Cloud Macroscopic Organization: Order Emerging from Randomness
Yuan, Tianle
2011-01-01
Clouds play a central role in many aspects of the climate system and their forms and shapes are remarkably diverse. Appropriate representation of clouds in climate models is a major challenge because cloud processes span at least eight orders of magnitude in spatial scales. Here we show that there exists order in cloud size distribution of low-level clouds, and that it follows a power-law distribution with exponent gamma close to 2. gamma is insensitive to yearly variations in environmental conditions, but has regional variations and land-ocean contrasts. More importantly, we demonstrate this self-organizing behavior of clouds emerges naturally from a complex network model with simple, physical organizing principles: random clumping and merging. We also demonstrate symmetry between clear and cloudy skies in terms of macroscopic organization because of similar fundamental underlying organizing principles. The order in the apparently complex cloud-clear field thus has its root in random local interactions. Studying cloud organization with complex network models is an attractive new approach that has wide applications in climate science. We also propose a concept of cloud statistic mechanics approach. This approach is fully complementary to deterministic models, and the two approaches provide a powerful framework to meet the challenge of representing clouds in our climate models when working in tandem.
Cloud macroscopic organization: order emerging from randomness
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Yuan
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Clouds play a central role in many aspects of the climate system and their forms and shapes are remarkably diverse. Appropriate representation of clouds in climate models is a major challenge because cloud processes span at least eight orders of magnitude in spatial scales. Here we show that there exists order in cloud size distribution of low-level clouds and it follows a power-law distribution with exponent γ close to 2. γ is insensitive to yearly variations in environmental conditions, but has regional variations and land-ocean contrasts. More importantly, we demonstrate this self-organizing behavior of clouds emerges naturally from a complex network model with simple, physical organizing principles: random clumping and merging. We also show clear-cloudy sky symmetry in terms of macroscopic organization because of similar fundamental underlying organizing principles. The order in the apparently complex cloud-clear field thus has its root in random simple interactions. Studying cloud organization with complex network models is an attractive new approach that has wide applications in climate science. This approach is fully complementary to deterministic models and the two approaches provide a powerful framework to meet the challenge of representing clouds in our climate models when working in tandem.
Anisotropic magnetothermopower in ferromagnetic thin films grown on macroscopic substrates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jayathilaka, P.B. [Department of Physical Sciences, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Rajarata University of Sri Lanka, Mihintale (Sri Lanka); Belyea, D.D. [Department of Physics, University of South Florida, 4202 East Fowler Avenue, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States); Fawcett, T.J. [College of Engineering, University of South Florida, 4202 East Fowler Avenue, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States); Miller, Casey W. [School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Rochester Institute of Technology, 85 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States)
2015-05-15
We report observing the anisotropic magnetothermopower in a variety of ferromagnetic thin films grown on macroscopic substrates. These measurements were enabled by eliminating spurious signals related to the Anomalous Nernst Effect by butt-mounting the sample to the heat source and sink, and appropriate positioning of electrical contacts to avoid unwanted thermal gradients. This protocol enabled detailed measurements of the magnetothermopower in the transverse and longitudinal configurations. This may enable Spin Seebeck Effect studies in the in-plane geometry. - Highlights: • Unintentional thermal gradients along surface normal mitigated via butt-mounting. • Longitudinal/transverse magnetothermopower measured on many systems. • Anomalous Nernst Effect reduced. • Importance of magnetic anisotropy identified with angle-dependent measurements.
Graphene in macroscopic order: liquid crystals and wet-spun fibers.
Xu, Zhen; Gao, Chao
2014-04-15
performances. Using the wet-spinning assembly approach, we transformed prealigned liquid crystalline dopes into graphene fibers (GFs) with highly ordered structures. We extended the wet-spinning assembly strategy to polymer-grafted or mixed graphene LCs to obtain hierarchically assembled, continuous nacre-mimetic fibers and hybridized graphene fibers. Both the neat GFs and the composite fibers are strong, flexible, electrically conductive, and chemically resistive. Multifunctional fibers that are both flexible and modular could be a key for applying atomically thin graphene in real-world materials and devices such as supercapacitors and solar cells. Therefore, we have opened a brand-new avenue for transforming mineral graphite into high performance, multifunctional GFs and offered an alternative strategy for the fabrication of carbon fibers. We hope that this Account and further efforts in the field will guide researchers toward the macroscopic assembly of graphene and its real-world applications.
Lali Raveendran, Reshma; Kumar Sasidharan, Nishanth; Devaki, Sudha J
2017-04-19
The design of liquid crystalline hydrogels knitted with silver nanoparticles in macroscopic ordering is becoming a subject of research interest due to their promising multifunctional applications in biomedical and optoelectronic applications. The present work describes the development of liquid crystalline Schiff-based hydrogel decorated with silver nanoparticles and the demonstration of its antifungal applications. Schiff base was prepared from polyglucanaldehyde and chitosan, and the former was prepared by the oxidation of amylose (polyglucopyranose) isolated from abundantly available unutilized jackfruit seed starch. Self-assembled silver columns decorated with macroscopically ordered networks were prepared in a single step of in situ condensation and a reduction/complexation process. The various noncovalent interactions among the -OH, -C═O, and -NH impart rigidity and ordering for the formation of macroscopically ordered liquid crystalline hydrogel and the Ag(I) complexation evidenced from the studies made by FT-IR spectroscopy in combination with rheology and microscopic techniques such as SEM, TEM, AFM, XRD, and PLM. The antifungal studies were screened using species of Candida by disc diffusion method. The MIC and MFC values, in vitro antifungal studies, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and propidium iodide (PI) uptake results suggest that the present macroscopically ordered liquid crystalline hydrogel system can be considered an excellent candidate for topical applications. All these results suggest that this design strategy can be exploited for the incorporation of biologically relevant metal nanoparticles for developing unique robust hydrogels for multifunctional applications.
Macroscopic effect of plasmon-driven high-order-harmonic generation
Wang, Feng; Liu, Weiwei; He, Lixin; Li, Liang; Wang, Baoning; Zhu, Xiaosong; Lan, Pengfei; Lu, Peixiang
2017-09-01
We present a numerical method to calculate the macroscopic harmonic spectrum generated from the gas-exposed nanostructure. This method includes the propagation of plasmonic and harmonic fields in the macroscopic medium as well as the response of the single atom exposed to plasmonic field. Based on the simulation, we demonstrate that the macroscopic harmonic yields drop dramatically in the high-energy region. This result well interprets the disagreement in the cutoff between the single-atom prediction and the experimental detection. Moreover, we also show that the harmonic cutoff difference induced by a π shift in carrier-envelope phase (CEP) of laser pulses depends sensitively on the spatial position. However, when the collective effect of plasmon-driven high-order-harmonic generation is considered, this cutoff difference is eliminated.
Macroscopic manipulation of high-order-harmonic generation through bound-state coherent control.
Hadas, Itai; Bahabad, Alon
2014-12-19
We propose a paradigm for macroscopic control of high-order harmonic generation by modulating the bound-state population of the medium atoms. A unique result of this scheme is that apart from regular spatial quasi-phase-matching (QPM), also purely temporal QPM of the emitted radiation can be established. Our simulations demonstrate temporal QPM by inducing homogenous Rabi oscillations in the medium and also spatial QPM by creating a grating of population inversion using the process of rapid adiabatic passage. In the simulations a scaled version of high-order harmonic generation is used: a far off-resonance 2.6 μm source generates UV-visible high-order harmonics from alkali-metal-atom vapor, while a resonant near IR source is used to coherently control the medium.
Macroscopic Ordering of CNTs in a Liquid Crystalline Polymer Nano-Composite by Shearing
Kalakonda, P.; Sarkar, S.; Iannacchione, G. S.; Gombos, E.; Hoonjan, G. S.; Georgiev, G.; Cebe, P.
2012-02-01
We present a series of complimentary experiments exploring the macroscopic alignment of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in a liquid crystalline polymer (isotactic polypropylene - iPP) nano-composites as a function of temperature, shear, and CNT concentration. The phase behavior of iPP+CNT, studied by Modulated Differential Scanning Calorimetry, revealed the evolution of the α-monoclinic transition and its dynamics, which are dependent on CNT content and thermal treatment. These results indicate that the CNT nucleates crystal formation from the melt. Spectroscopic ellipsometry reveals a change in the optical constants that are connected to the ordering of CNTs when the iPP+CNT is sheared. This anisotropy is also exhibited in measurements of the electrical and thermal conductivities parallel and perpendicular to the shear direction. The amount of order induced into the dispersed CNTs is relatively low for these low concentration samples (< 5 wt%).
Introduction to macroscopic power scaling principles for high-order harmonic generation
Heyl, C. M.; Arnold, C. L.; Couairon, A.; L'Huillier, A.
2017-01-01
This tutorial presents an introduction to power scaling concepts for high-order harmonic generation (HHG) and attosecond pulse production. We present an overview of state-of-the-art HHG-based extreme ultraviolet (XUV) sources, followed by a brief introduction to basic principles underlying HHG and a detailed discussion of macroscopic effects and scaling principles. Particular emphasis is put on a general scaling model that allows the invariant scaling of the HHG process both, to μJ-level driving laser pulses and thus to multi-MHz repetition rates as well as to 100 mJ-or even Joule-level laser pulses, allowing new intensity regimes with attosecond XUV pulses.
Epitaxial strain induced atomic ordering in stoichiometric LaCoO3 thin films
Choi, Woo Seok; Kwon, Ji-Hwan; Jeen, Hyoungjeen; Sawatzky, George A.; Hinkov, Vladimir; Kim, Miyoung; Lee, Ho Nyung
2015-03-01
Heteroepitaxial strain imposed in complex transition metal oxide thin films is recognized as an effective tool for identifying and controlling emergent physical phenomena. Stoichiometric LaCoO3 is particularly interesting, since the thin film form of the material exhibits a robust macroscopic ferromagnetic ordering, while the bulk form of the material is a zero spin, nonmagnetic insulator. In this work, we show that the ferromagnetic ordering observed in LaCoO3 thin films is related to a lattice modulation in the atomic scale, originating from the epitaxial strain. The possibility of oxygen vacancies have been carefully ruled out using various macroscopic and microscopic spectroscopic techniques, and an unconventional strain relaxation behavior identified by strip-like lattice modulation pattern was responsible for the non-zero spin ground state of Co3+ ions. We further note that the unconventional strain relaxation did not involve any uncontrolled misfit dislocations.
Stohlman, Olive R.
2011-12-01
Ordered mesoporous materials have tunable pore sizes between 2 and 50 nm and are characterized by ordered pore structures and high surface areas (~1000 m2/g). This makes them particularly favorable for a number of membrane applications such as protein separation, polymer extrusion, nanowire fabrication and membrane reactors. These membranes can be fabricated as top-layers on macroporous supports or as embedded membranes in a dense matrix. The first part of the work deals with the hydrothermal synthesis and water-vapor/oxygen separation properties of supported MCM-48 and a new Al-MCM-48 type membrane for potential use in air conditioning systems. Knudsen-type permeation is observed in these membranes. The combined effect of capillary condensation and the aluminosilicate matrix resulted in the highest separation factor (142) in Al-MCM-48 membranes, with a water vapor permeance of 6x10 -8mol/m2·Pa·s. The second part focuses on synthesis of embedded mesoporous silica membranes with helically ordered pores by a novel Counter Diffusion Self-Assembly (CDSA) method. This method is an extension of the interfacial synthesis method for fiber synthesis using tetrabutylorthosilicate (TBOS) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as the silica source and surfactant respectively. The initial part of this study determined the effect of TBOS height and humidity on fiber formation. From this study, the range of TBOS heights for best microscopic and macroscopic ordering were established. Next, the CDSA method was used to successfully synthesize membranes, which were characterized to have good support plugging and an ordered pore structure. Factors that influence membrane synthesis and plug microstructure were determined. SEM studies revealed the presence of gaps between the plugs and support pores, which occur due to shrinking of the plug on drying. Development of a novel liquid deposition method to seal these defects constituted the last part of this work. Post sealing, excess
Hong, Kyung-Han; Gkortsas, Vasileios-Marios; Huang, Shu-Wei; Moses, Jeffrey; Granados, Eduardo; Bhardwaj, Siddharth; Kärtner, Franz X
2012-01-01
We experimentally and numerically study the atomic response and pulse propagation effects of high-order harmonics generated in Xe, Kr, and Ar driven by a 2.1-\\mu m infrared femtosecond light source. The light source is an optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier, and a modified strong-field approximation and 3-dimensional pulse propagation code are used for the numerical simulations. The extended cutoff in the long-wavelength driven high-harmonic generation has revealed the spectral shaping of high-order harmonics due to the atomic structure (or photo-recombination cross-section) and the macroscopic effects, which are the main factors of determining the conversion efficiency besides the driving wavelength. Using precise numerical simulations to determine the macroscopic electron wavepacket, we are able to extract the photo-recombination cross-sections from experimental high-order harmonic spectra in the presence of macroscopic effects. We have experimentally observed that the macroscopic effects shift the o...
Bröker, Sebastian; Kück, Dennis; Timmer, Alexander; Lauermann, Iver; Ümsür, Bünyamin; Greiner, Dieter; Kaufmann, Christian A; Mönig, Harry
2015-06-17
The unusual defect chemistry of polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) thin films is a main issue for a profound understanding of recombination losses in chalcopyrite thin-film solar cells. Especially, impurity-driven passivation of electronic levels due to point defects segregating at the surface and at grain boundaries is extensively debated. By combining current imaging tunneling spectroscopy with photoelectron spectroscopy, the local defect-level density and unusual optoelectronic grain-boundary properties of this material are correlated with the macroscopic energy levels and surface composition. Vacuum annealing of different CIGSe materials provides evidence that Na diffusion from the glass substrate does not affect the surface defect passivation or grain-boundary properties of standard Cu-poor materials. Furthermore, we find no major impact on the observed thermally activated dipole compensation or the accompanying change in surface band bending (up to 0.6 eV) due to Na. In contrast, Cu-rich CIGSe shows an opposing surface defect chemistry with only minor heat-induced band bending. Our results lead to a comprehensive picture, where the highly desirable type inversion at the p/n interface in standard chalcopyrite thin-film solar cells is dominated by band bending within the CIGSe absorber rather than the result of Na impurities or an n-type defect phase segregating at the interface. This is in accordance with recent studies suggesting a surface reconstruction as the origin for Cu depletion and band-gap widening at the surface of chalcopyrite thin films.
Dupré, Luc; Olyslager, Frank; Melkebeek, Jan
2004-05-01
The paper deals with a numerical model for the evaluation of the electromagnetic behavior in thin magnetic sheets. Therefore, we consider Maxwell's equations together with a nonlinear magnetic constitutive law described by the Landau-Lifshitz equation. We present a suitable numerical approximation based upon a finite element-finite difference method. At each time step in the numerical scheme, the magnetization dynamics is calculated analytically by introducing for each finite element node a transformation towards a local coordinate system.
Kawasaki, Takeshi; Berthier, Ludovic
2016-08-01
We use computer simulations to analyze the yielding transition during large-amplitude oscillatory shear of a simple model for soft jammed solids. Simultaneous analysis of global mechanical response and particle-scale motion demonstrates that macroscopic yielding, revealed by a smooth crossover in mechanical properties, is accompanied by a sudden change in the particle dynamics, which evolves from nondiffusive motion to irreversible diffusion as the amplitude of the shear is increased. We provide numerical evidence that this sharp change corresponds to a nonequilibrium first-order dynamic phase transition, thus establishing the existence of a well-defined microscopic dynamic signature of the yielding transition in amorphous materials in oscillatory shear.
Impact of thickness on microscopic and macroscopic properties of Fe-Te-Se superconductor thin films
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Zhang
2015-04-01
Full Text Available A series of iron based Fe-Te-Se superconductor thin films depositing on 0.7wt% Nb-doped SrTiO3 at substrate temperatures in the 250°C -450°C range by pulsed laser ablation of a constituents well defined precursor FeTe0.55Se0.55 target sample. We study the possible growth mechanism and its influence on the superconductor properties. Experimental results indicate the superconductive and non-superconductive properties are modulated only by the thickness of the thin films through the temperature range. The films appear as superconductor whenever the thickness is above a critical value ∼30nm and comes to be non-superconductor below this value. Relative ratios of Fe to (Te+Se in the films retained Fe/(Te+Se1 for non-superconductor no matter what the film growth temperature was. The effect of film growth temperature takes only the role of modulating the ratio of Te/Se and improving crystallinity of the systems. According to the experimental results we propose a sandglass film growth mechanism in which the interfacial effect evokes to form a Fe rich area at the interface and Se or Te starts off a consecutive filling up process of chalcogenide elements defect sides, the process is significant before the film thickness reaches at ∼30nm.
Rapid ordering of block copolymer thin films
Majewski, Pawel W.; Yager, Kevin G.
2016-10-01
Block-copolymers self-assemble into diverse morphologies, where nanoscale order can be finely tuned via block architecture and processing conditions. However, the ultimate usage of these materials in real-world applications may be hampered by the extremely long thermal annealing times—hours or days—required to achieve good order. Here, we provide an overview of the fundamentals of block-copolymer self-assembly kinetics, and review the techniques that have been demonstrated to influence, and enhance, these ordering kinetics. We discuss the inherent tradeoffs between oven annealing, solvent annealing, microwave annealing, zone annealing, and other directed self-assembly methods; including an assessment of spatial and temporal characteristics. We also review both real-space and reciprocal-space analysis techniques for quantifying order in these systems.
Zhu, Yinyan; Du, Kai; Yin, Lifeng; Shen, Jian; Low-dimensional material physics Team
Using unit cell by unit cell superlattice growth technique, we determine the role of chemical ordering of the Pr dopant in a colossal magnetoresistance (La1-yPry)1-x CaxMnO3 (LPCMO) system, which has been well known for its large length scale electronic phase separation (EPS) phenomena. Our experimental results show that the chemical ordering of Pr leads to dramatic reduction of the length scale of EPS. Moreover, compared to the conventional Pr-disordered LPCMO system, the Pr-ordered LPCMO system has ~100 K higher metal-insulator transition temperature. We have further investigated the n-dependence of the physical properties of the (LCMO)2n/(PCMO)n superlattices. Magnetic and transport measurements indicate that the physical properties change nonmonotonically with increasing n, reaching a minimum for both the Curie temperature and the meta-insulator transition temperature. The crossover thickness thus reflects the characteristic correlation length scale along the vertical direction of the superlattice. For superlattices with n smaller than the correlation length, we combine MFM studies and model calculations to explain the weakened ferromagnetism and metallicity with increasing n.
Maerivoet, S; Immers, B; De Moor, B; Maerivoet, Sven; Logghe, Steven; Immers, Ben; Moor, Bart De
2005-01-01
In this paper, we describe a relation between a microscopic traffic cellular automaton (TCA) model (i.e., the stochastic TCA model of Nagel and Schreckenberg) and the macroscopic first-order hydrodynamic model of Lighthill, Whitham, and Richards (LWR). The innovative aspect of our approach, is that we explicitly derive the LWR's fundamental diagram directly from the STCA's rule set, by assuming a stationarity condition that converts the STCA's rules into a set of linear inequalities. In turn, these constraints define the shape of the fundamental diagram, which is then specified to the LWR model. Application of our methodology to a simulation case study, allows us to compare the tempo-spatial behavior of both models. Our results indicate that, in the presence of noise, the capacity flows in the derived fundamental diagram are overestimations of those of the STCA model. Directly specifying the STCA's capacity flows to the LWR fundamental diagram, effectively remedies most of the mismatches between both approach...
Heterogeneous traffic flow modelling using second-order macroscopic continuum model
Mohan, Ranju; Ramadurai, Gitakrishnan
2017-01-01
Modelling heterogeneous traffic flow lacking in lane discipline is one of the emerging research areas in the past few years. The two main challenges in modelling are: capturing the effect of varying size of vehicles, and the lack in lane discipline, both of which together lead to the 'gap filling' behaviour of vehicles. The same section length of the road can be occupied by different types of vehicles at the same time, and the conventional measure of traffic concentration, density (vehicles per lane per unit length), is not a good measure for heterogeneous traffic modelling. First aim of this paper is to have a parsimonious model of heterogeneous traffic that can capture the unique phenomena of gap filling. Second aim is to emphasize the suitability of higher-order models for modelling heterogeneous traffic. Third, the paper aims to suggest area occupancy as concentration measure of heterogeneous traffic lacking in lane discipline. The above mentioned two main challenges of heterogeneous traffic flow are addressed by extending an existing second-order continuum model of traffic flow, using area occupancy for traffic concentration instead of density. The extended model is calibrated and validated with field data from an arterial road in Chennai city, and the results are compared with those from few existing generalized multi-class models.
VANDENBERG, IP
1991-01-01
We present a mathematical model for the ''river-phenomenon'': striking concentrations of trajectories of ordinary differential equations. This model of ''macroscopic rivers'' is formulated within nonstandard analysis, and stated in terms of macroscopes and singular perturbations. For a subclass, the
Fabrication of hierarchically ordered crystalline titania thin films
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Niedermeier, Martin; Kaune, Gunar; Rawolle, Monika; Koerstgens, Volker; Ruderer, Matthias; Mueller-Buschbaum, Peter [TU Muenchen, Physik-Department LS E13, Garching (Germany); Gutmann, Jochen S. [Max-Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Mainz (Germany)
2010-07-01
Thin films of nanostructured titania have received a lot of attention in various applications such as photovoltaics within the last years. Having a well defined morphology is crucial for the functionality and performance of these films because it defines the volume to surface ratio and thereby the surface being available for interface reactions. Increasing the total film thickness is a common approach in order to increase the surface area. The present work focuses on the fabrication of hierarchically structured titania thin films and their crystallinity. A layer-by-layer spin-coating approach is investigated. A solution based sol-gel process using diblock copolymers as a template to obtain nanocomposite films is followed by calcination to obtain crystalline titania structures. The obtained structures are investigated using several imaging techniques like SEM and AFM. The crystallinity and the thickness of the films are analyzed with XRD and XRR.
Ordered Nanomaterials Thin Films via Supported Anodized Alumina Templates
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammed eES-SOUNI
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Supported anodized alumina template films with highly ordered porosity are best suited for fabricating large area ordered nanostructures with tunable dimensions and aspect ratios. In this paper we first discuss important issues for the generation of such templates, including required properties of the Al/Ti/Au/Ti thin film heterostructure on a substrate for high quality templates. We then show examples of anisotropic nanostructure films consisting of noble metals using these templates, discuss briefly their optical properties and their applications to molecular detection using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Finally we briefly address the possibility to make nanocomposite films, exemplary shown on a plasmonic-thermochromic nanocomposite of VO2-capped Au-nanorods.
Single-domain shape anisotropy in near-macroscopic Ni80Fe20 thin-film rectangles
Li, Yi; Lu, Yiran; Bailey, W. E.
2013-05-01
Shape anisotropy provides a simple mechanism to adjust the local bias field in patterned structures. It is well known that for ellipsoidal particles elements, domain formation is thought to limit the effectiveness of shape anisotropy. In our work, we show that very soft lithographically patterned Ni80Fe20 films with control of induced magnetic anisotropy can exhibit shape anisotropy fields in agreement with single-domain models, for both hysteresis loop measurements at low field and ferromagnetic resonance measurements at high field. We show the superiority of the fluxmetric form over the magnetometric form of anisotropy estimate for thin films with control dimensions from 10 μm to 150 μm and in-plane aspect ratios above 10.
Ferrenberg, Alan M.; Landau, D. P.; Binder, K.
1998-09-01
From extensive Monte Carlo simulations of a lattice gas model we present evidence that the order of the gas-liquid transition of a fluid confined between ``competing'' walls can change from second to first order when the thickness D of the thin film is varied. This situation typically arises when the wetting transition of the corresponding semi-infinite system is first order, and thus permits the study of a tricritical interface-localization-delocalization transition via control of the film thickness.
Cho, Joonil; Ishida, Yasuhiro
2017-07-01
Porous materials with molecular-sized periodic structures, as exemplified by zeolites, metal-organic frameworks, or mesoporous silica, have attracted increasing attention due to their range of applications in storage, sensing, separation, and transformation of small molecules. Although the components of such porous materials have a tendency to pack in unidirectionally oriented periodic structures, such ideal types of packing cannot continue indefinitely, generally ceasing when they reach a micrometer scale. Consequently, most porous materials are composed of multiple randomly oriented domains, and overall behave as isotropic materials from a macroscopic viewpoint. However, if their channels could be unidirectionally oriented over a macroscopic scale, the resultant porous materials might serve as powerful tools for manipulating molecules. Guest molecules captured in macroscopically oriented channels would have their positions and directions well-defined, so that molecular events in the channels would proceed in a highly controlled manner. To realize such an ideal situation, numerous efforts have been made to develop various porous materials with macroscopically oriented channels. An overview of recent studies on the synthesis, properties, and applications of macroscopically oriented porous materials is presented. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
New exact solutions of sixth-order thin-film equation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wafaa M. Taha
2014-01-01
Full Text Available TheG′G-expansion method is used for the first time to find traveling-wave solutions for the sixth-order thin-film equation, where related balance numbers are not the usual positive integers. New types of exact traveling-wave solutions, such as – solitary wave solutions, are obtained the sixth-order thin-film equation, when parameters are taken at special values.
Higher-dimensional thin-shell wormholes in third-order Lovelock gravity
Mehdizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Lobo, Francisco S N
2015-01-01
In this work, we explore asymptotically flat charged thin-shell wormholes of third order Lovelock gravity in higher dimensions, taking into account the cut-and-paste technique. Using the generalized junction conditions, we determine the energy-momentum tensor of these solutions on the shell, and explore the issue of the energy conditions and the amount of normal matter that supports these thin-shell wormholes. Our analysis shows that for negative second order and positive third-order Lovelock coefficients, there are thin-shell wormhole solutions that respect the weak energy condition. In this case, the amount of normal matter increases as the third-order Lovelock coefficient decreases. We also find novel solutions which possess specific regions where the energy conditions are satisfied for the case of a positive second order and negative third-order Lovelock coefficients. Finally, a linear stability analysis in higher dimensions around the static solutions is carried out. Considering a specific cold equation ...
Transformation properties and third-order aberrations of thin dynamic χ(2) holograms
Miloglyadov, E. V.; Stasel'ko, D. I.
2016-07-01
The results of a theoretical study of the transformation properties of thin dynamic χ(2) holograms for all frequency mixing versions are generalized, and a general pattern of transformations of reconstructed images (recorded and read at different frequencies) is developed. The principles of ray geometric construction of reconstructed images are determined. The theory of thin dynamic χ(2) holograms is extended to the range of third-order aberrations.
Film thickness dependent ordering dynamics of lamellar forming diblock copolymer thin films.
Peters, Robert D; Dalnoki-Veress, Kari
2012-12-01
Ellipsometry is used in a novel way to study the ordering dynamics of symmetric poly(styrene-methyl methacrylate) diblock copolymer thin films. Ordered thin films form lamellae parallel to the substrate which can form islands or holes at the free surface to ensure commensurability of the layers. The sensitivity of ellipsometry provides the unique ability to probe morphological changes during the ordering process before the ultimate formation of islands or holes at the free surface. We observe three distinct stages in the ordering process: i) an ordering into an intermediate state, ii) an incubation time where the film structure remains constant and iii) the nucleation of islands or holes to achieve equilibrium lamellar morphology. The time-resolved measurement of an incubation period and initial ordering stage provides a means for studying the effect of thickness on the ordering kinetics. The dependence of incubation time on the commensurability of the initial film height is explained using strong segregation theory.
Controlled orientation and ordering of nanostructured thin films from degradable block copolymer.
Ho, Rong-Ming; She, Ming-Shiuan; Lo, Ting-Ya; Wu, Yi-Hsiu
2014-03-01
The fabrication of nanostructured thin films from the self-assembly of degradable block copolymers (BCPs) has attracted extensive attention. To create useful BCP thin films for practical uses, controlling the orientation of self-assembled nanostructures is essential. Here, we present a new method for forming well-ordered and oriented nanostructured thin films on a functionalized SiO2 surface, using homopolymers with hydroxyl group at the chain end to functionalize SiO2 surface, to give neutral substrate for the BCPs. To demonstrate the feasibility of suggested approaches, a series of degradable BCPs, polystyrene- b-poly(L-lactide) (PS-PLLA) with hexagonally packed cylinder and double gyroid phases, are used as model systems for creating nanostructured thin films with controlled orientation and ordering of BCP nanostructures. Different methods such as thermal and solvent annealing are utilized to exploit the fabricated neutral substrate for creating expected nanostructured thin films. By taking advantage of degradable character of PLLA, nanoporous PS thin film can be fabricated by hydrolysis and used as a template for synthesis of various nanohybrids and nanoporous materials.
Self-assembled ordered structures in thin films of HAT5 discotic liquid crystal
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Piero Morales
2010-05-01
Full Text Available Thin films of the discotic liquid crystal hexapentyloxytriphenylene (HAT5, prepared from solution via casting or spin-coating, were investigated by atomic force microscopy and polarizing optical microscopy, revealing large-scale ordered structures substantially different from those typically observed in standard samples of the same material. Thin and very long fibrils of planar-aligned liquid crystal were found, possibly formed as a result of an intermediate lyotropic nematic state arising during the solvent evaporation process. Moreover, in sufficiently thin films the crystallization seems to be suppressed, extending the uniform order of the liquid crystal phase down to room temperature. This should be compared to the bulk situation, where the same material crystallizes into a polymorphic structure at 68 °C.
Fallarino, Lorenzo; Berger, Andreas; Binek, Christian
2015-02-01
A Landau-theoretical approach is utilized to model the magnetic field induced reversal of the antiferromagnetic order parameter in thin films of magnetoelectric antiferromagnets. A key ingredient of this peculiar switching phenomenon is the presence of a robust spin polarized state at the surface of the antiferromagnetic films. Surface or boundary magnetization is symmetry allowed in magnetoelectric antiferromagnets and experimentally established for chromia thin films. It couples rigidly to the antiferromagnetic order parameter and its Zeeman energy creates a pathway to switch the antiferromagnet via magnetic field application. In the framework of a minimalist Landau free energy expansion, the temperature dependence of the switching field and the field dependence of the transition width are derived. Least-squares fits to magnetometry data of (0001 ) textured chromia thin films strongly support this model of the magnetic reversal mechanism.
Chen, Wei; Wang, Jia-Yu; Zhao, Wei; Li, Le; Wei, Xinyu; Balazs, Anna C; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof; Russell, Thomas P
2011-11-02
Reversible photocontrol over the ordering transition of block copolymers (BCPs) from a disordered state to an ordered state, namely the disorder-to-order transition (DOT), can be used to create long-range ordered nanostructures in self-assembled BCPs over macroscopic distances by photocombing, similar to the classic zone refining used to produce highly pure, large single crystals. Here, we have designed and synthesized an anthracene-functionalized tri-BCP containing deuterated polystyrene (d(8)-PS) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) blocks, as well as a short middle block of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylates) (PHEMA) that is randomly functionalized by anthracene. This tri-BCP maintains the order-to-disorder transition-type phase behavior of its parent d(8)-PS-b-PMMA di-BCPs. Under 365 nm UV irradiation, the junction between d(8)-PS and PMMA blocks is photocoupled through the anthracene photodimers, leading to a significant increase in the total molecular weight of the tri-BCP. As a consequence, when the tri-BCP is phase-mixed but close to the boundary of the ordering transition, it undergoes the DOT, as evidenced by small-angle neutron scattering and transmission electron microscopy. The tri-BCP could be reversibly brought through the DOT in thin films by taking advantage of photodimerization and thermal dissociation of anthracene. Currently, anthracene-functionalized d(8)-PS-b-PMMA BCP is one of the most promising candidates for the photocombing process to promote long-range laterally ordered nanostructures over macroscopic distances in a noninvasive manner.
A NEW HIGH-ORDER MULTI-JOINT FINITE ELEMENT FOR THIN-WALLED BAR
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李正良; 白绍良; 谢炜
2002-01-01
A new high-order multi-joint finite element for thin-walled bar was derived from the Hermite interpolation polynomial and minimum potential energy principle. This element's characteristics are that it is of high accuracy and can be used in finite method analysis of bridge, tall mega-structure building.
MACROSCOPIC DIVERSITY FOR CDMA MOBILE SYSTEM
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Pei Xiaoyan; Hu Jiandong
2002-01-01
A novel system of macroscopic diversity with voting rule in CDMA cellular system is suggested in order to raise the coverage and quality of service of CDMA mobile communication system. The estimation of the impact of macroscopic diversity on performance of CDMA cellular system is analyzed and investigated.
MACROSCOPIC DIVERSITY FOR CDMA MOBILE SYSTEM
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
PeiXiaoyan; HuJiandong
2002-01-01
A novel system of macroscopic diversity with voting rule in CDMA cellular system is suggested in order to raise the coverage and quality of service of CDMA mobile communication system.The estimation of the impact of macroscopic diversity on performance of CDMA cellular system is analyzed and investigated.
Role of interfacial friction for flow instabilities in a thin polar-ordered active fluid layer
Sarkar, Niladri; Basu, Abhik
2015-11-01
We construct a generic coarse-grained dynamics of a thin inflexible planar layer of polar-ordered suspension of active particles that is frictionally coupled to an embedding isotropic passive fluid medium with a friction coefficient Γ . Being controlled by Γ , our model provides a unified framework to describe the long-wavelength behavior of a variety of thin polar-ordered systems, ranging from wet to dry active matter and free-standing active films. Investigations of the linear instabilities around a chosen orientationally ordered uniform reference state reveal generic moving and static instabilities in the system that can depend sensitively on Γ . Based on our results, we discuss estimation of bounds on Γ in experimentally accessible systems.
Ordered iodine adsorption as fingerprint of (111) orientation of Pt thin films
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Braunschweig, Bjoern; Mitin, Alexej; Daum, Winfried [Institut fuer Physik und Physikalische Technologien, TU Clausthal, Leibnizstrasse 4, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)
2009-07-01
Well-ordered Pt films deposited on re-usable substrates find applications such as inexpensive replacements for bulk single crystals or ultrathin transparent electrodes for spectro-electrochemical applications. While morphological properties of such films - roughness, atomic steps and spatial extent of atomically flat terraces - are easily imaged with the STM, atomic resolution of the Pt surface is often not attainable under environmental conditions. We demonstrate that the atomic surface structure of (111)-oriented Pt thin films deposited on {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) substrates is clearly revealed after adsorption of ordered iodine adlayers. In comparative STM studies with Pt thin films and with (111)-oriented bulk single crystals we observed the same coexisting (4 x 3{radical}(3)) and ({radical}(43) x {radical}(43)) iodine superstructures which indicates that our Pt films are highly ordered and (111)-oriented.
Interference of macroscopic superpositions
Vecchi, I
2000-01-01
We propose a simple experimental procedure based on the Elitzur-Vaidman scheme to implement a quantum nondemolition measurement testing the persistence of macroscopic superpositions. We conjecture that its implementation will reveal the persistence of superpositions of macroscopic objects in the absence of a direct act of observation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Torres-Torres
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We report the transmittance modulation of optical signals in a nanocomposite integrated by two different silver doped zinc oxide thin solid films. An ultrasonic spray pyrolysis approach was employed for the preparation of the samples. Measurements of the third-order nonlinear optical response at a nonresonant 532 nm wavelength of excitation were performed using a vectorial two-wave mixing. It seems that the separated contribution of the optical nonlinearity associated with each film noticeable differs in the resulting nonlinear effects with respect to the additive response exhibited by the bilayer system. An enhancement of the optical Kerr nonlinearity is predicted for prime number arrays of the studied nanoclusters in a two-wave interaction. We consider that the nanostructured morphology of the thin solid films originates a strong modification of the third-order optical phenomena exhibited by multilayer films based on zinc oxide.
Nonlinear dynamics of angle-ply composite laminated thin plate with third-order shear deformation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
An asymptotic perturbation method is presented based on the Fourier expansion and temporal rescaling to investigate the nonlinear oscillations and chaotic dynamics of a simply supported angle-ply composite laminated rectangular thin plate with parametric and external excitations.According to the Reddy’s third-order plate theory,the governing equations of motion for the angle-ply composite laminated rectangular thin plate are derived by using the Hamilton’s principle.Then,the Galerkin procedure is applied to the partial differential governing equation to obtain a two-degrees-of-freedom nonlinear system including the quadratic and cubic nonlinear terms.Such equations are utilized to deal with the resonant case of 1:1 internal resonance and primary parametric resonance-1/2 subharmonic resonance.Furthermore,the stability analysis is given for the steady-state solutions of the averaged equation.Based on the averaged equation obtained by the asymptotic perturbation method,the phase portrait and power spectrum are used to analyze the multi-pulse chaotic motions of the angle-ply composite laminated rectangular thin plate.Under certain conditions the various chaotic motions of the angle-ply composite laminated rectangular thin plate are found.
Confinement of gold quantum dot arrays inside ordered mesoporous silica thin film
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chi Yaqing; Zhong Haiqin; Zhang Xueao; Fang Liang; Chang Shengli
2009-01-01
Periodic disposed quantum dot arrays are very useful for the large scale integration of single electron devices. Gold quantum dot arrays were self-assembled inside pore channels of ordered amino-functionalized mesoporous silica thin films, employing the neutralization reaction between chloroauric acid and amino groups. The diameters of quantum dots are controlled via changing the aperture of pore channels from 2.3 to 8.3 nm, which are characterized by HRTEM, SEM and FT-IR. UV-vis absorption spectra of gold nanoparticle/mesoporous silica composite thin films exhibit a blue shift and intensity drop of the absorption peak as the aperture of mesopores decreases,which represents the energy level change of quantum dot arrays due to the quantum size effect.
Nematic ordering of SWNT in meso-structured thin liquid films of polystyrenesulfonate.
Itzhak-Cohen, Racheli; Nativ-Roth, Einat; Levi-Kalisman, Yael; Josef, Elinor; Szleifer, Igal; Yerushalmi-Rozen, Rachel
2014-12-16
The formation of nematic-like islands of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) in polystyrenesulfonate (PSS) dispersions confined into nanometrically thin films is reported. The SWNT are observed to assemble into orientationally ordered phases, where the intertube distance, as measured via transmission electron microscopy at cryogenic temperatures, matches the polyelectrolyte's bulk correlation length deduced from X-ray scattering. The micrometers-long islands of orientationally ordered carbon nanotubes are observed in both SWNT and double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNT) but not in specimens prepared from similar dispersions of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT). These observations, together with relaxation and rheological experiments, suggest that the orientational ordering may result from coupling between confinement of the polymer-wrapped SWNT and DWNT and the microstructure of the solvated polyelectrolyte.
The Analysis of Thin Wires Using Higher-Order Elements and Basis Functions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Champagne, N J; Wilton, D R; Rockway, J W
2006-01-23
Thin wire analysis was applied to curved wire segments in [1], but a special procedure was needed to evaluate the self and near-self terms. The procedure involved associating the singular behavior with a straight segment tangent to the curved source segment, permitting use of algorithms for straight wires. Recently, a procedure that avoids the singularity extraction for straight wires was presented in [2-4]. In this paper, the approach in [4] is applied to curved (or higher-order) wires using a procedure similar to that used in [1] for singularity extraction. Here, the straight tangent segment is used to determine the quadrature rules to be used on the curved segment. The result is a formulation that allows for a general mixture of higher-order basis functions [5] and higher-order wire segments.
Exchange Mechanisms in Long Range Ordered Thin Film Organic Magnetic Semiconductors
Rawat, N.; Headrick, R.; Furis, M.; McGill, S.; Kilanski, L.; Waterman, R.
2014-03-01
Magnetic exchange mechanisms in crystalline thin films of Metal Phthalocyanines (M-Pc) are explored using Magnetic Circular Dichroism (MCD) and SQUID measurements up to 10 T and 2K. Long range ordered thin films of organo-soluble derivatives of Co-Pc and Mn-Pc were fabricated using solution processing technique. In the case of Mn-Pc, our measurements show enhanced hybridization of ligand π-electronic states with the Mn d-orbitals. MCD active states beyond 1 μm have been observed for the first time, providing crucial information on the orbital arrangements of MPc's that result in competing (co-existing) long-range superexchange and indirect exchange reminiscent of RKKY. The evolution of Zeeman splitting of specific MCD-active states is very well described by enhanced effective π-electrons g-factors as large as 100, analogous to diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) systems. In Co-Pc MCD data indicates a weaker exchange interaction between delocalized charge carriers and d-like spin-polarized electrons, however SQUID measurements reveal magnetic ordering up to 180K. A comparison between Mn-Pc and Co-Pc and earlier results from the spin 1/2 Cu-Pc and their non-magnetic Zn-Pc counterpart, offers an interesting view on the role of long range order in magnetic interactions. NSF, MRI and CAREER programs: DMR- 0722451; DMR-0348354; DMR- 0821268; DMR-1056589.
Modi, Arvind; Sharma, Ashutosh; Karim, Alamgir
2013-03-01
Kinetics of block copolymer (BCP) microphase separation by thermal annealing is often a challenge to low-cost and faster fabrication of devices because of the slow ordering. Towards the objective of rapid processing and accessing desired nanostructures, we are developing methods that enable a high degree of mobility of BCP phases while maintaining phase separation conditions via control of effective interaction parameter between the blocks in BCP thin films. We study the self-assembly of PS-P2VP thin films in various solvent mixtures. While non-solvent prevents dissolution of film into the bulk solution, the good solvent penetrates the film and makes polymer chains mobile. As a result of controlled swelling and mobility of BCP blocks, solvent annealing of pre-cast BCP thin films in liquid mixture of good solvent and non-solvent is a promising method for rapid patterning of nanostructures. Interestingly, we demonstrate simultaneous BCP microphase separation and infusion of gold nano-particles into selective phase offering a wide range of application from plasmonics to nanoelectronics. University of Akron Research Foundation (UARF)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Gul
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper aims to study the influence of heat transfer on thin film flow of a reactive third order fluid with variable viscosity and slip boundary condition. The problem is formulated in the form of coupled nonlinear equations governing the flow together with appropriate boundary conditions. Approximate analytical solutions for velocity and temperature are obtained using Adomian Decomposition Method (ADM. Such solutions are also obtained by using Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method (OHAM and are compared with ADM solutions. Both of these solutions are found identical as shown in graphs and tables. The graphical results for embedded flow parameters are also shown.
Dipolar interactions in magnetic thin films: perpendicular to in-plane ordering transition
Santamarina-Rios, C
2000-01-01
We study by extensive Monte Carlo (MC) simulations magnetic properties of very thin films with Heisenberg spin model on a BCC lattice with (0 0 1) surfaces, taking into account long-range dipolar interactions and single-ion anisotropy. In a range of parameters, a transition from perpendicular to in-plane ordering at a finite temperature is found. A phase diagram is shown. We interpret this magnetization reorientation as an entropy effect generated by dipolar interaction. Discussion in connection with experiments is given.
Anomaly of strain relaxation in thin ordered FePd layers
Halley, D.; Samson, Y.; Marty, A.; Bayle-Guillemaud, P.; Beigné, C.; Gilles, B.; Mazille, J. E.
2002-05-01
Strain relaxation processes have been investigated in chemically ordered FePd thin layers grown on Pd(001). Microtwins due to the pileup of a/6 dislocations release most of the relaxation. A statistical analysis of scanning tunneling microscopy images provides a detailed understanding of the involved processes and indicates a linear dependence of the relaxation process upon the FePd thickness. Such an unusual behavior is confirmed by reflection high-energy electron diffraction and x-ray diffraction measurements. Through a modeling of the repulsion between the cores of the partial dislocations forming the microtwin, we put forward the mechanism explaining this discrepancy with the Matthews law.
Vortex lattice ordering in the flux flow state of Nb thin films
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grimaldi, Gaia, E-mail: gaia.grimaldi@cnr.i [CNR-SPIN, V. Ponte Don Melillo, Fisciano I-84084 (Italy); Leo, Antonio [CNR-SPIN, V. Ponte Don Melillo, Fisciano I-84084 (Italy); Nigro, Angela; Pace, Sandro [CNR-SPIN, V. Ponte Don Melillo, Fisciano I-84084 (Italy); Physics Department ' E. R. Caianiello' , University of Salerno, V. Ponte Don Melillo, Fisciano I-84084 (Italy)
2010-10-01
We measure current-voltage characteristics at high driving currents for different magnetic fields and temperatures in Nb thin films of rather strong pinning. In a definite range of the B-T phase diagram we find that a current induced transition occurs in the flux flow motion of the vortex lattice, namely a dynamic ordering (DO). Contrary to the case of weaker pinning materials, DO is observed only at low fields, due to the stronger intrinsic disorder that can deform plastically the moving vortex lattice even for small applied fields.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haro-Poniatowski, E; Alonso-Huitron, J C; Acosta-Zepeda, C [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, Avenida San Rafael Atlixco No. 186 Colonia Vicentina, CP 09340 Mexico DF (Mexico); Acosta-Garcia, M C; Batina, N, E-mail: haro@xanum.uam.m [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, Avenida San Rafael Atlixco No. 186 Colonia Vicentina, CP 09340 Mexico DF (Mexico)
2009-09-02
Quasi-percolated nanostructured silver thin films are used as the starting morphology for inducing simultaneously changes in shape and ordering effects by laser irradiation. The complex fingered nanostructures are transformed into nanospheres which in turn are arranged in micro-circular patterns when irradiated through a pinhole. These transformations are characterized by transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The observed effects are explained using Fresnel diffraction theory. Good agreement with the experimental results is obtained. These results suggest that precise patterning engineering can be achieved through control of the spatial parameters such as the pinhole diameter and the distance from the mask to the sample.
The effect of surfaces on molecular ordering in thin liquid-crystal systems
Śliwa, I.; JeŻewski, W.; Zakharov, A. V.
2016-08-01
A theoretical method for analyzing the interplay between pair long-range intermolecular forces and nonlocal, relatively short-range, surface interactions in liquid crystals, confined between plates of thin planar cells, is developed. It is shown that this method, as involving the concept of local orientational and translational order parameters, enables detailed investigations of the emergence of smectic A, nematic, and isotopic phases, as well as yields an insight into phase transitions between them, in cases of systems strongly affected by surfaces. The evidence of various surface effects, including the coexistence of different phases and the inward propagation of surface melting under the increase of temperature, is also given. The underlying numerical procedure, based on the algorithm of self-consistent calculations of local order parameters, is found to be very effective, allowing one to consider model systems of rather large thicknesses, corresponding to thicknesses of real sample cells.
Macroscopic quantum resonators (MAQRO)
Kaltenbaek, Rainer; Kiesel, Nikolai; Romero-Isart, Oriol; Johann, Ulrich; Aspelmeyer, Markus
2012-01-01
Quantum physics challenges our understanding of the nature of physical reality and of space-time and suggests the necessity of radical revisions of their underlying concepts. Experimental tests of quantum phenomena involving massive macroscopic objects would provide novel insights into these fundamental questions. Making use of the unique environment provided by space, MAQRO aims at investigating this largely unexplored realm of macroscopic quantum physics. MAQRO has originally been proposed as a medium-sized fundamental-science space mission for the 2010 call of Cosmic Vision. MAQRO unites two experiments: DECIDE (DECoherence In Double-Slit Experiments) and CASE (Comparative Acceleration Sensing Experiment). The main scientific objective of MAQRO, which is addressed by the experiment DECIDE, is to test the predictions of quantum theory for quantum superpositions of macroscopic objects containing more than 10e8 atoms. Under these conditions, deviations due to various suggested alternative models to quantum th...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hundley, M.F.; Neumeier, J.J.; Heffner, R.H.; Jia, Q.X.; Wu, X.D.; Thompson, J.D.
1997-05-01
The transition metal oxides La{sub 1{minus}x}A{sub x}MnO{sub 3} (A = Ba, Ca, or Sr) order ferromagnetically with Curie temperatures ranging from as low as 50 K to well above room temperature. Magnetic order in these compounds results in a concomitant metal-insulator transition. The feature displayed by the manganites that is most important technologically is the extremely large negative magnetoresistance that achieves its largest values near the magnetic ordering temperature. Qualitatively, this colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) phenomenon involves the suppression of the relatively sharp maximum in the resistivity that is centered at T{sub C}. When considered collectively, the anomalous temperature-dependent transport properties, the CMR effect, and the magnetically ordered ground state indicate that a novel interplay between magnetism and electronic transport occurs in the manganites. General features of the magnetic-field and temperature-dependent electrical resistivity and magnetization as displayed by PLD-grown thin films are examined. Particular emphasis is placed on what these measurements tell us about the conduction process both above and below the magnetic ordering temperature.
Surface Ordering of Orbitals at a Higher Temperature in LaCoO3 Thin Film
Yamasaki, Yuichi; Fujioka, Jun; Nakao, Hironori; Okamoto, Jun; Sudayama, Takaaki; Murakami, Youichi; Nakamura, Masao; Kawasaki, Masashi; Arima, Takahisa; Tokura, Yoshinori
2016-02-01
We report on the distinct surface state of electronic orders, including spin, orbital, and spin-state degrees of freedom of Co3+ ion, in an epitaxially strained thin film of LaCoO3 grown on (LaAlO3)0.3(SrAl0.5Ta0.5O3)0.7 (LSAT) substrate. The surface ordered state was detected by the grazing-incidence resonant soft x-ray scattering at Co L-edge, where the probing depth is less than the topmost 4 nm of surface. Comparing with the result of bulk sensitive x-ray diffraction, we revealed that the transition temperature of the orbital order (spin order) at the surface region is about 30 K (20 K) higher (lower) than that of the bulk. A novel phenomenon of the surface order and bulk disorder of the orbital degree of freedom can be attributed to its collective and lattice-coupled nature which is strongly affected by the translational/inversion symmetry breaking at the surface.
Effect of Solvent on Surface Ordering of Poly(3-hexylthiophene) Thin Films.
Xiao, Minyu; Zhang, Xiaoxian; Bryan, Zachary J; Jasensky, Joshua; McNeil, Anne J; Chen, Zhan
2015-05-12
Enhancement of charge transport in organic polymer semiconductors is a crucial step in developing optimized devices. A variety of sample preparation conditions, such as film fabrication method, solvent species, and annealing, were found to influence the hole mobility of organic polymers. Despite the fact that many factors can influence their performance, it is believed that polymer surface ordering plays a key role in determining organic polymer function. Here, sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy was used to nondestructively map the surface/interfacial ordering of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) films prepared using different solvents; we believe that solvent interactions determine the degree of surface/interfacial ordering. Both X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to supplement SFG to systematically study bulk crystallinity and surface morphology. We conclude that SFG is a powerful tool to elucidate the surface/interfacial structural information on polymer semiconducting films. We demonstrate that the solvent composition used to prepare P3HT thin films influences the resulting film surface morphology, surface/interfacial ordering, and bulk crystallinity.
Effects of Substrate Interactions on Out-of-Plane Order in Thin Films of Lamellar Copolymers
Mitra, Indranil; Mahadevapuram, Nikhila; Bozhchenko, Alona; Strzalka, Joseph; Stein, Gila E.
2014-03-01
Block copolymer (BCP) thin films are widely studied and applied for low cost, large area nanopatterning of semiconductor devices and has a very low tolerance for both in-plane or out of plane defects. Here we study, defects in lamellar diblock copolymers as a function of film thickness and the types of interactions at the substrate interface. Thin films of poly (styrene-b-methyl methacrylate) (PS-PMMA) with equilibrium periodicity 46nm were prepared and annealed on silicon substrates that were functionalized with a random copolymer P(s-r-MMA) brush. The resulting structures were evaluated with optical, scanning force and, scanning electron microscopy, along with grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS). The in-plane correlation length (OCL) increased with brush grafting density, and increased with distance from the substrate interface. Out-of-plane order improved with brush grafting density, but thick films always contain a high density of misoriented domains. Based on these findings, we propose that (1) substrate pinning either induces or traps the mis-oriented domains, and (2) out-of-plane orientation defects are difficult to remove, from a thick film, because the energetic penalty for bending a ``tall'' domain is very low. Funding from NHARP and the Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Houston.
L10-Ordered Thin Films with High Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy for STT-MRAM Applications
Huang, Efrem Yuan-Fu
The objective of the research conducted herein was to develop L10-ordered materials and thin film stack structures with high perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) for spin-transfertorque magnetoresistive random access memory (STT-MRAM) applications. A systematic approach was taken in this dissertation, culminating in exchange coupled L1 0-FePt and L10- MnAl heterogeneous structures showing great promise for developing perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions (pMTJs) with both high thermal stability and low critical switching current. First, using MgO underlayers on Si substrates, sputtered MnAl films were systematically optimized, ultimately producing a Si substrate/MgO (20 nm)/MnAl (30)/Ta (5) film stack with a high degree of ordering and large PMA. Next, noting the incompatibility of insulating MgO underlayers with industrial-scale CMOS processes, attention was turned to using conductive underlayers. TiN was found to excel at promoting growth of L10-MnAl, with optimized films showing improved magnetic properties over those fabricated on MgO underlayers. The use of different post-annealing processes was then studied as an alternative to in situ annealing. Rapid thermal annealing (RTA) was found to produce PMA in films at lower annealing temperatures than tube furnace annealing, but tube furnace annealing produced films with higher maximum PMA than RTA. While annealed samples had lower surface roughness than those ordered by high in situ deposition temperatures, relying solely on annealing to achieve L10-ordering resulted drastically reduced PMA. Finally, heterogeneous L10-ordered FePt/MgO/MnAl film stacks were explored for pMTJs. Film stacks with MgO barrier layers thinner than 2 nm showed significant interdiffusion between the FePt and MnAl, while film stacks with thicker MgO barrier layers exhibited good ordering and high PMA in both the FePt and MnAl films. It is believed that this limitation is caused by the roughness of the underlying FePt, which was thicker
The magnetic ordering in high magnetoresistance Mn-doped ZnO thin films
Venkatesh, S.
2016-03-24
We studied the nature of magnetic ordering in Mn-doped ZnO thin films that exhibited ferromagnetism at 300 K and superparamagnetism at 5 K. We directly inter-related the magnetisation and magnetoresistance by invoking the polaronpercolation theory and variable range of hopping conduction below the metal-to-insulator transition. By obtaining a qualitative agreement between these two models, we attribute the ferromagnetism to the s-d exchange-induced spin splitting that was indicated by large positive magnetoresistance (∼40 %). Low temperature superparamagnetism was attributed to the localization of carriers and non-interacting polaron clusters. This analysis can assist in understanding the presence or absence of ferromagnetism in doped/un-doped ZnO.
Violi, Ianina L; Perez, M Dolores; Fuertes, M Cecilia; Soler-Illia, Galo J A A
2012-08-01
Highly porous (V(mesopore) = 25-50%) and ordered mesoporous titania thin films (MTTF) were prepared on ITO (indium tin oxide)-covered glass by a fast two-step method. The effects of substrate surface modification and thermal treatment on pore order, accessibility and crystallinity of the MTTF were systematically studied for MTTF deposited onto bare and titania-modified ITO. MTTF exposed briefly to 550 °C resulted in highly ordered films with grid-like structures, enlarged pore size, and increased accessible pore volume when prepared onto the modified ITO substrate. Mesostructure collapse and no significant change in pore volume were observed for MTTF deposited on bare ITO substrates. Highly crystalline anatase was obtained for MTTF prepared on the modified-ITO treated at high temperatures, establishing the relationship between grid-like structures and titania crystallization. Photocatalytic activity was maximized for samples with increased crystallization and high accessible pore volume. In this manner, a simple way of designing materials with optimized characteristics for optoelectronic applications was achieved through the modification of the ITO surface and a controlled thermal treatment.
Emergence of magnetic order in ultra-thin pyrochlore iridate films
Cheema, Suraj; Serrao, Claudy; Mundy, Julia; Patankar, Shreyas; Birgeneau, Robert; Orenstein, Joseph; Salahuddin, Sayeef; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy
We report on thickness-dependent magnetotransport in (111) - oriented Pb2Ir2O7-x (Pb227) epitaxial thin films. For thicknesses greater than 4 nm, the magnetoresistance (MR) of metallic Pb227 is positive, linear and non-saturated up to 14 T. Meanwhile at 4 nm, the conduction turns nonmetallic and the MR becomes negative and asymmetric upon field-cooling; such traits are reminiscent of all-in-all-out (AIAO) magnetic order in the insulating pyrochlore iridates. Hysteretic low-field MR dips and trained-untrained resistivity bifurcations suggest the presence of magnetic conducting domain walls within the chiral AIAO spin structure. Beyond just AIAO order, angular-dependent MR indicates a magnetic phase space hosting 2-in-2-out (2I2O) spin ice order. Such anomalous magnetotransport calls for re-evaluation of the pyrochlore iridate phase diagram, as epitaxially strained Pb227 exhibits traits reminiscent of both the insulating magnetic and metallic spin-liquid members. Furthermore, these results open avenues for realizing topological phase predictions in (111) - oriented pyrochlore slabs of kagome-triangular iridate heterostructures. This work is supported by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the US Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.
Blow-up of solutions for the sixth-order thin film equation with positive initial energy
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Wenjun Liu; Kewang Chen
2015-10-01
In this paper, a sixth-order parabolic thin film equation with the initial boundary condition is considered. By using the improved energy estimate method and by constructing second-order elliptic problem, a blow-up result for certain solution with positive initial energy is established, which is an improve over the previous result of Li and Liu.
Ordered mesoporous silica and alumina thin films studied by X-ray scattering
Klotz, M.; Idrissi-Kandri, N.; Ayral, A.; van der Lee, A.; Guizard, C.
2002-07-01
The use of X-ray techniques for the characterisation of ordered mesoporous films is demonstrated. Both silica and alumina thin layers with an ordered mesoporosity are studied using low-angle diffraction and grazing incidence reflectometry. It is shown how the internal structure evolves upon drying and how texture can be easily detected using a two-circle diffractometer. The reflectometry data are correlated with results from nitrogen adsorption/desorption experiments. Nous montrons comment les techniques de rayons-X peuvent être utilisées pour la caractérisation des couches à mésoporosité ordonnée. Des couches minces de silice et d'alumine à mésoporosité ordonnée ont été étudiées par diffraction aux petits angles et réflectométrie en incidence rasante. Il est montré comment la structure interne évolue au cours du séchage et comment la texture peut être analysée en utilisant un diffractomètre deux-cercles. Les données de réflectométrie sont corrélées avec les résultats obtenus par des mesures d'adsorption-désorption d'azote.
Temperature-driven changes of order and magnetism in FePd thin films and thin foil
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Issro, Ch. [Institut fuer Materialphysik, University of Vienna, Strudlhofgasse 4, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Pueschl, W. [Institut fuer Materialphysik, University of Vienna, Strudlhofgasse 4, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Pfeiler, W. [Institut fuer Materialphysik, University of Vienna, Strudlhofgasse 4, 1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: pfeiler@ap.univie.ac.at; Rogl, P.F. [Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie, University of Vienna, Waehringerstrasse 42, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Soffa, W.A. [Department of Material Science and Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, 842 Benedum Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Acosta, M. [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagellonian University, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Schmerber, G. [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagellonian University, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Kozubski, R. [IPCMS-GEMME, CNRS-ULP, 23 rue du Loess, BP 43, F-67034 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Pierron-Bohnes, V. [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagellonian University, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Cracow (Poland)
2005-08-15
FePd thin films (thickness: 50 nm, co-sputtered or co-deposited by molecular beam epitaxy) and bulk foil (cold-rolled to 10 {mu}m thickness) were studied during isochronal heat treatment. The influence of thermal treatment on X-ray diffraction, electrical resistivity (in-plane) and magnetization (in-plane and out-of-plane) are compared in the different systems.
Ordered Growth of Topological Insulator Bi2Se3 Thin Films on Dielectric Amorphous SiO2 by MBE
2013-01-01
Topological insulators (TIs) are exotic materials which have topologically protected states on the surface due to the strong spin-orbit coupling. However, a lack of ordered growth of TI thin films on amorphous dielectrics and/or insulators presents a challenge for applications of TI-junctions. We report the growth of topological insulator Bi2Se3 thin films on amorphous SiO2 by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). To achieve the ordered growth of Bi2Se3 on amorphous surface, the formation of other ph...
