Investigating the mechanics of earthquakes using macroscopic seismic parameters
Venkataraman, Anupama
2002-09-01
To understand the physics of earthquake rupture mechanics, we have to relate seismologically observable parameters to the dynamics of faulting. One of the key seismological parameters that will help us achieve this objective is the energy radiated by seismic waves. In this work, we develop a new method of estimating radiated energy from regional data using an empirical Green's function method; we also modify existing methods of estimating radiated energy from teleseismic data by improving the corrections applied to the observed seismic data for attenuation and directivity effects. We compute teleseismic estimates of radiated energy for 23 large subduction zone earthquakes recorded between 1992 and 2001; most of these earthquakes have a magnitude Mw > 7.5, but we also include some smaller (Mw ˜ 6.7) well-studied subduction zone earthquakes and 6 crustal earthquakes. We compile the static stress drop estimates for these 29 earthquakes from published literature. We then determine radiation efficiency of these earthquakes using a stress relaxation model that relates measurable and macroscopic seismological parameters to the physical processes on the fault zone via fracture energy. We also determine the rupture velocity of these earthquakes from published literature. A comparison of radiation efficiencies and rupture velocities of these earthquakes with the expected theoretical values for different modes crack propagation validates the use of the stress relaxation model to understand earthquake rupture mechanics. From our calculations, we observe that most earthquakes have radiation efficiencies between 0.25 and 1 and are hence efficient in generating seismic waves, but tsunami earthquakes and two deep earthquakes, the 1994 deep earthquake that occurred in Bolivia and the 1999 Russia-China border earthquake, have very small radiation efficiencies (<0.25) and hence dissipate a large amount of energy on the fault plane. We suggest that the difference in the radiation
Petroleum geochemical proxies for reservoir engineering parameters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bennett, B. [Petroleum Reservoir Group (PRG), Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Lager, A. [NRG: School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Drummond Building, The University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Potter, D.K.; Buckman, J.O. [Institute of Petroleum Engineering, Heriot-Watt University, Riccarton, Edinburgh, EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Larter, S.R. [Petroleum Reservoir Group (PRG), Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); NRG: School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Drummond Building, The University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)
2007-09-15
The prediction of fluid flow behaviour in petroleum reservoirs is influenced by the physical and chemical processes active in interacting crude oil/brine/rock systems. It is usually not possible to assess these complex systems directly so proxies for molecular scale behaviour are needed. By their very nature, polar non-hydrocarbons are sensitive to fluid-rock interactions, and if properly exploited they may be utilised as proxies for describing reservoir engineering properties (e.g. wettability) that are also sensitive to fluid-rock interactions. We have identified a group of aromatic oxygen (alkylphenols and alkylfluorenones) and aromatic nitrogen (alkylcarbazoles) compounds present in petroleum that appear to respond to variations in fluid-rock properties. Here we describe the chemical and physical changes in a series of core samples obtained from North Sea reservoirs. A number of petrophysical parameters displayed strong correlations with polar non-hydrocarbon occurrence. For example, deflections in gamma ray logs in response to clay content in a coarsening upwards sandstone unit also showed similar deflections from a number of geochemical logs. A core-flood experiment was designed to monitor the chemical and physical changes during oil migration in a siltstone core. Following completion of the core-flood experiment, Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM) analysis of core samples indicated hydrophilic and hydrophobic surface tendencies grading throughout the core. The distributions of polar non-hydrocarbons (e.g. C{sub 0}-C{sub 3}-phenols) appear to correspond closely to the observed wettability alteration. The results confirm the potential for developing proxies for fluid-rock interactions through monitoring the surface active compounds present in the polar non-hydrocarbon fraction of petroleum. (author)
Asjad, Muhammad; Vitali, David
2014-02-01
A deterministic scheme for generating a macroscopic superposition state of a nanomechanical resonator is proposed. The nonclassical state is generated through a suitably engineered dissipative dynamics exploiting the optomechanical quadratic interaction with a bichromatically driven optical cavity mode. The resulting driven dissipative dynamics can be employed for monitoring and testing the decoherence processes affecting the nanomechanical resonator under controlled conditions.
Reconsidering seismological constraints on the available parameter space of macroscopic dark matter
Cyncynates, David; Sidhu, Jagjit; Starkman, Glenn D
2016-01-01
Using lunar seismological data, constraints have been proposed on the available parameter space of macroscopic dark matter (macros). We show that actual limits are considerably weaker by considering in greater detail the mechanism through which macro impacts generate detectable seismic waves, which have wavelengths considerably longer than the diameter of the macro. We show that the portion of the macro parameter space that can be ruled out by current seismological evidence is considerably smaller than previously reported, and specifically that candidates with greater than or equal to nuclear density are not excluded by lunar seismology.
Application of homotopy parameter inversion method in Miyun Reservoir
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Xin; LI Yong; CHEN Duowei
2009-01-01
The large-scale convergence of homotopy parametric inversion method on the water quality model parameters calculated was used, with application in parametric inversion calculation of total phosphorus of Beijing Miyun Reservoir. Through calculated and compared the error of sedimentation rate by homotopy parametric inversion method and genetic inversion calculation method, the results indicate that homotopy parametric inversion method has good stability, calculating speed, and even if the initial selection away from the objective function, the solution still has a good convergence.
Performance Prediction of Two-Phase Geothermal Reservoir using Lumped Parameter Model
Nurlaela, F.; Sutopo
2016-09-01
Many studies have been conducted to simulate performance of low-temperature geothermal reservoirs using lumped parameter method. Limited work had been done on applying non-isothermal lumped parameter models to higher temperature geothermal reservoirs. In this study, the lumped parameter method was applied to high-temperature two phase geothermal reservoirs. The model couples both energy and mass balance equations thus can predict temperature, pressure and fluid saturation changes in the reservoir as a result of production, reinjection of water, and/or natural recharge. This method was validated using reservoir simulation results of TOUGH2. As the results, the two phase lumped parameter model simulation without recharge shows good matching, however reservoir model with recharge condition show quite good conformity.
The time-lapse AVO difference inversion for changes in reservoir parameters
Longxiao, Zhi; Hanming, Gu; Yan, Li
2016-12-01
The result of conventional time-lapse seismic processing is the difference between the amplitude and the post-stack seismic data. Although stack processing can improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of seismic data, it also causes a considerable loss of important information about the amplitude changes and only gives the qualitative interpretation. To predict the changes in reservoir fluid more precisely and accurately, we also need the quantitative information of the reservoir. To achieve this aim, we develop the method of time-lapse AVO (amplitude versus offset) difference inversion. For the inversion of reservoir changes in elastic parameters, we apply the Gardner equation as the constraint and convert the three-parameter inversion of elastic parameter changes into a two-parameter inversion to make the inversion more stable. For the inversion of variations in the reservoir parameters, we infer the relation between the difference of the reflection coefficient and variations in the reservoir parameters, and then invert reservoir parameter changes directly. The results of the theoretical modeling computation and practical application show that our method can estimate the relative variations in reservoir density, P-wave and S-wave velocity, calculate reservoir changes in water saturation and effective pressure accurately, and then provide reference for the rational exploitation of the reservoir.
Adjusting inkjet printhead parameters to deposit drugs into micro-sized reservoirs
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Mau Robert
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Drug delivery systems (DDS ensure that therapeutically effective drug concentrations are delivered locally to the target site. For that reason, it is common to coat implants with a degradable polymer which contains drugs. However, the use of polymers as a drug carrier has been associated with adverse side effects. For that reason, several technologies have been developed to design polymer-free DDS. In literature it has been shown that micro-sized reservoirs can be applied as drug reservoirs. Inkjet techniques are capable of depositing drugs into these reservoirs. In this study, two different geometries of micro-sized reservoirs have been laden with a drug (ASA using a drop-on-demand inkjet printhead. Correlations between the characteristics of the drug solution, the operating parameters of the printhead and the geometric parameters of the reservoir are shown. It is indicated that wettability of the surface play a key role for drug deposition into micro-sized reservoirs.
Effect of substrate elasticity on macroscopic parameters of fish keratocyte migration.
Dziob, Daniel; Kołodziej, Tomasz; Nowak, Justyna; Cyzio, Piotr; Raczkowska, Joanna; Laska, Jadwiga; Rajfur, Zenon
2016-10-11
Cell migration is an important biological phenomenon which depends on a number of internal and external factors. One of such factors can be the mechanical properties of the environment which can have an impact on the cell's regulatory pathways through so-called mechanotransduction. Ultimately, these properties can also influence the process of cell migration. The goal of this work is to investigate how substrate stiffness (elasticity) changes basic migration parameters of migrating cells. Fish keratocytes migrating on polyacrylamide hydrogels have been used as a model of fast migrating cells. Cell migration have been tracked with optical microscopy, employing a time-lapse technique. Migration parameters have been determined from image analysis. This study has shown a systematic decrease of some of the key migration parameters-average cell speed and angular persistence-with a simultaneous increase of substrate elasticity. The results demonstrate that the elasticity of the substrate is the key factor in cell migration. It determines speed and angular persistence, which proves that mechanical parameters of the environment can affect cellular processes. A detailed knowledge of mechanotransduction processes can have major implications for tissue engineering and for the understanding of metastasis.
Effect of substrate elasticity on macroscopic parameters of fish keratocyte migration
Dziob, Daniel; Kołodziej, Tomasz; Nowak, Justyna; Cyzio, Piotr; Raczkowska, Joanna; Laska, Jadwiga; Rajfur, Zenon
2016-10-01
Cell migration is an important biological phenomenon which depends on a number of internal and external factors. One of such factors can be the mechanical properties of the environment which can have an impact on the cell’s regulatory pathways through so-called mechanotransduction. Ultimately, these properties can also influence the process of cell migration. The goal of this work is to investigate how substrate stiffness (elasticity) changes basic migration parameters of migrating cells. Fish keratocytes migrating on polyacrylamide hydrogels have been used as a model of fast migrating cells. Cell migration have been tracked with optical microscopy, employing a time-lapse technique. Migration parameters have been determined from image analysis. This study has shown a systematic decrease of some of the key migration parameters—average cell speed and angular persistence—with a simultaneous increase of substrate elasticity. The results demonstrate that the elasticity of the substrate is the key factor in cell migration. It determines speed and angular persistence, which proves that mechanical parameters of the environment can affect cellular processes. A detailed knowledge of mechanotransduction processes can have major implications for tissue engineering and for the understanding of metastasis.
Gras, Renaud
2015-03-01
Performing a single but complex mechanical test on small structures rather than on coupons to probe multiple strain states/histories for identification purposes is nowadays possible thanks to full-field measurements. The aim is to identify many parameters thanks to the heterogeneity of mechanical fields. Such an approach is followed herein, focusing on a blade root made of 3D woven composite. The performed test, which is analyzed using global Digital Image Correlation (DIC), provides heterogeneous kinematic fields due to the particular shape of the sample. This displacement field is further processed to identify the four in-plane material parameters of the macroscopic equivalent orthotropic behavior. The key point, which may limit the ability to draw reliable conclusions, is the presence of acquisition noise in the original images that has to be tracked along the DIC/identification processing to provide uncertainties on the identified parameters. A further regularization based on a priori knowledge is finally introduced to compensate for possible lack of experimental information needed for completing the identification.
Macroscopicity of quantum superpositions on a one-parameter unitary path in Hilbert space
Volkoff, T. J.; Whaley, K. B.
2014-12-01
We analyze quantum states formed as superpositions of an initial pure product state and its image under local unitary evolution, using two measurement-based measures of superposition size: one based on the optimal quantum binary distinguishability of the branches of the superposition and another based on the ratio of the maximal quantum Fisher information of the superposition to that of its branches, i.e., the relative metrological usefulness of the superposition. A general formula for the effective sizes of these states according to the branch-distinguishability measure is obtained and applied to superposition states of N quantum harmonic oscillators composed of Gaussian branches. Considering optimal distinguishability of pure states on a time-evolution path leads naturally to a notion of distinguishability time that generalizes the well-known orthogonalization times of Mandelstam and Tamm and Margolus and Levitin. We further show that the distinguishability time provides a compact operational expression for the superposition size measure based on the relative quantum Fisher information. By restricting the maximization procedure in the definition of this measure to an appropriate algebra of observables, we show that the superposition size of, e.g., NOON states and hierarchical cat states, can scale linearly with the number of elementary particles comprising the superposition state, implying precision scaling inversely with the total number of photons when these states are employed as probes in quantum parameter estimation of a 1-local Hamiltonian in this algebra.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Iglesias, E.; Arellano, V.; Garfias, A.; Miranda, C.; Hernandez, J.; Gonzalez, J.
1983-12-15
In this paper we develop and demonstrate a method to estimate the reservoir pressure and a productivity index for vertical steam wells, from its production characteristic (also called output) curves. In addition, the method allows to estimate the radius of influence of the well, provided that a value of the reservoir transmisivity is available. The basic structure of the present method is: first, the measured well head mass flowrates and pressures are transformed to downhole conditions by means of a numerical simulator; then, the computed downhole variables are fitted to a simple radial model that predicts the sandface flowrate in terms of the flowing pressure. For demonstration, the method was applied to several steam wells from the Los Azufres Geothermal field. We found excellent agreement of the model with this ample set of field data. As a bonus, the processed data allowed several inferences about the steam producing zone of the reservoir: that the wells considered produce from relatively isolated pockets of steam, which are probably fed by near-by inmobile water; and that these feed zones are in poor hydraulic communication with the field surface waters. our method are that it provides a way to retrieve important reservoir information from usually available production characteristic curves, and that the method works from easily and accurately taken wellhead measurements.
A new methodology for determination of macroscopic transport parameters in drying porous media
Attari Moghaddam, A.; Kharaghani, A.; Tsotsas, E.; Prat, M.
2015-12-01
Two main approaches have been used to model the drying process: The first approach considers the partially saturated porous medium as a continuum and partial differential equations are used to describe the mass, momentum and energy balances of the fluid phases. The continuum-scale models (CM) obtained by this approach involve constitutive laws which require effective material properties, such as the diffusivity, permeability, and thermal conductivity which are often determined by experiments. The second approach considers the material at the pore scale, where the void space is represented by a network of pores (PN). Micro- or nanofluidics models used in each pore give rise to a large system of ordinary differential equations with degrees of freedom at each node of the pore network. In this work, the moisture transport coefficient (D), the pseudo desorption isotherm inside the network and at the evaporative surface are estimated from the post-processing of the three-dimensional pore network drying simulations for fifteen realizations of the pore space geometry from a given probability distribution. A slice sampling method is used in order to extract these parameters from PN simulations. The moisture transport coefficient obtained in this way is shown in Fig. 1a. The minimum of average D values demonstrates the transition between liquid dominated moisture transport region and vapor dominated moisture transport region; a similar behavior has been observed in previous experimental findings. A function is fitted to the average D values and then is fed into the non-linear moisture diffusion equation. The saturation profiles obtained from PN and CM simulations are shown in Fig. 1b. Figure 1: (a) extracted moisture transport coefficient during drying for fifteen realizations of the pore network, (b) average moisture profiles during drying obtained from PN and CM simulations.
Sand Failure Mechanism and Sanding Parameters in Niger Delta Oil Reservoirs
Sunday Isehunwa,; Andrew Farotade
2010-01-01
Sand production is a major issue during oil and gas production from unconsolidated reservoirs. In predicting the onset of sand production, it is important to accurately determine the failure mechanism and the contributing parameters. The aim of this study was to determine sand failure mechanism in the Niger-Delta, identify themajor contributing parameters and evaluate their effects on sanding.Completion and production data from 78 strings completed on 22 reservoirs in a Niger Delta oil Field ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fidlerová D.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The main objective of the present study is to describe the structure of benthic diatom communities in 23 water reservoirs in Slovakia classified as heavily modified water bodies. Environmental variables together with biological data obtained during the routine biomonitoring of water reservoirs in Slovakia were explored and analysed to understand variability of benthic diatom communities and their relationships with environmental variables in order to obtain an integrated knowledge about their relevance as bioindicators for the Water Framework Directive-compliant ecological potential assessment. This study summarizes results from a four-year monitoring programme of water reservoirs surveyed during the period of 2011–2014. The performed survey and statistical analyses revealed the following: (i two main groups of reservoirs could be distinguished based on the purpose of their main use (multipurpose or drinking water-supply use; (ii multipurpose and drinking water-supply reservoirs differed in benthic diatom community structure, diatom water quality indices as well as in the principal environmental gradients structuring the diatom communities; (iii 5 distinct sub-groups of reservoirs could be identified differing in terms of diatom species composition and several environmental parameters; (iv the most significant environmental variables in explaining differences in diatom species composition in multipurpose reservoirs were mean depth and mean annual flow; in drinking water-supply reservoirs conductivity and water transparency.
Measurement requirements and methods for geothermal reservoir system parameters: an appraisal
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lamers, M.D.
1979-08-01
One of the key needs in the advancement of geothermal energy is the availability of adequate measurements to aid the reservoir and production engineer in the development and operation of geothermal reservoirs, wells and the overall process plant. This report documents the geothermal parameters and their measurement requirements and provides an appraisal of measurement methods and instruments capable of meeting the requirements together with recommendations on identified deficiencies.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
乐平; 杜志敏; 陈小凡; 朱苏阳; 贾虎
2015-01-01
It is well-known that barriers have a significant impact on the production performance of horizontal wells developed in a bottom water drive reservoir. In most cases, reservoir barriers are semi-permeable. Based on previous research on impermeable reservoir barrier, a mathematical flow model was derived for a horizontal well of a bottom water drive reservoir with a semi-permeable barrier. Besides, analytical equations were also presented to calculate critical parameters, such as production rate, pressure and potential difference. The effects of barrier, well and reservoir parameters on our model results were further investigated. The results show that the larger the barrier size is or the higher the barrier location is, the higher the critical production rate and potential difference of a horizontal well are. When the barrier permeability equals the formation permeability or the barrier width equals zero, the critical production rates converge to the values same to that of the case with no barrier. When the barrier permeability equals zero, the problem is regarded as a case of impermeable barrier. This model can be applied to predicting horizontal wells’ critical production parameters in reservoirs with semi-permeable barriers.
VANDENBERG, IP
1991-01-01
We present a mathematical model for the ''river-phenomenon'': striking concentrations of trajectories of ordinary differential equations. This model of ''macroscopic rivers'' is formulated within nonstandard analysis, and stated in terms of macroscopes and singular perturbations. For a subclass, the
Parameter estimation in the presence of the most general Gaussian dissipative reservoir
Jarzyna, Marcin; Zwierz, Marcin
2017-01-01
We analyze the performance of quantum parameter estimation in the presence of the most general Gaussian dissipative reservoir. We derive lower bounds on the precision of phase estimation and a closely related problem of frequency estimation. For both problems we show that it is impossible to achieve the Heisenberg limit asymptotically in the presence of such a reservoir. However, we also find that for any fixed number of probes used in the setup there exists a Gaussian dissipative reservoir, which, in principle, allows for the Heisenberg-limited performance for that number of probes. We discuss a realistic implementation of a frequency estimation scheme in the presence of a Gaussian dissipative reservoir in a cavity system.
Sadovnikov, R. V.
2016-09-01
The author proposes a numerical algorithm to indentify filtration and capacitory parameters of a fractured-porous reservoir by the results of hydrodynamic investigations of the well on the basis of the Levenberg-Marquardt method, which belongs to the methods of minimization of second order. The algorithm makes it possible to determine the total set of such parameters of a fractured-porous reservoir as the permeability coefficients of fractures and blocks, the parameters of fluid crossflow between blocks and fractures, the characteristic delay times, the linear dimension of matrix blocks of rock, the piezoconductivity coefficients of blocks and fractures of the reservoir, the reservoir pressure, and the efficiency of the well.
Sand Failure Mechanism and Sanding Parameters in Niger Delta Oil Reservoirs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sunday Isehunwa,
2010-05-01
Full Text Available Sand production is a major issue during oil and gas production from unconsolidated reservoirs. In predicting the onset of sand production, it is important to accurately determine the failure mechanism and the contributing parameters. The aim of this study was to determine sand failure mechanism in the Niger-Delta, identify themajor contributing parameters and evaluate their effects on sanding.Completion and production data from 78 strings completed on 22 reservoirs in a Niger Delta oil Field were evaluated. Sand failure mechanisms and contributing parameters were identified and compared with published profiles. The results showed that cohesive stress is the predominant sand failure mechanism. Water cut, bean size and gas oil ratio (GOR impact sand production in the Niger Delta.
Direct Reservoir Parameter Estimation Using Joint Inversion ofMarine Seismic AVA&CSEM Data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoversten, G. Michael; Cassassuce, Florence; Gasperikova, Erika; Newman,Gregory A.; Rubin, Yoram; Zhangshuan, Hou; Vasco, Don
2005-01-12
A new joint inversion algorithm to directly estimate reservoir parameters is described. This algorithm combines seismic amplitude versus angle (AVA) and marine controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) data. The rock-properties model needed to link the geophysical parameters to the reservoir parameters is described. Errors in the rock-properties model parameters, measured in percent, introduce errors of comparable size in the joint inversion reservoir parameter estimates. Tests of the concept on synthetic one-dimensional models demonstrate improved fluid saturation and porosity estimates for joint AVA-CSEM data inversion (compared to AVA or CSEM inversion alone). Comparing inversions of AVA, CSEM, and joint AVA-CSEM data over the North Sea Troll field, at a location with well control, shows that the joint inversion produces estimated gas saturation, oil saturation and porosity that is closest (as measured by the RMS difference, L1 norm of the difference, and net over the interval) to the logged values whereas CSEM inversion provides the closest estimates of water saturation.
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M. Mokhtar
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Scarab field is an analog for the deep marine slope channels in Nile Delta of Egypt. It is one of the Pliocene reservoirs in West delta deep marine concession. Channel-1 and channel-2 are considered as main channels of Scarab field. FMI log is used for facies classification and description of the channel subsequences. Core data analysis is integrated with FMI to confirm the lithologic response and used as well for describing the reservoir with high resolution. A detailed description of four wells penetrated through both channels lead to define channel sequences. Some of these sequences are widely extended within the field under study exhibiting a good correlation between the wells. Other sequences were of local distribution. Lithologic sequences are characterized mainly by fining upward in Vshale logs. The repetition of these sequences reflects the stacking pattern and high heterogeneity of the sandstone reservoir. It also refers to the sea level fluctuation which has a direct influence to the facies change. In terms of integration of the previously described sequences with a high resolution seismic data a depositional model has been established. The model defines different stages of the channel using Scarab-2 well as an ideal analog.
RELATIONS BETWEEN PARAMETERS IN THE LINEAR RESERVOIR AND KINEMATIC WAVE MODELS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
The objective of this study is to explore the relation between the sets of parameters involved in the kinematic wave model and the linear reservoir model in runoff analyses. In the study, an approximate function of recession curves, obtained from the results of indoor rainfall-runoff experiments, is used to characterize the parameters involved in the two models and to explore the relations between the corresponding sets of parameters. Additionally, the observed hydrographs resulting from different rainfall durations and intensities on both bare and weed hillsides obtained from the rainfall experiments are simulated applying the two models. The simulation results indicate the applicability of the conversion relation between the two sets of parameters, which were determined based on the recession constants. This provides a better understanding of the link between the two models.
A rock physics model for analysis of anisotropic parameters in a shale reservoir in Southwest China
Qian, Keran; Zhang, Feng; Chen, Shuangquan; Li, Xiangyang; Zhang, Hui
2016-02-01
A rock physics model is a very effective tool to describe the anisotropy and mechanical properties of rock from a seismology perspective. Compared to a conventional reservoir, modelling a shale reservoir requires us to face two main challenges in modelling: the existence of organic matter and strong anisotropy. We construct an anisotropic rock physics workflow for a typical shale reservoir in Southwest China, in which the organic matter is treated separately from other minerals by using a combination of anisotropic self-consistent approximation and the differential effective medium method. The standard deviation of the distribution function is used to model the degree of lamination of clay and kerogen. A double scan workflow is introduced to invert the probability of pore aspect ratio and lamination simultaneously, which can give us a better understanding of the shale formation. The anisotropic properties of target formation have been analysed based on the proposed model. Inverted Thomsen parameters, especially the sign of delta, are analysed in terms of the physical properties of rock physics modelling.
Sensitivity analysis of dimensionless parameters for physical simulation of water-flooding reservoir
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
BAI Yuhu; LI Jiachun; ZHOU Jifu
2005-01-01
A numerical approach to optimize dimensionless parameters of water-flooding porous media flows is proposed based on the analysis of the sensitivity factor defined as the variation ration of a target function with respect to the variation of dimensionless parameters. A complete set of scaling criteria for water-flooding reservoir of five-spot well pattern case is derived from the 3-D governing equations, involving the gravitational force,the capillary force and the compressibility of water, oil and rock. By using this approach,we have estimated the influences of each dimensionless parameter on experimental results, and thus sorting out the dominant ones with larger sensitivity factors ranging from 10-4 to 100.
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Rutao Luo
Full Text Available Mathematical models based on ordinary differential equations (ODE have had significant impact on understanding HIV disease dynamics and optimizing patient treatment. A model that characterizes the essential disease dynamics can be used for prediction only if the model parameters are identifiable from clinical data. Most previous parameter identification studies for HIV have used sparsely sampled data from the decay phase following the introduction of therapy. In this paper, model parameters are identified from frequently sampled viral-load data taken from ten patients enrolled in the previously published AutoVac HAART interruption study, providing between 69 and 114 viral load measurements from 3-5 phases of viral decay and rebound for each patient. This dataset is considerably larger than those used in previously published parameter estimation studies. Furthermore, the measurements come from two separate experimental conditions, which allows for the direct estimation of drug efficacy and reservoir contribution rates, two parameters that cannot be identified from decay-phase data alone. A Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo method is used to estimate the model parameter values, with initial estimates obtained using nonlinear least-squares methods. The posterior distributions of the parameter estimates are reported and compared for all patients.
Ghabezloo, Siavash
2010-01-01
The results of a macro-scale experimental study performed on a hardened class G cement paste [Ghabezloo et al. (2008) Cem. Con. Res. (38) 1424-1437] are used in association with the micromechanics modelling and homogenization technique for evaluation of the complete set of poroelastic parameters of the material. The experimental study consisted in drained, undrained and unjacketed isotropic compression tests. Analysis of the experimental results revealed that the active porosity of the studied cement paste is smaller than its total porosity. A multi-scale homogenization model, calibrated on the experimental results, is used to extrapolate the poroelastic parameters to cement pastes prepared with different water-to-cement ratio. The notion of cement paste active porosity is discussed and the poroelastic parameters of hardened cement paste for an ideal, perfectly drained condition are evaluated using the homogenization model.
Wassie, Tilahun Adugna; Melese, Ayalew Wondie
2017-07-01
Impact of physicochemical parameters on 2 compositions and abundances in Selameko Reservoir, Debre Tabor, South Gondar from August 2009 to May 2010 was assessed. Water quality parameters, such as temperature, water transparency, water depth, dissolved oxygen, pH, total dissolved solids, phosphate, nitrate, and silicate were measured in situ from two sites (littoral and open water zone) of the reservoir. Phytoplankton compositions and abundances were analyzed in Tana fisheries and other aquatic organisms' research center. ANOVA result of the physicochemical parameters included chlorophyll-a showed the presence of significance difference among seasons and between sites ( P resistant phytoplankton species such as Melosira and Microcystis. The reservoir water was eutrophic (productive) throughout the year. To avoid such pollution, basin and reservoir management are recommended.
Zoccarato, C.; Baó, D.; Ferronato, M.; Gambolati, G.; Alzraiee, A.; Teatini, P.
2016-03-01
Although the beginning of reservoir geomechanics dates back to the late 1960s, only recently stochastical geomechanical modelling has been introduced into the general framework of reservoir operational planning. In this study, the ensemble smoother (ES) algorithm, i.e., an ensemble-based data assimilation method, is employed to reduce the uncertainty of the constitutive parameters characterizing the geomechanical model of an underground gas storage (UGS) field situated in the upper Adriatic sedimentary basin (Italy), the Lombardia UGS. The model is based on a nonlinear transversely isotropic stress-strain constitutive law and is solved by 3-D finite elements. The Lombardia UGS experiences seasonal pore pressure change caused by fluid extraction/injection leading to land settlement/upheaval. The available observations consist of vertical and horizontal time-lapse displacements accurately measured by persistent scatterer interferometry (PSI) on RADARSAT scenes acquired between 2003 and 2008. The positive outcome of preliminary tests on simplified cases has supported the use of the ES to jointly assimilate vertical and horizontal displacements. The ES approach is shown to effectively reduce the spread of the uncertain parameters, i.e., the Poisson's ratio, the ratio between the horizontal and vertical Young and shear moduli, and the ratio between the virgin loading (I cycle) and unloading/reloading (II cycle) compressibility. The outcomes of the numerical simulations point out that the updated parameters depend on the assimilated measurement locations as well as the error associated to the PSI measurements. The parameter estimation may be improved by taking into account possible model and/or observation biases along with the use of an assimilation approach, e.g., the Iterative ensemble smoother, more appropriate for nonlinear problems.
Real time measurement of plasma macroscopic parameters on RFX-mod using a limited set of sensors
Kudlacek, Ondrej; Zanca, Paolo; Finotti, Claudio; Marchiori, Giuseppe; Cavazzana, Roberto; Marrelli, Lionello
2015-10-01
A method to estimate the plasma boundary and global parameters such as βp+li/2 and the edge safety factor q95 is described. The method is based on poloidal flux extrapolation in the vacuum region between the plasma and the magnetic measurements, and it is efficient and accurate even if a limited set of sensors is used. The discrepancy between the plasma boundary provided by this method and the boundary computed by the Grad-Shafranov solver MAXFEA is lower than 8 mm in all the considered cases. Moreover, the method is robust against the noise level present in the RFX-mod measurements. The difference between the estimated global parameters and the MAXFEA simulation results is lower than 4%. The method was finally implemented in the RFX-mod shape control system, working at 5 kHz cycle frequency, to provide a reliable set of plasma-wall distances (gaps) used as feedback signals. Experimental results obtained in one year of RFX-mod operation are shown.
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Carlos Giraldo
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Naturally occurring gas hydrates are regarded as an important future source of energy and considerable efforts are currently being invested to develop methods for an economically viable recovery of this resource. The recovery of natural gas from gas hydrate deposits has been studied by a number of researchers. Depressurization of the reservoir is seen as a favorable method because of its relatively low energy requirements. While lowering the pressure in the production well seems to be a straight forward approach to destabilize methane hydrates, the intrinsic kinetics of CH4-hydrate decomposition and fluid flow lead to complex processes of mass and heat transfer within the deposit. In order to develop a better understanding of the processes and conditions governing the production of methane from methane hydrates it is necessary to study the sensitivity of gas production to the effects of factors such as pressure, temperature, thermal conductivity, permeability, porosity on methane recovery from naturally occurring gas hydrates. A simplified model is the base for an ensemble of reservoir simulations to study which parameters govern productivity and how these factors might interact.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berryman, James G.
2007-12-12
Sayers and Kachanov (1991) defined crack-influence parameters that are shown to be directly related to Thomsen (1986) weak-anisotropy seismic parameters for fractured reservoirs when the crack/fracture density is small enough. These results are then applied to the problem of seismic wave propagation in polar (i.e., non-isotropic) reservoirs having HTI seismic wave symmetry due to the presence of aligned vertical fractures and resulting in azimuthal seismic wave symmetry at the earth's surface. The approach presented suggests one method of inverting for fracture density from wave-speed data. It is also observed that the angular location {theta}{sub ex} of the extreme value (peak or trough) of the quasi-SV-wave speed for VTI occurs at an angle determined approximately by the formula tan{sup 2} {theta}{sub ex} {approx_equal} tan {theta}{sub m} = [(c{sub 33} - c{sub 44})/(c{sub 11}-c{sub 44})]{sup 1/2}, where {theta}{sub m} is an angle determined directly (as shown) from the c{sub ij} elastic stiffnesses, whenever these are known from either quasi-static or seismic wave measurements. Alternatively, {theta}{sub ex} is given in terms of the Thomsen seismic anisotropy parameters by tan {theta}{sub ex} {approx_equal} ([v{sub p}{sup 2}(0)-v{sub s}{sup 2}(0)]/[(1 + 2{epsilon})v{sub p}{sup 2}(0)-v{sub s}{sup 2}(0)]){sup 1/4}, where {epsilon} = (c{sub 11}-c{sub 33})/2c{sub 33}, v{sub p}{sup 2}(0) = c{sub 33}/{rho}, and v{sub s}{sup 2}(0) = c{sub 44}/{rho}, with {rho} being the background inertial mass density. The axis of symmetry is always treated here as the x{sub 3}-axis for either VTI symmetry (due, for example, to horizontal cracks), or HTI symmetry (due to aligned vertical cracks). Then the meaning of the stiffnesses is derived from the fracture analysis in the same way for VTI and HTI media, but for HTI the wave speeds relative to the earth's surface are shifted by 90{sup o} in the plane perpendicular to the aligned vertical fractures. Skempton's (1954
Daniilidis, Alexandros; Doddema, Leon; Herber, Rien
2016-01-01
Geothermal exploitation is subject to several uncertainties, even in settings with high data availability, adding to project risk. Uncertainty can stem from the reservoir's initial state, as well as from the geological and operational parameters. The interplay between these aspects entails
Daniilidis, Alexandros; Doddema, Leon; Herber, Rien
2016-01-01
Geothermal exploitation is subject to several uncertainties, even in settings with high data availability, adding to project risk. Uncertainty can stem from the reservoir's initial state, as well as from the geological and operational parameters. The interplay between these aspects entails irreducib
Daniilidis, Alexandros; Doddema, Leon; Herber, Rien
2016-01-01
Geothermal exploitation is subject to several uncertainties, even in settings with high data availability, adding to project risk. Uncertainty can stem from the reservoir's initial state, as well as from the geological and operational parameters. The interplay between these aspects entails irreducib
Non-parametric Bayesian networks for parameter estimation in reservoir engineering
Zilko, A.A.; Hanea, A.M.; Hanea, R.G.
2013-01-01
The ultimate goal in reservoir engineering is to optimize hydrocarbon recovery from a reservoir. To achieve the goal, good knowledge of the subsurface properties is crucial. One of these properties is the permeability. Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) is the most common tool used to deal with this
Structural parameters of pikeperch (Sander lucioperca population of the Kyiv reservoir
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O. Buzevych
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Purpose. Analysis of the dynamics of structural parameters as an integral property of the processes of recruitment and elimination of the reproductive and commercial population nuclei of pikeperch of the Kyiv reservoir. Methodology. Ichthyological material was collected during spring-summer period of 2015-2016 from survey catches done with gill nets with mesh sizes of 30-120 mm. Collection and processing of the field materials were carried out using conventional methods. In total, catches of 3.5 thousand net-days were processed during the study period and 1031 individual pikeperch were analyzed. Total mortality coefficient (Z was determined by graphic method based on the dynamics of the natural logarithms of the abundances of different age groups. Statistical processing of data was done in MS Excel. Findings. Commercial landings of pikeperch during last 10 years has a clear trend for a growth: from 20-25 to 80-100 tons. The catch of pikeperch per unit effort of survey gill nets in an interannual aspect is also characterized by a growth. At the same time, there is a certain improvement of the structural parameters of pikeperch population, e.g. an increase in the maximum age and extension of the modal frequency distribution. Age-3 and age-4 fish represented the major part of the population (71.6% in the catches of 2015, while the share of age-5-6 fish was also relatively high (10.8%. It resulted in an increase in the weighed mean age of the pikeperch population to 4.5 years. For 2016, there is a significant shift of the frequency distribution to its left wing – the major part of the population (64.7% was composed of age-2 to age-4 fish. The weighed mean age in 2016 decreased to 2.6 years that was due first of all to abundant recruitment and intensive elimination of middle age groups. Total mortality (Z of pikeperch in 2015-2016 was 0.53-0.56 that corresponded to normal conditions of the formation of the commercial stock of this species and
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
计秉玉; 兰玉波
2003-01-01
The problems of well pattern arrangement, well array direction, and well array spacing ratios for anisotropic reservoirs were studied using tensor analysis. The problems were formulated as a bilevel programming model which was solved using a genetic algorithm. The results show that if the permeability in one direction is much higher than in another direction, the wells should be aligned along the high permeability direction. The analysis provides a theoretical foundation for well pattern arrangement in fractured reservoirs as well as in channel sand reservoirs.
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Rahul Pralhad Rathod
2016-04-01
Full Text Available The present study has been carried out to study the status of primary productivity in relation to physiochemical parameters of the Kadwai reservoir of Ratnagiri district, Maharashtra. The primary productivity was determined by estimating gross and net primary productivity. The experiment was conducted during the monsoon and post monsoon seasons from 1st June to 30th Nov 2015 to know the effect of organic run off on primary production of Kadwai reservoir. The physiochemical parameters such as temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, total hardness, total alkalinity and transparency ranged from 27oC-30.5oC, 7.5-8.6, 3.2-7.0 mg/l, 46-75 mg/l, 56-95 mg/l, and 118-130 cm, respectively. The gross primary productivity (GPP during monsoon was 0.07-0.11 gC/m3/hr in June, July and August 2015, respectively, which was very low, whereas GPP were increased during post monsoon season. The values were recorded as 0.12-0.48 gC/m3/hr in the months of September, October, and November 2015, respectively. The results indicated that during monsoon season, organic load is coming along with water in to the reservoir, but phytoplankton growth is minimum due to the heavy rain and flushing rate were high from the downstream of the reservoir. During post monsoon, primary productivity was increased. The results indicate that Kadwai reservoir is more productive during post monsoon season suitable for stocking fish seed.
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Eugene URORO
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Over the past years, the Anambra basin one of Nigeria’s inland basins has recorded significant level of hydrocarbon exploration activities. The basin has been confirmed by several authors from source rock analyses to have the potential for generating hydrocarbon. For the hydrocarbon to be exploited, it is imperative to have a thorough understanding of the reservoir. Computer-assisted log analyses were employed to effectively evaluate the petrophysical parameters such as the shale volume (Vsh, total porosity (TP, effective porosity (EP, water saturation (Sw, and hydrocarbon saturation (Sh. Cross-plots of the petrophysical parameters versus depth were illustrated. Five hydrocarbon bearing reservoirs were delineated in well 1, four in well 2. The reservoirs in well 3 do not contain hydrocarbon. The estimated reservoir porosity varies from 10% to 21% while their permeability values range from 20md to 1400md. The porosity and permeability values suggest that reservoirs are good enough to store and also permit free flow of fluid. The volume of shale (0.05% to 0.35% analysis reveals that the reservoirs range from shaly sand to slightly shaly sand to clean sand reservoir. On the basis of petrophysics data, the reservoirs are interpreted a good quality reservoir rocks which has been confirmed with high effective porosity range between 20% and high hydrocarbon saturation exceeding 55% water saturation in well 1 and well 2. Water saturation 3 is nearly 100% although the reservoir properties are good.
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D. N. Veerendra
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Studies on relationship between zooplankton abundance and water quality parameter in Mani reservoir were made between January 2008 and December 2008. In the current investigation, impact of different physico-chemical parameters on zooplankton population was found. Ten genera of zooplankton were identified. The relationship between zooplankton and water quality parameters was varied from place to place depending upon the condition of the reservoir water.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
D`Amore, F. [CNR, Pisa (Italy). International Institute for Geothermal Research ; Mejia, J.T. [Comision Ejuctiva Hidroelectrica del Rio Lempa, El Salvador (El Salvador)
1999-02-01
A study has been made to obtain the main chemical and physical reservoir conditions of the Berlin field (El Salvador), before the commencement of large-scale exploitation of the geothermal resource. The upflow zone and the main flow path within the geothermal system have been determined from the area distribution of chemical parameters such as Cl concentrations, ratios such as Na/K, K/Mg, K/Ca, and temperatures computed from silica concentrations and cation ratios. Gas compositions have been used to calculate reservoir parameters such as temperature, steam fraction and P{sub CO{sub 2}}. The computer code WATCH (new edition 1994) has been used to evaluate the temperature of equilibrium between the aqueous species and selected alteration minerals in the reservoir. The fluid in Berlin flows to the exploited reservoir from the south, entering it in the vicinity of well TR-5. Along its flow-path (south-north direction), the fluid is cooled by boiling and conductive cooling. The chloride-enthalpy diagram indicates the existence of a parent water, with a chemical composition similar to well TR-5, that boils and the residual brine produces the fluid of well TR-3, which is very concentrated in salts. The fluid of TR-5 is probably produced from this parent water, generating the fluids of wells TR-2 and TR-9 by boiling, and the fluids of wells TR-1 and TR-4 by conductive cooling. The computed values for the deep steam fraction clearly indicate that this is a liquid-dominated system, with computed temperature values decreasing from 310{sup o}C (upflow zone) to about 230{sup o}C, from south to north. (author)
Research on Model and Related Parameters of Supercritical CO2 Injection into Depleted Reservoir
Ma, Pinghua; He, Jun
2017-07-01
On the basis of the research on CO2 geological storage and enhanced oil recovery(EOR) technology, a random porosity distribution model which conforms to logarithmic normal distribution was adopted in order to describe the heterogeneous characteristics of pore structure. On this basis, the two-phase flow model of CO2-formation water was established to describe the displacement process. Through the simulation of CO2 injection into depleted reservoir, it confirmed that injection point pressure was associated with the temperature and depth of the formation except heterogeneity. But the saturation distribution was greatly influenced by formation heterogeneity and depth. Thus, the space utilization of the injection layer reduced gradually with the depth increasing. The related research is important for CO2 storage, migration and evolution in depleted reservoir.
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Farhang Azarang
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Introduction: The critical role of the rivers in supplying water for various needs of life has led to engineering identification of the hydraulic regime and flow condition of the rivers. Hydraulic structures such dams have inevitable effects on their downstream that should be well investigated. The reservoir dams are the most important hydraulic structures which are the cause of great changes in river flow conditions. Materials and Methods: In this research, an accurate assessment was performed to study the flow regime of Karkheh river at downstream of Karkheh Reservoir Dam as the largest dam in Middle East. Karkheh River is the third waterful river of Iran after Karun and Dez and the third longest river after the Karun and Sefidrud. The Karkheh Dam is a large reservoir dam built in Iran on the Karkheh River in 2000. The Karkheh Reservoir Dam is on the Karkheh River in the Northwestern Khouzestan Province, the closest city being Andimeshk to the east. The part of Karkheh River, which was studied in this research is located at downstream of Karkheh Reservoir Dam. This interval is approximately 94 km, which is located between PayePol and Abdolkhan hydrometric stations. In this research, 138 cross sections were used along Karkheh River. Distance of cross sections from each other was 680m in average. The efficient model of HEC-RAS has been utilized to simulate the Karkheh flow conditions before and after the reservoir dam construction using of hydrometric stations data included annually and monthly mean discharges, instantaneous maximum discharges, water surface profiles and etc. Three defined discharges had been chosen to simulate the Karkheh River flow; maximum defined discharge, mean defined discharge and minimum defined discharge. For each of these discharges values, HEC-RAS model was implemented as a steady flow of the Karkheh River at river reach of study. Water surface profiles of flow, hydraulic parameters and other results of flow regime in
Ma, Mingming; Hu, Shouyun; Cao, Liwan; Appel, Erwin; Wang, Longsheng
2015-09-01
We studied magnetic and chemical parameters of sediments from sediments of a water reservoir at Linfen (China) in order to quantitatively reconstruct the atmospheric pollution history in this region. The results show that the main magnetic phases are magnetite and maghemite originating from the surrounding catchment and from anthropogenic activities, and there is a significant positive relationship between magnetic concentration parameters and heavy metals concentrations, indicating that magnetic proxies can be used to monitor the anthropogenic pollution. In order to uncover the atmospheric pollution history, we combined the known events of environmental improvement with variations of magnetic susceptibility (χ) and heavy metals along the cores to obtain a detailed chronological framework. In addition, air comprehensive pollution index (ACPI) was reconstructed from regression equation among magnetic and chemical parameters as well as atmospheric monitoring data. Based on these results, the atmospheric pollution history was successfully reconstructed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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Éder André Gubiani
Full Text Available Consumption, natural mortality, and growth are important parameters for the construction for both fisheries and ecosystems models. We estimated k (growth constant of the von Bertalanffy's function, Loo 1(asymptotic length, Woo (asymptotic weight, Ar (caudal fin index, M (natural mortality, and Q/B (consumption/biomass ratio for several fish species inhabiting reservoirs. We explored possible relationships among these parameters for 135 fish species sampled in thirty reservoirs in the State of Paraná, southern Brazil. Maximum length (Lmax varied from 2.60 to 79.00 cm, Loo from 2.73 to 85.05 cm, Woo from 0.23 to 9,490.26 g, k from 0.01 to 2.38 yr-1, Ar from 0.03 to 3.60, M from 0.16 to 2.82 yr-1, and Q/B from 3.31 to 67.18. Significant correlations were observed between most pairs of parameters, except for Ar and k, Ar and Loo , and for M and Q/B. The estimates presented here may be useful for constructing Ecopath models, both in Brazil and other tropical regions, where the use of ecosystem modeling is growing.
Interference of macroscopic superpositions
Vecchi, I
2000-01-01
We propose a simple experimental procedure based on the Elitzur-Vaidman scheme to implement a quantum nondemolition measurement testing the persistence of macroscopic superpositions. We conjecture that its implementation will reveal the persistence of superpositions of macroscopic objects in the absence of a direct act of observation.
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Onoprienko V.
2014-04-01
physiological processes. The result of this effect is the difference in weight, size and body parts. To clarify, as our model species was taken Cottus Sandpiper (Neogobius fluviatilis Pallas. The reason for this was the fact that this species, along with other Ponto- Caspian solonovato - freshwater gobies, the International Union for Conservation of Nature classified as species biology are poorly understood and require further research. This fact that deepened interest of ichthyologists in this group of fish, in this regard appeared in the literature as material for the bulls and in Sandpiper. Based on the above, the purpose of this paper is a comparative morphometric parameters characteristic of individuals of this species of fresh and salt water bodies of Ukraine. All this affects the absolute morphometric parameters, which decrease in the direction from sea to the river. However, it should be noted that in rivers with rich feeding grounds sheer size of some individuals close to the size and species of sea Kakhovskoe reservoir. This situation is observed in the Sandpiper Grouse River. Here are some specimens reach a length (TL 118-148 mm and a weight of 15-36 g, Kakhovskoe Reservoir: 106-150 mm 11-38 g, in the Sea of Azov: 115-174 mm 17-58 g. For relative parameters Sandpiper with these reservoirs are more similar, however, for some of them, there are differences. Among the latter is most clearly distinguished the ratio SL / N. This indicator podovzhenist (prohonystist body. As pointed out by VP Mitrofanov (1977, this indicator shows the hydrodynamic qualities of fish: the larger the index, the more active lifestyle is individual. When compared with individuals with a little water and a large stream, in the latter case, individuals are more elongated. This is confirmed by our material: the ratio SL / L for the smallest species of sea of Azov (4.96, slightly more for Kakhovsky reservoir (5.52 and even more for rivers Grouse, Trubizh, Desna, Ros (respectively 5, 86, 6.22 , 6
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V. P. Onoprienko
2014-04-01
physiological processes. The result of this effect is the difference in weight, size and body parts. To clarify, as our model species was taken Cottus Sandpiper (Neogobius fluviatilis Pallas. The reason for this was the fact that this species, along with other Ponto- Caspian solonovato - freshwater gobies, the International Union for Conservation of Nature classified as species biology are poorly understood and require further research. This fact that deepened interest of ichthyologists in this group of fish, in this regard appeared in the literature as material for the bulls and in Sandpiper. Based on the above, the purpose of this paper is a comparative morphometric parameters characteristic of individuals of this species of fresh and salt water bodies of Ukraine. All this affects the absolute morphometric parameters, which decrease in the direction from sea to the river. However, it should be noted that in rivers with rich feeding grounds sheer size of some individuals close to the size and species of sea Kakhovskoe reservoir. This situation is observed in the Sandpiper Grouse River. Here are some specimens reach a length (TL 118-148 mm and a weight of 15-36 g, Kakhovskoe Reservoir: 106-150 mm 11-38 g, in the Sea of Azov: 115-174 mm 17-58 g. For relative parameters Sandpiper with these reservoirs are more similar, however, for some of them, there are differences. Among the latter is most clearly distinguished the ratio SL / N. This indicator podovzhenist (prohonystist body. As pointed out by VP Mitrofanov (1977, this indicator shows the hydrodynamic qualities of fish: the larger the index, the more active lifestyle is individual. When compared with individuals with a little water and a large stream, in the latter case, individuals are more elongated. This is confirmed by our material: the ratio SL / L for the smallest species of sea of Azov (4.96, slightly more for Kakhovsky reservoir (5.52 and even more for rivers Grouse, Trubizh, Desna, Ros (respectively 5, 86
Janot, Noémie; Benedetti, Marc F.; Reiller, Pascal E.
2013-12-01
Speciation of Eu(III) in the presence of purified Aldrich humic acid (PAHA) and/or α-Al2O3 has been studied by time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy as a function of pH, ionic strength and PAHA concentration. The comparisons of macroscopic and spectroscopic data (adsorption, spectra, and decay times analyses) between the ternary system, i.e., Eu(III)/PAHA/α-Al2O3, and the corresponding binary systems are comprehensively presented. As expected, results show almost no influence of ionic strength on Eu(III) adsorption onto α-Al2O3. However, in the binary Eu(III)/PAHA system, it is clearly shown that variations of electrolyte concentration, which modify PAHA conformation, influence the symmetry of the humic-bound Eu(III) at pH ⩾ 7. In the ternary system, adsorption of both Eu(III) and PAHA onto the surface decreases with ionic strength. At I = 0.01 M NaClO4, Eu(III) luminescence decay is much faster than at I = 0.1 M NaClO4. This is most likely due to the lower surface concentration of PAHA at lower ionic strength, leading to a less constrained environment for Eu(III) ions. At high pH, luminescence spectra are different at the two ionic strengths studied. Concerning the influence of PAHA concentration, spectroscopic results show that in the binary Eu(III)/PAHA system complete complexation of 1 μM Eu(III) is reached for 16 mgPAHA l-1 at pH 4, and for lower PAHA concentrations at higher pH. At the same PAHA concentration, asymmetry ratios are comparable between the binary Eu(III)/PAHA system and the ternary system between pH 4 and 7.7. This means that the presence of mineral surface has almost no influence on Eu(III) environment symmetry below pH 8; hence, under these acid to neutral pH conditions, the occurrence of Eu(III)-bridged humic surface complexes is not likely. In the ternary system, at different pH, luminescence decay times of Eu(III) increase with PAHA concentration. They are much higher in the ternary system than in the binary Eu(III)/PAHA system
Macroscopic quantum resonators (MAQRO)
Kaltenbaek, Rainer; Kiesel, Nikolai; Romero-Isart, Oriol; Johann, Ulrich; Aspelmeyer, Markus
2012-01-01
Quantum physics challenges our understanding of the nature of physical reality and of space-time and suggests the necessity of radical revisions of their underlying concepts. Experimental tests of quantum phenomena involving massive macroscopic objects would provide novel insights into these fundamental questions. Making use of the unique environment provided by space, MAQRO aims at investigating this largely unexplored realm of macroscopic quantum physics. MAQRO has originally been proposed as a medium-sized fundamental-science space mission for the 2010 call of Cosmic Vision. MAQRO unites two experiments: DECIDE (DECoherence In Double-Slit Experiments) and CASE (Comparative Acceleration Sensing Experiment). The main scientific objective of MAQRO, which is addressed by the experiment DECIDE, is to test the predictions of quantum theory for quantum superpositions of macroscopic objects containing more than 10e8 atoms. Under these conditions, deviations due to various suggested alternative models to quantum th...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨百全; 黄华梁; 李玉华; 黄启奎
2001-01-01
Through studying the characteristic parameters of lowpermeability reservoirs，the permeability—a key characteristic parameter of low permeability reservoirs was found and some valuable characteristic parameters，as porosity，displacement pressure，pore throat medium-radius，minimum non-mercury saturation percentage，related to permeability most closely were chosen． The numerical model of permeability corresponding to major characteristic parameters is investigated；by use of grey association analysis method，the associability and associated sequence are calculated through a self-making program；the numerical models of the carbonate reservoir bed of Carboniferous gas reservoir in Wubaiti gas field，the carbonate reservoir bed at the low permeability area of Lei-1' gas reservoir in Moxi gas field，the clastic reservoir bed at the low permeability area of Xu-4 gas reservoir in Bajiaochang gas field and the clastic reservoir bed at the low permeability area of Xu-2 gas reservoir in Pingluoba gas field are set up and a quanlified description and comprehensive evaluation of these reservoir beds are carried out in the paper．%通过对低渗透储层特征参数的研究，抓住了低渗透储层关键特征参数——渗透率。选择与渗透率关系最密切的、有价值的特征参数，如孔隙度、排驱压力、孔喉中值半径、最小非汞饱和度百分数。研究了渗透率与其相对应的主要特征参数的数值模型，采用灰色关联分析方法，自编程序计算了关联度和关联序，建立了四川盆地五百梯石炭系气藏碳酸盐岩储层、磨溪雷一1亚段气藏低渗区碳酸盐岩储层、八角场须四段气藏低渗区碎屑岩储层和平落坝须二段气藏低渗区碎屑岩储层的数值模式，并对储层进行了定量化描述及综合评价。
Janishevskii, A.; Ten, T.; Ezhova, A.
2016-09-01
Authigenic sulfide mineralization in hydrocarbon-saturated reservoirs distorts the electrical and density properties of rocks. The correlation between volumetric density, electro-conductive minerals and open porosity in 300 samples were determined. This fact made it possible to develop a nomograph in evaluating oil saturated reservoirs and could be applied in well geophysical survey data interpretation.
Hanea, A.; Hanea, R.; Zilko, A.
2012-01-01
The objective of reservoir engineering is to optimize hydrocarbon recovery. One of the most common and efficient recovery processes is water injection. The water is pumped into the reservoir in injection wells in order to push the oil trapped in the porous media towards the production wells. The
Hanea, A.; Hanea, R.; Zilko, A.
2012-01-01
The objective of reservoir engineering is to optimize hydrocarbon recovery. One of the most common and efficient recovery processes is water injection. The water is pumped into the reservoir in injection wells in order to push the oil trapped in the porous media towards the production wells. The mov
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Éder André Gubiani
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Consumption, natural mortality, and growth are important parameters for the construction for both fisheries and ecosystems models. We estimated k (growth constant of the von Bertalanffy's function, Loo 1(asymptotic length, Woo (asymptotic weight, Ar (caudal fin index, M (natural mortality, and Q/B (consumption/biomass ratio for several fish species inhabiting reservoirs. We explored possible relationships among these parameters for 135 fish species sampled in thirty reservoirs in the State of Paraná, southern Brazil. Maximum length (Lmax varied from 2.60 to 79.00 cm, Loo from 2.73 to 85.05 cm, Woo from 0.23 to 9,490.26 g, k from 0.01 to 2.38 yr-1, Ar from 0.03 to 3.60, M from 0.16 to 2.82 yr-1, and Q/B from 3.31 to 67.18. Significant correlations were observed between most pairs of parameters, except for Ar and k, Ar and Loo , and for M and Q/B. The estimates presented here may be useful for constructing Ecopath models, both in Brazil and other tropical regions, where the use of ecosystem modeling is growing.O consumo, a mortalidade natural e as estimativas de crescimento são parâmetros importantes para a construção de modelos pesqueiros e ecossistêmicos. Dessa forma, neste trabalho foram calculados os parâmetros k (constante de crescimento da equação de von Bertalanffy, Loo (comprimento assintótico, Woo (peso assintótico, Ar (índice da nadadeira caudal, M (mortalidade natural e Q/B (consumo/biomassa para peixes em reservatórios. Além disso, foram exploradas possíveis relações entre esses parâmetros para 135 espécies de peixes amostradas em 30 reservatórios no estado do Paraná, sul do Brasil. O comprimento máximo (Lmax variou de 2,60 a 79,00 cm, Loo de 2,73 a 85,05 cm, Woo de 0,23 a 9.490,26 g, k de 0,01 a 2,38 ano-1, Ar de 0,03 a 3,60, M de 0,16 a 2,82 ano-1, e Q/B de 3,31 a 67,18. Correlações significativas foram observadas entre todos os pares de parâmetros, exceto para Ar e k, Ar e Loo e para M e Q/B. As estimativas
Zhang, Chen; Zhang, Wenna; Huang, Yixuan; Gao, Xueping
2017-03-01
To explore the correlations among water quality parameters, suspended solids (SS) and total dissolved solids (TDS) with meteorological factors in a shallow reservoir in China, the long-term variations of water quality were considered. A non-parametric regression method, generalized additive models (GAM), was used to analyse the correlations among eleven physicochemical and biological parameters as well as three meteorological factors (wind speed, rainfall and solar radiation) which we collected from 2000 to 2011. The results indicate that the three meteorological factors may have positive effects on SS. Moreover, statistically significant correlations between many water quality parameters and SS or TDS were exhibited seasonally. The correlations between electrical conductivity (EC) and SS were opposite to correlations between EC and TDS. This finding reveals that TDS have a positive impact on EC, while EC negatively affects SS. The results indicated that many parameters, such as total nitrogen, total phosphorus, biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD), were related to SS due to the adsorption of SS. Moreover, both positive and negative correlations between COD and TDS were observed in this freshwater reservoir. The positive correlation between chlorophyll a and SS suggested that the change of SS concentration in autumn was caused by the growth of algae. Meanwhile, significant correlations between SS and meteorological factors were also observed, indicating that meteorological factors had effects on SS dynamics. This study provides useful information regarding the correlations among water quality parameters, SS and TDS with meteorological factors in a freshwater reservoir.
Entropy, Macroscopic Information, and Phase Transitions
Parrondo, Juan M. R.
1999-01-01
The relationship between entropy and information is reviewed, taking into account that information is stored in macroscopic degrees of freedom, such as the order parameter in a system exhibiting spontaneous symmetry breaking. It is shown that most problems of the relationship between entropy and information, embodied in a variety of Maxwell demons, are also present in any symmetry breaking transition.
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Z. Y. Shen
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The calibration of hydrologic models is a worldwide challenge due to the uncertainty involved in the large number of parameters. The difficulty even increases in a region with high seasonal variation of precipitation, where the results exhibit high heteroscedasticity and autocorrelation. In this study, the Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE method was combined with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT to quantify the parameter uncertainty of the stream flow and sediment simulation in the Daning River Watershed of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region (TGRA, China. Based on this study, only a few parameters affected the final simulation output significantly. The results showed that sediment simulation presented greater uncertainty than stream flow, and uncertainty was even greater in high precipitation conditions (from May to September than during the dry season. The main uncertainty sources of stream flow came from the catchment process while a channel process impacts the sediment simulation greatly. It should be noted that identifiable parameters such as CANMX, ALPHA_BNK, SOL_K could be obtained with an optimal parameter range using calibration method. However, equifinality was also observed in hydrologic modeling in TGRA. This study demonstrated that care must be taken when calibrating the SWAT model with non-identifiable parameters because these may lead to equifinality of the parameter values. It was anticipated this study would provide useful information for hydrology modeling related to policy development in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region (TGRA and other similar areas.
