians and reptiles found on the grasslands...experience with noise, proximity to a noise source, stage in the breeding cycle, activity, age, and sex composition. Prior experience with noise is the most...an implementation plan that will allocate reductions to each source to meet the state standards. The TMDL program is currently the Nation’s most

  6. Examination of Habitat Fragmentation and Effects on Species Persistence in the Vicinity of Naval Base Pt. Loma and Marine Corps Air Station Miramar, San Diego, CA and Development of a Multi-Species Planning Framework for Fragmented Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    occurring in woody habitats including chaparral, coastal sage scrub, oak and riparian woodlands, and coniferous forests in coastal central and...suitability was on riverwash soils and by far the lowest was on soils of metamorphic origin ; suitability was similar among the rest of the soil...macrotis is a widespread species occurring in woody habitats including chaparral, coastal sage scrub, oak and riparian woodlands, and coniferous forests in

  7. Final Environmental Assessment for the Installation of New JDAM and High Fidelity Targets for the Nevada Test and Training Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-11-01

    mountains where pinyon collection was held in the fall, and along the bases of hills and mountains where food sources such as Yucca and Agave plants were...Antelope (Antilocapra Americana ), common coyote (Canis latrans), and kit fox (Vulpes macrotis) migrate through or forage in the proposed project area...Desert National Wildlife Range (Air Force 1981, USFWS 1998). Pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana ) winter range and/or breeding grounds are

  8. Systematics of Ecnomiohyla tuberculosa with the description of a new species and comments on the taxonomy of Trachycephalus typhonius (Anura, Hylidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron, Santiago R.; Venegas, Pablo J.; Ortega-Andrade, H. Mauricio; Gagliardi-Urrutia, Giussepe; Salerno, Patricia E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Ecnomiohyla tuberculosa is an Amazonian hylid of uncertain phylogenetic position. Herein DNA sequences of mitochondrial and nuclear genes are used to determine its phylogenetic relationships. New sequences and external morphology of Trachycephalus typhonius are also analyzed to assess the status of Ecuadorian and Peruvian populations. The phylogeny shows unequivocally that Ecnomiohyla tuberculosa is nested within the genus Tepuihyla, tribe Lophiohylini. This position was unexpected because the remaining species of Ecnomiohyla belong to the tribe Hylini. To solve the paraphyly of the genus Ecnomiohyla, Ecnomiohyla tuberculosa is transferred to the genus Tepuihyla. Comparisons of DNA sequences, external morphology, and advertisement calls between populations of Ecnomiohyla tuberculosa from Ecuador and Peru indicate that the Peruvian population represents an undescribed species. The new species is described and a species account is provided for Ecnomiohyla tuberculosa. Trachycephalus typhonius is paraphyletic relative to Trachycephalus cunauaru, Trachycephalus hadroceps, and Trachycephalus resinifictrix. The phylogenetic position of populations from western Ecuador indicates that they represent a species separate from Trachycephalus typhonius sensu stricto. We resurrect the name Hyla quadrangulum (Trachycephalus quadrangulum comb. n.) for those populations. Amazonian populations of “Trachycephalus typhonius” from Ecuador and Peru are genetically and morphologically distinct from Trachycephalus typhonius sensu stricto and are conspecific with the holotype of Hyla macrotis. Therefore, we also resurrect Hyla macrotis, a decision that results in Trachycephalus macrotis comb. n. PMID:27917043

  9. Predation may counteract climatic change as a driving force for movements of mountain ungulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Francesco; Lovari, Sandro

    2016-08-01

    Temperature variations are expected to influence altitudinal movements of mountain herbivores and, in turn, those of their predators, but relevant information is scarce. We evaluated monthly relationships between temperature and altitude used by a large mountain-dwelling herbivore, the Himalayan tahr Hemitragus jemlahicus, and its main predator, the snow leopard Panthera uncia, in an area of central Himalaya for five consecutive years (2006-2010). In contrast to expectations, there was no significant direct relationship between altitude of tahr sightings and temperature. The mean altitude of tahr sightings decreased by c. 200m throughout our study. As expected, snow leopard movements tracked those of tahr, although the core area of the snow leopard did not move downwards. Tahr remained the staple of the snow leopard diet: we suggest that the former did not move upwards in reaction to higher temperature to avoid encounters with the latter. Avoidance of competition with the larger common leopard Panthera pardus at lower altitudes could explain why snow leopards did not shift their core area downwards. Apparently, interspecific interactions (predation; competition) influenced movements of Himalayan tahr and snow leopards more than climatic variations.

  10. Effects of Hand-Rearing on Reproductive Success in Captive Large Cats Panthera tigris altaica, Uncia uncia, Acinonyx jubatus and Neofelis nebulosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Coulthard Hampson

    Full Text Available Species Survival Plans and European Endangered Species Programmes have been developed for several species of endangered felids in order to build up captive reserve populations and support their conservation in the wild. The Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica, snow leopard (Uncia uncia, cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus and clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa are managed in such ex situ conservation programmes. Many zoological institutions hand-rear offspring if rearing by the mother fails. Hand-rearing can cause behavioural problems, resulting in decreased copulation and lower breeding success in some species. In this study, studbook data subsets were examined: from 1901 to 2011; and 2000 to 2011. We analysed records from 4273 Siberian tigers, 2045 snow leopards, 3435 cheetahs, and 804 clouded leopards. We assessed the number of offspring produced, litter size, age at first reproduction, longevity, infant mortality and generational rearing of hand-reared versus parent-reared individuals. Hand-reared Siberian tigers (p<0.01; p = 0.0113, snow leopards (p<0.01, male cheetahs (p<0.01 and female clouded leopards (p<0.01 produced fewer offspring than parent-reared individuals. Hand-reared snow leopard breeding pairs had larger litters than parent-reared pairs (p = 0.0404. Hand-reared snow leopard females reproduced later in life (p<0.01. Hand-reared female Siberian tigers lived shorter lives, while hand-reared cheetahs lived longer (p<0.01; p = 0.0107. Infant mortality was higher in hand-reared snow leopards (p<0.01 and male cheetahs (p = 0.0395 in the 1901-2011 dataset and lower in hand-reared female Siberian tiger and male snow leopard cubs (p = 0.0404; p = 0.0349 in the 2000-2011 dataset. The rearing of the mother and subsequent rearing of offspring showed a significant relationship for all species (p<0.01 for Siberian tiger and snow leopard cubs; p<0.001 for cheetah and snow leopard cubs. Taking into account the limited carrying capacity of zoos, the

  11. Eesti laste suvi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Laste suvisest koolivaheajast räägivad Eesti omavalitsuse ametnikud ja sotsiaaltöötajad: Kaasi Almers, Inna Kask, Aasa Saarna, Ülle Rajasalu, Merle Leopard, Aime Koger, Margit Pajo, Pilleriin Aalde, Andres Julle ja Tiiu Kuus

  12. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    changes as in “leopard skin” or depigmentation and dispigmentation .... isothermic cabinet for temperature mitigation. At the end of .... strategy where insecticide resistance development is ... in agriculture, livestock and mining industries cannot.

  13. UniProt search blastx result: AK287970 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available C 2.7.10.1) (HGF receptor) (Scatter factor receptor) (SF receptor) (HGF/SF receptor) (Met proto-oncogene tyrosine kinase) (c-Met) - Neofelis nebulosa (Clouded leopard) 3.00E-20 ...

  14. UniProt search blastx result: AK287484 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available C 2.7.10.1) (HGF receptor) (Scatter factor receptor) (SF receptor) (HGF/SF receptor) (Met proto-oncogene tyrosine kinase) (c-Met) - Neofelis nebulosa (Clouded leopard) 3.00E-16 ...

  15. UniProt search blastx result: AK288291 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available C 2.7.10.1) (HGF receptor) (Scatter factor receptor) (SF receptor) (HGF/SF receptor) (Met proto-oncogene tyrosine kinase) (c-Met) - Neofelis nebulosa (Clouded leopard) 6.00E-14 ...

  16. UniProt search blastx result: AK289170 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available C 2.7.10.1) (HGF receptor) (Scatter factor receptor) (SF receptor) (HGF/SF receptor) (Met proto-oncogene tyrosine kinase) (c-Met) - Neofelis nebulosa (Clouded leopard) 1.00E-18 ...

  17. UniProt search blastx result: AK288287 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available C 2.7.10.1) (HGF receptor) (Scatter factor receptor) (SF receptor) (HGF/SF receptor) (Met proto-oncogene tyrosine kinase) (c-Met) - Neofelis nebulosa (Clouded leopard) 3.00E-18 ...

  18. UniProt search blastx result: AK288206 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available C 2.7.10.1) (HGF receptor) (Scatter factor receptor) (SF receptor) (HGF/SF receptor) (Met proto-oncogene tyrosine kinase) (c-Met) - Neofelis nebulosa (Clouded leopard) 4.00E-21 ...

  19. High altitude survival: conflicts between pastoralism and wildlife in the Trans-Himalaya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mishra, C.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords : Pastoralism, agriculture, wildlife, Himalaya, competition, bharal, yak, livestock, snow leopard, wolf, herbivore, ungulate, resource, rangeland, steppe, mountainHow harmonious is the coexistence between pastoralism and wildlife? This thesis is a response to repeated calls for a better und

  20. 76 FR 36934 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ... enhancement of the species through conservation education, one African leopard (Panthera pardus), one Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica), and 6 tigers (Panthera tigris). The captive-born animals are...

  1. High altitude survival: conflicts between pastoralism and wildlife in the Trans-Himalaya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mishra, C.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords : Pastoralism, agriculture, wildlife, Himalaya, competition, bharal, yak, livestock, snow leopard, wolf, herbivore, ungulate, resource, rangeland, steppe, mountain

    How harmonious is the coexistence between pastoralism and

  2. Pastoralist-predator interaction at the roof of the world: Conflict dynamics and implications for conservation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jaffar Ud Din; Hussain Ali; Aziz Ali; Muhammad Younus; Tahir Mehmood; Yusoff Norma-Rashid; Muhammad Ali Nawaz

    2017-01-01

    ... and tolerance toward carnivores. Very few studies have been conducted to understand the dynamics of livestock predation by large carnivores like snow leopards (Panthera uncia) and wolves (Canis lupus...

  3. Male blue monkeys alarm call in response to danger experienced by others

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papworth, Sarah; Böse, Anne-Sophie; Barker, Jessie

    2008-01-01

    Male blue monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis stuhlmanni) of Budongo Forest, Uganda, produce two acoustically distinct alarm calls: hacks to crowned eagles (Stephanoaetus coronatus) and pyows to leopards (Panthera pardus) and a range of other disturbances. In playback experiments, males responded...

  4. Archaeological Survey at Fort Hood, Texas. Fiscal Year 1990: The Northeastern Perimeter Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Pseudacris cark/O Cricket frog (Acris crepltans) Bullfrog (Rana catesbeana) Plains leopard frog (Rana bk~rO Rio Grande leopard frog (Rana berkladlero...an important chronological marker for historic sites at Fort Hood. 15. Carnival glass (1905-1935): an Iridescent pressed tableware given away at... carnivals during the early part of the century (Florence 1977). 16. Depression glass (1930-1940): a pressed glass tableware usually occurring In pale pink

  5. Effects of Hand-Rearing on Reproductive Success in Captive Large Cats Panthera tigris altaica, Uncia uncia, Acinonyx jubatus and Neofelis nebulosa

    OpenAIRE

    Maja Coulthard Hampson; Christoph Schwitzer

    2016-01-01

    Species Survival Plans and European Endangered Species Programmes have been developed for several species of endangered felids in order to build up captive reserve populations and support their conservation in the wild. The Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica), snow leopard (Uncia uncia), cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) and clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) are managed in such ex situ conservation programmes. Many zoological institutions hand-rear offspring if rearing by the mother fails. Ha...

  6. A study of optimum cowl shapes and flow port locations for minimum drag with effective engine cooling, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, S. R.; Smetana, F. O.

    1980-01-01

    The contributions to the cruise drag of light aircraft arising from the shape of the engine cowl and the forward fuselage area and also that resulting from the cooling air mass flow through intake and exhaust sites on the nacelle were analyzed. The methods employed for the calculation of the potential flow about an arbitrary three dimensional body are described with modifications to include the effects of boundary layer displacement thickness, a nonuniform onset flow field (such as that due to a rotating propeller), and the presence of air intakes and exhausts. A simple, reliable, largely automated scheme to better define or change the shape of a body is also presented. A technique was developed which can yield physically acceptable skin friction and pressure drag coefficients for isolated light aircraft bodies. For test cases on a blunt nose Cessna 182 fuselage, the technique predicted drag reductions as much as 28.5% by body recontouring and proper placements and sizing of the cooling air intakes and exhausts.

  7. Grid generation and flow computation about a Martian entry vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, J. E.; Tiwari, S. N.

    1990-01-01

    A number of vehicles are currently being proposed for a manned mission to Mars. One of these vehicles has a modified blunt-nosed cone configuration. Experimental results were obtained for this vehicle in 1968. They show lift-over-drag ratios comparable to those needed for Mars entry. Computations are performed to verify the earlier results and to further describe the flight characteristics of this vehicle. An analytical method is used to define the surface of this vehicle. A single-block volume grid is generated around the vehicle using the algebraic Two-Boundary Grid Generation algorithm (TBGG) and transfinite interpolation. Euler solutions are then obtained from a Langley Aerodynamic Upward Relaxation Algorithm (LAURA) at Mach 6.0 and angles of attack of 0, 6, and 12 deg. The lift coefficient determined from the LAURA code agree very well with the experimental results. The drag and pitching moment coefficients, however, are underestimated by the code since viscous effects are not considered. Contour plots of the flowfield show no evidence of separation for angles of attack up to 12 deg.

  8. Characterizing the transcriptome of yellow-cheek carp (Elopichthys bambusa) enables evolutionary analyses within endemic East Asian Cyprinidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ming; Guo, Baocheng; Ma, Xufa

    2014-09-01

    The identification of genes that may be responsible for the divergence of closely related species is one of the central goals of evolutionary biology. The species of endemic East Asian Cyprinidae diverged less than 8millionyears ago, and the morphological differences among these species are great. However, the genetic basis of their divergence remains unknown. In this report, we investigated the transcriptome of one endemic East Asian cyprinid - the yellow-cheek carp Elopichthys bambusa. A comparison with the publicly available transcriptomes of other endemic East Asian cyprinids, including the silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and blunt-nose black bream (Megalobrama amblycephala), revealed a number of candidate adaptive genes in each species, such as zona pellucida glycoprotein 2 in E. bambusa and zebrafish vitelline envelope protein in M. amblycephala. An enrichment test showed the enrichment of some specific gene ontology (GO) terms for these putatively adaptive genes. Taken together, our work is the first step toward elucidating the genes that may be related to the divergence of endemic East Asian Cyprinidae, and these genes identified as being probably under positive selection should be good candidates for subsequent evolutionary and functional studies.

  9. An investigation of Crater Diameter on Plain Slab Foamed Concrete Rice Husk Ash (FCRHA Exposed to Low Impact Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadipramana Josef

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As sustainable material building and construction, the foamed concrete (FC in this investigation was modified by adding the Rice Husk Ash (RHA as sand replacement to increase its strength. Furthermore, this modification material (is called FCRHA treated on impact loading. This investigation was motivated when the plain slab of FCRHA subjected to small impactor, then the nose impactor over all would penetrate into slab target due to porosity of FCRHA. The experimental produced plain slabs FCRHA and FC (as a control with 1400 kg/m3 and 1600 Kg/m3 of densities. In impact test all plain slabs exposed by 40 mm steel blunt nose impactor with various impact velocities. The result showed the crater which produced by impact loading was not found spalling, scabbing, radial crack and widely cratering. This local damage occurred when porosity of FCRHA took over the impact loading. The nose impactor over all considered have been successful penetrated into slab of FCRHA and FC. Therefore, the diameter of crater equals to diameter of impactor. With this certainty, the prediction penetration depth on plain slab FCRHA (also FC can be determined in future investigation. In addition, the penetration of impactor on FCRHA with low impact velocity give the same impression on penetration impactor with high impact velocity on FC.

  10. The calculation of steady non-linear transonic flow over finite wings with linear theory aerodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, A. M., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility of calculating steady mean flow solutions for nonlinear transonic flow over finite wings with a linear theory aerodynamic computer program is studied. The methodology is based on independent solutions for upper and lower surface pressures that are coupled through the external flow fields. Two approaches for coupling the solutions are investigated which include the diaphragm and the edge singularity method. The final method is a combination of both where a line source along the wing leading edge is used to account for blunt nose airfoil effects; and the upper and lower surface flow fields are coupled through a diaphragm in the plane of the wing. An iterative solution is used to arrive at the nonuniform flow solution for both nonlifting and lifting cases. Final results for a swept tapered wing in subcritical flow show that the method converges in three iterations and gives excellent agreement with experiment at alpha = 0 deg and 2 deg. Recommendations are made for development of a procedure for routine application.

  11. Impulse Force Balance for Ultrashort Duration Hypersonic Test Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the measurement of side force, pitching, and yawing moments on a model, using an accelerometer force balance, in a short duration hypersonic shock tunnel. The test model is a blunt-nosed, flapped delta wing, mounted on a support sting through a force balance. The flexible rubber bushes constituting the balance allow the model to float freely on the sting during the test. The accelerometers were located in the model to record accelerations in the directions of interest. The model was tested in shock tunnel at Mach 8 at different angles of incidence with the freestream. Dynamic calibration of the test assembly was carried out for the acquisition of impulse response functions for the above components of force and moments, using an impulse hammer. The convolution technique was applied to derive the impulse response functions. The accelerometer outputs from the model in the hypersonic freestream were processed using the respective impulse response functions to derive the unknown aerodynamic force and moments. The newly adopted convolution technique has been found very effective for data reduction from accelerometer force balances developed for shock tunnel applications.