Nanostructuring of thin Au films deposited on ordered Ti templates for applications in SERS
Grochowska, Katarzyna; Siuzdak, Katarzyna; Macewicz, Łukasz; Skiba, Franciszek; Szkoda, Mariusz; Karczewski, Jakub; Burczyk, Łukasz; Śliwiński, Gerard
2017-10-01
In this work the results on thermal nanostructuring of the Au films on Ti templates as well as morphology and optical properties of the obtained structures are reported. The bimetal nanostructures are fabricated in a multi-step process. First, the titania nanotubes are produced on the surface of Ti foil by anodization in an ethylene glycol-water solution containing fluoride ions. This is followed by chemical etching in oxalic acid and results in a highly ordered dimpled surface. Subsequently, thin gold films (5-20 nm) are deposited onto prepared Ti substrates by magnetron sputtering. The as-prepared layers are then dewetted by the UV nanosecond laser pulses or alternatively in the furnace (temperature laser annealing and continuous thermal treatment in furnace can lead to the creation of NPs inside every Ti dimple and result in uniform coating of the whole area of structured templates. The size and localization of NPs obtained via both dewetting processes as well as their shape can be tuned by the annealing time and the laser processing parameters and also by initial thickness of Au layer and presence of the dimples themselves in the substrate. Results confirm that the prepared material can be used as substrate for SERS (Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy).
Properties of ordered titanium templates covered with Au thin films for SERS applications
Grochowska, Katarzyna; Siuzdak, Katarzyna; Sokołowski, Michał; Karczewski, Jakub; Szkoda, Mariusz; Śliwiński, Gerard
2016-12-01
Currently, roughened metal nanostructures are widely studied as highly sensitive Raman scattering substrates that show application potential in biochemistry, food safety or medical diagnostic. In this work the structural properties and the enhancement effect due to surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of highly ordered nano-patterned titanium templates covered with thin (5-20 nm) gold films are reported. The templates are formed by preparation of a dense structure of TiO2 nanotubes on a flat Ti surface (2 × 2 cm2) and their subsequent etching down to the substrate. SEM images reveal the formation of honeycomb nanostructures with the cavity diameter of 80 nm. Due to the strongly inhomogeneous distribution of the electromagnetic field in the vicinity of the Au film discontinuities the measured average enhancement factor (107-108) is markedly higher than observed for bare Ti templates. The enhancement factor and Raman signal intensity can be optimized by adjusting the process conditions and thickness of the deposited Au layer. Results confirm that the obtained structures can be used in surface enhanced sensing.
Partial oxidation of methanol on well-ordered V2O5(001)/Au(111) thin films
Sturm, J. M.; Gobke, D.; Kuhlenbeck, H.; Dobler, J.; Reinhardt, U.; Ganduglia-Pirovano, M. V.; Sauer, J.; Freund, H. J.
2009-01-01
The partial oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde on well-ordered thin V2O5(001)films supported on Au(111) was studied. Temperature-programmed desorption shows that bulk-terminated surfaces are not reactive, whereas reduced surfaces produce formaldehyde. Formaldehyde desorption occurs between 400 K
Liu, Nanguo; Assink, Roger A; Smarsly, Bernd; Brinker, C Jeffrey
2003-05-21
Highly ordered mesoporous organic-inorganic hybrid silica thin films with covalently bonded, positively chargeable -NH2 terminal groups were synthesized by evaporation induced self-assembly of tetraethoxysilane, 3-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane, and a nonionic surfactant under acid conditions and characterized using TEM, GISAXS, FTIR, SAW-based N2 sorption, and TGA.
Entropy, Macroscopic Information, and Phase Transitions
Parrondo, Juan M. R.
1999-01-01
The relationship between entropy and information is reviewed, taking into account that information is stored in macroscopic degrees of freedom, such as the order parameter in a system exhibiting spontaneous symmetry breaking. It is shown that most problems of the relationship between entropy and information, embodied in a variety of Maxwell demons, are also present in any symmetry breaking transition.
Htwe, Zin Maung; Zhang, Yun-Dong; Yao, Cheng-Bao; Li, Hui; Yuan, Ping
2017-04-01
Aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films were fabricated by simultaneous RF/DC magnetron sputtering technique on sapphire (Al2O3) substrate with different DC sputtering power 2, 6, 8 and 10 W respectively. The sputtered thin films were annealed at 350 °C in order to improve the crystal quality. AZO thin films are systematically analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and UV-VIS spectrometer for structural and optical properties. XRD patterns show that all sputtered thin films are well crystallized with hexagonal wurtzite structure. SEM images reveal the average crystallite sizes are increased after doping Al in ZnO which agreed with the calculated values from XRD. All thin films possess high optical transmittance in visible region and optical band gap values are relatively increased with Al concentration. The ultrafast transient absorption (TA) of AZO was analyzed by femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy. The kinetic TA curves were fitted by tri-exponential decay function and obtained decay time constants are found to be in few picosecond and nanosecond range for ultrafast and slow processes respectively. Third order nonlinear optical absorption and refraction coefficients were investigated by using Z-scan technique. The observed nonlinear coefficients are enhanced with Al concentration in ZnO.
Halley, D.; Marty, A.; Bayle-Guillemaud, P.; Gilles, B.; Attane, J. P.; Samson, Y.
2004-11-01
We observed that the relaxation mechanism of the epitaxial strain is dramatically dependent on the chemical ordering within the L10 structure in FePd(Pt) thin films. In disordered or weakly ordered layers, the relaxation takes place though perfect (1)/(2)[101] dislocations, whereas well-ordered films relax through the partial 1/6[112] Shockley dislocations, piled-up within microtwins, with a huge impact on both the morphology and the magnetic properties of the film. We show that the antiphase boundary energy is the key factor preventing the propagation of perfect dislocations in ordered alloys.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liu Xikui
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Realizing the vast technological potential of patternable block copolymers requires both the precise controlling of the orientation and long-range ordering, which is still a challenging topic so far. Recently, we have demonstrated that ordered nanoporous thin film can be fabricated from a simple supramolecular assembly approach. Here we will extend this approach and provide a general route to fabricate large areas of highly ordered polymeric nanodot and nanowire arrays. We revealed that under a mixture solvent annealing atmosphere, a near-defect-free nanoporous thin film over large areas can be achieved. Under the direction of interpolymer hydrogen bonding and capillary action of nanopores, this ordered porous nanotemplate can be properly filled with phenolic resin precursor, followed by curation and pyrolysis at middle temperature to remove the nanotemplate, a perfect ordered polymer nanodot arrays replication was obtained. The orientation of the supramolecular assembly thin films can be readily re-aligned parallel to the substrate upon exposure to chloroform vapor, so this facile nanotemplate replica method can be further extend to generate large areas of polymeric nanowire arrays. Thus, we achieved a successful sub-30 nm patterns nanotemplates transfer methodology for fabricating polymeric nanopattern arrays with highly ordered structure and tunable morphologies.
Covariant Macroscopic Quantum Geometry
Hogan, Craig J
2012-01-01
A covariant noncommutative algebra of position operators is presented, and interpreted as the macroscopic limit of a geometry that describes a collective quantum behavior of the positions of massive bodies in a flat emergent space-time. The commutator defines a quantum-geometrical relationship between world lines that depends on their separation and relative velocity, but on no other property of the bodies, and leads to a transverse uncertainty of the geometrical wave function that increases with separation. The number of geometrical degrees of freedom in a space-time volume scales holographically, as the surface area in Planck units. Ongoing branching of the wave function causes fluctuations in transverse position, shared coherently among bodies with similar trajectories. The theory can be tested using appropriately configured Michelson interferometers.
The macroscopic pancake bounce
Andersen Bro, Jonas; Sternberg Brogaard Jensen, Kasper; Nygaard Larsen, Alex; Yeomans, Julia M.; Hecksher, Tina
2017-01-01
We demonstrate that the so-called pancake bounce of millimetric water droplets on surfaces patterned with hydrophobic posts (Liu et al 2014 Nat. Phys. 10 515) can be reproduced on larger scales. In our experiment, a bed of nails plays the role of the structured surface and a water balloon models the water droplet. The macroscopic version largely reproduces the features of the microscopic experiment, including the Weber number dependence and the reduced contact time for pancake bouncing. The scalability of the experiment confirms the mechanisms of pancake bouncing, and allows us to measure the force exerted on the surface during the bounce. The experiment is simple and inexpensive and is an example where front-line research is accessible to student projects.
Canonical quantization of macroscopic electromagnetism
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Philbin, T G, E-mail: tgp3@st-andrews.ac.u [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)
2010-12-15
Application of the standard canonical quantization rules of quantum field theory to macroscopic electromagnetism has encountered obstacles due to material dispersion and absorption. This has led to a phenomenological approach to macroscopic quantum electrodynamics where no canonical formulation is attempted. In this paper macroscopic electromagnetism is canonically quantized. The results apply to any linear, inhomogeneous, magnetodielectric medium with dielectric functions that obey the Kramers-Kronig relations. The prescriptions of the phenomenological approach are derived from the canonical theory.
Canonical quantization of macroscopic electromagnetism
Philbin, T G
2010-01-01
Application of the standard canonical quantization rules of quantum field theory to macroscopic electromagnetism has encountered obstacles due to material dispersion and absorption. This has led to a phenomenological approach to macroscopic quantum electrodynamics where no canonical formulation is attempted. In this paper macroscopic electromagnetism is canonically quantized. The results apply to any linear, inhomogeneous, magnetoelectric medium with dielectric functions that obey the Kramers-Kronig relations. The prescriptions of the phenomenological approach are derived from the canonical theory.
Mulenko, S. A.; Rudenko, V. I.; Liakhovetskyi, V. R.; Brodin, A. M.; Stefan, N.
2016-10-01
We report on a study of the third-order nonlinear optical properties of Fe2O3 thin films, grown by the method of laser deposition on silica (SiO2) substrates. The films were synthesized on substrates at different temperatures (293 K and 800 K) and under different oxygen pressures (0.1 Pa, 0.5 Pa, 1.0 Pa). The resulting films were amorphous, if grown on cold substrates (293 K), or polycrystalline otherwise. The third-order optical susceptibility χ(3) of the films was determined by the Z-scan method at the wavelengths of 1064 nm and 532 nm and the laser pulse width of 20 ns. Remarkably high χ(3) values on the order of 10-4 esu at 1064 nm are obtained. The results show that Fe2O3 thin films are promising nonlinear materials for contemporary optoelectronics.
Perspective: Highly ordered MoS2 thin films grown by multi-step chemical vapor deposition process
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. N. Heo
2016-03-01
Full Text Available We established a process for growing highly ordered MoS2 thin films. The process consists of four steps: MoO3 thermal evaporation, first annealing, sulfurization, and second annealing. The main feature of this process is that thermally deposited MoO3 thin films are employed as a precursor for the MoS2 films. The first deposition step enabled us to achieve precise control of the resulting thickness of the MoS2 films with high uniformity. The crystalline structures, surface morphologies, and chemical states at each step were characterized by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Based on these characterizations and a careful optimization of the growth conditions, we successfully produced a highly oriented MoS2 thin film with a thickness of five monolayers over an entire one-centimeter-square sapphire substrate.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YUAN YiZhong; KANG HaiFeng; SUN ZhenRong; WANG ZuGeng
2007-01-01
The thin film of a heptamethine cyanine chromophore HC was prepared by spin-coating technique. Its surface morphology and linear optical property were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. The results show that HC molecules are arranged in a well-ordered H-aggregate type. The third-order nonlinear optical properties of the spin-coating film were also measured by degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) measurement. Enhanced third-order nonlinear susceptibility can be attributed to molecular aggregation effects, and the corresponding mechanism was dealt with by collective electronic oscillator (CEO) approach.
Zygridou, S.; Barton, C. W.; Nutter, P. W.; Thomson, T.
2017-07-01
Lowering the temperature at which the desirable L10 phase forms in FePt thin films is a key requirement in the development of next generation high-density data storage media and spintronic devices. Remote plasma sputtering offers a higher degree of control over the sputtering parameters, allowing the properties of films to be tailored, and potentially can affect the ordering kinetics of the L10 phase of FePt. Here, we report a comprehensive study of FePt thin films deposited under a range of temperatures and sputtering conditions. X-ray diffraction and magnetometry investigations show that whilst FePt thin films ordered in the L10 phase with high perpendicular anisotropy can be produced using this technique, there is no significant reduction in the required ordering temperature compared with films produced using conventional DC sputtering. Optimally ordered L10 FePt films were fabricated when the film was deposited at a substrate temperature of 200 °C, followed by post annealing at 750 °C.
Magnetic ordering in nickel-zinc nanoferrite thin film formed by Langmuir Blodgett technique
Thakur, Sangeeta; Pandit, Pallavi; Sharma, S. K.; Katyal, S. C.; Singh, Mahavir; Gupta, Ajay
2013-12-01
Nickel-zinc nanoferrite thin films, which reveal application for magnetic materials, were prepared by Langmuir-Blodgett technique. X-ray reflectivity fitting was done using three layer model. Thickness of a monolayer of nanoparticles is obtained as 23.5 Å. Surface roughness increases as the thickness of the film increases. Fourier transform infrared spectra confirmed that the structure remains cubic spinel after thin film formation. We have measured zero-field cooled and field cooled magnetization and discussed the behavior in three parts: the ferromagnetic part, transition region, and the superparamagnetic part.
Jamaian, Siti S
2011-01-01
The ability to tailor the porosity and optical properties of columnar thin films (CTFs) renders them promising platforms for optical sensing. In particular, surface-plasmon-polariton (SPP) waves, guided by the planar interface of an infiltrated CTF and a thin layer of metal, may be harnessed to detect substances that penetrate the void regions in between the columns of a CTF. This scenario was investigated theoretically using a higher-order homogenization technique, based on an extended version of the second-order strong-permittivity-fluctuation theory, which takes into account the size of the component particles which make up the infiltrated CTF and the statistical distribution of these particles. Our numerical studies revealed that as the size of the component particles increases and as the correlation length that characterizes their distribution increases: (i) the phase speed of the SPP wave decreases and the SPP wave's attenuation increases; (ii) the SPP wave's penetration into the CTF decreases; (iii) th...
A Langmuir-Schaefer approach for the synthesis of highly ordered organoclay thin films
Toma, Luminita M.; Gengler, Regis Y. N.; Prinsen, Eric B.; Gournis, Dimitrios; Rudolf, Petra
2010-01-01
The Langmuir-Schaefer (LS) method has been investigated as a means to control the structure of hybrid organoclay thin films consisting of montmorillonite and dimethyldioctadecylammonium (DODA) cations. We observed a significant modification of the compression isotherms as a function of clay mineral
Ordered growth of topological insulator Bi2Se3 thin films on dielectric amorphous SiO2 by MBE.
Jerng, Sahng-Kyoon; Joo, Kisu; Kim, Youngwook; Yoon, Sang-Moon; Lee, Jae Hong; Kim, Miyoung; Kim, Jun Sung; Yoon, Euijoon; Chun, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Yong Seung
2013-11-07
Topological insulators (TIs) are exotic materials which have topologically protected states on the surface due to strong spin-orbit coupling. However, a lack of ordered growth of TI thin films on amorphous dielectrics and/or insulators presents a challenge for applications of TI-junctions. We report the growth of topological insulator Bi2Se3 thin films on amorphous SiO2 by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). To achieve the ordered growth of Bi2Se3 on an amorphous surface, the formation of other phases at the interface is suppressed by Se passivation. Structural characterizations reveal that Bi2Se3 films are grown along the [001] direction with a good periodicity by the van der Waals epitaxy mechanism. A weak anti-localization effect of Bi2Se3 films grown on amorphous SiO2 shows a modulated electrical property by the gating response. Our approach for ordered growth of Bi2Se3 on an amorphous dielectric surface presents considerable advantages for TI-junctions with amorphous insulator or dielectric thin films.
Metal insulator transition with ferrimagnetic order in epitaxial thin films of spinel NiCo2O4
Silwal, Punam; Miao, Ludi; Stern, Ilan; Zhou, Xiaolan; Hu, Jin; Ho Kim, Dae
2012-01-01
We have grown epitaxial thin films of spinel NiCo2O4 on single crystalline MgAl2O4 (001) substrates by pulsed laser deposition. Magnetization measurement revealed hysteresis loops consistent with the reported ferrimagnetic order. The electrical transport exhibits a metallic behavior with the lowest resistivity of 0.8 mΩ cm and a metal insulator transition around the Néel temperature. The systematic variation in the properties of the films grown at different growth temperatures indicates a close relationship between the magnetic order and electrical transport.
Lozenge Tilings, Glauber Dynamics and Macroscopic Shape
Laslier, Benoît; Toninelli, Fabio Lucio
2015-09-01
We study the Glauber dynamics on the set of tilings of a finite domain of the plane with lozenges of side 1/ L. Under the invariant measure of the process (the uniform measure over all tilings), it is well known (Cohn et al. J Am Math Soc 14:297-346, 2001) that the random height function associated to the tiling converges in probability, in the scaling limit , to a non-trivial macroscopic shape minimizing a certain surface tension functional. According to the boundary conditions, the macroscopic shape can be either analytic or contain "frozen regions" (Arctic Circle phenomenon Cohn et al. N Y J Math 4:137-165, 1998; Jockusch et al. Random domino tilings and the arctic circle theorem, arXiv:math/9801068, 1998). It is widely conjectured, on the basis of theoretical considerations (Henley J Statist Phys 89:483-507, 1997; Spohn J Stat Phys 71:1081-1132, 1993), partial mathematical results (Caputo et al. Commun Math Phys 311:157-189, 2012; Wilson Ann Appl Probab 14:274-325, 2004) and numerical simulations for similar models (Destainville Phys Rev Lett 88:030601, 2002; cf. also the bibliography in Henley (J Statist Phys 89:483-507, 1997) and Wilson (Ann Appl Probab 14:274-325, 2004), that the Glauber dynamics approaches the equilibrium macroscopic shape in a time of order L 2+ o(1). In this work we prove this conjecture, under the assumption that the macroscopic equilibrium shape contains no "frozen region".
Quantum equilibria for macroscopic systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grib, A [Department of Theoretical Physics and Astronomy, Russian State Pedagogical University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Khrennikov, A [Centre for Mathematical Modelling in Physics and Cognitive Sciences Vaexjoe University (Sweden); Parfionov, G [Department of Mathematics, St. Petersburg State University of Economics and Finances (Russian Federation); Starkov, K [Department of Mathematics, St. Petersburg State University of Economics and Finances (Russian Federation)
2006-06-30
Nash equilibria are found for some quantum games with particles with spin-1/2 for which two spin projections on different directions in space are measured. Examples of macroscopic games with the same equilibria are given. Mixed strategies for participants of these games are calculated using probability amplitudes according to the rules of quantum mechanics in spite of the macroscopic nature of the game and absence of Planck's constant. A possible role of quantum logical lattices for the existence of macroscopic quantum equilibria is discussed. Some examples for spin-1 cases are also considered.
Wang, Hsiang-Hsu; Taam, Ronald E
2015-01-01
Investigating the evolution of disk galaxies and the dynamics of proto-stellar disks can involve the use of both a hydrodynamical and a Poisson solver. These systems are usually approximated as infinitesimally thin disks using two- dimensional Cartesian or polar coordinates. In Cartesian coordinates, the calcu- lations of the hydrodynamics and self-gravitational forces are relatively straight- forward for attaining second order accuracy. However, in polar coordinates, a second order calculation of self-gravitational forces is required for matching the second order accuracy of hydrodynamical schemes. We present a direct algorithm for calculating self-gravitational forces with second order accuracy without artifi- cial boundary conditions. The Poisson integral in polar coordinates is expressed in a convolution form and the corresponding numerical complexity is nearly lin- ear using a fast Fourier transform. Examples with analytic solutions are used to verify that the truncated error of this algorithm is of seco...
Reduction of Ordering Temperature of FePt Al2O3 Thin Films by N2 Addition During Sputtering
Cao, Jiang-Wei; Katayama, N.; Yang, Zheng; Wei, Fu-Lin; Matsumoto, M.; Morisako, A.; Liu, Xiao-Xi; Takei, S.
2005-11-01
We investigate the effect of N2 addition during sputtering on the microstructure and magnetic properties of FePt-Al2O3 thin films. The texture of FePt phase in FePt-Al2O3 thin films changes from (111) to a more random orientation by N2 addition during sputtering. The ordering temperature of FePt phase reduces about 100°C with appropriate N2 partial pressure. A larger coercivity of 6.0×105 A/m is obtained with N2 partial pressure about 15%. Structural analysis reveals that a small quantity of Fe3N phase forms during sputtering and the release of N atoms during the post annealing induces a large number of vacancies in the films, which benefits to the transformation of FePt phase from fcc to fct.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wen-Wu Zhong
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Eu-doped ZnO nanorod ordered array thin films were synthesized on glass substrates with a ZnO seed layer via hydrothermal method. XRD reveals that the (002 diffraction peak of films annealed in hydrogen is sharper than that annealed in air. SEM reveals that the nanorods of films annealed in hydrogen are shortened and widened. TEM results demonstrate that the nanorods are single crystalline and the lattice spacing of 0.52 nm agrees with the d spacing of (001 crystal planes along c-axis. Room temperature photoluminescence (PL reveals that the PL of films annealed in hydrogen is the strongest and shifts to lower wavenumber. The point defect of Eu-doped ZnO nanorod array thin film is transferred from Oi to OZn by annealing in hydrogen.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cao, Yue; Xu, Ke [Materials Science and Engineering Program, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States); Jiang, Weilin; Droubay, Timothy; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Edwards, Danny; Johnson, Bradley R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); McCloy, John, E-mail: john.mccloy@wsu.edu [Materials Science and Engineering Program, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States); School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States)
2015-12-01
Hysteretic behavior was studied in a series of Fe thin films, grown by molecular beam epitaxy, having different grain sizes and grown on different substrates. Major and minor loops and first order reversal curves (FORCs) were collected to investigate magnetization mechanisms and domain behavior under different magnetic histories. The minor loop coefficient and major loop coercivity increase with decreasing grain size due to higher defect concentration resisting domain wall movement. First order reversal curves allowed estimation of the contribution of irreversible and reversible susceptibilities and switching field distribution. The differences in shape of the major loops and first order reversal curves are described using a classical Preisach model with distributions of hysterons of different switching fields, providing a powerful visualization tool to help understand the magnetization switching behavior of Fe films as manifested in various experimental magnetization measurements. - Highlights: • Iron thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) with different substrates and conditions. • Major and minor loops, first order reversal curves (FORCs) measured on same samples. • Parameters from various magnetic measurements compared and correlated. • Hysteresis modeling used to understand different switching field distributions caused by defects.
Chemical ordering in magnetic FePd/Pd (001) epitaxial thin films induced by annealing
Halley, D.; Gilles, B.; Bayle-Guillemaud, P.; Arenal, R.; Marty, A.; Patrat, G.; Samson, Y.
2004-11-01
Chemically disordered FePd epitaxial layers are grown at room temperature by molecular beam epitaxy on a Pd(001) buffer layer and then annealed in order to induce the chemically ordered L 10 (AuCu I) structure. Contrary to what is observed in the case of ordering during growth above room temperature, the ordered structure appears here with the three possible variants of the L 10 phase. The ratio of the three different variant volumes is set by the residual epitaxial strain in the layer before annealing. It thus explains that for long annealing times, the long-range order parameter associated with the L 10 variant with c along the (100) growth direction saturates at a value close to 0.65, and never reaches unity. Magnetic consequences of the ordering are studied.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Negi, D. S., E-mail: devendranegi@jncasr.ac.in, E-mail: ranjan@jncasr.ac.in; Loukya, B.; Datta, R., E-mail: devendranegi@jncasr.ac.in, E-mail: ranjan@jncasr.ac.in [International Centre for Materials Science, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore 560064 (India); Chemistry and Physics of Materials Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore 560064 (India)
2015-12-07
We report on the observation of Co vacancy (V{sub Co}) induced charge ordering and ferromagnetism in CoO epitaxial thin film. The ordering is associated with the coexistence of commensurate, incommensurate, and discommensurate electronic phases. Density functional theory calculation indicates the origin of ordering in Co atoms undergoing high spin to low spin transition immediately surrounding the V{sub Co(16.6 at. %)}. Electron magnetic chiral dichroism experiment confirms the ferromagnetic signal at uncompensated Co spins. Such a native defects induced coexistence of different electronic phases at room temperature in a simple compound CoO is unique and adds to the richness of the field with the possibility of practical device application.
Cao, Yue; Xu, Ke; Jiang, Weilin; Droubay, Timothy; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Edwards, Danny; Johnson, Bradley R.; McCloy, John
2015-12-01
Hysteretic behavior was studied in a series of Fe thin films, grown by molecular beam epitaxy, having different grain sizes and grown on different substrates. Major and minor loops and first order reversal curves (FORCs) were collected to investigate magnetization mechanisms and domain behavior under different magnetic histories. The minor loop coefficient and major loop coercivity increase with decreasing grain size due to higher defect concentration resisting domain wall movement. First order reversal curves allowed estimation of the contribution of irreversible and reversible susceptibilities and switching field distribution. The differences in shape of the major loops and first order reversal curves are described using a classical Preisach model with distributions of hysterons of different switching fields, providing a powerful visualization tool to help understand the magnetization switching behavior of Fe films as manifested in various experimental magnetization measurements.
Ferrimagnetic ordering of single crystal Fe1-xGax thin films
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McClure, A.; Arenholz, E.; Idzerda, Y. U.
2009-10-19
Molecular beam epitaxy was used to deposit body centered cubic single crystal Fe{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x} thin films on MgO(001) and ZnSe/GaAs(001) substrates well beyond the bulk stability concentration of about 28%. The crystal quality of the substrate surface and each deposited layer was monitored in situ by reflection high energy electron diffraction. The magnetization of the samples as a function of Ga is found to decrease more rapidly than a simple dilution effect, and element-specific x-ray magnetic circular dichroism ascribes this trend to a decrease in the Fe moment and an induced moment in the Ga that is antialigned to the Fe moment.
Schulz, B. J.; Binder, K.; M"uller, M.
2004-01-01
Using extensive Monte Carlo simulations, we study the interface localization- delocalization transition of a thin Ising film with antisymmetric competing walls for a set of parameters where the transition is strongly first-order. This is achieved by estimating the density of states (DOS) of the model by means of Wang-Landau sampling (WLS) in the space of energy, using both, single-spin-flip as well as N-fold way updates. From the DOS we calculate canonical averages related to the configuratio...
Precursors’ order effect on the properties of sulfurized Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films
2009-01-01
A dc magnetron sputtering-based method to grow high-quality Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films, to be used as an absorber layer in solar cells, is being developed. This method combines dc sputtering of metallic precursors with sulfurization in S vapour and with post-growth KCN treatment for removal of possible undesired Cu2−xS phases. In this work, we report the results of a study of the effects of changing the precursors’ deposition order on the final CZTS films’ morphological and st...
Third-order nonlinear optical properties of thin sputtered gold films
Xenogiannopoulou, E.; Aloukos, P.; Couris, S.; Kaminska, E.; Piotrowska, A.; Dynowska, E.
2007-07-01
Au films of thickness ranging between 5 and 52 nm were prepared by sputtering on quartz substrates and their third-order nonlinear optical response was investigated by Optical Kerr effect (OKE) and Z-scan techniques using 532 nm, 35 ps laser pulses. All prepared films were characterized by XRD, AFM and UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometry while their third-order susceptibility χ(3) was measured and found to be of the order of 10 -9 esu. The real and imaginary parts of the third-order susceptibility were found in very good agreement with experimental results and theoretical predictions reported by Smith et al. [D.D. Smith, Y. Yoon, R.W. Boyd, Y.K. Cambell, L.A. Baker, R.M. Crooks, M. George, J. Appl. Phys. 86 (1999) 6200].
In situ observation of macroscopic phase separation in cobalt hexacyanoferrate film
Takachi, Masamitsu; Moritomo, Yutaka
2017-02-01
Lithium-ion secondary batteries (LIBs) store electric energy via Li+ deintercalation from cathode materials. The Li+ deintercalation frequently drives a first-order phase transition of the cathode material as a result of the Li-ordering or Li-concentration effect and causes a phase separation (PS) into the Li-rich and Li-poor phases. Here, we performed an in situ microscopic investigation of the PS dynamics in thin films of cobalt hexacyanoferrate, LixCo[Fe(CN)6]0.9, against Li+ deintercalation. The thick film (d = 1.5 μm) shows a characteristic macroscopic PS of several tens of μm into the green (Li1.6Co[Fe(CN)6]0.9) and black (Li.6Co[Fe(CN)6]0.9) phases in the x range of 1.0 < x < 1.6. Reflecting the substrate strain, the thin film (d = 0.5 μm) shows no trace of the PS in the entire x region. Our observation suggests that the macroscopic PS plays a significant role in the charge/discharge dynamics of the cathode.
Strain-effect for controlled growth mode and well-ordered structure of quaterrylene thin films
Hayakawa, Ryoma; Turak, Ayse; Zhang, XueNa; Hiroshiba, Nobuya; Dosch, Helmut; Chikyow, Toyohiro; Wakayama, Yutaka
2010-07-01
We investigated the evolution of quaterrylene thin films on SiO2 and on an octadecyltrichlorosilane self-assembled monolayer (OTS-SAM) to examine the impact of film strains on the growth processes and evolving structure. Surface modification by SAMs allowed tailoring of the growth process from a Stranski-Krastanov (SK) mode (layer-plus-island) on the SiO2 surface to a Frank-van der Merwe mode (layer-by-layer) on the OTS surface. Detailed structural analysis by x-ray diffraction techniques confirmed that the SK mode was driven by lattice strain in the initial wetting layers on the SiO2 surface. On the other hand, strain-free wetting layers were already formed at the beginning of growth on the OTS surface, thereby suppressing three-dimensional island formation. Moreover, the films on the SiO2 surface were found to incorporate high microstrain induced by crystal defects such as dislocations and a mosaic structure. In contrast, few crystal defects were present in the films on OTS surface, demonstrating that OTS treatment enables marked improvement of the molecular alignment. These results clearly indicate that the lattice strain induced by the molecular-substrate interaction is essential for controlling the overall growth process.
Metal-insulator transition with ferrimagnetic order in epitaxial thin films of spinel NiCo2O4
Silwal, Punam; Miao, Ludi; Stern, Ilan; Zhou, Xiaolan; Hu, Jin; Spinu, Leonard; Kim, Dae Ho; Talbayev, Diyar
2014-03-01
Spinel NiCo2O4 is attractive for various technological applications but is less studied partly because of the unavailability of NiCo2O4 single crystal or epitaxial thin film. We have grown high-quality crystalline epitaxial NiCo2O4 thin films on MgAl2O4 (001) substrates. The systematic investigation of the films grown at various temperatures reveals a strong correlation between the structural, magnetic, and electrical transport properties. The low-temperature grown films show metallic behavior with strong ferrimagnetic ordering while the high temperature grown films are insulating with suppressed magnetic order. In addition, these films show excellent transport and magnetic properties down to 2 unit-cell thickness. Our study of temperature- and growth-condition dependent optical conductivity provides further insight in the carrier transport of these films. We observed coherent band-like transport in both low- and high temperature grown films, whereas only thermally activated hopping conductivity was reported in previous studies. The confirmation of coherent band like transport provides a basis for further improving NiCo2O4 for the application as transparent conducting oxide.
Third-order spontaneous parametric down-conversion in thin optical fibers as a photon-triplet source
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Corona, Maria [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, apdo. postal 70-543, DF 04510 Mexico City (Mexico); Departamento de Optica, Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada, Apartado Postal 2732, BC 22860 Ensenada (Mexico); Garay-Palmett, Karina; U' Ren, Alfred B. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, apdo. postal 70-543, DF 04510 Mexico City (Mexico)
2011-09-15
We study the third-order spontaneous parametric down-conversion (TOSPDC) process, as a means to generate entangled photon triplets. Specifically, we consider thin optical fibers as the nonlinear medium to be used as the basis for TOSPDC in configurations where phase matching is attained through the use of more than one fiber transverse modes. Our analysis in this paper, which follows from our earlier paper [Opt. Lett. 36, 190-192 (2011)], aims to supply experimentalists with the details required in order to design a TOSPDC photon-triplet source. Specifically, our analysis focuses on the photon triplet state, on the rate of emission, and on the TOSPDC phase-matching characteristics for the cases of frequency-degenerate and frequency nondegenerate TOSPDC.
Analysis of L2{sub 1}-ordering and study of properties on Co-based Heusler thin film samples
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vilanova Vidal, Enrique; Jakob, Gerhard [Institut fuer Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Graf, Tanja; Felser, Claudia [Institut fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz (Germany)
2010-07-01
Heusler alloys have been intensively investigated because they are promising materials for use in spin-dependent devices. Their half-metallic properties are strongly related with the presence of L2{sub 1}, B2 and fully disordered A2 structure. However, a rigorous method to study the proportions of these different ordering states is still missing. Sputtered thin epitaxial Co{sub 2}FeSi{sub 0.6}Al{sub 0.4}, Co{sub 2}FeGa{sub 0.5}Ge{sub 0.5} and Co{sub 2}MnAl films have been prepared. These films were grown on MgO(100) with and without MgO buffer layer under UHV conditions and at different substrates temperatures. The deposition procedure is discussed, and the degree of L2{sub 1} order as well as transport and magnetic properties are analyzed.
Structural ordering of laser-processed FePdCu thin alloy films
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Perzanowski, Marcin, E-mail: Marcin.Perzanowski@ifj.edu.pl; Krupinski, Michal; Zarzycki, Arkadiusz; Zabila, Yevhen; Marszalek, Marta
2015-10-15
The Cu/Fe/Pd multilayers were transformed into L1{sub 0}-ordered FePdCu alloy by pulsed laser annealing. The initial multilayers were irradiated with 1, 10, 100, and 1000 laser pulses with duration time of 10 ns and energy density of 235 mJ/cm{sup 2}. The gradual change of the number of laser pulses allowed to investigate the structural and magnetic properties at early stages of the transformation and L1{sub 0}-ordering processes. The measurements were carried out using X-Ray Diffraction, SQUID magnetometry, and Magnetic Force Microscopy. We found that L1{sub 0} FePdCu (111)-oriented nanograins are formed by ordering of the coherent domains present in the as-deposited multilayer. The irradiation does not change the vertical size of the (111) crystallites. The L1{sub 0} (002)-oriented grains appear at the later stages of the transformation and their size increases with the number of applied laser pulses. Additionally, the laser annealing induces the magnetic ordering of the irradiated material, which was observed as an increase of the saturation magnetisation and the Curie temperature with the rising number of pulses. We also observed, that irradiation with 1000 pulses leads to the loss of order, which is reflected in the drop of the Curie temperature. - Highlights: • L1{sub 0}-ordered FePdCu alloy successfully fabricated by laser annealing. • The mechanism of (111) and (002) nanocrystallite formation was different. • Gradual change of annealing conditions showed early stages of transformation. • Saturation magnetisation and Curie temperature increased with the number of pulses.
Macroscopic-microscopic mass models
Nix, J R; Nix, J Rayford; Moller, Peter
1995-01-01
We discuss recent developments in macroscopic-microscopic mass models, including the 1992 finite-range droplet model, the 1992 extended-Thomas-Fermi Strutinsky-integral model, and the 1994 Thomas-Fermi model, with particular emphasis on how well they extrapolate to new regions of nuclei. We also address what recent developments in macroscopic-microscopic mass models are teaching us about such physically relevant issues as the nuclear curvature energy, a new congruence energy arising from a greater-than-average overlap of neutron and proton wave functions, the nuclear incompressibility coefficient, and the Coulomb redistribution energy arising from a central density depression. We conclude with a brief discussion of the recently discovered rock of metastable superheavy nuclei near 272:110 that had been correctly predicted by macroscopic-microscopic models, along with a possible new tack for reaching an island near 290:110 beyond our present horizon.
Atomically Thin Ordered Alloys of Transition Metal Dichalcogenides: Stability and Band Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pandey, Mohnish; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer
2016-01-01
We explore the possibility of modulating the electronic band edges of the transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD) via alloying of different semiconductors within the same group (intra-group alloying). The stability of the ordered alloys is assessed from the calculated mixing enthalpy which is found...
Wang, Hsiang-Hsu; Yen, David C. C.; Taam, Ronald E.
2015-11-01
Investigating the evolution of disk galaxies and the dynamics of proto-stellar disks can involve the use of both a hydrodynamical and a Poisson solver. These systems are usually approximated as infinitesimally thin disks using two-dimensional Cartesian or polar coordinates. In Cartesian coordinates, the calculations of the hydrodynamics and self-gravitational forces are relatively straightforward for attaining second-order accuracy. However, in polar coordinates, a second-order calculation of self-gravitational forces is required for matching the second-order accuracy of hydrodynamical schemes. We present a direct algorithm for calculating self-gravitational forces with second-order accuracy without artificial boundary conditions. The Poisson integral in polar coordinates is expressed in a convolution form and the corresponding numerical complexity is nearly linear using a fast Fourier transform. Examples with analytic solutions are used to verify that the truncated error of this algorithm is of second order. The kernel integral around the singularity is applied to modify the particle method. The use of a softening length is avoided and the accuracy of the particle method is significantly improved.
Strain-sensitive spin-state ordering in thin films of perovskite LaCoO3
Fujioka, J.; Yamasaki, Y.; Doi, A.; Nakao, H.; Kumai, R.; Murakami, Y.; Nakamura, M.; Kawasaki, M.; Arima, T.; Tokura, Y.
2015-11-01
We have investigated the lattice distortion coupled to the Co 3 d -spin-state ordering in thin films of perovskite LaCoO3 with various epitaxial strains by measurements of the magnetization, x-ray diffraction, and optical spectra. In the system with tensile strain about 0.5%, a lattice distortion characterized by the modulation vector q =(1 /6 ,1 /6 ,1 /6 ) emerges at 40 K, followed by a ferromagnetic ordering at 24 K. Alternatively, in systems with tensile strain exceeding 1%, the lattice distortion characterized by q =(1 /4 ,1 /4 ,1 /4 ) emerges at 120 K or higher, and subsequently the ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic ordering occurs around 90 K. The evolution of infrared phonon spectra and resonant x-ray scattering at the Co K edge suggests that the population change in the Co 3 d spin state causes the strain-induced switching of spin-state ordering as well as of magnetic ordering in this canonical spin-state crossover system.
Active Polar Two-Fluid Macroscopic Dynamics
Pleiner, Harald; Svensek, Daniel; Brand, Helmut R.
2014-03-01
We study the dynamics of systems with a polar dynamic preferred direction. Examples include the pattern-forming growth of bacteria (in a solvent, shoals of fish (moving in water currents), flocks of birds and migrating insects (flying in windy air). Because the preferred direction only exists dynamically, but not statically, the macroscopic variable of choice is the macroscopic velocity associated with the motion of the active units. We derive the macroscopic equations for such a system and discuss novel static, reversible and irreversible cross-couplings connected to this second velocity. We find a normal mode structure quite different compared to the static descriptions, as well as linear couplings between (active) flow and e.g. densities and concentrations due to the genuine two-fluid transport derivatives. On the other hand, we get, quite similar to the static case, a direct linear relation between the stress tensor and the structure tensor. This prominent ``active'' term is responsible for many active effects, meaning that our approach can describe those effects as well. In addition, we also deal with explicitly chiral systems, which are important for many active systems. In particular, we find an active flow-induced heat current specific for the dynamic chiral polar order.
Magnetization dynamics across the first order phase transition in FeRh thin films
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pressacco, Federico
2014-08-01
The metallic alloy FeRh undergoes a phase transition from an antiferromagnetic phase (AFP) to a ferromagnetic phase (FP) when heated above 400 K. The change in magnetic order results in a change in the net magnetization of the system from zero up to 1.2 kA/m after increasing the system temperature. This is an uncommon characteristic for a magnetic material since usually one observes a decrease of the magnetization upon heating. This discloses the possibility to apply FeRh to Heat-Assisted Magnetic Recording (HAMR) devices.
Polarization Switching in Ferroelectric Thin Films Undergoing First-Order Phase Transitions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. A. Bakaleinikov
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The main switching properties in ferroelectrics undergoing first-order phase transitions are simulated within the framework of the extended Ishibashi dipole-lattice model including the dipole-dipole interaction in a two-dimensional case for ferroelectric nanoscale objects. The peculiarities of the temperature dependence of the switching rate and the pyroelectric coefficient are discussed in the range of coexistence of the metastable states. The used coefficients of the long-range and short-range interactions between the dipoles are taken from the dielectric and structure measurements in BaTiO3.
Ordered mesoporous NiO with thin pore walls and its enhanced sensing performance for formaldehyde.
Lai, Xiaoyong; Shen, Guoxin; Xue, Ping; Yan, Bingqin; Wang, Hong; Li, Peng; Xia, Weitao; Fang, Junzhuo
2015-03-07
A class of formaldehyde (HCHO) gas sensors with a high response were developed based on ordered mesoporous NiO, which were synthesized via the nanocasting route by directly using mesoporous silica as the hard template. A series of mesoporous NiO with different textural parameters such as specific surface area, pore size, pore wall thickness were achieved by selecting mesoporous silica with different pore sizes as templates. The gas sensing properties for formaldehyde (HCHO) of the NiO specimens were examined. The results show that this mesoporous NiO possesses a much higher response to HCHO even at low concentration levels than the bulk NiO, and a larger specific surface area and pore size as well as thinner pore walls would be beneficial for enhancing the sensing properties of NiO.
Effective Third-Order Nonlinearities in Metallic Refractory Titanium Nitride Thin Films
Kinsey, Nathaniel; Courtwright, Devon; DeVault, Clayton; Bonner, Carl E; Gavrilenko, Vladimir I; Shalaev, Vladimir M; Hagan, David J; Van Stryland, Eric W; Boltasseva, Alexandra
2015-01-01
Nanophotonic devices offer an unprecedented ability to concentrate light into small volumes which can greatly increase nonlinear effects. However, traditional plasmonic materials suffer from low damage thresholds and are not compatible with standard semiconductor technology. Here we study the nonlinear optical properties in the novel refractory plasmonic material titanium nitride using the Z scan method at 1550 nm and 780 nm. We compare the extracted nonlinear parameters for TiN with previous works on noble metals and note a similarly large nonlinear optical response. However, TiN films have been shown to exhibit a damage threshold up to an order of magnitude higher than gold films of a similar thickness, while also being robust, cost-efficient, bio- and CMOS compatible. Together, these properties make TiN a promising material for metal-based nonlinear optics.
Third order optical susceptibilities of the Cu{sub 2}O thin film
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fu Ming; Long Hua; Wang Kai; Yang Guang; Lu Peixiang, E-mail: lupeixiang@mail.hust.edu.cn
2011-07-29
By performing Z-scan method with a femtosecond laser (800 nm, 50 fs, 1 kHz), we investigated the third-order optical nonlinearities of a cuprous oxide (Cu{sub 2}O) film. Single-phase Cu{sub 2}O film deposited on a quartz substrate was obtained using the pulsed laser deposition technique. The structure properties, surface morphology and optical transmission spectrum were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and double beam spectrophotometer, respectively. The Z-scan results show that the Cu{sub 2}O film exhibits large nonlinear refractive index, n{sub 2} = 3 x 10{sup -3} cm{sup 2}/GW, while the two-photon absorption coefficient, {alpha}{sub 2} = 40 cm/GW, is relatively small. It implies that the Cu{sub 2}O film is a promising candidate for nonlinear photonic devices.
Order twins in (111)-evaporated thin films of CuAu I. [Cu-Au
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zimmerman, R.; Broitman, E. (Dept. de Fisica, Univ. de Buenos Aires (Argentina)); Harriague, S.; Terlisky, S. (Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina))
1990-10-15
The structure of evaporated CuAu I films in (111) orientation was studied by electron transmission and diffraction microscopy. The single-crystal films of Cu-Au alloy were prepared by vacuum evaporation and CuAu I ordered alloy was obtained by heating the disordered f.c.c. alloy to a temperature of 350deg C for 1 h. The electron micrograph revealed the presence of an intricate pattern of antiphase domain boundaries and the presence of twin lamellae. No microtwinning was observed. The CuAu I films exhibit a complex diffraction pattern. The geometry of the expected (111) reciprocal lattice plane has been calculated and described in detail. Extra reflections were identified as {l brace}101{r brace} twin spots and double-diffraction spots which originated from the twins. (orig.).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choi, I. W.; Kim, I J.; Pae, K. H.; Nam, K. H.; Lee, C.-L.; Yun, H.; Kim, H. T.; Lee, S. K.; Yu, T. J.; Sung, J. H.; Lee, J. [Advanced Photonics Research Institute, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Pirozhkov, A. S.; Ogura, K.; Orimo, S.; Daido, H. [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan)
2011-10-31
We report the manufacturing of an (ultra-)thin foil target made of conjugated polymer, poly(9,9'-dioctylfluorene-co-benzothiadiazole) (F8BT), and the simultaneous observation of laser-accelerated ions and second harmonic radiation, when irradiated with ultrahigh-contrast laser pulse at a maximum intensity of 4 x 10{sup 19 }W/cm{sup 2}. Maximum proton energy of 8 MeV is achieved along the target normal direction. Strong second harmonic with over 6% energy ratio compared to fundamental is emitted along the specular direction. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations confirm the simultaneous generation of protons and high-order harmonics, which demonstrates the feasibility of applications requiring particle and radiation sources at once, effectively using the same laser and target.
Nada, Masahiro; Hoshi, Takuya; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Toshikazu; Matsuzaki, Hideaki
2015-10-19
We present an avalanche photodiode (APD) with high-speed, high-responsivity and high-linearity operation to cope with higher order modulation format, such as pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM). A hybrid absorber configuration with thin depleted region which we newly employed successfully eliminates the space charge effect in the APD while maintaining high responsivity and operating speed. The fabricated APD shows an improved optical-input-electrical-output linearity for an optical input power over -8 dBm, and an optical receiver with this APD achieves both an error-free operation with a KP4 FEC and a high sensitivity of -17 dBm against a 28-Gbaud PAM4 signal.
Rainbow correlation imaging with macroscopic twin beam
Allevi, Alessia; Bondani, Maria
2017-06-01
We present the implementation of a correlation-imaging protocol that exploits both the spatial and spectral correlations of macroscopic twin-beam states generated by parametric downconversion. In particular, the spectral resolution of an imaging spectrometer coupled to an EMCCD camera is used in a proof-of-principle experiment to encrypt and decrypt a simple code to be transmitted between two parties. In order to optimize the trade-off between visibility and resolution, we provide the characterization of the correlation images as a function of the spatio-spectral properties of twin beams generated at different pump power values.
Third-order optical nonlinearities in anatase and rutile TiO{sub 2} thin films
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Long Hua; Chen Aiping [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Yang Guang, E-mail: gyang@mail.hust.edu.c [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Li Yuhua [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Lu Peixiang, E-mail: lupeixiang@mail.hust.edu.c [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)
2009-08-03
Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) films have been fabricated on fused quartz and Si(001) substrates by pulsed laser deposition technique and the single-phase anatase and rutile films were obtained under the optimal conditions. The surface images and optical transmission spectra were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and double beam spectrophotometer, respectively. The values of optical band-gap and linear refractive index of the anatase and rutile films were determined. The optical nonlinearities of the films were measured by Z-scan method using a femtosecond laser (50 fs) at the wavelength of 800 nm. Through the open-aperture and closed-aperture Z-scan measurements, the real and imaginary parts of the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility were calculated and the results show that the anatase phase TiO{sub 2} films exhibit larger nonlinear refractive effects compared with rutile phase. The figure of merit, T, defined by T = {beta}{lambda}/n{sub 2}, was calculated to be 0.8 for anatase films, meeting the requirement of T < 1 and showing potential applications in all-optical switching devices.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brombacher, C.; Schletter, H.; Daniel, M.; Matthes, P.; Joehrmann, N.; Makarov, D.; Hietschold, M.; Albrecht, M. [Institute of Physics, Chemnitz University of Technology, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Maret, M. [Laboratory of Science and Engineering of Materials and Processes (SIMaP), INP-Grenoble/CNRS/UJF, F-38402 Saint-Martin d' Heres (France)
2012-10-01
Rapid thermal annealing was applied to transform sputter-deposited Fe{sub 51}Pt{sub 49}/Cu bilayers into L1{sub 0} chemically ordered ternary (Fe{sub 51}Pt{sub 49}){sub 100-x}Cu{sub x} alloys with (001) texture on amorphous SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates. It was found that for thin film samples, which were processed at 600 Degree-Sign C for 30 s, the addition of Cu strongly favors the L1{sub 0} ordering and (001) texture formation. Furthermore, it could be revealed by transmission electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction that the observed reduction of the ordering temperature with Cu content is accompanied by an increased amount of nucleation sites forming L1{sub 0} ordered grains. The change of the structural properties with Cu content and annealing temperature is closely related to the magnetic properties. While an annealing temperature of 800 Degree-Sign C induces strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in binary Fe{sub 51}Pt{sub 49} films, the addition of Cu systematically reduces the PMA. However, due to the enhancement of both the A1-L1{sub 0} phase transformation and the development of the (001) texture with increasing Cu content, lowering of the annealing temperature leads to a shift of the maximum perpendicular magnetic anisotropy towards alloys with higher Cu content. Thus, for an annealing temperature of 600 Degree-Sign C, the highest perpendicular magnetic anisotropy energy is found for the (Fe{sub 51}Pt{sub 49}){sub 91}Cu{sub 9} alloy. The smooth surface morphology, adjustable PMA, and high degree of intergranular exchange coupling make these films suitable for post-processing required for specific applications such as for sensorics or magnetic data storage.
Brady, Michael; Ku, Sung-Yu; Cochran, Justin; Wang, Cheng; Hawker, Craig; Kramer, Edward; Chabinyc, Michael
2014-03-01
Fully conjugated diblock copolymers (CBCPs) form intriguing materials alternatives to polymer-small molecule blends for their control of mesoscopic order in low-cost organic semiconductor devices. In both bulk heterojunction (BHJ) photovoltaics, consisting of an interpenetrating network with high donor-acceptor interfacial area, and ambipolar transistors, the transport of charge carriers through continuous p- and n-type paths in thin films is a controlling factor in device performance. AFM, GIWAXS, NEXAFS spectroscopy, and RSoXS are used to probe the structure of films of CBCPs with a p-type P3HT block and an n-type DPP block. Thermal annealing in the P3HT melt after casting creates ordered domains with ~ 50 nm in-plane lamellar spacings, as confirmed with GISAXS and RSoXS. GIWAXS diffraction from the (h00) alkyl-stacking and (010) pi-stacking planes shows primarily edge-on orientation for crystals of both P3HT and DPP blocks. In addition, temperature-dependent solution SAXS and UV-Vis spectroscopy are used to probe the size and conformation of casting solution aggregates. Fibrillar DPP aggregates direct the crystallization of P3HT- b-DPP following film casting and enable the formation of wormlike domains after annealing and thus ideal morphologies for transport in organic devices.
Schulz, B. J.; Binder, K.; Müller, M.
2005-04-01
Using extensive Monte Carlo simulations, we study the interface localization-delocalization transition of a thin Ising film with antisymmetric competing walls for a set of parameters where the transition is strongly first order. This is achieved by estimating the density of states (DOS) of the model by means of Wang-Landau sampling (WLS) in the space of energy, using both single-spin-flip as well as N -fold way updates. From the DOS we calculate canonical averages related to the configurational energy, like the internal energy and the specific heat, as well as the free energy and the entropy. By sampling microcanonical averages during simulations we also compute thermodynamic quantities related to magnetization like the reduced fourth-order cumulant of the order parameter. We estimate the triple temperatures of infinitely large systems for three different film thicknesses via finite size scaling of the positions of the maxima of the specific heat, the minima of the cumulant, and the equal weight criterion for the energy probability distribution. The wetting temperature of the semi-infinite system is computed with help of the Young equation. In the limit of large film thicknesses the triple temperatures are seen to converge toward the wetting temperature of the corresponding semi-infinite Ising model in accordance with standard capillary wave theory. We discuss the slowing down of WLS in energy space as observed for the larger film thicknesses and lateral linear dimensions. In the case of WLS in the space of total magnetization we find evidence that the slowing down is reduced and can be attributed to persisting free energy barriers due to shape transitions.
Schulz, B J; Binder, K; Müller, M
2005-04-01
Using extensive Monte Carlo simulations, we study the interface localization-delocalization transition of a thin Ising film with antisymmetric competing walls for a set of parameters where the transition is strongly first order. This is achieved by estimating the density of states (DOS) of the model by means of Wang-Landau sampling (WLS) in the space of energy, using both single-spin-flip as well as N-fold way updates. From the DOS we calculate canonical averages related to the configurational energy, like the internal energy and the specific heat, as well as the free energy and the entropy. By sampling micro-canonical averages during simulations we also compute thermodynamic quantities related to magnetization like the reduced fourth-order cumulant of the order parameter. We estimate the triple temperatures of infinitely large systems for three different film thicknesses via finite size scaling of the positions of the maxima of the specific heat, the minima of the cumulant, and the equal weight criterion for the energy probability distribution. The wetting temperature of the semi-infinite system is computed with help of the Young equation. In the limit of large film thicknesses the triple temperatures are seen to converge toward the wetting temperature of the corresponding semi-infinite Ising model in accordance with standard capillary wave theory. We discuss the slowing down of WLS in energy space as observed for the larger film thicknesses and lateral linear dimensions. In the case of WLS in the space of total magnetization we find evidence that the slowing down is reduced and can be attributed to persisting free energy barriers due to shape transitions.
Effect of metal layer stacking order on the growth of Cu2ZnSnS4thin films
Thota, Narayana; Gurubhaskar, M.; Sunil, M. Anantha; Prathap, P.; Subbaiah, Y. P. Venkata; Tiwari, Ashutosh
2017-02-01
In this paper we have presented an in-depth study of effect of metallic precursor stacking order on the growth of the Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films. The CZTS films were prepared by employing a two-step process comprising of sequential sputtering of the metal precursors followed by sulfurization. An optimized stacking sequence as well as growth mechanism for obtaining the single phase CZTS has been proposed based on the results of XRD, Raman, XPS, UV-Vis and electrical studies. A combination of Raman analysis and XPS has been carried out to confirm the CZTS phase formation and to detect any minor phases, if present. The occurrence of Raman modes at around 286 and 336 cm-1 for the Zn/Cu/Sn/Cu stack sulfurized at 500 °C indicated the existence of prominent Kesterite CZTS phase. The perfect homogeneous mixing of sequential precursors together with the elemental sulfur was observed in the case of sulfurized stack order of Zn/Cu/Sn/Cu, which yielded single phase CZTS films, and further confirmed by high resolution core level XPS measurements. Stack dependent micro structural features and elemental analysis were also carried out using FESEM attached to EDS. The p-type charge carriers as detected using hot-probe measurement technique and the band-gap energy of ∼1.52 eV as estimated from the absorbance spectrum, suggested that the Zn/Cu/Sn/Cu stack order is most appropriate for realizing single phase CZTS growth using two step method.
Toonen, Ryan; Will Cole, Melanie; Ivill, Mathew; Hirsch, S.; Integrated Electromagnetic Materials Team Team
2013-03-01
Using microwave reflection spectroscopy, the complex permittivities of etch-defined, 240 nm thick, [Ba(0.6)Sr(0.4)]TiO(3), thin films were measured over the frequency range of (1 to 4) GHz. The observed electro-acoustic resonances were characterized as a function of extrinsic electric field magnitude, ambient temperature, and sample diameter. The real and imaginary parts of the measured permittivities were fit to frequency-dependent functions derived from the Lorentz oscillator model. From these functions, extracted static dielectric constants were found to display excellent agreement with a closed-form expression derived by calculating third-order nonlinear susceptibility from the Landau-Devonshire-Ginzberg model [R. C. Toonen and M. W. Cole, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 222908 (2012)]. By investigating the behavior of these loss mechanisms in response to external stimuli, we have gained insight with respect to how such effects can be reduced or even eliminated. It is also possible that these loss mechanisms could be exploited for the purpose of engineering micro-/nano-electro-mechanical resonators and super-compact high-quality-factor frequency-selective filters. Funding for these efforts was provided by an award from the ARL Director's Research Initiative (FY10-WMR-27).
Martinelli, Elisa
2011-01-01
Three sets of a new class of low surface tension block copolymers were synthesized consisting of a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) block and a poly(perfluorooctylethyl acrylate) (AF8) block. The polymers were prepared using a bromo-terminated PDMS macroinitiator, to which was attached an AF8 block grown using atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) in such a designed way that the molecular weight and composition of the two polymer blocks were regularly varied. The interplay of both the phase separated microstructure and the mesomorphic character of the fluorinated domains with their effect on surface structure was evaluated using a suite of analytical tools. Surfaces of spin-coated and thermally annealed films were assessed using a combination of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) studies. Both atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements and grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) studies were carried out to evaluate the microstructure of the thin films. Even in block copolymers in which the PDMS block was the majority component, a significant presence of the lower surface energy AF8 block was detected at the film surface. Moreover, the perfluorooctyl helices of the AF8 repeat units were highly oriented at the surface in an ordered, tilted smectic structure, which was compared with those of the bulk powder samples using wide-angle X-ray powder diffraction (WAXD) studies. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Analysis of gas absorption to a thin liquid film in the presence of a zero-order chemical reaction
Rajagopalan, S.; Rahman, M. M.
1995-01-01
The paper presents a detailed theoretical analysis of the process of gas absorption to a thin liquid film adjacent to a horizontal rotating disk. The film is formed by the impingement of a controlled liquid jet at the center of the disk and subsequent radial spreading of liquid along the disk. The chemical reaction between the gas and the liquid film can be expressed as a zero-order homogeneous reaction. The process was modeled by establishing equations for the conservation of mass, momentum, and species concentration and solving them analytically. A scaling analysis was used to determine dominant transport processes. Appropriate boundary conditions were used to solve these equations to develop expressions for the local concentration of gas across the thickness of the film and distributions of film height, bulk concentration, and Sherwood number along the radius of the disk. The partial differential equation for species concentration was solved using the separation of variables technique along with the Duhamel's theorem and the final analytical solution was expressed using confluent hypergeometric functions. Tables for eigenvalues and eigenfunctions are presented for a number of reaction rate constants. A parametric study was performed using Reynolds number, Ekman number, and dimensionless reaction rate as parameters. At all radial locations, Sherwood number increased with Reynolds number (flow rate) as well as Ekman number (rate of rotation). The enhancement of mass transfer due to chemical reaction was found to be small when compared to the case of no reaction (pure absorption), but the enhancement factor was very significant when compared to pure absorption in a stagnant liquid film. The zero-order reaction processes considered in the present investigation included the absorption of oxygen in aqueous alkaline solutions of sodiumdithionite and rhodium complex catalyzed carbonylation of methanol. Present analytical results were compared to previous theoretical
Macroscopic Theory of Dark Sector
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Boris E. Meierovich
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A simple Lagrangian with squared covariant divergence of a vector field as a kinetic term turned out to be an adequate tool for macroscopic description of the dark sector. The zero-mass field acts as the dark energy. Its energy-momentum tensor is a simple additive to the cosmological constant. Massive fields describe two different forms of dark matter. The space-like massive vector field is attractive. It is responsible for the observed plateau in galaxy rotation curves. The time-like massive field displays repulsive elasticity. In balance with dark energy and ordinary matter it provides a four-parametric diversity of regular solutions of the Einstein equations describing different possible cosmological and oscillating nonsingular scenarios of evolution of the Universe. In particular, the singular big bang turns into a regular inflation-like transition from contraction to expansion with the accelerated expansion at late times. The fine-tuned Friedman-Robertson-Walker singular solution is a particular limiting case at the lower boundary of existence of regular oscillating solutions in the absence of vector fields. The simplicity of the general covariant expression for the energy-momentum tensor allows displaying the main properties of the dark sector analytically. Although the physical nature of dark sector is still unknown, the macroscopic theory can help analyze the role of dark matter in astrophysical phenomena without resorting to artificial model assumptions.
O'Brien, Daniel B; Massari, Aaron M
2015-01-14
The generalized optical interference model for interfacial contributions to vibrational sum frequency generation (VSFG) spectroscopic signals from organic thin film systems is extended to include a description of optical interferences contained in the thin film bulk response. This is based on electric quadrupolar interactions with the input fields and includes a discussion on possible contribution from the electric quadrupolar polarization. VSFG data from the first of this two part report are analyzed and include effects from higher order responses, for both bulk and higher order interfacial terms. The results indicate that although it is capable of capturing many of the data features, the electric dipole treatment is likely not a complete description of the VSFG intensity data from this system. An analysis based on the signs of the resulting response amplitudes is used to deduce the relative magnitude of the electric dipole and higher order interfacial terms. It is found that the buried interface is closer to satisfying the electric dipole approximation, consistent with smaller field gradients due to closer index matching between the organic thin film and substrate relative to air. The procedure outlined in this work allows for the difficult task of deducing a physical picture of average molecular orientation at the buried interface of a multilayer organic thin film system while including higher order effects.