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Z. Y. Shen
2011-08-01
Full Text Available The calibration of hydrologic models is a worldwide difficulty due to the uncertainty involved in the large number of parameters. The difficulty even increases in the region with high seasonal variation of precipitation, where the results exhibit high heteroscedasticity and autocorrelation. In this study, the Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE method was combined with Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT to quantify the parameter uncertainty of the stream flow and sediment simulation in the Daning River Watershed of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region (TGRA, China. Based on this study, only a few parameters affected the final simulation output significantly. The results showed that sediment simulation presented greater uncertainty than stream flow, and uncertainty even increased in high precipitation condition than dry season. The main uncertainty sources of stream flow mainly came from the catchment process while channel process impacts the sediment simulation greatly. It should be noted that identifiable parameters such as CANMX, ALPHA_BNK, SOL_K could be obtained optimal parameter range using calibration method. However, equifinality was also observed in hydrologic modeling in TGRA. This paper demonstrated that care must be taken when calibrating the SWAT with non-identifiable parameters as these may lead to equifinality of the parameter values. It is anticipated this study would provide useful information for hydrology modeling related to policy development in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region (TGRA and other similar areas.
Macroscopic and microscopic observations of needle insertion into gels
Veen, van Youri R.J.; Jahya, Alex; Misra, Sarthak
2012-01-01
Needle insertion into soft tissue is one of the most common medical interventions. This study provides macroscopic and microscopic observations of needle–gel interactions. A gelatin mixture is used as a soft-tissue simulant. For the macroscopic studies, system parameters, such as insertion velocity,
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
This paper is mainly about the calculation of reservoir parameters and the interpretation method for identifying oil/water beds in Ke82 well areas of Junggar basin. It is difficult to determine the reservoir parameters with common logging methods such as core calibration log because of the diversity of minerals and rocks and the complexity of pore structures in the conglomerate reservoir of Junggar basin. Optimization logging exploration is a good method to determine the porosity by establishing the multi-mineral model with logging curves based on the integration of geological, core and well testing data. Permeability is identified by BP algorithm of neural network. Hydrocarbon saturation is determined by correlating Archie's and Simandoux formulas. Comparing the exploratory result and core data, we can see that these methods are effective for conglomerate logging exploration. We processed and explained six wells in the Ke82 well areas. And actual interpretation has had very good results, 85 % of which conform to well testing data. Therefore, this technique will be effective for identifying conglomerate parameters.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ramírez R. John J.
2000-07-01
Full Text Available Phytoplankton samples were taken at three depths within the photie zone of eaeh of four reservoirs, Punehiná, Las Playas, El Peñol and San Lorenzo loeated in Antioquia department, Colombia. A total of 77 taxa were identified in the four reservoirs. Diatoms were not included. In all reservoirs, Chlorophyta was the dominant group. Botryococcus braunii was the dominant species at Punchiná, Las Playas and El Peñol reservoirs; Cosmarium sp. was the dominant at San Lorenzo. Temporal variation in phytoplankton showed two peaks of abundance, apparently related to precipitation. Taxonomic composition among samples from the same reservoir showed little variation. Community structure at different depths showed significant differences only at San Lorenzo reservoir. The inverse of β-diversity showed small values indicating high similarity among the reservoirs. Diversitv showed no significant assoeiation with any morphometric factor evaluated (area, retention time, altitude and age.Se efectuaron muestreos de fitoplaneton en tres profundidades de la zona fótica de los embalses Punchiná, Las Playas, El Peñol y San Lorenzo, localizados en el departamento de Antioquia, Colombia. Se identificaron un total de 77 taxones en los cuatro embalses. Las diatomeas no fueron incluídas. En todos los casos las Cholorophyta fueron el grupo dominante. Botryococcus braunii fue el taxón de mayor densidad en los embalses Punchiná, Las Playas y El Peñol; y Cosmarium sp. en el embalse San Lorenzo. La comunidad fitoplanctónica mostró dos picos de abundancia aparentemente relacionados con la precipitación. En cada embalse, la composición de taxones entre muestreos varió poco. La estructura de la comunidad a diferentes profundidades mostró diferencias significativas únicamente en el embalse San Lorenzo. El inverso de la β-diversidad presentó valores bajos que muestran la alta similaridad entre embalses. La diversidad no mostró asociación significativa con
Covariant Macroscopic Quantum Geometry
Hogan, Craig J
2012-01-01
A covariant noncommutative algebra of position operators is presented, and interpreted as the macroscopic limit of a geometry that describes a collective quantum behavior of the positions of massive bodies in a flat emergent space-time. The commutator defines a quantum-geometrical relationship between world lines that depends on their separation and relative velocity, but on no other property of the bodies, and leads to a transverse uncertainty of the geometrical wave function that increases with separation. The number of geometrical degrees of freedom in a space-time volume scales holographically, as the surface area in Planck units. Ongoing branching of the wave function causes fluctuations in transverse position, shared coherently among bodies with similar trajectories. The theory can be tested using appropriately configured Michelson interferometers.
The macroscopic pancake bounce
Andersen Bro, Jonas; Sternberg Brogaard Jensen, Kasper; Nygaard Larsen, Alex; Yeomans, Julia M.; Hecksher, Tina
2017-01-01
We demonstrate that the so-called pancake bounce of millimetric water droplets on surfaces patterned with hydrophobic posts (Liu et al 2014 Nat. Phys. 10 515) can be reproduced on larger scales. In our experiment, a bed of nails plays the role of the structured surface and a water balloon models the water droplet. The macroscopic version largely reproduces the features of the microscopic experiment, including the Weber number dependence and the reduced contact time for pancake bouncing. The scalability of the experiment confirms the mechanisms of pancake bouncing, and allows us to measure the force exerted on the surface during the bounce. The experiment is simple and inexpensive and is an example where front-line research is accessible to student projects.
Production of Natural Gas and Fluid Flow in Tight Sand Reservoirs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maria Cecilia Bravo
2006-06-30
This document reports progress of this research effort in identifying relationships and defining dependencies between macroscopic reservoir parameters strongly affected by microscopic flow dynamics and production well performance in tight gas sand reservoirs. These dependencies are investigated by identifying the main transport mechanisms at the pore scale that should affect fluids flow at the reservoir scale. A critical review of commercial reservoir simulators, used to predict tight sand gas reservoir, revealed that many are poor when used to model fluid flow through tight reservoirs. Conventional simulators ignore altogether or model incorrectly certain phenomena such as, Knudsen diffusion, electro-kinetic effects, ordinary diffusion mechanisms and water vaporization. We studied the effect of Knudsen's number in Klinkenberg's equation and evaluated the effect of different flow regimes on Klinkenberg's parameter b. We developed a model capable of explaining the pressure dependence of this parameter that has been experimentally observed, but not explained in the conventional formalisms. We demonstrated the relevance of this, so far ignored effect, in tight sands reservoir modeling. A 2-D numerical simulator based on equations that capture the above mentioned phenomena was developed. Dynamic implications of new equations are comprehensively discussed in our work and their relative contribution to the flow rate is evaluated. We performed several simulation sensitivity studies that evidenced that, in general terms, our formalism should be implemented in order to get more reliable tight sands gas reservoirs' predictions.
Canonical quantization of macroscopic electromagnetism
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Philbin, T G, E-mail: tgp3@st-andrews.ac.u [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)
2010-12-15
Application of the standard canonical quantization rules of quantum field theory to macroscopic electromagnetism has encountered obstacles due to material dispersion and absorption. This has led to a phenomenological approach to macroscopic quantum electrodynamics where no canonical formulation is attempted. In this paper macroscopic electromagnetism is canonically quantized. The results apply to any linear, inhomogeneous, magnetodielectric medium with dielectric functions that obey the Kramers-Kronig relations. The prescriptions of the phenomenological approach are derived from the canonical theory.
Canonical quantization of macroscopic electromagnetism
Philbin, T G
2010-01-01
Application of the standard canonical quantization rules of quantum field theory to macroscopic electromagnetism has encountered obstacles due to material dispersion and absorption. This has led to a phenomenological approach to macroscopic quantum electrodynamics where no canonical formulation is attempted. In this paper macroscopic electromagnetism is canonically quantized. The results apply to any linear, inhomogeneous, magnetoelectric medium with dielectric functions that obey the Kramers-Kronig relations. The prescriptions of the phenomenological approach are derived from the canonical theory.
Reservoir Parameter Sensitivity Analysis with Experimental Design%非线性回归油藏指数敏感性分析
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
常玉青; 宋考平
2011-01-01
Reservoir parameter sensitivity plays an important role in history matching, reservoir simulator and Essential Regression and Experimental Design software to test the accumulative oil production sensitivity to reservoir parameters are used, such as permeability, fault transmissibility and residual oil saturation, and got the nonlinear relationship equation, which can save computation time and accelerate the process of history matching in numerical simulations. This is meaningful for laboratories and industries in terms of experimental efficiency and economies.%油藏指数敏感性在油藏数值模拟中扮演重要的角色.通过数值模拟软件和非线性回归统计方法进行实验设计,探索油藏产量对油藏参数,如油藏渗透率比、断层传导率和残余油饱和度等的敏感性,并得出非线性关系公式,节省计算时间并加快数值模拟历史拟合速度,油藏对于实验效率和经济效益有重要的作用.
Production of Natural Gas and Fluid Flow in Tight Sand Reservoirs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maria Cecilia Bravo; Mariano Gurfinkel
2005-06-30
This document reports progress of this research effort in identifying possible relationships and defining dependencies between macroscopic reservoir parameters strongly affected by microscopic flow dynamics and production well performance in tight gas sand reservoirs. Based on a critical review of the available literature, a better understanding of the main weaknesses of the current state of the art of modeling and simulation for tight sand reservoirs has been reached. Progress has been made in the development and implementation of a simple reservoir simulator that is still able to overcome some of the deficiencies detected. The simulator will be used to quantify the impact of microscopic phenomena in the macroscopic behavior of tight sand gas reservoirs. Phenomena such as, Knudsen diffusion, electro-kinetic effects, ordinary diffusion mechanisms and water vaporization are being considered as part of this study. To date, the adequate modeling of gas slippage in porous media has been determined to be of great relevance in order to explain unexpected fluid flow behavior in tight sand reservoirs.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhang Zhiwei; Cheng Wanzheng; Zhang Yongjiu; Xie Ronghua; Fu Ying
2010-01-01
Based on the digital seismic waveform data observed from regional and reservoir seismic networks,the seismicity and source parameters in the Zipingpu reservoir area from January 1,2000 to May 11,2008 before the Wenchuan Ms8.0 earthquake are studied.The analysis shows a continuous activity of small earthquakes before the Wenchuan Ms8.0 earthquake.The level of seismic activity was from ML2.0 to ML3.0 in recent years.The impoundment of Zipingpu reservoir started in September 2005 and the obvious increment of seismic activities occurred in February 2008.but according to the analysis of the longer time series,the frequency and intensity of seismic activities do not exceed its range,which means it is still a fluctuation of regional seismic activities or tectonic activity.At the same time,we also studied the spatio-temporal distribution and the change of apparent stress difference in the source region before the great earthquake,and the results show that the apparent stress values of small earthquakes are generally higher than fitted values of apparent stress in the reservoir area in the nearly three months before the Wenchuan MS 8.0 earthquake.It can be seen from the spatial distribution of apparent stress difference,that the epicenter of the earthquake is located at a low stress distribution area,and the relatively high apparent stress difference is at the east of the epicenter.Apparent stress increment occurred in local areas.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Merletti, G.D.; Hewitt, N.; Barrios, F.; Vega, V.; Carias, J. [BP Exploration, Houston, TX (United States); Bueno, J.C.; Lopez, L. [PDVSA Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)
2009-07-01
An accurate integrated reservoir description is necessary in extra-heavy oil prospects where pore throat geometries are the ultimate control on hydrocarbon primary recovery. The key element in producing accurate oil reservoir descriptions and improving productivity is to determine relationships between core-derived pore-throat parameters and log-derived macroscopic attributes. This paper described the use of the flow zone indicator technique (FZI) to identify hydraulic units within depositional facies. It focused on a petrophysical analysis aimed at improving the description of reservoir sandstones containing heavy or extra heavy oil in the eastern Orinoco belt in Venezuela. The Petromonagas license area contains large volumes of crude oil in-place with an API gravity of 8. Production comes primarily from the lowermost stratigraphic unit of the Oficina Formation, the Miocene Morichal Member. Facies analysis has revealed various depositional settings and core measurements depict a wide range in reservoir quality within specific depositional facies. The reservoir is divided into 4 different rock qualities and 5 associated non-reservoir rocks. The use of the FZI technique provides a better understanding of the relationship between petrophysical rock types and depositional facies. 4 refs., 4 tabs., 8 figs.
Quantum equilibria for macroscopic systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grib, A [Department of Theoretical Physics and Astronomy, Russian State Pedagogical University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Khrennikov, A [Centre for Mathematical Modelling in Physics and Cognitive Sciences Vaexjoe University (Sweden); Parfionov, G [Department of Mathematics, St. Petersburg State University of Economics and Finances (Russian Federation); Starkov, K [Department of Mathematics, St. Petersburg State University of Economics and Finances (Russian Federation)
2006-06-30
Nash equilibria are found for some quantum games with particles with spin-1/2 for which two spin projections on different directions in space are measured. Examples of macroscopic games with the same equilibria are given. Mixed strategies for participants of these games are calculated using probability amplitudes according to the rules of quantum mechanics in spite of the macroscopic nature of the game and absence of Planck's constant. A possible role of quantum logical lattices for the existence of macroscopic quantum equilibria is discussed. Some examples for spin-1 cases are also considered.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张立松; 闫相祯; 杨秀娟; 田中兰; 杨恒林
2014-01-01
The uncertainties of some key influence factors on coal crushing, such as rock strength, pore pressure and magnitude and orientation of three principal stresses, can lead to the uncertainty of coal crushing and make it very difficult to predict coal crushing under the condition of in-situ reservoir. To account for the uncertainty involved in coal crushing, a deterministic prediction model of coal crushing under the condition of in-situ reservoir was established based on Hoek-Brown criterion. Through this model, key influence factors on coal crushing were selected as random variables and the corresponding probability density functions were determined by combining experiment data and Latin Hypercube method. Then, to analyze the uncertainty of coal crushing, the first- order second-moment method and the presented model were combined to address the failure probability involved in coal crushing analysis. Using the presented method, the failure probabilities of coal crushing were analyzed for WS5-5 well in Ningwu basin, China, and the relations between failure probability and the influence factors were furthermore discussed. The results show that the failure probabilities of WS5-5 CBM well vary from 0.6 to 1.0; moreover, for the coal seam section at depth of 784.3-785 m, the failure probabilities are equal to 1, which fit well with experiment results; the failure probability of coal crushing presents nonlinear growth relationships with the increase of principal stress difference and the decrease of uniaxial compressive strength.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gala Marquez, M. M.; Gomez Crisostomo, C.
2005-07-01
Limnological studies of reservoirs that supply drinking water are essential in view of their practical interest and usefulness. This led Aqualia, Gestion Integral de Agua, the company running the water supply service in Badajoz, to carry out such a study on the Pena del Aguila reservoir supplying the town. The study presented here covers the period from May 2003 to April 2004. the results concerning the organoleptic, physico-chemical and undesirable substances parameters show that the surface water in the reservoir is of optimum quality and so the installation of a floating intake is proposed as a way of improving the water captured. (Author) 13 refs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liang, Shidong, E-mail: emblembl@sina.com [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, 1 Qinghuayuan, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); Jia, Haifeng, E-mail: jhf@tsinghua.edu.cn [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, 1 Qinghuayuan, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); Xu, Changqing, E-mail: 2008changqing@163.com [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, 1 Qinghuayuan, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); Xu, Te, E-mail: xt_lichking@qq.com [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, 1 Qinghuayuan, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); Melching, Charles, E-mail: steve.melching17@gmail.com [Melching Water Solutions, 4030 W. Edgerton Avenue, Greenfield, WI 53221 (United States)
2016-08-01
Facing increasingly serious water pollution, the Chinese government is changing the environmental management strategy from solely pollutant concentration control to a Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) program, and water quality models are increasingly being applied to determine the allowable pollutant load in the TMDL. Despite the frequent use of models, few studies have focused on how parameter uncertainty in water quality models affect the allowable pollutant loads in the TMDL program, particularly for complicated and high-dimension water quality models. Uncertainty analysis for such models is limited by time-consuming simulation and high-dimensionality and nonlinearity in parameter spaces. In this study, an allowable pollutant load calculation platform was established using the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC), which is a widely applied hydrodynamic-water quality model. A Bayesian approach, i.e. the DiffeRential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM) algorithm, which is a high-efficiency, multi-chain Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method, was applied to assess the effects of parameter uncertainty on the water quality model simulations and its influence on the allowable pollutant load calculation in the TMDL program. Miyun Reservoir, which is the most important surface drinking water source for Beijing, suffers from eutrophication and was selected as a case study. The relations between pollutant loads and water quality indicators are obtained through a graphical method in the simulation platform. Ranges of allowable pollutant loads were obtained according to the results of parameter uncertainty analysis, i.e. Total Organic Carbon (TOC): 581.5–1030.6 t·yr{sup −1}; Total Phosphorus (TP): 23.3–31.0 t·yr{sup −1}; and Total Nitrogen (TN): 480–1918.0 t·yr{sup −1}. The wide ranges of allowable pollutant loads reveal the importance of parameter uncertainty analysis in a TMDL program for allowable pollutant load calculation and margin of safety (MOS
Macroscopic-microscopic mass models
Nix, J R; Nix, J Rayford; Moller, Peter
1995-01-01
We discuss recent developments in macroscopic-microscopic mass models, including the 1992 finite-range droplet model, the 1992 extended-Thomas-Fermi Strutinsky-integral model, and the 1994 Thomas-Fermi model, with particular emphasis on how well they extrapolate to new regions of nuclei. We also address what recent developments in macroscopic-microscopic mass models are teaching us about such physically relevant issues as the nuclear curvature energy, a new congruence energy arising from a greater-than-average overlap of neutron and proton wave functions, the nuclear incompressibility coefficient, and the Coulomb redistribution energy arising from a central density depression. We conclude with a brief discussion of the recently discovered rock of metastable superheavy nuclei near 272:110 that had been correctly predicted by macroscopic-microscopic models, along with a possible new tack for reaching an island near 290:110 beyond our present horizon.
Liang, Shidong; Jia, Haifeng; Xu, Changqing; Xu, Te; Melching, Charles
2016-08-01
Facing increasingly serious water pollution, the Chinese government is changing the environmental management strategy from solely pollutant concentration control to a Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) program, and water quality models are increasingly being applied to determine the allowable pollutant load in the TMDL. Despite the frequent use of models, few studies have focused on how parameter uncertainty in water quality models affect the allowable pollutant loads in the TMDL program, particularly for complicated and high-dimension water quality models. Uncertainty analysis for such models is limited by time-consuming simulation and high-dimensionality and nonlinearity in parameter spaces. In this study, an allowable pollutant load calculation platform was established using the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC), which is a widely applied hydrodynamic-water quality model. A Bayesian approach, i.e. the DiffeRential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM) algorithm, which is a high-efficiency, multi-chain Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method, was applied to assess the effects of parameter uncertainty on the water quality model simulations and its influence on the allowable pollutant load calculation in the TMDL program. Miyun Reservoir, which is the most important surface drinking water source for Beijing, suffers from eutrophication and was selected as a case study. The relations between pollutant loads and water quality indicators are obtained through a graphical method in the simulation platform. Ranges of allowable pollutant loads were obtained according to the results of parameter uncertainty analysis, i.e. Total Organic Carbon (TOC): 581.5-1030.6t·yr(-1); Total Phosphorus (TP): 23.3-31.0t·yr(-1); and Total Nitrogen (TN): 480-1918.0t·yr(-1). The wide ranges of allowable pollutant loads reveal the importance of parameter uncertainty analysis in a TMDL program for allowable pollutant load calculation and margin of safety (MOS) determination. The sources
Microscopic versus macroscopic approaches to non-equilibrium systems
Derrida, Bernard
2011-01-01
The one-dimensional symmetric simple exclusion process (SSEP) is one of the very few exactly soluble models of non-equilibrium statistical physics. It describes a system of particles which diffuse with hard core repulsion on a one-dimensional lattice in contact with two reservoirs of particles at unequal densities. The goal of this paper is to review the two main approaches which lead to the exact expression of the large deviation functional of the density of the SSEP in its steady state: a microscopic approach (based on the matrix product ansatz and an additivity property) and a macroscopic approach (based on the macroscopic fluctuation theory of Bertini, De Sole, Gabrielli, Jona-Lasinio and Landim).
Geothermal reservoir engineering research
Ramey, H. J., Jr.; Kruger, P.; Brigham, W. E.; London, A. L.
1974-01-01
The Stanford University research program on the study of stimulation and reservoir engineering of geothermal resources commenced as an interdisciplinary program in September, 1972. The broad objectives of this program have been: (1) the development of experimental and computational data to evaluate the optimum performance of fracture-stimulated geothermal reservoirs; (2) the development of a geothermal reservoir model to evaluate important thermophysical, hydrodynamic, and chemical parameters based on fluid-energy-volume balances as part of standard reservoir engineering practice; and (3) the construction of a laboratory model of an explosion-produced chimney to obtain experimental data on the processes of in-place boiling, moving flash fronts, and two-phase flow in porous and fractured hydrothermal reservoirs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hebein, Jeffrey J.
1983-12-15
MCR Geothermal Corporation pioneered successful exploratiory drilling the Bottle Rock area of the Geysers Steam Field in 1976. The wellfield is characterized by a deep reservoir with varied flowrates, temperatures, pressures, and stem chemistries being quite acceptable. More detailed reservoir engineering tests will follow as production commences.
Statistical thermodynamics understanding the properties of macroscopic systems
Fai, Lukong Cornelius
2012-01-01
Basic Principles of Statistical PhysicsMicroscopic and Macroscopic Description of StatesBasic PostulatesGibbs Ergodic AssumptionGibbsian EnsemblesExperimental Basis of Statistical MechanicsDefinition of Expectation ValuesErgodic Principle and Expectation ValuesProperties of Distribution FunctionRelative Fluctuation of an Additive Macroscopic ParameterLiouville TheoremGibbs Microcanonical EnsembleMicrocanonical Distribution in Quantum MechanicsDensity MatrixDensity Matrix in Energy RepresentationEntropyThermodynamic FunctionsTemperatureAdiabatic ProcessesPressureThermodynamic IdentityLaws of Th
Micro- and macroscopic simulation of periodic metamaterials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Schuhmann
2008-05-01
Full Text Available In order to characterize three-dimensional, left-handed metamaterials (LHM we use electromagnetic field simulations of unit cells. For waves traveling in one of the main directions of the periodic LHM-arrays, the analysis is concentrated on the calculation of global quantities of the unit cells, such as scattering parameters or dispersion diagrams, and a careful interpretation of the results. We show that the concept of equivalent material values – which may be negative in a narrow frequency range – can be validated by large "global" simulations of a wedge structure. We also discuss the limitations of this concept, since in some cases the macroscopic behavior of an LHM cannot be accurately described by equivalent material values.
Macroscopic Theory of Dark Sector
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Boris E. Meierovich
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A simple Lagrangian with squared covariant divergence of a vector field as a kinetic term turned out to be an adequate tool for macroscopic description of the dark sector. The zero-mass field acts as the dark energy. Its energy-momentum tensor is a simple additive to the cosmological constant. Massive fields describe two different forms of dark matter. The space-like massive vector field is attractive. It is responsible for the observed plateau in galaxy rotation curves. The time-like massive field displays repulsive elasticity. In balance with dark energy and ordinary matter it provides a four-parametric diversity of regular solutions of the Einstein equations describing different possible cosmological and oscillating nonsingular scenarios of evolution of the Universe. In particular, the singular big bang turns into a regular inflation-like transition from contraction to expansion with the accelerated expansion at late times. The fine-tuned Friedman-Robertson-Walker singular solution is a particular limiting case at the lower boundary of existence of regular oscillating solutions in the absence of vector fields. The simplicity of the general covariant expression for the energy-momentum tensor allows displaying the main properties of the dark sector analytically. Although the physical nature of dark sector is still unknown, the macroscopic theory can help analyze the role of dark matter in astrophysical phenomena without resorting to artificial model assumptions.
Lv, Aimin; Li, Xuyan; Yu, Miao; Li, Gangzhu; Wang, Shoulong; Peng, Ruigang; Zheng, Yawen
2017-05-01
This paper presents a practical technique to quantitatively locate macroscopic throats between injector/producer pairs in a reservoir, considering the problems of extensively developed macroscopic throats and the low sweep efficiency of waterflooding on high water cut stage. The method combines dynamic and static data, based on the results of geological research and the inversion of dynamic interwell connectivity. This technique has implemented the spatial locating of macroscopic throats, using the data of injection/production profiles and tracer test over the years, considering the sedimentary facies of each small layer and the permeability of each sand body. The results of this work show that this method is more convenient and less expensive than previous ones. It is able to locate macroscopic throats in a reservoir accurately and quantitatively. Multiple materials ensure the accuracy of results, and this method is convenient to be applied in the oilfield.
Macroscopically-Discrete Quantum Cosmology
Chew, Geoffrey F
2008-01-01
To Milne's Lorentz-group-based spacetime and Gelfand-Naimark unitary representations of this group we associate a Fock space of 'cosmological preons'-quantum-theoretic universe constituents. Milne's 'cosmological principle' relies on Lorentz invariance of 'age'--global time. We divide Milne's spacetime into 'slices' of fixed macroscopic width in age, with 'cosmological rays' defined on (hyperbolic) slice boundaries-Fock space attaching only to these exceptional universe ages. Each (fixed-age) preon locates within a 6-dimensional manifold, one of whose 3 'extra' dimensions associates in Dirac sense to a self-adjoint operator that represents preon (continuous) local time, the operator canonically-conjugate thereto representing preon (total) energy. Self-adjoint-operator expectations at any spacetime-slice boundary prescribe throughout the following slice a non-fluctuating 'mundane reality'- electromagnetic and gravitational potentials 'tethered' to current densities of locally-conserved electric charge and ener...
Seismic scanning tunneling macroscope - Theory
Schuster, Gerard T.
2012-09-01
We propose a seismic scanning tunneling macroscope (SSTM) that can detect the presence of sub-wavelength scatterers in the near-field of either the source or the receivers. Analytic formulas for the time reverse mirror (TRM) profile associated with a single scatterer model show that the spatial resolution limit to be, unlike the Abbe limit of λ/2, independent of wavelength and linearly proportional to the source-scatterer separation as long as the point scatterer is in the near-field region; if the sub-wavelength scatterer is a spherical impedance discontinuity then the resolution will also be limited by the radius of the sphere. Therefore, superresolution imaging can be achieved as the scatterer approaches the source. This is analogous to an optical scanning tunneling microscope that has sub-wavelength resolution. Scaled to seismic frequencies, it is theoretically possible to extract 100 Hz information from 20 Hz data by imaging of near-field seismic energy.
Reservoir resistivity characterization incorporating flow dynamics
Arango, Santiago
2016-04-07
Systems and methods for reservoir resistivity characterization are provided, in various aspects, an integrated framework for the estimation of Archie\\'s parameters for a strongly heterogeneous reservoir utilizing the dynamics of the reservoir are provided. The framework can encompass a Bayesian estimation/inversion method for estimating the reservoir parameters, integrating production and time lapse formation conductivity data to achieve a better understanding of the subsurface rock conductivity properties and hence improve water saturation imaging.
Vaidyanathan, T K; Schulman, A; Nielsen, J P; Shalita, S
1981-01-01
Radiographic analysis of uniform cylindrical castings fabricated by the centrifugal casting technique has revealed that the macroscopic porosity is dependent on the location of the sprue attachment to the casting. This is attributed to the significant pressure gradient associated with the centrifugal casting technique. The pressure gradient results in different heat transfer rates at portions of the castings near and away from the free surface of the button. Consequently, the macroscopic porosity is invariably at portions of the casting close to the free surface of the button. In addition, some optimized sprue-reservoir combinations could be predicted and proved, based on this pressure gradient concept.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
乔慧珍; 张永久
2014-01-01
利用数字地震台网2007年1月到2011年12月记录到的瀑布沟水库及邻区地震波形资料，采用 Atkinson 方法计算了库区介质品质因子；并利用 Moya 方法计算了台站场地响应；在获得介质品质因子和台站场地响应的基础上联合反演计算了瀑布沟库区67次构造地震和208次爆破地震的震源波谱参数，同时讨论了它们的时空特征。结果表明：瀑布沟库区 Q 值与频率的关系为 Q (f )=47.1*f 0%On the basis of digital seismograms recorded by the Pubugou reservoir digital seismic network,we obtained the nonelastic coefficient of Pubugou reservoir area by using the method proposed by Atkinson.The site response of each station was obtained by using the Moya method. The frequency-dependent Q (f )at the reservoir area is estimated as Q (f )=47.1 *f 0 .92 ;the site response of each station is approximately 1.0,showing little amplification.On the basis of the Q (f )and the site responses,we detected approximately 67 tectonic earthquakes and 208 source pa-rameters of blasting shocks by using the Atkinson inversion method.The results show obvious differences in the source parameters of the tectonic earthquakes and blast shocks.The parameters near the reservoir dam area and Hanyuan County were lower because of the blasting vibration.
Macroscopic theory of dark sector
Meierovich, Boris E
2013-01-01
A simple Lagrangian with squared covariant divergence of a vector field as a kinetic term turned out an adequate tool for macroscopic description of the dark sector. The zero-mass field acts as the dark energy. Its energy-momentum tensor is a simple additive to the cosmological constant. Massive fields {\\phi}_{I} with {\\phi}^{K}{\\phi}_{K}0 describe two different forms of dark matter. The space-like ({\\phi}^{K}{\\phi}_{K}0) massive field displays repulsive elasticity. In balance with dark energy and ordinary matter it provides a four parametric diversity of regular solutions of the Einstein equations describing different possible cosmological and oscillating non-singular scenarios of evolution of the universe. In particular, the singular big bang turns into a regular inflation-like transition from contraction to expansion with the accelerate expansion at late times. The fine-tuned Friedman-Robertson-Walker singular solution is a particular limiting case at the boundary of existence of regular oscillating soluti...
MACROSCOPIC DIVERSITY FOR CDMA MOBILE SYSTEM
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Pei Xiaoyan; Hu Jiandong
2002-01-01
A novel system of macroscopic diversity with voting rule in CDMA cellular system is suggested in order to raise the coverage and quality of service of CDMA mobile communication system. The estimation of the impact of macroscopic diversity on performance of CDMA cellular system is analyzed and investigated.
MACROSCOPIC DIVERSITY FOR CDMA MOBILE SYSTEM
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
PeiXiaoyan; HuJiandong
2002-01-01
A novel system of macroscopic diversity with voting rule in CDMA cellular system is suggested in order to raise the coverage and quality of service of CDMA mobile communication system.The estimation of the impact of macroscopic diversity on performance of CDMA cellular system is analyzed and investigated.
Gas reservoir evaluation for underbalanced horizontal drilling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li Gao
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A set of surface equipment for monitoring the parameters of fluid and pressure while drilling was developed, and mathematical models for gas reservoir seepage and wellbore two-phase flow were established. Based on drilling operation parameters, well structure and monitored parameters, the wellbore pressure and the gas reservoir permeability could be predicted theoretically for underbalanced horizontal drilling. Based on the monitored gas production along the well depth, the gas reservoir type could be identified.
Rank distributions: A panoramic macroscopic outlook
Eliazar, Iddo I.; Cohen, Morrel H.
2014-01-01
This paper presents a panoramic macroscopic outlook of rank distributions. We establish a general framework for the analysis of rank distributions, which classifies them into five macroscopic "socioeconomic" states: monarchy, oligarchy-feudalism, criticality, socialism-capitalism, and communism. Oligarchy-feudalism is shown to be characterized by discrete macroscopic rank distributions, and socialism-capitalism is shown to be characterized by continuous macroscopic size distributions. Criticality is a transition state between oligarchy-feudalism and socialism-capitalism, which can manifest allometric scaling with multifractal spectra. Monarchy and communism are extreme forms of oligarchy-feudalism and socialism-capitalism, respectively, in which the intrinsic randomness vanishes. The general framework is applied to three different models of rank distributions—top-down, bottom-up, and global—and unveils each model's macroscopic universality and versatility. The global model yields a macroscopic classification of the generalized Zipf law, an omnipresent form of rank distributions observed across the sciences. An amalgamation of the three models establishes a universal rank-distribution explanation for the macroscopic emergence of a prevalent class of continuous size distributions, ones governed by unimodal densities with both Pareto and inverse-Pareto power-law tails.
Investigation of dissipative forces near macroscopic media
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Becker, R.S.
1982-12-01
The interaction of classical charged particles with the fields they induce in macroscopic dielectric media is investigated. For 10- to 1000-eV electrons, the angular perturbation of the trajectory by the image potential for surface impact parameters of 50 to 100 A is shown to be of the order of 0.001 rads over a distance of 100 A. The energy loss incurred by low-energy particles due to collective excitations such as surface plasmons is shown to be observable with a transition probability of 0.01 to 0.001 (Becker, et al., 1981b). The dispersion of real surface plasmon modes in planar and cylindrical geometries is discussed and is derived for pinhole geometry described in terms of a single-sheeted hyperboloid of revolution. An experimental apparatus for the measurement of collective losses for medium-energy electrons translating close to a dielectric surface is described and discussed. Data showing such losses at electron energies of 500 to 900 eV in silver foils containing many small apertures are presented and shown to be in good agreement with classical stopping power calculations and quantum mechanical calculations carried out in the low-velocity limit. The data and calculations are compared and contrasted with earlier transmission and reflection measurements, and the course of further investigation is discussed.
Searching for the nanoscopic–macroscopic boundary
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Velásquez, E.A. [GICM and GES Groups, Instituto de Física-FCEN, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21 Medellín (Colombia); Grupo de Investigación en Modelamiento y Simulación Computacional, Universidad de San Buenaventura Sec. Medellín, A.A. 5222, Medellín (Colombia); Altbir, D. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), CEDENNA, Santiago (Chile); Mazo-Zuluaga, J. [GICM and GES Groups, Instituto de Física-FCEN, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21 Medellín (Colombia); Duque, L.F. [GICM and GES Groups, Instituto de Física-FCEN, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21 Medellín (Colombia); Grupo de Física Teórica, Aplicada y Didáctica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Aplicadas Instituto Tecnológico Metropolitano, Medellín (Colombia); Mejía-López, J., E-mail: jmejia@puc.cl [Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, CEDENNA, Santiago (Chile)
2013-12-15
Several studies have focused on the size-dependent properties of elements, looking for a unique definition of the nanoscopic–macroscopic boundary. By using a novel approach consisting of an energy variational method combined with a quantum Heisenberg model, here we address the size at which the ordering temperature of a magnetic nanoparticle reaches its bulk value. We consider samples with sizes in the range 1–500 nm, as well as several geometries and crystalline lattices and observe that, contrarily to what is commonly argued, the nanoscopic-microscopic boundary depends on both factors: shape and crystalline structure. This suggests that the surface-to-volume ratio is not the unique parameter that defines the behavior of a nanometric sample whenever its size increases reaching the bulk dimension. Comparisons reveal very good agreement with experimental evidence with differences less than 2%. Our results have broad implications for practical issues in measurements on systems at the nanometric scale. - Highlights: • A novel quantum-Heisenberg variational energy method is implemented. • The asymptotic behavior toward the thermodynamic limit is explored. • An important dependence of the nano-bulk boundary on the geometry is found. • And also an important dependence on the crystalline lattice. • We obtain a very good agreement with experimental evidence with differences <2%.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
邱先强; 任广磊; 李治平; 卢菊红; 刘银山
2012-01-01
Coalbed Methane (CBM) gas has a complex process of desorplion-diffusion-seepage in the stage of development, causing the changes of pore structure and impaction on production to some extent. Therefore, it is necessary to take the self-regulating effect on pore changes into consideration when studying the material balance of CBM reservoirs. On the basis of the establishment of the model, we infer the CBM reservoir material balance equation. Combined with gas, aquatic energy equation and the relative permeability curves as well as the deviation factor with increasing pressure, we conduct dynamic predict of CBM reservoir production. It is of high reliability by matching the predicted results and the actual production data. Based on the parameter sensitivity analysis, we obtain that in the late production of CBM wells, on the condition of different sensitivity, reservoir pressure and time exhibit an exponential correlation, and the impaction of reservoir pressure on gas well production. Comprehensive analysis of the results shows that the CBM reservoir production of good self-regulating effect, high permeability, high Langerhans pressure and big seam thickness is relatively high.%煤层气体在开发阶段经历了解吸—扩散—渗流的复杂过程,会引起孔隙结构的变化,对产能造成一定影响.因此,研究煤层气藏的物质平衡时,需要考虑自调节效应对孔隙变化的影响.通过建立模型,推导了煤层气藏的物质平衡方程,结合气、水产能方程以及相渗曲线,并且考虑偏差因子随压力的变化,对煤层气藏产能进行动态预测,预测结果通过与实际生产数据历史拟合,验证了模型具有较高的可靠性.通过参数敏感性分析,得出煤层气井生产中后期不同敏感性条件下储层压力与时间成指数对应关系及其对气井生产的影响.综合分析结果表明,自调节效应好、渗透率高、朗氏压力高和煤层厚度大的煤层气藏产能相对较高.
Macroscopic transport by synthetic molecular machines
Berna, J; Leigh, DA; Lubomska, M; Mendoza, SM; Perez, EM; Rudolf, P; Teobaldi, G; Zerbetto, F
2005-01-01
Nature uses molecular motors and machines in virtually every significant biological process, but demonstrating that simpler artificial structures operating through the same gross mechanisms can be interfaced with - and perform physical tasks in - the macroscopic world represents a significant hurdle
Assessments of macroscopicity for quantum optical states
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Laghaout, Amine; Neergaard-Nielsen, Jonas Schou; Andersen, Ulrik Lund
2015-01-01
With the slow but constant progress in the coherent control of quantum systems, it is now possible to create large quantum superpositions. There has therefore been an increased interest in quantifying any claims of macroscopicity. We attempt here to motivate three criteria which we believe should...... enter in the assessment of macroscopic quantumness: The number of quantum fluctuation photons, the purity of the states, and the ease with which the branches making up the state can be distinguished. © 2014....
Quantum Bell Inequalities from Macroscopic Locality
Yang, Tzyh Haur; Sheridan, Lana; Scarani, Valerio
2010-01-01
We propose a method to generate analytical quantum Bell inequalities based on the principle of Macroscopic Locality. By imposing locality over binary processings of virtual macroscopic intensities, we establish a correspondence between Bell inequalities and quantum Bell inequalities in bipartite scenarios with dichotomic observables. We discuss how to improve the latter approximation and how to extend our ideas to scenarios with more than two outcomes per setting.
Applying quantum mechanics to macroscopic and mesoscopic systems
T., N Poveda
2012-01-01
There exists a paradigm in which Quantum Mechanics is an exclusively developed theory to explain phenomena on a microscopic scale. As the Planck's constant is extremely small, $h\\sim10^{-34}{J.s}$, and as in the relation of de Broglie the wavelength is inversely proportional to the momentum; for a mesoscopic or macroscopic object the Broglie wavelength is very small, and consequently the undulatory behavior of this object is undetectable. In this paper we show that with a particle oscillating around its classical trajectory, the action is an integer multiple of a quantum of action, $S = nh_{o}$. The quantum of action, $h_{o}$, which plays a role equivalent to Planck's constant, is a free parameter that must be determined and depends on the physical system considered. For a mesoscopic and macroscopic system: $h_{o}\\gg h$, this allows us to describe these systems with the formalism of quantum mechanics.
Indirect measurement of interfacial melting from macroscopic ice observations.
Saruya, Tomotaka; Kurita, Kei; Rempel, Alan W
2014-06-01
Premelted water that is adsorbed to particle surfaces and confined to capillary regions remains in the liquid state well below the bulk melting temperature and can supply the segregated growth of ice lenses. Using macroscopic measurements of ice-lens initiation position in step-freezing experiments, we infer how the nanometer-scale thicknesses of premelted films depend on temperature depression below bulk melting. The interfacial interactions between ice, liquid, and soda-lime glass particles exhibit a power-law behavior that suggests premelting in our system is dominated by short-range electrostatic forces. Using our inferred film thicknesses as inputs to a simple force-balance model with no adjustable parameters, we obtain good quantitative agreement between numerical predictions and observed ice-lens thickness. Macroscopic observations of lensing behavior have the potential as probes of premelting behavior in other systems.
Cima, Lionel F.; Mir, Lluis M.
2004-11-01
A method is described to experimentally determine the temporal evolution of state variables involved in the electroporation of biological tissue, i.e., the transmembrane voltage and the macroscopic current flowing in the electropores. Indeed, the electrical parameters of the extracellular, intracellular, and unaltered membrane contributions as well as the electropores electrical characteristics can be deduced from the measurement of the tissue bioimpedance and from the variations of both the macroscopic voltage applied to the tissue and the delivered current.
basement reservoir geometry and properties
Walter, bastien; Geraud, yves; Diraison, marc
2017-04-01
-rift exhumation phases. Macroscopic fracture density is highly dependent on the petrographic nature of the basement, with values up to 80 frac./m in fault damage zones of crystalline rocks. Dense micro-cracks associated to major fault structures can develop porosity and permeability up to 10% and 0.1 D. In some weathered horizons, alteration can develop matrix porosity up to 40% and the permeability reaches up to 1D. This study highlights therefore that basement reservoir properties are the result of the long geodynamic evolution of such formations, and the different fault zone compartments or weathering horizons have to be considered separately for reservoir understanding.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
华卫; 陈章立; 郑斯华; 晏纯清
2012-01-01
in this region and to obtain the site responses. After that, source parameters of 1616 earthquakes with magnitude bigger than 0. 1 were calculated and the differences existing in characteristics of source parameters between reservoir induced seismicity and tectonic earthquake were discussed. Our results show that (1) Seismicity in Longtan reservoir has strong relationship with the water filling of reservoir and the activity status of seismicity for these five clusters are various in different water filling period. The response of seismicity to the water filling process is affected by the development of local faulted structure and the water permeability of the rock. (2) Seismic moment M0 increases with increasing magnitude ML in Longtan reservoir and their statistical relationship is LogM0 = 1. 07ML + 10. 17. Relationship between stress drop and magnitude is consistent with the result gained by Nuttli that intraplate earthquake follows the ISD model, with a statistical relationship LogΔσ=0. 71ML -2. 89. (3) Radiated seismic energy and apparent stress in Longtan reservoir all increase with increasing magnitude, indicating that the big earthquake is a radiator of seismic energy with more efficient rather than small earthquake. (4) In general, there are some differences in stress drop for different cluster. The distribution of stress drops has a good consistence with the water depth of reservoir, with high value of stress drop in deeper water depth. (5) Stress drops of reservoir induced seismicity are smaller than that of tectonic earthquake with same magnitude apparently, about 10 times. These results maybe indicate that the reservoir induced seismicity can occur with a lower tectonic stress due to the high hole pressure of the underground medium and the effect of the water lubrication.
Macroscopic Quantum Phenomena from the Correlation, Coupling and Criticality Perspectives
Chou, C. H.; Hu, B. L.; Subaşi, Y.
2011-12-01
In this sequel paper we explore how macroscopic quantum phenomena can be measured or understood from the behavior of quantum correlations which exist in a quantum system of many particles or components and how the interaction strengths change with energy or scale, under ordinary situations and when the system is near its critical point. We use the nPI (master) effective action related to the Boltzmann-BBGKY / Schwinger-Dyson hierarchy of equations as a tool for systemizing the contributions of higher order correlation functions to the dynamics of lower order correlation functions. Together with the large N expansion discussed in our first paper [1] we explore 1) the conditions whereby an H-theorem is obtained, which can be viewed as a signifier of the emergence of macroscopic behavior in the system. We give two more examples from past work: 2) the nonequilibrium dynamics of N atoms in an optical lattice under the large Script N (field components), 2PI and second order perturbative expansions, illustrating how N and Script N enter in these three aspects of quantum correlations, coherence and coupling strength. 3) the behavior of an interacting quantum system near its critical point, the effects of quantum and thermal fluctuations and the conditions under which the system manifests infrared dimensional reduction. We also discuss how the effective field theory concept bears on macroscopic quantum phenomena: the running of the coupling parameters with energy or scale imparts a dynamical-dependent and an interaction-sensitive definition of 'macroscopia'.
Macroscopic optical response and photonic bands
Perez-Huerta, J S; Mendoza, Bernardo S; Mochan, W Luis
2012-01-01
We develop a formalism for the calculation of the macroscopic dielectric response of composite systems made of particles of one material embedded periodically within a matrix of another material, each of which is characterized by a well defined dielectric function. The nature of these dielectric functions is arbitrary, and could correspond to dielectric or conducting, transparent or opaque, absorptive and dispersive materials. The geometry of the particles and the Bravais lattice of the composite are also arbitrary. Our formalism goes beyond the longwavelenght approximation as it fully incorporates retardation effects. We test our formalism through the study the propagation of electromagnetic waves in 2D photonic crystals made of periodic arrays of cylindrical holes in a dispersionless dielectric host. Our macroscopic theory yields a spatially dispersive macroscopic response which allows the calculation of the full photonic band structure of the system, as well as the characterization of its normal modes, upo...
A macroscopic challenge for quantum spacetime
Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni
2013-01-01
Over the last decade a growing number of quantum-gravity researchers has been looking for opportunities for the first ever experimental evidence of a Planck-length quantum property of spacetime. These studies are usually based on the analysis of some candidate indirect implications of spacetime quantization, such as a possible curvature of momentum space. Some recent proposals have raised hope that we might also gain direct experimental access to quantum properties of spacetime, by finding evidence of limitations to the measurability of the center-of-mass coordinates of some macroscopic bodies. However I here observe that the arguments that originally lead to speculating about spacetime quantization do not apply to the localization of the center of mass of a macroscopic body. And I also analyze some popular formalizations of the notion of quantum spacetime, finding that when the quantization of spacetime is Planckian for the constituent particles then for the composite macroscopic body the quantization of spa...
On Macroscopic Complexity and Perceptual Coding
Scoville, John
2010-01-01
While Shannon information establishes limits to the universal data compression of binary data, no existing theory provides an equivalent characterization of the lossy data compression algorithms prevalent in audiovisual media. The current paper proposes a mathematical framework for perceptual coding and inference which quantifies the complexity of objects indistinguishable to a particular observer. A definition of the complexity is presented and related to a generalization of Boltzmann entropy for these equivalence classes. When the classes are partitions of phase space, corresponding to classical observations, this is the proper Boltzmann entropy and the macroscopic complexity agrees with the Algorithmic Entropy. For general classes, the macroscopic complexity measure determines the optimal lossy compression of the data. Conversely, perceptual coding algorithms may be used to construct upper bounds on certain macroscopic complexities. Knowledge of these complexities, in turn, allows perceptual inference whic...
Nanoplasmon-enabled macroscopic thermal management
Jonsson, Gustav Edman; Dmitriev, Alexandre
2013-01-01
In numerous applications of energy harvesting via transformation of light into heat the focus recently shifted towards highly absorptive materials featuring nanoplasmons. It is currently established that noble metals-based absorptive plasmonic platforms deliver significant light-capturing capability and can be viewed as super-absorbers of optical radiation. However, direct experimental evidence of plasmon-enabled macroscopic temperature increase that would result from these efficient absorptive properties is scarce. Here we derive a general quantitative method of characterizing light-capturing properties of a given heat-generating absorptive layer by macroscopic thermal imaging. We further monitor macroscopic areas that are homogeneously heated by several degrees with plasmon nanostructures that occupy a mere 8% of the surface, leaving it essentially transparent and evidencing significant heat generation capability of nanoplasmon-enabled light capture. This has a direct bearing to thermophotovoltaics and othe...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
姜黎明; 孙建孟; 刘学锋; 王海涛
2012-01-01
The variation law of the effect of natural gas saturation on the reservoir rocks' elastic parameters, such as elastic moduli, P-wave and S-wave velocities, Lame constant, Poisson's ratio, is studied based on 3D digital cores. The results show that gas saturation of reservoir rocks has little influence on S-wave velocity and the S-wave velocity increases slowly with the increase of gas saturation. The elastic parameters, such as Lame constant, Poisson's ratio, P-wave velocity, the ratio of P-wave velocity to S-wave velocity, decrease as the gas saturation increases, Moreover, they are changed sharply when the sandstone contains very small amount of gas. After comparing the change ratios of the elastic parameters with the variation of gas saturation, it is found the Lame constant is most sensitive to the variation of gas saturation, followed by Poisson's ratio, bulk modulus and the ratio of P-wave velocity to S-wave velocity. Through this study, the parameter which is sensitive to change of gas saturation can be used to calculate gas saturation of reservoir rocks in order to improve the calculation accuracy.%基于三维数字岩心,对岩石的弹性模量、纵横波速度、拉梅常数、泊松比等参数随不同含气饱和度变化规律进行数值研究.研究结果表明岩石的含气饱和度对横波速度影响不大,含气饱和度的增加将引起横波速度的缓慢增加.岩石的拉梅常数、泊松比、纵波速度、弹性模量和纵横波速度比随含气饱和度的增加而减小,当含气饱和度较低时,它们随含气饱和度增加急剧降低.将各弹性参数随含气饱和度的变化率进行比较,发现对天然气饱和度变化最敏感的参数是拉梅常数,其次是泊松比、体积模量和纵横波速度比等.该研究有助于选取对天然气饱和度变化敏感的参数计算储层的含气饱和度,从而提高计算精度.
Understanding the Pulsar High Energy Emission: Macroscopic and Kinetic Models
Kalapotharakos, Constantinos; Brambilla, Gabriele; Timokhin, Andrey; Kust Harding, Alice; Kazanas, Demos
2017-08-01
Pulsars are extraordinary objects powered by the rotation of magnetic fields of order 10^8, 10^12G anchored onto neutron stars and rotating with periods 10^(-3)-10s. These fields mediate the conversion of their rotational energy into MHD winds and at the same time accelerate particles to energies sufficiently high to produce GeV photons. Fermi, since its launch in 2008, has established several trends among the observed gamma-ray pulsar properties playing a catalytic role in the current modeling of the high energy emission in pulsar magnetospheres. We judiciously use the guidance provided by the Fermi data to yield meaningful constraints on the macroscopic parameters of our global dissipative pulsar magnetosphere models. Our FIDO (Force-Free Inside, Dissipative Outside) models indicate that the dissipative regions lie outside the light cylinder near the equatorial current sheet. Our models reproduce the light-curve phenomenology while a detailed comparison of the model spectral properties with those observed by Fermi reveals the dependence of the macroscopic conductivity parameter on the spin-down rate providing a unique insight into the understanding of the physical mechanisms behind the high-energy emission in pulsar magnetospheres. Finally, we further exploit these important results by building self-consistent 3D global kinetic particle-in-cell (PIC) models which, eventually, provide the dependence of the macroscopic parameter behavior (e.g. conductivity) on the microphysical properties (e.g. particle multiplicities, particle injection rates). Our PIC models provide field structures and particle distributions that are not only consistent with each other but also able to reproduce a broad range of the observed gamma-ray phenomenology (light curves and spectral properties) of both young and millisecond pulsars.
Violation of smooth observable macroscopic realism in a harmonic oscillator.
Leshem, Amir; Gat, Omri
2009-08-14
We study the emergence of macrorealism in a harmonic oscillator subject to consecutive measurements of a squeezed action. We demonstrate a breakdown of dynamical realism in a wide parameter range that is maximized in a scaling limit of extreme squeezing, where it is based on measurements of smooth observables, implying that macroscopic realism is not valid in the harmonic oscillator. We propose an indirect experimental test of these predictions with entangled photons by demonstrating that local realism in a composite system implies dynamical realism in a subsystem.
Modelling and simulations of macroscopic multi-group pedestrian flow
Mahato, Naveen K; Tiwari, Sudarshan
2016-01-01
We consider a multi-group microscopic model for pedestrian flow describing the behaviour of large groups. It is based on an interacting particle system coupled to an eikonal equation. Hydrodynamic multi-group models are derived from the underlying particle system as well as scalar multi-group models. The eikonal equation is used to compute optimal paths for the pedestrians. Particle methods are used to solve the macroscopic equations. Numerical test cases are investigated and the models and, in particular, the resulting evacuation times are compared for a wide range of different parameters.
Homaee, M.; Dirksen, C.; Feddes, R.A.
2002-01-01
A macroscopic root extraction model was used with four different reduction functions for salinity stress in the numerical simulation model HYSWASOR. Most of the parameter values originally proposed for these functions did not provide good agreement with the experimental data. Therefore, the paramete
Separation of the Microscopic and Macroscopic Domains
Van Zandt, L. L.
1977-01-01
Examines the possibility of observing interference in quantum magnification experiments such as the celebrated "Schroedinger cat". Uses the possibility of observing interference for separating the realm of microscopic from macroscopic dynamics; estimates the dividing line to fall at system sizes of about 100 Daltons. (MLH)
Macroscopic Modeling of Polymer-Electrolyte Membranes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weber, A.Z.; Newman, J.
2007-04-01
In this chapter, the various approaches for the macroscopic modeling of transport phenomena in polymer-electrolyte membranes are discussed. This includes general background and modeling methodologies, as well as exploration of the governing equations and some membrane-related topic of interest.
Lozenge Tilings, Glauber Dynamics and Macroscopic Shape
Laslier, Benoît; Toninelli, Fabio Lucio
2015-09-01
We study the Glauber dynamics on the set of tilings of a finite domain of the plane with lozenges of side 1/ L. Under the invariant measure of the process (the uniform measure over all tilings), it is well known (Cohn et al. J Am Math Soc 14:297-346, 2001) that the random height function associated to the tiling converges in probability, in the scaling limit , to a non-trivial macroscopic shape minimizing a certain surface tension functional. According to the boundary conditions, the macroscopic shape can be either analytic or contain "frozen regions" (Arctic Circle phenomenon Cohn et al. N Y J Math 4:137-165, 1998; Jockusch et al. Random domino tilings and the arctic circle theorem, arXiv:math/9801068, 1998). It is widely conjectured, on the basis of theoretical considerations (Henley J Statist Phys 89:483-507, 1997; Spohn J Stat Phys 71:1081-1132, 1993), partial mathematical results (Caputo et al. Commun Math Phys 311:157-189, 2012; Wilson Ann Appl Probab 14:274-325, 2004) and numerical simulations for similar models (Destainville Phys Rev Lett 88:030601, 2002; cf. also the bibliography in Henley (J Statist Phys 89:483-507, 1997) and Wilson (Ann Appl Probab 14:274-325, 2004), that the Glauber dynamics approaches the equilibrium macroscopic shape in a time of order L 2+ o(1). In this work we prove this conjecture, under the assumption that the macroscopic equilibrium shape contains no "frozen region".
Macroscopic invisibility cloaking of visible light
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chen, Xianzhong; Luo, Y.; Zhang, Jingjing
2011-01-01
to a few wavelengths. Here, we report the first realization of a macroscopic volumetric invisibility cloak constructed from natural birefringent crystals. The cloak operates at visible frequencies and is capable of hiding, for a specific light polarization, three-dimensional objects of the scale...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
吴一雄; 张超谟; 李玮
2013-01-01
火山岩储层岩性变化快,矿物组分种类多,裂缝、溶孔发育,孔隙结构复杂,储层“四性”非匀质性强等特点为火山岩储层物性的定量评价带来了极大的困难.采用聚类分析方法,利用同一地区多口取心井的岩心数据进行地层流动单元的划分,在每一种流动单元下建立相应的渗透率模型.在未取心井中建立流动分层指标与多项测井参数的回归关系,为流动单元的划分建立判别函数.采用密度-核磁共振孔隙度方法确定火山岩储层有效孔隙度.用松辽盆地南部长岭、英台断陷深层火山岩储层数据对该方法进行验证,获得了较好的应用效果.%Fast changes of the volcanic reservoirs lithology,varieties of mineral components,development of fractures and dissolution pores,complexity of pore structures and strong non-homogeneity lead to the great difficulties in the volcanic reservoirs quantitative evaluation.We use core data of several wells in the same area to divide hydraulic flow units (HFU) of the formation,and establish the permeability model for each HFU by cluster analysis method.In the uncored wells,we establish regression relationship of hydraulic flow index (IFz) with several logging parameters to find the discriminant function for the division of HFU.We determine the effective porosity of the volcanic reservoirs by density-NMR porosity method.And then we verify this method with volcanic reservoir data in Changling,Yingtai fault depression of southern Songliao basin,the result of which is much better.
Macroscopic quantum mechanics in a classical spacetime.
Yang, Huan; Miao, Haixing; Lee, Da-Shin; Helou, Bassam; Chen, Yanbei
2013-04-26
We apply the many-particle Schrödinger-Newton equation, which describes the coevolution of a many-particle quantum wave function and a classical space-time geometry, to macroscopic mechanical objects. By averaging over motions of the objects' internal degrees of freedom, we obtain an effective Schrödinger-Newton equation for their centers of mass, which can be monitored and manipulated at quantum levels by state-of-the-art optomechanics experiments. For a single macroscopic object moving quantum mechanically within a harmonic potential well, its quantum uncertainty is found to evolve at a frequency different from its classical eigenfrequency-with a difference that depends on the internal structure of the object-and can be observable using current technology. For several objects, the Schrödinger-Newton equation predicts semiclassical motions just like Newtonian physics, yet quantum uncertainty cannot be transferred from one object to another.
Macroscopic Invisibility Cloaking of Visible Light
Chen, Xianzhong; Zhang, Jingjing; Jiang, Kyle; Pendry, John B; Zhang, Shuang
2010-01-01
Invisibility cloaks of light, which used to be confined to the imagination, have now been turned into a scientific reality, thanks to the enabling theoretical tools of transformation optics and conformal mapping. Inspired by those theoretical works, the experimental realisation of electromagnetic invisibility cloaks has been reported at various electromagnetic frequencies. All the invisibility cloaks demonstrated thus far, however, have relied on nano- or micro-fabricated artificial composite materials with spatially varying electromagnetic properties, which limit the size of the cloaked region to a few wavelengths. Here we report realisation of a macroscopic volumetric invisibility cloak constructed from natural birefringent crystals. The cloak operates at visible frequencies and is capable of hiding three-dimensional objects of the scale of centimetres and millimetres. Our work opens avenues for future applications with macroscopic cloaking devices.
Macroscopic spin and charge transport theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Li Da-Fang; Shi Jun-Ren
2009-01-01
According to the general principle of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, we propose a set of macroscopic transport equations for the spin transport and the charge transport. In particular, the spin torque is introduced as a generalized 'current density' to describe the phenomena associated with the spin non-conservation in a unified framework. The Einstein relations and the Onsager relations between different transport phenomena are established. Specifically, the spin transport properties of the isotropic non-magnetic and the isotropic magnetic two-dimensional electron gases are fully described by using this theory, in which only the macroscopic-spin-related transport phenomena allowed by the symmetry of the system are taken into account.
Macroscopic entrainment of periodically forced oscillatory ensembles.
Popovych, Oleksandr V; Tass, Peter A
2011-03-01
Large-amplitude oscillations of macroscopic neuronal signals, such as local field potentials and electroencephalography or magnetoencephalography signals, are commonly considered as being generated by a population of mutually synchronized neurons. In a computational study in generic networks of phase oscillators and bursting neurons, however, we show that this common belief may be wrong if the neuronal population receives an external rhythmic input. The latter may stem from another neuronal population or an external, e.g., sensory or electrical, source. In that case the population field potential may be entrained by the rhythmic input, whereas the individual neurons are phase desynchronized both mutually and with their field potential. Intriguingly, the corresponding large-amplitude oscillations of the population mean field are generated by pairwise desynchronized neurons oscillating at frequencies shifted far away from the frequency of the macroscopic field potential.
Adsorption modeling for macroscopic contaminant dispersal analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Axley, J.W.