  12. Sediment contamination and associates laboratory-measured bioaccumulation in New York/New Jersey waterways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosman, L.B. [Army Corps of Engineers, New York, NY (United States); Barrows, E.S. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Sediments from 10 New York/New Jersey waterways within the Hudson-Raritan Estuary and Long Island Sound were collected to depths representative of dredging activity. Composited core sediments representing each waterway were analyzed for metals, PAHs, PCBs, and pesticides. To assess bioaccumulation, sand worms (Nereis virens) and blunt-nose clams (Macoma nasuta) were exposed for 28 days to sediment composites and to New York Bight sediment. Tissues were analyzed for the same constituents as the sediment samples. The results highlight the range and magnitude of sediment contamination in NY/NJ waterways. Concentrations of some metals in sediments, compared with NY Bight sediment, were at least 10 times higher. Total PAHs reached 30,000 {micro}g/kg (dry weight). The sum of DDT, DDD, and DDE, the dominant pesticides, exceeded 3,000{micro}g/kg (dry weight). Total PCBs approached 3,000 {micro}g/kg (dry weight). Tissues exposed to sediments from several waterways bioaccumulated organic compounds at concentrations 10 times greater than those exposed to New York Bight sediments. Metals were bioaccumulated to a lesser degree. The presence and extent of bioaccumulated contaminants, along with sediment chemistry and benthic toxicity, create a profile characterizing each waterway.

  13. Spatial distribution of PAHs and associated laboratory-measured bioaccumulation in New York/New Jersey waterways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosman, L.B. [Army Corps of Engineers, New York, NY (United States); Barrows, E.S. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Sediment core samples from New York/New Jersey waterways within the Hudson-Raritan Estuary and Long Island Sound were collected to depths representative of dredging activity. Sediment was also collected from a reference site in the New York Bight as a comparison. Composited core sediments representing each waterway were analyzed for PAHs, sediment grain size, and total organic carbon. To assess bioaccumulation, sand worms (Nereis virens) and blunt-nose clams (Macoma nasuta) were exposed for 28 days to sediment composites and to New York Bight sediment. Tissues were analyzed for the same constituents as the sediment samples, as well as for lipid content. The results highlight the range and magnitude of PAH concentrations in sediments of NY/NJ waterways. Concentrations of total PAHs ranged from undetected to 30,000 {micro}g/kg (dry weight). Tissues exposed to sediments from several waterways bioaccumulated organic compounds at concentrations as much as 10 times greater than those exposed to New York Bight sediments. The presence and extent of bioaccumulated compounds, along with benthic toxicity data, create a profile characterizing each waterway.

  14. Effect of roughness of the blunted cone nose-tip on laminar-turbulent transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bountin, D. A.; Gromyko, Yu. V.; Polivanov, P. A.; Sidorenko, A. A.; Maslov, A. A.

    2016-10-01

    Hypersonic boundary layer stability and transition were studied experimentally and numerically for the test case of 7° cone model with blunt nose-tip. The experiments were performed for M=6, heat flux distributions and wall pressure pulsations were measured. It was obtained that the angle of cover and size of bluntness significantly affects on the transition location. Real hypersonic vehicle is equipped by thermal protection systems (TPS) which have a surface roughness (joints and connecting elements). Furthermore the surface of the elements of TPS is not smooth and has some relatively uniform roughness, which can vary during flight. Roughness size can change during thermal ablation or destruction, in addition elements of isolated roughness comparable with a thickness of the boundary layer may appear on surface (caverns, ledges, etc.,). These elements are additional receptivity areas where the additional perturbations are generated and developing in boundary layer that may cause premature laminar-turbulent transition. This effect has been studied for more than 50 years [17-3], but almost all the work devoted to the search of engineering correlations, but not to receptivity or stability problems. This effect needs to be studied more precisely.

  15. Problems of optimal transportation on the circle and their mechanical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakhov, Alexander; Tchemisova, Tatiana

    2017-02-01

    We consider a mechanical problem concerning a 2D axisymmetric body moving forward on the plane and making slow turns of fixed magnitude about its axis of symmetry. The body moves through a medium of non-interacting particles at rest, and collisions of particles with the body's boundary are perfectly elastic (billiard-like). The body has a blunt nose: a line segment orthogonal to the symmetry axis. It is required to make small cavities with special shape on the nose so as to minimize its aerodynamic resistance. This problem of optimizing the shape of the cavities amounts to a special case of the optimal mass transportation problem on the circle with the transportation cost being the squared Euclidean distance. We find the explicit solution for this problem when the amplitude of rotation is smaller than a fixed critical value, and give a numerical solution otherwise. As a by-product, we get explicit description of the solution for a class of optimal transportation problems on the circle.

  16. SHEFEX II Flight Instrumentation And Preparation Of Post Flight Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Thomas; Siebe, Frank; Gulhan, Ali

    2011-05-01

    A main disadvantage of modern TPS systems for re- entry vehicles is the expensive manufacturing and maintenance process due to the complex geometry of these blunt nose configurations. To reduce the costs and to improve the aerodynamic performance the German Aerospace Center (DLR) is following a different approach using TPS structures consisting of flat ceramic tiles. To test these new sharp edged TPS structures the SHEFEX I flight experiment was designed and successfully performed by DLR in 2005. To further improve the reliability of the sharp edged TPS design at even higher Mach numbers, a second flight experiment SHEFEX II will be performed in September 2011. In comparison to SHEFEX I the second flight experiment has a fully symmetrical shape and will reach a maximum Mach number of about 11. Furthermore the vehicle has an active steering system using four canards to control the flight attitude during re-entry, e.g. roll angle, angle of attack and sideslip. After a successful flight the evaluation of the flight data will be performed using a combination of numerical and experimental tools. The data will be used for the improvement of the present numerical analysis tools and to get a better understanding of the aerothermal behaviour of sharp TPS structures. This paper presents the flight instrumentation of the SHEFEX II TPS. In addition the concept of the post flight analysis is presented.

  17. Heat transfer in nonequilibrium boundary layer flow over a partly catalytic wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Hui

    2016-11-01

    Surface catalysis has a huge influence on the aeroheating performance of hypersonic vehicles. For the reentry flow problem of a traditional blunt vehicle, it is reasonable to assume a frozen boundary layer surrounding the vehicles' nose, and the catalytic heating can be decoupled with the heat conduction. However, when considering a hypersonic cruise vehicle flying in the medium-density near space, the boundary layer flow around its sharp leading-edge is likely to be nonequilibrium rather than frozen due to rarefied gas effects. As a result, there will be a competition between the heat conduction and the catalytic heating. In this paper, the theoretical modeling and the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method are employed to study the corresponding rarefied nonequilibrium flow and heat transfer phenomena near the leading edge of the near space hypersonic vehicles. It is found that even under identical rarefication degree, the nonequilibrium degree of the flow and the corresponding heat transfer performance of the sharp leading edges could be different from that of the big blunt noses. A generalized model is preliminarily proposed to describe and to evaluate the competitive effects between the homogeneous recombination of atoms inside the nonequilibrium boundary layer and the heterogeneous recombination of atoms on the catalytic wall surface. The introduced nonequilibrium criterion and the analytical formula are validated and calibrated by the DSMC results, and the physical mechanism is discussed.

  18. Experimental and numerical study on fragmentation of steel projectiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hopperstad O.S.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A previous experimental study on penetration and perforation of circular Weldox 460E target plates with varying thicknesses struck by blunt-nose projectiles revealed that fragmentation of the projectile occurred if the target thickness or impact velocity exceeded a certain value. Thus, numerical simulations that do not account for fragmentation during impact can underestimate the perforation resistance of protective structures. Previous numerical studies have focused primarily on the target plate behaviour. This study considers the behaviour of the projectile and its possible fragmentation during impact. Hardened steel projectiles were launched at varying velocities in a series of Taylor tests. The impact events were captured using a high-speed camera. Fractography of the fragmented projectiles showed that there are several fracture mechanisms present during the fragmentation process. Tensile tests of the projectile material revealed that the hardened material has considerable variations in yield stress and fracture stress and strain. In the finite element model, the stress-strain behaviour from tensile tests was used to model the projectile material with solid elements and the modified Johnson-Cook constitutive relation. Numerical simulations incorporating the variations in material properties are capable of reproducing the experimental fracture patterns, albeit the predicted fragmentation velocities are too low.

  19. Performance of Reinforced Concrete Beam with Differently Positioned Replacement Zones of Block Infill under Low Impact Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhatar Shahrul Niza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reveals a study performed on reinforced concrete with artificial aggregate concrete block infill composite beams to innovate a lightweight reinforced concrete utilizing polyethylene (PE waste materials, such as waste plastic bags. Six beam specimens of normal reinforced concrete (NRC and different block infill replacement zone positions RCAI (RZ1 beams containing 100% MAPEA with 50, 95, and 1,000 mm width, height, and length, respectively, were provided for the block infill, whereas RCAI (RZ2 with different block infill positions containing a 100% MAPEA with 50, 115, and 1000 mm width, height, and length were provided and tested under low impact load. The steel impactor with blunt nose dropped at 0.6 m height which equivalent to 3.5 m/s. The behaviors of the beams were studied relative to the impact force-time and displacement-time histories, the flexural/ bending cracks, and the impact failure. Results show that the overall failure modes of all the beam specimens were successfully recorded. In addition, the residual displacements of the RZ2 was almost same than those of the RZ1 and the significantly lower than those of the NRC. In the reinforced concrete beams, less stressed concrete near the neutral axis can be replaced by certain light weight material like waste plastic bags as modified artificial polyethylene aggregates to serve as an artificial aggregate.

  20. Assessing the distribution and habitat use of four felid species in Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park, Sumatra, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. McCarthy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been few targeted studies of small felids in Sumatra and there is little information on their ecology. As a result there are no specific management plans for the species on Sumatra. We examined data from a long-term camera trapping effort, and used Maximum Entropy Modeling to assess the habitat use and distribution of Sunda clouded leopards (Neofelis diardi, Asiatic golden cats (Pardofelis temminckii, leopard cats (Prionailurus bengalensis, and marbled cats (Pardofelis marmorata in Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park. Over a period of 34,166 trap nights there were low photo rates (photo events/100 trap nights for all species; 0.30 for golden cats, 0.15 for clouded leopards, 0.10 for marbled cats, and 0.08 for leopard cats. There is overlap in the predicted distributions of clouded leopards, golden cats, and marbled cats; indicating areas of high conservation importance for these species within the park. The predicted distribution of leopard cats was discrete from the other species which is important to consider in the development of conservation strategies. This study provides important documentation of small felid distribution in Sumatra, information for the development of management strategies within the park, and a basis upon which to develop future research for the species.

  1. Further study on karyology of bats ( Mammalia: Chiroptera) from Sichuan, China%四川蝙蝠核型的进一步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴毅; 原田正史; 石红艳; 刘昊

    2006-01-01

    报道了含中国特有种大足鼠耳蝠(Myotis ricketti)在内的、四川地区6种蝙蝠的核型.菊头蝠科2种,即大耳菊头蝠(Rhinolophus macrotis),核型为2n=62,FN=60;云南菊头蝠(R.yunanensis),核型较为特殊,2n=46,FN=60.蹄蝠科1种,即普氏蹄蝠(Hipposideros pratti),核型为2n=32,FN=60;蝙蝠科鼠耳蝠属3种,即中华鼠耳蝠(Myotis chinensis),核型为2n=44,FN=50;大足鼠耳蝠为2n=44,FN=52;西南鼠耳蝠(M.altarium)为2n=44,FN=50.其中大耳菊头蝠的核型为首次报道,云南菊头蝠的核型为中国第1次报道.%Karyotypes and chromosomal data were presented for 6 species of bats that represent 3 families collected in Sichuan, China. The species investigated were Rhinolophus macrotis (2n = 62, FN =60), R. yunanensis (2n =46, FN =60), Hipposideros pratti (2n =32, FN =60), Myotis chinensis (2n =44, FN =50), M. ricketti (2n =44, FN =52) and M. altarium (2n =44, FN =50). R.macrotis was karyotyped for the first time, and karyotype of R. yunanensis had not been previously reported in China.

  2. Monitoring Species of Concern Using Noninvasive Genetic Sampling and Capture-Recapture Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Bennett, and A.J. Kozlowski. 2003. Characteristics of current and historic kit fox (Vulpes macrotis) dens in the Great Basin Desert. Canadian Journal of...analyses. Canadian Journal of Zoology 69:82–90. Smith, A.D. 1964. Defecation rates of mule deer. Journal of Wildlife Management 28:435–444. Stein...translocated brown bear population. Journal of Applied Ecology 47:172–181. DeMay, S.M., P.A. Becker, C.A. Eidson, J.L. Rachlow, T.R. Johnson, and L.P

  3. The 1996 Survey of Threatened and Endangered Species on Army Lands: A Summary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Echinacea laevigata Smooth Coneflower E 2 Vulpes macrotis mutica Fox, San Joaquin Kit E 2 Gopherus agassizii Desert Tortoise T 2 Strix occidentalis lucida...INDIGO T REP 2 DUBAUTIA HERBSTOBATAE NA’ENA’E E PLA 1 ECHINACEA LAEVIGATA SMOOTH CONEFLOWER E PLA 2 ECHINOCACTUS HORIZONTHALONIUS NICHOL’S TURK’S...SANICULA PURPUREA NONE PE PLA 2 SCHIEDEA HOOKERI NONE PE PLA 2 SCHIEDEA KEALIAE MA’OLI’OLI PE PLA 1 SCHIEDEA NUTTALLII NONE PE PLA 1 SCHWALBEA

  4. Development of a Single-Sampling Noninvasive Hair Snare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bremner-Harrison, Samantha; Harrison, Stephen W. R.; Cypher, Brian L.

    2006-01-01

    multiple sampling, is cost-effective, easy to construct, and safe for target and nontarget species. Our initial field tests on endangered San Joaquin kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis mutica) and swift foxes (Vulpes velox) suggest that this hair snare may be effective in collecting uncontaminated samples for DNA......Noninvasive hair and fecal DNA sampling provides a means of collecting information on elusive species, while causing little or no disturbance. However, current methods of hair collection do not preclude multiple sampling, thus risking sample contamination. We developed a hair snare that prevents...

  5. An Investigation on Snow Leopard Resources in Ganzi Prefecture in the Hengduan Mountains on the Southeast of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau%青藏高原东南横断山脉甘孜地区雪豹资源调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭基泰

    2009-01-01

    地处青藏高原东南横断山脉纵贯全境的甘孜地区,是我国雪豹主要分布区之一.根据在甘孜地区工作近40年和从事野生动物保护调查研究所获得的资料估算,本地区所辖石渠、德格、白玉、新龙、甘孜、理塘等6县的9个自然保护区有雪豹51只~78只,全地区有雪豹400只~500只.本文对雪豹资源丰富的原因,和进一步保护好妹雪豹的措施等问题也进行了讨论.

  6. Camera trapping of snow leopards for the photo capture rate and population size in the Muzat Valley of Tianshan Mountains%利用自动照相术获得天山雪豹拍摄率与个体数量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马鸣; 徐峰; R.S.CHUNDAWAT; Kubanych JUMABAY; 吴逸群; 艾则孜; 朱玛洪

    2006-01-01

    采用红外线自动照相机记录雪豹的活动和个体数量,这在国内尚属首次.野外调查开始于2005年10月18日,至12月27日结束.累计野外工作71 d,共布设36台红外照相机,约2 094个照相日,50 256 h,收回胶卷71个.在新疆天山托木尔峰自然保护区内5个峡谷的16个地点成功拍摄到清晰雪豹照片约32张,平均拍摄率或"捕获率"达1.53%.根据照片个体斑纹分析和"雪后痕迹调查"(Sign Survey After Snowing)的信息,确定在250 km2范围内有5-8只雪豹活动,个体的日活动距离3-10 km/d,其最低分布密度为2.0-3.2只/100km2.还拍摄到其它野生动物照片22张,如北山羊、野猪、草兔、石鸡、赤狐等.另外,还调查样线20条,搜集粪样和毛发样品计31个[动物学报 52(4):788-793,2006].

  7. Successful camera trapping on Snow Leopard in the Muzat Valley, Tomur Feng Nature Reserve, Xinjiang, P. R. China (October~ December 2005 )%利用红外自动照相技术首次拍摄到清晰雪豹照片--新疆木扎特谷雪豹冬季考察简报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马鸣; 徐峰

    2006-01-01

    雪豹(学名:Uncia uncia)属于濒危物种.分布主要在中国的西部.相邻的11个国家有少量分布(如阿富汗、印度、巴基斯坦、塔吉克斯坦、吉尔吉斯、哈萨克斯坦、蒙古等).因此跨国界的保护与研究就显得非常重要.我们知道,中国是雪豹分布面积最大的国家,也是雪豹数量最多的国家.但是,要摸清雪豹这种神秘动物的种群数量和活动规律是非常困难的,是对我们野外工作的巨大挑战.

  8. 山西晋中庆城林场华北豹及其主要猎物种群的红外相机监测%Using camera trap to monitor a North Chinese leopard (Panthera pardus japonesis) population and their main ungulate prey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋大昭; 王卜平; 蒋进原; 万绍平; 崔士明; 王天明; 冯利民

    2014-01-01

    华北豹(Panthera pardus japonesis)是中国特有的豹亚种.由于长期缺乏有效的科学调查,目前对其分布、种群及动态、行为、猎物现状等基础信息不清.在2007-2014年期间,本研究应用红外相机技术(camera trap)对山西晋中庆城林场的华北豹种群开展了长达7年的连续监测.先后监测到14只华北豹,其中成年个体11只(3♀,8♂),幼体3只,成年雌雄比例为0.375;在其间出现了2次繁殖.该区域主要的有蹄类猎物为野猪(Sus scrofa)和西伯利亚狍(Capreolus pygargus),其相对密度分别为4.16和3.48,绝对密度分别为1.35只/km2和3.61只/km2.

