Sample records for macro-unstructuring technique pioneered

  1. Behaviour based Mobile Robot Navigation Technique using AI System: Experimental Investigation on Active Media Pioneer Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Parasuraman, V.Ganapathy


    Full Text Available A key issue in the research of an autonomous robot is the design and development of the navigation technique that enables the robot to navigate in a real world environment. In this research, the issues investigated and methodologies established include (a Designing of the individual behavior and behavior rule selection using Alpha level fuzzy logic system  (b Designing of the controller, which maps the sensors input to the motor output through model based Fuzzy Logic Inference System and (c Formulation of the decision-making process by using Alpha-level fuzzy logic system. The proposed method is applied to Active Media Pioneer Robot and the results are discussed and compared with most accepted methods. This approach provides a formal methodology for representing and implementing the human expert heuristic knowledge and perception-based action in mobile robot navigation. In this approach, the operational strategies of the human expert driver are transferred via fuzzy logic to the robot navigation in the form of a set of simple conditional statements composed of linguistic variables.Keywards: Mobile robot, behavior based control, fuzzy logic, alpha level fuzzy logic, obstacle avoidance behavior and goal seek behavior

  2. Energy and materials conservation: applying pioneering research and techniques to current non-energy materials conservation issues. (United States)

    Hannon, Bruce


    The research of the Energy Research Group (ERG) at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign through the 1970s and early 1980s has recurring bouts of popularity. That research traced the flow of various energy types from nature to the final product or service, using modified economic input-output analysis. That information allowed for a comparison of alternative uses of products and services that delivered the same demand. The goal of the study was to identify the energy-conserving potential of the alternatives. Interest in that research has risen and fallen with the price of energy through three cycles now, with the current interest also encompassing materials conservation. Although the specific numerical results of this work are dated, the process by which the analysis was conducted creates, at least, a suggestion for future analysis in the arena of materials research. A review of the ERG history, including techniques pioneered for investigating the potential for energy conservation and some of the ancillary lessons learned along the way, may be of some use to those working on issues of materials conservation today. In the coming years, the most relevant research will include assessment of the socio-economic-ecological impact of technological materials conservation policies.

  3. Printing Pioneer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Wang Xuan,inventor of a laser typesetting system for Chinese characters,ushers in a new age in the printing industry Anyone who reads a book or newspaper in Chinese is indebted to Wang Xuan, a pioneer in modem Chinese-language printing, just as one can thank Thomas Edison for inventing the electric light bulb. Wang invented a computerized laser photocomposition system for Chinese char-

  4. The Pioneer Anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor T. Toth


    Full Text Available Radio-metric Doppler tracking data received from the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft from heliocentric distances of 20-70 AU has consistently indicated the presence of a small, anomalous, blue-shifted frequency drift uniformly changing with a rate of ~6 × 10–9 Hz/s. Ultimately, the drift was interpreted as a constant sunward deceleration of each particular spacecraft at the level of aP = (8.74 ± 1.33 × 10–10 m/s2. This apparent violation of the Newton's gravitational inverse square law has become known as the Pioneer anomaly; the nature of this anomaly remains unexplained. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the physical properties of the anomaly and the conditions that led to its detection and characterization. We review various mechanisms proposed to explain the anomaly and discuss the current state of efforts to determine its nature. A comprehensive new investigation of the anomalous behavior of the two Pioneers has begun recently. The new efforts rely on the much-extended set of radio-metric Doppler data for both spacecraft in conjunction with the newly available complete record of their telemetry files and a large archive of original project documentation. As the new study is yet to report its findings, this review provides the necessary background for the new results to appear in the near future. In particular, we provide a significant amount of information on the design, operations and behavior of the two Pioneers during their entire missions, including descriptions of various data formats and techniques used for their navigation and radio-science data analysis. As most of this information was recovered relatively recently, it was not used in the previous studies of the Pioneer anomaly, but it is critical for the new investigation.

  5. Pioneer ACO PUF (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Pioneer ACO PUF - To address the increasing number of requests for Pioneer ACO data, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) has created a standard...

  6. Pioneer 12 (PN-12) (United States)

    Lozier, D.; Fimmel, R.


    The DSN (Deep Space Network) mission support requirements for Pioneer 12 are summarized. The Pioneer 12 spacecraft is in a 24-hour elliptical orbit around Venus. Atmospheric and altimetry data are obtained mainly around periapsis, and planetary imaging is normally performed around apoapsis. The Pioneer 12 mission objectives are outlined and the DSN support requirements are defined through the presentation of tables and narratives describing the spacecraft flight profile; DSN support coverage; frequency assignments; support parameters for telemetry, command and support systems; and tracking support responsibility.

  7. Pioneer ACO Model (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Pioneer ACO Model is designed for health care organizations and providers that are already experienced in coordinating care for patients across care settings. It...

  8. Pioneering in geese (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is about pioneering in geese-- the report gives a history of the goose and its evolution from the Pleistocene to currents species of geese. The report...

  9. The Pioneer Anomaly

    CERN Document Server

    de Diego, Jose A


    Analysis of the radio-metric data from Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecrafts has indicated the presence of an unmodeled acceleration starting at 20 AU, which has become known as the Pioneer anomaly. The nature of this acceleration is uncertain. In this paper we give a description of the effect and review some relevant mechanisms proposed to explain the observed anomaly. We also discuss on some future projects to investigate this phenomenon.

  10. Neurological examination: pioneering authors and their books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péricles Maranhão-Filho


    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to highlight some of the most important pioneering books specifically focused on the neurological examination and their authors. During the XIX Century, Alexander Hammond, William Gowers and Charles Mills pioneered the neurological literature, followed in the XX Century by Aloysio de Castro, Monrad-Krohn, Derek Denny-Brown, Robert Wartenberg, Gordon Holmes, and Russel DeJong. With determination and a marked sense of observation and research, they competently developed and spread the technique and art of the neurological exam.

  11. Alasti pioneer / Jelena Skulskaja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Skulskaja, Jelena, 1950-


    Teatri- ja filmiuudiseid Venemaalt : Kira Muratova mängufilm "Häälestaja" ("Nastroishtshik"), Aleksandr Sokurovi töös olev mängufilm Thomas Manni ja Johann Wolfgang Goethe ainetel "Faust" ning Kirill Serebrjannikovi lavastus Sovremennikus Mihhail Kononovi romaani "Alasti pioneer" järgi, peaosas Tshulpan Hamatova. Ajalehe tiitellehel kuupäevaks "märtsi lõpp (4/05)"

  12. Pioneers of representation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Curtis, Charles W


    The year 1897 was marked by two important mathematical events: the publication of the first paper on representations of finite groups by Ferdinand Georg Frobenius (1849-1917) and the appearance of the first treatise in English on the theory of finite groups by William Burnside (1852-1927). Burnside soon developed his own approach to representations of finite groups. In the next few years, working independently, Frobenius and Burnside explored the new subject and its applications to finite group theory. They were soon joined in this enterprise by Issai Schur (1875-1941) and some years later, by Richard Brauer (1901-1977). These mathematicians' pioneering research is the subject of this book. It presents an account of the early history of representation theory through an analysis of the published work of the principals and others with whom the principals' work was interwoven. Also included are biographical sketches and enough mathematics to enable readers to follow the development of the subject. An introductor...

  13. Pioneering unquenched desire

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    Krzysztof Hoffmann


    Full Text Available The book Twórczość Leśmiana w kręgu filozoficznej myśli symbolizmu rosyjskiego written by Sobieska is a pioneering attempt at combining a discussion on the literary output of the author of Dziejba leśna with the reflection stemming from the tradition of the Eastern Orthodox Church. The book, notwithstanding its shortcomings and self-imposed limitations, comprehensively discusses views and opinions hitherto unknown to the Polish reader, introduces and explains the context of the findings of such thinkers as Soloviov or Biely, compares texts written by Russian symbolists with Leśmian’s poems. Sobieska categorizes the problem issues into subsequent thematic ranges (epiphany insight into the nature of being, musicality and the notion of poetical metre, creative imagination, mystical femininity in order to point at potential sources of the recontextualization of Leśmian’s poetical sensitivity. The findings, being an example of classic comparatistic studies, have been enhanced by iconological and musicological observations as well as by some additional guiding elements facilitating the understanding of Orthodox theology. The present sketch discusses the book and is complemented with a polemics with some of its methodological solutions.

  14. Pioneering a Biobased UAS (United States)

    Block, Eli; Byemerwa, Jovita; Dispenza, Ross; Doughty, Benjamin; Gillyard, KaNesha; Godbole, Poorwa; Gonzales-Wright, Jeanette; Hull, Ian; Kannappan, Jotthe; Levine, Alexander; Nelakanti, Raman; Ruffner, Lydia; Shumate, Alaina; Sorayya, Aryo; Ugwu, Kyla; Rothschild, Lynn J.


    With the exponential growth of interest in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and their vast array of applications in both space exploration and terrestrial uses such as the delivery of medicine and monitoring the environment, the 2014 Stanford-Brown-Spelman iGEM team is pioneering the development of a fully biological UAV for scientific and humanitarian missions. The prospect of a biologically-produced UAV presents numerous advantages over the current manufacturing paradigm. First, a foundational architecture built by cells allows for construction or repair in locations where it would be difficult to bring traditional tools of production. Second, a major limitation of current research with UAVs is the size and high power consumption of analytical instruments, which require bulky electrical components and large fuselages to support their weight. By moving these functions into cells with biosensing capabilities – for example, a series of cells engineered to report GFP, green fluorescent protein, when conditions exceed a certain threshold concentration of a compound of interest, enabling their detection post-flight – these problems of scale can be avoided. To this end, we are working to engineer cells to synthesize cellulose acetate as a novel bioplastic, characterize biological methods of waterproofing the material, and program this material’s systemic biodegradation. In addition, we aim to use an “amberless” system to prevent horizontal gene transfer from live cells on the material to microorganisms in the flight environment. So far, we have: successfully transformed Gluconacetobacter hansenii, a cellulose-producing bacterium, with a series of promoters to test transformation efficiency before adding the acetylation genes; isolated protein bands present in the wasp nest material; transformed the cellulose-degrading genes into Escherichia coli; and we have confirmed that the amberless construct prevents protein expression in wild-type cells. In addition, as

  15. Pioneer Women in Chaos Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Frank Y


    The general public has been made aware of the research field of "chaos" by the book of that title by James Gleick. This paper will focus on the achievements of Sonya Kovalevskaya, Mary Cartwright, and Mary Tsingou, whose pioneer works were not mentioned in Gleick's book.

  16. Pioneer Mothers' Memorial Forest revisited (United States)

    R.C. Schlesinger; D.T. Funk; P.L. Roth; C.C. Myers


    The area now known as Pioneer Mothers' Memorial Forest was acquired by Joseph Cox in 1816 from the public domain. In 1944, a portion of that property, including the area referred to as Cox Woods, was established as a National Forest Research Natural Area. This beech-maple forest, located in the Knobs area of southern Indiana, is considered to be one of the few...

  17. Willa Cather and Her Pioneering Themes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



      This thesis aims at the elaboration of Willa Cather’s pioneering themes based on her major works spanning over the pro⁃logue and epilogue of American pioneering age. Among which, O Pioneers! and My Antonia applause for the transcendent glory of innovative and enterprising pioneer ladies, declined in A Lost Lady and My Mortal Enemy and substituted with hedonism, affinity reliance and mammonism. In her late years, Cather resurrected her pioneering themes through the recollection of the best bygone time spent in waste west land.

  18. John Dique: dialysis pioneer and political advocate. (United States)

    George, Charles R P


    John Dique (1915-1995) epitomized the internationalism of medicine, the intellectual and manual dexterity of many pioneers of dialysis, and the social concern evinced by many nephrologists. Born in Burma of French, German, British and Indian ancestry; educated in India; an Anglo-Indian who described himself as British without ever having visited Britain; he moved to Australia in 1948 to escape the murderous inter-ethnic conflict that befell multicultural India as it and Pakistan became independent. Settling in Brisbane, he pioneered several novel medical techniques. After inventing some simple equipment to facilitate intravenous therapy, he established a neonatal exchange blood transfusion programme. Then, between 1954 and 1963, he personally constructed and operated two haemodialysis machines with which to treat patients suffering from acute renal failure, the first such treatment performed in Australasia. His patients survival results were, for the era, remarkable. He subsequently helped found the Royal Australasian College of Pathologists and went on to establish a successful private pathology practice. The latter years of his life, however, saw him become a social and political advocate. He fiercely opposed the emerging ideologies of multiculturalism and social liberalism that, he predicted, would seriously damage the national fabric of Western society. Public vilification ensued, his medical achievements disregarded. It does seem likely, however, that in none of the areas that he touched - whether medical, social, or political - has the last word yet been said.

  19. Oral history in radiography: Listening to pioneers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferris, Christine [International Development Facilitator, Robert Winston Building, Faculty of Health and Wellbeing, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield S10 2BP (United Kingdom)], E-mail:; Winslow, Michelle [University of Sheffield, Oral History Society, Academic Unit of Supportive Care, Sykes House, Little Common Lane, Sheffield S11 9NE (United Kingdom)], E-mail:


    We explore the professional value of the collection and analysis of oral histories in the history of radiography. Drawing on oral histories collected from radiographers, we analyse accounts of experiences to identify common themes, some of which are of current significance, whilst others have faded from existence. 15 oral histories were collected from radiographers whose combined practice spans the years 1930-1973. The sample consists of 6 male and 9 female radiographers. Themes identified in the oral histories include radiographers as invisible pioneers who worked in professionally unclaimed territory and their dangerous working environment. The oral histories reveal the working world of the radiographer as having encompassed a practice ethos where challenges became an accepted part of work. We gain insight into less observable aspects of the radiographer's role, the difficulties they faced, how they invented techniques and equipment, and how they managed their practice including protecting the public from ionising radiation sources.

  20. Reminiscence of the Glory of Pioneering Spirits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



      At the end of pioneering age, the women pioneers were substituted by lost ladies from whom the innovation, self-reli⁃ance, tolerance and endurance yielded to nihilism, reliant affinity, mammonism and hedonism. To reminisce the glory of pioneering splendors in the integration with the waste west land spiritually and alienation to the materialized modern society, Cather regressed to the memorable bygones in“The Best Years”, The Professor's House and elegized the spiritual pioneering by means of infusing Christianity into the uncultivated indigenous inhabitants in Death Comes for the Archbishop.

  1. Sir Victor Horsley: pioneer craniopharyngioma surgeon. (United States)

    Pascual, José M; Prieto, Ruth; Mazzarello, Paolo


    Sir Victor Horsley (1857-1916) is considered to be the pioneer of pituitary surgery. He is known to have performed the first surgical operation on the pituitary gland in 1889, and in 1906 he stated that he had operated on 10 patients with pituitary tumors. He did not publish the details of these procedures nor did he provide evidence of the pathology of the pituitary lesions operated on. Four of the patients underwent surgery at the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery (Queen Square, London), and the records of those cases were recently retrieved and analyzed by members of the hospital staff. The remaining cases corresponded to private operations whose records were presumably kept in Horsley's personal notebooks, most of which have been lost. In this paper, the authors have investigated the only scientific monograph providing a complete account of the pituitary surgeries that Horsley performed in his private practice, La Patologia Chirurgica dell'Ipofisi (Surgical Pathology of the Hypophysis), written in 1911 by Giovanni Verga, Italian assistant professor of anatomy at the University of Pavia. They have traced the life and work of this little-known physician who contributed to the preservation of Horsley's legacy in pituitary surgery. Within Verga's pituitary treatise, a full transcription of Horsley's notes is provided for 10 pituitary cases, including the patients' clinical symptoms, surgical techniques employed, intraoperative findings, and the outcome of surgery. The descriptions of the topographical and macroscopic features of two of the lesions correspond unmistakably to the features of craniopharyngiomas, one of the squamous-papillary type and one of the adamantinomatous type. The former lesion was found on necropsy after the patient's sudden death following a temporal osteoplastic craniectomy. Surgical removal of the lesion in the latter case, with the assumed nature of an adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma, was successful. According to the

  2. Salute to some nursing pioneers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.H. Harrison


    Full Text Available This is indeed a very wide meaning for the word, ‘Pioneer’, and it was with some trepidation that I approached this subject. After all, it could end up by being a sort of Biographical Directory of Nurses in South Africa and this is certainly not what our readers would like in this particular journal. In any case, Searle’s History of the Development of Nursing in South Africa covers this field very fully and adequately. So just what sort of people do we regard as pioneers of nursing in our country? Where do we begin? Can one be totally objective about it or would my choice be different from that of readers because of a more subjective attitude.

  3. Sir David Brewster: polarization pioneer (United States)

    Coulson, Kinsell L.


    Sir David Brewster, Scottish physicist of the Nineteenth Century, was one of the pioneers in the investigation of the polarization of light. Every physics student is familiar with the Brewster angle of reflection, and the Brewster neutral point of skylight polarization is a well- known feature in atmospheric optics. He was at one time the most honored natural philosopher in Britain, having received numerous medals plus a knighthood for his work in the polarization of light. This paper, having arisen from my new biography of Brewster, traces his polarization work throughout his most productive period in the first half of the last century. It is of interest to science historians, as well as to those working in the field of polarization phenomena.

  4. Redox pioneer: professor Barry Halliwell. (United States)

    Pervaiz, Shazib


    Professor Barry Halliwell is recognized as a Redox Pioneer because he has published eight articles on redox biology that have been each cited more than 1000 times, and 158 articles that have been each cited more than 100 times. His contributions go back as far as 1976, when he was involved in elucidation of the Foyer-Halliwell-Asada cycle, an efficient mechanism for preventing oxidative damage to chloroplasts. His subsequent work established the important role of iron and zinc in free radical reactions and their relevance to human pathologies. Professor Halliwell is also a leader in developing novel methodology for detecting free radical intermediates in vivo, and his contributions to our knowledge of reactive nitrogen species are highly significant. His sustained excellence won him the top-cited scientist award in the United Kingdom in biomedical sciences in 1999, and in 2003 he was recognized as a highly cited scientist by Institute of Scientific Information (ISI) for work on plant antioxidants, and the same year ranked 28 out of 5494 biochemists/biologists for scientific impact. Two pieces of his scholarly work have been listed as Citation Classics by ISI, and in 2007 his laboratory was ranked number 1 worldwide based on highest citation score in research on free radicals.

  5. The Anomalous Acceleration of the Pioneer Spacecrafts

    CERN Document Server

    de Diego, Jose A


    Radiometric data from the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecrafts have revealed an unexplained constant acceleration of a_A = (8.74 +/- 1.33) x 10^(-10) m s^(-2) towards the Sun, also known as the Pioneer anomaly. Different groups have analyzed the Pioneer data and have got the same results, which rules out computer programming and handling errors. Attempts to explain this phenomenon arguing intrinsic causes on-board the spacecrafts failed or have lead to inconclusive results. Therefore, the Pioneer anomalous acceleration has motivated the interest of researchers to find out explanations that could bring insight upon the forces acting in the outer Solar Systems or a hint to discover new natural laws.

  6. Innovation in education, ICT and pioneer teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Bocconi


    Full Text Available Reflections on the role of "pioneer teachers" as a potential key figure in the innovation process of the school, with particular reference to the European Framework Programme project Ulearn eLearning.


    Berger, Byron R.; Benham, John R.


    The West Pioneer Wilderness Study Area is in the Pioneer Mountains, Beaverhead County, Montana. A mineral-resource study of the area identified eight areas with molybdenum potential, four areas with gold-silver potential, one area with tungsten potential, and one area with barite potential. Several small mines were encountered, but none were accessible for the purposes of resource evaluation. No energy resources were identified in the study.

  8. A salute to the pioneers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    An historical account is given of the pioneers who were instrumental in opening up the electrical frontier and paved the way for its phenomenal growth over the past century. The work of Franklin, Volta and Faraday, experimenters of the 18. and 19. century, is mentioned, along with the musings of Roger Bacon, a 13. century philosopher and scientist who postulated theories about magnetism, and that of William Gilbert of some three centuries later who formulated the definition of 'frictional electricity', noting the properties of attraction created by rubbing together amber and other substances. Mention is also made of the discoveries in the 18. and 19. centuries of Andre Marie Ampere of France, Luigi Galvani of Italy, Georg Simon Ohm and Heinrich Rudolph Hertz of Germany, Hans Christian Oersted of Denmark, Joseph Henry of the United States, William Grove and James Clerk Maxwell of Britain, and Aubrey Fessenden of Canada. An account is given of the discoveries of the Yugoslavian-born Nikola Tesla, whose work bridged the 19. and 20. centuries and who made singularly important contributions to the theory of electrical distribution systems, transformers, arc lights, dynamos, electric motors, steam turbines, thermomagnetics and radio systems. His invention of the polyphase alternating current system in 1888 was the turning point for the age of electricity that pushed the geographical distribution boundaries of electricity beyond the restrictive limitations of direct current used for Thomas Edison's electric light system. His work, with the timely support of George Westinghouse, opened the floodgates to electrical progress to bring new levels of productivity to business and industry and a higher standard of living for everyone. Many of the artifacts and memorabilia associated with the development of electrical technology are preserved in special exhibits and museums throughout the country. Brief accounts of some of the publicly accessible exhibits are

  9. Pioneer neurons of the antennal nervous system project to protocerebral pioneers in the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria. (United States)

    Boyan, George; Ehrhardt, Erica


    The twin nerve tracts of the antenna of the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria are established early in embryogenesis by sibling pairs of pioneers which delaminate from the epithelium into the lumen at the antennal tip. These cells can be uniquely identified via their co-expression of the neuronal labels horseradish peroxidase and the lipocalin Lazarillo. The apical pioneers direct axons toward the antennal base where they encounter guidepost-like cells called base pioneers which transiently express the same molecular labels as the apical pioneers. To what extent the pioneer growth cones then progress into the brain neuropil proper, and what their targets there might be, has remained unclear. In this study, we show that the apical antennal pioneers project centrally beyond the antennal base first into the deutocerebral, and then into the protocerebral brain neuropils. In the protocerebrum, we identify their target circuitry as being identified Lazarillo-positive cells which themselves pioneer the primary axon scaffold of the brain. The apical and base antennal pioneers therefore form part of a molecularly contiguous pathway from the periphery to an identified central circuit of the embryonic grasshopper brain.

  10. Geometrical rectification of spin-scan images from Pioneer 11 (United States)

    Strickland, R. N.; Burke, J. J.


    Images of Saturn received from Pioneer 11 suffer from geometrical distortions due to the curvilinear scan lines and the unequal sampling intervals in orthogonal directions, which are inherent in spin-scan imaging. In this paper geometrical image rectification by polynomial transformation based on control points is discussed. Factors that affect the accuracy of reconstruction are shown to include the spatial distribution and spatial density of control points, and the order of the polynomial distortion model. A computer implementation of the technique is described.

  11. Jupiter after Pioneer - A progress report (United States)

    Mcdonough, T. R.


    In December 1973, Pioneer 10 became the first spacecraft to reach the vicinity of Jupiter. The spacecraft passed through the Jovian magnetosphere in two weeks and sent back more than 300 pictures of the big planet. Measurements were conducted of EM fields, energetic particles, and micrometeoroids. Radio occultations observed are discussed along with observations in the infrared and ultraviolet range, magnetic measurements, questions of trajectory analysis, and data obtained with the aid of a plasma analyzer. Pioneer 10 has confirmed as inescapable the fact that Jupiter radiates more energy than it receives from the sun.

  12. A Pioneer in Social Studies in Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In May 1942, Li Youyi published his book on Han-Bo trade and the economic and educational organizations in Tibetan lamaseries. With 60 years devoted to Tibetan studies, Li is indeed a pioneer in the field. Now, aged 90, he is widely regarded as a sociologist who pioneered social studies in Tibet.Li entered Tibet in 1944 together with Shen Zonglian, Liu Shengqi and Li Maoyi. They belonged to the Office in Charge of Tibetan Affairs, stationed in Lhasa by the Nationalist government. The decision was made following the

  13. Pioneer fauna of nepheline-containing tailings (United States)

    Zenkova, I. V.; Kalmykova, V. V.; Liskovaya, A. A.


    The zoological analysis of nepheline-containing sands deposited in tailings 10-40 years ago showed that the pioneer colonists of this technogenic substrate are collembolan and mites, whose proportions depend on the succession of the bacterial and fungal components of the microbiota. The pioneer groups of mesofauna on 10- to 30-year-old tailings include carnivorous herpetobiontic arthropods and phytophagous insects. An impoverished version of the fauna of northern-taiga podzols is developed in the sands rehabilitated more than 40 years ago.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. de Diego


    Full Text Available Los datos radiométricos de las naves Pioneer 10 y 11 han revelado una aceleración constante no explicada de aA = (8:74+-1:33 X 10-10ms-2 dirigida hacia el Sol, también conocida como la anomalía del Pioneer. Distintos grupos han analizado los datos de los Pioneer y han obtenido los mismos resultados, lo que descarta errores en los códigos de computadora y en el manejo de los datos. Los intentos por explicar este fenómeno argumentando causas intrínsecas a bordo de las naves fracasaron o han conducido a resultados no concluyentes. Debido a esto, la aceleración anómala del Pioneer ha motivado el interés de los investigadores por encontrar explicaciones que puedan echar luz sobre las fuerzas que actúan en el Sistema Solar exterior o que den una pista para descubrir nuevas leyes naturales.

  15. Elwood Murray: Pioneering Methodologist in Communication (United States)

    Brownell, Judi


    Elwood Murray (1897-1988) was a pioneer in communication education. Beginning in the 1930s, he applied nontraditional methods in the speech classroom to encourage students to internalize and apply what they learned, and to view knowledge holistically. Drawing on the work of Kunkel, Moreno, Lewin, and Korzybski, Murray focused on developing skills…

  16. Elwood Murray: Pioneering Methodologist in Communication (United States)

    Brownell, Judi


    Elwood Murray (1897-1988) was a pioneer in communication education. Beginning in the 1930s, he applied nontraditional methods in the speech classroom to encourage students to internalize and apply what they learned, and to view knowledge holistically. Drawing on the work of Kunkel, Moreno, Lewin, and Korzybski, Murray focused on developing skills…

  17. Competing Environmental Ethics in Cooper's "The Pioneers" (United States)

    Mnassar, Sabri


    This essay examines the environmental worthiness of James Fenimore Cooper's "The Pioneers" and analyzes the various and competing environmental ethics that Cooper introduces in this novel through his descriptions of the different relationships between humans and the natural world. Among these different environmental ethics are the…

  18. Pioneers for the Study on Yangshi Lei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张威; 李晓丹


    The architectural graphics and archives of Yangshi Lei collected in the National Library of China and other institutions are of great importance for the research on the architectural history of China. This paper introduces the pioneers for the study on Yangshi Lei and their innovative checkup and research work.

  19. A Pioneer of Collegiate Women's Sports (United States)

    Lum, Lydia


    This article features North Carolina State University's Kay Yow, a pioneer of collegiate women's sports. An Olympic gold medal champion whose entire coaching career has been spent in her home state of North Carolina, Yow has amassed a remarkable lifetime win-loss record of 729-337. She is one of only six coaches to have won at least 700 career…

  20. Lessons Learned from the Pioneers 10/11 for a Mission to Test the Pioneer Anomaly

    CERN Document Server

    Turyshev, S G; Anderson, J D; Turyshev, Slava G.; Nieto, Michael Martin; Anderson, John D.


    Analysis of the radio-metric tracking data from the Pioneer 10/11 spacecraft at distances between 20--70 astronomical units (AU) from the Sun has consistently indicated the presence of an anomalous, small, constant Doppler frequency drift. The drift is a blue-shift, uniformly changing with rate a_t = (2.92 +/- 0.44) x 10^(-18) s/s^2. It can also be interpreted as a constant acceleration of a_P = (8.74 +/- 1.33) x 10^(-8) cm/s^2 directed towards the Sun. Although it is suspected that there is a systematic origin to the effect, none has been found. As a result, the nature of this anomaly has become of growing interest. Here we discuss the details of our recent investigation focusing on the effects both external to and internal to the spacecraft, as well as those due to modeling and computational techniques. We review some of the mechanisms proposed to explain the anomaly and show their inability to account for the observed behavior of the anomaly. We also present lessons learned from this investigation for a po...

  1. Discovering Ourselves by Unfolding Our Panorama: Interviewing Pioneers in Counseling. (United States)

    Heppner, P. Paul; And Others


    Examines significant events that have influenced the personal and professional development of pioneers in the counseling field who have been interviewed in the "Journal of Counseling and Development." Presents some of the pioneers' observations and reflections about counselor training. (ABL)

  2. Chameleon effect and the Pioneer anomaly

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, John D


    The possibility that the apparent anomalous acceleration of the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft may be due, at least in part, to a chameleon field effect is examined. A small spacecraft, with no thin shell, can have a more pronounced anomalous acceleration than a large compact body, such as a planet, having a thin shell. The chameleon effect seems to present a natural way to explain the differences seen in deviations from pure Newtonian gravity for a spacecraft and for a planet, and appears to be compatible with the basic features of the Pioneer anomaly, including the appearance of a jerk term. However, estimates of the size of the chameleon effect indicate that its contribution to the anomalous acceleration is negligible. We conclude that any inverse-square component in the anomalous acceleration is more likely caused by an unmodelled reaction force from solar-radiation pressure, rather than a chameleon field effect.

  3. Pioneers in Astronomy and Space Exploration

    CERN Document Server


    The pioneers of astronomy and space exploration have advanced humankind's understanding of the universe. These individuals include earthbound theorists such as Aristotle, Ptolemy, and Galileo, as well as those who put their lives on the line travelling into the great unknown. Readers chronicle the lives of individuals positioned at the vanguard of astronomical discovery, laying the groundwork for space exploration past, present, and yet to come.

  4. Jupiter's Radiation Belts: Can Pioneer 10 Survive? (United States)

    Hess, W N; Birmingham, T J; Mead, G D


    Model calculations of Jupiter's electron and proton radiation belts indicate that the Galilean satellites can reduce particle fluxes in certain regions of the inner magnetosphere by as much as six orders of magnitude. Average fluxes should be reduced by a factor of 100 or more along the Pioneer 10 trajectory through the heart of Jupiter's radiation belts in early December. This may be enough to prevent serious radiation damage to the spacecraft.

  5. Discovery of directional and nondirectional pioneer transcription factors by modeling DNase profile magnitude and shape. (United States)

    Sherwood, Richard I; Hashimoto, Tatsunori; O'Donnell, Charles W; Lewis, Sophia; Barkal, Amira A; van Hoff, John Peter; Karun, Vivek; Jaakkola, Tommi; Gifford, David K


    We describe protein interaction quantitation (PIQ), a computational method for modeling the magnitude and shape of genome-wide DNase I hypersensitivity profiles to identify transcription factor (TF) binding sites. Through the use of machine-learning techniques, PIQ identified binding sites for >700 TFs from one DNase I hypersensitivity analysis followed by sequencing (DNase-seq) experiment with accuracy comparable to that of chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq). We applied PIQ to analyze DNase-seq data from mouse embryonic stem cells differentiating into prepancreatic and intestinal endoderm. We identified 120 and experimentally validated eight 'pioneer' TF families that dynamically open chromatin. Four pioneer TF families only opened chromatin in one direction from their motifs. Furthermore, we identified 'settler' TFs whose genomic binding is principally governed by proximity to open chromatin. Our results support a model of hierarchical TF binding in which directional and nondirectional pioneer activity shapes the chromatin landscape for population by settler TFs.

  6. Boleslas Matuszewski: Pioneer of medical film-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matanović Dragana


    Full Text Available Boleslas Matuszewski, born in 1856, was a pioneer in medical film-making. He worked simultaneously on improving his movie camera, film-making, collecting film documentation, and the idea of establishing an archive of medical films. Although his first attempts at filming and showing surgical operations didn't gain widespread approval, he was not discouraged, and succeeded in garnering support from a number of French doctors, who realized the importance of his ideas, not only in filming and forming medical film documentation, but also in the use of film for educative purposes. His visionary ideas gained acceptance when Dr. Doyen, on the occasion of the 66th Convention of the British Medical Society, in 1898, used film material as part of his lecture. Shortly afterwards, the Medical Academy took steps to show certain operative techniques, which represented both the confirmation and fruition of Matuszewski's ideas about filmmaking and the establishment of an archive of medical films.

  7. Tripler pioneers telemedicine across the Pacific. (United States)

    Delaplain, C B; Lindborg, C E; Norton, S A; Hastings, J E


    Between January and August 1993, 59 medical teleconsultations were conducted successfully between the video teleconference center at Tripler Army Medical Center on Oahu and the video teleconference center on Kwajalein Atoll in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. This pioneer effort in the Pacific connected 2 archipeligoes separated by more than 2,200 nautical miles. Diagnostic and therapeutic decisions were made in the specialties of orthopedics, dermatology, radiology, urology, pediatrics, ophthalmology and physical therapy. Geographic isolation no longer means limited medical specialty care.

  8. Sigmund Freud: pioneer in energy healing. (United States)

    Edwards, Stephen D; Edwards, David J


    Energy healing is a popular contemporary term for forms of healing that facilitate a natural healing process through harmonizing, rebalancing, and releasing energy flow disturbed or blocked by disease and illness. Biographical evidence indicates that Freud used physical, suggestive, and radiant forms of energy healing, and that his personal life, metapsychology, and psychoanalysis were founded on dynamic, energetic experiences and conceptualizations. Analysis of Freud's life and work leads to the conclusion that in experience, theory, and practice, Freud typified the traditional role of therapist and was a pioneer in modern forms of energy healing.

  9. The "Pioneer effect" a cosmological Foucault's experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Rosales, J L


    The reported anomalous acceleration acting on the Pioneers spacecrafts could be seen as a consequence of the existence of some local curvature in light geodesics when using the coordinate speed of light in an expanding space-time. The effect is related with the non synchronous character of the underlying metric and therefore, planets closed orbits can not reveal it. It is shown that the cosmic expansion rate -the Hubble parameter H- has been indeed detected. Additionally, a relation for an existing annual term is obtained which depends on the cosine of the ecliptic latitude of the spacecraft, suggestingan heuristic analogy between the effect and Foucault's experiment - light rays playing a similar role in the expanding space than Foucault's Pendulum does while determining Earth's rotation. This statement could be seen as a benchmark for future experiments.

  10. Does PIONEER measure local spacetime expansion?

    CERN Document Server

    Fahr, H J; Fahr, Hans-Joerg; Siewert, Mark


    There is a longstanding mystery connected with the radiotracking of distant interplanetary spaceprobes like ULYSSES, Galileo and especially the two NASA probes PIONEER 10 and 11. Comparing radiosignals outgoing from the earth to the probe and ingoing again from the probes do show anomalous frequency shifts which up to now have been explained as caused by anomalous non-Newtonian decelerations of these probes recognizable at solar distances beyond 5 AU. In this paper we study cosmological conditions for the transfer of radiosignals between the Earth and these distant probes. Applying general relativity, we derive both the geodetic deceleration as well as the cosmological redshift and compare the resulting frequency shift with the observed effect. We find that anomalous decelerations do act on these probes which are of cosmological nature, but these are, as expected from standard cosmology, much too low to explain the observed effect. In contrast, the cosmological redshift of radiophotons suffered during the iti...

  11. Thomas K. Jeffers: pioneer of coccidiosis research. (United States)

    Chapman, H D


    Thomas K. Jeffers has made many significant contributions to our understanding of the biology of the parasite Eimeria, the cause of coccidiosis in poultry. His work has had direct practical application for the control of this widespread disease. Topics discussed include Jeffers' pioneering work concerned with genetics of the host response to infection, the nature of biological and immunological intraspecific variation, drug resistance and discovery, field surveys of resistance, and his most recognized achievement-the demonstration that the lifecycle of coccidia may be altered by artificial selection. Parasites so modified are attenuated but retain their immunogenicity, a discovery that has led to the development of live vaccines that are inherently non-pathogenic. This article provides a brief biography and describes the contributions that Jeffers has made to our knowledge of coccidiosis.

  12. A Pioneer of Global Change Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ One summer's day in 1984, a meteorologist came all the way from the United States to Prof. Ye Duzheng, a CAS atmospheric scientist in Beijing, in the hope of establishing cooperative research into global climate change, a field unfamiliar to most scientists in the world at that time. His proposal immediately caught the interest of Ye, who was then president of the Chinese Meteorological Society and vice-president of CAS. Prof. Ye believed it to be an extremely important issue requiring sustained and collaborative attention. Already in his seventies, he found some young researchers to work with him in the field. Two decades later, global change is now recognized as a major science branch. As a pioneer of this branch, Prof. Ye was awarded the prestigious Prize of the World Meteorological Organization in 2003, and honored with China's National Supreme S&T Award in 2005.

  13. Pioneer Venus polarimetry and haze optical thickness (United States)

    Knibbe, W. J. J.; Wauben, W. M. F.; Travis, L. D.; Hovenier, J. W.


    The Pioneer Venus mission provided us with high-resolution measurements at four wavelengths of the linear polarization of sunlight reflected by the Venus atmosphere. These measurements span the complete phase angle range and cover a period of more than a decade. A first analysis of these data by Kawabata et al. confirmed earlier suggestions of a haze layer above and partially mixed with the cloud layer. They found that the haze exhibits large spatial and temporal variations. The haze optical thickness at a wavelength of 365 nm was about 0.06 at low latitudes, but approximately 0.8 at latitudes from 55 deg poleward. Differences between morning and evening terminator have also been reported by the same authors. Using an existing cloud/haze model of Venus, we study the relationship between the haze optical thickness and the degree of linear polarization. Variations over the visible disk and phase angle dependence are investigated. For that purpose, exact multiple scattering computations are compared with Pioneer Venus measurements. To get an impression of the variations over the visible disk, we have first studied scans of the polarization parallel to the intensity equator. After investigating a small subset of the available data we have the following results. Adopting the haze particle characteristics given by Kawabata et al., we find a thickening of the haze at increasing latitudes. Further, we see a difference in haze optical thickness between the northern and southern hemispheres that is of the same order of magnitude as the longitudinal variation of haze thickness along a scan line. These effects are most pronounced at a wavelength of 935 nm. We must emphasize the tentative nature of the results, because there is still an enormous amount of data to be analyzed. We intend to combine further polarimetric research of Venus with constraints on the haze parameters imposed by physical and chemical processes in the atmosphere.

  14. 75 FR 17798 - Pioneer Bond Fund, et al.; Notice of Application (United States)


    ... subsidiary of Pioneer Global Asset Management S.p.A. and its parent UniCredit S.p.A. The Adviser is..., Pioneer Short Term Income Fund, Pioneer Strategic Income Fund, Pioneer Variable Contracts Trust (together, the ``Trusts'') and Pioneer Investment Management, Inc. (the ``Adviser''). Filing Dates: The...

  15. Pioneers! O Pioneers!’ and Whitman’s Early German Translators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Steinroetter


    Full Text Available This response to Kirsten Harris's essay on British socialist reactions to Walt Whitman's poem "Pioneers! O Pioneers!" traces some of the political and cultural issues raised by Harris in the context of Whitman's early German translators, inviting a comparative discussion of key aspects of the poem's transatlantic reception in these two important European cultural contexts. While Whitman's poetry often represented an ideal vehicle for progressive and even revolutionary messages in the eyes of his early German translators, its political complexity and ambiguity allowed it to appeal to translators and readers of different, sometimes even opposed political leanings, both left and right. Given the interest that 'Pioneers!' held for British socialists, as Harris describes, the poem's translation history in Germany provides an intriguing counterpoint in some notable aspects. It seems to have been largely ignored by early German socialists, while for the nationalist Wilhelm Schölermann, one of the first German translators of Whitman's poetry to include the poem in his selection (1904 and single it out for its significance, the poem was of special interest as a vision of what his country could aspire to after a cultural rebirth.

  16. George Ryerson Fowler: Brooklyn's surgical pioneer: a biographical sketch based on historical documents. (United States)

    Kelleher, Mary E; Swan, Kenneth G; Kelleher, Denis P


    The Fowler position, widely used in surgery and obstetrics for patient placement, marks a fraction of 19th-century Brooklyn surgeon George Ryerson Fowler's prodigious accomplishments. Fowler was a pioneer who refined the appendectomy, performed the first lung decortication, advocated for sterile techniques, introduced first aid in the US Army, and helped start a precursor to Annals of Surgery. His publications include the first US textbook on appendicitis--ironically, the disease that killed him.

  17. Osseointegrated prostheses for rehabilitation following amputation : The pioneering Swedish model. (United States)

    Li, Yan; Brånemark, Rickard


    The direct attachment of osseointegrated (OI) prostheses to the skeleton avoids the inherent problems of socket suspension. It also provides physiological weight bearing, improved range of motion in the proximal joint, as well as osseoperceptive sensory feedback, enabling better control of the artificial limbs by amputees. The present article briefly reviews the pioneering efforts on extremity osseointegration surgeries in Sweden and the development of the OPRA (Osseointegrated Prostheses for the Rehabilitation of Amputees) program. The standard implant design of the OPRA system and surgical techniques are described as well as the special rehabilitation protocols based on surgical sites. The results of long-term follow-up for transradial, transhumeral, and thumb amputee operations are briefly reported including the prospective study of transfemoral amputees according to OPRA protocol. The importance of refinement on implant designs and surgical techniques based on the biomechanical analysis and early clinical trials is emphasized. Future aspects on osseointegration surgery are briefly described, including novel treatment options using implanted electrodes.

  18. Grote Reber, Radio Astronomy Pioneer, Dies (United States)


    Grote Reber, one of the earliest pioneers of radio astronomy, died in Tasmania on December 20, just two days shy of his 91st birthday. Reber was the first person to build a radio telescope dedicated to astronomy, opening up a whole new "window" on the Universe that eventually produced such landmark discoveries as quasars, pulsars and the remnant "afterglow" of the Big Bang. His self- financed experiments laid the foundation for today's advanced radio-astronomy facilities. Grote Reber Grote Reber NRAO/AUI photo "Radio astronomy has changed profoundly our understanding of the Universe and has earned the Nobel Prize for several major contributions. All radio astronomers who have followed him owe Grote Reber a deep debt for his pioneering work," said Dr. Fred Lo, director of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). "Reber was the first to systematically study the sky by observing something other than visible light. This gave astronomy a whole new view of the Universe. The continuing importance of new ways of looking at the Universe is emphasized by this year's Nobel Prizes in physics, which recognized scientists who pioneered X-ray and neutrino observations," Lo added. Reber was a radio engineer and avid amateur "ham" radio operator in Wheaton, Illinois, in the 1930s when he read about Karl Jansky's 1932 discovery of natural radio emissions coming from outer space. As an amateur operator, Reber had won awards and communicated with other amateurs around the world, and later wrote that he had concluded "there were no more worlds to conquer" in radio. Learning of Jansky's discovery gave Reber a whole new challenge that he attacked with vigor. Analyzing the problem as an engineer, Reber concluded that what he needed was a parabolic-dish antenna, something quite uncommon in the 1930s. In 1937, using his own funds, he constructed a 31.4-foot-diameter dish antenna in his back yard. The strange contraption attracted curious attention from his neighbors and became

  19. W. Grey Walter, pioneer in the electroencephalogram, robotics, cybernetics, artificial intelligence. (United States)

    Bladin, Peter F


    With the announcement by William Lennox at the 1935 London International Neurology Congress of the use of electroencephalography in the study of epilepsy, it became evident that a new and powerful technique for the investigation of seizures had been discovered. William Grey Walter, a young researcher finishing his post-graduate studies at Cambridge, was selected to construct and study the EEG in clinical neurology at the Maudsley Hospital, London. His hugely productive pioneering career in the use of EEG would eventually lead to groundbreaking work in other fields --the emerging sciences of robotics, cybernetics, and early work in artificial intelligence. In this historical note his pioneering work in the fields of clinical neurophysiology is documented, both in the areas of epileptology and tumour detection. His landmark contributions to clinical neurophysiology are worthy of documentation.

  20. Study on Vegetation Root Strength of Pioneer Plants for Forest Areas in Taiwan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jun-bin; LIANG Da-qing; YE Xu-rong


    Forest plant roots may restrain the occurrence of shallow landslides for forest land and pioneer tree species can also reduce runoff and soil erosion;thus they are useful practical ecological materials for landslide control and erosion control.In this study,two important pioneer plant species;Formosan Alder (Alnus formosana Makino) and Roxburgh Sumac (Rhus chinensis Mill.Var.roxburghi i(DC.) Rehd.) were selected at landslide areas under vegetation treatments for soil and water conservation.In order to obtain the root strength model for the factors affecting pulling resistance and root tensile strength,experimental materials were tested and the data were analyzed using regression techniques.These models could be used to provide the index of slope stability and to quantify the root-strength using non-destructive methods.

  1. Less Mundane Explanation of Pioneer Anomaly from Q-Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smarandache F.


    Full Text Available There have been various explanations of Pioneer blueshift anomaly in the past few years; nonetheless no explanation has been offered from the viewpoint of Q-relativity physics. In the present paper it is argued that Pioneer anomalous blueshift may be caused by Pioneer spacecraft experiencing angular shift induced by similar Q- relativity effect which may also affect Jupiter satellites. By taking into consideration “aether drift” effect, the proposed method as described herein could explain Pioneer blueshift anomaly within 0.26% error range, which speaks for itself. Another new proposition of redshift quantization is also proposed from gravitational Bohr-radius which is consistent with Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization. Further observation is of course recommended in order to refute or verify this proposition.

  2. Does Increased Spending on Pharmaceutical Marketing Inhibit Pioneering Innovation? (United States)

    Arnold, Denis G; Troyer, Jennifer L


    The pharmaceutical industry has been criticized for developing and aggressively marketing drugs that do not provide significant health benefits relative to existing drugs but retain the benefits of patent protection. Critics argue that drug marketing increases health care expenditures and provides a disincentive for pioneering drug innovation. However, evidence that marketing expenditures have any relationship to new drug approvals has been anecdotal. We hypothesized that, at publicly traded pharmaceutical firms, increased marketing expenditures will result in a reduced volume of pioneering new drugs in comparison to less innovative new drugs. We also hypothesized that additional research and development spending will result in an increased volume of pioneering new drugs in comparison to less innovative drugs. Results confirm our hypotheses. Specific policy recommendations for altering firms' incentives for the development of pioneering drugs are provided.

  3. Sir Charles Ballance: pioneer British neurological surgeon. (United States)

    Stone, J L


    nerve regeneration and nerve grafting, and after many years of devoted research, he devised successful operations for facial nerve paralysis. For this and early vascular work, he is often credited as the first English surgeon to reintroduce classical Hunterian methods of experiment into surgery. He was honored as the founder and President of The Society of British Neurological Surgeons in 1926. Perhaps best known as a general and aural surgeon, Ballance was second only to Horsley in reputation as a pioneer British neurological surgeon. Described as a painstakingly slow but delicate and meticulous operator, Ballance made a contribution to neurosurgery and temporal bone surgery that was immense.

  4. Pioneering new approaches. Educating girls in Africa. (United States)

    Namuddu, K


    education. Women's groups are also questioning policies that bar girls from reentering school after a childhood pregnancy. Uganda has a program to help girls resume their studies after pregnancy, but not within the main educational system. Pioneering new approaches is occurring and the Rockefeller Foundation is taking the lead in an 18-member international donor group in supporting the promotion of female education.

  5. 76 FR 83 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Availability of Petition and Environmental Assessment for... (United States)


    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Availability of Petition... has received a petition from Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc., seeking a determination of...) from Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc. (Pioneer) of Johnston, IA, seeking a determination...

  6. Axogenesis in the antennal nervous system of the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria revisited: the base pioneers. (United States)

    Ehrhardt, Erica; Liu, Yu; Boyan, George


    The antennal nervous system of the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria comprises two parallel pathways projecting to the brain, each pioneered early in embryogenesis by a pair of sibling cells located at the antennal tip. En route, the growth cones of pioneers from one pathway have been shown to contact a guidepost-like cell called the base pioneer. Its role in axon guidance remains unclear as do the cellular guidance cues regulating axogenesis in the other pathway supposedly without a base pioneer. Further, while the tip pioneers are known to delaminate from the antennal epithelium into the lumen, the origin of this base pioneer is unknown. Here, we use immunolabeling and immunoblocking methods to clarify these issues. Co-labeling against the neuron-specific marker horseradish peroxidase and the pioneer-specific cell surface glycoprotein Lazarillo identifies not only the tip pioneers but also a base pioneer associated with each of the developing antennal pathways. Both base pioneers co-express the mesodermal label Mes3, consistent with a lumenal origin, whereas the tip pioneers proved Mes3-negative confirming their affiliation with the ectodermal epithelium. Lazarillo antigen expression in the antennal pioneers followed a different temporal dynamic: continuous in the tip pioneers, but in the base pioneers, only at the time their filopodia and those of the tip pioneers first recognize one another. Immunoblocking of Lazarillo expression in cultured embryos disrupts this recognition resulting in misguided axogenesis in both antennal pathways.

  7. Sophus Peter Tromholt: an outstanding pioneer in auroral research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Moss


    Full Text Available The Danish school teacher Sophus Peter Tromholt (1851–1896 was self-taught in physics, astronomy, and auroral sciences. Still, he was one of the brightest auroral researchers of the 19th century. He was the first scientist ever to organize and analyse correlated auroral observations over a wide area (entire Scandinavia moving away from incomplete localized observations. Tromholt documented the relation between auroras and sunspots and demonstrated the daily, seasonal and solar cycle-related variations in high-latitude auroral occurrence frequencies. Thus, Tromholt was the first ever to deduce from auroral observations the variations associated with what is now known as the auroral oval termed so by Khorosheva (1962 and Feldstein (1963 more than 80 yr later. He made reliable and accurate estimates of the heights of auroras several decades before this important issue was finally settled through Størmer's brilliant photographic technique. In addition to his three major scientific works (Tromholt, 1880a, 1882a, and 1885a, he wrote numerous short science notes and made huge efforts to collect historical auroral observations (Tromholt, 1898. Furthermore, Tromholt wrote a large number of popular science articles in newspapers and journals and made lecture tours all over Scandinavia and Germany, contributing to enhance the public educational level and awareness. He devoted most of his life to auroral research but as a self-taught scientist, he received little acclaim within the contemporary academic scientific society. With his non-academic background, trained at a college of education – not a university – he was never offered a position at a university or a research institution. However, Sophus Tromholt was an outstanding pioneer in auroral research.

  8. Art of color holography: pioneers in change (United States)

    Richardson, Martin J.; Bjelkhagen, Hans I.


    The possibility to easily record full color holograms, (simply color holograms) has opened new possibilities for art holographers. This paper includes details concerning preparation of subject matter and its practical suitability for color holographic recordings from practical working sessions at ARTCAPI Atelier de Recherche Technique et de Creation Artistique en Physique et en Informatique in France. Martin Richardson as invited artist and Hans Bjelkhagen as scientist holographer describe color holography to a wider public audience through artistic display. Both directly recorded true color images and computer-generated images based on the ZEBRA printing technique are to be presented.

  9. Support for Temporally Varying Behavior of the Pioneer Anomaly from the Extended Pioneer 10 and 11 Doppler Data Sets (United States)

    Turyshev, Slava G.; Toth, Viktor T.; Ellis, Jordan; Markwardt, Craig B.


    The Pioneer anomaly is a small sunward anomalous acceleration found in the trajectory analysis of the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft. As part of the investigation of the effect, the analysis of recently recovered Doppler data for both spacecraft has been completed. The presence of a small anomalous acceleration is confirmed by using data spans more than twice as long as those that were previously analyzed. We examine the constancy and direction of the Pioneer anomaly and conclude that (i) the data favor a temporally decaying anomalous acceleration (˜2×10-11m/s2/yr) with an over 10% improvement in the residuals compared to a constant acceleration model, (ii) although the direction of the acceleration remains imprecisely determined, we find no support in favor of a Sun-pointing direction over the Earth-pointing or along the spin-axis directions, and (iii) support for an early “onset” of the acceleration remains weak in the pre-Saturn Pioneer 11 tracking data. We present these new findings and discuss their implications for the nature of the Pioneer anomaly.