1990-05-01
Two families of macroscopic adsorption models are formulated, based on fundamental principles of adsorption science and technology, that may be used for macroscopic (such as whole-building) contaminant dispersal analysis. The first family of adsorption models - the Equilibrium Adsorption (EA) Models - are based upon the simple requirement of equilibrium between adsorbent and room air. The second family - the Boundary Layer Diffusion Controlled Adsorption (BLDC) Models - add to the equilibrium requirement a boundary layer model for diffusion of the adsorbate from the room air to the adsorbent surface. Two members of each of these families are explicitly discussed, one based on the linear adsorption isotherm model and the other on the Langmuir model. The linear variants of each family are applied to model the adsorption dynamics of formaldehyde in gypsum wall board and compared to measured data.
Macroscopic Invisible Cloak for Visible Light
Zhang, Baile; Liu, Xiaogang; Barbastathis, George
2011-01-01
Invisibility cloaks, a subject that usually occurs in science fiction and myths, have attracted wide interest recently because of their possible realization. The biggest challenge to true invisibility is known to be the cloaking of a macroscopic object in the broad range of wavelengths visible to the human eye. Here we experimentally solve this problem by incorporating the principle of transformation optics into a conventional optical lens fabrication with low-cost materials and simple manufacturing techniques. A transparent cloak made of two pieces of calcite is created. This cloak is able to conceal a macroscopic object with a maximum height of 2 mm, larger than 3500 free-space-wavelength, inside a transparent liquid environment. Its working bandwidth encompassing red, green and blue light is also demonstrated.
Macroscopic Quantum Resonators (MAQRO): 2015 update
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kaltenbaek, Rainer [University of Vienna, Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology, Vienna (Austria); Aspelmeyer, Markus; Kiesel, Nikolai [University of Vienna, Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology, Vienna (Austria); Barker, Peter F.; Bose, Sougato [University College London, Department of Physics and Astronomy, London (United Kingdom); Bassi, Angelo [University of Trieste, Department of Physics, Trieste (Italy); INFN - Trieste Section, Trieste (Italy); Bateman, James [University of Swansea, Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea (United Kingdom); Bongs, Kai; Cruise, Adrian Michael [University of Birmingham, School of Physics and Astronomy, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Braxmaier, Claus [University of Bremen, Center of Applied Space Technology and Micro Gravity (ZARM), Bremen (Germany); Institute of Space Systems, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Bremen (Germany); Brukner, Caslav [University of Vienna, Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology, Vienna (Austria); Austrian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Quantum Optics and Quantum Information (IQOQI), Vienna (Austria); Christophe, Bruno; Rodrigues, Manuel [The French Aerospace Lab, ONERA, Chatillon (France); Chwalla, Michael; Johann, Ulrich [Airbus Defence and Space GmbH, Immenstaad (Germany); Cohadon, Pierre-Francois; Heidmann, Antoine; Lambrecht, Astrid; Reynaud, Serge [ENS-PSL Research University, Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, UPMC-Sorbonne Universites, CNRS, College de France, Paris (France); Curceanu, Catalina [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Dholakia, Kishan; Mazilu, Michael [University of St. Andrews, School of Physics and Astronomy, St. Andrews (United Kingdom); Diosi, Lajos [Wigner Research Center for Physics, P.O. Box 49, Budapest (Hungary); Doeringshoff, Klaus; Peters, Achim [Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Institut fuer Physik, Berlin (Germany); Ertmer, Wolfgang; Rasel, Ernst M. [Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hannover (Germany); Gieseler, Jan; Novotny, Lukas; Rondin, Loic [ETH Zuerich, Photonics Laboratory, Zuerich (Switzerland); Guerlebeck, Norman; Herrmann, Sven; Laemmerzahl, Claus [University of Bremen, Center of Applied Space Technology and Micro Gravity (ZARM), Bremen (Germany); Hechenblaikner, Gerald [Airbus Defence and Space GmbH, Immenstaad (Germany); European Southern Observatory (ESO), Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Hossenfelder, Sabine [KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University, Nordita, Stockholm (Sweden); Kim, Myungshik [Imperial College London, QOLS, Blackett Laboratory, London (United Kingdom); Milburn, Gerard J. [University of Queensland, ARC Centre for Engineered Quantum Systems, Brisbane (Australia); Mueller, Holger [University of California, Department of Physics, Berkeley, CA (United States); Paternostro, Mauro [Queen' s University, Centre for Theoretical Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Belfast (United Kingdom); Pikovski, Igor [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, ITAMP, Cambridge, MA (United States); Pilan Zanoni, Andre [Airbus Defence and Space GmbH, Immenstaad (Germany); CERN - European Organization for Nuclear Research, EN-STI-TCD, Geneva (Switzerland); Riedel, Charles Jess [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Roura, Albert [Universitaet Ulm, Institut fuer Quantenphysik, Ulm (Germany); Schleich, Wolfgang P. [Universitaet Ulm, Institut fuer Quantenphysik, Ulm (Germany); Texas A and M University Institute for Advanced Study (TIAS), Institute for Quantum Science and Engineering (IQSE), and Department of Physics and Astronomy, College Station, TX (United States); Schmiedmayer, Joerg [Vienna University of Technology, Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology, Institute of Atomic and Subatomic Physics, Vienna (Austria); Schuldt, Thilo [Institute of Space Systems, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Bremen (Germany); Schwab, Keith C. [California Institute of Technology, Applied Physics, Pasadena, CA (United States)
2016-12-15
Do the laws of quantum physics still hold for macroscopic objects - this is at the heart of Schroedinger's cat paradox - or do gravitation or yet unknown effects set a limit for massive particles? What is the fundamental relation between quantum physics and gravity? Ground-based experiments addressing these questions may soon face limitations due to limited free-fall times and the quality of vacuum and microgravity. The proposed mission Macroscopic Quantum Resonators (MAQRO) may overcome these limitations and allow addressing such fundamental questions. MAQRO harnesses recent developments in quantum optomechanics, high-mass matter-wave interferometry as well as state-of-the-art space technology to push macroscopic quantum experiments towards their ultimate performance limits and to open new horizons for applying quantum technology in space. The main scientific goal is to probe the vastly unexplored 'quantum-classical' transition for increasingly massive objects, testing the predictions of quantum theory for objects in a size and mass regime unachievable in ground-based experiments. The hardware will largely be based on available space technology. Here, we present the MAQRO proposal submitted in response to the 4th Cosmic Vision call for a medium-sized mission (M4) in 2014 of the European Space Agency (ESA) with a possible launch in 2025, and we review the progress with respect to the original MAQRO proposal for the 3rd Cosmic Vision call for a medium-sized mission (M3) in 2010. In particular, the updated proposal overcomes several critical issues of the original proposal by relying on established experimental techniques from high-mass matter-wave interferometry and by introducing novel ideas for particle loading and manipulation. Moreover, the mission design was improved to better fulfill the stringent environmental requirements for macroscopic quantum experiments. (orig.)
A macroscopic approach to creating exotic matter
Ridgely, C. T.
2000-01-01
Herein the Casimir effect is used to present a simple macroscopic view on creating exotic matter. The energy arising between two nearly perfectly conducting parallel plates is shown to become increasingly negative as the plate separation is reduced. It is proposed that the Casimir energy appears increasingly negative simply because the vacuum electromagnetic zero-point field performs positive work in pushing the plates together, transforming field energy into kinetic energy of the plates. Nex...
Shot noise in linear macroscopic resistors
Gomila Lluch, Gabriel; Pennetta, C.; Reggiani, L.; Ferrari, G; Sampietro, M.; G. Bertuccio(Politecnico di Milano, Italy)
2004-01-01
We report on direct experimental evidence of shot noise in a linear macroscopic resistor. The origin of the shot noise comes from the fluctuation of the total number of charge carriers inside the resistor associated with their diffusive motion under the condition that the dielectric relaxation time becomes longer than the dynamic transit time. The present results show that neither potential barriers nor the absence of inelastic scattering are necessary to observe shot noise in electronic devi...
Shot Noise in Linear Macroscopic Resistors
Gomila, G.; Pennetta, C.; Reggiani, L.; Sampietro, M.; Ferrari, G.; Bertuccio, G.
2004-06-01
We report on direct experimental evidence of shot noise in a linear macroscopic resistor. The origin of the shot noise comes from the fluctuation of the total number of charge carriers inside the resistor associated with their diffusive motion under the condition that the dielectric relaxation time becomes longer than the dynamic transit time. The present results show that neither potential barriers nor the absence of inelastic scattering are necessary to observe shot noise in electronic devices.
Macroscopic Objects, Intrinsic Spin, and Lorentz Violation
Atkinson, David W; Tasson, Jay D
2013-01-01
The framework of the Standard-Model Extension (SME) provides a relativistic quantum field theory for the study of Lorentz violation. The classical, nonrelativistic equations of motion can be extracted as a limit that is useful in various scenarios. In this work, we consider the effects of certain SME coefficients for Lorentz violation on the motion of macroscopic objects having net intrinsic spin in the classical, nonrelativistic limit.
Microscopic and macroscopic theories for the dynamics of polar liquid crystals.
Wittkowski, Raphael; Löwen, Hartmut; Brand, Helmut R
2011-10-01
We derive and analyze the dynamic equations for polar liquid crystals in two spatial dimensions in the framework of classical dynamical density functional theory (DDFT). Translational density variations, polarization, and quadrupolar order are used as order-parameter fields. The results are critically compared with those obtained using the macroscopic approach of time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau (GL) equations for the analogous order-parameter fields. We demonstrate that, for both the microscopic DDFT and the macroscopic GL approach, the resulting dissipative dynamics can be derived from a dissipation function. We obtain microscopic expressions for all diagonal contributions and for many of the cross-coupling terms emerging from a GL approach. Thus, we establish a bridge between molecular correlations and macroscopic modeling for the dissipative dynamics of polar liquid crystals.
Identifying and Evaluating of Oil Reservoir
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yang Haixia
2002-01-01
The identification and evaluation of oil reservoir with logging data are one of most important ways in geologic logging services. For the last decades, with the further development of the oil & gas exploration, great advances have been achieved in techniques on the acquisition, processing and interpretative evaluation of logging data. How to identify fluid characteristics and evaluate the productivity in light oil reservoir (the crude density being between 0.74g/cm3 and 0.82g/cm3)has become one of the difficulties.With the establishment of the regional interpretation criterion of the study blocks, the optimized logging parameters that reflect the reservoir characteristics have been used to establish the chart for the interpretation of oil-water reservoir combining with well logging parameters. Then, to begin with geologic reserves of crude in single well, we establish evaluation criterion for productivity in oil reservoir with determining lower limit value of the reservoir and applying the relationship between chart parameters. The techniques are verified in production and get better effect.On the basis of the reservoir characteristics analysis of both basin A and B, We established the evaluation method of static productivity on light oil reservoir with getting quantitative evaluation parameters after quantitatively evaluating the date of core, pyrolysis chromatogram and gas chromatogram. It provides new technique 7 for new well interpretation and old well review, as well as evidence for project.design of well testing.
Active Polar Two-Fluid Macroscopic Dynamics
Pleiner, Harald; Svensek, Daniel; Brand, Helmut R.
2014-03-01
We study the dynamics of systems with a polar dynamic preferred direction. Examples include the pattern-forming growth of bacteria (in a solvent, shoals of fish (moving in water currents), flocks of birds and migrating insects (flying in windy air). Because the preferred direction only exists dynamically, but not statically, the macroscopic variable of choice is the macroscopic velocity associated with the motion of the active units. We derive the macroscopic equations for such a system and discuss novel static, reversible and irreversible cross-couplings connected to this second velocity. We find a normal mode structure quite different compared to the static descriptions, as well as linear couplings between (active) flow and e.g. densities and concentrations due to the genuine two-fluid transport derivatives. On the other hand, we get, quite similar to the static case, a direct linear relation between the stress tensor and the structure tensor. This prominent ``active'' term is responsible for many active effects, meaning that our approach can describe those effects as well. In addition, we also deal with explicitly chiral systems, which are important for many active systems. In particular, we find an active flow-induced heat current specific for the dynamic chiral polar order.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
周昕; 杨福平; 钟羽云; 龚俊
2012-01-01
U sing the digital seismic wave data recorded by the station network in Zhejiang province and calculating source spectrum parameters with local quake records under Brune model, the system measures the stress drop and apparent stress values of 326 earthquakes that happened in Shanxi reservoir, Jiaokou reservoir and Zhejiang province. Provided with characteristics of stress drop and apparent stress parameters, this paper has conducted a comparative analysis, preliminary findings show that values of stress drop and apparent stress of Jiaokou earthquakes are less than that of tectonic earthquakes in Zhejiang. The stress drop and apparent stress of Shanxi reservoir earthquake and tectonic earthquakes are characterized by earthquake magnitude segmentation: for earthquakes of same magnitude with M＜4, the two types of earthquakes shows little difference in values of stress drop and apparent stress; for earthquakes with M＞4, the stress drop and apparent stress of tectonic earthquakes are higher than that of Shanxi reservoir earthquakes. In addition, we found that the logarithm of stress drop and apparent stress poses good linear relationship with the magnitude ML.%利用浙江区域数字地震台网记录到的地震波数据,采用布龙模式下近震源记录计算震源谱参数的方法,系统测定了发生在温州珊溪水库、宁波皎口水库库区以及浙江地区构造地震共326次地震的应力降、视应力等参数.给出了两个水库区地震与构造地震的应力降与视应力参数特征,并进行了对比分析.初步研究发现,皎口地震的应力降和视应力值均低于浙江地区构造地震;珊溪水库地震与构造地震在应力降和视应力值上具有震级分段的特征:震级ML＜4.0级的地震,同震级的应力降和视应力值两者相差不大,而震级ML＞4.0级的地震,构造地震的应力降和视应力值均高于珊溪水库地震.此外,测定的应力降、视应力的对数与震级ML之间存在较好的线性关系.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
程海清; 赵庆辉; 刘宝良; 吴拓; 彭旭
2012-01-01
针对超稠油油藏开展火烧油层技术可行性研究的需要,利用自行设计研制的火烧油层物理模拟实验装置,分别采用超稠油、特稠油、普通稠油开展了火烧油层燃烧基础参数物理模拟实验.对比了不同类型稠油门槛温度、燃料消耗量等燃烧基础参数,结合产出油组分及温度场发育特征,分析了超稠油燃烧基础参数特征.研究认为,超稠油油藏开展火烧油层试验是可行的,超稠油门槛温度、燃料消耗量等燃烧基础参数值均高于其他类型稠油；稠油火烧油层的驱油效率与黏度相关,黏度越大其燃料消耗量越大,其最终的驱油效率相对较低；火烧后原油性质发生了明显改善.%A physical simulation system has been designed and developed to study the feasibility of in - situ combustion for super heavy oil reservoirs. Physical simulation experiments have been carried out for the basic parameters of in - situ combustion by respectively using super heavy oil, extra heavy oil and conventional heavy oil. Basic combustion parameters such as threshold temperature and fuel consumption have been compared for different types of heavy oil. The parameter characteristics of super heavy oil combustion have been analyzed combining with produced oil composition and temperature field characteristics. It has been concluded that in - situ combustion is feasible for super heavy oil reservoirs, whose threshold temperature and fuel consumption are higher than other types of heavy oil. The displacement efficiency of in - situ combustion is related to oil viscosity. The higher the viscosity is, the bigger the fuel consumption is, and the lower the ultimate displacement efficiency will be. Crude oil properties have been substantially improved after in - situ combustion.
Macroscopic model and truncation error of discrete Boltzmann method
Hwang, Yao-Hsin
2016-10-01
A derivation procedure to secure the macroscopically equivalent equation and its truncation error for discrete Boltzmann method is proffered in this paper. Essential presumptions of two time scales and a small parameter in the Chapman-Enskog expansion are disposed of in the present formulation. Equilibrium particle distribution function instead of its original non-equilibrium form is chosen as key variable in the derivation route. Taylor series expansion encompassing fundamental algebraic manipulations is adequate to realize the macroscopically differential counterpart. A self-contained and comprehensive practice for the linear one-dimensional convection-diffusion equation is illustrated in details. Numerical validations on the incurred truncation error in one- and two-dimensional cases with various distribution functions are conducted to verify present formulation. As shown in the computational results, excellent agreement between numerical result and theoretical prediction are found in the test problems. Straightforward extensions to more complicated systems including convection-diffusion-reaction, multi-relaxation times in collision operator as well as multi-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations are also exposed in the Appendix to point out its expediency in solving complicated flow problems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lake, L.W.; Kocurek, G.A.; Miller, M.A.
1987-12-01
This report deals with a variety of topics all centered around the main goal of making numerical reservoir simulation results conform more closely with geologic descriptions. The first part of the report discusses results on conditional simulations of miscible displacements in randomly heterogeneous permeable media. The focus here is on local or macroscopic dispersion, the dispersion experienced at a fixed point in the medium. Macroscopic dispersivity has many of the same dependencies on reservoir properties as does megascopic dispersivity, but it seems to be less time dependent and is always smaller. We have not discovered a mathematical model to describe its behavior. A major portion of the report deals with statistical descriptions. We investigate the bias and precision of standard measures of heterogeneity, the Lorenz and Dykstra-Parsons coefficient. After this, the work explores the benefits of using a distribution type characterization parameter in exploring heterogeneity. The final major protion of the report describes our mapping efforts on the Page sandstone outcrop in northern Arizona. The mapping is to be used in generating both deterministic descriptions and in calibrating the stochastic descriptions discussed above. 128 refs., 95 figs., 10 tabs.
Exact Solution to Integrable Open Multi-species SSEP and Macroscopic Fluctuation Theory
Vanicat, M.
2017-03-01
We introduce a multi-species generalization of the symmetric simple exclusion process with open boundaries. This model possesses the property of being integrable and appears as physically relevant because the boundary conditions can be interpreted as the interaction with particles reservoirs with fixed densities of each species. The system is driven out-of-equilibrium by these reservoirs. The steady state is analytically computed in a matrix product form. This algebraic structure allows us to obtain exact expressions for the mean particle currents and for the one and two-point correlation functions. An additivity principle is also derived from the matrix ansatz and permits the computation of the large deviation functional of the density profile. We also propose a description of the model in the context of the macroscopic fluctuation theory and we check the consistency with the exact computations from the finite size lattice.
Exact Solution to Integrable Open Multi-species SSEP and Macroscopic Fluctuation Theory
Vanicat, M.
2017-01-01
We introduce a multi-species generalization of the symmetric simple exclusion process with open boundaries. This model possesses the property of being integrable and appears as physically relevant because the boundary conditions can be interpreted as the interaction with particles reservoirs with fixed densities of each species. The system is driven out-of-equilibrium by these reservoirs. The steady state is analytically computed in a matrix product form. This algebraic structure allows us to obtain exact expressions for the mean particle currents and for the one and two-point correlation functions. An additivity principle is also derived from the matrix ansatz and permits the computation of the large deviation functional of the density profile. We also propose a description of the model in the context of the macroscopic fluctuation theory and we check the consistency with the exact computations from the finite size lattice.
Labani, Mohammad Mahdi; Rezaee, Reza
2015-05-01
Evaluation of the gas shale mechanical properties is very important screening criteria for determining the potential intervals for hydraulic fracturing and as a result in gas shale sweet spot mapping. Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio are two controlling mechanical properties that dictate the brittleness of the gas shale layers. These parameters can be determined in the laboratory by testing the rock sample under different conditions (static method) or can be calculated using the well-logging data including sonic and density log data (dynamic method). This study investigates the importance of the shale composition and geochemical parameters on the Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio using log data. The data set of this study is coming from five different wells targeting the Kockatea Shale and Carynginia formation, two potential gas shale formations in the Perth Basin, Western Australia. The results show that converse to the common idea the effect of organic matter quantity and maturity on the rock mechanical properties of the gas shale reservoirs is not so much prominent, while the composition of the rock has an important effect on these properties. Considering the weight percentage of shale composition and organic matter quantity it could be concluded that effect of these parameters on rock mechanical properties is dependent on their weight contribution on the shale matrix. As well as effect of thermal maturity on the shale matrix and consequently on the rock mechanical properties of the shales is dependent on the organic matter content itself; therefore, obviously with a low organic matter content thermal maturity has no prominent effect on the brittleness as well.
Rainbow correlation imaging with macroscopic twin beam
Allevi, Alessia; Bondani, Maria
2017-06-01
We present the implementation of a correlation-imaging protocol that exploits both the spatial and spectral correlations of macroscopic twin-beam states generated by parametric downconversion. In particular, the spectral resolution of an imaging spectrometer coupled to an EMCCD camera is used in a proof-of-principle experiment to encrypt and decrypt a simple code to be transmitted between two parties. In order to optimize the trade-off between visibility and resolution, we provide the characterization of the correlation images as a function of the spatio-spectral properties of twin beams generated at different pump power values.
Fingerprint Feature Extraction Based on Macroscopic Curvature
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhang Xiong; He Gui-ming; Zhang Yun
2003-01-01
In the Automatic Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS), extracting the feature of fingerprint is very important. The local curvature of ridges of fingerprint is irregular, so people have the barrier to effectively extract the fingerprint curve features to describe fingerprint. This article proposes a novel algorithm; it embraces information of few nearby fingerprint ridges to extract a new characteristic which can describe the curvature feature of fingerprint. Experimental results show the algorithm is feasible, and the characteristics extracted by it can clearly show the inner macroscopic curve properties of fingerprint. The result also shows that this kind of characteristic is robust to noise and pollution.
Fingerprint Feature Extraction Based on Macroscopic Curvature
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhang; Xiong; He; Gui-Ming; 等
2003-01-01
In the Automatic Fingerprint Identification System(AFIS), extracting the feature of fingerprint is very important. The local curvature of ridges of fingerprint is irregular, so people have the barrier to effectively extract the fingerprint curve features to describe fingerprint. This article proposes a novel algorithm; it embraces information of few nearby fingerprint ridges to extract a new characterstic which can describe the curvature feature of fingerprint. Experimental results show the algorithm is feasible, and the characteristics extracted by it can clearly show the inner macroscopic curve properties of fingerprint. The result also shows that this kind of characteristic is robust to noise and pollution.
Macroscopic Quantum Criticality in a Circuit QED
Wang, Y D; Nori, F; Quan, H T; Sun, C P; Liu, Yu-xi; Nori, Franco
2006-01-01
Cavity quantum electrodynamic (QED) is studied for two strongly-coupled charge qubits interacting with a single-mode quantized field, which is provided by a on-chip transmission line resonator. We analyze the dressed state structure of this superconducting circuit QED system and the selection rules of electromagnetic-induced transitions between any two of these dressed states. Its macroscopic quantum criticality, in the form of ground state level crossing, is also analyzed, resulting from competition between the Ising-type inter-qubit coupling and the controllable on-site potentials.
Macroscopic fluctuations theory of aerogel dynamics
Lefevere, Raphael; Zambotti, Lorenzo
2010-01-01
We consider extensive deterministic dynamics made of $N$ particles modeling aerogels under a macroscopic fluctuation theory description. By using a stochastic model describing those dynamics after a diffusive rescaling, we show that the functional giving the exponential decay in $N$ of the probability of observing a given energy and current profile is not strictly convex as a function of the current. This behaviour is caused by the fact that the energy current is carried by particles which may have arbitrary low speed with sufficiently large probability.
Lojewski, Z; Pomorski, K
2003-01-01
Spontaneous fission half-lives (T sub s sub f) of the heaviest nuclei are calculated in the macroscopic-microscopic approach based on the deformed Woods-Saxon potential. Four different models of the macroscopic energy are examined and their influence on the results is discussed. The calculations of (T sub s sub f) are performed within WKB approximation. Multi-dimensional dynamical-programming method (MDP) is applied to minimize the action integral in a 3-dimensional space of deformation parameters describing the nuclear shape (beta sub 2 ,beta sub 4 ,beta sub 6).
Spin models as microfoundation of macroscopic market models
Krause, Sebastian M.; Bornholdt, Stefan
2013-09-01
Macroscopic price evolution models are commonly used for investment strategies. There are first promising achievements in defining microscopic agent based models for the same purpose. Microscopic models allow a deeper understanding of mechanisms in the market than the purely phenomenological macroscopic models, and thus bear the chance for better models for market regulation. However microscopic models and macroscopic models are commonly studied separately. Here, we exemplify a unified view of a microscopic and a macroscopic market model in a case study, deducing a macroscopic Langevin equation from a microscopic spin market model closely related to the Ising model. The interplay of the microscopic and the macroscopic view allows for a better understanding and adjustment of the microscopic model, as well, and may guide the construction of agent based market models as basis of macroscopic models.
Macroscopic self-reorientation of interacting two-dimensional crystals.
Woods, C R; Withers, F; Zhu, M J; Cao, Y; Yu, G; Kozikov, A; Ben Shalom, M; Morozov, S V; van Wijk, M M; Fasolino, A; Katsnelson, M I; Watanabe, K; Taniguchi, T; Geim, A K; Mishchenko, A; Novoselov, K S
2016-03-10
Microelectromechanical systems, which can be moved or rotated with nanometre precision, already find applications in such fields as radio-frequency electronics, micro-attenuators, sensors and many others. Especially interesting are those which allow fine control over the motion on the atomic scale because of self-alignment mechanisms and forces acting on the atomic level. Such machines can produce well-controlled movements as a reaction to small changes of the external parameters. Here we demonstrate that, for the system of graphene on hexagonal boron nitride, the interplay between the van der Waals and elastic energies results in graphene mechanically self-rotating towards the hexagonal boron nitride crystallographic directions. Such rotation is macroscopic (for graphene flakes of tens of micrometres the tangential movement can be on hundreds of nanometres) and can be used for reproducible manufacturing of aligned van der Waals heterostructures.
Microscopic and Macroscopic Simulation of Competition between Languages
Stauffer, D; Stauffer, Dietrich; Schulze, Christian
2005-01-01
The similarity of the evolution of human languages (or alphabets, bird songs, >...) to biological evolution of species is utilized to study with up to $10^9$ people the rise and fall of languages either by macroscopic differential equations similar to biological Lotka-Volterra equation, or by microscopic Monte Carlo simulations of bit-strings incorporating the birth, maturity, and death of every individual. For our bit-string model, depending on parameters either one language comprises the majority of speakers (dominance), or the population splits into many languages having in order of magnitude the same number of speakers (fragmentation); in the latter case the size distribution is log-normal, with upward deviations for small sizes, just as in reality for human languages. On a lattice two different dominating languages can coexist in neighbouring regions, without being favoured or disfavoured by different status. We deal with modifications and competition for existing languages, not with the evolution or lea...
Correlations between Nanoindentation Hardness and Macroscopic Mechanical Properties in DP980 Steels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Taylor, Mark D.; Choi, Kyoo Sil; Sun, Xin; Matlock, David K.; Packard, Corrine; Xu, Le; Barlat, Frederic
2014-03-01
Multiphase advanced high strength steels (AHSS) are being increasingly used in the automotive industry due to their low cost, good availability and excellent combination of strength and ductility. There is a keen interest from the automotive and steel industry for more fundamental understandings on the key microstructure features influencing the macroscopic properties, i.e., tensile properties, hole-expansion ratio and localized formability of AHSS. In this study, the micro- and macro-level properties for eight commercial DP980 steels are first characterized and quantified with various experimental methods. Correlations between macroscopic-level properties and relationships between various micro- and macro- properties for these steels are then established based on the experimental measurements. It is found that, despite their differences in their chemistry, processing parameters and sheet thickness, the eight DP980 steels do have common microstructural level properties governing their specific macroscopic properties in terms of strength, elongation and hole expansion performance.
MACROSCOPIC STRAIN POTENTIALS IN NONLINEAR POROUS MATERIALS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘熠; 黄筑平
2003-01-01
By taking a hollow sphere as a representative volume element (RVE), the macroscopic strain potentials of porous materials with power-law incompressible matrix are studied in this paper.According to the principles of the minimum potential energy in nonlinear elasticity and the variational procedure, static admissible stress fields and kinematic admissible displacement fields are constructed,and hence the upper and the lower bounds of the macroscopic strain potential are obtained. The bounds given in the present paper differ so slightly that they both provide perfect approximations of the exact strain potential of the studied porous materials. It is also found that the upper bound proposed by previous authors is much higher than the present one, and the lower bounds given by Cocks is much lower. Moreover, the present calculation is also compared with the variational lower bound of Ponte Castafneda for statistically isotropic porous materials. Finally, the validity of the hollow spherical RVE for the studied nonlinear porous material is discussed by the difference between the present numerical results and the Cocks bound.
Macroscopic theory for capillary-pressure hysteresis.
Athukorallage, Bhagya; Aulisa, Eugenio; Iyer, Ram; Zhang, Larry
2015-03-03
In this article, we present a theory of macroscopic contact angle hysteresis by considering the minimization of the Helmholtz free energy of a solid-liquid-gas system over a convex set, subject to a constant volume constraint. The liquid and solid surfaces in contact are assumed to adhere weakly to each other, causing the interfacial energy to be set-valued. A simple calculus of variations argument for the minimization of the Helmholtz energy leads to the Young-Laplace equation for the drop surface in contact with the gas and a variational inequality that yields contact angle hysteresis for advancing/receding flow. We also show that the Young-Laplace equation with a Dirichlet boundary condition together with the variational inequality yields a basic hysteresis operator that describes the relationship between capillary pressure and volume. We validate the theory using results from the experiment for a sessile macroscopic drop. Although the capillary effect is a complex phenomenon even for a droplet as various points along the contact line might be pinned, the capillary pressure and volume of the drop are scalar variables that encapsulate the global quasistatic energy information for the entire droplet. Studying the capillary pressure versus volume relationship greatly simplifies the understanding and modeling of the phenomenon just as scalar magnetic hysteresis graphs greatly aided the modeling of devices with magnetic materials.
Quantum correlations of lights in macroscopic environments
Sua, Yong Meng
This dissertation presents a detailed study in exploring quantum correlations of lights in macroscopic environments. We have explored quantum correlations of single photons, weak coherent states, and polarization-correlated/polarization-entangled photons in macroscopic environments. These included macroscopic mirrors, macroscopic photon number, spatially separated observers, noisy photons source and propagation medium with loss or disturbances. We proposed a measurement scheme for observing quantum correlations and entanglement in the spatial properties of two macroscopic mirrors using single photons spatial compass state. We explored the phase space distribution features of spatial compass states, such as chessboard pattern by using the Wigner function. The displacement and tilt correlations of the two mirrors were manifested through the propensities of the compass states. This technique can be used to extract Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlations (EPR) of the two mirrors. We then formulated the discrete-like property of the propensity P b(m,n), which can be used to explore environmental perturbed quantum jumps of the EPR correlations in phase space. With single photons spatial compass state, the variances in position and momentum are much smaller than standard quantum limit when using a Gaussian TEM 00 beam. We observed intrinsic quantum correlations of weak coherent states between two parties through balanced homodyne detection. Our scheme can be used as a supplement to decoy-state BB84 protocol and differential phase-shift QKD protocol. We prepared four types of bipartite correlations +/- cos2(theta1 +/- theta 2) that shared between two parties. We also demonstrated bits correlations between two parties separated by 10 km optical fiber. The bits information will be protected by the large quantum phase fluctuation of weak coherent states, adding another physical layer of security to these protocols for quantum key distribution. Using 10 m of highly nonlinear
Geothermal reservoir management
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scherer, C.R.; Golabi, K.
1978-02-01
The optimal management of a hot water geothermal reservoir was considered. The physical system investigated includes a three-dimensional aquifer from which hot water is pumped and circulated through a heat exchanger. Heat removed from the geothermal fluid is transferred to a building complex or other facility for space heating. After passing through the heat exchanger, the (now cooled) geothermal fluid is reinjected into the aquifer. This cools the reservoir at a rate predicted by an expression relating pumping rate, time, and production hole temperature. The economic model proposed in the study maximizes discounted value of energy transferred across the heat exchanger minus the discounted cost of wells, equipment, and pumping energy. The real value of energy is assumed to increase at r percent per year. A major decision variable is the production or pumping rate (which is constant over the project life). Other decision variables in this optimization are production timing, reinjection temperature, and the economic life of the reservoir at the selected pumping rate. Results show that waiting time to production and production life increases as r increases and decreases as the discount rate increases. Production rate decreases as r increases and increases as the discount rate increases. The optimal injection temperature is very close to the temperature of the steam produced on the other side of the heat exchanger, and is virtually independent of r and the discount rate. Sensitivity of the decision variables to geohydrological parameters was also investigated. Initial aquifer temperature and permeability have a major influence on these variables, although aquifer porosity is of less importance. A penalty was considered for production delay after the lease is granted.
Reservoir geochemistry. A reservoir engineering perspective
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
England, W.A. [BP Exploration, Chertsey Road, Sunbury-on-Thames, Middlesex, TW16 7LN (United Kingdom)
2007-09-15
This paper reviews the applications of reservoir geochemistry from a reservoir engineering point of view. Some of the main tasks of reservoir engineering are discussed with an emphasis on the importance of appraising reservoirs in the pre-development stage. A brief review of the principal methods and applications of reservoir geochemistry are given, in the context of applications to reservoir engineering problems. The importance of compositional differences in fluid samples from different depths or spatial locations is discussed in connection with the identification of internal flow barriers. The importance of understanding the magnitude and origin of vertical compositional gradients is emphasised because of possible confusion with purely lateral changes. The geochemical origin and rate of dissipation of compositional differences over geological time is discussed. Geochemical techniques suitable for bulk petroleum fluid samples include GC fingerprinting, GCMS, isotopic and PVT measurements. Core sample petroleum extracts may also be studied by standard geochemical methods but with the added complication of possible contamination by drilling mud. Aqueous phase residual salt extracts can be studied by strontium isotope analysis from core samples. Petroleum fluid inclusions allow the possibility of establishing the composition of paleo-accumulations. The problems in predicting flow barriers from geochemical measurements are discussed in terms of 'false positives' and 'false negatives'. Suggestions are made for areas that need further development in order to encourage the wider acceptance and application of reservoir geochemistry by the reservoir engineering community. The importance of integrating all available data is emphasised. Reservoir geochemistry may be applied to a range of practical engineering problems including production allocation, reservoir compartmentalisation, and the prediction of gravitational gradients. In this review
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
雷益龙; 陈北平
2011-01-01
Based on basic parameters analysis of coal reservoir in the JPC -01 well, Xiashijie coalmine, Jiaoping mine area, considered that the area has an normal geotemperature, underpressure coal reservoir, low to medium coal seam adsorptive capacity, gas saturation on the low side, coal seams are in undersaturated condition, gas content on the small side. The main coal mass structure is primary with relatively good permeability. Although degree of coal metamorphism is lower (non -caking coal), but mine area structure is quite simple and with thick main coal seams. Surface drainage and methane production well test shows: the well has set a record of over 1000m3 daily methane output from Jurassic low coal rank, low gas content coal seams, thus larger CBM resource potential. Further CBM surface drainage and methane production well tests have been suggested, that is a new path to control mine area gas hazards through surface predrainage of coal seams.%通过对焦坪矿区下石节煤矿JPC-01井煤储层基本参数进行分析,认为本区为地温正常区欠压储层,煤层吸附能力为低-中等,含气饱和度偏低,煤层处于欠饱和状态,含气量较小；由于煤体结构主体为原生结构煤,渗透性相对较好.虽然煤的变质程度较低(不粘煤),但矿区构造简单,主要煤层厚度大,排水采气地面抽采试验显示,该井创造了我国在侏罗纪低煤级低含气量煤层中日产气超过1 000m3的记录,煤层气资源潜力较大.建议进一步开展煤层气地面抽采试验工作,为矿区瓦斯治理,探索地面瓦斯预抽采开辟新的途径.
Macroscopic Quantum Coherence in Antiferromagnetic Molecular Magnets
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HU Hui; LO Rong; ZHU Jia-Lin; XIONG Jia-Jiong
2001-01-01
The macroscopic quantum coherence in a biaxial antiferromagnetic molecular magnet in the presence of magnetic field acting parallel to its hard anisotropy axis is studied within the two-sublattice model. On the basis of instanton technique in the spin-coherent-state path-integral representation, both the rigorous Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin exponent and pre-exponential factor for the ground-state tunnel splitting are obtained. We find that the quantum fluctuations around the classical paths can not only induce a new quantum phase previously reported by Chiolero and Loss (Phys. Rev. Lett. 80 (1998) 169), but also have great influence on the intensity of the ground-state tunnel splitting. Those features clearly have no analogue in the ferromagnetic molecular magnets. We suggest that they may be the universal behaviors in all antiferromagnetic molecular magnets. The analytical results are complemented by exact diagonalization calculation.
Microscopic versus macroscopic calculation of dielectric nanospheres
Kühn, M.; Kliem, H.
2008-12-01
The issue of nanodielectrics has recently become an important field of interest. The term describes nanometric dielectrics, i. e. dielectric materials with structural dimensions typically smaller than 100 run. In contrast to the behaviour of a bulk material the nanodielectrics can behave completely different. With shrinking dimensions the surface or rather boundary effects outweigh the volume effects. This leads to a different observable physics at the nanoscale. A crucial point is the question whether a continuum model for the calculation of dielectric properties is still applicable for these nanomaterials. In order to answer this question we simulated dielectric nanospheres with a microscopic local field method and compared the results to the macroscopic mean field theory.
Partitioning a macroscopic system into independent subsystems
Delle Site, Luigi; Ciccotti, Giovanni; Hartmann, Carsten
2017-08-01
We discuss the problem of partitioning a macroscopic system into a collection of independent subsystems. The partitioning of a system into replica-like subsystems is nowadays a subject of major interest in several fields of theoretical and applied physics. The thermodynamic approach currently favoured by practitioners is based on a phenomenological definition of an interface energy associated with the partition, due to a lack of easily computable expressions for a microscopic (i.e. particle-based) interface energy. In this article, we outline a general approach to derive sharp and computable bounds for the interface free energy in terms of microscopic statistical quantities. We discuss potential applications in nanothermodynamics and outline possible future directions.
Casimir effect from macroscopic quantum electrodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Philbin, T G, E-mail: tgp3@st-andrews.ac.uk [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)
2011-06-15
The canonical quantization of macroscopic electromagnetism was recently presented in (Philbin 2010 New J. Phys. 12 123008). This theory is used here to derive the Casimir effect, by considering the special case of thermal and zero-point fields. The stress-energy-momentum tensor of the canonical theory follows from Noether's theorem, and its electromagnetic part in thermal equilibrium gives the Casimir energy density and stress tensor. The results hold for arbitrary inhomogeneous magnetodielectrics and are obtained from a rigorous quantization of electromagnetism in dispersive, dissipative media. Continuing doubts about the status of the standard Lifshitz theory as a proper quantum treatment of Casimir forces do not apply to the derivation given here. Moreover, the correct expressions for the Casimir energy density and stress tensor inside media follow automatically from the simple restriction to thermal equilibrium, without the need for complicated thermodynamical or mechanical arguments.
Taming macroscopic jamming in transportation networks
Ezaki, Takahiro; Nishinari, Katsuhiro
2015-01-01
In transportation networks, a spontaneous jamming transition is often observed, e.g in urban road networks and airport networks. Because of this instability, flow distribution is significantly imbalanced on a macroscopic level. To mitigate the congestion, we consider a simple control method, in which congested nodes are closed temporarily, and investigate how it influences the overall system. Depending on the timing of the node closure and opening, and congestion level of a network, the system displays three different phases: free-flow phase, controlled phase, and deadlock phase. We show that when the system is in the controlled phase, the average flow is significantly improved, whereas when in the deadlock phase, the flow drops to zero. We study how the control method increases the network flow and obtain their transition boundary analytically.
Black Holes and Quantumness on Macroscopic Scales
Flassig, D; Wintergerst, N
2012-01-01
It has recently been suggested that black holes may be described as condensates of weakly interacting gravitons at a critical point, exhibiting strong quantum effects. In this paper, we study a model system of attractive bosons in one spatial dimension which is known to undergo a quantum phase transition. We demonstrate explicitly that indeed quantum effects are important at the critical point, even if the number of particles is macroscopic. Most prominently, we evaluate the entropy of entanglement between different momentum modes and observe it to become maximal at the critical point. Furthermore, we explicitly see that the leading entanglement is between long wavelength modes and is hence a feature independent of ultraviolet physics. If applicable to black holes, our findings substantiate the conjectured breakdown of semiclassical physics even for large black holes. This can resolve long standing mysteries, such as the information paradox and the no-hair theorem.
Variability of macroscopic dimensions of Moso bamboo.
Cui, Le; Peng, Wanxi; Sun, Zhengjun; Sun, Zhengjun; Sun, Zhengjun; Lu, Huangfei; Chen, Guoning
2015-03-01
In order to the macroscopic geometry distributions of vascular bundles in Moso bamboo tubes. The circumference of bamboo tubes was measured, used a simple quadratic diameter formula to analyze the differences between the tubes in bamboo culm, and the arrangement of vascular bundles was investigated by cross sectional images of bamboo tubes. The results shown that the vascular bundles were differently distributed in a bamboo tube. In the outer layer, the vascular bundles had a variety of shapes, and were aligned parallel to each other. In the inner layers, the vascular bundles weren't aligned but uniform in shape. It was concluded that the vascular bundle sections arranged in parallel should be separated from the non-parallel sections for the maximum bamboo utilization.
Robust macroscopic entanglement without complex encodings
Chaves, Rafael; Acín, Antonio
2011-01-01
One of the main challenges for the experimental manipulation and storage of macroscopic entanglement is its fragility under noise. We present a simple recipe for the systematic enhancement of the resistance of multipartite entanglement against any local noise with a privileged direction in the Bloch sphere. For the case of exact local dephasing along any given basis, and for all noise strengths, our prescription grants full robustness: even states whose entanglement decays exponentially with the number of parts are mapped to states whose entanglement is constant. In contrast to previous techniques resorting to complex logical-qubit encodings, such enhancement is attained simply by performing local unitary rotations before the noise acts. The scheme is therefore highly experimentally-friendly, as it brings no overhead of extra physical qubits to encode logical ones. In addition, we show that, apart from entanglement, the resilience of the states as resources for useful practical tasks such as metrology and non...
Macroscopic Quantum Coherence in Antiferromagnetic Molecular Magnets
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HUHui; LURong; 等
2001-01-01
The macroscopic quantum coherence in a biaxial antiferromagnetic molecular magnet in the presence of magnetic field acting parallel to its hard anisotropy axis is studied within the two-sublattice model.On the basis of instanton technique in the spin-coherent-state path-integral representation,both the rigorous Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin exponent and pre-exponential factor for the ground-state tunnel splitting are obtained.We find that the quantum fluctuations around the classical paths can not only induce a new quantum phase previously reported by Chiolero and Loss (Phys.Rev.Lett.80(1998)169),but also have great influence on the intensity of the ground-state tunnel splitting.Those features clearly have no analogue in the ferromagnetic molecular magnets.We suggest that they may be the universal behaviors in all antiferromagnetic molecular magnets.The analytical results are complemented by exact diagonalization calculation.
Determining the Macroscopic Properties of Relativistic Jets
Hardee, P. E.
2004-08-01
The resolved relativistic jets contain structures whose observed proper motions are typically assumed to indicate the jet flow speed. In addition to structures moving with the flow, various normal mode structures such as pinching or helical and elliptical twisting can be produced by ejection events or twisting perturbations to the jet flow. The normal mode structures associated with relativistic jets, as revealed by numerical simulation, theoretical calculation, and suggested by observation, move more slowly than the jet speed. The pattern speed is related to the jet speed by the sound speed in the jet and in the surrounding medium. In the event that normal mode structures are observed, and where proper motions of pattern and flow speed are available or can be estimated, it is possible to determine the sound speed in the jet and surrounding medium. Where spatial development of normal mode structures is observed, it is possible to make inferences as to the heating rate/macroscopic viscosity of the jet fluid. Ultimately it may prove possible to separate the microscopic energization of the synchrotron radiating particles from the macroscopic heating of the jet fluid. Here I present the relevant properties of useful normal mode structures and illustrate the use of this technique. Various aspects of the work presented here have involved collaboration with I. Agudo (Max-Planck, Bonn), M.A. Aloy (Max-Planck, Garching), J. Eilek (NM Tech), J.L. Gómez (U. Valencia), P. Hughes (U. Michigan), A. Lobanov (Max-Planck, Bonn), J.M. Martí (U. Valencia), & C. Walker (NRAO).
Miranda, Leandro E.; Bettoli, Phillip William
2010-01-01
Large impoundments, defined as those with surface area of 200 ha or greater, are relatively new aquatic ecosystems in the global landscape. They represent important economic and environmental resources that provide benefits such as flood control, hydropower generation, navigation, water supply, commercial and recreational fisheries, and various other recreational and esthetic values. Construction of large impoundments was initially driven by economic needs, and ecological consequences received little consideration. However, in recent decades environmental issues have come to the forefront. In the closing decades of the 20th century societal values began to shift, especially in the developed world. Society is no longer willing to accept environmental damage as an inevitable consequence of human development, and it is now recognized that continued environmental degradation is unsustainable. Consequently, construction of large reservoirs has virtually stopped in North America. Nevertheless, in other parts of the world construction of large reservoirs continues. The emergence of systematic reservoir management in the early 20th century was guided by concepts developed for natural lakes (Miranda 1996). However, we now recognize that reservoirs are different and that reservoirs are not independent aquatic systems inasmuch as they are connected to upstream rivers and streams, the downstream river, other reservoirs in the basin, and the watershed. Reservoir systems exhibit longitudinal patterns both within and among reservoirs. Reservoirs are typically arranged sequentially as elements of an interacting network, filter water collected throughout their watersheds, and form a mosaic of predictable patterns. Traditional approaches to fisheries management such as stocking, regulating harvest, and in-lake habitat management do not always produce desired effects in reservoirs. As a result, managers may expend resources with little benefit to either fish or fishing. Some locally
Improved reservoir exploitation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thomassen, P.R. [IKU Petroleumsforskning A/S, Trondheim (Norway)
1996-12-31
This paper deals with reservoir exploitation and it highlights some ideas on how to improve exploitive skills to optimise the recovery of a field. The author looks closer at what needs to be done to optimise the reservoir data and the exploitation tools, and what are the needs of the reservoir production management. 2 refs., 3 figs.
Katterbauer, Klemens
2015-04-01
Reservoir simulations and history matching are critical for fine-tuning reservoir production strategies, improving understanding of the subsurface formation, and forecasting remaining reserves. Production data have long been incorporated for adjusting reservoir parameters. However, the sparse spatial sampling of this data set has posed a significant challenge for efficiently reducing uncertainty of reservoir parameters. Seismic, electromagnetic, gravity and InSAR techniques have found widespread applications in enhancing exploration for oil and gas and monitoring reservoirs. These data have however been interpreted and analyzed mostly separately, rarely exploiting the synergy effects that could result from combining them. We present a multi-data ensemble Kalman filter-based history matching framework for the simultaneous incorporation of various reservoir data such as seismic, electromagnetics, gravimetry and InSAR for best possible characterization of the reservoir formation. We apply an ensemble-based sensitivity method to evaluate the impact of each observation on the estimated reservoir parameters. Numerical experiments for different test cases demonstrate considerable matching enhancements when integrating all data sets in the history matching process. Results from the sensitivity analysis further suggest that electromagnetic data exhibit the strongest impact on the matching enhancements due to their strong differentiation between water fronts and hydrocarbons in the test cases.
Observability of relative phases of macroscopic quantum states
Pati, A K
1998-01-01
After a measurement, to observe the relative phases of macroscopically distinguishable states we have to ``undo'' a quantum measurement. We generalise an earlier model of Peres from two state to N-state quantum system undergoing measurement process and discuss the issue of observing relative phases of different branches. We derive an inequality which is satisfied by the relative phases of macroscopically distinguishable states and consequently any desired relative phases can not be observed in interference setups. The principle of macroscopic complementarity is invoked that might be at ease with the macroscopic world. We illustrate the idea of limit on phase observability in Stern-Gerlach measurements and the implications are discussed.
Seismic imaging of reservoir flow properties: Resolving waterinflux and reservoir permeability
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vasco, D.W.; Keers, Henk
2006-11-27
Methods for geophysical model assessment, in particuale thecomputation of model parameter resolution, indicate the value and thelimitations of time-lapse data in estimating reservoir flow properties. Atrajectory-based method for computing sensitivities provides an effectivemeans to compute model parameter resolutions. We examine the commonsituation in which water encroaches into a resrvoir from below, as due tothe upward movement of an oil-water contact. Using straight-forwardtechniques we find that, by inclusing reflections off the top and bottomof a reservoir tens of meters thick, we can infer reservoir permeabilitybased upon time-lapse data. We find that, for the caseof water influxfrom below, using multiple time-lapse 'snapshots' does not necessarilyimprove the resolution of reservoir permeability. An application totime-lapse data from the Norne field illustrates that we can resolve thepermeability near a producing well using reflections from threeinterfaces associated with the reservoir.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1990-09-01
This is one in a series of status reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Wheeler Reservoir summarizes reservoir purposes and operation, reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, and water quality and aquatic biological conditions. The information presented here is from the most recent reports, publications, and original data available. If no recent data were available, historical data were summarized. If data were completely lacking, environmental professionals with special knowledge of the resource were interviewed. 12 refs., 2 figs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1990-08-01
This is the first in a series of reports prepared by Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overviews of Cherokee Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most current reports, publications, and data available, and interviews with water resource professionals in various Federal, state, and local agencies and in public and private water supply and wastewater treatment facilities. 11 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1990-08-01
This is the first in a series of reports prepared by Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overviews of Cherokee Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most current reports, publications, and data available, and interviews with water resource professionals in various Federal, state, and local agencies and in public and private water supply and wastewater treatment facilities. 11 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
周勤; 张永刚
2015-01-01
Gas channeling prevention is the key factor for improving CO 2 -injection-aided development effect of frac‐tured reservoir with ultra -low permeability .The root cause of gas channeling is that the crack will open when bot‐tom hole pressure of injection well surpasses its re -open pressure .Through analyzing shaft heat transfer process , establishing coupling model of CO 2 injected shaft temperature pressure and optimizing injection parameter ,its bottom hole pressure is guaranteed to be under crack re -open pressure .In addition ,indoor measures are taken such as u‐sing Waring -Blender method ,selecting suitable foaming system ,improving gas liquid ratio and other parameters and plugging re-open cracks .All this controls gas channeling and ensures increase of CO 2 -injection-aided oil re‐covery in Honghe Oilfield .%防止气窜是提高超低渗裂缝性油藏注 CO2开发效果的关键因素，气窜发生的根本原因是注入井井底压力超过裂缝重张压力导致裂缝开启。通过分析井筒传热过程，利用传热学理论等理论，建立注CO2井筒温度压力耦合模型，对注入参数进行合理优化，保证注入井井底压力低于裂缝重张压力；同时室内采用 Waring－Blender法，优选合适的起泡剂体系，优化气液比等参数，对重张裂缝进行封堵，有效控制了气窜，保证了红河油田注 CO2提高采收率的开发效果，对应油井在注 CO2后含水率下降明显，日均产油由注 CO2前的1．5 t／d增加到2．4 t／d。
Triple Medium Physical Model of Post Fracturing High-Rank Coal Reservoir in Southern Qinshui Basin
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Shiqi Liu; Shuxun Sang; Qipeng Zhu; Jiefang Zhang; Hefeng Gao; Huihu Liu; Lixing Lin
2015-01-01
In this paper, influences on the reservoir permeability, the reservoir architecture and the fluid flow pattern caused by hydraulic fracturing are analyzed. Based on the structure and production fluid flow model of post fracturing high-rank coal reservoir, Warren-Root Model is improved. A new physical model that is more suitable for post fracturing high-rank coal reser-voir is established. The results show that the width, the flow conductivity and the permeability of hydraulic fractures are much larger than natural fractures in coal bed reservoir. Hydraulic frac-ture changes the flow pattern of gas and flow channel to wellbore, thus should be treated as an independent medium. Warrant-Root Model has some limitations and can’t give a comprehensive interpretation of seepage mechanism in post fracturing high-rank coal reservoir. Modified War-rant-Root Model simplifies coal bed reservoir to an ideal system with hydraulic fracture, ortho-gonal macroscopic fracture and cuboid matrix. Hydraulic fracture is double wing, vertical and symmetric to wellbore. Coal bed reservoir is divided into cuboids by hydraulic fracture and fur-ther by macroscopic fractures. Flow behaviors in coal bed reservoir are simplified to three step flows of gas and two step flows of water. The swap mode of methane between coal matrix and macroscopic fractures is pseudo steady fluid channeling. The flow behaviors of methane to well-bore no longer follow Darcy’s Law and are mainly affected by inertia force. The flow pattern of water follows Darcy’s Law. The new physical model is more suitable for post fracturing high-rank coal reservoir.
The Proell Effect: A Macroscopic Maxwell's Demon
Rauen, Kenneth M.
2011-12-01
Maxwell's Demon is a legitimate challenge to the Second Law of Thermodynamics when the "demon" is executed via the Proell effect. Thermal energy transfer according to the Kinetic Theory of Heat and Statistical Mechanics that takes place over distances greater than the mean free path of a gas circumvents the microscopic randomness that leads to macroscopic irreversibility. No information is required to sort the particles as no sorting occurs; the entire volume of gas undergoes the same transition. The Proell effect achieves quasi-spontaneous thermal separation without sorting by the perturbation of a heterogeneous constant volume system with displacement and regeneration. The classical analysis of the constant volume process, such as found in the Stirling Cycle, is incomplete and therefore incorrect. There are extra energy flows that classical thermo does not recognize. When a working fluid is displaced across a regenerator with a temperature gradient in a constant volume system, complimentary compression and expansion work takes place that transfers energy between the regenerator and the bulk gas volumes of the hot and cold sides of the constant volume system. Heat capacity at constant pressure applies instead of heat capacity at constant volume. The resultant increase in calculated, recyclable energy allows the Carnot Limit to be exceeded in certain cycles. Super-Carnot heat engines and heat pumps have been designed and a US patent has been awarded.
Macroscopic superpositions and gravimetry with quantum magnetomechanics
Johnsson, Mattias T.; Brennen, Gavin K.; Twamley, Jason
2016-11-01
Precision measurements of gravity can provide tests of fundamental physics and are of broad practical interest for metrology. We propose a scheme for absolute gravimetry using a quantum magnetomechanical system consisting of a magnetically trapped superconducting resonator whose motion is controlled and measured by a nearby RF-SQUID or flux qubit. By driving the mechanical massive resonator to be in a macroscopic superposition of two different heights our we predict that our interferometry protocol could, subject to systematic errors, achieve a gravimetric sensitivity of Δg/g ~ 2.2 × 10-10 Hz-1/2, with a spatial resolution of a few nanometres. This sensitivity and spatial resolution exceeds the precision of current state of the art atom-interferometric and corner-cube gravimeters by more than an order of magnitude, and unlike classical superconducting interferometers produces an absolute rather than relative measurement of gravity. In addition, our scheme takes measurements at ~10 kHz, a region where the ambient vibrational noise spectrum is heavily suppressed compared the ~10 Hz region relevant for current cold atom gravimeters.
Cloud Macroscopic Organization: Order Emerging from Randomness
Yuan, Tianle
2011-01-01
Clouds play a central role in many aspects of the climate system and their forms and shapes are remarkably diverse. Appropriate representation of clouds in climate models is a major challenge because cloud processes span at least eight orders of magnitude in spatial scales. Here we show that there exists order in cloud size distribution of low-level clouds, and that it follows a power-law distribution with exponent gamma close to 2. gamma is insensitive to yearly variations in environmental conditions, but has regional variations and land-ocean contrasts. More importantly, we demonstrate this self-organizing behavior of clouds emerges naturally from a complex network model with simple, physical organizing principles: random clumping and merging. We also demonstrate symmetry between clear and cloudy skies in terms of macroscopic organization because of similar fundamental underlying organizing principles. The order in the apparently complex cloud-clear field thus has its root in random local interactions. Studying cloud organization with complex network models is an attractive new approach that has wide applications in climate science. We also propose a concept of cloud statistic mechanics approach. This approach is fully complementary to deterministic models, and the two approaches provide a powerful framework to meet the challenge of representing clouds in our climate models when working in tandem.
Distributivity breaking and macroscopic quantum games
Grib, A A; Parfionov, G N; Starkov, K A
2005-01-01
Examples of games between two partners with mixed strategies, calculated by the use of the probability amplitude as some vector in Hilbert space are given. The games are macroscopic, no microscopic quantum agent is supposed. The reason for the use of the quantum formalism is in breaking of the distributivity property for the lattice of yes-no questions arising due to the special rules of games. The rules of the games suppose two parts: the preparation and measurement. In the first part due to use of the quantum logical orthocomplemented non-distributive lattice the partners freely choose the wave functions as descriptions of their strategies. The second part consists of classical games described by Boolean sublattices of the initial non-Boolean lattice with same strategies which were chosen in the first part. Examples of games for spin one half are given. New Nash equilibria are found for some cases. Heisenberg uncertainty relations without the Planck constant are written for the "spin one half game".
Cloud macroscopic organization: order emerging from randomness
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Yuan
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Clouds play a central role in many aspects of the climate system and their forms and shapes are remarkably diverse. Appropriate representation of clouds in climate models is a major challenge because cloud processes span at least eight orders of magnitude in spatial scales. Here we show that there exists order in cloud size distribution of low-level clouds and it follows a power-law distribution with exponent γ close to 2. γ is insensitive to yearly variations in environmental conditions, but has regional variations and land-ocean contrasts. More importantly, we demonstrate this self-organizing behavior of clouds emerges naturally from a complex network model with simple, physical organizing principles: random clumping and merging. We also show clear-cloudy sky symmetry in terms of macroscopic organization because of similar fundamental underlying organizing principles. The order in the apparently complex cloud-clear field thus has its root in random simple interactions. Studying cloud organization with complex network models is an attractive new approach that has wide applications in climate science. This approach is fully complementary to deterministic models and the two approaches provide a powerful framework to meet the challenge of representing clouds in our climate models when working in tandem.
Parallel reservoir computing using optical amplifiers.
Vandoorne, Kristof; Dambre, Joni; Verstraeten, David; Schrauwen, Benjamin; Bienstman, Peter
2011-09-01
Reservoir computing (RC), a computational paradigm inspired on neural systems, has become increasingly popular in recent years for solving a variety of complex recognition and classification problems. Thus far, most implementations have been software-based, limiting their speed and power efficiency. Integrated photonics offers the potential for a fast, power efficient and massively parallel hardware implementation. We have previously proposed a network of coupled semiconductor optical amplifiers as an interesting test case for such a hardware implementation. In this paper, we investigate the important design parameters and the consequences of process variations through simulations. We use an isolated word recognition task with babble noise to evaluate the performance of the photonic reservoirs with respect to traditional software reservoir implementations, which are based on leaky hyperbolic tangent functions. Our results show that the use of coherent light in a well-tuned reservoir architecture offers significant performance benefits. The most important design parameters are the delay and the phase shift in the system's physical connections. With optimized values for these parameters, coherent semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) reservoirs can achieve better results than traditional simulated reservoirs. We also show that process variations hardly degrade the performance, but amplifier noise can be detrimental. This effect must therefore be taken into account when designing SOA-based RC implementations.
An Experimental Proposal for Demonstration of Macroscopic Quantum Effects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jensen R.
2010-10-01
Full Text Available An experiment is proposed, whose purpose is to determine whether quantum indeterminism can be observed on a truly macroscopic scale. The experiment involves using a double-slit plate or interferometer and a macroscopic mechanical switch. The objective is to determine whether or not the switch can take on an indeterminate state.
An Experimental Proposal for Demonstration of Macroscopic Quantum Effects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jensen R.