Precursors' order effect on the properties of sulfurized Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films
Fernandes, P. A.; Salomé, P. M. P.; da Cunha, A. F.
2009-10-01
A dc magnetron sputtering-based method to grow high-quality Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films, to be used as an absorber layer in solar cells, is being developed. This method combines dc sputtering of metallic precursors with sulfurization in S vapour and with post-growth KCN treatment for removal of possible undesired Cu2-xS phases. In this work, we report the results of a study of the effects of changing the precursors' deposition order on the final CZTS films' morphological and structural properties. The effect of KCN treatment on the optical properties was also analysed through diffuse reflectance measurements. Morphological, compositional and structural analyses of the various stages of the growth have been performed using stylus profilometry, SEM/EDS analysis, XRD and Raman Spectroscopy. Diffuse reflectance studies have been done in order to estimate the band gap energy of the CZTS films. We tested two different deposition orders for the copper precursor, namely Mo/Zn/Cu/Sn and Mo/Zn/Sn/Cu. The stylus profilometry analysis shows high average surface roughness in the ranges 300-550 nm and 230-250 nm before and after KCN treatment, respectively. All XRD spectra show preferential growth orientation along (1 1 2) at 28.45°. Raman spectroscopy shows main peaks at 338 cm-1 and 287 cm-1 which are attributed to Cu2ZnSnS4. These measurements also confirm the effectiveness of KCN treatment in removing Cu2-xS phases. From the analysis of the diffuse reflectance measurements the band gap energy for both precursors' sequences is estimated to be close to 1.43 eV. The KCN-treated films show a better defined absorption edge; however, the band gap values are not significantly affected. Hot point probe measurements confirmed that CZTS had p-type semiconductor behaviour and C-V analysis was used to estimate the majority carrier density giving a value of 3.3 × 1018 cm-3.
Micro- and macroscopic simulation of periodic metamaterials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Schuhmann
2008-05-01
Full Text Available In order to characterize three-dimensional, left-handed metamaterials (LHM we use electromagnetic field simulations of unit cells. For waves traveling in one of the main directions of the periodic LHM-arrays, the analysis is concentrated on the calculation of global quantities of the unit cells, such as scattering parameters or dispersion diagrams, and a careful interpretation of the results. We show that the concept of equivalent material values – which may be negative in a narrow frequency range – can be validated by large "global" simulations of a wedge structure. We also discuss the limitations of this concept, since in some cases the macroscopic behavior of an LHM cannot be accurately described by equivalent material values.
Microscopic versus macroscopic calculation of dielectric nanospheres
Kühn, M.; Kliem, H.
2008-12-01
The issue of nanodielectrics has recently become an important field of interest. The term describes nanometric dielectrics, i. e. dielectric materials with structural dimensions typically smaller than 100 run. In contrast to the behaviour of a bulk material the nanodielectrics can behave completely different. With shrinking dimensions the surface or rather boundary effects outweigh the volume effects. This leads to a different observable physics at the nanoscale. A crucial point is the question whether a continuum model for the calculation of dielectric properties is still applicable for these nanomaterials. In order to answer this question we simulated dielectric nanospheres with a microscopic local field method and compared the results to the macroscopic mean field theory.
Variability of macroscopic dimensions of Moso bamboo.
Cui, Le; Peng, Wanxi; Sun, Zhengjun; Sun, Zhengjun; Sun, Zhengjun; Lu, Huangfei; Chen, Guoning
2015-03-01
In order to the macroscopic geometry distributions of vascular bundles in Moso bamboo tubes. The circumference of bamboo tubes was measured, used a simple quadratic diameter formula to analyze the differences between the tubes in bamboo culm, and the arrangement of vascular bundles was investigated by cross sectional images of bamboo tubes. The results shown that the vascular bundles were differently distributed in a bamboo tube. In the outer layer, the vascular bundles had a variety of shapes, and were aligned parallel to each other. In the inner layers, the vascular bundles weren't aligned but uniform in shape. It was concluded that the vascular bundle sections arranged in parallel should be separated from the non-parallel sections for the maximum bamboo utilization.
The quantum interaction of macroscopic objects and gravitons
Piran, Tsvi
2016-09-01
Copious production of gravitational radiation requires a compact source that moves relativistically. Such sources are rare and are found only in extreme cases such as the formation of a black hole in either via a gravitational collapse or via a merger. Noncompact, nonrelativistic objects emit gravitational radiation, however, this emission is extremely weak due to very large value of the Planck energy. The quantum nature of gravitons, namely the fact that a single graviton carries energy of order ℏω implies that macroscopic objects whose kinetic energy is less than the Planck energy emit gravitons quantum mechanically, emitting a single graviton at a time. This is a unique situation in which a macroscopic object behaves quantum mechanically. While it is impossible to check experimentally this quantum gravitational effect, it might be possible to carry out analogous electromagnetic experiments that will shed light on this macroscopic quantum mechanical behavior.
Macroscopically-Discrete Quantum Cosmology
Chew, Geoffrey F
2008-01-01
To Milne's Lorentz-group-based spacetime and Gelfand-Naimark unitary representations of this group we associate a Fock space of 'cosmological preons'-quantum-theoretic universe constituents. Milne's 'cosmological principle' relies on Lorentz invariance of 'age'--global time. We divide Milne's spacetime into 'slices' of fixed macroscopic width in age, with 'cosmological rays' defined on (hyperbolic) slice boundaries-Fock space attaching only to these exceptional universe ages. Each (fixed-age) preon locates within a 6-dimensional manifold, one of whose 3 'extra' dimensions associates in Dirac sense to a self-adjoint operator that represents preon (continuous) local time, the operator canonically-conjugate thereto representing preon (total) energy. Self-adjoint-operator expectations at any spacetime-slice boundary prescribe throughout the following slice a non-fluctuating 'mundane reality'- electromagnetic and gravitational potentials 'tethered' to current densities of locally-conserved electric charge and ener...
Seismic scanning tunneling macroscope - Theory
Schuster, Gerard T.
2012-09-01
We propose a seismic scanning tunneling macroscope (SSTM) that can detect the presence of sub-wavelength scatterers in the near-field of either the source or the receivers. Analytic formulas for the time reverse mirror (TRM) profile associated with a single scatterer model show that the spatial resolution limit to be, unlike the Abbe limit of λ/2, independent of wavelength and linearly proportional to the source-scatterer separation as long as the point scatterer is in the near-field region; if the sub-wavelength scatterer is a spherical impedance discontinuity then the resolution will also be limited by the radius of the sphere. Therefore, superresolution imaging can be achieved as the scatterer approaches the source. This is analogous to an optical scanning tunneling microscope that has sub-wavelength resolution. Scaled to seismic frequencies, it is theoretically possible to extract 100 Hz information from 20 Hz data by imaging of near-field seismic energy.
Macroscopic theory of dark sector
Meierovich, Boris E
2013-01-01
A simple Lagrangian with squared covariant divergence of a vector field as a kinetic term turned out an adequate tool for macroscopic description of the dark sector. The zero-mass field acts as the dark energy. Its energy-momentum tensor is a simple additive to the cosmological constant. Massive fields {\\phi}_{I} with {\\phi}^{K}{\\phi}_{K}0 describe two different forms of dark matter. The space-like ({\\phi}^{K}{\\phi}_{K}0) massive field displays repulsive elasticity. In balance with dark energy and ordinary matter it provides a four parametric diversity of regular solutions of the Einstein equations describing different possible cosmological and oscillating non-singular scenarios of evolution of the universe. In particular, the singular big bang turns into a regular inflation-like transition from contraction to expansion with the accelerate expansion at late times. The fine-tuned Friedman-Robertson-Walker singular solution is a particular limiting case at the boundary of existence of regular oscillating soluti...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Zhongyu Li; Song Xu; Lin Zhu; Kazuo Kasatani
2012-12-01
The third-order optical nonlinearity and response of thin film containing J-like aggregates of a bis[4-(-dibutylamino)phenyl]squarylium dye were measured by degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) technique under resonant conditions. The temporal profile of DFWM signal was obtained with a time resolution of 0.3 ps (FWHM), and was found to consist of at least two components, i.e. the coherent instantaneous nonlinear response (electronic response) and the slow response due to the excited state population grating. The effective (3) value of thin squarylium dye film was evaluated to be as high as 1.1 × 10-7 esu, and the figure of merit of third-order nonlinearity ( = (3)/), was calculated to be about 2.1 × 10-13 esu cm.
Haetge, Jan; Djerdj, Igor; Brezesinski, Torsten
2012-07-07
Nanocrystalline nickel molybdate (NiMoO(4)) thin film electrodes with a 3D honeycomb structure of uniform 17 nm diameter pores were successfully produced through facile polymer templating strategies. These novel sol-gel type materials exhibit enhanced lithium ion storage capabilities, and thus show promise for battery applications.
Tamgadge, Y. S.; Pahurkar, V. G.; Talwatkar, S. S.; Sunatkari, A. L.; Muley, G. G.
2015-08-01
We report synthesis, linear and third-order nonlinear optical properties of Cd-doped CuO-PVA nanocomposite thin films. Cd-doped CuO nanoparticles (NPs) were obtained by chemical synthesis method, and spin coating technique was used to obtain thin films in polyvinyl alcohol matrix. X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows formation of crystalline CuO having monoclinic phase with average particle size of 10 nm. Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy attests formation of NPs by witnessing strong blue shift in the excitonic absorption. Absorption wavelength of CuO NPs shifts from 365 to 342 nm for Cd doping of 1-5 wt%. Both XRD and UV-Vis data confirm decrease in particle size with increase in Cd-doping concentration. Thin films have been characterized by Z-scan technique under continuous-wave He-Ne laser, and enhanced values of nonlinear refractive index n 2 and nonlinear absorption coefficient β have been obtained. Enhancements in the nonlinear optical properties have been attributed to the thermal effect due to strong linear absorption coefficient combined with increased thermo-optic coefficient. Contributing mechanisms such as photoacoustic effect, surface states effect and dielectric effect due to dopant and thin film structure have been discussed.
Macroscopic quantum phenomena from the large N perspective
Chou, C. H.; Hu, B. L.; Subaşi, Y.
2011-07-01
Macroscopic quantum phenomena (MQP) is a relatively new research venue, with exciting ongoing experiments and bright prospects, yet with surprisingly little theoretical activity. What makes MQP intellectually stimulating is because it is counterpoised against the traditional view that macroscopic means classical. This simplistic and hitherto rarely challenged view need be scrutinized anew, perhaps with much of the conventional wisdoms repealed. In this series of papers we report on a systematic investigation into some key foundational issues of MQP, with the hope of constructing a viable theoretical framework for this new endeavour. The three major themes discussed in these three essays are the large N expansion, the correlation hierarchy and quantum entanglement for systems of 'large' sizes, with many components or degrees of freedom. In this paper we use different theories in a variety of contexts to examine the conditions or criteria whereby a macroscopic quantum system may take on classical attributes, and, more interestingly, that it keeps some of its quantum features. The theories we consider here are, the O(N) quantum mechanical model, semiclassical stochastic gravity and gauge / string theories; the contexts include that of a 'quantum roll' in inflationary cosmology, entropy generation in quantum Vlasov equation for plasmas, the leading order and next-to-leading order large N behaviour, and hydrodynamic / thermodynamic limits. The criteria for classicality in our consideration include the use of uncertainty relations, the correlation between classical canonical variables, randomization of quantum phase, environment-induced decoherence, decoherent history of hydrodynamic variables, etc. All this exercise is to ask only one simple question: Is it really so surprising that quantum features can appear in macroscopic objects? By examining different representative systems where detailed theoretical analysis has been carried out, we find that there is no a priori
Macroscopic quantum phenomena from the large N perspective
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chou, C H [department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan 701 (China) and National Center for Theoretical Sciences (South), Tainan, Taiwan 701 (China); Hu, B L; Subasi, Y, E-mail: hubeilok@gmail.com [Joint Quantum Institute and Maryland Center for Fundamental Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)
2011-07-08
Macroscopic quantum phenomena (MQP) is a relatively new research venue, with exciting ongoing experiments and bright prospects, yet with surprisingly little theoretical activity. What makes MQP intellectually stimulating is because it is counterpoised against the traditional view that macroscopic means classical. This simplistic and hitherto rarely challenged view need be scrutinized anew, perhaps with much of the conventional wisdoms repealed. In this series of papers we report on a systematic investigation into some key foundational issues of MQP, with the hope of constructing a viable theoretical framework for this new endeavour. The three major themes discussed in these three essays are the large N expansion, the correlation hierarchy and quantum entanglement for systems of 'large' sizes, with many components or degrees of freedom. In this paper we use different theories in a variety of contexts to examine the conditions or criteria whereby a macroscopic quantum system may take on classical attributes, and, more interestingly, that it keeps some of its quantum features. The theories we consider here are, the O(N) quantum mechanical model, semiclassical stochastic gravity and gauge / string theories; the contexts include that of a 'quantum roll' in inflationary cosmology, entropy generation in quantum Vlasov equation for plasmas, the leading order and next-to-leading order large N behaviour, and hydrodynamic / thermodynamic limits. The criteria for classicality in our consideration include the use of uncertainty relations, the correlation between classical canonical variables, randomization of quantum phase, environment-induced decoherence, decoherent history of hydrodynamic variables, etc. All this exercise is to ask only one simple question: Is it really so surprising that quantum features can appear in macroscopic objects? By examining different representative systems where detailed theoretical analysis has been carried out, we find that
Rank distributions: A panoramic macroscopic outlook
Eliazar, Iddo I.; Cohen, Morrel H.
2014-01-01
This paper presents a panoramic macroscopic outlook of rank distributions. We establish a general framework for the analysis of rank distributions, which classifies them into five macroscopic "socioeconomic" states: monarchy, oligarchy-feudalism, criticality, socialism-capitalism, and communism. Oligarchy-feudalism is shown to be characterized by discrete macroscopic rank distributions, and socialism-capitalism is shown to be characterized by continuous macroscopic size distributions. Criticality is a transition state between oligarchy-feudalism and socialism-capitalism, which can manifest allometric scaling with multifractal spectra. Monarchy and communism are extreme forms of oligarchy-feudalism and socialism-capitalism, respectively, in which the intrinsic randomness vanishes. The general framework is applied to three different models of rank distributions—top-down, bottom-up, and global—and unveils each model's macroscopic universality and versatility. The global model yields a macroscopic classification of the generalized Zipf law, an omnipresent form of rank distributions observed across the sciences. An amalgamation of the three models establishes a universal rank-distribution explanation for the macroscopic emergence of a prevalent class of continuous size distributions, ones governed by unimodal densities with both Pareto and inverse-Pareto power-law tails.
Noguchi, Youhei; Ohtake, Mitsuru; Futamoto, Masaaki; Kirino, Fumiyoshi; Inaba, Nobuyuki
2016-07-01
Fe50PtxPd50-x (at%, x=0-50) alloy films of 10 nm thickness with and without 2-nm-thick MgO cap-layers are prepared on MgO(001) single-crystal substrates by employing a two-step method consisting of low-temperature deposition at 200 °C followed by high-temperature annealing at 600 °C. The influences of MgO cap-layer on the structure and the magnetic properties are investigated. Fe50PtxPd50-x films epitaxially grow on the substrates at 200 °C. The Fe50Pd50 and the Fe50Pt12.5Pd37.5 films are respectively composed of (001) single-crystals with disordered fcc-based (A1) and bcc-based (A2) structures. The films with x>25 consist of mixtures of A1 and A2 crystals. The volume ratio of A2 to A1 crystal decreases with increasing the x value from 25 to 50. The in-plane and out-of-plane lattices are respectively expanded and shrunk due to accommodation of lattice mismatch between film and substrate. When the films are annealed at 600 °C, phase transformation to L10 ordered phase takes place. L10 phase transformation of Fe50PtxPd50-x film is promoted for a sample with MgO cap-layer and the order degree is higher than that without cap-layer. Furthermore, L10 ordering with the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate surface is enhanced for the film with cap-layer. The cap-layer is considered to be giving a tension stress to the magnetic film in lateral direction which promotes L10 ordering with the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate. Deposition of cap-layer is shown effective in achieving higher order degree and in enhancing perpendicular magnetic anisotropy with Fe(Pt,Pd) films.
Macroscopic erosion of divertor and first wall armour in future tokamaks
Würz, H.; Bazylev, B.; Landman, I.; Pestchanyi, S.; Safronov, V.
2002-12-01
Sputtering, evaporation and macroscopic erosion determine the lifetime of the 'in vessel' armour materials CFC, tungsten and beryllium presently under discussion for future tokamaks. For CFC armour macroscopic erosion means brittle destruction and dust formation whereas for metallic armour melt layer erosion by melt motion and droplet splashing. Available results on macroscopic erosion from hot plasma and e-beam simulation experiments and from tokamaks are critically evaluated and a comprehensive discussion of experimental and numerical macroscopic erosion and its extrapolation to future tokamaks is given. Shielding of divertor armour materials by their own vapor exists during plasma disruptions. The evolving plasma shield protects the armour from high heat loads, absorbs the incoming energy and reradiates it volumetrically thus reducing drastically the deposited energy. As a result, vertical target erosion by vaporization turns out to be of the order of a few microns per disruption event and macroscopic erosion becomes the dominant erosion source.
Investigation of dissipative forces near macroscopic media
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Becker, R.S.
1982-12-01
The interaction of classical charged particles with the fields they induce in macroscopic dielectric media is investigated. For 10- to 1000-eV electrons, the angular perturbation of the trajectory by the image potential for surface impact parameters of 50 to 100 A is shown to be of the order of 0.001 rads over a distance of 100 A. The energy loss incurred by low-energy particles due to collective excitations such as surface plasmons is shown to be observable with a transition probability of 0.01 to 0.001 (Becker, et al., 1981b). The dispersion of real surface plasmon modes in planar and cylindrical geometries is discussed and is derived for pinhole geometry described in terms of a single-sheeted hyperboloid of revolution. An experimental apparatus for the measurement of collective losses for medium-energy electrons translating close to a dielectric surface is described and discussed. Data showing such losses at electron energies of 500 to 900 eV in silver foils containing many small apertures are presented and shown to be in good agreement with classical stopping power calculations and quantum mechanical calculations carried out in the low-velocity limit. The data and calculations are compared and contrasted with earlier transmission and reflection measurements, and the course of further investigation is discussed.
Searching for the nanoscopic–macroscopic boundary
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Velásquez, E.A. [GICM and GES Groups, Instituto de Física-FCEN, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21 Medellín (Colombia); Grupo de Investigación en Modelamiento y Simulación Computacional, Universidad de San Buenaventura Sec. Medellín, A.A. 5222, Medellín (Colombia); Altbir, D. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), CEDENNA, Santiago (Chile); Mazo-Zuluaga, J. [GICM and GES Groups, Instituto de Física-FCEN, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21 Medellín (Colombia); Duque, L.F. [GICM and GES Groups, Instituto de Física-FCEN, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21 Medellín (Colombia); Grupo de Física Teórica, Aplicada y Didáctica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Aplicadas Instituto Tecnológico Metropolitano, Medellín (Colombia); Mejía-López, J., E-mail: jmejia@puc.cl [Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, CEDENNA, Santiago (Chile)
2013-12-15
Several studies have focused on the size-dependent properties of elements, looking for a unique definition of the nanoscopic–macroscopic boundary. By using a novel approach consisting of an energy variational method combined with a quantum Heisenberg model, here we address the size at which the ordering temperature of a magnetic nanoparticle reaches its bulk value. We consider samples with sizes in the range 1–500 nm, as well as several geometries and crystalline lattices and observe that, contrarily to what is commonly argued, the nanoscopic-microscopic boundary depends on both factors: shape and crystalline structure. This suggests that the surface-to-volume ratio is not the unique parameter that defines the behavior of a nanometric sample whenever its size increases reaching the bulk dimension. Comparisons reveal very good agreement with experimental evidence with differences less than 2%. Our results have broad implications for practical issues in measurements on systems at the nanometric scale. - Highlights: • A novel quantum-Heisenberg variational energy method is implemented. • The asymptotic behavior toward the thermodynamic limit is explored. • An important dependence of the nano-bulk boundary on the geometry is found. • And also an important dependence on the crystalline lattice. • We obtain a very good agreement with experimental evidence with differences <2%.
Macroscopic superpositions and gravimetry with quantum magnetomechanics
Johnsson, Mattias T.; Brennen, Gavin K.; Twamley, Jason
2016-11-01
Precision measurements of gravity can provide tests of fundamental physics and are of broad practical interest for metrology. We propose a scheme for absolute gravimetry using a quantum magnetomechanical system consisting of a magnetically trapped superconducting resonator whose motion is controlled and measured by a nearby RF-SQUID or flux qubit. By driving the mechanical massive resonator to be in a macroscopic superposition of two different heights our we predict that our interferometry protocol could, subject to systematic errors, achieve a gravimetric sensitivity of Δg/g ~ 2.2 × 10-10 Hz-1/2, with a spatial resolution of a few nanometres. This sensitivity and spatial resolution exceeds the precision of current state of the art atom-interferometric and corner-cube gravimeters by more than an order of magnitude, and unlike classical superconducting interferometers produces an absolute rather than relative measurement of gravity. In addition, our scheme takes measurements at ~10 kHz, a region where the ambient vibrational noise spectrum is heavily suppressed compared the ~10 Hz region relevant for current cold atom gravimeters.
Macroscopic Quantum Phenomena from the Correlation, Coupling and Criticality Perspectives
Chou, C. H.; Hu, B. L.; Subaşi, Y.
2011-12-01
In this sequel paper we explore how macroscopic quantum phenomena can be measured or understood from the behavior of quantum correlations which exist in a quantum system of many particles or components and how the interaction strengths change with energy or scale, under ordinary situations and when the system is near its critical point. We use the nPI (master) effective action related to the Boltzmann-BBGKY / Schwinger-Dyson hierarchy of equations as a tool for systemizing the contributions of higher order correlation functions to the dynamics of lower order correlation functions. Together with the large N expansion discussed in our first paper [1] we explore 1) the conditions whereby an H-theorem is obtained, which can be viewed as a signifier of the emergence of macroscopic behavior in the system. We give two more examples from past work: 2) the nonequilibrium dynamics of N atoms in an optical lattice under the large Script N (field components), 2PI and second order perturbative expansions, illustrating how N and Script N enter in these three aspects of quantum correlations, coherence and coupling strength. 3) the behavior of an interacting quantum system near its critical point, the effects of quantum and thermal fluctuations and the conditions under which the system manifests infrared dimensional reduction. We also discuss how the effective field theory concept bears on macroscopic quantum phenomena: the running of the coupling parameters with energy or scale imparts a dynamical-dependent and an interaction-sensitive definition of 'macroscopia'.
The origins of macroscopic quantum coherence in high temperature superconductivity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Turner, Philip, E-mail: ph.turner@napier.ac.uk [Edinburgh Napier University, 10 Colinton Road, Edinburgh EH10 5DT (United Kingdom); Nottale, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.nottale@obspm.fr [CNRS, LUTH, Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, 5 Place Janssen, 92190 Meudon (France)
2015-08-15
Highlights: • We propose a new theoretical approach to superconductivity in p-type cuprates. • Electron pairing mechanisms in the superconducting and pseudogap phases are proposed. • A scale free network of dopants is key to macroscopic quantum coherence. - Abstract: A new, theoretical approach to macroscopic quantum coherence and superconductivity in the p-type (hole doped) cuprates is proposed. The theory includes mechanisms to account for e-pair coupling in the superconducting and pseudogap phases and their inter relations observed in these materials. Electron pair coupling in the superconducting phase is facilitated by local quantum potentials created by static dopants in a mechanism which explains experimentally observed optimal doping levels and the associated peak in critical temperature. By contrast, evidence suggests that electrons contributing to the pseudogap are predominantly coupled by fractal spin waves (fractons) induced by the fractal arrangement of dopants. On another level, the theory offers new insights into the emergence of a macroscopic quantum potential generated by a fractal distribution of dopants. This, in turn, leads to the emergence of coherent, macroscopic spin waves and a second associated macroscopic quantum potential, possibly supported by charge order. These quantum potentials play two key roles. The first involves the transition of an expected diffusive process (normally associated with Anderson localization) in fractal networks, into e-pair coherence. The second involves the facilitation of tunnelling between localized e-pairs. These combined effects lead to the merger of the super conducting and pseudo gap phases into a single coherent condensate at optimal doping. The underlying theory relating to the diffusion to quantum transition is supported by Coherent Random Lasing, which can be explained using an analogous approach. As a final step, an experimental program is outlined to validate the theory and suggests a new
Macroscopic transport by synthetic molecular machines
Berna, J; Leigh, DA; Lubomska, M; Mendoza, SM; Perez, EM; Rudolf, P; Teobaldi, G; Zerbetto, F
2005-01-01
Nature uses molecular motors and machines in virtually every significant biological process, but demonstrating that simpler artificial structures operating through the same gross mechanisms can be interfaced with - and perform physical tasks in - the macroscopic world represents a significant hurdle
Assessments of macroscopicity for quantum optical states
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Laghaout, Amine; Neergaard-Nielsen, Jonas Schou; Andersen, Ulrik Lund
2015-01-01
With the slow but constant progress in the coherent control of quantum systems, it is now possible to create large quantum superpositions. There has therefore been an increased interest in quantifying any claims of macroscopicity. We attempt here to motivate three criteria which we believe should...... enter in the assessment of macroscopic quantumness: The number of quantum fluctuation photons, the purity of the states, and the ease with which the branches making up the state can be distinguished. © 2014....
Quantum Bell Inequalities from Macroscopic Locality
Yang, Tzyh Haur; Sheridan, Lana; Scarani, Valerio
2010-01-01
We propose a method to generate analytical quantum Bell inequalities based on the principle of Macroscopic Locality. By imposing locality over binary processings of virtual macroscopic intensities, we establish a correspondence between Bell inequalities and quantum Bell inequalities in bipartite scenarios with dichotomic observables. We discuss how to improve the latter approximation and how to extend our ideas to scenarios with more than two outcomes per setting.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xu, Dongbin, E-mail: dongbin.xu@seagate.com [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Sun, Cheng-Jun, E-mail: cjsun@aps.anl.gov, E-mail: msecgm@nus.edu.sg; Heald, Steve M. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Chen, Jing-Sheng; Chow, Gan Moog, E-mail: cjsun@aps.anl.gov, E-mail: msecgm@nus.edu.sg [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Zhou, Tie-Jun [Data Storage Institute, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A-STAR), Singapore 117608 (Singapore); Bergman, Anders; Sanyal, Biplab [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, 751 20 Uppsala (Sweden)
2014-10-14
In structurally ordered magnetic thin films, the Curie temperature (T{sub C}) of ferromagnetic films depends on the exchange integral of the short range ordered neighboring atoms. The exchange integral may be adjusted by controlling the elemental substitutional concentration at the lattice site of interest. We show how to control the T{sub C} in high anisotropy L1{sub 0} Fe{sub 50}Pt{sub 50} magnetic thin films by substituting Rh into the Pt site. Rh substitution in L1{sub 0} FePt modified the local atomic environment and the corresponding electronic properties, while retaining the ordered L1{sub 0} phase. The analysis of extended x-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectra shows that Rh uniformly substitutes for Pt in L1{sub 0} FePt. A model of antiferromagnetic defects caused by controlled Rh substitution of the Pt site, reducing the T{sub C,} is proposed to interpret this phenomenon and its validity is further examined by ab initio density functional calculations.
Ekinci, Yunus Levent
2016-01-01
This paper presents an easy-to-use open source computer algorithm (code) for estimating the depths of isolated single thin dike-like source bodies by using numerical second-, third-, and fourth-order horizontal derivatives computed from observed magnetic anomalies. The approach does not require a priori information and uses some filters of successive graticule spacings. The computed higher-order horizontal derivative datasets are used to solve nonlinear equations for depth determination. The solutions are independent from the magnetization and ambient field directions. The practical usability of the developed code, designed in MATLAB R2012b (MathWorks Inc.), was successfully examined using some synthetic simulations with and without noise. The algorithm was then used to estimate the depths of some ore bodies buried in different regions (USA, Sweden, and Canada). Real data tests clearly indicated that the obtained depths are in good agreement with those of previous studies and drilling information. Additionally, a state-of-the-art inversion scheme based on particle swarm optimization produced comparable results to those of the higher-order horizontal derivative analyses in both synthetic and real anomaly cases. Accordingly, the proposed code is verified to be useful in interpreting isolated single thin dike-like magnetized bodies and may be an alternative processing technique. The open source code can be easily modified and adapted to suit the benefits of other researchers.
Chahrour, Khaled M.; Ahmed, Naser M.; Hashim, M. R.; Elfadill, Nezar G.; Qaeed, M. A.; Bououdina, M.
2014-12-01
In this study, anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates of Aluminum thin films onto Ti-coated silicon substrates were prepared for growth of nanostructure materials. Hexagonally highly ordered thin AAO templates were fabricated under controllable conditions by using a two-step anodization. The obtained thin AAO templates were approximately 70 nm in pore diameter and 250 nm in length with 110 nm interpore distances within an area of 3 cm2. The difference between first and second anodization was investigated in details by in situ monitoring of current-time curve. A bottom barrier layer of the AAO templates was removed during dropping the voltage in the last period of the anodization process followed by a wet etching using phosphoric acid (5 wt%) for several minutes at ambient temperature. As an application, Zn nanorod arrays embedded in anodic alumina (AAO) template were fabricated by electrodeposition. Oxygen was used to oxidize the electrodeposited Zn nanorods in the AAO template at 700 °C. The morphology, structure and photoluminescence properties of ZnO/AAO assembly were analyzed using Field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Atomic force microscope (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL).
Sheng Cheng; Jiangbo Lu; Dong Han; Ming Liu; Xiaoli Lu; Chunrui Ma; Shengbai Zhang; Chonglin Chen
2016-01-01
Giant optical transmittance changes of over 300% in wide wavelength range from 500 nm to 2500 nm were observed in LaBaCo2O5.5+δ thin films annealed in air and ethanol ambient, respectively. The reduction process induces high density of ordered oxygen vacancies and the formation of LaBaCo2O5.5 (δ = 0) structure evidenced by aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, the first-principles calculations reveal the origin and mechanism of optical transmittance enhancement in L...
Oates, D E; Park, S-H; Koren, G
2004-11-05
We present experimental evidence for the observation of the nonlinear Meissner effect in high-quality epitaxial yttrium barium copper oxide thin films by measuring their intermodulation distortion at microwave frequencies versus temperature. Most of the films measured show a characteristic increase in nonlinearity at low temperatures as predicted by the nonlinear Meissner effect. We could measure the nonlinear Meissner effect because intermodulation distortion measurements are an extremely sensitive method that can detect changes in the penetration depth of the order of 1 part in 10(5).
Wave speeds in the macroscopic extended model for ultrarelativistic gases
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Borghero, F., E-mail: borghero@unica.it [Dip. Matematica e Informatica, Università di Cagliari, Via Ospedale 72, 09124 Cagliari (Italy); Demontis, F., E-mail: fdemontis@unica.it [Dip. Matematica, Università di Cagliari, Viale Merello 92, 09123 Cagliari (Italy); Pennisi, S., E-mail: spennisi@unica.it [Dip. Matematica, Università di Cagliari, Via Ospedale 72, 09124 Cagliari (Italy)
2013-11-15
Equations determining wave speeds for a model of ultrarelativistic gases are investigated. This model is already present in literature; it deals with an arbitrary number of moments and it was proposed in the context of exact macroscopic approaches in Extended Thermodynamics. We find these results: the whole system for the determination of the wave speeds can be divided into independent subsystems which are expressed by linear combinations, through scalar coefficients, of tensors all of the same order; some wave speeds, but not all of them, are expressed by square roots of rational numbers; finally, we prove that these wave speeds for the macroscopic model are the same of those furnished by the kinetic model.
Wave speeds in the macroscopic extended model for ultrarelativistic gases
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Borghero, F., E-mail: borghero@unica.it [Dip. Matematica e Informatica, Università di Cagliari, Via Ospedale 72, 09124 Cagliari (Italy); Demontis, F., E-mail: fdemontis@unica.it [Dip. Matematica, Università di Cagliari, Viale Merello 92, 09123 Cagliari (Italy); Pennisi, S., E-mail: spennisi@unica.it [Dip. Matematica, Università di Cagliari, Via Ospedale 72, 09124 Cagliari (Italy)
2013-11-15
Equations determining wave speeds for a model of ultrarelativistic gases are investigated. This model is already present in literature; it deals with an arbitrary number of moments and it was proposed in the context of exact macroscopic approaches in Extended Thermodynamics. We find these results: the whole system for the determination of the wave speeds can be divided into independent subsystems which are expressed by linear combinations, through scalar coefficients, of tensors all of the same order; some wave speeds, but not all of them, are expressed by square roots of rational numbers; finally, we prove that these wave speeds for the macroscopic model are the same of those furnished by the kinetic model.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Liu, Xikui; Stamm, Manfred
2009-01-01
Realizing the vast technological potential of patternable block copolymers requires both the precise controlling of the orientation and long-range ordering, which is still a challenging topic so far...
Magnetic damping and spin polarization of highly ordered B2 Co{sub 2}FeAl thin films
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cui, Yishen [Department of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Lu, Jiwei, E-mail: jl5tk@virginia.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Schäfer, Sebastian; Khodadadi, Behrouz; Mewes, Tim [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35487 (United States); Osofsky, Mike [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Wolf, Stuart A. [Department of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States)
2014-08-21
Epitaxial Co{sub 2}FeAl films were synthesized using the Biased Target Ion Beam Deposition technique. Post annealing yielded Co{sub 2}FeAl films with an improved B2 chemical ordering. Both the magnetization and the Gilbert damping parameter were reduced with increased B2 ordering. A low damping parameter, ∼0.002, was attained in B2 ordered Co{sub 2}FeAl films without the presence of the L2{sub 1} Heusler phase, which suggests that the B2 structure is sufficient for providing low damping in Co{sub 2}FeAl. The spin polarization was ∼53% and was insensitive to the chemical ordering.
Yadav, Preeti; Sharma, Ambika
2017-01-01
The objective of the present research work is to study the nonlinear optical properties of quaternary Se-Sn (Bi,Te) chalcogenide thin films. A Z-scan technique utilizing 800 nm femtosecond laser source has been used for the determination of the nonlinear refractive index ( n 2), two-photon absorption coefficient ( β 2) and third-order susceptibility ( χ (3)). In the measurement of n 2, an aperture is placed in the far field before the detector (closed aperture), while for the measurement of β 2, entire transmitted light is collected by the detector without an aperture (open aperture). Self-focusing has been observed in closed aperture transmission spectra. The appearance of the peak after the valley in this spectrum reflects the positive nonlinear refractive index. The calculated value of n 2 of the studied thin films varies from 1.06 × 10-12 cm2/W to 0.88 × 10-12 cm2/W. The compound-dependent behavior of n 2 is explained in this paper. We have also compared the experimental values of n 2 with the theoretically determined values, other compounds of chalcogenide glass and pure silica. The n 2 of the investigated thin films is found to be 3200 times higher than pure silica. The results of the open aperture Z-scan revealed that the value of β 2 of the studied compound is in the order of 10-8 cm/W. The behavior of two-photon absorption is described by means of the optical band gap ( E g) of the studied compound. The variation in the figure-of-merit from 0.32 to 1.4 with varying Sn content is also reported in this paper. The higher value of nonlinearity makes this material advantageous for optical fibers, waveguides and optical limiting devices.
Yadav, Preeti; Sharma, Ambika
2016-09-01
The objective of the present research work is to study the nonlinear optical properties of quaternary Se-Sn (Bi,Te) chalcogenide thin films. A Z-scan technique utilizing 800 nm femtosecond laser source has been used for the determination of the nonlinear refractive index (n 2), two-photon absorption coefficient (β 2) and third-order susceptibility (χ (3)). In the measurement of n 2, an aperture is placed in the far field before the detector (closed aperture), while for the measurement of β 2, entire transmitted light is collected by the detector without an aperture (open aperture). Self-focusing has been observed in closed aperture transmission spectra. The appearance of the peak after the valley in this spectrum reflects the positive nonlinear refractive index. The calculated value of n 2 of the studied thin films varies from 1.06 × 10-12 cm2/W to 0.88 × 10-12 cm2/W. The compound-dependent behavior of n 2 is explained in this paper. We have also compared the experimental values of n 2 with the theoretically determined values, other compounds of chalcogenide glass and pure silica. The n 2 of the investigated thin films is found to be 3200 times higher than pure silica. The results of the open aperture Z-scan revealed that the value of β 2 of the studied compound is in the order of 10-8 cm/W. The behavior of two-photon absorption is described by means of the optical band gap (E g) of the studied compound. The variation in the figure-of-merit from 0.32 to 1.4 with varying Sn content is also reported in this paper. The higher value of nonlinearity makes this material advantageous for optical fibers, waveguides and optical limiting devices.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kuschel, T; Wilkens, H; Schubert, R; Wollschlaeger, J [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Osnabrueck, Barbarastrasse 7, D-49069 Osnabrueck (Germany); Bardenhagen, H [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Wuerzburg, Am Hubland, D-97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Hamrle, J; Pistora, J, E-mail: joachim.wollschlaeger@uos.de [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology Centre, VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15, 70833 Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic)
2011-07-06
A new combination of different vectorial magnetometry techniques using magnetooptic Kerr effect is described. The processing of the experimental data contains the separation of linear and quadratic parts of the magnetization curves and determination of all three components of the magnetization vector in units of Kerr rotation without any normalization to the saturation values. The experimental procedure includes measurements with parallel and perpendicular polarized incident light and an external magnetic field parallel and perpendicular to the plane of incidence of light. The determination of the complex Kerr amplitude and the theoretic description of the data processing in assumption of small angles of incidence and also for larger angles of incidence using adequate scaling to the mean saturation value validate this vectorial magnetometry method. In the case of an absent out-of-plane component of the magnetization vector, the complete reversal process can easily be reconstructed and interpreted by monodomain states and domain splitting. The measurement procedure and the processing of the data are demonstrated for an ultra-thin epitaxial Fe film on MgO(0 0 1).
Martín-Fabiani, Ignacio; Rebollar, Esther; García-Gutiérrez, Mari Cruz; Rueda, Daniel R; Castillejo, Marta; Ezquerra, Tiberio A
2015-02-11
In this work we present an accurate mapping of the structural order of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) in spin-coated thin polymer films, via a microfocus beam grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (μGISAXS) scan, GISAXS modeling, and atomic force microscopy imaging all along the scanned area. This combined study has allowed the evaluation of the effects on LIPSS formation due to nonhomogeneous spatial distribution of the laser pulse energy, mapping with micrometric resolution the evolution of the period and degree of structural order of LIPSS across the laser beam diameter in a direction perpendicular to the polarization vector. The experiments presented go one step further toward controlling nanostructure formation in LIPSS through a deep understanding of the parameters that influence this process.
Hardy, Will J; Yuan, Jiangtan; Guo, Hua; Zhou, Panpan; Lou, Jun; Natelson, Douglas
2016-06-28
With materials approaching the 2D limit yielding many exciting systems with intriguing physical properties and promising technological functionalities, understanding and engineering magnetic order in nanoscale, layered materials is generating keen interest. One such material is V5S8, a metal with an antiferromagnetic ground state below the Néel temperature TN ∼ 32 K and a prominent spin-flop signature in the magnetoresistance (MR) when H∥c ∼ 4.2 T. Here we study nanoscale-thickness single crystals of V5S8, focusing on temperatures close to TN and the evolution of material properties in response to systematic reduction in crystal thickness. Transport measurements just below TN reveal magnetic hysteresis that we ascribe to a metamagnetic transition, the first-order magnetic-field-driven breakdown of the ordered state. The reduction of crystal thickness to ∼10 nm coincides with systematic changes in the magnetic response: TN falls, implying that antiferromagnetism is suppressed; and while the spin-flop signature remains, the hysteresis disappears, implying that the metamagnetic transition becomes second order as the thickness approaches the 2D limit. This work demonstrates that single crystals of magnetic materials with nanometer thicknesses are promising systems for future studies of magnetism in reduced dimensionality and quantum phase transitions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Clavero, C.; Skuza, J. R.; Garcia-Martin, J. M.; Cebollada, A.; Walko, D. A.; Lukaszew, R. A.; Coll. of William and Mary; Inst. de Microelectronica de Madrid
2009-03-01
We report on the time evolution of mass transport upon annealing nonequilibrium Fe-Pt nanocomposite films, leading to nucleation of L1{sub 0} chemically ordered phase. The nonequilibrium nanocomposite films were fabricated by applying Fe{sup +} ion implantation to epitaxial Pt films grown on (001) MgO substrates, yielding Fe nanoclusters embedded in a Pt matrix at a tailored penetration depth. Time-resolved x-ray diffraction studies were carried out using synchrotron radiation, allowing determination of the activation energy for nucleation of the FePt L1{sub 0} phase within the segregated nanoclusters during annealing. The growth of the segregated L1{sub 0} ordered phase was modeled using ideal grain-size law and found to be dominated by strain-driven surface nucleation. The activation energies were found to correlate with the nanocluster size. Magnetic characterization of selected annealed samples indicates perpendicular magnetic anisotropy with high coercive field coincident with high value of the chemical order parameter of the ordered phase within the magnetic nanoclusters.
Macroscopic optical response and photonic bands
Perez-Huerta, J S; Mendoza, Bernardo S; Mochan, W Luis
2012-01-01
We develop a formalism for the calculation of the macroscopic dielectric response of composite systems made of particles of one material embedded periodically within a matrix of another material, each of which is characterized by a well defined dielectric function. The nature of these dielectric functions is arbitrary, and could correspond to dielectric or conducting, transparent or opaque, absorptive and dispersive materials. The geometry of the particles and the Bravais lattice of the composite are also arbitrary. Our formalism goes beyond the longwavelenght approximation as it fully incorporates retardation effects. We test our formalism through the study the propagation of electromagnetic waves in 2D photonic crystals made of periodic arrays of cylindrical holes in a dispersionless dielectric host. Our macroscopic theory yields a spatially dispersive macroscopic response which allows the calculation of the full photonic band structure of the system, as well as the characterization of its normal modes, upo...
A macroscopic challenge for quantum spacetime
Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni
2013-01-01
Over the last decade a growing number of quantum-gravity researchers has been looking for opportunities for the first ever experimental evidence of a Planck-length quantum property of spacetime. These studies are usually based on the analysis of some candidate indirect implications of spacetime quantization, such as a possible curvature of momentum space. Some recent proposals have raised hope that we might also gain direct experimental access to quantum properties of spacetime, by finding evidence of limitations to the measurability of the center-of-mass coordinates of some macroscopic bodies. However I here observe that the arguments that originally lead to speculating about spacetime quantization do not apply to the localization of the center of mass of a macroscopic body. And I also analyze some popular formalizations of the notion of quantum spacetime, finding that when the quantization of spacetime is Planckian for the constituent particles then for the composite macroscopic body the quantization of spa...
On Macroscopic Complexity and Perceptual Coding
Scoville, John
2010-01-01
While Shannon information establishes limits to the universal data compression of binary data, no existing theory provides an equivalent characterization of the lossy data compression algorithms prevalent in audiovisual media. The current paper proposes a mathematical framework for perceptual coding and inference which quantifies the complexity of objects indistinguishable to a particular observer. A definition of the complexity is presented and related to a generalization of Boltzmann entropy for these equivalence classes. When the classes are partitions of phase space, corresponding to classical observations, this is the proper Boltzmann entropy and the macroscopic complexity agrees with the Algorithmic Entropy. For general classes, the macroscopic complexity measure determines the optimal lossy compression of the data. Conversely, perceptual coding algorithms may be used to construct upper bounds on certain macroscopic complexities. Knowledge of these complexities, in turn, allows perceptual inference whic...
Nanoplasmon-enabled macroscopic thermal management
Jonsson, Gustav Edman; Dmitriev, Alexandre
2013-01-01
In numerous applications of energy harvesting via transformation of light into heat the focus recently shifted towards highly absorptive materials featuring nanoplasmons. It is currently established that noble metals-based absorptive plasmonic platforms deliver significant light-capturing capability and can be viewed as super-absorbers of optical radiation. However, direct experimental evidence of plasmon-enabled macroscopic temperature increase that would result from these efficient absorptive properties is scarce. Here we derive a general quantitative method of characterizing light-capturing properties of a given heat-generating absorptive layer by macroscopic thermal imaging. We further monitor macroscopic areas that are homogeneously heated by several degrees with plasmon nanostructures that occupy a mere 8% of the surface, leaving it essentially transparent and evidencing significant heat generation capability of nanoplasmon-enabled light capture. This has a direct bearing to thermophotovoltaics and othe...
Noise-driven interfaces and their macroscopic representation
Dentz, Marco; Neuweiler, Insa; Méheust, Yves; Tartakovsky, Daniel M.
2016-11-01
We study the macroscopic representation of noise-driven interfaces in stochastic interface growth models in (1 +1 ) dimensions. The interface is characterized macroscopically by saturation, which represents the fluctuating sharp interface by a smoothly varying phase field with values between 0 and 1. We determine the one-point interface height statistics for the Edwards-Wilkinson (EW) and Kadar-Paris-Zhang (KPZ) models in order to determine explicit deterministic equations for the phase saturation for each of them. While we obtain exact results for the EW model, we develop a Gaussian closure approximation for the KPZ model. We identify an interface compression term, which is related to mass transfer perpendicular to the growth direction, and a diffusion term that tends to increase the interface width. The interface compression rate depends on the mesoscopic mass transfer process along the interface and in this sense provides a relation between meso- and macroscopic interface dynamics. These results shed light on the relation between mesoscale and macroscale interface models, and provide a systematic framework for the upscaling of stochastic interface dynamics.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
丁方允; 丁睿; 李炳杰
2003-01-01
The boundary value problem of plate bending problem on two-parameter foundation was discussed. Using two series of the high-order fundamental solution sequences, namely, the fundamental solution sequences for the multi-harmonic operator and Laplace operator, applying the multiple reciprocity method (MRM), the MRM boundary integral equation for plate bending problem was constructed. It proves that the boundary integral equation derived from MRM is essentially identical to the conventional boundary integral equation. Hence the convergence analysis of MRM for plate bending problem can be obtained by the error estimation for the conventional boundary integral equation. In addition, this method can extend to the case of more series of the high-order fundamental solution sequences.
Micro and macroscopic investigation to quantify tillage impact on soil hydrodynamic behaviour
Beckers, E.; Roisin, C.; Plougonven, E.; Deraedt, D.; Léonard, A.; Degré, A.
2012-04-01
H1 and H2 for both management practices: 100cm3 samples were used to establish pF curves with the Richards procedure, and 35cm3 samples were used for X-ray microtomography investigation. Samples for microtomography were air-dried at 40°C in order to empty meso- and macroporosity and then scanned using a Skyscan-1172 high-resolution desktop micro-CT system (Skyscan, Kontich, Belgium). Macroscopic measurements show consistent results: penetrometry profiles confirm the presence of two different horizons for RT, with a permeable superficial horizon between 0 and 10cm and a compacted subjacent horizon. Despite the long-term experiment, the old plough pan is still observed. The superficial horizon is equivalent in terms of pF curves to CT. The second horizon in RT shows significant differences with CT: porosity and especially effective porosity are greater for CT than RT. Infiltration tests confirm these reports with a higher conductivity for CT than RT. In fact, the first permeable horizon for RT is thin and the second horizon impacts vertical infiltration. These observations will be completed with microtomograms analysis. Pore size distribution, but particularly morphological parameters like eccentricity, orientation, connectivity and anisotropy of the pore network will be quantified and connected with macroscopic measurements.
Measurement and Modeling of Short and Medium Range Order in Amorphous Ta2O5 Thin Films
Shyam, Badri; Stone, Kevin H.; Bassiri, Riccardo; Fejer, Martin M.; Toney, Michael F.; Mehta, Apurva
2016-08-01
Amorphous films and coatings are rapidly growing in importance. Yet, there is a dearth of high-quality structural data on sub-micron films. Not understanding how these materials assemble at atomic scale limits fundamental insights needed to improve their performance. Here, we use grazing-incidence x-ray total scattering measurements to examine the atomic structure of the top 50-100 nm of Ta2O5 films; mirror coatings that show high promise to significantly improve the sensitivity of the next generation of gravitational-wave detectors. Our measurements show noticeable changes well into medium range, not only between crystalline and amorphous, but also between as-deposited, annealed and doped amorphous films. It is a further challenge to quickly translate the structural information into insights into mechanisms of packing and disorder. Here, we illustrate a modeling approach that allows translation of observed structural features to a physically intuitive packing of a primary structural unit based on a kinked Ta-O-Ta backbone. Our modeling illustrates how Ta-O-Ta units link to form longer 1D chains and even 2D ribbons, and how doping and annealing influences formation of 2D order. We also find that all the amorphousTa2O5 films studied in here are not just poorly crystalline but appear to lack true 3D order.
Calvo, Alejandra; Fuertes, M Cecilia; Yameen, Basit; Williams, Federico J; Azzaroni, Omar; Soler-Illia, Galo J A A
2010-04-20
A robust and straightforward strategy allowing the controlled confinement of metal nanoparticles within the 3D framework of mesoporous films is presented. The chemical methodology is based on the inner surface modification of mesoporous silica films with polyelectrolyte brushes. We demonstrate that the macromolecular building blocks significantly enhance the site-selective preconcentration of nanoparticle precursors in the inner environment of the mesoporous film. Then, chemical reduction of the preconcentrated precursors led to the formation of metal nanoparticles locally addressed in the mesoporous structure. We show that the synergy taking place between two versatile functional nanobuilding blocks (ordered mesocavities and polymer brushes) can produce stable embedded nanoparticles with tuned optical properties in a very simple manner. As a general framework, the strategy can be easily adapted to different sets of polymer brushes and mesoporous films in order to regulate the monomer-precursor interactions and, consequently, manipulate the site-selective character of the different chemistries taking place in the film. We consider that the "integrative chemistry" approach described in this work provides new pathways to manipulate the physicochemical characteristics of hybrid organic-inorganic advanced functional assemblies based on the rational design of chemistry and topology in confined environments.
Measurement and Modeling of Short and Medium Range Order in Amorphous Ta2O5 Thin Films
Shyam, Badri; Stone, Kevin H.; Bassiri, Riccardo; Fejer, Martin M.; Toney, Michael F.; Mehta, Apurva
2016-01-01
Amorphous films and coatings are rapidly growing in importance. Yet, there is a dearth of high-quality structural data on sub-micron films. Not understanding how these materials assemble at atomic scale limits fundamental insights needed to improve their performance. Here, we use grazing-incidence x-ray total scattering measurements to examine the atomic structure of the top 50–100 nm of Ta2O5 films; mirror coatings that show high promise to significantly improve the sensitivity of the next generation of gravitational-wave detectors. Our measurements show noticeable changes well into medium range, not only between crystalline and amorphous, but also between as-deposited, annealed and doped amorphous films. It is a further challenge to quickly translate the structural information into insights into mechanisms of packing and disorder. Here, we illustrate a modeling approach that allows translation of observed structural features to a physically intuitive packing of a primary structural unit based on a kinked Ta-O-Ta backbone. Our modeling illustrates how Ta-O-Ta units link to form longer 1D chains and even 2D ribbons, and how doping and annealing influences formation of 2D order. We also find that all the amorphousTa2O5 films studied in here are not just poorly crystalline but appear to lack true 3D order. PMID:27562542
Antiferromagnetic and xy ferro-orbital order in insulating SrRuO3 thin films with SrO termination.
Autieri, C
2016-10-26
By means of first-principles calculations we study the structural, magnetic and electronic properties of SrRuO3 surface for the SrO termination. We find that the RuO6 octahedra and the structure of the SrO layers at the surface are strongly modified as well as the Ru-O-Ru bond angles. We find in the thin films a d xy ferro-orbital order. The d xy orbital becomes the lowest in energy as in other quasitwodimensional ruthenates. Such structural rearrangement, together with a band reduction, leads to a modification of the magnetic properties. We compare the Jahn-Teller effect between the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases. We show that an insulating G-type antiferromagnetic phase takes place in SrRuO3 thin films, substituting the metallic phase experimentally found in every bulk Sr-ruthenates. The single layer SrRuO3 presents many similarities with the Ca2RuO4 low temperature phase, these similarities disappear with a larger number of layers. A study of the ground state of the as function of the number of layers is presented, the competition between bandwidth and Coulomb repulsion determines the ground state. We propose the disorder as responsible for the exchange bias effect observed.
Inverted rank distributions: Macroscopic statistics, universality classes, and critical exponents
Eliazar, Iddo; Cohen, Morrel H.
2014-01-01
An inverted rank distribution is an infinite sequence of positive sizes ordered in a monotone increasing fashion. Interlacing together Lorenzian and oligarchic asymptotic analyses, we establish a macroscopic classification of inverted rank distributions into five “socioeconomic” universality classes: communism, socialism, criticality, feudalism, and absolute monarchy. We further establish that: (i) communism and socialism are analogous to a “disordered phase”, feudalism and absolute monarchy are analogous to an “ordered phase”, and criticality is the “phase transition” between order and disorder; (ii) the universality classes are characterized by two critical exponents, one governing the ordered phase, and the other governing the disordered phase; (iii) communism, criticality, and absolute monarchy are characterized by sharp exponent values, and are inherently deterministic; (iv) socialism is characterized by a continuous exponent range, is inherently stochastic, and is universally governed by continuous power-law statistics; (v) feudalism is characterized by a continuous exponent range, is inherently stochastic, and is universally governed by discrete exponential statistics. The results presented in this paper yield a universal macroscopic socioeconophysical perspective of inverted rank distributions.
Separation of the Microscopic and Macroscopic Domains
Van Zandt, L. L.
1977-01-01
Examines the possibility of observing interference in quantum magnification experiments such as the celebrated "Schroedinger cat". Uses the possibility of observing interference for separating the realm of microscopic from macroscopic dynamics; estimates the dividing line to fall at system sizes of about 100 Daltons. (MLH)
Macroscopic Modeling of Polymer-Electrolyte Membranes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weber, A.Z.; Newman, J.
2007-04-01
In this chapter, the various approaches for the macroscopic modeling of transport phenomena in polymer-electrolyte membranes are discussed. This includes general background and modeling methodologies, as well as exploration of the governing equations and some membrane-related topic of interest.
Macroscopic invisibility cloaking of visible light
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chen, Xianzhong; Luo, Y.; Zhang, Jingjing
2011-01-01
to a few wavelengths. Here, we report the first realization of a macroscopic volumetric invisibility cloak constructed from natural birefringent crystals. The cloak operates at visible frequencies and is capable of hiding, for a specific light polarization, three-dimensional objects of the scale...
Cui, Fangming; Feng, Chude; Xie, Rongjun; Hua, Zile; Ohtsuka, Hideyuki; Sakka, Yoshio; Shi, Jianlin
2010-02-01
Highly dispersed and uniform Fe(2)O(3) nanoparticles (NPs) have been incorporated into the pore channels of SBA-15 mesoporous silica thin films (MSTFs). And such Fe(2)O(3) NPs incorporated MSTFs did not show detectable nonlinear optical (NLO) signals at off-resonance wavelength 1064 nm by Z-scan technique. However after a vacuum heat treatment at 800 degrees C for 1 h under 6 T magnetic field, the Fe(2)O(3) NPs incorporated MSTFs with very low Fe content (0.8 approximately 1.5 at.%) presented distinctive NLO signals with chi(3) value in an order of 10(-10) esu. We proposed the physical reason for the NLO property generation to be the magnetic domain orientation of the iron oxide NPs incorporated within the pore channels of the MSTFs by the magnetic field heat treatment.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bahedi, K., E-mail: bahedikhadija@yahoo.com [Laboratoire Optoelectronique et Physico-chimie des Materiaux Universite Ibn Tofail, Faculte des Sciences BP 133 Kenitra 14000, Maroc (Morocco); Addou, M.; El Jouad, M.; Sofiani, Z.; Alaoui Lamrani, M.; El Habbani, T.; Fellahi, N.; Bayoud, S.; Dghoughi, L. [Laboratoire Optoelectronique et Physico-chimie des Materiaux Universite Ibn Tofail, Faculte des Sciences BP 133 Kenitra 14000, Maroc (Morocco); Sahraoui, B.; Essaidi, Z. [Laboratoire POMA, UMR CNRS 6136, Universite d' Angers 2, Bd Lavoisier, 49045 France (France)
2009-02-01
Zinc oxide (ZnO) and zirconium doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Zr) thin films were deposited by reactive chemical pulverization spray pyrolysis technique on heated glass substrates at 500 deg. C using zinc and zirconium chlorides as precursors. Effects of zirconium doping agent and surface roughness on the nonlinear optical properties were investigated in detail using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and third harmonic generation (THG) technique. The best value of nonlinear optical susceptibility {chi}{sup (3)} was obtained from the doped films with less roughness. A strong third order nonlinear optical susceptibility {chi}{sup (3)} = 20.12 x 10{sup -12} (esu) of the studied films was found for the 3% doped sample.
Self-Feeding Turbulent Magnetic Reconnection on Macroscopic Scales
Lapenta, Giovanni
2008-01-01
Within a MHD approach we find magnetic reconnection to progress in two entirely different ways. The first is well-known: the laminar Sweet-Parker process. But a second, completely different and chaotic reconnection process is possible. This regime has properties of immediate practical relevance: i) it is much faster, developing on scales of the order of the Alfv\\'en time, and ii) the areas of reconnection become distributed chaotically over a macroscopic region. The onset of the faster process is the formation of closed circulation patterns where the jets going out of the reconnection regions turn around and forces their way back in, carrying along copious amounts of magnetic flux.
Macroscopic description of teeth of Azara's agouti (Dasyprocta azarae
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fabrício S. Oliveira
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The teeth of Azara's agouti (Dasyprocta azarae were described macroscopically in order to provide biological data on one of the largest wild rodents of the Americas. Radiography was taken on six heads and the teeth were described. Enamel surrounds the coronal dentin, projects to the roots and is present as parallel inner laminae in buccolingual direction. The dentin is located among the enamel laminae and surrounds the pulp horns. The cementum is located internally to the enamel laminae. On the lingual surface, the cementum and dentin are the outer elements.
The attenuation of the higher-order cross-section modes in a duct with a thin porous layer.
Yin, Yean; Horoshenkov, Kirill V
2005-02-01
A numerical method for sound propagation of higher-order cross-sectional modes in a duct of arbitrary cross-section and boundary conditions with nonzero, complex acoustic admittance has been considered. This method assumes that the cross-section of the duct is uniform and that the duct is of a considerable length so that the longitudinal modes can be neglected. The problem is reduced to a two-dimensional (2D) finite element (FE) solution, from which a set of cross-sectional eigen-values and eigen-functions are determined. This result is used to obtain the modal frequencies, velocities and the attenuation coefficients. The 2D FE solution is then extended to three-dimensional via the normal mode decomposition technique. The numerical solution is validated against experimental data for sound propagation in a pipe with inner walls partially covered by coarse sand or granulated rubber. The values of the eigen-frequencies calculated from the proposed numerical model are validated against those predicted by the standard analytical solution for both a circular and rectangular pipe with rigid walls. It is shown that the considered numerical method is useful for predicting the sound pressure distribution, attenuation, and eigen-frequencies in a duct with acoustically nonrigid boundary conditions. The purpose of this work is to pave the way for the development of an efficient inverse problem solution for the remote characterization of the acoustic boundary conditions in natural and artificial waveguides.
Szkoda, Mariusz; Lisowska-Oleksiak, Anna; Grochowska, Katarzyna; Skowroński, Łukasz; Karczewski, Jakub; Siuzdak, Katarzyna
2016-09-01
In a significant amount of cases, the highly ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays grow through anodic oxidation of a titanium metal plate immersed in electrolyte containing fluoride ions. However, for some practical applications, e.g. solar cells or electrochromic windows, the semi-transparent TiO2 formed directly on the transparent, conductive substrate is very much desired. This work shows that high-quality Ti coating could be formed at room temperature using an industrial magnetron sputtering system within 50 min. Under optimized conditions, the anodization process was performed on 2 μm titanium films deposited onto the FTO (fluorine-tin-oxide) support. Depending on the electrolyte type, highly ordered tubular or porous titania layers were obtained. The fabricated samples, after their thermal annealing, were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and UV-vis spectroscopy in order to investigate their morphology, crystallinity and absorbance ability. The photocurrent response curves indicate that materials are resistant to the photocorrosion process and their activity is strongly connected to optical properties. The most transparent TiO2 films were fabricated when Ti was anodized in water electrolyte, whereas the highest photocurrent densities (12 μA cm-2) were registered for titania received after Ti anodization in ethylene glycol solution. The obtained results are of significant importance in the production of thin, semi-transparent titania nanostructures on a commercial scale.