  10. Effect of anti-biofouling potential of multi-walled carbon nanotubes-filled polydimethylsiloxane composites on pioneer microbial colonization. (United States)

    Sun, Yuan; Lang, Yanhe; Sun, Qian; Liang, Shuang; Liu, Yongkang; Zhang, Zhizhou


    In this paper, two carbon nanotube (CNT) nanofillers, namely the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and the carboxyl-modified MWCNTs (cMWCNTs), were introduced into the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix respectively, in order to produce the PDMS composites with reinforced anti-biofouling properties. The anti-biofouling capacity of the silicone-based coatings, including the unfilled PDMS (P0), the MWCNTs-filled PDMS (PM) and the cMWCNTs-filled PDMS (PC), was examined via the field assays conducted in Weihai, China. The effect of different silicone-based coatings on the dynamic variations of the pioneer microbial-community diversity was analyzed using the single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) technique. The PM and PC surfaces have exhibited excellent anti-biofouling properties in contrast to that of the PDMS surface, with extremely low attachment of the early colonizers, such as juvenile invertebrates, seaweeds and algae sporelings. The PM and PC surfaces can effectively prevent biofouling for more than 12 weeks. These combined results suggest that the incorporation of MWCNTs or cMWCNTs into the PDMS matrix can dramatically reinforce its anti-biofouling properties. The SSCP analysis reveals that compared with the PDMS surfaces, the PM and PC surfaces have strong modulating effect on the pioneer prokaryotic and eukaryotic communities, particularly on the colonization of pioneer eukaryotic microbes. The significantly reduced pioneer eukaryotic-community diversity may contribute to the weakening of the subsequent colonization of macrofoulers.

  11. VISTA: Pioneering New Survey Telescope Starts Work (United States)


    A new telescope - VISTA (the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy) - has just started work at ESO's Paranal Observatory and has made its first release of pictures. VISTA is a survey telescope working at infrared wavelengths and is the world's largest telescope dedicated to mapping the sky. Its large mirror, wide field of view and very sensitive detectors will reveal a completely new view of the southern sky. Spectacular new images of the Flame Nebula, the centre of our Milky Way galaxy and the Fornax Galaxy Cluster show that it is working extremely well. VISTA is the latest telescope to be added to ESO's Paranal Observatory in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile. It is housed on the peak adjacent to the one hosting the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) and shares the same exceptional observing conditions. VISTA's main mirror is 4.1 metres across and is the most highly curved mirror of this size and quality ever made - its deviations from a perfect surface are less than a few thousandths of the thickness of a human hair - and its construction and polishing presented formidable challenges. VISTA was conceived and developed by a consortium of 18 universities in the United Kingdom [1] led by Queen Mary, University of London and became an in-kind contribution to ESO as part of the UK's accession agreement. The telescope design and construction were project-managed by the Science and Technology Facilities Council's UK Astronomy Technology Centre (STFC, UK ATC). Provisional acceptance of VISTA was formally granted by ESO at a ceremony at ESO's Headquarters in Garching, Germany, attended by representatives of Queen Mary, University of London and STFC, on 10 December 2009 and the telescope will now be operated by ESO. "VISTA is a unique addition to ESO's observatory on Cerro Paranal. It will play a pioneering role in surveying the southern sky at infrared wavelengths and will find many interesting targets for further study by the Very Large Telescope, ALMA and

  12. "Mid-Week Pictorial": Pioneer American Photojournalism Magazine. (United States)

    Kenney, Keith

    In 1914 (22 years before the inception of "Life" magazine), the "New York Times" began publishing "Mid-Week Pictorial" to absorb a flood of war pictures pouring in from Europe. Several sociological and technological forces shaped "Mid-Week Pictorial" as a pioneer of American photojournalism magazines,…

  13. Greenness: Pioneering a New Path of Ecological Civilization Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    liang Yong; Gong Jianfei


    In May 2015,The Opinion on Accelerating Ecological Civilization Construction by the CPC Central Committee and the State Council for the first time conceives the concept of greenness,and requests the coordinate promotion of new-type industrialization,urbanization,informationization,cultural modernization and greenness.Greenness is a profound innovation from theory to practice,pioneers a new path of

  14. Intraguild predation in pioneer predator communities of alpine glacier forelands. (United States)

    Raso, Lorna; Sint, Daniela; Mayer, Rebecca; Plangg, Simon; Recheis, Thomas; Brunner, Silvia; Kaufmann, Rüdiger; Traugott, Michael


    Pioneer communities establishing themselves in the barren terrain in front of glacier forelands consist principally of predator species such as carabid beetles and lycosid spiders. The fact that so many different predators can co-inhabit an area with no apparent primary production was initially explained by allochthonous material deposited in these forelands. However, whether these populations can be sustained on allochthonous material alone is questionable and recent studies point towards this assumption to be flawed. Intraguild predation (IGP) might play an important role in these pioneer predator assemblages, especially in the very early successional stages where other prey is scarce. Here, we investigated IGP between the main predator species and their consumption of Collembola, an important autochthonous alternative prey, within a glacier foreland in the Ötztal (Austrian Alps). Multiplex PCR and stable isotope analysis were used to characterize the trophic niches in an early and late pioneer stage over 2 years. Results showed that intraguild prey was consumed by all invertebrate predators, particularly the larger carabid species. Contrary to our initial hypothesis, the DNA detection frequency of IGP prey was not significantly higher in early than in late pioneer stage, which was corroborated by the stable isotope analysis. Collembola were the most frequently detected prey in all of the predators, and the overall prey DNA detection patterns were consistent between years. Our findings show that IGP appears as a constant in these pioneer predator communities and that it remains unaffected by successional changes. © 2014 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Support for temporally varying behavior of the Pioneer anomaly from the extended Pioneer 10 and 11 Doppler data sets

    CERN Document Server

    Turyshev, Slava G; Ellis, Jordan; Markwardt, Craig B


    The Pioneer anomaly is a small sunward anomalous acceleration found in the trajectory analysis of the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft. As part of the investigation of the effect, analysis of recently recovered Doppler data for both spacecraft has been completed. The presence of a small anomalous acceleration is confirmed using data spans more than twice as long as those that were previously analyzed. We examine the constancy and direction of the Pioneer anomaly, and conclude that: i) the data favor a temporally decaying anomalous acceleration (~2\\times 10^{-11} m/s^2/yr) with an over 10% improvement in the residuals compared to a constant acceleration model; ii) although the direction of the acceleration remains imprecisely determined, we find no support in favor of a Sun-pointing direction over the Earth-pointing or along the spin-axis directions, and iii) support for an early "onset" of the acceleration remains weak in the pre-Saturn Pioneer 11 tracking data. We present these new findings and discuss their imp...

  16. 76 FR 33306 - Medicare Program; Pioneer Accountable Care Organization Model, Request for Applications; Correction (United States)


    ... Care Organization Model: Request for Applications.'' FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Maria Alexander... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Medicare Program; Pioneer Accountable...

  17. Carl Størmer Auroral Pioneer

    CERN Document Server

    Egeland, Alv


    This biography summarizes the seminal contributions to auroral and space science of Carl Størmer (1874 - 1957). He was the first to develop precise photographic methods to calculate heights and morphologies of diverse auroral forms during four solar cycles. Størmer independently devised numerical techniques to determine the trajectories of high-energy charged particles allowed and forbidden in the Earth’s magnetic field. His theoretical analyses explained cosmic ray access to the upper atmosphere, 20 years before they were identified by other scientists. Størmer’s crowning achievement, “The Polar Aurora,” published when he was 81 years old, stands to this day as a regularly cited guide in graduate-level courses on space physics.   The authors present the life of this prodigious scientist in relation to the cultural life of early 20th century in Norway and to the development of the space sciences in the post-Sputnik era.

  18. LipidPioneer : A Comprehensive User-Generated Exact Mass Template for Lipidomics (United States)

    Ulmer, Candice Z.; Koelmel, Jeremy P.; Ragland, Jared M.; Garrett, Timothy J.; Bowden, John A.


    Lipidomics, the comprehensive measurement of lipid species in a biological system, has promising potential in biomarker discovery and disease etiology elucidation. Advances in chromatographic separation, mass spectrometric techniques, and novel substrate applications continue to expand the number of lipid species observed. The total number and type of lipid species detected in a given sample are generally indicative of the sample matrix examined (e.g., serum, plasma, cells, bacteria, tissue, etc.). Current exact mass lipid libraries are static and represent the most commonly analyzed matrices. It is common practice for users to manually curate their own lists of lipid species and adduct masses; however, this process is time-consuming. LipidPioneer, an interactive template, can be used to generate exact masses and molecular formulas of lipid species that may be encountered in the mass spectrometric analysis of lipid profiles. Over 60 lipid classes are present in the LipidPioneer template and include several unique lipid species, such as ether-linked lipids and lipid oxidation products. In the template, users can add any fatty acyl constituents without limitation in the number of carbons or degrees of unsaturation. LipidPioneer accepts naming using the lipid class level (sum composition) and the LIPID MAPS notation for fatty acyl structure level. In addition to lipid identification, user-generated lipid m/z values can be used to develop inclusion lists for targeted fragmentation experiments. Resulting lipid names and m/z values can be imported into software such as MZmine or Compound Discoverer to automate exact mass searching and isotopic pattern matching across experimental data.

  19. LipidPioneer : A Comprehensive User-Generated Exact Mass Template for Lipidomics (United States)

    Ulmer, Candice Z.; Koelmel, Jeremy P.; Ragland, Jared M.; Garrett, Timothy J.; Bowden, John A.


    Lipidomics, the comprehensive measurement of lipid species in a biological system, has promising potential in biomarker discovery and disease etiology elucidation. Advances in chromatographic separation, mass spectrometric techniques, and novel substrate applications continue to expand the number of lipid species observed. The total number and type of lipid species detected in a given sample are generally indicative of the sample matrix examined (e.g., serum, plasma, cells, bacteria, tissue, etc.). Current exact mass lipid libraries are static and represent the most commonly analyzed matrices. It is common practice for users to manually curate their own lists of lipid species and adduct masses; however, this process is time-consuming. LipidPioneer, an interactive template, can be used to generate exact masses and molecular formulas of lipid species that may be encountered in the mass spectrometric analysis of lipid profiles. Over 60 lipid classes are present in the LipidPioneer template and include several unique lipid species, such as ether-linked lipids and lipid oxidation products. In the template, users can add any fatty acyl constituents without limitation in the number of carbons or degrees of unsaturation. LipidPioneer accepts naming using the lipid class level (sum composition) and the LIPID MAPS notation for fatty acyl structure level. In addition to lipid identification, user-generated lipid m/z values can be used to develop inclusion lists for targeted fragmentation experiments. Resulting lipid names and m/z values can be imported into software such as MZmine or Compound Discoverer to automate exact mass searching and isotopic pattern matching across experimental data.

  20. 75 FR 32356 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated Status for Genetically... (United States)


    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Determination of... line developed by Pioneer Hi-Bred International, designated as transformation event 305423, which has... evaluation of data submitted by Pioneer Hi-Bred International in its petition for a determination...

  1. 78 FR 32231 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Availability of Plant Pest Risk Assessment, Environmental... (United States)


    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Availability of Plant... regarding a request from Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc., seeking a determination of nonregulated status... regulated under 7 CFR part 340. APHIS received a petition (APHIS Petition Number 11-063-01p) from Pioneer...

  2. 76 FR 37767 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated Status for Corn Genetically... (United States)


    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Determination of... determination that a corn line developed by Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc., designated as event DP-32138-1... on our evaluation of data submitted by Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc., in its petition for...

  3. 78 FR 37201 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated Status of Maize Genetically... (United States)


    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Determination of... determination that a maize line developed by Pioneer Hi-Bred International Inc., designated as maize event DP... on our evaluation of data submitted by Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc., in its petition for...

  4. 76 FR 34712 - Medicare Program; Pioneer Accountable Care Organization Model; Extension of the Submission... (United States)


    ...: This notice extends the deadlines for the submission of the Pioneer Accountable Care Organization Model...-coordinated-care-models/pioneer-aco . Application Submission Deadline: Applications must be postmarked on or before August 19, 2011. The Pioneer Accountable Care Organization Model ] Application is available...

  5. 75 FR 2592 - Pioneer Industrial Railway Co.-Trackage Rights Exemption-Central Illinois Railroad Company (United States)


    ... Surface Transportation Board Pioneer Industrial Railway Co.--Trackage Rights Exemption-- Central Illinois...) has agreed to grant non-exclusive local trackage rights to Pioneer Industrial Railway Co. (PIRY) over... Kellar Branch. See STB Docket No. AB-1056X, Pioneer Industrial Railway Co.--Discontinuance of Service...

  6. Pioneers of paediatrics: Professor Salah Abdelrahman Ali Taha (United States)


    This article highlights the contributions of Professor Salah Abdelrahman Ali Taha (1927–1988), one of the pioneers in paediatrics in Sudan and Saudi Arabia. He graduated from Kitchener School of Medicine (renamed, Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum[U of K]) in 1952 and was awarded an MD from the U of K in 1973, having accomplished a survey on the prevalence and underlying causes of childhood malnutrition in 14 villages. His impact was remarkable in establishing child health services in Sudan and Saudi Arabia, and in laying the foundation of the Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, King Saud University. He was also an active researcher in various fields in child health, and was pioneering in those related to nutrition. Following his return to Sudan, Dr Salah A Taha was elected Member of Parliament from his rural district in Gezira State and was the Speaker of the House of Parliament in 1986. PMID:27493360

  7. Solar wind stream structure at large heliocentric distances Pioneer observations (United States)

    Gazis, P. R.


    Time profiles and histograms of plasma data from Pioneers 10 and 11 are examined for the period between 1975 and 1983. During this time, Pioneer 10 traveled between a heliocentric distance of 8.7 and 30.4 AU. The velocity structure of the solar wind at these heliocentric distances is found to have one of two distinct forms: approximately 70 percent of the time the solar wind has a nearly flat velocity profile. Occasionally, this flat velocity profile is accompanied by quasi-periodic variations in density and in thermal speed consistent with the concept that the 'corotating interaction regions' which are produced by the interaction of high- and low-speed streams at intermediate heliocentric distances are replaced by 'pressure regions' in the outer heliosphere. The remaining 30 percent of the time the solar wind is marked by large (50-200 km/s) long-term (30-120 days) shifts in the average solar wind velocity.

  8. A Quick and Dirty Approach to Verify the Pioneer Anomaly

    CERN Document Server

    Unzicker, A; Schmidle, Daniel; Unzicker, Alexander


    We present source code for the computer algebra system Mathematica that analyzes the motion of the Pioneer spacecraft using the public available ephemeris data from JPL's website. Within 15 minutes, the reader can verify that the Pioneer anomalous acceleration a_p (1) exists in the order of magnitude of c H_0, (2) is not due to mismodeling of gravitational attraction, solar pressure or spacecraft attitude maneuvers. The simple code of about 100 lines may easily be extended by the reader to include further tests. Due to the limitations of our approach, we do not know (1) whether the unknown raw data were correctly processed to generate the trajectory files (2) how the apparent mismatch of ephemerides before 1990 had occurred.

  9. Before Franz Boas: Pioneering Women in American Anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Tarducci


    Full Text Available One consequence of the impact of the feminist movement in anthropological theory and practice was the recovery of the life and work of women who, despite occupying a peripheral site, made significant contributions to the field. In this paper I focus on the trajectories of these pioneers who, in a time of fast socioeconomic changes (last decades or xix Century and the early xx Century and despite they were self taught, were fundamental to the professionalization of anthropology.

  10. Pioneer 10 studies of interplanetary shocks at large heliocentric distances (United States)

    Mihalov, J. D.; Wolfe, J. H.


    Pioneer 10 Ames plasma analyzer data collected in the 6.1 to 12.6 AU range of heliocentric distances (November 1974 to April 1977) have been examined for interplanetary shock waves. Eighteen shock signatures have been identified, with four of these being of the reverse type and the remainder the forward type. Sonic Mach numbers in the range from 3 to 10 are estimated for these events.

  11. Pioneers in Pediatric Psychology: Integrating Nutrition and Child Development Interventions


    Black, Maureen M.


    As part of the Pioneers in Pediatric Psychology series, this article provides a brief personal account of Maureen Black's career as a pediatric psychologist. It traces the transition of the Society of Pediatric Psychology (SPP) from a section of the Division of Clinical Psychology of the American Psychological Association (APA) to an independent division of APA, which occurred during my presidency of SPP. The article addresses three aspects of pediatric psychology that have been central to my...

  12. Long-term persistence of pioneer species in tropical forest soil seed banks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalling, J W; Brown, T A


    In tropical forests, pioneer species regenerate from seeds dispersed directly into canopy gaps, and from seeds that persisted in soil seed banks before gap formation. However, life-history models suggest that selection for long-term persistence of seeds in soil should be weak, as persistence incurs a fitness cost resulting from prolonged generation time. We use a carbon dating technique to provide the first direct measurements of seed persistence in undisturbed tropical forest seed banks. We show that seeds germinate successfully from surface soil microsites up to 38 years after dispersal. Decades-long persistence may be common in pioneers with relatively large mass, and appears to be unrelated to specific regeneration requirements. In Croton billbergianus, a sub-canopy tree that recruits in abundant small gaps, long-term persistence is associated with short-distance ballistic seed dispersal. In Trema micrantha, a canopy tree with widespread dispersal, persistence is associated with a requirement for large gaps that form infrequently in old-growth forest.

  13. 77 FR 35959 - Atlas Pipeline Mid-Continent WestTex, LLC; Pioneer Natural Resources USA, Inc.; Notice of... (United States)


    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Atlas Pipeline Mid-Continent WestTex, LLC; Pioneer Natural Resources...Tex, LLC (Atlas) and Pioneer Natural Resources USA, Inc. (Pioneer), filed in the above referenced..., Pioneer Natural Resources USA, Inc., 5205 North O'Connor Blvd., Suite 200, Irving, TX 75039, by...

  14. Alexis Carrel (1873-1944): visionary vascular surgeon and pioneer in organ transplantation. (United States)

    Aida, Lai


    Alexis Carrel was a French surgeon in the 20th century. He made significant contributions to many advances in the fields of vascular surgery, cardiothoracic surgery and organ transplantation. He demonstrated that blood vessels can be united end-to-end and pioneered the triangulation suturing technique in vascular anastomosis. The methods he developed are still in use to this day. He insisted on the importance of absolute asepsis in vascular surgery when such practices were almost unheard of. He was also considered the father of solid organ transplantation. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in recognition of his work. Together with Charles Lindbergh, he developed the extracorporeal perfusion pump to keep organs alive outside the human body. His contribution to medicine also extended to tissue culture and wound management. He was one of the most controversial figures of his generation, believing in the idea of genetic superiority and eugenics and he was associated with fascism in the 1930s.

  15. The Pioneer's Anomalous Doppler Drift as a Berry Phase

    CERN Document Server

    Rosales, J L


    The detected anomalous frequency drift acceleration in Pioneer's radar data finds its explanation in a Berry phase that obtains the quantum state of a photon that propagates within an expanding space-time. The clock acceleration is just the adiabatic expansion rate and an analogy between the effect and Foucault's experiment is fully suggested. In this sense, light rays play a similar role in the expanding space than Foucault's Pendulum does while determining Earth's rotation. On the other hand, one could speculate about a suitable future experiment at "laboratory" scales able to measure the local cosmological expansion rate using the procedure of outlined in this paper.

  16. On the gravitational origin of the Pioneer Anomaly

    CERN Document Server

    Siutsou, I A


    From Doppler tracking data and data on circular motion of astronomical objects we obtain a metric of the Pioneer Anomaly. The metric resolves the issue of manifest absence of anomaly acceleration in orbits of the outer planets and extra-Pluto objects of the Solar system. However, it turns out that the energy-momentum tensor of matter, which generates such a gravitational field in GR, violates energy dominance conditions. At the same time the equation of state derived from the energy-momentum tensor is that of dark energy with $w=-1/3$. So the model proposed must be carefully studied by "Grand-Fit" investigations.

  17. HTRF(®): pioneering technology for high-throughput screening. (United States)

    Degorce, François


    Cisbio international pioneered the field of homogeneous fluorescence methodologies and time-resolved fluorescence resonance in particular, through its proprietary technology, HTRF(®). The development was based on Prof. Jean-Marie Lehn's research on rare earth fluorescence properties (awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1987) and on Cisbio's expertise in homogenous time-resolved fluorescence (HTRF). The technology is used in assay development and drug screening, most notably in high-throughput screening applications. This highly powerful technology is particularly applied to the areas of G-protein-coupled receptor and kinase screening, as well as a series of targets related to inflammation, metabolic diseases and CNS disorders.

  18. A century of influence: Part 1. Orthodontic pioneers. (United States)

    Burke, Chris


    The story of orthodontics during the first 100 years of Journal publication can be told through the people who lived it. As part of the American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics' Centennial Celebration, we present 100 people who most influenced the specialty during the last 100 years. Part 1 describes the orthodontic pioneers who were born in the 1800 s. They were broadly educated in the sciences, and most studied orthodontics with Angle, Dewey, or Lischer. They were innovators and inventors, and they laid the foundation of the specialty during the early years of the 20th century.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Rabil


    Full Text Available This article explores the ideology of Fathi Yakan, the pioneer of Sunni Islamism in Lebanon and a principal founder of the Islamist party al-­‐Jama'a al-­‐Islamiya.  It also traces the establishment of  al_Jama'a as the first organized Islamist party in Lebanon.  As Secretary General of al-­‐Jama'a, Fathi Yakan blazed the ideological trail for Islamism's participation in Lebanon's political realm.  Significantly, Yakan's political activism, in much the same vein as that of Druze "Socialist" Kamal Jumblat, was also more about removing Maronite hegemony over the state.

  20. SNAP 19 Pioneer F and G. Final Report (United States)


    The generator developed for the Pioneer mission evolved from the SNAP 19 RTG`s launched aboard the NIMBUS III spacecraft. In order to satisfy the power requirements and environment of earth escape trajectory, significant modifications were made to the thermoelectric converter, heat source, and structural configuration. Specifically, a TAGS 2N thermoelectric couple was designed to provide higher efficiency and improved long term power performance, and the electrical circuitry was modified to yield very low magnetic field from current flow in the RTG. A new heat source was employed to satisfy operational requirements and its integration with the generator required alteration to the method of providing support to the fuel capsule.

  1. Women in science 50 fearless pioneers who changed the world

    CERN Document Server

    Ignotofsky, Rachel


    A charmingly illustrated and educational book, New York Times best seller Women in Science highlights the contributions of fifty notable women to the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) from the ancient to the modern world. Full of striking, singular art, this fascinating collection also contains infographics about relevant topics such as lab equipment, rates of women currently working in STEM fields, and an illustrated scientific glossary. The trailblazing women profiled include well-known figures like primatologist Jane Goodall, as well as lesser-known pioneers such as Katherine Johnson, the African-American physicist and mathematician who calculated the trajectory of the 1969 Apollo 11 mission to the moon.

  2. Unique pioneer microbial communities exposed to volcanic sulfur dioxide (United States)

    Fujimura, Reiko; Kim, Seok-Won; Sato, Yoshinori; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Kamijo, Takashi; Ohta, Hiroyuki


    Newly exposed volcanic substrates contain negligible amounts of organic materials. Heterotrophic organisms in newly formed ecosystems require bioavailable carbon and nitrogen that are provided from CO2 and N2 fixation by pioneer microbes. However, the knowledge of initial ecosystem developmental mechanisms, especially the association between microbial succession and environmental change, is still limited. This study reports the unique process of microbial succession in fresh basaltic ash, which was affected by long-term exposure to volcanic sulfur dioxide (SO2). Here we compared the microbial ecosystems among deposits affected by SO2 exposure at different levels. The results of metagenomic analysis suggested the importance of autotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria, particularly those involved in CO2 and N2 fixation, in the heavily SO2 affected site. Changes in the chemical properties of the deposits after the decline of the SO2 impact led to an apparent decrease in the iron-oxidizer abundance and a possible shift in the microbial community structure. Furthermore, the community structure of the deposits that had experienced lower SO2 gas levels showed higher similarity with that of the control forest soil. Our results implied that the effect of SO2 exposure exerted a selective pressure on the pioneer community structure by changing the surrounding environment of the microbes.

  3. On the possible onset of the Pioneer anomaly

    CERN Document Server

    Feldman, Michael R


    We explore the possibility that the observed onset of the Pioneer anomaly after Saturn encounter by Pioneer 11 is not necessarily due to mismodeling of solar radiation pressure but instead reflects a physically relevant characteristic of the anomaly itself. We employ the principles of a recently proposed cosmological model termed "the theory of inertial centers" along with an understanding of the fundamental assumptions taken by the Deep Space Network (DSN) to attempt to model this sudden onset. Due to an ambiguity that arises from the difference in the DSN definition of expected light-time with light-time according to the theory of inertial centers, we are forced to adopt a seemingly arbitrary convention to relate DSN-assumed clock-rates to physical clock-rates for this model. We offer a possible reason for adopting the convention employed in our analysis; however, we remain skeptical. Nevertheless, with this convention, one finds that this theory is able to replicate the previously reported Hubble-like beha...

  4. Doomed pioneers: Event deposition and bioturbation in anaerobic marine environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimm, K.A. (Univ. of California, Santa Cruz (USA)); Follmi, K.B. (Geologisches Institut, Zurich (Switzerland))


    Isolated horizons of Thalassinoides and Gyrolithes burrows, in exclusive association with gravity flow deposits within otherwise unbioturbated sediments, indicate that event deposition in oxygen-depleted sedimentary environments may be accompanied by the appearance of allochthonous infauna. In the Miocene Monterey Formation of Alta California and in the Oligocene-Miocene San Gregorio Formation of Baja California Sur, the authors observe compelling evidence that some turbulent sedimentation events entrain living decapod crustaceans. Upon deposition in anaerobic environments, these imported burrowers rework substantial quantities of laminated, commonly organic-rich sediment, in an environment from which they were previously excluded. The persistence of oxygen-depleted environmental conditions limits the survival time of these transported infaunal dwellers and renders them doomed pioneers. The occurrence of Thalassinoides and Gyrolithes, ichnogenera that are generally observed in normal-marine, neritic environments, in anoxic hemipelagic host sediments have been problematic for paleoenvironmental interpretation; in some cases, these features have been incorrectly interpreted to indicate bottom water ventilation and reoxygenation on a basin-wide scale. Accurate recognition of doomed pioneer trace fossil assemblages will permit more precise understanding of paleo-oxygen levels and basin history.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Greaves


    Full Text Available For over 20 years NASA has struggled to nd an explanation for the Pioneer anomaly, an unmodelled weak acceleration towards the sun (= 8:5 x 10-10 m s-2, observed in deep space probes Pioneer 10, 11, Galileo and Ulysses (Anderson et al. 1998, 1999; Katz 1999. No consensus explanation has been given since the anomaly was rst announced, suggesting that new physics is involved. The riddle may be solved if we assume that c, the speed of light, is not a universal constant. Newtonian mechanics, together with the hypothesis by C spedes-Cur (2002 that the index of refraction is a function of the gravitational energy density of space, leads to values of c slightly higher for interstellar space dominated by the primordial energy density p* due to galaxies and far away stars, far from the gravitational in uence of Earth, Moon, and Sun. The value derived for the index of refraction of space (n0 < 1, implies a Doppler shift of the radio signal received from the probes which results in a decrease of the frequency received at Earth and interpreted as a weak acceleration towards the Sun.

  6. Implications of the Pioneer Anomaly for the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna


    Defrere, Denis


    The Doppler tracking data from two deep-space spacecraft, Pioneer 10 and 11, show an anomalous blueshift, which has been dubbed the “Pioneer anomaly”. The effect is most commonly interpreted as a real deceleration of the spacecraft - an interpretation that faces serious challenges from planetary ephemerides. The Pioneer anomaly could as well indicate an unknown effect on the radio signal itself. Several authors have made suggestions how such a blueshift could be related to cosmology. We consi...

  7. Propagation of a large Forbush decrease in cosmic-ray intensity past the earth, Pioneer 11 at 34 AU and Pioneer 10 at 53 AU (United States)

    Van Allen, James A.; Fillius, R. W.


    Observations of a large Forbush decrease in cosmic-ray intensity at the earth, Pioneer II and Pioneer 10 are reported. The Pioneer 10 data show a large impulsive decrease in cosmic-ray intensity at the greatest distance from the sun observed to date. The apparent radial speed of propagation of the Forbush decrease was about 820 km/s, independent of the radial distance. The observations reported here and similar previous observations provide the basis for a new quantitative model of the propagation of Forbush decreases in the outer heliosphere.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozila Kana


    Full Text Available The changing landscape of the global terrorism threat coupled with increasing concern about home grown extremism means that the need to tackle the root causes of radicalisation across the European Union has never been greater. The pathway to violent extremism and terrorism is, however, undeniably complex. Frontline practitioners working with those vulnerable to radicalisation need to have the right tools to allow them to recognise, respond to and challenge ideologies and narratives associated with any form of terrorism. A pioneering EU Commission funded project is the first of its kind designed to offer consistency around, and increase awareness of, counter radicalisation specifically for frontline practitioners. Improving Security by Democratic Participation (ISDEP is a two year programme based on the EU Commission’s Prevent strand of the Counter Terrorism Strategy. Training themes focus on helping practitioners to identify the influences and vulnerabilities that shape an individual’s thought processes towards violent extremism.

  9. A tribute to Oscar Buneman -- Pioneer of plasma simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buneman, R.; Barker, R.J. (Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Washington, DC (United States)); Peratt, A.L. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Brecht, S.H. (Berkeley Research Associates, Inc., CA (United States)); Langdon, A.B. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). X-Division); Lewis, H.R. (Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy)


    Highlights are presented from among the many contributions made by Oscar Buneman to the science, engineering, and mathematics communities. Emphasis is placed not only on ''what'' this pioneer of computational plasma physics contributed but, of equal importance, on ''how'' he made his contributions. Therein lies the difference between technical competence and scientific greatness. The picture which emerges illustrates the open-mindedness, enthusiasm, intellectual/physical stamina, imagination, intellectual integrity, interdisciplinary curiosity, and deep humanity that made this individual unique. As a gentleman and a scholar, he had mastered the art of making cold technical facts ''come to life.'' Oscar Buneman died peacefully at his home near Stanford University on Sunday, January 24th, 1993. The profound influence he has had on many of his colleagues guarantees his immortality.

  10. Florence Nightingale: creator of modern nursing and public health pioneer. (United States)

    Ellis, Harold


    In starting this series of articles on distinguished women in nursing, medicine and the related healthcare professions, the choice of the first name is obvious. Florence Nightingale is, I suggest, the most famous female in the long history of medicine and is a name that is known and revered throughout the world. Most people--even those in 'the trade'--think of her as 'the lady with the lamp', the heroine who went out to the Crimean War and nursed the sick and wounded at Scutari. Important though this was, her main contribution was her continued work, long after the war, in nursing organisation and training, hospital planning, public and military health and her pioneering work in the efficient gathering of medical statistics.

  11. Pioneers in trauma care at Harborview Medical Center. (United States)

    Whalen, Eileen; Hecker, Cynthia J; Butler, Steven


    Harborview Medical Center in Seattle has been home to the pioneering work of University of Washington (UW) Medicine physicians and staff who have led innovations to improve trauma care for more than 40 years. As the only level I adult and pediatric trauma center and regional burn center for Washington, Alaska, Montana, and Idaho, Harborview provides cares for more than 6500 critically injured trauma and burn patients per year. Our physicians, researchers and staff are recognized as national experts and as collaborative partners with nursing in the delivery of outstanding clinical care, research, and education. Beginning with the establishment of Seattle Medic One in the late 1960s, a groundbreaking program to train firefighters as paramedics, Harborview and the work of UW Medicine has been recognized locally and globally as a leader in every component of the ideal trauma system, as defined by the American College of Surgeons: prevention, access, acute hospital care, rehabilitation, education, and research activities.

  12. Constraining an Expanding Locally Anisotropic metric from the Pioneer anomaly

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, P Castelo


    It is discussed the possibility of a fine-tuneable contribution to the two way Doppler acceleration either towards, either outwards the Sun for heliocentric distances above 20 AU by considering a background described by an Expanding Locally Anisotropic (ELA) metric. This metric encodes both the standard local Schwarzschild gravitational effects and the cosmological Universe expansion effects allowing simultaneously to fine-tune other gravitational effects at intermediate scales, which may be tentatively interpreted as a covariant parameterization of either cold dark matter either gravitational interaction corrections. Are derived bounds for the ELA metric functional parameter by considering the bounds on the deviation from standard General Relativity imposed by the current updated limits for the Pioneer anomaly, taking in consideration both the natural outgassing and on-board radiation pressure, resulting in an average Doppler acceleration outwards the Sun of a_p = +0.4^{+2.1}_{-2.0} x 10^{-10} (m/s^2). It is...

  13. Reinterpreting the Pioneer anomaly and its annual residual

    CERN Document Server

    Boom, P G


    In addition to its long-term constancy, the Pioneer spacecraft anomaly appears to only exist for bodies whose mass is less than that of: planets, moons, comets, and heavy asteroids of known mass. Assuming the observational evidence is reliable, and not the result of an unknown systematic effect, a violation of the Weak Principle of Equivalence is implied. To propose an additional force fails to satisfy this constraint. This paper presents a new hypothesis involving additional field energy in the form of: a finite number of lunar sourced constant amplitude (Lorentz invariant) wave-like undulations upon the gravitational field. Although apparently a futile suggestion, the author's model overcomes concerns regarding wave dissipation, wave generation, and the apparent constancy of the anomaly. A shortfall in motion arises because a tiny proportion of spacecraft kinetic energy is directed into a superposition of non-translational longitudinal oscillatory components. The restriction of this effect to low mass bodie...

  14. Pioneering of Schools with International Standard to Respond the Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ipnugraha Ipnugraha


    Full Text Available In order to meet respond the challenges of globalization Indonesia Government held a Pioneering of Schools with International Standard (RSBI. As an international standard schools pilot, these schools prepared gradually through the guidance by government and stakeholders. Within a certain period of four years it is expected that the schools is able to fulfill and meet the criteria of Schools with International Standard (SBI. Actually, in it’s implementation, RSBI faces many challenges, among others, were expensive anda require modern infrastructure, require a qualified teacher, SBI criteria and English implementation in education not yet possessed constitutional base. With RSBI it will form a national school with national education standards that have international quality and its graduates are able to compete internationally

  15. Flight performance of the Pioneer Venus Orbiter solar array (United States)

    Goldhammer, L. J.; Powe, J. S.; Smith, Marcie


    The Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) solar panel power output capability has degraded much more severely than has the power output capability of solar panels that have operated in earth-orbiting spacecraft for comparable periods of time. The incidence of solar proton events recorded by the spacecraft's scientific instruments accounts for this phenomenon only in part. It cannot explain two specific forms of anomalous behavior observed: 1) a variation of output per spin with roll angle, and 2) a gradual degradation of the maximum output. Analysis indicates that the most probable cause of the first anomaly is that the solar cells underneath the spacecraft's magnetometer boom have been damaged by a reverse biasing of the cells that occurs during pulsed shadowing of the cells by the boom as the spacecraft rotates. The second anomaly might be caused by the effects on the solar array of substances from the upper atmosphere of Venus.

  16. Public health nursing pioneer: Jane Elizabeth Hitchcock 1863-1939. (United States)

    Hawkins, Joellen W; Watson, John Charles


    Jane Elizabeth Hitchcock was one of many distinguished nursing leaders of the 19th and early 20th centuries who attended a women's college before enrolling in a nurse training school. Like many of her contemporaries with equally impeccable family credentials, Hitchcock was something of an enigma to her family for choosing nursing over teaching, the most common acceptable career for women of her social class. Hitchcock's endowment of character, according to contemporary Lavinia Dock, exemplified the best of her Puritan roots. Her contributions to the evolution of public health nursing and the integration of public health nursing content into curriculums of training schools rivalled the achievements in higher education of her famous father, grandfather, and brother but garnered no comparable recognition. Her life presents an interesting case for analysis of an independent woman, a characteristic shared by many pioneers in the early years of public health nursing: 1893 to 1920.

  17. Redox pioneer: Professor Wulf Dröge. (United States)

    Kinscherf, Ralf


    Dr. Wulf Dröge is recognized here as a redox pioneer because he has published as first author an article on antioxidant/redox biology that has been cited more than 2000 times and over 10 articles that have been cited more than 100 times. One of the key discoveries (1987) was the stimulatory effect of superoxide radicals and hydrogen peroxide on lymphocyte functions, which triggered a series of studies on the role of reactive oxygen species, glutathione, and its precursor cysteine in physiological and pathological processes. He discovered abnormally low cysteine and glutathione levels in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients and the age-related decline in the postabsorptive plasma cysteine concentration, which is believed to cause age-related oxidative stress. He developed a theoretical concept of the mechanism of aging and death, which is outlined in his books Avoiding the First Cause of Death and Challenging the Limits of the Human Lifespan.

  18. New Horizons and the onset of the Pioneer anomaly (United States)

    Nieto, Michael Martin


    Analysis of the radio tracking data from the Pioneer 10/11 spacecraft at distances between about 20 70 AU from the Sun has indicated the presence of an unmodeled, small, constant, Doppler blue shift which can be interpreted as a constant acceleration of a=(8.74±1.33)×10 cm/s directed approximately towards the Sun. In addition, there is early (roughly modeled) data from as close in as 5 AU which indicates there may have been an onset of the anomaly near Saturn. We observe that the data now arriving from the New Horizons mission to Pluto and the Kuiper Belt could allow a relatively easy, direct experimental test of whether this onset is associated with distance from the Sun (being, for example, an effect of drag on dark matter). We strongly urge that this test be done.

  19. New Horizons and the Onset of the Pioneer Anomaly

    CERN Document Server

    Nieto, Michael Martin


    Analysis of the radio tracking data from the Pioneer 10/11 spacecraft at distances between about 20 - 70 AU from the Sun has indicated the presence of an unmodeled, small, constant, Doppler blue shift which can be interpreted as a constant acceleration of a_P= (8.74 \\pm 1.33) \\times 10^{-8} cm/s^2 directed approximately {\\it towards} the Sun. In addition, there is early (roughly modeled) data from as close in as 5 AU which indicates there may have been an onset of the anomaly near Saturn. We observe that the data now arriving from the New Horizons mission to Pluto and the Kuiper Belt could allow a relatively easy, direct experimental test of whether this onset is associated with distance from the Sun (being, for example, an effect of drag on dark matter). We strongly urge that this test be done.

  20. Grete Kellenberger-Gujer: Molecular biology research pioneer. (United States)

    Citi, Sandra; Berg, Douglas E


    Grete Kellenberger-Gujer was a Swiss molecular biologist who pioneered fundamental studies of bacteriophage in the mid-20(th) century at the University of Geneva. Her life and career stories are reviewed here, focusing on her fundamental contributions to our early understanding of phage biology via her insightful analyses of phenomena such as the lysogenic state of a temperate phage (λ), genetic recombination, radiation's in vivo consequences, and DNA restriction-modification; on her creative personality and interactions with peers; and how her academic advancement was affected by gender, societal conditions and cultural attitudes of the time. Her story is important scientifically, putting into perspective features of the scientific community from just before the molecular biology era started through its early years, and also sociologically, in illustrating the numerous "glass ceilings" that, especially then, often hampered the advancement of creative women.

  1. Pioneers in pediatric psychology: integrating nutrition and child development interventions. (United States)

    Black, Maureen M


    As part of the Pioneers in Pediatric Psychology series, this article provides a brief personal account of Maureen Black's career as a pediatric psychologist. It traces the transition of the Society of Pediatric Psychology (SPP) from a section of the Division of Clinical Psychology of the American Psychological Association (APA) to an independent division of APA, which occurred during my presidency of SPP. The article addresses three aspects of pediatric psychology that have been central to my career: pediatric nutritional problems, global child development, and the advancement of children's health and development through policy-related strategies. The article concludes with Lessons Learned and Recommendations for the future of pediatric psychology. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  2. Propulsion by light: visions of the German pioneer Eugen Saenger (United States)

    Bohn, Willy L.


    Although the laser was not yet invented Eugen Sanger, one of the most prominent German personalities in the early development of hypersonic flight and rocket technology suggested to use photons for the propulsion of spacecrafts in the fifties. In contrast to current schemes which are mostly aimed at laser induced ablation processes, Eugen Sanger started with the idea of using the radiation pressure itself for propulsion purposes. A review of his pioneering work in that area will be supported by numerous historical documents and personal remembrance showing his effort to promote unconventional ideas. The paper also emphasizes how some of the original concepts are being revisited and partly implemented by using today's laser technology.

  3. Pioneers of laser propulsion: Saenger, Marx, Moeckel, and Kantrowitz (United States)

    Michaelis, Max M.; Hey, John D.


    The strength of empires and civilizations has often depended on novel forms of transportation: the Viking long boat, the Roman road, Iberian galleons, French and British steam ships, Indian trains, the car of the early twentieth century, the plane of the middle and the rocket of late. But Space has now come up against a barrier: the enormous and barely affordable expense of putting things into orbit and the unaffordable energy required to travel to the stars. The recent advent of very energetic lasers may reduce the cost. The pioneering ideas of the mid sixties appear less fanciful. Laser space propulsion is about to become such an important topic that its scientific origin and engineering roots need to be investigated. This is by no means an exhaustive survey. We review here the laser propulsion work of four eminent experts: Eugen Saenger, George Marx, Wolfgang Moeckel and Arthur Kantrowitz.

  4. Pioneers in Pediatric Psychology: Smashing Silos and Breaking Boundaries. (United States)

    Wertlieb, Donald


    As part of the Pioneers in Pediatric Psychology series, this article provides a brief personal account of my career as a pediatric psychologist. Educational and professional experiences often involved confrontations with silos and boundaries set by traditions limiting understanding and impact on children's healthy development. A pedigree in developmental psychology clashed with identity, guild, and loyalty dimensions of clinical psychology. A research emphasis challenged the emergent harmony of the scientist-practitioner models. The medical center and its silos collided with those of arts and sciences academia. Evolving as an applied developmental scientist specializing in pediatric psychology allowed for a gratifying and meaningful career with a range of scientific, pedagogical, and policy contributions. An abiding orientation toward human rights and social justice sustained progress and generativity. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  5. Flight performance of the Pioneer Venus Orbiter solar array (United States)

    Goldhammer, L. J.; Powe, J. S.; Smith, Marcie


    The Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) solar panel power output capability has degraded much more severely than has the power output capability of solar panels that have operated in earth-orbiting spacecraft for comparable periods of time. The incidence of solar proton events recorded by the spacecraft's scientific instruments accounts for this phenomenon only in part. It cannot explain two specific forms of anomalous behavior observed: 1) a variation of output per spin with roll angle, and 2) a gradual degradation of the maximum output. Analysis indicates that the most probable cause of the first anomaly is that the solar cells underneath the spacecraft's magnetometer boom have been damaged by a reverse biasing of the cells that occurs during pulsed shadowing of the cells by the boom as the spacecraft rotates. The second anomaly might be caused by the effects on the solar array of substances from the upper atmosphere of Venus.

  6. 76 FR 29249 - Medicare Program; Pioneer Accountable Care Organization Model: Request for Applications (United States)


    ... participate in the Pioneer Accountable Care Organization Model for a period beginning in 2011 and ending...:// . Application Submission... Accountable Care Organization Model or the application process. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background...

  7. Willem J Kolff (1911-2009): physician, inventor and pioneer: father of artificial organs. (United States)

    Morrissey, Megan


    Medical pioneer Willem Johan Kolff was an inspirational father, son, physician and inventor. He founded the development of the first kidney dialysis machine, pioneered advances in the heart and lung machine, laid down the foundations for the first mainland blood bank in Europe and successfully implanted the first artificial heart into humans.

  8. Pioneer hydraulic fracturing intervention on Brazilian Amazon Forest; Operacao pioneira de fraturamento hidraulico na selva Amazonica brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Cledeilson; Silva, Luis A.; Duque, Luis H.; Steffan, Rodolfo H.P.; Guimaraes, Zacarias [Baker Hughes, Houston, TX (United States); Sabino, Afonso H. dos S.; Corregio, Fabio; Ferreira, Jose Carlos da Silva; Melo, Marcelo Moura; Ludovice, Roberto C. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    Hydraulic fracturing is a stimulation technique where fluid is pumped with enough energy to create a fracture in the reservoir and to propagate it filling the broken zone with proppant agent. To the end of the treatment the proppant agent will support the fracture creating a production flow path, once it will have permeability higher than the original formation. Since a long time it was desired to use that technique to explore tight reservoirs in the Solimoes basin. However the lack of information on the interest zones, the great amount of equipment and fluids volumes involved hindered the application in an area that withholds a environmental certification. In November 10th of 2011 these challenges were surpassed. This article describes the technique, job details and results of the pioneering hydraulic fracturing intervention in the heart of the Amazon forest that became economically viable the gas production in tight reservoirs of the Solimoes basin with minimum environmental impact. (author)

  9. Interspecific variation in vitamin E levels and the extent of lipid peroxidation in pioneer and non-pioneer species used in tropical forest restoration. (United States)

    Contin, Daniele R; Munné-Bosch, Sergi


    Reforestation projects have gained interest over recent years due to the loss of biodiversity in tropical regions as a result of large deforestation by anthropogenic actions. However, better knowledge on the tolerance of plant species to environmental stresses is needed for reforestation success. Here, we evaluated the photoprotective and antioxidant capacity, in terms of vitamin E accumulation, of five pioneer (Platypodium elegans Vogel, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Lafoensia pacari A. St.-Hil, Cecropia pachystachya Trécul. and Aegiphila sellowiana Cham.) and five non-pioneer (Myracrodruon urundeuva Allemão, Cedrela fissilis Vell., Genipa americana L., Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. and Hymenaea courbaril L.) species, in relation to the extent of lipid peroxidation in leaves. Furthermore, we examined differences between sun and shade leaves on vitamin E accumulation and the extent of lipid peroxidation. Pioneer plants showed on average 33% higher malondialdehyde levels, an indicator of lipid peroxidation, than non-pioneer species, but no significant differences in vitamin E contents. In contrast, a marked interspecific variation was observed in the levels of α-tocopherol and its precursor, γ-tocopherol. Natural variation revealed interesting relationships between vitamin E levels and the extent of lipid peroxidation in leaves. The pioneer species, P. elegans, did not accumulate α-tocopherol and displayed the highest levels of malondialdehyde. Sun and shade leaves accumulated vitamin E levels to a similar extent, except for the pioneer L. pacari and the non-pioneer C. langsdorffii, the former accumulating more α-tocopherol in sun leaves and the latter in shade leaves. We conclude that interspecific variation is higher than both leaf type and successional-group variation in terms of vitamin E accumulation and the extent of lipid peroxidation, and that vitamin E levels, particularly those of α-tocopherol, negatively correlate with the extent of lipid

  10. 78 FR 13312 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Availability of Petition, Plant Pest Risk Assessment, and... (United States)


    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Availability of Petition... Plant Health Inspection Service has received a petition from Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc... has received a petition (APHIS Petition Number 11-244-01p) from Pioneer Hi-Bred International,...

  11. 77 FR 39696 - Atlas Pipeline Mid-Continent WestTex, LLC; Pioneer Natural Resources USA, Inc.; Notice of Intent... (United States)


    ...-000] Atlas Pipeline Mid-Continent WestTex, LLC; Pioneer Natural Resources USA, Inc.; Notice of Intent...-Continent WestTex, LLC and Pioneer Natural Resources USA, Inc. (Atlas and Pioneer), as joint applicants, in...: Geology and soils; Land use; Water resources, fisheries, and wetlands; Cultural resources; Vegetation and...

  12. Subpallial origin of a population of projecting pioneer neurons during corticogenesis. (United States)

    Morante-Oria, Javier; Carleton, Alan; Ortino, Barbara; Kremer, Eric J; Fairén, Alfonso; Lledo, Pierre-Marie


    Pyramidal neurons of the mammalian cerebral cortex are generated in the ventricular zone of the pallium whereas the subpallium provides the cortex with inhibitory interneurons. The marginal zone contains a subpial stream of migratory interneurons and two different classes of transient neurons, the pioneer neurons provided with corticofugal axons, and the reelin-expressing Cajal-Retzius cells. We found in cultured slices that the medial ganglionic eminence provides the reelin-negative pioneer neurons of the marginal zone. Pioneer neurons sent long projection axons that went through the cortical plate and reached the subplate and the lateral border of the lateral ganglionic eminence. In the cultured slices, pioneer neurons were functionally mature: they displayed a voltage-gated sodium current, expressed functional alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors, and showed gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) postsynaptic events that were modulated by presynaptic AMPA receptors. Pioneer neurons expressed the adhesion molecules L1 and TAG-1; the latter has been reported to control tangential migrations to the neocortex [Denaxa, M., Chan, C.-H., Schachner, M., Parnavelas, J. & Karagogeos, D. (2001) Development (Cambridge, U.K.) 128, 4635-4644], and we show here that the pioneer neurons of the marginal zone are the cellular substrate of such a function. Finally, we show that, in early corticogenesis, reelin controls both the tangential migration of cortical interneurons toward the cortical plate and the tangential migration of pioneer neurons toward the marginal zone.

  13. Pioneer vegetation on ash dumps in Oswiecim (southern Poland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojarczuk, T.; Kuczynski, B.


    The authors found fifty-three plant species growing on the ash dumps in Oswiecim, while in 1963 twenty-two species only were encountered there. Most of the self-sown plants belong to calciphilous, ruderal and xerophilous species. The pH of the ashes amounts to 9.5. Some of them, e.g. Matricaria chamomilla are index plants for acid habitats; others were hitherto encountered in wet habitats, e.g. Rumex obtusifolias, Myricaria germanica, Epilobium roseum, and others. Their occurrence on ash dumps is possible thanks to the considerable amount of precipitation (465 mm) during the vegetative period. The mosses are the pioneers of these dumps, e.g. Funaria hygromertrica and Bryum argenteum, which usually appear on the site of fire. The authors are of the opinion that a better knowledge of the plants appearing spontaneously on dumps and waste heaps may provide many useful conclusions which will help to obtain positive results at the recultivation of spoil heaps and industrial wastes. 9 references, 3 tables.

  14. Hermann Karsten, pioneer of geologic mapping in northwestern South America (United States)

    Aalto, K. R.


    In the late 19th century, a regional map of Nueva Granada (present-day Colombia, Panama and parts of Venezuela and Ecuador) was published by German botanist and geologist Hermann Karsten (1817-1908). Karsten's work was incorporated by Agustín Codazzi (1793-1859), an Italian who emigrated to Venezuela and Colombia to serve as a government cartographer and geographer, in his popular Atlas geográfico e histórico de la Republica de Colombia (1889). Geologic mapping and most observations provided in this 1889 atlas were taken from Karsten's Géologie de l'ancienne Colombie bolivarienne: Vénézuela, Nouvelle-Grenade et Ecuador (1886), as cited by Manual Paz and/or Felipe Pérez, who edited this edition of the atlas. Karsten defined four epochs in Earth history: Primera - without life - primary crystalline rocks, Segunda - with only marine life - chiefly sedimentary rocks, Tercera - with terrestrial quadrupeds and fresh water life forms life - chiefly sedimentary rocks, and Cuarta - mankind appears, includes diluvial (glacigenic) and post-diluvial terranes. He noted that Colombia is composed of chiefly of Quaternary, Tertiary and Cretaceous plutonic, volcanic and sedimentary rocks, and that Earth's internal heat (calor central) accounted, by escape of inner gases, for volcanism, seismicity and uplift of mountains. Karsten's regional mapping and interpretation thus constitutes the primary source and ultimate pioneering geologic research.

  15. Vivien Thomas (1910-1985): the backstage pioneer and educator. (United States)

    Ng, Chin Ting Justin


    Vivien Thomas (1910-1985) was an African-American scientist, pioneer, and renowned educator. Thomas's contributions to cardiovascular surgery were unequivocal, and yet it was only after his death that he gained more widespread recognition. Thomas's more notable work involves aiding in the discovery of the cause of traumatic shock, designing and guiding the first operation to treat Tetralogy of Fallot, carrying out the first atrial septectomy, and helping develop the electrical defibrillator. Thomas struggled amidst the adversities of racism and the Great Depression (1929-1941), armed merely with a high school degree. Nevertheless, his genius and determination eventually led him to receive an honorary doctorate from John Hopkins University. His story inspired the creation of the award winning PBS documentary in 2003 Partners of the Heart and also the 2004 Emmy Award-winning HBO film Something the Lord Made. This article will aim to provide an overview to the more notable events in Thomas's amazing tale, with a particular focus on his work on the Tetralogy of Fallot.

  16. The Experimental V4X Stirling Engine - A Pioneering Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundholm, Gunnar


    A Swedish double-acting 35 kW V4 Stirling engine was developed in a pioneering effort with a number of simplified and novel design features. The overall design was made with the intention to fit a passenger car. The engine used standard automotive journal bearing technology, a new robust crosshead design, and sliding seals. A balancing shaft was used to remove first-order imbalances. Cooler, regenerator and heater geometry were first inherited from the Philips 4-65 swash-plate engine. Later a sequence of experimental heaters were designed and tested. Very little has until now been published on this engine, since its development was discontinued in favour of the double-crankshaft U4 engines 4-95 (P40), 4-275 (P75 Mk II and III) and 4-123 (MOD1). These designs were in turn later abandoned (with exception of the solar P40 engine) because of problems with for instance rattling gears. The V4 design concept was then revived in the automotive 60 kW MOD2 engine and the successful Kockums submarine 75 kW V4-275 engine. This paper describes the innovative design features, heater performance results and applications used for the development of fast power control.