2010-10-01
Full Text Available An experiment is proposed, whose purpose is to determine whether quantum indeter- minism can be observed on a truly macroscopic scale. The experiment involves using a double-slit plate or interferometer and a macroscopic mechanical switch. The objective is to determine whether or not the switch can take on an indeterminate state.
Solution of Macroscopic State Equations of Blume-Capel Model Using Nonlinear Dynamics Concepts
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Asaf Tolga Ülgen
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The macroscopic state equations of Blume-Capel Model were solved by using the concepts of nonlinear dynamics. Negative and positive exchange constant values yield bifurcations of pitchfork and subcritical flip types, respectively. Hence, we obtained bifurcations corresponding to second order phase transitions. The critical values of parameters were calculated from the neutral stability condition and the 3-dimensional phase diagram was plotted.
Pressure Responses of a Vertically Hydraulic Fractured Well in a Reservoir with Fractal Structure
Razminia, Kambiz; Torres, Delfim F M
2015-01-01
We obtain an analytical solution for the pressure-transient behavior of a vertically hydraulic fractured well in a heterogeneous reservoir. The heterogeneity of the reservoir is modeled by using the concept of fractal geometry. Such reservoirs are called fractal reservoirs. According to the theory of fractional calculus, a temporal fractional derivative is applied to incorporate the memory properties of the fractal reservoir. The effect of different parameters on the computed wellbore pressure is fully investigated by various synthetic examples.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yuan, Hao; Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan
Modeling transport of reservoir fines is of great importance for evaluating the damage of production wells and infectivity decline. The conventional methodology accounts for neither the formation heterogeneity around the wells nor the reservoir fines’ heterogeneity. We have developed an integral...... dispersion equation in modeling the transport and the deposition of reservoir fines. It successfully predicts the unsymmetrical concentration profiles and the hyperexponential deposition in experiments....
Stochastic Reservoir Characterization Constrained by Seismic Data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eide, Alfhild Lien
1999-07-01
In order to predict future production of oil and gas from a petroleum reservoir, it is important to have a good description of the reservoir in terms of geometry and physical parameters. This description is used as input to large numerical models for the fluid flow in the reservoir. With increased quality of seismic data, it is becoming possible to extend their use from the study of large geologic structures such as seismic horizons to characterization of the properties of the reservoir between the horizons. Uncertainties because of the low resolution of seismic data can be successfully handled by means of stochastic modeling, and spatial statistics can provide tools for interpolation and simulation of reservoir properties not completely resolved by seismic data. This thesis deals with stochastic reservoir modeling conditioned to seismic data and well data. Part I presents a new model for stochastic reservoir characterization conditioned to seismic traces. Part II deals with stochastic simulation of high resolution impedance conditioned to measured impedance. Part III develops a new stochastic model for calcite cemented objects in a sandstone background; it is a superposition of a marked point model for the calcites and a continuous model for the background.
Integrated reservoir interpretation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Caamano, Ed; Dickerman, Ken; Thornton, Mick (Conoco Indonesia Inc., Jakarta (Indonesia)); Corbett, Chip; Douglas, David; Schultz, Phil (GeoQuest, Houston, TX (United States)); Gir, Roopa; Nicholson, Barry (GeoQuest, Jakarta (Indonesia)); Martono, Dwi; Padmono, Joko; Novias; Kiagus; Suroso, Sigit (Pertamina Sumbagut, Brandan, North Sumatra (Indonesia)); Mathieu, Gilles (Etudes et Productions Schlumberger, Clamart (France)); Yan, Zhao (China National Petroleum Company, Beijing (China))
1994-07-01
Improved reservoir management often relies on linking a variety of application software that helps geoscientists handle, visualize and interpret massive amounts of diverse data. The goal is to obtain the best possible reservoir model so its behavior can be understood and optimized. But diverse application software creates specialty niches and discourages integrated interpretation. A description is given of a new reservoir management package that covers all required functionalities and encourages the geologist, geophysicist, petrophysicist and reservoir engineer to embrace the integrated approach. Case studies are included in the article. 21 figs., 13 refs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ishido, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuab (Japan)
1999-12-15
When fluid production from a geothermal reservoir is started, fluid inflow from the reservoir surroundings and reduction zones starts following a pressure decrease in the production zone. For grasping the conditions of a reservoir after the start of production, a geophysical monitoring technique attracts attention. It is an indirect technique compared with drilling observation, but it will be more widely used in the future in grasping macroscopic variation in relation with thermal energy production. This paper describes a monitoring technique on the basis of gravity and natural electric potential as well as an analytical technique on the basis of a reservoir mathematical model. NEDO is presently engaging in
Properties of nuclear matter from macroscopic-microscopic mass formulas
Wang, Ning; Liu, Min; Ou, Li; Zhang, Yingxun
2015-12-01
Based on the standard Skyrme energy density functionals together with the extended Thomas-Fermi approach, the properties of symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter represented in two macroscopic-microscopic mass formulas: Lublin-Strasbourg nuclear drop energy (LSD) formula and Weizsäcker-Skyrme (WS*) formula, are extracted through matching the energy per particle of finite nuclei. For LSD and WS*, the obtained incompressibility coefficients of symmetric nuclear matter are K∞ = 230 ± 11 MeV and 235 ± 11 MeV, respectively. The slope parameter of symmetry energy at saturation density is L = 41.6 ± 7.6 MeV for LSD and 51.5 ± 9.6 MeV for WS*, respectively, which is compatible with the liquid-drop analysis of Lattimer and Lim [4]. The density dependence of the mean-field isoscalar and isovector effective mass, and the neutron-proton effective masses splitting for neutron matter are simultaneously investigated. The results are generally consistent with those from the Skyrme Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov calculations and nucleon optical potentials, and the standard deviations are large and increase rapidly with density. A better constraint for the effective mass is helpful to reduce uncertainties of the depth of the mean-field potential.
LETTERS AND COMMENTS: Adiabatic process reversibility: microscopic and macroscopic views
Anacleto, Joaquim; Pereira, Mário G.
2009-05-01
The reversibility of adiabatic processes was recently addressed by two publications. In the first (Miranda 2008 Eur. J. Phys. 29 937-43), an equation was derived relating the initial and final volumes and temperatures for adiabatic expansions of an ideal gas, using a microscopic approach. In that relation the parameter r accounts for the process reversibility, ranging between 0 and 1, which corresponds to the free and reversible expansion, respectively. In the second (Anacleto and Pereira 2009 Eur. J. Phys. 30 177-83), the authors have shown that thermodynamics can effectively and efficiently be used to obtain the general law for adiabatic processes carried out by an ideal gas, including compressions, for which r \\ge 1. The present work integrates and extends the aforementioned studies, providing thus further insights into the analysis of the adiabatic process. It is shown that Miranda's work is wholly valid for compressions. In addition, it is demonstrated that the adiabatic reversibility coefficient given in terms of the piston velocity and the root mean square velocity of the gas particles is equivalent to the macroscopic description, given just by the quotient between surroundings and system pressure values.
Properties of nuclear matter from macroscopic-microscopic mass formulas
Wang, Ning; Ou, Li; Zhang, Yingxun
2015-01-01
Based on the standard Skyrme energy density functionals together with the extended Thomas-Fermi approach, the properties of symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter represented in two macroscopic-microscopic mass formulas: Lublin-Strasbourg nuclear drop energy (LSD) formula and Weizs\\"acker-Skyrme (WS*) formula, are extracted through matching the energy per particle of finite nuclei. For LSD and WS*, the obtained incompressibility coefficients of symmetric nuclear matter are $K_\\infty=230 \\pm 11$ MeV and $235\\pm 11$ MeV, respectively. The slope parameter of symmetry energy at saturation density is $L=41.6\\pm 7.6$ MeV for LSD and $51.5\\pm 9.6$ MeV for WS*, respectively, which is compatible with the liquid-drop analysis of Lattimer and Lim [ApJ. \\textbf{771}, 51 (2013)]. The density dependence of the mean-field isoscalar and isovector effective mass, and the neutron-proton effective masses splitting for neutron matter are simultaneously investigated. The results are generally consistent with those from the Skyrm...
Experimental demonstration of macroscopic quantum coherence in Gaussian states
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Marquardt, C.; Andersen, Ulrik Lund; Leuchs, G.
2007-01-01
We witness experimentally the presence of macroscopic coherence in Gaussian quantum states using a recently proposed criterion [E. G. Cavalcanti and M. D. Reid, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97 170405 (2006)]. The macroscopic coherence stems from interference between macroscopically distinct states in phase...... space, and we prove experimentally that a coherent state contains these features with a distance in phase space of 0.51 +/- 0.02 shot noise units. This is surprising because coherent states are generally considered being at the border between classical and quantum states, not yet displaying any...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lourenço Leme da Costa Junior
2006-03-01
proportional random sampling. The sample was divided in: plots smaller than 160 m², between 160 m² and 300 m², between 300 m² and 600 m², between 600 m² and 900 m², between 900 m² and 1500 m² and bigger than 1500 m². The data was collected on survey "in loco", registered information and also interview with the residents. For lots characterization, free area, impermeability area, built area, occupation rate, occupation and impermeability rate, soil type, water table level, topografic were used. The residents were questioned about the acceptation of the use of these measures. This parameters were utilized to evaluated the possibilities to introduce it, and then, the costs were evaluate. The results showed that TO goes down with the increasing of the plots' area. The TOI showed the same behavior. Were obtained relation between TO and area of plot, TOI and area of plot and TO and TOI represented by equations, whose the coefficient of determination got higher than 0,96. The use of micro reservoir of detention, as a control measure, was limited by the acceptation from the residents to 82,8% of the plots. The use of permeable floor was limited by the free area parameter and the acceptation from the residents.
Estimation of reservoir fluid volumes through 4-D seismic analysis on Gullfaks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Veire, H.S.; Reymond, S.B.; Signer, C.; Tenneboe, P.O.; Soenneland, L.; Schlumberger, Geco-Prakla
1998-12-31
4-D seismic has the potential to monitor hydrocarbon movement in reservoirs during production, and could thereby supplement the predictions of reservoir parameters offered by the reservoir simulator. However 4-D seismic is often more band limited than the vertical resolution required in the reservoir model. As a consequence the seismic data holds a composite response from reservoir parameter changes during production so that the inversion becomes non-unique. A procedure where data from the reservoir model are integrated with seismic data will be presented. The potential of such a procedure is demonstrated through a case study from a recent 4-D survey over the Gullfaks field. 2 figs.
Petrophysical simulation in petroleum geology and reservoir engineering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buryakovsky, L.; Chilingar, G. [Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, USA Branch, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
2005-10-21
The simulation of multivariate petrophysical relationships between core and well-log derived parameters on the example of the South Caspian Basin is discussed. For developing the petrophysical relationships, a number of deterministic and stochastic calculating procedures are used by the authors. These relationships are widely used in petroleum geology and reservoir engineering for hydrocarbon reserves estimation, reservoir description and simulation, field development planning, and reservoir production management. (author)
Doktorov, Alexander B.; Kipriyanov, Alexander A.; Kipriyanov, Alexey A.
2010-05-01
Using an modern many-particle method for the derivation of non-Markovian binary kinetic equations, we have treated theoretically the applicability of the encounter theory (ET) (the prototype of the collision theory) concepts to the widely known diffusion assisted irreversible bulk reaction A +A→product (for example, radical reaction) in dilute solutions. The method shows that the agreement with the ET is observed when the familiar integral ET is employed which in this method is just a step in the derivation of kinetic equations. It allows for two-particle correlations only, but fails to take account of correlation of reactant simultaneously with the partner of the encounter and the reactant in the bulk. However, the next step leading to the modified ET under transformation of equations to the regular form both extends the time range of the applicability of ET rate equation (as it was for reactions proceeding with one of the reactants in excess), and gives the equation of the generalized ET. In full agreement with physical considerations, this theory reveals macroscopic correlations induced by the encounters in the reservoir of free walks. This means that the encounters of reactants in solution are correlated on a rather large time interval of the reaction. Though any nonstationary (non-Markovian) effects manifest themselves rather weakly in the kinetics of the bimolecular reaction in question, just the existence of the revealed macroscopic correlations in the binary theory is of primary importance. In particular, it means that the well-known phenomena which are generally considered to be associated solely with correlation of particles on the encounter (for example, chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization) may be induced by correlation in the reservoir of free random walks of radicals in solution.
Doktorov, Alexander B; Kipriyanov, Alexander A; Kipriyanov, Alexey A
2010-05-28
Using an modern many-particle method for the derivation of non-Markovian binary kinetic equations, we have treated theoretically the applicability of the encounter theory (ET) (the prototype of the collision theory) concepts to the widely known diffusion assisted irreversible bulk reaction A+A-->product (for example, radical reaction) in dilute solutions. The method shows that the agreement with the ET is observed when the familiar integral ET is employed which in this method is just a step in the derivation of kinetic equations. It allows for two-particle correlations only, but fails to take account of correlation of reactant simultaneously with the partner of the encounter and the reactant in the bulk. However, the next step leading to the modified ET under transformation of equations to the regular form both extends the time range of the applicability of ET rate equation (as it was for reactions proceeding with one of the reactants in excess), and gives the equation of the generalized ET. In full agreement with physical considerations, this theory reveals macroscopic correlations induced by the encounters in the reservoir of free walks. This means that the encounters of reactants in solution are correlated on a rather large time interval of the reaction. Though any nonstationary (non-Markovian) effects manifest themselves rather weakly in the kinetics of the bimolecular reaction in question, just the existence of the revealed macroscopic correlations in the binary theory is of primary importance. In particular, it means that the well-known phenomena which are generally considered to be associated solely with correlation of particles on the encounter (for example, chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization) may be induced by correlation in the reservoir of free random walks of radicals in solution.
Reservoir Engineering Management Program
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Howard, J.H.; Schwarz, W.J.
1977-12-14
The Reservoir Engineering Management Program being conducted at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory includes two major tasks: 1) the continuation of support to geothermal reservoir engineering related work, started under the NSF-RANN program and transferred to ERDA at the time of its formation; 2) the development and subsequent implementation of a broad plan for support of research in topics related to the exploitation of geothermal reservoirs. This plan is now known as the GREMP plan. Both the NSF-RANN legacies and GREMP are in direct support of the DOE/DGE mission in general and the goals of the Resource and Technology/Resource Exploitation and Assessment Branch in particular. These goals are to determine the magnitude and distribution of geothermal resources and reduce risk in their exploitation through improved understanding of generically different reservoir types. These goals are to be accomplished by: 1) the creation of a large data base about geothermal reservoirs, 2) improved tools and methods for gathering data on geothermal reservoirs, and 3) modeling of reservoirs and utilization options. The NSF legacies are more research and training oriented, and the GREMP is geared primarily to the practical development of the geothermal reservoirs. 2 tabs., 3 figs.
Dynamic reservoir well interaction
Sturm, W.L.; Belfroid, S.P.C.; Wolfswinkel, O. van; Peters, M.C.A.M.; Verhelst, F.J.P.C.M.
2004-01-01
In order to develop smart well control systems for unstable oil wells, realistic modeling of the dynamics of the well is essential. Most dynamic well models use a semi-steady state inflow model to describe the inflow of oil and gas from the reservoir. On the other hand, reservoir models use steady s
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Matthias G. Imhof; James W. Castle
2003-11-01
The objective of the project is to examine how seismic and geologic data can be used to improve characterization of small-scale heterogeneity and their parameterization in reservoir models. The study is performed at West Coalinga Field in California. We continued our investigation on the nature of seismic reactions from heterogeneous reservoirs. We began testing our algorithm to infer parameters of object-based reservoir models from seismic data. We began integration of seismic and geologic data to determine the deterministic limits of conventional seismic data interpretation. Lastly, we began integration of seismic and geologic heterogeneity using stochastic models conditioned both on wireline and seismic data.
Terahertz Science and Technology of Macroscopically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Films
Kono, Junichiro
One of the outstanding challenges in nanotechnology is how to assemble individual nano-objects into macroscopic architectures while preserving their extraordinary properties. For example, the one-dimensional character of electrons in individual carbon nanotubes leads to extremely anisotropic transport, optical, and magnetic phenomena, but their macroscopic manifestations have been limited. Here, we describe methods for preparing macroscopic films, sheets, and fibers of highly aligned carbon nanotubes and their applications to basic and applied terahertz studies. Sufficiently thick films act as ideal terahertz polarizers, and appropriately doped films operate as polarization-sensitive, flexible, powerless, and ultra-broadband detectors. Together with recently developed chirality enrichment methods, these developments will ultimately allow us to study dynamic conductivities of interacting one-dimensional electrons in macroscopic single crystals of single-chirality single-wall carbon nanotubes.
Accumulation of small protein molecules in a macroscopic complex coacervate
Lindhoud, S.; Claessens, M.M.A.E.
2016-01-01
To obtain insight into the accumulation of proteins into macroscopic complex coacervate phases, the lysozyme concentration in complex coacervates containing the cationic polyelectrolyte poly-(N,N dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) and the anionic polyelectrolyte polyacrylic acid was investigated as a
Macroscopic cumulative fatigue damage of material under nonsymmetrical cycle
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
盖秉政
2002-01-01
Hashin's macroscopic theory of fatigue damage is further discussed and a new method has been proposed for prediction of cumulative fatigue damage of material and its lifetime under nonsymmetrical cyclic loading.
Large Deviations for the Macroscopic Motion of an Interface
Birmpa, P.; Dirr, N.; Tsagkarogiannis, D.
2017-03-01
We study the most probable way an interface moves on a macroscopic scale from an initial to a final position within a fixed time in the context of large deviations for a stochastic microscopic lattice system of Ising spins with Kac interaction evolving in time according to Glauber (non-conservative) dynamics. Such interfaces separate two stable phases of a ferromagnetic system and in the macroscopic scale are represented by sharp transitions. We derive quantitative estimates for the upper and the lower bound of the cost functional that penalizes all possible deviations and obtain explicit error terms which are valid also in the macroscopic scale. Furthermore, using the result of a companion paper about the minimizers of this cost functional for the macroscopic motion of the interface in a fixed time, we prove that the probability of such events can concentrate on nucleations should the transition happen fast enough.
Quantum fluctuations, gauge freedom and mesoscopic/macroscopic stability
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Del Giudice, E [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Vitiello, G [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Universita di Salerno and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, 84100 Salerno (Italy)
2007-11-15
We study how the mesoscopic/macroscopic stability of coherent extended domains is generated out of the phase locking between gauge field and matter field. The role of the radiative gauge field in sustaining the coherent regime is discussed.
New Tests of Macroscopic Local Realism using Continuous Variable Measurements
Reid, M D
2001-01-01
We show that quantum mechanics predicts an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox (EPR), and also a contradiction with local hidden variable theories, for photon number measurements which have limited resolving power, to the point of imposing an uncertainty in the photon number result which is macroscopic in absolute terms. We show how this can be interpreted as a failure of a new, very strong premise, called macroscopic local realism. We link this premise to the Schrodinger-cat paradox. Our proposed experiments ensure all fields incident on each measurement apparatus are macroscopic. We show that an alternative measurement scheme corresponds to balanced homodyne detection of quadrature phase amplitudes. The implication is that where either EPR correlations or failure of local realism is predicted for continuous variable (quadrature phase amplitude) measurements, one can perform a modified experiment which would lead to conclusions about the much stronger premise of macroscopic local realism.
Modeling vapor dominated geothermal reservoirs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marconcini, R.; McEdwards, D.; Neri, G.; Ruffilli, C.; Schroeder, R.; Weres, O.; Witherspoon, P.
1977-09-12
The unresolved questions with regard to vapor-dominated reservoir production and longevity are reviewed. The simulation of reservoir behavior and the LBL computer program are discussed. The geology of Serrazzano geothermal field and its reservoir simulation are described. (MHR)
Studies into the averaging problem: Macroscopic gravity and precision cosmology
Wijenayake, Tharake S.
2016-08-01
With the tremendous improvement in the precision of available astrophysical data in the recent past, it becomes increasingly important to examine some of the underlying assumptions behind the standard model of cosmology and take into consideration nonlinear and relativistic corrections which may affect it at percent precision level. Due to its mathematical rigor and fully covariant and exact nature, Zalaletdinov's macroscopic gravity (MG) is arguably one of the most promising frameworks to explore nonlinearities due to inhomogeneities in the real Universe. We study the application of MG to precision cosmology, focusing on developing a self-consistent cosmology model built on the averaging framework that adequately describes the large-scale Universe and can be used to study real data sets. We first implement an algorithmic procedure using computer algebra systems to explore new exact solutions to the MG field equations. After validating the process with an existing isotropic solution, we derive a new homogeneous, anisotropic and exact solution. Next, we use the simplest (and currently only) solvable homogeneous and isotropic model of MG and obtain an observable function for cosmological expansion using some reasonable assumptions on light propagation. We find that the principal modification to the angular diameter distance is through the change in the expansion history. We then linearize the MG field equations and derive a framework that contains large-scale structure, but the small scale inhomogeneities have been smoothed out and encapsulated into an additional cosmological parameter representing the averaging effect. We derive an expression for the evolution of the density contrast and peculiar velocities and integrate them to study the growth rate of large-scale structure. We find that increasing the magnitude of the averaging term leads to enhanced growth at late times. Thus, for the same matter content, the growth rate of large scale structure in the MG model
Macroscopic Quantum Coherence in Magnetic Molecular Clusters
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
JIN Yan-Hong; NIE Yi-Hang; LIANG Jiu-Qing; PU Fu-Cho
2001-01-01
The oscillation of tunnel splitting in Fes molecular clusters is obtained as a function of magnetic field applied along the hard axis by means of the instanton method with both semiclassical treatment and the effective potential field description of the quantum spin system. The theoretical splittings of the instanton method are compared with the numerical result by diagonalization of spin Hamiltonian operators and experimental observations. By taking the appropriate parameters, our theoretical formula yields a result the same as the experimental observation.
Lajoie, L. J.; O'Connell, D. R.; Creed, R. J.; Brodsky, E. E.
2013-12-01
The United States is increasing its dependence on renewable energies and with that has come an interest in expanding geothermal operations. Due to the proximity of many existing and potential geothermal sites to population centers and seismically active regions, it is important to understand how geothermal operations interact with local (and regional) seismicity, and to determine if seismicity rates are predictable from operational parameters (i.e. fluid injection, production, and net fluid extraction) alone. Furthermore, geothermal injection and production strategies can be improved by identifying, locating and characterizing related earthquakes within the tectonic related background seismicity. As the geothermal production related seismic source focal mechanisms, moment, and location are better characterized, important pragmatic questions (such as the improvement of injection strategies and 3-d thermohydromechanical model validation) and research issues (such as the relationship between far field seismic signals, local rheology changes, and native state reservoir stress evolution as a function of injection and production transients) can be more systematically addressed. We focus specifically on the 270 MW Coso geothermal field in south-eastern California, which is characterized by both high seismicity rates and relatively high aftershock triggering. After performing statistical de-clustering of local seismicity into background and aftershock rates, we show that the background rate (at both the Coso and Salton Sea geothermal fields) can be approximated during many time intervals at the 90% + confidence level by a linear combination of injection volume and the net extracted volume (difference between production and injection). Different magnitude ranges are sampled to determine if the response is constant with respect to magnitude. We also use relative relocations and focal mechanisms from Yang et al. (2012) to map fault planes within the Coso geothermal field. We
The Upper Limit Size of Reservoir-Induced Earthquakes
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Huang Fuqiong; Zhang Yan; Wu Zhongliang; Ma Lijie
2008-01-01
We showed the relation between the magnitude of induced earthquake and the reservoir storage and dam height based on the global catalog from 1967 to 1989 compiled by Ding Yuanzhang (1989). By multiplying reservoir storage with dam height, we introduced a new parameter named EE. We found that the cases with specific EE and magnitude do not exceed a limit. Based on the discussion of its physics, we called EE the equivalent energy. We considered this limit as the upper limit of magnitude for reservoir-induced earthquakes. The result was proved by the recent cases occurring in China. This size limitation can be used as a helpful consideration for reservoir design.
Reservoir characterization of Pennsylvanian sandstone reservoirs. Final report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kelkar, M.
1995-02-01
This final report summarizes the progress during the three years of a project on Reservoir Characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. The report is divided into three sections: (i) reservoir description; (ii) scale-up procedures; (iii) outcrop investigation. The first section describes the methods by which a reservoir can be described in three dimensions. The next step in reservoir description is to scale up reservoir properties for flow simulation. The second section addresses the issue of scale-up of reservoir properties once the spatial descriptions of properties are created. The last section describes the investigation of an outcrop.
Katterbauer, Klemens
2016-08-25
Reservoir history matching is assuming a critical role in understanding reservoir characteristics, tracking water fronts, and forecasting production. While production data have been incorporated for matching reservoir production levels and estimating critical reservoir parameters, the sparse spatial nature of this dataset limits the efficiency of the history matching process. Recently, gravimetry techniques have significantly advanced to the point of providing measurement accuracy in the microgal range and consequently can be used for the tracking of gas displacement caused by water influx. While gravity measurements provide information on subsurface density changes, i.e., the composition of the reservoir, these data do only yield marginal information about temporal displacements of oil and inflowing water. We propose to complement gravimetric data with interferometric synthetic aperture radar surface deformation data to exploit the strong pressure deformation relationship for enhancing fluid flow direction forecasts. We have developed an ensemble Kalman-filter-based history matching framework for gas, gas condensate, and volatile oil reservoirs, which synergizes time-lapse gravity and interferometric synthetic aperture radar data for improved reservoir management and reservoir forecasts. Based on a dual state-parameter estimation algorithm separating the estimation of static reservoir parameters from the dynamic reservoir parameters, our numerical experiments demonstrate that history matching gravity measurements allow monitoring the density changes caused by oil-gas phase transition and water influx to determine the saturation levels, whereas the interferometric synthetic aperture radar measurements help to improve the forecasts of hydrocarbon production and water displacement directions. The reservoir estimates resulting from the dual filtering scheme are on average 20%-40% better than those from the joint estimation scheme, but require about a 30% increase in
Ito equations out of domino cellular automaton with efficiency parameters
Czechowski, Zbigniew
2011-01-01
Ito equations are derived for simple stochastic cellular automaton with parameters and compared with results obtained from the histogram method. Good agreement for various parameters supports wide applicability of the Ito equation as a macroscopic model.
A review of macroscopic ductile failure criteria.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Corona, Edmundo; Reedlunn, Benjamin
2013-09-01
The objective of this work was to describe several of the ductile failure criteria com- monly used to solve practical problems. The following failure models were considered: equivalent plastic strain, equivalent plastic strain in tension, maximum shear, Mohr- Coulomb, Wellman's tearing parameter, Johnson-Cook and BCJ MEM. The document presents the main characteristics of each failure model as well as sample failure predic- tions for simple proportional loading stress histories in three dimensions and in plane stress. Plasticity calculations prior to failure were conducted with a simple, linear hardening, J2 plasticity model. The resulting failure envelopes were plotted in prin- cipal stress space and plastic strain space, where the dependence on stress triaxiality and Lode angle are clearly visible. This information may help analysts select a ductile fracture model for a practical problem and help interpret analysis results.
Macroscopic modelization of the cloud elasticity*
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Etancelin J.-M.
2013-12-01
Full Text Available In order to achieve its promise of providing information technologies (IT on demand, cloud computing needs to rely on a mathematical model capable of directing IT on and off according to a demand pattern to provide a true elasticity. This article provides a first method to reach this goal using a “fluid type” partial differential equations model. On the one hand it examines the question of service time optimization for the simultaneous satisfaction of the cloud consumer and provider. On the other hand it tries to model a way to deliver resources according to the real time capacity of the cloud that depends on parameters such as burst requests and application timeouts. All these questions are illustrated via an implicit finite volume scheme.
Macroscopic motion of sheath-connected blobs in magnetic fields with arbitrary topology
Stepanenko, A. A.; Lee, W.; Krasheninnikov, S. I.
2017-01-01
In this study, macroscopic motion of sheath-connected blobs in magnetic fields, having arbitrary topology of the field lines and unfrozen in plasma, is analyzed within the electrostatic limit. Two distinct cases of magnetic configurations, with small and large curvature of the field lines, are considered and the criterion to discern them is deduced. For magnetic configurations with small curvature of the field lines, it is demonstrated that asymmetry of plasma distribution at the blob ends can drive macroscopic motion of a filament due to formation of unequal sheath potentials and establishing the effective Boltzmann potential. For a specific case of magnetic fields with small curvature of the field lines and identical metrics at the sheaths, we show that macroscopic motion of a plasma filament is determined by an effective electrostatic potential, which remains constant in time. For magnetic configurations with large curvature of the field lines, it is shown that motion of sufficiently large blobs is governed by integral distribution of plasma and magnetic field parameters along the field lines leading to blob adjusting its shape and position to the lead of the magnetic field lines in the course of its motion, whereas propagation of small and medium sized blobs can be represented as mutually independent motion of filament transverse cross-sections across the magnetic field lines. The qualitative conclusions on regularities of filament motion are supplied with numerical simulations of blob dynamics in two cases of tokamak-like magnetic fields with sheared and non-sheared field lines.
Zeroual, Abdelhafid
2017-08-19
Monitoring vehicle traffic flow plays a central role in enhancing traffic management, transportation safety and cost savings. In this paper, we propose an innovative approach for detection of traffic congestion. Specifically, we combine the flexibility and simplicity of a piecewise switched linear (PWSL) macroscopic traffic model and the greater capacity of the exponentially-weighted moving average (EWMA) monitoring chart. Macroscopic models, which have few, easily calibrated parameters, are employed to describe a free traffic flow at the macroscopic level. Then, we apply the EWMA monitoring chart to the uncorrelated residuals obtained from the constructed PWSL model to detect congested situations. In this strategy, wavelet-based multiscale filtering of data has been used before the application of the EWMA scheme to improve further the robustness of this method to measurement noise and reduce the false alarms due to modeling errors. The performance of the PWSL-EWMA approach is successfully tested on traffic data from the three lane highway portion of the Interstate 210 (I-210) highway of the west of California and the four lane highway portion of the State Route 60 (SR60) highway from the east of California, provided by the Caltrans Performance Measurement System (PeMS). Results show the ability of the PWSL-EWMA approach to monitor vehicle traffic, confirming the promising application of this statistical tool to the supervision of traffic flow congestion.
Time-dependent mechanical behavior of human amnion: macroscopic and microscopic characterization.
Mauri, Arabella; Perrini, Michela; Ehret, Alexander E; De Focatiis, Davide S A; Mazza, Edoardo
2015-01-01
Characterizing the mechanical response of the human amnion is essential to understand and to eventually prevent premature rupture of fetal membranes. In this study, a large set of macroscopic and microscopic mechanical tests have been carried out on fresh unfixed amnion to gain insight into the time-dependent material response and the underlying mechanisms. Creep and relaxation responses of amnion were characterized in macroscopic uniaxial tension, biaxial tension and inflation configurations. For the first time, these experiments were complemented by microstructural information from nonlinear laser scanning microscopy performed during in situ uniaxial relaxation tests. The amnion showed large tension reduction during relaxation and small inelastic strain accumulation in creep. The short-term relaxation response was related to a concomitant in-plane and out-of-plane contraction, and was dependent on the testing configuration. The microscopic investigation revealed a large volume reduction at the beginning, but no change of volume was measured long-term during relaxation. Tension-strain curves normalized with respect to the maximum strain were highly repeatable in all configurations and allowed the quantification of corresponding characteristic parameters. The present data indicate that dissipative behavior of human amnion is related to two mechanisms: (i) volume reduction due to water outflow (up to ∼20 s) and (ii) long-term dissipative behavior without macroscopic deformation and no systematic global reorientation of collagen fibers.
Macroscopic polarization and bowing constant of Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pansari, A.; Gedam, V.; Sahoo, B.K., E-mail: bksahoo.phy@nitrr.ac.in
2015-01-01
In this work, we have theoretically investigated the effect of macroscopic polarization (sum of spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization) on various thermal parameters of Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N alloy. The macroscopic polarization contributes to the effective elastic constant of Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N alloy. This contribution modifies the phonon group velocity, Debye temperature and Debye frequency of the alloy. The revised values of these thermal parameters have been estimated as a function of Al composition. Our calculation shows that these thermal parameters are enhanced and vary non-linearly with Al composition i.e., they show bowing. The cause of this bowing is the non linear dependence of spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization on Al composition. The bowing constant of above thermal parameters (with and without polarization) has been theoretically predicted by method of best fit. The results show that polarization mechanism not only enhances the parameters but also contribute significantly to bowing constant. The macroscopic polarization contributes around 48% to bowing constant of above thermal parameters. The obtained result will be useful for simulation of nitride optoelectronics devices to predict the effect of polarization mechanism on thermoelectric properties of Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N alloy.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张凤伟
2016-01-01
Yinggehai basin is in the west of Yinggehai waters in Hainan Island. It is the m ain basin of Hainan Island. Its exploration potential is huge but product difficulty is also a huge challenge.Based on the YinggehaiBasin Reservoir conventional statistical properties and form ation conditions of the physical param eters of the statistical, we analysis the conventional physical param eters of reservoir form ation conditions and physical param eters influencing factors.And we also find out different pressure and temperature conditions of porosity and perm eability variation, different form ations for different regions of the reservoir properties and comparative statistics.%莺歌海盆地位于海南岛西侧的莺歌海海域，是南海的主要盆地，其勘探潜力巨大，其生产难度也极具挑战性。本文通过对莺歌海盆地储层常规物性统计和地层条件下物性的统计，分析储层常规物性参数和地层条件下物性参数的影响因素，研究不同压力温度条件下孔隙度和渗透率的变化规律，分析岩石的纵横波速度的影响因素，以及岩石的纵横波速度在不同温度和压力条件下的变化规律。
Klibansky, N; Scharf, F S
2015-10-01
For two protogynous hermaphrodite fish species, the performance of visual gonad analysis techniques was evaluated to determine when the use of macroscopic methods was sufficient and when microscopic techniques were necessary. Simple macroscopic gonad analysis was found to be a powerful tool for distinguishing sex and whether or not females were spawning capable or ripe for black sea bass Centropristis striata (n = 1443) and red porgy Pagrus pagrus (n = 980), often producing results that were in close agreement with more complex and expensive microscopic techniques. Estimates of key reproductive variables, such as size-dependent sex-change ogives, spawning season duration, spawning fraction and batch number, were also very similar or equal between methods. Apparent seasonal spawning activity was also predicted similarly by each method and the patterns were highly correlated with seasonal patterns in gonado-somatic indices. In contrast, distinguishing between immature females and those that were mature, but inactive, proved difficult when using macroscopic methods and, in these cases, predictions often differed from those produced microscopically. In turn, maturity ogives differed significantly between methods for C. striata (maturity ogives could not be generated for P. pagrus as nearly all fish encountered were mature). Agreement rates among male phases were also very low. Macroscopic methods were able to identify signs of sex transition in very advanced specimens, but early signs were only evident microscopically. While much more detail is visible microscopically, here several population-scale parameters important for fisheries management were estimated equally well with the unaided eye for C. striata and P. pagrus. For comprehensive, fishery-independent surveys and long-term research programmes in particular, determining when microscopic techniques are and are not necessary can greatly improve efficiency and reduce costs without compromising data quality.
Quantitatively evaluating the CBM reservoir using logging data
Liu, Zhidi; Zhao, Jingzhou
2016-02-01
In order to evaluate coal bed methane (CBM) reservoirs, this paper select five parameters: porosity, permeability, CBM content, the coal structure index and effective thickness of the coal seam. Making full use of logging and the laboratory analysis data of a coal core, the logging evaluation methods of the five parameters were discussed in detail, and the comprehensive evaluation model of the CBM reservoir was established. The #5 coal seam of the Hancheng mine on the eastern edge of the Ordos Basin in China was quantitatively evaluated using this method. The results show that the CBM reservoir in the study area is better than in the central and northern regions. The actual development of CBM shows that the region with a good reservoir has high gas production—indicating that the method introduced in this paper can evaluate the CBM reservoir more effectively.
Oxygenation of Stratified Reservoir Using Air Bubble Plume
Schladow, S. G.
2006-12-01
Excess nutrients loading from urban area and watershed into lakes and reservoirs increases the content of organic matter, which, through decomposition, needs increased dissolve oxygen (DO). Many eutrophic reservoirs and lakes cannot meet the DO requirement during stratified season and suffers from the hypolimnetic anoxia. As a result, benthic sediment produces anoxic products such as methane, hydrogen sulphide, ammonia, iron, manganese, and phosphorus. In order to address the hypolimnetic anoxia, oxygen is artificially supplied into reservoir using an aeration system (i.e., bubbler). The most common result of lake/reservoir aeration is to destratify the reservoir so that the water body may completely mix under natural phenomena and remain well oxygenated throughout. Other advantages of destratification are: (1) allows warm- water fish to inhabit the entire reservoir, (2) suppress the nutrient release from sediment, and (3) decreases the algal growth by sending them to the darker zone. A one-dimensional reservoir-bubbler model is developed and applied to examine the effects of an aeration system on mixing and dissolved oxygen dynamics in the Upper Peirce Reservoir, Singapore. After introduction of the aeration system in the reservoir, it was found that the hypolimnetic DO increased significantly, and the concentration of algae, soluble manganese and iron substantially reduced. It is found that the reservoir-bubbler model predicts the mixing (temperature as mixing parameter) and dissolved oxygen concentration in the reservoir with acceptable accuracy. It is shown in terms of bubbler mechanical efficiency (i.e., operating cost) and total DO contribution from the aeration system into the reservoir that the selections of airflow rate per diffuser, air bubble radius, and total number of diffusers are important design criteria of a bubbler system. However, the overall bubbler design also depends on the reservoir size and stratified area of interest, ambient climate, and
RESERVOIR CAPACITY DEPLETION ON ACCOUNT OF SEDIMENTATION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Prabhata K.SWAMEE
2001-01-01
Capacity depletion is an important information required for planning of multipurpose reservoirs. It is a complex phenomenon involving diverse fields like surface hydrology, sediment transport, varied flow hydraulics and soil consolidation. Proper assessment of capacity reduction is helpful in ascertaining the life of the reservoir and the project benefits for cost/benefit analysis. In this study dimensionally consistent equations for deposition volume and the trap efficiency have been obtained. Methods of obtaining the parameters involved these equations have also been indicated. It was found that there is good agreement with the field data. It is hoped that the equations are useful to design engineer.
Towards an integrated workflow for structural reservoir model updating and history matching
Leeuwenburgh, O.; Peters, E.; Wilschut, F.
2011-01-01
A history matching workflow, as typically used for updating of petrophysical reservoir model properties, is modified to include structural parameters including the top reservoir and several fault properties: position, slope, throw and transmissibility. A simple 2D synthetic oil reservoir produced by
Towards an integrated workflow for structural reservoir model updating and history matching
Leeuwenburgh, O.; Peters, E.; Wilschut, F.
2011-01-01
A history matching workflow, as typically used for updating of petrophysical reservoir model properties, is modified to include structural parameters including the top reservoir and several fault properties: position, slope, throw and transmissibility. A simple 2D synthetic oil reservoir produced by
Extended Macroscopic Study of Dilute Gas Flow within a Microcavity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohamed Hssikou
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The behaviour of monatomic and dilute gas is studied in the slip and early transition regimes using the extended macroscopic theory. The gas is confined within a two-dimensional microcavity where the longitudinal sides are in the opposite motion with constant velocity ±Uw. The microcavity walls are kept at the uniform and reference temperature T0. Thus, the gas flow is transported only by the shear stress induced by the motion of upper and lower walls. From the macroscopic point of view, the regularized 13-moment equations of Grad, R13, are solved numerically. The macroscopic gas proprieties are studied for different values of the so-called Knudsen number (Kn, which gives the gas-rarefaction degree. The results are compared with those obtained using the classical continuum theory of Navier-Stokes and Fourier (NSF.
The quantum interaction of macroscopic objects and gravitons
Piran, Tsvi
2016-09-01
Copious production of gravitational radiation requires a compact source that moves relativistically. Such sources are rare and are found only in extreme cases such as the formation of a black hole in either via a gravitational collapse or via a merger. Noncompact, nonrelativistic objects emit gravitational radiation, however, this emission is extremely weak due to very large value of the Planck energy. The quantum nature of gravitons, namely the fact that a single graviton carries energy of order ℏω implies that macroscopic objects whose kinetic energy is less than the Planck energy emit gravitons quantum mechanically, emitting a single graviton at a time. This is a unique situation in which a macroscopic object behaves quantum mechanically. While it is impossible to check experimentally this quantum gravitational effect, it might be possible to carry out analogous electromagnetic experiments that will shed light on this macroscopic quantum mechanical behavior.
Geometric aspects of Schnakenberg's network theory of macroscopic nonequilibrium observables
Polettini, M.
2011-03-01
Schnakenberg's network theory deals with macroscopic thermodynamical observables (forces, currents and entropy production) associated to the steady states of diffusions on generic graphs. Using results from graph theory and from the theory of discrete differential forms we recast Schnakenberg's treatment in the form of a simple discrete gauge theory, which allows to interpret macroscopic forces as the Wilson loops of a real connection. We discuss the geometric properties of transient states, showing that heat fluxes allow for a notion of duality of macroscopic observables which interchanges the role of the environment and that of the system. We discuss possible generalizations to less trivial gauge groups and the relevance for nonequilibrium fluctuation theorems. Based on work in collaboration with professor A. Maritan, University of Padua, to be published.
Broadband Macroscopic Cortical Oscillations Emerge from Intrinsic Neuronal Response Failures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amir eGoldental
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Broadband spontaneous macroscopic neural oscillations are rhythmic cortical firing which was extensively examined during the last century, however, their possible origination is still controversial. In this work we show how macroscopic oscillations emerge in solely excitatory random networks and without topological constraints. We experimentally and theoretically show that these oscillations stem from the counterintuitive underlying mechanism - the intrinsic stochastic neuronal response failures. These neuronal response failures, which are characterized by short-term memory, lead to cooperation among neurons, resulting in sub- or several- Hertz macroscopic oscillations which coexist with high frequency gamma oscillations. A quantitative interplay between the statistical network properties and the emerging oscillations is supported by simulations of large networks based on single-neuron in-vitro experiments and a Langevin equation describing the network dynamics. Results call for the examination of these oscillations in the presence of inhibition and external drives.
Reconciling power laws in microscopic and macroscopic neural recordings
Pettersen, Klas H; Tetzlaff, Tom; Einevoll, Gaute T
2013-01-01
Power laws, characterized by quantities following 1/x^\\alpha{} distributions, are commonly reported when observing nature or society, and the question of their origin has for a long time intrigued physicists. Power laws have also been observed in neural recordings, both at the macroscopic and microscopic levels: at the macroscopic level, the power spectral density (PSD) of the electroencephalogram (EEG) has been seen to follow 1/f^\\alpha{} distributions; at the microscopic level similar power laws have been observed in single-neuron recordings of the neuronal soma potential and soma current, yet with different values of the power-law exponent \\alpha. In this theoretical study we find that these observed macroscopic and microscopic power laws may, despite the widely different spatial scales and different exponents, have the same source. By a combination of simulation on a biophysical detailed, pyramidal neuron model and analytical investigations of a simplified ball and stick neuron, we find that the transfer ...
THE LINE-SOURCE SOLUTION AND FLOW ANALYSIS OF FLUID IN FRACTAL RESERVOIR
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
The fluid flow at a constant rate from both an infinite reservoir and a finite reservoir into a line source well were considered. Analytical solutions of the partial differential equation that governs the transient flow of fluid through a fractal reservoir were given by using the Laplace transformation and the property of the Bessel function for an infinite reservoir and finite circular reservoir. A large-time approximation solution for an infinite reservoir was also studied. Pressure transient behavior of fluid flow in fractal reservoir was analyzed by using analytical solution. Typical pressure curves were shown. An example was analyzed by using a large-time approximation solution for an infinite reservoir, and fractal parameters were obtained by employing oil reservoir description.
Microscopic and macroscopic infarct complicating pediatric epilepsy surgery.
Rubinger, Luc; Hazrati, Lili-Naz; Ahmed, Raheel; Rutka, James; Snead, Carter; Widjaja, Elysa
2017-03-01
There is some suggestion that microscopic infarct could be associated with invasive monitoring, but it is unclear if the microscopic infarct is also visible on imaging and associated with neurologic deficits. The aims of this study were to assess the rates of microscopic and macroscopic infarct and other major complications of pediatric epilepsy surgery, and to determine if these complications were higher following invasive monitoring. We reviewed the epilepsy surgery data from a tertiary pediatric center, and collected data on microscopic infarct on histology and macroscopic infarct on postoperative computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) done one day after surgery and major complications. Three hundred fifty-two patients underwent surgical resection and there was one death. Forty-two percent had invasive monitoring. Thirty patients (9%) had microscopic infarct. Univariable analyses showed that microscopic infarct was higher among patients with invasive monitoring relative to no invasive monitoring (20% vs. 0.5%, respectively, p microscopic infarct had transient right hemiparesis, and two with both macroscopic and microscopic infarct had unexpected persistent neurologic deficits. Thirty-two major complications (9.1%) were reported, with no difference in major complications between invasive monitoring and no invasive monitoring (10% vs. 7%, p = 0.446). In the multivariable analysis, invasive monitoring increased the odds of microscopic infarct (odds ratio [OR] 15.87, p = 0.009), but not macroscopic infarct (OR 2.6, p = 0.173) or major complications (OR 1.4, p = 0.500), after adjusting for age at surgery, sex, age at seizure onset, operative type, and operative location. Microscopic infarct was associated with invasive monitoring, and none of the patients had permanent neurologic deficits. Macroscopic infarct was not associated with invasive monitoring, and two patients with macroscopic infarct had persistent neurologic deficits. Wiley
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
马行陟; 宋岩; 柳少波; 田华; 郑永平; 郝加庆
2014-01-01
Volumetric adsorption experiment is the primary method to determine the adsorption capability and gas content of coal reservoirs. Reference cylinder volume V1, free volume V2 in sample cylinder and pressure gauge precision were identified as the key factors influencing adsorption experiment. To understand how the parameters impact isotherm adsorption experiment results and improve the precision of the experiment, in this paper, stability analysis and accuracy analysis were performed for adsorption experiment according to Boyle's law. Based on the established models, the adsorption experiments are simulated by Matlab software. The result shows that the stability and the accuracy of experiment are controlled by V1, V2, pressure gauge precision and reference cylinder volume. The higher pressure gauge precision, the more stable and precise adsorption experiment is. When the pressure gauge precision is fixed, only V1 and V2 are smaller and satisfy certain conditions which have been simulated can the experiment achieve good stability and precision. Comparative isothermal adsorption experiment was conducted on medium rank coal from Hancheng area in the eastern Ordos basin by using the results obtained from optimization. Result indicates that the quality of adsorption results is improved, the maximum adsorption difference is 1.45 cm3/g, far less than 5.27 cm3/g from the experiment not optimized by models.%容量法等温吸附实验是测定煤储层吸附性和含气性的常用手段。实验装置中的参考缸体积V1、装有样品时的自由空间体积V2和压力表对等温吸附实验有着直接的影响，但是这三者对实验影响的程度目前还没有系统的认识。为了理清实验过程中各参数的影响和提高等温吸附实验的测试精度，基于波义尔定律建立了煤储层容量法等温吸附实验稳定性和精确性分析的数学模型，利用Matlab软件对吸附实验过程进行了数值模拟。研究表明，吸附
Approximating macroscopic observables in quantum spin systems with commuting matrices
Ogata, Yoshiko
2011-01-01
Macroscopic observables in a quantum spin system are given by sequences of spatial means of local elements $\\frac{1}{2n+1}\\sum_{j=-n}^n\\gamma_j(A_{i}), \\; n\\in{\\mathbb N},\\; i=1,...,m$ in a UHF algebra. One of their properties is that they commute asymptotically, as $n$ goes to infinity. It is not true that any given set of asymptotically commuting matrices can be approximated by commuting ones in the norm topology. In this paper, we show that for macroscopic observables, this is true.
On the notion of a macroscopic quantum system
Khrenikov, A Yu
2004-01-01
We analyse the notion of macroscopic quantum system from the point of view of the statistical structure of quantum theory. We come to conclusion that the presence of interference of probabilities should be used the main characteristic of quantumness (in the opposition to N. Bohr who permanently emphasized the crucial role of quantum action). In the light of recent experiments with statistical ensembles of people who produced interference of probabilities for special pairs of questions (which can be considered as measurements on people) human being should be considered as a macroscopic quantum system. There is also discussed relation with experiments of A. Zeilinger on interference of probabilities for macromoleculas.
Stimuli-deformable graphene materials: from nanosheet to macroscopic assembly
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fei Zhao
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Stimulus-induced deformation (SID of graphene-based materials has triggered rapidly increasing research interest due to the spontaneous response to external stimulations, which enables precise configurational regulation of single graphene nanosheets (GNSs through control over the environmental conditions. While the micro-strain of GNS is barely visible, the deformation of graphene-based macroscopic assemblies (GMAs is remarkable, thereby presenting significant potential for future application in smart devices. This review presents the current progress of SID of graphene in the manner of nanosheets and macroscopic assemblies in both the experimental and theoretical fronts, and summarizes recent advancements of SID of graphene for applications in smart systems.
Bratchenko, M I
2001-01-01
A novel method of Monte Carlo simulation of small-angle reflection of charged particles from solid surfaces has been developed. Instead of atomic-scale simulation of particle-surface collisions the method treats the reflection macroscopically as 'condensed history' event. Statistical parameters of reflection are sampled from the theoretical distributions upon energy and angles. An efficient sampling algorithm based on combination of inverse probability distribution function method and rejection method has been proposed and tested. As an example of application the results of statistical modeling of particles flux enhancement near the bottom of vertical Wehner cone are presented and compared with simple geometrical model of specular reflection.
Well testing of tight gas reservoirs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jahanbani, A.; Aguilera, R. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)
2008-07-01
This paper discussed methods of evaluating tight gas sand reservoirs. Conventional well testing is not used in tight gas reservoirs due to their low permeability. Tight gas well testing techniques include pressure-dependent permeability testing; the estimation of pseudo--time at the average pressure of the region of influence; and supercharge effect testing. Pre-frac test analysis techniques were also discussed. Pressure-transient test designs were reviewed along with instantaneous source response methods for calculating influence functions. Impulse-fracture tests were discussed, as well as perforation inflow diagnostic testing. Perforation inflow tests provided reasonable estimates of reservoir parameters. Methods of determining pressure-dependent permeability data were discussed. After closure analysis (ACA) was used to analyze formation permeability. It was concluded that ACA can be coupled with pre-closure analysis to optimize fracture stimulation plans. The 22 refs., 17 figs.
Landfill liners from dam reservoir sediments
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Koś Karolina
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Landfill liners from dam reservoir sediments. Every municipal solid waste landfill has to be properly secured to protect the natural environment from possible leachate. Most often an artificial sealing is used, which is based on a soil liner from cohesive soils (clays, silts. Usability evaluation of bottom sediments from Rzeszowski Reservoir for building these liners was presented in the paper. Sediments from dam reservoirs, gathered as a result of the siltation process, can be a valuable material for earthworks purposes. Determination of their possible ways of usage is important, especially before the planned dredging, because thanks to that this material will not be put on a heap. Based on the analysis of the geotechnical parameters of these sediments it was stated that this material can be preliminary allowed for using in liners.
Current Challenges in Geothermal Reservoir Simulation
Driesner, T.
2016-12-01
Geothermal reservoir simulation has long been introduced as a valuable tool for geothermal reservoir management and research. Yet, the current generation of simulation tools faces a number of severe challenges, in particular in the application for novel types of geothermal resources such as supercritical reservoirs or hydraulic stimulation. This contribution reviews a number of key problems: Representing the magmatic heat source of high enthalpy resources in simulations. Current practice is representing the deeper parts of a high enthalpy reservoir by a heat flux or temperature boundary condition. While this is sufficient for many reservoir management purposes it precludes exploring the chances of very high enthalpy resources in the deepest parts of such systems as well as the development of reliable conceptual models. Recent 2D simulations with the CSMP++ simulation platform demonstrate the potential of explicitly including the heat source, namely for understanding supercritical resources. Geometrically realistic incorporation of discrete fracture networks in simulation. A growing number of simulation tools can, in principle, handle flow and heat transport in discrete fracture networks. However, solving the governing equations and representing the physical properties are often biased by introducing strongly simplifying assumptions. Including proper fracture mechanics in complex fracture network simulations remains an open challenge. Improvements of the simulating chemical fluid-rock interaction in geothermal reservoirs. Major improvements have been made towards more stable and faster numerical solvers for multicomponent chemical fluid rock interaction. However, the underlying thermodynamic models and databases are unable to correctly address a number of important regions in temperature-pressure-composition parameter space. Namely, there is currently no thermodynamic formalism to describe relevant chemical reactions in supercritical reservoirs. Overcoming this
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Michael L. Wiggins; Raymon L. Brown; Faruk Civan; Richard G. Hughes
2002-12-31
For many years, geoscientists and engineers have undertaken research to characterize naturally fractured reservoirs. Geoscientists have focused on understanding the process of fracturing and the subsequent measurement and description of fracture characteristics. Engineers have concentrated on the fluid flow behavior in the fracture-porous media system and the development of models to predict the hydrocarbon production from these complex systems. This research attempts to integrate these two complementary views to develop a quantitative reservoir characterization methodology and flow performance model for naturally fractured reservoirs. The research has focused on estimating naturally fractured reservoir properties from seismic data, predicting fracture characteristics from well logs, and developing a naturally fractured reservoir simulator. It is important to develop techniques that can be applied to estimate the important parameters in predicting the performance of naturally fractured reservoirs. This project proposes a method to relate seismic properties to the elastic compliance and permeability of the reservoir based upon a sugar cube model. In addition, methods are presented to use conventional well logs to estimate localized fracture information for reservoir characterization purposes. The ability to estimate fracture information from conventional well logs is very important in older wells where data are often limited. Finally, a desktop naturally fractured reservoir simulator has been developed for the purpose of predicting the performance of these complex reservoirs. The simulator incorporates vertical and horizontal wellbore models, methods to handle matrix to fracture fluid transfer, and fracture permeability tensors. This research project has developed methods to characterize and study the performance of naturally fractured reservoirs that integrate geoscience and engineering data. This is an important step in developing exploitation strategies for
Reservoir Engineering Studies of Geopressured Geothermal Energy Resource
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Kun Sang [Kyonggi University, Suwon (Korea)
1998-04-30
Transient pressure analysis techniques were used to evaluate the performance of the Gladys McCall geopressured-geothermal reservoir which has been monitored and tested under U.S. Department of Energy geopressured -geothermal research program. Analysis of transient pressure data furnished a reservoir description such as the formation parameters, pore volume and shape of the reservoir, and average reservoir pressure. Results of pressure tests suggest that the Gladys McCall reservoir probably has a long narrow shape with the well located off-center. During both production and shut-in periods, pressure buildup tests indicated some degree of external pressure support. Aquifer recharging was believed to be the main source. An aquifer influx model was derived from a conceptual model of water leakage through a partially sealing fault into the reservoir under steady-state conditions. Moreover, a match of the pressure history required that the conductivity of the fault be a function of the pressure difference between the supporting aquifer and the reservoir. Results of analyses provided a quantitative evaluation of the reservoir and a better understanding of the reservoir energy drive mechanism. (author). 14 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.
Macroscopic Model and Simulation Analysis of Air Traffic Flow in Airport Terminal Area
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Honghai Zhang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We focus on the spatiotemporal characteristics and their evolvement law of the air traffic flow in airport terminal area to provide scientific basis for optimizing flight control processes and alleviating severe air traffic conditions. Methods in this work combine mathematical derivation and simulation analysis. Based on cell transmission model the macroscopic models of arrival and departure air traffic flow in terminal area are established. Meanwhile, the interrelationship and influential factors of the three characteristic parameters as traffic flux, density, and velocity are presented. Then according to such models, the macro emergence of traffic flow evolution is emulated with the NetLogo simulation platform, and the correlativity of basic traffic flow parameters is deduced and verified by means of sensitivity analysis. The results suggest that there are remarkable relations among the three characteristic parameters of the air traffic flow in terminal area. Moreover, such relationships evolve distinctly with the flight procedures, control separations, and ATC strategies.
Quantum statistical derivation of the macroscopic Maxwell equations
Schram, K.
1960-01-01
The macroscopic Maxwell equations in matter are derived on a quantum statistical basis from the microscopic equations for the field operators. Both the density operator formalism and the Wigner distribution function method are discussed. By both methods it can be proved that the quantum statistical
Macroscopic and Microscopic Gradient Structures of Bamboo Culms
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Suwat SUTNAUN
2005-01-01
Full Text Available This work studied the structure of bamboo culms which is naturally designed to retard the bending stress caused by a wind load. A macroscopic gradient structure (diameter, thickness and internodal length and a microscopic one (distribution of fiber of three sympodial bamboo species i.e. Tong bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper Backer., Pah bamboo (Gigantochloa bambos and Pak bamboo (Gigantochloa hasskarliana were examined. From the macroscopic point of view, the wind-load generated bending stress for the tapered hollow tube of bamboo was found to vary uniformly with height, especially at the middle of the culms. Furthermore, the macroscopic shape of bamboo culm is about 2-6 times stiffer in bending mode than one with a solid circular section for the same amount of wood material. Microscopically, the distribution of fiber in the radial direction linearly decreases from the outer surface to the inner surface in the same manner as that of the distribution of the bending stress in the radial direction. Distribution of fiber along the vertical length of bamboos at each height is proportional to the level of bending stress generated by the wind load. Both macroscopic and microscopic gradient structures of sympodial type bamboos were found to be less effective to retard the bending stress than those of monopodial type bamboo.
Microstructure and macroscopic properties of polydisperse systems of hard spheres
Ogarko, Vitaliy Anatolyevich
2014-01-01
This dissertation describes an investigation of systems of polydisperse smooth hard spheres. This includes the development of a fast contact detection algorithm for computer modelling, the development of macroscopic constitutive laws that are based on microscopic features such as the moments of the
Photoinduced macroscopic chiral structures in a series of azobenzene copolyesters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nedelchev, L.; Nikolova, L.; Matharu, A.
2002-01-01
A study of the propagation of elliptically polarized light and the resulting formation of macroscopic chiral structures in a series of azobenzene side-chain copolyesters, in which the morphology is varied from liquid crystalline to amorphous, is reported. Real-time measurements are presented...
[Macroscopic observations on corneal epithelial wound healing in the rabbit].
Hayashi, K
1991-02-01
A newly-developed macroscope was applied to observe the healing process of corneal epithelial wound in vivo. After removing epithelium of the central cornea, the changes of the corneal surface were observed with the macroscope and the findings were compared with histological examinations. At 12 hours after abrasion, areas unstained with Richardson's staining (R staining) appeared. In the histological section, a single layer of regenerating epithelial cells covered the same area. At 24 and 36 hours after abrasion, the epithelial defects became smaller but surrounding epithelium was rough and showed dot-like staining with R solution. By 2 days, the epithelial defects disappeared. On macroscopic observation, the central corneal surface showed a pavement-like appearance. Histology revealed that the regenerating epithelium still consisted of one or two layers. At 3 days, dot-like stainings were present only in the center and the corneal surface appeared considerably smooth. Histology also showed that regenerating epithelium became columnar and multilayered, thereby suggesting stratification. By 7 days, the abraded corneal surface had recovered its smooth appearance. Histologic sections also demonstrated that the epithelium had regained its normal structure. Thus, using this macroscope, findings suggesting the process of epithelial migration and proliferation could be observed.