  9. Distribution and abundance of Amur tiger, Amur leopard and their ungulate prey in Hunchun National Nature Reserve, Jilin%吉林珲春自然保护区东北虎和东北豹及其有蹄类猎物的多度与分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖文宏; 冯利民; 赵小丹; 杨海涛; 窦海龙; 程艳超; 牟溥; 王天明; 葛剑平

    2014-01-01

    珲春国家级自然保护区是东北虎(Panthera tigris altaica)、东北豹(Panthera pardus orientalis)等濒危物种在中国的核心分布区.为了探究该区域野生动物的多度水平和空间分布,了解人类干扰情况,我们运用相对多度指数(relative abundance index,RAI)分析了2013年4-6月设置于此的83个红外相机位点的监测数据.红外相机的总捕获天数6,060d,共捕获10科18种野生哺乳动物,其中鼬科4种,猫科动物3种,犬科、鹿科和松鼠科各2种,猪科、熊科、麝科、狷科和兔科各1种.研究期间共拍摄到东北虎11只个体,东北豹13只个体.从相对多度指数来看,东北虎的相对多度(0.84)远高于东北豹(0.48),它们的有蹄类猎物中梅花鹿(Cervus nippon)的相对多度最高(2.18),其次为狍(Capreolus pygargus)(1.53)和野猪(Sus scrofa)(0.92).人类活动和放牧的相对多度水平(分别为40.64和2.76)显著高于野生动物.在空间分布上,东北虎和梅花鹿主要在保护区的核心区分布,且与保护区社区共管区的多度水平差异显著,而东北豹在不同功能区之间的分布差异不显著,狍在保护区北部的多度水平较高,但各功能区之间差异不显著,野猪在社区共管区的多度水平显著高于核心区.可见,核心区频繁的人类活动和放牧活动对野生动物的保护产生了影响,未来应加强关于人类干扰对虎、豹种群及其有蹄类猎物的影响评估.

  10. Revising the designed migration corridor based on animal' s migration desire: a case study of clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) in Dehua%基于迁移意愿的动物迁移廊道修正——以德化县云豹为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋波; 倪婷玉; 王瑾

    2010-01-01

    针对人工设计的廊道未必是动物最终选择的迁移路径问题,从迁移意愿角度提出了新的解释.基于动物迁移意愿流与水流的相似性,提出了依托动物迁移适宜性图,利用水文分析模块最化并提取迁移意愿流的方法.以福建省德化县境内的国家I级保护动物云豹(Neofelis nebulosa)为研究对象,分析了其在两个保护区之间的迁移意愿流.结果表明:迁移意愿流穿越基于最小累积阻力法设计的迁移廊道,云豹从意愿流流出位置迁出廊道的可能性较大.可考虑在此处设置人工屏障,以引导云豹按照设计的廊道迁移.该方法对于自然保护规划和管理具有一定的借鉴意义.

  11. The investigation of intestinal canal infected with ascariasis of tiger, lion and leopard in some zoological gardens at East northregion%34东北地区某些动物园虎、狮、豹肠道蛔虫病感染情况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德昭; 张强; 刘畅; 邹希明; 杨乃才; 徐殿举

    2002-01-01

    为有效防治动物园虎、狮、豹等珍贵动物肠道寄生虫病,我们分别采集辽、吉林、黑龙江等省几个动物园的虎、狮、豹等粪便42份,经粪检查出17份有蛔虫卵(2份有虫体),蛔虫感染率为40.48%.

  12. Approach Art of Decorative Bronze Plate from Northerner in Ancient China——Appreciate Form Language of Leopard Pattern on Buckle%中国古代北方民族青铜饰牌艺术——豹形纹扣饰的形式语言赏析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵志生

    2005-01-01

    以各种动物纹饰为主要特征的中国古代北方草原青铜艺术,是我国北方地区发展起来的一种草原文化,是以匈奴族为主体的我国古代北方诸部族共同创造的闪耀在草原上的一颗明珠.中国古代北方草原青铜艺术以其特有的艺术魅力而享誉世界,精品与佳作不胜枚举.而以构思奇妙的动物纹饰为主要风格的各种饰物,是草原青铜艺术篇章中最为精彩的一页.

  13. ¿El retorno del leopardo? Patrimonialismo y crisis post-transición en la República Democrática del Congo | The return of the leopard? Patrimonialism and post-transition crisis in Democratic Republic of Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Vlassenroot, Koen; Raeymaekers, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    El artículo ofrece una interpretación de las razones por las cuales, a pesar del proceso de paz iniciado en el 2003 en la República democrática del Congo, el país se sigue caracterizando por elevados niveles de violencia física y estructural. Una violencia provocada por factores diversos a) la propia intervención internacional que en parte puede al promover acuerdos de poder compartido retribuyendo la violencia armada y b) el proceso de fragmentación de los actores armados que forman compleja...

  14. Effects of Hand-Rearing on Reproductive Success in Captive Large Cats Panthera tigris altaica, Uncia uncia, Acinonyx jubatus and Neofelis nebulosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Maja Coulthard; Schwitzer, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Species Survival Plans and European Endangered Species Programmes have been developed for several species of endangered felids in order to build up captive reserve populations and support their conservation in the wild. The Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica), snow leopard (Uncia uncia), cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) and clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) are managed in such ex situ conservation programmes. Many zoological institutions hand-rear offspring if rearing by the mother fails. Hand-rearing can cause behavioural problems, resulting in decreased copulation and lower breeding success in some species. In this study, studbook data subsets were examined: from 1901 to 2011; and 2000 to 2011. We analysed records from 4273 Siberian tigers, 2045 snow leopards, 3435 cheetahs, and 804 clouded leopards. We assessed the number of offspring produced, litter size, age at first reproduction, longevity, infant mortality and generational rearing of hand-reared versus parent-reared individuals. Hand-reared Siberian tigers (ptigers lived shorter lives, while hand-reared cheetahs lived longer (ptiger and male snow leopard cubs (p = 0.0404; p = 0.0349) in the 2000-2011 dataset. The rearing of the mother and subsequent rearing of offspring showed a significant relationship for all species (ptiger and snow leopard cubs; p<0.001 for cheetah and snow leopard cubs). Taking into account the limited carrying capacity of zoos, the results of this study highlight that careful consideration should be taken when deciding whether or not to hand-rear individuals that are part of Species Survival Plans and European Endangered Species Programmes.

  15. Predação de morcegos por Chrotopterus auritus (Peters (Mammalia, Chiroptera no pantanal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil Bat predation by Chrotopterus auritus (Peters (Mammalia, Chiroptera in pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Oscar Bordignon

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi registrada a predação de Carollia perspiscillata (Linnaeus, 1758 e Peropterix macrotis (Wagner, 1843 por Chrotopterus autitus (Peters, 1856 em uma caverna na morraria do Urucum em Corumbá, centro-oeste do Brasil. Os fragmentos de asas e um crânio encontrados sob o local de pouso de C. auritus junto às fezes, após comparados com material de coleção, mostraram que este morcego alimenta-se oportunamente de outras espécies de morcegos ocupantes do mesmo abrigo.The predation of Carollia perspiscillata (Linnaeus, 1758 and Peropterix macrotis (Wagner, 1843 by Chrotopterus auritus (Peters, 1856 was registered in a cave at Urucum's mountains of Corumbá, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The wing fragments and cranium finded under feces deposites, in replace point of C. auritus, were comparated with colection reference material and revealed that C. auritus can eat occasionaly other bat species that inhabit in same roost.

  16. Meaning attribution in the West African green monkey: influence of call type and context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Tabitha; Fischer, Julia

    2014-03-01

    The search for the evolutionary roots of human language has fuelled much research into the cognitive mechanisms underlying communication in nonhuman animals. One core issue has been whether the context-specific calls of nonhuman animals are meaningful, with call meaning inferred from recipients' responses in the absence of supporting contextual cues. This direct inference may well offer an oversimplified view of how vocalisations are perceived, however, as responses under natural conditions are likely guided by contextual cues as well as by the signal. In this study, we investigate how the anti-predator responses of green monkeys, Chlorocebus sabaeus, are affected by alarm call structure and by context. We first simulated the presence of leopards and snakes to elicit alarm vocalisations and to identify predator-typical response behaviours. In both contexts, the monkeys produced chirp calls that revealed only graded variation in relation to predator type. We then carried out playback experiments to explore whether green monkeys would respond with predator-typical behaviour to leopard and snake chirps, and whether contextual cues, in the form of pre-exposure to a leopard or snake model, would modify these responses. Irrespective of context, subjects were more likely to respond to leopard chirps with a leopard-typical response. Predator priming did not have a significant effect on the type of response, but, together with call type, did affect response duration. This suggests that the immediate attribution of meaning was influenced by acoustic cues, whilst receiver's prior knowledge was incorporated to guide subsequent behaviour.

  17. Development of habitat mapping technology using spatial information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M.-J.; Lee, C.-W.; Oh, K.-Y.

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to create leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis) habitat potential maps of South Korea using spatial information. To create maps, we gathered various environmental factors potentially affecting the species' distribution from a spatial database: elevation, slope, land cover and so on. We analyzed the spatial relationships between the distribution of the leopard cats and the environmental factors using a frequency ratio model. Among the total number of known leopard cat locations, we used 50% for mapping and the remaining 50% for model validation. Our models were relatively successful and showed a high level of accuracy during model validation with existing locations (frequency ratio model 82.15%). These maps can be used to manage and monitor the habitat of mammal species and top predators.

  18. SPH-FEM接触算法在冲击动力学数值计算中的应用%APPLICATION OF SPH-FEM CONTACT ALGORITHM IN IMPACT DYNAMICS SIMULATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志春; 强洪夫; 高巍然

    2011-01-01

    Coupling of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) and Finite Element Method (FEM) can make full use of the superiority of SPH in dealing with large deformation and the high accuracy and efficiency of FEM. This paper calculates the contact between SPH particles and finite elements using meshless particle contact method, and background particles are assigned in the position of FE nodes. The oblique impact between spheral-nosed projectile and steel target and the normal impact between blunt-nosed projectile and steel target are calculated using the SPH-FEM contact algorithm. The fully variable smoothing lengths algorithm is used in SPH and the EBE algorithm is used in FEM. The numerical results of LS-DYNA and the experimental observations validate the accuracy of the SPH-FEM contact algorithm.%为了充分发挥光滑粒子流体动力学方法(Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics,SPH)易于处理大变形以及有限元(Finite Element Method,FEM)计算精度和效率高的优势,论文基于无网格粒子接触算法,在有限元节点处设置背景粒子,通过接触力的方式计算SPH粒子和有限单元之间的接触问题.使用SPH-FEM接触算法分别对球头钢弹斜冲击钢板和平头钢弹正冲击钢板的情况进行了三维数值计算,SPH采用完全变光滑长度算法,FEM采用矩阵向量积的EBE(Element-By-Element)算法.将SPH-FEM接触算法的计算结果与LS-DYNA的计算结果以及实验结果进行了对比验证.

  19. Dynamic calibration and validation of an accelerometer force balance for hypersonic lifting models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prakash; Trivedi, Sharad; Menezes, Viren; Hosseini, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    An accelerometer-based force balance was designed and developed for the measurement of drag, lift, and rolling moment on a blunt-nosed, flapped delta wing in a short-duration hypersonic shock tunnel. Calibration and validation of the balance were carried out by a convolution technique using hammer pulse test and surface pressure measurements. In the hammer pulse test, a known impulse was applied to the model in the appropriate direction using an impulse hammer, and the corresponding output of the balance (acceleration) was recorded. Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) was operated on the output of the balance to generate a system response function, relating the signal output to the corresponding load input. Impulse response functions for three components of the balance, namely, axial, normal, and angular, were obtained for a range of input load. The angular system response function was corresponding to rolling of the model. The impulse response functions thus obtained, through dynamic calibration, were operated on the output (signals) of the balance under hypersonic aerodynamic loading conditions in the tunnel to get the time history of the unknown aerodynamic forces and moments acting on the model. Surface pressure measurements were carried out on the model using high frequency pressure transducers, and forces and moments were deduced thereon. Tests were carried out at model angles of incidence of 0, 5, 10, and 15 degrees. A good agreement was observed among the results of different experimental methods. The balance developed is a comprehensive force/moment measurement device that can be used on complex, lifting, aerodynamic geometries in ground-based hypersonic test facilities.

  20. Effects of Hand-Rearing on Reproductive Success in Captive Large Cats Panthera tigris altaica, Uncia uncia, Acinonyx jubatus and Neofelis nebulosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Maja Coulthard; Schwitzer, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Species Survival Plans and European Endangered Species Programmes have been developed for several species of endangered felids in order to build up captive reserve populations and support their conservation in the wild. The Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica), snow leopard (Uncia uncia), cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) and clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) are managed in such ex situ conservation programmes. Many zoological institutions hand-rear offspring if rearing by the mother fails. Hand-rearing can cause behavioural problems, resulting in decreased copulation and lower breeding success in some species. In this study, studbook data subsets were examined: from 1901 to 2011; and 2000 to 2011. We analysed records from 4273 Siberian tigers, 2045 snow leopards, 3435 cheetahs, and 804 clouded leopards. We assessed the number of offspring produced, litter size, age at first reproduction, longevity, infant mortality and generational rearing of hand-reared versus parent-reared individuals. Hand-reared Siberian tigers (pcheetahs (pcheetahs lived longer (pcheetahs (p = 0.0395) in the 1901–2011 dataset and lower in hand-reared female Siberian tiger and male snow leopard cubs (p = 0.0404; p = 0.0349) in the 2000–2011 dataset. The rearing of the mother and subsequent rearing of offspring showed a significant relationship for all species (pcheetah and snow leopard cubs). Taking into account the limited carrying capacity of zoos, the results of this study highlight that careful consideration should be taken when deciding whether or not to hand-rear individuals that are part of Species Survival Plans and European Endangered Species Programmes. PMID:27214261

  1. The ecology of large carnivores in the highlands of northern Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yirga, Gidey; De Iongh, Hans H.; Leirs, Herwig

    2013-01-01

    ), leopard (Panthera pardus) and jackal (Canis aureus aureus) in the highlands of northern Ethiopia. The annual mean economic loss per household was approximately U.S.$ 20.2, about 7% of the average annual income of households in the area. Households surveyed reported losses of a total of 3122 livestock......; and jackal for goat and sheep. Livestock predation of spotted hyaena and leopard were mainly during the night. We conclude that assessing depredation problems is important to develop actions for management of either livestock practices or wildlife conservation....

  2. Protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP2/PTPN11 mistargeting as a consequence of SH2-domain point mutations associated with Noonan Syndrome and leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Pia J; Rigbolt, Kristoffer T G; Paterok, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    SHP2/PTPN11 is a key regulator of cytokine, growth factor and integrin signaling. SHP2 influences cell survival, proliferation and differentiation by regulating major signaling pathways. Mutations in PTPN11 cause severe diseases like Noonan, LEOPARD syndrome or leukemia. Whereas several of these ......SHP2/PTPN11 is a key regulator of cytokine, growth factor and integrin signaling. SHP2 influences cell survival, proliferation and differentiation by regulating major signaling pathways. Mutations in PTPN11 cause severe diseases like Noonan, LEOPARD syndrome or leukemia. Whereas several...

  3. Sequence variability analysis on major histocompatibility complex class Ⅱ DRB alleles in three felines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The variation of the exon 2 of the major histo-compatibility complex (MHC) class Ⅱ gene DRB locus in three feline species were examined on clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa), leopard (Panthera pardus) and Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica). A pair of degenerated primers was used to amplify DRB locus covering almost the whole exon 2. Exon 2 encodes the β1 domain which is the most vari-able fragments of the MHC class Ⅱ molecule. Single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis was applied to detect different MHC class Ⅱ DRB haplotypes. Fifteen recombinant plasmids for each individual were screened out, isolated, purified and sequenced finally. Totally eight distinct haplotypes of exon 2 were obtained in four individuals. With-in 237 bp nucleotide sequences from four samples, 30 vari-able positions were found, and 21 putative peptide-binding positions were disclosed in 79 amino acid residues. The ratio of nonsynonymous substitutions (dN) was much higher than that of synonymous substitutions (dS), which indicated that balancing selection probably maintain the variation ofexon 2. MEGA neighbor joining (N J) and PAUP maximum parsimo-ny (MP) methods were used to reconstruct phylogenetic trees among species, respectively. Results displayed a more close relationship between leopard and tiger; however, clouded leopard has a comparatively distant relationship form the other two.

  4. Conservation in the Teaching Laboratory--Substitution of Xenopus for Rana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhart, David M; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Reports on experimental comparisons between the leopard frog, currently captured for laboratory use, and the African clawed frog, raised specifically for research. Except for the increased longevity of isolated nerve axons in the clawed frog, no other significant differences were established. Recommends laboratory use of clawed frogs as…

  5. 50 CFR 17.43 - Special rules-amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... State law will also be a violation of the Act. (b) Chiricahua leopard frog (Rana chiricahuensis). (1.... (d) California red-legged frog (Rana aurora draytonii). (1) Which populations of the California red-legged frog are covered by this special rule? This rule covers the California red-legged frog...

  6. Increasing the Mobility of Dismounted Marines. Small Unit Mobility Enhancement Technologies: Unmanned Ground Vehicles Market Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    a large dog or small mule, BigDog is about 3 feet long and 2.5 feet tall. It is powered by a small engine (a Leopard one-cylinder, two- stroke , water...DSTO http://www.dsto.defence.gov.au Austria Crayler BM Portable Forklift PALFINGER CRAYLER STAPLERTECHNIK GMBH www.palfinger.com Austria FMR

  7. Increasing the Mobility of Dismounted Marines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    BigDog is about 3 feet long and 2.5 feet tall. It is powered by a small engine (a Leopard one-cylinder, two- stroke , water-cooled go-cart engine) that...www.dsto.defence.gov.au Austria Crayler BM Portable Forklift PALFINGER CRAYLER STAPLERTECHNIK GMBH www.palfinger.com Austria FMR 2000 Large tracked

  8. Reconciling Sustainable Development of Mountain Communities With Large Carnivore Conservation: Lessons From Pakistan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rosen, Tatjana; Hussain, Shafqat; Mohammad, Ghulam; Jackson, Rodney; Janecka, Jan E; Michel, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    ... of local governance. This approach has been successful in reducing the conflict with snow leopards and has built greater tolerance toward them. PSL is managed by local communities and cofinanced by them. PSL communities throughout the region are bearing the burden of carnivore conservation, and they are unwittingly subsidizing their populations by '...