Dileep, K.; Loukya, B.; Silwal, P.; Gupta, A.; Datta, R.
2014-10-01
High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) is utilized to probe the optical band gaps at the nanoscale in epitaxial NiCo2O4 (NCO) thin films with different structural order (cation/charge). The structure of NCO deviates from the ideal inverse spinel (non-magnetic and insulating) for films grown at higher temperatures (>500 °C) towards a mixed cation structure (magnetic with metallic conductivity) at lower deposition temperatures (<450 °C). This significantly modifies the electronic structure as well as the nature of the band gap of the material. Nanoscale regions with unoccupied tetrahedral A site cations are additionally observed in all the samples and direct measurement from such areas reveals considerably lower band gap values as compared to the ideal inverse spinel and mixed cation configurations. Experimental values of band gaps have been found to be in good agreement with the theoretical mBJLDA exchange potential based calculated band gaps for various cation ordering and consideration of A site cation vacancy defects. The origin of rich variation in cation ordering observed in this system is discussed.
Loscar, Ernesto S; Candia, Julián
2013-10-01
We study the irreversible growth of magnetic thin films under the influence of spatially periodic fields by means of extensive Monte Carlo simulations. We find first-order pseudo-phase-transitions that separate a dynamically disordered phase from a dynamically ordered phase. By analogy with time-dependent oscillating fields applied to Ising-type models, we qualitatively associate this dynamic transition with the localization-delocalization transition of spatial hysteresis loops. Depending on the relative width of the magnetic film L compared to the wavelength of the external field λ, different transition regimes are observed. For small systems (L λ), the transition is driven by anomalous stochastic resonance. The origin of the latter is identified as due to the emergence of an additional relevant length scale, namely, the roughness of the spin domain switching interface. The distinction between different stochastic resonance regimes is discussed at length both qualitatively by means of snapshot configurations and quantitatively via residence-length and order-parameter probability distributions.
Macroscopic Quantum Phenomena from the Correlation, Coupling and Criticality Perspectives
Chou, C H; Subasi, Y
2011-01-01
In this sequel paper we explore how macroscopic quantum phenomena can be measured or understood from the behavior of quantum correlations which exist in a quantum system of many particles or components and how the interaction strengths change with energy or scale, under ordinary situations and when the system is near its critical point. We use the nPI (master) effective action related to the Boltzmann-BBGKY / Schwinger-Dyson hierarchy of equations as a tool for systemizing the contributions of higher order correlation functions to the dynamics of lower order correlation functions. Together with the large N expansion discussed in our first paper(MQP1) we explore 1) the conditions whereby an H-theorem is obtained, which can be viewed as a signifier of the emergence of macroscopic behavior in the system. We give two more examples from past work: 2) the nonequilibrium dynamics of N atoms in an optical lattice under the large $\\cal N$ (field components), 2PI and second order perturbative expansions, illustrating h...
Macroscopic Behavior of Nematics with D2d Symmetry
Pleiner, Harald; Brand, Helmut R.
2010-03-01
We discuss the symmetry properties and the macroscopic behavior of a nematic liquid crystal phase with D2d symmetry. Such a phase is a prime candidate for nematic phases made from banana-shaped molecules where the usual quadrupolar order coexists with octupolar (tetrahedratic) order. The resulting nematic phase is non-polar. While this phase could resemble the classic D∞h nematic in the polarizing microscope, it has many static as well as reversible and irreversible properties unknown to non-polar nematics without octupolar order. In particular, there is a linear gradient term in the free energy that selects parity leading to ambidextrously helical ground states when the molecules are achiral. In addition, there are static and irreversible coupling terms of a type only met otherwise in macroscopically chiral liquid crystals, e.g. the ambidextrous analogues of Lehmann-type effects known from cholesteric liquid crystals. Finally, we discuss certain nonlinear aspects of the dynamics related to the non-commutativity of three-dimensional finite rotations as well as other structural nonlinear hydrodynamic effects.
Nasrollah Ghassemi Dehkordi; Alireza Ghannadi; Alireza Khabbaz Mehrjardi
2012-01-01
The Crataegus genus is widely distributed in Iran. This genus belongs to Rosaceae family and has 17 species in Iran one of which is Crataegus pontica C. Koch. In this paper, we analyzed some microscopic and macroscopic characteristics of this plant, then compared them with other features that were presented previously in previous reports. We analyzed all components in C. pontica, using thin layer chromatography method and then specified the type of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acid in C. po...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Szkoda, Mariusz, E-mail: mariusz-szkoda@wp.pl [Department of Chemistry and Technology of Functional Materials, Faculty of Chemistry, Gdańsk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11/12, Gdańsk 80-233 (Poland); Lisowska-Oleksiak, Anna [Department of Chemistry and Technology of Functional Materials, Faculty of Chemistry, Gdańsk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11/12, Gdańsk 80-233 (Poland); Grochowska, Katarzyna [Centre for Plasma and Laser Engineering, Szewalski Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery, Polish Academy of Science, Fiszera 14, 80-231 Gdańsk (Poland); Skowroński, Łukasz [Institute of Mathematics and Physics, UTP University of Science and Technology, Kaliskiego 7, 85-796 Bydgoszcz (Poland); Karczewski, Jakub [Faculty of Applied Physics and Mathematics, Gdańsk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gdańsk (Poland); Siuzdak, Katarzyna [Centre for Plasma and Laser Engineering, Szewalski Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery, Polish Academy of Science, Fiszera 14, 80-231 Gdańsk (Poland)
2016-09-15
Highlights: • High quality titanium coatings were doposited using industrial magnetron sputtering equipment. • Semi-transparent TiO{sub 2} were prepared via anodization realized in various conditions. • Depending on electrolyte type, ordered tubular or porous TiO{sub 2} layers were obtained. • Prepared material can act as semiconducting layer in photovoltaic cells. - Abstract: In a significant amount of cases, the highly ordered TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays grow through anodic oxidation of a titanium metal plate immersed in electrolyte containing fluoride ions. However, for some practical applications, e.g. solar cells or electrochromic windows, the semi-transparent TiO{sub 2} formed directly on the transparent, conductive substrate is very much desired. This work shows that high-quality Ti coating could be formed at room temperature using an industrial magnetron sputtering system within 50 min. Under optimized conditions, the anodization process was performed on 2 μm titanium films deposited onto the FTO (fluorine-tin-oxide) support. Depending on the electrolyte type, highly ordered tubular or porous titania layers were obtained. The fabricated samples, after their thermal annealing, were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and UV–vis spectroscopy in order to investigate their morphology, crystallinity and absorbance ability. The photocurrent response curves indicate that materials are resistant to the photocorrosion process and their activity is strongly connected to optical properties. The most transparent TiO{sub 2} films were fabricated when Ti was anodized in water electrolyte, whereas the highest photocurrent densities (12 μA cm{sup −2}) were registered for titania received after Ti anodization in ethylene glycol solution. The obtained results are of significant importance in the production of thin, semi-transparent titania nanostructures on a commercial scale.
Macroscopic quantum mechanics in a classical spacetime.
Yang, Huan; Miao, Haixing; Lee, Da-Shin; Helou, Bassam; Chen, Yanbei
2013-04-26
We apply the many-particle Schrödinger-Newton equation, which describes the coevolution of a many-particle quantum wave function and a classical space-time geometry, to macroscopic mechanical objects. By averaging over motions of the objects' internal degrees of freedom, we obtain an effective Schrödinger-Newton equation for their centers of mass, which can be monitored and manipulated at quantum levels by state-of-the-art optomechanics experiments. For a single macroscopic object moving quantum mechanically within a harmonic potential well, its quantum uncertainty is found to evolve at a frequency different from its classical eigenfrequency-with a difference that depends on the internal structure of the object-and can be observable using current technology. For several objects, the Schrödinger-Newton equation predicts semiclassical motions just like Newtonian physics, yet quantum uncertainty cannot be transferred from one object to another.
Macroscopic Invisibility Cloaking of Visible Light
Chen, Xianzhong; Zhang, Jingjing; Jiang, Kyle; Pendry, John B; Zhang, Shuang
2010-01-01
Invisibility cloaks of light, which used to be confined to the imagination, have now been turned into a scientific reality, thanks to the enabling theoretical tools of transformation optics and conformal mapping. Inspired by those theoretical works, the experimental realisation of electromagnetic invisibility cloaks has been reported at various electromagnetic frequencies. All the invisibility cloaks demonstrated thus far, however, have relied on nano- or micro-fabricated artificial composite materials with spatially varying electromagnetic properties, which limit the size of the cloaked region to a few wavelengths. Here we report realisation of a macroscopic volumetric invisibility cloak constructed from natural birefringent crystals. The cloak operates at visible frequencies and is capable of hiding three-dimensional objects of the scale of centimetres and millimetres. Our work opens avenues for future applications with macroscopic cloaking devices.
Macroscopic spin and charge transport theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Li Da-Fang; Shi Jun-Ren
2009-01-01
According to the general principle of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, we propose a set of macroscopic transport equations for the spin transport and the charge transport. In particular, the spin torque is introduced as a generalized 'current density' to describe the phenomena associated with the spin non-conservation in a unified framework. The Einstein relations and the Onsager relations between different transport phenomena are established. Specifically, the spin transport properties of the isotropic non-magnetic and the isotropic magnetic two-dimensional electron gases are fully described by using this theory, in which only the macroscopic-spin-related transport phenomena allowed by the symmetry of the system are taken into account.
Macroscopic entrainment of periodically forced oscillatory ensembles.
Popovych, Oleksandr V; Tass, Peter A
2011-03-01
Large-amplitude oscillations of macroscopic neuronal signals, such as local field potentials and electroencephalography or magnetoencephalography signals, are commonly considered as being generated by a population of mutually synchronized neurons. In a computational study in generic networks of phase oscillators and bursting neurons, however, we show that this common belief may be wrong if the neuronal population receives an external rhythmic input. The latter may stem from another neuronal population or an external, e.g., sensory or electrical, source. In that case the population field potential may be entrained by the rhythmic input, whereas the individual neurons are phase desynchronized both mutually and with their field potential. Intriguingly, the corresponding large-amplitude oscillations of the population mean field are generated by pairwise desynchronized neurons oscillating at frequencies shifted far away from the frequency of the macroscopic field potential.
Adsorption modeling for macroscopic contaminant dispersal analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Axley, J.W.
1990-05-01
Two families of macroscopic adsorption models are formulated, based on fundamental principles of adsorption science and technology, that may be used for macroscopic (such as whole-building) contaminant dispersal analysis. The first family of adsorption models - the Equilibrium Adsorption (EA) Models - are based upon the simple requirement of equilibrium between adsorbent and room air. The second family - the Boundary Layer Diffusion Controlled Adsorption (BLDC) Models - add to the equilibrium requirement a boundary layer model for diffusion of the adsorbate from the room air to the adsorbent surface. Two members of each of these families are explicitly discussed, one based on the linear adsorption isotherm model and the other on the Langmuir model. The linear variants of each family are applied to model the adsorption dynamics of formaldehyde in gypsum wall board and compared to measured data.
Macroscopic Invisible Cloak for Visible Light
Zhang, Baile; Liu, Xiaogang; Barbastathis, George
2011-01-01
Invisibility cloaks, a subject that usually occurs in science fiction and myths, have attracted wide interest recently because of their possible realization. The biggest challenge to true invisibility is known to be the cloaking of a macroscopic object in the broad range of wavelengths visible to the human eye. Here we experimentally solve this problem by incorporating the principle of transformation optics into a conventional optical lens fabrication with low-cost materials and simple manufacturing techniques. A transparent cloak made of two pieces of calcite is created. This cloak is able to conceal a macroscopic object with a maximum height of 2 mm, larger than 3500 free-space-wavelength, inside a transparent liquid environment. Its working bandwidth encompassing red, green and blue light is also demonstrated.
Microscopic and macroscopic theories for the dynamics of polar liquid crystals.
Wittkowski, Raphael; Löwen, Hartmut; Brand, Helmut R
2011-10-01
We derive and analyze the dynamic equations for polar liquid crystals in two spatial dimensions in the framework of classical dynamical density functional theory (DDFT). Translational density variations, polarization, and quadrupolar order are used as order-parameter fields. The results are critically compared with those obtained using the macroscopic approach of time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau (GL) equations for the analogous order-parameter fields. We demonstrate that, for both the microscopic DDFT and the macroscopic GL approach, the resulting dissipative dynamics can be derived from a dissipation function. We obtain microscopic expressions for all diagonal contributions and for many of the cross-coupling terms emerging from a GL approach. Thus, we establish a bridge between molecular correlations and macroscopic modeling for the dissipative dynamics of polar liquid crystals.
Carrillo-Delgado, C.; García-Gil, C. I.; Trejo-Valdez, M.; Torres-Torres, C.; García-Merino, J. A.; Martínez-Gutiérrez, H.; Khomenko, A. V.; Torres-Martínez, R.
2016-01-01
Measurements of the third-order nonlinear optical properties exhibited by a ZnO thin solid film deposited on a SnO2 substrate are presented. The samples were prepared by a spray pyrolysis processing route. Scanning electron microscopy analysis and UV-Vis spectroscopy studies were carried out. The picosecond response at 1064 nm was explored by the z-scan technique. A large optical Kerr effect with two-photon absorption was obtained. The inhibition of the nonlinear optical absorption together with a noticeable enhancement in the optical Kerr effect in the sample was achieved by the incorporation of Au nanoparticles into the ZnO film. Additionally, a two-wave mixing configuration at 532 nm was performed and an optical Kerr effect was identified as the main cause of the nanosecond third-order optical nonlinearity. The relaxation time of the photothermal response of the sample was estimated to be about 1 s when the sample was excited by nanosecond single-shots. The rotation of the sample during the nanosecond two-wave mixing experiments was analyzed. It was stated that a non-monotonic relation between rotating frequency and pulse repetition rate governs the thermal contribution to the nonlinear refractive index exhibited by a rotating film. Potential applications for switching photothermal interactions in rotating samples can be contemplated. A rotary logic system dependent on Kerr transmittance in a two-wave mixing experiment was proposed.
Macroscopic Quantum Resonators (MAQRO): 2015 update
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kaltenbaek, Rainer [University of Vienna, Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology, Vienna (Austria); Aspelmeyer, Markus; Kiesel, Nikolai [University of Vienna, Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology, Vienna (Austria); Barker, Peter F.; Bose, Sougato [University College London, Department of Physics and Astronomy, London (United Kingdom); Bassi, Angelo [University of Trieste, Department of Physics, Trieste (Italy); INFN - Trieste Section, Trieste (Italy); Bateman, James [University of Swansea, Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea (United Kingdom); Bongs, Kai; Cruise, Adrian Michael [University of Birmingham, School of Physics and Astronomy, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Braxmaier, Claus [University of Bremen, Center of Applied Space Technology and Micro Gravity (ZARM), Bremen (Germany); Institute of Space Systems, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Bremen (Germany); Brukner, Caslav [University of Vienna, Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology, Vienna (Austria); Austrian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Quantum Optics and Quantum Information (IQOQI), Vienna (Austria); Christophe, Bruno; Rodrigues, Manuel [The French Aerospace Lab, ONERA, Chatillon (France); Chwalla, Michael; Johann, Ulrich [Airbus Defence and Space GmbH, Immenstaad (Germany); Cohadon, Pierre-Francois; Heidmann, Antoine; Lambrecht, Astrid; Reynaud, Serge [ENS-PSL Research University, Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, UPMC-Sorbonne Universites, CNRS, College de France, Paris (France); Curceanu, Catalina [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Dholakia, Kishan; Mazilu, Michael [University of St. Andrews, School of Physics and Astronomy, St. Andrews (United Kingdom); Diosi, Lajos [Wigner Research Center for Physics, P.O. Box 49, Budapest (Hungary); Doeringshoff, Klaus; Peters, Achim [Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Institut fuer Physik, Berlin (Germany); Ertmer, Wolfgang; Rasel, Ernst M. [Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hannover (Germany); Gieseler, Jan; Novotny, Lukas; Rondin, Loic [ETH Zuerich, Photonics Laboratory, Zuerich (Switzerland); Guerlebeck, Norman; Herrmann, Sven; Laemmerzahl, Claus [University of Bremen, Center of Applied Space Technology and Micro Gravity (ZARM), Bremen (Germany); Hechenblaikner, Gerald [Airbus Defence and Space GmbH, Immenstaad (Germany); European Southern Observatory (ESO), Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Hossenfelder, Sabine [KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University, Nordita, Stockholm (Sweden); Kim, Myungshik [Imperial College London, QOLS, Blackett Laboratory, London (United Kingdom); Milburn, Gerard J. [University of Queensland, ARC Centre for Engineered Quantum Systems, Brisbane (Australia); Mueller, Holger [University of California, Department of Physics, Berkeley, CA (United States); Paternostro, Mauro [Queen' s University, Centre for Theoretical Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Belfast (United Kingdom); Pikovski, Igor [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, ITAMP, Cambridge, MA (United States); Pilan Zanoni, Andre [Airbus Defence and Space GmbH, Immenstaad (Germany); CERN - European Organization for Nuclear Research, EN-STI-TCD, Geneva (Switzerland); Riedel, Charles Jess [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Roura, Albert [Universitaet Ulm, Institut fuer Quantenphysik, Ulm (Germany); Schleich, Wolfgang P. [Universitaet Ulm, Institut fuer Quantenphysik, Ulm (Germany); Texas A and M University Institute for Advanced Study (TIAS), Institute for Quantum Science and Engineering (IQSE), and Department of Physics and Astronomy, College Station, TX (United States); Schmiedmayer, Joerg [Vienna University of Technology, Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology, Institute of Atomic and Subatomic Physics, Vienna (Austria); Schuldt, Thilo [Institute of Space Systems, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Bremen (Germany); Schwab, Keith C. [California Institute of Technology, Applied Physics, Pasadena, CA (United States)
2016-12-15
Do the laws of quantum physics still hold for macroscopic objects - this is at the heart of Schroedinger's cat paradox - or do gravitation or yet unknown effects set a limit for massive particles? What is the fundamental relation between quantum physics and gravity? Ground-based experiments addressing these questions may soon face limitations due to limited free-fall times and the quality of vacuum and microgravity. The proposed mission Macroscopic Quantum Resonators (MAQRO) may overcome these limitations and allow addressing such fundamental questions. MAQRO harnesses recent developments in quantum optomechanics, high-mass matter-wave interferometry as well as state-of-the-art space technology to push macroscopic quantum experiments towards their ultimate performance limits and to open new horizons for applying quantum technology in space. The main scientific goal is to probe the vastly unexplored 'quantum-classical' transition for increasingly massive objects, testing the predictions of quantum theory for objects in a size and mass regime unachievable in ground-based experiments. The hardware will largely be based on available space technology. Here, we present the MAQRO proposal submitted in response to the 4th Cosmic Vision call for a medium-sized mission (M4) in 2014 of the European Space Agency (ESA) with a possible launch in 2025, and we review the progress with respect to the original MAQRO proposal for the 3rd Cosmic Vision call for a medium-sized mission (M3) in 2010. In particular, the updated proposal overcomes several critical issues of the original proposal by relying on established experimental techniques from high-mass matter-wave interferometry and by introducing novel ideas for particle loading and manipulation. Moreover, the mission design was improved to better fulfill the stringent environmental requirements for macroscopic quantum experiments. (orig.)
A macroscopic approach to creating exotic matter
Ridgely, C. T.
2000-01-01
Herein the Casimir effect is used to present a simple macroscopic view on creating exotic matter. The energy arising between two nearly perfectly conducting parallel plates is shown to become increasingly negative as the plate separation is reduced. It is proposed that the Casimir energy appears increasingly negative simply because the vacuum electromagnetic zero-point field performs positive work in pushing the plates together, transforming field energy into kinetic energy of the plates. Nex...
Shot noise in linear macroscopic resistors
Gomila Lluch, Gabriel; Pennetta, C.; Reggiani, L.; Ferrari, G; Sampietro, M.; G. Bertuccio(Politecnico di Milano, Italy)
2004-01-01
We report on direct experimental evidence of shot noise in a linear macroscopic resistor. The origin of the shot noise comes from the fluctuation of the total number of charge carriers inside the resistor associated with their diffusive motion under the condition that the dielectric relaxation time becomes longer than the dynamic transit time. The present results show that neither potential barriers nor the absence of inelastic scattering are necessary to observe shot noise in electronic devi...
Shot Noise in Linear Macroscopic Resistors
Gomila, G.; Pennetta, C.; Reggiani, L.; Sampietro, M.; Ferrari, G.; Bertuccio, G.
2004-06-01
We report on direct experimental evidence of shot noise in a linear macroscopic resistor. The origin of the shot noise comes from the fluctuation of the total number of charge carriers inside the resistor associated with their diffusive motion under the condition that the dielectric relaxation time becomes longer than the dynamic transit time. The present results show that neither potential barriers nor the absence of inelastic scattering are necessary to observe shot noise in electronic devices.
Macroscopic Objects, Intrinsic Spin, and Lorentz Violation
Atkinson, David W; Tasson, Jay D
2013-01-01
The framework of the Standard-Model Extension (SME) provides a relativistic quantum field theory for the study of Lorentz violation. The classical, nonrelativistic equations of motion can be extracted as a limit that is useful in various scenarios. In this work, we consider the effects of certain SME coefficients for Lorentz violation on the motion of macroscopic objects having net intrinsic spin in the classical, nonrelativistic limit.
Gravitational and electric energies in collapse of spherically thin capacitor
Ruffini, Remo
2013-01-01
In our previous article (PHYSICAL REVIEW D 86, 084004 (2012)), we present a study of strong oscillating electric fields and electron-positron pair-production in gravitational collapse of a neutral stellar core at or over nuclear densities. In order to understand the back-reaction of such electric energy building and radiating on collapse, we adopt a simplified model describing the collapse of a spherically thin capacitor to give an analytical description how gravitational energy is converted to both kinetic and electric energies in collapse. It is shown that (i) averaged kinetic and electric energies are the same order, about an half of gravitational energy of spherically thin capacitor in collapse; (ii) caused by radiating and rebuilding electric energy, gravitational collapse undergoes a sequence of "on and off" hopping steps in the microscopic Compton scale. Although such a collapse process is still continuous in terms of macroscopic scales, it is slowed down as kinetic energy is reduced and collapsing tim...
Understanding the Pulsar High Energy Emission: Macroscopic and Kinetic Models
Kalapotharakos, Constantinos; Brambilla, Gabriele; Timokhin, Andrey; Kust Harding, Alice; Kazanas, Demos
2017-08-01
Pulsars are extraordinary objects powered by the rotation of magnetic fields of order 10^8, 10^12G anchored onto neutron stars and rotating with periods 10^(-3)-10s. These fields mediate the conversion of their rotational energy into MHD winds and at the same time accelerate particles to energies sufficiently high to produce GeV photons. Fermi, since its launch in 2008, has established several trends among the observed gamma-ray pulsar properties playing a catalytic role in the current modeling of the high energy emission in pulsar magnetospheres. We judiciously use the guidance provided by the Fermi data to yield meaningful constraints on the macroscopic parameters of our global dissipative pulsar magnetosphere models. Our FIDO (Force-Free Inside, Dissipative Outside) models indicate that the dissipative regions lie outside the light cylinder near the equatorial current sheet. Our models reproduce the light-curve phenomenology while a detailed comparison of the model spectral properties with those observed by Fermi reveals the dependence of the macroscopic conductivity parameter on the spin-down rate providing a unique insight into the understanding of the physical mechanisms behind the high-energy emission in pulsar magnetospheres. Finally, we further exploit these important results by building self-consistent 3D global kinetic particle-in-cell (PIC) models which, eventually, provide the dependence of the macroscopic parameter behavior (e.g. conductivity) on the microphysical properties (e.g. particle multiplicities, particle injection rates). Our PIC models provide field structures and particle distributions that are not only consistent with each other but also able to reproduce a broad range of the observed gamma-ray phenomenology (light curves and spectral properties) of both young and millisecond pulsars.
Collins-McIntyre, L. J.; Duffy, L. B.; Singh, A.; Steinke, N.-J.; Kinane, C. J.; Charlton, T. R.; Pushp, A.; Kellock, A. J.; Parkin, S. S. P.; Holmes, S. N.; Barnes, C. H. W.; van der Laan, G.; Langridge, S.; Hesjedal, T.
2016-07-01
We report the structural, electronic, and magnetic study of Cr-doped Sb2Te3 thin films grown by a two-step deposition process using molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE). The samples were investigated using a variety of complementary techniques, namely, x-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy, SQUID magnetometry, magneto-transport, and polarized neutron reflectometry (PNR). It is found that the samples retain good crystalline order up to a doping level of x=0.42 (in Cr x Sb2-x Te3), above which degradation of the crystal structure is observed by XRD. Fits to the recorded XRD spectra indicate a general reduction in the c-axis lattice parameter as a function of doping, consistent with substitutional doping with an ion of smaller ionic radius. The samples show soft ferromagnetic behavior with the easy axis of magnetization being out-of-plane. The saturation magnetization is dependent on the doping level, and reaches from ˜2 μ_\\text{B} to almost 3 μ_\\text{B} per Cr ion. The transition temperature (T{c}) depends strongly on the Cr concentration and is found to increase with doping concentration. For the highest achievable doping level for phase-pure films of x=0.42 , a T{c} of 125 K was determined. Electric transport measurements find surface-dominated transport below ˜10 K. The magnetic properties extracted from anomalous Hall effect data are in excellent agreement with the magnetometry data. PNR studies indicate a uniform magnetization profile throughout the film, with no indication of enhanced magnetic order towards the sample surface.
Islam, Syed Z.; Wanninayake, Namal; Reed, Allen D.; Kim, Doo-Young; Rankin, Stephen E.
2016-10-01
The optical and electronic properties of TiO2 thin films provide tremendous opportunities in several applications including photocatalysis, photovoltaics and photoconductors for energy production. Despite many attractive features of TiO2, critical challenges include the innate inability of TiO2 to absorb visible light and the fast recombination of photoexcited charge carriers. In this study, we prepared ordered mesoporous TiO2 films co-modified by graphene quantum dot sensitization and nitrogen doping (GQD-N-TiO2) for hydrogen production from photoelectrochemical water splitting under visible light irradiation. First, cubic ordered mesoporous TiO2 films were prepared by a surfactant templated sol-gel method. Then, TiO2 films were treated with N2/Ar plasma for the incorporation of substitutional N atoms into the lattice of TiO2. GQDs were prepared by chemically oxidizing carbon nano-onions. The immobilization of GQDs was accomplished by reacting carboxyl groups of GQDs with amine groups of N-TiO2 developed by the prior immobilization of (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES). Successful immobilization of GQDs onto N-TiO2 was probed by UV-Vis, FT-IR, and scanning electron microscopy. Further, zeta potential and contact angle measurements showed enhanced surface charge and hydrophilicity, confirming the successful immobilization of GQDs. The GQD-N-TiO2, N-TiO2 and GQD-TiO2 films showed 400 times, 130 times and 8 times photocurrent enhancement, respectively, compared to TiO2 films for water splitting with a halogen bulb light source. This outstanding enhancement is attributed to the high surface area of mesoporous films and synergistic effects of nitrogen doping and GQD sensitization resulting in enhanced visible light absorption, efficient charge separation and transport.
Macroscopic Biological Characteristics of Individualized Therapy in Chinese Mongolian Osteopathy
Namula, Zhao; Mei, Wang; Li, Xue-en
Objective: Chinese Mongolian osteopathy has been passed down from ancient times and includes unique practices and favorable efficacy. In this study, we investigate the macroscopic biological characteristics of individualized Chinese Mongolian osteopathy, in order to provide new principle and methods for the treatment of bone fracture. Method: With a view to provide a vital link between nature and humans, the four stages of Chinese Mongolian osteopathy focus on the unity of the mind and body, the limbs and body organs, the body and its functions, and humans and nature. Results: We discuss the merits of individualized osteopathy in terms of the underlying concepts, and evaluate the approaches and principles of traditional medicine, as well as biomechanics. Conclusions: Individualized Mongolian osteopathy targets macroscopic biological components including dynamic reduction, natural fixation, and functional healing. Chinese Mongolian osteopathy is a natural, ecological and non-invasive osteopathy that values the link between nature and humans, including the unity of mind and body. The biological components not only serve as a foundation for Chinese Mongolian osteopathy but are also important for the future development of modern osteopathy, focusing on individualization, actualization and integration.
Parametric equations for calculation of macroscopic cross sections
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Botelho, Mario Hugo; Carvalho, Fernando, E-mail: mariobotelho@poli.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear
2015-07-01
Neutronic calculations of the core of a nuclear reactor is one thing necessary and important for the design and management of a nuclear reactor in order to prevent accidents and control the reactor efficiently as possible. To perform these calculations a library of nuclear data, including cross sections is required. Currently, to obtain a cross section computer codes are used, which require a large amount of processing time and computer memory. This paper proposes the calculation of macroscopic cross section through the development of parametric equations. The paper illustrates the proposal for the case of macroscopic cross sections of absorption (Σa), which was chosen due to its greater complexity among other cross sections. Parametric equations created enable, quick and dynamic way, the determination of absorption cross sections, enabling the use of them in calculations of reactors. The results show efficient when compared with the absorption cross sections obtained by the ALPHA 8.8.1 code. The differences between the cross sections are less than 2% for group 2 and less than 0.60% for group 1. (author)
Fingerprint Feature Extraction Based on Macroscopic Curvature
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhang Xiong; He Gui-ming; Zhang Yun
2003-01-01
In the Automatic Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS), extracting the feature of fingerprint is very important. The local curvature of ridges of fingerprint is irregular, so people have the barrier to effectively extract the fingerprint curve features to describe fingerprint. This article proposes a novel algorithm; it embraces information of few nearby fingerprint ridges to extract a new characteristic which can describe the curvature feature of fingerprint. Experimental results show the algorithm is feasible, and the characteristics extracted by it can clearly show the inner macroscopic curve properties of fingerprint. The result also shows that this kind of characteristic is robust to noise and pollution.
Fingerprint Feature Extraction Based on Macroscopic Curvature
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhang; Xiong; He; Gui-Ming; 等
2003-01-01
In the Automatic Fingerprint Identification System(AFIS), extracting the feature of fingerprint is very important. The local curvature of ridges of fingerprint is irregular, so people have the barrier to effectively extract the fingerprint curve features to describe fingerprint. This article proposes a novel algorithm; it embraces information of few nearby fingerprint ridges to extract a new characterstic which can describe the curvature feature of fingerprint. Experimental results show the algorithm is feasible, and the characteristics extracted by it can clearly show the inner macroscopic curve properties of fingerprint. The result also shows that this kind of characteristic is robust to noise and pollution.
Macroscopic Quantum Criticality in a Circuit QED
Wang, Y D; Nori, F; Quan, H T; Sun, C P; Liu, Yu-xi; Nori, Franco
2006-01-01
Cavity quantum electrodynamic (QED) is studied for two strongly-coupled charge qubits interacting with a single-mode quantized field, which is provided by a on-chip transmission line resonator. We analyze the dressed state structure of this superconducting circuit QED system and the selection rules of electromagnetic-induced transitions between any two of these dressed states. Its macroscopic quantum criticality, in the form of ground state level crossing, is also analyzed, resulting from competition between the Ising-type inter-qubit coupling and the controllable on-site potentials.
Macroscopic fluctuations theory of aerogel dynamics
Lefevere, Raphael; Zambotti, Lorenzo
2010-01-01
We consider extensive deterministic dynamics made of $N$ particles modeling aerogels under a macroscopic fluctuation theory description. By using a stochastic model describing those dynamics after a diffusive rescaling, we show that the functional giving the exponential decay in $N$ of the probability of observing a given energy and current profile is not strictly convex as a function of the current. This behaviour is caused by the fact that the energy current is carried by particles which may have arbitrary low speed with sufficiently large probability.
Spin models as microfoundation of macroscopic market models
Krause, Sebastian M.; Bornholdt, Stefan
2013-09-01
Macroscopic price evolution models are commonly used for investment strategies. There are first promising achievements in defining microscopic agent based models for the same purpose. Microscopic models allow a deeper understanding of mechanisms in the market than the purely phenomenological macroscopic models, and thus bear the chance for better models for market regulation. However microscopic models and macroscopic models are commonly studied separately. Here, we exemplify a unified view of a microscopic and a macroscopic market model in a case study, deducing a macroscopic Langevin equation from a microscopic spin market model closely related to the Ising model. The interplay of the microscopic and the macroscopic view allows for a better understanding and adjustment of the microscopic model, as well, and may guide the construction of agent based market models as basis of macroscopic models.
MACROSCOPIC STRAIN POTENTIALS IN NONLINEAR POROUS MATERIALS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘熠; 黄筑平
2003-01-01
By taking a hollow sphere as a representative volume element (RVE), the macroscopic strain potentials of porous materials with power-law incompressible matrix are studied in this paper.According to the principles of the minimum potential energy in nonlinear elasticity and the variational procedure, static admissible stress fields and kinematic admissible displacement fields are constructed,and hence the upper and the lower bounds of the macroscopic strain potential are obtained. The bounds given in the present paper differ so slightly that they both provide perfect approximations of the exact strain potential of the studied porous materials. It is also found that the upper bound proposed by previous authors is much higher than the present one, and the lower bounds given by Cocks is much lower. Moreover, the present calculation is also compared with the variational lower bound of Ponte Castafneda for statistically isotropic porous materials. Finally, the validity of the hollow spherical RVE for the studied nonlinear porous material is discussed by the difference between the present numerical results and the Cocks bound.
Macroscopic theory for capillary-pressure hysteresis.
Athukorallage, Bhagya; Aulisa, Eugenio; Iyer, Ram; Zhang, Larry
2015-03-03
In this article, we present a theory of macroscopic contact angle hysteresis by considering the minimization of the Helmholtz free energy of a solid-liquid-gas system over a convex set, subject to a constant volume constraint. The liquid and solid surfaces in contact are assumed to adhere weakly to each other, causing the interfacial energy to be set-valued. A simple calculus of variations argument for the minimization of the Helmholtz energy leads to the Young-Laplace equation for the drop surface in contact with the gas and a variational inequality that yields contact angle hysteresis for advancing/receding flow. We also show that the Young-Laplace equation with a Dirichlet boundary condition together with the variational inequality yields a basic hysteresis operator that describes the relationship between capillary pressure and volume. We validate the theory using results from the experiment for a sessile macroscopic drop. Although the capillary effect is a complex phenomenon even for a droplet as various points along the contact line might be pinned, the capillary pressure and volume of the drop are scalar variables that encapsulate the global quasistatic energy information for the entire droplet. Studying the capillary pressure versus volume relationship greatly simplifies the understanding and modeling of the phenomenon just as scalar magnetic hysteresis graphs greatly aided the modeling of devices with magnetic materials.
Stress in Thin Films; Diffraction Elastic Constants and Grain Interaction
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
Untextured bulk polycrystals usually possess macroscopically isotropic elastic properties whereas for most thin films transverse isotropy is expected, owing to the limited dimensionality. The usually applied models for the calculation of elastic constants of polycrystals from single crystal elastic constants (so-called grain interaction models) erroneously predict macroscopic isotropy for an (untextured) thin film. This paper presents a summary of recent work where it has been demonstrated for the first time by X-ray diffraction analysis of stresses in thin films that elastic grain interaction can lead to macroscopically elastically anisotropic behaviour (shown by non-linear sin2ψ plots). A new grain interaction model, predicting the macroscopically anisotropic behaviour of thin films, is proposed.
Quantum correlations of lights in macroscopic environments
Sua, Yong Meng
This dissertation presents a detailed study in exploring quantum correlations of lights in macroscopic environments. We have explored quantum correlations of single photons, weak coherent states, and polarization-correlated/polarization-entangled photons in macroscopic environments. These included macroscopic mirrors, macroscopic photon number, spatially separated observers, noisy photons source and propagation medium with loss or disturbances. We proposed a measurement scheme for observing quantum correlations and entanglement in the spatial properties of two macroscopic mirrors using single photons spatial compass state. We explored the phase space distribution features of spatial compass states, such as chessboard pattern by using the Wigner function. The displacement and tilt correlations of the two mirrors were manifested through the propensities of the compass states. This technique can be used to extract Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlations (EPR) of the two mirrors. We then formulated the discrete-like property of the propensity P b(m,n), which can be used to explore environmental perturbed quantum jumps of the EPR correlations in phase space. With single photons spatial compass state, the variances in position and momentum are much smaller than standard quantum limit when using a Gaussian TEM 00 beam. We observed intrinsic quantum correlations of weak coherent states between two parties through balanced homodyne detection. Our scheme can be used as a supplement to decoy-state BB84 protocol and differential phase-shift QKD protocol. We prepared four types of bipartite correlations +/- cos2(theta1 +/- theta 2) that shared between two parties. We also demonstrated bits correlations between two parties separated by 10 km optical fiber. The bits information will be protected by the large quantum phase fluctuation of weak coherent states, adding another physical layer of security to these protocols for quantum key distribution. Using 10 m of highly nonlinear
The third-order optical nonlinearity of the stainless steel doped SrTiO3 thin film grown by L-MBE
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Lifeng Liu(刘丽峰); Yiyan Fei(费义艳); Haizhong Guo(郭海中); Wenfeng Xiang(相文峰); Huibin Lü(吕惠宾); Zhenghao Chen(陈正豪)
2003-01-01
Stainless steel-doped SrTiO3 thin films were fabricated by laser molecular beam epitaxy (L-MBE).Nonlinear optical property of the thin film was measured by the single beam Z-scan technique at thewavelength of 532 nm. Two two-phonon absorption coefficient and nonlinear refractive index weredetermined to be 9.37 × 10-7 m/W and 1.55 × 10-6 esu, respectively. The merit figure T was calculatedto be 1.8, satisfying condition T ＜ 2 for an optical switch. The thin film has a very promising prospectfor the applications in optical device.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Chang-Song; ZHU Zhen-Gang
2000-01-01
Constant-pressure molecular dynamics simulations and an analysis of the local atomic structures have been performed to study the cooling rate dependence of some macroscopic and microscopic quantities in aluminium glass. Macroscopic quantities, enthalpy and density, see an observable but small dependence on the cooling rate. Icosahedral ordering units exhibit strong cooling rate dependence, which is responsible for the dependence of the enthalpy and the density on the cooling rate; while the almost independence of some microstructural units such as the 1541, 1431 and 1421 pairs of the cooling rate may lead to a small dependence of the enthalpy and the density on the cooling rate.
Macroscopic quantum electrodynamics of high-Q cavities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khanbekyan, Mikayel
2009-10-27
In this thesis macroscopic quantum electrodynamics in linear media was applied in order to develop an universally valid quantum theory for the description of the interaction of the electromagnetic field with atomic sources in high-Q cavities. In this theory a complete description of the characteristics of the emitted radiation is given. The theory allows to show the limits of the applicability of the usually applied theory. In order to establish an as possible generally valid theory first the atom-field interaction was studied in the framework of macroscopic quantum electrodynamics in dispersive and absorptive media. In order to describe the electromagnetic field from Maxwell's equations was started, whereby the noise-current densities, which are connected with the absorption of the medium, were included. The solution of these equations expresses the electromagnetic field variables by the noise-current densities by means of Green's tensor of the macroscopic Maxwell equations. The explicit quantization is performed by means of the noise-current densities, whereby a diagonal Hamiltonian is introduced, which then guarantees the time development according to Maxwell's equation and the fulfillment of the fundamental simultaneous commutation relations of the field variables. In the case of the interaction of the medium-supported field with atoms the Hamiltonian must be extended by atom-field interactions energies, whereby the canonical coupling schemes of the minimal or multipolar coupling can be used. The dieelectric properties of the material bodies as well as their shape are coded in the Green tensor of the macroscopic Maxwell equations. As preparing step first the Green tensor was specified in order to derive three-dimensional input-output relations for the electromagnetic field operators on a plane multilayer structure. Such a general dewscription of the electromagnetic field allows the inclusion both of dispersion and absorption of the media and the
Self-feeding turbulent magnetic reconnection on macroscopic scales.
Lapenta, Giovanni
2008-06-13
Within a MHD approach we find magnetic reconnection to progress in two entirely different ways. The first is well known: the laminar Sweet-Parker process. But a second, completely different and chaotic reconnection process is possible. This regime has properties of immediate practical relevance: (i) it is much faster, developing on scales of the order of the Alfvén time, and (ii) the areas of reconnection become distributed chaotically over a macroscopic region. The onset of the faster process is the formation of closed-circulation patterns where the jets going out of the reconnection regions turn around and force their way back in, carrying along copious amounts of magnetic flux.
Microscopic and Macroscopic Simulation of Competition between Languages
Stauffer, D; Stauffer, Dietrich; Schulze, Christian
2005-01-01
The similarity of the evolution of human languages (or alphabets, bird songs, >...) to biological evolution of species is utilized to study with up to $10^9$ people the rise and fall of languages either by macroscopic differential equations similar to biological Lotka-Volterra equation, or by microscopic Monte Carlo simulations of bit-strings incorporating the birth, maturity, and death of every individual. For our bit-string model, depending on parameters either one language comprises the majority of speakers (dominance), or the population splits into many languages having in order of magnitude the same number of speakers (fragmentation); in the latter case the size distribution is log-normal, with upward deviations for small sizes, just as in reality for human languages. On a lattice two different dominating languages can coexist in neighbouring regions, without being favoured or disfavoured by different status. We deal with modifications and competition for existing languages, not with the evolution or lea...
Macroscopic quantum electrodynamics of high-Q cavities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khanbekyan, Mikayel
2009-10-27
In this thesis macroscopic quantum electrodynamics in linear media was applied in order to develop an universally valid quantum theory for the description of the interaction of the electromagnetic field with atomic sources in high-Q cavities. In this theory a complete description of the characteristics of the emitted radiation is given. The theory allows to show the limits of the applicability of the usually applied theory. In order to establish an as possible generally valid theory first the atom-field interaction was studied in the framework of macroscopic quantum electrodynamics in dispersive and absorptive media. In order to describe the electromagnetic field from Maxwell's equations was started, whereby the noise-current densities, which are connected with the absorption of the medium, were included. The solution of these equations expresses the electromagnetic field variables by the noise-current densities by means of Green's tensor of the macroscopic Maxwell equations. The explicit quantization is performed by means of the noise-current densities, whereby a diagonal Hamiltonian is introduced, which then guarantees the time development according to Maxwell's equation and the fulfillment of the fundamental simultaneous commutation relations of the field variables. In the case of the interaction of the medium-supported field with atoms the Hamiltonian must be extended by atom-field interactions energies, whereby the canonical coupling schemes of the minimal or multipolar coupling can be used. The dieelectric properties of the material bodies as well as their shape are coded in the Green tensor of the macroscopic Maxwell equations. As preparing step first the Green tensor was specified in order to derive three-dimensional input-output relations for the electromagnetic field operators on a plane multilayer structure. Such a general dewscription of the electromagnetic field allows the inclusion both of dispersion and absorption of the media and the
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hull, Lawrence M [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2010-12-16
The response of a metal element to explosive loading depends on a broad spectrum of explosive and metal properties, macroscopic geometry plays a crucial role in defining the localized loading history and the resulting gradients of interest, while microscopic effects and defects are generally believed responsible for damage nucleation. Certain experiments reduce the complexity by producing conditions that are uniform in some sense, allowing dynamic measurement of variables that can be correlated with corresponding microscopic effects observed in recovery experiments. Spherical expansion of thin shells, that eventually fragment, and steady wave loading of flat plates are two such experiments. Proton radiography, x-radiography, laser velocimetry, imaging IR, and visible light photography all have produced dynamic measurements in 4340 steel, copper, uranium alloys, tantalum, and titanium. Correlation of the macroscopic measurements with microscopy on recovered samples has been done with a statistical approach.
Nagata, Kohki; Ogura, Atsushi; Hirosawa, Ichiro; Suwa, Tomoyuki; Teramoto, Akinobu; Ohmi, Tadahiro
2016-04-01
The effects of the fabrication process conditions on the microstructure of silicon dioxide thin films of films. The results revealed different microstructures, which were dependent on oxidizing species or temperature. The micro-level properties differed from bulk properties reported in the previous literature. It was indicated that these differences originate from inner stress. The detailed structure in an amorphous thin film was not revealed owing to detection difficulties.
Macroscopic Quantum Coherence in Antiferromagnetic Molecular Magnets
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HU Hui; LO Rong; ZHU Jia-Lin; XIONG Jia-Jiong
2001-01-01
The macroscopic quantum coherence in a biaxial antiferromagnetic molecular magnet in the presence of magnetic field acting parallel to its hard anisotropy axis is studied within the two-sublattice model. On the basis of instanton technique in the spin-coherent-state path-integral representation, both the rigorous Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin exponent and pre-exponential factor for the ground-state tunnel splitting are obtained. We find that the quantum fluctuations around the classical paths can not only induce a new quantum phase previously reported by Chiolero and Loss (Phys. Rev. Lett. 80 (1998) 169), but also have great influence on the intensity of the ground-state tunnel splitting. Those features clearly have no analogue in the ferromagnetic molecular magnets. We suggest that they may be the universal behaviors in all antiferromagnetic molecular magnets. The analytical results are complemented by exact diagonalization calculation.
Partitioning a macroscopic system into independent subsystems
Delle Site, Luigi; Ciccotti, Giovanni; Hartmann, Carsten
2017-08-01
We discuss the problem of partitioning a macroscopic system into a collection of independent subsystems. The partitioning of a system into replica-like subsystems is nowadays a subject of major interest in several fields of theoretical and applied physics. The thermodynamic approach currently favoured by practitioners is based on a phenomenological definition of an interface energy associated with the partition, due to a lack of easily computable expressions for a microscopic (i.e. particle-based) interface energy. In this article, we outline a general approach to derive sharp and computable bounds for the interface free energy in terms of microscopic statistical quantities. We discuss potential applications in nanothermodynamics and outline possible future directions.
Casimir effect from macroscopic quantum electrodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Philbin, T G, E-mail: tgp3@st-andrews.ac.uk [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)
2011-06-15
The canonical quantization of macroscopic electromagnetism was recently presented in (Philbin 2010 New J. Phys. 12 123008). This theory is used here to derive the Casimir effect, by considering the special case of thermal and zero-point fields. The stress-energy-momentum tensor of the canonical theory follows from Noether's theorem, and its electromagnetic part in thermal equilibrium gives the Casimir energy density and stress tensor. The results hold for arbitrary inhomogeneous magnetodielectrics and are obtained from a rigorous quantization of electromagnetism in dispersive, dissipative media. Continuing doubts about the status of the standard Lifshitz theory as a proper quantum treatment of Casimir forces do not apply to the derivation given here. Moreover, the correct expressions for the Casimir energy density and stress tensor inside media follow automatically from the simple restriction to thermal equilibrium, without the need for complicated thermodynamical or mechanical arguments.
Taming macroscopic jamming in transportation networks
Ezaki, Takahiro; Nishinari, Katsuhiro
2015-01-01
In transportation networks, a spontaneous jamming transition is often observed, e.g in urban road networks and airport networks. Because of this instability, flow distribution is significantly imbalanced on a macroscopic level. To mitigate the congestion, we consider a simple control method, in which congested nodes are closed temporarily, and investigate how it influences the overall system. Depending on the timing of the node closure and opening, and congestion level of a network, the system displays three different phases: free-flow phase, controlled phase, and deadlock phase. We show that when the system is in the controlled phase, the average flow is significantly improved, whereas when in the deadlock phase, the flow drops to zero. We study how the control method increases the network flow and obtain their transition boundary analytically.
Black Holes and Quantumness on Macroscopic Scales
Flassig, D; Wintergerst, N
2012-01-01
It has recently been suggested that black holes may be described as condensates of weakly interacting gravitons at a critical point, exhibiting strong quantum effects. In this paper, we study a model system of attractive bosons in one spatial dimension which is known to undergo a quantum phase transition. We demonstrate explicitly that indeed quantum effects are important at the critical point, even if the number of particles is macroscopic. Most prominently, we evaluate the entropy of entanglement between different momentum modes and observe it to become maximal at the critical point. Furthermore, we explicitly see that the leading entanglement is between long wavelength modes and is hence a feature independent of ultraviolet physics. If applicable to black holes, our findings substantiate the conjectured breakdown of semiclassical physics even for large black holes. This can resolve long standing mysteries, such as the information paradox and the no-hair theorem.
Robust macroscopic entanglement without complex encodings
Chaves, Rafael; Acín, Antonio
2011-01-01
One of the main challenges for the experimental manipulation and storage of macroscopic entanglement is its fragility under noise. We present a simple recipe for the systematic enhancement of the resistance of multipartite entanglement against any local noise with a privileged direction in the Bloch sphere. For the case of exact local dephasing along any given basis, and for all noise strengths, our prescription grants full robustness: even states whose entanglement decays exponentially with the number of parts are mapped to states whose entanglement is constant. In contrast to previous techniques resorting to complex logical-qubit encodings, such enhancement is attained simply by performing local unitary rotations before the noise acts. The scheme is therefore highly experimentally-friendly, as it brings no overhead of extra physical qubits to encode logical ones. In addition, we show that, apart from entanglement, the resilience of the states as resources for useful practical tasks such as metrology and non...
Macroscopic Quantum Coherence in Antiferromagnetic Molecular Magnets
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HUHui; LURong; 等
2001-01-01
The macroscopic quantum coherence in a biaxial antiferromagnetic molecular magnet in the presence of magnetic field acting parallel to its hard anisotropy axis is studied within the two-sublattice model.On the basis of instanton technique in the spin-coherent-state path-integral representation,both the rigorous Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin exponent and pre-exponential factor for the ground-state tunnel splitting are obtained.We find that the quantum fluctuations around the classical paths can not only induce a new quantum phase previously reported by Chiolero and Loss (Phys.Rev.Lett.80(1998)169),but also have great influence on the intensity of the ground-state tunnel splitting.Those features clearly have no analogue in the ferromagnetic molecular magnets.We suggest that they may be the universal behaviors in all antiferromagnetic molecular magnets.The analytical results are complemented by exact diagonalization calculation.
Determining the Macroscopic Properties of Relativistic Jets
Hardee, P. E.
2004-08-01
The resolved relativistic jets contain structures whose observed proper motions are typically assumed to indicate the jet flow speed. In addition to structures moving with the flow, various normal mode structures such as pinching or helical and elliptical twisting can be produced by ejection events or twisting perturbations to the jet flow. The normal mode structures associated with relativistic jets, as revealed by numerical simulation, theoretical calculation, and suggested by observation, move more slowly than the jet speed. The pattern speed is related to the jet speed by the sound speed in the jet and in the surrounding medium. In the event that normal mode structures are observed, and where proper motions of pattern and flow speed are available or can be estimated, it is possible to determine the sound speed in the jet and surrounding medium. Where spatial development of normal mode structures is observed, it is possible to make inferences as to the heating rate/macroscopic viscosity of the jet fluid. Ultimately it may prove possible to separate the microscopic energization of the synchrotron radiating particles from the macroscopic heating of the jet fluid. Here I present the relevant properties of useful normal mode structures and illustrate the use of this technique. Various aspects of the work presented here have involved collaboration with I. Agudo (Max-Planck, Bonn), M.A. Aloy (Max-Planck, Garching), J. Eilek (NM Tech), J.L. Gómez (U. Valencia), P. Hughes (U. Michigan), A. Lobanov (Max-Planck, Bonn), J.M. Martí (U. Valencia), & C. Walker (NRAO).
Exploratory numerical experiments with a macroscopic theory of interfacial interactions
Giordano, D.; Solano-López, P.; Donoso, J. M.
2017-09-01
Phenomenological theories of interfacial interactions are founded on the core idea to model macroscopically the thin layer that forms between media in contact as a two-dimensional continuum (surface phase or interface) characterised by physical properties per unit area; the temporal evolution of the latter is governed by surface balance equations whose set acts as bridging channel in between the governing equations of the volume phases. These theories have targeted terrestrial applications since long time and their exploitation has inspired our research programme to build up, on the same core idea, a macroscopic theory of gas-surface interactions targeting the complex phenomenology of hypersonic reentry flows as alternative to standard methods in aerothermodynamics based on accommodation coefficients. The objective of this paper is the description of methods employed and results achieved in the exploratory study that kicked off our research programme, that is, the unsteady heat transfer between two solids in contact in planar and cylindrical configurations with and without interface. It is a simple numerical-demonstrator test case designed to facilitate quick numerical calculations but, at the same time, to bring forth already sufficiently meaningful aspects relevant to thermal protection due to the formation of the interface. The paper begins with a brief introduction on the subject matter and a review of relevant literature within an aerothermodynamics perspective. Then the case is considered in which the interface is absent. The importance of tension (force per unit area) continuity as boundary condition on the same footing of heat-flux continuity is recognised and the role of the former in governing the establishment of the temperature-difference distribution over the separation surface is explicitly shown. Evidence is given that the standard temperature-continuity boundary condition is just a particular case. Subsequently the case in which the interface is
Observability of relative phases of macroscopic quantum states
Pati, A K
1998-01-01
After a measurement, to observe the relative phases of macroscopically distinguishable states we have to ``undo'' a quantum measurement. We generalise an earlier model of Peres from two state to N-state quantum system undergoing measurement process and discuss the issue of observing relative phases of different branches. We derive an inequality which is satisfied by the relative phases of macroscopically distinguishable states and consequently any desired relative phases can not be observed in interference setups. The principle of macroscopic complementarity is invoked that might be at ease with the macroscopic world. We illustrate the idea of limit on phase observability in Stern-Gerlach measurements and the implications are discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nagata, Kohki, E-mail: nagata.koki@iri-tokyo.jp [Tokyo Metropolitan Industrial Technology Research Institute, 2-4-10 Aomi, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-0064 (Japan); School of Science and Technology, Meiji University, 1-1-1 Higashimita, Tama-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 214-8571 (Japan); Ogura, Atsushi [School of Science and Technology, Meiji University, 1-1-1 Higashimita, Tama-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 214-8571 (Japan); Hirosawa, Ichiro [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI), 1-1-1, Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Suwa, Tomoyuki; Teramoto, Akinobu; Ohmi, Tadahiro [New Industry Creation Hatchery Center, Tohoku University, 6-6-10 Aramakiazaaoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan)
2016-04-21
The effects of the fabrication process conditions on the microstructure of silicon dioxide thin films of <10 nm thickness are presented. The microstructure was investigated using grazing-incidence wide and small-angle X-ray scattering methods with synchrotron radiation. The combination of a high brilliance light source and grazing incident configuration enabled the observation of very weak diffuse X-ray scattering from SiO{sub 2} thin films. The results revealed different microstructures, which were dependent on oxidizing species or temperature. The micro-level properties differed from bulk properties reported in the previous literature. It was indicated that these differences originate from inner stress. The detailed structure in an amorphous thin film was not revealed owing to detection difficulties.
Rowe, D. J.; Turner, P. S.; Rosensteel, G.
2004-11-01
The asymptotic spectra and scaling properties of a mixed-symmetry Hamiltonian, which exhibits a second-order phase transition in its macroscopic limit, are examined for a system of N interacting bosons. A second interacting boson-model Hamiltonian, which exhibits a first-order phase transition, is also considered. The latter shows many parallel characteristics and some notable differences, leaving it open to question as to the nature of its asymptotic critical-point properties.
Aristotelous, Andreas C; Haider, Mansoor A
2014-08-01
Macroscopic models accounting for cellular effects in natural or engineered tissues may involve unknown constitutive terms that are highly dependent on interactions at the scale of individual cells. Hybrid discrete models, which represent cells individually, were used to develop and apply techniques for modeling diffusive nutrient transport and cellular uptake to identify a nonlinear nutrient loss term in a macroscopic reaction-diffusion model of the system. Flexible and robust numerical methods were used, based on discontinuous Galerkin finite elements in space and a Crank-Nicolson temporal discretization. Scales were bridged via averaging operations over a complete set of subdomains yielding data for identification of a macroscopic nutrient loss term that was accurately captured via a fifth-order polynomial. Accuracy of the identified macroscopic model was demonstrated by direct, quantitative comparisons of the tissue and cellular scale models in terms of three error norms computed on a mesoscale mesh. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
The Proell Effect: A Macroscopic Maxwell's Demon
Rauen, Kenneth M.
2011-12-01
Maxwell's Demon is a legitimate challenge to the Second Law of Thermodynamics when the "demon" is executed via the Proell effect. Thermal energy transfer according to the Kinetic Theory of Heat and Statistical Mechanics that takes place over distances greater than the mean free path of a gas circumvents the microscopic randomness that leads to macroscopic irreversibility. No information is required to sort the particles as no sorting occurs; the entire volume of gas undergoes the same transition. The Proell effect achieves quasi-spontaneous thermal separation without sorting by the perturbation of a heterogeneous constant volume system with displacement and regeneration. The classical analysis of the constant volume process, such as found in the Stirling Cycle, is incomplete and therefore incorrect. There are extra energy flows that classical thermo does not recognize. When a working fluid is displaced across a regenerator with a temperature gradient in a constant volume system, complimentary compression and expansion work takes place that transfers energy between the regenerator and the bulk gas volumes of the hot and cold sides of the constant volume system. Heat capacity at constant pressure applies instead of heat capacity at constant volume. The resultant increase in calculated, recyclable energy allows the Carnot Limit to be exceeded in certain cycles. Super-Carnot heat engines and heat pumps have been designed and a US patent has been awarded.
Distributivity breaking and macroscopic quantum games
Grib, A A; Parfionov, G N; Starkov, K A
2005-01-01
Examples of games between two partners with mixed strategies, calculated by the use of the probability amplitude as some vector in Hilbert space are given. The games are macroscopic, no microscopic quantum agent is supposed. The reason for the use of the quantum formalism is in breaking of the distributivity property for the lattice of yes-no questions arising due to the special rules of games. The rules of the games suppose two parts: the preparation and measurement. In the first part due to use of the quantum logical orthocomplemented non-distributive lattice the partners freely choose the wave functions as descriptions of their strategies. The second part consists of classical games described by Boolean sublattices of the initial non-Boolean lattice with same strategies which were chosen in the first part. Examples of games for spin one half are given. New Nash equilibria are found for some cases. Heisenberg uncertainty relations without the Planck constant are written for the "spin one half game".
An Experimental Proposal for Demonstration of Macroscopic Quantum Effects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jensen R.
2010-10-01
Full Text Available An experiment is proposed, whose purpose is to determine whether quantum indeterminism can be observed on a truly macroscopic scale. The experiment involves using a double-slit plate or interferometer and a macroscopic mechanical switch. The objective is to determine whether or not the switch can take on an indeterminate state.
An Experimental Proposal for Demonstration of Macroscopic Quantum Effects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jensen R.
2010-10-01
Full Text Available An experiment is proposed, whose purpose is to determine whether quantum indeter- minism can be observed on a truly macroscopic scale. The experiment involves using a double-slit plate or interferometer and a macroscopic mechanical switch. The objective is to determine whether or not the switch can take on an indeterminate state.
Macroscopic and microscopic observations of needle insertion into gels
Veen, van Youri R.J.; Jahya, Alex; Misra, Sarthak
2012-01-01
Needle insertion into soft tissue is one of the most common medical interventions. This study provides macroscopic and microscopic observations of needle–gel interactions. A gelatin mixture is used as a soft-tissue simulant. For the macroscopic studies, system parameters, such as insertion velocity,
Innovations in macroscopic evaluation of pancreatic specimens and radiologic correlation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Charikleia Triantopoulou
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a novel dissection technique of surgical specimens in different cases of pancreatic tumors and provide a radiologic pathologic correlation. In our hospital, that is a referral center for pancreatic diseases, the macroscopic evaluation of the pancreatectomy specimens is performed by the pathologists using the axial slicing technique (instead of the traditional procedure with longitudinal opening of the main pancreatic and/or common bile duct and slicing along the plane defined by both ducts. The specimen is sliced in an axial plane that is perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the descending duodenum. The procedure results in a large number of thin slices (3–4 mm. This plane is identical to that of CT or MRI and correlation between pathology and imaging is straightforward. We studied 70 cases of suspected different solid and cystic pancreatic tumors and we correlated the tumor size and location, the structure—consistency (areas of necrosis—hemorrhage—fibrosis—inflammation, the degree of vessels’ infiltration, the size of pancreatic and common bile duct and the distance from resection margins. Missed findings by imaging or pitfalls were recorded and we tried to explain all discrepancies between radiology evaluation and the histopathological findings. Radiologic-pathologic correlation is extremely important, adding crucial information on imaging limitations and enabling quality assessment of surgical specimens. The deep knowledge of different pancreatic tumors’ consistency and way of extension helps to improve radiologists’ diagnostic accuracy and minimize the radiological-surgical mismatching, preventing patients from unnecessary surgery.