The black hole information paradox and macroscopic superpositions
Hsu, Stephen D H
2010-01-01
We investigate the experimental capabilities required to test whether black holes destroy information. We show that an experiment capable of illuminating the information puzzle must necessarily be able to detect or manipulate macroscopic superpositions (i.e., Everett branches). Hence, it could also address the fundamental question of decoherence versus wavefunction collapse.
Macroscopic domain formation in the platelet plasma membrane
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bali, Rachna; Savino, Laura; Ramirez, Diego A.;
2009-01-01
There has been ample debate on whether cell membranes can present macroscopic lipid domains as predicted by three-component phase diagrams obtained by fluorescence microscopy. Several groups have argued that membrane proteins and interactions with the cytoskeleton inhibit the formation of large d...
A Macroscopic Analogue of the Nuclear Pairing Potential
Dunlap, Richard A.
2013-01-01
A macroscopic system involving permanent magnets is used as an analogue to nucleons in a nucleus to illustrate the significance of the pairing interaction. This illustrates that the view of the total nuclear energy based only on the nucleon occupancy of the energy levels can yield erroneous results and it is only when the pairing interaction is…
Data requirements for traffic control on a macroscopic level
Knoop, V.L.; Van Lint, J.W.C.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.
2011-01-01
With current techniques, traffic monitoring and control is a data intensive process. Network control on a higher level, using high level variables, can make this process less data demanding. The macroscopic fundamental diagram relates accumulation, i.e. the number of vehicles in an area, to the netw
Stereodynamics: From elementary processes to macroscopic chemical reactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kasai, Toshio [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Graduate School of Science, Department of Chemistry, Osaka University, Toyonaka, 560-0043 Osaka (Japan); Che, Dock-Chil [Graduate School of Science, Department of Chemistry, Osaka University, Toyonaka, 560-0043 Osaka (Japan); Tsai, Po-Yu [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Department of Chemistry, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Lin, King-Chuen [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Palazzetti, Federico [Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Chimica Biologia e Biotecnologie, Università di Perugia, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Aquilanti, Vincenzo [Dipartimento di Chimica Biologia e Biotecnologie, Università di Perugia, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Istituto di Struttura della Materia, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Roma (Italy); Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador (Brazil)
2015-12-31
This paper aims at discussing new facets on stereodynamical behaviors in chemical reactions, i.e. the effects of molecular orientation and alignment on reactive processes. Further topics on macroscopic processes involving deviations from Arrhenius behavior in the temperature dependence of chemical reactions and chirality effects in collisions are also discussed.
Mesoscopic kinetic basis of macroscopic chemical thermodynamics: A mathematical theory.
Ge, Hao; Qian, Hong
2016-11-01
Gibbs' macroscopic chemical thermodynamics is one of the most important theories in chemistry. Generalizing it to mesoscaled nonequilibrium systems is essential to biophysics. The nonequilibrium stochastic thermodynamics of chemical reaction kinetics suggested a free energy balance equation dF^{(meso)}/dt=E_{in}-e_{p} in which the free energy input rate E_{in} and dissipation rate e_{p} are both non-negative, and E_{in}≤e_{p}. We prove that in the macroscopic limit by merely allowing the molecular numbers to be infinite, the generalized mesoscopic free energy F^{(meso)} converges to φ^{ss}, the large deviation rate function for the stationary distributions. This generalized macroscopic free energy φ^{ss} now satisfies a balance equation dφ^{ss}(x)/dt=cmf(x)-σ(x), in which x represents chemical concentration. The chemical motive force cmf(x) and entropy production rate σ(x) are both non-negative, and cmf(x)≤σ(x). The balance equation is valid generally in isothermal driven systems and is different from mechanical energy conservation and the first law; it is actually an unknown form of the second law. Consequences of the emergent thermodynamic quantities and equalities are further discussed. The emergent "law" is independent of underlying kinetic details. Our theory provides an example showing how a macroscopic law emerges from a level below.
Diagnosis of bladder tumours in patients with macroscopic haematuria
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gandrup, Karen L; Løgager, Vibeke B; Bretlau, Thomas
2015-01-01
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare split-bolus computed tomography urography (CTU), magnetic resonance urography (MRU) and flexible cystoscopy in patients with macroscopic haematuria regarding the diagnosis of bladder tumours. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective study, 150...
Microstructure and macroscopic properties of polydisperse systems of hard spheres
Ogarko, V.
2014-01-01
This dissertation describes an investigation of systems of polydisperse smooth hard spheres. This includes the development of a fast contact detection algorithm for computer modelling, the development of macroscopic constitutive laws that are based on microscopic features such as the moments of the
Integrating a macro emission model with a macroscopic traffic model
Klunder, G.A.; Stelwagen, U.; Taale, H.
2013-01-01
This paper presents a macro emission module for macroscopic traffic models to be used for assessment of ITS and traffic management. It especially focuses on emission estimates for different intersection types. It provides emission values for CO, CO2, HC, NOx, and PM10. It is applied and validated fo
From 1D to 3D - macroscopic nanowire aerogel monoliths.
Cheng, Wei; Rechberger, Felix; Niederberger, Markus
2016-08-01
Here we present a strategy to assemble one-dimensional nanostructures into a three-dimensional architecture with macroscopic size. With the assistance of centrifugation, we successfully gel ultrathin W18O49 nanowires with diameters of 1 to 2 nm and aspect ratios larger than 100 into 3D networks, which are transformed into monolithic aerogels by supercritical drying.
Numerical solutions of a generalized theory for macroscopic capillarity
Doster, F.; Zegeling, P.A.; Hilfer, R.
2010-01-01
A recent macroscopic theory of biphasic flow in porous media [R. Hilfer, Phys. Rev. E 73, 016307 (2006)] has proposed to treat microscopically percolating fluid regions differently from microscopically nonpercolating regions. Even in one dimension the theory reduces to an analytically intractable se
The fundamental diagram : a macroscopic traffic flow model.
Botma, H.
1976-01-01
In models of traffic flow, the interactions between vehicles are of prime interest, and are based on characteristics of the drivers, road and vehicles. The fundamental diagram is a representation of a relationship on a macroscopic level in the steady state between the quantity of traffic and a chara
Charge accumulation in DC cables: a macroscopic approach
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
McAllister, Iain Wilson; Crichton, George C; Pedersen, Aage
1994-01-01
The accumulation of space charge in solid dielectrics is examined from the macroscopic point of view using electromagnetic field theory. For practical dielectrics, it is shown that the occurrence of such charges is an inherent consequence of a non-uniform conductivity. The influence of both tempe...
Mesoscopic kinetic basis of macroscopic chemical thermodynamics: A mathematical theory
Ge, Hao; Qian, Hong
2016-11-01
Gibbs' macroscopic chemical thermodynamics is one of the most important theories in chemistry. Generalizing it to mesoscaled nonequilibrium systems is essential to biophysics. The nonequilibrium stochastic thermodynamics of chemical reaction kinetics suggested a free energy balance equation d F(meso)/d t =Ein-ep in which the free energy input rate Ein and dissipation rate ep are both non-negative, and Ein≤ep . We prove that in the macroscopic limit by merely allowing the molecular numbers to be infinite, the generalized mesoscopic free energy F(meso) converges to φss, the large deviation rate function for the stationary distributions. This generalized macroscopic free energy φss now satisfies a balance equation d φss(x ) /d t =cmf(x ) -σ (x ) , in which x represents chemical concentration. The chemical motive force cmf(x ) and entropy production rate σ (x ) are both non-negative, and cmf(x )≤σ (x ) . The balance equation is valid generally in isothermal driven systems and is different from mechanical energy conservation and the first law; it is actually an unknown form of the second law. Consequences of the emergent thermodynamic quantities and equalities are further discussed. The emergent "law" is independent of underlying kinetic details. Our theory provides an example showing how a macroscopic law emerges from a level below.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Renner, Joel L.; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.; Wannamaker, Philip E.; Horne, Roland N.; Shook, G. Michael
1992-01-01
This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of five papers: ''Reservoir Technology'' by Joel L. Renner; ''LBL Research on the Geysers: Conceptual Models, Simulation and Monitoring Studies'' by Gudmundur S. Bodvarsson; ''Geothermal Geophysical Research in Electrical Methods at UURI'' by Philip E. Wannamaker; ''Optimizing Reinjection Strategy at Palinpinon, Philippines Based on Chloride Data'' by Roland N. Horne; ''TETRAD Reservoir Simulation'' by G. Michael Shook
Geothermal reservoir engineering
Grant, Malcolm Alister
2011-01-01
As nations alike struggle to diversify and secure their power portfolios, geothermal energy, the essentially limitless heat emanating from the earth itself, is being harnessed at an unprecedented rate. For the last 25 years, engineers around the world tasked with taming this raw power have used Geothermal Reservoir Engineering as both a training manual and a professional reference. This long-awaited second edition of Geothermal Reservoir Engineering is a practical guide to the issues and tasks geothermal engineers encounter in the course of their daily jobs. The bo
Modeling of Salinity Effects on Waterflooding of Petroleum Reservoirs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Alexeev, Artem
of the experimental studies concerning the smart water effects recognize importance of the chemistry of reservoir rocks that manifests itself in dissolution and precipitation of rock minerals and adsorption of specific ions on the rock surface. The brine-rock interactions may affect the wetting state of the rock...... brine and the formation water that is initially in equilibrium with the reservoir rock. We consider a displacement process in one dimension with dissolution affecting both the porosity/permeability of the rock and the density of the brine. Extending previous studies, we account for the different...... of residual oil and its flow in porous media. The oil trapped in the swept zones after conventional flooding is present in a form of disconnected oil drops, or oil ganglia. While the macroscopic theory of multiphase flow assumes that fluid phases flow in their own pore networks and do not influence each other...
Critical behavior of a two-dimensional complex fluid: Macroscopic and mesoscopic views
Choudhuri, Madhumita; Datta, Alokmay
2016-04-01
Liquid disordered (Ld) to liquid ordered (Lo) phase transition in myristic acid [MyA, CH3(CH2) 12COOH ] Langmuir monolayers was studied macroscopically as well as mesoscopically to locate the critical point. Macroscopically, isotherms of the monolayer were obtained across the 20 ∘C-38 ∘Ctemperature (T ) range and the critical point was estimated, primarily from the vanishing of the order parameter, at ≈38 ∘C. Mesoscopically, domain morphology in the Ld-Lo coexistence regime was imaged using the technique of Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) as a function of T and the corresponding power spectral density function (PSDF) obtained. Monolayer morphology passed from stable circular domains and a sharp peak in PSDF to stable dendritic domains and a divergence of the correlation length as the critical point was approached from below. The critical point was found to be consistent at ≈38 ∘Cfrom both isotherm and BAM results. In the critical regime the scaling behavior of the transition followed the two-dimensional Ising model. Additionally, we obtained a precritical regime, over a temperature range of ≈8 ∘C below Tc, characterized by fluctuations in the order parameter at the macroscopic scale and at the mesoscopic scale characterized by unstable domains of fingering or dendritic morphology as well as proliferation of a large number of small sized domains, multiple peaks in the power spectra, and a corresponding fluctuation in the peak q values with T . Further, while comparing temperature studies on an ensemble of MyA monolayers with those on a single monolayer, the system was found to be not strictly ergodic in that the ensemble development did not strictly match with the time development in the system. In particular, the critical temperature was found to be lowered in the latter. These results clearly show that the critical behavior in fatty acid monolayer phase transitions have features of both complex and nonequilibrium systems.
Jorda, Helena; Perelman, Adi; Lazarovitch, Naftali; Vanderborght, Jan
2017-04-01
Root water uptake is a fundamental process in the hydrological cycle and it largely regulates the water balance in the soil vadose zone. Macroscopic stress functions are currently used to estimate the effect of salinity on root water uptake. These functions commonly assume stress to be a function of bulk salinity and of the plant sensitivity to osmotic stress expressed as the salinity at which transpiration is reduced by half or so called tolerance value. However, they fail to integrate additional relevant factors such as atmospheric conditions or root architectural traits. We conducted a comprehensive simulation study on a single root using a 3-D physically-based model that resolves flow and transport to individual root segments and that couples flow in the soil and root system. The effect of salt concentrations on root water uptake was accounted for by including osmotic water potential gradients between the solution at the soil root interface and the root xylem sap in the hydraulic gradient between the soil and root. A large set of factors were studied, namely, potential transpiration rate and dynamics, root length density (RLD), irrigation water quality and irrigation frequency, and leaching fraction. Results were fitted to the macroscopic function developed by van Genuchten and Hoffman (1984) and the dependency of osmotic stress and the fitted macroscopic parameters on the studied factors was evaluated. Osmotic stress was found to be highly dependent on RLD. Low RLDs result in a larger stress to the plant due to high evaporative demand per root length unit. In addition, osmotic stress was positively correlated to potential transpiration rate, and sinusoidal potential transpiration lead to larger stress than when imposed as a constant boundary condition. Macroscopic parameters are usually computed as single values for each crop and used for the entire growing season. However, our study shows that both tolerance value and shape parameter p from the van Genuchten
Macroscopic quantum phenomena from the large N perspective
Chou, C. H.; Hu, B. L.; Subaşi, Y.
2011-07-01
Macroscopic quantum phenomena (MQP) is a relatively new research venue, with exciting ongoing experiments and bright prospects, yet with surprisingly little theoretical activity. What makes MQP intellectually stimulating is because it is counterpoised against the traditional view that macroscopic means classical. This simplistic and hitherto rarely challenged view need be scrutinized anew, perhaps with much of the conventional wisdoms repealed. In this series of papers we report on a systematic investigation into some key foundational issues of MQP, with the hope of constructing a viable theoretical framework for this new endeavour. The three major themes discussed in these three essays are the large N expansion, the correlation hierarchy and quantum entanglement for systems of 'large' sizes, with many components or degrees of freedom. In this paper we use different theories in a variety of contexts to examine the conditions or criteria whereby a macroscopic quantum system may take on classical attributes, and, more interestingly, that it keeps some of its quantum features. The theories we consider here are, the O(N) quantum mechanical model, semiclassical stochastic gravity and gauge / string theories; the contexts include that of a 'quantum roll' in inflationary cosmology, entropy generation in quantum Vlasov equation for plasmas, the leading order and next-to-leading order large N behaviour, and hydrodynamic / thermodynamic limits. The criteria for classicality in our consideration include the use of uncertainty relations, the correlation between classical canonical variables, randomization of quantum phase, environment-induced decoherence, decoherent history of hydrodynamic variables, etc. All this exercise is to ask only one simple question: Is it really so surprising that quantum features can appear in macroscopic objects? By examining different representative systems where detailed theoretical analysis has been carried out, we find that there is no a priori
The origins of macroscopic quantum coherence in high temperature superconductivity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Turner, Philip, E-mail: ph.turner@napier.ac.uk [Edinburgh Napier University, 10 Colinton Road, Edinburgh EH10 5DT (United Kingdom); Nottale, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.nottale@obspm.fr [CNRS, LUTH, Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, 5 Place Janssen, 92190 Meudon (France)
2015-08-15
Highlights: • We propose a new theoretical approach to superconductivity in p-type cuprates. • Electron pairing mechanisms in the superconducting and pseudogap phases are proposed. • A scale free network of dopants is key to macroscopic quantum coherence. - Abstract: A new, theoretical approach to macroscopic quantum coherence and superconductivity in the p-type (hole doped) cuprates is proposed. The theory includes mechanisms to account for e-pair coupling in the superconducting and pseudogap phases and their inter relations observed in these materials. Electron pair coupling in the superconducting phase is facilitated by local quantum potentials created by static dopants in a mechanism which explains experimentally observed optimal doping levels and the associated peak in critical temperature. By contrast, evidence suggests that electrons contributing to the pseudogap are predominantly coupled by fractal spin waves (fractons) induced by the fractal arrangement of dopants. On another level, the theory offers new insights into the emergence of a macroscopic quantum potential generated by a fractal distribution of dopants. This, in turn, leads to the emergence of coherent, macroscopic spin waves and a second associated macroscopic quantum potential, possibly supported by charge order. These quantum potentials play two key roles. The first involves the transition of an expected diffusive process (normally associated with Anderson localization) in fractal networks, into e-pair coherence. The second involves the facilitation of tunnelling between localized e-pairs. These combined effects lead to the merger of the super conducting and pseudo gap phases into a single coherent condensate at optimal doping. The underlying theory relating to the diffusion to quantum transition is supported by Coherent Random Lasing, which can be explained using an analogous approach. As a final step, an experimental program is outlined to validate the theory and suggests a new
Macroscopic quantum phenomena from the large N perspective
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chou, C H [department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan 701 (China) and National Center for Theoretical Sciences (South), Tainan, Taiwan 701 (China); Hu, B L; Subasi, Y, E-mail: hubeilok@gmail.com [Joint Quantum Institute and Maryland Center for Fundamental Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)
2011-07-08
Macroscopic quantum phenomena (MQP) is a relatively new research venue, with exciting ongoing experiments and bright prospects, yet with surprisingly little theoretical activity. What makes MQP intellectually stimulating is because it is counterpoised against the traditional view that macroscopic means classical. This simplistic and hitherto rarely challenged view need be scrutinized anew, perhaps with much of the conventional wisdoms repealed. In this series of papers we report on a systematic investigation into some key foundational issues of MQP, with the hope of constructing a viable theoretical framework for this new endeavour. The three major themes discussed in these three essays are the large N expansion, the correlation hierarchy and quantum entanglement for systems of 'large' sizes, with many components or degrees of freedom. In this paper we use different theories in a variety of contexts to examine the conditions or criteria whereby a macroscopic quantum system may take on classical attributes, and, more interestingly, that it keeps some of its quantum features. The theories we consider here are, the O(N) quantum mechanical model, semiclassical stochastic gravity and gauge / string theories; the contexts include that of a 'quantum roll' in inflationary cosmology, entropy generation in quantum Vlasov equation for plasmas, the leading order and next-to-leading order large N behaviour, and hydrodynamic / thermodynamic limits. The criteria for classicality in our consideration include the use of uncertainty relations, the correlation between classical canonical variables, randomization of quantum phase, environment-induced decoherence, decoherent history of hydrodynamic variables, etc. All this exercise is to ask only one simple question: Is it really so surprising that quantum features can appear in macroscopic objects? By examining different representative systems where detailed theoretical analysis has been carried out, we find that
Geodetic imaging: Reservoir monitoring using satellite interferometry
Vasco, D.W.; Wicks, C.; Karasaki, K.; Marques, O.
2002-01-01
Fluid fluxes within subsurface reservoirs give rise to surface displacements, particularly over periods of a year or more. Observations of such deformation provide a powerful tool for mapping fluid migration within the Earth, providing new insights into reservoir dynamics. In this paper we use Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) range changes to infer subsurface fluid volume strain at the Coso geothermal field. Furthermore, we conduct a complete model assessment, using an iterative approach to compute model parameter resolution and covariance matrices. The method is a generalization of a Lanczos-based technique which allows us to include fairly general regularization, such as roughness penalties. We find that we can resolve quite detailed lateral variations in volume strain both within the reservoir depth range (0.4-2.5 km) and below the geothermal production zone (2.5-5.0 km). The fractional volume change in all three layers of the model exceeds the estimated model parameter uncertainly by a factor of two or more. In the reservoir depth interval (0.4-2.5 km), the predominant volume change is associated with northerly and westerly oriented faults and their intersections. However, below the geothermal production zone proper [the depth range 2.5-5.0 km], there is the suggestion that both north- and northeast-trending faults may act as conduits for fluid flow.
Kipriyanov, Alexander A; Kipriyanov, Alexey A; Doktorov, Alexander B
2010-11-07
The applicability of the Encounter Theory (ET) (the prototype of the Collision Theory) concepts for widely occurring diffusion assisted irreversible bulk reaction A+B→C (for example, radical reaction) in dilute solutions with arbitrary ratio of initial concentrations of reactants has been treated theoretically with modern many-particle method for the derivation of non-Markovian binary kinetic equations. The method shows that, just as in the reaction A+A→C considered earlier, the agreement with the Encounter Theory is observed when the familiar Integral Encounter Theory is used which is just a step in the derivation of kinetic equations in the framework of the method employed. It allows for two-particle correlations only, and fails to consider the correlation of reactant simultaneously with a partner and with a reactant in the bulk. However, the next step leading to the Modified Encounter Theory under reduction of equations to a regular form both extends the time applicability interval of ET homogeneous rate equation (as for reactions proceeding in excess of one of the reactants), and yields the inhomogeneous equation of the Generalized Encounter Theory (GET) that reveals macroscopic correlations induced by the encounters in a reservoir of free walks in full agreement with physical considerations. This means that the encounters of reactants in solution are correlated at rather large time interval of the reaction course. However, unlike the reaction A+A→C of identical reactants, the reaction A+B→C accumulation of the above macroscopic correlations (even with the initial concentrations of reactants being equal) proceeds much slower. Another distinction is that for the reaction A+A→C the long-term behavior of ET and GET kinetics is the same, while in the reaction A+B→C these kinetics behave differently. It is of interest that just taking account of the above macroscopic correlations in the reaction A+B→C (in GET) results in the universal character of the
African Journals Online (AJOL)
human resources. It is also intended to make known to the general public that ... port processes were not properly taken into account. ... Studies carried out on 19 reservoirs in Cen- tral Europe with storage capacity ranging be- tween 1.48 x ...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
章海宁; 姜黎明; 张金功; 孙建孟; 屈乐; 樊云峰
2014-01-01
3-D digital cores were constructed using the process-based method with the grain size distribution of the rock. The effects of grain size ratio, grain size and grain sorting on the elastic properties of the clastic reservoir rocks were studied using the finite element method based on the digital cores. The results showed that the grain size and grain sorting have notable effect on rock physics properties and pore structure, which will cause the variations in elastic moduli and velocities. The relation between the grain size ratio and the elastic properties of the clastic reservoir rocks is non-linear. The bulk modulus increases until it reaches a maximum value, and then decreases to tend to a constant with increasing volume fraction of large grains. The effect of volume fraction of large grains on the elastic moduli strengthens as the grain size ratio increases. The effect of the grain size on the elastic properties of water-saturated rock is weaker than that of dry rock. Moreover, the bulk moduli is more sensitive to fluid changes when the grain size is very small. The worse the sorting is, the greater the elastic moduli and velocities of clastic reservoir rocks will be.%结合岩石颗粒粒径分布，通过过程模拟法构建3维数字岩心，利用有限元方法研究了岩石颗粒尺寸比、颗粒大小以及颗粒分选性对岩石弹性特性的影响。结果表明岩石颗粒的大小、分选性均会对岩石的物性以及孔隙结构产生影响，引起岩石弹性模量和纵横波速度的变化。颗粒尺寸比对岩石弹性的影响是非线性的，随着大颗粒含量的增大，岩石体积模量先增大至最大值，然后再减小至趋于不变，随着颗粒尺寸比的变大，大颗粒含量对岩石弹性模量的影响增强。粒径对饱和水岩石弹性的影响弱于对干岩石的，并且粒径越小，岩石体积模量对孔隙流体的变化越敏感。随颗粒分选性变差，岩石体积模量和剪切模量及纵横波速度变大。
De Ryck, L; Lauriks, W; Leclaire, P; Groby, J P; Wirgin, A; Depollier, C
2008-09-01
The present paper deals with the inverse scattering problem involving macroscopically inhomogeneous rigid frame porous media. It consists of the recovery, from acoustic measurements, of the profiles of spatially varying material parameters by means of an optimization approach. The resolution is based on the modeling of acoustic wave propagation in macroscopically inhomogeneous rigid frame porous materials, which was recently derived from the generalized Biot's theory. In practice, the inverse problem is solved by minimizing an objective function defined in the least-square sense by the comparison of the calculated reflection (and transmission) coefficient(s) with the measured or synthetic one(s), affected or not by additive Gaussian noise. From an initial guess, the profiles of the x-dependent material parameters are reconstructed iteratively with the help of a standard conjugate gradient method. The convergence rate of the latter and the accuracy of the reconstructions are improved by the availability of an analytical gradient.
All-optical reservoir computer based on saturation of absorption.
Dejonckheere, Antoine; Duport, François; Smerieri, Anteo; Fang, Li; Oudar, Jean-Louis; Haelterman, Marc; Massar, Serge
2014-05-05
Reservoir computing is a new bio-inspired computation paradigm. It exploits a dynamical system driven by a time-dependent input to carry out computation. For efficient information processing, only a few parameters of the reservoir needs to be tuned, which makes it a promising framework for hardware implementation. Recently, electronic, opto-electronic and all-optical experimental reservoir computers were reported. In those implementations, the nonlinear response of the reservoir is provided by active devices such as optoelectronic modulators or optical amplifiers. By contrast, we propose here the first reservoir computer based on a fully passive nonlinearity, namely the saturable absorption of a semiconductor mirror. Our experimental setup constitutes an important step towards the development of ultrafast low-consumption analog computers.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. N Santos
Full Text Available A histological analysis was performed of the ovarian development of Oligosarcus hepsetus (Cuvier, 1829, a medium-sized carnivorous Characiform species in the Lajes reservoir, Brazil. A total of 125 fishes, collected monthly between April 2001 and June 2002 were examined by routine macroscopic and histological techniques. Eight phases of the oocyte development were described, and 4 stages and 4 sub-stages of gonadal development were proposed. Spawning in reservoirs, similarly to that in rivers, is in batches, which favors juvenile survival and suggests that the impoundment of this area did not influence the reproductive strategy of this very successful species in a dammed environment.
Reservoir geochemistry: A link between reservoir geology and engineering?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Larter, S.R.; Aplin, A.C. [Univ. of Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Corbett, P.; Ementon, N. [Heriot-Watt Univ., Edinburgh (United Kingdom)
1994-12-31
Geochemistry provides a natural but poorly exploited link between reservoir geology and engineering. The authors summarize some current applications of geochemistry to reservoir description and stress that because of their strong interactions with mineral surfaces and water, nitrogen and oxygen compounds in petroleum may exert an important influence on the PVT properties of petroleum, viscosity and wettability. The distribution of these compounds in reservoirs is heterogeneous on a sub-meter scale and is partly controlled by variations in reservoir quality. The implied variations in petroleum properties and wettability may account for some of the errors in reservoir simulations.
Reservoir geochemistry: A link between reservoir geology and engineering?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Larter, S.R.; Aplin, A.C.; Chen, M.; Taylor, P.N. [Univ. of Newcastle (Australia); Corbett, P.W.M.; Ementon, N. [Heriot-Watt Univ., Edinburgh (United Kingdom)
1997-02-01
Geochemistry provides a natural, but poorly exploited, link between reservoir geology and engineering. The authors summarize some current applications of geochemistry to reservoir description and stress that, because of their strong interactions with mineral surfaces and water, nitrogen and oxygen compounds in petroleum may exert an important influence on the pressure/volume/temperature (PVT) properties of petroleum, viscosity and wettability. The distribution of these compounds in reservoirs is heterogeneous on a submeter scale and is partly controlled by variations in reservoir quality. The implied variations in petroleum properties and wettability may account for some of the errors in reservoir simulations.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
马翠玉; 刘月田; 王春红; 刘亚庆
2013-01-01
随着稠油开采技术的发展,水平井在浅层稠油开采上的应用规模逐渐扩大.为高效开发浅薄层稠油油藏,应用数值模拟方法及灰度关联分析方法研究了浅薄层稠油油藏蒸汽吞吐注汽参数的敏感性.研究结果表明,水平井蒸汽吞吐注汽参数敏感性排序为:注汽强度＞蒸汽干度＞焖井时间＞注汽速度.并在此基础上,优化了某浅薄层油藏的注汽参数,优化结果为注汽强度14 t/m,蒸汽干度大于等于0.5,焖井时间为2～4d,注汽速度300 t/d时,每周期注汽量较上一周期递增10％左右.该研究成果对此类油藏的高效开发具有重要的意义.%With the development of heavy oil recovery technology, the scale of horizontal well was applied in shallow heavy oil exploitation gradually expanded. For the efficient development of shallow thin heavy oil reservoir, numerical simulation and gray association analysis were used to study the sensitivity of injection parameters about steam huff and puff of horizontal well in shallow and thin heavy oil reservoir. Research results show that the sensitivity descending order of injection parameters about steam huff and puff of horizontal well is as follows; steam injection intensity, dryness fraction of steam, soak time, steam injection rate. Optimizing the steam injection parameters, optimization results are as follows: steam injection intensity is 14 t/m, steam dryness is greater than or equal to 0. 5, soak time is 2 to 4 days, steam injection rate is 300 t/d, each cycle steam injection volume increases 10% compared with the previous cycle. The research has important significance on the efficient development of such reservoirs.
Wave speeds in the macroscopic extended model for ultrarelativistic gases
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Borghero, F., E-mail: borghero@unica.it [Dip. Matematica e Informatica, Università di Cagliari, Via Ospedale 72, 09124 Cagliari (Italy); Demontis, F., E-mail: fdemontis@unica.it [Dip. Matematica, Università di Cagliari, Viale Merello 92, 09123 Cagliari (Italy); Pennisi, S., E-mail: spennisi@unica.it [Dip. Matematica, Università di Cagliari, Via Ospedale 72, 09124 Cagliari (Italy)
2013-11-15
Equations determining wave speeds for a model of ultrarelativistic gases are investigated. This model is already present in literature; it deals with an arbitrary number of moments and it was proposed in the context of exact macroscopic approaches in Extended Thermodynamics. We find these results: the whole system for the determination of the wave speeds can be divided into independent subsystems which are expressed by linear combinations, through scalar coefficients, of tensors all of the same order; some wave speeds, but not all of them, are expressed by square roots of rational numbers; finally, we prove that these wave speeds for the macroscopic model are the same of those furnished by the kinetic model.
From 1D to 3D - macroscopic nanowire aerogel monoliths
Cheng, Wei; Rechberger, Felix; Niederberger, Markus
2016-07-01
Here we present a strategy to assemble one-dimensional nanostructures into a three-dimensional architecture with macroscopic size. With the assistance of centrifugation, we successfully gel ultrathin W18O49 nanowires with diameters of 1 to 2 nm and aspect ratios larger than 100 into 3D networks, which are transformed into monolithic aerogels by supercritical drying.Here we present a strategy to assemble one-dimensional nanostructures into a three-dimensional architecture with macroscopic size. With the assistance of centrifugation, we successfully gel ultrathin W18O49 nanowires with diameters of 1 to 2 nm and aspect ratios larger than 100 into 3D networks, which are transformed into monolithic aerogels by supercritical drying. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, SEM and TEM images, and digital photographs. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr04429h
Wave speeds in the macroscopic extended model for ultrarelativistic gases
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Borghero, F., E-mail: borghero@unica.it [Dip. Matematica e Informatica, Università di Cagliari, Via Ospedale 72, 09124 Cagliari (Italy); Demontis, F., E-mail: fdemontis@unica.it [Dip. Matematica, Università di Cagliari, Viale Merello 92, 09123 Cagliari (Italy); Pennisi, S., E-mail: spennisi@unica.it [Dip. Matematica, Università di Cagliari, Via Ospedale 72, 09124 Cagliari (Italy)
2013-11-15
Equations determining wave speeds for a model of ultrarelativistic gases are investigated. This model is already present in literature; it deals with an arbitrary number of moments and it was proposed in the context of exact macroscopic approaches in Extended Thermodynamics. We find these results: the whole system for the determination of the wave speeds can be divided into independent subsystems which are expressed by linear combinations, through scalar coefficients, of tensors all of the same order; some wave speeds, but not all of them, are expressed by square roots of rational numbers; finally, we prove that these wave speeds for the macroscopic model are the same of those furnished by the kinetic model.
Analysis and Enhancements of a Prolific Macroscopic Model of Epilepsy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christopher Fietkiewicz
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Macroscopic models of epilepsy can deliver surprisingly realistic EEG simulations. In the present study, a prolific series of models is evaluated with regard to theoretical and computational concerns, and enhancements are developed. Specifically, we analyze three aspects of the models: (1 Using dynamical systems analysis, we demonstrate and explain the presence of direct current potentials in the simulated EEG that were previously undocumented. (2 We explain how the system was not ideally formulated for numerical integration of stochastic differential equations. A reformulated system is developed to support proper methodology. (3 We explain an unreported contradiction in the published model specification regarding the use of a mathematical reduction method. We then use the method to reduce the number of equations and further improve the computational efficiency. The intent of our critique is to enhance the evolution of macroscopic modeling of epilepsy and assist others who wish to explore this exciting class of models further.
Multi Data Reservoir History Matching using the Ensemble Kalman Filter
Katterbauer, Klemens
2015-05-01
Reservoir history matching is becoming increasingly important with the growing demand for higher quality formation characterization and forecasting and the increased complexity and expenses for modern hydrocarbon exploration projects. History matching has long been dominated by adjusting reservoir parameters based solely on well data whose spatial sparse sampling has been a challenge for characterizing the flow properties in areas away from the wells. Geophysical data are widely collected nowadays for reservoir monitoring purposes, but has not yet been fully integrated into history matching and forecasting fluid flow. In this thesis, I present a pioneering approach towards incorporating different time-lapse geophysical data together for enhancing reservoir history matching and uncertainty quantification. The thesis provides several approaches to efficiently integrate multiple geophysical data, analyze the sensitivity of the history matches to observation noise, and examine the framework’s performance in several settings, such as the Norne field in Norway. The results demonstrate the significant improvements in reservoir forecasting and characterization and the synergy effects encountered between the different geophysical data. In particular, the joint use of electromagnetic and seismic data improves the accuracy of forecasting fluid properties, and the usage of electromagnetic data has led to considerably better estimates of hydrocarbon fluid components. For volatile oil and gas reservoirs the joint integration of gravimetric and InSAR data has shown to be beneficial in detecting the influx of water and thereby improving the recovery rate. Summarizing, this thesis makes an important contribution towards integrated reservoir management and multiphysics integration for reservoir history matching.
Monitoring Earth's reservoir and lake dynamics from space
Donchyts, G.; Eilander, D.; Schellekens, J.; Winsemius, H.; Gorelick, N.; Erickson, T.; Van De Giesen, N.
2016-12-01
Reservoirs and lakes constitute about 90% of the Earth's fresh surface water. They play a major role in the water cycle and are critical for the ever increasing demands of the world's growing population. Water from reservoirs is used for agricultural, industrial, domestic, and other purposes. Current digital databases of lakes and reservoirs are scarce, mainly providing only descriptive and static properties of the reservoirs. The Global Reservoir and Dam (GRanD) database contains almost 7000 entries while OpenStreetMap counts more than 500 000 entries tagged as a reservoir. In the last decade several research efforts already focused on accurate estimates of surface water dynamics, mainly using satellite altimetry, However, currently they are limited only to less than 1000 (mostly large) water bodies. Our approach is based on three main components. Firstly, a novel method, allowing automated and accurate estimation of surface area from (partially) cloud-free optical multispectral or radar satellite imagery. The algorithm uses satellite imagery measured by Landsat, Sentinel and MODIS missions. Secondly, a database to store reservoir static and dynamic parameters. Thirdly, a web-based tool, built on top of Google Earth Engine infrastructure. The tool allows estimation of surface area for lakes and reservoirs at planetary-scale at high spatial and temporal resolution. A prototype version of the method, database, and tool will be presented as well as validation using in-situ measurements.
Optomechanical entanglement of a macroscopic oscillator by quantum feedback
Wu, E.; Li, Fengzhi; Zhang, Xuefeng; Ma, Yonghong
2016-07-01
We propose a scheme to generate the case of macroscopic entanglement in the optomechanical system, which consist of Fabry-Perot cavity and a mechanical oscillator by applying a homodyne-mediated quantum feedback. We explore the effect of feedback on the entanglement in vacuum and coherent state, respectively. The results show that the introduction of quantum feedback can increase the entanglement effectively between the cavity mode and the oscillator mode.
Identification of Bodies Exposed to High Temperatures Based on Macroscopic...
Barraza Salcedo, María del Socorro; Universidad Metropolitana de Barranquilla. Barranquilla; Rebolledo Cobos, Martha Leonor; Universidad Metropolitana de Barranquilla
2016-01-01
ABSTRACT. Background: Forensic dentistry in cases of incineration provides scientific elements that allow the identification of bodies, by analyzing dental organs, through the isolation of DNA obtained from the pulp as an alternative to confirm the identity of the victim. When the degree of temperature is highly elevated, dental tissues are vulnerable and therefore the DNA pulp is not salvageable, wasting resources and time by lack of standards to identify macroscopic characteristics that ind...
CONTRIBUTION OF MACROSCOPIC DIMENSION EFFECT TO PIEZOELFCTRICITY IN POLYVINYLIDENE FLUORIDE
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WEN Jianxun; TAKEO FURUKAWA
1987-01-01
In this paper, we have studied the piezoelectricity in the poled uniaxially drawn polyvinylidene fluoride. The piezoelectric constants d31, d32, da33 and Young's moduli 1/s11 and 1/s22 have been determined as a function of the remanent polarization Pr. The piezoelectric constants of the samples show a strong in-plane anisotropy. Such an anisotropy is mostly attributable to different Poisson's ratio. It is found that the piezoelectric activity mainly arises from macroscopic dimensional change.
Toward a superconducting quantum computer. Harnessing macroscopic quantum coherence.
Tsai, Jaw-Shen
2010-01-01
Intensive research on the construction of superconducting quantum computers has produced numerous important achievements. The quantum bit (qubit), based on the Josephson junction, is at the heart of this research. This macroscopic system has the ability to control quantum coherence. This article reviews the current state of quantum computing as well as its history, and discusses its future. Although progress has been rapid, the field remains beset with unsolved issues, and there are still many new research opportunities open to physicists and engineers.
Measurement-Induced Macroscopic Superposition States in Cavity Optomechanics
Hoff, Ulrich B.; Kollath-Bönig, Johann; Neergaard-Nielsen, Jonas S.; Andersen, Ulrik L.
2016-09-01
A novel protocol for generating quantum superpositions of macroscopically distinct states of a bulk mechanical oscillator is proposed, compatible with existing optomechanical devices operating in the bad-cavity limit. By combining a pulsed optomechanical quantum nondemolition (QND) interaction with nonclassical optical resources and measurement-induced feedback, the need for strong single-photon coupling is avoided. We outline a three-pulse sequence of QND interactions encompassing squeezing-enhanced cooling by measurement, state preparation, and tomography.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kord, S. [National Iranian South Oil Co. (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2006-07-01
A fractured carbonate reservoir in southwest Iran was studied with reference to reserve estimation, risk analysis, material balance and recovery factor. The 40 km long and 4 km wide reservoir consists of 2 parts with crest depths of 3780 and 3749 mss respectively. The eastern part is smaller and more productive than the western part which has high water saturation and absolutely no production. Economic production from the reservoir began in 1977. By 2004, the cumulative production had reached 12.064 MMSTB. Of the 6 wells drilled, only 2 wells in the eastern part are productive. This study addressed the main uncertainty of whether the 2 parts of the reservoir are sealed or not. The reservoir is under-saturated but the current pressure is near saturation pressure. The reservoir is divided into the following 4 zones: zones 1 and 2 are productive and consist mainly of carbonate rocks; zone 3 has thin beds of sand and shale; and, zone 4 consists of layers of carbonate, shale, marn, and dolomite. Although there are no faults, mud loss suggests that the reservoir has hairline fractures. Oil in place and reserves were estimated for both parts based on calculated reservoir engineering parameters. Material balance calculations were then performed to analyze and simulate the reservoir. The communication between the 2 parts of the reservoir were examined according to core analysis, rock type, fluid characterization, pressure analysis, water-oil contacts, production history and petrophysical evaluations. The porosity was found to be the same in both parts, but the water saturation and net to gross ratios were different between the eastern and western parts. The petrophysical evaluation revealed that there is no communication between the two parts of the reservoir. 4 refs., 2 figs., 2 appendices.
Maximum Entropy Methods as the Bridge Between Microscopic and Macroscopic Theory
Taylor, Jamie M.
2016-09-01
This paper is concerned with an investigation into a function of macroscopic variables known as the singular potential, building on previous work by Ball and Majumdar. The singular potential is a function of the admissible statistical averages of probability distributions on a state space, defined so that it corresponds to the maximum possible entropy given known observed statistical averages, although non-classical entropy-like objective functions will also be considered. First the set of admissible moments must be established, and under the conditions presented in this work the set is open, bounded and convex allowing a description in terms of supporting hyperplanes, which provides estimates on the development of singularities for related probability distributions. Under appropriate conditions it is shown that the singular potential is strictly convex, as differentiable as the microscopic entropy, and blows up uniformly as the macroscopic variable tends to the boundary of the set of admissible moments. Applications of the singular potential are then discussed, and particular consideration will be given to certain free-energy functionals typical in mean-field theory, demonstrating an equivalence between certain microscopic and macroscopic free-energy functionals. This allows statements about L^1-local minimisers of Onsager's free energy to be obtained which cannot be given by two-sided variations, and overcomes the need to ensure local minimisers are bounded away from zero and +∞ before taking L^∞ variations. The analysis also permits the definition of a dual order parameter for which Onsager's free energy allows an explicit representation. Also, the difficulties in approximating the singular potential by everywhere defined functions, in particular by polynomial functions, are addressed, with examples demonstrating the failure of the Taylor approximation to preserve relevant shape properties of the singular potential.
Stochastic and Macroscopic Thermodynamics of Strongly Coupled Systems
Jarzynski, Christopher
2017-01-01
We develop a thermodynamic framework that describes a classical system of interest S that is strongly coupled to its thermal environment E . Within this framework, seven key thermodynamic quantities—internal energy, entropy, volume, enthalpy, Gibbs free energy, heat, and work—are defined microscopically. These quantities obey thermodynamic relations including both the first and second law, and they satisfy nonequilibrium fluctuation theorems. We additionally impose a macroscopic consistency condition: When S is large, the quantities defined within our framework scale up to their macroscopic counterparts. By satisfying this condition, we demonstrate that a unifying framework can be developed, which encompasses both stochastic thermodynamics at one end, and macroscopic thermodynamics at the other. A central element in our approach is a thermodynamic definition of the volume of the system of interest, which converges to the usual geometric definition when S is large. We also sketch an alternative framework that satisfies the same consistency conditions. The dynamics of the system and environment are modeled using Hamilton's equations in the full phase space.
Macroscopic quantum oscillator based on a flux qubit
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Singh, Mandip, E-mail: mandip@iisermohali.ac.in
2015-09-25
In this paper a macroscopic quantum oscillator is proposed, which consists of a flux-qubit in the form of a cantilever. The net magnetic flux threading through the flux-qubit and the mechanical degrees of freedom of the cantilever are naturally coupled. The coupling between the cantilever and the magnetic flux is controlled through an external magnetic field. The ground state of the flux-qubit-cantilever turns out to be an entangled quantum state, where the cantilever deflection and the magnetic flux are the entangled degrees of freedom. A variant, which is a special case of the flux-qubit-cantilever without a Josephson junction, is also discussed. - Highlights: • In this paper a flux-qubit-cantilever is proposed. • Coupling can be varied by an external magnetic field. • Ground state is a macroscopic entangled quantum state. • Ground state of the superconducting-loop-oscillator is a macroscopic quantum superposition. • Proposed scheme is based on a generalized quantum approach.
Macroscopic description of the limb muscles of Tupinambis merianae
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Juliana Barbosa Casals
2012-03-01
Full Text Available Tegu lizard (Tupinambis merianae belongs to the Teiidae family. It is distributed throughout the Americas, with many species, including Brazilian ones. They are from the Tupinambis genus, the largest representatives of the Teiidae family. For this study three animals (run over coming from donation were used. The dissected lizards were fixed in 10%, formaldehyde, and the macroscopic analysis was carried out in a detailed and photo documented way, keeping the selected structures “in situ”. This paper had as its main aim contributing to the macroscopic description of the chest myology, as well as the thoracic and pelvic limbs of the lizard T. merianae. The results obtained from this research were compared to authors who have studied animals from the same Reptilia class. Thus, we conclude that our macroscopic results are similar to those already described by the researchers Hildebrand (1995, Moro and Abdala (2004 and Abdala and Diogo (2010. We should highlight that the knowledge on anatomy has importance and applications to various areas within Biology, contributing in a substantial way to the areas of human health and technology.
Mesoscopic Kinetic Basis of Macroscopic Chemical Thermodynamics: A Mathematical Theory
Ge, Hao
2016-01-01
From a mathematical model that describes a complex chemical kinetic system of $N$ species and $M$ elementrary reactions in a rapidly stirred vessel of size $V$ as a Markov process, we show that a macroscopic chemical thermodynamics emerges as $V\\rightarrow\\infty$. The theory is applicable to linear and nonlinear reactions, closed systems reaching chemical equilibrium, or open, driven systems approaching to nonequilibrium steady states. A generalized mesoscopic free energy gives rise to a macroscopic chemical energy function $\\varphi^{ss}(\\vx)$ where $\\vx=(x_1,\\cdots,x_N)$ are the concentrations of the $N$ chemical species. The macroscopic chemical dynamics $\\vx(t)$ satisfies two emergent laws: (1) $(\\rd/\\rd t)\\varphi^{ss}[\\vx(t)]\\le 0$, and (2)$(\\rd/\\rd t)\\varphi^{ss}[\\vx(t)]=\\text{cmf}(\\vx)-\\sigma(\\vx)$ where entropy production rate $\\sigma\\ge 0$ represents the sink for the chemical energy, and chemical motive force $\\text{cmf}\\ge 0$ is non-zero if the system is driven under a sustained nonequilibrium chemos...
Noise-driven interfaces and their macroscopic representation
Dentz, Marco; Neuweiler, Insa; Méheust, Yves; Tartakovsky, Daniel M.
2016-11-01
We study the macroscopic representation of noise-driven interfaces in stochastic interface growth models in (1 +1 ) dimensions. The interface is characterized macroscopically by saturation, which represents the fluctuating sharp interface by a smoothly varying phase field with values between 0 and 1. We determine the one-point interface height statistics for the Edwards-Wilkinson (EW) and Kadar-Paris-Zhang (KPZ) models in order to determine explicit deterministic equations for the phase saturation for each of them. While we obtain exact results for the EW model, we develop a Gaussian closure approximation for the KPZ model. We identify an interface compression term, which is related to mass transfer perpendicular to the growth direction, and a diffusion term that tends to increase the interface width. The interface compression rate depends on the mesoscopic mass transfer process along the interface and in this sense provides a relation between meso- and macroscopic interface dynamics. These results shed light on the relation between mesoscale and macroscale interface models, and provide a systematic framework for the upscaling of stochastic interface dynamics.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨巍; 温志刚; 魏旭
2013-01-01
In general, the loose sandstone reservoir has poor diagenesis, high shale content and serious sand production; screen gravel packing sand control is the main technology that maintained development and production in oilfield. The diameter of the sand from formation has changed, the sand filling into the gravel and mixing with the gravel during the production, so that the production is gradually decreased. Based on the study of formation sand grain size distribution, the median particle size of filling gravel in the casing layer deficit breaks through traditional 5-6 times of median formation sand, based on experiments, selected the 3-4 times of median formation sand filling gravel, sand and gravel mixed probability can be reduced. Combining classification of filling technique, the application on site achieved good results.%一般地,疏松砂岩油藏成岩性差,泥质含量高,出砂严重,筛管砾石充填防砂是维持油田开发生产的主要工艺.地层出砂粒径发生变化后,生产过程中地层砂进入充填砾石层产生了互混,使油井产液量逐渐下降.在研究地层出砂粒径分布的基础上,在套管外地层亏空处充填砾石粒度中值突破传统的5-6倍地层砂粒度中值的常规做法,以实验为基础,选择了3-4倍地层砂粒度中值的充填砾石,可降低砂砾互混的概率.结合分级充填技术,在现场应用中取得了很好的效果.
Simulation of water temperature distribution in Fenhe Reservoir
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Shu-fang FAN; Min-quan FENG; Zhao LIU
2009-01-01
In order to evaluate the need of controlling the temperature of water discharged from the Fenhe Reservoir, the reservoir water temperature distribution was examined. A three-dimensional mathematical model was used to simulate the in-plane and vertical distribution of water temperature. The parameters of the model were calibrated with field data of the temperature distribution in the Fenhe Reservoir. The simulated temperature of discharged water is consistent with the measured data. The difference in temperature between the discharged water and the natural river channel is less than 3℃ under the current operating conditions. This will not significantly impact the environment of downstream areas.
Simulation of water temperature distribution in Fenhe Reservoir
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shu-fang FAN
2009-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract： In order to evaluate the need of controlling the temperature of water discharged from the Fenhe Reservoir, the reservoir water temperature distribution was examined. A three-dimensional mathematical model was used to simulate the in-plane and vertical distribution of water temperature. The parameters of the model were calibrated with field data of the temperature distribution in the Fenhe Reservoir. The simulated temperature of discharged water is consistent with the measured data. The difference in temperature between the discharged water and the natural river channel is less than 3℃ under the current operating conditions. This will not significantly impact the environment of downstream areas.
Status of Blue Ridge Reservoir
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1990-09-01
This is one in a series of reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Blue Ridge Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most current reports and data available, as well as interview with water resource professionals in various federal, state, and local agencies. Blue Ridge Reservoir is a single-purpose hydropower generating project. When consistent with this primary objective, the reservoir is also operated to benefit secondary objectives including water quality, recreation, fish and aquatic habitat, development of shoreline, aesthetic quality, and other public and private uses that support overall regional economic growth and development. 8 refs., 1 fig.
Kruyt, N.P.; Rothenburg, L.; Gutkowski, Witold; Kowalewski, Tomasz A.
2004-01-01
Using Discrete Element Method (DEM) simulations with varying interparticle friction coefficient, the relation between interparticle friction coefficient and macroscopic continuum friction and dissipation is investigated. As expected, macroscopic friction and dilatancy increase with interparticle fri
Kobayashi, Tsunehiro
1996-01-01
Quantum macroscopic motions are investigated in the scheme consisting of N-number of harmonic oscillators in terms of ultra-power representations of nonstandard analysis. Decoherence is derived from the large internal degrees of freedom of macroscopic matters.
Wei, Mingqiang; Duan, Yonggang; Fang, Quantang; Zhang, Tiantian
2016-06-01
Multi-fractured horizontal wells (MFHWs) are an effective technique for developing shale gas reservoirs. After fracturing, stimulated reservoir volumes (SRVs) invariably exist around the wellbore. In this paper, a composite elliptical SRV model for each hydraulic fracturing stage is established, based on micro-seismic events. Both the SRV and the outer regions are assumed as single-porosity media with different formation physical parameters. Based on unstructured perpendicular bisection (PEBI) grids, a mathematical model considering Darcy flow, diffusion and adsorption/desorption in shale gas reservoirs is presented. The numerical solution is obtained by combining the control volume finite element method with the fully implicit method. The model is verified by a simplified model solution. The MFHW Blasingame production decline curves, which consider elliptical SRVs in shale gas reservoirs, are plotted by computer programming. The flow regions can be divided into five flow regimes: early formation linear flow, radial flow in the SRV region, transient flow, pseudo radial flow and boundary dominated flow. Finally, the effect of six related parameters, including the SRV area size, outer region permeability, SRV region permeability, Langmuir pressure, Langmuir volume and diffusion coefficient, are analyzed on type curves. The model presented in this paper can expand our understanding of MFHW production decline behaviors in shale gas reservoirs and can be applied to estimate reservoir properties, the SRV area, and reserves in these types of reservoirs by type curve matching.
孔洞型储层有效性评价新方法%New Method for Effectiveness Evaluation of Vuggy Reservoir
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张兆辉; 高楚桥; 高永德
2013-01-01
对目前定量评价碳酸盐岩孔洞型储层有效性的方法进行了分析,从储层宏观特征、微观孔隙结构研究入手,通过储层产能影响因素的分析,提出了一种新的孔洞型储层有效性定量评价方法.该方法不仅考虑了一般的宏观孔隙度参数,而且融入了微观孔隙结构参数(排驱压力、平均孔喉半径),其次综合考虑储层纵向发育规模对产能的影响,弥补了单一孔隙度因素表征的不足,提高了有效性定量评价的精度.该方法在塔里木盆地塔中、轮古地区的实际应用中取得了较好的效果.%Several methods for quantitatively effectiveness evaluating of carbonate vuggy are discussed.Based on the micro-and macro-pore structure and the analyses of influences on reservoir production,a new method was proposed.In addition to general macroscopic porosity parameter,this method also considers some microscopic pore structure parameters (displacement pressure and average pore throat radius) and the reservoir development degree in vertical.It made up for porosity and increased the accuracy of evaluating reservoir effectiveness.It has been applied to Tazhong and Lungu zones of Tarim Basin,and good effects have been obtained.
Gatsonis, Nikos A.; Alexandrou, Andreas; Shi, Hui; Ongewe, Bernard; Sacco, Albert, Jr.
1999-01-01
Crystals grown from liquid solutions have important industrial applications. Zeolites, for instance, a class of crystalline aluminosilicate materials, form the backbone of the chemical process industry worldwide, as they are used as adsorbents and catalysts. Many of the phenomena associated with crystal growth processes are not well understood due to complex microscopic and macroscopic interactions. Microgravity could help elucidate these phenomena and allow the control of defect locations, concentration, as well as size of crystals. Microgravity in an orbiting spacecraft could help isolate the possible effects of natural convection (which affects defect formation) and minimize sedimentation. In addition, crystals will stay essentially suspended in the nutrient pool under a diffusion-limited growth condition. This is expected to promote larger crystals by allowing a longer residence time in a high-concentration nutrient field. Among other factors, the crystal size distribution depends on the nucleation rate and crystallization. These two are also related to the "gel" polymerization/depolymerization rate. Macroscopic bulk mass and flow transport and especially gravity, force the crystals down to the bottom of the reactor, thus forming a sedimentation layer. In this layer, the growth rate of the crystals slows down as crystals compete for a limited amount of nutrients. The macroscopic transport phenomena under certain conditions can, however, enhance the nutrient supply and therefore, accelerate crystal growth. Several zeolite experiments have been performed in space with mixed results. The results from our laboratory have indicated an enhancement in size of 30 to 70 percent compared to the best ground based controls, and a reduction of lattice defects in many of the space grown crystals. Such experiments are difficult to interpret, and cannot be easily used to derive empirical or other laws since many physical parameters are simultaneously involved in the process
Geometric-Phase approach to macroscopic polarization in lattice fermion models
Ortiz, Gerardo; Martin, Richard M.; Ordejón, Pablo
1996-03-01
The Geometric-Phase approach is a convenient way to calculate changes in the macroscopic polarization of an insulating system, based on the concept that the integrated current is connected to the phase of the wavefunction of interacting electrons. The method has provided a powerful mathematical scheme to study dielectric phenomena in correlated systems. We have applied these ideas to a variety of strongly correlated lattice fermion models in one and two dimensions; in particular, the 3-band Hubbard model in Cu-O planes in the parent compounds of High-Temperature superconductors. We analyze the information contained in the phase when a quantum transition takes place as one parameter of the hamiltonian is adiabatically changed. Previous results assume a correlated insulator in zero macroscopic electric field. In presence of such a singular perturbation there is no stable ground state. We present a way to overcome this problem, the main idea of which consists in constraining the manifold where the electrons move, i.e., the configuration space of the N identical particles.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wagner, J.N., E-mail: Julia.Wagner@kit.edu [KNMF, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Hofmann, M. [Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II), TU München, Lichtenbergstr. 1, 85747 Garching (Germany); Wimpory, R. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, D-14109 Berlin Wannsee (Germany); Krempaszky, C. [Christian-Doppler-Labor für Werkstoffmechanik von Hochleistungslegierungen, TU München, Boltzmannstr. 15, 85747 Garching (Germany); Lehrstuhl für Werkstoffkunde und Werkstoffmechanik, TU München, Boltzmannstr. 15, 85747 Garching (Germany); Stockinger, M. [Böhler Schmiedetechnik GmbH and Co KG, Mariazeller Straße 25, 8605 Kapfenberg (Austria)
2014-11-17
Knowledge of the macroscopic residual stresses in components of complex high performance alloys is crucial when it comes to considering the safety and manufacturing aspects of components. Diffraction experiments are one of the key methods for studying residual stresses. However a component of the residual strain determined by diffraction experiments, known as microstrain or intergranular residual strain, occurs over the length scale of the grains and thus plays only a minor role for the life time of such components. For the reliable determination of macroscopic strains (with the minimum influence of these intergranular residual strains), the ISO standard recommends the use of particular Bragg reflections. Here we compare the build-up of intergranular strain of two different precipitation hardened IN 718 (INCONEL 718) samples, with identical chemical composition. Since intergranular strains are also affected by temperature, results from room temperature measurement are compared to results at T=550 °C. It turned out that microstructural parameters, such as grain size or type of precipitates, have a larger effect on the intergranular strain evolution than the influence of temperature at the measurement temperature of T=550 °C. The results also show that the choice of Bragg reflections for the diffractometric residual stress analysis is dependent not only on its chemical composition, but also on the microstructure of the sample. In addition diffraction elastic constants (DECs) for all measured Bragg reflections are given.
Macroscopic description of complex adaptive networks coevolving with dynamic node states
Wiedermann, Marc; Donges, Jonathan F.; Heitzig, Jobst; Lucht, Wolfgang; Kurths, Jürgen
2015-05-01
In many real-world complex systems, the time evolution of the network's structure and the dynamic state of its nodes are closely entangled. Here we study opinion formation and imitation on an adaptive complex network which is dependent on the individual dynamic state of each node and vice versa to model the coevolution of renewable resources with the dynamics of harvesting agents on a social network. The adaptive voter model is coupled to a set of identical logistic growth models and we mainly find that, in such systems, the rate of interactions between nodes as well as the adaptive rewiring probability are crucial parameters for controlling the sustainability of the system's equilibrium state. We derive a macroscopic description of the system in terms of ordinary differential equations which provides a general framework to model and quantify the influence of single node dynamics on the macroscopic state of the network. The thus obtained framework is applicable to many fields of study, such as epidemic spreading, opinion formation, or socioecological modeling.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wiesand-Valk, B. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstofforschung
2000-07-01
This paper deals with the correlations between microstructural disorder, that means statistical distribution of phases and local material properties, and macroscopic failure of disordered multiphase materials. On a microscopic level the microstructural disorder leads to randomly distributed local damage before failure (in brittle materials to microcracks) and eventually to localisation of damage. On a macroscopic level the value and scatter of fracture strength and its dependence on specimen size are essentially determined by the microstructural disorder. The failure behaviour is treated by using the discrete chain-of-bundles-model, which treats the details of the microstructure not explicitly but as locally distributed fluctuations of characteristical material parameters. The model has been verified by comparing with experimental results for four intermetallic titanium aluminides and its validity has been demonstrated. (orig.) [German] Die Arbeit behandelt die Zusammenhaenge zwischen der Stochastizitaet des Gefueges, das heisst, einer statistischen Verteilung von Phasen und lokalen Materialeigenschaften und dem makroskopischen Versagen von ungeordneten mehrphasigen Werkstoffen. Auf mikroskopischer Ebene fuehrt die Stochastizitaet des Gefueges vor dem Versagen zu lokalen Schaedigungen (in sproeden Werkstoffen zu Mikrorissen) und schliesslich (abhaengig vom Grad der Unordnung) zur Lokalisierung des Bruchgeschehens. Makroskopisch werden die Groesse und Streuung von Bruchfestigkeitswerten und ihre Probengroessenabhaengigkeit durch die mikrostrukturelle Unordnung wesentlich bestimmt. Dieses Versagensverhalten wird in dem diskreten Chain-of-Bundles-Modell beschrieben, das die Details der Mikrostruktur nicht explizit sondern als lokale statistische Schwankungen von charakteristischen Werkstoffparametern erfasst. Am Beispiel von vier ausgewaehlten Titan-Aluminiden wird das Modell validiert und verifiziert. (orig.)