  9. 76 FR 14125 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing and Designation of Critical Habitat for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... Mexico. In addition, because of a taxonomic revision of the Chiricahua leopard frog, we are reassessing... American amphibians and reptiles north of Mexico (Crother 2008, p. 7). With the publication of this... to the eastern bajada of the Black Range in New Mexico are physically separated from populations...

  10. The Secondary School Principalship: The Task and the Constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, O. B.

    Inspired by Franz Kafka's predatory leopard anecdote, this speech explores the plight of Canadian secondary school principals trying to meet students' educational needs within the constraints imposed by politics and finance. A cross-country survey of 60 principals disclosed some typical problems. Principals must be reponsive to public opinion…

  11. Canine distemper virus from diseased large felids: Biological properties and phylogenetic relationships.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.C. Harder (Timm); M.J.H. Kenter (Marcel); H. Vos; C.H.J. Siebelink (Kees); W. Huisman (Willem); C. Örvell; T. Barrett (Thomas); M.J.G. Appel (Max); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); G. van Amerongen (Geert)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractSpecific pathogen free (SPF) domestic cats were inoculated with tissue homogenate obtained from a Chinese leopard (Panthera pardus japonensis) that had died in a North American zoo from a natural infection with canine distemper virus (CDV). The cats developed a transient cell-associated

  12. The Secondary School Principalship: The Task and the Constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, O. B.

    Inspired by Franz Kafka's predatory leopard anecdote, this speech explores the plight of Canadian secondary school principals trying to meet students' educational needs within the constraints imposed by politics and finance. A cross-country survey of 60 principals disclosed some typical problems. Principals must be reponsive to public opinion…

  13. A Decade Miracle:Wuxi Sunmart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhuyi

    2010-01-01

    @@ A decade ago, Wuxi Sunmart was just no name. At that time, few people noticed Jiangsu Snow Leopard Atomiza-tion Pot Industry Limited Company, which was established in early 1998, as it was a small workshop with a registered capital of only RMB 1.6 million. And that is where Wuxi Sunmart's miracle initiated and grew from.

  14. A Miracle over A Decadef Wuxi Sunmart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Miracle started A decade ago, Wuxi Sunmart was just no name.At that time, few people noticed Jiangsu Snow Leopard Atomi-zation Pot Industry Limited Company, which was established in early 1998, as it was a small workshop with the registered capital of only RMB 1.6 million.And that is where Wuxi Sunmart's miracle began.

  15. Wei Shunde: Persistent Explorer of the Tianshan Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUJIANZHONG

    2005-01-01

    Aman nearly 70 years old stands at the foot of west China's Tianshan Mountains. For almost two decades,this adventurer has wandered around Mt. Tomur, capturing on film its snowy peaks and the area's bountiful flora and fauna. His pictures of national category-I protected species,the black stork and snow leopard, are regarded as treasures.

  16. Highly conserved D-loop-like nuclear mitochondrial sequences (Numts) in tiger (Panthera tigris)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wenping Zhang; Zhihe Zhang; Fujun Shen; Rong Hou; Xiaoping Lv; Bisong Yue

    2006-08-01

    Using oligonucleotide primers designed to match hypervariable segments I (HVS-1) of Panthera tigris mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), we amplified two different PCR products (500 bp and 287 bp) in the tiger (Panthera tigris), but got only one PCR product (287 bp) in the leopard (Panthera pardus). Sequence analyses indicated that the sequence of 287 bp was a D-loop-like nuclear mitochondrial sequence (Numts), indicating a nuclear transfer that occurred approximately 4.8–17 million years ago in the tiger and 4.6–16 million years ago in the leopard. Although the mtDNA D-loop sequence has a rapid rate of evolution, the 287-bp Numts are highly conserved; they are nearly identical in tiger subspecies and only 1.742% different between tiger and leopard. Thus, such sequences represent molecular ‘fossils’ that can shed light on evolution of the mitochondrial genome and may be the most appropriate outgroup for phylogenetic analysis. This is also proved by comparing the phylogenetic trees reconstructed using the D-loop sequence of snow leopard and the 287-bp Numts as outgroup.

  17. Valme / Aisopos ; tlk. Kaarina Krull

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aisopos, 6.saj. e.Kr.

    1999-01-01

    Sisu : Rebane ja leopard; Rebane ja koomiline mask; Pime; Inimesed ja Zeus; Inimene ja saatür; Vanamees ja surm; Rändur Diogenes; Zeus ja inimesed; Zeus, Prometheus, Athena ja Momos; Herakles ja Plutos; Mees kes kitaara saatel laulis

  18. 78 FR 65352 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... conservation responsibilities for affected species, and in consideration of section 10(a)(1)(A) of the... Conservation Society, New York, NY; PRT-15467B The applicant requests a permit to import two captive-bred female snow leopards (Uncia uncia) from Zoo Wuppertal and Tiergarten de Stadt, Germany, to the Bronx...

  19. Aptamer Selection Express: A Rapid Single-Step Selection of Double Stranded DNA Capture Elements (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Mortality in cattle and other ruminants: excess of 70% – Has been found in African spurred tortoises ( Geochelone sulcata ) and leopard tortoises... Geochelone pardalis) – Is now in Caribbean Islands • Antigua • Guadeloupe • Marie Galante • Perhaps Cuba • Viper Plague, a mimic of heartwater, and

  20. 打猎的狮子与兔子--埃塞俄比亚传说%The Lion and the Hare Go Hunting--An Ethiopian Tale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ In Ethiopia the hare,like the jackal1 and the monkey,is known by all of the other animals for his cleverness. His reputation is widespread through the mountains and the grasslands. Even the largest beasts2,such as the lion and the leopard3,respect him.

  1. The second skin of three archers: Herakles, Paris and Dolon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Javier Vilariño Rodríguez

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The wearing of fur of lions, leopards and wolves by Herakles, Paris and Dolon, respectively, allows us, throw the study of the features and power attributed to those beasts, to review the importance and the status granted in the Greek world to each of those legendary archers.

  2. Insights into the management of large carnivores for profitable wildlife-based land uses in African savannas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funston, Paul J; Groom, Rosemary J; Lindsey, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    Large African predators, especially lions (Panthera leo) and leopards (Panthera pardus), are financially valuable for ecotourism and trophy hunting operations on land also utilized for the production of other wildlife species for the same purpose. Predation of ungulates used for trophy hunting can create conflict with landholders and trade off thus exists between the value of lions and leopards and their impact on ungulate populations. Therefore productionist and conservation trade-offs are complexly graded and difficult to resolve. We investigated this with a risk-benefit analysis on a large private wildlife production area in Zimbabwe. Our model showed that lions result in substantial financial costs through predation on wild ungulates that may not be offset by profits from hunting them, whereas the returns from trophy hunting of leopards are projected to exceed the costs due to leopard predation. In the absence of additional income derived from photo-tourism the number of lions may need to be managed to minimize their impact. Lions drive important ecological processes, but there is a need to balance ecological and financial imperatives on wildlife ranches, community wildlife lands and other categories of multiple use land used for wildlife production. This will ensure the competitiveness of wildlife based land uses relative to alternatives. Our findings may thus be limited to conservancies, community land-use areas and commercial game ranches, which are expansive in Africa, and should not necessarily applied to areas where biodiversity conservation is the primary objective, even if hunting is allowed there.

  3. Insights into the management of large carnivores for profitable wildlife-based land uses in African savannas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J Funston

    Full Text Available Large African predators, especially lions (Panthera leo and leopards (Panthera pardus, are financially valuable for ecotourism and trophy hunting operations on land also utilized for the production of other wildlife species for the same purpose. Predation of ungulates used for trophy hunting can create conflict with landholders and trade off thus exists between the value of lions and leopards and their impact on ungulate populations. Therefore productionist and conservation trade-offs are complexly graded and difficult to resolve. We investigated this with a risk-benefit analysis on a large private wildlife production area in Zimbabwe. Our model showed that lions result in substantial financial costs through predation on wild ungulates that may not be offset by profits from hunting them, whereas the returns from trophy hunting of leopards are projected to exceed the costs due to leopard predation. In the absence of additional income derived from photo-tourism the number of lions may need to be managed to minimize their impact. Lions drive important ecological processes, but there is a need to balance ecological and financial imperatives on wildlife ranches, community wildlife lands and other categories of multiple use land used for wildlife production. This will ensure the competitiveness of wildlife based land uses relative to alternatives. Our findings may thus be limited to conservancies, community land-use areas and commercial game ranches, which are expansive in Africa, and should not necessarily applied to areas where biodiversity conservation is the primary objective, even if hunting is allowed there.

  4. 77 FR 20838 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... (Panthera tigris tigris). Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica). Snow leopard (Uncia uncia). Cheetah... a 5-year period. Families: Callithricidae. Lemuridae. Hylobatidae. Genus: Panthera. Species: Snow... requests the re-issuance of their permits to re- export and re-import three captive born tigers...

  5. 78 FR 73877 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... Felidae [includes cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus); but does not include the genus Panthera or margay (Leopardus... Crotalus willardi) Species: Bactrian wapiti (Cervus elaphus bactrianus) Amur leopard (Panthera pardus... mortem wild Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) to the United Kingdom for the purpose of enhancement...

  6. 76 FR 39432 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... (Panthera tigris). All the other information we printed was correct. With this notice, we correct that error... conservation education, one African leopard (Panthera pardus), one Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica), and seven tigers (Panthera tigris). The captive-born animals are being imported from...

  7. 77 FR 16323 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing and Designation of Critical Habitat for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... the Right and Left Prongs of Dix Creek to include the following tanks: Draw Tank, Bull Canyon Tank... continue upstream through Bull Canyon and unnamed drainages to connect occupied or seasonal habitats or... at the time of listing.'' We offer two corrections: Chiricahua leopard frog reproduction has...

  8. Valme / Aisopos ; tlk. Kaarina Krull

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aisopos, 6.saj. e.Kr.

    1999-01-01

    Sisu : Rebane ja leopard; Rebane ja koomiline mask; Pime; Inimesed ja Zeus; Inimene ja saatür; Vanamees ja surm; Rändur Diogenes; Zeus ja inimesed; Zeus, Prometheus, Athena ja Momos; Herakles ja Plutos; Mees kes kitaara saatel laulis

  9. Temperature dependence of anuran distortion product otoacoustic emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meenderink, Sebastlaan W. F.; Van Dijk, Pim

    To study the possible involvement of energy dependent mechanisms in the transduction of sound within the anuran ear, distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) were recorded in the northern leopard frog over a range of body temperatures. The effect of body temperature depended on the stimulus

  10. Detection of Cryptosporidium species in feces or gastric contents from snakes and lizards as determined by polymerase chain reaction analysis and partial sequencing of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Barbara; Nedorost, Nora; Maderner, Anton; Weissenböck, Herbert

    2011-05-01

    Cryptosporidiosis is a well-known gastrointestinal disease of snakes and lizards. In the current study, 672 samples (feces and/or gastric contents or regurgitated food items) of various snakes and lizards were examined for the presence of cryptosporidia by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay targeting a part of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene. A consecutive sequencing reaction was used to identify the cryptosporidian species present in PCR-positive samples. Cryptosporidium varanii (saurophilum) was detected in 17 out of 106 (16%) samples from corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) and in 32 out of 462 (7%) samples from leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius). Cryptosporidium serpentis was found in 8 out of 462 (2%) leopard gecko samples, but in no other reptile. The Cryptosporidium sp. "lizard genotype" was present in 1 leopard gecko sample, and 1 sample from a corn snake showed a single nucleotide mismatch to this genotype. Pseudoparasitic cryptosporidian species were identified in 5 out of 174 (3%) ophidian samples, but not in lizards. Other sequences did not show complete similarity to previously published Cryptosporidium sequences. The results stress the importance for diagnostic methods to be specific for Cryptosporidium species especially in snakes and show a relatively high prevalence of C. varanii in leopard geckos and corn snakes.

  11. 76 FR 43266 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16472

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... an annual incidental mortality allowance of: 3 Antarctic fur seal adults or juveniles; 2 Antarctic... applicant requests annual capture of: 200 Antarctic fur seal adults and juveniles; 600 Antarctic fur seal pups; 50 leopard seal adults and juveniles; 50 southern elephant seal adults and juveniles;...

  12. Miscellaneous

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1997-01-01

    M.M.J. VAN BALGOOY — A farewell to the Rijksherbarium (Summary of the farewell speech by Van Balgooy): I grew up on a farm in Central Java, adjacent to rain forest, where wild boars and leopards were our next-door neighbours. When still a toddler I started observing plants and animals and carried ou

  13. Determination of carnivores prey base by scat analysis in Samburu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Camel was the most preferred domestic animal by both the Lion and the leopard ... for crosscutting applied research (Ogada et al., 2003). To some extent .... Weru project. SESIA ..... but the lion is in record to feed on small kills (rats, reptiles ...

  14. Redescription and taxonomical considerations about Aonchotheca (Aonchotheca pulchra n. comb. (Enoplida: Trichuridae, a nematode of Nyctinomops spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fontana Ferreira Cardia

    Full Text Available Pterothominx pulchra (Freitas, 1934 are little known gastric nematodes of Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera: Molossidae. Information about the occurrence and host range of these parasites in Neotropical region is still scanty, and the only two morphological descriptions available in the literature are divergent about the presence or absence of a spiny spicular sheath in males, which may lead to incorrect taxonomical positioning, since this feature represents the main difference between the genera Pterothominx and Aonchotheca. Based on the absence of this morphological feature in specimens of this nematode obtained from N. laticaudatus and Nyctinomops macrotis bats captured in two municipalities in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, the present study reclassifies the aforementioned species in the genus Aonchotheca and allocates it to the subgenus Aonchotheca. Additional morphometric data and new host and locality records are also provided.

  15. 广东省大陆翼手目动物区系与地理区划%A Study on the Fauna and Geographic Distribution of Chiroptera in Continent of Guangdong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐剑; 邹佩贞; 温彩燕; 陈建荣; 吴毅

    2002-01-01

    广东省大陆翼手目动物共有37种,隶属6科15属,根据中国动物地理区划,按照模糊聚类分析初步划分大陆翼手目动物为四个地理省,即粤北山地省、粤东低山丘陵省、粤西山地丘陵省、沿海台地平原省,翼手目物种分布表现了明显的热带--亚热带过渡性,大耳菊头蝠(Rhinolophus macrotis)、水鼠耳蝠(Myotis daubentoni)为广东省新纪录种.

  16. Supermatrix and species tree methods resolve phylogenetic relationships within the big cats, Panthera (Carnivora: Felidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Brian W; Li, Gang; Murphy, William J

    2010-07-01

    The pantherine lineage of cats diverged from the remainder of modern Felidae less than 11 million years ago and consists of the five big cats of the genus Panthera, the lion, tiger, jaguar, leopard, and snow leopard, as well as the closely related clouded leopard. A significant problem exists with respect to the precise phylogeny of these highly threatened great cats. Despite multiple publications on the subject, no two molecular studies have reconstructed Panthera with the same topology. These evolutionary relationships remain unresolved partially due to the recent and rapid radiation of pantherines in the Pliocene, individual speciation events occurring within less than 1 million years, and probable introgression between lineages following their divergence. We provide an alternative, highly supported interpretation of the evolutionary history of the pantherine lineage using novel and published DNA sequence data from the autosomes, both sex chromosomes and the mitochondrial genome. New sequences were generated for 39 single-copy regions of the felid Y chromosome, as well as four mitochondrial and four autosomal gene segments, totaling 28.7 kb. Phylogenetic analysis of these new data, combined with all published data in GenBank, highlighted the prevalence of phylogenetic disparities stemming either from the amplification of a mitochondrial to nuclear translocation event (numt), or errors in species identification. Our 47.6 kb combined dataset was analyzed as a supermatrix and with respect to individual partitions using maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic inference, in conjunction with Bayesian Estimation of Species Trees (BEST) which accounts for heterogeneous gene histories. Our results yield a robust consensus topology supporting the monophyly of lion and leopard, with jaguar sister to these species, as well as a sister species relationship of tiger and snow leopard. These results highlight new avenues for the study of speciation genomics and

  17. Pastoralist-predator interaction at the roof of the world: Conflict dynamics and implications for conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaffar Ud. Din

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Pastoralism and predation are two major concomitantly known facts and matters of concern for conservation biologists worldwide. Pastoralist-predator conflict constitutes a major social-ecological concern in the Pamir mountain range encompassing Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Tajikistan, and affects community attitudes and tolerance toward carnivores. Very few studies have been conducted to understand the dynamics of livestock predation by large carnivores like snow leopards (Panthera uncia and wolves (Canis lupus, owing to the region's remoteness and inaccessibility. This study attempts to assess the intensity of livestock predation (and resulting perceptions by snow leopards and wolves across the Afghani, Pakistani, and Tajik Pamir range during the period January 2008-June 2012. The study found that livestock mortality due to disease is the most serious threat to livestock (an average 3.5 animal heads per household per year and ultimately to the rural economy (an average of US$352 per household per year as compared to predation (1.78 animal heads per household per year, US$191 in the three study sites. Overall, 1419 (315 per year heads of livestock were reportedly killed by snow leopards (47% and wolves (53% in the study sites. People with comparatively smaller landholdings and limited earning options, other than livestock rearing, expressed negative attitudes toward both wolves and snow leopards and vice versa. Education was found to be an effective solution to dilute people's hatred for predators. Low public tolerance of the wolf and snow leopard in general explained the magnitude of the threat facing predators in the Pamirs. This will likely continue unless tangible and informed conservation measures like disease control and predation compensation programs are taken among others.