  17. Driving an electric vehicle. A sociological analysis on pioneer users

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierre, M. [EDF R and D, Electricite de France, Research and Development, 1 avenue du General de Gaulle, 92141 Clamart (France); Jemelin, C. [6T research bureau, 11 rue Duhesme, 75018 Paris (France); Louvet, N. [EPFL, Lausanne Federal Polytechnic School, 11 rue Duhesme, 75018 Paris (France)


    In most of the western countries, car is the prevalent means of transport for local mobility. At the same time, sensitivity to environmental issues is increasing, correlated to the consciousness that carbon dioxide emissions have to be reduced. In regard to these two trends (individual mobility and public opinions favourable to a reduction of carbon emissions), energy-efficient vehicles will probably develop in the future-car manufacturers actually prepare new offers for the mass market. Comparable cases have occurred during the last decades-probably more modest but full of learning: some local authorities have promoted innovations based on electric vehicles in the 1990s, and some people have chosen this kind of cars for their daily travels. This article deals with these pioneers (This article comes from a communication at the ECEEE Summer Study, June 2009, Panel 6: Energy efficiency in transport and mobility.). Reporting studies carried out in 2006 and 2008, we intend to identify the reasons of this innovative modal choice, to show the difficulties that electric vehicle drivers then encountered and to analyse the patterns of use that governed their mobility and their use of electric vehicles.

  18. The teacher training process through distance education: a pioneer experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Massaru Fujita


    Full Text Available This paper presents briefly the actions conducted in the formation process and established partnerships to achieve the pioneering educational process of Distance Education (DE courses of the State University of Londrina (UEL-PR. The methodological design was developed according to the Qualitative Approach of Action-Research type that prioritizes the development and analysis of the process along with the "meaning" that people give to things and your life than actually the product itself. The data collected through questionnaires at the end of the course signal impressions (positive and constructive criticism we received and the meanings experienced teacher students (testimonials, chats, discussion forums, projects in the courses offered. The experience lived in these three courses: Virtual Learning Environment (60 hours; Tutoring in distance education (60 hours and Teaching Materials in Distance Education (60 hours, from its conception to its actual conclusion, make us think that we are on the right way and by TDIC, new horizons may open up to the institution in short- and medium-term.

  19. Bing Zhi: pioneer of modern biology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Li; Le Kang


    @@ Located in the lobby of the Institute of Zoology at Chinese Academy of Sciences,is a bronze statue of Dr.Bing Zhi.Many passers-by,especially the young ones,would ask who this person is and what he has accomplished.The short answer is,according to the plate of the statue,that he is a pioneer zoologist and educator and the founder of modern biology in China.The more detailed answer involves the word"first"for quite a few significances:As a biologist,Bing Zhi is the co-founder of the first non-governmental scientific society of China,the co-founder of the first Chinese scientific journal,the founder of the first biology department in China,the founder of the first biological research institute in China,and the founder of China Zoological Society; as an educator,he trained many young men who later became renowned specialists in their own areas.

  20. Theodore H. Bullock: pioneer of integrative and comparative neurobiology. (United States)

    Zupanc, G K H; Zupanc, M M


    Theodore H. Bullock (1905-2005) was a pioneer of integrative and comparative neurobiology and one of the founders of neuroethology. His work--distinguished by the tremendous number of different research themes and animal taxa studied--provided the basis for a comprehensive analysis of brain evolution. Among his major achievements are: one of the first physiological analyses of rhythmic central pattern generators; the first simultaneous recording from both the presynaptic and postsynaptic region of a chemical synapse; the demonstration of intercellular communication through graded potentials; and the discovery of two novel sensory organs formed by infrared receptors in pit vipers and electroreceptors in electric fish. He was also one of the first who applied computational tools to the analysis of complex neural signals and to perform a comparative analysis of cognitive events. His two-volume treatise "Structure and function in the nervous system of invertebrates" (with G. Adrian Horridge) remains the most comprehensive, authoritative review of this topic ever written. In addition to his research merits, his legacy is particularly based on his cosmopolitan way of thinking and acting, his large, worldwide school of students, and his committed advocacy for comparative and systems-oriented neurobiology.

  1. [The pioneer otolaryngologists in Eretz-Israel: 1911-1948]. (United States)

    Golz, Avishay


    Until 1911 there was no ear nose and throat (ENT) specialist in Eretz-Israel. Dr. Moshe Sherman, an ENT specialist, disembarked at the port of Jaffa on August 4, 1911. He had trained in Moscow, and was the first otolaryngologist in the country. Between 1911 and 1948, over 100 otolaryngologists arrived in Eretz-Israel and were dispersed throughout the country from Safed and Tiberias in the North to Rehovot in the South. These physicians brought modern and advanced European medicine to Israel. Many left their imprint on the development of ENT medicine in the country, laying the foundations of today's otolaryngologic services both in clinical and academic spheres. ENT medicine, like other fields of medicine, evolved following the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948. Many departments were opened and equipped with the best modern instruments and technology. Department heads are the pupils of our pioneer physicians. The memory of these talented and dedicated physicians should be remembered and cherished by their successors and all physicians in Israel.

  2. In-Space Manufacturing: Pioneering a Sustainable Path to Mars (United States)

    Werkheiser, Niki


    In order to provide meaningful impacts to exploration technology needs, the In-Space Manufacturing (ISM) Initiative must influence exploration systems design now. In-space manufacturing offers: dramatic paradigm shift in the development and creation of space architectures; efficiency gain and risk reduction for low Earth orbit and deep space exploration; and "pioneering" approach to maintenance, repair, and logistics leading to sustainable, affordable supply chain model. In order to develop application-based capabilities in time to support NASA budget and schedule, ISM must be able to leverage the significant commercial developments, which requires innovative, agile collaborative mechanisms (contracts, challenges, SBIR's, etc.); and NASA-unique investments to focus primarily on adapting the technologies and processes to the microgravity environment. We must do the foundational work - it is the critical path for taking these technologies from lab curiosities to institutionalized capabilities: characterize, certify, institutionalize, design for Additive Manufacturing (AM). Ideally, International Space Station (ISS) U.S. lab rack or partial rack space should be identified for in-space manufacturing utilization in order to continue technology development of a suite of capabilities required for exploration missions, as well as commercialization on ISS.

  3. Pioneer fly-by of Saturn and its rings (United States)

    Gehrels, T.; Esposito, L.


    Results acquired by the imaging photopolarimeter on board Pioneer 11 during the spacecraft fly-by of Saturn and its rings on September 1, 1979 are reviewed. Analysis of the broadband photometry and polarimetry obtained of the Saturn atmosphere has been used to determine a cloud top height of 300 mb and a scale height of the aerosol distribution about 1/4 that of the ambient gas, and to point out differences between the forward scattering and belt and zone characteristics of the Saturn and Jupiter atmospheres. Images of Saturn's rings have been used to derive a profile of ring optical depth between 1.22 and 2.35 Saturn radii, and reveal new divisions and thin rings and azimuthal variations in the brightness of the A ring not observable from earth. Linear polarization observations of Titan in red and blue light reveal that the aerosols near the top of the atmosphere have radii less than about 0.09 micron and that the optical thickness of the small aerosol layer is about 0.6 above an effectively depolarizing surface, and indicate radii of 2845 + or - 25 km and 2880 + or - 22 km in red and blue light, respectively. Earth-based and spacecraft data are consistent with the formation of rings structures as a result of Poynting-Robertson drag and gravitational satellite resonances with the original ice and rock particles.

  4. Historiography of psychology in Brazil: pioneer works, recent developments. (United States)

    Campos, Regina Helena de Freitas; Jacó-Vilela, Ana Maria; Massimi, Marina


    The evolution of the historiography of psychology in Brazil is surveyed, to describe how the field has evolved from the seminal works of the pioneer, mostly self-taught, psychologists, to the now professional historians working from a variety of theoretical models and methods of inquiry. The first accounts of the history of psychology written by Brazilians and by foreigners are surveyed, as well as the recent works made by researchers linked to the Work Group on the History of Psychology of the Brazilian Association of Research and Graduate Education in Psychology and published in periodicals such as Memorandum and Mnemosine. The present historiography focuses mainly the relationship of psychological knowledge to specific social and cultural conditions, emphasizing themes such as women's participation in the construction of the field, the development of psychology as a science and as a profession in education and health, and the development of psychology as an expression of Brazilian culture and of the experience of resistance of local communities to domination. To reveal this process of identity construction, a cultural historiography is an important tool, coupled with methodological pluralism.

  5. Emanuel Swedenborg (1688-1772): pioneer of neuroanatomy. (United States)

    Tubbs, R Shane; Riech, Sheryl; Verma, Ketan; Loukas, Marios; Mortazavi, Martin; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron


    Emanuel Swedenborg is widely accredited for his religious fervor and devout dedication to his spirituality. He spearheaded the creation of what is known today as the New Jerusalem Church. However, Swedenborg also served as a prominent figure in the European Enlightenment, making noteworthy strides in the fields of mathematics and science. His acumen for science instilled in the medical world groundbreaking ideas that would forever innovate the practice of medicine. Not only did Swedenborg describe intricacies of the cerebral cortex but he also discovered the perivascular spaces, the foramen of Magendie, and the cerebrospinal fluid. He noted the importance of the pituitary gland or "arch gland" in maintaining normal neurological function. Lastly, in a period where the cortex was given no significant function, Swedenborg developed the idea of somatotopic organization, and this was almost 100 years prior to Fritsch and Hitzig. It is on the shoulders of such great pioneers as Emanuel Swedenborg that we base our current understanding of the nervous system.

  6. Darwin and Mendel: who was the pioneer of genetics? (United States)

    Liu, Yongsheng


    Although Mendel is now widely recognized as the founder of genetics, historical studies have shown that he did not in fact propose the modern concept of paired characters linked to genes, nor did he formulate the two "Mendelian laws" in the form now given. Furthermore, Mendel was accused of falsifying his data, and Mendelism has been met with scepticism because of its failure to provide scientific explanation for evolution, to furnish a basis for the process of genetic assimilation and to explain the inheritance of acquired characters, graft hybridization and many other facts. Darwin was the first to clearly describe almost all genetical phenomena of fundamental importance, and was the first to present a developmental theory of heredity--Pangenesis, which not only greatly influenced many subsequent theories of inheritance, particularly those of de Vries, Galton, Brooks and Weismann, but also tied all aspects of variation, heredity and development together, provided a mechanism for most of the observable facts, and is supported by increasing evidence. It has also been indicated that Darwin's influence on Mendel, primarily from The Origin, is evident. The word "gene" was derived from "pangen", itself a derivative of "Pangenesis" which Darwin had coined. It seems that Darwin should have been regarded as the pioneer, if not of transmissional genetics, of developmental genetics and molecular genetics.

  7. Operation EAGLE CLAW: Pioneer of Modern Aviation Tactics, Techniques and Procedures (United States)


    The Iran Hostage Rescue Mission," Air & Space Power Journal- Espanol , Fall 2006. Kyle, James H., and John Robert Edison. The Guts to Try: The Untold...Kamps, "Operation EAGLE CLAW: The Iran Hostage Rescue Mission," Air & Space Power Journal- Espanol , (Fall 2006), 1. 5 Rapid Ground Refueling is the

  8. Pioneer institutions of distance electronic learning in Poland in the years nineteen sixties and seventies of the XX century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Portalski


    Full Text Available In the final years of XX century, and especially in first decade of recent century was developed a number of formal learning forms, informal and outside formal with using systems and devices based on electronic techniques. Especially Internet and computer techniques next to multitude of television channels, mobile telephony and many others opportunities of data processing, accumulation and sending allow for realisation modern forms of intramural and remote teaching and learning. Persons, which are interested in remote education, open education or e-learning is worth to close pioneer activities in Poland in this areas in years nineteen sixties and seventies of the previous century. Two of activities like that, one worldwide and second in local scale implemented electronic remote education with using television are exactly subjects of this publication.

  9. Pioneer 10 observation of the solar wind proton temperature heliocentric gradient (United States)

    Mihalov, J. D.; Wolfe, J. H.


    Solar wind isotropic proton temperatures as measured out to 12.2 AU heliocentric distance by the Ames plasma analyzer aboard Pioneer 10 are presented as consecutive averages over three Carrington solar rotations and discussed. The weighted least-squares fit of average temperature to heliocentric radial distance, R, yields the power law R sup -.52. These average proton temperatures are not correlated as well with Pioneer 10's heliocentric radial distance (-.85) as are the corresponding average Zurich sunspot numbers R sub z (-.95). Consequently, it is difficult to isolate the spatial gradient in the Pioneer 10 solar wind proton temperatures using that data alone.

  10. Resistance Management Techniques of Milton H. Erickson, M.D.: An Application to Nonhypnotic Mental Health Counseling. (United States)

    Otani, Akira


    Delineates five selected hypnotically based techniques of client resistance management pioneered by Milton H. Erickson: acceptance; paradoxical encouragement; reframing; displacement; dissociation. Explains how techniques can be applied to nonhypnotic mental health counseling. Discusses relevant clinical, theoretical, and empirical issues related…

  11. Resistance Management Techniques of Milton H. Erickson, M.D.: An Application to Nonhypnotic Mental Health Counseling. (United States)

    Otani, Akira


    Delineates five selected hypnotically based techniques of client resistance management pioneered by Milton H. Erickson: acceptance; paradoxical encouragement; reframing; displacement; dissociation. Explains how techniques can be applied to nonhypnotic mental health counseling. Discusses relevant clinical, theoretical, and empirical issues related…

  12. The birth of NASA the work of the Space Task Group, America's first true space pioneers

    CERN Document Server

    von Ehrenfried, Dutch


    This is the story of the work of the original NASA space pioneers; men and women who were suddenly organized in 1958 from the then National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics (NACA) into the Space Task Group. A relatively small group, they developed the initial mission concept plans and procedures for the U. S. space program. Then they boldly built hardware and facilities to accomplish those missions. The group existed only three years before they were transferred to the Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston, Texas, in 1962, but their organization left a large mark on what would follow. Von Ehrenfried's personal experience with the STG at Langley uniquely positions him to describe the way the group was structured and how it reacted to the new demands of a post-Sputnik era. He artfully analyzes how the growing space program was managed and what techniques enabled it to develop so quickly from an operations perspective. The result is a fascinating window into history, amply backed up by first person documentation ...

  13. The Jellyfish hunter--Jack Barnes: a pioneer medical toxinologist in Australia. (United States)

    Pearn, John; Fenner, Peter


    Dr Jack Handyside Barnes (1922-1985) was one of the small and elite group of Pacific marine toxinologists whose work was characterised by an uncompromising rugged persona, a focussed resolve to solve challenging problems of human clinical envenomation, and who conducted curiosity-driven research under conditions of scientific isolation. He was a pioneering advocate for the preservation of marine heritage, particularly that of the Great Barrier Reef. A former military commando who later became a general medical practitioner with extensive surgical and obstetric skills, in 1947 he was appointed the Medical Superintendent of Thursday Island in the Torres Strait. Later (from January 1953), he worked indefatigably as a general medical practitioner in Cairns, in tropical North Australia. For four decades (1945-1985), Jack Barnes undertook detailed laboratory, clinical and field research into invertebrate envenomation, particularly medusan toxinology. In 1960 he discovered the species responsible for the Irukandji syndrome, a small carybdeid named Carukia barnesi in his honour. He invented the research technique for the extraction of venom from the world's most venomous creature, the Pacific box Jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri. By 1960, he had published taxonomic details of nematocyst structure and clinical envenomation details consequent upon stings by Physalia, Cyanea, Chironex, Chiropsalmus and Carukia. This paper is a précis of the chronology of his life, contributions and influence.

  14. Duchenne De Boulogne: a pioneer in neurology and medical photography. (United States)

    Parent, André


    Guillaume-Benjamin-Amand Duchenne was born 200 years ago in Boulogne-sur-Mer (Pas-de-Calais, France). He studied medicine in Paris and became a physician in 1831. He practiced general medicine in his native town for about 11 years and then returned to Paris to initiate pioneering studies on electrical stimulation of muscles. Duchenne used electricity not only as a therapeutic agent, as it was commonly the case earlier in the 19th century, but chiefly as a physiological investigation tool to study the anatomy of the living body. Without formal appointment he visited hospital wards across Paris searching for rare cases of neuromuscular disorders. He built a portable electrical device that he used to functionally map all bodily muscles and to study their coordinating action in health and disease. He gave accurate descriptions of many neuromuscular disorders, including pseudohypertrophic muscular dystrophy to which his name is still attached (Duchenne muscular dystrophy). He also invented a needle system (Duchenne's histological harpoon) for percutaneous sampling of muscular tissue without anesthesia, a forerunner of today's biopsy. Duchenne summarized his work in two major treatises entitled De l'électrisation localisée (1855) and Physiologie des mouvements (1867). Duchenne's iconographic work stands at the crossroads of three major discoveries of the 19th century: electricity, physiology and photography. This is best exemplified by his investigation of the mechanisms of human physiognomy in which he used localized faradic stimulation to reproduce various forms of human facial expression. The album that complements his book on this issue is considered a true incunabulum of photography. Duchenne de Boulogne, a shy but hard-working, acute and ingenious observer, became one of most original clinicians of the 19th century. He died in Paris in 1875.

  15. [Auguste Lumière, pioneer of the modern cicatrization]. (United States)

    Salazard, B; Casanova, D; Zuleta, J; Desouches, C; Magalon, G


    At the "Grand Café" in Paris, on december 28, 1895 Louis and Auguste Lumiere displayed the cinematograph, a technical innovation that revolutionized the nascent motion picture. It was the first public projection of a film. While Louis continues his work on pictures and invents autochrome plates for colour photography, Auguste focused his interests on biology and medicine. Since Ambroise Paré, few doctors have been interested in the healing process. Although Carrel and Lecomte Du Nouy published the first studies in the early twentieth century, Auguste Lumière was a pioneer in the modern research and treatment of wounds. He applied the principles of experimental medicine. In his research he used 44 dogs to study the healing speed and the scar quality in certain areas and under general conditions. In the winter of 1914-1915 he studied in Lyon several hundred wounds of war casualties. In 1922 he established and published in a marvellous book the principles of normal healing. In the department of Pr Leon Bérard he was shocked by the fetidness of the wards where the dried bandages were changed once a week. In 1915 he perfected a revolutionary sterilized "treatment-bandage" consisting of 2 mm stitched gauze saturated with Vaseline and Perou's balsam: the "Tulle Gras. In order to disinfect wounds, he used an iodized solution, sprayed in little droplets. The lives of Auguste and Louis Lumière were full of projects and inventions. When Auguste died in 1954 he had registered more than one hundred patents.

  16. [Otto Ulmgren--a distinguished pioneer in oral surgery]. (United States)

    Nordenram, Ake


    Otto Ulmgren (1844-1932) was graduated in 1874 as medical doctor. During sex months in 1875-76 he studied the diseases of teeth, mouth and neck at "Erste Wiener Zahntechnische Schule" in Wien. Then he auscultated at some prominent dental practitionars in Berlin. After that he practised further as dental surgeon in Stockholm. He was strongly engaged to improve dental education and contributed actively for starting the School of Dentistry in Stockholm in 1898. He appointed director of the school and chief of the Department of oral surgery. Otto Ulmgren's doctor's thesis was "Ofversigt af tandläkarekonstens historia" (Survey of the History of Dentistry) in 1877. He also published about 60 scientific articles especially dealing with dental education and oral surgery. Otto Ulmgren was one of the founders of Odontologiska Sällskapet i Stockholm (Dental Society in Stockholm) in 1901 and was its president during the period 1901-21. He was also one of the founders of Sveriges Tandläkareförbund (Dental Association of Sweden) in 1908. He was honorary member of many dental associations. Otto Ulmgren was regarded as a man of principle, an eminent teacher, a skilful clinician and scientist and a strong pioneer of dentistry, particularly in oral surgery. In leisure hours Otto Ulmgren devoted himself to singing and he was a member of the famous men's choir "Orphei drängar". He was also very interested in hunting and had a kennel with hunting dogs. He was appointed honorary member of the Swedish Kennel Club.

  17. Remedial measures for the PCB spill at federal Pioneer Limited in Regina

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    In August, 1976, a rupture occurred in a buried pipeline carrying transformer oil containing PCBs, from an outdoor buld storage area to the indoor manufacturing facilities of the federal Pioneer Limited (FPL...

  18. CRED 20 m Gridded bathymetry of Pioneer Bank, Hawaii, USA (NetCDF format) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Pioneer Bank, Hawaii, USA. Bottom coverage was achieved in depths between 20 and 1000 meters. The netCDF...

  19. San Francisco's Pioneer Mother Monument: maternalism, racial order, and the politics of memorialization, 1907–1915. (United States)

    Frink, Brenda D


    The 1907–1915 campaign to create San Francisco's Pioneer Mother Monument provides both a case study of conservative uses of maternalism and a window into the political mutability of maternalist rhetoric. Ella Sterling Mighels, a pioneer descendant, utilized the monument campaign to promote white women's moral influence over middle-class men, to argue against Asian immigration and labor unrest, and to inculcate old-fashioned moral values among urban children. Although some of Mighels's contemporaries cited pioneer mothers as proof of women's fitness for suffrage, Mighels herself used the pioneer mother to argue against suffrage. The final statue, created by the sculptor Charles Grafly, failed to encapsulate Mighels's multivalent political message and to express her ideals about gender, race, class, and morality.

  20. Subpallial origin of a population of projecting pioneer neurons during corticogenesis


    Morante-Oria, Javier; Carleton, Alan; Ortino, Barbara; Eric J. Kremer; Fairén, Alfonso; Lledo, Pierre-Marie


    Pyramidal neurons of the mammalian cerebral cortex are generated in the ventricular zone of the pallium whereas the subpallium provides the cortex with inhibitory interneurons. The marginal zone contains a subpial stream of migratory interneurons and two different classes of transient neurons, the pioneer neurons provided with corticofugal axons, and the reelin-expressing Cajal–Retzius cells. We found in cultured slices that the medial ganglionic eminence provides the reelin-negative pioneer ...

  1. Franz Ulinski, an Almost Forgotten Early Pioneer of Rocketry (United States)

    Besser, B. P.


    During the early period of rocket development several pioneers originating from the former Austro-Hungarian empire contributed their ideas to the new field of rocketry. The most well known - regarded as the "father of rocketry" in Western Europe - is Hermann Oberth. The others were Max Valier, Franz von Hoefft, Guido von Pirquet, Hermann Potocnik, Friedrich Schmiedl, Franz Ulinski, Eugen Saenger and others. Franz Ulinski (1890-1974) was born 1890 in Blosdorf, Moravia (now Mljadejow, Czech Republic). After attending schools in Wels, Upper Austria, he started a career in the Austro-Hungarian Army in 1910. During his service he worked beginning 1917 at an airplane engine plant in Fischamend and in 1919/20 at the "Fliegerarsenal" (aircraft arsenal) in Vienna. End of 1920 the army of the remaining republic of Austria had to severely reduce its forces and Ulinski was superannuated without further payment. Since 1917 he was also inscribed at the College for Advanced Technology in Vienna ("Technische Hochschule Wien"), but he never graduated, instead he autodidactically attained the VDI-Engineering-Diploma (VDI = "Verein Deutscher Ingenieure"- Association of German Engineers). During 1921-1924 he worked as a development engineer and later as a design engineer for a car factory. In 1925 he set up and ran his own company (radio sale enterprise) and in 1929 an engineering workshop. From 1938 to 1945 he first served as technical staff and later as a design engineer at the Siebel- Flugzeugwerke (Airplane-Factory) in Halle/Saale, Germany. After the Second World War he was employed as a design engineer at different engineering companies in Austria and he died 1974 in Wels. Ulinski's first contact with the topic of space flight occurred during the time period when he was a member of the Austro- Hungarian Army. Ulinski was one of the first in the german speaking part of Europe to publish an article with his ideas about space flight in 1920 (three years before Herman Oberth

  2. a Study of the Pioneer Anomaly:. New Data and Objectives for New Investigation (United States)

    Turyshev, Slava G.; Toth, Viktor T.; Kellogg, Larry R.; Lau, Eunice L.; Lee, Kyong J.

    The Pioneer 10/11 spacecraft yielded the most precise navigation in deep space to date. However, their radiometric tracking data has consistently indicated the presence of a small, anomalous, Doppler frequency drift. The drift is a blue shift, uniformly changing with a rate of ~6 × 10-9 Hz/s and can be interpreted as a constant sunward acceleration of each particular spacecraft of aP = (8.74±1.33) × 10-10 m/s2 (or, alternatively, a time acceleration of at = (2.92±0.44) × 10-18 s/s2). This signal has become known as the Pioneer anomaly; the nature of this anomaly remains unexplained. We discuss the current state of the efforts to retrieve the entire data sets of the Pioneer 10 and 11 radiometric Doppler data. We also report on the availability of recently recovered telemetry files that may be used to reconstruct the engineering history of both spacecraft using original project documentation and newly developed software tools. We discuss possible ways to further investigate the discovered effect using these telemetry files in conjunction with the analysis of the much extended Pioneer Doppler data. In preparation for this new upcoming investigation, we summarize the current knowledge of the Pioneer anomaly and review some of the mechanisms proposed for its explanation. We emphasize the main objectives of this new study, namely (i) analysis of the early data that could yield the true direction of the anomaly and thus, its origin, (ii) analysis of planetary encounters, which should say more about the onset of the anomaly (e.g. Pioneer 11's Saturn flyby), (iii) analysis of the entire dataset, which should lead to a better determination of the temporal behavior of the anomaly, (iv) comparative analysis of individual anomalous accelerations for the two Pioneers with the data taken from similar heliocentric distances, (v) the detailed study of on-board systematics, and (vi) development of a thermal-electric-dynamical model using on-board telemetry. The outlined

  3. Contrasting the morphology, anatomy and fungal colonization of new pioneer and fibrous roots. (United States)

    Zadworny, Marcin; Eissenstat, David M


    Not all roots born as first-order branches are the same and this has important consequences for overall function. We hypothesized that, compared with fibrous roots, pioneer roots are built to live longer at the expense of absorptive capacity. We tested this hypothesis by investigating pioneer and fibrous roots in their first 14 d of life in the arbuscular mycorrhizal tree species: Acer negundo, Acer saccharum, Juglans nigra, Liriodendron tulipifera and Populus tremuloides. Root observations were made with root-access boxes that allowed roots to be sampled at known ages in field-grown trees. Compared to fibrous roots, pioneer roots had larger diameter, lower specific root length, greater average length and a lack of mycorrhizal or nonmycorrhizal fungal colonization. Pioneer roots < 14 d old had more layers of hypodermis with a lower percentage of putative passage cells and more protoxylem groups than similar age fibrous roots. Our results suggest that pioneer roots are constructed for defense against biotic and abiotic challenges, exploration of soil distal to the stem, high fibrous root branching and secondary development with high axial hydraulic conductivity at the expense of mycorrhizal colonization and high absorptive capacity for water and nutrients.

  4. High precision thermal modeling of complex systems with application to the flyby and Pioneer anomaly

    CERN Document Server

    Rievers, Benny


    Thermal modeling of complex systems faces the problems of an effective digitalization of the detailed geometry and properties of the system, calculation of the thermal flows and temperature maps, treatment of the thermal radiation including possible multiple reflections, inclusion of additional external influences, extraction of the radiation pressure from calculated surface data, and computational effectiveness. In previous publications the solution to these problems have been outlined and a first application to the Pioneer spacecraft have been shown. Here we like to present the application of our thermal modeling to the Rosetta flyby anomaly as well as to the Pioneer anomaly. The analysis outlines that thermal recoil pressure is not the cause of the Rosetta flyby anomaly but likely resolves the anomalous acceleration observed for Pioneer 10.

  5. Tracking and data system support for the Pioneer project. Volume 3: Pioneer 10 from 1 April 1972 through the Jupiter encounter period, January 1974 (United States)

    Miller, R. B.


    The Tracking and Data Systems support of the Pioneer 10 mission from April 1, 1972 through the Jupiter encounter period which ended January 5, 1974 is described. The period covered involves operations in the interplanetary environment from the time of completion of the second trajectory correction to the start of Jupiter encounter; the implementation, planning, and testing that lead to the Jupiter encounter; and the operations during the 60 day encounter period.

  6. Peter Scheglov --- pioneer of site testing in the Central Asia

    CERN Document Server

    Tokovinin, A


    The multi-faceted contributions of Dr. Peter Scheglov (1932-2002) in the area of site testing are briefly reviewed. He discovered and studied astronomical sites in the Central Asia, developed new site-testing instruments, promoted new methods and techniques among his colleagues and teached new generation of observational astronomers.

  7. Can conventional forces really explain the anomalous acceleration of Pioneer 10/11 ?

    CERN Document Server

    Mbelek, J P


    A conventional explanation of the correlation between the Pioneer 10/11 anomalous acceleration and spin-rate change is given. First, the rotational Doppler shift analysis is improved. Finally, a relation between the radio beam reaction force and the spin-rate change is established. Computations are found in good agreement with observational data. The relevance of our result to the main Pioneer 10/11 anomalous acceleration is emphasized. Our analysis leads us to conclude that the latter may not be merely artificial.

  8. Sliding-mode adaptive control of Pioneer 3-DX wheeled mobile robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian FILIPESCU


    Full Text Available Parameter identification scheme and discrete-time adaptive sliding-mode controller applied to Pioneer 3-DX wheeled mobile robot (WMR are presented in this paper. The dynamical model for mobile robot with one pair of active wheels, time–varying mass and moment of inertia have been used in sliding-mode control. Two closed-loop, on-line parameter estimators have been used in order to achieve robustness against parameter uncertainties (robot mass and moment of inertia. Two sliding-mode adaptive controllers corresponding to angular and position motion have been designed. Closed-loop circular trajectory tracking Pioneer 3-DX real-time control is presented.

  9. A question of strategy: To be a pioneer or a follower?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaličanin Đorđe


    Full Text Available One of the most important questions faced by business leaders in the strategic management process is a choice of timing to launch new product/technologies and enter new markets. There are two options: to be a pioneer or to be a follower. Both have advantages and risks. Pioneers often have higher profitability, greater market share, and a longer business life, but the relative success of each strategy depends on several factors, both internal and external (pace of evolution of technology and markets.

  10. The pioneer cohort of curriculum reform: Guinea pigs or trail-blazers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLean Michelle


    Full Text Available Abstract With curriculum reform, whether we admit it or not, the first cohort of students will be 'test-driving' the new programme. Not only are they the pioneers of a new curriculum, but as they progress through their studies, they experience each year of the innovation for the first time. As curriculum designers, we learn from their experiences and their feedback to improve the programme content and delivery, invariably for subsequent cohorts. A considerable onus therefore rests with this pioneer group, and their contribution to curriculum design, evaluation and programme revision should be valued.

  11. Pioneer and Voyager observations of the solar wind at large heliocentric distances and latitudes (United States)

    Gazis, P. R.; Mihalov, J. D.; Barnes, A.; Lazarus, A. J.; Smith, E. J.


    Data obtained from the electrostatic analyzers aboard the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft and from the Faraday cup aboard Voyager 2 were used to study spatial gradients in the distant solar wind. Prior to mid-1985, both spacecraft observed nearly identical solar wind structures. After day 150 of 1985, the velocity structure at Voyager 2 became flatter, and the Voyager 2 velocities were smaller than those observed by Pioneer 11. It is suggested that these changes in the solar wind at low latitudes may be related to a change which occurred in the coronal hole structure in early 1985.

  12. The pioneering steps of radiology in Turkey (1896-1923)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulman, Yesim Isil [Department of Medical History and Ethics, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Kalamis, Tevfik Pasa Sok. Cigdem Apt. 6/7, 81030 Fenerbahce-Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail:; Livadas, Gerry [A and L Medical Supplies Ltd., Athens (Greece); Yildirim, Nuran [Department of Medical History and Ethics, Istanbul Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey)


    The discovery of X-rays (1895) by W.C. Roentgen has been a very important step of the modern civilization as a revolutionary technique for scientists all around the world and it has immediately been applied in medical field. The aim of this study is to search the start of radiology in Turkey on the basis of archival and first hand sources. This study shows that Roentgen apparatus was first installed in Turkey by an intern doctor Esad Feyzi who took the first radiographies at the Imperial Medical School (Istanbul) in 1896. He made use of X-ray method for medical diagnosis later on when Turkish-Greek war broke out in 1897. Esad Feyzi worked in the clinical team led by professor Salih Effendi, MD, at the Yildiz Temporary Military Hospital in Istanbul to take radiographies of soldiers wounded at war in cooperation with the German Red Cross medical delegation. This event is most probably the earliest examples of the application of X-ray technique into military surgery all over the world. Researches have also proven that medical radiography technique was also applied in Greece by Greek and English doctors during that war. This war gave the opportunity to German and British medical teams to use X-ray as a radiographic imaging technique at the two confronting sides that was used in consequent wars in other parts of the world, later on. The paper deals with the progress of clinical radiology in Turkey until the foundation of the Turkish Republic in 1923.

  13. The Now Frontier. Pioneer to Jupiter. Man Links Earth and Planets. Issue No. 1-5. (United States)


    This packet of space science instructional materials includes five issues related to the planet Jupiter. Each issue presents factual material about the planet, diagramatic representations of its movements and positions relative to bright stars or the earth, actual photographs and/or tables of data collected relevant to Pioneer 10, the spacecraft…

  14. The Solar House: Pioneering Sustainable Design. By Anthony Denzer. New York: Rizzoli, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Koehler


    Full Text Available This review of The Solar House: Pioneering Sustainable Design, by Anthony Denzer, discusses the important contributions of this book to the history of midcentury modern architecture, and considers the role of solar houses in the context of current debates over sustainability.

  15. A Comparative Study of Pioneer Entry Decisions in the United States and China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Y. Lisa; Song, Michael; Parry, Mark E.


    According to the resource-based view of the firm, competitive advantages arise from control and deployment of productive resources that are rare and difficult to imitate. Through early entry, pioneers can gain preferential access to key resources. However, the value of that access depends on the pre

  16. Results of Pioneer 10 and 11 meteoroid experiments - Interplanetary and near-Saturn (United States)

    Humes, D. H.


    The meteoroid penetration detectors on Pioneer 10 (channel 0) recorded 95 penetrations through the 25-micron stainless steel test material while the spacecraft was between 1 and 18 AU. The spatial density of 10 to the -9 g meteoroids is found to be essentially constant between 1 and 18 AU. The meteoroid penetration detectors on Pioneer 11 recorded 87 penetrations (55 on channel 0 and 32 on channel 1) through the 50-micron stainless steel test material while the spacecraft was between 1 and 9 AU. It is found that the meteoroids between 4 and 5 AU are not in direct circular or near-circular orbits near the ecliptic plane. The Pioneer 11 data obtained between 4 and 5 AU are best explained by the meteoroids being in randomly inclined orbits of high eccentricity. If meteoroids are in these cometlike orbits, the great increase in penetration flux previously measured near Jupiter with the Pioneer 10 experiment cannot be attributed to gravitational focusing unless the size distribution of meteoroids changes substantially between 1 and 5 AU. At Saturn encounter, the penetration flux increased by about three orders of magnitude, probably as the result of impacts from ring particles. Saturn's ring E is estimated to be 1800 km thick with an optical thickness greater than 10 to the -8.

  17. An Interview with Sunny Hansen: Pioneer and Innovator in Counseling and Career Development (United States)

    Skovholt, Thomas S.; Hage, Sally M.; Kachgal, Mera M.; Gama, Elizabeth Pinheiro


    During her 45-year career, Sunny Hansen was a pioneer and innovator in counseling and career development. She has lived the holistic life about which she writes and teaches. In this interview, she discussed the major influences on her life, the evolution of her professional career from English and journalism teacher to counselor and counselor…

  18. A Tribute to Professor Rene H. Miller - A Pioneer in Aeromechanics and Rotary Wing Flight Transportation (United States)

    Friedmann, Peretz P.; Johnson, Wayne; Scully, Michael P.


    Rene H. Miller (May 19, 1916 January 28, 2003), Emeritus H. N. Slater Professor of Flight Transportation, was one of the most influential pioneers in rotary wing aeromechanics as well as a visionary whose dream was the development of a tilt-rotor based short haul air transportation system. This paper pays a long overdue tribute to his memory and to his extraordinary contributions.

  19. De Vries & Mul, A.M. Cooper, Pioneer of Puppet Animation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wells, Paul


    abstractReview of Tjitte de Vries and Ati Mul, ‘They Thought it was a Marvel’. Arthur Melbourne Cooper (1874-1961) Pioneer of Puppet Animation. Amsterdam (Pallas Publications/AmsterdamUniversity Press) 2009, 576 p., 105 ill.; includesdvd of 6 films, isbn 978 908 555016 7

  20. CRED Gridded Bathymetry near Lisianski Island and Pioneer Bank (100-002), Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — File 100-002b is a 60-m ASCII grid of depth data collected near Lisianski Island and Pioneer Bank in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands as of May 2003. This grid has...

  1. CRED Gridded Bathymetry near South Pioneer Bank (100-003), Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — File 100-003b is a 60-m ASCII grid of depth data collected near south Pioneer Bank in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands as of May 2003. This grid has been produced...

  2. Giuseppe Pasta (1742-1823): protophysician and pioneer of psychological studies in the medical field. (United States)

    Clerici, Carlo Alfredo; Veneroni, Laura; Poli, Marco


    Giuseppe Pasta was a pioneer of psychological support in physical disease. Born in Bergamo, Italy, he was a cousin of the physician Andrea Pasta who was a pupil of Giovanni Battista Morgagni. Giuseppe's cultural and clinical resources were the teachings of Francesco Redi's medical school in Tuscany. This paper discusses the courage and philosophical tolerance of disease and the etiquette of the physician.

  3. Turning Points in the Lives of Two Pioneer Arab Women Principals in Israel (United States)

    Arar, Khalid Husny; Abu-Rabia-Queder, Sarab


    This study investigates the managerial career development of two Arab women, pioneer principals within the Arab education system in Israel. Using in-depth interviews relating to the characteristics of the different stages leading up to and within their careers as school principals (childhood and academic studies; the struggle to achieve the…

  4. The effects of inter-industry and country difference in supplier relationships on pioneering innovations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ying; Vanhaverbeke, Wim


    and their suppliers in Canada are likely to result in pioneering innovations. The knowledge difference is decomposed into two dimensions: the inter-industrial dimension and the geographic dimension in national context. Using the Canadian Innovation database, we found the inter-industry difference has a positive...

  5. Pioneering the human development revolution: Analysing the trajectory of Mahbub ul Haq

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)


    textabstractMahbub ul Haq's work to coordinate, establish and propagate the human development approach offers an example of effective leadership in promoting more ethical socio-economic development. This article reviews Pioneering the Human Development Revolution-An Intellectual Biography of Mahbub

  6. Age-dependent radial increases in wood specific gravity of tropical pioneers in Costa Rica (United States)

    Bruce G. Williamson; Michael C. Wiemann


    Wood specific gravity is the single best descriptor of wood functional properties and tree life-history traits, and it is the most important variable in estimating carbon stocks in forests. Tropical pioneer trees produce wood of increasing specific gravity across the trunk radius as they grow in stature. Here, we tested whether radial increases in wood specific gravity...

  7. Pioneer CESA Guidance Project: A Staff Development Program for School Counselors. Consultation. (United States)

    Woodard, Wallace S., Sr.

    This document on consultation is one of seven staff development programs which target performance skills of school counselors. The staff development programs are one component of a comprehensive student-needs-based guidance system developed by the Pioneer Cooperative Educational Service Agency Guidance Project. The staff development programs are…

  8. Pioneer CESA Guidance Project: A Staff Development Program for School Counselors. Legal and Ethical Concerns. (United States)

    Swanson, Carl; Van Hoose, William

    This document on legal and ethical concerns is one of seven staff development programs which target performance skills of school counselors. The staff development programs are one component of a comprehensive student-needs-based guidance system developed by the Pioneer Cooperative Educational Service Agency Guidance Project. The staff development…

  9. Bronislawa and Mieczyslaw Konopacki - pioneers of the application of histochemistry to embryology in Poland. (United States)

    Bielanska-Osuchowska, Zofia


    In this paper, we review the life and work of Mieczyslaw Konopacki and his wife Bronislawa Konopacka. These Polish scientists introduced histochemical methods to embryological studies at the beginning of the XXth century; they were pioneers in this regard in Poland and among the first in the world to implement such methods in this way.

  10. Pioneering Mars: Turning the Red Planet Green with Earth's Smallest Settlers (United States)

    Cwikla, Julie; Milroy, Scott; Reider, David; Skelton, Tara


    Pioneering Mars: Turning the Red Planet Green with the Earth's Smallest Settlers ( provides a partnership model for STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) learning that brings university scientists together with high school students to investigate whether cyanobacteria from Antarctica could survive on…

  11. De Vries & Mul, A.M. Cooper, Pioneer of Puppet Animation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wells, Paul


    abstractReview of Tjitte de Vries and Ati Mul, ‘They Thought it was a Marvel’. Arthur Melbourne Cooper (1874-1961) Pioneer of Puppet Animation. Amsterdam (Pallas Publications/AmsterdamUniversity Press) 2009, 576 p., 105 ill.; includesdvd of 6 films, isbn 978 908 555016 7

  12. Pioneering Mars: Turning the Red Planet Green with Earth's Smallest Settlers (United States)

    Cwikla, Julie; Milroy, Scott; Reider, David; Skelton, Tara


    Pioneering Mars: Turning the Red Planet Green with the Earth's Smallest Settlers ( provides a partnership model for STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) learning that brings university scientists together with high school students to investigate whether cyanobacteria from Antarctica could survive…

  13. The mechanical design of an imaging photopolarimeter for the Jupiter missions (Pioneer 10 and 11) (United States)

    Kodak, J. C.


    The mechanical design and fabrication are discussed of the imaging photopolarimeter (IPP), a multifunction space-qualified instrument used on the Jupiter Pioneer missions. The extreme environmental requirements for the structural design, optical system, and mechanisms are described with detailed discussion of some of the design and fabrication problems encountered.

  14. Huang Kun (1919-2005)A Pioneer of Solid-state and Semiconductor Physics in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Prof. Huang Kun made many pioneering contributions in solid-state physics. In the late 1940s, for example, he theoretically predicted diffuse X-ray reflection due to point defects in crystal lattices, which was experimentally confirmed in the 1960s. Known as "Huang Scattering," the theory has already developed into a method for studying micro-defects in solids.

  15. Science Park of Universities in Jiangsu Province Nanjing Jingang Science Pioneering Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正> The Nanjing Jingang Science Pioneering Center was estab-lished in August 2000. It is located at Tower A, Jingang Building, 251 Heyan Road, Nanjing, and has a 28-story and 25,000m2 of space for the incubation of projects of

  16. Robert Owen: A Historiographic Study of a Pioneer of Human Resource Development (United States)

    Hatcher, Tim


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the ideals and activities of the nineteenth century Welsh industrialist and reformer Robert Owen (1771-1858), and how they informed modern human resource development (HRD) concepts and practices and provided evidence of Owen as a HRD pioneer. Design/methodology/approach: Historiography provided…

  17. Domenico Pacini, uncredited pioneer of the discovery of cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    De Angelis, Alessandro


    During a series of experiments performed between 1907 and 1911, Domenico Pacini (Marino 1878-Roma 1934), at that time researcher at the Central Bureau of Meteorology and Geodynamics in Roma, studied the origin of the radiation today called "cosmic rays", the nature of which was unknown at that time. In his conclusive measurements in June 1911 at the Naval Academy in Livorno, and confirmed in Bracciano a couple of months later, Pacini, proposing a novel experimental technique, observed the radiation strength to decrease when going from the surface to a few meters underwater (both in the sea and in the lake), thus demonstrating that such radiation could not come from the Earth's crust. Pacini's work was largely overlooked. Hess was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1936, two years after the death of Pacini, who had become a full professor of Experimental Physics at the University of Bari. The discovery of cosmic rays -a milestone in science- involved several scientists in Europe and in the United States of ...

  18. Pioneering corporate responsibility in Italy: the Enel experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comin, Gianluca


    Enel, the largest Italian utility for production, distribution of electricity and the second largest for natural gas distribution has started its Corporate Responsibility practice in 2002 and ever since has gained a leading role within the Italian sustainability scene. By rapidly integrating Corporate Responsibility in its strategic planning and in its reporting procedures, Enel also could develop a state of the art sustainability plan, a wide array of key performance indicators to monitor it and an outstanding knowledge in Corporate Responsibility mainstreaming. The acceleration imposed by Enel's management in implementing Corporate Responsibility as a basic integrator into its corporate procedures also allowed the company to be acknowledged as one of the best practices in the world. Along the implementation of Corporate Responsibility Enel also developed traditional and intranet based training programs that impacted on 4,500 middle managers and 48,000 employees. International sustainability indices recognised the company's effort including it in their listings as of 2003. Active in stakeholder dialogue, Enel is also implementing a way to gather fresh and direct opinions from an esteemed universe of 60,000 people with an unprecedented web based polling tool derived from multidimensional scaling techniques aimed at questioning appreciation on 25 topics of mutual concern. (auth)

  19. The pioneers of interplanetary communication: From Gauss to Tesla (United States)

    Raulin-Cerceau, Florence


    The present overview covers the period from 1820 to the beginning of the 20th century. Emphasis is laid on the latter half of the 19th century because many efforts have been done at that time to elaborate schemes for contacting our neighboring planets by interplanetary telegraphy. This period knew many advances not only in planetary studies but also in the nascent field of telecommunications. Such a context led astronomers who were also interested in the problem of planetary habitability, to envisage that other planets could be contacted, especially the planet Mars. Interplanetary communication using a celestial telegraphy was planned during this period of great speculations about life on Mars. This paper focuses on four authors: the Frenchmen C. Flammarion, Ch. Cros, A. Mercier and the Serbian N. Tesla, who formulated early proposals to communicate with Mars or Venus. The first proposals (which remained only theoretical) showed that an initial reflection had started as early as the second part of the 19th century on the type of language that could be both universal and distinguishable from a natural signal. Literary history of interplanetary communication preceded by far the scientific one. Authors of the 1900s were very prolific on this topic. French fictions are mentioned in this paper as examples of such a literature. This incursion into selected texts stresses the fact that the problem of techniques and messages employed to communicate with other planets goes beyond the strict scientific framework. Finally, this paper aims to highlight the similarities as well as the differences between the different proposals and to underline what that could possibly help present SETI research to define messages supposed to be sent to other planetary systems.

  20. A pioneer in the development of modern ultrasound: Robert William Boyle (1883-1955). (United States)

    Arshadi, Roozbeh; Cobbold, Richard S C


    Robert William Boyle was one of the pioneers in the development and application of ultrasound. His remarkable career has not been previously traced in any depth, nor have his contributions, especially those during WWI, been carefully described. In collaboration with Lord Rutherford, his work on the development of ultrasound methods for submarine detection paralleled those in France under Paul Langevin (1872-1946), who many consider to be the father of modern ultrasound. This biographic account of Boyle's life focuses on his ultrasound research contributions, particularly the developments during WWI and those in the 10 years after. Evidence is presented that his pioneering research, along with that of Langevin, provided much of the foundation for modern ultrasound developments. Although this paper is partially based on somewhat dispersed biographic information performed by others, original letters and research papers, in addition to records and verbal accounts provided by relatives, have been used and consulted.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xue-ping; ZHANG Yi; CAO Hui-cong


    This article reveals the ecological features and the theories and methods of introducing pioneer plants in the process of eco-restoring in different degenerative ecosystems in the drainage basin of Erlongshan Reservoir in Heilongjiang Province by systemically studying the deteriorative ecosystems and using recovery theory. The study shows that with the rise in degenerative degrees of the ecosystems, bio-species and bio-diversity sharply decrease in the study area and microclimate becomes warmer and drier in natural ecosystem. Therefore, we must attach importance to the construction of plants and biodiversity. In the study, different pioneer plants are selected for different degenerative ecosystems to restore and maintain the service functions of the ecosystems.

  2. Identification of pioneer viridans streptococci in the oral cavity of human neonates. (United States)

    Pearce, C; Bowden, G H; Evans, M; Fitzsimmons, S P; Johnson, J; Sheridan, M J; Wientzen, R; Cole, M F


    Three hundred and sixty-seven strains of pioneer streptococci isolated from the mouths of 40 healthy, full-term infants during the first month of life were examined by two taxonomic schemes that incorporated biochemical and physiological characteristics, IgA1 protease production and glycosidase activities. Streptococcus mitis biovar 1 and S. oralis comprised 55.0% of the pioneer streptococci isolated from neonates. S. salivarius constituted 25.3% of the isolates, while S. anginosus, S. mitis biovar 2, S. sanguis and S. gordonii accounted collectively for 11.4%. Difficulties in identifying streptococci were encountered and 8.4% of the 367 isolates could not be assigned to a recognised species.

  3. Electrotherapy for melancholia: the pioneering contributions of Benjamin Franklin and Giovanni Aldini. (United States)

    Bolwig, Tom G; Fink, Max


    The electrical induction of seizures with a therapeutic aim began in 1938, but the history of electric currents to relieve mental illness began 2 centuries earlier with the pioneering work of the Italian Giovanni Aldini and the American Benjamin Franklin.These early experiments are described demonstrating that the electrical force encouraged hopeful applications. This history emphasizes the unique contribution in the induction of grand mal seizures as the therapeutic basis rather than the role of electricity alone.

  4. Ultrastructural observations on five pioneer soil algae from ice denuded areas (King George Island, West Antarctica)


    MASSALSKI, ANDRZEJ; Mrozinska ,Teresa; Olech, Maria


    Morphological observations were made using transmission electron microscopy on five species of green soil algae, including Chlorosarcinopsis cf. gelatinosa Chantanachat & Bold, Muriella decolor visher, Tetracystis aeria Brown & Bold, Tetracystis pampae Brown & bold, and Stichococcus bacillaris Nageli. With an exception of the latter species, they are all new records in Antarctica. These species were the important pioneers in the colonization process of the areas recently denuded of ice. Colle...

  5. Pioneer:等离子电视风头仍劲

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Greg Tarr


    尽管今天宣布其将停止生产等离子面板模块组件,但是Pioneer Electronics的美国销售和产品开发高级副总裁Russ Johnston说,该公司并没有改变其对于等离子技术的热衷态度。

  6. Xinxing Cathay Group and Weiqiao Pioneering Group entered Global Fortune500Companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Beijing time on 9th July 2012, United States Fortune- global officially released the 2012 Global Fortune 500 Companies list. Xinxing Cathay Group and Weiqiao Pioneering Group entered Global Fortune 500 Companies. In 2011, Xinxing Cathay Group topped the ranking of Global Fortune 500 Companies, ranked No. 484 by operating income of CNY 147.6 billion (equivalent to USD 22.832 billion). Xinxing Cathay Group is the country’s largest military supplier,

  7. Professor Mansour Ali Haseeb: Highlights from a pioneer of biomedical research, physician and scientist



    The article highlights the career of Professor Mansour Ali Haseeb (1910 – 1973; DKSM, Dip Bact, FRCPath, FRCP [Lond]), a pioneer worker in health, medical services, biomedical research and medical education in the Sudan. After his graduation from the Kitchener School of Medicine (renamed, Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum [U of K]) in 1934, he devoted his life for the development of laboratory medicine. He became the first Sudanese Director of Stack Medical Research Laboratories (19...

  8. Electrotherapy for melancholia: the pioneering contributions of Benjamin Franklin and Giovanni Aldini

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolwig, Tom G; Fink, Max


    The electrical induction of seizures with a therapeutic aim began in 1938, but the history of electric currents to relieve mental illness began 2 centuries earlier with the pioneering work of the Italian Giovanni Aldini and the American Benjamin Franklin.These early experiments are described...... demonstrating that the electrical force encouraged hopeful applications. This history emphasizes the unique contribution in the induction of grand mal seizures as the therapeutic basis rather than the role of electricity alone....