Transient pressure analysis in composite reservoirs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tang, R.W.K.; Brigham, W.E.
1982-08-01
The problem of fluid flow in a radially composite reservoir is discussed. Recently published was the most general analytic solution available thus far. That analytic solution is analyzed, and the results are presented. The solution is dependent upon the following dimensionless parameters (if well-bore storage and skin effect are neglected): (1) dimensionless time based on the discontinuity radius, (2) the dimensionless discontinuity radius, (3) the mobility ratio, and (4) the diffusivity ratio. The range of parameters used in generating the results include dimensionless radius time of 0.01 t
AUPERRIN, Audrey; Delille, Rémi; LESUEUR, Denis; BRUYERE, Karine; Masson, Catherine; Drazetic, Pascal
2014-01-01
The present study aims at providing quantitative data for the personalisation of geometrical and 21 mechanical characteristics of the adult cranial bone to be applied to head FE models. A set of 351 22 cranial bone samples, harvested from 21 human skulls, were submitted to three-point bending tests 23 at 10 mm/min. For each of them, an apparent elastic modulus was calculated using the beam's 24 theory and a density-dependant beam inertia. Thicknesses, apparent densities and percentage of ash ...
Auperrin, Audrey; Delille, Rémi; Lesueur, Denis; Bruyère, Karine; Masson, Catherine; Drazétic, Pascal
2014-03-21
The present study aims at providing quantitative data for the personalisation of geometrical and mechanical characteristics of the adult cranial bone to be applied to head FE models. A set of 351 cranial bone samples, harvested from 21 human skulls, were submitted to three-point bending tests at 10 mm/min. For each of them, an apparent elastic modulus was calculated using the beam's theory and a density-dependant beam inertia. Thicknesses, apparent densities and percentage of ash weight were also measured. Distributions of characteristics among the different skull bones show their symmetry and their significant differences between skull areas. A data analysis was performed to analyse potential relationship between thicknesses, densities and the apparent elastic modulus. A specific regression was pointed out to estimate apparent elastic modulus from the product of thickness by apparent density. These results offer quantitative tools in view of personalising head FE models and thus improve definition of local injury criteria for this body part.
Feasibility study of sedimentary enhanced geothermal systems using reservoir simulation
Cho, Jae Kyoung
The objective of this research is to evaluate the preliminary feasibility of commercial geothermal projects, from a sedimentary reservoir with low permeability that requires productivity enhancement, using numerical reservoir simulation. The performance of a sedimentary geothermal reservoir is investigated in terms of reservoir hydraulics and thermal evolution. To build a reliable benchmark for simulation study, validation of the numerical reservoir model with respect to an analytical model is presented, and the process to achieve an acceptable match between the numerical and analytical solutions is described. The analytical model used in this study is based on the work of Gringarten (1978), which consists of a conceptual geothermal reservoir, considering an injection and production well doublet in a homogeneous porous media. A commercial thermal reservoir simulator (STARS from Computer Modeling Group, CMG) is used in this work for numerical modeling. In order to reproduce the analytical model results, the numerical simulation model is modified to include the same assumptions of the analytical model. Simulation model parameters that make the numerical results deviate from the analytical solution, such as the grid block size, time step and no-flow boundary are identified and investigated. An analytical tracer test model proposed by Shook (2000) is numerically modeled. This model allows us to predict the time when the temperature of the produced water decreases by capturing a tracer component at production well. Reservoir simulation models with different porosity and permeability distribution are tested to see the effects of reservoir inhomogeneity and anisotropy. In particular, premature thermal breakthrough due to the presence of high permeability streak in a reservoir model is simulated. In an effort to apply the knowledge we obtained from the analytical solutions, the effects of reservoir rock and water properties, as a function of pressure and temperature, are
Reservoir geomechanics: new approach to reservoir engineering analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Settari, A.; Walters, D.A.; Behie, G.A. [Duke Engineering and Services Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)
1999-07-01
The rock mechanics aspects of reservoir behavior are reviewed, and a description is included of some recent trends in coupled reservoir and strata mechanics modelling. Case histories are summarized which are field applications of these new trends and tools. These case histories include: (1) high rate injection into an oil sand reservoir; (2) compaction modelling of a North Sea reservoir; and (3) brine disposal at a fracturing pressure. Coupled geomechanical modelling is feasible on a full field scale, and it provides flexibility in the degree of coupling and calculational efficiency. The scope of interest in data gathering and characterization must be extended beyond reservoir boundaries because of the coupled modelling approach. This modelling provides results that can be employed in integrated reservoir management that includes reservoir engineering, drilling and completions. Considering the three case histories, coupled modelling can be used for predicting fracture initiation and re-orientation, reservoir compaction and deformations, and enhancement of injectivity due to stress dependent formation properties. Coupled modelling has brought reservoir modelling to a new realistic level and produces significant economic gains. 15 refs., 8 figs.
Modeling reservoir geomechanics using discrete element method : Application to reservoir monitoring
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alassi, Haitham Tayseer
2008-09-15
Understanding reservoir geomechanical behavior is becoming more and more important for the petroleum industry. Reservoir compaction, which may result in surface subsidence and fault reactivation, occurs during reservoir depletion. Stress changes and possible fracture development inside and outside a depleting reservoir can be monitored using time-lapse (so-called '4D') seismic and/or passive seismic, and this can give valuable information about the conditions of a given reservoir during production. In this study we will focus on using the (particle-based) Discrete Element Method (DEM) to model reservoir geomechanical behavior during depletion and fluid injection. We show in this study that DEM can be used in modeling reservoir geomechanical behavior by comparing results obtained from DEM to those obtained from analytical solutions. The match of the displacement field between DEM and the analytical solution is good, however there is mismatch of the stress field which is related to the way stress is measured in DEM. A good match is however obtained by measuring the stress field carefully. We also use DEM to model reservoir geomechanical behavior beyond the elasticity limit where fractures can develop and faults can reactivate. A general technique has been developed to relate DEM parameters to rock properties. This is necessary in order to use correct reservoir geomechanical properties during modeling. For any type of particle packing there is a limitation that the maximum ratio between P- and S-wave velocity Vp/Vs that can be modeled is 3 . The static behavior for a loose packing is different from the dynamic behavior. Empirical relations are needed for the static behavior based on numerical test observations. The dynamic behavior for both dense and loose packing can be given by analytical relations. Cosserat continuum theory is needed to derive relations for Vp and Vs. It is shown that by constraining the particle rotation, the S-wave velocity can be
Application of Seismic Data to Reservoir Modeling of the Chegu 201 Block
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CaiYi; ZhangXiangzhong; ZhangXinshang
2005-01-01
Great uncertainty exists in reservoir models built for blocks where well spacing is uneven or large. The uncertainty in reservoir models can be significantly reduced by using Coordinate Cokriging Sequential Gaussian Simulation technology, in combination with the restriction of seismic characteristic data. Satisfactory reservoir parameter interpolation results, which are more accurate than those derived only from borehole data, are obtained, giving rise to a reasonable combination of widespread and dense-sampled seismic (soft data) data with borehole data (hard data). A significant effect has been made in reservoir parameter modeling in the Chegu 201 block of the Futai Oilfield by using this technology.
Micro and macroscopic investigation to quantify tillage impact on soil hydrodynamic behaviour
Beckers, E.; Roisin, C.; Plougonven, E.; Deraedt, D.; Léonard, A.; Degré, A.
2012-04-01
Nowadays, tillage simplification is an increasing practice. Many advantages are cited in the literature, such as energy saving, soil conservation etc. Agricultural management practices influence soil structure, but consequent changes in soil hydrodynamic behaviour at the field scale are still not well understood. Many studies focus only on macroscopic measurements which do not provide mechanistic explanations. Moreover, research shows divergent conclusions over structure modification. The aim of this work is to fill this gap by quantifying soil structure modification depending on tillage intensity through both macroscopic and microscopic measurements, the latter improving our comprehension of the fundamental mechanisms involved. Our experiment takes place in Gentinnes (Walloon Brabant, Belgium), on a field organized in a Latin square scheme. Since 2004, plots have been cultivated in conventional tillage (CT) or in reduced tillage (RT). The latter consists in sowing after stubble ploughing of about 10cm. The crop rotation is sugar beet followed by winter wheat. The soil is mainly composed of silt loam and can be classified as a Luvisol. Macroscopic investigations consist in establishing pF and K(h) curves and 3D soil strength profiles. At the microscale, 3D morphologic parameters are measured using X-ray microtomography. Because of the variation of working depth between management practices (10cm for RT vs. 25cm for CT), two horizons were investigated: H1 between 0-10cm and H2 between 12-25cm. 3D soil strength profiles were established thanks to a fully automated penetrometer (30° angle cone with a base area of 10mm2) which covered a 160 × 80cm2 area with 5cm spacing between neighbouring points. At each node, penetration was performed and soil strength measurements were collected every 1cm from 5 to 55cm depth. K(h) curves were provided by 20cm diameter tension-infiltrometer measurements (Eijkelkamp Agrisearch Equipment). Undisturbed soil samples were removed from
Self-Feeding Turbulent Magnetic Reconnection on Macroscopic Scales
Lapenta, Giovanni
2008-01-01
Within a MHD approach we find magnetic reconnection to progress in two entirely different ways. The first is well-known: the laminar Sweet-Parker process. But a second, completely different and chaotic reconnection process is possible. This regime has properties of immediate practical relevance: i) it is much faster, developing on scales of the order of the Alfv\\'en time, and ii) the areas of reconnection become distributed chaotically over a macroscopic region. The onset of the faster process is the formation of closed circulation patterns where the jets going out of the reconnection regions turn around and forces their way back in, carrying along copious amounts of magnetic flux.
Single-atom quantum control of macroscopic mechanical oscillators
Bariani, F.; Otterbach, J.; Tan, Huatang; Meystre, P.
2014-01-01
We investigate a hybrid electromechanical system consisting of a pair of charged macroscopic mechanical oscillators coupled to a small ensemble of Rydberg atoms. The resonant dipole-dipole coupling between an internal atomic Rydberg transition and the mechanics allows cooling to its motional ground state with a single atom despite the considerable mass imbalance between the two subsystems. We show that the rich electronic spectrum of Rydberg atoms, combined with their high degree of optical control, paves the way towards implementing various quantum-control protocols for the mechanical oscillators.
The Two-Time Interpretation and Macroscopic Time-Reversibility
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yakir Aharonov
2017-03-01
Full Text Available The two-state vector formalism motivates a time-symmetric interpretation of quantum mechanics that entails a resolution of the measurement problem. We revisit a post-selection-assisted collapse model previously suggested by us, claiming that unlike the thermodynamic arrow of time, it can lead to reversible dynamics at the macroscopic level. In addition, the proposed scheme enables us to characterize the classical-quantum boundary. We discuss the limitations of this approach and its broad implications for other areas of physics.
Emergence of an urban traffic macroscopic fundamental diagram
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ranjan, Abhishek; Fosgerau, Mogens; Jenelius, Erik
2016-01-01
This paper examines mild conditions under which a macroscopic fundamental diagram (MFD) emerges, relating space-averaged speed to occupancy in some area. These conditions are validated against empirical data. We allow local speedoccupancy relationships and, in particular, require no equilibrating...... process to be in operation. This means that merely observing the stable relationship between the space-averages of speed, flow and occupancy are not sufficient to infer a robust relationship and the emerging MFD cannot be guaranteed to be stable if traffic interventions are implemented....
Seismic scanning tunneling macroscope - Elastic simulations and Arizona mine test
Hanafy, Sherif M.
2012-01-01
Elastic seismic simulations and field data tests are used to validate the theory of a seismic scanning tunneling macroscope (SSTM). For nearfield elastic simulation, the SSTM results show superresolution to be better than λ/8 if the only scattered data are used as input data. If the direct P and S waves are muted then the resolution of the scatterer locations are within about λ/5. Seismic data collected in an Arizona tunnel showed a superresolution limit of at least λ/19. These test results are consistent with the theory of the SSTM and suggest that the SSTM can be a tool used by geophysicists as a probe for near-field scatterers.
Macroscopic description of teeth of Azara's agouti (Dasyprocta azarae
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fabrício S. Oliveira
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The teeth of Azara's agouti (Dasyprocta azarae were described macroscopically in order to provide biological data on one of the largest wild rodents of the Americas. Radiography was taken on six heads and the teeth were described. Enamel surrounds the coronal dentin, projects to the roots and is present as parallel inner laminae in buccolingual direction. The dentin is located among the enamel laminae and surrounds the pulp horns. The cementum is located internally to the enamel laminae. On the lingual surface, the cementum and dentin are the outer elements.
Macroscopic and microscopic self-organization by nonlocal anisotropic interactions
Cristiani, Emiliano; Tosin, Andrea
2009-01-01
This paper is concerned with mathematical modeling of intelligent systems, such as human crowds and animal groups. In particular, the focus is on the emergence of different self-organized patterns from non-locality and anisotropy of the interactions among individuals. A mathematical technique by time-evolving measures is introduced to deal with both macroscopic and microscopic scales within a unified modeling framework. Then self-organization issues are investigated and numerically reproduced at the proper scale, according to the kind of agents under consideration.
An investigation into why macroscopic systems behave classically
Hallwood, David W.; Burnett, Keith; Dunningham, Jacob
2006-01-01
We study why it is quite so hard to make a superposition of superfluid flows in a Bose-Einstein condensate. To do this we initially investigate the quantum states of $N$ atoms trapped in a 1D ring with a barrier at one position and a phase applied around it. We show how macroscopic superpositions can in principle be produced and investigate factors which affect the superposition. We then use the Bose-Hubbard model to study an array of Bose-Einstein condensates trapped in optical potentials an...
Measurement-induced macroscopic superposition states in cavity optomechanics
Hoff, Ulrich B; Neergaard-Nielsen, Jonas S; Andersen, Ulrik L
2016-01-01
We present a novel proposal for generating quantum superpositions of macroscopically distinct states of a bulk mechanical oscillator, compatible with existing optomechanical devices operating in the readily achievable bad-cavity limit. The scheme is based on a pulsed cavity optomechanical quantum non-demolition (QND) interaction, driven by displaced non-Gaussian states, and measurement-induced feedback, avoiding the need for strong single-photon optomechanical coupling. Furthermore, we show that single-quadrature cooling of the mechanical oscillator is sufficient for efficient state preparation, and we outline a three-pulse protocol comprising a sequence of QND interactions for squeezing-enhanced cooling, state preparation, and tomography.
Flagella bending affects macroscopic properties of bacterial suspensions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Potomkin, M.; Tournus, M.; Berlyand, L. V.; Aranson, I. S.
2017-05-01
To survive in harsh conditions, motile bacteria swim in complex environments and respond to the surrounding flow. Here, we develop a mathematical model describing how flagella bending affects macroscopic properties of bacterial suspensions. First, we show how the flagella bending contributes to the decrease in the effective viscosity observed in dilute suspension. Our results do not impose tumbling (random reorientation) as was previously done to explain the viscosity reduction. Second, we demonstrate how a bacterium escapes from wall entrapment due to the self-induced buckling of flagella. Our results shed light on the role of flexible bacterial flagella in interactions of bacteria with shear flow and walls or obstacles.
Macroscopic modeling for traffic flow on three-lane highways
Chen, Jianzhong; Fang, Yuan
2015-04-01
In this paper, a macroscopic traffic flow model for three-lane highways is proposed. The model is an extension of the speed gradient model by taking into account the lane changing. The new source and sink terms of lane change rate are added into the continuity equations and the speed dynamic equations to describe the lane-changing behavior. The result of the steady state analysis shows that our model can describe the lane usage inversion phenomenon. The numerical results demonstrate that the present model effectively reproduces several traffic phenomena observed in real traffic such as shock and rarefaction waves, stop-and-go waves and local clusters.
Encapsulated microsensors for reservoir interrogation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scott, Eddie Elmer; Aines, Roger D.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.
2016-03-08
In one general embodiment, a system includes at least one microsensor configured to detect one or more conditions of a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and a receptacle, wherein the receptacle encapsulates the at least one microsensor. In another general embodiment, a method include injecting the encapsulated at least one microsensor as recited above into a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and detecting one or more conditions of the fluidic medium of the reservoir.
Reservoir management cost-cutting
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gulati, M.S.
1996-12-31
This article by Mohinder S. Gulati, Chief Engineer, Unocal Geothermal Operations, discusses cost cutting in geothermal reservoir management. The reservoir engineer or geoscientist can make a big difference in the economical outcome of a project by improving well performance and thus making geothermal energy more competitive in the energy marketplace. Bringing plants online in less time and proving resources to reduce the cycle time are some of the ways to reduce reservoir management costs discussed in this article.
Encapsulated microsensors for reservoir interrogation
Scott, Eddie Elmer; Aines, Roger D.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.
2016-03-08
In one general embodiment, a system includes at least one microsensor configured to detect one or more conditions of a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and a receptacle, wherein the receptacle encapsulates the at least one microsensor. In another general embodiment, a method include injecting the encapsulated at least one microsensor as recited above into a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and detecting one or more conditions of the fluidic medium of the reservoir.
Reservoir Operation to Minimize Sedimentation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dyah Ari Wulandari
2013-10-01
Full Text Available The Wonogiri Reservoir capacity decreases rapidly, caused by serious sedimentation problems. In 2007, JICA was proposed a sediment storage reservoir with a new spillway for the purpose of sediment flushing / sluicing from The Keduang River. Due to the change of reservoir storage and change of reservoir system, it requires a sustainable reservoir operation technique. This technique is aimed to minimize the deviation between the input and output of sediments. The main objective of this study is to explore the optimal Wonogiri reservoir operation by minimizing the sediment trap. The CSUDP incremental dynamic programming procedure is used for the model optimization. This new operating rules will also simulate a five years operation period, to show the effect of the implemented techniques. The result of the study are the newly developed reservoir operation system has many advantages when compared to the actual operation system and the disadvantage of this developed system is that the use is mainly designed for a wet hydrologic year, since its performance for the water supply is lower than the actual reservoir operations.Doi: 10.12777/ijse.6.1.16-23 [How to cite this article: Wulandari, D.A., Legono, D., and Darsono, S., 2014. Reservoir Operation to Minimize Sedimentation. International Journal of Science and Engineering, 5(2,61-65. Doi: 10.12777/ijse.6.1.16-23] Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE
All-optical reservoir computing.
Duport, François; Schneider, Bendix; Smerieri, Anteo; Haelterman, Marc; Massar, Serge
2012-09-24
Reservoir Computing is a novel computing paradigm that uses a nonlinear recurrent dynamical system to carry out information processing. Recent electronic and optoelectronic Reservoir Computers based on an architecture with a single nonlinear node and a delay loop have shown performance on standardized tasks comparable to state-of-the-art digital implementations. Here we report an all-optical implementation of a Reservoir Computer, made of off-the-shelf components for optical telecommunications. It uses the saturation of a semiconductor optical amplifier as nonlinearity. The present work shows that, within the Reservoir Computing paradigm, all-optical computing with state-of-the-art performance is possible.
Reservoir geochemistry; Geoquimica de reservatorios
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lopes, Joelma Pimentel; Rangel, Mario Duncan; Morais, Erica Tavares de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)], Emails: joelma.lopes@petrobras.com.br, mduncan@petrobras.com.br, ericat@petrobras.com.br; Aguiar, Helen G.M. de [Fundacao GORCEIX, Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil)], E-mail: helenaguiar.GORCEIX@petrobras.com.br
2008-03-15
Reservoir Geochemistry has many important practical applications during petroleum exploration, appraisal and development of oil fields. The most important uses are related to providing or disproving connectivity between reservoirs of a particular well or horizon. During exploration, reservoir geochemistry can indicate the direction of oil filling, suggesting the most appropriate places for drilling new wells. During production, studies of variations in composition with time and determination of proportions of commingled production from multiple zones, may also be carried out. The chemical constituents of petroleum in natural reservoirs frequently show measurable compositional variations, laterally and vertically. Due to the physical and chemical nature of petroleum changes with increasing maturity (or contribution of a second source during the filling process), lateral and vertical compositional variations exist in petroleum columns as reservoir filling is complete. Compositional variation can also be introduced by biodegradation or water washing. Once the reservoir is filled, density driven mixing and molecular diffusion tend to eliminate inherited compositional variations in an attempt to establish mechanical and chemical equilibrium in the petroleum column (England, 1990). Based on organic geochemical analysis it is possible to define these compositional variations among reservoirs, and use these data for developing of petroleum fields and for reservoir appraisal. Reservoir geochemistry offers rapid and low cost evaluation tools to aid in understanding development and production problems. Moreover, the applied methodology is relatively simple and gives reliable results, and can be performed routinely in any good geochemical laboratory at a relatively low cost. (author)
Grigoryeva, Lyudmila; Henriques, Julie; Larger, Laurent; Ortega, Juan-Pablo
2016-07-01
This letter addresses the reservoir design problem in the context of delay-based reservoir computers for multidimensional input signals, parallel architectures, and real-time multitasking. First, an approximating reservoir model is presented in those frameworks that provides an explicit functional link between the reservoir architecture and its performance in the execution of a specific task. Second, the inference properties of the ridge regression estimator in the multivariate context are used to assess the impact of finite sample training on the decrease of the reservoir capacity. Finally, an empirical study is conducted that shows the adequacy of the theoretical results with the empirical performances exhibited by various reservoir architectures in the execution of several nonlinear tasks with multidimensional inputs. Our results confirm the robustness properties of the parallel reservoir architecture with respect to task misspecification and parameter choice already documented in the literature.
Pore structure effect on reservoir electrical properties and well logging evaluation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Bian Huan-Lin; Guan Ju; Mao Zhi-Qiang; Ju Xiao-Dong; Han Gui-Qing
2014-01-01
The reservoir pore structure controls the reservoir quality and resistivity response of hydrocarbon-bearing zones and thus, critically affects logging interpretation. We use petrophysical data in three types of reservoir with different pore structure characteristics to show that the complexity of pore structure had a significant effect on the effective porosity and permeability regardless of geological factors responsible for the formation of pore structure. Moreover,, the distribution and content of conductive fluids in the reservoir varies dramatically owing to pore structure differences, which also induces resistivity variations in reservoir rocks. Hence, the origin of low-resistivity hydrocarbon-bearing zones, except for those with conductive matrix and mud filtrate invasion, is attributed to the complexity of the pore structures. Consequently, reservoir-specific evaluation models, parameters, and criteria should be chosen for resistivity log interpretation to make a reliable evaluation of reservoir quality and fluids.
Numerical model for macroscopic quantum superpositions based on phase-covariant quantum cloning
Buraczewski, Adam
2011-01-01
We present a numerical model of macroscopic quantum superpositions generated by universally covariant optimal quantum cloning. It requires fast computation of the Gaussian hypergeometric function for moderate values of its parameters and argument as well as evaluation of infinite sums involving this function. We developed a method of dynamical estimation of cutoff for these sums. We worked out algorithms performing efficient summation of values of orders ranging from $10^{-100}$ to $10^{100}$ which neither lose precision nor accumulate errors, but provide the summation with acceleration. Our model is well adapted to experimental conditions. It optimizes computation by parallelization and choice of the most efficient algorithm. The methods presented here can be adjusted for analysis of similar experimental schemes. Including decoherence and realistic detection greatly improved the reliability and usability of our model for scientific research.
Dynamic Chiral Magnetic Effect and Faraday Rotation in Macroscopically Disordered Helical Metals
Ma, J.; Pesin, D. A.
2017-03-01
We develop an effective medium theory for electromagnetic wave propagation through gapless nonuniform systems with a dynamic chiral magnetic effect. The theory allows us to calculate macroscopic-disorder-induced corrections to the values of optical, as well as chiral magnetic conductivities. In particular, we show that spatial fluctuations of the optical conductivity induce corrections to the effective value of the chiral magnetic conductivity. The absolute value of the effect varies strongly depending on the system parameters, but yields the leading frequency dependence of the polarization rotation and circular dichroism signals. Experimentally, these corrections can be observed as features in the Faraday rotation angle near frequencies that correspond to the bulk plasmon resonances of a material. Such features are not expected to be present in single-crystal samples.
A Macroscopic Description of Self-Organized Criticality Systems and Astrophysical Applications
Aschwanden, Markus J
2013-01-01
We suggest a generalized definition of self-organized criticality (SOC) systems: SOC is a critical state of a nonlinear energy dissipation system that is slowly and continuously driven towards a critical value of a system-wide instability threshold, producing scale-free, fractal-diffusive, and intermittent avalanches with powerlaw-like size distributions. We develop here a macroscopic description of SOC systems that provides an equivalent description of the complex microscopic fine structure, in terms of fractal-diffusive transport (FD-SOC). Quantitative values for the size distributions of SOC parameters (length scales $L$, time scales $T$, fluxes $F$, and energies $E$) are derived from first principles, using the scale-free probability theorem, $N(L) dL \\propto L^{-d}$, for Euclidean space dimension $d$. We apply this model to astrophysical SOC systems, such as lunar craters, the asteroid belt, Saturn ring particles, magnetospheric substorms, radiation belt electrons, solar flares, stellar flares, pulsar gl...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Asai, Hidehiro, E-mail: hd-asai@aist.go.jp [Electronics and Photonics Research Institute (ESPRIT), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Ota, Yukihiro [CCSE, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8587 (Japan); Kawabata, Shiro [Electronics and Photonics Research Institute (ESPRIT), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Nori, Franco [CEMS, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Physics Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1040 (United States)
2014-09-15
Highlights: • We study MQT in Josephson junctions composed of multi-gap superconductors. • We derive a formula of the MQT escape rate for multiple phase differences. • We investigate the effect of inter-band phase fluctuation on MQT. • The MQT escape rate is significantly enhanced by the inter-band phase fluctuation. - Abstract: We theoretically investigate macroscopic quantum tunneling (MQT) in a hetero Josephson junction formed by a conventional single-gap superconductor and a multi-gap superconductor. In such Josephson junctions, phase differences for each tunneling channel are defined, and the fluctuation of the relative phase differences appear which is referred to as Josephson–Leggett’s mode. We take into account the effect of the fluctuation in the tunneling process and calculate the MQT escape rate for various junction parameters. We show that the fluctuation of relative phase differences drastically enhances the escape rate.
Richelle, A; Ben Tahar, I; Hassouna, M; Bogaerts, Ph
2015-09-01
Inorganic nitrogen supplementation is commonly used to boost fermentation metabolism in yeast cultures. However, an excessive addition can induce an opposite effect. Hence, it is important to ensure that the ammonia supplemented to the culture leads to an improvement of the ethanol production while avoiding undesirable inhibition effects. To this end, a macroscopic model describing the influence of ammonia addition on Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolism during bioethanol production from potato peel wastes has been developed. The model parameters are obtained by a simplified identification methodology in five steps. It is validated with experimental data and successfully predicts the dynamics of growth, substrate consumption (ammonia and fermentable sugar sources) and bioethanol production, even in cross validation. The model is used to determine the optimal quantity of supplemented ammonia required for maximizing bioethanol production from potato peel wastes in batch cultures.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahmad Arabi Shamsabadi
2016-04-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study of the self-initiation reaction of n-butyl acrylate (n-BA in free-radical polymerization. For the first time, the frequency factor and activation energy of the monomer self-initiation reaction are estimated from measurements of n-BA conversion in free-radical homo-polymerization initiated only by the monomer. The estimation was carried out using a macroscopic mechanistic mathematical model of the reactor. In addition to already-known reactions that contribute to the polymerization, the model considers a n-BA self-initiation reaction mechanism that is based on our previous electronic-level first-principles theoretical study of the self-initiation reaction. Reaction rate equations are derived using the method of moments. The reaction-rate parameter estimates obtained from conversion measurements agree well with estimates obtained via our purely-theoretical quantum chemical calculations.
Macroscopic Quantum Phenomena from the Correlation, Coupling and Criticality Perspectives
Chou, C H; Subasi, Y
2011-01-01
In this sequel paper we explore how macroscopic quantum phenomena can be measured or understood from the behavior of quantum correlations which exist in a quantum system of many particles or components and how the interaction strengths change with energy or scale, under ordinary situations and when the system is near its critical point. We use the nPI (master) effective action related to the Boltzmann-BBGKY / Schwinger-Dyson hierarchy of equations as a tool for systemizing the contributions of higher order correlation functions to the dynamics of lower order correlation functions. Together with the large N expansion discussed in our first paper(MQP1) we explore 1) the conditions whereby an H-theorem is obtained, which can be viewed as a signifier of the emergence of macroscopic behavior in the system. We give two more examples from past work: 2) the nonequilibrium dynamics of N atoms in an optical lattice under the large $\\cal N$ (field components), 2PI and second order perturbative expansions, illustrating h...
Macroscopic superposition states and decoherence by quantum telegraph noise
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abel, Benjamin Simon
2008-12-19
In the first part of the present thesis we address the question about the size of superpositions of macroscopically distinct quantum states. We propose a measure for the ''size'' of a Schroedinger cat state, i.e. a quantum superposition of two many-body states with (supposedly) macroscopically distinct properties, by counting how many single-particle operations are needed to map one state onto the other. We apply our measure to a superconducting three-junction flux qubit put into a superposition of clockwise and counterclockwise circulating supercurrent states and find this Schroedinger cat to be surprisingly small. The unavoidable coupling of any quantum system to many environmental degrees of freedom leads to an irreversible loss of information about an initially prepared superposition of quantum states. This phenomenon, commonly referred to as decoherence or dephasing, is the subject of the second part of the thesis. We have studied the time evolution of the reduced density matrix of a two-level system (qubit) subject to quantum telegraph noise which is the major source of decoherence in Josephson charge qubits. We are able to derive an exact expression for the time evolution of the reduced density matrix. (orig.)
Tribological behaviour of graphite powders at nano- and macroscopic scales
Schmitt, M.; Bistac, S.; Jradi, K.
2007-04-01
With its high resistance, good hardness and electrical conductibility in the basal plans, graphite is used for many years in various tribological fields such as seals, bearings or electrical motor brushes, and also for applications needing excellent lubrication and wearreducing properties. But thanks to its low density, graphite is at the moment destined for technologies which need a reducing of the weight combined with an enhancement of the efficiency, as it is the case in aeronautical industry. In this contexte, the friction and wear of natural (named graphite A) and synthetic (called graphites B and C) powders were evaluated, first at the macroscopic scale when sliding against steel counterfaces, under various applied normal loads. Scanning Electron Microscopy and AFM in tapping mode were used to observe the morphological modifications of the graphites. It is noticed that an enlargement of the applied normal load leads to an increase of the friction coefficient for graphites A and C; but for the graphite B, it seems that a ''limit'' load can induce a complete change of the tribological behaviour. At the same time, the nano-friction properties of these powders were evaluated by AFM measurements in contact mode, at different contact loads. As it was the case at the macroscopic scale, an increase of the nano-contact load induces higher friction coefficients. The determining of the friction and wear mechanisms of the graphite powders, as a function of both their intrinsic characteristics and the applied normal load, is then possible.
How does Planck’s constant influence the macroscopic world?
Yang, Pao-Keng
2016-09-01
In physics, Planck’s constant is a fundamental physical constant accounting for the energy-quantization phenomenon in the microscopic world. The value of Planck’s constant also determines in which length scale the quantum phenomenon will become conspicuous. Some students think that if Planck’s constant were to have a larger value than it has now, the quantum effect would only become observable in a world with a larger size, whereas the macroscopic world might remain almost unchanged. After reasoning from some basic physical principles and theories, we found that doubling Planck’s constant might result in a radical change on the geometric sizes and apparent colors of macroscopic objects, the solar spectrum and luminosity, the climate and gravity on Earth, as well as energy conversion between light and materials such as the efficiency of solar cells and light-emitting diodes. From the discussions in this paper, students can appreciate how Planck’s constant affects various aspects of the world in which we are living now.
Macroscopic Biological Characteristics of Individualized Therapy in Chinese Mongolian Osteopathy
Namula, Zhao; Mei, Wang; Li, Xue-en
Objective: Chinese Mongolian osteopathy has been passed down from ancient times and includes unique practices and favorable efficacy. In this study, we investigate the macroscopic biological characteristics of individualized Chinese Mongolian osteopathy, in order to provide new principle and methods for the treatment of bone fracture. Method: With a view to provide a vital link between nature and humans, the four stages of Chinese Mongolian osteopathy focus on the unity of the mind and body, the limbs and body organs, the body and its functions, and humans and nature. Results: We discuss the merits of individualized osteopathy in terms of the underlying concepts, and evaluate the approaches and principles of traditional medicine, as well as biomechanics. Conclusions: Individualized Mongolian osteopathy targets macroscopic biological components including dynamic reduction, natural fixation, and functional healing. Chinese Mongolian osteopathy is a natural, ecological and non-invasive osteopathy that values the link between nature and humans, including the unity of mind and body. The biological components not only serve as a foundation for Chinese Mongolian osteopathy but are also important for the future development of modern osteopathy, focusing on individualization, actualization and integration.
Motion of macroscopic bodies in the electromagnetic field
Horsley, S A R
2013-01-01
A theory is presented for calculating the effect of the electromagnetic field on the centre of mass of a macroscopic dielectric body that is valid in both quantum and classical regimes. We apply the theory to find the classical equation of motion for the centre of mass of a macroscopic object in a classical field, and the spreading of an initially localized wave-packet representing the centre of mass of a small object, in a quantum field. The classical force is found to be consistent with the identification of the Abraham momentum with the mechanical momentum of light, and the motion of the wave-packet is found to be subject to an acceleration due to the Casimir force, and a time dependent fluctuating motion due the creation of pairs of excitations within the object. The theory is valid for any dielectric that has susceptibilities satisfying the Kramers-Kronig relations, and is not subject to arguments regarding the form of the electromagnetic energy-momentum tensor within a medium.
Parametric equations for calculation of macroscopic cross sections
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Botelho, Mario Hugo; Carvalho, Fernando, E-mail: mariobotelho@poli.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear
2015-07-01
Neutronic calculations of the core of a nuclear reactor is one thing necessary and important for the design and management of a nuclear reactor in order to prevent accidents and control the reactor efficiently as possible. To perform these calculations a library of nuclear data, including cross sections is required. Currently, to obtain a cross section computer codes are used, which require a large amount of processing time and computer memory. This paper proposes the calculation of macroscopic cross section through the development of parametric equations. The paper illustrates the proposal for the case of macroscopic cross sections of absorption (Σa), which was chosen due to its greater complexity among other cross sections. Parametric equations created enable, quick and dynamic way, the determination of absorption cross sections, enabling the use of them in calculations of reactors. The results show efficient when compared with the absorption cross sections obtained by the ALPHA 8.8.1 code. The differences between the cross sections are less than 2% for group 2 and less than 0.60% for group 1. (author)
An exploration for the macroscopic physical meaning of entropy
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
The macroscopic physical meaning of entropy is analyzed based on the exergy (availability) of a combined system (a closed system and its environment), which is the maximum amount of useful work obtainable from the system and the environment as the system is brought into equilibrium with the environment. The process the system experiences can be divided in two sequent sub-processes, the process at constant volume, which represents the heat interaction of the system with the environment, and the adiabatic process, which represents the work interaction of the system with the environment. It is shown that the macroscopic physical meaning of entropy is a measure of the unavailable energy of a closed system for doing useful work through heat interaction. This statement is more precise than those reported in prior literature. The unavailability function of a closed system can be defined as T0S and p0V in volume constant process and adiabatic process, respectively. Their changes, that is, AiTgS) and A (p0V) represent the unusable parts of the internal energy of a closed system for doing useful work in corresponding processes. Finally, the relation between Clausius entropy and Boltzmann entropy is discussed based on the comparison of their expressions for absolute entropy.
Inverted rank distributions: Macroscopic statistics, universality classes, and critical exponents
Eliazar, Iddo; Cohen, Morrel H.
2014-01-01
An inverted rank distribution is an infinite sequence of positive sizes ordered in a monotone increasing fashion. Interlacing together Lorenzian and oligarchic asymptotic analyses, we establish a macroscopic classification of inverted rank distributions into five “socioeconomic” universality classes: communism, socialism, criticality, feudalism, and absolute monarchy. We further establish that: (i) communism and socialism are analogous to a “disordered phase”, feudalism and absolute monarchy are analogous to an “ordered phase”, and criticality is the “phase transition” between order and disorder; (ii) the universality classes are characterized by two critical exponents, one governing the ordered phase, and the other governing the disordered phase; (iii) communism, criticality, and absolute monarchy are characterized by sharp exponent values, and are inherently deterministic; (iv) socialism is characterized by a continuous exponent range, is inherently stochastic, and is universally governed by continuous power-law statistics; (v) feudalism is characterized by a continuous exponent range, is inherently stochastic, and is universally governed by discrete exponential statistics. The results presented in this paper yield a universal macroscopic socioeconophysical perspective of inverted rank distributions.
Macroscopic Behavior of Nematics with D2d Symmetry
Pleiner, Harald; Brand, Helmut R.
2010-03-01
We discuss the symmetry properties and the macroscopic behavior of a nematic liquid crystal phase with D2d symmetry. Such a phase is a prime candidate for nematic phases made from banana-shaped molecules where the usual quadrupolar order coexists with octupolar (tetrahedratic) order. The resulting nematic phase is non-polar. While this phase could resemble the classic D∞h nematic in the polarizing microscope, it has many static as well as reversible and irreversible properties unknown to non-polar nematics without octupolar order. In particular, there is a linear gradient term in the free energy that selects parity leading to ambidextrously helical ground states when the molecules are achiral. In addition, there are static and irreversible coupling terms of a type only met otherwise in macroscopically chiral liquid crystals, e.g. the ambidextrous analogues of Lehmann-type effects known from cholesteric liquid crystals. Finally, we discuss certain nonlinear aspects of the dynamics related to the non-commutativity of three-dimensional finite rotations as well as other structural nonlinear hydrodynamic effects.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hurtado, Fernando S.V.; Maliska, Clovis R.; Silva, Antonio F.C. da; Ambrus, Jaime; Contessi, Bruno A.; Cordazzo, Jonas [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Lab. de Simulacao Numerica em Mecanica dos Fluidos e Transferencia de Calor (SINMEC)
2004-07-01
It is unquestionable the significant role that reservoir simulation has gained in the petroleum industry today. Nevertheless, the accuracy of this prediction toll is frequently degraded not only by inherent uncertainty in the reservoir characterization, but also by usually deficient estimation of relative permeability curves, which are the key elements for macroscopic description of multiphase flow in porous media. In practice, these flow functions should be estimated from data collected in displacement experiments. Although numerous methods for estimating relative permeabilities from these experimental data have been developed over the years, their practical application have been suffered from many problems mainly arisen on the oversimplified mathematical models on which those methods were based. In recent years, parameter estimation techniques are being increasingly applied to estimate relative permeabilities, mostly because they allow employing a flow model as accurate as necessary to represent all influencing factors on the fluid displacement. The present work describes the main characteristics and potentialities of an application software developed as a supporting toll for the task of estimation of reliable relative permeability curves by a parameter estimation method. Special emphasis was given to the implementation of a numerical flow model including relevant physical factors, such as rock heterogeneity, capillary pressure, gravity effects, and fluid compressibility. (author)
Applicability of artificial intelligence to reservoir induced earthquakes
Samui, Pijush; Kim, Dookie
2014-06-01
This paper proposes to use least square support vector machine (LSSVM) and relevance vector machine (RVM) for prediction of the magnitude (M) of induced earthquakes based on reservoir parameters. Comprehensive parameter (E) and maximum reservoir depth (H) are used as input variables of the LSSVM and RVM. The output of the LSSVM and RVM is M. Equations have been presented based on the developed LSSVM and RVM. The developed RVM also gives variance of the predicted M. A comparative study has been carried out between the developed LSSVM, RVM, artificial neural network (ANN), and linear regression models. Finally, the results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the LSSVM and RVM models.
LANDSLIDE POTENTIALITY OF THE TSENGWEN RESERVOIR WATERSHED,TAIWAN,CHINA
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chin-yu LEE
2004-01-01
To recognize the geographical characteristics of the landslide areas will be helpful for the watershed management in the reservoir watershed.According to the quantitative analysis,we'll take different scores and weighting for the potential parameters of the landslide areas in the Tsengwen reservoir watershed,and in the meanwhile,we'll extract the different factors,including the slope,aspect,altitude,soil and geological textures etc.,and the results shown as maximum one-day rainfall,ratio of forests and average relief is the most affecting parameters on the potential risk map of landslide areas.
Application of TDS technique to developed reservoirs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Escobar, Freddy H.; Montealegre, Matilde [Petroleum Engineering Department, Universidad Surcolombiana, Av. Pastrana - Cra 1, Neiva (Huila-Colombia) (Colombia)
2007-02-15
Well test interpretation methods for a single well in infinite reservoirs may not be suitable for those wells when their pressure is affected by other wells operating in the same reservoir. This effect becomes more significant as both the flow rate and the test duration increase. It is observed in drawdown tests when the well experiences an additional pressure decline due to production from other wells and, also, when the well produces under pseudosteady state before shut-in it for a buildup test. When pressure data are interpreted as recorded, estimation of reservoir parameters may not be accurate. Slider1-3 introduced a technique for analyzing a pressure test that takes into account the effect of nearby active wells. Corrected or extrapolated pressures are obtained by applying the superposition principle to include the pressure decline contribution from the neighboring wells. Traditional semilog plots are then constructed and permeability and skin factor can be estimated, respectively, from the slope and intercept of their linear trend. A new technique, called TDS (Tiab's Direct Synthesis), was designed to analyze pressure and pressure derivative data without using type-curve matching. It uses characteristic features found on the derivative plot, so reservoir parameters are directly estimated. It depends upon how well the pressure derivative is calculated. If derivative is taken to the recorded pressure data the resulting curve will not be properly defined and the estimated parameters may be erroneous. Application of the TDS technique to wells in depleted reservoirs is presented here. The recorded pressure is extrapolated to include the contribution from other wells as suggested by Slider. Once the pressure derivative of the extrapolated data is taken, the TDS technique as discussed by Tiab [Tiab, D. 1993. Analysis of Pressure and Pressure Derivative without Type-Curve Matching: 1- Factor de dano and Wellbore Storage. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 12 (1995), 171
A Novel Method for Performance Analysis of Compartmentalized Reservoirs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shahamat Mohammad Sadeq
2016-05-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a simple analytical model for performance analysis of compartmentalized reservoirs producing under Constant Terminal Rate (CTR and Constant Terminal Pressure (CTP. The model is based on the well-known material balance and boundary dominated flow equations and is written in terms of capacitance and resistance of a production and a support compartment. These capacitance and resistance terms account for a combination of reservoir parameters which enable the developed model to be used for characterizing such systems. In addition to considering the properties contrast between the two reservoir compartments, the model takes into account existence of transmissibility barriers with the use of resistance terms. The model is used to analyze production performance of unconventional reservoirs, where the multistage fracturing of horizontal wells effectively creates a Stimulated Reservoir Volume (SRV with an enhanced permeability surrounded by a non-stimulated region. It can also be used for analysis of compartmentalized conventional reservoirs. The analytical solutions provide type curves through which the controlling reservoirs parameters of a compartmentalized system can be estimated. The contribution of the supporting compartment is modeled based on a boundary dominated flow assumption. The transient behaviour of the support compartment is captured by application of “distance of investigation” concept. The model shows that depletion of the production and support compartments exhibit two unit slopes on a log-log plot of pressure versus time for CTR. For CTP, however, the depletions display two exponential declines. The depletion signatures are separated by transition periods, which depend on the contribution of the support compartment (i.e. transient or boundary dominated flow. The developed equations can be implemented easily in a spreadsheet application, and are corroborated with the use of a numerical simulation. The study
Investigation of seasonal thermal flow in a real dam reservoir using 3-D numerical modeling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Üneş Fatih
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Investigations indicate that correct estimation of seasonal thermal stratification in a dam reservoir is very important for the dam reservoir water quality modeling and water management problems. The main aim of this study is to develop a hydrodynamics model of an actual dam reservoir in three dimensions for simulating a real dam reservoir flows for different seasons. The model is developed using nonlinear and unsteady continuity, momentum, energy and k-ε turbulence model equations. In order to include the Coriolis force effect on the flow in a dam reservoir, Coriolis force parameter is also added the model equations. Those equations are constructed using actual dimensions, shape, boundary and initial conditions of the dam and reservoir. Temperature profiles and flow visualizations are used to evaluate flow conditions in the reservoir. Reservoir flow’s process and parameters are determined all over the reservoir. The mathematical model developed is capable of simulating the flow and thermal characteristics of the reservoir system for seasonal heat exchanges. Model simulations results obtained are compared with field measurements obtained from gauging stations for flows in different seasons. The results show a good agreement with the field measurements.
Reservoir sedimentation; a literature survey
Sloff, C.J.
1991-01-01
A survey of literature is made on reservoir sedimentation, one of the most threatening processes for world-wide reservoir performance. The sedimentation processes, their impacts, and their controlling factors are assessed from a hydraulic engineering point of view with special emphasis on mathematic
Reservoir sedimentation; a literature survey
Sloff, C.J.
1991-01-01
A survey of literature is made on reservoir sedimentation, one of the most threatening processes for world-wide reservoir performance. The sedimentation processes, their impacts, and their controlling factors are assessed from a hydraulic engineering point of view with special emphasis on mathematic
An improved reservoir oxide cathode
Wang, Xiaoxia; Liao, Xianheng; Luo, Jirun; Zhao, Qinglan
2005-09-01
A new type of reservoir oxide cathode has been developed in IECAS. The emission characteristics of the cathode are tested. The results show the new cathode has higher emission current density and better resistance to poisoning at same operating condition compared with those of conventional reservoir oxide cathode.
Reservoir sedimentation; a literature survey
Sloff, C.J.
1991-01-01
A survey of literature is made on reservoir sedimentation, one of the most threatening processes for world-wide reservoir performance. The sedimentation processes, their impacts, and their controlling factors are assessed from a hydraulic engineering point of view with special emphasis on
FRACTURED PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abbas Firoozabadi
1999-06-11
The four chapters that are described in this report cover a variety of subjects that not only give insight into the understanding of multiphase flow in fractured porous media, but they provide also major contribution towards the understanding of flow processes with in-situ phase formation. In the following, a summary of all the chapters will be provided. Chapter I addresses issues related to water injection in water-wet fractured porous media. There are two parts in this chapter. Part I covers extensive set of measurements for water injection in water-wet fractured porous media. Both single matrix block and multiple matrix blocks tests are covered. There are two major findings from these experiments: (1) co-current imbibition can be more efficient than counter-current imbibition due to lower residual oil saturation and higher oil mobility, and (2) tight fractured porous media can be more efficient than a permeable porous media when subjected to water injection. These findings are directly related to the type of tests one can perform in the laboratory and to decide on the fate of water injection in fractured reservoirs. Part II of Chapter I presents modeling of water injection in water-wet fractured media by modifying the Buckley-Leverett Theory. A major element of the new model is the multiplication of the transfer flux by the fractured saturation with a power of 1/2. This simple model can account for both co-current and counter-current imbibition and computationally it is very efficient. It can be orders of magnitude faster than a conventional dual-porosity model. Part II also presents the results of water injection tests in very tight rocks of some 0.01 md permeability. Oil recovery from water imbibition tests from such at tight rock can be as high as 25 percent. Chapter II discusses solution gas-drive for cold production from heavy-oil reservoirs. The impetus for this work is the study of new gas phase formation from in-situ process which can be significantly
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fabricius, Ida Lykke
, and the best reservoir properties are typically found in mudstone intervals. Chalk mudstones vary a lot though. The best mudstones are purely calcitic, well sorted and may have been redeposited by traction currents. Other mudstones are rich in very fine grained silica, which takes up pore space and thus...... stabilizes chemically by recrystallization. This process requires energy and is promoted by temperature. This recrystallization in principle does not influence porosity, but only specific surface, which decreases during recrystallization, causing permeability to increase. The central North Sea is a warm...... intervals are to some extent cemented and cannot compact mechanically at realistic effective stresses and only deform elastically. All chalk intervals though, may react by fracturing to changes in shear stress. So where natural fractures are not prevalent, fractures may be generated hydraulically. Fractures...
Reasons for reservoir effect variability
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Philippsen, Bente
2013-01-01
Freshwater reservoir effects can be large and highly variable. I will present my investigations into the short-term variability of the freshwater reservoir effect in two Northern German rivers. The samples analysed in this study were collected between 2007 and 2012. Reservoir ages of water samples......, aquatic plants and fish from the rivers Alster and Trave range between zero and about 3,000 radiocarbon years. The reservoir age of water DIC depends to a large extent on the origin of the water and is for example correlated with precipitation amounts. These short-term variations are smoothed out in water...... plants. Their carbon should represent an average value of the entire growth season. However, there are large reservoir age variations in aquatic plants and animals as well. These can best be explained by the multitude of carbon sources which can be utilized by aquatic organisms, and which have...
Symmetry properties of macroscopic transport coefficients in porous media
Lasseux, D.; Valdés-Parada, F. J.
2017-04-01
We report on symmetry properties of tensorial effective transport coefficients characteristic of many transport phenomena in porous systems at the macroscopic scale. The effective coefficients in the macroscopic models (derived by upscaling (volume averaging) the governing equations at the underlying scale) are obtained from the solution of closure problems that allow passing the information from the lower to the upper scale. The symmetry properties of the macroscopic coefficients are identified from a formal analysis of the closure problems and this is illustrated for several different physical mechanisms, namely, one-phase flow in homogeneous porous media involving inertial effects, slip flow in the creeping regime, momentum transport in a fracture relying on the Reynolds model including slip effects, single-phase flow in heterogeneous porous media embedding a porous matrix and a clear fluid region, two-phase momentum transport in homogeneous porous media, as well as dispersive heat and mass transport. The results from the analysis of these study cases are summarized as follows. For inertial single-phase flow, the apparent permeability tensor is irreducibly decomposed into its symmetric (viscous) and skew-symmetric (inertial) parts; for creeping slip-flow, the apparent permeability tensor is not symmetric; for one-phase slightly compressible gas flow in the slip regime within a fracture, the effective transmissivity tensor is symmetric, a result that remains valid in the absence of slip; for creeping one-phase flow in heterogeneous media, the permeability tensor is symmetric; for two-phase flow, we found the dominant permeability tensors to be symmetric, whereas the coupling tensors do not exhibit any special symmetry property; finally for dispersive heat transfer, the thermal conductivity tensors include a symmetric and a skew-symmetric part, the latter being a consequence of convective transport only. A similar result is achieved for mass dispersion. Beyond the
Distinct molecular features of different macroscopic subtypes of colorectal neoplasms.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kenichi Konda
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colorectal adenoma develops into cancer with the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic changes. We studied the underlying molecular and clinicopathological features to better understand the heterogeneity of colorectal neoplasms (CRNs. METHODS: We evaluated both genetic (mutations of KRAS, BRAF, TP53, and PIK3CA, and microsatellite instability [MSI] and epigenetic (methylation status of nine genes or sequences, including the CpG island methylator phenotype [CIMP] markers alterations in 158 CRNs including 56 polypoid neoplasms (PNs, 25 granular type laterally spreading tumors (LST-Gs, 48 non-granular type LSTs (LST-NGs, 19 depressed neoplasms (DNs and 10 small flat-elevated neoplasms (S-FNs on the basis of macroscopic appearance. RESULTS: S-FNs showed few molecular changes except SFRP1 methylation. Significant differences in the frequency of KRAS mutations were observed among subtypes (68% for LST-Gs, 36% for PNs, 16% for DNs and 6% for LST-NGs (P<0.001. By contrast, the frequency of TP53 mutation was higher in DNs than PNs or LST-Gs (32% vs. 5% or 0%, respectively (P<0.007. We also observed significant differences in the frequency of CIMP between LST-Gs and LST-NGs or PNs (32% vs. 6% or 5%, respectively (P<0.005. Moreover, the methylation level of LINE-1 was significantly lower in DNs or LST-Gs than in PNs (58.3% or 60.5% vs. 63.2%, P<0.05. PIK3CA mutations were detected only in LSTs. Finally, multivariate analyses showed that macroscopic morphologies were significantly associated with an increased risk of molecular changes (PN or LST-G for KRAS mutation, odds ratio [OR] 9.11; LST-NG or DN for TP53 mutation, OR 5.30; LST-G for PIK3CA mutation, OR 26.53; LST-G or DN for LINE-1 hypomethylation, OR 3.41. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that CRNs could be classified into five macroscopic subtypes according to clinicopathological and molecular differences, suggesting that different mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of colorectal
Gravity observations for hydrocarbon reservoir monitoring
Glegola, M.A.
2013-01-01
In this thesis the added value of gravity observations for hydrocarbon reservoir monitoring and characterization is investigated. Reservoir processes and reservoir types most suitable for gravimetric monitoring are identified. Major noise sources affecting time-lapse gravimetry are analyzed. The
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SHAO Jin-gan; HUANG Xue-qin; QU Ming; WEI Chao-fu; XIE De-ti
2005-01-01
The old reservoir areas built in 1950s-1970s left behind many socio-economic problems, because of the administrative backward migration and little migration fund, and all these problems would be tied to land. Based on interviewing with peasant households, combining land use survey and socio-economic statistical index, this paper analyzed land use change and its corresponding driving forces in Linshui reservoir area of Dahonghe Reservoir. Results showed that land use change in the reservoir area was mainly embodied on low-lying land submergence and migration requisition land. The former changed the land use patterns, and the latter mainly reconstructed original land property and made land over-fragmented. Cultivated land per capita was 0.041ha in this area, below the cordon of cultivated land per capita enacted by FAO. Currently, there were still 30.25% of peasant households being short of grain in trimester of one year, and there were 35.27% of people living under the poverty line. The conditions of eco-environment in Linshui Reservoir Area were worse, and healthy and sub-healthy eco-environment accounted for less proportion, composed of green belt around the reservoir area and paddy field ecosystem, and economic forest and orchard ecosystem, respectively. The stress of the reservoir project was macroscopic background to analyze the driving factors of land use change, and real underlying diving factor of the land use change in the area was the change of cultural landscape under the stress of reservoir project. The rapid increase of population was the key factor to induce the change of man-land relationship in the reservoir area, the low level of rural economy was the crucial factor to decide how migrants input for production, and the belief of migrants, influencing the land use patterns in a certain extent, was the inducing factor to keep land use stable. The low-lying submergence and infrastructure construction accompanied the reservoir project were leading
Enhanced characterization of reservoir hydrocarbon components using electromagnetic data attributes
Katterbauer, Klemens
2015-12-23
Advances in electromagnetic imaging techniques have led to the growing utilization of this technology for reservoir monitoring and exploration. These exploit the strong conductivity contrast between the hydrocarbon and water phases and have been used for mapping water front propagation in hydrocarbon reservoirs and enhancing the characterization of the reservoir formation. The conventional approach for the integration of electromagnetic data is to invert the data for saturation properties and then subsequently use the inverted properties as constraints in the history matching process. The non-uniqueness and measurement errors may however make this electromagnetic inversion problem strongly ill-posed, leading to potentially inaccurate saturation profiles. Another limitation of this approach is the uncertainty of Archie\\'s parameters in relating rock conductivity to water saturation, which may vary in the reservoir and are generally poorly known. We present an Ensemble Kalman Filter framework for efficiently integrating electromagnetic data into the history matching process and for simultaneously estimating the Archie\\'s parameters and the variance of the observation error of the electromagnetic data. We apply the proposed framework to a compositional reservoir model. We aim at assessing the relevance of EM data for estimating the different hydrocarbon components of the reservoir. The experimental results demonstrate that the individual hydrocarbon components are generally well matched, with nitrogen exhibiting the strongest improvement. The estimated observation error standard deviations are also within expected levels (between 5 and 10%), significantly contributing to the robustness of the proposed EM history matching framework. Archie\\'s parameter estimates approximate well the reference profile and assist in the accurate description of the electrical conductivity properties of the reservoir formation, hence leading to estimation accuracy improvements of around
Water resources review: Ocoee reservoirs, 1990
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cox, J.P.
1990-08-01
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) is preparing a series of reports to make technical information on individual TVA reservoirs readily accessible. These reports provide a summary of reservoir purpose and operation; physical characteristics of the reservoir and watershed; water quality conditions; aquatic biological conditions; and designated, actual and potential uses of the reservoir and impairments of those use. This reservoir status report addressed the three Ocoee Reservoirs in Polk County, Tennessee.
ARTIFICIAL FISH PROPAGATION IN KANEV RESERVOIR
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O. B. Gurbik
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Based on the analysis of the dynamics of structural parameters of fish fauna of the Kanev reservoir, we determined the major measures for artificial fish propagation (stocking, which would allow increasing their commercial stocks and maintain biological diversity. It was found that main biological factors, which defined the conditions of existence of fish at different stages of their life cycle in the Kanev reservoir was as a whole favorable for providing sufficient efficiency of measures for stocking it with juveniles of commercially and environmentally valuable fishes. With current state of fish fauna and possibilities of fish hatcheries, the priority in the part of artificial maintenance of fish populations should be given to pike-perch, wels, and tench. An increase of amounts of commercial catches should be based first of all on full-scale stocking with silver and bighead carps, the created stock of which will be available for effective exploitation at a regime, which is protective for native fish fauna. The current bioproductive potential allows increasing the indices of the stock of commercially valuable species up to 120 kg/ha that is twice more than the actual indices for 2012-2013. Key words: fish fauna, artificial propagation, commercial stock, Kanev reservoir.
Macroscopic Modeling of Transport Phenomena in Direct Methanol Fuel Cells
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olesen, Anders Christian
An increasing need for energy efficiency and high energy density has sparked a growing interest in direct methanol fuel cells for portable power applications. This type of fuel cell directly generates electricity from a fuel mixture consisting of methanol and water. Although this technology...... for studying their transport. In this PhD dissertation the macroscopic transport phenomena governing direct methanol fuel cell operation are analyzed, discussed and modeled using the two-fluid approach in the computational fluid dynamics framework of CFX 14. The overall objective of this work is to extend...... the present fundamental understanding of direct methanol fuel cell operation by developing a three-dimensional, two-phase, multi-component, non-isotherm mathematical model including detailed non-ideal thermodynamics, non-equilibrium phase change and non-equilibrium sorption-desorption of methanol and water...
Macroscopic quantum electrodynamics of high-Q cavities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khanbekyan, Mikayel
2009-10-27
In this thesis macroscopic quantum electrodynamics in linear media was applied in order to develop an universally valid quantum theory for the description of the interaction of the electromagnetic field with atomic sources in high-Q cavities. In this theory a complete description of the characteristics of the emitted radiation is given. The theory allows to show the limits of the applicability of the usually applied theory. In order to establish an as possible generally valid theory first the atom-field interaction was studied in the framework of macroscopic quantum electrodynamics in dispersive and absorptive media. In order to describe the electromagnetic field from Maxwell's equations was started, whereby the noise-current densities, which are connected with the absorption of the medium, were included. The solution of these equations expresses the electromagnetic field variables by the noise-current densities by means of Green's tensor of the macroscopic Maxwell equations. The explicit quantization is performed by means of the noise-current densities, whereby a diagonal Hamiltonian is introduced, which then guarantees the time development according to Maxwell's equation and the fulfillment of the fundamental simultaneous commutation relations of the field variables. In the case of the interaction of the medium-supported field with atoms the Hamiltonian must be extended by atom-field interactions energies, whereby the canonical coupling schemes of the minimal or multipolar coupling can be used. The dieelectric properties of the material bodies as well as their shape are coded in the Green tensor of the macroscopic Maxwell equations. As preparing step first the Green tensor was specified in order to derive three-dimensional input-output relations for the electromagnetic field operators on a plane multilayer structure. Such a general dewscription of the electromagnetic field allows the inclusion both of dispersion and absorption of the media and the
Self-feeding turbulent magnetic reconnection on macroscopic scales.