  18. Density and carrying capacity in the forgotten tigerland: tigers in understudied Nepalese Churia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Kanchan; Kelly, Marcella J

    2016-10-13

    While there are numerous wildlife ecology studies in lowland areas of Nepal, there are no in-depth studies of the hilly Churia habitat even though it comprises 7,642 km(2) of potential wildlife habitat across the Terai Arc. We investigated tiger, leopard, and prey densities across this understudied habitat. Our camera trapping survey covered 536 km(2) of Churia and surrounding areas within Chitwan National Park (CNP). We used 161 trapping locations and accumulated 2,097 trap nights in a 60-day survey period during the winter season of 2010-2011. Additionally, we walked 136 km over 81 different line transects using distance sampling to estimate prey density. We photographed 31 individual tigers, 28 individual leopards, and 25 other mammalian species. Spatial capture recapture methods resulted in lower density estimates for tigers ranging from 2.3-2.9 tigers per 100 km(2) , than for leopards, which ranged from 3.3-5.1 leopards per 100 km(2) . Additionally, leopard densities were higher in the core of the Churia compared to surrounding areas. We estimated 62.7 prey animals per 100 km(2) with forest ungulate prey (sambar, chital, barking deer, and wild pig) accounting for 47% of the total. Based on prey availability, Churia habitat within CNP could potentially support 5.86 tigers per 100 km(2) but our density estimates were lower, perhaps indicating the tiger population is below carrying capacity. Our results demonstrate that Churia habitat should not be ignored in conservation initiatives, but rather management efforts should focus on reducing human disturbance to support higher predator numbers. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Micro vortex generator control of axisymmetric high-speed laminar boundary layer separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estruch-Samper, D.; Vanstone, L.; Hillier, R.; Ganapathisubramani, B.

    2015-09-01

    Interest in the development of micro vortex generators (MVGs) to control high-speed flow separation has grown in the last decade. In contrast to conventional vortex generators, MVGs are fully submerged in the boundary layer and have the potential of inducing surface flow mixing with marginal drag penalty when suitably designed. Also, they do not result in undesired reduced mass flow such as with suction methods. The flow mechanisms at the location of MVGs are not yet fully understood, and optimal designs are difficult to establish given that both numerical predictions and experiments are particularly challenged for short element heights, yet optimal MVGs are generally expected to be at least shorter than half the local boundary layer thickness. The present work aims at investigating experimentally the fundamental flow physics concerning an individual MVG element (of `canonical' or simplified geometry) at a range of near-wall heights. A fully laminar base flow is considered so as to isolate the effect of incoming turbulence as well as the more complex physics that may occur when specific and/or multiple elements are used. Tests were performed in a gun tunnel at a freestream Mach number of 8.9 and Reynolds number of /m, and the basic test model consisted of a blunt-nosed cylinder which produced an axisymmetric laminar boundary layer with an edge Mach number of 3.4 and Reynolds number of /m at the MVG location. A laminar shock-wave/boundary layer interaction with separation was induced by a flare located further downstream on the model. Measurements consisted of time-resolved surface heat transfer obtained in the axial direction immediately downstream of the MVG and along the interaction, together with simultaneous high-speed schlieren imaging. The height () of the MVG element used in a `diamond' configuration (square planform with one vertex facing the flow) was adjusted between tests ranging from = 0.03 to 0.58, where the local undisturbed boundary layer thickness

  20. Gonadal abnormalities in frogs (Lithobates spp.) collected from managed wetlands in an agricultural region of Nebraska, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoulias, Diana M; Schwarz, Matt S; Mena, Lourdes

    2013-01-01

    Nebraska's Rainwater Basin (RWB) provides important wetland habitat for North American migratory birds. Concern exists that pesticide and nutrient runoff from surrounding row-crops enters wetlands degrading water quality and adversely affecting birds and wildlife. Frogs may be especially vulnerable. Plains leopard (Lithobates blairi) metamorphs from RWB wetlands with varying concentrations of pesticides were evaluated for a suite of biomarkers of exposure to endocrine active chemicals. Froglets had ovarian dysgenesis, high rates of testicular oocytes, and female-biased sex ratios however, there was no clear statistical association between pesticide concentrations and biomarkers. Data interpretation was hindered because timing and duration of exposures were unknown and due to an incomplete understanding of L. blairi sexual development. Emphasis is on describing the complex developmental biology of closely-related leopard frogs, how this understanding can explain RWB L. blairi anomalies, and the need for sampling at the appropriate life stage.

  1. Trichinella nelsoni in carnivores from the Serengeti ecosystem, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozio, E; De Meneghi, D; Roelke-Parker, M E; La Rosa, G

    1997-12-01

    A survey of trichinellosis among sylvatic carnivore mammals from the Serengeti ecosystem (Tanzania) demonstrated the presence of Trichinella nelsoni in 5 of 9 species examined. Muscle samples were collected from carcasses of 56 carnivores from 1993 to 1995 and frozen before transport and examination. Following artificial digestion of the samples, collected larvae were analyzed by the random amplified polymorphic DNA technique. Trichinella nelsoni was identified in 1 bat-eared fox (Otocyon megalotis), 1 cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), 1 leopard (Panthera pardus), 3 lions (Panthera leo), and 3 spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta). The numbers of bat-eared foxes (6), cheetahs (5), and leopards (3) examined were too small to reveal the roles of these carnivore species in the ecology of T. nelsoni. The numbers of lions and spotted hyenas examined, with a prevalence of 12% and 23%, respectively, suggest that these species may be reservoirs of T. nelsoni in the area under study.

  2. Gonadal abnormalities in frogs (Lithobates spp.) collected from managed wetlands in an agricultural region of Nebraska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoulias, Diana M.; Schwarz, Matt S.; Mena, Lourdes

    2013-01-01

    Nebraska's Rainwater Basin (RWB) provides important wetland habitat for North American migratory birds. Concern exists that pesticide and nutrient runoff from surrounding row-crops enters wetlands degrading water quality and adversely affecting birds and wildlife. Frogs may be especially vulnerable. Plains leopard (Lithobates blairi) metamorphs from RWB wetlands with varying concentrations of pesticides were evaluated for a suite of biomarkers of exposure to endocrine active chemicals. Froglets had ovarian dysgenesis, high rates of testicular oocytes, and female-biased sex ratios however, there was no clear statistical association between pesticide concentrations and biomarkers. Data interpretation was hindered because timing and duration of exposures were unknown and due to an incomplete understanding of L. blairi sexual development. Emphasis is on describing the complex developmental biology of closely-related leopard frogs, how this understanding can explain RWB L. blairi anomalies, and the need for sampling at the appropriate life stage.

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome structure of the jaguar (Panthera onca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caragiulo, Anthony; Dougherty, Eric; Soto, Sofia; Rabinowitz, Salisa; Amato, George

    2016-01-01

    The jaguar (Panthera onca) is the largest felid in the Western hemisphere, and the only member of the Panthera genus in the New World. The jaguar inhabits most countries within Central and South America, and is considered near threatened by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. This study represents the first sequence of the entire jaguar mitogenome, which was the only Panthera mitogenome that had not been sequenced. The jaguar mitogenome is 17,049 bases and possesses the same molecular structure as other felid mitogenomes. Bayesian inference (BI) and maximum likelihood (ML) were used to determine the phylogenetic placement of the jaguar within the Panthera genus. Both BI and ML analyses revealed the jaguar to be sister to the tiger/leopard/snow leopard clade.

  4. Prey selection and feeding habits of the large carnivores in the Southern Kalahari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. L Mills

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Prey selection and feeding habits of lions Panthera leo, spotted hyaenas Crocuta crocuta, cheetahs Acinonyx jubatus and leopards Panthera pardus are investigated. Lions kill mainly adult gemsbok Oryx gazella and blue wildebeest Connochaetes taurinus, tending to select older animals of both species and males in the case of gemsbok. Spotted hyaenas also prey mainly on gemsbok and wildebeest, but select for juveniles, particularly from gemsbok. Cheetahs prey heavily on springbok Antidorcas marsupialis lambs and then on adult males and older individuals. Leopards also prey relatively heavily on springbok, but appear to have a wider diet than cheetahs do. It is concluded that predators generally have a small impact on their prey populations in the southern Kalahari, although in the case of springbok they do appear to influence the structure of the population.

  5. Disseminated coccidioidomycosis in a captive Indochinese tiger (Panthera tigris corbetti) with chronic renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmick, Kelly E; Koplos, Peter; Raymond, James

    2006-12-01

    A 19-yr-old, 78.2-kg captive female Indochinese tiger (Panthera tigris corbetti) from the El Paso Zoo (El Paso, Texas, USA) with chronic renal disease was euthanized after a 10-day course of anorexia, depression, progressive rear limb weakness, muscle fasciculations, and head tremors. Postmortem findings included pericardial effusion, generalized lymphadenopathy, glomerulosclerosis, glomerular atrophy with membranous glomerulonephropathy, and pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Pyogranulomatous pneumonia, pericarditis, and lymphadenitis were associated with fungal spherules histomorphologically consistent with Coccidioides immitis. Rising antibodies to C. immitis were detected on samples obtained perimortem and 2 mo before euthanasia. Retrospective serology was negative for two additional Indochinese tigers, two Iranian leopards (Panthera pardus saxicolor), two jaguars (Panthera onca), two bobcats (Lynx rufus texensis), two ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), and three Amur leopards (Panthera pardus orientalis) housed at the zoo over an 8-yr period. Despite being located within the endemic region for C. immitis, this is only the second case of coccidioidomycosis reported from this institution.

  6. Continued post-bleaching decline and changed benthic community of a Kenyan coral reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambo, A L; Ormond, R F G

    2006-12-01

    During the global coral bleaching event of 1997/1998 Kenyan reefs experienced between 50% and 90% coral mortality, with coral cover at Malindi being reduced from 35-45% (pre-bleaching) to 10-20%. Even before this event there was concern that these reefs were being impacted by increased sediment loads from the nearby Sabaki River. Here we report that since 1998 coral cover has declined yet further with, in 2004, means of 5.1% being recorded at North Reef (within the non-fished Malindi Marine National Park) and 2.3% on Leopard Reef (within the fished Marine Reserve). Prior to bleaching 55 coral genera were recorded from the area, currently we find only 23. Meanwhile algal cover, especially the calcareous green alga Halimeda, has increased, and on Leopard Reef is twice that on North Reef. Taken with the evidence of previous studies, these data suggest a combined impact of coral bleaching with sedimentation and fishing.

  7. iMac portable genius

    CERN Document Server

    Hart-Davis, Guy

    2010-01-01

    The most up-to-date coverage on the latest iMac advice, tools, and shortcuts Cool and useful tips, full-color screenshots, and savvy advice show you how to get the most out of your iMac. Fully updated to cover the iMac's latest features and capabilities, this guide is packed with indispensible information on iLife '09 and Mac OS X Snow Leopard, and shows you how to customize your iMac in a way that it will work best for you.Explores all the bells and whistles of the iMac, including the new Magic Mouse, iLife apps such as iPhoto and iMovie, and Mac OS X Snow LeopardShows yo

  8. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) parasitizing wild carnivores in Phu Khieo Wildlife Sanctuary, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassman, L I; Sarataphan, N; Tewes, M E; Silvy, N J; Nakanakrat, T

    2004-06-01

    Ixodid ticks were collected and identified from 8 wild carnivore species in Phu Khieo Wildlife Sanctuary, northeastern Thailand. Six tick species belonging to 4 genera were recovered and identified from 132 individuals. These included Amblyomma testudinarium (n = 36), Haemaphysalis asiatica (n = 58), H. hystricis (n = 31), H. semermis (n = 3), Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides (n = 3), and Ixodes granulatus (n = 1). Leopard cats (Prionailurus bengalensis) (n = 19) were infested with 4 tick species, whereas yellow-throated marten (Martes flavigula) (n = 4), clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) (n = 2), and dhole (Cuon alpinus) (n = 1) were infested with 3 tick species, Asiatic golden cat (Catopuma temmincki) (n = 2) with 2 species, and marbled cat (Pardofelis marmorata), binturong (Arctictis binturong), and large Indian civet (Viverra zibetha) each infested with 1 species. This information contributes to the knowledge available on the ectoparasites of wild carnivores in Southeast Asia.

  9. Maximizing Sampling Efficiency and Minimizing Uncertainty in Presence/Absence Classification of Rare Salamander Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-31

    of the Apalachicola River drainage. Although this proposed division in classification appears to be generally accepted by the herpetological community...breeding in small forest ponds. Herpetological Review 33(4):275-280. Carle, F. L. and M. R. Strub. 1978. A new method for estimating population size...gopher frogs (Rana capito) and southern leopard frogs (Rana sphenocephala). Journal of Herpetology 42: 97-103. Grevstad, F.S. 2005. Simulating

  10. Assessing the Role of Livestock in Big Cat Prey Choice Using Spatiotemporal Availability Patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Ghoddousi

    Full Text Available Livestock is represented in big cat diets throughout the world. Husbandry approaches aim to reduce depredation, which may influence patterns of prey choice, but whether felids have a preference for livestock or not often remains unclear as most studies ignore livestock availability. We assessed prey choice of the endangered Persian leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor in Golestan National Park, Iran, where conflict over livestock depredation occurs. We analyzed leopard diet (77 scats and assessed wild and domestic prey abundance by line transect sampling (186 km, camera-trapping (2777 camera days, double-observer point-counts (64 scans and questionnaire surveys (136 respondents. Based on interviews with 18 shepherds, we estimated monthly grazing time outside six villages with 96 conflict cases to obtain a small livestock (domestic sheep and goat availability coefficient. Using this coefficient, which ranged between 0.40 and 0.63 for different villages, we estimated the numbers of sheep and goats available to leopard depredation. Leopard diet consisted mainly of wild boar (Sus scrofa (50.2% biomass consumed, but bezoar goat (Capra aegagrus was the most preferred prey species (Ij = 0.73, whereas sheep and goats were avoided (Ij = -0.54. When absolute sheep and goat numbers (~11250 were used instead of the corrected ones (~6392, avoidance of small livestock appeared to be even stronger (Ij = -0.71. We suggest that future assessments of livestock choice by felids should incorporate such case-specific corrections for spatiotemporal patterns of availability, which may vary with husbandry methods. Such an approach increases our understanding of human-felid conflict dynamics and the role of livestock in felid diets.

  11. A Decade Miracle:Wuxi Sunmart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Miracle started A decade ago,WuXi Sunmart was just no name.At that time,feW people noticed Jiangsu Snow Leopard Atomization Pot Industry Limited Company,which was established in early 1998.as it was a small workshop with a registered capital of only RMB 1.6 million.And that iS where Wuxi Sunmart's miracle initiated and grew from.

  12. Oyster Shell Dredging in Gulf of Mexico Waters, St. Mary and Terrebonne Parishes, Louisiana. Final Environmental Impact Statement and Appendixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-01

    terrestrial and shallow aquatic habitats in the project area such as shallow shoreline areas and wildlife refuges. ALTERNATIVE 2 No Action - No Dredging in...area. The likelihood of intact terrestrial sites is considered minimal since the process of inundation involved erosion of former land surfaces along...Prionotus rubio blackf in searobin x Prionotus scitulus leopard searobin x Prionotus tribulus bighead searobin x Pristis pectinata smalltooth sawfish x

  13. Human-Wildlife Conflicts in Nepal: Patterns of Human Fatalities and Injuries Caused by Large Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Krishna Prasad; Paudel, Prakash Kumar; Neupane, Prem Raj; Köhl, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Injury and death from wildlife attacks often result in people feeling violent resentment and hostility against the wildlife involved and, therefore, may undermine public support for conservation. Although Nepal, with rich biodiversity, is doing well in its conservation efforts, human-wildlife conflicts have been a major challenge in recent years. The lack of detailed information on the spatial and temporal patterns of human-wildlife conflicts at the national level impedes the development of effective conflict mitigation plans. We examined patterns of human injury and death caused by large mammals using data from attack events and their spatiotemporal dimensions collected from a national survey of data available in Nepal over five years (2010-2014). Data were analyzed using logistic regression and chi-square or Fisher's exact tests. The results show that Asiatic elephants and common leopards are most commonly involved in attacks on people in terms of attack frequency and fatalities. Although one-horned rhinoceros and bears had a higher frequency of attacks than Bengal tigers, tigers caused more fatalities than each of these two species. Attacks by elephants peaked in winter and most frequently occurred outside protected areas in human settlements. Leopard attacks occurred almost entirely outside protected areas, and a significantly greater number of attacks occurred in human settlements. Attacks by one-horned rhinoceros and tigers were higher in the winter, mainly in forests inside protected areas; similarly, attacks by bears occurred mostly within protected areas. We found that human settlements are increasingly becoming conflict hotspots, with burgeoning incidents involving elephants and leopards. We conclude that species-specific conservation strategies are urgently needed, particularly for leopards and elephants. The implications of our findings for minimizing conflicts and conserving these imperiled species are discussed.

  14. Carpal Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Carpal fusion may be seen in hereditary and nonhereditary conditions such as acrocallosal syndrome,acromegaly, Apert syndrome, arthrogryposis, Carpenter syndrome, chromosomal abnormalities, ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-cleft (EEC) syndrome, the F form of acropectorovertebral dysgenesis or the F syndrome, fetal alcohol syndrome, Holt-Oram syndrome, Leopard syndrome, multiple synostosis syndrome, oligosyndactyly syndrome, Pfeiffer-like syndrome, scleroderma, split hand and foot malformatio...

  15. Variation in growth of herbivorous tortoises: causes and consequences for reproduction and health management

    OpenAIRE

    Ritz, J

    2011-01-01

    Reptiles have very flexible growth rates, depending on living conditions - in particular dietary resources. Here, I demonstrate a difference in the growth rates of captive specimens, as compared to literature data for free-ranging ones, in Leopard tortoises (Geochelone pardalis), African spurred tortoises (G. sulcata), Hermann’s tortoises (Testudo hermanni) and Spur-thighed tortoises (T. graeca). Such high growth rates are traditionally thought to be linked to health problems. In the case of ...