  9. Restoration potential of pioneer plants growing on lead-zinc mine tailings in Lanping, southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Dongmei; DUAN Changqun


    This study focused on the restoration potential of ten pioneer plants (Artemisia roxburghiana, Artemisia tangutica, Carex inanis,Cyperaceae hebecarpus, Plantago depresa, Cynoglossum lanceolatum, Potentilla saundesiana, Coriaria sinica, Oxyria sinensis, andMiscanthus nepalensis) during the early phase of Pb-Zn mine tailings phytostabilization, in Lanping, China. The concentrations ofheavy metals (Pb, Zn, and Cu) and soil fertility (the available N, P, K, and organic matter) in the rhizosphere of these species have been compared. The results showed a general improvement in the rhizosphere soil properties of pioneer plants. Of the ten species, theconcentrations of Pb, Zn, and Cu in the rhizosphere of A. Roxburghiana have the greatest reduction of 56.23%, 83.00%, and 84.36%,respectively, compared to the bulk soil. The best improvement in soil fertility was found in the rhizosphere of P. Saundesiana, with anincrease of 241.83%, 170.76%, 49.09%, and 81.60%, respectively, in the available N, E K, and organic matter. Metals accumulated bythe plants have been mainly distributed in the root tissues, and only small amounts transferred m the aboveground tissues. The highestcontents of Pb and Zn have been recorded in C. Hebecarpus with 57.84 and 87.92 mg/kg dry weight (dw), respectively. The maximumCu content was observed in C. Inanis with 1.19 mg/kg dw. Overall, pioneer plants will be ideal species for the phytostabilization of minetailings, but the potential use varies in different pioneer plant species. Among these ten species, A. Roxburghiana has been identified tobe the most suitable for phytostabilization programs, due to its greatest improvement on physicai-chemical properties in the rhizospheresoil.

  10. Caroline B. Palmer: Pioneer Physician Anesthetist and First Chair of Anesthesia at Stanford. (United States)

    Brodsky, Jay B; Saidman, Lawrence J


    Caroline B. Palmer was appointed as Chief of Anesthesia at Cooper Medical College (soon renamed as Stanford Medical School) in 1909. For the next 28 years, she was an innovative leader, a clinical researcher, and a strong advocate for recognition of anesthesiology as a medical specialty. To honor her accomplishments, the operating room suite in the new Stanford Hospital will be named after this pioneering woman anesthesiologist.

  11. The History with Two Prehistories. On the design of the Moscow Palace of Young Pioneers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Novikov


    Full Text Available The article refers to the history of design of the Moscow Palace of Young Pioneers architectural complex on Leninskie (now Vorobievy Gory viewed in the context of evolution of the national architecture. While speaking about how the project came into being and which way was chosen to find the architectural character, the author proves that the Palace was a pivotal point in the history of Russian architecture and became one of the symbols of Soviet Modernism.

  12. Modelling the reflective thermal contribution to the acceleration of the Pioneer spacecraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francisco, F., E-mail: [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Bertolami, O., E-mail: [Departamento de Fisica e Astronomia, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Gil, P.J.S., E-mail: [Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica and IDMEC - Instituto de Engenharia Mecanica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Paramos, J., E-mail: [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)


    We present an improved method to compute the radiative momentum transfer in the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft that takes into account both diffusive and specular reflection. The method allows for more reliable results regarding the thermal acceleration of the deep-space probes, confirming previous findings. A parametric analysis is performed in order to set upper and lower bounds for the thermal acceleration and its evolution with time.

  13. Exploration of pioneering as a major element of ethical leadership in nursing: A qualitative study. (United States)

    Barkhordari-Sharifabad, Maasoumeh; Ashktorab, Tahereh; Atashzadeh-Shoorideh, Foroozan


    Commitment to ethical behavior is considered as an essential part of occupational responsibilities of nursing, and leaders' pioneering in ethical growth and development has led to the emergence of the concept of ethical leadership. The purpose of this study was to explain the nursing leaders' perception and experiences of pioneering in the field of ethical leadership. In this qualitative study, data were collected through semi-structured individual interviews. A total of 14 nursing leaders at different levels who were selected by purposeful sampling method participated in the study. Latent content analysis was used to analyze the data. Of 14 participants of the study, 8 were male and 6 were female aged 38 to 56 years old with a mean managerial experience of 12 years. In the analysis of interviews, 4 subcategories of "Role Modeling", "Empowerment", "Knowledge and Skill", and "Recognition" were obtained which formed two main categories. These categories included "Leader as mentor" and "Professional insight". Pioneering leaders are an important part of ethical leadership, and nursing leaders should not only be moral people, but also go a step further and actively promote moral behavior with a role as a mentor and model as well as having professional insight. Nursing leaders with a better understanding of these aspects can develop their capacity of strong ethical leadership and consider the aspects in their activities.

  14. CO2 impact ionization-driven plasma instability observed by Pioneer Venus Orbiter at Periapsis (United States)

    Curtis, S. A.; Brace, L. H.; Niemann, H. B.; Scarf, F. L.


    Observations of enhanced ac electric field noise about Pioneer Venus periapsis are shown to be related to spacecraft-generated impact ionization of the ambient CO2. The frequency of the electric field noise is found to peak in the vicinity of the CO2(+) ion plasma frequency and to closely follow the form of the neutral CO2 density profile. When the electric field noise in all channels is normalized by the square root of the CO2 number density, the ratio is constant. Since the impact electron density measured by the Pioneer Venus Langmuir probe, is observed to scale directly with the neutral CO2, the growth of the electric field amplitude is found to be linear in time with a growth rate proportional to the CO2(+) ion plasma frequency. On the basis of these results the impact ionization-driven instability is shown to be the ion acoustic instability. Implications for the lack of observations by Pioneer Venus of reflected-O(+)-driven instabilities, as have been proposed for the space shuttle, are discussed.

  15. Public health, medicine, and dentistry as partners in community health: a pioneering initiative in interprofessional, practice-based education. (United States)

    McCloskey, Lois; Condon, Rebecca; Shanahan, Christopher W; Wolff, James; Culler, Corinna; Kalish, Richard


    As public health challenges grow more complex, the call for professional education to be interprofessional, collaborative, and grounded in real world practice has intensified. In this article, we describe the development, implementation, and results of one pioneering course at Boston University that aims to prepare public health, medical, and dental students for their combined roles in community health settings. The Schools of Public Health, Medicine, and Dental Medicine jointly offered the course in partnership with 3 community organizations. Participants include MPH, MD, and DMD candidates. The course design integrates the use of "The Challenge Model" (created by Management Sciences for Health) with training in public health consultation techniques (eg, community-based participatory research, logic models, monitoring and evaluation). Teams of 6 to 8 medical and public health students collaborate with managers and staff of a community health center to address 1 organizational challenge and recommend a sustainability plan. Postcourse evaluations revealed that a cross-disciplinary, practice-based education model is feasible and can meet students' learning objectives and exceed expectations of community partners. We overcame formidable obstacles related to the "silo'ed" nature of academic institutions and the competing priorities within overburdened community organizations. We found that sustained project implementation was attained at some but not all sites, yet all sites highly valued the perspective and contribution of student teams. Dynamic and replicable, this practice-based education model is adaptable to professional schools whose work intersects in the real world and calls for collaborative leadership.

  16. Short biography of Louis Daniel Beauperthuy (1807-71): pioneer of microbiology and medical science in Venezuela. (United States)

    Godoy, Gerardo A; Tarradath, Ewart


    Louis Daniel Beauperthuy was a pioneer of microbiology in Venezuela where he developed microscopic and clinical research together with academic and scientific observation related to leprosy and the role of insects in the transmission of febrile illnesses.

  17. Curiosity, Hope, and Vision: The Role of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Pioneer Portfolio in Funding Early Health Game Research. (United States)

    Tarini, Paul


    Games for Health Journal Editor Bill Ferguson recently discussed The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's important role in funding health game research with Paul Tarini, Senior Program Officer for the Foundation's Pioneer Portfolio.

  18. Industrial pioneers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassink, J.


    With their knowledge of metallurgy, mechanics and thermodynamics, mechanical engineers had to give shape to the industrial revolution in the Netherlands 150 years ago. This revolution only slowly gathered momentum, however, especially in comparison with England.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zimmer


    Full Text Available First investigation part, started on 1 September 2001 by feeding 473 cows (401 dairy and 72 dry and finished on 13 November by feeding 474 cows (409 dairy and 65 dry, was characterized by the main ration consisting of maize silage without inoculant. This period was known for a maximum number of housed cows being 490 (423 dairy and 67 dry and minimum 469 (395 dairy and 74 dry. Daily average of stable milk production was 17.06 l with 3.48% of lactic fat on the average. Second part of the investigation, started on 14 November 2001 by feeding 474 cows (411 dairy and 63 dry and finished on 31 March 2002 by feeding 464 cows (395 dairy and 69 dry, was known for the basic ration contained maize silage enriched by inoculant Pioneer 1188.This period was characterized by a maximum number of housed cows being 482 (404 dairy and 57 dry. Daily average of stable milk production was 18.67 l and 3.58% of lactic fat. The main ration was composed of silage maize, highly wet maize, pearl barley, stock meal, sunflower cake, hay, salt and VAM. Inoculant Pioneer contained 6 strains of lactic-sour fermentation selected bacteria whose viability is basis of a successful product. In fact, it is a micro-granulated product added, by Gandy doser, to amount of 0.5 kg per green mass/t. Inoculant Pioneer 1188 was in this research added in a dose of 0.436 kg t-1 silage maize. Daily average of stable milk production increased by 1.61l i.e. 9.4% and lactic fat from 3.48% to 3.58% i.e. 2.9%.

  20. On the Origin of the Dark Matter/Energy in the Universe and the Pioneer Anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham A. Ungar


    Full Text Available Einstein's special relativity is a theory rich of paradoxes, one of which is the recently discovered Relativistic Invariant Mass Paradox. According to this Paradox, the relativistic invariant mass of a galaxy of moving stars exceeds the sum of the relativistic invariant masses of the constituent stars owing to their motion relative to each other. This excess of mass is the mass of virtual matter that has no physical properties other than positive relativistic invariant mass and, hence, that reveals its presence by no means other than gravity. As such, this virtual matter is the dark matter that cosmologists believe is necessary in order to supply the missing gravity that keeps galaxies stable. Based on the Relativistic Invariant Mass Paradox we offer in this article a model which quantifies the anomalous acceleration of Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecrafts and other deep space missions, and explains the presence of dark matter and dark energy in the universe. It turns out that the origin of dark matter and dark energy in the Universe lies in the Paradox, and that the origin of the Pioneer anomaly results from neglecting the Paradox. In order to appreciate the physical significance of the Paradox within the frame of Einstein's special theory of relativity, following the presentation of the Paradox we demonstrate that the Paradox is responsible for the extension of the kinetic energy theorem and of the additivity of energy and momentum from classical to relativistic mechanics. Clearly, the claim that the acceleration of Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecrafts is anomalous is incomplete, within the frame of Einstein's special relativity, since those who made the claim did not take into account the presence of the Relativistic Invariant Mass Paradox (which is understandable since the Paradox, published in the author's 2008 book, was discovered by the author only recently. It remains to test how well the Paradox accords with observations.

  1. On the Origin of the Dark Matter/Energy in the Universe and the Pioneer Anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ungar A. A.


    Full Text Available Einstein’s special relativity is a theory rich of paradoxes, one of which is the recently discovered Relativistic Invariant Mass Paradox . According to this Paradox, the rela- tivistic invariant mass of a galaxy of moving stars exceeds the sum of the relativistic invariant masses of the constituent stars owing to their motion relative to each other. This excess of mass is the mass of virtual matter that has no physical properties other than positive relativistic invariant mass and, hence, that reveals its presence by no means other than gravity. As such, this virtual matter is the dark matter that cosmologists be- lieve is necessary in order to supply the missing gravity that keeps galaxies stable. Based on the Relativistic Invariant Mass Paradox we offer in this article a model which quan- tifies the anomalous acceleration of Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecrafts and other deep space missions, and explains the presence of dark matter and dark energy in the universe. It turns out that the origin of dark matter and dark energy in the Universe lies in the Para- dox, and that the origin of the Pioneer anomaly results from neglecting the Paradox. In order to appreciate the physical significance of the Paradox within the frame of Ein- stein’s special theory of relativity, following the presentation of the Paradox we demon- strate that the Paradox is responsible for the extension of the kinetic energy theorem and of the additivity of energy and momentum from classical to relativistic mechanics. Clearly, the claim that the acceleration of Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecrafts is anomalous is incomplete, within the frame of Einstein’s special relativity, since those who made the claim did not take into account the presence of the Relativistic Invariant Mass Paradox (which is understandable since the Paradox, published in the author’s 2008 book, was discovered by the author only recently. It remains to test how well the Paradox accords with observations.

  2. Frugivory and the effects of ingestion by bats on the seed germination of three pioneering plants (United States)

    de Carvalho-Ricardo, Maria C.; Uieda, Wilson; Fonseca, Renata Cristina B.; Rossi, Marcelo N.


    The dispersion and seedling establishment of pioneering plants can be favoured by the presence of frugivorous bats because the bats usually improve seed germination after ingestion. Although seed germinability is known to vary greatly after ingestion by different bats, the relative contribution of each bat species to seed germination within plant communities is poorly understood. In this study, we first determined the fauna of frugivorous bats in a semideciduous seasonal forest remnant in southern Brazil and subsequently identified the plant species of the seeds passed through their guts. Second, the germination performance (i.e., germination percentage and speed) of the seeds of three pioneering plants (Piper aduncum, Piper hispidinervum and Solanum granuloso-leprosum) ingested by the most abundant bats was compared with that of the non-ingested seeds (seeds collected from fruits). Additionally, the effects on seed germination of different bat species were compared. During one year, five species of frugivorous bats were caught, and the seeds of eleven identifiable plant species (not counting those of undetermined species) were found in their faeces. We found that the germination performance of the seeds of Piper species was significantly enhanced after ingestion by bats, whereas S. granuloso-leprosum seeds had neutral or reduced germinability when seeds in faeces were compared with pulp-removed seeds. Our results revealed that the bat species that were captured exerted different effects upon seed germination; such a disparity is expected to result in different rates of early establishment of these pioneer plants in tropical forests, most likely affecting forest composition and structure, particularly during the initial stages of succession.

  3. Definition of Saturn's magnetospheric model parameters for the Pioneer 11 flyby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Belenkaya


    Full Text Available This paper presents a description of a method for selection parameters for a global paraboloid model of Saturn's magnetosphere. The model is based on the preexisting paraboloid terrestrial and Jovian models of the magnetospheric field. Interaction of the solar wind with the magnetosphere, i.e. the magnetotail current system, and the magnetopause currents screening all magnetospheric field sources, is taken into account. The input model parameters are determined from observations of the Pioneer 11 inbound flyby.

  4. William and Caroline Herschel pioneers in late 18th-century astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Hoskin, Michael


    This beautifully structured book presents the essentials of William and Caroline Herschel's pioneering achievements in late 18th-century astronomy. Michael Hoskin shows that William Herschel was the first observational cosmologist and one of the first observers to attack the sidereal universe beyond the solar system:Herschel built instruments far better than any being used at the royal observatory. Aided by his sister Caroline, he commenced a great systematic survey that led to his discovery of Uranus in 1781.Unlike observers before him, whose telescopes did not reveal them as astronomical obj

  5. Robert Mandell: a pioneer and giant in the art and science of contact lenses. (United States)

    Polse, Kenneth A


    Robert B. Mandell is the quintessential modern clinical scientist. Over his long academic career, he has pioneered many advances in contact lens practice, ranging from a more complete understanding of corneal shape to the effects of contact lenses on corneal health. His classic text, Contact Lens Practice, first published in 1965, was reprinted 14 times in four editions up to 1988. Mandell's contributions to the advancement of the profession of optometry have always been characterized by a genuine concern for the patient and a steadfast belief that his research must have relevance to the practice of optometry.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Professor Xia Nai (1910-1985) was a prominent Chinese archaeologist of substantial scholarly achievement. He is generally regarded as the leader of archaeological matters of the People's Republic of China, and one of the important founders of modern Chinese archaeology. His great academic achievements gave him high prestige in academic circles both at home and abroad. Xia Nai was born on 7 February 1910, in Wenzhou, Zhejian province and died on 19 June 1985 in Beijing. In modern China, Xia Nai was a pioneer...

  7. Pioneer 10 observations of zodiacal light brightness near the ecliptic - Changes with heliocentric distance (United States)

    Hanner, M. S.; Weinberg, J. L.; Beeson, D. E.; Sparrow, J. G.


    Sky maps made by the Pioneer 10 Imaging Photopolarimeter (IPP) at sun-spacecraft distances from 1 to 3 AU have been analyzed to derive the brightness of the zodiacal light near the ecliptic at elongations greater than 90 degrees. The change in zodiacal light brightness with heliocentric distance is compared with models of the spatial distribution of the dust. Use of background starlight brightnesses derived from IPP measurements beyond the asteroid belt, where the zodiacal light is not detected, and, especially, use of a corrected calibration lead to considerably lower values for zodiacal light than those reported by us previously.

  8. Charles Wilberforce Daniels, FRCP (1862-1927): underrated pioneer of tropical medicine. (United States)

    Cook, G C


    Charles Wilberforce Daniels was a major pioneer in the early days of the newly-formed medical specialism--tropical medicine. At the London School of Tropical Medicine (LSTM) of which he was a leading stalwart, he took an active part in research, teaching and administration. But like others in the new discipline he spent a great deal of time at various tropical locations: Fiji, British Guiana--where he made important observations on various forms of filariasis-- east Africa, and Malaya. However, his most important research contribution was arguably confirmation of Ronald Ross' 1898 discovery of the complete life-cycle of avian malaria, in Calcutta.

  9. Victor Kandinsky (1849-89): pioneer of modern Russian forensic psychiatry. (United States)

    Lerner, Vladimir; Margolin, Jacob; Witztum, Eliezer


    The paper describes Victor Kandinsky's professional achievements within nineteenth-century Russian forensic psychiatry. A thorough review of nineteenth-century Russian psychiatry is presented, followed by a short biographical account of Kandinsky's personal life. Within the backdrop of Russian forensic psychiatry toward the end of nineteenth century, Kandinsky's pioneer innovations in psychopathology and classification as well as his contributions to Russian forensic psychiatry are reviewed. These are exemplified by two of his forensic case studies relating to forensic responsibility and malingering, which are included in his famous book 'On Irresponsibility'.

  10. Pioneer and Voyager observations of Forbush decreases between 6 and 24 AU (United States)

    Mcdonald, F. B.; Trainor, J. H.; Webber, W. R.


    A detailed phenomenological description of deep space Forbush decreases is given, using Voyager and Pioneer data. The transient reduction in cosmic ray intensity can be produced by (1) reflection at the shock front; (2) increased modulation associated with the disturbed region behind the shock; (3) a barrier mechanism involving large-scale tangential discontinuities; or (4) particle drifts in the enhanced magnetic field by the post-shock region. The presence of a well-defined precursor peak clearly indicates that particle reflection is important. Forbush decreases appear to be an important component in the long-term modulation.

  11. Breaking the mould: profiles of six pioneer trainee or beginning teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLay, Margaret


    Full Text Available There has been much recent attention on increasing the diversity of teachers in the Lifelong Learning Sector (LLS in order to provide a more representative workforce. This is seen as vital not only in engaging learners from minorities but also in increasing the experience of others in working with underrepresented groups. There has been less attention on how to support and sustain teachers from minorities once in post. This study profiles six pioneering teachers/trainees, looking at how they came into their chosen profession and subsequently into teaching, and what processes and attitudes help or hinder them in their work.

  12. Jewish Family and Children's Services: a pioneering human service organization (1850-2008). (United States)

    Schwartz, Sara L; Austin, Michael J


    Jewish Family and Children's Services of San Francisco, the Peninsula, Marin, and Sonoma Counties is a pioneering nonprofit human service organization that has delivered services for 157 years. Over the course of its history, the organization has transformed itself from an all-volunteer agency delivering aid to immigrant families during the Gold Rush era to a $30 million nonprofit human service organization offering a full-range of services to adults, children, and families. The history of Jewish Family and Children's Services sheds light on the importance of strong leadership, strategic planning, external relationships, and strong donor support.

  13. Nutrient capital sequestration in pioneer plant communities on surface-mine spoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, G.L.


    Four pioneer plant communities on a surface-mine spoil were compared in terms of biomass production and nutrient capital sequestration. A chenopodium album-dominated community (Treatment 4) produced the greatest amount of biomass. Next were a community derived from a forest topsoil seed bank spread over mine spoil (Treatment 2), a seed bank community with common reclamation species seeded into it (Treatment 3), and a mix of grasses and Lespedeza commonly used in reclamation (Treatment 1). Amounts of nutrients sequestered in vegetation were not strictly proportional to biomass. Community nutrient contents were largely influenced by community biomass and the nutrient uptake characteristics of the species with most biomass. Significant changes in soil chemistry were found after one growing season. Addition of the reclamation mix of grasses and Lespedeza to the seed bank resulted in significantly fewer established native species. Native species lost their normal dominance and exhibited stunted growth and phenological delay in Treatment 3. Nutrient content niche, nutrient content niche share, and niche breadth (Levins; B) were calculated for important species in each community. Native species generally had reduced niche breadths and niche shares when reclamation species were added to the community. Community content niche, the sums of species content niches, varied between different types of pioneer communities.

  14. Tijuca National Park: two pioneering restorationist initiatives in Atlantic forest in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Freitas

    Full Text Available As a contribution to the environmental history of the Tijuca National Park, we report on two pioneering restorationist initiatives and list its the mammal species now found in this urban park. The Tijuca National Park (TNP, a 3,200 ha urban park covered by secondary tropical forest, is located within Rio de Janeiro, in southeastern Brazil. The two restorationist initiatives were a pioneer tropical forest restoration project in the nineteenth century and a fauna management project in the 70' s. The mammal list presented here was based on specimens in the Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro and on publications. The mammal community of TNP is composed of 49 species, of which 11 are on regional red lists, and four are on the 2003 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Occurrence of these threatened species and the park history itself made the TNP a priority site for studying conservation, management, and monitoring. Besides maintaining fauna and flora (including threatened species diversity, the park benefits the population of Rio de Janeiro by providing water, green areas, and recreational and touristic opportunities.

  15. Orbital effects of the time-dependent component of the Pioneer anomaly

    CERN Document Server

    Iorio, Lorenzo


    We work out the impact that the recently determined time-dependent component of the Pioneer anomalous acceleration may have on the orbital motions of some planets of the solar system in the hypothesis that it is a genuine phenomenon of gravitational origin. By assuming that it points towards the Sun, it turns out that both the semi-major axis a and the eccentricity e of the orbit of a test particle experience secular variations. For Saturn and Uranus, for which modern data records cover at least one full orbital revolution, such predicted anomalies are up to 2-3 orders of magnitude larger than the present-day accuracies in empirically determining their orbital parameters from the usual orbit determination procedures in which the Pioneer anomaly was not modeled. Given the predicted huge sizes of such signatures, it is unlikely that their absence from the presently available processed data can be attributable to an "absorption" for them in the estimated parameters caused by the fact that they were not explicitl...

  16. Professor Peter Choyce: an early pioneer of intraocular lenses and corneal/refractive surgery. (United States)

    Pandey, Suresh K; Apple, David J


    Professor Peter Choyce, FRCS, DOMS, MS, was one of the pioneers of intraocular lens implant surgery. He developed an interest in artificial lens implantation following cataract surgery, a procedure that was widely criticized by the ophthalmic establishment in the UK, Europe, North America and other countries. Owing to the opposition to the intraocular lenses, Peter Choyce together with Sir Harold Ridley co-founded the International Intraocular Implant Club in 1966, which was responsible for the gradual acceptance of artificial lens implantation. Peter Choyce developed several models of intraocular lens, but did not patent the majority of them. The Choyce Mark IX, manufactured by Rayner Intraocular Lenses, became the first US Food and Drug Administration-approved intraocular lens in 1981. A review of Peter Choyce's record confirms a significant number of original innovations in the field of anterior segment surgery, including many procedures taken for granted today, but not associated with his name. These include early work on both kerato- and intraocular lens-refractive procedures, keratoprosthesis, pioneering paediatric implant procedures and others. Unfortunately his tenacious adherence to anterior chamber lens technology, while in general clinically sound, caused many to question his influence and hence he remained poorly understood even until after his death. He passed away on 8 August 2001 after a long fight with colon cancer. In this article, we provide evidence and elaborate Peter Choyce's accomplishments, which places him as one of the most innovative ophthalmologist in his surgical field in the twentieth century.

  17. A mechanistic approach to understanding range shifts in a changing world: What makes a pioneer? (United States)

    Wingfield, J C; Krause, J S; Perez, J H; Chmura, H E; Németh, Z; Word, K R; Calisi, R M; Meddle, S L


    A species' range can be thought of as a manifestation of the ecological niche in space. Within a niche, evolution has resulted in traits that maximize fitness. Across millennia, natural oscillations in temperature have caused shifts in the geographic location of appropriate habitat and with corresponding changes in species' ranges. Contemporary climate change and human disturbance may lead to rapid range expansion or contractions with largely unknown consequences. Birds provide an excellent case study of this phenomenon with some taxa expanding range and others contracting even to the point of extinction. What leads some populations to expand while others contract? Are there physiological and behavioral attributes of "pioneers" at the forefront of a range shift/expansion? The concept of allostasis provides a framework with which to begin to evaluate when a species will be able to successfully expand into new habitat. This tool allows the integration of normal energetic demands (e.g. wear and tear of daily and seasonal routines) with novel challenges posed by unfamiliar and human altered environments. Allostasis is particularly attractive because it allows assessment of how individual phenotypes may respond differentially to changing environments. Here, we use allostasis to evaluate what characteristics of individuals and their environment permit successful range expansion. Understanding variation in the regulatory mechanisms that influence response to a novel environment will be fundamental for understanding the phenotypes of pioneers.

  18. Bacterial Rhizosphere Biodiversity from Several Pioneer Desert Sand Plants Near Jizan, Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Osman, Jorge R.


    Life in arid regions and, in particular, hot deserts is often limited due to their harsh environmental conditions, such as large temperature fluctuations and low amounts of water. These extreme environments can influence the microbial community present on the surface sands and any rhizosphere members surrounding desert plant roots. The Jizan desert area, located in Saudi Arabia, supports particular vegetation that grows in the large sandy flat terrain. We examined five different samples, four from the rhizosphere of pioneer plants plus a surface sand sample, and used pyrosequencing of PCR-amplified V1-V3 regions of 16S rDNA genes from total extracted DNA to reveal and compare the bacterial population diversity of the samples. The results showed a total of 3,530 OTUs in the five samples, calculated using ≥ 97% sequence similarity levels. The Chao1 estimation of the bacterial diversity fluctuated from 637 to 2,026 OTUs for a given sample. The most abundant members found in the samples belong to the Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria phyla. This work shows that the Jizan desert area of Saudi Arabia can contain a diverse bacterial community on the sand and surrounding the roots of pioneer desert plants. It also shows that desert sand microbiomes can vary depending on conditions, with broad implications for sandstone monument bacterial communities

  19. Elevation, Not Deforestation, Promotes Genetic Differentiation in a Pioneer Tropical Tree (United States)

    Castilla, Antonio R.; Pope, Nathaniel; Jaffé, Rodolfo; Jha, Shalene


    The regeneration of disturbed forest is an essential part of tropical forest ecology, both with respect to natural disturbance regimes and large-scale human-mediated logging, grazing, and agriculture. Pioneer tree species are critical for facilitating the transition from deforested land to secondary forest because they stabilize terrain and enhance connectivity between forest fragments by increasing matrix permeability and initiating disperser community assembly. Despite the ecological importance of early successional species, little is known about their ability to maintain gene flow across deforested landscapes. Utilizing highly polymorphic microsatellite markers, we examined patterns of genetic diversity and differentiation for the pioneer understory tree Miconia affinis across the Isthmus of Panama. Furthermore, we investigated the impact of geographic distance, forest cover, and elevation on genetic differentiation among populations using circuit theory and regression modeling within a landscape genetics framework. We report marked differences in historical and contemporary migration rates and moderately high levels of genetic differentiation in M. affinis populations across the Isthmus of Panama. Genetic differentiation increased significantly with elevation and geographic distance among populations; however, we did not find that forest cover enhanced or reduced genetic differentiation in the study region. Overall, our results reveal strong dispersal for M. affinis across human-altered landscapes, highlighting the potential use of this species for reforestation in tropical regions. Additionally, this study demonstrates the importance of considering topography when designing programs aimed at conserving genetic diversity within degraded tropical landscapes. PMID:27280872

  20. Geochronology and Geomorphology of the Pioneer Archaeological Site (10BT676), Upper Snake River Plain, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keene, Joshua L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    The Pioneer site in southeastern Idaho, an open-air, stratified, multi-component archaeological locality on the upper Snake River Plain, provides an ideal situation for understanding the geomorphic history of the Big Lost River drainage system. We conducted a block excavation with the goal of understanding the geochronological context of both cultural and geomorphological components at the site. The results of this study show a sequence of five soil formation episodes forming three terraces beginning prior to 7200 cal yr BP and lasting until the historic period, preserving one cultural component dated to ~3800 cal yr BP and multiple components dating to the last 800 cal yr BP. In addition, periods of deposition and stability at Pioneer indicate climate fluctuation during the middle Holocene (~7200-3800 cal yr BP), minimal deposition during the late Holocene, and a period of increased deposition potentially linked to the Little Ice Age. In addition, evidence for a high-energy erosion event dated to ~3800 cal yr BP suggest a catastrophic flood event during the middle Holocene that may correlate with volcanic activity at the Craters of the Moon lava fields to the northwest. This study provides a model for the study of alluvial terrace formations in arid environments and their potential to preserve stratified archaeological deposits.

  1. [Sir Geoffrey Keynes 1887-1982. Surgical pioneer, medical historian, humanist]. (United States)

    Bergljung, Lars


    Sir Geoffrey Keynes (1887 - 1982), was a pioneer in the surgery of breast cancer and thymic deseases, n.b. in patients suffering from myastenia gravis. He strongly disapproved of the longstanding dogma of so called radical mastectomy in breast cancer, and advocated a more limited surgical approach, followed by radiation therapy. This was done more than fifty years before breastconserving surgery has become the therapy of choice and against considerable opposition from the surgical establishment of his days. He also became a pioneer in the surgical treatment of myastenia gravis by thymectomy, at a time when there was no real understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease and when considerable controversy existed as to the importance or non importance of concomitant tumour formation in the thymus. Besides being a busy surgeon Sir Geoffrey was a medical historian, writing the biography of among others William Harvey, a bibliographer with a special interest in the poet and artist William Blake and a bibliophil with a large book collection of great value to medical history.

  2. Solar wind structure at large heliocentric distances - An interpretation of Pioneer 10 observations (United States)

    Hundhausen, A. J.; Gosling, J. T.


    Examination of hourly values of the solar wind speed observed by the Pioneer 10 spacecraft beyond a heliocentric distance of 4 AU reveals (1) a prevalent 'sawtoothlike' speed-time profile, most speed fluctuations displaying a rapid rise and a much slower decline, and (2) the nearly universal appearance of abrupt (on the 1-hour time resolution of these data) changes in the speed on the rising portions of the speed fluctuations. These previously unreported characteristics, as well as the rate of decay of stream amplitudes derived earlier by Collard and Wolfe, are in general agreement with the predictions of stream propagation models that neglect any conversion of kinetic energy to thermal energy outside of shock fronts. Thus the Pioneer 10 observations give the first confirmation of the general concept of solar wind stream evolution employed in these models, i.e., that solar wind speed inhomogeneities appear to steepen to form shock waves and that the 'wave amplitudes' decay slowly as the shock waves propagate outward from the sun.

  3. Cytogenetics and characterization of microsatellite loci for a South American pioneer tree species, Croton floribundus. (United States)

    Silvestrini, Milene; Pinto-Maglio, Cecília A F; Zucchi, Maria I; dos Santos, Flavio A M


    Despite the recent advances in plant population genetic studies, the lack of information regarding pedigree, ploidy level, or mode of inheritance for many polyploids can compromise the analysis of the molecular data produced. The aim of this study was to examine both microsatellite and cytogenetic characteristics of the pioneer tree Croton floribundus Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae) to test for the occurrence of polyploidy in the species and to evaluate its implications for the appropriate use of SSR markers. Seven microsatellite markers were developed and screened for 62 individuals from a semi-deciduous tropical forest in Brazil. Chromosome number, meiotic behavior, and pollen viability were evaluated from male flower buds. All SSR loci were highly polymorphic. The number of bivalents observed in meiosis n = 56 (2n = 8× = 112) and the maximum number of alleles per individual (Ni = 8) demonstrated the occurrence of polyploidy in C. floribundus. The normal meiotic pairing and the high pollen viability suggested that C. floribundus is a regular and stable polyploid, most likely an allopolyploid. The combined SSR and cytogenetic data provided new evidence on the origin and evolution of the species as well as assured the accurate use of SSR loci for population genetic studies of the polyploid pioneer species.

  4. The Pioneer riddle, the quantum vacuum and the acceleration of light

    CERN Document Server

    Ranada, A F


    It is shown that the same phenomenological Newtonian model recently proposed by the author to explain the cosmological evolution of the fine structure constant suggests furthermore an explanation of the unmodelled acceleration $a_P\\simeq 8.5\\times 10^{-10}m/s^2$ of the Pioneer 10/11 spaceships reported by Anderson {\\em et al} in 1998. In the view presented here, it is argued that the permittivity and permeability of empty space are decreasing adiabatically, and the light is accelerating therefore, as a consequence of the progressive thinning down of the quantum vacuum due to the combined effect of its gravitational interaction with all the expanding universe and the fourth Heisenberg relation. It is suggested that the spaceships do not have any extra acceleration (but follow the unchanged Newton laws), the observed effect being due to an adiabatic acceleration of the light equal to $a_P$, which has the same observational radio signature as the anomalous acceleration of the Pioneers.

  5. Estrogen receptor coregulators and pioneer factors: The orchestrators of mammary gland cell fate and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bramanandam eManavathi


    Full Text Available The 17-beta estradiol (E2, a steroid hormone, which play critical role in various cellular processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, migration and apoptosis, is essential for reproduction and mammary gland development. E2 actions are mediated by two classical nuclear hormone receptors, estrogen receptor alpha and beta (ERs. The activity of ERs depends on the coordinate activity of ligand binding, posttranslational modification, and importantly their interaction with their partner proteins called ‘coregulators’. Because majority of breast cancers are ERalpha positive and coregulators are proved to be crucial for ER transcriptional activity, an increased interest in the field has led to the identification of a large number of coregulators. In the last decade, gene knockout studies using mouse models provided impetus to our further understanding of the role of these coregulators in mammary gland development. Several coregulators appear to be critical for terminal end bud formation, ductal branching and alveologenesis during mammary gland development. The emerging studies support that, in addition to these coregulators, the other ER partner proteins ‘pioneering factors’ also seems to contribute significantly to E2 signaling and mammary cell fate. This review discusses emerging themes in coregulator- and pioneering factor-mediated action on ER functions, particularly their role in mammary gland cell fate and development.

  6. Doomed pioneers: Gravity-flow deposition and bioturbation in marine oxygen-deficient environments (United States)

    Föilmi, Karl B.; Grimm, Kurt A.


    Isolated horizons of Thalassinoides and Gyrolithes burrows appear in exclusive association with gravity-flow deposits within sequences of nonbioturbated hernipelagic sedimentary rocks of the Miocene Monterey Formation of California and the Oligocene-Miocene San Gregorio Formation of Baja California. These burrowed levels are not associated with other ichnogenera such as Zoophycos and Chondrites. We infer a causal relation between gravity flow deposition and the presence of Thalassinoides and Gyrolithes and suggest that these gravity flows entrained thalassinidean crustacea. Upon deposition in oxygen-deficient environments, the surviving borrowers reworked substantial quantities of aminated, commonly organic-rich sediments in an environment from which they were previously excluded. The persistence of or the ecologically rapid return to oxygen-depleted conditions limited the survival time and ecological complexity of the transported infaunal dwellers and rendered them doomed pioneers. Ecological and physiological data support this hypothesis: thalassinidean crustacea have the capability to endure turbulent transport and survive up to 5-7 days of anoxia without being severely limited in their biological activities. The accurate recognition of doomed pioneer trace-fossil assemblages as ephemeral ecological phenomena in otherwise laminated successions may contribute to a better understanding and interpretation of paleo-oxygen levels and basin history.

  7. Readiness to adopt e-learning: pioneering a course in school librarianship education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandy Zinn


    Full Text Available E-learning has come of age in South African higher education but scepticism, caution and an inadequate reward system for innovative teaching methods have resulted in a slow uptake by academics. Within this milieu the author pioneered a course in the ACE School Librarianship programme. The study describes the e-learning experiences of the course participants gleaned from questionnaire responses to questions related to experiences of ICTs, the Internet and online learning, ability to navigate the e-learning environment, utilization of elements of the learning management system and implementation of course ideas in their respective schools and personal lives. The study also provides an opportunity for the author to reflect on her pioneering experiences with e-learning and how she would approach it differently next time. The main lessons learned were that 1 the e-learning environment is not necessarily intuitive and participants need opportunities to digest novel features such as the discussion forum; 2 several of the advantages and disadvantages of e-learning that appear in the research literature are identified in this study; and 3 setting up an e-learning course is best achieved incrementally.

  8. Optimized tracking of RF carriers with phase noise, including Pioneer 10 results (United States)

    Vilnrotter, V. A.; Hurd, W. J.; Brown, D. H.


    The ability to track very weak signals from distant spacecraft is limited by the phase instabilities of the received signal and of the local oscillator employed by the receiver. These instabilities ultimately limit the minimum loop bandwidth that can be used in a phase-coherent receiver, and hence limit the ratio of received carrier power to noise spectral density which can be tracked phase coherently. A method is presented for near real time estimation of the received carrier phase and additive noise spectrum, and optimization of the phase locked loop bandwidth. The method was used with the breadboard Deep Space Network (DSN) Advanced Receiver to optimize tracking of very weak signals from the Pioneer 10 spacecraft, which is now more distant that the edge of the solar system. Tracking with bandwidths of 0.1 Hz to 1.0 Hz reduces tracking signal threshold and increases carrier loop signal to noise ratio (SNR) by 5 dB to 15 dB compared to the 3 Hz bandwidth of the receivers now used operationally in the DSN. This will enable the DSN to track Pioneer 10 until its power sources fails near the end of the century.

  9. The Pioneer Transcription Factor FoxA Maintains an Accessible Nucleosome Configuration at Enhancers for Tissue-Specific Gene Activation. (United States)

    Iwafuchi-Doi, Makiko; Donahue, Greg; Kakumanu, Akshay; Watts, Jason A; Mahony, Shaun; Pugh, B Franklin; Lee, Dolim; Kaestner, Klaus H; Zaret, Kenneth S


    Nuclear DNA wraps around core histones to form nucleosomes, which restricts the binding of transcription factors to gene regulatory sequences. Pioneer transcription factors can bind DNA sites on nucleosomes and initiate gene regulatory events, often leading to the local opening of chromatin. However, the nucleosomal configuration of open chromatin and the basis for its regulation is unclear. We combined low and high levels of micrococcal nuclease (MNase) digestion along with core histone mapping to assess the nucleosomal configuration at enhancers and promoters in mouse liver. We find that MNase-accessible nucleosomes, bound by transcription factors, are retained more at liver-specific enhancers than at promoters and ubiquitous enhancers. The pioneer factor FoxA displaces linker histone H1, thereby keeping enhancer nucleosomes accessible in chromatin and allowing other liver-specific transcription factors to bind and stimulate transcription. Thus, nucleosomes are not exclusively repressive to gene regulation when they are retained with, and exposed by, pioneer factors.

  10. The ash in forest fire affected soils control the soil losses. Part 1. The pioneer research (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Pereira, Paulo


    After forest fires, the ash and the remaining vegetation cover on the soil surface are the main protection against erosion agents. The control ash exert on runoff generation mechanism was researched during the 90's (Cerdà, 1998a; 1998b). This pioneer research demonstrated that after forest fires there is a short period of time that runoff and surface wash by water is controlled by the high infiltration rates achieved by the soil, which were high due to the effect of ash acting as a mulch. The research of Cerdà (1998a; 1998b) also contributed to demonstrate that runoff was enhanced four month later upon the wash of the ash by the runoff, but also due to the removal of ash due to dissolution and water infiltration. As a consequence of the ephemeral ash cover the runoff and erosion reached the peak after the removal of the ash (usually four month), and for two years the soil erosion reached the peak (Cerdà, 1998a). Research developed during the last decade shown that the ash and the litter cover together contribute to reduce the soil losses after the forest fire (Cerdà and Doerr, 2008). The fate of the ash is related to the climatic conditions of the post-fire season, as intense thunderstorms erode the ash layer and low intensity rainfall contribute to a higher infiltration rate and the recovery of the vegetation. Another, key factor found during the last two decades that determine the fate of the ash and the soil and water losses is the impact of the fauna (Cerdà and Doerr, 2010). During the last decade new techniques were developed to study the impact of ash in the soil system, such as the one to monitor the ash changes by means of high spatial resolution photography (Pérez Cabello et al., 2012), and laboratory approaches that show the impact of ash as a key factor in the soil hydrology throughout the control they exert on the soil water repellency (Bodí et al., 2012). Laboratory approaches also shown that the fire severity is a key factor on the ash chemical

  11. Development and certification of the innovative pioneer oil burner for residential heating appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamath, B. [Heat Wise Inc., Ridge, NY (United States)


    The Pioneer burner represents another important milestone for the oil heat industry. It is the first practical burner design that is designated for use in small capacity heating appliances matching the needs of modern energy efficient home designs. Firing in the range of 0.3 GPH to 0.65 GPH (40,000-90,000 Btu/hr) it allows for new oil heating appliance designs to compete with the other major fuel choices in the small design load residential market. This market includes energy efficient single family houses, town-houses, condominiums, modular units, and mobile homes. The firing range also is wide enough to cover a large percentage of more conventional heating equipment and home designs as well. Having recently passed Underwriters Laboratory certification tests the burner in now being field tested in several homes and samples are being made available to interested boiler and furnace manufacturers for product development and application testing.

  12. Breaking the glass ceiling: an interview with Dr. Shirley Graves, a pioneering woman in medicine. (United States)

    Ahmed, Zulfiqar; Mai, Christine L; Elder, Badrea; Rodriguez, Samuel; Yaster, Myron


    Shirley Graves M.D., D.Sc. (honorary) (1936), Professor Emeritus of Anesthesiology and Pediatrics at the University of Florida, was one of the most influential women in medicine in the 1960 and 1970s, a time when the medical profession was overwhelmingly male-dominated. In today's society, it is hard to believe that only 50 years ago, women were scarce in the field of medicine. Yet Dr. Graves was a pioneer in the fields of pediatric anesthesia and pediatric critical care medicine. She identifies her development of the pediatric intensive care unit and her leadership in the Division of Pediatric Anesthesia at the University of Florida as her defining contributions. Through her journal articles, book chapters, national and international lectures, and leadership in the American Society of Anesthesiology and the Florida Society of Anesthesiology, she inspired a generation of men and women physicians to conquer the unthinkable and break through the glass ceiling.

  13. A renaissance for the pioneering 16S rRNA gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tringe, Susannah; Hugenholtz, Philip


    Culture-independent molecular surveys using the 16S rRNA gene have become a mainstay for characterizing microbial community structure over the last quarter century. More recently this approach has been overshadowed by metagenomics, which provides a global overview of a community's functional potential rather than just an inventory of its inhabitants. However, the pioneering 16S rRNA gene is making a comeback in its own right thanks to a number of methodological advancements including higher resolution (more sequences), analysis of multiple related samples (e.g. spatial and temporal series) and improved metadata and use of metadata. The standard conclusion that microbial ecosystems are remarkably complex and diverse is now being replaced by detailed insights into microbial ecology and evolution based only on this one historically important marker gene.

  14. The Contribution of Thermal Effects to the Acceleration of the Deep-Space Pioneer Spacecraft

    CERN Document Server

    Bertolami, Orfeu; Páramos, Jorge; Gil, Paulo J S


    A method for the computation of the radiative momentum transfer in the Pioneer 10 & 11 spacecraft due to the diffusive and specular components of reflection is presented. The method provides a reliable estimate of the thermal contribution to the acceleration of these deep space probes and allows for a Monte-Carlo analysis from which an estimate of the impact of a possible variability of the parameters. It is shown that the whole anomalous acceleration can be explained by thermal effects. The model also allows one to estimate the expected time evolution of the acceleration due to thermal effects. The issue of thermal conduction between the different components of the spacecraft is discussed and confirmed to be negligible.

  15. Solar wind and coronal structure near sunspot minimum - Pioneer and SMM observations from 1985-1987 (United States)

    Mihalov, J. D.; Barnes, A.; Hundhausen, A. J.; Smith, E. J.


    Changes in solar wind speed and magnetic polarity observed at the Pioneer spacecraft are discussed here in terms of the changing magnetic geometry implied by SMM coronagraph observations over the period 1985-1987. The pattern of recurrent solar wind streams, the long-term average speed, and the sector polarity of the interplanetary magnetic field all changed in a manner suggesting both a temporal variation, and a changing dependence on heliographic latitude. Coronal observations during this epoch show a systematic variation in coronal structure and the magnetic structure imposed on the expanding solar wind. These observations suggest interpretation of the solar wind speed variations in terms of the familiar model where the speed increases with distance from a nearly flat interplanetary current sheet, and where this current sheet becomes aligned with the solar equatorial plane as sunspot minimum approaches, but deviates rapidly from that orientation after minimum.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukašin Badža


    Full Text Available The research is trying to give an answer on a question whether the training process which lasted two years influenced on development of exsplosive strenght of legs (one of basic psysical abilities at pioneer basketball players. The sample in a research are basketball players from „Danubius - Vojvodina Srbijagas” team, from Novi Sad. The group counts 20 players who participated in training process and on who measuring was conducted. Data were collected per two years, and measuring were exert three times during this period. Tests that were used in this research are: long jump, high jump and running 20m. The obtained data will be processed statistically, using ANOVA for repeated measures and descriptive statistics. Research results will be represented in tables and discussed in text.

  17. Hooked on a New Technology: The Automation Pioneers in Post-War Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stig Kvaal


    Full Text Available This paper presents the initial activities in servo engineering in Norway originating in the early 1950s based on contacts at the Massachusets Institute of Technology. The activities were initiated by a small group of servo enthusiasts who, through the Feedback Control Committee in the research council, managed to coordinate national activities and establish strong research groups in Trondheim, Bergen and Oslo. After the initial phase of establishing the research groups, there was a continuous strong focus on connections with industry and industrial applications. In the mid-1960s the committee was strengthened and became the Automation and Data Processing Committee. The initial group of automation pioneers have left a lasting impact on the academic and industrial fields of servo engineering and automation in Norway.

  18. Professor Monastyrski N.D. (1847–1888): One of the Forgotten Pioneers of Biliary Surgery (United States)

    Gachabayov, Mahir; Kubachev, Kubach


    Today, the ingenious and untimely deceased surgeon Monastyrski’s name is almost lost in the history of medicine and means little, if anything, to young surgeons. Monastyrski Nestor Dmitrievich was born in 1847 in Czerniowce and graduated from the medical faculty of the University of Vienna. Deeply inspired by the stars of European medicine and surgery: Billroth, Kaposi, Mikulicz, he became a brilliant surgeon and teacher. Monastyrski performed the first gastroenterostomy in Russia and was one of the pioneers of the aseptic method in Russia. In May 1887 he performed the historical first cholecystojejunostomy in the world. In 1888, exhausted by a tumor of the right kidney, Monastyrski insisted on surgery which resulted in his death several hours later. The department of surgery which was founded by Monastyrski N.D. in the Clinical Institute of Grand Duchess Elena Pavlovna (today – North-Western State Medical Academy named after I.I. Mechnikov) was named after him. PMID:28373287

  19. Professor Monastyrski N.D. (1847-1888): One of the Forgotten Pioneers of Biliary Surgery. (United States)

    Gachabayov, Mahir; Kubachev, Kubach


    Today, the ingenious and untimely deceased surgeon Monastyrski's name is almost lost in the history of medicine and means little, if anything, to young surgeons. Monastyrski Nestor Dmitrievich was born in 1847 in Czerniowce and graduated from the medical faculty of the University of Vienna. Deeply inspired by the stars of European medicine and surgery: Billroth, Kaposi, Mikulicz, he became a brilliant surgeon and teacher. Monastyrski performed the first gastroenterostomy in Russia and was one of the pioneers of the aseptic method in Russia. In May 1887 he performed the historical first cholecystojejunostomy in the world. In 1888, exhausted by a tumor of the right kidney, Monastyrski insisted on surgery which resulted in his death several hours later. The department of surgery which was founded by Monastyrski N.D. in the Clinical Institute of Grand Duchess Elena Pavlovna (today - North-Western State Medical Academy named after I.I. Mechnikov) was named after him. © 2017 Marshfield Clinic.

  20. Pioneer women in veterinary medicine, their history and where they studied. (United States)

    Erickson, Howard H


    The women described in this paper were the early pioneers in veterinary medicine; they studied in some of the best veterinary colleges in the world at that time. They paved the way for other women who studied veterinary medicine in later years. According to Drum and Whitely,25 by 1936, there were only 30 female veterinarians in the United States; this was an era when admission to veterinary college for women was nearly impossible. In 1963, there were 277 female veterinarians in the United States, but by 1987 women made up 17% of the veterinary profession. The February 15, 2010 issue of the JAVMA reported that male enrollment in U.S. veterinary colleges decreased from 89% for the 1969-70 school year to 22.4% for 2008-09. During the same period female enrollment increased from 11.0% to 77.6%.

  1. The Awakening,One of the Pioneer Works in Feminist Movement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Kate Chopin's The Awakening,is a portrayal of the life of the well-to-do but unhappy married woman Edna Pontellier.Edna enjoys all the advantaged provided by her husband and ahs two lovely children.She is unhappy because she is confined to her house and expected to be a dutiful wife and a loving mother.When she begins to change her way of living,to live for herself instead of her husband and children,she is opposed by her family,her friends and others.To finds her freedom,she drowns herself in the sea.The tragedy of Edna is the tragedy of most women in a patriarchal society,and the novel which caused a storm of criticism at its publication has been considered to be a pioneer work in feminist movement.

  2. Pioneering Metal-Free Oxidative Coupling Strategy of Aromatic Compounds Using Hypervalent Iodine Reagents. (United States)

    Kita, Yasuyuki; Dohi, Toshifumi


    We started our hypervalent iodine research about 30 years ago in the mid-1980s. We soon successfully developed the single-electron-transfer oxidation ability of a hypervalent iodine reagent, specifically, phenyliodine(III) bis(trifluoroacetate) (PIFA), toward aromatic rings of phenyl ethers for forming aromatic cation radicals. This was one of the exciting and unexpected events in our research studies so far, and the discovery was reported in 1991. It also led to the next challenge, developing the metal-free oxidative couplings for C-H functionalizations and direct couplings between the C-H bonds of valuable aromatic compounds in organic synthesis. In order to realize the effective oxidative coupling, pioneering new aromatic ring activations was essential and several useful methodologies have been found for oxidizable arenes. The achievements regarding this objective obtained in our continuous research are herein summarized with classification of the aromatic ring activation strategies.

  3. Are pioneer mangroves more vulnerable to oil pollution than later successional species? (United States)

    Naidoo, Gonasageran; Naidoo, Krishnaveni


    Propagules of Avicennia marina, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza and Rhizophora mucronata were cultivated in rhizotrons (root observation chambers) and subjected to sediment oiling treatments for 409days to determine the effects of oil on root growth. Oiling reduced root length, specific root length, relative root growth rate and root diameter, while specific root volume increased. Oiling reduced root length by 96% in A. marina, 99% in B. gymnorrhiza and 80% in R. mucronata, while specific root volume increased by 34%, 29% and 23% respectively. Relative root growth rate decreased in the oiled treatments by 84%, 80% and 73% respectively. Avicennia exhibits typical root traits of a pioneer species compared to slower-growing later successional species like B. gymnorrhiza and R. mucronata. These traits of A. marina not only allow more rapid establishment of seedlings, but also expose a larger root surface area and therefore greater susceptibility to oil contamination than the other species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Coleman Advocates for Children And Youth: a pioneering child advocacy organization (1974-2008). (United States)

    Carnochan, Sarah; Austin, Michael J


    Coleman Advocates for Youth and Children is a pioneering 30-year-old child advocacy organization founded by several affluent community members and children's service professionals to stop housing abused and neglected children in juvenile hall. Today, low-income youth and parents in families of color are now assuming leadership in developing a unique hybrid approach that integrates community organizing with more traditional child advocacy strategies and focuses on increasing affordable housing and improving the city's educational system. The strategies employed by Coleman have also evolved, shifting from insider advocacy with administrative officials to public campaigns targeting the city budget process, to local initiative campaigns, and most recently to electoral politics. This organizational history features the issues mission and structure, leadership, managing issues, advocacy strategies and community relations, and funding.