Lapenta, Giovanni
2008-06-13
Within a MHD approach we find magnetic reconnection to progress in two entirely different ways. The first is well known: the laminar Sweet-Parker process. But a second, completely different and chaotic reconnection process is possible. This regime has properties of immediate practical relevance: (i) it is much faster, developing on scales of the order of the Alfvén time, and (ii) the areas of reconnection become distributed chaotically over a macroscopic region. The onset of the faster process is the formation of closed-circulation patterns where the jets going out of the reconnection regions turn around and force their way back in, carrying along copious amounts of magnetic flux.
Room Temperature Experiments with a Macroscopic Sapphire Mechanical Oscillator
Bourhill, Jeremy; Ivanov, Eugene; Tobar, Micahel
2015-03-01
We present initial results from a number of experiments conducted on a 0.53 kg sapphire ``dumbbell'' crystal. Mechanical motion of the crystal structure alters the dimensions of the crystal, and the induced strain changes the permittivity. These two effects frequency modulate resonant microwave whispering gallery modes, simultaneously excited within the crystal. A novel microwave readout system is described allowing extremely low noise measurements of this frequency modulation with a phase noise floor of -160 dBc/Hz at 100 kHz, near our modes of interest. Fine-tuning of the crystal's suspension have allowed for the optimisation of mechanical Q-factors in preparation for cryogenic experiments, with a value of 8 x 107 achieved so far. Finally, results are presented that demonstrate the excitation of mechanical modes via radiation pressure force. These are all important steps towards the overall goal of the experiment; to cool a macroscopic device to the quantum ground state.
Macroscopic electromagnetic response of metamaterials with toroidal resonances
Savinov, V; Zheludev, N I
2013-01-01
Toroidal dipole, first described by Ia. B. Zeldovich [Sov. Phys. JETP 33, 1184 (1957)], is a distinct electromagnetic excitation that differs both from the electric and the magnetic dipoles. It has a number of intriguing properties: static toroidal nuclear dipole is responsible for parity violation in atomic spectra; interactions between static toroidal dipole and oscillating magnetic dipole are claimed to violate Newton's Third Law while non-stationary charge-current configurations involving toroidal multipoles have been predicted to produce vector potential in the absence of electromagnetic fields. Existence of the toroidal response in metamaterials was recently demonstrated and is now a growing field of research. However, no direct analytical link has yet been established between the transmission and reflection of macroscopic electromagnetic media and toroidal dipole excitations. To address this essential gap in electromagnetic theory we have developed an analytical approach linking microscopic and macrosc...
Experiments testing macroscopic quantum superpositions must be slow
Mari, Andrea; Giovannetti, Vittorio
2015-01-01
We consider a thought experiment where the preparation of a macroscopically massive or charged particle in a quantum superposition and the associated dynamics of a distant test particle apparently allow for superluminal communication. We give a solution to the paradox which is based on the following fundamental principle: any local experiment, discriminating a coherent superposition from an incoherent statistical mixture, necessarily requires a minimum time proportional to the mass (or charge) of the system. For a charged particle, we consider two examples of such experiments, and show that they are both consistent with the previous limitation. In the first, the measurement requires to accelerate the charge, that can entangle with the emitted photons. In the second, the limitation can be ascribed to the quantum vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. On the other hand, when applied to massive particles our result provides an indirect evidence for the existence of gravitational vacuum fluctuations an...
Macroscopic heat transport equations and heat waves in nonequilibrium states
Guo, Yangyu; Jou, David; Wang, Moran
2017-03-01
Heat transport may behave as wave propagation when the time scale of processes decreases to be comparable to or smaller than the relaxation time of heat carriers. In this work, a generalized heat transport equation including nonlinear, nonlocal and relaxation terms is proposed, which sums up the Cattaneo-Vernotte, dual-phase-lag and phonon hydrodynamic models as special cases. In the frame of this equation, the heat wave propagations are investigated systematically in nonequilibrium steady states, which were usually studied around equilibrium states. The phase (or front) speed of heat waves is obtained through a perturbation solution to the heat differential equation, and found to be intimately related to the nonlinear and nonlocal terms. Thus, potential heat wave experiments in nonequilibrium states are devised to measure the coefficients in the generalized equation, which may throw light on understanding the physical mechanisms and macroscopic modeling of nanoscale heat transport.
A macroscopic model of traffic jams in axons.
Kuznetsov, A V; Avramenko, A A
2009-04-01
The purpose of this paper is to develop a minimal macroscopic model capable of explaining the formation of traffic jams in fast axonal transport. The model accounts for the decrease of the number density of positively (and negatively) oriented microtubules near the location of the traffic jam due to formation of microtubule swirls; the model also accounts for the reduction of the effective velocity of organelle transport in the traffic jam region due to organelles falling off microtubule tracks more often in the swirl region. The model is based on molecular-motor-assisted transport equations and the hydrodynamic model of traffic jams in highway traffic. Parametric analyses of the model's predictions for various values of viscosity of the traffic flow, variance of the velocity distribution, diffusivity of microtubule-bound and free organelles, rate constants for binding to and detachment from microtubules, relaxation time, and average motor velocities of the retrograde and anterograde transport, are carried out.
Effect of inhibitors on macroscopical oxidation kinetics of calcium sulfite
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHAO Yi; WANG Li-dong; WANG Xiao-ming; LI Qiang-wei; XU Pei-yao
2005-01-01
In the presence of inhibitors, the macroscopical oxidation kinetics of calcium sulfite, the main byproduct in wet limestone scrubbing, was studied for the first time by adding different inhibitors and varying pH, concentration of calcium sulfite, oxygen partial pressure, concentration of inhibitors and temperature. The mathematical model about the general oxidation reaction was established,which was controlled by three steps involving dissolution of calcium sulfite, mass transfer of oxygen and chemical reaction in the solution.It was concluded that the general reaction was controlled by mass transfer of oxygen under uncatalyzed conditions, while it was controlled by dissolution of calcium sulfite after adding three kinds of inhibitors. Thus, the theory was provided for investigating the mechanism and oxidation kinetics of sulfite. The beneficial references were also supplied for design of oxidation technics in the wet limestone scrubbing.
Elastic Enhancement Factor: from Mesoscopic Systems to Macroscopic Analogous Devices
Sokolov, Valentin V
2014-01-01
Excess of probabilities of the elastic processes over the inelastic ones is a common feature of the resonance phenomena, described in the framework of the random matrix theory. This phenomenon is quantitatively characterized by the elastic enhancement factor $F^{(\\beta)}$ that is a typical ratio of elastic and inelastic cross sections. Being measured experimentally, this quantity can supply us with information on the character of dynamics of the intermediate complicated open system. We discuss properties of the enhancement factor in a wide scope from mesoscopoic systems to macroscopic analogous devices and demonstrate essential qualitative distinction between the elastic enhancement factor's peculiarities in these two cases. Complete analytical solution is found for the case of systems without time-reversal symmetry and only a few open equivalent scattering channels.
Macroscopic and direct light propulsion of bulk graphene material
Zhang, Tengfei; Wu, Yingpeng; Xiao, Peishuang; Yi, Ningbo; Lu, Yanhong; Ma, Yanfeng; Huang, Yi; Zhao, Kai; Yan, Xiao-Qing; Liu, Zhi-Bo; Tian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Yongsheng
2015-01-01
It has been a great challenge to achieve the direct light manipulation of matter on a bulk scale. In this work, the direct light propulsion of matter was observed on a macroscopic scale for the first time using a bulk graphene based material. The unique structure and properties of graphene and the morphology of the bulk graphene material make it capable of not only absorbing light at various wavelengths but also emitting energetic electrons efficiently enough to drive the bulk material following Newtonian mechanics. Thus, the unique photonic and electronic properties of individual graphene sheets are manifested in the response of the bulk state. These results offer an exciting opportunity to bring about bulk scale light manipulation with the potential to realize long-sought proposals in areas such as the solar sail and space transportation driven directly by sunlight.
Macroscopic acousto-mechanical analogy of a microbubble
Chaline, Jennifer; Mehrem, Ahmed; Bouakaz, Ayache; Santos, Serge Dos; Sánchez-Morcillo, Víctor J
2015-01-01
Microbubbles, either in the form of free gas bubbles surrounded by a fluid or encapsulated bubbles used currently as contrast agents for medical echography, exhibit complex dynamics under specific acoustic excitations. Nonetheless, considering their micron size and the complexity of their interaction phenomenon with ultrasound waves, expensive and complex experiments and/or simulations are required for their analysis. The behavior of a microbubble along its equator can be linked to a system of coupled oscillators. In this study, the oscillatory behavior of a microbubble has been investigated through an acousto-mechanical analogy based on a ring-shaped chain of coupled pendula. Observation of parametric vibration modes of the pendula ring excited at frequencies between $1$ and $5$ Hz is presented. Simulations have been carried out and show mode mixing phenomena. The relevance of the analogy between a microbubble and the macroscopic acousto-mechanical setup is discussed and suggested as an alternative way to in...
Combined macroscopic and microscopic detection of viral genes in tissues
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haase, A.T.; Gantz, D.; Blum, H.; Stowring, L.; Ventura, P.; Geballe, A.; Moyer, B.; Brahic, M.
1985-01-15
A hybridization technique has been devised for detecting and quantitating viral genes in tissues that combines macroscopic and microscopic analyses in the same section. The method is based on dual labeling virus-specific probes with /sup 125/I and /sup 35/S to generate signals that can be detected both with X-ray films and nuclear track emulsions. The regions of increased hybridization evident in the X-ray film serve as a guide to the portion of the section that warrants microscopic examination. Detection of viral RNA in tissues with Visna virus and viral DNA with hepatitis B virus are illustrated, and potential applications of this technique in virology and other disciplines are discussed.
Innovating e-waste management: From macroscopic to microscopic scales.
Zeng, Xianlai; Yang, Congren; Chiang, Joseph F; Li, Jinhui
2017-01-01
Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE or e-waste) has become a global problem, due to its potential environmental pollution and human health risk, and its containing valuable resources (e.g., metals, plastics). Recycling for e-waste will be a necessity, not only to address the shortage of mineral resources for electronics industry, but also to decline environmental pollution and human health risk. To systematically solve the e-waste problem, more attention of e-waste management should transfer from macroscopic to microscopic scales. E-waste processing technology should be significantly improved to diminish and even avoid toxic substance entering into downstream of material. The regulation or policy related to new production of hazardous substances in recycled materials should also be carried out on the agenda. All the findings can hopefully improve WEEE legislation for regulated countries and non-regulated countries.
Witnessing Macroscopic Entanglement in a Staggered Magnetic Field
Hide, J; Son, W; Vedral, V; Hide, Jenny; Lawrie, Ian; Son, Wonmin; Vedral, Vlatko
2007-01-01
We investigate macroscopic entanglement in an infinite XX spin-1/2 chain with staggered magnetic field, $B_l=B+e^{-i\\pi l}b$. Using single-site entropy and by constructing an entanglement witness, we search for the existence of entanglement when the system is at absolute zero, as well as in thermal equilibrium. Although the role of the alternating magnetic field $b$ is, in general, to suppress entanglement as do $B$ and $T$, we find that when T=0, introducing $b$ allows the existence of entanglement even when the uniform magnetic field $B$ is arbitrarily large. We find that the region and the amount of entanglement in the spin chain can be enhanced by a staggered magnetic field.
Dissipative Optomechanical Preparation of Macroscopic Quantum Superposition States
Abdi, M.; Degenfeld-Schonburg, P.; Sameti, M.; Navarrete-Benlloch, C.; Hartmann, M. J.
2016-06-01
The transition from quantum to classical physics remains an intensely debated question even though it has been investigated for more than a century. Further clarifications could be obtained by preparing macroscopic objects in spatial quantum superpositions and proposals for generating such states for nanomechanical devices either in a transient or a probabilistic fashion have been put forward. Here, we introduce a method to deterministically obtain spatial superpositions of arbitrary lifetime via dissipative state preparation. In our approach, we engineer a double-well potential for the motion of the mechanical element and drive it towards the ground state, which shows the desired spatial superposition, via optomechanical sideband cooling. We propose a specific implementation based on a superconducting circuit coupled to the mechanical motion of a lithium-decorated monolayer graphene sheet, introduce a method to verify the mechanical state by coupling it to a superconducting qubit, and discuss its prospects for testing collapse models for the quantum to classical transition.
Anisotropic magnetothermopower in ferromagnetic thin films grown on macroscopic substrates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jayathilaka, P.B. [Department of Physical Sciences, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Rajarata University of Sri Lanka, Mihintale (Sri Lanka); Belyea, D.D. [Department of Physics, University of South Florida, 4202 East Fowler Avenue, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States); Fawcett, T.J. [College of Engineering, University of South Florida, 4202 East Fowler Avenue, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States); Miller, Casey W. [School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Rochester Institute of Technology, 85 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States)
2015-05-15
We report observing the anisotropic magnetothermopower in a variety of ferromagnetic thin films grown on macroscopic substrates. These measurements were enabled by eliminating spurious signals related to the Anomalous Nernst Effect by butt-mounting the sample to the heat source and sink, and appropriate positioning of electrical contacts to avoid unwanted thermal gradients. This protocol enabled detailed measurements of the magnetothermopower in the transverse and longitudinal configurations. This may enable Spin Seebeck Effect studies in the in-plane geometry. - Highlights: • Unintentional thermal gradients along surface normal mitigated via butt-mounting. • Longitudinal/transverse magnetothermopower measured on many systems. • Anomalous Nernst Effect reduced. • Importance of magnetic anisotropy identified with angle-dependent measurements.
Macroscopic quantum electrodynamics of high-Q cavities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khanbekyan, Mikayel
2009-10-27
In this thesis macroscopic quantum electrodynamics in linear media was applied in order to develop an universally valid quantum theory for the description of the interaction of the electromagnetic field with atomic sources in high-Q cavities. In this theory a complete description of the characteristics of the emitted radiation is given. The theory allows to show the limits of the applicability of the usually applied theory. In order to establish an as possible generally valid theory first the atom-field interaction was studied in the framework of macroscopic quantum electrodynamics in dispersive and absorptive media. In order to describe the electromagnetic field from Maxwell's equations was started, whereby the noise-current densities, which are connected with the absorption of the medium, were included. The solution of these equations expresses the electromagnetic field variables by the noise-current densities by means of Green's tensor of the macroscopic Maxwell equations. The explicit quantization is performed by means of the noise-current densities, whereby a diagonal Hamiltonian is introduced, which then guarantees the time development according to Maxwell's equation and the fulfillment of the fundamental simultaneous commutation relations of the field variables. In the case of the interaction of the medium-supported field with atoms the Hamiltonian must be extended by atom-field interactions energies, whereby the canonical coupling schemes of the minimal or multipolar coupling can be used. The dieelectric properties of the material bodies as well as their shape are coded in the Green tensor of the macroscopic Maxwell equations. As preparing step first the Green tensor was specified in order to derive three-dimensional input-output relations for the electromagnetic field operators on a plane multilayer structure. Such a general dewscription of the electromagnetic field allows the inclusion both of dispersion and absorption of the media and the
Fault detection by surface seismic scanning tunneling macroscope: Field test
Hanafy, Sherif M.
2014-08-05
The seismic scanning tunneling macroscope (SSTM) is proposed for detecting the presence of near-surface impedance anomalies and faults. Results with synthetic data are consistent with theory in that scatterers closer to the surface provide brighter SSTM profiles than those that are deeper. The SSTM profiles show superresolution detection if the scatterers are in the near-field region of the recording line. The field data tests near Gulf of Aqaba, Haql, KSA clearly show the presence of the observable fault scarp, and identify the subsurface presence of the hidden faults indicated in the tomograms. Superresolution detection of the fault is achieved, even when the 35 Hz data are lowpass filtered to the 5-10 Hz band.
Effects of varying interfacial surface tension on macroscopic polymer lenses
Zimmerman, Charlotte; White, Mason; Baylor, Martha-Elizabeth
2015-09-01
We investigate macroscopic polymer lenses (0.5- to 2.5-cm diameter) fabricated by dropping hydrophobic photocurable resin onto the surface of various hydrophilic liquid surfaces. Due to the intermolecular forces along the interface between the two liquids, a lens shape is formed. We find that we can vary the lens geometry by changing the region over which the resin is allowed to spread and the surface tension of the substrate to produce lenses with theoretically determined focal lengths ranging from 5 to 25 mm. These effects are varied by changing the container width, substrate composition, and substrate temperature. We present data for five different variants, demonstrating that we can control the lens dimensions for polymer lens applications that require high surface quality.
Analysis of real-time reservoir monitoring : reservoirs, strategies, & modeling.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mani, Seethambal S.; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; Cooper, Scott Patrick; Jakaboski, Blake Elaine; Normann, Randy Allen; Jennings, Jim (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Gilbert, Bob (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Lake, Larry W. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Weiss, Chester Joseph; Lorenz, John Clay; Elbring, Gregory Jay; Wheeler, Mary Fanett (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Thomas, Sunil G. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Rightley, Michael J.; Rodriguez, Adolfo (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Klie, Hector (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Banchs, Rafael (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Nunez, Emilio J. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Jablonowski, Chris (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX)
2006-11-01
The project objective was to detail better ways to assess and exploit intelligent oil and gas field information through improved modeling, sensor technology, and process control to increase ultimate recovery of domestic hydrocarbons. To meet this objective we investigated the use of permanent downhole sensors systems (Smart Wells) whose data is fed real-time into computational reservoir models that are integrated with optimized production control systems. The project utilized a three-pronged approach (1) a value of information analysis to address the economic advantages, (2) reservoir simulation modeling and control optimization to prove the capability, and (3) evaluation of new generation sensor packaging to survive the borehole environment for long periods of time. The Value of Information (VOI) decision tree method was developed and used to assess the economic advantage of using the proposed technology; the VOI demonstrated the increased subsurface resolution through additional sensor data. Our findings show that the VOI studies are a practical means of ascertaining the value associated with a technology, in this case application of sensors to production. The procedure acknowledges the uncertainty in predictions but nevertheless assigns monetary value to the predictions. The best aspect of the procedure is that it builds consensus within interdisciplinary teams The reservoir simulation and modeling aspect of the project was developed to show the capability of exploiting sensor information both for reservoir characterization and to optimize control of the production system. Our findings indicate history matching is improved as more information is added to the objective function, clearly indicating that sensor information can help in reducing the uncertainty associated with reservoir characterization. Additional findings and approaches used are described in detail within the report. The next generation sensors aspect of the project evaluated sensors and packaging
Data requirements and acquisition for reservoir characterization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jackson, S.; Chang, Ming Ming; Tham, Min.
1993-03-01
This report outlines the types of data, data sources and measurement tools required for effective reservoir characterization, the data required for specific enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes, and a discussion on the determination of the optimum data density for reservoir characterization and reservoir modeling. The two basic sources of data for reservoir characterization are data from the specific reservoir and data from analog reservoirs, outcrops, and modern environments. Reservoir data can be divided into three broad categories: (1) rock properties (the container) and (2) fluid properties (the contents) and (3)interaction between reservoir rock and fluid. Both static and dynamic measurements are required.
Time-dependent particle acceleration in a Fermi reservoir
Litvinenko, Y. E.
2012-08-01
Context. A steady model was presented by Burn, in which energy conservation is used to constrain the parameters of stochastic Fermi acceleration. A steady model, however, is unlikely to be adequate for particle acceleration in impulsive solar flares. Aims: This paper describes a time-dependent model for particle acceleration in a Fermi reservoir Methods: The calculation is based on the original formulation of stochastic acceleration by Fermi, with additional physically motivated assumptions about the turbulent and particle energy densities within the reservoir, that are similar to those of the steady analysis. The problem is reduced to an integro-differential equation that possesses an analytical solution. Results: The model predicts the formation of a power-law differential energy spectrum N(E) ~ E-2, that is observable outside the reservoir. The predicted spectral index is independent of the parameters of the model. The results may help in understanding particle acceleration in solar flares and other astrophysical applications.
Assessing Flood Risk Using Reservoir Flood Control Rules
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xiang Fu; Yadong Mei; Zhihuai Xiao
2016-01-01
The application of conventional flood operation regulation is restricted due to insufficient description of flood control rules for the Pubugou Reservoir in southern China. Based on the require-ments of different flood control objects, this paper proposes to optimize flood control rules with punish-ment mechanism by defining different parameters of flood control rules in response to flood inflow fore-cast and reservoir water level. A genetic algorithm is adopted for solving parameter optimization problem. The failure risk and overflow volume of the downstream insufficient flood control capacity are assessed through the reservoir operation policies. The results show that an optimised regulation can provide better performance than the current flood control rules.
Secure information transfer based on computing reservoir
Szmoski, R. M.; Ferrari, F. A. S.; de S. Pinto, S. E.; Baptista, M. S.; Viana, R. L.
2013-04-01
There is a broad area of research to ensure that information is transmitted securely. Within this scope, chaos-based cryptography takes a prominent role due to its nonlinear properties. Using these properties, we propose a secure mechanism for transmitting data that relies on chaotic networks. We use a nonlinear on-off device to cipher the message, and the transfer entropy to retrieve it. We analyze the system capability for sending messages, and we obtain expressions for the operating time. We demonstrate the system efficiency for a wide range of parameters. We find similarities between our method and the reservoir computing.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Costa Reis, L.
2001-01-01
We have developed in this thesis a methodology of integrated characterization of heterogeneous reservoirs, from geologic modeling to history matching. This methodology is applied to the reservoir PBR, situated in Campos Basin, offshore Brazil, which has been producing since June 1979. This work is an extension of two other thesis concerning geologic and geostatistical modeling of the reservoir PBR from well data and seismic information. We extended the geostatistical litho-type model to the whole reservoir by using a particular approach of the non-stationary truncated Gaussian simulation method. This approach facilitated the application of the gradual deformation method to history matching. The main stages of the methodology for dynamic data integration in a geostatistical reservoir model are presented. We constructed a reservoir model and the initial difficulties in the history matching led us to modify some choices in the geological, geostatistical and flow models. These difficulties show the importance of dynamic data integration in reservoir modeling. The petrophysical property assignment within the litho-types was done by using well test data. We used an inversion procedure to evaluate the petrophysical parameters of the litho-types. The up-scaling is a necessary stage to reduce the flow simulation time. We compared several up-scaling methods and we show that the passage from the fine geostatistical model to the coarse flow model should be done very carefully. The choice of the fitting parameter depends on the objective of the study. In the case of the reservoir PBR, where water is injected in order to improve the oil recovery, the water rate of the producing wells is directly related to the reservoir heterogeneity. Thus, the water rate was chosen as the fitting parameter. We obtained significant improvements in the history matching of the reservoir PBR. First, by using a method we have proposed, called patchwork. This method allows us to built a coherent
Zhang, Qing; Le Roy, Robert; VANDAMME, Mathieu; ZUBER, Bruno
2014-01-01
This study is dedicated to comparing minutes-long microindentation creep experiments on cement paste with years-long macroscopic creep experiments on concrete and months-long macroscopic creep experiments on cement paste. For all experiments, after a transient period the creep function was well captured by a logarithmic function of time, the amplitude of which is governed by a so-called creep modulus. The non-logarithmic transient periods lasted for days at the macroscopic scale, but only for...
Alkyl chains acting as entropy reservoir in liquid crystalline materials.
Sorai, Michio; Saito, Kazuya
2003-01-01
The roles played by the conformational disordering of alkyl chains in determining the aggregation states of matter are reviewed for liquid crystalline materials from a thermodynamic perspective. Entropy, which is one of the most macroscopic concepts but which has a clear microscopic meaning, provides crucial microscopic information for complex systems for which a microscopic description is hard to establish. Starting from structural implication by absolute (third-law) entropy for crystalline solids, the existence of successive phase transitions caused by the successive conformational melting of alkyl chains in discotic mesogens is explained. An experimental basis is given for the "quasi-binary picture" of thermotropic liquid crystals, i.e., the highly disordered alkyl chains behave like a second component (solvent). A novel entropy transfer between the "components" of a molecule and the resulting "alkyl chains as entropy reservoir" mechanism are explained for cubic mesogens.
Klymko, Katherine; Geissler, Phillip L.; Whitelam, Stephen
2016-08-01
Colloidal particles of two types, driven in opposite directions, can segregate into lanes [Vissers et al., Soft Matter 7, 2352 (2011), 10.1039/c0sm01343a]. This phenomenon can be reproduced by two-dimensional Brownian dynamics simulations of model particles [Dzubiella et al., Phys. Rev. E 65, 021402 (2002), 10.1103/PhysRevE.65.021402]. Here we use computer simulation to assess the generality of lane formation with respect to variation of particle type and dynamical protocol. We find that laning results from rectification of diffusion on the scale of a particle diameter: oppositely driven particles must, in the time taken to encounter each other in the direction of the drive, diffuse in the perpendicular direction by about one particle diameter. This geometric constraint implies that the diffusion constant of a particle, in the presence of those of the opposite type, grows approximately linearly with the Péclet number, a prediction confirmed by our numerics over a range of model parameters. Such environment-dependent diffusion is statistically similar to an effective interparticle attraction; consistent with this observation, we find that oppositely driven nonattractive colloids display features characteristic of the simplest model system possessing both interparticle attractions and persistent motion, the driven Ising lattice gas [Katz, Leibowitz, and Spohn, J. Stat. Phys. 34, 497 (1984), 10.1007/BF01018556]. These features include long-ranged correlations in the disordered regime, a critical regime characterized by a change in slope of the particle current with the Péclet number, and fluctuations that grow with system size. By analogy, we suggest that lane formation in the driven colloid system is a phase transition in the macroscopic limit, but that macroscopic phase separation would not occur in finite time upon starting from disordered initial conditions.
Quantitative evaluation of CBM reservoir fracturing quality using logging data
Tang, Xiaoyan
2017-03-01
This paper presents a method for the quantitative evaluation of fracturing quality of coalbed methane (CBM) reservoirs using logging data, which will help optimize the reservoir fracturing layer. First, to make full use of logging and laboratory analysis data of coal cores, a method to determine the brittleness index of CBM reservoirs is deduced using coal industrial components. Second, this paper briefly introduces methodology to compute the horizontal principal stress difference coefficient of coal seams and the minimum horizontal principal stress difference of coal seams and roof and floor. Third, an evaluation model for the coal structure index is established using logging data, which fully considers the fracturing quality of CBM reservoirs affected by the coal structure. Fourth, the development degree of the coal reservoir is evaluated. The evaluation standard for fracturing quality of CBM reservoirs based on these five evaluation parameters is used for quantitative evaluation. The results show that the combination of methods proposed in this paper are effective. The results are consistent with the fracturing dynamic drainage. The coal seam with large brittleness index, large stress difference between the coal seam and roof and floor, small stress difference coefficient and high coal structure index has a strong fracturing quality.
An upscaling procedure for fractured reservoirs with embedded grids
Fumagalli, Alessio; Pasquale, Luca; Zonca, Stefano; Micheletti, Stefano
2016-08-01
Upscaling of geological models for reservoir simulation is an active and important area of research. In particular, we are interested in reservoirs where the rock matrix exhibits an intricate network of fractures, which usually acts as a preferential path to the flow. Accounting for fractures' contribution in the simulation of a reservoir is of paramount importance. Here we have focused on obtaining effective parameters (e.g., transmissibility) on a 3-D computational grid on the reservoir scale, which account for the presence, at a finer spatial scale, of fractures and a network of fractures. We have essentially followed the idea illustrated in Karimi-Fard et al. (2006), yet this work has some notable aspects of innovation in the way the procedure has been implemented, and in its capability to consider rather general corner-point grids, like the ones normally used in reservoir simulations in the industry, and complex and realistic fracture networks, possibly not fully connected inside the coarse cells. In particular, novel contribution is the employment of an Embedded Discrete Fracture Model (EDFM) for computing fracture-fracture and matrix-fracture transmissibilities, with a remarkable gain in speedup. The output is in the form of transmissibility that, although obtained by considering single-phase flow, can be used for coarse-scale multiphase reservoir simulations, also via industrial software, such as Eclipse, Intersect, or GPRS. The results demonstrate the effectiveness and computational efficiency of the numerical procedure which is now ready for further testing and industrialization.
Sampling from stochastic reservoir models constrained by production data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hegstad, Bjoern Kaare
1997-12-31
When a petroleum reservoir is evaluated, it is important to forecast future production of oil and gas and to assess forecast uncertainty. This is done by defining a stochastic model for the reservoir characteristics, generating realizations from this model and applying a fluid flow simulator to the realizations. The reservoir characteristics define the geometry of the reservoir, initial saturation, petrophysical properties etc. This thesis discusses how to generate realizations constrained by production data, that is to say, the realizations should reproduce the observed production history of the petroleum reservoir within the uncertainty of these data. The topics discussed are: (1) Theoretical framework, (2) History matching, forecasting and forecasting uncertainty, (3) A three-dimensional test case, (4) Modelling transmissibility multipliers by Markov random fields, (5) Up scaling, (6) The link between model parameters, well observations and production history in a simple test case, (7) Sampling the posterior using optimization in a hierarchical model, (8) A comparison of Rejection Sampling and Metropolis-Hastings algorithm, (9) Stochastic simulation and conditioning by annealing in reservoir description, and (10) Uncertainty assessment in history matching and forecasting. 139 refs., 85 figs., 1 tab.
Assessment of leakage from an engineered reservoir using hydrogeological tools
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Smerdon, B.D.; Mendoza, C.A. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada); McCann, A.; Kraushar, C. [Omni-McCann Consultants Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Nilson, A. [Alberta Infrastructure, Edmonton, AB (Canada)
2003-07-01
Seepage from earth-filled dams can be determined using steady-state, cross sectional, flow net analysis or transient response to fluid pressure within dam construction materials. This paper described the methods used to quantify leakage from a surface-water reservoir (Pine Coulee) located in southern Alberta. The methods included buried valley aquifer tests, three-dimensional groundwater flow simulations and stable isotope water samples. The aquifer tests were conducted when the reservoir was maintained at leaking elevation as well as when it was at non-leaking elevation. When the reservoir was leaking, the results showed a recharge boundary condition in the aquifer. When the reservoir was not leaking, a barrier boundary was present. To verify field-measured parameters and to determine the hydraulic properties and location of the leakage zone, three-dimensional groundwater flow simulations were calibrated to the datasets. Stable isotopes confirmed the seepage of reservoir water to the aquifer. Seepage rates and the required aquifer pumping rates to control aquifer water levels were predicted by the model. The results were in good agreement with field observations since relief well installation. The use of hydrogeological tools proved to be diagnostic and predictive in assessing the subsurface dynamics associated with man-made reservoirs. 15 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.
Microscopic versus macroscopic approaches to non-equilibrium systems
Derrida, Bernard
2010-01-01
The one dimensional symmetric simple exclusion process (SSEP) is one of the very few exactly soluble models of non-equilibrium statistical physics. It describes a system of particles which diffuse with hard core repulsion on a one dimensional lattice in contact with two reservoirs of particles at unequal densities. The goal of this note is to review the two main approaches which lead to the exact expression of the large deviation functional of the density of the SSEP in its steady state: a mi...
A reservoir simulation approach for modeling of naturally fractured reservoirs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Mohammadi
2012-12-01
Full Text Available In this investigation, the Warren and Root model proposed for the simulation of naturally fractured reservoir was improved. A reservoir simulation approach was used to develop a 2D model of a synthetic oil reservoir. Main rock properties of each gridblock were defined for two different types of gridblocks called matrix and fracture gridblocks. These two gridblocks were different in porosity and permeability values which were higher for fracture gridblocks compared to the matrix gridblocks. This model was solved using the implicit finite difference method. Results showed an improvement in the Warren and Root model especially in region 2 of the semilog plot of pressure drop versus time, which indicated a linear transition zone with no inflection point as predicted by other investigators. Effects of fracture spacing, fracture permeability, fracture porosity, matrix permeability and matrix porosity on the behavior of a typical naturally fractured reservoir were also presented.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Honarpour, M. M.; Schatzinger, R. A.; Szpakiewicz, M. J.; Jackson, S. R.; Sharma, B.; Tomutsa, L.; Chang, M. M.
1990-01-01
A comprehensive, multidisciplinary, stepwise methodology is developed for constructing and integration geological and engineering information for predicting petroleum reservoir performance. This methodology is based on our experience in characterizing shallow marine reservoirs, but it should also apply to other deposystems. The methodology is presented as Part 1 of this report. Three major tasks that must be studied to facilitate a systematic approach for constructing a predictive hydrodynamic model for petroleum reservoirs are addressed: (1) data collection, organization, evaluation, and integration; (2) hydrodynamic model construction and verification; and (3) prediction and ranking of reservoir parameters by numerical simulation using data derived from the model. 39 refs., 62 figs., 13 tabs.
Assessment of Ilam Reservoir Eutrophication Response in Controlling Water Inflow
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Fereshteh Nourmohammadi Dehbalaei
2016-12-01
Full Text Available In this research, a 2D laterally averaged model of hydrodynamics and water quality, CE-QUAL-W2, was applied to simulate water quality parameters in the Ilam reservoir. The water quality of Ilam reservoir was obtained between mesotrophic and eutrophic based on the measured data including chlorophyll a, total phosphorus and subsurface oxygen saturation. The CE-QUAL-W2 model was calibrated and verified by using the data of the year 2009 and 2010, respectively. Nutrients, chlorophyll a and dissolved oxygen were the water quality constituents simulated by the CE-QUAL-W2 model. The comparison of the simulated water surface elevation with the measurement records indicated that the flow was fully balanced in the numerical model. There was a good agreement between the simulated and measured results of the hydrodynamics and water quality constituents in the calibration and verification periods. Some scenarios have been made base on decreasing in water quantity and nutrient inputs of reservoir inflows. The results have shown that the water quality improvements of the Ilam reservoir will not be achieved by reducing a portion of the reservoir inflow. The retention time of water in reservoir would be changed by decreasing of inflows and it made of the negative effects on the chlorophyll-a concentration by reduction of nutrient inputs and keeping constant of discharge inflow to reservoir, the concentration of total phosphorus would be significantly changed and also the concentration of chlorophyll-a was constant approximately. Thus, the effects of control in nutrient inputs are much more than control in discharge inflows in the Ilam reservoir.
Recent Development in Numerical Simulation of Enhanced Geothermal Reservoirs
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Huilin Xing; Yan Liu; Jinfang Gao; Shaojie Chen
2015-01-01
This paper briefly introduces the current state in computer modelling of geothermal reservoir system and then focuses on our research efforts in high performance simulation of en-hanced geothermal reservoir system. A novel supercomputer simulation tool has been developing towards simulating the highly non-linear coupled geomechanical-fluid flow-thermal systems involv-ing heterogeneously fractured geomaterials at different spatial and temporal scales. It is applied here to simulate and visualise the enhanced geothermal system (EGS), such as (1) visualisation of the microseismic events to monitor and determine where/how the underground rupture proceeds during a hydraulic stimulation, to generate the mesh using the recorded data for determining the domain of the ruptured zone and to evaluate the material parameters (i.e., the permeability) for the further numerical analysis and evaluation of the enhanced geothermal reservoir; (2) converting the avail-able fractured rock image/fracture data as well as the reservoir geological geometry to suitable meshes/grids and further simulating the fluid flow in the complicated fractures involving the de-tailed description of fracture dimension and geometry by the lattice Boltzmann method and/or finite element method;(3) interacting fault system simulation to determine the relevant complicated rup-ture process for evaluating the geological setting and the in-situ reservoir properties; (4) coupled thermo-fluid flow analysis of a geothermal reservoir system for an optimised geothermal reservoir design and management. A few of application examples are presented to show its usefulness in simu-lating the enhanced geothermal reservoir system.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Niculae Iulian TEODORESCU
2008-06-01
Full Text Available The Surduc reservoir was projected to ensure more water when water is scarce and to thus provide especially the city Timisoara, downstream of it with water.The accumulation is placed on the main affluent of the Bega river, Gladna in the upper part of its watercourse.The dam behind which this accumulation was created is of a frontal type made of enrochements with a masque made of armed concrete on the upstream part and protected/sustained by grass on the downstream. The dam is 130m long on its coping and a constructed height of 34 m. It is also endowed with spillway for high water and two bottom outlets formed of two conduits, at the end of which is the microplant. The second part of my paper deals with the hydrometric analysis of the Accumulation Surduc and its impact upon the flow, especially the maximum run-off. This influence is exemplified through the high flood from the 29th of July 1980, the most significant flood recorded in the basin with an apparition probability of 0.002%.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
REZA MASOOMI
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Extraction of oil from some Iranian reservoirs due to high viscosity of their oil or reducing the formation permeability due to asphaltene precipitation or other problems is not satisfactory. Hydraulic fracturing method increases production in the viscous oil reservoirs that the production rate is low. So this is very important for some Iranian reservoirs that contain these characteristics. In this study, hydraulic fracturing method has been compositionally simulated in a heavy oil reservoir in southern Iran. In this study, the parameters of the fracture half length, the propagation direction of the cracks and the depth of fracturing have been considered in this oil reservoir. The aim of this study is to find the best scenario which has the highest recovery factor in this oil reservoir. For this purpose the parameters of the length, propagation direction and depth of fracturing have been optimized in this reservoir. Through this study the cumulative oil production has been evaluated with the compositional simulation for the next 10 years in this reservoir. Also at the end of this paper, increasing the final production of this oil reservoir caused by optimized hydraulic fracturing has been evaluated.
2010 Fresno Reservoir Sedimentation Survey
US Bureau of Reclamation, Department of the Interior — The Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) surveyed Fresno Reservoir in June of 2010 to develop a topographic map and compute a storage-elevation relationship...
2011 Groundhog Reservoir Bathymetric Contours
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey performed a bathymetric survey of Groundhog Reservoir using a man-operated boat-mounted multibeam echo sounder integrated with a global...
Glendo Reservoir 2003 Sedimenation Survey
US Bureau of Reclamation, Department of the Interior — The Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) surveyed Glendo Reservoir in May and July of 2003 and January 2005 to develop a new topographic map and compute a present...
Woith, H.; Parolai, S.; Picozzi, M.; Boxberger, T.; Milkereit, C.; Zschau, J.
2011-12-01
A simple method had been proposed to use passive seismic noise measurements as "direct hydrocarbon indicators (DHI)". It had been claimed that low frequency (1-10 Hz) seismic signal anomalies correlate with the occurrence of hydrocarbons. Due to lack of convincing case studies and an underlying theory the approach is severely under discussion. Three mechanisms had been proposed to explain the anomalous seismic signals: (1) macroscopic resonance effects of standing waves, (2) selective attenuation of seismic waves, and (3) resonant scattering/amplification at microscopic scales. In the frame of a theoretical work (co-funded by a consulting company and GFZ) the selective attenuation of seismic waves as a DHI mechanism could be ruled out. Assuming that the seismic noise is originated within the reservoir (source effect), it should be possible to locate the noise source with array techniques by deploying arrays around the reservoir. For this reason, a series of tests have been carried out above oil, gas and geothermal reservoirs - none of them indicating a noise source inside the reservoir. In one case, a nearby wind park could be identified as a noise source. Here, we focus on repeated measurements of seismic noise related to the Heybeli geothermal reservoir in Turkey. We compared repeated noise measurements from 2002, 2010, and 2011. In 2002 profile measurements were performed during the aftershock sequence of the Mw=6.5 Sultandagi earthquake of 03.02.2002, where a distinct cluster of aftershocks was co-located with the geothermal field of Heybeli. In October 2010 six arrays (each consisting of 17 geophones; seismic noise recorded for several hours; thereafter the array was moved to the next position) had been located on and off the reservoir. Again, a clear noise source coming from the reservoir could not be clearly identified. Nevertheless, at some sites in the centre of the reservoir a 6-Hz-signal was observed. The origin of this signal is not clear yet. Hence, it
Understanding the True Strimulated Reservoir Volume in Shale Reservoirs
Hussain, Maaruf
2017-06-06
Successful exploitation of shale reservoirs largely depends on the effectiveness of hydraulic fracturing stimulation program. Favorable results have been attributed to intersection and reactivation of pre-existing fractures by hydraulically-induced fractures that connect the wellbore to a larger fracture surface area within the reservoir rock volume. Thus, accurate estimation of the stimulated reservoir volume (SRV) becomes critical for the reservoir performance simulation and production analysis. Micro-seismic events (MS) have been commonly used as a proxy to map out the SRV geometry, which could be erroneous because not all MS events are related to hydraulic fracture propagation. The case studies discussed here utilized a fully 3-D simulation approach to estimate the SRV. The simulation approach presented in this paper takes into account the real-time changes in the reservoir\\'s geomechanics as a function of fluid pressures. It is consisted of four separate coupled modules: geomechanics, hydrodynamics, a geomechanical joint model for interfacial resolution, and an adaptive re-meshing. Reservoir stress condition, rock mechanical properties, and injected fluid pressure dictate how fracture elements could open or slide. Critical stress intensity factor was used as a fracture criterion governing the generation of new fractures or propagation of existing fractures and their directions. Our simulations were run on a Cray XC-40 HPC system. The studies outcomes proved the approach of using MS data as a proxy for SRV to be significantly flawed. Many of the observed stimulated natural fractures are stress related and very few that are closer to the injection field are connected. The situation is worsened in a highly laminated shale reservoir as the hydraulic fracture propagation is significantly hampered. High contrast in the in-situ stresses related strike-slip developed thereby shortens the extent of SRV. However, far field nature fractures that were not connected to
Exploratory numerical experiments with a macroscopic theory of interfacial interactions
Giordano, D.; Solano-López, P.; Donoso, J. M.
2017-09-01
Phenomenological theories of interfacial interactions are founded on the core idea to model macroscopically the thin layer that forms between media in contact as a two-dimensional continuum (surface phase or interface) characterised by physical properties per unit area; the temporal evolution of the latter is governed by surface balance equations whose set acts as bridging channel in between the governing equations of the volume phases. These theories have targeted terrestrial applications since long time and their exploitation has inspired our research programme to build up, on the same core idea, a macroscopic theory of gas-surface interactions targeting the complex phenomenology of hypersonic reentry flows as alternative to standard methods in aerothermodynamics based on accommodation coefficients. The objective of this paper is the description of methods employed and results achieved in the exploratory study that kicked off our research programme, that is, the unsteady heat transfer between two solids in contact in planar and cylindrical configurations with and without interface. It is a simple numerical-demonstrator test case designed to facilitate quick numerical calculations but, at the same time, to bring forth already sufficiently meaningful aspects relevant to thermal protection due to the formation of the interface. The paper begins with a brief introduction on the subject matter and a review of relevant literature within an aerothermodynamics perspective. Then the case is considered in which the interface is absent. The importance of tension (force per unit area) continuity as boundary condition on the same footing of heat-flux continuity is recognised and the role of the former in governing the establishment of the temperature-difference distribution over the separation surface is explicitly shown. Evidence is given that the standard temperature-continuity boundary condition is just a particular case. Subsequently the case in which the interface is
Pressure transient analysis for long homogeneous reservoirs using TDS technique
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Escobar, Freddy Humberto [Universidad Surcolombiana, Av. Pastrana - Cra. 1, Neiva, Huila (Colombia); Hernandez, Yuly Andrea [Hocol S.A., Cra. 7 No 114-43, Floor 16, Bogota (Colombia); Hernandez, Claudia Marcela [Weatherford, Cra. 7 No 81-90, Neiva, Huila (Colombia)
2007-08-15
A significant number of well pressure tests are conducted in long, narrow reservoirs with close and open extreme boundaries. It is desirable not only to appropriately identify these types of systems but also to develop an adequate and practical interpretation technique to determine their parameters and size, when possible. An accurate understanding of how the reservoir produces and the magnitude of producible reserves can lead to competent decisions and adequate reservoir management. So far, studies found for identification and determination of parameters for such systems are conducted by conventional techniques (semilog analysis) and semilog and log-log type-curve matching of pressure versus time. Type-curve matching is basically a trial-and-error procedure which may provide inaccurate results. Besides, a limitation in the number of type curves plays a negative role. In this paper, a detailed analysis of pressure derivative behavior for a vertical well in linear reservoirs with open and closed extreme boundaries is presented for the case of constant rate production. We studied independently each flow regime, especially the linear flow regime since it is the most characteristic 'fingerprint' of these systems. We found that when the well is located at one of the extremes of the reservoir, a single linear flow regime develops once radial flow and/or wellbore storage effects have ended. When the well is located at a given distance from both extreme boundaries, the pressure derivative permits the identification of two linear flows toward the well and it has been called that 'dual-linear flow regime'. This is characterized by an increment of the intercept of the 1/2-slope line from {pi}{sup 0.5} to {pi} with a consequent transition between these two straight lines. The identification of intersection points, lines, and characteristic slopes allows us to develop an interpretation technique without employing type-curve matching. This technique uses
Chickamauga reservoir embayment study - 1990
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meinert, D.L.; Butkus, S.R.; McDonough, T.A.
1992-12-01
The objectives of this report are three-fold: (1) assess physical, chemical, and biological conditions in the major embayments of Chickamauga Reservoir; (2) compare water quality and biological conditions of embayments with main river locations; and (3) identify any water quality concerns in the study embayments that may warrant further investigation and/or management actions. Embayments are important areas of reservoirs to be considered when assessments are made to support water quality management plans. In general, embayments, because of their smaller size (water surface areas usually less than 1000 acres), shallower morphometry (average depth usually less than 10 feet), and longer detention times (frequently a month or more), exhibit more extreme responses to pollutant loadings and changes in land use than the main river region of the reservoir. Consequently, embayments are often at greater risk of water quality impairments (e.g. nutrient enrichment, filling and siltation, excessive growths of aquatic plants, algal blooms, low dissolved oxygen concentrations, bacteriological contamination, etc.). Much of the secondary beneficial use of reservoirs occurs in embayments (viz. marinas, recreation areas, parks and beaches, residential development, etc.). Typically embayments comprise less than 20 percent of the surface area of a reservoir, but they often receive 50 percent or more of the water-oriented recreational use of the reservoir. This intensive recreational use creates a potential for adverse use impacts if poor water quality and aquatic conditions exist in an embayment.
Capacity sharing of water reservoirs
Dudley, Norman J.; Musgrave, Warren F.
1988-05-01
The concept of a water use property right is developed which does not apply to water volumes as such but to a share of the capacity (not contents) of river storage reservoirs and their inflows. The shareholders can withdraw water from their share over time in accordance with their preferences for stability of water deliveries. The reservoir authority does not manage reservoir releases but keeps record of individual shareholder's withdrawals and net inflows to monitor the quantity of water in each shareholder's capacity share. A surplus of total reservoir contents over the sum of the contents of the individual shareholder's capacity shares will accrue over time. Two different criteria for its periodic distribution among shareholders are compared. A previous paper Dudley (this issue(b)) noted a loss of short-run economic efficiency as reservoir and farm management decision making become separated. This is largely overcome by capacity sharing which allows each user to integrate the management of their portion of the reservoir and their farming operations. The nonattenuated nature of the capacity sharing water rights also promotes long-run economic efficiency.
Reservoir characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. Annual report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kelkar, M.
1992-09-01
This annual report describes the progress during the second year of a project on Reservoir Characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. The report is divided into three sections: (i) reservoir description and scale-up procedures; (ii) outcrop investigation; (iii) in-fill drilling potential. The first section describes the methods by which a reservoir can be characterized, can be described in three dimensions, and can be scaled up with respect to its properties, appropriate for simulation purposes. The second section describes the progress on investigation of an outcrop. The outcrop is an analog of Bartlesville Sandstone. We have drilled ten wells behind the outcrop and collected extensive log and core data. The cores have been slabbed, photographed and the several plugs have been taken. In addition, minipermeameter is used to measure permeabilities on the core surface at six inch intervals. The plugs have been analyzed for the permeability and porosity values. The variations in property values will be tied to the geological descriptions as well as the subsurface data collected from the Glen Pool field. The third section discusses the application of geostatistical techniques to infer in-fill well locations. The geostatistical technique used is the simulated annealing technique because of its flexibility. One of the important reservoir data is the production data. Use of production data will allow us to define the reservoir continuities, which may in turn, determine the in-fill well locations. The proposed technique allows us to incorporate some of the production data as constraints in the reservoir descriptions. The technique has been validated by comparing the results with numerical simulations.
Petroleum reservoir data for testing simulation models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lloyd, J.M.; Harrison, W.
1980-09-01
This report consists of reservoir pressure and production data for 25 petroleum reservoirs. Included are 5 data sets for single-phase (liquid) reservoirs, 1 data set for a single-phase (liquid) reservoir with pressure maintenance, 13 data sets for two-phase (liquid/gas) reservoirs and 6 for two-phase reservoirs with pressure maintenance. Also given are ancillary data for each reservoir that could be of value in the development and validation of simulation models. A bibliography is included that lists the publications from which the data were obtained.
The Unique Macroscopic Appearance of Gouty Arthritis of the Knee.
Mittl, Gregory S; Zuckerman, Joseph D
2015-07-01
Patients with significant gouty arthritis can develop disabling joint pain secondary to monosodium urate (MSU) articular deposition. We report a case of white, chalky MSU crystal deposition covering the articular surfaces of the knee as discovered by total knee arthroplasty. A 65-year-old male with a history of gout presented with bilateral knee pain. His radiographic imaging was negative for gouty tophi, and he elected to undergo left total knee arthroplasty. Intraoperatively a distinct chalky, white paste consistent with MSU deposition was observed covering the articular surfaces of the knee consistent with the diagnosis of gouty arthritis. Gout is the most common inflammatory arthritis affecting more than 3 million people in the USA. The inflammation results from the phagocytosis of monosodium urate crystals (MSU) and the release of inflammatory cytokines within the joint. Gout progresses from acute to chronic over many years and frequently causes chronic arthropathy. When significant knee pain and disability is associated with gouty arthropathy, total knee arthroplasty is certainly an option. The pathological appearance of gouty joints is characteristic. Macroscopic examination of joints affected by gout reveals a nodular, white, chalky appearance. Polarized microscopy of gout demonstrates negative birefringent needle-shaped MSU crystals. In this case report, we describe the characteristic chalky, white MSU deposit that covers the articular surfaces of a knee joint in a patient with a history of gout undergoing total knee arthroplasty. The investigators have obtained the patient's informed written consent for print and electronic publication of the case report.
A macroscopic crowd motion model of gradient flow type
Maury, Bertrand; Santambrogio, Filippo
2010-01-01
A simple model to handle the flow of people in emergency evacuation situations is considered: at every point x, the velocity U(x) that individuals at x would like to realize is given. Yet, the incompressibility constraint prevents this velocity field to be realized and the actual velocity is the projection of the desired one onto the set of admissible velocities. Instead of looking at a microscopic setting (where individuals are represented by rigid discs), here the macroscopic approach is investigated, where the unknwon is the evolution of the density . If a gradient structure is given, say U is the opposite of the gradient of D where D is, for instance, the distance to the exit door, the problem is presented as a Gradient Flow in the Wasserstein space of probability measures. The functional which gives the Gradient Flow is neither finitely valued (since it takes into account the constraints on the density), nor geodesically convex, which requires for an ad-hoc study of the convergence of a discrete scheme.
Macroscopic Dynamical Description of Rotating au + au System
Cârjan, N.; Siwek-Wilczyńska, K.; Skwira-Chalot, I.; Wilczyński, J.
Events with more than two heavy fragments have been abundantly observed in heavy-ion semi-peripheral (fission-like) reaction 197Au+197Au at 15 MeV/nucleon. This raised interesting questions about their origin and about the time-scale at which they occur. As a possible explanation of this process, the surface instability of the cylindrical neck that is formed along the path from contact to reseparation of the rotating Au+Au system is investigated in the present paper. For this purpose the Los Alamos finite-range macroscopic dynamical model was used. The calculations were performed at relatively high angular momenta, L = 100 to 300 ħ, for two types of dissipation mechanisms: two-body viscosity and one-body dissipation. Various initial nuclear deformations and initial kinetic energies in the fission direction were considered. The resulting dynamical evolution in the multidimensional deformation space always led to multifragment scission configurations suggesting that ternary and quaternary break-up can occur during the heavy-ion reaction studied.
Feedback Gating Control for Network Based on Macroscopic Fundamental Diagram
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
YangBeibei Ji
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Empirical data from Yokohama, Japan, showed that a macroscopic fundamental diagram (MFD of urban traffic provides for different network regions a unimodal low-scatter relationship between network vehicle density and network space-mean flow. This provides new tools for network congestion control. Based on MFD, this paper proposed a feedback gating control policy which can be used to mitigate network congestion by adjusting signal timings of gating intersections. The objective of the feedback gating control model is to maximize the outflow and distribute the allowed inflows properly according to external demand and capacity of each gating intersection. An example network is used to test the performance of proposed feedback gating control model. Two types of background signalization types for the intersections within the test network, fixed-time and actuated control, are considered. The results of extensive simulation validate that the proposed feedback gating control model can get a Pareto improvement since the performance of both gating intersections and the whole network can be improved significantly especially under heavy demand situations. The inflows and outflows can be improved to a higher level, and the delay and queue length at all gating intersections are decreased dramatically.
The assembly of C. elegans lamins into macroscopic fibers.
Zingerman-Koladko, Irena; Khayat, Maayan; Harapin, Jan; Shoseyov, Oded; Gruenbaum, Yosef; Salman, Ahmad; Medalia, Ohad; Ben-Harush, Kfir
2016-10-01
Intermediate filament (IF) proteins are known mainly by their propensity to form viscoelastic filamentous networks within cells. In addition, IF-proteins are essential parts of various biological materials, such as horn and hagfish slime threads, which exhibit a range of mechanical properties from hard to elastic. These properties and their self-assembly nature made IF-proteins attractive building blocks for biomimetic and biological materials in diverse applications. Here we show that a type V IF-protein, the Caenorhabditis elegans nuclear lamin (Ce-lamin), is a promising building block for protein-based fibers. Electron cryo-tomography of vitrified sections enabled us to depict the higher ordered assembly of the Ce-lamin into macroscopic fibers through the creation of paracrystalline fibers, which are prominent in vitro structures of lamins. The lamin fibers respond to tensile force as other IF-protein-based fibers, i.e., hagfish slime threads, and possess unique mechanical properties that may potentially be used in certain applications. The self-assembly nature of lamin proteins into a filamentous structure, which is further assembled into a complex network, can be easily modulated. This knowledge may lead to a better understanding of the relationship in IF-proteins-based fibers and materials, between their hierarchical structures and their mechanical properties.
Scattering of acoustic waves by macroscopically inhomogeneous poroelastic tubes.
Groby, J-P; Dazel, O; Depollier, C; Ogam, E; Kelders, L
2012-07-01
Wave propagation in macroscopically inhomogeneous porous materials has received much attention in recent years. For planar configurations, the wave equation, derived from the alternative formulation of Biot's theory of 1962, was reduced and solved recently: first in the case of rigid frame inhomogeneous porous materials and then in the case of inhomogeneous poroelastic materials in the framework of Biot's theory. This paper focuses on the solution of the full wave equation in cylindrical coordinates for poroelastic tubes in which the acoustic and elastic properties of the poroelastic tube vary in the radial direction. The reflection coefficient is obtained numerically using the state vector (or the so-called Stroh) formalism and Peano series. This coefficient can then be used to straightforwardly calculate the scattered field. To validate the method of resolution, results obtained by the present method are compared to those calculated by the classical transfer matrix method in the case of a two-layer poroelastic tube. As an example, a long bone excited in the sagittal plane is considered. Finally, a discussion is given of ultrasonic time domain scattered field for various inhomogeneity profiles, which could lead to the prospect of long bone characterization.
Macroscopic effects of the spectral structure in turbulent flows
Tran, T.; Chakraborty, P.; Guttenberg, N.; Prescott, A.; Kellay, H.; Goldburg, W.; Goldenfeld, N.; Gioia, G.
2010-11-01
There is a missing link between macroscopic properties of turbulent flows, such as the frictional drag of a wall-bounded flow, and the turbulent spectrum. To seek the missing link we carry out unprecedented experimental measurements of the frictional drag in turbulent soap-film flows over smooth walls. These flows are effectively two-dimensional, and we are able to create soap-film flows with the two types of turbulent spectrum that are theoretically possible in two dimensions: the "enstrophy cascade," for which the spectral exponent α= 3, and the "inverse energy cascade," for which the spectral exponent α= 5/3. We find that the functional relation between the frictional drag f and the Reynolds number Re depends on the spectral exponent: where α= 3, f ˜Re-1/2; where α= 5/3, f ˜Re-1/4. Each of these scalings may be predicted from the attendant value of α by using a recently proposed spectral theory of the frictional drag. In this theory the frictional drag of turbulent flows on smooth walls is predicted to be f ˜Re^(1-α)/(1+α).
Tunable Broadband Transparency of Macroscopic Quantum Superconducting Metamaterials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daimeng Zhang
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Narrow-band invisibility in an otherwise opaque medium has been achieved by electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT in atomic systems. The quantum EIT behavior can be classically mimicked by specially engineered metamaterials via carefully controlled interference with a “dark mode.” However, the narrow transparency window limits the potential applications that require a tunable wideband transparent performance. Here, we present a macroscopic quantum superconducting metamaterial with manipulative self-induced broadband transparency due to a qualitatively novel nonlinear mechanism that is different from conventional EIT or its classical analogs. A near-complete disappearance of resonant absorption under a range of applied rf flux is observed experimentally and explained theoretically. The transparency comes from the intrinsic bistability of the meta-atoms and can be tuned on and off easily by altering rf and dc magnetic fields, temperature, and history. Hysteretic in situ 100% tunability of transparency paves the way for autocloaking metamaterials, intensity-dependent filters, and fast-tunable power limiters.
Towards a macroscopic modeling of the complexity in traffic flow.
Rosswog, Stephan; Wagner, Peter
2002-03-01
Based on the assumption of a safe velocity U(e)(rho) depending on the vehicle density rho, a macroscopic model for traffic flow is presented that extends the model of the Kühne-Kerner-Konhäuser by an interaction term containing the second derivative of U(e)(rho). We explore two qualitatively different forms of U(e): a conventional Fermi-type function and, motivated by recent experimental findings, a function that exhibits a plateau at intermediate densities, i.e., in this density regime the exact distance to the car ahead is only of minor importance. To solve the fluid-like equations a Lagrangian particle scheme is developed. The suggested model shows a much richer dynamical behavior than the usual fluid-like models. A large variety of encountered effects is known from traffic observations, many of which are usually assigned to the elusive state of "synchronized flow." Furthermore, the model displays alternating regimes of stability and instability at intermediate densities. It can explain data scatter in the fundamental diagram and complicated jam patterns. Within this model, a consistent interpretation of the emergence of very different traffic phenomena is offered: they are determined by the velocity relaxation time, i.e., the time needed to relax towards U(e)(rho). This relaxation time is a measure of the average acceleration capability and can be attributed to the composition (e.g., the percentage of trucks) of the traffic flow.
Zero time tunneling: macroscopic experiments with virtual particles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nimtz Günter
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Feynman introduced virtual particles in his diagrams as intermediate states of an interaction process. They represent necessary intermediate states between observable real states. Such virtual particles were introduced to describe the interaction process between an electron and a positron and for much more complicated interaction processes. Other candidates for virtual particles are evanescent modes in optics and in elastic fields. Evanescent modes have a purely imaginary wave number, they represent the mathematical analogy of the tunneling solutions of the Schrödinger equation. Evanescent modes exist in the forbidden frequency bands of a photonic lattice and in undersized wave guides, for instance. The most prominent example for the occurrence of evanescent modes is the frustrated total internal reflection (FTIR at double prisms. Evanescent modes and tunneling lie outside the bounds of the special theory of relativity. They can cause faster than light (FTL signal velocities. We present examples of the quantum mechanical behavior of evanescent photons and phonons at a macroscopic scale. The evanescent modes of photons are described by virtual particles as predicted by former QED calculations.