  16. Human Perceptions Mirror Realities of Carnivore Attack Risk for Livestock: Implications for Mitigating Human-Carnivore Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jennifer R B; Jhala, Yadvendradev V; Schmitz, Oswald J

    2016-01-01

    Human-carnivore conflict is challenging to quantify because it is shaped by both the realities and people's perceptions of carnivore threats. Whether perceptions align with realities can have implications for conflict mitigation: misalignments can lead to heightened and indiscriminant persecution of carnivores whereas alignments can offer deeper insights into human-carnivore interactions. We applied a landscape-scale spatial analysis of livestock killed by tigers and leopards in India to model and map observed attack risk, and surveyed owners of livestock killed by tigers and leopards for their rankings of threats across habitats to map perceived attack risk. Observed tiger risk to livestock was greatest near dense forests and at moderate distances from human activity while leopard risk was greatest near open vegetation. People accurately perceived spatial differences between tiger and leopard hunting patterns, expected greater threat in areas with high values of observed risk for both carnivores. Owners' perception of threats largely did not depend on environmental conditions surrounding their village (spatial location, dominant land-use or observed carnivore risk). Surveys revealed that owners who previously lost livestock to carnivores used more livestock protection methods than those who had no prior losses, and that owners who had recently lost livestock for the first time expressed greater interest in changing their protection methods than those who experienced prior losses. Our findings suggest that in systems where realities and perceptions of carnivore risk align, conservation programs and policies can optimize conservation outcomes by (1) improving the effectiveness of livestock protection methods and (2) working with owners who have recently lost livestock and are most willing to invest effort in adapting protection strategies to mitigate human-carnivore conflict.

  17. Development, validation, and application of a urinary relaxin radioimmunoassay for the diagnosis and monitoring of pregnancy in felids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haas van Dorsser, Florine J; Swanson, William F; Lasano, Salamia; Steinetz, Bernard G

    2006-06-01

    Many nondomestic felids are highly endangered, and captive breeding programs have become essential components of holistic conservation efforts for these species. The ability to diagnose pregnancy early in gestation is fundamental to developing effective breeding programs. The purpose of this study was to develop a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for the detection of urinary relaxin in felids and assess its applicability for early, noninvasive pregnancy diagnosis in domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) and leopards (Panthera pardus). Urine was collected from pregnant and nonpregnant domestic cats and leopards at mating, and then weekly thereafter for the duration of gestation. Paired serum samples were also collected from the domestic cats. A RIA for relaxin that uses an antiserum against synthetic canine relaxin was validated for felid urine and shown to detect relaxin immunoreactivity in pregnant cat urine subjected to acid-acetone extraction. In the cat, urinary relaxin was first detected between Days 21 and 28 of gestation; levels peaked at 42-49 days, and the concentrations then declined over 2 wk prior to parturition. The urinary relaxin profiles of the cat mirrored those in serum. In the leopard, urinary relaxin was first detected at Day 25-28 of gestation; levels peaked at Day 60-64 and declined in the last 3-4 wk of pregnancy. These results indicate that measurement of urinary relaxin in the cat and leopard provides a reliable method for pregnancy determination from as early as 3-4 wk of gestation. This method of pregnancy diagnosis and monitoring may prove useful in the breeding management of domestic cats and other felid and canid species, and provides a foundation for future studies on pregnancy in captive exotic carnivores.

  18. Reptile embryology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickaryous, Matthew K; McLean, Katherine E

    2011-01-01

    Reptiles (lizards, snakes, turtles and crocodylians) are becoming increasing popular as models for developmental investigations. In this review the leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius, is presented as a reptilian model for embryonic studies. We provide details of husbandry, breeding and modifications to two popular histological techniques (whole-mount histochemistry and immunohistochemistry). In addition, we provide a summary of basic reptilian husbandry requirements and discuss important details of embryonic nutrition, egg anatomy and sex determination.

  19. Nanog Is an Essential Factor for Induction of Pluripotency in Somatic Cells from Endangered Felids

    OpenAIRE

    Verma, Rajneesh; Liu, Jun; Holland, Michael Kenneth; Temple-Smith, Peter; Williamson, Mark; Verma, Paul John

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Nanog has an important role in pluripotency induction in bovines and snow leopards. To examine whether it was required for wild felids globally, we examined the induction of pluripotency in felids from Asia (Bengal tiger, Panthera tigris), Africa (serval, Leptailurus serval), and the Americas (jaguar, Panthera onca). Dermal fibroblasts were transduced with genes encoding the human transcription factors OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and cMYC with or without NANOG. Both four- and five-factor induc...

  20. Epidermal Laser Stimulation of Action Potentials in the Frog Sciatic Nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    Laser Stimulation of Action Potentials in the Frog Sciatic Nerve Nichole M. Jindra Robert J. Thomas Human Effectiveness Directorate Directed...in the Frog Sciatic Nerve 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62202F 6. AUTHOR(S) .Nichole M. Jindra, Robert J. Thomas, Douglas N...Alan Rice 14. ABSTRACT Measurements of laser stimulated action potentials in the sciatic nerve of leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) were made using

  1. Tigroid pattern of the white matter: a previously unrecognized MR finding in lissencephaly with cerebellar hypoplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kono, Tatsuo [Dokkyo University, Department of Radiology, Mibu, Shimotsuga, Tochigi (Japan); Moriyama, Nobuko [Ibaraki Children' s Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Mito, Ibaraki (Japan); Tanaka, Ryuta [University of Tsukuba, Department of Paediatrics, Tsukubu, Ibaraki (Japan); Iwasaki, Nobuaki [Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences, Department of Paediatrics, Ami, Ibaraki (Japan); Arai, Jun-ichi [Ibaraki Children' s Hospital, Department of Neonatology, Mito, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2008-10-15

    Brain MR images of a 14-month-old boy with lissencephaly and cerebellar hypoplasia showed numerous radiating linear structures in the white matter. This finding was identical to the tigroid or leopard-skin pattern that is seen in Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease or metachromatic leukodystrophy and represents the perivascular white matter spared from demyelination. We speculate that mutations of the reelin gene, expressed both in the cortex and in the white matter, may play an important role in its development. (orig.)

  2. Response of adult male Zeuzera pyrina (Lep: Zeuzeridae to different pheromone traps in walnut orchards of four isolated regions of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheleh Dolati

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The leopard moth, Zeuzera pyrina L. (Lep: Zeuzeridae is an important polyphagous pest of a wide range of trees and shrubs across Europe and Asia. The efficient control of the leopard moth by direct spraying of infested branches and trees is usually impractical because the larvae feed internally and escape from exposure to the used insecticides. Sexual pheromones emitted by females may provide an efficient alternative method to explore the pest, disrupt its mating or capture and kill it. In the present study, we evaluated the efficiency of one Iranian-formulated (in three doses: 1, 1.5, and 2 mg per trap and three non-Iranian-formulated sexual pheromones in attraction and capturing of adult males of the leopard moth in Walnut orchards of Alborz province and three different regions of Kerman province (Rabor, Baft, Darremorid. We found a wide diversity in response of adult males to different pheromones in the four studied regions. This diversity seems to be resulted from isolation of the populations and may present a preliminary stage of divergence and speciation in this species.

  3. Seroprevalence and genomic divergence of circulating strains of feline immunodeficiency virus among Felidae and Hyaenidae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyer, Jennifer L; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Roelke, Melody E; Johnson, Warren; VandeWoude, Sue; Vazquez-Salat, Nuria; Brown, Meredith; Frank, Laurence; Woodroffe, Rosie; Winterbach, Christiaan; Winterbach, Hanlie; Hemson, Graham; Bush, Mitch; Alexander, Kathleen A; Revilla, Eloy; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2005-07-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infects numerous wild and domestic feline species and is closely related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Species-specific strains of FIV have been described for domestic cat (Felis catus), puma (Puma concolor), lion (Panthera leo), leopard (Panthera pardus), and Pallas' cat (Otocolobus manul). Here, we employ a three-antigen Western blot screening (domestic cat, puma, and lion FIV antigens) and PCR analysis to survey worldwide prevalence, distribution, and genomic differentiation of FIV based on 3,055 specimens from 35 Felidae and 3 Hyaenidae species. Although FIV infects a wide variety of host species, it is confirmed to be endemic in free-ranging populations of nine Felidae and one Hyaenidae species. These include the large African carnivores (lion, leopard, cheetah, and spotted hyena), where FIV is widely distributed in multiple populations; most of the South American felids (puma, jaguar, ocelot, margay, Geoffroy's cat, and tigrina), which maintain a lower FIV-positive level throughout their range; and two Asian species, the Pallas' cat, which has a species-specific strain of FIV, and the leopard cat, which has a domestic cat FIV strain in one population. Phylogenetic analysis of FIV proviral sequence demonstrates that most species for which FIV is endemic harbor monophyletic, genetically distinct species-specific FIV strains, suggesting that FIV transfer between cat species has occurred in the past but is quite infrequent today.

  4. Immediate and lag effects of pesticide exposure on parasite resistance in larval amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochini, Katherine M; Hoverman, Jason T

    2017-01-11

    Across host-parasite systems, there is evidence that pesticide exposure increases parasite loads and mortality following infection. However, whether these effects are driven by reductions in host resistance to infection or slower rates of parasite clearance is often unclear. Using controlled laboratory experiments, we examined the ability of larval northern leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens) and American toads (Anaxyrus americanus) to resist and clear trematode (Echinoparyphium sp.) infections following exposure to the insecticide carbaryl. Northern leopard frogs exposed to 1 mg L-1 of carbaryl had 61% higher parasite loads compared with unexposed individuals, while there was no immediate effect of carbaryl on parasite encystment in American toads. However, when tadpoles were exposed to carbaryl and moved to freshwater for 14 days before the parasite challenge, we recovered 37 and 63% more parasites from carbaryl-exposed northern leopard frogs and American toads, respectively, compared with the control. No effects on clearance were found for either species. Collectively, our results suggest that pesticide exposure can reduce the ability of amphibians to resist parasite infections and that these effects can persist weeks following exposure. It is critical for researchers to incorporate species interactions into toxicity studies to improve our understanding of how contaminants affect ecological communities.

  5. Big cat phylogenies, consensus trees, and computational thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sul, Seung-Jin; Williams, Tiffani L

    2011-07-01

    Phylogenetics seeks to deduce the pattern of relatedness between organisms by using a phylogeny or evolutionary tree. For a given set of organisms or taxa, there may be many evolutionary trees depicting how these organisms evolved from a common ancestor. As a result, consensus trees are a popular approach for summarizing the shared evolutionary relationships in a group of trees. We examine these consensus techniques by studying how the pantherine lineage of cats (clouded leopard, jaguar, leopard, lion, snow leopard, and tiger) evolved, which is hotly debated. While there are many phylogenetic resources that describe consensus trees, there is very little information, written for biologists, regarding the underlying computational techniques for building them. The pantherine cats provide us with a small, relevant example to explore the computational techniques (such as sorting numbers, hashing functions, and traversing trees) for constructing consensus trees. Our hope is that life scientists enjoy peeking under the computational hood of consensus tree construction and share their positive experiences with others in their community.

  6. Chromosome evolution in bears: reconstructing phylogenetic relationships by cross-species chromosome painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ying; Nie, Wenhui; Wang, Jinhuan; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Yang, Fengtang

    2004-01-01

    Genome-wide homology maps among dog (Canis familiaris, CFA, 2n = 78), African lion (Panthera leo, PLE, 2n = 38), clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa, NNE, 2n = 38) and Malayan sun bear (Helartos malayanus, HMA, 2n = 74) have been established by chromosome painting using a complete set of dog probes. In total, chromosome-specific painting probes from the 38 dog autosomes reveal 69, 69 and 73 conserved segments in African lion, clouded leopard and Malayan sun bear, respectively. The chromosomal painting results show that the African lion and clouded leopard have an identical karyotype which, in turn, is similar to that previously published for the cat (Felis catus, FCA 2n = 38). The findings confirm and extend other studies that show felids to be karyotypically conserved. In contrast, ursids, including the Malayan sun bear, have a relatively highly rearranged karyotype in comparison with other carnivores. The 2n = 74 karyotype of the Malayan sun bear, which is believed to closely resemble the ancestral karyotype of the Ursidae, could have evolved from the 2n = 42 putative ancestral carnivore karyotype by an inversion and 16 centric fissions. Independent fusions of the acrocentric ancestral chromosomes have generated the unique karyotypes of the giant panda and the spectacled bear.

  7. Pioneer identification of fake tiger claws using morphometric and DNA-based analysis in wildlife forensics in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vipin; Sharma, Vinita; Sharma, Chandra Prakash; Kumar, Ved Prakash; Goyal, Surendra Prakash

    2016-09-01

    The illegal trade in wildlife is a serious threat to the existence of wild animals throughout the world. The short supply and high demand for wildlife articles have caused an influx of many different forms of fake wildlife articles into this trade. The task of identifying the materials used in making such articles poses challenges in wildlife forensics as different approaches are required for species identification. Claws constitute 3.8% of the illegal animal parts (n=2899) received at the Wildlife Institute of India (WII) for species identification. We describe the identification of seized suspected tiger claws (n=18) using a combined approach of morphometric and DNA-based analysis. The differential keratin density, determined using X-ray radiographs, indicated that none of the 18 claws were of any large cat but were fake. We determined three claw measurements, viz. ac (from the external coronary dermo-epidermal interface to the epidermis of the skin fold connecting the palmar flanges of the coronary horn), bc (from the claw tip to the epidermis of the skin fold connecting the palmar flanges of the coronary horn) and the ratio bc/ac, for all the seized (n=18), tiger (n=23) and leopard (n=49) claws. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were performed using SPSS. A scatter plot generated using canonical discriminant function analysis revealed that of the 18 seized claws, 14 claws formed a cluster separate from the clusters of the tiger and leopard claws, whereas the remaining four claws were within the leopard cluster. Because a discrepancy was observed between the X-ray images and the measurements of these four claws, one of the claw that clustered with the leopard claws was chosen randomly and DNA analysis carried out using the cyt b (137bp) and 16S rRNA (410bp) genes. A BLAST search and comparison with the reference database at WII indicated that the keratin material of the claw was derived from Bos taurus (cattle). This is a pioneering discovery, and

  8. Rabies diagnosis and serology in bats from the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene Fernandes de Almeida

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Bats are one of the most important reservoirs and vectors of the rabies virus in the world. METHODS: From 1988 to 2003, the Zoonosis Control Center in São Paulo City performed rabies diagnosis on 5,670 bats by direct immunofluorescent test and mouse inoculation test. Blood samples were collected from 1,618 bats and the sera were analyzed using the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test to confirm rabies antibodies. RESULTS: Forty-four (0.8% bats were positive for rabies. The prevalence of rabies antibodies was 5.9% using 0.5IU/ml as a cutoff. Insectivorous bats (69.8% and bats of the species Molossus molossus (51.8% constituted the majority of the sample; however, the highest prevalence of antibodies were observed in Glossophaga soricina (14/133, Histiotus velatus (16/60, Desmodus rotundus (8/66, Artibeus lituratus (5/54, Nyctinomops macrotis (3/23, Tadarida brasiliensis (3/48, Carollia perspicillata (3/9, Eumops auripendulus (2/30, Nyctinomops laticaudatus (2/16, Sturnira lilium (2/17 and Eumops perotis (1/13. The prevalence of rabies antibodies was analyzed by species, food preference and sex. CONCLUSIONS: The expressive levels of antibodies associated with the low virus positivity verified in these bats indicate that rabies virus circulates actively among them.

  9. Cinco espécies de Lecithodendriidae (Trematoda en murcielagos de Colombia, incluyendo tres nuevos generos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imelda Velez

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Velez, I. & V.E. Thatcher: Five species of Lecithodendriidae (Trematoda in bats from Colombia, including three new genera. Three new neotropical genera and species of Lecithodendriidae (Trematoda are described from Colombian bats. Sturniratrema umbilicata gen. et sp. nov. from Sturnira lilium differs from other genera in having an oval ventral depression, a dorso-ventrally curved cirrus and a genital pore lateral to the acetabulum. Chiropterotrema antioquiense gen. et sp. nov. from Carollia perspicillata is distinguished by having the acetabulum within a triangular ventral pit as well as an separation between the the male and female genital pores. Topsiturvitrema verticalia gen. et sp. nov. from Carollia perspicillata has a different orientation of the body, being nearly spherical but somewhat flatened in an anterior-posterior direction. This genus also has a deep ventral cleft separating two ventral lobes which are filled with eggs. Castroia silvai Travassos, 1928, is also reported from Anoura caudifer and Peropteryx macrotis. The first of these represents a new host record for the species. Addiotionally, Limatulum gastroides Macy, 1935, is reported from Lonchophyla robusta wich is another new host record.

  10. Principal host relationships and evolutionary history of the North American arenaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cajimat, Maria N B; Milazzo, Mary Louise; Hess, Barry D; Rood, Michael P; Fulhorst, Charles F

    2007-10-25

    A previous study suggested that the genomes of the arenaviruses native to North America are a product of genetic recombination between New World arenaviruses with significantly different phylogenetic histories. The purpose of this study was to extend our knowledge of the principal host relationships and evolutionary history of the North American arenaviruses. The results of this study suggest that the large-eared woodrat (Neotoma macrotis) is a principal host of Bear Canyon virus and that the present-day association of Bear Canyon virus with the California mouse (Peromyscus californicus) in southern California represents a successful host-jumping event from the large-eared woodrat to the California mouse. Together, the results of analyses of viral gene sequence data in this study and our knowledge of the phylogeography of the rodents that serve as principal hosts of the New World arenaviruses suggest that genetic recombination between arenaviruses with significantly different phylogenetic histories did not play a role in the evolution of the North American arenaviruses.

  11. Habitat evaluation using GIS a case study applied to the San Joaquin Kit Fox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrard, R.; Stine, P.; Church, R.; Gilpin, M.