  5. A study on the vegetation succession of pioneer trees in landslide control areas (United States)

    Lee, J. H.; Lin, S. H.


    Located in subtropics, the steep terrain, concentrated rainy season, natural disaster, and artificial development have damaged the surface vegetation and resulted in soil loss and landslide in Taiwan. The control of landslide should stabilize the side slope as the priority. Furthermore, a proper engineering is applied to grow plants for the rapid forestation on landslide. Taking the location which has been done hydroseeding in the Shihmen Reservoir watershed as the example, the vegetation succession within the 8 years after the hydroseeding is investigated in this study. The growth and decline of pioneer trees like Rhus javanica is particularly discussed the vegetation recovery role and function on landslide. The research result could provide reference for the planning and design of vegetation recovery.

  6. Propulsion by light: a tribute to the German pioneer Eugen Saenger (Plenary Paper) (United States)

    Bohn, Willy L.


    Although the laser was not yet invented Eugen Saenger, one of the most prominent German personalities in the early development of rocket science and technology suggested to use photons for the propulsion of spacecrafts in the fifties. In contrast to current schemes which are basically aimed at laser induced ablation processes, Eugen Saenger started with the idea of using the radiation pressure itself for propulsion purposes. A review of his pioneering work in that area will be supported by numerous historical documents and personal remembrance showing his effort to promote unconventional ideas. The paper also emphasizes how some of the original concepts are being revisited and partly implemented by using today"s laser technology.

  7. Young at Heart: Pioneering Approaches to Model Nonischaemic Cardiomyopathy with Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (United States)

    Gowran, Aoife; Rasponi, Marco; Perrucci, Gianluca L.; Righetti, Stefano; Zanobini, Marco; Pompilio, Giulio


    A mere 9 years have passed since the revolutionary report describing the derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells from human fibroblasts and the first in-patient translational use of cells obtained from these stem cells has already been achieved. From the perspectives of clinicians and researchers alike, the promise of induced pluripotent stem cells is alluring if somewhat beguiling. It is now evident that this technology is nascent and many areas for refinement have been identified and need to be considered before induced pluripotent stem cells can be routinely used to stratify, treat and cure patients, and to faithfully model diseases for drug screening purposes. This review specifically addresses the pioneering approaches to improve induced pluripotent stem cell based models of nonischaemic cardiomyopathy. PMID:27110250

  8. Saturnian trapped radiation and its absorption by satellites and rings: the first results from pioneer 11. (United States)

    Simpson, J A; Bastian, T S; Chenette, D L; Lentz, G A; McKibben, R B; Pyle, K R; Tuzzolino, A J


    Electrons and protons accelerated and trapped in a Saturnian magnetic field have been found by the University of Chicago experiments on Pioneer 11 within 20 Saturn radii (Rs) of the planet. In the innermost regions, strong absorption effects due to satellites and ring material were observed, and from approximately 4 Rs inwards to the outer edge of the A ring at 2.30 Rs (where the radiation is absorbed), the intensity distributions of protons (>/= 0.5 million electron volts) and electrons (2 to 20 million electron volts) were axially symmetric, consistent with a centered dipole aligned with the planetary rotation axis. The maximum fluxes observed for protons (> 35 million electron volts and for electrons flux increases observed between absorption features raise new questions concerning the physics of charged particle transport and acceleration. An absorption feature near 2.5 Rs has led to the discovery of a previously unknown satellite with a diameter of approximately 200 kilometers, semimajor axis of 2.51 Rs, and eccentricity of 0.013. Radiation absorption features that suggest a nonuniform distribution of matter around Saturn have also been found from 2.34 to 2.36 Rs, near the position of the F ring discovered by the Pioneer imaging experiment. Beneath the A, B, and C rings we continued to observe a low flux of high-energy electrons. We conclude that the inner Saturn magnetosphere, because of its near-axial symmetry and the many discrete radiation absorption regions, offers a unique opportunity to study the acceleration and transport of charged particles in a planetary magnetic field.

  9. Roots of pioneer trees in the lower sub-tropical area of Dinghushan, Guangdong, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Yan-ru; PENG Shao-lin; MO Jiang-ming; LIU Xin-wei; CHEN Zhuo-quan; ZHOU Kai; WU Jin-rong


    Representative pioneer tree root systems in the subtropical area of South China were examined with regard to their structure, underground stratification and biomass distribution. Excavation of skeleton roots and observation of fine roots of seven species including the Euphorbiaceae, Theaceae, Melastomataceae, Lauraceae and Fagaceae families was carried out. The results showed that: (1) Pioneer tree roots in the first stage of natural succession were of two types, one characterized by taproot system with bulky plagiotropic branches; the other characterized by flat root system with several tabular roots. The late mesophilous tree roots were characterized by one obvious taproot and tactic braches roots up and down. Shrub species roots were characterized by heart fibrous root type featured both by horizontally and transversally growing branches. Root shapes varied in different dominant species at different stages of succession. (2) Roots of the different species varied in the external features-color, periderm and structure of freshly cut slash. (3) In a set of successional stages the biomass of tree roots increased linearly with the age of growth. During monsoon, the total root biomass amounted to 115.70 t/ha in the evergreen broad-leaved forest; 50.61t/ha in needle and broad-leaved mixed forest dominated by coniferous forest; and 64.20 t/ha in broad-and needle-leaved mixed forest dominated by broad-leaved heliophytes, and are comparable to the underground biomass observed in similar tropical forests. Thisis the first report about roots characteristics of forest in the lower sub-tropical area of Dinghushan, Guangdong, China.

  10. A tribute to Charles David Kelman MD: ophthalmologist, inventor and pioneer of phacoemulsification surgery. (United States)

    Pandey, Suresh K; Milverton, E John; Maloof, Anthony J


    Charles David Kelman was born in Brooklyn, New York, USA, on 23 May 1930 and passed away in Boca Raton, Florida, USA, on 1 June 2004 at the age of 74 years after a long battle with cancer. He received a Bachelor of Science degree from Tufts University in 1950 and completed medical studies at the University of Geneva, Switzerland, in 1956. He was Clinical Professor of Ophthalmology at New York Medical College and an Attending Surgeon at New York Eye and Ear Infirmary and Manhattan Eye, Ear and Throat Hospital. Although a prolific inventor, he will be best remembered for developing phacoemulsification, following his realization while sitting in a dentist's chair, that ultrasonic vibrations could be used to emulsify the aged crystalline lens through a very small incision. His pioneering work revolutionized cataract surgery. He also pioneered cryo-extraction of cataracts, the use of freezing for the repair of retinal detachments and designed numerous ophthalmic instruments and intraocular lenses. Dr Kelman received numerous awards, including the American Academy of Ophthalmology Achievement Award (1970), the Ridley Medal from the International Congress of Ophthalmology (1990), and the Inventor of the Year Award from The New York Patent, Trademark and Copyright Law Association (1992). Most recently (2003), Dr Kelman was honoured by the American Academy of Ophthalmology with the Laureate Recognition award. Dr Kelman was also an accomplished Broadway producer, composer and jazz saxophonist. With his demise, the ophthalmic and medical community lost a famed inventor with multifaceted talents and one of the great ophthalmologists of the twentieth century.

  11. Gamma-ray burst arrival-time localizations: Simultaneous observations by Ulysses, Pioneer Venus Orbiter, SIGMA, WATCH, and PHEBUS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurley, K.; Laros, J.; Brandt, Søren Kristian


    Between the launch of the Ulysses spacecraft in 1990 October and the entry of Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) into the atmosphere of Venus in 1992 October, concurrent coverage by Ulysses, PVO, the WATCH experiments aboard the Granat and Eureca spacecraft, and the SIGMA and PHEBUS experiments aboard...

  12. The Female Heroine and Her Natural Counterpart: An Ecofeminist Reading of Willa Cather’s O Pioneers!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Khalil Mostafa el Diwany


    Full Text Available Willa Sibert Cather is an American author famous for her representation of the struggles of the early pioneers. She is mainly concerned with underlining the role of these pioneers in the establishment of the Garden of the World and that is why she sets her stories in the American Midwest, especially the Nebraska prairies. What is special about Cather is her focusing on the female sector of these pioneers, and portraying her female heroines as shattering all common social stereotypes through their struggle with the natural environment in which they have been unwillingly planted. This line of thought adopted by Cather in dealing with her female heroines as well as the natural environment embracing them has been echoed several decades later by scientists and scholars who have sensed the abuse faced by nature and females alike. This feeling has led to the emergence of Ecofeminism. The paper under study adopts an ecofeminist approach in  studying Willa Cather’s O Pioneers! as a significant representation of the female struggle and success with the surrounding natural environment.

  13. Hydraulic architecture of two species differing in wood density: opposing strategies in co-occurring tropical pioneer trees (United States)

    Katherine A. McCulloh; Daniel M. Johnson; Frederick C. Meinzer; Steven L. Voelker; Barbara Lachenbruch; Jean-Christophe. Domec


    Co-occurring species often have different strategies for tolerating daily cycles of water stress. One underlying parameter that can link together the suite of traits that enables a given strategy is wood density. Here we compare hydraulic traits of two pioneer species from a tropical forest in Panama that differ in wood density: Miconia argentea...

  14. Recovering a Forgotten Pioneer of Science Studies: C. E. Ayers' Deweyan Critique of Science and Technology (United States)

    Waddington, David I.


    This paper brings to light the ideas of a pioneering but largely forgotten social critic, C. E. Ayres. In his first book, "Science: The False Messiah" (1927), which was written in consultation with John Dewey, Ayres advanced a forceful and original critique of science and technology. He argued that technological change was occurring at a…

  15. The selector gene Pax7 dictates alternate pituitary cell fates through its pioneer action on chromatin remodeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budry, L.; Balsalobre, A.; Gauthier, Y.; Khetchoumian, K.; L'Honore, A.; Vallette-Kasic, S.; Brue, T; Figarella-Branger, D.; Meij, B.P.; Drouin, J.


    Genes Dev. 2012 Oct 15;26(20):2299-310. doi: 10.1101/gad.200436.112. The selector gene Pax7 dictates alternate pituitary cell fates through its pioneer action on chromatin remodeling. Budry L, Balsalobre A, Gauthier Y, Khetchoumian K, L'honoré A, Vallette S, Brue T, Figarella-Branger D, Meij B, Drou

  16. The influence of biosurfactants released by S-mitis BMS on the adhesion of pioneer strains and cariogenic bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hoogmoed, CG; Van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ


    The influence of Streptococcus mitis BMS biosurfactants on the adhesion of eight pioneer and four cariogenic oral bacterial strains was, for a first screening, examined in a microtiter plate assay. The adhesion to pellicle-coated wells of three cariogenic strains was inhibited >70% by the biosurfact

  17. The influence of biosurfactants released by S-mitis BMS on the adhesion of pioneer strains and cariogenic bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hoogmoed, CG; Van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ


    The influence of Streptococcus mitis BMS biosurfactants on the adhesion of eight pioneer and four cariogenic oral bacterial strains was, for a first screening, examined in a microtiter plate assay. The adhesion to pellicle-coated wells of three cariogenic strains was inhibited >70% by the

  18. Pioneer 10 ultraviolet photometer observations of the interplanetary glow at heliocentric distances from 2 to 14 AU (United States)

    Wu, F. M.; Judge, D. L.; Suzuki, K.; Carlson, R. W.


    An analysis is presented of the observed Pioneer 10 interplanetary data from 1972 to 1977, taking into account the interplanetary glow intensity observed by the Pioneer 10 UV photometer at sun-spacecraft distances of 2-14 AU. On the basis of the obtained data, it was determined that the background intensity for the 200-1400 A band pass of the photometer channel is about 40 + or - 10 R, and that the nearby interstellar density is 0.04 + or - 0.91 per ccm for hydrogen and about 0.01 + or - 0.002 per ccm for helium. Accordingly, the He/H number density is about 0.25 at large distances from the sun. The Pioneer 10 spacecraft is leaving the solar system in the downwind direction, while both Pioneer 11 and Voyager will leave in the upwind direction. The combined UV observations of the interplanetary glow will provide accurate results on the physical status of the inflowing interstellar gas and the variability of background radiation as well.

  19. Angelo Sismonda (1807–1878), pioneer of geological mapping in the Alps of Savoy and the Piedmont: a bibliography

    CERN Document Server

    Hollier, John; Basaglia, Tullio; Hollier, Anita


    Angelo Sismonda (Ange Sismonda) was an Italian mineralogist and geologist based in Turin during the Risorgimento who produced pioneering maps of the Alps in the Kingdom of Sardinia. Well known during his lifetime, he is now mentioned only in passing by historians and no comprehensive bibliography of his work exists. To render his work more accessible, we present a short biography and a bibliography.

  20. Benefits, Barriers and Prerequisites for Web 2.0 Learning Activities in the Classroom: The View of Greek Pioneer Teachers (United States)

    Palaigeorgiou, George; Grammatikopoulou, Athina


    Purpose: This paper aims to identify the learning benefits and the challenges of Web 2.0 educational activities when applied in typical learning settings and as perceived by pioneer educators with extensive Web 2.0 experience. Design/Methodology/Approach: The testimonies of 26 Greek primary and secondary education teachers were collected. All…

  1. 75 FR 2580 - Pioneer Industrial Railway Co.-Discontinuance of Service Exemption-Line in Peoria County, IL... (United States)


    ... 1105.8(e). \\2\\ PIRY was authorized to lease and operate the line in Pioneer Industrial Railway Co.--Lease and Operation Exemption--Peoria, Peoria Heights & Western Railroad, STB Finance Docket No. 33549 (STB served Feb. 20, 1998); CIRY was authorized to operate the line in Central Illinois...

  2. D. Carlos de Braganca, a Pioneer of Experimental Marine Oceanography: Filling the Gap between Formal and Informal Science Education (United States)

    Faria, Claudia; Pereira, Goncalo; Chagas, Isabel


    The activities presented in this paper are part of a wider project that investigates the effects of infusing the history of science in science teaching, toward students' learning and attitude. Focused on the work of D. Carlos de Braganca, King of Portugal from 1889 to 1908, and a pioneer oceanographer, the activities are addressed at the secondary…

  3. Experimental techniques; Techniques experimentales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roussel-Chomaz, P. [GANIL CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/DSM, 14 - Caen (France)


    This lecture presents the experimental techniques, developed in the last 10 or 15 years, in order to perform a new class of experiments with exotic nuclei, where the reactions induced by these nuclei allow to get information on their structure. A brief review of the secondary beams production methods will be given, with some examples of facilities in operation or under project. The important developments performed recently on cryogenic targets will be presented. The different detection systems will be reviewed, both the beam detectors before the targets, and the many kind of detectors necessary to detect all outgoing particles after the reaction: magnetic spectrometer for the heavy fragment, detection systems for the target recoil nucleus, {gamma} detectors. Finally, several typical examples of experiments will be detailed, in order to illustrate the use of each detector either alone, or in coincidence with others. (author)

  4. Passive RF component technology materials, techniques, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Guoan


    Focusing on novel materials and techniques, this pioneering volume provides you with a solid understanding of the design and fabrication of smart RF passive components. You find comprehensive details on LCP, metal materials, ferrite materials, nano materials, high aspect ratio enabled materials, green materials for RFID, and silicon micromachining techniques. Moreover, this practical book offers expert guidance on how to apply these materials and techniques to design a wide range of cutting-edge RF passive components, from MEMS switch based tunable passives and 3D passives, to metamaterial-bas

  5. Pioneer identification of fake tiger claws using morphometric and DNA-based analysis in wildlife forensics in India. (United States)

    Vipin; Sharma, Vinita; Sharma, Chandra Prakash; Kumar, Ved Prakash; Goyal, Surendra Prakash


    The illegal trade in wildlife is a serious threat to the existence of wild animals throughout the world. The short supply and high demand for wildlife articles have caused an influx of many different forms of fake wildlife articles into this trade. The task of identifying the materials used in making such articles poses challenges in wildlife forensics as different approaches are required for species identification. Claws constitute 3.8% of the illegal animal parts (n=2899) received at the Wildlife Institute of India (WII) for species identification. We describe the identification of seized suspected tiger claws (n=18) using a combined approach of morphometric and DNA-based analysis. The differential keratin density, determined using X-ray radiographs, indicated that none of the 18 claws were of any large cat but were fake. We determined three claw measurements, viz. ac (from the external coronary dermo-epidermal interface to the epidermis of the skin fold connecting the palmar flanges of the coronary horn), bc (from the claw tip to the epidermis of the skin fold connecting the palmar flanges of the coronary horn) and the ratio bc/ac, for all the seized (n=18), tiger (n=23) and leopard (n=49) claws. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were performed using SPSS. A scatter plot generated using canonical discriminant function analysis revealed that of the 18 seized claws, 14 claws formed a cluster separate from the clusters of the tiger and leopard claws, whereas the remaining four claws were within the leopard cluster. Because a discrepancy was observed between the X-ray images and the measurements of these four claws, one of the claw that clustered with the leopard claws was chosen randomly and DNA analysis carried out using the cyt b (137bp) and 16S rRNA (410bp) genes. A BLAST search and comparison with the reference database at WII indicated that the keratin material of the claw was derived from Bos taurus (cattle). This is a pioneering discovery, and

  6. Surgical technique of orthotopic liver transplantation in rats: the Kamada technique and a new splint technique for hepatic artery reconstruction. (United States)

    Ishii, Eiichi; Shimizu, Akira; Takahashi, Mikiko; Terasaki, Mika; Kunugi, Shinobu; Nagasaka, Shinya; Terasaki, Yasuhiro; Ohashi, Ryuji; Masuda, Yukinari; Fukuda, Yuh


    Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) in rats is technically feasible and useful for the assessment of clinical liver transplantation and analysis of inflammatory liver diseases. OLT in rats was pioneered by Lee et al. in 1973 using hand-suture techniques of all vessels. This model has not been widely used due to the long operative time and technical demand. The cuff method was introduced by Kamada in 1979, and today, the Kamada technique is the one most commonly used worldwide. However, this technique does not include hepatic artery reconstruction, although this procedure is routinely performed in clinical transplantation. Nevertheless, several techniques for hepatic artery reconstruction in rat OLT have been reported recently, and our group also developed a simple splint technique from recipient right renal artery to donor celiac axis bearing the hepatic artery. In the present article, we describe the Kamada technique, as a standard surgical method for rat OLT. In addition, we also describe our splint technique for hepatic artery reconstruction. Then, we compare the features of Kamada technique and our splint technique for hepatic artery reconstruction and all other surgical techniques currently in use for rat OLT. The widespread use of the rat OLT model should help to provide full assessment of transplant immunology and the mechanism and treatment of inflammatory liver diseases.

  7. ATOC/Pioneer Seamount cable after 8 years on the seafloor: Observations, environmental impact (United States)

    Kogan, Irina; Paull, Charles K.; Kuhnz, Linda A.; Burton, Erica J.; von Thun, Susan; Gary Greene, H.; Barry, James P.


    A study was conducted on the impacts of the presence of the Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate (ATOC)/Pioneer Seamount cable on the benthos from nearshore waters adjacent to its origin at Pillar Point Air Force Station in Half Moon Bay, California to its terminus 95 km along its length on Pioneer Seamount. The coaxial Type SD cable was installed, unburied on the seafloor in 1995. Thirteen sites along the cable route were surveyed using the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) ROVs Ventana and Tiburon equipped with cable-tracking tools. Quantitative comparisons of biological communities and seafloor features between cable and control sites were performed at nine stations. Forty-two hours of video footage and 138 push cores were collected over 15.1 km of seafloor. Approximately 12.1 km of the cable was observed (13% of the cable route). This study documents the appearance and condition of the cable and the underlying seafloor, and the effects of the cable on biological communities along its route. Limited self-burial of the cable has occurred during the 8-year deployment, particularly over the continental shelf and upper slope. Cable strumming by nearshore wave action has incised rocky siltstone outcrops. Several observations of kinks and snags in the cable on the upper slope (˜240 m depth) suggest contact with trawling gear. Few changes in the abundance or distribution of benthic fauna were detectable from video observations (epifaunal) and sediment core samples (infauna). Of 17 megafaunal groups and 19 infaunal taxa, no tests evaluating the overall effect of the cable were statistically significant. While these results indicate that the biological impacts of the cable are minor at most, three megafaunal groups exhibited cable-related changes at one or more stations. Actiniarians (sea anemones) colonized the cable when it was exposed on the seafloor, and were therefore generally more abundant on the cable than in surrounding, sediment

  8. Giovanni Verga (1879-1923), author of a pioneering treatise on pituitary surgery: the foundations of this new field in Europe in the early 1900s. (United States)

    Pascual, José M; Mongardi, Lorenzo; Prieto, Ruth; Castro-Dufourny, Inés; Rosdolsky, María; Strauss, Sewan; Carrasco, Rodrigo; Winter, Eduard; Mazzarello, Paolo


    The field of pituitary surgery was born in the first decade of the twentieth century in Europe, and it evolved rapidly with the development of numerous innovative surgical techniques by some of the founding fathers of neurosurgery. This study investigates the pioneering Italian treatise on pituitary surgery, La Patologia Chirurgica dell'Ipofisi (Surgical Pathology of the Hypophysis), published in 1911 by Giovanni Verga (1879-1923), a surgeon from Pavía and one of Golgi's disciples. This little-known monograph compiles the earliest experience on pituitary surgery through the analysis of the first 50 procedures performed between 1903 and 1911. We conducted a biographical survey of Giovanni Verga and the motivations for his work on pituitary surgery. In addition, a systematic analysis of all original reports and historical documents about these pituitary procedures referenced in Verga's treatise was carried out. Verga's treatise provides a summary of the techniques employed and surgical outcomes for the first 50 attempted procedures of pituitary tumor removal. This monograph is the only scientific source that includes a complete account of the series of 10 pituitary tumors operated on by Sir Victor Horsley in the 1900s. Three major types of surgery were employed: (i) palliative procedures of craniectomy (n = 6); (ii) transcranial approaches to the pituitary gland, either subfrontal or subtemporal (n = 13); and (iii) transphenoidal routes to expose the sella turcica, either using an upper transnasal-transethmoidal approach (n = 19) or a lower sublabial/endonasal-transeptal one (n = 12). An operative mortality rate of 36% (n = 17) was observed in these early series. The pathological nature of the tumors operated on was available in 42 cases. There were 28 adenomas and 15 craniopharyngiomas. Sir Victor Horsley (1857-1916) and the Viennese surgeons Anton von Eiselsberg (1860-1939) and Oskar Hirsch (1877-1965) were the leading European figures in the development

  9. Historical first descriptions of Cajal-Retzius cells: from pioneer studies to current knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa eGil


    Full Text Available Santiago Ramón y Cajal developed a great body of scientific research during the last decade of 19th century, mainly between 1888 and 1892, when he published more than 30 manuscripts. The neuronal theory, the structure of dendrites and spines, and fine microscopic descriptions of numerous neural circuits are among these studies. In addition, numerous cell types (neuronal and glial were described by Ramón y Cajal during this time using this ‘reazione nera’ or Golgi method. Among these neurons were the special cells of the molecular layer of the neocortex. These cells were also termed Cajal cells or Retzius cells by other colleagues. Today these cells are known as Cajal-Retzius cells. From the earliest description, several biological aspects of these fascinating cells have been analyzed (e.g., cell morphology, physiological properties, origin and cellular fate, putative function during cortical development, etc. In this review we will summarize in a temporal basis the emerging knowledge concerning this cell population with specific attention the pioneer studies of Santiago Ramón y Cajal.

  10. Dr. S. Donald (Don) Stookey (1915-2014): Pioneering Researcher and Adventurer (United States)

    Beall, George H.


    Don Stookey, the father of glass-ceramics, was a pioneer in inducing and understanding internal nucleation phenomena in glass. His early work on dense opal glasses and photosensitive precipitation of gold and silver in glass led to an amazing series of inventions: Fotalite, a photosensitive opal, chemically machined Fotoform and Fotoceram, and TiO2-nucleated Pyroceram products including missile nosecones and oven-proof cookware. He received a basic patent on glass-ceramics, which was contested and affirmed in court. Don was able to demonstrate a clear photochromic glass that showed reversible darkening for thousands of cycles. This material became a fixture in the ophthalmic industry. He went on to invent a full-color polychromatic glass, capable of yielding a permanent patterned and monolithic stained glass. In his life outside science, Don chaired an interfaith group that founded a home for the elderly in Corning. He was also a wilderness enthusiast, surviving a plane crash in the Arctic and two boat capsizings. Even in his later years, he continued fishing off the coast of Florida and on Lake Ontario and went solo on a trip to the Patagonian Andes. Don Stookey was a special person by any measure: an unassuming optimist, eminent scientist and inventor, adventurer, and a beloved family man. Introduction

  11. Performance evaluation of the hydrogen-powered prototype locomotive 'Hydrogen Pioneer' (United States)

    Hoffrichter, Andreas; Fisher, Peter; Tutcher, Jonathan; Hillmansen, Stuart; Roberts, Clive


    The narrow-gauge locomotive 'Hydrogen Pioneer', which was developed and constructed at the University of Birmingham, was employed to establish the performance of a hydrogen-hybrid railway traction vehicle. To achieve this several empirical tests were conducted. The locomotive utilises hydrogen gas in a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell power-plant to supply electricity to the traction motors or charge the on-board lead-acid batteries. First, the resistance to motion of the vehicle was determined, then operating tests were conducted for the speeds 2 km h-1, 6 km h-1, 7 km h-1, and 10 km h-1 on a 30 m straight, level alignment resembling light running. The power-plant and vehicle efficiency as well as the performance of the hybrid system were recorded. The observed overall duty cycle efficiency of the power-plant was from 28% to 40% and peak-power demand, such as during acceleration, was provided by the battery-pack, while average power during the duty cycle was met by the fuel cell stack, as designed. The tests establish the proof-of-concept for a hydrogen-hybrid railway traction vehicle and the results indicate that the traction system can be applied to full-scale locomotives.

  12. Two new pioneer communities of Sorbus aucuparia and Sorbus aria in the southern Julian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dakskobler Igor


    Full Text Available In the southern Julian Alps we described two communities whose tree layer is dominated by species from the genus Sorbus and noted two successional stages in the overgrowing of abandoned agricultural land (pastures, hay meadows. In the secondary succession on former subalpine pastures above the alp Planina Razor und under the Breginjski Stol ridge, where potential natural vegetation consists of subalpine beech forest, dwarf pine has been overgrown with mountain ash (Sorbus aucuparia whose stands are classified into the new association Rhododendro hirsuti-Sorbetum aucupariae. Whitebeam (Sorbus aria has established itself on steep former hay meadows in the belt of altimontane beech forests under Mts. Jalovnik and Krikov Vrh, on gullied slopes on mixed geological bedrock dominated by chert, and these stands are classified into the association Calamagrostio arundinaceae-Sorbetum ariae. While occupying only small areas these two pioneer stages, as the sites of some rare or protected species, are nevertheless important biotopes and play a vital role in protection against avalanches.

  13. The main layers of the ionosphere of Venus as seen by Pioneer Venus Orbiter radio occultations (United States)

    Hermann, Jacob; Withers, Paul; Vogt, Marissa F.


    Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) performed numerous atmospheric experiments from 1978 to 1992. Radio occultation measurements were used to create vertical ionospheric electron density profiles extending as low as 100 km altitude; yielding data coverage across the V1 and V2 layers of the Venusian ionosphere, 125 and 140 km respectively. The PVO data give us a unique look at the ionosphere during solar maximum compared to later Venus missions. However, none of these ionospheric profiles were archived at the PDS nor have been available for comparison to Venus Express observations. We have extracted 120 PVO radio occultation profiles from published papers using a program to digitally read data from graphical images. Additionally, the NSSDC had 94 profiles, 63 of which were added to our dataset. The data from both sources were used in conjunction to analyze trends between solar activity and the characteristics of the V1 and V2 layers. The V1 layer, created by soft x-rays, should react more to changes in solar activity than the EUV created V2 layer. We intend to archive this data at the PDS so that the community can easily access digital measurements of the Venusian ionosphere at solar maximum.

  14. Pioneer anomaly: a drift in the proper time of the spacecraft

    CERN Document Server

    Zaveri, Vikram H


    A relativistic theory is proposed to explain the anomalous accelerations of Pioneer 10/11, Galileo and Ulysses spacecrafts. The theory points out at the limitations of the weak field approximation and proposes a drift in the proper time of the spacecraft outside the framework of general relativity. In this theory the proper time of a body is associated with the gravitational frequency shift of the constituent fundamental particles of the body. The frequency shift changes the energy level of the body which gets reflected in its motion. This change in energy level causes the time like geodesics to deviate from that of the standard theoretical models. We introduce proper time in the line element of a metric theory according to a fixed set of rules laid down by general relativity for introducing deviation in the flat Minkowski metric. The frequency shift for bodies of different composition traversing different trajectories however, is not the same and this gets reflected in its motion as an unmodeled anomalous ef...

  15. Differences in morphological characteristics football players of older pioneers and cadets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smajić Miroslav


    Full Text Available Morphological characteristics define a man based on his features, usually using appropriate anthropometric measures. Morphological characteristics of this study are based on a bio-psycho-social status of the man in the broadest sense. Monitoring the morphological characteristics is subject to a number of scientific disciplines. The morphological characteristics and their knowledge are used for correct selection and application of physical exercises and proper load determination in training. Morphological characteristics of the long term change primarily in terms of increasing longitudinal dimension. This phenomenon is called the acceleration of growth and development. The aim of the research is to analyze differences in morphological characteristics football players older pioneers and cadets. The sample comprised a total of 60 football players of different age categories FC 'Vojvodina', as follows: older youths (13.5 ± 0.5 years - 30 members and cadets (15.5 ± 0.5 years - 30 pts. In order to determine the differences in morphological characteristics of youth football players measured 11 anthropometric measures according to the International Biological Program. Differences in morphological characteristics of youth football players were determined by means of canonical discriminant analysis. The results indicate that these two groups differ in morphological characteristics. Distinguishing groups has contributed most to the difference in body weight.

  16. The state-of-the-art in the rehabilitation of a PIONEER Crane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin Bledea


    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the analysis about the state of stress in the girder of a PIONEER crane with a prescribed vertical loading of 0,75 tones belonging to the thermal power-station Timisoara. The analysis has been performed with a FEA software (COSMOS/M which is able to conduct to important results regarding the map of stress, especially in areas where high stress concentration are present. There have been automatically combined a wide range of finite elements: shell, brick, beam,truss-cable simulating the different zones of the girder. The combination of the most advanced standard components as well the implementation of the modular product concepts and the state-of-the-art regarding the design of cranes must be in a perfect agreement with the state of stress in the metallic structure. In the end, a comparison between the FEA results and the classical calculus with the strength of materials theory has been performed.

  17. Antoni marian gabryszewski as a pioneer of orthopaedics and rehabilitation in poland. (United States)

    Jandziś, Sławomir


    This article describes the work of Dr. Antoni Marian Gabryszewski, orthopaedic surgeon, associate professor at Lvov University, towards the development of orthopaedics and rehabilitation in Poland before World War I. It is based on archival materials, publications in medical journals and articles from the daily press of that time. The author presents little-known facts concerning Dr. Gabryszewski's occupational and academic activity and his work at the Surgery Dept. of Lvov University as well as his habilitation dissertation, regarded as the first attempt to position orthopaedics as distinct from surgery in Poland. The article also describes his long-term work at the private Orthopaedic Facility established in 1898 in Lvov which later incorporated the Zander Institute in 1908. The Zander Institute was the first in Galicia to offer exercise machines designed by Dr. Gustav Zander, imported from Stockholm and enjoying an extraordinary popularity in the world. Dr. Gabryszewski's practice as a spa doctor, which he pursued in Iwonicz Zdrój in the summer months, is also presented. Dr. A. Gabryszewski introduced comprehensive rehabilitation to the treatment of orthopaedic patients both at the Surgery Dept. of Lvov University and at his Orthopaedic Facility. He used therapeutic gymnastics (particularly mechanotherapy), therapeutic massage, physical therapy and orthopaedic aids. Analysis of the source materials leads to unequivocal conclusions attesting to Dr. A. Gabryszewski's pioneering role and significant contribution to the development of orthopaedics and rehabilitation in Poland.

  18. Dynamics of microbial communities during decomposition of litter from pioneering plants in initial soil ecosystems (United States)

    Esperschütz, J.; Zimmermann, C.; Dümig, A.; Welzl, G.; Buegger, F.; Elmer, M.; Munch, J. C.; Schloter, M.


    In initial ecosystems, concentrations of all macro- and micronutrients can be considered as extremely low. Plant litter therefore strongly influences the development of a degrader's food web and is an important source for C and N input into soil in such ecosystems. In the present study, a 13C litter decomposition field experiment was performed for 30 weeks in initial soils from a post-mining area near the city of Cottbus (Germany). Two of this region's dominant but contrasting pioneering plant species (Lotus corniculatus L. and Calamagrostis epigejos L.) were chosen to investigate the effects of litter quality on the litter decomposing microbial food web in initially nutrient-poor substrates. The results clearly indicate the importance of litter quality, as indicated by its N content, its bioavailability for the degradation process and the development of microbial communities in the detritusphere and soil. The degradation of the L. corniculatus litter, which had a low C / N ratio, was fast and showed pronounced changes in the microbial community structure 1-4 weeks after litter addition. The degradation of the C. epigejos litter material was slow and microbial community changes mainly occurred between 4 and 30 weeks after litter addition to the soil. However, for both litter materials a clear indication of the importance of fungi for the degradation process was observed both in terms of fungal abundance and activity (13C incorporation activity)

  19. Tissue-specific pioneer factors associate with androgen receptor cistromes and transcription programs (United States)

    Pihlajamaa, Päivi; Sahu, Biswajyoti; Lyly, Lauri; Aittomäki, Viljami; Hautaniemi, Sampsa; Jänne, Olli A


    Androgen receptor (AR) binds male sex steroids and mediates physiological androgen actions in target tissues. ChIP-seq analyses of AR-binding events in murine prostate, kidney and epididymis show that in vivo AR cistromes and their respective androgen-dependent transcription programs are highly tissue specific mediating distinct biological pathways. This high order of tissue specificity is achieved by the use of exclusive collaborating factors in the three androgen-responsive tissues. We find two novel collaborating factors for AR signaling in vivo—Hnf4α (hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α) in mouse kidney and AP-2α (activating enhancer binding protein 2α) in mouse epididymis—that define tissue-specific AR recruitment. In mouse prostate, FoxA1 serves for the same purpose. FoxA1, Hnf4α and AP-2α motifs are over-represented within unique AR-binding loci, and the cistromes of these factors show substantial overlap with AR-binding events distinct to each tissue type. These licensing or pioneering factors are constitutively bound to chromatin and guide AR to specific genomic loci upon hormone exposure. Collectively, liganded receptor and its DNA-response elements are required but not sufficient for establishment of tissue-specific transcription programs. PMID:24451200

  20. Professor Mansour Ali Haseeb: Highlights from a pioneer of biomedical research, physician and scientist. (United States)

    Salih, Mustafa Abdalla M


    The article highlights the career of Professor Mansour Ali Haseeb (1910 - 1973; DKSM, Dip Bact, FRCPath, FRCP [Lond]), a pioneer worker in health, medical services, biomedical research and medical education in the Sudan. After his graduation from the Kitchener School of Medicine (renamed, Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum [U of K]) in 1934, he devoted his life for the development of laboratory medicine. He became the first Sudanese Director of Stack Medical Research Laboratories (1952 - 1962). He made valuable contributions by his services in the vaccine production and implementation programs, most notably in combating small pox, rabies and epidemic meningitis. In 1963 he became the first Sudanese Professor of Microbiology and Parasitology and served as the first Sudanese Dean of the Faculty of Medicine, U of K (1963-1969). He was an active loyal citizen in public life and served in various fields outside the medical profession. As Mayor of Omdurman, he was invited to visit Berlin in 1963 by Willy Brandt, Mayor of West Berlin (1957-1966) and Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (1969 to 1974). Also as Mayor of Omdurman, he represented the City in welcoming Queen Elizabeth II during her visit to Sudan in February 1965. He also received State Medals from Egypt and Ethiopia. In 1973 he was appointed Chairman of the Sudan Medical Research Council, and was awarded the international Dr. Shousha Foundation Prize and Medal by the WHO for his contribution in the advancement of health, research and medical services.

  1. Pioneering water quality data on the Lake Victoria watershed: effects on human health. (United States)

    Jovanelly, Tamie J; Johnson-Pynn, Julie; Okot-Okumu, James; Nyenje, Richard; Namaganda, Emily


    Four forest reserves within 50 km of Kampala in Uganda act as a critical buffer to the Lake Victoria watershed and habitat for local populations. Over a 9-month period we capture a pioneering water quality data set that illustrates ecosystem health through the implementation of a water quality index (WQI). The WQI was calculated using field and laboratory data that reflect measured physical and chemical parameters (pH, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen on demand, nitrates, phosphates, fecal coliform, and temperature turbidity). Overall, the WQI for the four forest reserves reflect poor to medium water quality. Results compared with US Environmental Protection Agency and World Health Organization drinking water standards indicate varying levels of contamination at most sites and all designated drinking water sources, with signatures of elevated nitrates, phosphates, and/or fecal coliforms. As critical health problems are known to arise with elevated exposure to contaminants in drinking water, this data set can be used to communicate necessary improvements within the watershed.

  2. Hot-spot tectonics of Eistla Regio, Venus: Results from Magellan images and Pioneer Venus gravity (United States)

    Grimm, Robert E.; Phillips, Roger J.


    Eistla Regio (ER) is a broad, low, discontinuous topographic rise striking roughly EW at low northern latitudes of Venus. Some 2000 x 7000 km in dimensions, it is the third largest rise in planform on Venus after Aphrodite Terra and Beta Phoebe Regiones. These rises are the key physiographic elements in a hot spot model of global tectonics including transient plume behavior. Since ER is the first such rise viewed by Magellan and the latitude is very favorable for Pioneer Venus gravity studies, some of the predictions of a time dependent hot spot model are tested. Western ER is defined as the rise including Gula and Sif Mons and central ER as that including Sappho Patera. Superior conjunction prevented Magellan from returning data on eastern ER (Pavlova) during the first mapping cycle. It is concluded that the western and central portions of ER, while part of the same broad topographic rise and tectonic framework, have distinctly different surface ages and gravity signatures. The western rise, including Gula and Sif Mons, is the expression of deep seated uplift with volcanism limited to the individual large shields. The eastern portion has been widely resurfaced more recently by thermal anomalies in the mantle.

  3. Does the Neptunian system of satellites challenge a gravitational origin for the Pioneer anomaly?

    CERN Document Server

    Iorio, Lorenzo


    If the Pioneer Anomaly was a genuine dynamical effect of gravitational origin, it should also affect the orbital motions of the solar system's bodies moving in the space regions in which the PA manifested itself in its presently known form, i.e. as a constant and uniform acceleration approximately directed towards the Sun with a non-zero magnitude (8.74+/-1.33) x 10^-10 m s^-2 after 20 au from the Sun. We preliminarily investigate its effects on the orbital motions of the Neptunian satellites Triton, Nereid and Proteus, located at about 30 au from the Sun, both analytically and numerically. The analytical calculations show that the PA-induced radial and transverse perturbations of Triton are of the order of a few km yr^-1, those of Nereid are about 10+/-100 km yr^-1, while Proteus experiences radial and transverse shifts of the order of 0.1 km yr^-1. The out-of-plane perturbations are negligible, apart from that of Nereid which amounts to about 20 km yr^-1. The corresponding orbital uncertainties obtained fro...

  4. Orbital Effects of a Time-Dependent Pioneer-Like Anomalous Acceleration (United States)

    Iorio, Lorenzo


    We work out the impact that the recently determined time-dependent component of the Pioneer Anomaly (PA), if interpreted as an additional exotic acceleration of gravitational origin with respect to the well-known PA-like constant one, may have on the orbital motions of some planets of the solar system. By assuming that it points towards the Sun, it turns out that both the semi-major axis a and the eccentricity e of the orbit of a test particle would experience secular variations. For Saturn and Uranus, for which modern data records cover at least one full orbital revolution, such predicted anomalies are up to 2-3 orders of magnitude larger than the present-day accuracies in empirical determinations of their orbital parameters from the usual orbit determination procedures in which the PA was not modeled. Given the predicted huge sizes of such hypothetical signatures, it is unlikely that their absence from the presently available processed data can be attributable to an "absorption" for them in the estimated parameters caused by the fact that they were not explicitly modeled. The magnitude of a constant PA-type acceleration at 9.5 au cannot be larger than 9×10-15 m s-2 according to the latest observational results for the perihelion precession of Saturn.

  5. The origins of oncological pancreatic surgery in Spain. A tribute to pioneers. (United States)

    Sabater Ortí, Luis; Martín-Pérez, Elena; Artigas Raventós, Vicens


    Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) is a very complex operation. Its development took place very slowly at the most prestigious centers in the world. The aim of this investigation is to know who were the first surgeons to perform a PD in Spain as well as its historical circumstances. Despite all kinds of difficulties and very few resources, the first PD in Spain were carried out in Barcelona at the Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau where from the mid-50s a school of gastrointestinal surgery emerged with surgeons soon to become the spearhead of the Spanish surgery and a reference for the whole country: Pi-Figueras, Vicente Artigas, Antonio Soler-Roig and Antonio Llauradó. Almost simultaneously, in Oviedo, Luis Estrada also introduced the PD and total pancreaticoduodenectomy after a period of training with the pioneers of pancreatic surgery in the United States. Copyright © 2017 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Decline of photosynthetic capacity with leaf age and position in two tropical pioneer tree species. (United States)

    Kitajima, Kaoru; Mulkey, Stephen S; Samaniego, Mirna; Joseph Wright, S


    The effect of leaf age on photosynthetic capacity, a critical parameter in the theory of optimal leaf longevity, was studied for two tropical pioneer tree species, Cecropia longipes and Urera caracasana, in a seasonally dry forest in Panama. These species continuously produce short-lived leaves (74 and 93 d, respectively) during the rainy season (May-December) on orthotropic branches. However, they differ in leaf production rate, maximum number of leaves per branch, light environment experienced by the leaves, leaf mass per unit area, and nitrogen content. Light-saturated photosynthetic rates for marked leaves of known ages (±1 wk) were measured with two contrasting schemes (repeated measurements vs. chronosequence within branch), which overall produced similar results. In both species, photosynthetic rates and nitrogen use efficiency were negatively correlated with leaf age and positively correlated with light availability. Photosynthetic rates declined faster with leaf age in Cecropia than in Urera as predicted by the theory. The rate of decline was faster for leaves on branches with faster leaf turnover rates. Nitrogen per unit leaf area decreased with leaf age only for Urera. Leaf mass per unit area increased with leaf age, either partly (in Cecropia) or entirely (in Urera) due to ash accumulation.

  7. Pioneers of Gentrification: Transformation in Global Neighborhoods in Urban America in the Late Twentieth Century. (United States)

    Hwang, Jackelyn


    Few studies have considered the role of immigration in the rise of gentrification in the late twentieth century. Analysis of U.S. Census and American Community Survey data over 24 years and field surveys of gentrification in low-income neighborhoods across 23 U.S. cities reveal that most gentrifying neighborhoods were "global" in the 1970s or became so over time. An early presence of Asians was positively associated with gentrification; and an early presence of Hispanics was positively associated with gentrification in neighborhoods with substantial shares of blacks and negatively associated with gentrification in cities with high Hispanic growth, where ethnic enclaves were more likely to form. Low-income, predominantly black neighborhoods and neighborhoods that became Asian and Hispanic destinations remained ungentrified despite the growth of gentrification during the late twentieth century. The findings suggest that the rise of immigration after 1965 brought pioneers to many low-income central-city neighborhoods, spurring gentrification in some neighborhoods and forming ethnic enclaves in others.

  8. The Relationship between Science Indicator and Life Expectancy in Pioneer Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Moghadami


    Full Text Available ​Background and Objectives : The main objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between scientific productivity in the field of psychiatry and life expectancy in pioneer countries. Material and Methods : A rigorous search strategy was applied on Scopus database using psychiatry terms. The search results were narrowed to 2000-2012. No language limitation was applied. Life expectancy was extracted from World Bank database using Pearson correlation. Results : The search was led to 27516 articles. The US, England and Germany were identified as leading countries in producing the psychiatry articles, respectively. Pearson correlation test results indicated that there is a direct correlation between scientific products and life expectancy index. In other words, with the increase in producing scientific articles in psychiatry field, life expectancy rises as well. Conclusion : With increase in scientific productivity, life expectancy increases and mortality rate decreases. The results of this study can serve as a guiding document in the field of health and mental health. ​

  9. Blue-Whale Calls Detected at the Pioneer Seamount Underwater Observatory (United States)

    Hoffman, M. D.; Vuosalo, C. O.; Bland, R. W.; Garfield, N.


    In September of 2001 a cabled vertical linear array (VLA) of hydrophones was deployed on Pioneer Seamount, 90 km off the California coast near Half Moon Bay, by the NOAA-PMEL and University of Washington-APL. The array of 4 hydrophones is at a depth of 950 m, and the four signals are digitized at the shore end of the cable at 1000 Hz. The data are archived by PMEL, and are available to the public over the internet. Spectrograms of all of the data are accessible on the SFSU web site. A large number of blue-whale calls are evident in the spectrograms. We have employed spectrogram correlation [Mellinger 2000] and a matched-filter detection scheme [Stafford 1998] to automatically identify these whale calls in three months of data. Results on the frequency of calls and their variability will be presented. Mellinger, David K., and Christopher W. Clark [2000], "Recognizing transient low-frequency whale sounds by spectrogram correlation," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 107 (3518). Stafford, Kathleen M., Christopher G. Fox, and Davis S. Clark [1998], "Long-range acoustic detection and localization of blue whale calls in the northeast Pacific Ocean," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 104 (3616).

  10. Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. (1809-1894): physician, jurist, poet, inventor, pioneer, and anatomist. (United States)

    Tubbs, R Shane; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Loukas, Marios; Carmichael, Stephen W


    Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. was a physician, dean of the Harvard Medical School, one of the best regarded American poets of the 19th century, father of a future United States Supreme Court Justice, inventor and - unknown to many - an anatomist. His friends included Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, and Louis Pasteur. He trained with some of the most influential anatomists/surgeons of his day including Lisfranc, Larrey, Velpeau, Bigelow, and Dupuytren. As a teacher of anatomy, he had strong feelings regarding medical curricular reform and to some, was considered one of the best lecturers in the discipline. As dean, he pioneered social reform by admitting both white women and free black men to Harvard Medical School. He coined the term "anesthesia," was the first American to introduce microscopy to a medical curriculum, and made important contributions to the understanding of the spread of infectious disease. Herein, we review the life of this influential American academic and focus on his contributions to the field of anatomy.

  11. Dynamics of microbial communities during decomposition of litter from pioneering plants in initial soil ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Esperschütz


    Full Text Available In initial ecosystems, concentrations of all macro- and micronutrients can be considered as extremely low. Plant litter therefore strongly influences the development of a degrader's food web and is an important source for C and N input into soil in such ecosystems. In the present study, a 13C litter decomposition field experiment was performed for 30 weeks in initial soils from a post-mining area near the city of Cottbus (Germany. Two of this region's dominant but contrasting pioneering plant species (Lotus corniculatus L. and Calamagrostis epigejos L. were chosen to investigate the effects of litter quality on the litter decomposing microbial food web in initially nutrient-poor substrates. The results clearly indicate the importance of litter quality, as indicated by its N content, its bioavailability for the degradation process and the development of microbial communities in the detritusphere and soil. The degradation of the L. corniculatus litter, which had a low C / N ratio, was fast and showed pronounced changes in the microbial community structure 1–4 weeks after litter addition. The degradation of the C. epigejos litter material was slow and microbial community changes mainly occurred between 4 and 30 weeks after litter addition to the soil. However, for both litter materials a clear indication of the importance of fungi for the degradation process was observed both in terms of fungal abundance and activity (13C incorporation activity

  12. GPS2/KDM4A Pioneering Activity Regulates Promoter-Specific Recruitment of PPARγ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dafne Cardamone


    Full Text Available Timely and selective recruitment of transcription factors to their appropriate DNA-binding sites represents a critical step in regulating gene activation; however, the regulatory strategies underlying each factor’s effective recruitment to specific promoter and/or enhancer regions are not fully understood. Here, we identify an unexpected regulatory mechanism by which promoter-specific binding, and therefore function, of peroxisome proliferator-activator receptor γ (PPARγ in adipocytes requires G protein suppressor 2 (GPS2 to prime the local chromatin environment via inhibition of the ubiquitin ligase RNF8 and stabilization of the H3K9 histone demethylase KDM4A/JMJD2. Integration of genome-wide profiling data indicates that the pioneering activity of GPS2/KDM4A is required for PPARγ-mediated regulation of a specific transcriptional program, including the lipolytic enzymes adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL. Hence, our findings reveal that GPS2 exerts a biologically important function in adipose tissue lipid mobilization by directly regulating ubiquitin signaling and indirectly modulating chromatin remodeling to prime selected genes for activation.

  13. Modernity and its Discontents: Western Catholic Pioneers of the Hindu-Christian Dialogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Beltramini


    Full Text Available This article presents a reassessment of the Hindu-Christian dialogue in its relationship with modernity. The focus is on a group of Western Catholic clergymen who relocated to India, specifically during 1940-70, and became involved in the Hindu-Christian dialogue. The article traces the reasons for these Catholics’ relocations to their dissatisfaction with modernity and the predominance of rationality in the West, as well as their aversion to modern scientific thought. It emphasises the dual character of the interfaith dialogue, and the struggles of this group of clergymen to overcome modernity, whereby a modern Weltanschauung was the obstacle along the path to reshaping Catholic theology and establishing a fruitful interfaith dialogue with Hinduism. Although they did not pursue a common agenda and had different goals, these pioneers of interfaith dialogue came to consider such a dialogue with Hinduism as regenerative, as a means of revitalising Western thought, of balancing the modern excesses of a Western civilisation increasingly dominated by technology, and of transcending the rationalised culture of the modern West to achieve higher consciousness.

  14. Coexpression of high-voltage-activated ion channels Kv3.4 and Cav1.2 in pioneer axons during pathfinding in the developing rat forebrain. (United States)

    Huang, Chia-Yi; Chu, Dachen; Hwang, Wei-Chao; Tsaur, Meei-Ling


    Precise axon pathfinding is crucial for establishment of the initial neuronal network during development. Pioneer axons navigate without the help of preexisting axons and pave the way for follower axons that project later. Voltage-gated ion channels make up the intrinsic electrical activity of pioneer axons and regulate axon pathfinding. To elucidate which channel molecules are present in pioneer axons, immunohistochemical analysis was performed to examine 14 voltage-gated ion channels (Kv1.1-Kv1.3, Kv3.1-Kv3.4, Kv4.3, Cav1.2, Cav1.3, Cav2.2, Nav1.2, Nav1.6, and Nav1.9) in nine axonal tracts in the developing rat forebrain, including the optic nerve, corpus callosum, corticofugal fibers, thalamocortical axons, lateral olfactory tract, hippocamposeptal projection, anterior commissure, hippocampal commissure, and medial longitudinal fasciculus. We found A-type K⁺ channel Kv3.4 in both pioneer axons and early follower axons and L-type Ca²⁺ channel Cav1.2 in pioneer axons and early and late follower axons. Spatially, Kv3.4 and Cav1.2 were colocalized with markers of pioneer neurons and pioneer axons, such as deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC), in most fiber tracts examined. Temporally, Kv3.4 and Cav1.2 were expressed abundantly in most fiber tracts during axon pathfinding but were downregulated beginning in synaptogenesis. By contrast, delayed rectifier Kv channels (e.g., Kv1.1) and Nav channels (e.g., Nav1.2) were absent from these fiber tracts (except for the corpus callosum) during pathfinding of pioneer axons. These data suggest that Kv3.4 and Cav1.2, two high-voltage-activated ion channels, may act together to control Ca²⁺ -dependent electrical activity of pioneer axons and play important roles during axon pathfinding.