Gravitational wave echoes from macroscopic quantum gravity effects
Barceló, Carlos; Carballo-Rubio, Raúl; Garay, Luis J.
2017-05-01
New theoretical approaches developed in the last years predict that macroscopic quantum gravity effects in black holes should lead to modifications of the gravitational wave signals expected in the framework of classical general relativity, with these modifications being characterized in certain scenarios by the existence of dampened rep-etitions of the primary signal. Here we use the fact that non-perturbative corrections to the near-horizon external geometry of black holes are necessary for these modifications to exist, in order to classify different proposals and paradigms with respect to this criterion and study in a neat and systematic way their phenomenology. Proposals that lead naturally to the existence of echoes in the late-time ringdown of gravitational wave signals from black hole mergers must share the replacement of black holes by horizonless configurations with a physical surface showing reflective properties in the relevant range of frequencies. On the other hand, proposals or paradigms that restrict quantum gravity effects on the external geometry to be perturbative, such as black hole complementarity or the closely related firewall proposal, do not display echoes. For the sake of completeness we exploit the interplay between the timescales associated with the formation of firewalls and the mechanism behind the existence of echoes in order to conclude that even unconventional distortions of the firewall concept (such as naked firewalls) do not lead to this phenomenon.
Single-file diffusion of macroscopic charged particles.
Coste, C; Delfau, J-B; Even, C; Saint Jean, M
2010-05-01
In this paper, we study a macroscopic system of electrically interacting metallic beads organized as a sequence along an annulus. A random mechanical shaking mimics the thermal excitation. We exhibit non-Fickian diffusion (single-file diffusion) at large time. We measure the mobility of the particles and compare it to theoretical expectations. We show that our system cannot be accurately described by theories assuming only hard-sphere interactions. Its behavior is qualitatively described by a theory extended to more realistic potentials [M. Kollmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 180602 (2003)]. A correct quantitative agreement is shown and we interpret the discrepancies by the violation of the assumption of overdamped dynamics, which is a key point in the theory. We recast previous results on colloids with known interaction potentials and compare them quantitatively to the theory. Focusing on the transition between ordinary and single-file diffusions, we exhibit a dimensionless crossover time that is of order 1 both for colloids and our system, although the time and length scales differ by several orders of magnitude.
Grulois, Tatiana; Druart, Guillaume; Sauer, Hervé; Chambon, Mathieu; Guérineau, Nicolas; Magli, Serge; Lasfargues, Gillles; Chavel, Pierre
2015-07-10
We designed a compact infrared cryogenic camera using only one lens mounted inside the detector area. In the field of cooled infrared imaging systems, the maximal detector area is determined by the dewar. It is generally a sealed and cooled environment dedicated to the infrared quantum detector. By integrating an optical function inside it, we improve the compactness of the camera as well as its performances. The originality of our approach is to use a thin integrated optics which is a high quality Fresnel lens on a thin germanium substrate. The aim is to reduce the additional mass of the optical part integrated inside the dewar to obtain almost the same cool down time as a conventional dewar with no imaging function. A prototype has been made and its characterization has been carried out.
General multi-group macroscopic modeling for thermo-chemical non-equilibrium gas mixtures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, Yen, E-mail: yen.liu@nasa.gov; Vinokur, Marcel [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California 94035 (United States); Panesi, Marco; Sahai, Amal [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois 61801 (United States)
2015-04-07
This paper opens a new door to macroscopic modeling for thermal and chemical non-equilibrium. In a game-changing approach, we discard conventional theories and practices stemming from the separation of internal energy modes and the Landau-Teller relaxation equation. Instead, we solve the fundamental microscopic equations in their moment forms but seek only optimum representations for the microscopic state distribution function that provides converged and time accurate solutions for certain macroscopic quantities at all times. The modeling makes no ad hoc assumptions or simplifications at the microscopic level and includes all possible collisional and radiative processes; it therefore retains all non-equilibrium fluid physics. We formulate the thermal and chemical non-equilibrium macroscopic equations and rate coefficients in a coupled and unified fashion for gases undergoing completely general transitions. All collisional partners can have internal structures and can change their internal energy states after transitions. The model is based on the reconstruction of the state distribution function. The internal energy space is subdivided into multiple groups in order to better describe non-equilibrium state distributions. The logarithm of the distribution function in each group is expressed as a power series in internal energy based on the maximum entropy principle. The method of weighted residuals is applied to the microscopic equations to obtain macroscopic moment equations and rate coefficients succinctly to any order. The model’s accuracy depends only on the assumed expression of the state distribution function and the number of groups used and can be self-checked for accuracy and convergence. We show that the macroscopic internal energy transfer, similar to mass and momentum transfers, occurs through nonlinear collisional processes and is not a simple relaxation process described by, e.g., the Landau-Teller equation. Unlike the classical vibrational energy
General multi-group macroscopic modeling for thermo-chemical non-equilibrium gas mixtures
Liu, Yen; Panesi, Marco; Sahai, Amal; Vinokur, Marcel
2015-04-01
This paper opens a new door to macroscopic modeling for thermal and chemical non-equilibrium. In a game-changing approach, we discard conventional theories and practices stemming from the separation of internal energy modes and the Landau-Teller relaxation equation. Instead, we solve the fundamental microscopic equations in their moment forms but seek only optimum representations for the microscopic state distribution function that provides converged and time accurate solutions for certain macroscopic quantities at all times. The modeling makes no ad hoc assumptions or simplifications at the microscopic level and includes all possible collisional and radiative processes; it therefore retains all non-equilibrium fluid physics. We formulate the thermal and chemical non-equilibrium macroscopic equations and rate coefficients in a coupled and unified fashion for gases undergoing completely general transitions. All collisional partners can have internal structures and can change their internal energy states after transitions. The model is based on the reconstruction of the state distribution function. The internal energy space is subdivided into multiple groups in order to better describe non-equilibrium state distributions. The logarithm of the distribution function in each group is expressed as a power series in internal energy based on the maximum entropy principle. The method of weighted residuals is applied to the microscopic equations to obtain macroscopic moment equations and rate coefficients succinctly to any order. The model's accuracy depends only on the assumed expression of the state distribution function and the number of groups used and can be self-checked for accuracy and convergence. We show that the macroscopic internal energy transfer, similar to mass and momentum transfers, occurs through nonlinear collisional processes and is not a simple relaxation process described by, e.g., the Landau-Teller equation. Unlike the classical vibrational energy
Sarfraz, M.; Yoon, P. H.; Saeed, Sundas; Abbas, G.; Shah, H. A.
2017-01-01
A number of different microinstabilities are known to be responsible for regulating the upper bound of temperature anisotropies in solar wind protons, alpha particles, and electrons. In the present paper, quasilinear kinetic theory is employed to investigate the time variation in electron temperature anisotropies in response to the excitation of parallel electron firehose instability in homogeneous and non-collisional solar wind plasma under the condition of T∥e>T⊥e . By assuming the bi-Maxwellian form of velocity distribution functions, various velocity moments of the particle kinetic equation are taken in order to reduce the theory to macroscopic model in which the wave-particle interaction is incorporated, hence, the macroscopic quasilinear theory. The threshold condition for the parallel electron firehose instability, empirically constructed as a curve in (β∥e,T⊥e/T∥e) phase space, is implicit in the present macroscopic quasilinear calculation. Even though the present calculation excludes the oblique firehose instability, which is known to possess a higher growth rate, the basic methodology may be further extended to include such a mode. Among the findings is that the parallel electron firehose instability dynamically couples the electrons and protons, which implies that this instability may be important for overall solar wind dynamics. The present analysis shows that the macroscopic quasilinear approach may eventually be incorporated in global-kinetic models of the solar wind electrons and ions.
Lucia, Umberto
2016-10-01
The relation between macroscopic irreversibility and microscopic reversibility is a present unsolved problem. Constructal law is introduced to develop analytically the Einstein’s, Schrödinger’s, and Gibbs’ considerations on the interaction between particles and thermal radiation (photons). The result leads to consider the atoms and molecules as open systems in continuous interaction with flows of photons from their surroundings. The consequent result is that, in any atomic transition, the energy related to the microscopic irreversibility is negligible, while when a great number of atoms (of the order of Avogadro’s number) is considered, this energy related to irreversibility becomes so large that its order of magnitude must be taken into account. Consequently, macroscopic irreversibility results related to microscopic irreversibility by flows of photons and amount of atoms involved in the processes.
Experimental demonstration of macroscopic quantum coherence in Gaussian states
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Marquardt, C.; Andersen, Ulrik Lund; Leuchs, G.
2007-01-01
We witness experimentally the presence of macroscopic coherence in Gaussian quantum states using a recently proposed criterion [E. G. Cavalcanti and M. D. Reid, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97 170405 (2006)]. The macroscopic coherence stems from interference between macroscopically distinct states in phase...... space, and we prove experimentally that a coherent state contains these features with a distance in phase space of 0.51 +/- 0.02 shot noise units. This is surprising because coherent states are generally considered being at the border between classical and quantum states, not yet displaying any...
Solution of Macroscopic State Equations of Blume-Capel Model Using Nonlinear Dynamics Concepts
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Asaf Tolga Ülgen
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The macroscopic state equations of Blume-Capel Model were solved by using the concepts of nonlinear dynamics. Negative and positive exchange constant values yield bifurcations of pitchfork and subcritical flip types, respectively. Hence, we obtained bifurcations corresponding to second order phase transitions. The critical values of parameters were calculated from the neutral stability condition and the 3-dimensional phase diagram was plotted.
The assembly of C. elegans lamins into macroscopic fibers.
Zingerman-Koladko, Irena; Khayat, Maayan; Harapin, Jan; Shoseyov, Oded; Gruenbaum, Yosef; Salman, Ahmad; Medalia, Ohad; Ben-Harush, Kfir
2016-10-01
Intermediate filament (IF) proteins are known mainly by their propensity to form viscoelastic filamentous networks within cells. In addition, IF-proteins are essential parts of various biological materials, such as horn and hagfish slime threads, which exhibit a range of mechanical properties from hard to elastic. These properties and their self-assembly nature made IF-proteins attractive building blocks for biomimetic and biological materials in diverse applications. Here we show that a type V IF-protein, the Caenorhabditis elegans nuclear lamin (Ce-lamin), is a promising building block for protein-based fibers. Electron cryo-tomography of vitrified sections enabled us to depict the higher ordered assembly of the Ce-lamin into macroscopic fibers through the creation of paracrystalline fibers, which are prominent in vitro structures of lamins. The lamin fibers respond to tensile force as other IF-protein-based fibers, i.e., hagfish slime threads, and possess unique mechanical properties that may potentially be used in certain applications. The self-assembly nature of lamin proteins into a filamentous structure, which is further assembled into a complex network, can be easily modulated. This knowledge may lead to a better understanding of the relationship in IF-proteins-based fibers and materials, between their hierarchical structures and their mechanical properties.
Quantum-limited heat conduction over macroscopic distances
Partanen, Matti; Tan, Kuan Yen; Govenius, Joonas; Lake, Russell E.; Mäkelä, Miika K.; Tanttu, Tuomo; Möttönen, Mikko
2016-05-01
The emerging quantum technological apparatuses, such as the quantum computer, call for extreme performance in thermal engineering. Cold distant heat sinks are needed for the quantized electric degrees of freedom owing to the increasing packaging density and heat dissipation. Importantly, quantum mechanics sets a fundamental upper limit for the flow of information and heat, which is quantified by the quantum of thermal conductance. However, the short distance between the heat-exchanging bodies in the previous experiments hinders their applicability in quantum technology. Here, we present experimental observations of quantum-limited heat conduction over macroscopic distances extending to a metre. We achieved this improvement of four orders of magnitude in the distance by utilizing microwave photons travelling in superconducting transmission lines. Thus, it seems that quantum-limited heat conduction has no fundamental distance cutoff. This work establishes the integration of normal-metal components into the framework of circuit quantum electrodynamics, which provides a basis for the superconducting quantum computer. Especially, our results facilitate remote cooling of nanoelectronic devices using faraway in situ-tunable heat sinks. Furthermore, quantum-limited heat conduction is important in contemporary thermodynamics. Here, the long distance may lead to ultimately efficient mesoscopic heat engines with promising practical applications.
Influence of macroscopic graphite particulates on the damping properties of Zn-Al eutectoid alloy
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
The paper presents in detail the effects of macroscopic graphite (Gr) particulates on the damping behavior of Zn-Al eutectoid alloy (Zn-Al). Macroscopic defects are graphite particulates with sizes of the order of a millimeter (0.5 mm and 1.0 mm). Macroscopic graphite particulate-reinforced Zn-Al eutectoid alloys were prepared by the air pressure infiltration process. The damping characterization was conducted on a multifunction internal friction apparatus (MFIFA). The internal friction (IF), as well as the relative dynamic modulus, was measured at different frequencies over the temperature range of 20 to 400℃. The damping capacity of the Zn-Al/Gr, with two different volume fractions of macroscopic graphite particulates, was compared with that of bulk Zn-Al eutectoid alloy. The damping capacity of the materials is shown to increase with increasing volume fraction of macroscopic graphite particulates. Two IF peaks were found in the IF-temperature curves. The first is a grain boundary peak, which is associated with the diffusive flux on a boundary between like phases, Al/Al. Its activation energy has been calculated to be 1.13±0.03 eV and the pre-exponential factor is 10?14 s in IF measurements. The second is a phase transition peak, which results from the transformation of Zn-Al eutectoid. In light of internal friction measurements and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) experiments, its activation energy has been calculated to be 2.36±0.08 eV.
Influence of macroscopic graphite particulates on the damping properties of Zn-Al eutectoid alloy
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WEI JianNing; SONG ShiHua; HU KongGang; XIE WeiJun; MA MingLiang; LI GenMei
2009-01-01
The paper presents in detail the effects of macroscopic graphite (Gr) particulates on the damping be-havior of Zn-AI eutectoid alloy (Zn-AI). Macroscopic defects are graphite particulates with sizes of the order of a millimeter (0.5 mm and 1.0 mm). Macroscopic graphite particulate-reinforced Zn-AI eutectoid alloys were prepared by the air pressure infiltration process. The damping characterization was con-ducted on a multifunction internal friction apparatus (MFIFA). The internal friction (IF), as well as the relative dynamic modulus, was measured at different frequencies over the temperature range of 20 to 400"C. The damping capacity of the Zn-AI/Gr, with two different volume fractions of macroscopic graphite particulates, was compared with that of bulk Zn-Al eutectoid alloy. The damping capacity of the materials is shown to increase with increasing volume fraction of macroscopic graphite particulates. Two IF peaks were found in the IF-temperature curves. The first is a grain boundary peak, which is as-sociated with the diffusive flux on a boundary between like phases, Al/Al. Its activation energy has been calculated to be 1.13±0.03 eV and the pre-exponential factor is 10-14 s in IF measurements. The second is a phase transition peak, which results from the transformation of Zn-AI eutectoid. In light of internal friction measurements and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) experiments, its activation energy has been calculated to be 2.36±0.08 eV.
Leinonen, Risto; Asikainen, Mervi A.; Hirvonen, Pekka E.
2015-12-01
[This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Upper Division Physics Courses.] This study concentrates on evaluating the consistency of upper-division students' use of the second law of thermodynamics at macroscopic and microscopic levels. Data were collected by means of a paper and pencil test (N =4 8 ) focusing on the macroscopic and microscopic features of the second law concerned with heat transfer processes. The data analysis was based on a qualitative content analysis where students' responses to the macroscopic- and microscopic-level items were categorized to provide insight into the consistency of the students' ideas; if students relied on the same idea at both levels, they ended up in the same category at both levels, and their use of the second law was consistent. The most essential finding is that a majority of students, 52%-69% depending on the physical system under evaluation, used the second law of thermodynamics consistently at macroscopic and microscopic levels; approximately 40% of the students used it correctly in terms of physics while others relied on erroneous ideas, such as the idea of conserving entropy. The most common inconsistency harbored by 10%-15% of the students (depending on the physical system under evaluation) was students' tendency to consider the number of accessible microstates to remain constant even if the entropy was stated to increase in a similar process; other inconsistencies were only seen in the answers of a few students. In order to address the observed inconsistencies, we would suggest that lecturers should utilize tasks that challenge students to evaluate phenomena at macroscopic and microscopic levels concurrently and tasks that would guide students in their search for contradictions in their thinking.
Derivation, calibration and verification of macroscopic model for urban traffic flow. Part 2
Alekseenko, Andrey E; Kholodov, Aleksandr S; Goreva, Anna I; Kurzhanskiy, Alexander A; Chehovich, Yuriy V; Starozhilets, Vsevolod M
2016-01-01
In this paper, we propose a unified procedure for calibration of macroscopic second-order multilane traffic models. The focus is on calibrating the fundamental diagram using the combination stationary detector data and GPS traces. GPS traces are used in estimation of the deceleration wave speed. Thus calibrated model adequately represents the three phases of traffic: free flow, synchronized flow and the wide moving jam. The proposed approach was validated in simulation using stationary detection data and GPS traces from the Moscow Ring Road. Simulation showed that the proposed second-order model is more accurate than the first-order LWR model.
Terahertz Science and Technology of Macroscopically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Films
Kono, Junichiro
One of the outstanding challenges in nanotechnology is how to assemble individual nano-objects into macroscopic architectures while preserving their extraordinary properties. For example, the one-dimensional character of electrons in individual carbon nanotubes leads to extremely anisotropic transport, optical, and magnetic phenomena, but their macroscopic manifestations have been limited. Here, we describe methods for preparing macroscopic films, sheets, and fibers of highly aligned carbon nanotubes and their applications to basic and applied terahertz studies. Sufficiently thick films act as ideal terahertz polarizers, and appropriately doped films operate as polarization-sensitive, flexible, powerless, and ultra-broadband detectors. Together with recently developed chirality enrichment methods, these developments will ultimately allow us to study dynamic conductivities of interacting one-dimensional electrons in macroscopic single crystals of single-chirality single-wall carbon nanotubes.
Accumulation of small protein molecules in a macroscopic complex coacervate
Lindhoud, S.; Claessens, M.M.A.E.
2016-01-01
To obtain insight into the accumulation of proteins into macroscopic complex coacervate phases, the lysozyme concentration in complex coacervates containing the cationic polyelectrolyte poly-(N,N dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) and the anionic polyelectrolyte polyacrylic acid was investigated as a
Macroscopic cumulative fatigue damage of material under nonsymmetrical cycle
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
盖秉政
2002-01-01
Hashin's macroscopic theory of fatigue damage is further discussed and a new method has been proposed for prediction of cumulative fatigue damage of material and its lifetime under nonsymmetrical cyclic loading.
Large Deviations for the Macroscopic Motion of an Interface
Birmpa, P.; Dirr, N.; Tsagkarogiannis, D.
2017-03-01
We study the most probable way an interface moves on a macroscopic scale from an initial to a final position within a fixed time in the context of large deviations for a stochastic microscopic lattice system of Ising spins with Kac interaction evolving in time according to Glauber (non-conservative) dynamics. Such interfaces separate two stable phases of a ferromagnetic system and in the macroscopic scale are represented by sharp transitions. We derive quantitative estimates for the upper and the lower bound of the cost functional that penalizes all possible deviations and obtain explicit error terms which are valid also in the macroscopic scale. Furthermore, using the result of a companion paper about the minimizers of this cost functional for the macroscopic motion of the interface in a fixed time, we prove that the probability of such events can concentrate on nucleations should the transition happen fast enough.
Quantum fluctuations, gauge freedom and mesoscopic/macroscopic stability
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Del Giudice, E [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Vitiello, G [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Universita di Salerno and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, 84100 Salerno (Italy)
2007-11-15
We study how the mesoscopic/macroscopic stability of coherent extended domains is generated out of the phase locking between gauge field and matter field. The role of the radiative gauge field in sustaining the coherent regime is discussed.
New Tests of Macroscopic Local Realism using Continuous Variable Measurements
Reid, M D
2001-01-01
We show that quantum mechanics predicts an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox (EPR), and also a contradiction with local hidden variable theories, for photon number measurements which have limited resolving power, to the point of imposing an uncertainty in the photon number result which is macroscopic in absolute terms. We show how this can be interpreted as a failure of a new, very strong premise, called macroscopic local realism. We link this premise to the Schrodinger-cat paradox. Our proposed experiments ensure all fields incident on each measurement apparatus are macroscopic. We show that an alternative measurement scheme corresponds to balanced homodyne detection of quadrature phase amplitudes. The implication is that where either EPR correlations or failure of local realism is predicted for continuous variable (quadrature phase amplitude) measurements, one can perform a modified experiment which would lead to conclusions about the much stronger premise of macroscopic local realism.
Nanostructure surveys of macroscopic specimens by small-angle scattering tensor tomography.
Liebi, Marianne; Georgiadis, Marios; Menzel, Andreas; Schneider, Philipp; Kohlbrecher, Joachim; Bunk, Oliver; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel
2015-11-19
The mechanical properties of many materials are based on the macroscopic arrangement and orientation of their nanostructure. This nanostructure can be ordered over a range of length scales. In biology, the principle of hierarchical ordering is often used to maximize functionality, such as strength and robustness of the material, while minimizing weight and energy cost. Methods for nanoscale imaging provide direct visual access to the ultrastructure (nanoscale structure that is too small to be imaged using light microscopy), but the field of view is limited and does not easily allow a full correlative study of changes in the ultrastructure over a macroscopic sample. Other methods of probing ultrastructure ordering, such as small-angle scattering of X-rays or neutrons, can be applied to macroscopic samples; however, these scattering methods remain constrained to two-dimensional specimens or to isotropically oriented ultrastructures. These constraints limit the use of these methods for studying nanostructures with more complex orientation patterns, which are abundant in nature and materials science. Here, we introduce an imaging method that combines small-angle scattering with tensor tomography to probe nanoscale structures in three-dimensional macroscopic samples in a non-destructive way. We demonstrate the method by measuring the main orientation and the degree of orientation of nanoscale mineralized collagen fibrils in a human trabecula bone sample with a spatial resolution of 25 micrometres. Symmetries within the sample, such as the cylindrical symmetry commonly observed for mineralized collagen fibrils in bone, allow for tractable sampling requirements and numerical efficiency. Small-angle scattering tensor tomography is applicable to both biological and materials science specimens, and may be useful for understanding and characterizing smart or bio-inspired materials. Moreover, because the method is non-destructive, it is appropriate for in situ measurements and
Nanostructure surveys of macroscopic specimens by small-angle scattering tensor tomography
Liebi, Marianne; Georgiadis, Marios; Menzel, Andreas; Schneider, Philipp; Kohlbrecher, Joachim; Bunk, Oliver; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel
2015-11-01
The mechanical properties of many materials are based on the macroscopic arrangement and orientation of their nanostructure. This nanostructure can be ordered over a range of length scales. In biology, the principle of hierarchical ordering is often used to maximize functionality, such as strength and robustness of the material, while minimizing weight and energy cost. Methods for nanoscale imaging provide direct visual access to the ultrastructure (nanoscale structure that is too small to be imaged using light microscopy), but the field of view is limited and does not easily allow a full correlative study of changes in the ultrastructure over a macroscopic sample. Other methods of probing ultrastructure ordering, such as small-angle scattering of X-rays or neutrons, can be applied to macroscopic samples; however, these scattering methods remain constrained to two-dimensional specimens or to isotropically oriented ultrastructures. These constraints limit the use of these methods for studying nanostructures with more complex orientation patterns, which are abundant in nature and materials science. Here, we introduce an imaging method that combines small-angle scattering with tensor tomography to probe nanoscale structures in three-dimensional macroscopic samples in a non-destructive way. We demonstrate the method by measuring the main orientation and the degree of orientation of nanoscale mineralized collagen fibrils in a human trabecula bone sample with a spatial resolution of 25 micrometres. Symmetries within the sample, such as the cylindrical symmetry commonly observed for mineralized collagen fibrils in bone, allow for tractable sampling requirements and numerical efficiency. Small-angle scattering tensor tomography is applicable to both biological and materials science specimens, and may be useful for understanding and characterizing smart or bio-inspired materials. Moreover, because the method is non-destructive, it is appropriate for in situ measurements and
On cavitation and macroscopic behaviour of amorphous polymer-rubber blends
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Naima Belayachi et al
2008-01-01
Full Text Available The macroscopic behaviour of rubber-modified polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA was investigated by taking into account the microdeformation mechanisms of rubber cavitation. The dependence of the macroscopic stress–strain behaviour of matrix deformation on the cavitation of rubber particles was discussed. A phenomenological elastic-viscoplastic model was used to model the behaviour of the matrix material, while the rubber particles were modelled with the hyperelasticity theory. A two-phase composite material with a periodic arrangement of reinforcing particles of a circular unit cell section was considered. Finite-element analysis was used to determine the local stresses and strains in the two-phase composite. In order to describe the cavitation of the rubber particles, a criterion of void nucleation is implemented in the finite-element (FE code. A comparison of the numerically predicted response with experimental result indicates that the numerical homogenisation analysis gives satisfactory prediction results.
Observations of Macroscopic Shocks in the Laboratory
Endrizzi, Douglass; Laufman-Wollitzer, Lauren; Clark, Mike; Olson, Joseph; Myers, Rachel; Forest, Cary; Gota, Hiroshi; WiPAL Team; Tri Alpha Energy Team
2016-10-01
A magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG) built by Tri Alpha Energy has been installed on the Wisconsin Plasma Astrophysics Lab (WiPAL) vacuum vessel. The MCPG fires a dense (1018m-3) and warm (10-30 eV) compact toroid (CT) at speeds of order 100 km/s. The CT is characterized using B magnetic diagnostics, multi-tip temperature probes, Ion saturation density probes, and a fast Phantom camera. The CT is injected into vacuum field, neutral gas, and plasmas of various beta. Results and evidence for propagating shocks will be presented. This work supported the NSF GRFP under Grant No. DGE-1256259.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ribes, A.C.; Damaskinos, S.; Tiedje, H.F.; Dixon, A.E.; Brodie, D.E. [Guelph-Waterloo Program for Graduate Work in Physics, Waterloo Campus, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON (Canada)
1996-11-27
This paper describes a confocal scanning beam MACROscope/Microscope which can image specimens up to 7x7 cm in size using reflected light, photoluminescence and optical beam induced current. The MACROscope provides a 10{mu}m spot size at various wavelengths and generates 512x512 pixel images in less than 5 s. When used in combination with a conventional confocal scanning laser microscope sub-micron spot sizes become possible providing resolutions as high as 0.25{mu}m laterally and 0.5{mu}m axially in reflected light. The main function of this imaging system is to spatially resolve any defects within solar cells and similar devices. Several reflected-light, photoluminescence and OBIC images of CdS/CuInSe{sub 2} and CdZnS/CuInSe{sub 2} thin film solar cells are presented
Ohtake, Mitsuru; Ouchi, Shouhei; Kirino, Fumiyoshi; Futamoto, Masaaki
2012-04-01
The FePt, FePd, CoPt, and CoPd epitaxial thin films are prepared on MgO(001) single-crystal substrates by ultrahigh vacuum RF magnetron sputtering. The effects of the magnetic material and the substrate temperature on the film growth, the film structure, and the magnetic properties are investigated. The L10 ordered phase formation is observed for FePt, FePd, and CoPt films prepared at temperatures higher than 200, 400, and 600 °C, respectively, whereas that is not recognized for CoPd films. The L10-FePd(001) single-crystal films with the c-axis normal to the substrate surface are formed, whereas the FePt and CoPt epitaxial films include L10(100) crystals whose c-axis is parallel to the substrate surface, in addition to the L10(001) crystals. Upon increasing the substrate temperature, the ordering degree increases. A higher ordering parameter is observed in the order of FePd > FePt > CoPt. The magnetic properties are influenced by the crystal structure, the crystallographic orientation of the L10 crystal, and the ordering degree.
Macroscopic behavior and microscopic magnetic properties of nanocarbon
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lähderanta, E., E-mail: Erkki.Lahderanta@lut.fi [Lappeenranta University of Technology, PO Box 20, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); Ryzhov, V.A. [Lappeenranta University of Technology, PO Box 20, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, NRC “Kurchatov Institute”, Orlova Coppice, Gatchina, Leningrad province 188300 (Russian Federation); Lashkul, A.V. [Lappeenranta University of Technology, PO Box 20, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); Galimov, D.M. [Lappeenranta University of Technology, PO Box 20, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); South Ural State University, 454080 Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation); Titkov, A.N. [Lappeenranta University of Technology, PO Box 20, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); A. F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Matveev, V.V. [Lappeenranta University of Technology, PO Box 20, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); Saint-Petersburg State University, Saint-Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation); Mokeev, M.V. [Institute of Macromolecular Compounds, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Kurbakov, A.I. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, NRC “Kurchatov Institute”, Orlova Coppice, Gatchina, Leningrad province 188300 (Russian Federation); Lisunov, K.G. [Lappeenranta University of Technology, PO Box 20, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); Institute of Applied Physics ASM, Academiei Str., 5, MD 2028 Kishinev (Moldova, Republic of)
2015-06-01
Here are presented investigations of powder and glass-like samples containing carbon nanoparticles, not intentionally doped and doped with Ag, Au and Co. The neutron diffraction study reveals an amorphous structure of the samples doped with Au and Co, as well as the magnetic scattering due to a long-range FM order in the Co-doped sample. The composition and molecular structure of the sample doped with Au is clarified with the NMR investigations. The temperature dependence of the magnetization, M (T), exhibits large irreversibility in low fields of B=1–7 mT. M (B) saturates already above 2 T at high temperatures, but deviates from the saturation behavior below ~50 (150 K). Magnetic hysteresis is observed already at 300 K and exhibits a power-law temperature decay of the coercive field, B{sub c} (T). The macroscopic behavior above is typical of an assembly of partially blocked magnetic nanoparticles. The values of the saturation magnetization, M{sub s}, and the blocking temperature, T{sub b}, are obtained as well. However, the hysteresis loop in the Co-doped sample differs from that in other samples, and the values of B{sub c} and M{sub s} are noticeably increased. - Highlights: • We have investigated powder and glassy samples with carbon nanoparticles. • They include an undoped sample and those doped with Ag, Au and Co. • Neutron diffraction study reveals amorphous structure of Au- and Co-doped samples. • Composition and molecular structure of Au-doped sample was investigated with NMR. • Magnetic behavior is typical of an assembly of partially blocked magnetic nanoparticles.
Macroscopic modelization of the cloud elasticity*
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Etancelin J.-M.
2013-12-01
Full Text Available In order to achieve its promise of providing information technologies (IT on demand, cloud computing needs to rely on a mathematical model capable of directing IT on and off according to a demand pattern to provide a true elasticity. This article provides a first method to reach this goal using a “fluid type” partial differential equations model. On the one hand it examines the question of service time optimization for the simultaneous satisfaction of the cloud consumer and provider. On the other hand it tries to model a way to deliver resources according to the real time capacity of the cloud that depends on parameters such as burst requests and application timeouts. All these questions are illustrated via an implicit finite volume scheme.
Extended Macroscopic Study of Dilute Gas Flow within a Microcavity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohamed Hssikou
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The behaviour of monatomic and dilute gas is studied in the slip and early transition regimes using the extended macroscopic theory. The gas is confined within a two-dimensional microcavity where the longitudinal sides are in the opposite motion with constant velocity ±Uw. The microcavity walls are kept at the uniform and reference temperature T0. Thus, the gas flow is transported only by the shear stress induced by the motion of upper and lower walls. From the macroscopic point of view, the regularized 13-moment equations of Grad, R13, are solved numerically. The macroscopic gas proprieties are studied for different values of the so-called Knudsen number (Kn, which gives the gas-rarefaction degree. The results are compared with those obtained using the classical continuum theory of Navier-Stokes and Fourier (NSF.
Geometric aspects of Schnakenberg's network theory of macroscopic nonequilibrium observables
Polettini, M.
2011-03-01
Schnakenberg's network theory deals with macroscopic thermodynamical observables (forces, currents and entropy production) associated to the steady states of diffusions on generic graphs. Using results from graph theory and from the theory of discrete differential forms we recast Schnakenberg's treatment in the form of a simple discrete gauge theory, which allows to interpret macroscopic forces as the Wilson loops of a real connection. We discuss the geometric properties of transient states, showing that heat fluxes allow for a notion of duality of macroscopic observables which interchanges the role of the environment and that of the system. We discuss possible generalizations to less trivial gauge groups and the relevance for nonequilibrium fluctuation theorems. Based on work in collaboration with professor A. Maritan, University of Padua, to be published.
Broadband Macroscopic Cortical Oscillations Emerge from Intrinsic Neuronal Response Failures
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Amir eGoldental
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Broadband spontaneous macroscopic neural oscillations are rhythmic cortical firing which was extensively examined during the last century, however, their possible origination is still controversial. In this work we show how macroscopic oscillations emerge in solely excitatory random networks and without topological constraints. We experimentally and theoretically show that these oscillations stem from the counterintuitive underlying mechanism - the intrinsic stochastic neuronal response failures. These neuronal response failures, which are characterized by short-term memory, lead to cooperation among neurons, resulting in sub- or several- Hertz macroscopic oscillations which coexist with high frequency gamma oscillations. A quantitative interplay between the statistical network properties and the emerging oscillations is supported by simulations of large networks based on single-neuron in-vitro experiments and a Langevin equation describing the network dynamics. Results call for the examination of these oscillations in the presence of inhibition and external drives.
Reconciling power laws in microscopic and macroscopic neural recordings
Pettersen, Klas H; Tetzlaff, Tom; Einevoll, Gaute T
2013-01-01
Power laws, characterized by quantities following 1/x^\\alpha{} distributions, are commonly reported when observing nature or society, and the question of their origin has for a long time intrigued physicists. Power laws have also been observed in neural recordings, both at the macroscopic and microscopic levels: at the macroscopic level, the power spectral density (PSD) of the electroencephalogram (EEG) has been seen to follow 1/f^\\alpha{} distributions; at the microscopic level similar power laws have been observed in single-neuron recordings of the neuronal soma potential and soma current, yet with different values of the power-law exponent \\alpha. In this theoretical study we find that these observed macroscopic and microscopic power laws may, despite the widely different spatial scales and different exponents, have the same source. By a combination of simulation on a biophysical detailed, pyramidal neuron model and analytical investigations of a simplified ball and stick neuron, we find that the transfer ...
Okajima-Kaneko, Maiko; Hayasaka-Kaneko, Daisaku; Miyazato, Shinji; Kaneko, Tatsuo
2007-05-01
We report an efficient method for extraction of anionic polysaccharides (PS) from cyanobacteria, Aphanothece sacrum; we used a hot alkaline solution (0.01 N NaOH) as an elution solvent in the first step of the extraction and isopropanol as a precipitation solvent in the last step. Thin fibers of PS were obtained at a high yield (50-80 % to the weight of the raw cyanobacterial sample). The spectroscopy and elemental analyses indicated the PS contains fucose, uronic acids (14.2 % by a carbazole-sulfuric acid method), a sugar unit containing amides. The solution of PS with a concentration of 1 wt% showed a very high viscosity (80 000cps) implying a high molecular weight, and a strong macroscopic birefringence with a texture typical of nematic liquid crystals was confirmed by crossed-polarizing microscopy (more than 0.5 wt%). The PS from A. sacrum may form a special structure rigid-rod enough to show LC phase and macroscopic birefringence.
Ordered organic-organic multilayer growth
Forrest, Stephen R; Lunt, Richard R
2015-01-13
An ordered multilayer crystalline organic thin film structure is formed by depositing at least two layers of thin film crystalline organic materials successively wherein the at least two thin film layers are selected to have their surface energies within .+-.50% of each other, and preferably within .+-.15% of each other, whereby every thin film layer within the multilayer crystalline organic thin film structure exhibit a quasi-epitaxial relationship with the adjacent crystalline organic thin film.
Microscopic and macroscopic infarct complicating pediatric epilepsy surgery.
Rubinger, Luc; Hazrati, Lili-Naz; Ahmed, Raheel; Rutka, James; Snead, Carter; Widjaja, Elysa
2017-03-01
There is some suggestion that microscopic infarct could be associated with invasive monitoring, but it is unclear if the microscopic infarct is also visible on imaging and associated with neurologic deficits. The aims of this study were to assess the rates of microscopic and macroscopic infarct and other major complications of pediatric epilepsy surgery, and to determine if these complications were higher following invasive monitoring. We reviewed the epilepsy surgery data from a tertiary pediatric center, and collected data on microscopic infarct on histology and macroscopic infarct on postoperative computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) done one day after surgery and major complications. Three hundred fifty-two patients underwent surgical resection and there was one death. Forty-two percent had invasive monitoring. Thirty patients (9%) had microscopic infarct. Univariable analyses showed that microscopic infarct was higher among patients with invasive monitoring relative to no invasive monitoring (20% vs. 0.5%, respectively, p microscopic infarct had transient right hemiparesis, and two with both macroscopic and microscopic infarct had unexpected persistent neurologic deficits. Thirty-two major complications (9.1%) were reported, with no difference in major complications between invasive monitoring and no invasive monitoring (10% vs. 7%, p = 0.446). In the multivariable analysis, invasive monitoring increased the odds of microscopic infarct (odds ratio [OR] 15.87, p = 0.009), but not macroscopic infarct (OR 2.6, p = 0.173) or major complications (OR 1.4, p = 0.500), after adjusting for age at surgery, sex, age at seizure onset, operative type, and operative location. Microscopic infarct was associated with invasive monitoring, and none of the patients had permanent neurologic deficits. Macroscopic infarct was not associated with invasive monitoring, and two patients with macroscopic infarct had persistent neurologic deficits. Wiley
Modeling the macroscopic behavior of two-phase nonlinear composites by infinite-rank laminates
Idiart, Martín I.
A new approach is proposed for estimating the macroscopic behavior of two-phase nonlinear composites with random, particulate microstructures. The central idea is to model composites by sequentially laminated constructions of infinite rank whose macroscopic behavior can be determined exactly. The resulting estimates incorporate microstructural information up to the two-point correlation functions, and require the solution to a Hamilton-Jacobi equation with the inclusion concentration and the macroscopic fields playing the role of 'time' and 'spatial' variables, respectively. Because they are realizable, by construction, these estimates are guaranteed to be convex, to satisfy all pertinent bounds, to exhibit no duality gap, and to be exact to second order in the heterogeneity contrast. Sample results are provided for two- and three-dimensional power-law composites, and are compared with other homogenization estimates, as well as with numerical simulations available from the literature. The estimates are found to give physically sensible predictions for all the cases considered, even for extreme values of the nonlinearity and heterogeneity contrast. Interestingly, in the case of isotropic porous materials under hydrostatic loadings, the estimates agree exactly with standard Gurson-type models for viscoplastic porous media.
How can macroscopic models reveal self-organization in traffic flow?
Cristiani, Emiliano; Tosin, Andrea
2012-01-01
In this paper we propose a new modeling technique for vehicular traffic flow, designed for capturing at a macroscopic level some effects, due to the microscopic granularity of the flow of cars, which would be lost with a purely continuous approach. The starting point is a multiscale method for pedestrian modeling, recently introduced in Cristiani et al., Multiscale Model. Simul., 2011, in which measure-theoretic tools are used to manage the microscopic and the macroscopic scales under a unique framework. In the resulting coupled model the two scales coexist and share information, in the sense that the same system is simultaneously described from both a discrete (microscopic) and a continuous (macroscopic) perspective. This way it is possible to perform numerical simulations in which the single trajectories and the average density of the moving agents affect each other. Such a method is here revisited in order to deal with multi-population traffic flow on networks. For illustrative purposes, we focus on the si...
Information and self-organization a macroscopic approach to complex systems
Haken, Hermann
1988-01-01
Complex systems are ubiquitous, and practically all branches of science ranging from physics through chemistry and biology to economics and sociology have to deal with them. In this book we wish to present concepts and methods for dealing with complex systems from a unifying point of view. Therefore it may be of inter est to graduate students, professors and research workers who are concerned with theoretical work in the above-mentioned fields. The basic idea for our unified ap proach sterns from that of synergetics. In order to find unifying principles we shall focus our attention on those situations where a complex system changes its macroscopic behavior qualitatively, or in other words, where it changes its macroscopic spatial, temporal or functional structure. Until now, the theory of synergetics has usually begun with a microscopic or mesoscopic description of a complex system. In this book we present an approach which starts out from macroscopic data. In particular we shall treat systems that acquir...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fukuda, Takeshi, E-mail: fukuda@fms.saitama-u.ac.jp [Department of Functional Materials Science, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Toda, Asuki; Takahira, Kazuya; Suzuki, Katsumi [Department of Functional Materials Science, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Liao, Yingjie [CERMAV-CNRS, UPR5301 & Grenoble Alpes University, 601 rue de la Chimie, BP53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Hirahara, Miru [Department of Functional Materials Science, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Saito, Masahiko; Osaka, Itaru [Emergent Molecular Function Research Group, RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)
2016-08-01
Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) is one of the most popular donor polymers for organic photovoltaic cells; however, annealing-induced molecular ordering is necessary for realizing high photoconversion efficiency. In this study, the ratio of ordered-disordered P3HT Raman signals was calculated as the crystallinity parameter, which can be evaluated as the molecular ordering of P3HT. In the case of spin-coated devices, the crystallinity parameter increases with increasing annealing temperature, and this agrees with the photovoltaic performance. Furthermore, the direct molecular ordering of P3HT during electrospray deposition is reported, detailing the relation between the solvent evaporation time and the crystallinity of P3HT, and is evaluated by Raman spectroscopy and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction. To observe the solvent evaporation phenomena of the electropsray process, in situ measurement of solvent evaporation time was also successfully realized for the first time by placing a CCD camera below the substrate in electrospray deposition. The solvent evaporation time was controlled from 0.036 to 2.8 s by changing the applied voltage and solvent. By investigating the relationship between the solvent evaporation time and the molecular ordering of P3HT, the long solvent evaporation time caused the high crystallinity of P3HT. In addition, the population of P3HT crystallinity with an edge-on orientation also increased with increasing solvent evaporation time by evaluating the grazing incidence X-ray diffraction pattern, in good agreement with the estimated crystallinity from Raman spectroscopy. Finally, a photoconversion efficiency of 2.0% was achieved by electrospray deposition without post thermal annealing. - Highlights: • An orientation of P3HT was controlled due to the solvent evaporation time. • A solvent evaporation time was evaluated for the electrospray deposition. • A crystallinity parameter was evaluated from the Raman spectroscopy. • X
Approximating macroscopic observables in quantum spin systems with commuting matrices
Ogata, Yoshiko
2011-01-01
Macroscopic observables in a quantum spin system are given by sequences of spatial means of local elements $\\frac{1}{2n+1}\\sum_{j=-n}^n\\gamma_j(A_{i}), \\; n\\in{\\mathbb N},\\; i=1,...,m$ in a UHF algebra. One of their properties is that they commute asymptotically, as $n$ goes to infinity. It is not true that any given set of asymptotically commuting matrices can be approximated by commuting ones in the norm topology. In this paper, we show that for macroscopic observables, this is true.
On the notion of a macroscopic quantum system
Khrenikov, A Yu
2004-01-01
We analyse the notion of macroscopic quantum system from the point of view of the statistical structure of quantum theory. We come to conclusion that the presence of interference of probabilities should be used the main characteristic of quantumness (in the opposition to N. Bohr who permanently emphasized the crucial role of quantum action). In the light of recent experiments with statistical ensembles of people who produced interference of probabilities for special pairs of questions (which can be considered as measurements on people) human being should be considered as a macroscopic quantum system. There is also discussed relation with experiments of A. Zeilinger on interference of probabilities for macromoleculas.
Stimuli-deformable graphene materials: from nanosheet to macroscopic assembly
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fei Zhao
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Stimulus-induced deformation (SID of graphene-based materials has triggered rapidly increasing research interest due to the spontaneous response to external stimulations, which enables precise configurational regulation of single graphene nanosheets (GNSs through control over the environmental conditions. While the micro-strain of GNS is barely visible, the deformation of graphene-based macroscopic assemblies (GMAs is remarkable, thereby presenting significant potential for future application in smart devices. This review presents the current progress of SID of graphene in the manner of nanosheets and macroscopic assemblies in both the experimental and theoretical fronts, and summarizes recent advancements of SID of graphene for applications in smart systems.
Statistical thermodynamics understanding the properties of macroscopic systems
Fai, Lukong Cornelius
2012-01-01
Basic Principles of Statistical PhysicsMicroscopic and Macroscopic Description of StatesBasic PostulatesGibbs Ergodic AssumptionGibbsian EnsemblesExperimental Basis of Statistical MechanicsDefinition of Expectation ValuesErgodic Principle and Expectation ValuesProperties of Distribution FunctionRelative Fluctuation of an Additive Macroscopic ParameterLiouville TheoremGibbs Microcanonical EnsembleMicrocanonical Distribution in Quantum MechanicsDensity MatrixDensity Matrix in Energy RepresentationEntropyThermodynamic FunctionsTemperatureAdiabatic ProcessesPressureThermodynamic IdentityLaws of Th
Microscopic Simulation and Macroscopic Modeling for Thermal and Chemical Non-Equilibrium
Liu, Yen; Panesi, Marco; Vinokur, Marcel; Clarke, Peter
2013-01-01
This paper deals with the accurate microscopic simulation and macroscopic modeling of extreme non-equilibrium phenomena, such as encountered during hypersonic entry into a planetary atmosphere. The state-to-state microscopic equations involving internal excitation, de-excitation, dissociation, and recombination of nitrogen molecules due to collisions with nitrogen atoms are solved time-accurately. Strategies to increase the numerical efficiency are discussed. The problem is then modeled using a few macroscopic variables. The model is based on reconstructions of the state distribution function using the maximum entropy principle. The internal energy space is subdivided into multiple groups in order to better describe the non-equilibrium gases. The method of weighted residuals is applied to the microscopic equations to obtain macroscopic moment equations and rate coefficients. The modeling is completely physics-based, and its accuracy depends only on the assumed expression of the state distribution function and the number of groups used. The model makes no assumption at the microscopic level, and all possible collisional and radiative processes are allowed. The model is applicable to both atoms and molecules and their ions. Several limiting cases are presented to show that the model recovers the classical twotemperature models if all states are in one group and the model reduces to the microscopic equations if each group contains only one state. Numerical examples and model validations are carried out for both the uniform and linear distributions. Results show that the original over nine thousand microscopic equations can be reduced to 2 macroscopic equations using 1 to 5 groups with excellent agreement. The computer time is decreased from 18 hours to less than 1 second.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, C.-H. [Department of Engineering and System Science, and Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: chlee@mx.nthu.edu.tw; Lai, J.H. [Department of Physics, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Wu, Y.-F. [Department of Engineering and System Science, and Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Huang, J.C.A [Department of Physics, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)
2006-08-15
The influence of PtMn composition and post-annealing on the structure and the exchange bias of epitaxial PtMn(150 A)/Ni{sub 8}Fe{sub 2}(50 A) films using multilayer growth of [Mn(2 A
Ziani, Ahmed
2017-04-10
Converting photon energy into chemical energy using inorganic materials requires the successful capture of photons, exciton dissociation, and the charge carrier diffusion. This study reports a thorough analysis of the optoelectronic properties of visible-light-responsive SrTaON perovskites to quantify their absorption coefficient and the generated charge carriers\\' effective masses, dielectric constants, and electronic structures. The measurements on such intrinsic properties were attempted using both epitaxial and polycrystalline SrTaON films deposited by radiofrequency magnetron sputtering under N reactive plasma. Density functional theory calculations using the HSE06 functional provided reliable values of these optoelectronic properties. Such quantities obtained by both measurements and calculations gave excellent correspondence and provide possible variations that account for the small discrepancies observed. One of the significant factors determining the optical properties was found to be the anion ordering in the perovskite structure imposed by the cations. As a result, the different anion ordering has a noticeable influence on the optical properties and high sensitivity of the hole effective mass. Determination of relative band positions with respect to the water redox properties was also attempted by Mott-Schottky analysis. All these results offer the opportunity to understand why SrTaON possesses intrinsically all the ingredients needed for an efficient water splitting device.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tsang, Chin-Fu.
1969-05-22
The thesis is concerned with the relation between a microscopic approach and a macroscopic approach to the study of the nuclear binding energy as a function of neutron number, proton number and nuclear deformations. First of all we give a general discussion of the potential energy of a system which can be divided into a bulk region and a thin skin layer. We find that this energy can be written down in the usual liquid drop type of expression, i.e., in terms of the volume, the surface area and other macroscopic properties of the system. The discussion is illustrated by a study of noninteracting particles in an orthorhombic potential well with zero potential inside and infinite potential outside. The total energy is calculated both exactly (a microscopic approach) and also from a liquid drop type of expression (a macroscopic approach). It turns out that the latter approach reproduces the smooth average of the exact results very well. We next make a digression to study the saddle point shapes of a charged conducting drop on a pure liquid drop model. We compare the properties of a conducting drop with those of a drop whose charges are distributed uniformly throughout its volume. The latter is the usual model employed in the study of nuclear fission. We also determined some of the more important symmetric saddle point shapes. In the last part of the thesis we generalize a method due to Strutinski to synthesize a microscopic approach (the Nilsson model) and a macroscopic approach (the liquid drop model). The results are applied to realistic nuclei. The possible occurrence of shape isomers comes as a natural consequence of the present calculation. Their trends as a function of neutron and proton members are discussed and the results are tabulated. We also work out the stabilities of the predicted superheavy nuclei with proton number around 114 and neutron number around 184 and 196. Some of these nuclei appear to have extremely long life times. The possible experimental
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
S M Yusuf
2004-07-01
We have investigated magnetic correlations in various CMR manganites on macroscopic, mesoscopic and microscopic length scales by carrying out DC magnetization, neutron depolarization, and neutron diffraction measurements. We present here the effect of substituting Mn with Fe and La with Dy in the ferromagnetic La0.7- CaMnO3 ( ∼ 0.3 - 0.33) compounds. Neutron diffraction has been used in order to characterize the long-range magnetic order and its gradual suppression by the substitution. Neutron depolarization study has been carried out in order to bridge the gap in our understanding regarding the nature of magnetic correlation obtained from the macroscopic and microscopic measurements. In particular, our study on La0.67Ca0.33Mn0.9Fe0.1O3 has established the fact that a true double exchange mediated spin-glass is insulating. In another study of La-site ionic size effect and its disorder in (La1-Dy)0.7Ca0.3MnO3, we have investigated the evolution of the length scale of magnetic ordering with a possible microscopic explanation and the results have been compared with that for the light rare earth substituted compounds.
Quantum statistical derivation of the macroscopic Maxwell equations
Schram, K.
1960-01-01
The macroscopic Maxwell equations in matter are derived on a quantum statistical basis from the microscopic equations for the field operators. Both the density operator formalism and the Wigner distribution function method are discussed. By both methods it can be proved that the quantum statistical
Macroscopic and Microscopic Gradient Structures of Bamboo Culms
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Suwat SUTNAUN
2005-01-01
Full Text Available This work studied the structure of bamboo culms which is naturally designed to retard the bending stress caused by a wind load. A macroscopic gradient structure (diameter, thickness and internodal length and a microscopic one (distribution of fiber of three sympodial bamboo species i.e. Tong bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper Backer., Pah bamboo (Gigantochloa bambos and Pak bamboo (Gigantochloa hasskarliana were examined. From the macroscopic point of view, the wind-load generated bending stress for the tapered hollow tube of bamboo was found to vary uniformly with height, especially at the middle of the culms. Furthermore, the macroscopic shape of bamboo culm is about 2-6 times stiffer in bending mode than one with a solid circular section for the same amount of wood material. Microscopically, the distribution of fiber in the radial direction linearly decreases from the outer surface to the inner surface in the same manner as that of the distribution of the bending stress in the radial direction. Distribution of fiber along the vertical length of bamboos at each height is proportional to the level of bending stress generated by the wind load. Both macroscopic and microscopic gradient structures of sympodial type bamboos were found to be less effective to retard the bending stress than those of monopodial type bamboo.
Microstructure and macroscopic properties of polydisperse systems of hard spheres
Ogarko, Vitaliy Anatolyevich
2014-01-01
This dissertation describes an investigation of systems of polydisperse smooth hard spheres. This includes the development of a fast contact detection algorithm for computer modelling, the development of macroscopic constitutive laws that are based on microscopic features such as the moments of the
Photoinduced macroscopic chiral structures in a series of azobenzene copolyesters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nedelchev, L.; Nikolova, L.; Matharu, A.
2002-01-01
A study of the propagation of elliptically polarized light and the resulting formation of macroscopic chiral structures in a series of azobenzene side-chain copolyesters, in which the morphology is varied from liquid crystalline to amorphous, is reported. Real-time measurements are presented...
[Macroscopic observations on corneal epithelial wound healing in the rabbit].
Hayashi, K
1991-02-01
A newly-developed macroscope was applied to observe the healing process of corneal epithelial wound in vivo. After removing epithelium of the central cornea, the changes of the corneal surface were observed with the macroscope and the findings were compared with histological examinations. At 12 hours after abrasion, areas unstained with Richardson's staining (R staining) appeared. In the histological section, a single layer of regenerating epithelial cells covered the same area. At 24 and 36 hours after abrasion, the epithelial defects became smaller but surrounding epithelium was rough and showed dot-like staining with R solution. By 2 days, the epithelial defects disappeared. On macroscopic observation, the central corneal surface showed a pavement-like appearance. Histology revealed that the regenerating epithelium still consisted of one or two layers. At 3 days, dot-like stainings were present only in the center and the corneal surface appeared considerably smooth. Histology also showed that regenerating epithelium became columnar and multilayered, thereby suggesting stratification. By 7 days, the abraded corneal surface had recovered its smooth appearance. Histologic sections also demonstrated that the epithelium had regained its normal structure. Thus, using this macroscope, findings suggesting the process of epithelial migration and proliferation could be observed.
The black hole information paradox and macroscopic superpositions
Hsu, Stephen D H
2010-01-01
We investigate the experimental capabilities required to test whether black holes destroy information. We show that an experiment capable of illuminating the information puzzle must necessarily be able to detect or manipulate macroscopic superpositions (i.e., Everett branches). Hence, it could also address the fundamental question of decoherence versus wavefunction collapse.
Macroscopic domain formation in the platelet plasma membrane
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bali, Rachna; Savino, Laura; Ramirez, Diego A.;
2009-01-01
There has been ample debate on whether cell membranes can present macroscopic lipid domains as predicted by three-component phase diagrams obtained by fluorescence microscopy. Several groups have argued that membrane proteins and interactions with the cytoskeleton inhibit the formation of large d...
A Macroscopic Analogue of the Nuclear Pairing Potential
Dunlap, Richard A.
2013-01-01
A macroscopic system involving permanent magnets is used as an analogue to nucleons in a nucleus to illustrate the significance of the pairing interaction. This illustrates that the view of the total nuclear energy based only on the nucleon occupancy of the energy levels can yield erroneous results and it is only when the pairing interaction is…
Data requirements for traffic control on a macroscopic level
Knoop, V.L.; Van Lint, J.W.C.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.
2011-01-01
With current techniques, traffic monitoring and control is a data intensive process. Network control on a higher level, using high level variables, can make this process less data demanding. The macroscopic fundamental diagram relates accumulation, i.e. the number of vehicles in an area, to the netw
Stereodynamics: From elementary processes to macroscopic chemical reactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kasai, Toshio [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Graduate School of Science, Department of Chemistry, Osaka University, Toyonaka, 560-0043 Osaka (Japan); Che, Dock-Chil [Graduate School of Science, Department of Chemistry, Osaka University, Toyonaka, 560-0043 Osaka (Japan); Tsai, Po-Yu [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Department of Chemistry, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Lin, King-Chuen [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Palazzetti, Federico [Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Chimica Biologia e Biotecnologie, Università di Perugia, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Aquilanti, Vincenzo [Dipartimento di Chimica Biologia e Biotecnologie, Università di Perugia, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Istituto di Struttura della Materia, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Roma (Italy); Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador (Brazil)
2015-12-31
This paper aims at discussing new facets on stereodynamical behaviors in chemical reactions, i.e. the effects of molecular orientation and alignment on reactive processes. Further topics on macroscopic processes involving deviations from Arrhenius behavior in the temperature dependence of chemical reactions and chirality effects in collisions are also discussed.
Mesoscopic kinetic basis of macroscopic chemical thermodynamics: A mathematical theory.
Ge, Hao; Qian, Hong
2016-11-01
Gibbs' macroscopic chemical thermodynamics is one of the most important theories in chemistry. Generalizing it to mesoscaled nonequilibrium systems is essential to biophysics. The nonequilibrium stochastic thermodynamics of chemical reaction kinetics suggested a free energy balance equation dF^{(meso)}/dt=E_{in}-e_{p} in which the free energy input rate E_{in} and dissipation rate e_{p} are both non-negative, and E_{in}≤e_{p}. We prove that in the macroscopic limit by merely allowing the molecular numbers to be infinite, the generalized mesoscopic free energy F^{(meso)} converges to φ^{ss}, the large deviation rate function for the stationary distributions. This generalized macroscopic free energy φ^{ss} now satisfies a balance equation dφ^{ss}(x)/dt=cmf(x)-σ(x), in which x represents chemical concentration. The chemical motive force cmf(x) and entropy production rate σ(x) are both non-negative, and cmf(x)≤σ(x). The balance equation is valid generally in isothermal driven systems and is different from mechanical energy conservation and the first law; it is actually an unknown form of the second law. Consequences of the emergent thermodynamic quantities and equalities are further discussed. The emergent "law" is independent of underlying kinetic details. Our theory provides an example showing how a macroscopic law emerges from a level below.
Diagnosis of bladder tumours in patients with macroscopic haematuria
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gandrup, Karen L; Løgager, Vibeke B; Bretlau, Thomas
2015-01-01
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare split-bolus computed tomography urography (CTU), magnetic resonance urography (MRU) and flexible cystoscopy in patients with macroscopic haematuria regarding the diagnosis of bladder tumours. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective study, 150...
Microstructure and macroscopic properties of polydisperse systems of hard spheres
Ogarko, V.
2014-01-01
This dissertation describes an investigation of systems of polydisperse smooth hard spheres. This includes the development of a fast contact detection algorithm for computer modelling, the development of macroscopic constitutive laws that are based on microscopic features such as the moments of the
Integrating a macro emission model with a macroscopic traffic model
Klunder, G.A.; Stelwagen, U.; Taale, H.
2013-01-01
This paper presents a macro emission module for macroscopic traffic models to be used for assessment of ITS and traffic management. It especially focuses on emission estimates for different intersection types. It provides emission values for CO, CO2, HC, NOx, and PM10. It is applied and validated fo
From 1D to 3D - macroscopic nanowire aerogel monoliths.
Cheng, Wei; Rechberger, Felix; Niederberger, Markus
2016-08-01
Here we present a strategy to assemble one-dimensional nanostructures into a three-dimensional architecture with macroscopic size. With the assistance of centrifugation, we successfully gel ultrathin W18O49 nanowires with diameters of 1 to 2 nm and aspect ratios larger than 100 into 3D networks, which are transformed into monolithic aerogels by supercritical drying.
Numerical solutions of a generalized theory for macroscopic capillarity
Doster, F.; Zegeling, P.A.; Hilfer, R.
2010-01-01
A recent macroscopic theory of biphasic flow in porous media [R. Hilfer, Phys. Rev. E 73, 016307 (2006)] has proposed to treat microscopically percolating fluid regions differently from microscopically nonpercolating regions. Even in one dimension the theory reduces to an analytically intractable se
The fundamental diagram : a macroscopic traffic flow model.
Botma, H.
1976-01-01
In models of traffic flow, the interactions between vehicles are of prime interest, and are based on characteristics of the drivers, road and vehicles. The fundamental diagram is a representation of a relationship on a macroscopic level in the steady state between the quantity of traffic and a chara
Charge accumulation in DC cables: a macroscopic approach
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
McAllister, Iain Wilson; Crichton, George C; Pedersen, Aage
1994-01-01
The accumulation of space charge in solid dielectrics is examined from the macroscopic point of view using electromagnetic field theory. For practical dielectrics, it is shown that the occurrence of such charges is an inherent consequence of a non-uniform conductivity. The influence of both tempe...