    2001-01-01

    Concern over the fate of plant and animal species throughout the world has accelerated over recent decades. Habitat loss is considered the main culprit in reducing many species' abundance and range, leading to numerous efforts to plan and manage habitat preservation. Our work uses Geographic Information Systems (GIS) data and modeling to define a spatially explicit analysis of habitat value, using the San Joaquin Kit Fox (Vulpes macrotis mutica) of California (USA) as an example. Over the last 30 years, many field studies and surveys have enhanced our knowledge of the life history, behavior, and needs of the kit fox, which has been proposed as an umbrella or indicator species for grassland habitat in the San Joaquin Valley of California. There has yet been no attempt to convert much of this field knowledge into a model of spatial habitat value useful for planning purposes. This is a significant omission given the importance and visibility of the imperiled kit fox and increasing trends toward spatially explicit modeling and planning. In this paper we apply data from northern California to derive a small-cell GIS raster of habitat value for the kit fox that incorporates both intrinsic habitat quality and neighborhood context, as well the effects of barriers such as roads. Such a product is a useful basis for assessing the presence and amounts of good (and poor) quality habitat and for eventually constructing GIS representations of viable animal territories that could be included in future reserves. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V.

  12. Land Use as a Driver of Patterns of Rodenticide Exposure in Modeled Kit Fox Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa M Nogeire

    Full Text Available Although rodenticides are increasingly regulated, they nonetheless cause poisonings in many non-target wildlife species. Second-generation anticoagulant rodenticide use is common in agricultural and residential landscapes. Here, we use an individual-based population model to assess potential population-wide effects of rodenticide exposures on the endangered San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes macrotis mutica. We estimate likelihood of rodenticide exposure across the species range for each land cover type based on a database of reported pesticide use and literature. Using a spatially-explicit population model, we find that 36% of modeled kit foxes are likely exposed, resulting in a 7-18% decline in the range-wide modeled kit fox population that can be linked to rodenticide use. Exposures of kit foxes in low-density developed areas accounted for 70% of the population-wide exposures to rodenticides. We conclude that exposures of non-target kit foxes could be greatly mitigated by reducing the use of second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides in low-density developed areas near vulnerable populations.

  13. Phylogenetic relationships of living and recently extinct bandicoots based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerman, M; Kear, B P; Aplin, K; Meredith, R W; Emerling, C; Springer, M S

    2012-01-01

    Bandicoots (Peramelemorphia) are a major order of australidelphian marsupials, which despite a fossil record spanning at least the past 25 million years and a pandemic Australasian range, remain poorly understood in terms of their evolutionary relationships. Many living peramelemorphians are critically endangered, making this group an important focus for biological and conservation research. To establish a phylogenetic framework for the group, we compiled a concatenated alignment of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences, comprising representatives of most living and recently extinct species. Our analysis confirmed the currently recognised deep split between Macrotis (Thylacomyidae), Chaeropus (Chaeropodidae) and all other living bandicoots (Peramelidae). The mainly New Guinean rainforest peramelids were returned as the sister clade of Australian dry-country species. The wholly New Guinean Peroryctinae was sister to Echymiperinae. The poorly known and perhaps recently extinct Seram Bandicoot (Rhynchomeles) is sister to Echymipera. Estimates of divergence times from relaxed-clock Bayesian methods suggest that living bandicoots originated in the late Oligocene or early Miocene, much earlier than currently thought based on fossils. Subsequent radiations within Peramelemorphia probably took place on the Australian mainland during the Miocene, with diversification of rainforest taxa on the newly emergent New Guinean landmasses through the middle-late Miocene and complete establishment of modern lineages by the early Pliocene.

  14. Morcegos (Chiroptera da área urbana de Londrina, Paraná, Brasil Bats (Chiroptera of the urban area of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nélio Roberto dos Reis

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Study carried out within the urban perimeter of Londrina, which is located in the North of the state of Paraná. The objectives were the identification of urban species of bats and diurnal roosts used by them and the verification of the problems they can cause to the population. The fire brigade, the Autarquia Municipal do Ambiente de Londrina (Municipal Environment Autarchy of Londrina, the Biology Department of the Universidade Estadual de Londrina (State University of Londrina and local residents helped spot the roosts. The collections were carried out in regular intervals between April 1998 and March 1999. By the end of them, 815 bats of 23 different species had been captured. Among these, 12 were found near or inside human constructions: Noctilio albiventris Desmarest, 1818; Artibeits lituratus (Olfers, 1818; Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Eptesicus brasiliensis Desmarest 1819; Lasiurus bore-alls (Muller 1776; Lasiurus ega (Gervais, 1856; Eumops glaucinus (Wagner, 1843; Molossus rufus (E. Geoffroy, 1805; Molossus molossus (Pallas, 1766; Nyctinomops laticaudatus (E. Geoffroy, 1805; Nyctinomops macrotis (Gray, 1840 e Tadarida brasiliensis (i. Geoffroy, 1824. Roost sites comprised expansion joints, roofs, attics and parks, among others. It can be concluded that bats are treated as undesirable animals by the population due to the lack of knowledge about the subject.

  15. Financial costs of large carnivore translocations--accounting for conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian J Weise

    Full Text Available Human-carnivore conflict continues to present a major conservation challenge around the world. Translocation of large carnivores is widely implemented but remains strongly debated, in part because of a lack of cost transparency. We report detailed translocation costs for three large carnivore species in Namibia and across different translocation scenarios. We consider the effect of various parameters and factors on costs and translocation success. Total translocation cost for 30 individuals in 22 events was $80,681 (US Dollars. Median translocation cost per individual was $2,393, and $2,669 per event. Median cost per cheetah was $2,760 (n = 23, and $2,108 per leopard (n = 6. One hyaena was translocated at a cost of $1,672. Tracking technology was the single biggest cost element (56%, followed by captive holding and feeding. Soft releases, prolonged captivity and orphaned individuals also increased case-specific costs. A substantial proportion (65.4% of the total translocation cost was successfully recovered from public interest groups. Less than half the translocations were confirmed successes (44.4%, 3 unknown with a strong species bias. Four leopards (66.7% were successfully translocated but only eight of the 20 cheetahs (40.0% with known outcome met these strict criteria. None of the five habituated cheetahs was translocated successfully, nor was the hyaena. We introduce the concept of Individual Conservation Cost (ICC and define it as the cost of one successfully translocated individual adjusted by costs of unsuccessful events of the same species. The median ICC for cheetah was $6,898 and $3,140 for leopard. Translocations are costly, but we demonstrate that they are not inherently more expensive than other strategies currently employed in non-lethal carnivore conflict management. We conclude that translocation should be one available option for conserving large carnivores, but needs to be critically evaluated on a case-by-case basis.

  16. Prevalence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in three species of wild frogs on Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forzán, M J; Vanderstichel, R; Hogan, N S; Teather, K; Wood, J

    2010-09-02

    Chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), has resulted in the decline or extinction of approximately 200 frog species worldwide. It has been reported throughout much of North America, but its presence on Prince Edward Island (PEI), on the eastern coast of Canada, was unknown. To determine the presence and prevalence of Bd on PEI, skin swabs were collected from 115 frogs from 18 separate sites across the province during the summer of 2009. The swabs were tested through single round end-point PCR for the presence of Bd DNA. Thirty-one frogs were positive, including 25/93 (27%) green frogs Lithobates (Rana) clamitans, 5/20 (25%) northern leopard frogs L. (R.) pipiens, and 1/2 (50%) wood frogs L. sylvaticus (formerly R. sylvatica); 12 of the 18 (67%) sites had at least 1 positive frog. The overall prevalence of Bd infection was estimated at 26.9% (7.2-46.7%, 95% CI). Prevalence amongst green frogs and leopard frogs was similar, but green frogs had a stronger PCR signal when compared to leopard frogs, regardless of age (p frogs, juveniles were more frequently positive than adults (p = 0.001). Green frogs may be the most reliable species to sample when looking for Bd in eastern North America. The 1 wood frog positive for Bd was found dead from chytridiomycosis; none of the other frogs that were positive for Bd by PCR showed any obvious signs of illness. Further monitoring will be required to determine what effect Bd infection has on amphibian population health on PEI.

  17. Nothing a hot bath won't cure: infection rates of amphibian chytrid fungus correlate negatively with water temperature under natural field settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Matthew J; Schlaepfer, Martin A

    2011-01-01

    Dramatic declines and extinctions of amphibian populations throughout the world have been associated with chytridiomycosis, an infectious disease caused by the pathogenic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Previous studies indicated that Bd prevalence correlates with cooler temperatures in the field, and laboratory experiments have demonstrated that Bd ceases growth at temperatures above 28°C. Here we investigate how small-scale variations in water temperature correlate with Bd prevalence in the wild. We sampled 221 amphibians, including 201 lowland leopard frogs (Rana [Lithobates] yavapaiensis), from 12 sites in Arizona, USA, and tested them for Bd. Amphibians were encountered in microhabitats that exhibited a wide range of water temperatures (10-50°C), including several geothermal water sources. There was a strong inverse correlation between the water temperature in which lowland leopard frogs were captured and Bd prevalence, even after taking into account the influence of year, season, and host size. In locations where Bd was known to be present, the prevalence of Bd infections dropped from 75-100% in water 30°C. A strong inverse correlation between Bd infection status and water temperature was also observed within sites. Our findings suggest that microhabitats where water temperatures exceed 30°C provide lowland leopard frogs with significant protection from Bd, which could have important implications for disease dynamics, as well as management applications.There must be quite a few things a hot bath won't cure, but I don't know many of them--Sylvia Plath, "The Bell Jar" (1963).

  18. Pesticide concentrations in frog tissue and wetland habitats in a landscape dominated by agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalling, Kelly L; Reeves, Rebecca; Muths, Erin; Vandever, Mark; Battaglin, William A; Hladik, Michelle L; Pierce, Clay L

    2015-01-01

    Habitat loss and exposure to pesticides are likely primary factors contributing to amphibian decline in agricultural landscapes. Conservation efforts have attempted to restore wetlands lost through landscape modifications to reduce contaminant loads in surface waters and providing quality habitat to wildlife. The benefits of this increased wetland area, perhaps especially for amphibians, may be negated if habitat quality is insufficient to support persistent populations. We examined the presence of pesticides and nutrients in water and sediment as indicators of habitat quality and assessed the bioaccumulation of pesticides in the tissue of two native amphibian species Pseudacris maculata (chorus frogs) and Lithobates pipiens (leopard frogs) at six wetlands (3 restored and 3 reference) in Iowa, USA. Restored wetlands are positioned on the landscape to receive subsurface tile drainage water while reference wetlands receive water from overland run-off and shallow groundwater sources. Concentrations of the pesticides frequently detected in water and sediment samples were not different between wetland types. The median concentration of atrazine in surface water was 0.2 μg/L. Reproductive abnormalities in leopard frogs have been observed in other studies at these concentrations. Nutrient concentrations were higher in the restored wetlands but lower than concentrations thought lethal to frogs. Complex mixtures of pesticides including up to 8 fungicides, some previously unreported in tissue, were detected with concentrations ranging from 0.08 to 1,500 μg/kg wet weight. No significant differences in pesticide concentrations were observed between species, although concentrations tended to be higher in leopard frogs compared to chorus frogs, possibly because of differences in life histories. Our results provide information on habitat quality in restored wetlands that will assist state and federal agencies, landowners, and resource managers in identifying and implementing

  19. Pesticide concentrations in frog tissue and wetland habitats in alandscape dominated by agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalling, Kelly L.; Reeves, Rebecca; Muths, Erin L.; Vandever, Mark W.; Battaglin, William A.; Hladik, Michelle; Pierce, Clay L.

    2015-01-01

    Habitat loss and exposure to pesticides are likely primary factors contributing to amphibian decline in agricultural landscapes. Conservation efforts have attempted to restore wetlands lost through landscape modifications to reduce contaminant loads in surface waters and providing quality habitat to wildlife. The benefits of this increased wetland area, perhaps especially for amphibians, may be negated if habitat quality is insufficient to support persistent populations. We examined the presence of pesticides and nutrients in water and sediment as indicators of habitat quality and assessed the bioaccumulation of pesticides in the tissue of two native amphibian species Pseudacris maculata (chorus frogs) and Lithobates pipiens (leopard frogs) at six wetlands (3 restored and 3 reference) in Iowa, USA. Restored wetlands are positioned on the landscape to receive subsurface tile drainage water while reference wetlands receive water from overland run-off and shallow groundwater sources. Concentrations of the pesticides frequently detected in water and sediment samples were not different between wetland types. The median concentration of atrazine in surface water was 0.2 μg/L. Reproductive abnormalities in leopard frogs have been observed in other studies at these concentrations. Nutrient concentrations were higher in the restored wetlands but lower than concentrations thought lethal to frogs. Complex mixtures of pesticides including up to 8 fungicides, some previously unreported in tissue, were detected with concentrations ranging from 0.08 to 1500 μg/kg wet weight. No significant differences in pesticide concentrations were observed between species, although concentrations tended to be higher in leopard frogs compared to chorus frogs, possibly because of differences in life histories. Our results provide information on habitat quality in restored wetlands that will assist state and federal agencies, landowners, and resource managers in identifying and

  20. Effects of Pesticide Mixtures on Host-Pathogen Dynamics of the Amphibian Chytrid Fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Julia C; Hua, Jessica; Brogan, William R; Dang, Trang D; Urbina, Jenny; Bendis, Randall J; Stoler, Aaron B; Blaustein, Andrew R; Relyea, Rick A

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic and natural stressors often interact to affect organisms. Amphibian populations are undergoing unprecedented declines and extinctions with pesticides and emerging infectious diseases implicated as causal factors. Although these factors often co-occur, their effects on amphibians are usually examined in isolation. We hypothesized that exposure of larval and metamorphic amphibians to ecologically relevant concentrations of pesticide mixtures would increase their post-metamorphic susceptibility to the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), a pathogen that has contributed to amphibian population declines worldwide. We exposed five anuran species (Pacific treefrog, Pseudacris regilla; spring peeper, Pseudacris crucifer; Cascades frog, Rana cascadae; northern leopard frog, Lithobates pipiens; and western toad, Anaxyrus boreas) from three families to mixtures of four common insecticides (chlorpyrifos, carbaryl, permethrin, and endosulfan) or herbicides (glyphosate, acetochlor, atrazine, and 2,4-D) or a control treatment, either as tadpoles or as newly metamorphic individuals (metamorphs). Subsequently, we exposed animals to Bd or a control inoculate after metamorphosis and compared survival and Bd load. Bd exposure significantly increased mortality in Pacific treefrogs, spring peepers, and western toads, but not in Cascades frogs or northern leopard frogs. However, the effects of pesticide exposure on mortality were negligible, regardless of the timing of exposure. Bd load varied considerably across species; Pacific treefrogs, spring peepers, and western toads had the highest loads, whereas Cascades frogs and northern leopard frogs had the lowest loads. The influence of pesticide exposure on Bd load depended on the amphibian species, timing of pesticide exposure, and the particular pesticide treatment. Our results suggest that exposure to realistic pesticide concentrations has minimal effects on Bd-induced mortality, but can alter Bd load. This result

  1. Financial costs of large carnivore translocations--accounting for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weise, Florian J; Stratford, Ken J; van Vuuren, Rudolf J

    2014-01-01

    Human-carnivore conflict continues to present a major conservation challenge around the world. Translocation of large carnivores is widely implemented but remains strongly debated, in part because of a lack of cost transparency. We report detailed translocation costs for three large carnivore species in Namibia and across different translocation scenarios. We consider the effect of various parameters and factors on costs and translocation success. Total translocation cost for 30 individuals in 22 events was $80,681 (US Dollars). Median translocation cost per individual was $2,393, and $2,669 per event. Median cost per cheetah was $2,760 (n = 23), and $2,108 per leopard (n = 6). One hyaena was translocated at a cost of $1,672. Tracking technology was the single biggest cost element (56%), followed by captive holding and feeding. Soft releases, prolonged captivity and orphaned individuals also increased case-specific costs. A substantial proportion (65.4%) of the total translocation cost was successfully recovered from public interest groups. Less than half the translocations were confirmed successes (44.4%, 3 unknown) with a strong species bias. Four leopards (66.7%) were successfully translocated but only eight of the 20 cheetahs (40.0%) with known outcome met these strict criteria. None of the five habituated cheetahs was translocated successfully, nor was the hyaena. We introduce the concept of Individual Conservation Cost (ICC) and define it as the cost of one successfully translocated individual adjusted by costs of unsuccessful events of the same species. The median ICC for cheetah was $6,898 and $3,140 for leopard. Translocations are costly, but we demonstrate that they are not inherently more expensive than other strategies currently employed in non-lethal carnivore conflict management. We conclude that translocation should be one available option for conserving large carnivores, but needs to be critically evaluated on a case-by-case basis.

  2. Big cats in our backyards: persistence of large carnivores in a human dominated landscape in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya Athreya

    Full Text Available Protected areas are extremely important for the long term viability of biodiversity in a densely populated country like India where land is a scarce resource. However, protected areas cover only 5% of the land area in India and in the case of large carnivores that range widely, human use landscapes will function as important habitats required for gene flow to occur between protected areas. In this study, we used photographic capture recapture analysis to assess the density of large carnivores in a human-dominated agricultural landscape with density >300 people/km(2 in western Maharashtra, India. We found evidence of a wide suite of wild carnivores inhabiting a cropland landscape devoid of wilderness and wild herbivore prey. Furthermore, the large carnivores; leopard (Panthera pardus and striped hyaena (Hyaena hyaena occurred at relatively high density of 4.8±1.2 (sd adults/100 km(2 and 5.03±1.3 (sd adults/100 km(2 respectively. This situation has never been reported before where 10 large carnivores/100 km(2 are sharing space with dense human populations in a completely modified landscape. Human attacks by leopards were rare despite a potentially volatile situation considering that the leopard has been involved in serious conflict, including human deaths in adjoining areas. The results of our work push the frontiers of our understanding of the adaptability of both, humans and wildlife to each other's presence. The results also highlight the urgent need to shift from a PA centric to a landscape level conservation approach, where issues are more complex, and the potential for conflict is also very high. It also highlights the need for a serious rethink of conservation policy, law and practice where the current management focus is restricted to wildlife inside Protected Areas.