  15. Evaluation of Pioneer eco-backpack sprayer and Twister XL backpack sprayer using Aqualuer against caged adult Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus. (United States)

    Xue, Rui-De; Qualls, Whitney A; Smith, Mike L; Zhao, Tong-Yan; Brown, James R


    A Pioneer Eco-Backpack electric cold ultra-low volume (ULV) sprayer and a gas-powered Twister XL 3950 series 2 motorized knapsack ULV sprayer with Aqualuer (20.6% permethrin AI) were evaluated against caged adult Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus in St. Augustine, FL. The Pioneer Eco-Backpack sprayer provided 100% knockdown of both species of mosquitoes at 15 min; the Twister XL backpack sprayer resulted in 17-23% knockdown at 15 min. Both backpack sprayers with Aqualuer resulted in 100% mortality of both species at 24 h. The new Pioneer Eco-Backpack sprayer powered by electricity could be a potential tool for mosquito control.

  16. On the compatibility of a proposed explanation of the Pioneer anomaly with the cartography of the solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Ranada, Antonio F


    We analyze here the reasons why an explanation of the Pioneer anomaly proposed by the authors is fully compatible with the cartography of the solar system. First, this proposal posits that the phenomenon is an apparent acceleration, not a real one, caused by a progressive desynchronization of the astronomical and the atomic clock-times, after they had been synchronized at a previous instant. The desynchronization could be caused by a coupling between the background gravitation and the quantum vacuum. Therefore, the standard argument for the incompatibility of the Pioneer acceleration and the values of the planets' orbits radii cannot be applied. Second, this proposal gives exactly the same results for radar ranging observations as standard physics. Hence, it cannot be in conflict with the very precise cartography of the solar system determined by NASA's Viking mission. Otherwise stated, while this proposal predicts apparent changes in the velocities of the spaceships and in the frequencies of Doppler observat...

  17. No Silver Medal for Nobel Prize Contenders: Why Anesthesia Pioneers Were Nominated for but Denied the Award. (United States)

    Hansson, Nils; Fangerau, Heiner; Tuffs, Annette; Polianski, Igor J


    Taking the examples of the pioneers Carl Ludwig Schleich, Carl Koller, and Heinrich Braun, this article provides a first exploratory account of the history of anesthesiology and the Nobel Prize for physiology or medicine. Besides the files collected at the Nobel Archive in Sweden, which are presented here for the first time, this article is based on medical literature of the early 20th century. Using Nobel Prize nominations and Nobel committee reports as points of departure, the authors discuss why no anesthesia pioneer has received this coveted trophy. These documents offer a new perspective to explore and to better understand aspects of the history of anesthesiology in the first half of the 20th century.

  18. Swift and Smart: The Moderating Effects of Technological Capabilities on the Market Pioneering-Firm Survival Relationship


    Franco, April M.; MB Sarkar; Rajshree Agarwal; Raj Echambadi


    We extend the concept of first-mover advantage to the context of high-technology industries with multiple product generations, and propose that the notion of first-mover advantage needs to be viewed not only through a dynamic lens, but also in conjunction with technological capability. Our main finding is that first-mover advantages are best understood in tandem with the firm's technological capabilities; early entry is beneficial only for pioneers that are technically strong. However, pionee...

  19. Evolutionary variations in the expression of dorso-ventral patterning genes and the conservation of pioneer neurons in Tribolium castaneum. (United States)

    Biffar, Lucia; Stollewerk, Angelika


    Insects are ideally suited for gaining insight into the evolutionary developmental mechanisms that have led to adaptive changes of the nervous system since the specific structure of the nervous system can be directly linked to the neural stem cell (neuroblast) lineages, which in turn can be traced back to the last common ancestor of insects. The recent comparative analysis of the Drosophila melanogaster and Tribolium castaneum neuroblast maps revealed substantial differences in the expression profiles of neuroblasts. Here we show that despite the overall conservation of the dorso-ventral expression domains of muscle segment homeobox, intermediate neuroblasts defective and ventral nervous system defective, the expression of these genes relative to the neuroblasts in the respective domains has changed considerably during insect evolution. Furthermore, functional studies show evolutionary changes in the requirement of ventral nervous system defective in the formation of neuroblast 1-1 and the correct differentiation of its presumptive progeny, the pioneer neurons aCC and pCC. The inclusion of the expression data of the dorso-ventral genes into the recently established T. castaneum neuroblast map further increases the differences in the neuroblast expression profiles between D. melanogaster and T. castaneum. Despite these molecular variations, the Even-skipped positive pioneer neurons show an invariant arrangement, except for an additional Even-skipped positive cluster that we discovered in T. castaneum. Given the importance of these pioneer neurons in establishing the intersegmental nerves and the longitudinal tracts, which are part of the conserved axonal scaffold of arthropods, we discuss internal buffering mechanisms that might ensure that neuroblast lineages invariantly generate pioneer neurons over a wide range of molecular variations.

  20. Sicily and the development of Econophysics: the pioneering work of Ettore Majorana and the Econophysics Workshop in Palermo


    Mantegna, Rosario N.


    Sicily has played an important role in the development of the new research area named "Econophysics". In fact some key ideas supporting this new hybrid discipline were originally formulated in a pioneering work of the Sicilian born physicist Ettore Majorana. The article he wrote was entitled "The value of statistical laws in physics and social sciences". I will discuss its origin and history that has been recently discovered in the study of Stefano Roncoroni. This recent study documents the t...

  1. [Water use of re-vegetation pioneer tree species Schima superba and Acacia mangium in hilly land of South China]. (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen-Zhen; Zhao, Ping; Ni, Guang-Yan; Zhu, Li-Wei; Zhao, Xiu-Hua; Zhao, Pei-Qiang; Niu, Jun-Feng


    The xylem sap flows of two pioneer tree species, i.e., Acacia mangium and Schima superba, in degraded hill lands of South China, were continually monitored with Granier' s thermal dissipation probes during 2004-2007 and 2008-2012, respectively, and their seasonal transpiration changes at different tree age levels were compared. The results showed that the annual transpiration of both species increased with tree ages, and S. superba demonstrated a higher value than A. mangium. The average annual whole-tree transpiration of S. superba (7014.76 kg) was higher than that of A. mangium (3704.97 kg). A. mangium (511.46-1802.17 kg) had greater seasonal variation than S. superba (1346.48-2349.35 kg). The standard regression coefficients (beta) of transpiration (Eh), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and vapor pressure deficit (VPD) for both species increased with soil moisture, suggesting the increase of soil moisture generated a greater sensitivity of plants to environmental factors. Partial correlation analysis revealed that soil moisture played an important role in the seasonal variation of transpiration of both species. The optimum soil moistures of S. superba and A. mangium were 0.22-0.40 and 0.29-0.30 (V/V), respectively, indicating the native pioneer species S. superba better adapted to water deficit compared with exotic pioneer species A. mangium.

  2. The selector gene Pax7 dictates alternate pituitary cell fates through its pioneer action on chromatin remodeling. (United States)

    Budry, Lionel; Balsalobre, Aurélio; Gauthier, Yves; Khetchoumian, Konstantin; L'honoré, Aurore; Vallette, Sophie; Brue, Thierry; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Meij, Björn; Drouin, Jacques


    The anterior and intermediate lobes of the pituitary gland derive from the surface ectoderm. They provide a simple system to assess mechanisms of developmental identity established by tissue determinants. Each lobe contains a lineage expressing the hormone precursor pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC): the corticotropes and melanotropes. The T-box transcription factor Tpit controls terminal differentiation of both lineages. We now report on the unique role of Pax7 as a selector of intermediate lobe and melanotrope identity. Inactivation of the Pax7 gene results in loss of melanotrope gene expression and derepression of corticotrope genes. Pax7 acts by remodeling chromatin and allowing Tpit binding to a new subset of enhancers for activation of melanotrope-specific genes. Thus, the selector function of Pax7 is exerted through pioneer transcription factor activity. Genome-wide, the Pax7 pioneer activity is preferentially associated with composite binding sites that include paired and homeodomain motifs. Pax7 expression is conserved in human and dog melanotropes and defines two subtypes of pituitary adenomas causing Cushing's disease. In summary, expression of Pax7 provides a unique tissue identity to the pituitary intermediate lobe that alters Tpit-driven differentiation through pioneer and classical transcription factor activities.

  3. Characterisation of sea-water intrusion in the Pioneer Valley, Australia using hydrochemistry and three-dimensional numerical modelling (United States)

    Werner, A. D.; Gallagher, M. R.


    Sea-water intrusion is actively contaminating fresh groundwater reserves in the coastal aquifers of the Pioneer Valley, north-eastern Australia. A three-dimensional sea-water intrusion model has been developed using the MODHMS code to explore regional-scale processes and to aid assessment of management strategies for the system. A sea-water intrusion potential map, produced through analyses of the hydrochemistry, hydrology and hydrogeology, offsets model limitations by providing an alternative appraisal of susceptibility. Sea-water intrusion in the Pioneer Valley is not in equilibrium, and a potential exists for further landward shifts in the extent of saline groundwater. The model required consideration of tidal over-height (the additional hydraulic head at the coast produced by the action of tides), with over-height values in the range 0.5-0.9 m giving improved water-table predictions. The effect of the initial water-table condition dominated the sensitivity of the model to changes in the coastal hydraulic boundary condition. Several salination processes are probably occurring in the Pioneer Valley, rather than just simple landward sea-water advancement from “modern” sources of marine salts. The method of vertical discretisation (i.e. model-layer subdivision) was shown to introduce some errors in the prediction of water-table behaviour.

  4. Acrostichum, a Pioneering Fern of Floodplain Areas from the Late Oligocene Sariñena Formation of the Iberian Peninsula (United States)

    Ferrer, Javier; Diez, José B.


    Acrostichum is considered today an opportunistic fern in disturbed areas, which indicates the first stages of colonisation of such zones. However, in the fossil record, Acrostichum appears related to fluvio-lacustrine environments, freshwater marshes and mangrove deposits. We report here for first time fossil evidence of Acrostichum that reveals a pioneering behaviour of this fern in the colonisation of perturbed communities in Europe, which corroborates previous assumptions about the paleobiology of Acrostichum. Plant remains were collected from the Chattian (late Oligocene) La Val fossil site (Estadilla, Huesca, northeastern Spain) belonging to the Sariñena Formation, which mainly embraces crevasse splays, levees and floodplain deposits. Evidence shows that Acrostichum grew within the levee’s vegetal community or close to/on the river banks as well as on floodplain areas and closer to/on the shores of ephemeral ponds. But most importantly, the observed co-existence of Equisetum and Acrostichum remains in the same beds indicates that such strata represent short-lived inundated terrains, e.g., floodplains where the water table was temporarily stagnant. Evidence shows wetland environments dominated by pioneering taxa, implying a pioneering role for Acrostichum during the late Oligocene in the Iberian Peninsula. PMID:27631099


    Babić, Rade Radomir; Stanković Babić, Gordana


    Dr Abraham Joseph Vinaver (1862-1915), a Jew from Poland, was a pioneer of radiology in Serbia. He graduated from the Faculty of Medicine in Warsaw (1887), but lived and worked in abac (the Kingdom of Serbia) since 1890. Dr Abraham Joseph Vinarev - Career Development. He procured the first X-ray machine and developed radiological service in Sabac five years after the discovery of X-rays. These were the beginnings of radiology in Serbia. He introduced the application of artesian wells. Dr Abraham Joseph Vinarev - a Participant at the First Congress of Serbian Physicians and Naturalists, Belgrade 1904. "The diagnostic importance of X-rays in lung disease, especially in initial tuberculosis" and "Five Years of Treatment by X-Ray Machines" were the first works in the field of radiology in Serbia by this author. Dr Abraham Joseph Vinaver - Reserve Medical Officer in the Serbian Army. During the Balkan Wars, he was a volunteer with the rank of major engaged in military corps and he participated in the First World War as well. He died of malaria in 1915 in Gevgelija. "Dr Avram Vinaver"- Stanislav Vinarev. His dedication to work during the typhus epidemics was put into verses of a poem by his son Stanislav Vinarev. Dr Avram Vinaver Joseph was a noble man with a great heart, who selflessly sacrificed himself for the Serbian people and Serbia. He gave his contribution to the development of health services in Serbia, both in peacetime and wartime conditions. Dr Abraham Joseph Vinaver laid the foundations for today's radiology in Serbia.

  6. Research on the weed control degree and glyphosate soil biodegradation in apple plantations (Pioneer variety

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    Ersilia ALEXA


    Full Text Available In this study we follow control degree of glyphosate herbicide on weeds in apple plantations (Pioneer variety of the Research Station Timisoara. It was also followed glyphosate biodegradation capacity in the soil by determining the amount of CO2 released by the action of microorganisms on C14 glyphosate marked isotope. Laboratory analysis of glyphosate residues in soil was made using a Liquid Scintillation TRIATHLER. Glyphosate biodegradation ability in the presence of soil microorganisms is high, so glyphosate residues remaining in soil, in terms of its use in weed combating, are minimal. Study of glyphosate biodegradation capacity in the experimental field indicates that the CO2 fraction accumulated after 50 days is 28.02% for samples exposed in the experimental field. Weather conditions, especially temperature variations between day and night, influences the activity of soilmicroorganisms and affect biodegraded glyphosate percentage.Chemical method of weed control consisted in: herbicide used was Roundup 3 l/ha (glyphosate isopropyl amine salt 360 g/l and are based on chemical application on weeds, on the rows of trees, on their uptake and translocation in their organs having as principal scope the total destruction of weeds. The experimental results obtained reveal a weed combat degree of 82.98% , in the case of chemical variant, compared with control variant. The species combated mainly due to glyphosate herbicide, which is no longer found in the final mapping are: Capsella bursa-pastoris, Chenopodium album, Echinochloa crus-galli, Plantago major, Polygonum aviculare. Total combated weeds /m2 with glyphosate is 126.67.

  7. The pioneer study of fog detection and horizontal precipitation measurement at subtropical highland of Taiwan (United States)

    Lin, P. H.; Lai, K. L.


    Heavy rainfall in highland caused by the interaction of tropical storms and sharp terrain is one of the major natural disasters in Taiwan. But there is no quantitative measurement on the fog and its horizontal precipitation (HP) to estimate the storage of water by plants in the highland region of Taiwan. In this pioneer study, we studied the fog detection and its horizontal precipitation amount, existence length and monthly variation at Kuan-Wu recreation area in Shei-Pa National Park of Taiwan. The 20-year (1988~2007) record length of meteorological data at Kuan-Wu was analyzed first to build up the background information of the local weather. The FDID (fog detection and interception device) including two fog detectors, two fog collectors and auto-shooting digital camera was delivered in this field program. The parallel experiment indoor with a fog tunnel also confirms the performance of polypropylene net used in FDID. FDID has collected data in the field over one year, and the preliminary results show that some components of FDID present the capability of fog event detection and give quantitative data of fog interception. The digital images in 5-min interval via fog collector data detected over 90% happening of fog event in the data available days. Through the RGB diagnosis in different pixel domains (different distances to the camera) on the digital images, the fog events are distinguished into light, medium and heavy fog events. The characteristics of daily and monthly variations of fog events could be explained through the terrain and local climate effects well. We also found the horizontal precipitation from fog provides ~11% extra water amount in the no-rain days. The happened possibility of fog & stratus cloud with The MTSAT geostationary IR channels by Central Weather Bureau is also validated by the FDID in-situ measurement. It shows that the remote sensing product of fog detection in nighttime has good correlation with FDID ground measurement.

  8. Dynamics of microbial communities during decomposition of litter from pioneering plants in initial soil ecosystems

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    J. Esperschütz


    Full Text Available In initial ecosystems concentrations of all macro- and micronutrients can be considered as extremely low. Plant litter therefore strongly influences the development of a degraders' food web and is an important source for C and N input into soil in such ecosystems. In the present study, a 13C litter decomposition field experiment was performed for 30 weeks in initial soils from a post-mining area near the city of Cottbus (Germany. Two of this regions' dominant but contrasting pioneering plant species (Lotus corniculatus L. and Calamagrostis epigejos L. were chosen to investigate the effects of litter quality on the litter decomposing microbial food web in initially nutrient-poor substrates. The results clearly indicate the importance of litter quality, mainly the amount of N stored in the litter material and its bioavailability for the degradation process and the development of microbial communities in the detritusphere and bulk soil. Whereas the degradation process of the L. corniculatus litter which had a low C/N ratio was fast and most pronounced changes in the microbial community structure were observed 1–4 weeks after litter addition, the degradation of the C. epigejos litter material was slow and microbial community changes mainly occurred at between 4 and 30 weeks after litter addition to the soil. However for both litter materials a clear indication for the importance of fungi for the degradation process was observed both on the abundance level as well as on the level of 13C incorporation (activity.

  9. Dr Avram Jozef Vinaver (1862-1915: Pioneer of radiology in Serbia

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    Babić Rade Radomir


    Full Text Available Introduction. Dr Abraham Joseph Vinaver (1862-1915, a Jew from Poland, was a pioneer of radiology in Serbia. He graduated from the Faculty of Medicine in Warsaw (1887, but lived and worked in Šabac (the Kingdom of Serbia since 1890. Dr Abraham Joseph Vinarev - Career Development. He procured the first X-ray machine and developed radiological service in Šabac five years after the discovery of X-rays. These were the beginnings of radiology in Serbia. He introduced the application of artesian wells. Dr Abraham Joseph Vinarev - a Participant at the First Congress of Serbian Physicians and Naturalists, Belgrade 1904. “The diagnostic importance of X-rays in lung disease, especially in initial tuberculosis” and “Five Years of Treatment by X-Ray Machines” were the first works in the field of radiology in Serbia by this author. Dr Abraham Joseph Vinaver - Reserve Medical Officer in the Serbian Army. During the Balkan Wars, he was a volunteer with the rank of major engaged in military corps and he participated in the First World War as well. He died of malaria in 1915 in Gevgelija. “Dr Avram Vinaver”- Stanislav Vinarev. His dedication to work during the typhus epidemics was put into verses of a poem by his son Stanislav Vinarev. Conclusion. Dr Avram Vinaver Joseph was a noble man with a great heart, who selflessly sacrificed himself for the Serbian people and Serbia. He gave his contribution to the development of health services in Serbia, both in peacetime and wartime conditions. Dr Abraham Joseph Vinaver laid the foundations for today’s radiology in Serbia.

  10. «Karavella» Pioneers Detachment – a Look in Half a Century Light

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    L. A. Krapivina


    Full Text Available The paper is dedicated to the fiftieth anniversary of the children’s organization founded by the well-known writer Vladislav Krapivin. Analyzing the example of «Karavella» – the Experimental Pioneer Detachment, the author outlines the systematic ways of teenagers’ involvement with the mass multi-age organization propagating the strong moral and ethic ideas and values. The process of educational system development in «Karavella» is revealed with the emphasis on active position, empathy, creativity, self-reliance, self-respect, emotional and intellectual independence.The manifest and underlying factors having an impact on developing the organizational spirit are indicated. The system of psychological support developed during the decades and concerning both children and adults is reviewed, as well as the life arrangement forms combining the romantic, heroic, patriotic and symbolic aspects; educational and social growth; carrier development system with its hierarchy of ranks and titles; collective rules and regulations, and joint management; program methods and methodological provision; teaching staff training etc. The above organizational programs are based on the notion that the personally valued knowledge has the main priority for teenagers and adolescents because of their strong need for self-actualization. Only due to the personal experience derived in real life conditions the actual personality growth can be achieved. Therefore, the long time expertise of that unique children’s organization is a valuable and up-to- date recourse for those who are responsible for ethic and emotional education of the coming generation. 

  11. In memoriam: Wolfgang Kiowski, M.D. (1949-2012)--pioneer in clinical endothelin research. (United States)

    Barton, Matthias; Schiffrin, Ernesto L


    Wolfgang Kiowski, M.D. (1949-2012) was a German physician-scientist who made exemplary contributions to clinical research in human physiology, heart failure, arterial hypertension, and endothelin science. His academic career took him from Heinz Losse, M.D. at the University of Münster, Germany, to the University of Michigan, U.S.A., to work with Stevo Julius, M.D. In 1979, Kiowski was recruited to the University of Basel in Switzerland and ultimately moved to the Hospital of the University of Zürich in Switzerland. Twenty years ago, Kiowski published a landmark study pioneering the use of endothelin receptor antagonists (ERAs) in patients (Lancet 1995; 346: 732-736), which introduced a new therapeutic principle to human medicine. During his career, he published numerous studies in the area of pathophysiology, clinical pharmacology (particularly calcium channel blockers, ERAs, and PDE5 inhibitors), heart failure, cardiac transplantation, coronary artery disease, and many case reports from his clinical work. Kiowski was an active mentor and trained many young physicians and physician-scientists. He died unexpectedly in Zürich during the planning stages of the Thirteenth International Conference on Endothelin to be held in Tokyo in 2013. This article summarizes Kiowski's achievements, his role as a mentor and as the human being he was. He will be remembered as a role model of an outstanding, curious clinician who was highly successful as a physician, scientist, and teacher, and at the same time managed to enjoy many hobbies and life with his family. Referring to Wolfgang Kiowski, the article closes with a "It can be done!"-message to young physician-scientists by Dr. Stevo Julius. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Effects of pioneer tree species hyperabundance on forest fragments in northeastern Brazil. (United States)

    Tabarelli, Marcelo; Aguiar, Antonio V; Girão, Luciana C; Peres, Carlos A; Lopes, Ariadna V


    Despite many studies on fragmentation of tropical forests, the extent to which plant and animal communities are altered in small, isolated forest fragments remains obscure if not controversial. We examined the hypothesis that fragmentation alters the relative abundance of tree species with different vegetative and reproductive traits. In a fragmented landscape (670 km(2) ) of the Atlantic Forest of northeastern Brazil, we categorized 4056 trees of 182 species by leafing pattern, reproductive phenology, and morphology of seeds and fruit. We calculated relative abundance of traits in 50 1-ha plots in three types of forest configurations: forest edges, small forest fragments (3.4-83.6 ha), and interior of the largest forest fragment (3500 ha, old growth). Although evergreen species were the most abundant across all configurations, forest edges and small fragments had more deciduous and semideciduous species than interior forest. Edges lacked supra-annual flowering and fruiting species and had more species and stems with drupes and small seeds than small forest fragments and forest interior areas. In an ordination of species similarity and life-history traits, the three types of configurations formed clearly segregated clusters. Furthermore, the differences in the taxonomic and functional (i.e., trait-based) composition of tree assemblages we documented were driven primarily by the higher abundance of pioneer species in the forest edge and small forest fragments. Our work provides strong evidence that long-term transitions in phenology and seed and fruit morphology of tree functional groups are occurring in fragmented tropical forests. Our results also suggest that edge-induced shifts in tree assemblages of tropical forests can be larger than previously documented.

  13. An aerial-photographic assessment of reenacted handcart treks on a section of the Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail, Fremont County, Wyoming (United States)

    McDougal, Robert R.; Waltermire, Robert G.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Germaine, Stephen S.; Nielsen, Scott E.; Nielsen, Charlene C.; Hanson, Leanne; Bowen, Zachary H.


    Reenactments of historical pioneer emigrations have increased in popularity since the celebration of these events during the United States bicentennial in 1976. From 1999 to 2006, approximately 70,000 Mormon trekkers traveled the Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail (hereinafter referred to as the Trail) segment between Sixth Crossing and Rock Creek Hollow in Fremont County, Wyoming. Recent elevated levels of use have raised concerns over potential recreation-related damage to this particularly scenic segment of the Trail.

  14. Building the central complex of the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria: axons pioneering the w, x, y, z tracts project onto the primary commissural fascicle of the brain. (United States)

    Williams, J L D; Boyan, G S


    The central complex is a major neuropilar structure in the insect brain whose distinctive, modular, neuroarchitecture in the grasshopper is exemplified by a bilateral set of four fibre bundles called the w, x, y and z tracts. These columns represent the stereotypic projection of axons from the pars intercerebralis into commissures of the central complex. Each column is established separately during early embryogenesis in a clonal manner by the progeny of a subset of four identified protocerebral neuroblasts. We report here that dye injected into identified pioneers of the primary brain commissure between 31 and 37% of embryogenesis couples to cells in the pars intercerebralis which we identify as progeny of the W, X, Y, or Z neuroblasts. These progeny are the oldest within each lineage, and also putatively the first to project an axon into the protocerebral commissure. The axons of pioneers from each tract do not fasciculate with one other prior to entry into the commissure, thereby prefiguring the modular w, x, y, z columns of the adult central complex. Within the commissure, pioneer axons from columnar tracts fasciculate with the growth cones of identified pioneers of the existing primary fascicle and do not pioneer a separate fascicle. The results suggest that neurons pioneering a columnar neuroarchitecture within the embryonic central complex utilize the existing primary commissural scaffold to navigate the brain midline.

  15. Vincenzo Quercioli (1876-1939), researcher and pioneer of the atlas fracture. (United States)

    Domenicucci, Maurizio; Dugoni, Demo Eugenio; Mancarella, Cristina; D'Elia, Alessandro; Missori, Paolo


    should be considered a classic. The patterns and deductions that Jefferson reported on these fractures appeared to draw upon the scientific experience of Quercioli and his description of the quadripartite atlas fracture, which appeared to be unique, even in Jefferson's review. Therefore, the authors believe that they have identified another scientist and pioneer of the atlas fracture in Professor Vincenzo Quercioli. With his brilliant insights, which remain useful and valid, Quercioli led the way to further research on the subject.

  16. Pioneer plant species contributing to phytoestabilization of contaminated soils in mine areas (United States)

    João Batista, Maria; Gonzalez-Fernandez, Oscar; Abreu, Maria Manuela; Carvalho, Luisa; Queralt, Ignasi


    sites. Chemical elements concentrations in plant leaves are independent of the same elements concentrations in soils where plants were developed. The obtained results showed the difficulty to understand the soil-plant system in heterogeneous materials such as mining sites. Other parameters such as plant physiology are responsible for the different uptake in the same species, contributing to the uncertainty of the remediation strategies. The studied native plants are well adapted to soils or spoils with different characteristics and high content of hazardous chemical elements. These species are adequate for stabilization strategies of a great variety of substrata. To improve and optimize remediation programs for mine areas in the Mediterranean region it is important to use several pioneer plants at the same time. This can contribute to reduce the costs of remediation with less environmental impact.

  17. Ecophysiological characteristics of the seed of the tropical forest pioneer Urera caracasana (Urticaceae). (United States)

    Orozco-Segovia, A; Vàzquez-Yanes, C; Coates-Estrada, R; Pérez-Nasser, N


    Urera caracasana (Jacq.) Griseb is a small, fast-growing evergreen pioneer tree which colonizes openings in the tropical rain forest of 'Los Tuxtlas', Veracruz, Mèxico. Annual seed production by 10 trees was estimated to range from 0.4 x 10(5) to 1.6 x 10(6) seeds per tree. Fifteen species of resident and migratory birds were observed to visit the plants and disperse the seeds. Most seeds imbibed in petri dishes placed on the forest floor beneath a small opening in the canopy, where the red/far-red ratio of the light was around 1.0, germinated within 2 weeks. Germination beneath the forest canopy, where the red/far-red ratio of the light was approximately 0.2, was much slower and did not exceed 40%. A minimum of 4 h daily exposure to unfiltered natural light was required for rapid germination in the forest. In the laboratory rapid germination at 25 degrees C required a minimum of 4 h white light. However, if temperature during the light period was 35 degrees C, 30 min exposure to white light daily was sufficient to induce germination. Seeds that failed to germinate when imbibed for 60-360 days in petri dishes placed on the forest floor beneath the forest canopy, germinated rapidly in the laboratory when held at 25 degrees C and exposed daily to 12 h white or red light. Seeds imbibed for 120 days or more beneath the forest canopy were also induced to germinate by 12 h daily exposure to far-red light when this was combined with a 35/25 degrees C day/night temperature regime. Seeds buried in vermiculite-filled nylon mesh bags disappeared rapidly with few remaining after 2 months. Seeds that survived remained viable and germinated when incubated in petri dishes at 25 degrees C. Initially, buried seeds required light for germination. However, after 17 months' burial, seeds germinated in darkness when transferred to the laboratory and incubated on agar at 25 degrees C.

  18. Autoinducer-2 influences interactions amongst pioneer colonizing streptococci in oral biofilms. (United States)

    Cuadra-Saenz, Giancarlo; Rao, Dhana L; Underwood, Adam J; Belapure, Sneha A; Campagna, Shawn R; Sun, Zhichao; Tammariello, Steven; Rickard, Alexander H


    Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus oralis are among the first bacterial species to colonize clean tooth surfaces. Both produce autoinducer-2 (AI-2): a family of inter-convertible cell-cell signal molecules synthesized by the LuxS enzyme. The overall aim of this work was to determine whether AI-2 alters interspecies interactions between S. gordonii DL1 and S. oralis 34 within dual-species biofilms in flowing human saliva. Based upon AI-2 bioluminescence assays, S. gordonii DL1 produced more AI-2 activity than S. oralis 34 in batch culture, and both were able to remove AI-2 activity from solution. In single-species, saliva-fed flowcell systems, S. oralis 34 formed scant biofilms that were similar to the luxS mutant. Conversely, S. gordonii DL1 formed confluent biofilms while the luxS mutant formed architecturally distinct biofilms that possessed twofold greater biovolume than the wild-type. Supplementing saliva with 0.1-10 nM chemically synthesized AI-2 (csAI-2) restored the S. gordonii DL1 luxS biofilm phenotype to that which was similar to the wild-type; above or below this concentration range, biofilms were architecturally similar to that formed by the luxS mutant. In dual-species biofilms, S. gordonii DL1 was always more abundant than S. oralis 34. Compared with dual-species, wild-type biofilms, the biovolume occupied by S. oralis 34 was reduced by greater than sevenfold when neither species produced AI-2. The addition of 1 nM csAI-2 to the dual-species luxS-luxS mutant biofilms re-established the biofilm phenotype to resemble that of the wild-type pair. Thus, this work demonstrates that AI-2 can alter the biofilm structure and composition of pioneering oral streptococcal biofilms. This may influence the subsequent succession of other species into oral biofilms and the ecology of dental plaque.

  19. Na Bahia Setecentista, um pioneiro do abolicionismo? In eighteenth-century Bahia, a pioneer of abolitionism?

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    OFM Fr. Hugo Fragoso


    Full Text Available No ano de 1992, foi republicado por Paulo Suess Etíope Resgatado, de autoria do Pe. Manuel Ribeiro Rocha. Tratava-se de obra raríssima, pois, quanto consta, só havia em todo o Brasil um único exemplar, na Biblioteca Nacional do Rio de Janeiro. Já vinha eu fazendo pesquisas em torno do Pe. Ribeiro Rocha, a quem costumava qualificar de "pioneiro do abolicionismo" no Brasil. Com a reedição de Etíope Resgatado, tomei conhecimento da leitura de Paulo Suess, numa direção quase totalmente contrária. Para este, Ribeiro Rocha não passaria de um simples "reformista", que nada acrescentara de ideia libertária ao problema da escravidão negra. Aliás, essa tinha sido a tese de Ronaldo Vainfas e José Honório Rodrigues, que veem na obra de Ribeiro Rocha mais um exemplar do "pensamento escravista", que apenas condenava, como o faziam todos os homens de Igreja, os excessos e barbaridades da escravidão negra. Todo este nosso trabalho se orienta, portanto, na direção de uma leitura "abolicionista" do Etíope Resgatado, embora admita as evidências claras de "concessões" feitas por Ribeiro Rocha à situação escravocrata de seu tempo.In 1992, there was republished by Paulo Suess "Etíope resgatado", written by Father Manuel Ribeiro Rocha. It was very rare work, because, as stated, there was a single copy in the National Library of Rio de Janeiro in Brazil. I had, at this point, already started a research about the Father Ribeiro Rocha, whom used to be described as "a pioneer of abolitionism" in Brazil. With the reissue of "Etíope resgatado", I took notice about Paulo Suess lecture, in an almost completely opposite direction. According to Suess, Ribeiro Rocha was nothing more than a simple "reformer" who had added nothing to the problem of libertarian idea of black slavery. Incidentally, this was the thesis Vainfas Ronaldo and Jose Honorio Rodrigues argued, who saw the work of Ribeiro Rocha another copy of "slavery thought" which only condemned

  20. Darwinian hydrology: can the methodology Charles Darwin pioneered help hydrologic science? (United States)

    Harman, C.; Troch, P. A.


    There have been repeated calls for a Darwinian approach to hydrologic science or for a synthesis of Darwinian and Newtonian approaches, to deepen understanding the hydrologic system in the larger landscape context, and so develop a better basis for predictions now and in an uncertain future. But what exactly makes a Darwinian approach to hydrology "Darwinian"? While there have now been a number of discussions of Darwinian approaches, many referencing Harte (2002), the term is potentially a source of confusion while its connections to Darwin remain allusive rather than explicit. Here we discuss the methods that Charles Darwin pioneered to understand a variety of complex systems in terms of their historical processes of change. We suggest that the Darwinian approach to hydrology follows his lead by focusing attention on the patterns of variation in populations, seeking hypotheses that explain these patterns in terms of the mechanisms and conditions that determine their historical development, using deduction and modeling to derive consequent hypotheses that follow from a proposed explanation, and critically testing these hypotheses against new observations. It is not sufficient to catalogue the patterns or predict them statistically. Nor is it sufficient for the explanations to amount to a "just-so" story not subject to critical analysis. Darwin's theories linked present-day variation to mechanisms that operated over history, and could be independently test and falsified by comparing new observations to the predictions of corollary hypotheses they generated. With a Darwinian framework in mind it is easy to see that a great deal of hydrologic research has already been done that contributes to a Darwinian hydrology - whether deliberately or not. The various heuristic methods that Darwin used to develop explanatory theories - extrapolating mechanisms, space for time substitution, and looking for signatures of history - have direct application in hydrologic science. Some

  1. Environmental Impact of a Submarine Cable: Case Study of the Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate (ATOC)/ Pioneer Seamount Cable (United States)

    Kogan, I.; Paull, C. K.; Kuhnz, L.; von Thun, S.; Burton, E.; Greene, H. G.; Barry, J. P.


    To better understand the potential impacts of the presence of cables on the seabed, a topic of interest for which little data is published or publicly available, a study of the environmental impacts of the ATOC/Pioneer Seamount cable was conducted. The 95 km long, submarine, coaxial cable extends between Pioneer Seamount and the Pillar Point Air Force Station in Half Moon Bay, California. Approximately two thirds of the cable lies within the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. The cable is permitted to NOAA- Oceanic and Atmospheric Research for transmitting data from a hydrophone array on Pioneer Seamount to shore. The cable was installed unburied on the seafloor in 1995. The cable path crosses the continental shelf, descends to a maximum depth of 1,933 m, and climbs back upslope to 998 m depth near the crest of Pioneer Seamount. A total of 42 hours of video and 152 push cores were collected in 10 stations along cable and control transects using the ROVs Ventana and Tiburon equipped with cable-tracking tools. The condition of the cable, its effect on the seafloor, and distribution of benthic megafauna and infauna were determined. Video data indicated the nature of interaction between the cable and the seafloor. Rocky nearshore areas, where wave energies are greatest, showed the clearest evidence of impact. Here, evidence of abrasion included frayed and unraveling portions of the cable's armor and vertical grooves in the rock apparently cut by the cable. The greatest incision and armor damage occurred on ledges between spans in irregular rock outcrop areas. Unlike the nearshore rocky region, neither the rocks nor the cable appeared damaged along outcrops on Pioneer Seamount. Multiple loops of slack cable added during a 1997 cable repair operation were found lying flat on the seafloor. Several sharp kinks in the cable were seen at 240 m water depths in an area subjected to intense trawling activity. Most of the cable has become buried with time in sediment

  2. Population dynamics of the pioneer population of Daphnia parvula, Fordyce during the invasion of Lake Candia (Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorenza MARGARITORA


    Full Text Available Since the 1970s Daphnia parvula, Fordyce, originally distributed in the New World, has been invading Europe. In Italy D. parvula first appeared in the shallow, eutrophic Lake Candia (Piedmont, Northern Italy during September 2002. Although several studies have documented D. parvula dispersal in European habitats, little is known about the life cycle and ecology of this invader in its new habitats. Invasion success depends on the ability of the invader population to perform well in the new ecosystem, which in turn results from the interaction between the characteristics of the invader and those of the invaded environment and its resident community. Early detection of D. parvula in the intensively studied Lake Candia offered an excellent opportunity to study the performance of the pioneer population and to document the early phases of invasion. Following the dynamics of the pioneer D. parvula population provided evidence of a high level of gamogenetic reproduction during most periods of population development. The production of males started at the onset of population growth prior to ephippia formation. The sex ratio ranged from 0.1 to 0.33 males per female with a maximum in October when males accounted for up to 24% of the total population density. The percentage of ephippia (free ephippia + ephippial females out of the total population density ranged from 3 to 23%. The large pool of resting eggs produced by the pioneer population of D. parvula in Lake Candia might reflect a strategy for increasing the probability of survival and establishment in the new environment.

  3. Pioneers of Study on Desorption Induced by Electronic Transitions; Achievements by Dr. Yoshioki Ishikawa and Dr. Yoshio Ohta (United States)

    Mase, Kazuhiko; Nambu, Akira

    Dr. Yoshioki Ishikawa is a pioneer who carried out systematic electron stimulated desorption (ESD) investigations for hydrogen adsorbed on a clean platinum plate (H2/Pt) under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions in 1942. (His name is spelled as Yosioki Isikawa in the original papers.) Although his papers are referred in several papers on desorption induced by electronic transitions (DIET), these seem to be not as well-known as famous ones by Menzel, Gomer, and Redhead in 1964. We describe his pioneering work in this article. He developed an UHV apparatus made of glass with a Pt plate and an oxide cathode pumped by a small mercury pump via a liquid air trap. Clear ESD signals were observed for H2/Pt at excitation energies of 8, 12, 14, 33-46, and 46-51 eV. He assigned the desorbate to atomic hydrogen (H), because it was pumped by a glass wall baked above 350°C. Based on these results and the potential curves of H2 in the gas phase, he proposed a model for the ESD of H from H2/Pt that is, the first step is an electronic transition of adsorbed H2, and the second is the desorption of H along the repulsive potential surface of the excited state. This was the first introduction of the notion of DIET. He also carried out an ESD study of H2O/Pt in 1943. We also introduce achievements by Dr. Yoshio Ohta, who was another pioneer in the field of DIET. He measured electron-stimulated ion desorption from an oxidized Ni plate. He found that the threshold excitation energy for ion desorption is 22 eV, and that the kinetic energy of the desorbed ion is 1˜2 eV. To explain these results, he also proposed the concept of DIET.

  4. Brachyuran crab community structure and associated sediment reworking activities in pioneer and young mangroves of French Guiana, South America (United States)

    Aschenbroich, Adélaïde; Michaud, Emma; Stieglitz, Thomas; Fromard, François; Gardel, Antoine; Tavares, Marcos; Thouzeau, Gérard


    This study in French Guiana evaluates the changes of crab assemblages and their bioturbation activities between mangrove early stages (pioneer and young mangrove) and within stages by taking their spatial heterogeneity (tidal channels, flat areas, pools) into account. The results show differences in crab assemblage structure between and within the early stages of mangrove in relation to microhabitat and sediment characteristics. The sediment reworking rates are a function of the biomass or density of particular species (Ucides cordatus, Uca cumulanta) and burrower functional groups. Crab species or functional interactions mediate changes in sediment reworking rates suggesting the need to consider entire benthic communities rather than single species. This study suggests that the role of the microhabitat in determining the biologically-induced sediment reworking rates depends on the age of the mangrove. Feeding activity results in a sediment turnover of 11.7 ± 9.7 gdw m-2 day-1 and 6.8 ± 3.0 gdw m-2 day-1 in the pioneer and young mangroves, respectively. Burrow maintenance excavates 40.5 ± 7.4 gdw m-2 day-1 and 251.3 ± 419.7 gdw m-2 day-1 in the pioneer and young mangroves, respectively. Upscaling to the studied area (Sinnamary estuary: 6 km2), shows that 500 and 20 of sediments could be excavated and pelletized, respectively, during the spring tides of the dry season. Thus, biological sediment reworking would greatly contribute to the sedimentary dynamics of the Guianese mangroves under Amazonian influence.

  5. N and P resorption in a pioneer shrub (Artemisia halodendron) inhabiting severely desertified lands of Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YuLin LI; Chen JING; Wei MAO; Duo CUI; XinYuan WANG; XueYong ZHAO


    Nutrient resorption is an important conservation mechanism for plants to overcome nutrient limitation in the less fertile area of desertified land. In the semi-arid Horqin Sandy Land of Northern China, the shrub Artemisia halodendron usually colonizes into the bare ground of severely desertified land as a pioneer species. It is, therefore, expected that A. halodendron will be less dependent on current nutrient uptake through efficient and proficient re-sorption of nutrients. In this study, we found that averaged nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations in se-nesced leaves significantly varied from 12.3 and 1.2 mg/g in the shifting sand dune to 15.9 and 1.9 mg/g in the fixed sand dune, respectively, suggesting that foliar N and P resorption of A. halodendron were more proficient in the shifting sand dune. In particular, positive relationships between nutrient concentrations in senesced leaves and soil nutrient availability indicate that A. halodendron in infertile habitats is more likely to manage with a low level of nu-trients in senesced leaves, giving this species an advantage in infertile soil. Moreover, foliar N- and P-resorption efficiencies and proficiencies showed limited inter-annual variability although annual precipitation varied greatly among 2007-2009. However, N and P resorption of A. halodendron were not more efficient and proficient than those previously reported for other shrubs, indicating that the pioneer shrub in sand dune environments does not rely more heavily than other plants on the process of resorption to conserve nutrients. Incomplete resorption of nutrients in A. halodendron suggests that senesced-leaf fall would return litter with high quality to the soil, and thereby would indirectly improve soil nutrient availability. The restoration of desertified land, therefore, may be ac-celerated after A. halodendron pioneers into shifting sand dunes.

  6. Evaluation of the Pioneer PDP-502MX 4 x 3 Aspect Ratio, 50 Inch Diagonal Color Plasma Display Panel (United States)


    NIDL evaluated the thin, large screen, flat panel Pioneer 50 inch plasma display panel (PDP) to determine its usefulness to the display of images that are of interest to imagery analysts and GI specialists, As NIDL's ratings show, the Pioneer PDP-502MX is not going to be useful as the primary imagery analysis display on an IEC workstation, It fails many of the IEC requirements so we rate it "F" for IEC workstation monoscopic and stereo applications, Rather, its usefulness comes from its large, 50 inch diagonal size and its high pixel count for a PDP, up to 1280 x 768 pixels in the 16:9 and 1024 x 768 pixels in the 4:3 format, that could make it appropriate for group conference discussions, The Pioneer PDP-502MX has a relatively good gray scale capability; it can display 245 of 256 differences in input levels for a 7,94 bit depth, Its linearity surpasses that we have measured for CRT monitors, and comes about because of its precisely formed pixel structure, This pixel structure, like in LCD monitors, can have several non- operating pixels, It has a very high (exceeds 60% over the entire screen) and a very uniform 1-pixel-on/1-pixel-off contrast modulation for both the horizontal and vertical directions, The PDP can have a maximum luminance up to 40 fL for a small patch of white, and a minimum luminance of 0.2 fL For full screen white, its luminance is 18 fL, limited by internal circuitry to minimize panel heat generation and its luminance is more uniform than a CRT monitor, The reflectivity and the viewing angle are about the same as for a CRT monitor, It has a capability to do stereo imaging at 43 Hz per eye, which is on the borderline of visible flicker, and its dynamic range in stereo is good, The extinction ratio is poor, and is probably limited by the long persistence of the green phosphor, Most who have seen the Pioneer PDP-502MX would love to have one, at least for football games, The price is about 18,000.

  7. Annie Marion MacLean: “the mother of contemporary etnography” and pioneer in sociology distance learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia García Dauder


    Full Text Available The article introduces Anne Marion MacLean into the United States' scientific sociology at its very origins (1892, when the Department of Sociology of the Chicago University was created. It also puts MacLean in a network called "Women's School of Chicago", and the forgotten contributions of these social sciences' pioneers, submitted to the American Journal of Sociology, are analyzed. Two MacLean's key contributions are highlighted: the correspondence courses in teaching sociology and her research by means of participant observation in workplaces focusing on women's work.

  8. Mapas de Entornos Mediante Navegacion Difusa y Sistema de Teleoperacion de una Plataforma Pioneer P3-DX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Granda


    Full Text Available El presente proyecto describe el diseno e implementacion de aplicaciones de Teleoperacion, Adquisicion de Datos, Control Difuso de Velocidad y Mapeo de Entornos en 2D, para la plataforma movil Pioneer P3-DX mediante el uso de sonares, odometrıa y software libre GNU/Linux. El proyecto brinda una guıa para utilizar los conceptos de programacion en Python, que permite crear aplicaciones de manera versatil mediante el uso de librerıas como: GTK para el desarrollo del entorno grafico, PYFUZZY para el desarrollo del controlador difuso de velocidad y OPENCV para mostrar los mapas del entorno.

  9. Genetic structure and population differentiation of the Mediterranean pioneer spiny broom Calicotome villosa across the Strait of Gibraltar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arroyo, Juan; Aparicio, Abelardo; Albadalejo, Rafael G.;


    of species during the Pleistocene, as a consequence of the lowering of sea level and climate changes associated with the Ice Ages. In the present study, we report a multilevel hierarchical investigation of the genetic diversity of Calicotome villosa, a common pioneer legume shrub, at the regional scale......The region around the Strait of Gibraltar is considered to be one of the most relevant ‘hot spots’ of biodiversity in the Mediterranean Basin due to its historical, biogeographical, and ecological features. Prominent among these is its role as a land bridge for the migration and differentiation...

  10. Adaptation process of Communication studies to EHEA. The case of Aragon, a pioneering region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerea Vadillo Bengoa, Ph. D.


    Full Text Available The Autonomous Region of Aragón (Spain is one of the pioneers in its full adaptation to the parameters and demands established by the European Higher Education Area [2]. The Aragonese universities with on-site classes began their study plans in their respective Communication degree programmes under the philosophy known as the “Bologna model” in the academic year of 2008-2009.The aim of this article is to analyze the initiation process these studies have gone through in both the public university (Universidad de Zaragoza, UNIZAR as well as in the private university (Universidad San Jorge, USJ.The main objective of this work is to study how new Communication study plans created in the common European framework began to be implemented and to evaluate the new forms of learning that this model of university teaching has created.Therefore, we will conclude with the results that have been obtained to date with the application of active methods of learning aimed at acquiring professional skills based on concepts such as flexible and lifelong learning (LLL,To sum up, the aim is to identify the keys of paradigm change brought on by Bologna in Communication studies and how and with what concrete results the innovations that have been introduced in content and teaching methodology in degree programmes can be interpreted based on the experience in Aragón. Resumen: La Comunidad Autónoma de Aragón (España es una de las pioneras en su plena adaptación a los parámetros y exigencias que plantea el Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior [1]. En el curso académico 2008-2009, las universidades aragonesas con enseñanza presencial iniciaron los planes de estudio bajo la filosofía del conocido “modelo Bolonia” en la enseñanza de sus respectivos grados de las titulaciones de Comunicación.En el presente artículo, analizamos el proceso de iniciación que han seguido los estudios, tanto en la universidad pública (Universidad de Zaragoza, UNIZAR como

  11. Population dynamics of Agriophyllum squarrosum, a pioneer annual plant endemic to mobile sand dunes, in response to global climate change. (United States)

    Qian, Chaoju; Yin, Hengxia; Shi, Yong; Zhao, Jiecai; Yin, Chengliang; Luo, Wanyin; Dong, Zhibao; Chen, Guoxiong; Yan, Xia; Wang, Xiao-Ru; Ma, Xiao-Fei


    Climate change plays an important role in the transition of ecosystems. Stratigraphic investigations have suggested that the Asian interior experienced frequent transitions between grassland and desert ecosystems as a consequence of global climate change. Using maternally and bi-parentally inherited markers, we investigated the population dynamics of Agriophyllum squarrosum (Chenopodiaceae), an annual pioneer plant endemic to mobile sand dunes. Phylogeographic analysis revealed that A. squarrosum could originate from Gurbantunggut desert since ~1.6 Ma, and subsequently underwent three waves of colonisation into other deserts and sandy lands corresponding to several glaciations. The rapid population expansion and distribution range shifts of A. squarrosum from monsoonal climate zones suggested that the development of the monsoonal climate significantly enhanced the population growth and gene flow of A. squarrosum. These data also suggested that desertification of the fragile grassland ecosystems in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau was more ancient than previously suggested and will be aggravated under global warming in the future. This study provides new molecular phylogeographic insights into how pioneer annual plant species in desert ecosystems respond to global climate change, and facilitates evaluation of the ecological potential and genetic resources of future crops for non-arable dry lands to mitigate climate change.

  12. Seed retention by pioneer trees enhances plant diversity resilience on gravel bars: Observations from the river Allier, France (United States)

    Corenblit, Dov; Vidal, Vincent; Cabanis, Manon; Steiger, Johannes; Garófano-Gómez, Virginia; Garreau, Alexandre; Hortobágyi, Borbála; Otto, Thierry; Roussel, Erwan; Voldoire, Olivier


    Pioneer riparian trees which establish in river active tracts on gravel bars enhance fine sediment retention during high flows within their stands and in their lee side, forming obstacle marks. Fine sediment retention can be accompanied by deposition of seeds transported by water dispersal, i.e. by hydrochory. We tested the hypothesis that pioneer riparian trees significantly control seed deposition on gravel bars by forming sediment obstacle marks. We described the seed bank structure and compared samples collected from obstacle marks and bare coarse-grained bar surfaces. At the surface (at 2 cm depth), seed abundance (N) and richness (S) (expressed as mean ± sd) were significantly higher in areas directly affected by riparian trees, i.e. obstacle marks, (N: 693 ± 391; S: 17 ± 3) than in bare surfaces (N: 334 ± 371; S: 13 ± 5). Surface and sub-surface (at 20 cm depth) samples were also significantly different, with the sub-surface samples almost devoid of seeds (respectively N: 514 ± 413; S: 15 ± 5 and N: 3 ± 6; S: 1 ± 2). These results suggest a biogeomorphic feedback between sediment and associated seed retention mediated by hydrochory, vegetation growth and local seed dispersal mediated by barochory. Such feedback may improve plant diversity resilience on gravel alluvial bars of high-energy rivers.

  13. Pioneer 10 and 11 orbit determination analysis shows no discrepancy with Newton-Einstein's laws of gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Modenini, Dario


    The present work describes the investigation of the navigation anomaly of Pioneer 10 and 11 probes which became known as the Pioneer Anomaly. It appeared as a linear drift in the Doppler data received by the spacecraft, which has been ascribed to an approximately constant sunward acceleration of about $8.5 \\times 10^{-13} km/s^2$. Since then, the existence of the anomaly has been confirmed independently by several groups and a large effort was devoted to find its origin. The present study consists of two main parts: thermal modeling of the spacecraft throughout its trajectory, and orbit determination analysis. Based on existing documentation and published telemetry data we built a thermal finite element model of the spacecraft, whose complexity has been constrained to a degree allowing for sensitivity analysis, leading to the computation of its formal uncertainty. The trajectory analysis and orbit determination was carried out using NASA/JPL's ODP (Orbit Determination Program) and our results show that orbita...

  14. Birds and bats diverge in the qualitative and quantitative components of seed dispersal of a pioneer tree (United States)

    Jacomassa, Fábio André F.; Pizo, Marco Aurélio


    Although the overlap in fruit diet between birds and bats is low, they sometimes consume and compete for fruits of the same plant species. What is poorly known is how birds and bats compare with each other in relation to the effectiveness of seed dispersal. In this paper we contrasted birds and bats in relation to quantitative (the amount of fruits removed from plants) and qualitative (germination performance of seeds) components of the seed dispersal of Solanum granuloso- leprosum, a pioneer, small-seeded tree of open areas and forest edges in south Brazil. We tagged fruits on the plants and monitored their removal by day and night. We compared the final percent of germination and speed of germination of seeds ingested by birds and bats with non-ingested, control seeds. While bats removed more fruits than birds, performing better in the quantitative component, birds improved the germination performance of seeds, an aspect of the qualitative component of seed dispersal effectiveness. Although bats are more likely to deposit seeds in highly disturbed sites that favor the recruitment of pioneer plant species, birds frequent forest edges, which is also suitable habitat for S. granuloso- leprosum, We concluded that birds and bats are not 'redundant' seed dispersers for S. granuloso- leprosum because in conjunction they may enhance its recruitment by diversifying the microsites where seeds are deposited, performing in addition different ecological functions in terms of quantity and quality of dispersal.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayock, B.; Zank, G. P.; Heerikhuisen, J., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Physics and Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States)


    Observations made by ultraviolet (UV) detectors on board Pioneer 10, Voyager 1, and Voyager 2 can be used to analyze the distribution of neutral hydrogen throughout the heliosphere, including the interaction regions of the solar wind and local interstellar medium. Previous studies of the long-term trend of decreasing intensity with increasing heliocentric distance established the need for more sophisticated heliospheric models. Here we use state-of-the-art three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) neutral models to simulate Lyman-alpha backscatter as would be seen by the three spacecrafts, exploiting a new 3D Monte Carlo radiative transfer code under solar minimum conditions. Both observations and simulations of the UV backscatter intensity are normalized for each spacecraft flight path at {approx}15 AU, and we focus on the slope of decreasing intensity over an increasing heliocentric distance. Comparisons of simulations with Voyager 1 Lyman-alpha data results in a very close match, while the Pioneer 10 comparison is similar due to normalization, but not considered to be in agreement. The deviations may be influenced by a low resolution of photoionization in the 3D MHD-neutral model, a lack of solar cycle activity in our simulations, and possibly issues with instrumental sensitivity. Comparing the slope of Voyager 2 and the simulated intensities yields an almost identical match. Our results predict a large increase in the Lyman-alpha intensity as the hydrogen wall is approached, which would signal an imminent crossing of the heliopause.