Mesoscopic kinetic basis of macroscopic chemical thermodynamics: A mathematical theory
Ge, Hao; Qian, Hong
2016-11-01
Gibbs' macroscopic chemical thermodynamics is one of the most important theories in chemistry. Generalizing it to mesoscaled nonequilibrium systems is essential to biophysics. The nonequilibrium stochastic thermodynamics of chemical reaction kinetics suggested a free energy balance equation d F(meso)/d t =Ein-ep in which the free energy input rate Ein and dissipation rate ep are both non-negative, and Ein≤ep . We prove that in the macroscopic limit by merely allowing the molecular numbers to be infinite, the generalized mesoscopic free energy F(meso) converges to φss, the large deviation rate function for the stationary distributions. This generalized macroscopic free energy φss now satisfies a balance equation d φss(x ) /d t =cmf(x ) -σ (x ) , in which x represents chemical concentration. The chemical motive force cmf(x ) and entropy production rate σ (x ) are both non-negative, and cmf(x )≤σ (x ) . The balance equation is valid generally in isothermal driven systems and is different from mechanical energy conservation and the first law; it is actually an unknown form of the second law. Consequences of the emergent thermodynamic quantities and equalities are further discussed. The emergent "law" is independent of underlying kinetic details. Our theory provides an example showing how a macroscopic law emerges from a level below.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Perez, Israel, E-mail: iperez@mda.cinvestav.m [Applied Physics Department, Cinvestav Unidad Merida, Km 6 Ant., Carretera a Progreso, A.P. 73, C.P. 97310, Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); Sosa, Victor [Applied Physics Department, Cinvestav Unidad Merida, Km 6 Ant., Carretera a Progreso, A.P. 73, C.P. 97310, Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); Gamboa, Fidel, E-mail: ffgamboa@mda.cinvestav.m [Applied Physics Department, Cinvestav Unidad Merida, Km 6 Ant., Carretera a Progreso, A.P. 73, C.P. 97310, Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); Physics of Materials Department, Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, S.C. (CIMAV) Ave. Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, Chihuahua (Mexico)
2010-12-01
We have applied the mutual inductive method to study higher-order harmonics of complex ac susceptibility {chi}{sub n}={chi}{sub n}{sup '}-i{chi}{sub n}{sup ''} for YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} thin films as function of the temperature and the applied magnetic field. The experimental results were compared with analytical and numerical results obtained from the Ishida-Mazaki model and the solution of the integral equation for the current density, respectively. Both models allow us to reproduce the main experimental features, however, as n increases the numerical model shows notable discrepancies. This failure can be attributed to the current-voltage characteristics. Also this investigation yields the activation energy U{sub c} and the critical current density J{sub c} both at T = 0 for two samples.
Critical behavior of a two-dimensional complex fluid: Macroscopic and mesoscopic views
Choudhuri, Madhumita; Datta, Alokmay
2016-04-01
Liquid disordered (Ld) to liquid ordered (Lo) phase transition in myristic acid [MyA, CH3(CH2) 12COOH ] Langmuir monolayers was studied macroscopically as well as mesoscopically to locate the critical point. Macroscopically, isotherms of the monolayer were obtained across the 20 ∘C-38 ∘Ctemperature (T ) range and the critical point was estimated, primarily from the vanishing of the order parameter, at ≈38 ∘C. Mesoscopically, domain morphology in the Ld-Lo coexistence regime was imaged using the technique of Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) as a function of T and the corresponding power spectral density function (PSDF) obtained. Monolayer morphology passed from stable circular domains and a sharp peak in PSDF to stable dendritic domains and a divergence of the correlation length as the critical point was approached from below. The critical point was found to be consistent at ≈38 ∘Cfrom both isotherm and BAM results. In the critical regime the scaling behavior of the transition followed the two-dimensional Ising model. Additionally, we obtained a precritical regime, over a temperature range of ≈8 ∘C below Tc, characterized by fluctuations in the order parameter at the macroscopic scale and at the mesoscopic scale characterized by unstable domains of fingering or dendritic morphology as well as proliferation of a large number of small sized domains, multiple peaks in the power spectra, and a corresponding fluctuation in the peak q values with T . Further, while comparing temperature studies on an ensemble of MyA monolayers with those on a single monolayer, the system was found to be not strictly ergodic in that the ensemble development did not strictly match with the time development in the system. In particular, the critical temperature was found to be lowered in the latter. These results clearly show that the critical behavior in fatty acid monolayer phase transitions have features of both complex and nonequilibrium systems.
Siuzdak, Katarzyna; Szkoda, Mariusz; Lisowska-Oleksiak, Anna; Grochowska, Katarzyna; Karczewski, Jakub; Ryl, Jacek
2015-12-01
This paper reports a novel method of boron doped titania nanotube arrays preparation by electrochemical anodization in electrolyte containing boron precursor - boron trifluoride diethyl etherate (BF3 C4H10O), simultaneously acting as an anodizing agent. A pure, ordered TiO2 nanotubes array, as a reference sample, was also prepared in solution containing a standard etching compound: ammonium fluoride. The doped and pure titania were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, photoluminescence emission spectroscopy and by means of electrochemical methods. The B-doping decidedly shifts the absorption edge of TiO2 nanotubes towards the visible light region and significantly inhibits the radiative recombination processes. Despite the fact that the doped sample is characterized by 4.6 lower real surface area when compared to pure titania, it leads to the decomposition of methylene blue in 93%, that is over 2.3 times higher than the degradation efficiency exhibited by the undoped material. The formation rate of hydroxyl radicals (rad OH) upon illumination significantly favours boron doped titania as a photocatalytic material. Moreover, the simple doping of TiO2 nanotubes array results in the enhancement of generated photocurrent from 120 μA/cm2 to 350 μA/cm2 registered for undoped and doped electrode, respectively.
Iihama, Satoshi; Sakuma, Akimasa; Naganuma, Hiroshi; Oogane, Mikihiko; Mizukami, Shigemi; Ando, Yasuo
2016-11-01
We have systematically investigated the Gilbert damping constant α for L 10 -FePd films using the time-resolved magneto-optical Kerr effect (TRMOKE). The field angle dependence of TRMOKE signals was measured and analyzed. The field angle dependence of the lifetime of magnetization precession was explained by evaluating extrinsic contributions such as the anisotropy distribution and two-magnon scattering. The crystalline uniaxial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy constant Ku and α values were evaluated for FePd films for various L 10 order parameters S . Ku values of approximately 15 Merg/cm3 were obtained for films with large-S values (i.e., over 0.8). In addition, α for the low-S film was found to be approximately 0.007 and decreased with increasing S . Smaller values of α (of 0.002-0.004) were obtained for films with S values of approximately 0.6-0.8. Results revealed that FePd films have both large-Ku and small-α values, which is a useful property for low-power magnetization switching while maintaining high thermal stability in spin-transfer-torque magnetoresistive random access memory applications.
Parrondo, Juan M. R.
2001-09-01
The role of symmetry breaking phase transitions in the Szilard engine is analyzed. It is shown that symmetry breaking is the only necessary ingredient for the engine to work. To support this idea, we show that the Ising model behaves exactly as the Szilard engine. We design a purely macroscopic Maxwell demon from an Ising model, demonstrating that a demon can operate with information about the macrostate of the system. We finally discuss some aspects of the definition of entropy and how thermodynamics should be modified to account for the variations of entropy in second-order phase transitions.
COMBINATION OF MACROSCOPIC AND MICROSCOPIC TRANSPORT SIMULATION MODELS: USE CASE IN CYPRUS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Evangelos Mitsakis
2014-06-01
Full Text Available The present paper presents the transportation planning methodology applied in the city of Nicosia, Cyprus, within the framework of Nicosia’s “Integrated Mobility Master Plan”. Unique characteristics of the capital of Cyprus, such as the sparse coverage, low service quality and even lower market penetration of the public transport network, the inadequate parking policy applied and the car-centred mobility culture of the local citizens have provided the motivation for a “redesign” of the classic four-step transport modelling process by combining static and dynamic, macroscopic and microscopic transportation analysis models, in order to support the city’s decision makers.
First study of macroscopic neutron dark field imaging using scattering grids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schillinger, B., E-mail: Burkhard.Schillinger@frm2.tum.de [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, FRM II and Faculty for Physics E21, Lichtenbergstr. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Badurek, G. [Technische Universitaet Wien, Atominstitut Stadionallee 2, 1020 Wien (Austria)
2011-09-21
Instead of using the phase grating concept for dark field imaging, macroscopic scattering grids were employed at the ANTARES neutron imaging facility. Two Cadmium grids with a 1 mm gap and 1.2 mm bar were adjusted in a distance of only a few cm in order to block the direct beam. Thus, by placing the samples between these two grids only neutrons that were scattered at the samples were transmitted. A linear motion of the coupled grids allowed scanning across the samples and obtaining complete scattering projections, which delivered surprisingly sharp images. The geometric relation between grids permits determination of the transmitted scattering angles.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Badran, Hussain Ali, E-mail: badran_hussein@yahoo.com [Basrah University, Education College for Pure Sciences, Physics Department, Basrah (Iraq); Ajeel, Khalid I. [Basrah University, Education College for Pure Sciences, Physics Department, Basrah (Iraq); Lazim, Haidar Gazy [Misan University, Basic Education College, Science Department, Misan (Iraq)
2016-04-15
Highlights: • Active layer (P3HT:PCBM) has been deposited on substrate type by spin coating at 1000 rpm. • The device was completed by evaporating a 60 nm thick, circular gold electrodes onto the P3HT:PCBM. • Nonlinear refractive indices of the three particle sizes are found to be of the order of 10{sup −7} cm{sup 2}/W - Abstract: Organic solar cells are based on (3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid with methyl ester Bulk Heterojunction. An inverted structure has been fabricated using nano-anatase crystalline titanium dioxide, as the electron transport layer, which was prepared on either the Indium Tin Oxide coated glass (ITO—glass), or Silicon wafer, as well as on glass substrates by the sol–gel method, at different spin speed, using the spin-coating system. The effect of thickness on the surface morphology and on the optical properties of TiO{sub 2} layer, was investigated using the Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction, and UV–visible spectrophotometer. The samples were examined to feature currents and voltages, in the darkness and light extraction efficiency of the solar cell. The highest open-circuit voltage, V{sub oc}, and power conversion efficiency were 0.66% and 0.39%, fabricated with 90 nm, respectively. The non-linear optical properties of nano-anatase TiO{sub 2} sol–gel, were investigated at different particle sizes, using the z-scan technique.
Liu, Runqiang; Zhao, Ning; Liu, Ping; An, Caixia; Lian, Zhaoxun
2016-05-01
π-Conjugated organic materials exhibit high and tunable nonlinear optical (NLO) properties, and fast response times. 4'-Phenyl-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine (PTP) is an important N-heterocyclic ligand involving π-conjugated systems, however, studies concerning the third-order NLO properties of terpyridine transition metal complexes are limited. The title binuclear terpyridine Co(II) complex, bis(μ-4,4'-oxydibenzoato)-κ(3)O,O':O'';κ(3)O'':O,O'-bis[(4'-phenyl-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine-κ(3)N,N',N'')cobalt(II)], [Co2(C14H8O5)2(C21H15N3)2], (1), has been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. In the crystal structure, each Co(II) cation is surrounded by three N atoms of a PTP ligand and three O atoms, two from a bidentate and one from a symmetry-related monodentate 4,4'-oxydibenzoate (ODA(2-)) ligand, completing a distorted octahedral coordination geometry. Neighbouring [Co(PTP)](2+) units are bridged by ODA(2-) ligands to form a ring-like structure. The third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of (1) and PTP were determined in thin films using the Z-scan technique. The title compound shows a strong third-order NLO saturable absorption (SA), while PTP exhibits a third-order NLO reverse saturable absorption (RSA). The absorptive coefficient β of (1) is -37.3 × 10(-7) m W(-1), which is larger than that (8.96 × 10(-7) m W(-1)) of PTP. The third-order NLO susceptibility χ((3)) values are calculated as 6.01 × 10(-8) e.s.u. for (1) and 1.44 × 10(-8) e.s.u. for PTP.
Grein-Iankovski, Aline; Riegel-Vidotti, Izabel C; Simas-Tosin, Fernanda F; Narayanan, Suresh; Leheny, Robert L; Sandy, Alec R
2016-11-23
We report a study connecting the nanoscale and macroscale structure and dynamics of Acacia mearnsii gum as probed by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) and rheology. Acacia gum, in general, is a complex polysaccharide used extensively in industry. Over the analyzed concentration range (15 to 30 wt%) the A. mearnsii gum is found to have a gel-like linear rheology and to exhibit shear thinning flow behavior under steady shear. The gum solutions exhibited a steadily increasing elastic modulus with increasing time after they were prepared and also the emergence of shear thickening events within the shear thinning behavior, characteristic of associative polymers. XPCS measurements using gold nanoparticles as tracers were used to explore the microscopic dynamics within the biopolymer gels and revealed a two-step relaxation process with a partial decay at inaccessibly short times, suggesting caged motion of the nanoparticles, followed by a slow decay at later delay times. Non-diffusive motion evidenced by a compressed exponential line shape and an inverse relationship between relaxation time and wave vector characterizes the slow dynamics of A. mearnsii gum gels. Surprisingly, we have determined that the nanometer-scale mean square displacement of the nanoparticles showed a close relationship to the values predicted from the macroscopic elastic properties of the material, obtained through the rheology experiments. Our results demonstrate the potential applicability of the XPCS technique in the natural polymers field to connect their macroscale properties with their nanoscale structure and dynamics.
Ledesma-Aguilar, R; Hernández-Machado, A
2007-01-01
We perform a three-dimensional study of steady state viscous fingers that develop in linear channels. By means of a three-dimensional Lattice-Boltzmann scheme that mimics the full macroscopic equations of motion of the fluid momentum and order parameter, we study the effect of the thickness of the channel in two cases. First, for total displacement of the fluids in the channel thickness direction, we find that the steady state finger is effectively two-dimensional and that previous two-dimensional results can be recovered by taking into account the effect of a curved meniscus across the channel thickness as a contribution to surface stresses. Secondly, when a thin film develops in the channel thickness direction, the finger narrows with increasing channel aspect ratio in agreement with experimental results. The effect of the thin film renders the problem three-dimensional and results deviate from the two-dimensional prediction.
Agent Based Models of Language Competition: Macroscopic descriptions and Order-Disorder transitions
Vazquez, F; Miguel, M San
2010-01-01
We investigate the dynamics of two agent based models of language competition. In the first model, each individual can be in one of two possible states, either using language $X$ or language $Y$, while the second model incorporates a third state XY, representing individuals that use both languages (bilinguals). We analyze the models on complex networks and two-dimensional square lattices by analytical and numerical methods, and show that they exhibit a transition from one-language dominance to language coexistence. We find that the coexistence of languages is more difficult to maintain in the Bilinguals model, where the presence of bilinguals in use facilitates the ultimate dominance of one of the two languages. A stability analysis reveals that the coexistence is more unlikely to happen in poorly-connected than in fully connected networks, and that the dominance of only one language is enhanced as the connectivity decreases. This dominance effect is even stronger in a two-dimensional space, where domain coar...
Haetge, Jan; Suchomski, Christian; Brezesinski, Torsten
2010-12-20
In this paper, we report on ordered mesoporous NiFe(2)O(4) thin films synthesized via co-assembly of hydrated ferric nitrate and nickel chloride with an amphiphilic diblock copolymer, referred to as KLE. We establish that the NiFe(2)O(4) samples are highly crystalline after calcination at 600 °C, and that the conversion of the amorphous inorganic framework comes at little cost to the ordering of the high quality cubic network of pores averaging 16 nm in diameter. We further show that the synthesis method employed in this work can be readily extended to other ferrites, such as CoFe(2)O(4), CuFe(2)O(4), MgFe(2)O(4), and ZnFe(2)O(4), which could pave the way for innovative device design. While this article focuses on the self-assembly and characterization of these materials using various state-of-the-art techniques, including electron microscopy, grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), as well as UV-vis and Raman spectroscopy, we also examine the electrochemical properties and show the benefits of combining a continuous mesoporosity with nanocrystalline films. KLE-templated NiFe(2)O(4) electrodes exhibit reasonable levels of lithium ion storage at short charging times which stem from facile pseudocapacitance.
From 1D to 3D - macroscopic nanowire aerogel monoliths
Cheng, Wei; Rechberger, Felix; Niederberger, Markus
2016-07-01
Here we present a strategy to assemble one-dimensional nanostructures into a three-dimensional architecture with macroscopic size. With the assistance of centrifugation, we successfully gel ultrathin W18O49 nanowires with diameters of 1 to 2 nm and aspect ratios larger than 100 into 3D networks, which are transformed into monolithic aerogels by supercritical drying.Here we present a strategy to assemble one-dimensional nanostructures into a three-dimensional architecture with macroscopic size. With the assistance of centrifugation, we successfully gel ultrathin W18O49 nanowires with diameters of 1 to 2 nm and aspect ratios larger than 100 into 3D networks, which are transformed into monolithic aerogels by supercritical drying. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, SEM and TEM images, and digital photographs. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr04429h
Microscopic versus macroscopic approaches to non-equilibrium systems
Derrida, Bernard
2011-01-01
The one-dimensional symmetric simple exclusion process (SSEP) is one of the very few exactly soluble models of non-equilibrium statistical physics. It describes a system of particles which diffuse with hard core repulsion on a one-dimensional lattice in contact with two reservoirs of particles at unequal densities. The goal of this paper is to review the two main approaches which lead to the exact expression of the large deviation functional of the density of the SSEP in its steady state: a microscopic approach (based on the matrix product ansatz and an additivity property) and a macroscopic approach (based on the macroscopic fluctuation theory of Bertini, De Sole, Gabrielli, Jona-Lasinio and Landim).
Applying quantum mechanics to macroscopic and mesoscopic systems
T., N Poveda
2012-01-01
There exists a paradigm in which Quantum Mechanics is an exclusively developed theory to explain phenomena on a microscopic scale. As the Planck's constant is extremely small, $h\\sim10^{-34}{J.s}$, and as in the relation of de Broglie the wavelength is inversely proportional to the momentum; for a mesoscopic or macroscopic object the Broglie wavelength is very small, and consequently the undulatory behavior of this object is undetectable. In this paper we show that with a particle oscillating around its classical trajectory, the action is an integer multiple of a quantum of action, $S = nh_{o}$. The quantum of action, $h_{o}$, which plays a role equivalent to Planck's constant, is a free parameter that must be determined and depends on the physical system considered. For a mesoscopic and macroscopic system: $h_{o}\\gg h$, this allows us to describe these systems with the formalism of quantum mechanics.
Analysis and Enhancements of a Prolific Macroscopic Model of Epilepsy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christopher Fietkiewicz
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Macroscopic models of epilepsy can deliver surprisingly realistic EEG simulations. In the present study, a prolific series of models is evaluated with regard to theoretical and computational concerns, and enhancements are developed. Specifically, we analyze three aspects of the models: (1 Using dynamical systems analysis, we demonstrate and explain the presence of direct current potentials in the simulated EEG that were previously undocumented. (2 We explain how the system was not ideally formulated for numerical integration of stochastic differential equations. A reformulated system is developed to support proper methodology. (3 We explain an unreported contradiction in the published model specification regarding the use of a mathematical reduction method. We then use the method to reduce the number of equations and further improve the computational efficiency. The intent of our critique is to enhance the evolution of macroscopic modeling of epilepsy and assist others who wish to explore this exciting class of models further.
Indirect measurement of interfacial melting from macroscopic ice observations.
Saruya, Tomotaka; Kurita, Kei; Rempel, Alan W
2014-06-01
Premelted water that is adsorbed to particle surfaces and confined to capillary regions remains in the liquid state well below the bulk melting temperature and can supply the segregated growth of ice lenses. Using macroscopic measurements of ice-lens initiation position in step-freezing experiments, we infer how the nanometer-scale thicknesses of premelted films depend on temperature depression below bulk melting. The interfacial interactions between ice, liquid, and soda-lime glass particles exhibit a power-law behavior that suggests premelting in our system is dominated by short-range electrostatic forces. Using our inferred film thicknesses as inputs to a simple force-balance model with no adjustable parameters, we obtain good quantitative agreement between numerical predictions and observed ice-lens thickness. Macroscopic observations of lensing behavior have the potential as probes of premelting behavior in other systems.
Optomechanical entanglement of a macroscopic oscillator by quantum feedback
Wu, E.; Li, Fengzhi; Zhang, Xuefeng; Ma, Yonghong
2016-07-01
We propose a scheme to generate the case of macroscopic entanglement in the optomechanical system, which consist of Fabry-Perot cavity and a mechanical oscillator by applying a homodyne-mediated quantum feedback. We explore the effect of feedback on the entanglement in vacuum and coherent state, respectively. The results show that the introduction of quantum feedback can increase the entanglement effectively between the cavity mode and the oscillator mode.
Identification of Bodies Exposed to High Temperatures Based on Macroscopic...
Barraza Salcedo, María del Socorro; Universidad Metropolitana de Barranquilla. Barranquilla; Rebolledo Cobos, Martha Leonor; Universidad Metropolitana de Barranquilla
2016-01-01
ABSTRACT. Background: Forensic dentistry in cases of incineration provides scientific elements that allow the identification of bodies, by analyzing dental organs, through the isolation of DNA obtained from the pulp as an alternative to confirm the identity of the victim. When the degree of temperature is highly elevated, dental tissues are vulnerable and therefore the DNA pulp is not salvageable, wasting resources and time by lack of standards to identify macroscopic characteristics that ind...
CONTRIBUTION OF MACROSCOPIC DIMENSION EFFECT TO PIEZOELFCTRICITY IN POLYVINYLIDENE FLUORIDE
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WEN Jianxun; TAKEO FURUKAWA
1987-01-01
In this paper, we have studied the piezoelectricity in the poled uniaxially drawn polyvinylidene fluoride. The piezoelectric constants d31, d32, da33 and Young's moduli 1/s11 and 1/s22 have been determined as a function of the remanent polarization Pr. The piezoelectric constants of the samples show a strong in-plane anisotropy. Such an anisotropy is mostly attributable to different Poisson's ratio. It is found that the piezoelectric activity mainly arises from macroscopic dimensional change.
Toward a superconducting quantum computer. Harnessing macroscopic quantum coherence.
Tsai, Jaw-Shen
2010-01-01
Intensive research on the construction of superconducting quantum computers has produced numerous important achievements. The quantum bit (qubit), based on the Josephson junction, is at the heart of this research. This macroscopic system has the ability to control quantum coherence. This article reviews the current state of quantum computing as well as its history, and discusses its future. Although progress has been rapid, the field remains beset with unsolved issues, and there are still many new research opportunities open to physicists and engineers.
Measurement-Induced Macroscopic Superposition States in Cavity Optomechanics
Hoff, Ulrich B.; Kollath-Bönig, Johann; Neergaard-Nielsen, Jonas S.; Andersen, Ulrik L.
2016-09-01
A novel protocol for generating quantum superpositions of macroscopically distinct states of a bulk mechanical oscillator is proposed, compatible with existing optomechanical devices operating in the bad-cavity limit. By combining a pulsed optomechanical quantum nondemolition (QND) interaction with nonclassical optical resources and measurement-induced feedback, the need for strong single-photon coupling is avoided. We outline a three-pulse sequence of QND interactions encompassing squeezing-enhanced cooling by measurement, state preparation, and tomography.
Effects of rough boundary on the heat transfer in a thin-film flow
Pažanin, Igor; Suárez-Grau, Francisco Javier
In this Note, a heat flow through a rough thin domain filled with fluid (lubricant) is studied. The domain's thickness is considered as the small parameter ɛ, while the roughness is defined by a periodical function with a period of order ɛ2. We assume that the lubricant is cooled by the exterior medium and we describe the heat exchange on the rough part of the boundary by Newton's cooling law. Depending on the magnitude of the heat transfer coefficient with respect to ɛ, we obtain three different macroscopic models via formal asymptotic analysis. We identify the critical case explicitly acknowledging both roughness-induced effects and the effects of the surrounding medium on heat transfer at main order. We illustrate the obtained results by some numerical simulations.
Stochastic and Macroscopic Thermodynamics of Strongly Coupled Systems
Jarzynski, Christopher
2017-01-01
We develop a thermodynamic framework that describes a classical system of interest S that is strongly coupled to its thermal environment E . Within this framework, seven key thermodynamic quantities—internal energy, entropy, volume, enthalpy, Gibbs free energy, heat, and work—are defined microscopically. These quantities obey thermodynamic relations including both the first and second law, and they satisfy nonequilibrium fluctuation theorems. We additionally impose a macroscopic consistency condition: When S is large, the quantities defined within our framework scale up to their macroscopic counterparts. By satisfying this condition, we demonstrate that a unifying framework can be developed, which encompasses both stochastic thermodynamics at one end, and macroscopic thermodynamics at the other. A central element in our approach is a thermodynamic definition of the volume of the system of interest, which converges to the usual geometric definition when S is large. We also sketch an alternative framework that satisfies the same consistency conditions. The dynamics of the system and environment are modeled using Hamilton's equations in the full phase space.
Macroscopic quantum oscillator based on a flux qubit
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Singh, Mandip, E-mail: mandip@iisermohali.ac.in
2015-09-25
In this paper a macroscopic quantum oscillator is proposed, which consists of a flux-qubit in the form of a cantilever. The net magnetic flux threading through the flux-qubit and the mechanical degrees of freedom of the cantilever are naturally coupled. The coupling between the cantilever and the magnetic flux is controlled through an external magnetic field. The ground state of the flux-qubit-cantilever turns out to be an entangled quantum state, where the cantilever deflection and the magnetic flux are the entangled degrees of freedom. A variant, which is a special case of the flux-qubit-cantilever without a Josephson junction, is also discussed. - Highlights: • In this paper a flux-qubit-cantilever is proposed. • Coupling can be varied by an external magnetic field. • Ground state is a macroscopic entangled quantum state. • Ground state of the superconducting-loop-oscillator is a macroscopic quantum superposition. • Proposed scheme is based on a generalized quantum approach.
Macroscopic description of the limb muscles of Tupinambis merianae
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Juliana Barbosa Casals
2012-03-01
Full Text Available Tegu lizard (Tupinambis merianae belongs to the Teiidae family. It is distributed throughout the Americas, with many species, including Brazilian ones. They are from the Tupinambis genus, the largest representatives of the Teiidae family. For this study three animals (run over coming from donation were used. The dissected lizards were fixed in 10%, formaldehyde, and the macroscopic analysis was carried out in a detailed and photo documented way, keeping the selected structures “in situ”. This paper had as its main aim contributing to the macroscopic description of the chest myology, as well as the thoracic and pelvic limbs of the lizard T. merianae. The results obtained from this research were compared to authors who have studied animals from the same Reptilia class. Thus, we conclude that our macroscopic results are similar to those already described by the researchers Hildebrand (1995, Moro and Abdala (2004 and Abdala and Diogo (2010. We should highlight that the knowledge on anatomy has importance and applications to various areas within Biology, contributing in a substantial way to the areas of human health and technology.
Mesoscopic Kinetic Basis of Macroscopic Chemical Thermodynamics: A Mathematical Theory
Ge, Hao
2016-01-01
From a mathematical model that describes a complex chemical kinetic system of $N$ species and $M$ elementrary reactions in a rapidly stirred vessel of size $V$ as a Markov process, we show that a macroscopic chemical thermodynamics emerges as $V\\rightarrow\\infty$. The theory is applicable to linear and nonlinear reactions, closed systems reaching chemical equilibrium, or open, driven systems approaching to nonequilibrium steady states. A generalized mesoscopic free energy gives rise to a macroscopic chemical energy function $\\varphi^{ss}(\\vx)$ where $\\vx=(x_1,\\cdots,x_N)$ are the concentrations of the $N$ chemical species. The macroscopic chemical dynamics $\\vx(t)$ satisfies two emergent laws: (1) $(\\rd/\\rd t)\\varphi^{ss}[\\vx(t)]\\le 0$, and (2)$(\\rd/\\rd t)\\varphi^{ss}[\\vx(t)]=\\text{cmf}(\\vx)-\\sigma(\\vx)$ where entropy production rate $\\sigma\\ge 0$ represents the sink for the chemical energy, and chemical motive force $\\text{cmf}\\ge 0$ is non-zero if the system is driven under a sustained nonequilibrium chemos...
Gatsonis, Nikos A.; Alexandrou, Andreas; Shi, Hui; Ongewe, Bernard; Sacco, Albert, Jr.
1999-01-01
. At the same time, however, there is increased urgency to develop such an understanding in order to more accurately quantify the process. In order to better understand the results obtained from our prior space experiments, and design future experiments, a detailed fluid dynamic model simulating the crystal growth mechanism is required. This will not only add to the fundamental knowledge on the crystallization of zeolites, but also be useful in predicting the limits of size and growth of these important industrial materials. Our objective is to develop macro/microscopic theoretical and computational models to study the effect of transport phenomena in the growth of crystals grown in solutions. Our effort has concentrated so far in the development of separate macroscopic and microscopic models. The major highlights of our accomplishments are described.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Azizi, Reza; Legarth, Brian Nyvang; Niordson, Christian Frithiof
2013-01-01
Metal matrix composites with long aligned elastic fibers are studied using an energetic rate independent strain gradient plasticity theory with an isotropic pressure independent yield function at the microscale. The material response is homogenized to obtain a conventional macroscopic model...... that exhibits anisotropic yield properties with a pressure dependence. At the microscale free energy includes both elastic strains and plastic strain gradients, and the theory demands higher order boundary conditions in terms of plastic strain or work conjugate higher order tractions. The mechanical response...... of the composite is inclined compared to a standard pressure independent yield surfaces. The evolution of the macroscopic yield surface is investigated by quantifying both anisotropic hardening (expansion) and kinematic hardening (translation), where the coefficients of anisotropy and the Bauschinger stress...
Jia, HaoWei; Wang, Jin; Qiu, Li; Ge, HongGua
2015-10-01
Although two kinds of macroscopic ordered tridimensional nanoassemblies, i.e., alignment of nanorods, can be yielded by controllable droplet evaporation methods, complete separation of the nanoassembly perpendicular or parallel to substrate is quite challenging. It can, however, be realized by the aid of facet blocking combined with the tuning of ionic strength and colloidal concentration. The as-fabricated rod-like bimetallic nanoassembly has proved to be an excellent SERS active substrate compared to random aggregates. It should be mentioned that macroscopic ordered tridimensional nanoassembly perpendicular to the substrate can be used as a highly active SERS substrate with good uniformity and can be successfully applied for finely discriminating two microorganisms: Escherichia coli bacteria and Saccharomycetes.
Kruyt, N.P.; Rothenburg, L.; Gutkowski, Witold; Kowalewski, Tomasz A.
2004-01-01
Using Discrete Element Method (DEM) simulations with varying interparticle friction coefficient, the relation between interparticle friction coefficient and macroscopic continuum friction and dissipation is investigated. As expected, macroscopic friction and dilatancy increase with interparticle fri
Kobayashi, Tsunehiro
1996-01-01
Quantum macroscopic motions are investigated in the scheme consisting of N-number of harmonic oscillators in terms of ultra-power representations of nonstandard analysis. Decoherence is derived from the large internal degrees of freedom of macroscopic matters.
Maximum Entropy Methods as the Bridge Between Microscopic and Macroscopic Theory
Taylor, Jamie M.
2016-09-01
This paper is concerned with an investigation into a function of macroscopic variables known as the singular potential, building on previous work by Ball and Majumdar. The singular potential is a function of the admissible statistical averages of probability distributions on a state space, defined so that it corresponds to the maximum possible entropy given known observed statistical averages, although non-classical entropy-like objective functions will also be considered. First the set of admissible moments must be established, and under the conditions presented in this work the set is open, bounded and convex allowing a description in terms of supporting hyperplanes, which provides estimates on the development of singularities for related probability distributions. Under appropriate conditions it is shown that the singular potential is strictly convex, as differentiable as the microscopic entropy, and blows up uniformly as the macroscopic variable tends to the boundary of the set of admissible moments. Applications of the singular potential are then discussed, and particular consideration will be given to certain free-energy functionals typical in mean-field theory, demonstrating an equivalence between certain microscopic and macroscopic free-energy functionals. This allows statements about L^1-local minimisers of Onsager's free energy to be obtained which cannot be given by two-sided variations, and overcomes the need to ensure local minimisers are bounded away from zero and +∞ before taking L^∞ variations. The analysis also permits the definition of a dual order parameter for which Onsager's free energy allows an explicit representation. Also, the difficulties in approximating the singular potential by everywhere defined functions, in particular by polynomial functions, are addressed, with examples demonstrating the failure of the Taylor approximation to preserve relevant shape properties of the singular potential.
Exploration of exciton delocalization in organic crystalline thin films
Hua, Kim; Manning, Lane; Rawat, Naveen; Ainsworth, Victoria; Furis, Madalina
The electronic properties of organic semiconductors play a crucial role in designing new materials for specific applications. Our group recently found evidence for a rotation of molecular planes in phthalocyanines that is responsible for the disappearance of a delocalized exciton in these systems for T >150K.................()().......1 In this study, we attempt to tune the exciton delocalization of small organic molecules using strain effects and alloying different molecules in the same family. The exciton behavior is monitored using time- and polarization resolved photolumniscence (PL) spectroscopy as a function of temperature. Specifically, organic crystalline thin films of octabutoxy phthalocyanine (H2OBPc), octyloxy phthalocyanines and H-bonded semiconductors such as the quinacridone and indigo derivatives are deposited on flexible substrates (i.e. Kapton and PEN) using an in-house developed pen-writing method.........2 that results in crystalline films with macroscopic long range order. The room temperature PL studies show redshift and changes in polarization upon bending of the film. Crystalline thin films of alloyed H2OBPc and octabutoxy naphthalocyanine with ratios ranging from 1:1 to 100:1 fabricated on both sapphire and flexible substrates are also explored using the same PL spectroscopy to elucidate the behaviors of delocalized excitons. .1N. Rawat, et al., J Phys Chem Lett 6, 1834 (2015). 2R. L. Headrick, et al., Applied Physics Letters 92, 063302 (2008). NSF DMR-1056589, NSF DMR-1062966.
Cylinders vs. spheres: biofluid shear thinning in driven nanoparticle transport.
Cribb, Jeremy A; Meehan, Timothy D; Shah, Sheel M; Skinner, Kwan; Superfine, Richard
2010-11-01
Increasingly, the research community applies magnetophoresis to micro and nanoscale particles for drug delivery applications and the nanoscale rheological characterization of complex biological materials. Of particular interest is the design and transport of these magnetic particles through entangled polymeric fluids commonly found in biological systems. We report the magnetophoretic transport of spherical and rod-shaped particles through viscoelastic, entangled solutions using lambda-phage DNA (λ-DNA) as a model system. In order to understand and predict the observed phenomena, we fully characterize three fundamental components: the magnetic field and field gradient, the shape and magnetic properties of the probe particles, and the macroscopic rheology of the solution. Particle velocities obtained in Newtonian solutions correspond to macroscale rheology, with forces calculated via Stokes Law. In λ-DNA solutions, nanorod velocities are 100 times larger than predicted by measured zero-shear viscosity. These results are consistent with particles experiencing transport through a shear thinning fluid, indicating magnetically driven transport in shear thinning may be especially effective and favor narrow diameter, high aspect ratio particles. A complete framework for designing single-particle magnetic-based delivery systems results when we combine a quantified magnetic system with qualified particles embedded in a characterized viscoelastic medium.
Asymptotic behavior of local dipolar fields in thin films
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bowden, G.J., E-mail: gjb@phys.soton.ac.uk [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Stenning, G.B.G., E-mail: Gerrit.vanderlaan@diamond.ac.uk [Magnetic Spectroscopy Group, Diamond Light Source, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Laan, G. van der, E-mail: gavin.stenning@stfc.ac.uk [ISIS Neutron and Muon Source, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)
2016-10-15
A simple method, based on layer by layer direct summation, is used to determine the local dipolar fields in uniformly magnetized thin films. The results show that the dipolar constants converge ~1/m where the number of spins in a square film is given by (2m+1){sup 2}. Dipolar field results for sc, bcc, fcc, and hexagonal lattices are presented and discussed. The results can be used to calculate local dipolar fields in films with either ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, spiral, exponential decay behavior, provided the magnetic order only changes normal to the film. Differences between the atomistic (local fields) and macroscopic fields (Maxwellian) are also examined. For the latter, the macro B-field inside the film is uniform and falls to zero sharply outside, in accord with Maxwell boundary conditions. In contrast, the local field for the atomistic point dipole model is highly non-linear inside and falls to zero at about three lattice spacing outside the film. Finally, it is argued that the continuum field B (used by the micromagnetic community) and the local field B{sub loc}(r) (used by the FMR community) will lead to differing values for the overall demagnetization energy. - Highlights: • Point-dipolar fields in uniformly magnetized thin films are characterized by just three numbers. • Maxwell's boundary condition is partially violated in the point-dipole approximation. • Asymptotic values of point dipolar fields in circular monolayers scale as π/r.
Watanabe, Ikumu; Terada, Kenjiro; Neto, Eduardo Alberto de Souza; Perić, Djordje
The objective of this contribution is to develop an elastic-plastic-damage constitutive model for crystal grain and to incorporate it with two-scale finite element analyses based on mathematical homogenization method, in order to characterize the macroscopic tensile strength of polycrystalline metals. More specifically, the constitutive model for single crystal is obtained by combining hyperelasticity, a rate-independent single crystal plasticity and a continuum damage model. The evolution equations, stress update algorithm and consistent tangent are derived within the framework of standard elastoplasticity at finite strain. By employing two-scale finite element analysis, the ductile behaviour of polycrystalline metals and corresponding tensile strength are evaluated. The importance of finite element formulation is examined by comparing performance of several finite elements and their convergence behaviour is assessed with mesh refinement. Finally, the grain size effect on yield and tensile strength is analysed in order to illustrate the versatility of the proposed two-scale model.
Improved Water Network Macroscopic Model Utilising Auto-Control Adjusting Valve by PLS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Xia; ZHAO Xinhua; WANG Xiaodong
2005-01-01
In order to overcome the low precision and weak applicability problems of the current municipal water network state simulation model, the water network structure is studied. Since the telemetry system has been applied increasingly in the water network, and in order to reflect the network operational condition more accurately, a new water network macroscopic model is developed by taking the auto-control adjusting valve opening state into consideration. Then for highly correlated or collinear independent variables in the model, the partial least squares (PLS) regression method provides a model solution which can distinguish between the system information and the noisy data. Finally, a hypothetical water network is introduced for validating the model. The simulation results show that the relative error is less than 5.2%, indicating that the model is efficient and feasible, and has better generalization performance.
Günther, Christian; Karl, Norbert; Pflaum, Jens; Strohmaier, Rainer; Gompf, Bruno; Eisenmenger, Wolfgang; Müller, Markus; Müllen, Klaus
2005-01-18
Low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) are used to study vacuum vapor-deposited molecular thin films of the rhombus-shaped polycondensed aromatic hydrocarbon "rhombus-C54", C54H22, on MoS2 and graphite (0001) and on GeS (010) substrates. It is found that this compound forms well-ordered incommensurate superstructures of the closest packed flat-lying molecules in well-defined azimuthal orientations to the substrate. These films are thermally remarkably stable. By TDS, a monolayer binding energy on graphite of 2.3 eV was derived, whereas the molecules in the second layer were found to be less strongly bound (1.9 eV). This difference allows the preparation of monolayers by desorbing multilayers at the appropriate temperature. Apparently, this molecule is a promising candidate for further studies aiming at applications in organic electronics such as organic field effect transistors or light emitting displays.
PLD-grown thin film saturable absorbers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tellkamp, Friedjof
2012-11-01
The subject of this thesis is the preparation and characterization of thin films made of oxidic dielectrics which may find their application as saturable absorber in passively Q-switched lasers. The solely process applied for fabrication of the thin films was the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) which stands out against other processes by its flexibility considering the composition of the systems to be investigated. Within the scope of this thesis the applied saturable absorbers can be divided into two fundamentally different kinds of functional principles: On the one hand, saturable absorption can be achieved by ions embedded in a host medium. Most commonly applied bulk crystals are certain garnets like YAG (Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}) or the spinel forsterite (Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}), in each case with chromium as dopant. Either of these media was investigated in terms of their behavior as PLD-grown saturable absorber. Moreover, experiments with Mg{sub 2}GeO{sub 4}, Ca{sub 2}GeO{sub 4}, Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and further garnets like YSAG or GSGG took place. The absorption coefficients of the grown films of Cr{sup 4+}:YAG were determined by spectroscopic investigations to be one to two orders of magnitude higher compared to commercially available saturable absorbers. For the first time, passive Q-switching of a Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm with Cr{sup 4+}:YAG thin films could be realized as well as with Cr:Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films. On the other hand, the desirable effect of saturable absorption can also be generated by quantum well structures. For this purpose, several layer system like YAG/LuAG, Cu{sub 2}O/MgO, and ZnO/corumdum were investigated. It turned out that layer systems with indium oxide (In{sub 2}O{sub 3}) did not only grew in an excellent way but also showed up a behavior regarding their photo luminescence which cannot be explained by classical considerations. The observed luminescence at roughly 3 eV (410 nm) was assumed to be of excitonic nature and its
Malgieri, Massimiliano; Onorato, Pasquale; Valentini, Anna; De Ambrosis, Anna
2016-11-01
In this article we discuss a teaching learning sequence on basic thermodynamics, spanning the first and second principle, and the concepts of irreversibility and entropy, intended for use in secondary school. With respect to previous works we emphasise the importance of discussing the compatibility between the time reversal symmetry of Newton’s laws and the irreversibility embodied in the second principle of thermodynamics in order to completely exploit the possibility of connecting the microscopic and macroscopic perspectives. The sequence was tested in an Italian secondary school, and the results obtained from a questionnaire which combines several test items used in previous studies at university level are consistently comparable with or better than those reported for undergraduate students on the same questions over a range of topics. Thus, our work suggests that the microscopic approach is a viable option for the teaching of thermodynamics at the secondary school level; and the understanding of macroscopic concepts is not impaired, but possibly enhanced, by the adoption of such a teaching strategy.
Single-atom quantum control of macroscopic mechanical oscillators
Bariani, F.; Otterbach, J.; Tan, Huatang; Meystre, P.
2014-01-01
We investigate a hybrid electromechanical system consisting of a pair of charged macroscopic mechanical oscillators coupled to a small ensemble of Rydberg atoms. The resonant dipole-dipole coupling between an internal atomic Rydberg transition and the mechanics allows cooling to its motional ground state with a single atom despite the considerable mass imbalance between the two subsystems. We show that the rich electronic spectrum of Rydberg atoms, combined with their high degree of optical control, paves the way towards implementing various quantum-control protocols for the mechanical oscillators.
The Two-Time Interpretation and Macroscopic Time-Reversibility
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yakir Aharonov
2017-03-01
Full Text Available The two-state vector formalism motivates a time-symmetric interpretation of quantum mechanics that entails a resolution of the measurement problem. We revisit a post-selection-assisted collapse model previously suggested by us, claiming that unlike the thermodynamic arrow of time, it can lead to reversible dynamics at the macroscopic level. In addition, the proposed scheme enables us to characterize the classical-quantum boundary. We discuss the limitations of this approach and its broad implications for other areas of physics.
Emergence of an urban traffic macroscopic fundamental diagram
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ranjan, Abhishek; Fosgerau, Mogens; Jenelius, Erik
2016-01-01
This paper examines mild conditions under which a macroscopic fundamental diagram (MFD) emerges, relating space-averaged speed to occupancy in some area. These conditions are validated against empirical data. We allow local speedoccupancy relationships and, in particular, require no equilibrating...... process to be in operation. This means that merely observing the stable relationship between the space-averages of speed, flow and occupancy are not sufficient to infer a robust relationship and the emerging MFD cannot be guaranteed to be stable if traffic interventions are implemented....
Violation of smooth observable macroscopic realism in a harmonic oscillator.
Leshem, Amir; Gat, Omri
2009-08-14
We study the emergence of macrorealism in a harmonic oscillator subject to consecutive measurements of a squeezed action. We demonstrate a breakdown of dynamical realism in a wide parameter range that is maximized in a scaling limit of extreme squeezing, where it is based on measurements of smooth observables, implying that macroscopic realism is not valid in the harmonic oscillator. We propose an indirect experimental test of these predictions with entangled photons by demonstrating that local realism in a composite system implies dynamical realism in a subsystem.
Seismic scanning tunneling macroscope - Elastic simulations and Arizona mine test
Hanafy, Sherif M.
2012-01-01
Elastic seismic simulations and field data tests are used to validate the theory of a seismic scanning tunneling macroscope (SSTM). For nearfield elastic simulation, the SSTM results show superresolution to be better than λ/8 if the only scattered data are used as input data. If the direct P and S waves are muted then the resolution of the scatterer locations are within about λ/5. Seismic data collected in an Arizona tunnel showed a superresolution limit of at least λ/19. These test results are consistent with the theory of the SSTM and suggest that the SSTM can be a tool used by geophysicists as a probe for near-field scatterers.
Macroscopic and microscopic self-organization by nonlocal anisotropic interactions
Cristiani, Emiliano; Tosin, Andrea
2009-01-01
This paper is concerned with mathematical modeling of intelligent systems, such as human crowds and animal groups. In particular, the focus is on the emergence of different self-organized patterns from non-locality and anisotropy of the interactions among individuals. A mathematical technique by time-evolving measures is introduced to deal with both macroscopic and microscopic scales within a unified modeling framework. Then self-organization issues are investigated and numerically reproduced at the proper scale, according to the kind of agents under consideration.
An investigation into why macroscopic systems behave classically
Hallwood, David W.; Burnett, Keith; Dunningham, Jacob
2006-01-01
We study why it is quite so hard to make a superposition of superfluid flows in a Bose-Einstein condensate. To do this we initially investigate the quantum states of $N$ atoms trapped in a 1D ring with a barrier at one position and a phase applied around it. We show how macroscopic superpositions can in principle be produced and investigate factors which affect the superposition. We then use the Bose-Hubbard model to study an array of Bose-Einstein condensates trapped in optical potentials an...
Measurement-induced macroscopic superposition states in cavity optomechanics
Hoff, Ulrich B; Neergaard-Nielsen, Jonas S; Andersen, Ulrik L
2016-01-01
We present a novel proposal for generating quantum superpositions of macroscopically distinct states of a bulk mechanical oscillator, compatible with existing optomechanical devices operating in the readily achievable bad-cavity limit. The scheme is based on a pulsed cavity optomechanical quantum non-demolition (QND) interaction, driven by displaced non-Gaussian states, and measurement-induced feedback, avoiding the need for strong single-photon optomechanical coupling. Furthermore, we show that single-quadrature cooling of the mechanical oscillator is sufficient for efficient state preparation, and we outline a three-pulse protocol comprising a sequence of QND interactions for squeezing-enhanced cooling, state preparation, and tomography.
Flagella bending affects macroscopic properties of bacterial suspensions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Potomkin, M.; Tournus, M.; Berlyand, L. V.; Aranson, I. S.
2017-05-01
To survive in harsh conditions, motile bacteria swim in complex environments and respond to the surrounding flow. Here, we develop a mathematical model describing how flagella bending affects macroscopic properties of bacterial suspensions. First, we show how the flagella bending contributes to the decrease in the effective viscosity observed in dilute suspension. Our results do not impose tumbling (random reorientation) as was previously done to explain the viscosity reduction. Second, we demonstrate how a bacterium escapes from wall entrapment due to the self-induced buckling of flagella. Our results shed light on the role of flexible bacterial flagella in interactions of bacteria with shear flow and walls or obstacles.
Modelling and simulations of macroscopic multi-group pedestrian flow
Mahato, Naveen K; Tiwari, Sudarshan
2016-01-01
We consider a multi-group microscopic model for pedestrian flow describing the behaviour of large groups. It is based on an interacting particle system coupled to an eikonal equation. Hydrodynamic multi-group models are derived from the underlying particle system as well as scalar multi-group models. The eikonal equation is used to compute optimal paths for the pedestrians. Particle methods are used to solve the macroscopic equations. Numerical test cases are investigated and the models and, in particular, the resulting evacuation times are compared for a wide range of different parameters.
Macroscopic modeling for traffic flow on three-lane highways
Chen, Jianzhong; Fang, Yuan
2015-04-01
In this paper, a macroscopic traffic flow model for three-lane highways is proposed. The model is an extension of the speed gradient model by taking into account the lane changing. The new source and sink terms of lane change rate are added into the continuity equations and the speed dynamic equations to describe the lane-changing behavior. The result of the steady state analysis shows that our model can describe the lane usage inversion phenomenon. The numerical results demonstrate that the present model effectively reproduces several traffic phenomena observed in real traffic such as shock and rarefaction waves, stop-and-go waves and local clusters.
Investigation of odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities in atomic vapors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yan, Yaqi [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Information Photonic Technique, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Teaching and Research Section of Maths and Physics, Guangzhou Commanding Academy of Chinese People’s Armed Police Force, Guangzhou, 510440 (China); Wu, Zhenkun; Si, Jinhai; Yan, Lihe; Zhang, Yiqi; Yuan, Chenzhi; Sun, Jia [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Information Photonic Technique, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Zhang, Yanpeng, E-mail: ypzhang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Information Photonic Technique, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China)
2013-06-15
We theoretically deduce the macroscopic symmetry constraints for arbitrary odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities in homogeneous media including atomic vapors for the first time. After theoretically calculating the expressions using a semiclassical method, we demonstrate that the expressions for third- and fifth-order nonlinear susceptibilities for undressed and dressed four- and six-wave mixing (FWM and SWM) in atomic vapors satisfy the macroscopic symmetry constraints. We experimentally demonstrate consistence between the macroscopic symmetry constraints and the semiclassical expressions for atomic vapors by observing polarization control of FWM and SWM processes. The experimental results are in reasonable agreement with our theoretical calculations. -- Highlights: •The macroscopic symmetry constraints are deduced for homogeneous media including atomic vapors. •We demonstrate that odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities satisfy the constraints. •We experimentally demonstrate the deduction in part.
Macroscopic superposition states and decoherence by quantum telegraph noise
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abel, Benjamin Simon
2008-12-19
In the first part of the present thesis we address the question about the size of superpositions of macroscopically distinct quantum states. We propose a measure for the ''size'' of a Schroedinger cat state, i.e. a quantum superposition of two many-body states with (supposedly) macroscopically distinct properties, by counting how many single-particle operations are needed to map one state onto the other. We apply our measure to a superconducting three-junction flux qubit put into a superposition of clockwise and counterclockwise circulating supercurrent states and find this Schroedinger cat to be surprisingly small. The unavoidable coupling of any quantum system to many environmental degrees of freedom leads to an irreversible loss of information about an initially prepared superposition of quantum states. This phenomenon, commonly referred to as decoherence or dephasing, is the subject of the second part of the thesis. We have studied the time evolution of the reduced density matrix of a two-level system (qubit) subject to quantum telegraph noise which is the major source of decoherence in Josephson charge qubits. We are able to derive an exact expression for the time evolution of the reduced density matrix. (orig.)
Tribological behaviour of graphite powders at nano- and macroscopic scales
Schmitt, M.; Bistac, S.; Jradi, K.
2007-04-01
With its high resistance, good hardness and electrical conductibility in the basal plans, graphite is used for many years in various tribological fields such as seals, bearings or electrical motor brushes, and also for applications needing excellent lubrication and wearreducing properties. But thanks to its low density, graphite is at the moment destined for technologies which need a reducing of the weight combined with an enhancement of the efficiency, as it is the case in aeronautical industry. In this contexte, the friction and wear of natural (named graphite A) and synthetic (called graphites B and C) powders were evaluated, first at the macroscopic scale when sliding against steel counterfaces, under various applied normal loads. Scanning Electron Microscopy and AFM in tapping mode were used to observe the morphological modifications of the graphites. It is noticed that an enlargement of the applied normal load leads to an increase of the friction coefficient for graphites A and C; but for the graphite B, it seems that a ''limit'' load can induce a complete change of the tribological behaviour. At the same time, the nano-friction properties of these powders were evaluated by AFM measurements in contact mode, at different contact loads. As it was the case at the macroscopic scale, an increase of the nano-contact load induces higher friction coefficients. The determining of the friction and wear mechanisms of the graphite powders, as a function of both their intrinsic characteristics and the applied normal load, is then possible.
How does Planck’s constant influence the macroscopic world?
Yang, Pao-Keng
2016-09-01
In physics, Planck’s constant is a fundamental physical constant accounting for the energy-quantization phenomenon in the microscopic world. The value of Planck’s constant also determines in which length scale the quantum phenomenon will become conspicuous. Some students think that if Planck’s constant were to have a larger value than it has now, the quantum effect would only become observable in a world with a larger size, whereas the macroscopic world might remain almost unchanged. After reasoning from some basic physical principles and theories, we found that doubling Planck’s constant might result in a radical change on the geometric sizes and apparent colors of macroscopic objects, the solar spectrum and luminosity, the climate and gravity on Earth, as well as energy conversion between light and materials such as the efficiency of solar cells and light-emitting diodes. From the discussions in this paper, students can appreciate how Planck’s constant affects various aspects of the world in which we are living now.
Motion of macroscopic bodies in the electromagnetic field
Horsley, S A R
2013-01-01
A theory is presented for calculating the effect of the electromagnetic field on the centre of mass of a macroscopic dielectric body that is valid in both quantum and classical regimes. We apply the theory to find the classical equation of motion for the centre of mass of a macroscopic object in a classical field, and the spreading of an initially localized wave-packet representing the centre of mass of a small object, in a quantum field. The classical force is found to be consistent with the identification of the Abraham momentum with the mechanical momentum of light, and the motion of the wave-packet is found to be subject to an acceleration due to the Casimir force, and a time dependent fluctuating motion due the creation of pairs of excitations within the object. The theory is valid for any dielectric that has susceptibilities satisfying the Kramers-Kronig relations, and is not subject to arguments regarding the form of the electromagnetic energy-momentum tensor within a medium.
An exploration for the macroscopic physical meaning of entropy
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
The macroscopic physical meaning of entropy is analyzed based on the exergy (availability) of a combined system (a closed system and its environment), which is the maximum amount of useful work obtainable from the system and the environment as the system is brought into equilibrium with the environment. The process the system experiences can be divided in two sequent sub-processes, the process at constant volume, which represents the heat interaction of the system with the environment, and the adiabatic process, which represents the work interaction of the system with the environment. It is shown that the macroscopic physical meaning of entropy is a measure of the unavailable energy of a closed system for doing useful work through heat interaction. This statement is more precise than those reported in prior literature. The unavailability function of a closed system can be defined as T0S and p0V in volume constant process and adiabatic process, respectively. Their changes, that is, AiTgS) and A (p0V) represent the unusable parts of the internal energy of a closed system for doing useful work in corresponding processes. Finally, the relation between Clausius entropy and Boltzmann entropy is discussed based on the comparison of their expressions for absolute entropy.
Macroscopic model and truncation error of discrete Boltzmann method
Hwang, Yao-Hsin
2016-10-01
A derivation procedure to secure the macroscopically equivalent equation and its truncation error for discrete Boltzmann method is proffered in this paper. Essential presumptions of two time scales and a small parameter in the Chapman-Enskog expansion are disposed of in the present formulation. Equilibrium particle distribution function instead of its original non-equilibrium form is chosen as key variable in the derivation route. Taylor series expansion encompassing fundamental algebraic manipulations is adequate to realize the macroscopically differential counterpart. A self-contained and comprehensive practice for the linear one-dimensional convection-diffusion equation is illustrated in details. Numerical validations on the incurred truncation error in one- and two-dimensional cases with various distribution functions are conducted to verify present formulation. As shown in the computational results, excellent agreement between numerical result and theoretical prediction are found in the test problems. Straightforward extensions to more complicated systems including convection-diffusion-reaction, multi-relaxation times in collision operator as well as multi-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations are also exposed in the Appendix to point out its expediency in solving complicated flow problems.
Harti, Ralph P.; Strobl, Markus; Betz, Benedikt; Jefimovs, Konstantins; Kagias, Matias; Grünzweig, Christian
2017-01-01
Neutron imaging and scattering give data of significantly different nature and traditional methods leave a gap of accessible structure sizes at around 10 micrometers. Only in recent years overlap in the probed size ranges could be achieved by independent application of high resolution scattering and imaging methods, however without providing full structural information when microstructures vary on a macroscopic scale. In this study we show how quantitative neutron dark-field imaging with a novel experimental approach provides both sub-pixel resolution with respect to microscopic correlation lengths and imaging of macroscopic variations of the microstructure. Thus it provides combined information on multiple length scales. A dispersion of micrometer sized polystyrene colloids was chosen as a model system to study gravity induced crystallisation of microspheres on a macro scale, including the identification of ordered as well as unordered phases. Our results pave the way to study heterogeneous systems locally in a previously impossible manner. PMID:28303923
Calonne, N.; Geindreau, C.; Flin, F.
2015-12-01
At the microscopic scale, i.e., pore scale, dry snow metamorphism is mainly driven by the heat and water vapor transfer and the sublimation-deposition process at the ice-air interface. Up to now, the description of these phenomena at the macroscopic scale, i.e., snow layer scale, in the snowpack models has been proposed in a phenomenological way. Here we used an upscaling method, namely, the homogenization of multiple-scale expansions, to derive theoretically the macroscopic equivalent modeling of heat and vapor transfer through a snow layer from the physics at the pore scale. The physical phenomena under consideration are steady state air flow, heat transfer by conduction and convection, water vapor transfer by diffusion and convection, and phase change (sublimation and deposition). We derived three different macroscopic models depending on the intensity of the air flow considered at the pore scale, i.e., on the order of magnitude of the pore Reynolds number and the Péclet numbers: (A) pure diffusion, (B) diffusion and moderate convection (Darcy's law), and (C) strong convection (nonlinear flow). The formulation of the models includes the exact expression of the macroscopic properties (effective thermal conductivity, effective vapor diffusion coefficient, and intrinsic permeability) and of the macroscopic source terms of heat and vapor arising from the phase change at the pore scale. Such definitions can be used to compute macroscopic snow properties from 3-D descriptions of snow microstructures. Finally, we illustrated the precision and the robustness of the proposed macroscopic models through 2-D numerical simulations.
Diffusion through thin membranes: Modeling across scales
Aho, Vesa; Mattila, Keijo; Kühn, Thomas; Kekäläinen, Pekka; Pulkkinen, Otto; Minussi, Roberta Brondani; Vihinen-Ranta, Maija; Timonen, Jussi
2016-04-01
From macroscopic to microscopic scales it is demonstrated that diffusion through membranes can be modeled using specific boundary conditions across them. The membranes are here considered thin in comparison to the overall size of the system. In a macroscopic scale the membrane is introduced as a transmission boundary condition, which enables an effective modeling of systems that involve multiple scales. In a mesoscopic scale, a numerical lattice-Boltzmann scheme with a partial-bounceback condition at the membrane is proposed and analyzed. It is shown that this mesoscopic approach provides a consistent approximation of the transmission boundary condition. Furthermore, analysis of the mesoscopic scheme gives rise to an expression for the permeability of a thin membrane as a function of a mesoscopic transmission parameter. In a microscopic model, the mean waiting time for a passage of a particle through the membrane is in accordance with this permeability. Numerical results computed with the mesoscopic scheme are then compared successfully with analytical solutions derived in a macroscopic scale, and the membrane model introduced here is used to simulate diffusive transport between the cell nucleus and cytoplasm through the nuclear envelope in a realistic cell model based on fluorescence microscopy data. By comparing the simulated fluorophore transport to the experimental one, we determine the permeability of the nuclear envelope of HeLa cells to enhanced yellow fluorescent protein.
Thinning spatial point processes into Poisson processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Møller, Jesper; Schoenberg, Frederic Paik
2010-01-01
are identified, and where we simulate backwards and forwards in order to obtain the thinned process. In the case of a Cox process, a simple independent thinning technique is proposed. In both cases, the thinning results in a Poisson process if and only if the true Papangelou conditional intensity is used, and...
Thinning spatial point processes into Poisson processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Møller, Jesper; Schoenberg, Frederic Paik
, and where one simulates backwards and forwards in order to obtain the thinned process. In the case of a Cox process, a simple independent thinning technique is proposed. In both cases, the thinning results in a Poisson process if and only if the true Papangelou conditional intensity is used, and thus can...