  3. Conserving Prairie Pothole Region wetlands and surrounding grasslands: evaluating effects on amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushet, David M.; Neau, Jordan L.

    2014-01-01

    The maintenance of viable and genetically diverse populations of amphibians in the Prairie Pothole Region of the United States depends on upland as well as wetland over-wintering and landscape level habitat features. Prairie pothole wetlands provide important amphibian breeding habitat while grasslands surrounding these wetlands provide foraging habitat for adults, overwintering habitat for some species, and important connectivity among breeding wetlands. Grasslands surrounding wetlands were found to be especially important for wood frogs and northern leopard frogs, while croplands dominated habitat utilized by Great Plains toads and Woodhouse’s toads. Habitat suitability mapping highlighted (1) the influence of deep-water overwintering wetlands on suitable habitat for four of five anuran species encountered; (2) the lack of overlap between areas of core habitat for both the northern leopard frog and wood frog compared to the core habitat for both toad species; and (3) the importance of conservation programs in providing grassland components of northern leopard frog and wood frog habitat. Currently, there are approximately 7.2 million acres (2.9 million hectares, ha) of habitat in the PPR identified as suitable for amphibians. WRP and CRP wetland and grassland habitats accounted for approximately 1.9 million acres (0.75 million ha) or 26 percent of this total area. Continued loss of amphibian habitat resulting from an ongoing trend of returning PPR conservation lands to crop production, will likely have significant negative effects on the region’s ability to maintain amphibian biodiversity. Conversely, increases in conservation wetlands and surrounding grasslands on the PPR landscape have great potential to positively influence the region’s amphibian populations.

  4. Degenerative spinal disease in large felids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmstetter, C; Munson, L; Ramsay, E C

    2000-03-01

    Degenerative spinal disorders, including intervertebral disc disease and spondylosis, seldom occur in domestic cats. In contrast, a retrospective study of 13 lions (Panthera leo), 16 tigers (Panthera tigris), 4 leopards (Panthera pardis), 1 snow leopard (Panthera uncia), and 3 jaguars (Panthera onca) from the Knoxville Zoo that died or were euthanatized from 1976 to 1996 indicated that degenerative spinal disease is an important problem in large nondomestic felids. The medical record, radiographic data, and the necropsy report of each animal were examined for evidence of intervertebral disc disease or spondylosis. Eight (three lions, four tigers, and one leopard) animals were diagnosed with degenerative spinal disease. Clinical signs included progressively decreased activity, moderate to severe rear limb muscle atrophy, chronic intermittent rear limb paresis, and ataxia. The age at onset of clinical signs was 10-19 yr (median = 18 yr). Radiographic evaluation of the spinal column was useful in assessing the severity of spinal lesions, and results were correlated with necropsy findings. Lesions were frequently multifocal, included intervertebral disc mineralization or herniation with collapsed intervertebral disc spaces, and were most common in the lumbar area but also involved cervical and thoracic vertebrae. Marked spondylosis was present in the cats with intervertebral disc disease, presumably subsequent to vertebral instability. Six of the animals' spinal cords were examined histologically, and five had acute or chronic damage to the spinal cord secondary to disc protrusion. Spinal disease should be suspected in geriatric large felids with decreased appetite or activity. Radiographic evaluation of the spinal column is the most useful method to assess the type and severity of spinal lesions.

  5. Nothing a hot bath won't cure: infection rates of amphibian chytrid fungus correlate negatively with water temperature under natural field settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Forrest

    Full Text Available Dramatic declines and extinctions of amphibian populations throughout the world have been associated with chytridiomycosis, an infectious disease caused by the pathogenic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd. Previous studies indicated that Bd prevalence correlates with cooler temperatures in the field, and laboratory experiments have demonstrated that Bd ceases growth at temperatures above 28°C. Here we investigate how small-scale variations in water temperature correlate with Bd prevalence in the wild. We sampled 221 amphibians, including 201 lowland leopard frogs (Rana [Lithobates] yavapaiensis, from 12 sites in Arizona, USA, and tested them for Bd. Amphibians were encountered in microhabitats that exhibited a wide range of water temperatures (10-50°C, including several geothermal water sources. There was a strong inverse correlation between the water temperature in which lowland leopard frogs were captured and Bd prevalence, even after taking into account the influence of year, season, and host size. In locations where Bd was known to be present, the prevalence of Bd infections dropped from 75-100% in water 30°C. A strong inverse correlation between Bd infection status and water temperature was also observed within sites. Our findings suggest that microhabitats where water temperatures exceed 30°C provide lowland leopard frogs with significant protection from Bd, which could have important implications for disease dynamics, as well as management applications.There must be quite a few things a hot bath won't cure, but I don't know many of them--Sylvia Plath, "The Bell Jar" (1963.

  6. Effects of Pesticide Mixtures on Host-Pathogen Dynamics of the Amphibian Chytrid Fungus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia C Buck

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic and natural stressors often interact to affect organisms. Amphibian populations are undergoing unprecedented declines and extinctions with pesticides and emerging infectious diseases implicated as causal factors. Although these factors often co-occur, their effects on amphibians are usually examined in isolation. We hypothesized that exposure of larval and metamorphic amphibians to ecologically relevant concentrations of pesticide mixtures would increase their post-metamorphic susceptibility to the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd, a pathogen that has contributed to amphibian population declines worldwide. We exposed five anuran species (Pacific treefrog, Pseudacris regilla; spring peeper, Pseudacris crucifer; Cascades frog, Rana cascadae; northern leopard frog, Lithobates pipiens; and western toad, Anaxyrus boreas from three families to mixtures of four common insecticides (chlorpyrifos, carbaryl, permethrin, and endosulfan or herbicides (glyphosate, acetochlor, atrazine, and 2,4-D or a control treatment, either as tadpoles or as newly metamorphic individuals (metamorphs. Subsequently, we exposed animals to Bd or a control inoculate after metamorphosis and compared survival and Bd load. Bd exposure significantly increased mortality in Pacific treefrogs, spring peepers, and western toads, but not in Cascades frogs or northern leopard frogs. However, the effects of pesticide exposure on mortality were negligible, regardless of the timing of exposure. Bd load varied considerably across species; Pacific treefrogs, spring peepers, and western toads had the highest loads, whereas Cascades frogs and northern leopard frogs had the lowest loads. The influence of pesticide exposure on Bd load depended on the amphibian species, timing of pesticide exposure, and the particular pesticide treatment. Our results suggest that exposure to realistic pesticide concentrations has minimal effects on Bd-induced mortality, but can alter Bd load

  7. Evaluating multispecies landscape connectivity in a threatened tropical mammal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Jedediah F; Giordano, Anthony J; Dickson, Brett; Hebblewhite, Mark; Bernard, Henry; Mohd-Azlan, Jayasilan; Anderson, Jesse; Ambu, Laurentius

    2015-02-01

    Habitat corridors are important tools for maintaining connectivity in increasingly fragmented landscapes, but generally they have been considered in single-species approaches. Corridors intended to facilitate the movement of multiple species could increase persistence of entire communities, but at the likely cost of being less efficient for any given species than a corridor intended specifically for that species. There have been few tests of the trade-offs between single- and multispecies corridor approaches. We assessed single-species and multispecies habitat corridors for 5 threatened mammal species in tropical forests of Borneo. We generated maps of the cost of movement across the landscape for each species based on the species' local abundance as estimated through hierarchical modeling of camera-trap data with biophysical and anthropogenic covariates. Elevation influenced local abundance of banded civets (Hemigalus derbyanus) and sun bears (Helarctos malayanus). Increased road density was associated with lower local abundance of Sunda clouded leopards (Neofelis diardi) and higher local abundance of sambar deer (Rusa unicolor). Pig-tailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina) local abundance was lower in recently logged areas. An all-species-combined connectivity scenario with least-cost paths and 1 km buffers generated total movement costs that were 27% and 23% higher for banded civets and clouded leopards, respectively, than the connectivity scenarios for those species individually. A carnivore multispecies connectivity scenario, however, increased movement cost by 2% for banded civets and clouded leopards. Likewise, an herbivore multispecies scenario provided more effective connectivity than the all-species-combined scenario for sambar and macaques. We suggest that multispecies habitat connectivity plans be tailored to groups of ecologically similar, disturbance-sensitive species to maximize their effectiveness. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  8. Big Cat Coalitions: A comparative analysis of regional brain volumes in Felidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharleen T Sakai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Broad-based species comparisons across mammalian orders suggest a number of factors that might influence the evolution of large brains. However, the relationship between these factors and total and regional brain size remains unclear. This study investigated the relationship between relative brain size and regional brain volumes and sociality in 13 felid species in hopes of revealing relationships that are not detected in more inclusive comparative studies. In addition, a more detailed analysis was conducted of 4 focal species: lions (Panthera leo, leopards (Panthera pardus, cougars (Puma concolor, and cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus. These species differ markedly in sociality and behavioral flexibility, factors hypothesized to contribute to increased relative brain size and/or frontal cortex size. Lions are the only truly social species, living in prides. Although cheetahs are largely solitary, males often form small groups. Both leopards and cougars are solitary. Of the four species, leopards exhibit the most behavioral flexibility, readily adapting to changing circumstances. Regional brain volumes were analyzed using computed tomography (CT. Skulls (n=75 were scanned to create three-dimensional virtual endocasts, and regional brain volumes were measured using either sulcal or bony landmarks obtained from the endocasts or skulls. Phylogenetic least squares (PGLS regression analyses found that sociality does not correspond with larger relative brain size in these species. However, the sociality/solitary variable significantly predicted anterior cerebrum (AC volume, a region that includes frontal cortex. This latter finding is despite the fact that the two social species in our sample, lions and cheetahs, possess the largest and smallest relative AC volumes, respectively. Additionally, an ANOVA comparing regional brain volumes in 4 focal species revealed that lions and leopards, while not significantly different from one another, have relatively

  9. Le guépard médiéval, ou comment reconnaître un animal sans nom

    OpenAIRE

    Buquet, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    International audience; The cheetah was trained for hunting in Indo-Iranian and Arabic civilizations for millenaries. As it was well-known and identified in these cultural areas, the cheetah was in Western parts more uncertain, and difficult to repair in mediaeval sources. "Guépard" is a name only present in French in 17th century. He did not possess a proper name et had the same zoonym as the panther : "leopard". In pictures, it's sometimes difficult to identify both animals. This paper trie...

  10. 时文选译

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    千堆栈

    2009-01-01

    @@ 一、 Inside Snow Leopard's hidden malware protection "雪豹"系统病毒保护探析 While malware has long been an almost daily annoyance for Windows PCs,Mac users have become accustomed to not worrying about malicious software.Threaks arise from time to time--in January of this year,for example,a Trojan horsemade the rounds in pirated copies of Apple's iWork software-but most Mac users these days are probably running without virus protection software.

  11. 两种风景的精彩描绘:迈西森《雪豹》的艺术成就

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    彼得·迈西森(Peter Matthiessen,1927—)是美国当代著名作家,曾两度荣获美国国家图书奖(National Book Award),而且也是一位环保人士。他第一次荣获国家图书奖,是1979年以《雪豹》(The Snow Leopard,1978)获得该年度的非小说奖(non-fiction award)。

  12. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii in zoo animals in selected zoos in the midwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Camps, Silvia; Dubey, J P; Saville, W J A

    2008-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infections in zoo animals are of interest because many captive animals die of clinical toxoplasmosis and because of the potential risk of exposure of children and elderly to T. gondii oocysts excreted by cats in the zoos. Seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies in wild zoo felids, highly susceptible zoo species, and feral cats from 8 zoos of the midwestern United States was determined by using the modified agglutination test (MAT). A titer of 1:25 was considered indicative of T. gondii exposure. Among wild felids, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 6 (27.3%) of 22 cheetahs (Acynonyx jubatus jubatus), 2 of 4 African lynx (Caracal caracal), 1 of 7 clouded leopards (Neofelis nebulosa), 1 of 5 Pallas cats (Otocolobus manul), 12 (54.5%) of 22 African lions (Panthera leo), 1 of 1 jaguar (Panthera onca), 1 of 1 Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis), 1 of 1 Persian leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor), 5 (27.8%) of 18 Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica), 1 of 4 fishing cats (Prionailurus viverrinus), 3 of 6 pumas (Puma concolor), 2 of 2 Texas pumas (Puma concolor stanleyana), and 5 (35.7%) of 14 snow leopards (Uncia uncia). Antibodies were found in 10 of 34 feral domestic cats (Felis domesticus) trapped in 3 zoos. Toxoplasma gondii oocysts were not found in any of the 78 fecal samples from wild and domestic cats. Among the macropods, antibodies were detected in 1 of 3 Dama wallabies (Macropus eugenii), 1 of 1 western grey kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus), 1 of 2 wallaroos (Macropus robustus), 6 of 8 Bennett's wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus), 21 (61.8%) of 34 red kangaroos (Macropus rufus), and 1 of 1 dusky pademelon (Thylogale brunii). Among prosimians, antibodies were detected in 1 of 3 blue-eyed black lemurs (Eulemur macaco flavifrons), 1 of 21 ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), 2 of 9 red-ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata rubra), and 2 of 4 black- and white-ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata). Among the avian species tested, 2 of 3 bald

  13. Status of Asiatic Golden Cat Catopuma temminckii Vigors & Horsfield, 1827 (Carnivora: Felidae in Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tashi Dhendup

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Asiatic Golden Cat is a Near Threatened wild cat species as listed by the IUCN. Being a lesser studied species, there is a general paucity of data and hence, global assessment of its true status has been very difficult. In Bhutan, available information on this species is mainly from biodiversity surveys on big mammals such as Tiger and Snow Leopard. A modest attempt has been made to review all available literature on Asiatic Golden Cat in Bhutan and abroad to describe the current status of the species in the country and the need for further studies. 

  14. Take Control of Maintaining Your Mac

    CERN Document Server

    Kissell, Joe

    2009-01-01

    Keep your Mac running smoothly with our easy maintenance program! Regular maintenance is necessary to avoid problems and to ensure your Mac runs at peak performance, but it's hard to know what to do and when to do it. Best-selling author Joe Kissell has now applied his commonsense approach to the task of maintaining your Mac, whether you use Tiger or Leopard! Learn how to start on the right foot; what you should do daily, weekly, monthly, and yearly; and how to prepare for Mac OS X updates. Joe even explains how to monitor your Mac's health and debunks common panaceas. Read this book to lea

  15. Improve Interoperability by Formalizing the Natural Language Parts of Military Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    LKW ", "PKW", "Panzer","Haubitze", "Wiesel", "Marder", "Leopard", "AML – 90", "BRDM 2", "BM - 22 Mehrfachraketenwerfer 220...KIEForschungsinstitut für Kommunikation, Informationsverarbeitung und ErgonomieFGAN Dr. M. Hecking4|FS: Nominal Phrases Nominal phrases: Examples: ŕ LKW ...34, "neun Busse", ŕ beschädigter Panzer", 1 serbisches Fahrzeug", ŕ großer LKW ", 1 eigener Leo", ŕ zerstörter T80", ൓ kroatische Fahrzeuge",

  16. The complete mitochondrial genome of Elaphe bimaculata (Reptilia, Serpentes, Colubridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Long; Geng, Zhang-Zhen; Yan, Peng; Wu, Xiao-Bing

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese leopard snake (Elaphe bimaculata) is an endemic species to China. The complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial (mt) genome of E. bimaculata is determined in this study. The circle genome was 17,183 bp in length and consisted of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 2 duplicate control regions. Several peculiar features were observed in mitogenome of E. bimaculata, such as the translocation of tRNA(Leu(UUR)) gene and an incomplete copy for tRNA(Pro).

  17. Wireless home networking for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Briere, Danny; Ferris, Edward

    2010-01-01

    The perennial bestseller shows you how share your files and Internet connection across a wireless network. Fully updated for Windows 7 and Mac OS X Snow Leopard, this new edition of this bestseller returns with all the latest in wireless standards and security. This fun and friendly guide shows you how to integrate your iPhone, iPod touch, smartphone, or gaming system into your home network. Veteran authors escort you through the various financial and logisitical considerations that you need to take into account before building a wireless network at home.: Covers the basics of planning, instal

  18. The differential diagnosis of familial lentiginosis syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodish, Maya B; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2011-09-01

    Cutaneous markers of systemic disease are vital for clinicians to recognize. This chapter outlines familial lentiginosis syndromes that include Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, Carney Complex, the PTEN hamartomatous syndromes, and LEOPARD/Noonan syndrome. The inheritance of these syndromes is autosomal dominant; they also share characteristic skin findings that offer a clue to their recognition and treatment. We will discuss the clinical presentation of these disorders, with a focus on the dermatological manifestations, and will provide an update on the molecular mechanisms involved. Recognition of cutaneous markers associated with these rare familial cancer syndromes provides the opportunity to pursue early surveillance for malignancies, as well as genetic counseling.

  19. The Frog Inner Ear: Picture Perfect?

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, Matthew James; Segenhout, Johannes M.; Cobo-Cuan, Ariadna; Quiñones, Patricia M.; van Dijk, Pim

    2015-01-01

    This is the accepted manuscript of a paper published in the Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology (2015) DOI: 10.1007/s10162-015-0506-z Many recent accounts of the frog peripheral auditory system have reproduced Wever’s (1973) schematic cross-section of the ear of a leopard frog. We sought to investigate to what extent this diagram is an accurate and representative depiction of the anuran inner ear, using three-dimensional reconstructions made from serial sections of Ra...

  20. Learn AppleScript The Comprehensive Guide to Scripting and Automation on MAC OS X

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenthal, Hanaan

    2009-01-01

    AppleScript is an English-like, easy-to-understand scripting language built into every Mac. AppleScript can automate hundreds of AppleScriptable applications, performing tasks both large and small, complex and simple. Learn AppleScript: The Comprehensive Guide to Scripting and Automation on Mac OS X, Third Edition has been completely updated for Mac OS X Snow Leopard. It's all here, with an emphasis on practical information that will help you solve any automation problem-from the most mundane repetitive tasks to highly integrated workflows of complex systems. * Friendly enough for beginners, d