  16. Pioneer 10 and 11 orbit determination analysis shows no discrepancy with Newton-Einstein laws of gravity (United States)

    Modenini, D.; Tortora, P.


    The present work describes our investigation of the navigation anomaly of the Pioneer 10 and 11 probes which became known as the Pioneer Anomaly. It appeared as a linear drift in the Doppler data received by the spacecraft, which has been ascribed to an approximately constant Sunward acceleration of about 8.5×10-13 km/s2. Since then, the existence of the anomaly has been confirmed independently by several groups and a large effort was devoted to find its origin. Recently, different analyses were published where the authors claimed the acceleration due to anisotropic thermal emission to be the most likely cause of the unexplained acceleration. Here we report the methodology and the results of an independent study carried out in the last years, aimed at supporting the thermal origin of the anomaly. This work consists of two main parts: thermal modeling of the spacecraft throughout its trajectory, and orbit determination analysis. Based on existing documentation and published telemetry data, we built a thermal finite element model of the spacecraft, whose complexity has been constrained to a degree allowing for sensitivity analysis, leading to the computation of its formal uncertainty. The trajectory analysis and orbit determination were carried out using NASA/JPL's Orbit Determination Program, and our results show that orbital solutions are achieved that do not require the addition of any "unknown" acceleration other than that of thermal origin.

  17. Slit-Robo signals regulate pioneer axon pathfinding of the tract of the postoptic commissure in the mammalian forebrain. (United States)

    Ricaño-Cornejo, Itzel; Altick, Amy L; García-Peña, Claudia M; Nural, Hikmet Feyza; Echevarría, Diego; Miquelajáuregui, Amaya; Mastick, Grant S; Varela-Echavarría, Alfredo


    During early vertebrate forebrain development, pioneer axons establish a symmetrical scaffold descending longitudinally through the rostral forebrain, thus forming the tract of the postoptic commissure (TPOC). In mouse embryos, this tract begins to appear at embryonic day 9.5 (E9.5) as a bundle of axons tightly constrained at a specific dorsoventral level. We have characterized the participation of the Slit chemorepellants and their Robo receptors in the control of TPOC axon projection. In E9.5-E11.5 mouse embryos, Robo1 and Robo2 are expressed in the nucleus origin of the TPOC (nTPOC), and Slit expression domains flank the TPOC trajectory. These findings suggested that these proteins are important factors in the dorsoventral positioning of the TPOC axons. Consistently with this role, Slit2 inhibited TPOC axon growth in collagen gel cultures, and interfering with Robo function in cultured embryos induced projection errors in TPOC axons. Moreover, absence of both Slit1 and Slit2 or Robo1 and Robo2 in mutant mouse embryos revealed aberrant TPOC trajectories, resulting in abnormal spreading of the tract and misprojections into both ventral and dorsal tissues. These results reveal that Slit-Robo signaling regulates the dorsoventral position of this pioneer tract in the developing forebrain.

  18. Sicily and the development of Econophysics: the pioneering work of Ettore Majorana and the Econophysics Workshop in Palermo

    CERN Document Server

    Mantegna, Rosario N


    Sicily has played an important role in the development of the new research area named "Econophysics". In fact some key ideas supporting this new hybrid discipline were originally formulated in a pioneering work of the Sicilian born physicist Ettore Majorana. The article he wrote was entitled "The value of statistical laws in physics and social sciences". I will discuss its origin and history that has been recently discovered in the study of Stefano Roncoroni. This recent study documents the true reasons and motivations that triggered the pioneering work of Majorana. It also shows that the description of this work provided by Edoardo Amaldi was shallow and misleading. In the second part of the talk I will recollect the first years of development of econophysics and in particular the role of the "International Workshop on Econophysics and Statistical Finance" held in Palermo on 28-30 September 1998 and the setting in 1999 of the "Observatory of Complex Systems" the research group on Econophysics of Palermo Univ...

  19. Carbon dioxide-enriched atmosphere enhances biomass accumulation and meristem production in the pioneer shrub Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Emiliane Mendes de Sá


    Full Text Available The increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration predicted to the end of this century may cause several alterations on plant species development, which shall result in changes in the structure and function of plant communities. The present work aimed to investigate the effects of the increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration on the development of Baccharis dracunculifolia, a key pioneer Neotropical shrub. Seedlings of B. dracunculifolia were exposed to 720 ppm of CO2 as well as to ambient concentration of CO2 (approximately 360 ppm during 120 days in open top chambers. Growth and dry biomass accumulation were higher under elevated CO2 concentrations. As a response to CO2 enrichment, there was an increase of 134% in total dry mass, 208% in root dry mass and 152% in stem dry mass. The shrubby habit of B. dracunculifolia and the larger number of meristems produced under high CO2 promoted the increase in 137% in the number of branches. The present study contributes to the knowledge about how pioneer tropical plants may respond to increased atmospheric [CO2] in environments with low nutrient limitation.

  20. Acquired Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Nielsen, Espen; Halse, Karianne


    Acquired Techniques - a Leap into the Archive, at Aarhus School of Architecture. In collaboration with Karianne Halse, James Martin and Mika K. Friis. Following the footsteps of past travelers this is a journey into tools and techniques of the architectural process. The workshop will focus upon...... architectural production as a conglomerate of various analogue and digital methods, and provide the basics, the tips/tricks - and how the tool themselves becomes operational for spatial/thematic investigations. Eventually, this will become a city, exhibition and phamplet inhabited by the (by...

  1. Analysis of Relationship between Pioneer Brand Status and Consumer’s Attitude toward a Brand (Case on Yamaha Automatic vs. Honda Automatic Transmission Motorcycle in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arga Hananto


    Full Text Available Previous research have indicated that brand pioneership provide some advantages such as high market share barriers to entry and consumers preference as well as higher consumer attitude. This paper intends to explore the relationship between perceived brand pioneership on consumers’ brand attitude. The study focuses on two competing brands from automatic transmission motorcycle category, namely Yamaha and Honda.Based on result from 90 respondents, this study confirms the perception that Yamaha (although not the true pioneer is perceived by the majority of respondents as the pioneering brand in the automatic transmission motorcycle. This study also found that those respondents who perceived that Yamaha is the pioneer brand tend to ascribe higher brand attitude toward Yamaha than toward Honda. Result from this study adds to the repository of studies concerning brand pioneership as well as adding to repository of knowledge about Indonesian consumer behavior.

  2. A beacon of new physics: The Pioneer anomaly modelled as a path based speed loss driven by the externalisation of aggregate non-inertial QM energy

    CERN Document Server

    Boom, Paul G ten


    This treatise outlines how a real non-systematic based Pioneer anomaly, with its implied violation (re: 'low' mass bodies only) of both general relativity's weak equivalence principle and the Newtonian inverse-square law, can be successfully modelled. These theoretical hurdles and various awkward observational constraints, such as the low value of Pioneer 11's anomaly pre-Saturn encounter, have not been convincingly modelled to date. Notwithstanding the recent trend to embrace a non-constant Sun/Earth-directed heat based explanation of this anomalous deceleration, the actual: nature, direction, and temporal and spatial variation of the Pioneer anomaly remain an open arena of research. Working backwards from the observational evidence, and rethinking: time, mass, quantum entanglement and non-locality, we hypothesise a mechanism involving a quantum mechanical energy source and a new type of 'gravitational' field; neither of which lie within general relativity's domain of formulation/application. By way of a sys...

  3. Translation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Pinheiro


    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss three translation techniques: literal, cultural, and artistic. Literal translation is a well-known technique, which means that it is quite easy to find sources on the topic. Cultural and artistic translation may be new terms. Whilst cultural translation focuses on matching contexts, artistic translation focuses on matching reactions. Because literal translation matches only words, it is not hard to find situations in which we should not use this technique.  Because artistic translation focuses on reactions, judging the quality of an artistic translation work is one of the most difficult things one can do. We end up having a score of complexity and humanity for each one of the mentioned techniques: Literal translation would be the closest thing we have to the machines world and artistic translation would be the closest thing we have to the purely human world. By creating these classifications and studying the subtleties of each one of them, we are adding degrees of quality to our courses and to translation as a professional field. The main contribution of this paper is then the formalization of such a piece of knowledge. We, however, also lay the foundations for studies of this type.

  4. Experimental Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Engelfried, J


    In this course we will give examples for experimental techniques used in particle physics experiments. After a short introduction, we will discuss applications in silicon microstrip detectors, wire chambers, and single photon detection in Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) counters. A short discussion of the relevant physics processes, mainly different forms of energy loss in matter, is enclosed.

  5. Franciszek Neugebauer's Ichnograms as a Pioneering Diagnostic Method in Orthopedics in the 19th Century. (United States)

    Nowakowska-Zamachowska, Monika


    The aim of this paper is to present an original orthopedic diagnostic method from the late 19th century developed by Franciszek Neugebauer, a distinguished Polish physician. His technique of detecting skeletal abnormalities was an excellent coping method in the time before the first diagnostic imaging method - x-ray imaging - had been invented.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Guo Bosheng, senior engineer/professor, is now a member of the Expert Group of the State Council Rare Earth Leading Group, PRC., director of Rare Earth Development Center for Agricultural Technique. He graduated from Moscow Fine Chemical Industry University in the Sovi-

  7. Pioneer of Sino-Japanese People to People Friendly Exchanges——Commemorate the 15th Anniversary of the Passing of Sun Pinghua

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>On August 15, 1997, Sun Pinghua,an expert in Japanese affairs,witness of China-Japan friendly relations and pioneer of Sino-Japanese people-to-people friendly exchanges,passed away. It was a great loss to the cause of China-Japan friendship.The well-known expert in Japan affairs died after Wang Zhen and Liao Chengzhi, two other great pioneers.Personages of various circles in Japan expressed their deep grief over his death. Representatives of various social

  8. Intensity techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn


    The Handbook of Signal Processing in Acoustics will compile the techniques and applications of signal processing as they are used in the many varied areas of Acoustics. The Handbook will emphasize the interdisciplinary nature of signal processing in acoustics. Each Section of the Handbook...... will present topics on signal processing which are important in a specific area of acoustics. These will be of interest to specialists in these areas because they will be presented from their technical perspective, rather than a generic engineering approach to signal processing. Non-specialists, or specialists...... from different areas, will find the self-contained chapters accessible and will be interested in the similarities and differences between the approaches and techniques used in different areas of acoustics....

  9. [Two French pioneers of plastic surgery: François Dubois and Raymond Passot]. (United States)

    Derquenne, François


    After World War, especially during the interwar years, new plastic surgical techniques were highly developed by I two French surgeons: Dr Raymond Passot, a pupil of Pr Hippolyte Morestin, Head of surgery department in Val-de-Grâce military hospital, Father of the Gueules cassées and Dr François Dubois, a pupil of Pr Sébileau, head of ear nose throat disorders department at Lariboisière Hospital in Paris. By the way of papers, publications and interviews to media, they described new French cosmetic techniques (rhitidectomy, sutures, liposuccion) and extensively developed this outpatient surgery. They used to renove famous actresse's and actors' face and nose and those of hundreds of patients. They participate to French societies of plastic surgery meetings and publications. Their enthusiastic dare largely participated to the current success of cosmetic surgery in France.

  10. Electrochemical Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Gang; Lin, Yuehe


    Sensitive and selective detection techniques are of crucial importance for capillary electrophoresis (CE), microfluidic chips, and other microfluidic systems. Electrochemical detectors have attracted considerable interest for microfluidic systems with features that include high sensitivity, inherent miniaturization of both the detection and control instrumentation, low cost and power demands, and high compatibility with microfabrication technology. The commonly used electrochemical detectors can be classified into three general modes: conductimetry, potentiometry, and amperometry.

  11. Professor Sergei Semjonovic Golovin (1866-1931): A Pioneer of Ocular Surgery. (United States)

    Moschos, Marilita M


    Professor Sergei Semjonovic Golovin (1866-1931) is considered as one of the founders of ophthalmology in Russia. He received a worldwide reputation thanks to his achievements in ocular surgery and pathology. He introduced new surgical techniques such as Golovin's operation (Exenteratio orbitosinualis), Golovin's osteoplastic frontal sinus operation, ligation of orbital veins, and opticociliary neurectomy. He also introduced his "cytotoxic theory" to interpret sympathetic ophthalmia. He was a reputable professor of ophthalmology.

  12. Elof Risebye – A Pioneer in the Transfer of Wall Paintings on the Wrong Path

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brajer, Isabelle Eve


    The transfer of wall paintings was introduced to Denmark by Italian restorers in 1913. A misunderstanding of this technique led to the development of a faulty method by Elof Risebye, an artist, who by chance got involved in the restoration of wall paintings. The use of the wrong adhesive resulted......, thus disseminating his faulty method. Due to Risebye's activities there are a significant number of transferred wall paintings in Denmark which are in dire need of treatment today....

  13. Growth and resilience of pioneering nonprofit human service organizations: a cross-case analysis of organizational histories. (United States)

    Kimberlin, Sara E; Schwartz, Sara L; Austin, Michael J


    Knowledge of organizational history is important for recognizing patterns in effective management and understanding how organizations respond to internal and external challenges. This cross-case analysis of 12 histories of pioneering nonprofit human service organizations contributes an important longitudinal perspective on organizational history, complementing the cross-sectional case studies that dominate the existing research on nonprofit organizations. The literature on organizational growth, including lifecycle models and growth management, is reviewed, along with the literature on organizational resilience. Based on analysis of the 12 organizational histories, a conceptual model is presented that synthesizes key factors in the areas of leadership, internal operations, and external relations that influence organizational growth and resilience to enable nonprofit organizations to survive and thrive over time. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal examples from the organizational histories illustrate the conceptual map. The paper concludes with a discussion of directions for future research on nonprofit organizational history.

  14. Dante Moreira Leite: um pioneiro da psicologia social no Brasil Dante Moreira Leite: a pioneer of social psychology in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo José de Paiva


    Full Text Available Apresenta-se o trabalho pioneiro no Brasil, na área da Psicologia Social, de Dante Moreira Leite, consignado em três obras: O Caráter Nacional Brasileiro, Psicologia Diferencial e Psicologia e Literatura. Nessas obras examinam-se em particular os tópicos relações interpessoais, caráter nacional e vinculações entre Literatura e Psicologia. Apresentam-se também, brevemente, o Autor em suas atividades de professor, pesquisador, escritor, tradutor e administrador acadêmico.Dante Moreira Leite’s pioneer work in Brazilian Social Psychology is presented through the analysis of three of his main books: Brazilian National Character, Differential Psychology and Psychology and Literature. The subjects especially considered in these writings are interpersonal relations, national character and the links between Literature and Psychology. His activities as professor, researcher, writer, translator and academic manager are also introduced.

  15. Characteristics of low-frequency components of the near-bottom current in the Chinese Pioneer Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Chujin; HOU Yijun; CHEN Qi; DONG Ruzhou; DONG Lixian


    Two deep-sea moorings were deployed respectively in the east area and the west area of Chinese Pioneer Area (CPA) in the tropic east Pacific to monitor the regional deep-sea dynamics below 600 meters above bottom (mab) from July 1997 to Oct. 1999. Results of statistics, spectral estimate and correlation analysis of the low-passed velocity data show that time scales of low-frequency components of the near-bottom currents are 25~120 days, in which 51-day period dominates the lower band of the frequency domain. Topographic features have obvious effect on low-frequency currents below 50 mab; modulations of the bottom-intensified sheared mean flow to the low-frequency currents are the dynamic mechanism of the frequency shift that occurs in both the east-area and the west-area.

  16. Impression creep technique-An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sastry, D.H. [Department of Metallurgy, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India)]. E-mail:


    Impression creep technique is a modified indentation creep test wherein the conical or ball indenter is replaced by a cylindrical, flat bottomed punch. The usefulness of this technique, pioneered by Prof. Li, is illustrated by application to a variety of problems in this laboratory. High temperature creep behavior of a number of metals and alloys, particularly estimation of the thermal activation parameters aiding the identification of the rate controlling mechanisms of creep, has been investigated. The technique has also been exploited to assess the 'single crystal' creep behavior vis a vis that of a polycrystalline sample. Utilizing the impression creep test, the creep behavior of individual zones in steel weldments has been examined. The simplicity and the utility of the impression creep test have been further demonstrated by its application to the study of superplastic behavior in alloys. This paper presents a cross section of the results obtained in the above investigations. It is concluded that the impression creep test technique is capable of yielding much of the information that can be obtained from tensile creep testing. Furthermore, it can provide data which are either impossible or extremely difficult to obtain with conventional creep testing.

  17. The evolution and refinement of vasoepididymostomy techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter T Chan


    Obstructive azoospermia secondary to epididymal obstruction can be corrected by microsurgical reconstruction with vasoepididymostomy (VE).Although alternative management such as epididymal or testicular sperm aspiration in conjunction with intracytoplasmic sperm injection is feasible,various studies have established the superior cost-effectiveness of VE as a treatment of choice.Microsurgical VE is considered one of the most technically challenging microsurgeries.Its success rate is highly dependent on the skills and experience of the surgeons.Various techniques have been described in the literature for VE.We have pioneered a technique known as longitudinal intussusception VE (LIVE) in which the epididymal tubule is opened longitudinally to obtain a larger opening to allow its tubular content to pass through the anastomosis.Our preliminary data demonstrated a patency rate of over 90%.This technique has been widely referenced in the recent literature including robotic-assisted microsurgery.The history of the development of different VE approaches,the preoperative evaluation along with the techniques of various VE will be described in this article.

  18. Christian Theodor Vaupell, a Danish 19th century naturalist and a pioneering developer of the Quaternary geoscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Nielsen


    Full Text Available Christian Theodor Vaupell (1821–1862 was a Danish scholar with pioneering investigations particularly on the late Quaternary development of bog forests, but also microscopy of plant anatomy and vegetative reproduction. His studies contributed to the early scientific thinking of the Quaternary environmental changes. Before his academic efforts, he had already survived the war between Prussia and Denmark albeit he became severely wounded and his left arm was amputated. The drama of his academic efforts, on the other hand, lies in the more or less suspicious dispute of his first doctoral thesis and his dismissal from the academic world during the following years. At the same time, he earned praise for his first thesis (never accepted as thesis but published as a regular book from abroad; he was also able to attract private foundations for financial support of his scientific work. Following the enthusiasm of his time, Vaupell became attracted to the pine megafossils known to have been preserved in the bogs in north-west Europe. The megafossils led him to study not only the life systems of the ancient and modern bog forests but also their associations with Earth processes. As an interesting detail of his research, Vaupell made compound interpretations on the occurrence of megafossil stumps and their tree-ring growth patterns. In the course of the 20th century, Vaupell's studies have been cited as a general reference of post-glacial vegetation change and plant succession rather than clearly pioneering investigations of palaeoecology, an angle that we would like put into a contrasting perspective. To do so, we provide a brief portrait of Christian Vaupell and his research career. In conclusion, we wish to emphasize the comprehensiveness of Vaupell's views on the late Quaternary vegetation changes and the role of plant succession in that development.

  19. Ellsworth C. Dougherty: A Pioneer in the Selection of Caenorhabditis elegans as a Model Organism (United States)

    Ferris, Howard


    Ellsworth Dougherty (1921–1965) was a man of impressive intellectual dimensions and interests; in a relatively short career he contributed enormously as researcher and scholar to the biological knowledge base for selection of Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism in neurobiology, genetics, and molecular biology. He helped guide the choice of strains that were eventually used, and, in particular, he developed the methodology and understanding for the nutrition and axenic culture of nematodes and other organisms. Dougherty insisted upon a concise terminology for culture techniques and coined descriptive neologisms that were justified by their linguistic roots. Among other contributions, he refined the classification system for the Protista. PMID:26272995

  20. Computers Take Flight: A History of NASA's Pioneering Digital Fly-By-Wire Project (United States)

    Tomayko, James E.


    An overview of the NASA F-8 Fly-by Wire project is presented. The project made two significant contributions to the new technology: (1) a solid design base of techniques that work and those that do not, and (2) credible evidence of good flying qualities and the ability of such a system to tolerate real faults and to continue operation without degradation. In 1972 the F-8C aircraft used in the program became he first digital fly-by-wire aircraft to operate without a mechanical backup system.

  1. 高职院校大学生创业园实践探索%Practical Exploration of Students Pioneer Park in Higher Vocational Colleges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Based on the analysis of practical exploration of students pioneer park in higher vocational colleges,the article presents some constructive suggestions on promotion of students’ pioneer park:students pioneer park should consider the economic development level of the area and the college conditions;the practice and theory of entrepreneurship should be equally important;the management of students pioneer park should standardize and quality service should be in place to increases the success rate of students’ entrepreneurship.%通过对高职院校大学生创业园实践现状进行分析,对办好大学生创业园实践进行必要的思考与探索:开办创业园要结合本地区经济发展水平和校情;创业理论教育和创业实践并行不悖;创业园管理需进一步规范;相关服务要到位,不断提高大学生创业的成功率。

  2. Reviewing the Pioneering Roles of Gallaudet University Alumni in Advancing Deaf Education and Services in Developing Countries: Insights and Challenges from Nigeria (United States)

    Eleweke, C. Jonah; Agboola, Isaac O.; Guteng, Simon I.


    The advancement of deaf education and services in numerous developing countries can be traced to the pioneering efforts of many Gallaudet University alumni. In Africa, for instance, the work of one such great alumnus, Dr. Andrew Foster, stands out. Foster is credited with efforts that resulted in the establishment of over 30 educational…

  3. How Singapore Teachers in a Pioneer "School of the Future" Context "Deal with" the Process of Integrating Information and Communication Technology into the School Curriculum (United States)

    Lim, Melvyn H.


    The aim of this research was to understand and develop theory concerning how teachers in a pioneer "School of the Future" in Singapore deal with information and communication technology (ICT) integration, utilising grounded theory methods, within the interpretivist paradigm. Findings revealed that teachers tended not to make radical…

  4. [Patient preferences versus evidence-based medicine: did the pioneers of evidence-based medicine take the patient's preferences into account?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoemaker, C.G.; Weijden, T.T. van der


    A patient's values and preferences are one of the three 'pillars' of evidence-based medicine (EBM). How can we explain that this one pillar has hardly been elaborated in the EBM-literature?? Were the EBM pioneers really committed to the patient's preferences, were they not ready yet, or were they no

  5. Pioneers of exfoliative cytology in the 19th century: the predecessors of George Papanicolaou. (United States)

    Diamantis, A; Magiorkinis, E


    The purpose of our study was to summarize the knowledge on exfoliative cytology during the 19th century and to track down Papanicolaou's predecessors. A thorough study of texts, medical books and reports, together with a review of the available literature in PubMed, was undertaken. The study of cytological preparations as a diagnostic procedure can be traced back to the work of the famous French microscopist Alfred François Donné. However, the systematic study and the criteria for the diagnosis of malignant cells should be attributed to Johannes Müller. The increasing interest in the cytological examination of various fluids of the human body can be confirmed by a plethora of studies published during this period. By the end of the 19th century, the invention of new techniques in pathology, such as the introduction of cell block techniques, tissue sections and new staining methods which provided the opportunity to study surgical specimens in three dimensions, led to a decrease in the interest in exfoliative cytology, which was re-discovered by George Papanicolaou almost three decades later. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Hepatic deficiency of the pioneer transcription factor FoxA restricts hepatitis B virus biosynthesis by the developmental regulation of viral DNA methylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa C McFadden


    Full Text Available The FoxA family of pioneer transcription factors regulates hepatitis B virus (HBV transcription, and hence viral replication. Hepatocyte-specific FoxA-deficiency in the HBV transgenic mouse model of chronic infection prevents the transcription of the viral DNA genome as a result of the failure of the developmentally controlled conversion of 5-methylcytosine residues to cytosine during postnatal hepatic maturation. These observations suggest that pioneer transcription factors such as FoxA, which mark genes for expression at subsequent developmental steps in the cellular differentiation program, mediate their effects by reversing the DNA methylation status of their target genes to permit their ensuing expression when the appropriate tissue-specific transcription factor combinations arise during development. Furthermore, as the FoxA-deficient HBV transgenic mice are viable, the specific developmental timing, abundance and isoform type of pioneer factor expression must permit all essential liver gene expression to occur at a level sufficient to support adequate liver function. This implies that pioneer transcription factors can recognize and mark their target genes in distinct developmental manners dependent upon, at least in part, the concentration and affinity of FoxA for its binding sites within enhancer and promoter regulatory sequence elements. This selective marking of cellular genes for expression by the FoxA pioneer factor compared to HBV may offer the opportunity for the specific silencing of HBV gene expression and hence the resolution of chronic HBV infections which are responsible for approximately one million deaths worldwide annually due to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.

  7. Nobel Prize in Physics 1994 "for pioneering contributions to the development of neutron scattering techniques for studies of condensed matter" : Bertram N. Brockhouse and Clifford G. Shull

    CERN Document Server


    Prof. C. G. Shull presents "Early development of neutron scattering". A description of the early experiments and instrumentation problems starting in 1946 that led to the use of neutron scattering as a tool in augmenting and extending x-ray scattering from materials.

  8. Combinatorial techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Sane, Sharad S


    This is a basic text on combinatorics that deals with all the three aspects of the discipline: tricks, techniques and theory, and attempts to blend them. The book has several distinctive features. Probability and random variables with their interconnections to permutations are discussed. The theme of parity has been specially included and it covers applications ranging from solving the Nim game to the quadratic reciprocity law. Chapters related to geometry include triangulations and Sperner's theorem, classification of regular polytopes, tilings and an introduction to the Eulcidean Ramsey theory. Material on group actions covers Sylow theory, automorphism groups and a classification of finite subgroups of orthogonal groups. All chapters have a large number of exercises with varying degrees of difficulty, ranging from material suitable for Mathematical Olympiads to research.

  9. Pioneering a Nursing Home Quality Improvement Learning Collaborative: A Case Study of Method and Lessons Learned. (United States)

    Gillespie, Suzanne M; Olsan, Tobie; Liebel, Dianne; Cai, Xueya; Stewart, Reginald; Katz, Paul R; Karuza, Jurgis


    To describe the development of a nursing home (NH) quality improvement learning collaborative (QILC) that provides Lean Six Sigma (LSS) training and infrastructure support for quality assurance performance improvement change efforts. Case report. Twenty-seven NHs located in the Greater Rochester, NY area. The learning collaborative approach in which interprofessional teams from different NHs work together to improve common clinical and organizational processes by sharing experiences and evidence-based practices to achieve measurable changes in resident outcomes and system efficiencies. NH participation, curriculum design, LSS projects. Over 6 years, 27 NHs from urban and rural settings joined the QILC as organizational members and sponsored 47 interprofessional teams to learn LSS techniques and tools, and to implement quality improvement projects. NHs, in both urban and rural settings, can benefit from participation in QILCs and are able to learn and apply LSS tools in their team-based quality improvement efforts. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Genetic tools and techniques for Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (United States)

    Mussgnug, Jan H


    The development of tools has always been a major driving force for the advancement of science. Optical microscopes were the first instruments that allowed discovery and descriptive studies of the subcellular features of microorganisms. Although optical and electron microscopes remained at the forefront of microbiological research tools since their inventions, the advent of molecular genetics brought about questions which had to be addressed with new "genetic tools". The unicellular green microalgal genus Chlamydomonas, especially the most prominent species C. reinhardtii, has become a frequently used model organism for many diverse fields of research and molecular genetic analyses of C. reinhardtii, as well as the available genetic tools and techniques, have become increasingly sophisticated throughout the last decades. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the molecular key features of C. reinhardtii and summarize the progress related to the development of tools and techniques for genetic engineering of this organism, from pioneering DNA transformation experiments to state-of-the-art techniques for targeted nuclear genome editing and high-throughput screening approaches.

  11. Seed size influence on germination responses to light and temperature of seven pioneer tree species from the Central Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana F. Aud


    Full Text Available In Amazon secondary forests are dominated by pioneer species that typically produce large amounts of small and dormant seeds that are able to form a persistent soil seed bank. Seed dormancy in this group of species is overcome by environmental conditions found in open areas, such as high irradiation or alternating temperatures. Nevertheless, a variety of germination responses to environmental factors is known among pioneers; some of them may germinate in diffuse light or in darkness condition at constant temperature. Seed mass can be considered as one of the factors that promotes this variety. Regarding species with very small seeds, it seems that the trigger for germination is light and for larger seeds temperature alternation may be a more important stimulus. In this study we established a relationship between seed mass and germination response to light and alternating temperature for a group of seven woody pioneer species from the Amazon forest. We found that an increase in seed mass was followed by a decrease in the need for light and an increase in the tolerance to alternating temperatures. Understanding germination strategies may contribute with the knowledge of species coexistence in high diverse environments and also may assist those involved in forest management and restoration.Na Amazônia as florestas secundárias são dominadas por espécies pioneiras que, normalmente, produzem grandes quantidades de sementes pequenas, dormentes e capazes de formar bancos de sementes no solo. A dormência neste grupo de espécies é superada pelas condições ambientais de áreas abertas, como alta irradiação ou alternância de temperaturas. No entanto, uma variedade de respostas de germinação aos fatores ambientais é conhecida entre as pioneiras; algumas germinam em luz difusa ou no escuro sob temperatura constante. Um dos fatores promotores desta variedade é a massa das sementes. Parece que para as espécies com sementes muito pequenas, o est

  12. 论先锋、实验文学中的意识流手法%On the Stream of Consciousness in Pioneering and Experimental Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈斌; 王琴


    在改革开放的社会背景下,一批思想敏锐的作家以独特的话语方式进行小说文本形式的实验,被评论界冠以“先锋派”的称号。先锋、实验小说可大致分为两个时期。在前期,作家们全面吸收和借鉴西方意识流小说的特质,避开时代政治主题,关注人的生存状态,展示人的精神危机所带来的意识流程。在后期,意识流技巧得到更加娴熟的运用,它融入到很多现代和后现代的技巧之中,成为中国作家挖掘人物内心奥秘的常用手法。%Reform and opening up changed people’s life styles,and swashed the previous values and moral standards as well.In a social context like this,a school of sharp-minded writers were eager to dispense with the control of ideology and win over the freedom of literature itself.These writers conducted a series of experiments on text forms with unique manners of discourse and were named as “pioneers”by critics. Pioneering and experimental literature could be roughly divided into two periods.In the first period,writ-ers fully absorbed and drew lessons from the characteristics of the western stream of consciousness novels. Keeping away from the political themes of the times and paying attention to people’s living conditions, they revealed people’s flow of consciousness caused by mental crisis.In the sencond period,the art of stream of consciousness was adopted more sophisticatedly.Merged into many modern and post-modern techniques,it appeared a popular skill of psycho-description for Chinese writers.

  13. Experimental Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wyer, Jean


    Gas-phase ion spectroscopy requires specialised apparatus, both when it comes to measuring photon absorption and light emission (fluorescence). The reason is much lower ion densities compared to solution-phase spectroscopy. In this chapter different setups are described, all based on mass spectro...... in data interpretation, and the advantages and disadvantages of the different techniques are clarified. New instrumental developments involving cryo-cooled storage rings, which show great promise for the future, are briefly touched upon.......Gas-phase ion spectroscopy requires specialised apparatus, both when it comes to measuring photon absorption and light emission (fluorescence). The reason is much lower ion densities compared to solution-phase spectroscopy. In this chapter different setups are described, all based on mass...... to circumvent this is discussed based on a chemical approach, namely tagging of ammonium groups by crown ether. Prompt dissociation can sometimes be identified from the total beam depletion differing from that due to statistical dissociation. Special emphasis in this chapter is on the limitations and pitfalls...

  14. W. Ritchie Russell, A.B. Baker, and Fred Plum: Pioneers of ventilatory management in poliomyelitis. (United States)

    Wijdicks, Eelco F M


    Historically, neurologists were not involved in the day-to-day management of critically ill patients with bulbar poliomyelitis, but some were. The major contributions of 3 neurologists-W. Ritchie Russell, A.B. Baker, and Fred Plum-in the respiratory management of poliomyelitis have not been recognized. Russell's work was instrumental in identifying multiple types of poliomyelitis defined by their respiratory needs, and he advised treatment that varied from simple postural drainage to use of respirators. He participated in the development of the Radcliffe respiratory pump. Baker recognized the essential involvement of the vagal nerve in respiratory distress, but also observed that involvement of vital centers without cranial nerve involvement would lead to irregular and shallow respiration in some patients and in others with marked dysautonomic features. A similar finding of central involvement of respiration was noted by Plum, who also stressed the importance of hypercapnia. Plum emphasized measurements of vital capacity and techniques to minimize trauma with suctioning after tracheostomy. These 3 neurologists understood the importance of airway and ventilator management, which is currently one of the many pillars of neurocritical care. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  15. Pioneer organisms after F-F mass extinction in Dushan region, Guizhou Province, and their significance in establishing new ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Yue; WANG; Xunlian; SHI; Xiaoying


    After mass extinctions, most areas became "ecologically barren areas" lacking or even without ecosystem over an extensive region. Studying the pioneer organisms and the reconstruction process of a new ecosystem in the "ecologically barren area" is very important for revealing the evolution after bio-mass extinctions. In the Dushan region, Guizhou Province, China, the trace fossils appeared and flourished evidently earlier than body fossils after Frasnian-Famennian (F-F) mass extinction. The pioneer organisms and pathfinders in the "ecologically barren areas" are the trace-makers that are deposit-feeders with relatively simple structure and conformation on or near the deposit surface. The trace-makers have undergone an evolutionary process that their trace structures changed from simple to complex, and their living and moving areas and spaces enlarged from linear to planar and then to three-dimension spaces. Those characters show that the ability of the trace-makers to deposits and their efficiency of looking for food have been enhanced gradually and that those trace-makers constructed gradually a base for the new ecosystem. This process is similar to that of the trace fossils near the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary.In the Dushan area, only the recovery intervals have been identified for the Famennian body fossils, with no eminent radiation interval recognizable due to the Devonian-Carboniferous (C-D) mass extinction. However, both the recovery and radiation intervals may be clearly recognized in the Famennian trace fossils based on their conformation and diversity. The evolution and diversification of the trace fossils in the "ecologically barren area" is considered to have played a role of necessary foundation for the recovery of body fossils in the ecological chain.With the gradual disappearance of the unfavourable environment factors resulting in the F-F mass extinction, a new ecosystem was reconstructed in the "ecologically barren area" through a three

  16. Napoleon Cybulski--Polish pioneer in developing of the device for measuring blood flow velocity. (United States)

    Pawlik, W W; Konturek, S J; Bilski, R


    Napoleon Cybulski (1854-1919) was the most prominent Polish physiologist who chaired the Department of Physiology at the Faculty of Medicine of Jagiellonian University between 1885 and 1919. One of his greatest achievements was the construction of a device for precise measurements of blood movement in the vessels - the photohemotachometer, which provided a better insight into the physiology and pathophysiology of the circulatory system. In the field of endocrinology Cybulski together with Szymonowicz, found out that adrenal extracts contain biologically active substances that elevate blood pressure. He was also a constructor of an extremely clever microcalorimeter to measure the quantity of heat produced during isolated muscle contraction. He applied, for the first time, condensator discharges to stimulate nerves and analyzed changes in the excitability of the muscles. Cybulski proved that the cause of the electrical excitability of tissue depends on the electrical energy and the time of its duration. Together with Beck, he performed the experiments on the sensory centers in the central nervous system by means of the observations of the electrical evoked potentials. They discovered the continuous electrical oscillations in the brain - the brain waves and recorded the negative electrical potentials in certain brain areas induced by sensory impulses coming from the periphery. Using this technique Beck and Cybulski localized various centers in the brain of dogs and Macaccus rhesus monkeys. The names of Beck and Cybulski were quoted in many publications on neurophysiology and electroencephalography. The present paper describes Napoleon Cybulski as a constructor of an original instrument for studying the movement of blood under various experimental conditions an emphasizes the contribution of this invention to the development of physiology.

  17. Pioneering small-group learning in Tanzanian emergency medicine: Investigating acceptability for physician learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A G Lim


    Full Text Available Background. Emergency medicine (EM is a relatively new, but growing medical specialty in sub-Saharan Africa. African EM training programmes have used small-group learning (SGL modalities in their curricula. However, there is little knowledge of whether SGL modalities are perceived to be effective in these African EM training programmes. Objectives. To investigate the acceptability of SGL for physicians’ training in an academic Tanzanian emergency department using a novel EM curriculum. Methods. Using responses to a written questionnaire, we explored the perceived effectiveness of SGL compared with traditional didactic lectures among 38 emergency department physician learners in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Perceptions of SGL were identified from qualitative responses, and regression analyses were used to determine strength of association between quantitative outcomes. Results. Reported benefits of SGL included team building, simulation training, enhancement of procedural skills, and the opportunity to discuss opinions on clinical management. SGL scored more favourably with regard to improving clinical practice, enjoyment of learning, and building peer-to-peer relations. Lectures scored more favourably at improving medical knowledge. Preference towards SGL over lectures for overall training increased with years of clinical experience (95% confidence interval (CI 0.16 - 0.62, p=0.002, Spearman’s rho 0.51, and the perception that SGL reinforces learner-teacher relationships correlated with seniority within residency training (95% CI 0.14 - 0.86, p=0.007, Spearman’s rho 0.47. Conclusion. Techniques of SGL were perceived as effective at improving clinical practice in the emergency department setting. These modalities may be more favourably accepted by more experienced physician learners – therefore, new EM teaching programmes in Africa should consider these factors when targeting educational strategies for their respective regions and learner

  18. Mountford Joseph Bramley: A pioneering thyroidologist and the first principal of Asia′s oldest medical college

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    Subhankar Chatterjee


    Full Text Available Mountford Joseph Bramley was one of the educationists whose sincere efforts are undeniable in the making of modern India. After achieving the Member of the Royal College of Surgeons diploma, he joined the Malta Garrison as a Hospital Assistant and was soon promoted to the rank of Assistant Surgeon of the Rifle Brigade. Following his arrival in India in 1826, he held several important medical posts in the British service. He was one of the early researchers to investigate the role of iodine in the causation of goitre. He was appointed as the first Principal of the Medical College of Bengal, the oldest medical college in Asia, in 1835. Bramley was an educationist from the very core of his heart, and he always wished for the betterment of his students. He died early at the age of 34 years. His legacy as a pioneer in the fields of medical education and endocrinology, specifically thyroidology, has largely been shrouded in a miasma of time.

  19. New results on the Pioneer Venus Orbiter February 10--11, 1982 events: A solar wind disturbance not a comet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Intriligator, D.S.


    We study the characteristics of a series of disturbances observed on February 10--11, 1982 by the plasma analyzer and the magnetometer on the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) obtained in the solar wind upstream of Venus. We conclude that the events were associated with the propagation of a solar wind disturbance of coronal origin and not with an encounter with a comet or other local outgassing object (Russell et al., 1983). The plasma analyzer spectra clearly show the presence of increases in He/sup + +/ and they argue strongly against Russell et al.'s interpretation. The peak in magnetic field magnitude on February 11 is identified as the magnetic signature of a thin, trailing ''filament'' at the end of a series of solar initiated events. Corresponding increases in He/sup + +/ and magnetic field fluctuations were observed near earth by ISEE-3 about a day later, and this strongly supports the concept of a solar origin.

  20. Determining the degree of satisfaction of project Good Business entrepreneurs in Paraná’s North Pioneer

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    Paulo Rogério Alves Brene


    Full Text Available The study aims to assess the determinants of satisfaction of entrepreneurs with training/course project called Good Northern Paraná Business Pioneer. As an analytical tool, the research used a factor analysis, which had a role in evaluating the consistency of the questionnaire and add the 11 questions in two groups (Structure and consultants. With these two explanatory variables, they were crossed with the note of satisfaction with the course (dependent variable first from the adjustment rates (Pearson and Spearman and later with the regression analysis. It is noteworthy that the regression determined which of the variables are shown more relevant, or even if both are significant. As a result it is observed that the variable Consultants has a moderate Pearson correction (0,413 with the note of satisfaction, being larger than the structure (0,268, classified as poor. About Spearman, both had the hypothesis H1 (linking the variables accepted. Regarding the regression is possible to infer that both overall and in individual aspect, the variables are significant, highlighting the structure presented coefficient (1,13 higher than that of consultants (1,07, both explaining 27.2% of the satisfaction score (0,5 points from an average of 1,86.

  1. Mulheres na informática: quais foram as pioneiras? Women in computer science: who have been the pioneers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Schwartz


    Full Text Available É importante mostrar que as mulheres tiveram papel imprescindível no desenvolvimento da área de software, para, deste modo, estimular as mulheres para a informática. Assim, o objetivo deste artigo é fornecer modelos femininos na área de informática, apresentando mulheres pioneiras que tiveram importante participação no desenvolvimento da computação. Sendo a informática uma ciência, a relação entre mulher e ciência é brevemente analisada, fornecendo um embasamento teórico dos motivos que levam a acreditar que as mulheres começaram a fazer ciência somente no século XX.It is important to show that women have had an essential role in the development of software, so as to stimulate women to computer science. Thus, the objective of this article is to show feminine examples in computer science, presenting pioneer women who have had an important participation in the development of computation. The relation between women and science is briefly analyzed, supplying a theoretical ground for the reasons that led us to believe that women started in the world of science only in the 20th century.

  2. Pioneering In Situ Recrystallization during Bead Milling: A Top-down Approach to Prepare Zeolite A Nanocrystals. (United States)

    Anand, Chokkalingam; Yamaguchi, Yudai; Liu, Zhendong; Ibe, Sayoko; Elangovan, Shanmugam P; Ishii, Toshihiro; Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi; Endo, Akira; Okubo, Tatsuya; Wakihara, Toru


    Top-down approach has been viewed as an efficient and straightforward method to prepare nanosized zeolites. Yet, the mechanical breaking of zeolite causes amorphization, which usually requires a post-milling recrystallization to obtain fully crystalline nanoparticles. Herein we present a facile methodology to prepare zeolite nanocrystals, where milling and recrystallization can be performed in situ. A milling apparatus specially designed to work under conditions of high alkalinity and temperature enables the in situ recrystallization during milling. Taking zeolite A as an example, we demonstrate its size reduction from ~3 μm to 66 nm in 30 min, which is quite faster than previous methods reported. Three functions, viz., miniaturization, amorphization and recrystallization were found to take effect concurrently during this one-pot process. The dynamic balance between these three functions was achieved by adjusting the milling period and temperature, which lead to the tuning of zeolite A particle size. Particle size and crystallinity of the zeolite A nanocrystals were confirmed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and water adsorption-desorption. This work presents a pioneering advancement in this field of nanosized zeolites, and will facilitate the mass production as well as boost the wide applications of nanosized zeolites.

  3. Ammonia-Oligotrophic and Diazotrophic Heavy Metal-Resistant Serratia liquefaciens Strains from Pioneer Plants and Mine Tailings. (United States)

    Zelaya-Molina, Lily X; Hernández-Soto, Luis M; Guerra-Camacho, Jairo E; Monterrubio-López, Ricardo; Patiño-Siciliano, Alfredo; Villa-Tanaca, Lourdes; Hernández-Rodríguez, César


    Mine tailings are man-made environments characterized by low levels of organic carbon and assimilable nitrogen, as well as moderate concentrations of heavy metals. For the introduction of nitrogen into these environments, a key role is played by ammonia-oligotrophic/diazotrophic heavy metal-resistant guilds. In mine tailings from Zacatecas, Mexico, Serratia liquefaciens was the dominant heterotrophic culturable species isolated in N-free media from bulk mine tailings as well as the rhizosphere, roots, and aerial parts of pioneer plants. S. liquefaciens strains proved to be a meta-population with high intraspecific genetic diversity and a potential to respond to these extreme conditions. The phenotypic and genotypic features of these strains reveal the potential adaptation of S. liquefaciens to oligotrophic and nitrogen-limited mine tailings with high concentrations of heavy metals. These features include ammonia-oligotrophic growth, nitrogen fixation, siderophore and indoleacetic acid production, phosphate solubilization, biofilm formation, moderate tolerance to heavy metals under conditions of diverse nitrogen availability, and the presence of zntA, amtB, and nifH genes. The acetylene reduction assay suggests low nitrogen-fixing activity. The nifH gene was harbored in a plasmid of ∼60 kb and probably was acquired by a horizontal gene transfer event from Klebsiella variicola.

  4. Pioneering In Situ Recrystallization during Bead Milling: A Top-down Approach to Prepare Zeolite A Nanocrystals (United States)

    Anand, Chokkalingam; Yamaguchi, Yudai; Liu, Zhendong; Ibe, Sayoko; Elangovan, Shanmugam P.; Ishii, Toshihiro; Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi; Endo, Akira; Okubo, Tatsuya; Wakihara, Toru


    Top-down approach has been viewed as an efficient and straightforward method to prepare nanosized zeolites. Yet, the mechanical breaking of zeolite causes amorphization, which usually requires a post-milling recrystallization to obtain fully crystalline nanoparticles. Herein we present a facile methodology to prepare zeolite nanocrystals, where milling and recrystallization can be performed in situ. A milling apparatus specially designed to work under conditions of high alkalinity and temperature enables the in situ recrystallization during milling. Taking zeolite A as an example, we demonstrate its size reduction from ~3 μm to 66 nm in 30 min, which is quite faster than previous methods reported. Three functions, viz., miniaturization, amorphization and recrystallization were found to take effect concurrently during this one-pot process. The dynamic balance between these three functions was achieved by adjusting the milling period and temperature, which lead to the tuning of zeolite A particle size. Particle size and crystallinity of the zeolite A nanocrystals were confirmed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and water adsorption-desorption. This work presents a pioneering advancement in this field of nanosized zeolites, and will facilitate the mass production as well as boost the wide applications of nanosized zeolites.

  5. Autotrophic biofilm development on superficial samples of the gold-silver mine tailings, Valenciana (Mexico): pioneers in tailings remediation? (United States)

    García-Meza, Jessica Viridiana


    We report the results of long term bio-assays on microorganism colonization of mine tailings samples, taken from the Valenciana mine tailings (Guanajuato, Mexico), under stable laboratory conditions (humidity, temperature, light exposure). In order to identify the main metabolic groups of the potentially colonizing microorganisms and the implications of their growth on the main tailing's characteristics related to biological succession, organic matter (OM) content, cationic exchange capacity (CEC), and pH values were measured as the colonization took place. We observe that photosynthetic biofilms (cyanobacteria, green algae, and diatoms) successfully colonize the mine tailings samples as pioneers; moreover, bacteria, yeast and fungi were also identified. Biofilm colonization significantly improved the OM contents, whereas the pH value is not modified during the entire observed colonization process. The results suggest that biofilms are useful during the first steps of the mine tailings remediation. This is the first report of microalgae and cyanobacteria grown of on tailings samples obtained from a semiarid region.

  6. Pioneer microbial communities of the Fimmvörðuháls lava flow, Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland. (United States)

    Kelly, Laura C; Cockell, Charles S; Thorsteinsson, Thorsteinn; Marteinsson, Viggó; Stevenson, John


    Little is understood regarding the phylogeny and metabolic capabilities of the earliest colonists of volcanic rocks, yet these data are essential for understanding how life becomes established in and interacts with the planetary crust, ultimately contributing to critical zone processes and soil formation. Here, we report the use of molecular and culture-dependent methods to determine the composition of pioneer microbial communities colonising the basaltic Fimmvörðuháls lava flow at Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland, formed in 2010. Our data show that 3 to 5 months post eruption, the lava was colonised by a low-diversity microbial community dominated by Betaproteobacteria, primarily taxa related to non-phototrophic diazotrophs such as Herbaspirillum spp. and chemolithotrophs such as Thiobacillus. Although successfully cultured following enrichment, phototrophs were not abundant members of the Fimmvörðuháls communities, as revealed by molecular analysis, and phototrophy is therefore not likely to be a dominant biogeochemical process in these early successional basalt communities. These results contrast with older Icelandic lava of comparable mineralogy, in which phototrophs comprised a significant fraction of microbial communities, and the non-phototrophic community fractions were dominated by Acidobacteria and Actinobacteria.

  7. Vegetation as self-adaptive coastal protection: Reduction of current velocity and morphologic plasticity of a brackish marsh pioneer. (United States)

    Carus, Jana; Paul, Maike; Schröder, Boris


    By reducing current velocity, tidal marsh vegetation can diminish storm surges and storm waves. Conversely, currents often exert high mechanical stresses onto the plants and hence affect vegetation structure and plant characteristics. In our study, we aim at analysing this interaction from both angles. On the one hand, we quantify the reduction of current velocity by Bolboschoenus maritimus, and on the other hand, we identify functional traits of B. maritimus' ramets along environmental gradients. Our results show that tidal marsh vegetation is able to buffer a large proportion of the flow velocity at currents under normal conditions. Cross-shore current velocity decreased with distance from the marsh edge and was reduced by more than 50% after 15 m of vegetation. We were furthermore able to show that plants growing at the marsh edge had a significantly larger diameter than plants from inside the vegetation. We found a positive correlation between plant thickness and cross-shore current which could provide an adaptive value in habitats with high mechanical stress. With the adapted morphology of plants growing at the highly exposed marsh edge, the entire vegetation belt is able to better resist the mechanical stress of high current velocities. This self-adaptive effect thus increases the ability of B. maritimus to grow and persist in the pioneer zone and may hence better contribute to ecosystem-based coastal protection by reducing current velocity.

  8. The role of pioneers as indicators of biogeographic range expansion caused by global change in southern African coastal waters (United States)

    Whitfield, Alan K.; James, Nicola C.; Lamberth, Stephen J.; Adams, Janine B.; Perissinotto, Renzo; Rajkaran, Anusha; Bornman, Thomas G.


    The South African coastline is just over 3000 km in length yet it covers three major biogeographic regions, namely subtropical, warm temperate and cool temperate. In this review we examine published information to assess the possible role of climate change in driving distributional changes of a wide variety of organisms around the subcontinent. In particular we focus on harmful algal blooms, seaweeds, eelgrass, mangroves, salt marsh plants, foraminiferans, stromatolites, corals, squid, zooplankton, zoobenthos, fish, birds, crocodiles and hippopotamus, but also refer to biota such as pathogens, coralline algae, jellyfish and otters. The role of pioneers or propagules as indicators of an incipient range expansion are discussed, with mangroves, zoobenthos, fishes and birds providing the best examples of actual and imminent distributional changes. The contraction of the warm temperate biogeographic region, arising from the intrusion of cool upwelled waters along the Western Cape shores, and increasingly warm Agulhas Current waters penetrating along the eastern parts of the subcontinent, are highlighted. The above features provide an ideal setting for the monitoring of biotic drivers and responses to global climate change over different spatial and temporal scales, and have direct relevance to similar studies being conducted elsewhere in the world. We conclude that, although this review focuses mainly on the impact of global climate change on South African coastal biodiversity, other anthropogenic drivers of change such as introduced alien invasive species may act synergistically with climate change, thereby compounding both short and long-term changes in the distribution and abundance of indigenous species.

  9. Bioequivalence in dogs of a meloxicam formulation administered as a transmucosal oral mist with an orally administered pioneer suspension product. (United States)

    Lees, P; Cheng, Z; Keefe, T J; Weich, E; Bryd, J; Cedergren, R; Cozzi, E


    A mucosal mist formulation of meloxicam, administered as a spray into the mouth (test article), was compared for bioequivalence to a pioneer meloxicam suspension for oral administration (reference article). Pharmacokinetic profiles and average bioequivalence were investigated in 20 dogs. The study design comprised a two-period, two-sequence, two-treatment cross-over design, with maximum concentration (C(max)) and area under plasma concentration-time curve to last sampling time (AUC(last)) used as pivotal bioequivalence variables. Bioequivalence of the products was confirmed, based on relative ratios of geometric mean concentrations (and 90% confidence intervals within the range 0.80-1.25) for C(max) of 101.9 (97.99-106.0) and for AUC(last) of 97.24 (94.44-100.1). The initial absorption of meloxicam was more rapid for the test article, despite virtually identical C(max) values for the two products. Mean elimination half-lives were 29.6 h (test article) and 30.0 h (reference article). The meloxicam plasma concentration-time profiles were considered in relation to published data on the inhibition of the cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and COX-2 isoenzymes by meloxicam.