Li, Jianbo
2017-05-08
Solution coating of organohalide lead perovskites offers great potential for achieving low-cost manufacturing of large-area flexible optoelectronics. However, the rapid coating speed needed for industrial-scale production poses challenges to the control of crystal packing. Herein, this study reports using solution shearing to confine crystal nucleation and growth in large-area printed MAPbI3 thin films. Near single-crystalline perovskite microarrays are demonstrated with a high degree of controlled macroscopic alignment and crystal orientation, which exhibit significant improvements in optical and optoelectronic properties comparing with their random counterparts, spherulitic, and nanograined films. In particular, photodetectors based on the confined films showing intense anisotropy in charge transport are fabricated, and the device exhibits significantly improved performance in all aspects by one more orders of magnitude relative to their random counterparts. It is anticipated that perovskite films with controlled crystal packing may find applications in high-performance, large-area printed optoelectronics, and solar cells.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nasrollah Ghassemi Dehkordi
2012-06-01
Full Text Available The Crataegus genus is widely distributed in Iran. This genus belongs to Rosaceae family and has 17 species in Iran one of which is Crataegus pontica C. Koch. In this paper, we analyzed some microscopic and macroscopic characteristics of this plant, then compared them with other features that were presented previously in previous reports. We analyzed all components in C. pontica, using thin layer chromatography method and then specified the type of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acid in C. pontica. Hyproside, rutin and chlorogenic acid were the main flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic occurred acid in this plant. Also, we analyzed its flavonoids quantitatively based on Deutsch Pharmacopoeia method according to hyproside content. Because, to determine the chemosystematic relevancies in some species flavonoids are used, so in this paper we compared C. pontica with 3 other species of its genus such as C. monogyna, C. melanocarpa and C. curvisepala that are found in Iran, and also with the medicinal standard species of Crataegus genus which is called C. oxyacantha. Finally we concluded that hyproside, rutin and chlorogenic acid were the main and common structural components in all species of that genus which were mentioned above.
Numerical model for macroscopic quantum superpositions based on phase-covariant quantum cloning
Buraczewski, Adam
2011-01-01
We present a numerical model of macroscopic quantum superpositions generated by universally covariant optimal quantum cloning. It requires fast computation of the Gaussian hypergeometric function for moderate values of its parameters and argument as well as evaluation of infinite sums involving this function. We developed a method of dynamical estimation of cutoff for these sums. We worked out algorithms performing efficient summation of values of orders ranging from $10^{-100}$ to $10^{100}$ which neither lose precision nor accumulate errors, but provide the summation with acceleration. Our model is well adapted to experimental conditions. It optimizes computation by parallelization and choice of the most efficient algorithm. The methods presented here can be adjusted for analysis of similar experimental schemes. Including decoherence and realistic detection greatly improved the reliability and usability of our model for scientific research.
Zhuo, Guan-Yu; Chen, Mei-Yu; Yeh, Chao-Yuan; Guo, Chin-Lin; Kao, Fu-Jen
2017-01-01
Polarization-resolved second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy is appealing for studying structural proteins and well-organized biophotonic nanostructures, due to its highly sensitized structural specificity. In recent years, it has been used to investigate the chiroptical effect, particularly SHG circular dichroism (SHG-CD) in biological tissues. Although SHG-CD attributed to macromolecular structures has been demonstrated, the corresponding quantitative analysis and interpretation on how SHG correlates with second-order susceptibility χ(2) under circularly polarized excitations remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrate a method based on macroscopic chirality to elucidate the correlation between SHG-CD and the orientation angle of the molecular structure. By exploiting this approach, three-dimensional (3D) molecular orientation of type-I collagen is revealed with only two cross polarized SHG images (i.e., interactions of left and right circular polarizations) without acquiring an image stack of varying polarization.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fei Yan
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Recent analysis of field experiments in cities revealed that a macroscopic fundamental diagram (MFD relating network outflow and network vehicle accumulation exists in the urban traffic networks. It has been further confirmed that an MFD is well defined if the network has regular network topology and homogeneous spatial distribution of vehicle accumulation. However, many real urban networks have different levels of heterogeneity in the spatial distribution of vehicle accumulation. In order to improve the mobility in heterogeneously congested networks, we propose an iterative learning control approach for signaling split, which aims at distributing the accumulation in the networks as homogeneously as possible and ensuring the networks have a larger outflow. The asymptotic convergence of the proposed approach is proved by rigorous analysis and the effectiveness is further demonstrated by extensive simulations.
Agent-based and macroscopic modeling of the complex socio-economic systems
Kononovicius, Aleksejus
2013-01-01
The current economic crisis has provoked an active response from the interdisciplinary scientific community. As a result many papers suggesting what can be improved in understanding of the complex socio-economics systems were published. Some of the most prominent papers on the topic include (Bouchaud, 2009; Farmer and Foley, 2009; Farmer et al, 2012; Helbing, 2010; Pietronero, 2008). These papers share the idea that agent-based modeling is essential for the better understanding of the complex socio-economic systems and consequently better policy making. Yet in order for an agent-based model to be useful it should also be analytically tractable, possess a macroscopic treatment (Cristelli et al, 2012). In this work we shed a new light on our research group's contributions towards understanding of the correspondence between the inter-individual interactions and collective behavior. We also provide some new insights into the implications of the global and local interactions, the leadership and the predator-prey i...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlos Alberto Venegas Cortes
2006-06-01
Full Text Available In order to answer the problem of what could be the most appropriate innovative didactic to improve the learning process of equine encephalon anatomy in the School of Veterinary Medicine of La Salle University, this project began to design, apply and evaluate a didactic prototype Computerized Educative Media CEM in macroscopic anatomy of equine encephalon, to improve the «significant learning» in this subject. The project was developed in three phases regarding the Galviz software engineering, as well as the selected environment for learning, within the framework of the conceptual Novak maps, the significant learning of Ausubel, and the test of usability adapted and applied to the anatomy students, as a MEC evaluation.
Symmetry properties of macroscopic transport coefficients in porous media
Lasseux, D.; Valdés-Parada, F. J.
2017-04-01
We report on symmetry properties of tensorial effective transport coefficients characteristic of many transport phenomena in porous systems at the macroscopic scale. The effective coefficients in the macroscopic models (derived by upscaling (volume averaging) the governing equations at the underlying scale) are obtained from the solution of closure problems that allow passing the information from the lower to the upper scale. The symmetry properties of the macroscopic coefficients are identified from a formal analysis of the closure problems and this is illustrated for several different physical mechanisms, namely, one-phase flow in homogeneous porous media involving inertial effects, slip flow in the creeping regime, momentum transport in a fracture relying on the Reynolds model including slip effects, single-phase flow in heterogeneous porous media embedding a porous matrix and a clear fluid region, two-phase momentum transport in homogeneous porous media, as well as dispersive heat and mass transport. The results from the analysis of these study cases are summarized as follows. For inertial single-phase flow, the apparent permeability tensor is irreducibly decomposed into its symmetric (viscous) and skew-symmetric (inertial) parts; for creeping slip-flow, the apparent permeability tensor is not symmetric; for one-phase slightly compressible gas flow in the slip regime within a fracture, the effective transmissivity tensor is symmetric, a result that remains valid in the absence of slip; for creeping one-phase flow in heterogeneous media, the permeability tensor is symmetric; for two-phase flow, we found the dominant permeability tensors to be symmetric, whereas the coupling tensors do not exhibit any special symmetry property; finally for dispersive heat transfer, the thermal conductivity tensors include a symmetric and a skew-symmetric part, the latter being a consequence of convective transport only. A similar result is achieved for mass dispersion. Beyond the
Distinct molecular features of different macroscopic subtypes of colorectal neoplasms.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kenichi Konda
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colorectal adenoma develops into cancer with the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic changes. We studied the underlying molecular and clinicopathological features to better understand the heterogeneity of colorectal neoplasms (CRNs. METHODS: We evaluated both genetic (mutations of KRAS, BRAF, TP53, and PIK3CA, and microsatellite instability [MSI] and epigenetic (methylation status of nine genes or sequences, including the CpG island methylator phenotype [CIMP] markers alterations in 158 CRNs including 56 polypoid neoplasms (PNs, 25 granular type laterally spreading tumors (LST-Gs, 48 non-granular type LSTs (LST-NGs, 19 depressed neoplasms (DNs and 10 small flat-elevated neoplasms (S-FNs on the basis of macroscopic appearance. RESULTS: S-FNs showed few molecular changes except SFRP1 methylation. Significant differences in the frequency of KRAS mutations were observed among subtypes (68% for LST-Gs, 36% for PNs, 16% for DNs and 6% for LST-NGs (P<0.001. By contrast, the frequency of TP53 mutation was higher in DNs than PNs or LST-Gs (32% vs. 5% or 0%, respectively (P<0.007. We also observed significant differences in the frequency of CIMP between LST-Gs and LST-NGs or PNs (32% vs. 6% or 5%, respectively (P<0.005. Moreover, the methylation level of LINE-1 was significantly lower in DNs or LST-Gs than in PNs (58.3% or 60.5% vs. 63.2%, P<0.05. PIK3CA mutations were detected only in LSTs. Finally, multivariate analyses showed that macroscopic morphologies were significantly associated with an increased risk of molecular changes (PN or LST-G for KRAS mutation, odds ratio [OR] 9.11; LST-NG or DN for TP53 mutation, OR 5.30; LST-G for PIK3CA mutation, OR 26.53; LST-G or DN for LINE-1 hypomethylation, OR 3.41. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that CRNs could be classified into five macroscopic subtypes according to clinicopathological and molecular differences, suggesting that different mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of colorectal
Macroscopic Modeling of Transport Phenomena in Direct Methanol Fuel Cells
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olesen, Anders Christian
An increasing need for energy efficiency and high energy density has sparked a growing interest in direct methanol fuel cells for portable power applications. This type of fuel cell directly generates electricity from a fuel mixture consisting of methanol and water. Although this technology...... for studying their transport. In this PhD dissertation the macroscopic transport phenomena governing direct methanol fuel cell operation are analyzed, discussed and modeled using the two-fluid approach in the computational fluid dynamics framework of CFX 14. The overall objective of this work is to extend...... the present fundamental understanding of direct methanol fuel cell operation by developing a three-dimensional, two-phase, multi-component, non-isotherm mathematical model including detailed non-ideal thermodynamics, non-equilibrium phase change and non-equilibrium sorption-desorption of methanol and water...
Room Temperature Experiments with a Macroscopic Sapphire Mechanical Oscillator
Bourhill, Jeremy; Ivanov, Eugene; Tobar, Micahel
2015-03-01
We present initial results from a number of experiments conducted on a 0.53 kg sapphire ``dumbbell'' crystal. Mechanical motion of the crystal structure alters the dimensions of the crystal, and the induced strain changes the permittivity. These two effects frequency modulate resonant microwave whispering gallery modes, simultaneously excited within the crystal. A novel microwave readout system is described allowing extremely low noise measurements of this frequency modulation with a phase noise floor of -160 dBc/Hz at 100 kHz, near our modes of interest. Fine-tuning of the crystal's suspension have allowed for the optimisation of mechanical Q-factors in preparation for cryogenic experiments, with a value of 8 x 107 achieved so far. Finally, results are presented that demonstrate the excitation of mechanical modes via radiation pressure force. These are all important steps towards the overall goal of the experiment; to cool a macroscopic device to the quantum ground state.
Macroscopic electromagnetic response of metamaterials with toroidal resonances
Savinov, V; Zheludev, N I
2013-01-01
Toroidal dipole, first described by Ia. B. Zeldovich [Sov. Phys. JETP 33, 1184 (1957)], is a distinct electromagnetic excitation that differs both from the electric and the magnetic dipoles. It has a number of intriguing properties: static toroidal nuclear dipole is responsible for parity violation in atomic spectra; interactions between static toroidal dipole and oscillating magnetic dipole are claimed to violate Newton's Third Law while non-stationary charge-current configurations involving toroidal multipoles have been predicted to produce vector potential in the absence of electromagnetic fields. Existence of the toroidal response in metamaterials was recently demonstrated and is now a growing field of research. However, no direct analytical link has yet been established between the transmission and reflection of macroscopic electromagnetic media and toroidal dipole excitations. To address this essential gap in electromagnetic theory we have developed an analytical approach linking microscopic and macrosc...
Experiments testing macroscopic quantum superpositions must be slow
Mari, Andrea; Giovannetti, Vittorio
2015-01-01
We consider a thought experiment where the preparation of a macroscopically massive or charged particle in a quantum superposition and the associated dynamics of a distant test particle apparently allow for superluminal communication. We give a solution to the paradox which is based on the following fundamental principle: any local experiment, discriminating a coherent superposition from an incoherent statistical mixture, necessarily requires a minimum time proportional to the mass (or charge) of the system. For a charged particle, we consider two examples of such experiments, and show that they are both consistent with the previous limitation. In the first, the measurement requires to accelerate the charge, that can entangle with the emitted photons. In the second, the limitation can be ascribed to the quantum vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. On the other hand, when applied to massive particles our result provides an indirect evidence for the existence of gravitational vacuum fluctuations an...
Macroscopic heat transport equations and heat waves in nonequilibrium states
Guo, Yangyu; Jou, David; Wang, Moran
2017-03-01
Heat transport may behave as wave propagation when the time scale of processes decreases to be comparable to or smaller than the relaxation time of heat carriers. In this work, a generalized heat transport equation including nonlinear, nonlocal and relaxation terms is proposed, which sums up the Cattaneo-Vernotte, dual-phase-lag and phonon hydrodynamic models as special cases. In the frame of this equation, the heat wave propagations are investigated systematically in nonequilibrium steady states, which were usually studied around equilibrium states. The phase (or front) speed of heat waves is obtained through a perturbation solution to the heat differential equation, and found to be intimately related to the nonlinear and nonlocal terms. Thus, potential heat wave experiments in nonequilibrium states are devised to measure the coefficients in the generalized equation, which may throw light on understanding the physical mechanisms and macroscopic modeling of nanoscale heat transport.
A macroscopic model of traffic jams in axons.
Kuznetsov, A V; Avramenko, A A
2009-04-01
The purpose of this paper is to develop a minimal macroscopic model capable of explaining the formation of traffic jams in fast axonal transport. The model accounts for the decrease of the number density of positively (and negatively) oriented microtubules near the location of the traffic jam due to formation of microtubule swirls; the model also accounts for the reduction of the effective velocity of organelle transport in the traffic jam region due to organelles falling off microtubule tracks more often in the swirl region. The model is based on molecular-motor-assisted transport equations and the hydrodynamic model of traffic jams in highway traffic. Parametric analyses of the model's predictions for various values of viscosity of the traffic flow, variance of the velocity distribution, diffusivity of microtubule-bound and free organelles, rate constants for binding to and detachment from microtubules, relaxation time, and average motor velocities of the retrograde and anterograde transport, are carried out.
Effect of inhibitors on macroscopical oxidation kinetics of calcium sulfite
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHAO Yi; WANG Li-dong; WANG Xiao-ming; LI Qiang-wei; XU Pei-yao
2005-01-01
In the presence of inhibitors, the macroscopical oxidation kinetics of calcium sulfite, the main byproduct in wet limestone scrubbing, was studied for the first time by adding different inhibitors and varying pH, concentration of calcium sulfite, oxygen partial pressure, concentration of inhibitors and temperature. The mathematical model about the general oxidation reaction was established,which was controlled by three steps involving dissolution of calcium sulfite, mass transfer of oxygen and chemical reaction in the solution.It was concluded that the general reaction was controlled by mass transfer of oxygen under uncatalyzed conditions, while it was controlled by dissolution of calcium sulfite after adding three kinds of inhibitors. Thus, the theory was provided for investigating the mechanism and oxidation kinetics of sulfite. The beneficial references were also supplied for design of oxidation technics in the wet limestone scrubbing.
Elastic Enhancement Factor: from Mesoscopic Systems to Macroscopic Analogous Devices
Sokolov, Valentin V
2014-01-01
Excess of probabilities of the elastic processes over the inelastic ones is a common feature of the resonance phenomena, described in the framework of the random matrix theory. This phenomenon is quantitatively characterized by the elastic enhancement factor $F^{(\\beta)}$ that is a typical ratio of elastic and inelastic cross sections. Being measured experimentally, this quantity can supply us with information on the character of dynamics of the intermediate complicated open system. We discuss properties of the enhancement factor in a wide scope from mesoscopoic systems to macroscopic analogous devices and demonstrate essential qualitative distinction between the elastic enhancement factor's peculiarities in these two cases. Complete analytical solution is found for the case of systems without time-reversal symmetry and only a few open equivalent scattering channels.
Macroscopic and direct light propulsion of bulk graphene material
Zhang, Tengfei; Wu, Yingpeng; Xiao, Peishuang; Yi, Ningbo; Lu, Yanhong; Ma, Yanfeng; Huang, Yi; Zhao, Kai; Yan, Xiao-Qing; Liu, Zhi-Bo; Tian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Yongsheng
2015-01-01
It has been a great challenge to achieve the direct light manipulation of matter on a bulk scale. In this work, the direct light propulsion of matter was observed on a macroscopic scale for the first time using a bulk graphene based material. The unique structure and properties of graphene and the morphology of the bulk graphene material make it capable of not only absorbing light at various wavelengths but also emitting energetic electrons efficiently enough to drive the bulk material following Newtonian mechanics. Thus, the unique photonic and electronic properties of individual graphene sheets are manifested in the response of the bulk state. These results offer an exciting opportunity to bring about bulk scale light manipulation with the potential to realize long-sought proposals in areas such as the solar sail and space transportation driven directly by sunlight.
Macroscopic self-reorientation of interacting two-dimensional crystals.
Woods, C R; Withers, F; Zhu, M J; Cao, Y; Yu, G; Kozikov, A; Ben Shalom, M; Morozov, S V; van Wijk, M M; Fasolino, A; Katsnelson, M I; Watanabe, K; Taniguchi, T; Geim, A K; Mishchenko, A; Novoselov, K S
2016-03-10
Microelectromechanical systems, which can be moved or rotated with nanometre precision, already find applications in such fields as radio-frequency electronics, micro-attenuators, sensors and many others. Especially interesting are those which allow fine control over the motion on the atomic scale because of self-alignment mechanisms and forces acting on the atomic level. Such machines can produce well-controlled movements as a reaction to small changes of the external parameters. Here we demonstrate that, for the system of graphene on hexagonal boron nitride, the interplay between the van der Waals and elastic energies results in graphene mechanically self-rotating towards the hexagonal boron nitride crystallographic directions. Such rotation is macroscopic (for graphene flakes of tens of micrometres the tangential movement can be on hundreds of nanometres) and can be used for reproducible manufacturing of aligned van der Waals heterostructures.
Macroscopic acousto-mechanical analogy of a microbubble
Chaline, Jennifer; Mehrem, Ahmed; Bouakaz, Ayache; Santos, Serge Dos; Sánchez-Morcillo, Víctor J
2015-01-01
Microbubbles, either in the form of free gas bubbles surrounded by a fluid or encapsulated bubbles used currently as contrast agents for medical echography, exhibit complex dynamics under specific acoustic excitations. Nonetheless, considering their micron size and the complexity of their interaction phenomenon with ultrasound waves, expensive and complex experiments and/or simulations are required for their analysis. The behavior of a microbubble along its equator can be linked to a system of coupled oscillators. In this study, the oscillatory behavior of a microbubble has been investigated through an acousto-mechanical analogy based on a ring-shaped chain of coupled pendula. Observation of parametric vibration modes of the pendula ring excited at frequencies between $1$ and $5$ Hz is presented. Simulations have been carried out and show mode mixing phenomena. The relevance of the analogy between a microbubble and the macroscopic acousto-mechanical setup is discussed and suggested as an alternative way to in...
Combined macroscopic and microscopic detection of viral genes in tissues
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haase, A.T.; Gantz, D.; Blum, H.; Stowring, L.; Ventura, P.; Geballe, A.; Moyer, B.; Brahic, M.
1985-01-15
A hybridization technique has been devised for detecting and quantitating viral genes in tissues that combines macroscopic and microscopic analyses in the same section. The method is based on dual labeling virus-specific probes with /sup 125/I and /sup 35/S to generate signals that can be detected both with X-ray films and nuclear track emulsions. The regions of increased hybridization evident in the X-ray film serve as a guide to the portion of the section that warrants microscopic examination. Detection of viral RNA in tissues with Visna virus and viral DNA with hepatitis B virus are illustrated, and potential applications of this technique in virology and other disciplines are discussed.
Innovating e-waste management: From macroscopic to microscopic scales.
Zeng, Xianlai; Yang, Congren; Chiang, Joseph F; Li, Jinhui
2017-01-01
Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE or e-waste) has become a global problem, due to its potential environmental pollution and human health risk, and its containing valuable resources (e.g., metals, plastics). Recycling for e-waste will be a necessity, not only to address the shortage of mineral resources for electronics industry, but also to decline environmental pollution and human health risk. To systematically solve the e-waste problem, more attention of e-waste management should transfer from macroscopic to microscopic scales. E-waste processing technology should be significantly improved to diminish and even avoid toxic substance entering into downstream of material. The regulation or policy related to new production of hazardous substances in recycled materials should also be carried out on the agenda. All the findings can hopefully improve WEEE legislation for regulated countries and non-regulated countries.
Witnessing Macroscopic Entanglement in a Staggered Magnetic Field
Hide, J; Son, W; Vedral, V; Hide, Jenny; Lawrie, Ian; Son, Wonmin; Vedral, Vlatko
2007-01-01
We investigate macroscopic entanglement in an infinite XX spin-1/2 chain with staggered magnetic field, $B_l=B+e^{-i\\pi l}b$. Using single-site entropy and by constructing an entanglement witness, we search for the existence of entanglement when the system is at absolute zero, as well as in thermal equilibrium. Although the role of the alternating magnetic field $b$ is, in general, to suppress entanglement as do $B$ and $T$, we find that when T=0, introducing $b$ allows the existence of entanglement even when the uniform magnetic field $B$ is arbitrarily large. We find that the region and the amount of entanglement in the spin chain can be enhanced by a staggered magnetic field.
Dissipative Optomechanical Preparation of Macroscopic Quantum Superposition States
Abdi, M.; Degenfeld-Schonburg, P.; Sameti, M.; Navarrete-Benlloch, C.; Hartmann, M. J.
2016-06-01
The transition from quantum to classical physics remains an intensely debated question even though it has been investigated for more than a century. Further clarifications could be obtained by preparing macroscopic objects in spatial quantum superpositions and proposals for generating such states for nanomechanical devices either in a transient or a probabilistic fashion have been put forward. Here, we introduce a method to deterministically obtain spatial superpositions of arbitrary lifetime via dissipative state preparation. In our approach, we engineer a double-well potential for the motion of the mechanical element and drive it towards the ground state, which shows the desired spatial superposition, via optomechanical sideband cooling. We propose a specific implementation based on a superconducting circuit coupled to the mechanical motion of a lithium-decorated monolayer graphene sheet, introduce a method to verify the mechanical state by coupling it to a superconducting qubit, and discuss its prospects for testing collapse models for the quantum to classical transition.
Fault detection by surface seismic scanning tunneling macroscope: Field test
Hanafy, Sherif M.
2014-08-05
The seismic scanning tunneling macroscope (SSTM) is proposed for detecting the presence of near-surface impedance anomalies and faults. Results with synthetic data are consistent with theory in that scatterers closer to the surface provide brighter SSTM profiles than those that are deeper. The SSTM profiles show superresolution detection if the scatterers are in the near-field region of the recording line. The field data tests near Gulf of Aqaba, Haql, KSA clearly show the presence of the observable fault scarp, and identify the subsurface presence of the hidden faults indicated in the tomograms. Superresolution detection of the fault is achieved, even when the 35 Hz data are lowpass filtered to the 5-10 Hz band.
Effects of varying interfacial surface tension on macroscopic polymer lenses
Zimmerman, Charlotte; White, Mason; Baylor, Martha-Elizabeth
2015-09-01
We investigate macroscopic polymer lenses (0.5- to 2.5-cm diameter) fabricated by dropping hydrophobic photocurable resin onto the surface of various hydrophilic liquid surfaces. Due to the intermolecular forces along the interface between the two liquids, a lens shape is formed. We find that we can vary the lens geometry by changing the region over which the resin is allowed to spread and the surface tension of the substrate to produce lenses with theoretically determined focal lengths ranging from 5 to 25 mm. These effects are varied by changing the container width, substrate composition, and substrate temperature. We present data for five different variants, demonstrating that we can control the lens dimensions for polymer lens applications that require high surface quality.
On the macroscopic formation length for GeV photons
Thomsen, H D; Kirsebom, K; Knudsen, H; Uggerhøj, E; Uggerhøj1, U I; Sona, P; Mangiarotti, A; Ketel, T J; Dizdar, A; Dalton, M M; Ballestrero, S; Connell, S H
2009-01-01
Experimental results for the radiative energy loss of 206 and 234 GeV electrons in 5–10 μm thin Ta targets are presented. An increase in radiation emission probability at low photon energies compared to a 100 μm thick target is observed. This increase is due to the formation length of the GeV photons exceeding the thickness of the thin foils, the so-called Ternovskii–Shul'ga–Fomin (TSF) effect. The formation length of GeV photons from a multi-hundred GeV projectile is through the TSF effect shown directly to be a factor 1010 longer than their wavelength.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ariane Zamarioli
2014-01-01
Full Text Available To study the effects of mechanical loading on bones after SCI, we assessed macro- and microscopic anatomy in rats submitted to passive standing (PS and electrical stimulation (ES. The study design was based on two main groups of juvenile male Wistar rats with SCI: one was followed for 33 days with therapies starting at day 3 and the other was followed for 63 days with therapies starting at day 33. Both groups were composed of four subgroups (n=10/group: (1 Sham, (2 SCI, (3 SCI + PS, and (4 SCI + ES. Rehabilitation protocol consisted of a 20-minute session, 3x/wk for 30 days. The animals were sequentially weighed and euthanized. The femur and tibia were assessed macroscopically and microscopically by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM. The SCI rats gained less weight than Sham-operated animals. Significant reduction of bone mass and periosteal radii was observed in the SCI rats, whereas PS and ES efficiently improved the macroscopic parameters. The SEM images showed less and thin trabecular bone in SCI rats. PS and ES efficiently ameliorated the bone microarchitecture deterioration by thickening and increasing the trabeculae. Based on the detrimental changes in bone tissue following SCI, the mechanical loading through weight bearing and muscle contraction may decrease the bone loss and restore the macro- and microanatomy.
Sundramoorthy, Ashok K.; Wang, Yilei; Wang, Jing; Che, Jianfei; Thong, Ya Xuan; Lu, Albert Chee W.; Chan-Park, Mary B.
2015-01-01
Graphene is a promising candidate material for transparent conductive films because of its excellent conductivity and one-carbon-atom thickness. Graphene oxide flakes prepared by Hummers method are typically several microns in size and must be pieced together in order to create macroscopic films. We report a macro-scale thin film fabrication method which employs a three-dimensional (3-D) surfactant, 4-sulfocalix[4]arene (SCX), as a lateral aggregating agent. After electrochemical exfoliation, the partially oxidized graphene (oGr) flakes are dispersed with SCX. The SCX forms micelles, which adsorb on the oGr flakes to enhance their dispersion, also promote aggregation into large-scale thin films under vacuum filtration. A thin oGr/SCX film can be shaved off from the aggregated oGr/SCX cake by immersing the cake in water. The oGr/SCX thin-film floating on the water can be subsequently lifted from the water surface with a substrate. The reduced oGr (red-oGr) films can be as thin as 10−20 nm with a transparency of >90% and sheet resistance of 890 ± 47 kΩ/sq. This method of electrochemical exfoliation followed by SCX-assisted suspension and hydrazine reduction, avoids using large amounts of strong acid (unlike Hummers method), is relatively simple and can easily form a large scale conductive and transparent film from oGr/SCX suspension. PMID:26040436
Zhang, Qing; Le Roy, Robert; VANDAMME, Mathieu; ZUBER, Bruno
2014-01-01
This study is dedicated to comparing minutes-long microindentation creep experiments on cement paste with years-long macroscopic creep experiments on concrete and months-long macroscopic creep experiments on cement paste. For all experiments, after a transient period the creep function was well captured by a logarithmic function of time, the amplitude of which is governed by a so-called creep modulus. The non-logarithmic transient periods lasted for days at the macroscopic scale, but only for...
Argyros, S A; Tyros, K
2012-01-01
We introduce the higher order spreading models associated to a Banach space $X$. Their definition is based on $\\ff$-sequences $(x_s)_{s\\in\\ff}$ with $\\ff$ a regular thin family and the plegma families. We show that the higher order spreading models of a Banach space $X$ form an increasing transfinite hierarchy $(\\mathcal{SM}_\\xi(X))_{\\xi<\\omega_1}$. Each $\\mathcal{SM}_\\xi (X)$ contains all spreading models generated by $\\ff$-sequences $(x_s)_{s\\in\\ff}$ with order of $\\ff$ equal to $\\xi$. We also provide a study of the fundamental properties of the hierarchy.
Wong, Loke-Yuen; Png, Rui-Qi; Silva, F B Shanjeera; Chua, Lay-Lay; Repaka, D V Maheswar; Shi-Chen; Gao, Xing-Yu; Ke, Lin; Chua, Soo-Jin; Wee, Andrew T S; Ho, Peter K H
2010-10-05
The dependence of morphology and polymer-chain orientation of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (rrP3HT) thin films on processing conditions have been widely studied. However, their possible variation across the film thickness direction remains largely unknown. We report here a marked difference in the optical dielectric (n,k) spectra between the top and bottom interfaces of spin-cast (sc) rrP3HT films deposited from chlorobenzene solutions. These spectra were obtained from reflection variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry using a self-consistent graded optical model with self-imposed Kramers-Krönig consistency. The top interface shows a red-shifted absorption that is characteristic of better order than at the bottom, across a wide range of film thicknesses. This disparity diminishes in drop-cast (dc) and multipass inkjet-printed (ijp) films, and disappears in amorphous films such as those of polystyrene and of a green-emitting phenyl-substituted poly(p-phenylenevinylene). The (n,k) spectra also reveal that crystallinity increases across sc dc > ijp films. Finally, near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy also shows the frontier chains in ijp and dc films are more isotropically oriented than those in sc films. These results suggest that semicrystalline conjugated polymer films can be produced far from equilibrium. This explains the marked variation in their (opto)electronic properties between the top and bottom surfaces that has sometimes been found depending on the film deposition method. In particular, an unusually pronounced crystallization is induced by ijp. We label this marked ijp-induced crystallization the "ijp morphology", which appears to be general, as it is found also in single-inkjet-droplet films. It appears also to be responsible for the lower field-effect mobility measured for ijp films deposited on a variety of linear and circular electrode arrays. This however can fortuitously be reversed by annealing in solvent vapor. As all
Room temperature ferroelectricity in continuous croconic acid thin films
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jiang, Xuanyuan; Lu, Haidong; Yin, Yuewei; Ahmadi, Zahra; Costa, Paulo S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States); Zhang, Xiaozhe [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States); Department of Physics, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Wang, Xiao; Yu, Le; Cheng, Xuemei [Department of Physics, Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania 19010 (United States); DiChiara, Anthony D. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Gruverman, Alexei, E-mail: alexei-gruverman@unl.edu, E-mail: a.enders@me.com, E-mail: xiaoshan.xu@unl.edu; Enders, Axel, E-mail: alexei-gruverman@unl.edu, E-mail: a.enders@me.com, E-mail: xiaoshan.xu@unl.edu; Xu, Xiaoshan, E-mail: alexei-gruverman@unl.edu, E-mail: a.enders@me.com, E-mail: xiaoshan.xu@unl.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States); Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States)
2016-09-05
Ferroelectricity at room temperature has been demonstrated in nanometer-thin quasi 2D croconic acid thin films, by the polarization hysteresis loop measurements in macroscopic capacitor geometry, along with observation and manipulation of the nanoscale domain structure by piezoresponse force microscopy. The fabrication of continuous thin films of the hydrogen-bonded croconic acid was achieved by the suppression of the thermal decomposition using low evaporation temperatures in high vacuum, combined with growth conditions far from thermal equilibrium. For nominal coverages ≥20 nm, quasi 2D and polycrystalline films, with an average grain size of 50–100 nm and 3.5 nm roughness, can be obtained. Spontaneous ferroelectric domain structures of the thin films have been observed and appear to correlate with the grain patterns. The application of this solvent-free growth protocol may be a key to the development of flexible organic ferroelectric thin films for electronic applications.
Fast rasterscanning enables FLIM in macroscopic samples up to several centimeters
Koberling, F.; Buschmann, V.; Hille, C.; Patting, M.; Dosche, C.; Sandberg, A.; Wheelock, A.; Erdmann, R.
2010-02-01
Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging (FLIM) based on Time-Correlated Single Photon Counting (TCSPC) is nowadays a well established technique that is very often realised as an add-on for confocal laser scanning microscopes. However, the standard laser scanning technique limits the maximum scan range in these setups to a few millimetre, making it therefore unsuited for e.g. fluorescence multiplexing in multi well plate based assays or for macroscopic material science studies on solar cells, wafers and similar material. In order to also realize larger scanning ranges, we have developed a sample scanning approach based on a xy-cross stage equipped with piezo linear motors. Using online position monitoring, this approach permits fast acceleration and scanning as well as precise positioning and features scan ranges from 100×100 microns up to 80×80 mm with submicron positioning accuracy. Standard upright and inverse microscope bodies can easily be equipped with this scanning device. Along with the necessary excitation and detection components "largearea" FLIM thus becomes possible. We will show new results obtained with a modified MicroTime 100 (PicoQuant GmbH) illustrating the system capabilities for lifetime based imaging in macroscopic samples such as the improvement of the fluorescence sensitivity in 2D gel electrophoresis or the possibility to perform lifetime based fluorescence multiplexing in μ-well plate based assays. Even Two Photon Excitation (TPE) imaging is possible with this widerange sample scanning approach and first FLIM results on cockroach salivary glands, loaded with a chloride sensitive dye (MQAE) will be presented.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
En lille bog om teater og organisationer, med bidrag fra 19 teoretikere og praktikere, der deltog i en "Thin Book Summit" i Danmark i 2005. Bogen bidrager med en state-of-the-art antologi om forskellige former for samarbejde imellem teater og organisationer. Bogen fokuserer både på muligheder og...
On the macroscopic formation length for GeV photons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thomsen, H.D.; Esberg, J.; Kirsebom, K.; Knudsen, H.; Uggerhoj, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus (Denmark); Uggerhoj, U.I. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus (Denmark)], E-mail: ulrik@phys.au.dk; Sona, P. [University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Mangiarotti, A. [LIP, Universidade de Coimbra (Portugal); Ketel, T.J. [Free University, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dizdar, A. [University of Istanbul, Istanbul (Turkey); Dalton, M.M.; Ballestrero, S.; Connell, S.H. [University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg (South Africa)
2009-03-02
Experimental results for the radiative energy loss of 206 and 234 GeV electrons in 5-10 {mu}m thin Ta targets are presented. An increase in radiation emission probability at low photon energies compared to a 100 {mu}m thick target is observed. This increase is due to the formation length of the GeV photons exceeding the thickness of the thin foils, the so-called Ternovskii-Shul'ga-Fomin (TSF) effect. The formation length of GeV photons from a multi-hundred GeV projectile is through the TSF effect shown directly to be a factor 10{sup 10} longer than their wavelength.
Rigorous asymptotics of traveling-wave solutions to the thin-film equation and Tanner’s law
Giacomelli, Lorenzo; Gnann, Manuel V.; Otto, Felix
2016-09-01
We are interested in traveling-wave solutions to the thin-film equation with zero microscopic contact angle (in the sense of complete wetting without precursor) and inhomogeneous mobility {{h}3}+{λ3-n}{{h}n} , where h, λ, and n\\in ≤ft(\\frac{3}{2},\\frac{7}{3}\\right) denote film height, slip parameter, and mobility exponent, respectively. Existence and uniqueness of these solutions have been established by Maria Chiricotto and the first of the authors in previous work under the assumption of sub-quadratic growth as h\\to ∞ . In the present work we investigate the asymptotics of solutions as h\\searrow 0 (the contact-line region) and h\\to ∞ . As h\\searrow 0 we observe, to leading order, the same asymptotics as for traveling waves or source-type self-similar solutions to the thin-film equation with homogeneous mobility h n and we additionally characterize corrections to this law. Moreover, as h\\to ∞ we identify, to leading order, the logarithmic Tanner profile, i.e. the solution to the corresponding unperturbed problem with λ =0 that determines the apparent macroscopic contact angle. Besides higher-order terms, corrections turn out to affect the asymptotic law as h\\to ∞ only by setting the length scale in the logarithmic Tanner profile. Moreover, we prove that both the correction and the length scale depend smoothly on n. Hence, in line with the common philosophy, the precise modeling of liquid-solid interactions (within our model, the mobility exponent) does not affect the qualitative macroscopic properties of the film.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xie, He-Lou [Institute for Molecular Engineering, The University of Chicago, Chicago Illinois 60637; Li, Xiao [Institute for Molecular Engineering, The University of Chicago, Chicago Illinois 60637; Ren, Jiaxing [Institute for Molecular Engineering, The University of Chicago, Chicago Illinois 60637; Bishop, Camille [Institute for Molecular Engineering, The University of Chicago, Chicago Illinois 60637; Arges, Christopher G. [Cain Department of Chemical Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge Louisiana 70803 USA; Nealey, Paul F. [Institute for Molecular Engineering, The University of Chicago, Chicago Illinois 60637; Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois 60439
2017-01-24
Controlling the macroscopic orientation of nanoscale periodic structures of amphiphilic liquid crystalline block copolymers (LC BCPs) is important to a variety of technical applications (e.g., lithium conducting polymer electrolytes). To study LC BCP domain orientation, a series of LC BCPs containing a poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) block as a conventional hydrophilic coil block and LC blocks containing azobenzene mesogens is designed and synthesized. LC ordering in thin films of the BCP leads to the formation of highly ordered, microphase-separated nanostructures, with hexagonally arranged PEO cylinders. Substitution on the tail of the azobenzene mesogen is shown to control the orientation of the PEO cylinders. When the substitution on the mesogenic tails is an alkyl chain, the PEO cylinders have a perpendicular orientation to the substrate surface, provided the thin film is above a critical thickness value. In contrast, when the substitution on the mesogenic tails has an ether group the PEO cylinders assemble parallel to the substrate surface regardless of the film thickness value.
The Unique Macroscopic Appearance of Gouty Arthritis of the Knee.
Mittl, Gregory S; Zuckerman, Joseph D
2015-07-01
Patients with significant gouty arthritis can develop disabling joint pain secondary to monosodium urate (MSU) articular deposition. We report a case of white, chalky MSU crystal deposition covering the articular surfaces of the knee as discovered by total knee arthroplasty. A 65-year-old male with a history of gout presented with bilateral knee pain. His radiographic imaging was negative for gouty tophi, and he elected to undergo left total knee arthroplasty. Intraoperatively a distinct chalky, white paste consistent with MSU deposition was observed covering the articular surfaces of the knee consistent with the diagnosis of gouty arthritis. Gout is the most common inflammatory arthritis affecting more than 3 million people in the USA. The inflammation results from the phagocytosis of monosodium urate crystals (MSU) and the release of inflammatory cytokines within the joint. Gout progresses from acute to chronic over many years and frequently causes chronic arthropathy. When significant knee pain and disability is associated with gouty arthropathy, total knee arthroplasty is certainly an option. The pathological appearance of gouty joints is characteristic. Macroscopic examination of joints affected by gout reveals a nodular, white, chalky appearance. Polarized microscopy of gout demonstrates negative birefringent needle-shaped MSU crystals. In this case report, we describe the characteristic chalky, white MSU deposit that covers the articular surfaces of a knee joint in a patient with a history of gout undergoing total knee arthroplasty. The investigators have obtained the patient's informed written consent for print and electronic publication of the case report.
A macroscopic crowd motion model of gradient flow type
Maury, Bertrand; Santambrogio, Filippo
2010-01-01
A simple model to handle the flow of people in emergency evacuation situations is considered: at every point x, the velocity U(x) that individuals at x would like to realize is given. Yet, the incompressibility constraint prevents this velocity field to be realized and the actual velocity is the projection of the desired one onto the set of admissible velocities. Instead of looking at a microscopic setting (where individuals are represented by rigid discs), here the macroscopic approach is investigated, where the unknwon is the evolution of the density . If a gradient structure is given, say U is the opposite of the gradient of D where D is, for instance, the distance to the exit door, the problem is presented as a Gradient Flow in the Wasserstein space of probability measures. The functional which gives the Gradient Flow is neither finitely valued (since it takes into account the constraints on the density), nor geodesically convex, which requires for an ad-hoc study of the convergence of a discrete scheme.
Macroscopic Dynamical Description of Rotating au + au System
Cârjan, N.; Siwek-Wilczyńska, K.; Skwira-Chalot, I.; Wilczyński, J.
Events with more than two heavy fragments have been abundantly observed in heavy-ion semi-peripheral (fission-like) reaction 197Au+197Au at 15 MeV/nucleon. This raised interesting questions about their origin and about the time-scale at which they occur. As a possible explanation of this process, the surface instability of the cylindrical neck that is formed along the path from contact to reseparation of the rotating Au+Au system is investigated in the present paper. For this purpose the Los Alamos finite-range macroscopic dynamical model was used. The calculations were performed at relatively high angular momenta, L = 100 to 300 ħ, for two types of dissipation mechanisms: two-body viscosity and one-body dissipation. Various initial nuclear deformations and initial kinetic energies in the fission direction were considered. The resulting dynamical evolution in the multidimensional deformation space always led to multifragment scission configurations suggesting that ternary and quaternary break-up can occur during the heavy-ion reaction studied.
Feedback Gating Control for Network Based on Macroscopic Fundamental Diagram
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
YangBeibei Ji
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Empirical data from Yokohama, Japan, showed that a macroscopic fundamental diagram (MFD of urban traffic provides for different network regions a unimodal low-scatter relationship between network vehicle density and network space-mean flow. This provides new tools for network congestion control. Based on MFD, this paper proposed a feedback gating control policy which can be used to mitigate network congestion by adjusting signal timings of gating intersections. The objective of the feedback gating control model is to maximize the outflow and distribute the allowed inflows properly according to external demand and capacity of each gating intersection. An example network is used to test the performance of proposed feedback gating control model. Two types of background signalization types for the intersections within the test network, fixed-time and actuated control, are considered. The results of extensive simulation validate that the proposed feedback gating control model can get a Pareto improvement since the performance of both gating intersections and the whole network can be improved significantly especially under heavy demand situations. The inflows and outflows can be improved to a higher level, and the delay and queue length at all gating intersections are decreased dramatically.
Scattering of acoustic waves by macroscopically inhomogeneous poroelastic tubes.
Groby, J-P; Dazel, O; Depollier, C; Ogam, E; Kelders, L
2012-07-01
Wave propagation in macroscopically inhomogeneous porous materials has received much attention in recent years. For planar configurations, the wave equation, derived from the alternative formulation of Biot's theory of 1962, was reduced and solved recently: first in the case of rigid frame inhomogeneous porous materials and then in the case of inhomogeneous poroelastic materials in the framework of Biot's theory. This paper focuses on the solution of the full wave equation in cylindrical coordinates for poroelastic tubes in which the acoustic and elastic properties of the poroelastic tube vary in the radial direction. The reflection coefficient is obtained numerically using the state vector (or the so-called Stroh) formalism and Peano series. This coefficient can then be used to straightforwardly calculate the scattered field. To validate the method of resolution, results obtained by the present method are compared to those calculated by the classical transfer matrix method in the case of a two-layer poroelastic tube. As an example, a long bone excited in the sagittal plane is considered. Finally, a discussion is given of ultrasonic time domain scattered field for various inhomogeneity profiles, which could lead to the prospect of long bone characterization.
Macroscopic effects of the spectral structure in turbulent flows
Tran, T.; Chakraborty, P.; Guttenberg, N.; Prescott, A.; Kellay, H.; Goldburg, W.; Goldenfeld, N.; Gioia, G.
2010-11-01
There is a missing link between macroscopic properties of turbulent flows, such as the frictional drag of a wall-bounded flow, and the turbulent spectrum. To seek the missing link we carry out unprecedented experimental measurements of the frictional drag in turbulent soap-film flows over smooth walls. These flows are effectively two-dimensional, and we are able to create soap-film flows with the two types of turbulent spectrum that are theoretically possible in two dimensions: the "enstrophy cascade," for which the spectral exponent α= 3, and the "inverse energy cascade," for which the spectral exponent α= 5/3. We find that the functional relation between the frictional drag f and the Reynolds number Re depends on the spectral exponent: where α= 3, f ˜Re-1/2; where α= 5/3, f ˜Re-1/4. Each of these scalings may be predicted from the attendant value of α by using a recently proposed spectral theory of the frictional drag. In this theory the frictional drag of turbulent flows on smooth walls is predicted to be f ˜Re^(1-α)/(1+α).
Properties of nuclear matter from macroscopic-microscopic mass formulas
Wang, Ning; Liu, Min; Ou, Li; Zhang, Yingxun
2015-12-01
Based on the standard Skyrme energy density functionals together with the extended Thomas-Fermi approach, the properties of symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter represented in two macroscopic-microscopic mass formulas: Lublin-Strasbourg nuclear drop energy (LSD) formula and Weizsäcker-Skyrme (WS*) formula, are extracted through matching the energy per particle of finite nuclei. For LSD and WS*, the obtained incompressibility coefficients of symmetric nuclear matter are K∞ = 230 ± 11 MeV and 235 ± 11 MeV, respectively. The slope parameter of symmetry energy at saturation density is L = 41.6 ± 7.6 MeV for LSD and 51.5 ± 9.6 MeV for WS*, respectively, which is compatible with the liquid-drop analysis of Lattimer and Lim [4]. The density dependence of the mean-field isoscalar and isovector effective mass, and the neutron-proton effective masses splitting for neutron matter are simultaneously investigated. The results are generally consistent with those from the Skyrme Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov calculations and nucleon optical potentials, and the standard deviations are large and increase rapidly with density. A better constraint for the effective mass is helpful to reduce uncertainties of the depth of the mean-field potential.
Tunable Broadband Transparency of Macroscopic Quantum Superconducting Metamaterials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daimeng Zhang
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Narrow-band invisibility in an otherwise opaque medium has been achieved by electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT in atomic systems. The quantum EIT behavior can be classically mimicked by specially engineered metamaterials via carefully controlled interference with a “dark mode.” However, the narrow transparency window limits the potential applications that require a tunable wideband transparent performance. Here, we present a macroscopic quantum superconducting metamaterial with manipulative self-induced broadband transparency due to a qualitatively novel nonlinear mechanism that is different from conventional EIT or its classical analogs. A near-complete disappearance of resonant absorption under a range of applied rf flux is observed experimentally and explained theoretically. The transparency comes from the intrinsic bistability of the meta-atoms and can be tuned on and off easily by altering rf and dc magnetic fields, temperature, and history. Hysteretic in situ 100% tunability of transparency paves the way for autocloaking metamaterials, intensity-dependent filters, and fast-tunable power limiters.
Towards a macroscopic modeling of the complexity in traffic flow.
Rosswog, Stephan; Wagner, Peter
2002-03-01
Based on the assumption of a safe velocity U(e)(rho) depending on the vehicle density rho, a macroscopic model for traffic flow is presented that extends the model of the Kühne-Kerner-Konhäuser by an interaction term containing the second derivative of U(e)(rho). We explore two qualitatively different forms of U(e): a conventional Fermi-type function and, motivated by recent experimental findings, a function that exhibits a plateau at intermediate densities, i.e., in this density regime the exact distance to the car ahead is only of minor importance. To solve the fluid-like equations a Lagrangian particle scheme is developed. The suggested model shows a much richer dynamical behavior than the usual fluid-like models. A large variety of encountered effects is known from traffic observations, many of which are usually assigned to the elusive state of "synchronized flow." Furthermore, the model displays alternating regimes of stability and instability at intermediate densities. It can explain data scatter in the fundamental diagram and complicated jam patterns. Within this model, a consistent interpretation of the emergence of very different traffic phenomena is offered: they are determined by the velocity relaxation time, i.e., the time needed to relax towards U(e)(rho). This relaxation time is a measure of the average acceleration capability and can be attributed to the composition (e.g., the percentage of trucks) of the traffic flow.
Zero time tunneling: macroscopic experiments with virtual particles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nimtz Günter
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Feynman introduced virtual particles in his diagrams as intermediate states of an interaction process. They represent necessary intermediate states between observable real states. Such virtual particles were introduced to describe the interaction process between an electron and a positron and for much more complicated interaction processes. Other candidates for virtual particles are evanescent modes in optics and in elastic fields. Evanescent modes have a purely imaginary wave number, they represent the mathematical analogy of the tunneling solutions of the Schrödinger equation. Evanescent modes exist in the forbidden frequency bands of a photonic lattice and in undersized wave guides, for instance. The most prominent example for the occurrence of evanescent modes is the frustrated total internal reflection (FTIR at double prisms. Evanescent modes and tunneling lie outside the bounds of the special theory of relativity. They can cause faster than light (FTL signal velocities. We present examples of the quantum mechanical behavior of evanescent photons and phonons at a macroscopic scale. The evanescent modes of photons are described by virtual particles as predicted by former QED calculations.
Macroscopic strain controlled ion current in an elastomeric microchannel
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kuo, Chin-Chang; Nguyen, Du; Buchsbaum, Steven; Innes, Laura; Dennin, Michael, E-mail: mdennin@uci.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Li, Yongxue [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Esser-Kahn, Aaron P. [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Valdevit, Lorenzo [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Irvine, California 92697-3975 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Sun, Lizhi [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Siwy, Zuzanna [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)
2015-05-07
We report on the fabrication of an ultra-high aspect ratio ionically conductive single microchannel with tunable diameter from ≈ 20 μm to fully closed. The 4 mm-long channel is fabricated in a Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold and its cross-sectional area is controlled by applying macroscopic compressive strain to the mold in a direction perpendicular to the channel length. We investigated the ionic conduction properties of the channel. For a wide range of compressive strain up to ≈ 0.27, the strain dependence of the resistance is monotonic and fully reversible. For strain > 0.27, ionic conduction suddenly shuts off and the system becomes hysteretic (whereby a finite strain reduction is required to reopen the channel). Upon unloading, the original behavior is retrieved. This reversible behavior is observed over 200 compression cycles. The cross-sectional area of the channel can be inferred from the ion current measurement, as confirmed by a Nano-Computed Tomography investigation. We show that the cross-sectional area decreases monotonically with the applied compressive strain in the reversible range, in qualitative agreement with linear elasticity theory. We find that the shut-off strain is affected by the spatial extent of the applied strain, which provides additional tunability. Our tunable channel is well-suited for multiple applications in micro/nano-fluidic devices.
Experiments testing macroscopic quantum superpositions must be slow
Mari, Andrea; de Palma, Giacomo; Giovannetti, Vittorio
2016-03-01
We consider a thought experiment where the preparation of a macroscopically massive or charged particle in a quantum superposition and the associated dynamics of a distant test particle apparently allow for superluminal communication. We give a solution to the paradox which is based on the following fundamental principle: any local experiment, discriminating a coherent superposition from an incoherent statistical mixture, necessarily requires a minimum time proportional to the mass (or charge) of the system. For a charged particle, we consider two examples of such experiments, and show that they are both consistent with the previous limitation. In the first, the measurement requires to accelerate the charge, that can entangle with the emitted photons. In the second, the limitation can be ascribed to the quantum vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. On the other hand, when applied to massive particles our result provides an indirect evidence for the existence of gravitational vacuum fluctuations and for the possibility of entangling a particle with quantum gravitational radiation.
LETTERS AND COMMENTS: Adiabatic process reversibility: microscopic and macroscopic views
Anacleto, Joaquim; Pereira, Mário G.
2009-05-01
The reversibility of adiabatic processes was recently addressed by two publications. In the first (Miranda 2008 Eur. J. Phys. 29 937-43), an equation was derived relating the initial and final volumes and temperatures for adiabatic expansions of an ideal gas, using a microscopic approach. In that relation the parameter r accounts for the process reversibility, ranging between 0 and 1, which corresponds to the free and reversible expansion, respectively. In the second (Anacleto and Pereira 2009 Eur. J. Phys. 30 177-83), the authors have shown that thermodynamics can effectively and efficiently be used to obtain the general law for adiabatic processes carried out by an ideal gas, including compressions, for which r \\ge 1. The present work integrates and extends the aforementioned studies, providing thus further insights into the analysis of the adiabatic process. It is shown that Miranda's work is wholly valid for compressions. In addition, it is demonstrated that the adiabatic reversibility coefficient given in terms of the piston velocity and the root mean square velocity of the gas particles is equivalent to the macroscopic description, given just by the quotient between surroundings and system pressure values.
Lymphoepithelioma-like esophageal carcinoma with macroscopic reduction
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Masaya; Uesato; Tuguaki; Kono; Tooru; Shiratori; Yasunori; Akutsu; Isamu; Hoshino; Kentarou; Murakami; Daisuke; Horibe; Tetsurou; Maruyama; Yoshihide; Semba; Ryuma; Urahama; Yukiko; Ogura; Takashi; Oide; Toru; Tanizawa; Hisahiro; Matsubara
2014-01-01
Esophageal lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma(LELC) is extremely rare. We report the first case of esopha-geal LELC showing macroscopic reduction. A 67-year-old male presented with dysphagia and, by endoscopic examination, was found to have a significantly raised tumor of 10 mm in diameter in the thoracic esophagus. The biopsied material showed esophageal cancer. We performed endoscopic submucosal dissection. However, the tumor became flattened, similar to a scar, in only 2 mo. Histologically, the carcinoma cells had infiltrated the submucosal layer. Prominent infiltration of T lymphoid cells that stained positive for CD8 was observed aroundthe carcinoma cells. Therefore, this lesion was consid-ered to be an LELC with poorly differentiated squamous cells. Because the margin was positive, an esophagec-tomy was performed. Carcinoma cells were detected in the neck in one lymph node. The staging was T1N0M1 b. However, the patient has been well, without adjuvant therapy or recurrence, for more than 5 years.
Semiconductor spintronics in a participating phonon medium: Macroscopic equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Rossani
2013-09-01
Full Text Available In the last two decades considerable interest has arisen on the spin related phenomena in semiconductor devices. In semiconductor materials two essential mechanisms act on the spin dynamics: the spin-orbit coupling and the spin-flip interactions. Here the novelty is that we adopt the asymptotic approach developed in previous papers of mine [A. Rossani, Physica A 305, 323 (2002; A. Rossani, G. Spiga, and A. Domaingo, J. Phys. A 36, 11955 (2003; A. Rossani and G. Spiga, J. Math. Phys. 47, 013301 (2006; A. Rossani and A. M. Scarfone, Physica B 334, 292 (2003; A. Rossani, J. Phys. A 43, 165002 (2010]. The aim of this paper is to derive macroscopic equations starting from a kinetic approach. Moreover an equation for the evolution of the spin density is added, which account for a general dispersion relation. The treatment of spin-flip processes, derived from first principles, is new and leads to an explicit expression of the relaxation time as a function of the temperature.
Properties of nuclear matter from macroscopic-microscopic mass formulas
Wang, Ning; Ou, Li; Zhang, Yingxun
2015-01-01
Based on the standard Skyrme energy density functionals together with the extended Thomas-Fermi approach, the properties of symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter represented in two macroscopic-microscopic mass formulas: Lublin-Strasbourg nuclear drop energy (LSD) formula and Weizs\\"acker-Skyrme (WS*) formula, are extracted through matching the energy per particle of finite nuclei. For LSD and WS*, the obtained incompressibility coefficients of symmetric nuclear matter are $K_\\infty=230 \\pm 11$ MeV and $235\\pm 11$ MeV, respectively. The slope parameter of symmetry energy at saturation density is $L=41.6\\pm 7.6$ MeV for LSD and $51.5\\pm 9.6$ MeV for WS*, respectively, which is compatible with the liquid-drop analysis of Lattimer and Lim [ApJ. \\textbf{771}, 51 (2013)]. The density dependence of the mean-field isoscalar and isovector effective mass, and the neutron-proton effective masses splitting for neutron matter are simultaneously investigated. The results are generally consistent with those from the Skyrm...
Theory and feasibility tests for a seismic scanning tunnelling macroscope
Schuster, Gerard T.
2012-09-01
We propose a seismic scanning tunnelling macroscope (SSTM) that can detect subwavelength scatterers in the near-field of either the source or the receivers. Analytic formulas for the time reverse mirror (TRM) profile associated with a single scatterer model show that the spatial resolution limit to be, unlike the Abbe limit of λ/2, independent of wavelength and linearly proportional to the source-scatterer separation as long as the scatterer is in the near-field region. This means that, as the scatterer approaches the source, imaging of the scatterer with super-resolution can be achieved. Acoustic and elastic simulations support this concept, and a seismic experiment in an Arizona tunnel shows a TRM profile with super-resolution adjacent to the fault location. The SSTM is analogous to the optical scanning tunnelling microscopes having subwavelength resolution. Scaled to seismic frequencies, it is theoretically possible to extract 100 Hz information from 20 Hz data by the imaging of near-field seismic energy.
Direct Observation of Spatial Quantum Correlations in the Macroscopic Regime
Kumar, Ashok; Marino, A M
2016-01-01
Spatial quantum correlations in the transverse degree of freedom promise to enhance optical resolution, image detection, and quantum communications through parallel quantum information encoding. In particular, the ability to observe these spatial quantum correlations in a single shot will enable such enhancements in applications that require real time imaging, such as particle tracking and in-situ imaging of atomic systems. Here, we report on the direct measurement of spatial quantum correlations in the macroscopic regime in single images using an electron-multiplying charge-coupled device camera. A four-wave mixing process in hot rubidium atoms is used to generate narrowband-bright-entangled pulsed twin-beams of light with $\\sim10^8$ photons in each beam. Owing to momentum conservation in this process, the twin-beams are momentum correlated, which leads to spatial quantum correlations in far field. We show around 2 dB of spatial quantum noise reduction with respect to the shot noise limit. The spatial squeez...
Dan, Budhadipta; Wingfield, Tyler B; Evans, Julian S; Mirri, Francesca; Pint, Cary L; Pasquali, Matteo; Smalyukh, Ivan I
2011-09-01
We report a simple and versatile technique for oriented assembly of gold nanorods on aligned single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) macrostructures, such as thin nanotube films and nanotube fibers. The deposition and assembly is accomplished via drop drying of dilute gold nanorod suspensions on SWNT macrostructures under ambient conditions. Guided by anisotropic interactions, gold nanorods, and polygonal platelets spontaneously align with SWNTs, resulting in macroscopic arrays of locally ordered nanorods supported on aligned SWNT substrates. SEM reveals that the scalar order parameter of rods relative to the local average SWNT alignment is 0.7 for rods on SWNT films and 0.9 for rods on SWNT fibers. This self-alignment is enabled by anisotropic gold nanoparticle-SWNT interactions and is observed for a wide range of nanoparticles, including nanorods with aspect ratios ranging from 2-35, thin gold triangular and other polygonal platelets. The plasmonic properties of aligned gold nanorods together with superior electronic, chemical and mechanical properties of SWNTs make these hybrid nanocomposites valuable for the design of self-assembled multifunctional optoelectronic materials and optical metamaterials.
Leinonen, Risto; Asikainen, Mervi A.; Hirvonen, Pekka E.
2015-01-01
This study concentrates on evaluating the consistency of upper-division students' use of the second law of thermodynamics at macroscopic and microscopic levels. Data were collected by means of a paper and pencil test (N = 48) focusing on the macroscopic and microscopic features of the second law concerned with heat transfer processes. The data…
Leinonen, Risto; Asikainen, Mervi A.; Hirvonen, Pekka E.
2015-01-01
This study concentrates on evaluating the consistency of upper-division students' use of the second law of thermodynamics at macroscopic and microscopic levels. Data were collected by means of a paper and pencil test (N = 48) focusing on the macroscopic and microscopic features of the second law concerned with heat transfer processes. The data…
A Model for Macroscopic Quantum Tunneling of Bose-Einstein Condensate with Attractive Interaction
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YAN Ke-Zhu; TAN Wei-Han
2000-01-01
Based on the numerical wave function solutions of neutral atoms with attractive interaction in a harmonic trap, we propose an exactly solvable model for macroscopic quantum tunneling of a Bose condensate with attractive interaction. We calculate the rate of macroscopic quantum tunneling from a metastable condensate state to the collapse state and analyze the stability of the attractive Bose-Einstein condensation.
Göncü, F.; Luding, S.
2013-01-01
The macroscopic mechanical behavior of granular materials inherently depends on the properties of particles that compose them. Using the discrete element method, the effect of particle contact friction and polydispersity on the macroscopic stress response of 3D sphere packings is studied. The analyt
Macroscopic realism, wave-particle duality and the superposition principle for entangled states
Chuprikov, N L
2006-01-01
On the basis of our model of a one-dimensional (1D) completed scattering (Russian Physics, 49, p.119 and p.314 (2006)) we argue that the linear formalism of quantum mechanics (QM) respects the principles of the macroscopic realism (J. Phys.: Condens. Matter, 14, R415-R451 (2002)). In QM one has to distinguish two kinds of pure ensembles: pure unentangled ensembles to be macroscopically inseparable, and pure entangled ones to be macroscopically separable. A pure entangled ensemble is an intermediate link between a pure unentangled ensemble and classical mixture. Like the former it strictly respects the linear formalism of QM. Like the latter it is decomposable into macroscopically distinct subensembles, in spite of interference between them; our new model exemplifies how to perform such a decomposition in the case of a 1D completed scattering. To respect macroscopic realism, the superposition principle must be reformulated: it must forbid introducing observables for entangled states.