Macroscopic strain controlled ion current in an elastomeric microchannel
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kuo, Chin-Chang; Nguyen, Du; Buchsbaum, Steven; Innes, Laura; Dennin, Michael, E-mail: mdennin@uci.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Li, Yongxue [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Esser-Kahn, Aaron P. [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Valdevit, Lorenzo [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Irvine, California 92697-3975 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Sun, Lizhi [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Siwy, Zuzanna [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)
2015-05-07
We report on the fabrication of an ultra-high aspect ratio ionically conductive single microchannel with tunable diameter from ≈ 20 μm to fully closed. The 4 mm-long channel is fabricated in a Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold and its cross-sectional area is controlled by applying macroscopic compressive strain to the mold in a direction perpendicular to the channel length. We investigated the ionic conduction properties of the channel. For a wide range of compressive strain up to ≈ 0.27, the strain dependence of the resistance is monotonic and fully reversible. For strain > 0.27, ionic conduction suddenly shuts off and the system becomes hysteretic (whereby a finite strain reduction is required to reopen the channel). Upon unloading, the original behavior is retrieved. This reversible behavior is observed over 200 compression cycles. The cross-sectional area of the channel can be inferred from the ion current measurement, as confirmed by a Nano-Computed Tomography investigation. We show that the cross-sectional area decreases monotonically with the applied compressive strain in the reversible range, in qualitative agreement with linear elasticity theory. We find that the shut-off strain is affected by the spatial extent of the applied strain, which provides additional tunability. Our tunable channel is well-suited for multiple applications in micro/nano-fluidic devices.
Gravitational wave echoes from macroscopic quantum gravity effects
Barceló, Carlos; Carballo-Rubio, Raúl; Garay, Luis J.
2017-05-01
New theoretical approaches developed in the last years predict that macroscopic quantum gravity effects in black holes should lead to modifications of the gravitational wave signals expected in the framework of classical general relativity, with these modifications being characterized in certain scenarios by the existence of dampened rep-etitions of the primary signal. Here we use the fact that non-perturbative corrections to the near-horizon external geometry of black holes are necessary for these modifications to exist, in order to classify different proposals and paradigms with respect to this criterion and study in a neat and systematic way their phenomenology. Proposals that lead naturally to the existence of echoes in the late-time ringdown of gravitational wave signals from black hole mergers must share the replacement of black holes by horizonless configurations with a physical surface showing reflective properties in the relevant range of frequencies. On the other hand, proposals or paradigms that restrict quantum gravity effects on the external geometry to be perturbative, such as black hole complementarity or the closely related firewall proposal, do not display echoes. For the sake of completeness we exploit the interplay between the timescales associated with the formation of firewalls and the mechanism behind the existence of echoes in order to conclude that even unconventional distortions of the firewall concept (such as naked firewalls) do not lead to this phenomenon.
Experiments testing macroscopic quantum superpositions must be slow
Mari, Andrea; de Palma, Giacomo; Giovannetti, Vittorio
2016-03-01
We consider a thought experiment where the preparation of a macroscopically massive or charged particle in a quantum superposition and the associated dynamics of a distant test particle apparently allow for superluminal communication. We give a solution to the paradox which is based on the following fundamental principle: any local experiment, discriminating a coherent superposition from an incoherent statistical mixture, necessarily requires a minimum time proportional to the mass (or charge) of the system. For a charged particle, we consider two examples of such experiments, and show that they are both consistent with the previous limitation. In the first, the measurement requires to accelerate the charge, that can entangle with the emitted photons. In the second, the limitation can be ascribed to the quantum vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. On the other hand, when applied to massive particles our result provides an indirect evidence for the existence of gravitational vacuum fluctuations and for the possibility of entangling a particle with quantum gravitational radiation.
Lymphoepithelioma-like esophageal carcinoma with macroscopic reduction
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Masaya; Uesato; Tuguaki; Kono; Tooru; Shiratori; Yasunori; Akutsu; Isamu; Hoshino; Kentarou; Murakami; Daisuke; Horibe; Tetsurou; Maruyama; Yoshihide; Semba; Ryuma; Urahama; Yukiko; Ogura; Takashi; Oide; Toru; Tanizawa; Hisahiro; Matsubara
2014-01-01
Esophageal lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma(LELC) is extremely rare. We report the first case of esopha-geal LELC showing macroscopic reduction. A 67-year-old male presented with dysphagia and, by endoscopic examination, was found to have a significantly raised tumor of 10 mm in diameter in the thoracic esophagus. The biopsied material showed esophageal cancer. We performed endoscopic submucosal dissection. However, the tumor became flattened, similar to a scar, in only 2 mo. Histologically, the carcinoma cells had infiltrated the submucosal layer. Prominent infiltration of T lymphoid cells that stained positive for CD8 was observed aroundthe carcinoma cells. Therefore, this lesion was consid-ered to be an LELC with poorly differentiated squamous cells. Because the margin was positive, an esophagec-tomy was performed. Carcinoma cells were detected in the neck in one lymph node. The staging was T1N0M1 b. However, the patient has been well, without adjuvant therapy or recurrence, for more than 5 years.
Single-file diffusion of macroscopic charged particles.
Coste, C; Delfau, J-B; Even, C; Saint Jean, M
2010-05-01
In this paper, we study a macroscopic system of electrically interacting metallic beads organized as a sequence along an annulus. A random mechanical shaking mimics the thermal excitation. We exhibit non-Fickian diffusion (single-file diffusion) at large time. We measure the mobility of the particles and compare it to theoretical expectations. We show that our system cannot be accurately described by theories assuming only hard-sphere interactions. Its behavior is qualitatively described by a theory extended to more realistic potentials [M. Kollmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 180602 (2003)]. A correct quantitative agreement is shown and we interpret the discrepancies by the violation of the assumption of overdamped dynamics, which is a key point in the theory. We recast previous results on colloids with known interaction potentials and compare them quantitatively to the theory. Focusing on the transition between ordinary and single-file diffusions, we exhibit a dimensionless crossover time that is of order 1 both for colloids and our system, although the time and length scales differ by several orders of magnitude.
Quantum-limited heat conduction over macroscopic distances
Partanen, Matti; Tan, Kuan Yen; Govenius, Joonas; Lake, Russell E.; Mäkelä, Miika K.; Tanttu, Tuomo; Möttönen, Mikko
2016-05-01
The emerging quantum technological apparatuses, such as the quantum computer, call for extreme performance in thermal engineering. Cold distant heat sinks are needed for the quantized electric degrees of freedom owing to the increasing packaging density and heat dissipation. Importantly, quantum mechanics sets a fundamental upper limit for the flow of information and heat, which is quantified by the quantum of thermal conductance. However, the short distance between the heat-exchanging bodies in the previous experiments hinders their applicability in quantum technology. Here, we present experimental observations of quantum-limited heat conduction over macroscopic distances extending to a metre. We achieved this improvement of four orders of magnitude in the distance by utilizing microwave photons travelling in superconducting transmission lines. Thus, it seems that quantum-limited heat conduction has no fundamental distance cutoff. This work establishes the integration of normal-metal components into the framework of circuit quantum electrodynamics, which provides a basis for the superconducting quantum computer. Especially, our results facilitate remote cooling of nanoelectronic devices using faraway in situ-tunable heat sinks. Furthermore, quantum-limited heat conduction is important in contemporary thermodynamics. Here, the long distance may lead to ultimately efficient mesoscopic heat engines with promising practical applications.
Semiconductor spintronics in a participating phonon medium: Macroscopic equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Rossani
2013-09-01
Full Text Available In the last two decades considerable interest has arisen on the spin related phenomena in semiconductor devices. In semiconductor materials two essential mechanisms act on the spin dynamics: the spin-orbit coupling and the spin-flip interactions. Here the novelty is that we adopt the asymptotic approach developed in previous papers of mine [A. Rossani, Physica A 305, 323 (2002; A. Rossani, G. Spiga, and A. Domaingo, J. Phys. A 36, 11955 (2003; A. Rossani and G. Spiga, J. Math. Phys. 47, 013301 (2006; A. Rossani and A. M. Scarfone, Physica B 334, 292 (2003; A. Rossani, J. Phys. A 43, 165002 (2010]. The aim of this paper is to derive macroscopic equations starting from a kinetic approach. Moreover an equation for the evolution of the spin density is added, which account for a general dispersion relation. The treatment of spin-flip processes, derived from first principles, is new and leads to an explicit expression of the relaxation time as a function of the temperature.
Theory and feasibility tests for a seismic scanning tunnelling macroscope
Schuster, Gerard T.
2012-09-01
We propose a seismic scanning tunnelling macroscope (SSTM) that can detect subwavelength scatterers in the near-field of either the source or the receivers. Analytic formulas for the time reverse mirror (TRM) profile associated with a single scatterer model show that the spatial resolution limit to be, unlike the Abbe limit of λ/2, independent of wavelength and linearly proportional to the source-scatterer separation as long as the scatterer is in the near-field region. This means that, as the scatterer approaches the source, imaging of the scatterer with super-resolution can be achieved. Acoustic and elastic simulations support this concept, and a seismic experiment in an Arizona tunnel shows a TRM profile with super-resolution adjacent to the fault location. The SSTM is analogous to the optical scanning tunnelling microscopes having subwavelength resolution. Scaled to seismic frequencies, it is theoretically possible to extract 100 Hz information from 20 Hz data by the imaging of near-field seismic energy.
Direct Observation of Spatial Quantum Correlations in the Macroscopic Regime
Kumar, Ashok; Marino, A M
2016-01-01
Spatial quantum correlations in the transverse degree of freedom promise to enhance optical resolution, image detection, and quantum communications through parallel quantum information encoding. In particular, the ability to observe these spatial quantum correlations in a single shot will enable such enhancements in applications that require real time imaging, such as particle tracking and in-situ imaging of atomic systems. Here, we report on the direct measurement of spatial quantum correlations in the macroscopic regime in single images using an electron-multiplying charge-coupled device camera. A four-wave mixing process in hot rubidium atoms is used to generate narrowband-bright-entangled pulsed twin-beams of light with $\\sim10^8$ photons in each beam. Owing to momentum conservation in this process, the twin-beams are momentum correlated, which leads to spatial quantum correlations in far field. We show around 2 dB of spatial quantum noise reduction with respect to the shot noise limit. The spatial squeez...
A Time Domain Update Method for Reservoir History Matching of Electromagnetic Data
Katterbauer, Klemens
2014-03-25
The oil & gas industry has been the backbone of the world\\'s economy in the last century and will continue to be in the decades to come. With increasing demand and conventional reservoirs depleting, new oil industry projects have become more complex and expensive, operating in areas that were previously considered impossible and uneconomical. Therefore, good reservoir management is key for the economical success of complex projects requiring the incorporation of reliable uncertainty estimates for reliable production forecasts and optimizing reservoir exploitation. Reservoir history matching has played here a key role incorporating production, seismic, electromagnetic and logging data for forecasting the development of reservoirs and its depletion. With the advances in the last decade, electromagnetic techniques, such as crosswell electromagnetic tomography, have enabled engineers to more precisely map the reservoirs and understand their evolution. Incorporating the large amount of data efficiently and reducing uncertainty in the forecasts has been one of the key challenges for reservoir management. Computing the conductivity distribution for the field for adjusting parameters in the forecasting process via solving the inverse problem has been a challenge, due to the strong ill-posedness of the inversion problem and the extensive manual calibration required, making it impossible to be included into an efficient reservoir history matching forecasting algorithm. In the presented research, we have developed a novel Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) based method for incorporating electromagnetic data directly into the reservoir simulator. Based on an extended Archie relationship, EM simulations are performed for both forecasted and Porosity-Saturation retrieved conductivity parameters being incorporated directly into an update step for the reservoir parameters. This novel direct update method has significant advantages such as that it overcomes the expensive and ill
Reservoir computing with a single time-delay autonomous Boolean node
Haynes, Nicholas D.; Soriano, Miguel C.; Rosin, David P.; Fischer, Ingo; Gauthier, Daniel J.
2015-02-01
We demonstrate reservoir computing with a physical system using a single autonomous Boolean logic element with time-delay feedback. The system generates a chaotic transient with a window of consistency lasting between 30 and 300 ns, which we show is sufficient for reservoir computing. We then characterize the dependence of computational performance on system parameters to find the best operating point of the reservoir. When the best parameters are chosen, the reservoir is able to classify short input patterns with performance that decreases over time. In particular, we show that four distinct input patterns can be classified for 70 ns, even though the inputs are only provided to the reservoir for 7.5 ns.
Numerical study on transient flow in the deep naturally fractured reservoir with high pressure
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
According to the experimental results and the characteristics of the pressure-sensitive fractured formation, a transient flow model is developed for the deep naturally-fractured reservoirs with different outer boundary conditions. The finite element equations for the model are derived. After generating the unstructured grids in the solution regions, the finite element method is used to calculate the pressure type curves for the pressure-sensitive fractured reservoir with different outer boundaries, such as the infinite boundary, circle boundary and combined linear boundaries, and the characteristics of the type curves are comparatively analyzed. The effects on the pressure curves caused by pressure sensitivity module and the effective radius combined parameter are determined, and the method for calculating the pressure-sensitive reservoir parameters is introduced. By analyzing the real field case in the high temperature and pressure reservoir, the perfect results show that the transient flow model for the pressure-sensitive fractured reservoir in this paper is correct.
Numerical study on transient flow in the deep naturally fractured reservoir with high pressure
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU YueWu; CHEN WeiLiang; LIU QingQuan
2009-01-01
According to the experimental results and the characteristics of the pressure-sensitive fractured for-mation, a transient flow model is developed for the deep naturally-fractured reservoirs with different outer boundary conditions. The finite element equations for the model are derived. After generating the unstructured grids in the solution regions, the finite element method is used to calculate the pressure type curves for the pressure-eensitive fractured reservoir with different outer boundaries, such as the infinite boundary, circle boundary and combined linear boundaries, and the characteristics of the type curves are comparatively analyzed. The effects on the pressure curves caused by pressure sensitivity module and the effective radius combined parameter are determined, and the method for calculating the pressure-sensitive reservoir parameters is introduced. By analyzing the real field case in the high temperature end pressure reservoir, the perfect results show that the transient flow model for the pressure-sensitive fractured reservoir in this paper is correct.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Loschiavo, Roberto
1999-07-01
Project economic evaluation as well as facilities design for oil exploration is, in general based on production forecast. Since production forecast depends on several parameters that are not completely known, one should take a probabilistic approach for reservoir modeling and numerical flow simulation. In this work, we propose a procedure to estimate probabilistic production forecast profiles based on the decision tree technique. The most influencing parameters of a reservoir model are identified identified and combined to generate a number of realizations of the reservoirs. The combination of each branch of the decision tree defines the probability associated to each reservoir model. A computer program was developed to automatically generate the reservoir models, submit them to the numerical simulator, and process the results. Parallel computing was used to improve the performance of the procedure. (author)
Modeling the vertical motion of drops bouncing on a bounded fluid reservoir
Blanchette, François
2016-03-01
We present a first-principles model of drops bouncing on a liquid reservoir. We consider a nearly inviscid liquid reservoir and track the waves that develop in a bounded domain. Bouncing drops are modeled as vertical linear springs. We obtain an expression for the contact force between drop and liquid surface and a model where the only adjustable parameter is an effective viscosity used to describe the waves on the reservoir's surface. With no adjustable parameters associated to the drop, we recover experimental bouncing times and restitution coefficients. We use our model to describe the effect of the Bond, Ohnesorge, and Weber numbers on drops bouncing on a stationary reservoir. We also use our model to describe drops bouncing on an oscillated reservoir, describing various bouncing modes and a walking threshold.
Log evaluation of fractured igneous reservoirs in Songliao Basin
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
The petrophysical parameters are bad in most igneous reservoirs of Songliao Basin because of the very low porosity and permeability. The evaluation of igneous reservoirs has not been fully studied so far. The current technique of formation evaluation and interpretation used in sedimentary formations face a series of problems and difficulties. In this study, The PCA was used to identify lithology, a multi-mineral model "QAPM" was proposed. "Surface effect" must be considered when evaluating saturation. A software "SIMPLE" was developed and was used to deal with the logging data in over 70 wells with good results were achieved.
Analysis of limited-entry well tests in layered reservoirs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hayes, M.R.; Naismith, J.D.A.; Gunasekera, D.L.; Fitzpatrick, A.J.
1994-12-31
Vertical permeability, often a key parameter in reservoir engineering, can be calculated from the analysis of a limited entry pressure transient. Analytical solutions for limited entry welltests, where a fraction of the reservoir interval is perforated, have been available in the literature for some time. This paper considers the evaluation of limited entry welltests in heterogeneous layered formations. A number of field examples have been analyzed using both conventional analytical techniques and a new general purpose numerical welltest analysis application. The examples show that in layered formations vertical permeability can be significantly under estimated by conventional analytical analysis.
Protecting entangled states of two ions by engineering reservoir
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xue Dong; Zou Jian; Yang Linguang; Li Jungang; Shao Bin, E-mail: zoujian@bit.edu.cn [Department of Physics, School of Science, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)
2011-09-14
We present a proposal for realizing local decoherence-free evolution of given entangled states of two two-level (TL) ions. For two TL ions coupled to a single heavily damped cavity, we can use an engineering reservoir scheme to obtain a decoherence-free subspace which can be nonadiabatically controlled by the system and reservoir parameters. Then the local decoherence-free evolution of the entangled states is achieved. And we also discuss the relation between the geometric phases and the entanglement of the two ions under the nonadiabatic coherent evolution.
Leinonen, Risto; Asikainen, Mervi A.; Hirvonen, Pekka E.
2015-01-01
This study concentrates on evaluating the consistency of upper-division students' use of the second law of thermodynamics at macroscopic and microscopic levels. Data were collected by means of a paper and pencil test (N = 48) focusing on the macroscopic and microscopic features of the second law concerned with heat transfer processes. The data…
Leinonen, Risto; Asikainen, Mervi A.; Hirvonen, Pekka E.
2015-01-01
This study concentrates on evaluating the consistency of upper-division students' use of the second law of thermodynamics at macroscopic and microscopic levels. Data were collected by means of a paper and pencil test (N = 48) focusing on the macroscopic and microscopic features of the second law concerned with heat transfer processes. The data…
A Model for Macroscopic Quantum Tunneling of Bose-Einstein Condensate with Attractive Interaction
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YAN Ke-Zhu; TAN Wei-Han
2000-01-01
Based on the numerical wave function solutions of neutral atoms with attractive interaction in a harmonic trap, we propose an exactly solvable model for macroscopic quantum tunneling of a Bose condensate with attractive interaction. We calculate the rate of macroscopic quantum tunneling from a metastable condensate state to the collapse state and analyze the stability of the attractive Bose-Einstein condensation.
Göncü, F.; Luding, S.
2013-01-01
The macroscopic mechanical behavior of granular materials inherently depends on the properties of particles that compose them. Using the discrete element method, the effect of particle contact friction and polydispersity on the macroscopic stress response of 3D sphere packings is studied. The analyt
Burley, Thomas E.; Asquith, William H.; Brooks, Donald L.
2011-01-01
temperature, reservoir storage, reservoir elevation, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, pH, unfiltered salinity, unfiltered total nitrogen, filtered total nitrogen, unfiltered nitrate plus nitrite, unfiltered phosphorus, filtered phosphorus, unfiltered carbon, carbon in suspended sediment, total hardness, unfiltered noncarbonate hardness, filtered noncarbonate hardness, unfiltered calcium, filtered calcium, unfiltered magnesium, filtered magnesium, unfiltered sodium, filtered sodium, unfiltered potassium, filtered potassium, filtered chloride, filtered sulfate, unfiltered fluoride, and filtered fluoride. When possible, USGS and Texas Commission on Environmental Quality water-quality properties and constituents were matched using the database parameter codes for individual physical properties and constituents, descriptions of each physical property or constituent, and their reporting units. This report presents a collection of delimited text files of source-aggregated, spatially pooled, depth-dependent, instantaneous water-quality data as well as instantaneous, daily, and monthly storage and elevation reservoir data.
Macroscopic realism, wave-particle duality and the superposition principle for entangled states
Chuprikov, N L
2006-01-01
On the basis of our model of a one-dimensional (1D) completed scattering (Russian Physics, 49, p.119 and p.314 (2006)) we argue that the linear formalism of quantum mechanics (QM) respects the principles of the macroscopic realism (J. Phys.: Condens. Matter, 14, R415-R451 (2002)). In QM one has to distinguish two kinds of pure ensembles: pure unentangled ensembles to be macroscopically inseparable, and pure entangled ones to be macroscopically separable. A pure entangled ensemble is an intermediate link between a pure unentangled ensemble and classical mixture. Like the former it strictly respects the linear formalism of QM. Like the latter it is decomposable into macroscopically distinct subensembles, in spite of interference between them; our new model exemplifies how to perform such a decomposition in the case of a 1D completed scattering. To respect macroscopic realism, the superposition principle must be reformulated: it must forbid introducing observables for entangled states.
Macroscopic erosion of divertor and first wall armour in future tokamaks
Würz, H.; Bazylev, B.; Landman, I.; Pestchanyi, S.; Safronov, V.
2002-12-01
Sputtering, evaporation and macroscopic erosion determine the lifetime of the 'in vessel' armour materials CFC, tungsten and beryllium presently under discussion for future tokamaks. For CFC armour macroscopic erosion means brittle destruction and dust formation whereas for metallic armour melt layer erosion by melt motion and droplet splashing. Available results on macroscopic erosion from hot plasma and e-beam simulation experiments and from tokamaks are critically evaluated and a comprehensive discussion of experimental and numerical macroscopic erosion and its extrapolation to future tokamaks is given. Shielding of divertor armour materials by their own vapor exists during plasma disruptions. The evolving plasma shield protects the armour from high heat loads, absorbs the incoming energy and reradiates it volumetrically thus reducing drastically the deposited energy. As a result, vertical target erosion by vaporization turns out to be of the order of a few microns per disruption event and macroscopic erosion becomes the dominant erosion source.
Study on attribute characterization for reservoir dynamic monitoring by seismic
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
Study on characterizing reservoir parameters dynamic variations by time-lapse seismic attributes is the theoretical basis for effectively distinguishing reservoir parameters variations and conducting time-lapse seismic interpretation,and it is also a key step for time-lapse seismic application in real oil fields. Based on the rock physical model of unconsolidated sandstone,the different effects of oil saturation and effective pressure variations on seismic P-wave and S-wave velocities are calculated and analyzed. Using numerical simulation on decoupled wave equations,the responses of seismic amplitude with different offsets to reservoir oil saturation variations are analyzed,pre-stack time-lapse seismic attributes differences for oil saturation and effective pressure variations of P-P wave and P-S converted wave are calculated,and time-lapse seismic AVO (Amplitude Versus Offset) response rules of P-P wave and P-S converted wave to effective pressure and oil saturation variations are compared. The theoretical modeling study shows that it is feasible to distinguish different reservoir parameters dynamic variations by pre-stack time-lapse seismic information,including pre-stack time-lapse seismic attributes and AVO information,which has great potential in improving time-lapse seismic interpreta-tion precision. It also shows that the time-lapse seismic response mechanism study on objective oil fields is especially important in establishing effective time-lapse seismic data process and interpreta-tion scheme.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Damares Perecim Roviero
2000-05-01
Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi gerar informação sobre parâmetros de crescimento e metabólicos da tilápia vermelha criada em tanques-rede num açude de pequeno porte. Foram instalados 12 tanques-rede flutuantes (5m3, em um açude de 1 ha, estocados com 25, 50, 75 e 100 tilápias vermelhas revertidas por m3, e alimentadas com duas rações extrusadas comerciais (32 e 28% PB, durante 213 dias. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas (P > 0,05 entre as diferentes densidades de estocagem ao final do período experimental com relação aos parâmetros de crescimento: peso corporal, comprimento total, fator de condição, conversão alimentar aparente, taxa de sobrevivência, ganho de peso médio diário e taxa de crescimento específico. Também não foram observadas diferenças significativas (P > 0,05 no glicogênio hepático, índice hepato-somático e lipídio hepático entre as densidades testadas. Contudo, a glicemia apresentou uma pequena diminuição entre o início do experimento e o 64o dia, retornando ao nível inicial a partir do 118o dia. O nível de glicogênio hepático foi mais elevado (P o dia, e o lipídio hepático apresentou maior valor no final do período experimental (P The objective of this study was to provide information on growth and metabolic parameters of red tilapia reared in cages in a small reservoir. Twelve floating net cages (5 m3 placed in an 1-ha reservoir were stocked with 25, 50, 75 and 100 sex-reversed red tilapias/m3, fed with two commercial floating feeds (32 and 28% crude protein, during 213 days. No effect (P > 0.05 of stocking density was observed at the end of the experimental period on body weight, body length, condition factor, feed conversion rate, survival rate, mean daily weight gain and specific growth rate. No differences (P > 0.05 on liver glycogen, liver somatic index (LSI, and total liver lipid were verified among the tested densities. However, blood glucose decreased slightly (P > 0
Gas condensate reservoir characterisation for CO2 geological storage
Ivakhnenko, A. P.
2012-04-01
During oil and gas production hydrocarbon recovery efficiency is significantly increased by injecting miscible CO2 gas in order to displace hydrocarbons towards producing wells. This process of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) might be used for the total CO2 storage after complete hydrocarbon reservoir depletion. This kind of potential storage sites was selected for detailed studies, including generalised development study to investigate the applicability of CO2 for storages. The study is focused on compositional modelling to predict the miscibility pressures. We consider depleted gas condensate field in Kazakhstan as important target for CO2 storage and EOR. This reservoir being depleted below the dew point leads to retrograde condensate formed in the pore system. CO2 injection in the depleted gas condensate reservoirs may allow enhanced gas recovery by reservoir pressurisation and liquid re-vaporisation. In addition a number of geological and petrophysical parameters should satisfy storage requirements. Studied carbonate gas condensate and oil field has strong seal, good petrophysical parameters and already proven successful containment CO2 and sour gas in high pressure and high temperature (HPHT) conditions. The reservoir is isolated Lower Permian and Carboniferous carbonate platform covering an area of about 30 km. The reservoir contains a gas column about 1.5 km thick. Importantly, the strong massive sealing consists of the salt and shale seal. Sour gas that filled in the oil-saturated shale had an active role to form strong sealing. Two-stage hydrocarbon saturation of oil and later gas within the seal frame were accompanied by bitumen precipitation in shales forming a perfect additional seal. Field hydrocarbon production began three decades ago maintaining a strategy in full replacement of gas in order to maintain pressure of the reservoir above the dew point. This was partially due to the sour nature of the gas with CO2 content over 5%. Our models and
Full Waveform Inversion for Reservoir Characterization - A Synthetic Study
Zabihi Naeini, E.
2017-05-26
Most current reservoir-characterization workflows are based on classic amplitude-variation-with-offset (AVO) inversion techniques. Although these methods have generally served us well over the years, here we examine full-waveform inversion (FWI) as an alternative tool for higher-resolution reservoir characterization. An important step in developing reservoir-oriented FWI is the implementation of facies-based rock physics constraints adapted from the classic methods. We show that such constraints can be incorporated into FWI by adding appropriately designed regularization terms to the objective function. The advantages of the proposed algorithm are demonstrated on both isotropic and VTI (transversely isotropic with a vertical symmetry axis) models with pronounced lateral and vertical heterogeneity. The inversion results are explained using the theoretical radiation patterns produced by perturbations in the medium parameters.
Entanglement dynamics of bipartite system in squeezed vacuum reservoirs
Bougouffa, Smail
2010-01-01
Entanglement plays a crucial role in quantum information protocols, thus the dynamical behavior of entangled states is of a great importance. In this paper we suggest a useful scheme that permits a direct measure of entanglement in a two-qubit cavity system. It is realized in the cavity-QED technology utilizing atoms as fying qubits. To quantify entanglement we use the concurrence. We derive the conditions, which assure that the state remains entangled in spite of the interaction with the reservoir. The phenomenon of sudden death entanglement (ESD) in a bipartite system subjected to squeezed vacuum reservoir is examined. We show that the sudden death time of the entangled states depends on the initial preparation of the entangled state and the parameters of the squeezed vacuum reservoir.
Entanglement dynamics of a bipartite system in squeezed vacuum reservoirs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bougouffa, Smail [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Taibah University, PO Box 30002, Madinah (Saudi Arabia); Hindi, Awatif, E-mail: sbougouffa@taibahu.edu.sa, E-mail: sbougouffa@hotmail.com [Physics Department, College of Science, PO Box 22452, King Saud University, Riyadh 11495 (Saudi Arabia)
2011-02-15
Entanglement plays a crucial role in quantum information protocols; thus the dynamical behavior of entangled states is of great importance. In this paper, we suggest a useful scheme that permits a direct measure of entanglement in a two-qubit cavity system. It is realized through cavity-QED technology utilizing atoms as flying qubits. To quantify entanglement we use the concurrence. We derive the conditions that ensure that the state remains entangled in spite of the interaction with the reservoir. The phenomenon of entanglement sudden death in a bipartite system subjected to a squeezed vacuum reservoir is examined. We show that the sudden death time of the entangled states depends on the initial preparation of the entangled state and the parameters of the squeezed vacuum reservoir.
Nonclassical interactions portrait in a macroscopic pedestrian flow model
Rosini, Massimiliano D.
In this paper we describe the main characteristics of the macroscopic model for pedestrian flows introduced in [R.M. Colombo, M.D. Rosini, Pedestrian flows and non-classical shocks, Math. Methods Appl. Sci. 28 (13) (2005) 1553-1567] and recently sperimentally verified in [D. Helbing, A. Johansson, H.Z. Al-Abideen, Dynamics of crowd disasters: An empirical study, Phys. Rev. E (Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics) 75 (4) (2007) 046109]. After a detailed study of all the possible wave interactions, we prove the existence of a weighted total variation that does not increase after any interaction. This is the main ingredient used in [R.M. Colombo, M.D. Rosini, Existence of nonclassical Cauchy problem modeling pedestrian flows, technical report, Brescia Department of Mathematics, 2008] to tackle the Cauchy problem through wave front tracking, see [A. Bressan, Hyperbolic Systems of Conservation Laws. The One-Dimensional Cauchy Problem, Oxford Lecture Ser. Math. Appl., vol. 20, Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, 2000, The one-dimensional Cauchy problem; A. Bressan, The front tracking method for systems of conservation laws, in: C.M. Dafermos, E. Feireisl (Eds.), Handbook of Differential Equations; Evolutionary Equations, vol. 1, Elsevier, 2004, pp. 87-168; R.M. Colombo, Wave front tracking in systems of conservation laws, Appl. Math. 49 (6) (2004) 501-537]. From the mathematical point of view, this model is one of the few examples of conservation laws in which nonclassical solutions have a physical motivation, see [P.G. Lefloch, Hyperbolic Systems of Conservation Laws, Lectures Math. ETH Zürich, Birkhäuser, Basel, 2002, The theory of classical and nonclassical shock waves], and an existence result is available.
Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of macroscopic morphology and dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barrall, Geoffrey Alden [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry
1995-09-01
Nuclear magnetic resonance techniques are traditionally used to study molecular level structure and dynamics with a noted exception in medically applied NMR imaging (MRI). In this work, new experimental methods and theory are presented relevant to the study of macroscopic morphology and dynamics using NMR field gradient techniques and solid state two-dimensional exchange NMR. The goal in this work is not to take some particular system and study it in great detail, rather it is to show the utility of a number of new and novel techniques using ideal systems primarily as a proof of principle. By taking advantage of the analogy between NMR imaging and diffraction, one may simplify the experiments necessary for characterizing the statistical properties of the sample morphology. For a sample composed of many small features, e.g. a porous medium, the NMR diffraction techniques take advantage of both the narrow spatial range and spatial isotropy of the sample`s density autocorrelation function to obtain high resolution structural information in considerably less time than that required by conventional NMR imaging approaches. The time savings of the technique indicates that NMR diffraction is capable of finer spatial resolution than conventional NMR imaging techniques. Radio frequency NMR imaging with a coaxial resonator represents the first use of cylindrically symmetric field gradients in imaging. The apparatus as built has achieved resolution at the micron level for water samples, and has the potential to be very useful in the imaging of circularly symmetric systems. The study of displacement probability densities in flow through a random porous medium has revealed the presence of features related to the interconnectedness of the void volumes. The pulsed gradient techniques used have proven successful at measuring flow properties for time and length scales considerably shorter than those studied by more conventional techniques.
Innovations in macroscopic evaluation of pancreatic specimens and radiologic correlation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Charikleia Triantopoulou
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a novel dissection technique of surgical specimens in different cases of pancreatic tumors and provide a radiologic pathologic correlation. In our hospital, that is a referral center for pancreatic diseases, the macroscopic evaluation of the pancreatectomy specimens is performed by the pathologists using the axial slicing technique (instead of the traditional procedure with longitudinal opening of the main pancreatic and/or common bile duct and slicing along the plane defined by both ducts. The specimen is sliced in an axial plane that is perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the descending duodenum. The procedure results in a large number of thin slices (3–4 mm. This plane is identical to that of CT or MRI and correlation between pathology and imaging is straightforward. We studied 70 cases of suspected different solid and cystic pancreatic tumors and we correlated the tumor size and location, the structure—consistency (areas of necrosis—hemorrhage—fibrosis—inflammation, the degree of vessels’ infiltration, the size of pancreatic and common bile duct and the distance from resection margins. Missed findings by imaging or pitfalls were recorded and we tried to explain all discrepancies between radiology evaluation and the histopathological findings. Radiologic-pathologic correlation is extremely important, adding crucial information on imaging limitations and enabling quality assessment of surgical specimens. The deep knowledge of different pancreatic tumors’ consistency and way of extension helps to improve radiologists’ diagnostic accuracy and minimize the radiological-surgical mismatching, preventing patients from unnecessary surgery.
Macroscopic behavior and microscopic magnetic properties of nanocarbon
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lähderanta, E., E-mail: Erkki.Lahderanta@lut.fi [Lappeenranta University of Technology, PO Box 20, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); Ryzhov, V.A. [Lappeenranta University of Technology, PO Box 20, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, NRC “Kurchatov Institute”, Orlova Coppice, Gatchina, Leningrad province 188300 (Russian Federation); Lashkul, A.V. [Lappeenranta University of Technology, PO Box 20, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); Galimov, D.M. [Lappeenranta University of Technology, PO Box 20, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); South Ural State University, 454080 Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation); Titkov, A.N. [Lappeenranta University of Technology, PO Box 20, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); A. F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Matveev, V.V. [Lappeenranta University of Technology, PO Box 20, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); Saint-Petersburg State University, Saint-Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation); Mokeev, M.V. [Institute of Macromolecular Compounds, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Kurbakov, A.I. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, NRC “Kurchatov Institute”, Orlova Coppice, Gatchina, Leningrad province 188300 (Russian Federation); Lisunov, K.G. [Lappeenranta University of Technology, PO Box 20, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); Institute of Applied Physics ASM, Academiei Str., 5, MD 2028 Kishinev (Moldova, Republic of)
2015-06-01
Here are presented investigations of powder and glass-like samples containing carbon nanoparticles, not intentionally doped and doped with Ag, Au and Co. The neutron diffraction study reveals an amorphous structure of the samples doped with Au and Co, as well as the magnetic scattering due to a long-range FM order in the Co-doped sample. The composition and molecular structure of the sample doped with Au is clarified with the NMR investigations. The temperature dependence of the magnetization, M (T), exhibits large irreversibility in low fields of B=1–7 mT. M (B) saturates already above 2 T at high temperatures, but deviates from the saturation behavior below ~50 (150 K). Magnetic hysteresis is observed already at 300 K and exhibits a power-law temperature decay of the coercive field, B{sub c} (T). The macroscopic behavior above is typical of an assembly of partially blocked magnetic nanoparticles. The values of the saturation magnetization, M{sub s}, and the blocking temperature, T{sub b}, are obtained as well. However, the hysteresis loop in the Co-doped sample differs from that in other samples, and the values of B{sub c} and M{sub s} are noticeably increased. - Highlights: • We have investigated powder and glassy samples with carbon nanoparticles. • They include an undoped sample and those doped with Ag, Au and Co. • Neutron diffraction study reveals amorphous structure of Au- and Co-doped samples. • Composition and molecular structure of Au-doped sample was investigated with NMR. • Magnetic behavior is typical of an assembly of partially blocked magnetic nanoparticles.
Proton irradiation effects on beryllium - A macroscopic assessment
Simos, Nikolaos; Elbakhshwan, Mohamed; Zhong, Zhong; Camino, Fernando
2016-10-01
Beryllium, due to its excellent neutron multiplication and moderation properties, in conjunction with its good thermal properties, is under consideration for use as plasma facing material in fusion reactors and as a very effective neutron reflector in fission reactors. While it is characterized by unique combination of structural, chemical, atomic number, and neutron absorption cross section it suffers, however, from irradiation generated transmutation gases such as helium and tritium which exhibit low solubility leading to supersaturation of the Be matrix and tend to precipitate into bubbles that coalesce and induce swelling and embrittlement thus degrading the metal and limiting its lifetime. Utilization of beryllium as a pion production low-Z target in high power proton accelerators has been sought both for its low Z and good thermal properties in an effort to mitigate thermos-mechanical shock that is expected to be induced under the multi-MW power demand. To assess irradiation-induced changes in the thermal and mechanical properties of Beryllium, a study focusing on proton irradiation damage effects has been undertaken using 200 MeV protons from the Brookhaven National Laboratory Linac and followed by a multi-faceted post-irradiation analysis that included the thermal and volumetric stability of irradiated beryllium, the stress-strain behavior and its ductility loss as a function of proton fluence and the effects of proton irradiation on the microstructure using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The mimicking of high temperature irradiation of Beryllium via high temperature annealing schemes has been conducted as part of the post-irradiation study. This paper focuses on the thermal stability and mechanical property changes of the proton irradiated beryllium and presents results of the macroscopic property changes of Beryllium deduced from thermal and mechanical tests.
Stefouli, M.; Charou, E.; Vasileiou, E.; Stathopoulos, N.; Perrakis, A.
2012-04-01
the irrigation network in the area We evaluate the possibility to merge two different resolution satellite data i.e. MERIS/ENVISAT and LANDSAT to facilitate the study of the Polyfitos reservoir. State of the art data fusion techniques, that preserve the best characteristics (spatial, temporal, spectral) of the two types of images are implemented and used to mining information concerning selected parameters. Summer 2011 Landsat and ENVISAT MERIS satellite images are used in order to extract lake water quality parameters such as water clarity -and sediment content. Assessment of the whole watershed of Polyfitos reservoir is carried out for the last 25 years. The methodology presented here can be used to support existing reservoir monitoring programs as it gives regular measurements for the whole of the watershed area of the reservoir. The results can be made available to end-users / reservoir managers, using web/GIS techniques. They can also support environmental awareness of the conditions of watershed of Polyfitos reservoir.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
B. Pregger; D. Davies; D. Moore; G. Freeman; J. Callard; J.W. Nevans; L. Doublet; R. Vessell; T. Blasingame
1997-08-31
Infill drilling if wells on a uniform spacing without regard to reservoir performance and characterization foes not optimize reservoir development because it fails to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, and carbonate reservoirs in particular. New and emerging technologies, such as geostatistical modeling, rigorous decline curve analysis, reservoir rock typing, and special core analysis can be used to develop a 3-D simulation model for prediction of infill locations.
Reservoir Protection Technology in China: Research & Application
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Li Qiangui; Wu Juan; Kang Yili
2006-01-01
@@ Great development of reservoir protection technology (RPT) has been achieved since 1996, including oil and gas reservoir protection for exploration wells, reservoir protection during underbalanced drilling, protection of fractured tight sandstone gas reservoir, and reservoir protection while increase production and reconstructing, development and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) etc. It has stepped into a new situation with special features and advantage. These technical advancements marked that China's RTP have realized leaps from porous reservoirs to fractured reservoirs,from conventional medium-to-low permeability reservoirs to unconventional reservoirs, from oil and gas producers to exploration wells, and from application mainly in drilling and completion processes to application in stimulation,development, production and EOR processes.
Zreiki, Jihad; Chaouche, Mohend; Moranville, Micheline
2008-01-01
Early age behaviour of concrete is based on complex multi-physical and multiscale phenomena. The predication of both cracking risk and residual stresses in hardened concrete structures is still a challenging task. We propose in this paper a practical method to characterize in the construction site the material parameters and to identify a macroscopic model from simple tests. We propose for instance to use a restrained shrinkage ring test to identify a basic early age creep model based on a simple ageing visco-elastic Kelvin model. The strain data obtained from this test can be treated through an early age finite element incremental procedure such that the fitting parameters of the creep law can be quickly identified. The others properties of concrete have been measured at different ages (elastic properties, hydration kinetics, and coefficient of thermal expansion). From the identified early age model, we computed the temperature rise and the stress development in a non reinforced concrete stress for nuclear w...
Direct hydrocarbon exploration and gas reservoir development technology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kwak, Young Hoon; Oh, Jae Ho; Jeong, Tae Jin [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)] [and others
1995-12-01
In order to enhance the capability of petroleum exploration and development techniques, three year project (1994 - 1997) was initiated on the research of direct hydrocarbon exploration and gas reservoir development. This project consists of four sub-projects. (1) Oil(Gas) - source rock correlation technique: The overview of bio-marker parameters which are applicable to hydrocarbon exploration has been illustrated. Experimental analysis of saturated hydrocarbon and bio-markers of the Pohang E and F core samples has been carried out. (2) Study on surface geochemistry and microbiology for hydrocarbon exploration: the test results of the experimental device for extraction of dissolved gases from water show that the device can be utilized for the gas geochemistry of water. (3) Development of gas and gas condensate reservoirs: There are two types of reservoir characterization. For the reservoir formation characterization, calculation of conditional simulation was compared with that of unconditional simulation. In the reservoir fluid characterization, phase behavior calculations revealed that the component grouping is more important than the increase of number of components. (4) Numerical modeling of seismic wave propagation and full waveform inversion: Three individual sections are presented. The first one is devoted to the inversion theory in general sense. The second and the third sections deal with the frequency domain pseudo waveform inversion of seismic reflection data and refraction data respectively. (author). 180 refs., 91 figs., 60 tabs.
Environmental Impact of Cage Culture on Poondi Reservoir, Tamil Nadu
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Anusuya Devi
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The present investigation was carried out in Poondi reservoir, Tamil Nadu, for a period of 8 months from September, 2014 to April, 2015 where the cage culture has been already initiated by the state fisheries department. The water and sediment samples were collected from the reservoir at point and non- point sources of the cage culture units and were analyzed for their physico-chemical parameters. The total microbial load, E. coli and feacal streptococci population were also assessed from the reservoir. During the study period, pH, sulphate, nitrate and BOD values were found within the permissible range for drinking water quality. The alkalinity values were found optimum in the reservoir water. The sediment characteristics such as pH, electrical conductivity, total organic carbon and available phosphorus values were also found to be within the standard limit. The optimum water and sediment quality characteristics and the absence of E. coli and feacal streptococci observed in the cage culture unit clearly showed that the small cage farming in the reservoir does not have major environmental impacts on the water and sediment quality.
Solving non-Markovian open quantum systems with multi-channel reservoir coupling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Broadbent, Curtis J., E-mail: curtis.broadbent@rochester.edu [Rochester Theory Center, and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Jing, Jun; Yu, Ting [Center for Controlled Quantum Systems, and the Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ 07030 (United States); Eberly, Joseph H. [Rochester Theory Center, and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States)
2012-08-15
We extend the non-Markovian quantum state diffusion (QSD) equation to open quantum systems which exhibit multi-channel coupling to a harmonic oscillator reservoir. Open quantum systems which have multi-channel reservoir coupling are those in which canonical transformation of reservoir modes cannot reduce the number of reservoir operators appearing in the interaction Hamiltonian to one. We show that the non-Markovian QSD equation for multi-channel reservoir coupling can, in some cases, lead to an exact master equation which we derive. We then derive the exact master equation for the three-level system in a vee-type configuration which has multi-channel reservoir coupling and give the analytical solution. Finally, we examine the evolution of the three-level vee-type system with generalized Ornstein-Uhlenbeck reservoir correlations numerically. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The concept of multi-channel vs. single-channel reservoir coupling is rigorously defined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The non-Markovian quantum state diffusion equation for arbitrary multi-channel reservoir coupling is derived. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An exact time-local master equation is derived under certain conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The analytical solution to the three-level system in a vee-type configuration is found. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The evolution of the three-level system under generalized Ornstein-Uhlenbeck noise is plotted for many parameter regimes.
Multi-data reservoir history matching of crosswell seismic, electromagnetics and gravimetry data
Katterbauer, Klemens
2014-01-01
Reservoir engineering has become of prime importance for oil and gas field development projects. With rising complexity, reservoir simulations and history matching have become critical for fine-tuning reservoir production strategies, improved subsurface formation knowledge and forecasting remaining reserves. The sparse spatial sampling of production data has posed a significant challenge for reducing uncertainty of subsurface parameters. Seismic, electromagnetic and gravimetry techniques have found widespread application in enhancing exploration for oil and gas and monitor reservoirs, however these data have been interpreted and analyzed mostly separately rarely utilizing the synergy effects that may be attainable. With the incorporation of multiple data into the reservoir history matching process there has been the request knowing the impact each incorporated observation has on the estimation. We present multi-data ensemble-based history matching framework for the incorporation of multiple data such as seismic, electromagnetics, and gravimetry for improved reservoir history matching and provide an adjointfree ensemble sensitivity method to compute the impact of each observation on the estimated reservoir parameters. The incorporation of all data sets displays the advantages multiple data may provide for enhancing reservoir understanding and matching, with the impact of each data set on the matching improvement being determined by the ensemble sensitivity method.
Multilevel techniques for Reservoir Simulation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Max la Cour
The subject of this thesis is the development, application and study of novel multilevel methods for the acceleration and improvement of reservoir simulation techniques. The motivation for addressing this topic is a need for more accurate predictions of porous media flow and the ability to carry...... Full Approximation Scheme) • Variational (Galerkin) upscaling • Linear solvers and preconditioners First, a nonlinear multigrid scheme in the form of the Full Approximation Scheme (FAS) is implemented and studied for a 3D three-phase compressible rock/fluids immiscible reservoir simulator...... based on element-based Algebraic Multigrid (AMGe). In particular, an advanced AMGe technique with guaranteed approximation properties is used to construct a coarse multilevel hierarchy of Raviart-Thomas and L2 spaces for the Galerkin coarsening of a mixed formulation of the reservoir simulation...
Amplitude various angles (AVA) phenomena in thin layer reservoir: Case study of various reservoirs
Nurhandoko, Bagus Endar B.; Susilowati
2015-04-01
Amplitude various offset is widely used in petroleum exploration as well as in petroleum development field. Generally, phenomenon of amplitude in various angles assumes reservoir's layer is quite thick. It also means that the wave is assumed as a very high frequency. But, in natural condition, the seismic wave is band limited and has quite low frequency. Therefore, topic about amplitude various angles in thin layer reservoir as well as low frequency assumption is important to be considered. Thin layer reservoir means the thickness of reservoir is about or less than quarter of wavelength. In this paper, I studied about the reflection phenomena in elastic wave which considering interference from thin layer reservoir and transmission wave. I applied Zoeppritz equation for modeling reflected wave of top reservoir, reflected wave of bottom reservoir, and also transmission elastic wave of reservoir. Results show that the phenomena of AVA in thin layer reservoir are frequency dependent. Thin layer reservoir causes interference between reflected wave of top reservoir and reflected wave of bottom reservoir. These phenomena are frequently neglected, however, in real practices. Even though, the impact of inattention in interference phenomena caused by thin layer in AVA may cause inaccurate reservoir characterization. The relation between classes of AVA reservoir and reservoir's character are different when effect of ones in thin reservoir and ones in thick reservoir are compared. In this paper, I present some AVA phenomena including its cross plot in various thin reservoir types based on some rock physics data of Indonesia.
Rieger, R; Auregan, J C; Hoc, T
2017-09-08
The objective of the present study is to assess the mechanical behavior of trabecular bone based on microCT imaging and micro-finite-element analysis. In this way two methods are detailed: (i) direct determination of macroscopic elastic property of trabecular bone; (ii) inverse approach to assess mechanical properties of trabecular bone tissue. Thirty-five females and seven males (forty-two subjects) mean aged (±SD) 80±11.7 years from hospitals of Assistance publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP) diagnosed with osteoporosis following a femoral neck fracture due to a fall from standing were included in this study. Fractured heads were collected during hip replacement surgery. Standardized bone cores were removed from the femoral head's equator by a trephine in a water bath. MicroCT images acquisition and analysis were performed with CTan(®) software and bone volume fraction was then determined. Micro-finite-element simulations were per-formed using Abaqus 6.9-2(®) software in order to determine the macroscopic mechanical behaviour of the trabecular bone. After microCT acquisition, a longitudinal compression test was performed and the experimental macroscopic Young's Modulus was extracted. An inverse approach based on the whole trabecular bone's mechanical response and micro-finite-element analysis was performed to determine microscopic mechanical properties of trabecular bone. In the present study, elasticity of the tissue was shown to be similar to that of healthy tissue but with a lower yield stress. Classical histomorphometric analysis form microCT imaging associated with an inverse micro-finite-element method allowed to assess microscopic mechanical trabecular bone parameters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Smart Waterflooding in Carbonate Reservoirs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zahid, Adeel
During the last decade, smart waterflooding has been developed into an emerging EOR technology both for carbonate and sandstone reservoirs that does not require toxic or expensive chemicals. Although it is widely accepted that different salinity brines may increase the oil recovery for carbonate...... reservoirs, understanding of the mechanism of this increase is still developing. To understand this smart waterflooding process, an extensive research has been carried out covering a broad range of disciplines within surface chemistry, thermodynamics of crude oil and brine, as well as their behavior...
SIRIU RESERVOIR, BUZAU RIVER (ROMANIA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel Constantin DIACONU
2008-06-01
Full Text Available Siriu reservoir, owes it`s creation to the dam built on the river Buzau, in the town which bears the same name. The reservoir has a hydro energetic role, to diminish the maximum flow and to provide water to the localities below. The partial exploitation of the lake, began in 1984; Since that time, the initial bed of the river began to accumulate large quantities of alluvia, reducing the retention capacity of the lake, which had a volume of 125 million m3. The changes produced are determined by many topographic surveys at the bottom of the lake.
Aschwanden, Markus J.
2014-02-01
We suggest a generalized definition of self-organized criticality (SOC) systems: SOC is a critical state of a nonlinear energy dissipation system that is slowly and continuously driven toward a critical value of a system-wide instability threshold, producing scale-free, fractal-diffusive, and intermittent avalanches with power law-like size distributions. We develop here a macroscopic description of SOC systems that provides an equivalent description of the complex microscopic fine structure, in terms of fractal-diffusive transport (FD-SOC). Quantitative values for the size distributions of SOC parameters (length scales L, time scales T, waiting times Δt, fluxes F, and fluences or energies E) are derived from first principles, using the scale-free probability conjecture, N(L)dLvpropL -d , for Euclidean space dimension d. We apply this model to astrophysical SOC systems, such as lunar craters, the asteroid belt, Saturn ring particles, magnetospheric substorms, radiation belt electrons, solar flares, stellar flares, pulsar glitches, soft gamma-ray repeaters, black-hole objects, blazars, and cosmic rays. The FD-SOC model predicts correctly the size distributions of 8 out of these 12 astrophysical phenomena, and indicates non-standard scaling laws and measurement biases for the others.
Micromechanical and macroscopic models of ductile fracture in particle reinforced metallic materials
Hu, Chao; Bai, Jie; Ghosh, Somnath
2007-06-01
This paper is aimed at developing two modules contributing to the overall framework of multi-scale modelling of ductile fracture of particle reinforced metallic materials. The first module is for detailed micromechanical analysis of particle fragmentation and matrix cracking of heterogeneous microstructures. The Voronoi cell FEM for particle fragmentation is extended in this paper to incorporate ductile failure through matrix cracking in the form of void growth and coalescence using a non-local Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) model. In the resulting enriched Voronoi cell finite element model (VCFEM) or E-VCFEM, the assumed stress-based hybrid VCFEM formulation is overlaid with narrow bands of displacement based elements to accommodate strain softening in the constitutive behaviour. The second module develops an anisotropic plasticity-damage model in the form of the GTN model for macroscopic analysis in the multi-scale material model. Parameters in this model are calibrated from results of homogenization of microstructural variables obtained by E-VCFEM analysis of microstructural representative volume element. Numerical examples conducted yield satisfactory results.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rose, H.; Dubois, D.; Russell, D. [Lodestar Research Corp., Boulder, CO (United States); Hanssen, A. [Univ. of Tromsoe (Norway)
1996-03-01
This is the final report of a three-year Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This research concentrated on the time dependence of the heater, induced-turbulence, and electron-density profiles excited in the ionosphere by a powerful radio-frequency heater wave. The macroscopic density is driven by the ponderomotive pressure and the density self-consistently determines the heater propagation. For typical parameters of the current Arecibo heater, a dramatic quasi-periodic behavior was found. For about 50 ms after turn-on of the heater wave, the turbulence is concentrated at the first standing-wave maximum of the heater near reflection altitude. From 50--100 ms the standing-wave pattern drops by about 1--2 km in altitude and the quasi-periodicity reappears at the higher altitudes with a period of roughly 50 ms. This behavior is due to the half-wavelength density depletion grating that is set up by the ponderomotive pressure at the maxima of the heater standing-wave pattern. Once the grating is established the heater can no longer propagate to higher altitudes. The grating is then unsupported by the heater at these altitudes and decays, allowing the heater to propagate again and initiate another cycle. For stronger heater powers, corresponding to the Arecibo upgrade and the HAARP heater now under construction, the effects are much more dramatic.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mazurek K.
2013-12-01
Full Text Available The fission dynamics described by solving differential equations of the Langevin type in three dimensional space of the deformation parameters is very sensitive on the choice of the macroscopic components such as potential energy models. The mass or charge distribution or total kinetic energy has been already shown to be different when one uses the Finite Range Liquid Drop Model or Lublin - Strasbourg Drop model. Also the shape-dependent congruence or shape-dependent Wigner energy and A0 terms are important especially for the fission of medium mass nuclei. We would like to make step forward and answer the question about the varying of the post-scission multiplicity by including different PES. Up to now there are only few experimental data for the medium mass nuclei where the pre- and post- scission emission has been estimated and isotopic distributions have been shown. The isotopic distributions of the fission products for light compound nucleus such as 111 In with two beam energies (Ebeam = 10.6 AMeV and 5.9 AMeV and two heavy systems: 229Np with Ebeam = 7.4 AMeV and 260 No (Ebeam = 6 AMeV and 7.5 AMeV have been studied theoretically. The agreement with the experimental data is discussed.
Theory of Macroscopic Quantum Tunneling in High-T_c c-Axis Josephson Junctions
Yokoyama, Takehito; Kato, Takeo; Tanaka, Yukio
2007-01-01
We study macroscopic quantum tunneling (MQT) in c-axis twist Josephson junctions made of high-T_c superconductors in order to clarify the influence of the anisotropic order parameter symmetry (OPS) on MQT. The dependence of the MQT rate on the twist angle $\\gamma$ about the c-axis is calculated by using the functional integral and the bounce method. Due to the d-wave OPS, the $\\gamma$ dependence of standard deviation of the switching current distribution and the crossover temperature from thermal activation to MQT are found to be given by $\\cos2\\gamma$ and $\\sqrt{\\cos2\\gamma}$, respectively. We also show that a dissipative effect resulting from the nodal quasiparticle excitation on MQT is negligibly small, which is consistent with recent MQT experiments using Bi${}_2$Sr${}_2$CaCu${}_2$O${}_{8 + \\delta}$ intrinsic junctions. These results indicate that MQT in c-axis twist junctions becomes a useful experimental tool for testing the OPS of high-T_c materials at low temperature, and suggest high potential of suc...
Approximate Inference for Time-Varying Interactions and Macroscopic Dynamics of Neural Populations
Obermayer, Klaus
2017-01-01
The models in statistical physics such as an Ising model offer a convenient way to characterize stationary activity of neural populations. Such stationary activity of neurons may be expected for recordings from in vitro slices or anesthetized animals. However, modeling activity of cortical circuitries of awake animals has been more challenging because both spike-rates and interactions can change according to sensory stimulation, behavior, or an internal state of the brain. Previous approaches modeling the dynamics of neural interactions suffer from computational cost; therefore, its application was limited to only a dozen neurons. Here by introducing multiple analytic approximation methods to a state-space model of neural population activity, we make it possible to estimate dynamic pairwise interactions of up to 60 neurons. More specifically, we applied the pseudolikelihood approximation to the state-space model, and combined it with the Bethe or TAP mean-field approximation to make the sequential Bayesian estimation of the model parameters possible. The large-scale analysis allows us to investigate dynamics of macroscopic properties of neural circuitries underlying stimulus processing and behavior. We show that the model accurately estimates dynamics of network properties such as sparseness, entropy, and heat capacity by simulated data, and demonstrate utilities of these measures by analyzing activity of monkey V4 neurons as well as a simulated balanced network of spiking neurons. PMID:28095421
Kobelev, Nikolay P.; Lebyodkin, Mikhail A.; Lebedkina, Tatiana A.
2017-03-01
The present paper examines two aspects of the problem of critical conditions of jerky flow in alloys, or the Portevin-Le Chatelier (PLC) effect. Recent development of dynamic strain aging (DSA) models proved their capacity to qualitatively reproduce complex non-monotonic behavior of the critical strain, providing that the parameters of theory are allowed to depend on strain. Experimental measurements of such strain dependences have been realized for the first time and used to revise the predictions of the critical strain and stress relaxation kinetics upon abrupt strain-rate changes. On the other hand, it is usually omitted from consideration that the PLC stress serrations can last very short time in comparison with the characteristic time of stress transients. The development of stress drops was studied with the aid of the acoustic emission (AE) technique. It is shown that such macroscopic instabilities are caused by clustering of AE events which otherwise occur all the time, including the periods of smooth plastic flow. The role of synchronization of dislocation avalanches in the development of abrupt stress serrations and its relationship with the predictions of the local DSA models is discussed.
Studies of Dynamic, Radiative Macroscopic Magnetized HED Plasmas with Closed B-Field Lines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Frese, Michael H. [NumerEx, LLC, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Frese, Sherry D. [NumerEx, LLC, Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2013-11-01
The purpose of this research has been to study the physics of macroscopic magnetized high-energy-density laboratory plasmas (HEDLPs) created through the compression of a high-beta compact toroid (CT) plasma having closed magnetic field lines. The high-beta CT chosen for this work is a field-reversed configuration (FRC). The basic approach is to investigate CT plasmas as they are compressed to a HED state by the electromagnetic implosion of a surrounding metallic shell or solid liner (Figure 1). The shell provides an axisymmetric, electrically-conducting boundary around the plasma and its supporting magnetic field and is imploded by means of the magnetic pressure force arising from axial current flow in the liner interacting with its associated azimuthal magnetic field. Compression of the CT will bring the plasma to fusion temperatures at higher densities and magnetic fields (multi-MegaGauss [MG]) than have previously been present in conventional magnetic fusion approaches. The resulting energy densities will be ~1 Mbar or greater and thus will place the plasma in a parameter space intermediate to MFE and IFE. This work has been a collaboration between the Air Force Research Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and NumerEx, LLC.