Structuring of metal-organic frameworks at the mesoscopic/macroscopic scale.
Furukawa, Shuhei; Reboul, Julien; Diring, Stéphane; Sumida, Kenji; Kitagawa, Susumu
2014-08-21
The assembly of metal ions with organic ligands through the formation of coordination bonds gives crystalline framework materials, known as metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), which recently emerged as a new class of porous materials. Besides the structural designability of MOFs at the molecular length scale, the researchers in this field very recently made important advances in creating more complex architectures at the mesoscopic/macroscopic scale, in which MOF nanocrystals are used as building units to construct higher-order superstructures. The structuring of MOFs in such a hierarchical order certainly opens a new opportunity to improve the material performance via design of the physical form rather than altering the chemical component. This review highlights these superstructures and their applications by categorizing them into four dimensionalities, zero-dimensional (0D), one-dimensional (1D), two-dimensional (2D), and three-dimensional (3D) superstructures. Because the key issue for structuring of MOFs is to spatially control the nucleation process in desired locations, this review conceptually categorizes the available synthetic methodologies from the viewpoint of the reaction system.
Theory of Macroscopic Quantum Tunneling in High-T_c c-Axis Josephson Junctions
Yokoyama, Takehito; Kato, Takeo; Tanaka, Yukio
2007-01-01
We study macroscopic quantum tunneling (MQT) in c-axis twist Josephson junctions made of high-T_c superconductors in order to clarify the influence of the anisotropic order parameter symmetry (OPS) on MQT. The dependence of the MQT rate on the twist angle $\\gamma$ about the c-axis is calculated by using the functional integral and the bounce method. Due to the d-wave OPS, the $\\gamma$ dependence of standard deviation of the switching current distribution and the crossover temperature from thermal activation to MQT are found to be given by $\\cos2\\gamma$ and $\\sqrt{\\cos2\\gamma}$, respectively. We also show that a dissipative effect resulting from the nodal quasiparticle excitation on MQT is negligibly small, which is consistent with recent MQT experiments using Bi${}_2$Sr${}_2$CaCu${}_2$O${}_{8 + \\delta}$ intrinsic junctions. These results indicate that MQT in c-axis twist junctions becomes a useful experimental tool for testing the OPS of high-T_c materials at low temperature, and suggest high potential of suc...
Host thin films incorporating nanoparticles
Qureshi, Uzma
The focus of this research project was the investigation of the functional properties of thin films that incorporate a secondary nanoparticulate phase. In particular to assess if the secondary nanoparticulate material enhanced a functional property of the coating on glass. In order to achieve this, new thin film deposition methods were developed, namely use of nanopowder precursors, an aerosol assisted transport technique and an aerosol into atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition system. Aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) was used to deposit 8 series of thin films on glass. Five different nanoparticles silver, gold, ceria, tungsten oxide and zinc oxide were tested and shown to successfully deposit thin films incorporating nanoparticles within a host matrix. Silver nanoparticles were synthesised and doped within a titania film by AACVD. This improved solar control properties. A unique aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) into atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition (APCVD) system was used to deposit films of Au nanoparticles and thin films of gold nanoparticles incorporated within a host titania matrix. Incorporation of high refractive index contrast metal oxide particles within a host film altered the film colour. The key goal was to test the potential of nanopowder forms and transfer the suspended nanopowder via an aerosol to a substrate in order to deposit a thin film. Discrete tungsten oxide nanoparticles or ceria nanoparticles within a titanium dioxide thin film enhanced the self-cleaning and photo-induced super-hydrophilicity. The nanopowder precursor study was extended by deposition of zinc oxide thin films incorporating Au nanoparticles and also ZnO films deposited from a ZnO nanopowder precursor. Incorporation of Au nanoparticles within a VO: host matrix improved the thermochromic response, optical and colour properties. Composite VC/TiC and Au nanoparticle/V02/Ti02 thin films displayed three useful
Nonclassical interactions portrait in a macroscopic pedestrian flow model
Rosini, Massimiliano D.
In this paper we describe the main characteristics of the macroscopic model for pedestrian flows introduced in [R.M. Colombo, M.D. Rosini, Pedestrian flows and non-classical shocks, Math. Methods Appl. Sci. 28 (13) (2005) 1553-1567] and recently sperimentally verified in [D. Helbing, A. Johansson, H.Z. Al-Abideen, Dynamics of crowd disasters: An empirical study, Phys. Rev. E (Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics) 75 (4) (2007) 046109]. After a detailed study of all the possible wave interactions, we prove the existence of a weighted total variation that does not increase after any interaction. This is the main ingredient used in [R.M. Colombo, M.D. Rosini, Existence of nonclassical Cauchy problem modeling pedestrian flows, technical report, Brescia Department of Mathematics, 2008] to tackle the Cauchy problem through wave front tracking, see [A. Bressan, Hyperbolic Systems of Conservation Laws. The One-Dimensional Cauchy Problem, Oxford Lecture Ser. Math. Appl., vol. 20, Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, 2000, The one-dimensional Cauchy problem; A. Bressan, The front tracking method for systems of conservation laws, in: C.M. Dafermos, E. Feireisl (Eds.), Handbook of Differential Equations; Evolutionary Equations, vol. 1, Elsevier, 2004, pp. 87-168; R.M. Colombo, Wave front tracking in systems of conservation laws, Appl. Math. 49 (6) (2004) 501-537]. From the mathematical point of view, this model is one of the few examples of conservation laws in which nonclassical solutions have a physical motivation, see [P.G. Lefloch, Hyperbolic Systems of Conservation Laws, Lectures Math. ETH Zürich, Birkhäuser, Basel, 2002, The theory of classical and nonclassical shock waves], and an existence result is available.
Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of macroscopic morphology and dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barrall, Geoffrey Alden [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry
1995-09-01
Nuclear magnetic resonance techniques are traditionally used to study molecular level structure and dynamics with a noted exception in medically applied NMR imaging (MRI). In this work, new experimental methods and theory are presented relevant to the study of macroscopic morphology and dynamics using NMR field gradient techniques and solid state two-dimensional exchange NMR. The goal in this work is not to take some particular system and study it in great detail, rather it is to show the utility of a number of new and novel techniques using ideal systems primarily as a proof of principle. By taking advantage of the analogy between NMR imaging and diffraction, one may simplify the experiments necessary for characterizing the statistical properties of the sample morphology. For a sample composed of many small features, e.g. a porous medium, the NMR diffraction techniques take advantage of both the narrow spatial range and spatial isotropy of the sample`s density autocorrelation function to obtain high resolution structural information in considerably less time than that required by conventional NMR imaging approaches. The time savings of the technique indicates that NMR diffraction is capable of finer spatial resolution than conventional NMR imaging techniques. Radio frequency NMR imaging with a coaxial resonator represents the first use of cylindrically symmetric field gradients in imaging. The apparatus as built has achieved resolution at the micron level for water samples, and has the potential to be very useful in the imaging of circularly symmetric systems. The study of displacement probability densities in flow through a random porous medium has revealed the presence of features related to the interconnectedness of the void volumes. The pulsed gradient techniques used have proven successful at measuring flow properties for time and length scales considerably shorter than those studied by more conventional techniques.
Proton irradiation effects on beryllium - A macroscopic assessment
Simos, Nikolaos; Elbakhshwan, Mohamed; Zhong, Zhong; Camino, Fernando
2016-10-01
Beryllium, due to its excellent neutron multiplication and moderation properties, in conjunction with its good thermal properties, is under consideration for use as plasma facing material in fusion reactors and as a very effective neutron reflector in fission reactors. While it is characterized by unique combination of structural, chemical, atomic number, and neutron absorption cross section it suffers, however, from irradiation generated transmutation gases such as helium and tritium which exhibit low solubility leading to supersaturation of the Be matrix and tend to precipitate into bubbles that coalesce and induce swelling and embrittlement thus degrading the metal and limiting its lifetime. Utilization of beryllium as a pion production low-Z target in high power proton accelerators has been sought both for its low Z and good thermal properties in an effort to mitigate thermos-mechanical shock that is expected to be induced under the multi-MW power demand. To assess irradiation-induced changes in the thermal and mechanical properties of Beryllium, a study focusing on proton irradiation damage effects has been undertaken using 200 MeV protons from the Brookhaven National Laboratory Linac and followed by a multi-faceted post-irradiation analysis that included the thermal and volumetric stability of irradiated beryllium, the stress-strain behavior and its ductility loss as a function of proton fluence and the effects of proton irradiation on the microstructure using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The mimicking of high temperature irradiation of Beryllium via high temperature annealing schemes has been conducted as part of the post-irradiation study. This paper focuses on the thermal stability and mechanical property changes of the proton irradiated beryllium and presents results of the macroscopic property changes of Beryllium deduced from thermal and mechanical tests.
Spin Exchange Interaction in Substituted Copper Phthalocyanine Crystalline Thin Films
Rawat, Naveen; Pan, Zhenwen; Lamarche, Cody J.; Wetherby, Anthony; Waterman, Rory; Tokumoto, Takahisa; Cherian, Judy G.; Headrick, Randall L.; McGill, Stephen A.; Furis, Madalina I.
2015-11-01
The origins of spin exchange in crystalline thin films of Copper Octabutoxy Phthalocyanine (Cu-OBPc) are investigated using Magnetic Circular Dichroism (MCD) spectroscopy. These studies are made possible by a solution deposition technique which produces highly ordered films with macroscopic grain sizes suitable for optical studies. For temperatures lower than 2 K, the contribution of a specific state in the valence band manifold originating from the hybridized lone pair in nitrogen orbitals of the Phthalocyanine ring, bears the Brillouin-like signature of an exchange interaction with the localized d-shell Cu spins. A comprehensive MCD spectral analysis coupled with a molecular field model of a σπ - d exchange analogous to sp-d interactions in Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors (DMS) renders an enhanced Zeeman splitting and a modified g-factor of -4 for the electrons that mediate the interaction. These studies define an experimental tool for identifying electronic states involved in spin-dependent exchange interactions in organic materials.
Preparation of electrochemically active silicon nanotubes in highly ordered arrays
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tobias Grünzel
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Silicon as the negative electrode material of lithium ion batteries has a very large capacity, the exploitation of which is impeded by the volume changes taking place upon electrochemical cycling. A Si electrode displaying a controlled porosity could circumvent the difficulty. In this perspective, we present a preparative method that yields ordered arrays of electrochemically competent silicon nanotubes. The method is based on the atomic layer deposition of silicon dioxide onto the pore walls of an anodic alumina template, followed by a thermal reduction with lithium vapor. This thermal reduction is quantitative, homogeneous over macroscopic samples, and it yields amorphous silicon and lithium oxide, at the exclusion of any lithium silicides. The reaction is characterized by spectroscopic ellipsometry for thin silica films, and by nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for nanoporous samples. After removal of the lithium oxide byproduct, the silicon nanotubes can be contacted electrically. In a lithium ion electrolyte, they then display the electrochemical waves also observed for other bulk or nanostructured silicon systems. The method established here paves the way for systematic investigations of how the electrochemical properties (capacity, charge/discharge rates, cyclability of nanoporous silicon negative lithium ion battery electrode materials depend on the geometry.
Avazmohammadi, Reza; Ponte Castañeda, Pedro
2014-04-01
This paper presents a homogenization-based constitutive model for the mechanical behaviour of particle-reinforced elastomers with random microstructures subjected to finite deformations. The model is based on a recently improved version of the tangent second-order (TSO) method (Avazmohammadi and Ponte Castañeda, J. Elasticity 112 (2013) p.139-183) for two-phase, hyperelastic composites and is able to directly account for the shape, orientation, and concentration of the particles. After a brief summary of the TSO homogenization method, we describe its application to composites consisting of an incompressible rubber reinforced by aligned, spheroidal, rigid particles, undergoing generally non-aligned, three-dimensional loadings. While the results are valid for finite particle concentrations, in the dilute limit they can be viewed as providing a generalization of Eshelby's results in linear elasticity. In particular, we provide analytical estimates for the overall response and microstructure evolution of the particle-reinforced composites with generalized neo-Hookean matrix phases under non-aligned loadings. For the special case of aligned pure shear and axisymmetric shear loadings, we give closed-form expressions for the effective stored-energy function of the composites with neo-Hookean matrix behaviour. Moreover, we investigate the possible development of "macroscopic" (shear band-type) instabilities in the homogenized behaviour of the composite at sufficiently large deformations. These instabilities whose wavelengths are much larger than the typical size of the microstructure are detected by making use of the loss of strong ellipticity condition for the effective stored-energy function of the composites. The analytical results presented in this paper will be complemented in Part II (Avazmohammadi and Ponte Castaneda, Phil. Mag. (2014)) of this work by specific applications for several representative microstructures and loading configurations.
Agent-Based and Macroscopic Modeling of the Complex Socio-Economic Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aleksejus Kononovičius
2013-08-01
Full Text Available Purpose – The focus of this contribution is the correspondence between collective behavior and inter-individual interactions in the complex socio-economic systems. Currently there is a wide selection of papers proposing various models for the both collective behavior and inter-individual interactions in the complex socio-economic systems. Yet the papers directly relating these two concepts are still quite rare. By studying this correspondence we discuss a cutting edge approach to the modeling of complex socio-economic systems. Design/methodology/approach – The collective behavior is often modeled using stochastic and ordinary calculus, while the inter-individual interactions are modeled using agent-based models. In order to obtain the ideal model, one should start from these frameworks and build a bridge to reach another. This is a formidable task, if we consider the top-down approach, namely starting from the collective behavior and moving towards inter-individual interactions. The bottom-up approach also fails, if complex inter-individual interaction models are considered, yet in this case we can start with simple models and increase the complexity as needed. Findings – The bottom-up approach, considering simple agent-based herding model as a model for the inter-individual interactions, allows us to derive certain macroscopic models of the complex socio-economic systems from the agent-based perspective. This provides interesting insights into the collective behavior patterns observed in the complex socio-economic systems. Research limitations/implications –The simplicity of the agent-based herding model might be considered to be somewhat limiting. Yet this simplicity implies that the model is highly universal. It reproduces universal features of social behavior and also can be further extended to fit different socio-economic scenarios. Practical implications – Insights provided in this contribution might be used to modify existing
Zhao, Kui
2015-09-07
The mechanistic understanding of the intrinsic molecular self-assembly of conjugated polymers is of immense importance to controlling the microstructure development in organic semiconducting thin films, with meaningful impact on charge transport and optoelectronic properties. Yet, to date the vast majority of studies have focused on the fast solution process itself, with studies of slower intrinsic molecular self-assembly in formulations lagging behind. Here we have investigated molecular self-assembly during spontaneous organization and uncovered how changes in formulation influence the microstructure, morphology and transport properties of conjugated polymer thin films. Our results suggest that the polymer-solvent interaction is the key factor for the molecular self-assembly and changes in macroscopic charge transport, which is in contrast with most solution processes, such as spin-coating and blade coating, where solvent drying kinetics dominates the aggregation and crystallization processes. Energetically favourable interactions between the polymer and its solvent are shown to cause chain expansion, resulting in a large hydrodynamic volume and few chain entanglements in solution. This provides molecular freedom for self-assembly and is shown to greatly enhance the local and long range order of the polymer, intra-chain backbone planarity and crystallite size. These improvements, in turn, are shown to endow the conjugated polymer with high carrier transport, as demonstrated by organic thin film transistors.
Donnelly, N. J.; Catalan, G.; Morros, C.; Bowman, R. M.; Gregg, J. M.
2003-06-01
Pulsed laser deposition was used to grow thin films of several compositions from the Pb(Mg1/3,Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) solid solution as dielectric layers in thin film capacitor structures. They were found to display functional behavior characteristic of relaxors, with the only significant difference between thin film and bulk being a severely reduced dielectric permittivity. Room temperature polarization loops showed a general increase in both the remanent polarization and absolute magnitude of the polarization for a given field with PT content. The electric field-induced strain was primarily examined by in situ x-ray diffraction and although fields greater than 20 MV m-1 were applied to the films, the maximum observed strain was only ˜0.3%, considerably less than the 1.4% seen in single crystal samples. Piezo-response atomic force microscopy studies were consistent in that the macroscopic effective piezoelectric coefficient d33, was found to differ from single crystal measurements by an order of magnitude. However, electrostrictive coefficients (Q33), were found to be comparable to published values for both PMN-PT single crystals and ceramics, ranging between 1 and 9×10-2 C-4 cm2. Consequently, it seems that the relatively poor strain response in these thin films is intimately linked to the reduced permittivity and not to a fundamental difference in the electrostrictive coefficients between bulk and thin film.
Studies into the averaging problem: Macroscopic gravity and precision cosmology
Wijenayake, Tharake S.
2016-08-01
With the tremendous improvement in the precision of available astrophysical data in the recent past, it becomes increasingly important to examine some of the underlying assumptions behind the standard model of cosmology and take into consideration nonlinear and relativistic corrections which may affect it at percent precision level. Due to its mathematical rigor and fully covariant and exact nature, Zalaletdinov's macroscopic gravity (MG) is arguably one of the most promising frameworks to explore nonlinearities due to inhomogeneities in the real Universe. We study the application of MG to precision cosmology, focusing on developing a self-consistent cosmology model built on the averaging framework that adequately describes the large-scale Universe and can be used to study real data sets. We first implement an algorithmic procedure using computer algebra systems to explore new exact solutions to the MG field equations. After validating the process with an existing isotropic solution, we derive a new homogeneous, anisotropic and exact solution. Next, we use the simplest (and currently only) solvable homogeneous and isotropic model of MG and obtain an observable function for cosmological expansion using some reasonable assumptions on light propagation. We find that the principal modification to the angular diameter distance is through the change in the expansion history. We then linearize the MG field equations and derive a framework that contains large-scale structure, but the small scale inhomogeneities have been smoothed out and encapsulated into an additional cosmological parameter representing the averaging effect. We derive an expression for the evolution of the density contrast and peculiar velocities and integrate them to study the growth rate of large-scale structure. We find that increasing the magnitude of the averaging term leads to enhanced growth at late times. Thus, for the same matter content, the growth rate of large scale structure in the MG model
Investigating the mechanics of earthquakes using macroscopic seismic parameters
Venkataraman, Anupama
2002-09-01
To understand the physics of earthquake rupture mechanics, we have to relate seismologically observable parameters to the dynamics of faulting. One of the key seismological parameters that will help us achieve this objective is the energy radiated by seismic waves. In this work, we develop a new method of estimating radiated energy from regional data using an empirical Green's function method; we also modify existing methods of estimating radiated energy from teleseismic data by improving the corrections applied to the observed seismic data for attenuation and directivity effects. We compute teleseismic estimates of radiated energy for 23 large subduction zone earthquakes recorded between 1992 and 2001; most of these earthquakes have a magnitude Mw > 7.5, but we also include some smaller (Mw ˜ 6.7) well-studied subduction zone earthquakes and 6 crustal earthquakes. We compile the static stress drop estimates for these 29 earthquakes from published literature. We then determine radiation efficiency of these earthquakes using a stress relaxation model that relates measurable and macroscopic seismological parameters to the physical processes on the fault zone via fracture energy. We also determine the rupture velocity of these earthquakes from published literature. A comparison of radiation efficiencies and rupture velocities of these earthquakes with the expected theoretical values for different modes crack propagation validates the use of the stress relaxation model to understand earthquake rupture mechanics. From our calculations, we observe that most earthquakes have radiation efficiencies between 0.25 and 1 and are hence efficient in generating seismic waves, but tsunami earthquakes and two deep earthquakes, the 1994 deep earthquake that occurred in Bolivia and the 1999 Russia-China border earthquake, have very small radiation efficiencies (<0.25) and hence dissipate a large amount of energy on the fault plane. We suggest that the difference in the radiation
Crystallization in diblock copolymer thin films at different degrees of supercooling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Darko, C.; Botiz, I.; Reiter, G.
2009-01-01
The crystalline structures in thin films of polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-b-PEO) diblock copolymers were studied in dependence on the degree of supercooling. Atomic force microscopy showed that the crystalline domains (lamellae) consist of grains, which are macroscopic at low...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rijkhoff, Jan
2015-01-01
The way constituents are ordered in a linguistic expression is determined by general principles and language specific rules. This article is mostly concerned with general ordering principles and the three main linguistic categories that are relevant for constituent order research: formal, functio...
A discrete Lagrangian based direct approach to macroscopic modelling
Sarkar, Saikat; Nowruzpour, Mohsen; Reddy, J. N.; Srinivasa, A. R.
2017-01-01
A direct discrete Lagrangian based approach, designed at a length scale of interest, to characterize the response of a body is proposed. The main idea is to understand the dynamics of a deformable body via a Lagrangian corresponding to a coupled interaction of rigid particles in the reduced dimension. We argue that the usual practice of describing the laws of a deformable body in the continuum limit is redundant, because for most of the practical problems, analytical solutions are not available. Since continuum limit is not taken, the framework automatically relaxes the requirement of differentiability of field variables. The discrete Lagrangian based approach is illustrated by deriving an equivalent of the Euler-Bernoulli beam model. A few test examples are solved, which demonstrate that the derived non-local model predicts lower deflections in comparison to classical Euler-Bernoulli beam solutions. We have also included crack propagation in thin structures for isotropic and anisotropic cases using the Lagrangian based approach.
From Molecular to Macroscopic via the Rational Design of a Self-Assembled 3D DNA Crystal
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zheng, J.; Birktoft, J; Yi, C; Tong, W; Ruojie, S; Constantinou, P; Ginell, S; Chenge, M; Seeman, N
2009-01-01
We live in a macroscopic three-dimensional (3D) world, but our best description of the structure of matter is at the atomic and molecular scale. Understanding the relationship between the two scales requires a bridge from the molecular world to the macroscopic world. Connecting these two domains with atomic precision is a central goal of the natural sciences, but it requires high spatial control of the 3D structure of matter1. The simplest practical route to producing precisely designed 3D macroscopic objects is to form a crystalline arrangement by self-assembly, because such a periodic array has only conceptually simple requirements: a motif that has a robust 3D structure, dominant affinity interactions between parts of the motif when it self-associates, and predictable structures for these affinity interactions. Fulfilling these three criteria to produce a 3D periodic system is not easy, but should readily be achieved with well-structured branched DNA motifs tailed by sticky ends2. Complementary sticky ends associate with each other preferentially and assume the well-known B-DNA structure when they do so3; the helically repeating nature of DNA facilitates the construction of a periodic array. It is essential that the directions of propagation associated with the sticky ends do not share the same plane, but extend to form a 3D arrangement of matter. Here we report the crystal structure at 4?Angstroms resolution of a designed, self-assembled, 3D crystal based on the DNA tensegrity triangle4. The data demonstrate clearly that it is possible to design and self-assemble a well-ordered macromolecular 3D crystalline lattice with precise control.
Rieger, R; Auregan, J C; Hoc, T
2017-09-08
The objective of the present study is to assess the mechanical behavior of trabecular bone based on microCT imaging and micro-finite-element analysis. In this way two methods are detailed: (i) direct determination of macroscopic elastic property of trabecular bone; (ii) inverse approach to assess mechanical properties of trabecular bone tissue. Thirty-five females and seven males (forty-two subjects) mean aged (±SD) 80±11.7 years from hospitals of Assistance publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP) diagnosed with osteoporosis following a femoral neck fracture due to a fall from standing were included in this study. Fractured heads were collected during hip replacement surgery. Standardized bone cores were removed from the femoral head's equator by a trephine in a water bath. MicroCT images acquisition and analysis were performed with CTan(®) software and bone volume fraction was then determined. Micro-finite-element simulations were per-formed using Abaqus 6.9-2(®) software in order to determine the macroscopic mechanical behaviour of the trabecular bone. After microCT acquisition, a longitudinal compression test was performed and the experimental macroscopic Young's Modulus was extracted. An inverse approach based on the whole trabecular bone's mechanical response and micro-finite-element analysis was performed to determine microscopic mechanical properties of trabecular bone. In the present study, elasticity of the tissue was shown to be similar to that of healthy tissue but with a lower yield stress. Classical histomorphometric analysis form microCT imaging associated with an inverse micro-finite-element method allowed to assess microscopic mechanical trabecular bone parameters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
江学良; 吉钰纯; 范一泓; 杜银
2012-01-01
A yttrium-doped ordered porous TiO2 thin film was prepared by a sol–gel and colloidal crystals template method.The morphology structure of the film was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy（FTIR）,scanning electron microscopy（SEM）,X-ray diffraction（XRD）,X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy（XPS） and UV–Vis analysis,respectively.The photocatalysis property was also investigated.The results show that the yttrium-doped ordered porous TiO2 thin film is compact and ordered,but has some collapse of pores.The anatase form of porous TiO2 thin film was not changed by yttrium-doped treatment.The XPS analysis indicated that yttrium-doped TiO2 thin film could be prepared,and the content of yttrium element was 1.2%.The UV–Vis analysis showed that the yttrium-doped TiO2 thin film red-shifted into the visible region.The degradation of methyl orange result revealed that the visible-light photocatalysis property of yttrium-doped TiO2 was better than that of the pure TiO2.%采用胶体晶体薄膜为模板,利用溶胶–凝胶法制备了钇掺杂有序多孔TiO2薄膜,通过Fourier变换红外光谱、扫描电子显微镜、X射线衍射、X射线光电子能谱、紫外–可见光谱表征样品的结构和形貌,并以甲基橙为模型化合物研究了钇掺杂有序多孔TiO2薄膜材料可见光催化性能。结果表明：钇掺杂有序多孔TiO2薄膜规整致密,晶型为锐钛矿型,样品中钇元素含量约为1.2%。钇掺杂使得TiO2吸收光红移至可见光区,钇掺杂有序多孔TiO2薄膜可见光催化性能好于未掺杂有序多孔TiO2薄膜。
Sanya, Arthur S O; Akowanou, Christian; Sanya, Emile A; Degan, Gerard
2014-01-01
The problems of steady film condensation on a vertical surface embedded in a thin porous medium with anisotropic permeability filled with pure saturated vapour are studied analytically by using the Brinkman-Darcy flow model. The principal axes of anisotropic permeability are oriented in a direction that non-coincident with the gravity force. On the basis of the flow permeability tensor due to the anisotropic properties and the Brinkman-Darcy flow model adopted by considering negligible macroscopic and microscopic inertial terms, boundary-layer approximations in the porous liquid film momentum equation is solved analytically. Scale analysis is applied to predict the order-of-magnitudes involved in the boundary layer regime. The first novel contribution in the mathematics consists in the use of the anisotropic permeability tensor inside the expression of the mathematical formulation of the film condensation problem along a vertical surface embedded in a porous medium. The present analytical study reveals that the anisotropic permeability properties have a strong influence on the liquid film thickness, condensate mass flow rate and surface heat transfer rate. The comparison between thin and thick porous media is also presented.
Marochnik, Leonid; Vereshkov, Grigory
2013-01-01
We discuss a special class of quantum gravity phenomena that occur on the scale of the Universe as a whole at any stage of its evolution. These phenomena are a direct consequence of the zero rest mass of gravitons, conformal non-invariance of the graviton field, and one-loop finiteness of quantum gravity. The effects are due to graviton-ghost condensates arising from the interference of quantum coherent states. Each of coherent states is a state of gravitons and ghosts of a wavelength of the order of the horizon scale and of different occupation numbers. The state vector of the Universe is a coherent superposition of vectors of different occupation numbers. To substantiate the reliability of macroscopic quantum effects, the formalism of one-loop quantum gravity is discussed in detail. The theory is constructed as follows: Faddeev-Popov path integral in Hamilton gauge -> factorization of classical and quantum variables, allowing the existence of a self-consistent system of equations for gravitons, ghosts and m...
Macroscopic Model for Head-On Binary Droplet Collisions in a Gaseous Medium
Li, Jie
2016-11-01
In this Letter, coalescence-bouncing transitions of head-on binary droplet collisions are predicted by a novel macroscopic model based entirely on fundamental laws of physics. By making use of the lubrication theory of Zhang and Law [Phys. Fluids 23, 042102 (2011)], we have modified the Navier-Stokes equations to accurately account for the rarefied nature of the interdroplet gas film. Through the disjoint pressure model, we have incorporated the intermolecular van der Waals forces. Our model does not use any adjustable (empirical) parameters. It therefore encompasses an extreme range of length scales (more than 5 orders of magnitude): from those of the external flow in excess of the droplet size (a few hundred μ m ) to the effective range of the van der Waals force around 10 nm. A state of the art moving adaptive mesh method, capable of resolving all the relevant length scales, has been employed. Our numerical simulations are able to capture the coalescence-bouncing and bouncing-coalescence transitions that are observed as the collision intensity increases. The predicted transition Weber numbers for tetradecane and water droplet collisions at different pressures show good agreement with published experimental values. Our study also sheds new light on the roles of gas density, droplet size, and mean free path in the rupture of the gas film.
Pollinger, Florian; Schmitt, Stefan; Sander, Dirk; Tian, Zhen; Kirschner, Jürgen; Vrdoljak, Pavo; Stadler, Christoph; Maier, Florian; Marchetto, Helder; Schmidt, Thomas; Schöll, Achim; Umbach, Eberhard
2017-01-01
Self-organization is a promising method within the framework of bottom-up architectures to generate nanostructures in an efficient way. The present work demonstrates that self-organization on the length scale of a few to several tens of nanometers can be achieved by a proper combination of a large (organic) molecule and a vicinal metal surface if the local bonding of the molecule on steps is significantly stronger than that on low-index surfaces. In this case thermal annealing may lead to large mass transport of the subjacent substrate atoms such that nanometer-wide and micrometer-long molecular stripes or other patterns are being formed on high-index planes. The formation of these patterns can be controlled by the initial surface orientation and adsorbate coverage. The patterns arrange self-organized in regular arrays by repulsive mechanical interactions over long distances accompanied by a significant enhancement of surface stress. We demonstrate this effect using the planar organic molecule PTCDA as adsorbate and Ag(10 8 7) and Ag(775) surfaces as substrate. The patterns are directly observed by STM, the formation of vicinal surfaces is monitored by high-resolution electron diffraction, the microscopic surface morphology changes are followed by spectro-microscopy, and the macroscopic changes of surface stress are measured by a cantilever bending method. The in situ combination of these complementary techniques provides compelling evidence for elastic interaction and a significant stress contribution to long-range order and nanopattern formation.
Macroscopic law of conservation revealed in the population dynamics of Toll-like receptor signaling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Selvarajoo Kumar
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Abstract Stimulating the receptors of a single cell generates stochastic intracellular signaling. The fluctuating response has been attributed to the low abundance of signaling molecules and the spatio-temporal effects of diffusion and crowding. At population level, however, cells are able to execute well-defined deterministic biological processes such as growth, division, differentiation and immune response. These data reflect biology as a system possessing microscopic and macroscopic dynamics. This commentary discusses the average population response of the Toll-like receptor (TLR 3 and 4 signaling. Without requiring detailed experimental data, linear response equations together with the fundamental law of information conservation have been used to decipher novel network features such as unknown intermediates, processes and cross-talk mechanisms. For single cell response, however, such simplicity seems far from reality. Thus, as observed in any other complex systems, biology can be considered to possess order and disorder, inheriting a mixture of predictable population level and unpredictable single cell outcomes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aguirre, Jordan C. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Arntsen, Christopher D. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Hernandez, Samuel [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Huber, Rachel [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Nardes, Alexandre M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Halim, Merissa [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Kilbride, Daniel [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Rubin, Yves [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Tolbert, Sarah H. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Kopidakis, Nikos [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schwartz, Benjamin J. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Neuhauser, Daniel [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
2013-09-23
The efficiency of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic photovoltaics is sensitive to the morphology of the fullerene network that transports electrons through the device. This sensitivity makes it difficult to distinguish the contrasting roles of local electron mobility (how easily electrons can transfer between neighboring fullerene molecules) and macroscopic electron mobility (how well-connected is the fullerene network on device length scales) in solar cell performance. In this work, a combination of density functional theory (DFT) calculations, flash-photolysis time-resolved microwave conductivity (TRMC) experiments, and space-charge-limit current (SCLC) mobility estimates are used to examine the roles of local and macroscopic electron mobility in conjugated polymer/fullerene BHJ photovoltaics. The local mobility of different pentaaryl fullerene derivatives (so-called ‘shuttlecock’ molecules) is similar, so that differences in solar cell efficiency and SCLC mobilities result directly from the different propensities of these molecules to self-assemble on macroscopic length scales. These experiments and calculations also demonstrate that the local mobility of phenyl-C60 butyl methyl ester (PCBM) is an order of magnitude higher than that of other fullerene derivatives, explaining why PCBM has been the acceptor of choice for conjugated polymer BHJ devices even though it does not form an optimal macroscopic network. The DFT calculations indicate that PCBM's superior local mobility comes from the near-spherical nature of its molecular orbitals, which allow strong electronic coupling between adjacent molecules. In combination, DFT and TRMC techniques provide a tool for screening new fullerene derivatives for good local mobility when designing new molecules that can improve on the macroscopic electron mobility offered by PCBM.
Epelde-Elezcano, Nerea; Duque-Redondo, Eduardo; Martínez-Martínez, Virginia; Manzano, Hegoi; López-Arbeloa, Iñigo
2014-08-26
A novel hybrid material with promising optical properties for nonlinear optical applications is presented, as formed by LDS 722 organic dye confined in Laponite clay. Thin films of the hybrid material with different dye loadings have been prepared. The film thickness, the dye and water content, and the clay swelling due to guest molecule incorporation have been characterized. Then, the photophysical properties of the thin films have been studied in detail using experimental methods and molecular simulation. As the dye load increases, the hybrid films present a hypsochromic shift in absorption and a bathochromic shift in emission. The former is attributed to the increasing strength of solvation of the dye donor group, while the latter is ascribed to a switch from an intramolecular to an intermolecular charge-transfer process as the dye load increases. The LDS 722 molecules are preferentially oriented in the host clay almost in parallel to the platelet surfaces, inducing macroscopic order that makes the material responsive to polarized light.
Three-dimensional Fe3O4-graphene macroscopic composites for arsenic and arsenate removal.
Guo, Liangqia; Ye, Peirong; Wang, Jing; Fu, Fengfu; Wu, Zujian
2015-11-15
3D graphene macroscopic gel synthesized via self-assembly of GO nanosheets under basic conditions at low temperature is modified with polydopamine and Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The modification of polydopamine can not only strengthen the 3D graphene-based macroscopic architecture but also enhance the loadage and binding ability of Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The synthesized 3D Fe3O4-graphene macroscopic composites are characterized by SEM, XRD, XPS, BET, Raman and magnetic property and used as a versatile adsorbent for sub-ppm concentration of As(III) and As(V) removal from aqueous solutions. The experimental results suggest that the synthesized 3D Fe3O4-graphene macroscopic composites are promising for treating low concentration of arsenic contaminated water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Menzel, Andreas M
2016-01-01
One possibility to adjust material properties to a specific need is to embed units of one substance into a matrix of another substance. Even materials that are readily tunable during operation can be generated in this way. In (visco)elastic substances, both the matrix material as well as the inclusions and/or their immediate environment can be dynamically deformed. If the typical dynamic response time of the inclusions and their surroundings approach the macroscopic response time, their deformation processes need to be included into a dynamic macroscopic characterization. Along these lines, we present a hydrodynamic description of (visco)elastic composite materials. For this purpose, additional strain variables reflect the state of the inclusions and their immediate environment. These additional strain variables in general are not set by a coarse-grained macroscopic displacement field. Apart from that, during our derivation, we also include the macroscopic variables of relative translations and relative rotat...
Huang, Pu; Zhou, Jingwei; Zhang, Liang; Hou, Dong; Lin, Shaochun; Deng, Wen; Meng, Chao; Duan, Changkui; Ju, Chenyong; Zheng, Xiao; Xue, Fei; Du, Jiangfeng
2016-05-01
Nonlinearity in macroscopic mechanical systems may lead to abundant phenomena for fundamental studies and potential applications. However, it is difficult to generate nonlinearity due to the fact that macroscopic mechanical systems follow Hooke's law and respond linearly to external force, unless strong drive is used. Here we propose and experimentally realize high cubic nonlinear response in a macroscopic mechanical system by exploring the anharmonicity in chemical bonding interactions. We demonstrate the high tunability of nonlinear response by precisely controlling the chemical bonding interaction, and realize, at the single-bond limit, a cubic elastic constant of 1 × 1020 N m-3. This enables us to observe the resonator's vibrational bi-states transitions driven by the weak Brownian thermal noise at 6 K. This method can be flexibly applied to a variety of mechanical systems to improve nonlinear responses, and can be used, with further improvements, to explore macroscopic quantum mechanics.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
胡明; 刘青林; 贾丁立; 李明达
2013-01-01
n-type porous silicons are prepared by the electrochemical corrosion method, on which tungsten oxide thin films with different thickness values are sputtered using DC reactive magnetron sputtering. The structures of ordered porous silicons and tungsten oxide thin films are characterized using field emission scanning electron microscope, which show that the pores are pillared and ordered and the thin films cover the porous layer loosely with many pores open to ambient air. The X-ray diffraction characterization indicates that the lattice structure of tungsten oxide thin film is mainly triclinic polycrystalline. The gas-sensing properties at room temperature for both ordered porous silicon and composite structure are studied, which indicate that the latter is much more sensitive to nitrogen dioxide than the former. And there is a critical spurting time of WO3 thin film, which in our case is 10 min. The sensing mechanism of composite structure is discussed and the probable explanation for the improvement of sensitivity to NO2 is the formation of hetero-junctions between the ordered porous silicon layer and the WO3 thin film. In addition, there exists an inversion layer on the surface of the WO3 thin film, which causes the anomalous resistance to change during the gas sensing measurements.% 利用电化学腐蚀方法制备了n型有序多孔硅，并以此为基底用直流磁控溅射法在其表面溅射不同厚度的氧化钨薄膜。利用X射线和扫描电子显微镜表征了材料的成分和结构，结果表明，多孔硅的孔呈柱形有序分布，溅射10 min的WO3薄膜是多晶结构，比较松散地覆盖在整个多孔硅的表面。分别测试了多孔硅和多孔硅基氧化钨在室温条件下对二氧化氮的气敏性能，结果表明，相对于多孔硅，多孔硅基氧化钨薄膜对二氧化氮的气敏性能显著提高。对多孔硅基氧化钨复合结构的气敏机理分析认为，多孔硅和氧化钨薄膜复合形成
Polyelectrolyte surfactant aggregates and their deposition on macroscopic surfaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Voisin, David
2002-07-01
the CSC have been determined for mixtures of cationically modified guar gums (of varying charge density) with two anionic surfactants: sodium lauryl (or dodecyl) ether sulfate [SLES] and sodium dodecyl sulfate [SDS], for various concentrations of the polyelectrolyte and added sodium chloride, at room temperature. The addition of sodium chloride has only a minor net effect on the CFC, but increases the CSC significantly. The interactions between the cationic polyelectrolyte and the surfactant have been studied in the one-phase regions, i.e. below the CFC and above the CSC, using different techniques. Surface tension, electrophoresis, light scattering and viscosimetry have been employed. In the two-phase region, the sedimented floe phase has been analysed and the flocculation has been investigated. Rheology of the floe phase has been studied, after a mild compression by centrifugation. The initial rate of flocculation has been determined, using stop-flow equipment. The growth and the structure of the flocs have been investigated by light scattering. The open-network flocs of polyelectrolyte-surfactant particles grow to {approx}10's {mu}m in size, prior to their eventual settling out. Other colloidal particles can be trapped within these large flocs, and the flocs can be used to transport these particles to a macroscopic surface. The deposition and the removal of such composite flocs on glass surfaces, under flow, have been studied using a flow cell device coupled with an optical microscope. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy have also been employed. (author)
Cima, Lionel F.; Mir, Lluis M.
2004-11-01
A method is described to experimentally determine the temporal evolution of state variables involved in the electroporation of biological tissue, i.e., the transmembrane voltage and the macroscopic current flowing in the electropores. Indeed, the electrical parameters of the extracellular, intracellular, and unaltered membrane contributions as well as the electropores electrical characteristics can be deduced from the measurement of the tissue bioimpedance and from the variations of both the macroscopic voltage applied to the tissue and the delivered current.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yuichi; Sanada; Yujo; Kawashita; Satomi; Okada; Takashi; Azuma; Shigetoshi; Matsuo
2014-01-01
Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is macroscopically classified into three subtypes, mass-forming-type, periductal infiltrating-type, and intraductal growth-type. Each subtype should be preoperatively differentiated to perform the valid surgical resection. Recent researches have revealed the clinical, radiologic, pathobiological characteristics of each subtype. We reviewed recently published studies covering various aspects of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma(ICC), focusing especially on the macroscopic subtypes and stem cell features to better understand the pathophysiology of ICC and to establish the valid therapeutic strategy.
Critical Current in YBCO Coated Conductors in the Presence of a Macroscopic Defect (POSTPRINT)
2010-03-01
AFRL-RZ-WP-TP-2010-2084 CRITICAL CURRENT IN YBCO COATED CONDUCTORS IN THE PRESENCE OF A MACROSCOPIC DEFECT (POSTPRINT) Milan Polak and...CRITICAL CURRENT IN YBCO COATED CONDUCTORS IN THE PRESENCE OF A MACROSCOPIC DEFECT (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...display, or disclose the work. 14. ABSTRACT We have studied the effects of localized defects in the YBCO coated conductors on the critical current. The
Discontinious Galerkin formulations for thin bending problems
Nguyen, T.D.
2008-01-01
A structural thin bending problem is essentially associated with a fourth-order partial differential equation. Within the finite element framework, the numerical solution of thin bending problems demands the use of C^1 continuous shape functions. Elements using these functions are challenging and di
Velazquez, Daniel; Seibert, Rachel; Man, Hamdi; Spentzouris, Linda; Terry, Jeff
2015-03-01
Pulsed Laser Deposition is a state-of-the-art technique that allows for the fine tunability of the deposition rate, highly uniform and epitaxial sample growth, the ability to introduce partial pressures of gases into the experimental chamber for growth of complex materials without interfering with the energy source (laser). An auxiliary in situ technique for growth monitoring, Reflection High-Energy Electron Diffraction, is a powerful characterization tool for predictability of the surface physical structure both, qualitatively and quantitatively. RHEED patterns during and post deposition of Ag thin films on MgO, Al2O3, Si and STO substrtates are presented and their interpretations are compared with surface imaging techniques (SEM, STM) to evidence the usefulness of the technique.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陆强; 崔方明; 魏晨阳; 华子乐; 董长青
2012-01-01
Highly dispersed gold nanoparticles incorporated mesoporous zirconia thin films were synthesized through an easy deposition-precipitation method using urea as precipitator.The resultant composite thin films presented an enhanced off-resonant third-order optical nonlinear susceptibility of 10-10 esu measured by Z-scan technique at 1064 nm.The enhanced optical nonlinearity of the composite thin films was attributed to the high dispersion of the gold nanoparticles and the high linear refractive index of the zirconia matrix.%以尿素为沉淀剂,通过沉积-沉淀的方法,制备了高分散的金纳米颗粒负载的介孔氧化锆薄膜；以1064 nm激光为入射光束,通过Z扫描实验测试了复合薄膜的非线性光学折射和吸收,并计算了复合薄膜的非共振三阶非线性光学极化率(～10-10 esu),金纳米颗粒的高分散性和氧化锆薄膜衬底的高线性折射率使复合薄膜显示了增强的三阶非线性极化率.
Elastic rods with incompatible strain: Macroscopic versus microscopic buckling
Lestringant, Claire; Audoly, Basile
2017-06-01
We consider the buckling of a long prismatic elastic solid under the combined effect of a pre-stress that is inhomogeneous in the cross-section, and of a prescribed displacement of its endpoints. A linear bifurcation analysis is carried out using different structural models (namely a double beam, a rectangular thin plate, and a hyper-elastic prismatic solid in 3-d): it yields the buckling mode and the wavenumber qc that are first encountered when the end-to-end displacement is progressively decreased with fixed pre-stress. For all three structural models, we find a transition from a long-wavelength (qc = 0) to a short-wavelength first buckling mode (qc ≠ 0) when the inhomogeneous pre-stress is increased past a critical value. A method for calculating the critical inhomogeneous pre-stress is proposed based on a small-wavenumber expansion of the buckling mode. Overall, our findings explain the formation of multiple perversions in elastomer strips, as well as the large variations in the number of perversions as a function of pre-stress and cross-sectional geometry, as reported by Liu et al. (2014).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Higashi, Takuya; Fiderana Ramananarivo, Mihary; Ohmori, Masashi; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Fujii, Akihiko, E-mail: afujii@opal.eei.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp; Ozaki, Masanori
2015-11-02
Spin-coated films of a mesogenic phthalocyanine derivative, 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octahexylphthalocyanine (C6PcH{sub 2}), with macroscopic alignment of molecular stacking structure were obtained by processing in liquid-crystal phase of C6PcH{sub 2}. The column axis direction of the hexagonal columnar structure of C6PcH{sub 2} was determined by microscopic observation and polarized optical absorption measurement and was uniform in the millimeter-scale area. Highly ordered molecular stacking structure in the film, which is similar to the single crystal, was clarified by measurement of molecular tilting angle with respect to the column axis. The origin of the macroscopic molecular alignment during film formation was investigated by taking the process-temperature-dependent properties of the films into consideration. - Highlights: • We fabricated mesogenic phthalocyanine films by heated spin-coating method. • The maximum domain size was obtained by fabricating at mesogenic-phase temperature. • The optic axis direction in the film was uniform in the millimeter-scale area. • The crystalline structure in the film was similar to that of the single crystal. • The effects of mesogenic phase during the formation on the molecular alignment were presumed.
Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Macroscopic Features in Biological Materials
Krumnikl, Michal; Sojka, Eduard; Gaura, Jan; Motyka, Oldřich
This paper covers the topic of three dimensional reconstruction of small textureless formations usually found in biological samples. Generally used reconstructing algorithms do not provide sufficient accuracy for surface analysis. In order to achieve better results, combined strategy was developed, linking stereo matching algorithms with monocular depth cues such as depth from focus and depth from illumination.
Systematic tuning of the conduction mechanisms in ferroelectric thin films
Levasseur, D.; Bouyssou, E.; De Paolis, R.; Rousseau, A.; Coccetti, F.; Guegan, G.; Payan, S.; Maglione, M.
2013-12-01
We have investigated the macroscopic and microscopic properties of large sets of Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 thin films including several substitution rates of manganese. Thanks to a high degree of control of the processing parameters at each stage we have been able to find a link between the dc leakage current and the low and high frequency dielectric permittivity and losses. We supplemented these macroscopic observations with in depth investigations of the defect states through x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We found that both the leakage current and the extrinsic dielectric parameters arise from a large density of charged point defects related to oxygen vacancies. At the outer surfaces of the films, the density of such charged defects is so high that it can raise the Fermi level to close to the conduction band. Such degradation of the films’ performance can be relieved by appropriate manganese substitution for the titanium host ions. Such doping is able to move back the Fermi level to close to the center of the bandgap thus changing the conduction process from interfacial Schottky to bulk Poole Frenkel and decreasing the extrinsic losses. This beneficial effect was already inferred in ceramics and thin films but we have established a clear link between the macroscopic parameters and the microscopic defect state. This model can be transferred to many high permittivity oxides.
Organic thin films and surfaces directions for the nineties
Ulman, Abraham
1995-01-01
Physics of Thin Films has been one of the longest running continuing series in thin film science consisting of 20 volumes since 1963. The series contains some of the highest quality studies of the properties ofvarious thin films materials and systems.In order to be able to reflect the development of todays science and to cover all modern aspects of thin films, the series, beginning with Volume 20, will move beyond the basic physics of thin films. It will address the most important aspects of both inorganic and organic thin films, in both their theoretical as well as technological aspects. Ther
Zuurbier, F.S.; Hegyi, A.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.
2010-01-01
Marginal costs in traffic networks are the extra costs incurred to the system as the result of extra traffic. Marginal costs are required frequently e.g. when considering system optimal traffic assignment or tolling problems. When explicitly considering spillback in a traffic flow model, one can use
Irreversibility in macroscopic physics: From Carnot cycle to dissipative structures
Glansdorff, P.
1987-07-01
The conceptual foundations of the modern thermodynamic theory related to a large category of far-from-equilibrium phenomena are outlined, and the historical continuity with early developments based on the impossibility of perpetual motion is discussed. In this perspective the discovery of thermodynamic stability criteria around steady or periodic processes, together with a general evolution criterion that is valid in the non-linear region (and thus implying creation of order and applicability to living systems), appears as a most remarkable development indeed. The leading role played by the Brussels school and particularly by Ilya Prigogine is emphasized.
Zhu, Zhongcheng; Li, Yang; Xu, Hui; Peng, Xin; Chen, Ya-Nan; Shang, Cong; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Jiaqi; Wang, Huiliang
2016-06-22
Bulk graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposite materials with macroscopically oriented GO liquid crystalline (LC) structures exhibit interesting anisotropic properties, but their facile preparations remain challenging. This work reports for the first time the facile preparation of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM)/GO nanocomposite hydrogels with macroscopically oriented LC structures with the assistance of a flow field induced by vacuum degassing and the in situ polymerization accelerated by GO. The hydrogel prepared with a GO concentration of 5.0 mg mL(-1) exhibits macroscopically aligned LC structures, which endow the gels with anisotropic optical, mechanical properties, and dimensional changes during the phase transition. The hydrogels show dramatically enhanced tensile mechanical properties and phase transition rates. The oriented LC structures are not damaged during the phase transition of the PNIPAM/GO hydrogels, and hence their LC behavior undergoes reversible change. Moreover, highly oriented LC structures can also be formed when the gels are elongated, even for the gels which do not have macroscopically oriented LC structures. Very impressively, the oriented LC structures in the hydrogels can be permanently maintained by drying the gel samples elongated to and then kept at a constant tensile strain. The thermosensitive nature of PNIPAM and the angle-dependent nature of the macroscopically aligned GO LC structures allow the practical applications of the PNIPAM/GO hydrogels as optical switches, soft sensors, and actuators and so on.
Wong, L. N. Y.; Einstein, H. H.
2009-06-01
Cracking and coalescence behavior has been studied experimentally with prismatic laboratory-molded gypsum and Carrara marble specimens containing two parallel pre-existing open flaws. This was done at both the macroscopic and the microscopic scales, and the results are presented in two separate papers. This paper (the first of two) summarizes the macroscopic experimental results and investigates the influence of the different flaw geometries and material, on the cracking processes. In the companion paper (also in this issue), most of the macroscopic deformation and cracking processes shown in this present paper will be related to the underlying microscopic changes. In the present study, a high speed video system was used, which allowed us to precisely observe the cracking mechanisms. Nine crack coalescence categories with different crack types and trajectories were identified. The flaw inclination angle ( β), the ligament length ( L), that is, intact rock length between the flaws, and the bridging angle ( α), that is, the inclination of a line linking up the inner flaw tips, between two flaws, had different effects on the coalescence patterns. One of the pronounced differences observed between marble and gypsum during the compression loading test was the development of macroscopic white patches prior to the initiation of macroscopic cracks in marble, but not in gypsum. Comparing the cracking and coalescence behaviors in the two tested materials, tensile cracking generally occurred more often in marble than in gypsum for the same flaw pair geometries.
Thermal Equilibrium of a Macroscopic Quantum System in a Pure State
Goldstein, Sheldon; Huse, David A.; Lebowitz, Joel L.; Tumulka, Roderich
2015-09-01
We consider the notion of thermal equilibrium for an individual closed macroscopic quantum system in a pure state, i.e., described by a wave function. The macroscopic properties in thermal equilibrium of such a system, determined by its wave function, must be the same as those obtained from thermodynamics, e.g., spatial uniformity of temperature and chemical potential. When this is true we say that the system is in macroscopic thermal equilibrium (MATE). Such a system may, however, not be in microscopic thermal equilibrium (MITE). The latter requires that the reduced density matrices of small subsystems be close to those obtained from the microcanonical, equivalently the canonical, ensemble for the whole system. The distinction between MITE and MATE is particularly relevant for systems with many-body localization for which the energy eigenfuctions fail to be in MITE while necessarily most of them, but not all, are in MATE. We note, however, that for generic macroscopic systems, including those with MBL, most wave functions in an energy shell are in both MATE and MITE. For a classical macroscopic system, MATE holds for most phase points on the energy surface, but MITE fails to hold for any phase point.
Aspects of passive magnetic levitation based on high-T(sub c) superconducting YBCO thin films
Schoenhuber, P.; Moon, F. C.
1995-01-01
Passive magnetic levitation systems reported in the past were mostly confined to bulk superconducting materials. Here we present fundamental studies on magnetic levitation employing cylindrical permanent magnets floating above high-T(sub c) superconducting YBCO thin films (thickness about 0.3 mu m). Experiments included free floating rotating magnets as well as well-established flexible beam methods. By means of the latter, we investigated levitation and drag force hysteresis as well as magnetic stiffness properties of the superconductor-magnet arrangement. In the case of vertical motion of the magnet, characteristic high symmetry of repulsive (approaching) and attractive (withdrawing) branches of the pronounced force-displacement hysteresis could be detected. Achievable force levels were low as expected but sufficient for levitation of permanent magnets. With regard to magnetic stiffness, thin films proved to show stiffness-force ratios about one order of magnitude higher than bulk materials. Phenomenological models support the measurements. Regarding the magnetic hysteresis of the superconductor, the Irie-Yamafuji model was used for solving the equation of force balance in cylindrical coordinates allowing for a macroscopic description of the superconductor magnetization. This procedure provided good agreement with experimental levitation force and stiffness data during vertical motion. For the case of (lateral) drag force basic qualitative characteristics could be recovered, too. It is shown that models, based on simple asymmetric magnetization of the superconductor, describe well asymptotic transition of drag forces after the change of the magnet motion direction. Virgin curves (starting from equilibrium, i.e. symmetric magnetization) are approximated by a linear approach already reported in literature only. This paper shows that basic properties of superconducting thin films allow for their application to magnetic levitation or - without need of levitation
Aspects of passive magnetic levitation based on high-T(sub c) superconducting YBCO thin films
Schoenhuber, P.; Moon, F. C.
1995-04-01
Passive magnetic levitation systems reported in the past were mostly confined to bulk superconducting materials. Here we present fundamental studies on magnetic levitation employing cylindrical permanent magnets floating above high-T(sub c) superconducting YBCO thin films (thickness about 0.3 mu m). Experiments included free floating rotating magnets as well as well-established flexible beam methods. By means of the latter, we investigated levitation and drag force hysteresis as well as magnetic stiffness properties of the superconductor-magnet arrangement. In the case of vertical motion of the magnet, characteristic high symmetry of repulsive (approaching) and attractive (withdrawing) branches of the pronounced force-displacement hysteresis could be detected. Achievable force levels were low as expected but sufficient for levitation of permanent magnets. With regard to magnetic stiffness, thin films proved to show stiffness-force ratios about one order of magnitude higher than bulk materials. Phenomenological models support the measurements. Regarding the magnetic hysteresis of the superconductor, the Irie-Yamafuji model was used for solving the equation of force balance in cylindrical coordinates allowing for a macroscopic description of the superconductor magnetization. This procedure provided good agreement with experimental levitation force and stiffness data during vertical motion. For the case of (lateral) drag force basic qualitative characteristics could be recovered, too. It is shown that models, based on simple asymmetric magnetization of the superconductor, describe well asymptotic transition of drag forces after the change of the magnet motion direction. Virgin curves (starting from equilibrium, i.e. symmetric magnetization) are approximated by a linear approach already reported in literature only. This paper shows that basic properties of superconducting thin films allow for their application to magnetic levitation or - without need of levitation
Bodaghi, M.; Damanpack, A. R.; Liao, W. H.
2016-07-01
The aim of this article is to develop a robust macroscopic bi-axial model to capture self-accommodation, martensitic transformation/orientation/reorientation, normal-shear deformation coupling and asymmetric/anisotropic strain generation in polycrystalline shape memory alloys. By considering the volume fraction of martensite and its preferred direction as scalar and directional internal variables, constitutive relations are derived to describe basic mechanisms of accommodation, transformation and orientation/reorientation of martensite variants. A new definition is introduced for maximum recoverable strain, which allows the model to capture the effects of tension-compression asymmetry and transformation anisotropy. Furthermore, the coupling effects between normal and shear deformation modes are considered by merging inelastic strain components together. By introducing a calibration approach, material and kinetic parameters of the model are recast in terms of common quantities that characterize a uniaxial phase kinetic diagram. The solution algorithm of the model is presented based on an elastic-predictor inelastic-corrector return mapping process. In order to explore and demonstrate capabilities of the proposed model, theoretical predictions are first compared with existing experimental results on uniaxial tension, compression, torsion and combined tension-torsion tests. Afterwards, experimental results of uniaxial tension, compression, pure bending and buckling tests on {{NiTi}} rods and tubes are replicated by implementing a finite element method along with the Newton-Raphson and Riks techniques to trace non-linear equilibrium path. A good qualitative and quantitative correlation is observed between numerical and experimental results, which verifies the accuracy of the model and the solution procedure.
Avolio, M. V.; Crisci, G. M.; D'Ambrosio, D.; di Gregorio, S.; Iovine, G.; Rongo, R.; Spataro, W.
Cellular Automata (CA) are able to capture the peculiar characteristics of systems, whose global evolution can be exclusively described on the basis of local interactions among their constituent parts ("a-centrism"). Such systems match the paradigm of parallelism with the a-centrism one. In modelling complex phenomena by means of classical CA, elementary automata characterised by few states and simple transition function have usually been involved. On the other hand, many complex macroscopic phenomena (even though characterised by properties of parallelism and a-centrism) can be very difficult to be modelled through classical CA, because of their hetero- geneous characteristics, which require a very large number of states. For such cases, which perfectly fit the general definition of CA, more complex transition rules (differ- ing from typical transition functions) would be, in fact, needed. Aiming at modelling these latter phenomena, an empirical method has been developed, based on the decom- position of the phenomenon into "elementary" components, whose behaviour can be described through local rules. Furthermore, criteria and conditions have been defined, in order to translate the local rules into a transition function, as needed for perform- ing cellular automata simulations. Applications of CA models to real cases of study have recently been attempted: landslides (earth flows, rock avalanches, debris flows), lava flows, soil erosion, soil contamination and bioremediation, forest fires have all been analysed through CA simulations, and encouraging results have been obtained. In the present paper, examples of application of the method for hazard evaluation are described, with particular reference to the Sarno 1998 debris flows and the Etna 2001 lava flows.
Macroscopic biofilms in fracture-dominated sediment that anaerobically oxidize methane
Briggs, B.R.; Pohlman, J.W.; Torres, M.; Riedel, M.; Brodie, E.L.; Colwell, F.S.
2011-01-01
Methane release from seafloor sediments is moderated, in part, by the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) performed by consortia of archaea and bacteria. These consortia occur as isolated cells and aggregates within the sulfate-methane transition (SMT) of diffusion and seep-dominant environments. Here we report on a new SMT setting where the AOM consortium occurs as macroscopic pink to orange biofilms within subseafloor fractures. Biofilm samples recovered from the Indian and northeast Pacific Oceans had a cellular abundance of 10 7 to 10 8 cells cm -3. This cell density is 2 to 3 orders of magnitude greater than that in the surrounding sediments. Sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes indicated that the bacterial component is dominated by Deltaproteobacteria, candidate division WS3, and Chloroflexi, representing 46%, 15%, and 10% of clones, respectively. In addition, major archaeal taxa found in the biofilm were related to the ANME-1 clade, Thermoplasmatales, and Desulfurococcales, representing 73%, 11%, and 10% of archaeal clones, respectively. The sequences of all major taxa were similar to sequences previously reported from cold seep environments. PhyloChip microarray analysis detected all bacterial phyla identified by the clone library plus an additional 44 phyla. However, sequencing detected more archaea than the PhyloChip within the phyla of Methanosarcinales and Desulfurococcales. The stable carbon isotope composition of the biofilm from the SMT (-35 to-43%) suggests that the production of the biofilm is associated with AOM. These biofilms are a novel, but apparently widespread, aggregation of cells represented by the ANME-1 clade that occur in methane-rich marine sediments. ?? 2011, American Society for Microbiology.