  10. Mapping biological resources in the coastal zone: an evaluation of methods in a pioneering study from Norway. (United States)

    Knutsen, Jan Atle; Knutsen, Halvor; Rinde, Eli; Christie, Hartvig; Bodvin, Torjan; Dahl, Einar


    For many years, the planning and management of terrestrial areas has been supported by a detailed knowledge of the distribution of habitats and their associated species. However, the detailed mapping of biological resources in extent coastal areas, such as the Norwegian coastal zone, is unrealistic due to its enormous coastline. Here, we present a useful and feasible approach and a set of simple, cost-effective methods which are suitable for providing a broad-scale overview of marine habitats and fish resources. This approach was developed in conjunction with a pioneer study conducted along the southern coast of the Skagerrak, where we combined knowledge gathered from local fishermen with scientific knowledge of important species and nature types to establish a coastal sea mapping program. GIS modeling tools were used in both the mapping program and to integrate local and scientific knowledge into digital maps made available to local area management. This multi-faceted approach, which combines local knowledge and scientific methods, provides valuable information with respect to marine biodiversity, and has been used extensively by local environmental management.

  11. Louis Sébastien Tredern de Lézérec (1780-18?), a forgotten pioneer of chick embryology. (United States)

    Beetschen, J C


    Tredern's thesis on chick embryo development was submitted in Jena (Germany) in 1808 and seems to have been completely overlooked by historians of embryology during the 20th century. However, K.E. von Baer and C. Pander were much interested in that thesis in 1816-1817, when they resumed work on the chick embryo. Tredern, who was born in France in 1780, had then left Germany and abandoned his studies, but von Baer tried to find trace of him throughout his life, wanting to pay homage to his pioneer work. Von Baer published a short biographical notice (1874), which was later extended by Stieda (1901). The accuracy of Tredern's observations and the reasons that could have justified von Baer's interest are discussed. Tredern went back to Paris in 1811 to submit a second medical thesis, the value of which is also considered. It is also shown that, in the teaching of embryology, 18th century preformation concepts were still vivid, remaining in French textbooks of the period 1800-1830. This situation strongly contrasts with the new epigenetic views that were developed by the German scientists with whom Tredern had performed his studies.

  12. Patterns of organic acids exuded by pioneering fungi from a glacier forefield are affected by carbohydrate sources (United States)

    Brunner, Ivano; Goren, Asena; Schlumpf, Alessandro


    Bare soils in the area of retreating glaciers are ideal environments to study the role of microorganisms in the early soil formation and in processes of mineral weathering. The aim of our study was to investigate whether the source of carbohydrate would influence the patterns of organic acids exuded by fungal species. Three pioneering fungus species, isolated from fine granitic sediments in front of the Damma glacier from the central Swiss Alps, have previously been found to have the capability to exude organic acids and dissolve granite powder. In batch experiments, various carbohydrates, including glucose, cellulose, pectin, pollen, and cell remnants of cyanobacteria, fungi, and algae, were applied as carbohydrate sources and the patterns of exuded organic acids recorded. The results showed that two fungi, the zygomycete fungus Mucor hiemalis and the ascomycete fungus Penicillium chrysogenum, released a significantly higher amount of organic acids in dependence on specific carbohydrate sources. Pollen and algae as carbohydrate sources triggered significantly the exudation of malate in M. hiemalis, and pollen and cellulose that of oxalate in P. chrysogenum. We conclude that the occurrence of complex carbohydrate sources in nutrient-deficient deglaciated soils may positively influence the exudation of organic acids of fungi. In particular, pollen and remnants of other microorganisms can trigger the exudation of organic acids of fungi in order to promote the weathering of minerals and to make nutrients available that would otherwise be trapped in that cryospheric environment.

  13. A New Three Dimensional Based Key Generation Technique in AVK (United States)

    Banerjee, Subhasish; Dutta, Manash Pratim; Bhunia, Chandan Tilak


    In modern era, ensuring high order security becomes one and only objective of computer networks. From the last few decades, many researchers have given their contributions to achieve the secrecy over the communication channel. In achieving perfect security, Shannon had done the pioneer work on perfect secret theorem and illustrated that secrecy of the shared information can be maintained if the key becomes variable in nature instead of static one. In this regard, a key generation technique has been proposed where the key can be changed every time whenever a new block of data needs to be exchanged. In our scheme, the keys not only vary in bit sequences but also in size. The experimental study is also included in this article to prove the correctness and effectiveness of our proposed technique.

  14. Spatial gradients in the heliospheric magnetic field - Pioneer 11 observations between 1 AU and 24 AU, and over solar cycle 21 (United States)

    Winterhalter, Daniel; Smith, Edward J.; Slavin, James A.; Wolfe, John H.


    The large-scale temporal behavior and spatial gradients in the heliospheric magnetic field were investigated using magnetic field observations by Pioneer 11 and ISEE 3/ICE satellites, including observations out to a radial distance of 24 AU and over a time interval that includes the recent solar minimum. It was found that, to first order, the gradients in the magnetic field magnitude and in the azimutal component agree well with the Parker (1958) model. The analysis of the Pioneer data confirms previous reports of a magnetic field flux deficit of about 1 percent/AU, so that at 20 AU the relative deficit is of the order of 20 percent. It is argued that most of the magnetic field deficit is in the radial gradient.

  15. Comparisons of ground-based monitor data with Pioneers 8, 9, 10 and 11 observations in 1968-1974. [Forbush decreases (United States)

    Lockwood, J. A.; Webber, W. R.


    The paper examines ground-based neutron monitor data and the counting rates in different energy channels on the Pioneer 8, 9, 10 and 11 spacecraft to determine the scale size of the transient cosmic-ray variations (Forbush decreases) and the relationship of these variations to changes in the interplanetary magnetic field. Since the Pioneer spacecraft sampled the inner modulating region extensively, the spatial extent of Forbush decreases (Fd's) can be determined. In some cases the Fd modulating region was co-rotating and in others radially expanding. The azimuthal extent of the Fd region was variable but was typically about 45 deg in extent. These observations will be interpreted in terms of models proposed for Fds.

  16. Climate-induced vegetation dynamics and the Bantu Expansion: Evidence from Bantu names for pioneer trees (Elaeis guineensis, Canarium schweinfurthii, and Musanga cecropioides) (United States)

    Bostoen, Koen; Grollemund, Rebecca; Koni Muluwa, Joseph


    The present article examines whether Late Holocene climate-induced vegetation changes in the Central African forest block may have facilitated the Bantu Expansion. This is done through a body of evidence that is not commonly used for the reconstruction of vegetation dynamics, i.e. language data. The article focuses on common Bantu vocabulary for three pioneer species abundantly present in the Central African pollen record between ca. 2500 and 2000 BP: Musanga cecropioides, Elaeis guineensis, and Canarium schweinfurthii. The geographical distribution patterns of the vernacular names for these pioneer trees add weight to the hypothesis according to which the rainforest contraction that emerged in the first millennium BC had an impact on the way Bantu languages dispersed.

  17. “We were the first to support a major is innovation”. Research into the motivations of spanish pioneers in XBRL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Escobar-Rodríguez


    Full Text Available We conduct a field study to analyse the reasons why pioneers supported the introduction of the Extensible Business Reporting Language (XBRL from its earliest days in Spain. The Spanish pioneers were able to visualize the possibilities of the XBRL as an effective tool for facilitating the transmission of accounting and related information. At that point in time, innovators had available a limited amount of technical information on XBRL, because it was in the process of development. Hence, their engagement in the introduction of XBRL was based more on intuition than on in-depth knowledge of the technological advantages to be gained from its application. Further, their support for the innovation was active and not passive.

  18. Heavy metals in emergent trees and pioneers from tropical forest with special reference to forest fires and local pollution sources in Sarawak, Malaysia. (United States)

    Breulman, G; Markert, B; Weckert, V; Herpin, U; Yoneda, R; Ogino, K


    Leaf samples of tropical trees, i.e. Dryobalanops lanceolata (Kapur paji), Dipterocarpaceae and Macaranga spp. (Mahang), Euphorbiaceae were analyzed for 21 chemical elements. The pioneer Macaranga spp. exhibited higher concentrations for the majority of elements compared to the emergent species of Dryobalanops lanceolata, which was attributed to the higher physiological activity of the fast growing pioneer species compared to emergent trees. Lead showed rather high concentrations in several samples from the Bakam re-forestation site. This is suggested to be caused by emissions through brick manufacturing and related activities in the vicinity. A comparison of Dryobalanops lanceolata samples collected in 1993, 1995 and 1997 in the Lambir Hills National Park revealed that certain heavy metals, i.e. Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Ti showed higher values in 1997 compared to the previous years, which could indicate an atmospheric input from the haze caused by the extensive forest fires raging in Borneo and other parts of Southeast Asia.

  19. Characteristics of the Distribution and Control Factors of Polymetallic Nodules in the West Region of CCFZ (China Pioneer Area)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The tectonic setting of the west region of the Reserved Area of the International Seabed Authority is the same as that of China Pioneer Area. They have similar characteristics of topography and nodule distribution. To research and analyse the characteristics and control factors of nodule distribution can help the establishment of a geological model and the assessment of the polymetallic nodule resource. From the year of 1991 till 2000 COMRA (China Ocean Mineral Resource Research and Development Association) carried out phase 1 and 2 of the exploration and resource assessment project of polymetallic nodules in China Pioneer Area. The features of topography and geology, and the distribution of polymetallic nodules and control factors have been clearly understood. The results show that the formation and types and spatial features of abundance and grade of nodules resulted from several factors, the tectonic features (volcanism and faulting)and seafloor topography play an important role in the geological process of the formation of polymetallic nodules.

  20. Tanggap Pertumbuhan dan Produksi Jagung (Zea mays L.) Varietas Pioneer-23 Terhadap Berbagai Komposisi Vermikompos dengan Pupuk Anorganik (N,P,K)


    Nasution, Efrida Sari


    EFRIDA SARI NASUTION: The Response of Growth and Yield of Maize (Zea mays L.) Pioneer 23 Variety on Some Compotition of Vermicompost and Anorganic Fertilizer (N,P,K), supervised by MARIATI SINURAYA and ASIL BARUS. The research has been conducted to investigate the response of growth and yield of maize on some compotition of organic (vermicompost) and anorganic (N,P,K) fertilizer at Bunga Terompet street, Sempakata village chief, Medan Selayang subdistrict head, with a height...

  1. The first announcement about the 1918 "Spanish flu" pandemic in Greece through the writings of the pioneer newspaper "Thessalia" almost a century ago. (United States)

    Tsoucalas, Gregory; Karachaliou, Fotini; Kalogirou, Vasiliki; Gatos, Giorgos; Mavrogiannaki, Eirini; Antoniou, Antonios; Gatos, Konstantinos


    A local pioneer newspaper, "Thessalia", was the first to announce the arrival of "Spanish Flu" in Greece. It was July 19th 1918 when an epidemic outbreak occurred in the city of Patras. Until then, "Thessalia" had dealt in depth with the flu pandemic in the Greek district of Thessaly, informing the readers of the measures taken, as well as the social and economic aspects of the flu.

  2. Pollen flow in fragmented landscapes maintains genetic diversity following stand-replacing disturbance in a neotropical pioneer tree, Vochysia ferruginea Mart. (United States)

    Davies, S J; Cavers, S; Finegan, B; White, A; Breed, M F; Lowe, A J


    In forests with gap disturbance regimes, pioneer tree regeneration is typically abundant following stand-replacing disturbances, whether natural or anthropogenic. Differences in pioneer tree density linked to disturbance regime can influence pollinator behaviour and impact on mating patterns and genetic diversity of pioneer populations. Such mating pattern shifts can manifest as higher selfing rates and lower pollen diversity in old growth forest populations. In secondary forest, where more closely related pollen donors occur, an increase in biparental inbreeding is a potential problem. Here, we investigate the consequences of secondary forest colonisation on the mating patterns and genetic diversity of open-pollinated progeny arrays for the long-lived, self-compatible pioneer tree, Vochysia ferruginea, at two Costa Rican sites. Five microsatellite loci were screened across adult and seed cohorts from old growth forest with lower density, secondary forest with higher density, and isolated individual trees in pasture. Progeny from both old growth and secondary forest contexts were predominantly outcrossed (tm=1.00) and experienced low levels of biparental inbreeding (tm-ts=0.00-0.04). In contrast to predictions, our results indicated that the mating patterns of V. ferruginea are relatively robust to density differences between old growth and secondary forest stands. In addition, we observed that pollen-mediated gene flow possibly maintained the genetic diversity of open-pollinated progeny arrays in stands of secondary forest adults. As part of a natural resource management strategy, we suggest that primary forest remnants should be prioritised for conservation to promote restoration of genetic diversity during forest regeneration.

  3. A note on the ring current in Saturn’s magnetosphere: Comparison of magnetic data obtained during the Pioneer-11 and Voyager-1 and -2 fly-bys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Bunce

    Full Text Available We examine the residual (measured minus internal magnetic field vectors observed in Saturn’s magnetosphere during the Pioneer-11 fly-by in 1979, and compare them with those observed during the Voyager-1 and -2 fly-bys in 1980 and 1981. We show for the first time that a ring current system was present within the magnetosphere during the Pioneer-11 encounter, which was qualitatively similar to those present during the Voyager fly-bys. The analysis also shows, however, that the ring current was located closer to the planet during the Pioneer-11 encounter than during the comparable Voyager-1 fly-by, reflecting the more com-pressed nature of the magnetosphere at the time. The residual field vectors have been fit using an adaptation of the current system proposed for Jupiter by Connerney et al. (1981a. A model that provides a reasonably good fit to the Pioneer-11 Saturn data extends radially between 6.5 and 12.5 RS (compared with a noon-sector magnetopause distance of 17 RS, has a north-south extent of 4 RS, and carries a total current of 9.6 MA. A corresponding model that provides a qualitatively similar fit to the Voyager data, determined previously by Connerney et al. (1983, extends radially between 8 and 15.5 RS (compared with a noon-sector magnetopause distance for Voyager-1 of 23–24 RS, has a north-south extent of 6 RS, and carries a total current of 11.5 MA.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (current systems, magnetospheric configuration and dynamics, planetary magnetospheres

  4. Investigation of hemorrhagic fever viruses inside wild populations of ticks: One of the pioneer studies in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rania Ali El Hadi Mohamed


    Full Text Available Objective: To screen hemorrhagic fever viruses inside wild populations of ticks collected from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between January and March 2016. Methods: Ticks were identified depending on their morphological features using classical keys then grouped into pools. Ticks in each pool were processed separately using the sterile pestles and mortars. Viral RNA was extracted using Qiagen RNeasy Mini Kit and Qiagen RNAeasy Columns (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany according to the instructions of manufacturers. A total number of 1 282 hard ticks were collected, and 582 of them were precisely identified then screened for the presence of arboviruses using quantitative real-time PCR. The four species were screened for six viruses: Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV, Chikungunya virus (CHIKV, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV, Alkhurma virus (INKV, Sindbis virus (SINV, and Pan Hanta virus (HANTA. CT value for the negative control (RNA free water was zero. Negative and positive controls were tested for each test to confirm the specificity of the selected primer pairs. SYBR Green One step RT-PCR Master Mix (KAPA Biosystems, Boston, MA was tested along with primers. Results: Ticks identification resulted into four species: Hyalomma schulzei, Hyalomma onatoli, Boophilus kdhlsi, and Hyalomm dromedarii. All the ticks’ species (except Boophilus kdhlsi were positive for the following viruses: SINV, RVFV, CHIKV, and CCHFV. While HANTA viruses have been detected in a single species (Hyalomm dromedarii. Conclusions: According to our knowledge this research may be one of the pioneer studies in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Incrimination of the above mentioned ticks species as well as their vectorial capacity are highly recommended for investigation in the upcoming researches.

  5. A pioneer work on electric brain stimulation in psychotic patients. Rudolph Gottfried Arndt and his 1870s studies. (United States)

    Steinberg, Holger


    Today's brain stimulation methods are commonly traced back historically to surgical brain operations. With this one-sided historical approach it is easy to overlook the fact that non-surgical electrical brain-stimulating applications preceded present-day therapies. The first study on transcranial electrical brain stimulation for the treatment of severe mental diseases in a larger group of patients was carried out in the 1870s. Between 1870 and 1878 German psychiatrist Rudolph Gottfried Arndt published the results of his studies in three reports. These are contextualized with contemporary developments of the time, focusing in particular on the (neuro-) sciences. As was common practice at the time, Arndt basically reported individual cases in which electricity was applied to treat severe psychoses with depressive symptoms or even catatonia, hypochondriac delusion and melancholia. Despite their lengthiness, there is frequently a lack of precise physical data on the application of psychological-psychopathological details. Only his 1878 report includes general rules for electrical brain stimulation. Despite their methodological shortcomings and lack of precise treatment data impeding exact understanding, Arndt's studies are pioneering works in the field of electric brain stimulation with psychoses and its positive impacts. Today's transcranial direct current stimulation, and partly vagus nerve stimulation, can be compared with Arndt's methods. Although Arndt's only tangible results were indications for the application of faradic electricity (for inactivity, stupor, weakness and manic depressions) and galvanic current (for affective disorders and psychoses), a historiography of present-day brain stimulation therapies should no longer neglect studies on electrotherapy published in German and international psychiatric and neurological journals and monographs in the 1870s and 1880s. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Flying foxes create extensive seed shadows and enhance germination success of pioneer plant species in deforested Madagascan landscapes. (United States)

    Oleksy, Ryszard; Giuggioli, Luca; McKetterick, Thomas J; Racey, Paul A; Jones, Gareth


    Seed dispersal plays a significant role in forest regeneration and maintenance. Flying foxes are often posited as effective long-distance seed dispersers due to their large home ranges and ability to disperse seeds when flying. We evaluate the importance of the Madagascan flying fox Pteropus rufus in the maintenance and regeneration of forests in one of the world's priority conservation areas. We tested germination success of over 20,000 seeds from the figs Ficus polita, F. grevei and F. lutea extracted from bat faeces and ripe fruits under progressively more natural conditions, ranging from petri-dishes to outdoor environments. Seeds from all fig species showed increased germination success after passing through the bats' digestive tracts. Outside, germination success in F. polita was highest in faecal seeds grown under semi-shaded conditions, and seeds that passed through bats showed increased seedling establishment success. We used data from feeding trials and GPS tracking to construct seed shadow maps to visualize seed dispersal patterns. The models use Gaussian probability density functions to predict the likelihood of defecation events occurring after feeding. In captivity, bats had short gut retention times (often seeds for over 24h. In the wild, bats travelled 3-5 km within 24-280 min after feeding, when defecation of ingested seeds is very likely. They produced extensive seed shadows (11 bats potentially dispersing seeds over 58,000 ha over 45 total days of tracking) when feeding on figs within their large foraging areas and dispersed the seeds in habitats that were often partially shaded and hence would facilitate germination up to 20 km from the feeding tree. Because figs are important pioneer species, P. rufus is an important dispersal vector that makes a vital contribution to the regeneration and maintenance of highly fragmented forest patches in Madagascar.

  7. Hauts-de-France. A pioneer in the French energy transition; Hauts-de-France. Vorreiter in der franzoesischen Energiewende

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falk, Thomas


    France had established in advance of last year's climate summit in Paris on ambitious energy policy goals. Especially the 2016 newly formed Region Hauts-de-France stands out as a pioneer here. There one drives innovation and investments with the objective of fulfilling by 2050 their own needs completely by renewable sources. The orientation to supplies Jeremy Rifkin idea of the third industrial revolution. If successful, the region would be on climate protection well ahead of the national targets, the 2050 ''only'' provide a CO{sub 2} emission reduction of 75%. In addition to the Research and development (R and D) to many future ideas in Hauts-de-France but also some major projects for Security of European energy supplies are realized that show the local agility. [German] Frankreich hatte sich im Vorfeld des letztjaehrigen Pariser-Klimagipfels auf ambitionierte Energiewendeziele festgelegt. Insbesondere die 2016 neu gebildete Region Hauts-de-France sticht dabei als Vorreiter heraus. Dort treibt man Innovationen und Investitionen mit dem Ziel an, bis 2050 den Eigenbedarf vollstaendig mittels erneuerbarer Quellen zu decken. Die Orientierung dazu liefert Jeremy Rifkins Idee der dritten industriellen Revolution. Im Erfolgsfall laege die Region beim Klimaschutz deutlich vor den nationalen Zielen, die bis 2050 ''nur'' eine CO{sub 2}-Emissionsreduktion von 75 % vorsehen. Neben der Forschung und Entwicklung (F and E) zu vielen Zukunftsideen werden in Hauts-de-France aber auch einige Grossprojekte zur Absicherung der europaeischen Energieversorgung realisiert, die Ausweis der dortigen Agilitaet sind.

  8. Pioneers of Science (United States)

    Lodge, Oliver


    Preface; Part I: 1. Copernicus and the motion of the earth; 2. Tycho Brahe and the earliest observatory; 3. Kepler and the laws of planetary motion; 4. Galileo and the invention of the telescope; 5. Galileo and the inquisition; 6. Descartes and his theory of vortices; 7. Sir Isaac Newton; 8. Newton and the law of gravitation; 9. Newton's 'Principia'; Part II: 10. Roemer and Bradley and the velocity of light; 11. Lagrange and Laplace; 12. Herschel and the motion of the fixed stars; 13. The discovery of the asteroids; 14. Bessel - the distances of the stars, and the discovery of the stellar planets; 15. The discovery of Neptune; 16. Comets and meteors; 17. The tides; 18. The tides, and planetary evolution; Index.

  9. A research pioneer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie


    When Malene Hauxner defended her doctoral thesis in 1993, she set a new and inspiring altitude for not only Danish but also international landscape architecture research. The thesis and book was entitled Fantasiens Have (The Garden of Imagination) and focused on the modern breakthrough within...... landscape architecture in the first half of the 20th Century, during 1920-1950. The approach was empirical, internationally oriented and very attentive to theory and method. A decade later the second book arrived, Open to the sky focusing on the post-war period 1950-70. And finally the last volume...

  10. Thiele. Pioneer in statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Steffen Lilholt

    This book studies the brilliant Danish 19th Century astronomer, T.N. Thiele who made important contributions to statistics, actuarial science, astronomy and mathematics. The most important of these contributions in statistics are translated into English for the first time, and the text includes...

  11. Pioneering Heat Pump Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschliman, Dave [Indiana Inst. of Technology, Inc., Fort Wayne, IN (United States); Lubbehusen, Mike [Indiana Inst. of Technology, Inc., Fort Wayne, IN (United States)


    This project was initiated at a time when ground coupled heat pump systems in this region were limited in size and quantity. There were economic pressures with costs for natural gas and electric utilities that had many organizations considering ground coupled heat pumps; The research has added to the understanding of how ground temperatures fluctuate seasonally and how this affects the performance and operation of the heat pumps. This was done by using a series of temperature sensors buried within the middle of one of the vertical bore fields with sensors located at various depths below grade. Trending of the data showed that there is a lag in ground temperature with respect to air temperatures in the shoulder months, however as full cooling and heating season arrives, the heat rejection and heat extraction from the ground has a significant effect on the ground temps; Additionally it is better understood that while a large community geothermal bore field serving multiple buildings does provide a convenient central plant to use, it introduces complexity of not being able to easily model and predict how each building will contribute to the loads in real time. Additional controllers and programming were added to provide more insight into this real time load profile and allow for intelligent shedding of load via a dry cooler during cool nights in lieu of rejecting to the ground loop. This serves as a means to ‘condition’ the ground loop and mitigate thermal creep of the field, as is typically observed; and It has been observed when compared to traditional heating and cooling equipment, there is still a cost premium to use ground source heat pumps that is driven mostly by the cost for vertical bore holes. Horizontal loop systems are less costly to install, but do not perform as well in this climate zone for heating mode

  12. Pioneers across the ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    France's overseas departments comprise the islands La Reunion, Guadeloupe, Martinique and French Guiana. With the support of the EU, France had launched its first pilot projects in the 1990s that proved to be path-breaking for the development of photovoltaics. A boom followed. Experts now believe that the market could begin to slow down as the high share of fluctuating solar electricity is overloading the grids. (orig.)

  13. Thiele. Pioneer in statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Steffen Lilholt

    This book studies the brilliant Danish 19th Century astronomer, T.N. Thiele who made important contributions to statistics, actuarial science, astronomy and mathematics. The most important of these contributions in statistics are translated into English for the first time, and the text includes...

  14. Pioneers in Cooperation (selection)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Project-oriented cooperation within the framework of the CAS-MPSagreement began in the early 1980s. Its methods differed according to scientific needs and included workshops and seminars, field research, overland expeditions, exchanges of materials and samples, and the training of young scientists and engineers. The German Research Foundation and the National Natural Science Foundation of China provided special funding for many of these projects.

  15. The Pioneer Venus Missions. (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Mountain View, CA. Ames Research Center.

    This document provides detailed information on the atmosphere and weather of Venus. This pamphlet describes the technological hardware including the probes that enter the Venusian atmosphere, the orbiter and the launch vehicle. Information is provided in lay terms on the mission profile, including details of events from launch to mission end. The…

  16. Pioneers in Getting Rich

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The reform and opening program, which has been going on in China ever since late 1978, paved the way for the poor in Tibet to escape from their poverty. The implementation of the western region development strategy now ushers in a new stage of development in Tibet. Cashing in on this opportunity, many in Xigaze have amassed enormous wealth.

  17. From pioneers to scientists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsson, Jessica; Sonne, Charlotte; Silove, Derrick


    Outcome studies on treatment of trauma-affected refugees have been published but are limited in design and quality. In this article, we discuss possible impediments to pursuing research aimed at gathering evidence to support the efficacy of treatments in the field and the challenges in carrying out...

  18. La varias veces pionera Capilla Bakócz = The several times pioneer chapel Bakócz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Corrales Pérez


    Full Text Available Resumen Levantada a principios del siglo XVI en Esztergom, la capilla  funeraria del cardenal Tamás Bakócz se aleja del gótico  dominante para constituir el ejemplo más precoz y depurado de arquitectura renacentista al norte de los Alpes. Prematuramente próxima a sus contemporáneos italianos, se vio influenciada por la procedencia artística de sus maestros constructores, y por la poderosa figura de su mecenas y su estrecha relación con el papa Julio II, embarcado en la concepción de la nueva basílica  vaticana. Relevante es también su historia tras la muerte de su patrón. Tras sobrevivir ilesa a casi 150 años de dominación  otomana, fue objeto a comienzos del siglo XIX de una  impresionante y pionera operación de despiece y traslado que aún hoy sigue sorprendiendo por su contemporánea concepción sobre el valor de lo monumental. Abstract Built in the first decade of the 16th century in the Hungarian city of Esztergom, the burial chapel of Cardinal Tamás Bakócz  abandoned the dominant Gothic style to constitute the earliest and most perfect example of Renaissance architecture north of the Alps. Surprisingly close to Italian examples from the same period, this Hungarian building was strongly conditioned by the artistic background of its building masters. However, its main influence came from the leading figure of the Cardinal and his close relationship with the Pope Julius II, who was working at that time in the project for the new Vatican basilica. It is also highly relevant the evolution of the chapel after Bakócz's death. It survived to 150 years of Turkish occupation before being cut into pieces and transferred to a new place. This pioneer process took place in the early beginning of XIX century and is still surprising for the modern concept about restoration that it involves.

  19. Financing pioneering railways in São Paulo: the idiossyncratic case of the estrada de Ferro Sorocabana (1872- 1919

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dante Mendes Aldrighi


    Full Text Available The history of the Estrada de Ferro Sorocabana is highly idiosyncratic. Owned and run successively by Brazilian businessmen, the federal government, and the government of the State of São Paulo, it would be rented out to a foreign company over the period 1907-1919. When it began operating, coffee did not represent a significant share of its overall freight receipt, and even later it would not achieve the relevance it did in Mogiana and Paulista, considered the typical "coffee railways." Unlike these two profitable companies, Sorocabana remained in dire financial straits almost throughout the period 1872-1919. This paper focuses on what lay behind its financial distress. The literature on pioneering railway companies in Brazil emphasises that profitability hinged on the type of ownership as well as on whether coffee was the main source of freight receipt. Besides this, the following hypotheses are evaluated: oversanguine expectations about future cash flows; poor management; shortage of governance engendered by its financing structure; bad luck; and bad governmental policy.A história da Estrada de Ferro Sorocabana é peculiar pelo fato de que empresários privados brasileiros, o governo federal e o governo do Estado de São Paulo foram sucessivamente seus proprietários e controladores, sendo arrendada entre 1907 e 1919 a um grupo estrangeiro. O transporte de café não representou, no início, uma parcela expressiva de suas receitas de frete, e mesmo depois não atingiria a importância que teve na Mogiana e Paulista, conside-radas as típicas "ferrovias de café." Diferentemente dessas empresas, que eram lucrativas, a Sorocabana manteve-se em situação financeira bastante difícil ao longo de quase todo o período entre 1872 e 1919. Este artigo explora as razões desta permanente precariedade financeira. A literatura sobre as ferrovias pioneiras no Brasil enfatiza que a lucratividade dependia crucialmente do tipo de proprietário e tamb

  20. Spectro-Fluor™ Technology for Reliable Detection of Proteins and Biomarkers of Disease: A Pioneered Research Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Menaa


    Full Text Available Quantitative and qualitative characterization of fluorinated molecules represents an important task. Fluorine-based medicinal chemistry is a fast-growing research area due to the positive impact of fluorine in drug discovery, and clinical and molecular imaging (e.g., magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography. Common detection methods include fluorinated-based labelling using radioactive isotopes or fluorescent dyes. Nevertheless, these molecular imaging methods can be harmful for health due to the potential instability of fluorochromes and cytoxicity of radioisotopes. Therefore, these methods often require expensive precautionary measures. In this context, we have developed, validated and patented carbon-fluorine spectroscopy (CFS™, recently renamed Spectro-Fluor™ technology, which among a non-competitive family of in-house made devices called PLIRFA™ (Pulsed Laser Isochronic Raman and Fluorescence Apparatus™, allows reliable detection of Carbon-Fluorine (C-F bonds. C-F bonds are known to be stable and safe labels once incorporated to any type of molecules, cells, compounds or (nano- materials. In this pioneered research study, we used Spectro-Fluor™ to assess biomarkers. As a proof-of-principle experiment, we have established a three-step protocol intended to rapid protein detection, which simply consisted of: (i incorporating a sufficient concentration of an aromatic amino-acid (fluorinated versus non-fluorinated into cultured cells; (ii simultaneously isolating the fluorinated protein of interest and the non-fluorinated form of the protein (control by immune-precipitation; (iii comparatively analyzing the respective spectrum obtained for the two protein forms by Spectro-Fluor™. Thereby, we were able to differentiate, from colon cancer cells HCT-116, the fluorinated and non-fluorinated forms of p21, a key transcriptional factor and downstream target of p53, the so-called “guardian of the genome”. Taken together

  1. Wide Ranging Insect Infestation of the Pioneer Mangrove Sonneratia alba by Two Insect Species along the Kenyan Coast (United States)

    Jenoh, Elisha Mrabu; Robert, Elisabeth M. R.; Lehmann, Ingo; Kioko, Esther; Bosire, Jared O.; Ngisiange, Noah; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid; Koedam, Nico


    Insect infestation of mangroves currently threatens mangrove forest health and management. In the Western Indian Ocean region, little is known about insect damage to mangroves despite the fact that numerous infestations have occurred. In Kenya, infestations of Sonneratia alba have persisted for almost two decades, yet the taxonomic identity of the infesting pest(s), the extent of infestation, the pests’ biology, the impacts of infestation on host and the ecosystem, the host’s defensive strategies to the infestation are poorly understood. S. alba is a ubiquitous, pioneer mangrove species of the Indo-Pacific, occurring along the waterfront in a variety of mangrove ecosystem settings. Our main objectives were to identify the pest(s) responsible for the current dieback of S. alba in Kenya, and to determine the extent of infestation. To identify the pests responsible for infestation, we trapped emergent insects and reared larvae in the laboratory. To determine the overall extent of infestation within the S. alba zone, we assessed nine sites along the entire Kenyan coastline for the presence or absence of infested mangroves. Insect infestation in two mangrove embayments (Gazi and Mida) was quantified in depth. Two wood-boring insects were identified: a metarbelid moth (Lepidoptera, Cossoidea) of undescribed genus and the beetle Bottegia rubra (Cerambycidae, Lamiinae).The metarbelid moth infests mangroves in both northern (from Ngomeni to Kiunga) and southern regions (from Vanga to Mtwapa) of the Kenyan coast. B. rubra appeared in low density in Gazi, and in high density in Mida, Kilifi, and Ngomeni, with densities gradually decreasing northward. Insect infestation levels reached 18% in Gazi and 25% of S. alba stands in Mida. Our results indicate that B. rubra has the ability to infest young mangrove trees and expand its range, posing a danger to rehabilitation efforts where plantations have been established. Thus, there is great need for forest managers to address

  2. A mediunidade vista por alguns pioneiros da área mental Mediumship seen by some pioneers of mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Moreira de Almeida


    Full Text Available As vivências tidas como mediúnicas são descritas na maioria das civilizações e têm um grande impacto sobre a sociedade. Apesar de ser um tema pouco estudado atualmente, já foi objeto de intensas investigações por alguns dos fundadores da moderna psicologia e psiquiatria. Foi revisado o material produzido por Janet, James, Myers, Freud e Jung a respeito da mediunidade, com ênfase em dois aspectos: suas causas e relações com psicopatologia. Esses pesquisadores chegaram a três conclusões distintas. Janet e Freud associaram mediunidade com psicopatologia e a uma origem exclusiva no inconsciente pessoal. Jung e James aceitavam a possibilidade de um caráter não-patológico e uma origem no inconsciente pessoal, mas sem excluírem em definitivo a real atuação de um espírito desencarnado. Por fim, Myers associou a mediunidade a um desenvolvimento superior da personalidade e tendo como causa um misto entre o inconsciente, a telepatia e ação de espíritos desencarnados. Como conclusão, é apontada a necessidade de se conhecer os estudos já realizados para dar continuidade nessas investigações em busca de um paradigma realmente científico sobre a mediunidade.Experiences regarded as mediumistic have been found in most civilizations and have exerted an important influence over the societies. Despite few academic studies nowadays, mediumship was a subject of serious investigations by some Psychiatry and Psychology pioneers. Research developed by Janet, James, Myers, Freud and Jung concerning mediumship was revised, two points were stressed: its causes and its relations with psychopathology. These researchers had come to three distinct conclusions. Janet and Freud associated mediumship with psychopathology and an exclusive origin in the personal unconscious; Jung and James accepted the possibility of a non-pathological aspect of mediumship and an origin in the personal unconscious, but without definitively excluding the actuation of a

  3. Methanol and isoprene emissions from the fast growing tropical pioneer species Vismia guianensis (Aubl.) Pers. (Hypericaceae) in the central Amazon forest (United States)

    Jardine, Kolby J.; Jardine, Angela B.; Souza, Vinicius F.; Carneiro, Vilany; Ceron, Joao V.; Gimenez, Bruno O.; Soares, Cilene P.; Durgante, Flavia M.; Higuchi, Niro; Manzi, Antonio O.; Gonçalves, José F. C.; Garcia, Sabrina; Martin, Scot T.; Zorzanelli, Raquel F.; Piva, Luani R.; Chambers, Jeff Q.


    Isoprene (Is) emissions by plants represent a loss of carbon and energy resources leading to the initial hypothesis that fast growing pioneer species in secondary tropical forests allocate carbon primarily to growth at the expense of isoprenoid defenses. In this study, we quantified leaf isoprene and methanol emissions from the abundant pantropical pioneer tree species Vismia guianensis and ambient isoprene concentrations above a diverse secondary forest in the central Amazon. As photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was varied (0 to 3000 µmol m-2 s-1) under standard leaf temperature (30 °C), isoprene emissions from V. guianensis increased without saturation up to 80 nmol m-2 s-1. A nonlinear increase in isoprene emissions with respect to net photosynthesis (Pn) resulted in the fraction of Pn dedicated to isoprene emissions increasing with light intensity (up to 2 % of Pn). Emission responses to temperature under standard light conditions (PAR of 1000 µmol m-2 s-1) resulted in the classic uncoupling of isoprene emissions (Topt, iso > 40 °C) from net photosynthesis (Topt, Pn = 30.0-32.5 °C) with up to 7 % of Pn emitted as isoprene at 40 °C. Under standard environmental conditions of PAR and leaf temperature, young V. guianensis leaves showed high methanol emissions, low Pn, and low isoprene emissions. In contrast, mature leaves showed high Pn, high isoprene emissions, and low methanol emissions, highlighting the differential control of leaf phenology over methanol and isoprene emissions. High daytime ambient isoprene concentrations (11 ppbv) were observed above a secondary Amazon rainforest, suggesting that isoprene emissions are common among neotropical pioneer species. The results are not consistent with the initial hypothesis and support a functional role of methanol during leaf expansion and the establishment of photosynthetic machinery and a protective role of isoprene for photosynthesis during high temperature extremes regularly experienced in

  4. Pioneer Investment Highlights in global new pattern%先锋投资视点:全球投资新格局

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Global financial development trend, the risks and opportunities of international investment market have been in the spotlights after the financial crisis. Our reporter interviewed Mr. Sandro Pierri, CEO of Pioneer Investments recently. As one of the three mutual funds with the longest history in USA, Pioneer Investments has become a global investment manager dedicated to growing and preserving client assets and building trust, in partnership with financial professionals and institutions worldwide since it built in 1928. Analysis on future global economic situation, risks and opportunities of financial market and market operation strategies supported by Pioneer Investments will help investors to choose reasonable investment strategy, avoid market risk and improve profit.%  金融危机发生以来,世界经济、金融形势的发展趋势以及全球投资市场所蕴含的风险与机遇是业界关注的焦点。前不久,国际融资杂志记者出席了先锋投资集团(Pioneer Investments)在京举办的记者会,首席执行官(CEO)桑德罗·皮尔瑞(Sandro Pierri)等高管在此次会议上回答了记者的提问。该公司是美国历史最为悠久的三家共同基金之一,自1928年建立以来,在传统投资领域已有超过80年的运营历史,其投资业务的运营范围已涵盖全球26个国家。本文分析先锋投资对未来全球经济形势、金融市场的风险与机遇、市场运营策略的分析,对于投资者在世界经济低迷阶段选择合理的投资策略、规避市场风险、发掘投资收益无疑将具有重要的启发意义

  5. Real-time stability in power systems techniques for early detection of the risk of blackout

    CERN Document Server

    Savulescu, Savu


    This pioneering volume has been updated and enriched to reflect the state-of-the-art in blackout prediction and prevention. It documents and explains background and algorithmic aspects of the most successful steady-state, transient and voltage stability solutions available today in real-time. It also describes new, cutting-edge stability applications of synchrophasor technology, and captures industry acceptance of metrics and visualization tools that quantify and monitor the distance to instability. Expert contributors review a broad spectrum of additionally available techniques, such as traje

  6. The Symbol of Isolated Mood of New Cultural Pioneer---A Discussion on the Application of Symbolic Expression and Its Significance in The Diary of a Madman%新文化先驱者孤绝心境的象征--论《狂人日记》中象征主义表现法的运用及其意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张直心; 王平


    现代中国小说的开山之作《狂人日记》,与其说是“第一篇现实主义小说”,不如说是象征主义小说的发端。它主要借重象征主义表现法,使“狂人”的感觉能力得以升华,乃至发出“从来如此,便对么”的惊世之问,表征了新文化先驱不无孤绝地反传统的心境。而就小说的创作方法、属性问题的去讹存真,恰可揭示鲁迅审美视野的开阔,以及勉力集合诸种创作方法张力的用心。%As the pioneering work of modern Chinese fiction, The Diary of a Madman is, more or less, regarded to be the origin of symbolic fiction rather than the first realistic one. It is likely to get the feeling of the madman sublimated by means of symbol-ic expression, and thus comes out the world-shocking question “That’s the way it has always been. Does that make it right?”, which shows the isolated mood and anti-tradition attitude of the new cultural pioneer. It is suggested in this paper that a close study on writing techniques and properties of Lu Xun’s works by eliminating the false and retaining the true will inevitably reveal the writer’s wide aesthetic vision and his effort to combine the tension of all kinds of writing techniques.

  7. A heuristic solution for the Pioneer anomaly employing an ELA metric with dark matter in the outskirts of the Solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, P Castelo


    Considering an expanding locally anisotropic (ELA) metric with the Sun as central mass and the heuristic ansatz for the dimensionless functional exponent parameter 'alpha=3+alpha_2(r_1)(1-U_Sun)^2' with a linear ansatz 'alpha_2(r_1)=alpha_2^(2.0)+alpha_2^(2.1) r_1' above 20 AU the pioneer anomaly is fully accounted for as due to the blue-shift of the background space-time. For compatibility with orbital motion within the Solar system it is further considered a branch ansatz for which \\alpha_2(r_1)=0 below 19 AU. This construction reduces the physical acceleration correction above 20 AU down to ~10^(-14) m/s^2 outwards from the Sun such that orbital corrections to Uranus, Neptune and Pluto are less notorious than when the full Pioneer acceleration is considered to be a gravitational acceleration. It is also discussed the effective mass-energy density distribution above 20 AU due to the background corrections and the respective finite non-null total mass is computed by considering an upper cut-off for the funct...

  8. Pediatric transport medicine and the dawn of the pediatric anesthesiology and critical care medicine subspecialty: an interview with pioneer Dr. Alvin Hackel. (United States)

    Mai, Christine L; Ahmed, Zulfiqar; Maze, Aubrey; Noorulla, Fatima; Yaster, Myron


    Dr. Alvin 'Al' Hackel (1932-) Professor Emeritus of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, and Pediatrics at the Stanford University School of Medicine, has been an influential pioneer in shaping the scope and practice of pediatric anesthesia. His leadership helped to formally define the subspecialty of pediatric anesthesiology ('who is a pediatric anesthesiologist?') and the importance of specialization and regionalization of expertise in both patient transport and perioperative care. His enduring impact on pediatric anesthesia and critical care practice was recognized in 2006 by the American Academy of Pediatrics when it bestowed upon him the profession's highest lifetime achievement award, the Robert M. Smith Award. Of his many contributions, Dr. Hackel identifies his early involvement in the development of pediatric transport medicine as well as the subspecialty of pediatric anesthesiology as his defining contribution. Based on a series of interviews held with Dr. Hackel between 2009 and 2014, this article reviews the early development of transportation medicine and the remarkable career of a pioneering pediatric anesthesiologist.

  9. Ordovician and Silurian Phi Kappa and Trail Creek formations, Pioneer Mountains, central Idaho; stratigraphic and structural revisions, and new data on graptolite faunas (United States)

    Dover, James H.; Berry, William B.N.; Ross, Reuben James


    Recent geologic mapping in the northern Pioneer Mountains combined with the identification of graptolites from 116 new collections indicate that the Ordovician and Silurian Phi Kappa and Trail Creek Formations occur in a series of thrust-bounded slices within a broad zone of imbricate thrust faulting. Though confirming a deformational style first reported in a 1963 study by Michael Churkin, our data suggest that the complexity and regional extent of the thrust zone were not previously recognized. Most previously published sections of the Phi Kappa and Trail Creek Formations were measured across unrecognized thrust faults and therefore include not only structural repetitions of graptolitic Ordovician and Silurian rocks but also other tectonically juxtaposed lithostratigraphic units of diverse ages as well. Because of this discovery, the need to reconsider the stratigraphic validity of these formations and their lithology, nomenclature, structural distribution, facies relations, and graptolite faunas has arisen. The Phi Kappa Formation in most thrust slices has internal stratigraphic continuity despite the intensity of deformation to which it was subjected. As revised herein, the Phi Kappa Formation is restricted to a structurally repeated succession of predominantly black, carbonaceous, graptolitic argillite and shale. Some limy, light-gray-weathering shale occurs in the middle part of the section, and fine-grained locally pebbly quartzite is present at the base. The basal quartzite is here named the Basin Gulch Quartzite Member of the Phi Kappa. The Phi Kappa redefined on a lithologic basis represents the span of Ordovician time from W. B. N. Berry's graptolite zones 2-4 through 15 and also includes approximately 17 m of lithologically identical shale of Early and Middle Silurian age at the top. The lower contact of the formation as revised is tectonic. The Phi Kappa is gradationally overlain by the Trail Creek Formation as restricted herein. Most of the coarser

  10. Stress Management Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czesław Czabała


    Of all the stress management techniques people used mostly those included in the categories of “problem solving”, “vicarious gratification” and “distancing”. This points to the use of techniques that require no effort but are not fully effective. It could be so that they have not skills to use other techniques, or are aware that such techniques exist.

  11. Radiologic imaging technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bushong, S.C. (Dept. of Radiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (US)); Eastman, T.R. (Agfagavert Inc., Irving, TX (US))


    The authors focus on the subject of clinical radiographic technique. Emphasizing correct radiographic technique, it's heavily illustrated with radiographs that demonstrate proper exposure and show what happens when exposure variables are changed. A key feature is a discussion and evaluation of radiographic technique charts. Basic technique charts are provided for every body part examined.

  12. Precipitation-runoff relations and water-quality characteristics at edge-of-field stations, Discovery Farms and Pioneer Farm, Wisconsin, 2003-8 (United States)

    Stuntebeck, Todd D.; Komiskey, Matthew J.; Peppler, Marie C.; Owens, David W.; Frame, Dennis R.


    A cooperative study between the U.S. Geological Survey, the University of Wisconsin (UW)-Madison Discovery Farms program (Discovery Farms), and the UW-Platteville Pioneer Farm program (Pioneer Farm) was developed to identify typical ranges and magnitudes, temporal distributions, and principal factors affecting concentrations and yields of sediment, nutrients, and other selected constituents in runoff from agricultural fields. Hydrologic and water-quality data were collected year-round at 23 edge-of-field monitoring stations on 5 privately owned Discovery Farms and on Pioneer Farm during water years 2003-8. The studied farms represented landscapes, soils, and farming systems typical of livestock farms throughout southern Wisconsin. Each farm employed a variety of soil, nutrient, and water-conservation practices to help minimize sediment and nutrient losses from fields and to improve crop productivity. This report summarizes the precipitation-runoff relations and water-quality characteristics measured in edge-of-field runoff for 26 "farm years" (aggregate years of averaged station data from all 6 farms for varying monitoring periods). A relatively wide range of constituents typically found in agricultural runoff were measured: suspended sediment, phosphorus (total, particulate, dissolved reactive, and total dissolved), and nitrogen (total, nitrate plus nitrite, organic, ammonium, total Kjeldahl and total Kjeldahl-dissolved), chloride, total solids, total suspended solids, total volatile suspended solids, and total dissolved solids. Mean annual precipitation was 32.8 inches for the study period, about 3 percent less than the 30-year mean. Overall mean annual runoff was 2.55 inches per year (about 8 percent of precipitation) and the distribution was nearly equal between periods of frozen ground (54 percent) and unfrozen ground (46 percent). Mean monthly runoff was highest during two periods: February to March and May to June. Ninety percent of annual runoff occurred

  13. Tools & techniques--statistics: propensity score techniques. (United States)

    da Costa, Bruno R; Gahl, Brigitta; Jüni, Peter


    Propensity score (PS) techniques are useful if the number of potential confounding pretreatment variables is large and the number of analysed outcome events is rather small so that conventional multivariable adjustment is hardly feasible. Only pretreatment characteristics should be chosen to derive PS, and only when they are probably associated with outcome. A careful visual inspection of PS will help to identify areas of no or minimal overlap, which suggests residual confounding, and trimming of the data according to the distribution of PS will help to minimise residual confounding. Standardised differences in pretreatment characteristics provide a useful check of the success of the PS technique employed. As with conventional multivariable adjustment, PS techniques cannot account for confounding variables that are not or are only imperfectly measured, and no PS technique is a substitute for an adequately designed randomised trial.

  14. Surface science techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, Gianangelo


    The book describes the experimental techniques employed to study surfaces and interfaces. The emphasis is on the experimental method. Therefore all chapters start with an introduction of the scientific problem, the theory necessary to understand how the technique works and how to understand the results. Descriptions of real experimental setups, experimental results at different systems are given to show both the strength and the limits of the technique. In a final part the new developments and possible extensions of the techniques are presented. The included techniques provide microscopic as well as macroscopic information. They cover most of the techniques used in surface science.

  15. A critical review of the works of pioneer physicians on kidney diseases in ancient Iran: Avicenna, Rhazes, Al-akhawayni, and Jorjani. (United States)

    Changizi Ashtiyani, Saeed; Shamsi, Mohsen; Cyrus, Ali; Bastani, Bahar; Tabatabayei, Seyed Mohammad


    The history of kidney and urologic disorders dates back to the dawn of civilization. Throughout history of medicine, urine, the first bodily fluid to be examined, has continuously been studied as a means of understanding inner bodily function. The purpose of this review was to appraise the contributions of the ancient Iranian physician pioneers in the field of kidney and urological disorders, and to compare their beliefs and clinical methods with the modern medicine. We searched all available reliable electronic and published sources for the views of ancient Iranian physicians, Avicenna, Rhazes, Al-Akhawayni, and Jorjani, and compared them with recent medical literature. Our findings showed that ancient Iranian physicians described the symptoms, signs, and treatment of kidney and urological disorders; addressed bladder anatomy and physiology; and performed bladder catheterization and stone removal procedures in accordance with contemporary medicine. Ancient Iranian physicians pursued a comprehensive scientific methodology based on experiment, which is in compliance with the bases of modern medicine.

  16. Introduction to perturbation techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Nayfeh, Ali H


    Similarities, differences, advantages and limitations of perturbation techniques are pointed out concisely. The techniques are described by means of examples that consist mainly of algebraic and ordinary differential equations. Each chapter contains a number of exercises.

  17. Relaxation Techniques for Health (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Relaxation Techniques for Health Share: On This Page What’s the ... Bottom Line? How much do we know about relaxation techniques? A substantial amount of research has been done ...

  18. Carlo Moreschi (1876-1921): co-founder of the journal "La Medicina del Lavoro" and often forgotten pioneer of modern medicine. (United States)

    Riva, M A; Smith, D R; Cesana, G


    Carlo Moreschi (1876-1921) was founding co-editor of the journal "Il Lavoro" (now known as "La Medicina del Lavoro"), together with Luigi Devoto in 1901. Despite this fact, many of his pioneering contributions to 20th century scientific debate are not well known outside Italy. The aim of this paper therefore was to recall Moreschi' achievements and the groundbreaking work of this remarkable Italian physician. A comprehensive analysis was conducted on scientific papers written by Carlo Moreschi between 1901 and 1920, extending the investigation to his original manuscripts and private correspondence with family and colleagues. Careful examination of Moreschi's work reveals several studies in the field of social medicine, epidemiology of infectious diseases, general pathology and oncology. In particular, his main interest in haematology and immunology enabled Moreschi to be one of the first to understand the mechanisms of complement fixation and the formation pathways ofantiglobulin sera. In this manner, Moreschi significantly contributed to the work of Wassermann regarding the diagnosis of syphilis, as well as contributing to the discovery of the "antiglobulin test", first described by Coombs in 1945. Furthermore, Moreschi co-founded "Il Lavoro" and "Haematologica", the oldest journals in their respective fields. According to Devoto, Moreschi can be remembered as the archetype modern researcher and clinician. His role in the 20th century scientific debate and his pioneering work in the field of immunology and haematology, that are often forgotten due to his premature death, deserve to be reconsidered and re-assessed by the Italian and international scientific community.

  19. “We Were the First to Support a Major is Innovation”. Research into the Motivations of Spanish Pioneers in XBRL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Gago-Rodríguez


    Full Text Available ABSTRACTWe conduct a field study to analyse the reasons why pioneers supported the introduction of the Extensible Business Reporting Language (XBRL from its earliest days in Spain. The Spanish pioneers were able to visualize the possibilities of the XBRL as an effective tool for facilitating the transmission of accounting and related information. At that point in time, innovators had available a limited amount of technical information on XBRL, because it was in the process of development. Hence, their engagement in the introduction of XBRL was based more on intuition than on in-depth knowledge of the technological advantages to be gained from its application. Further, their support for the innovation was active and not passive.RESUMENMediante un estudio de campo se analizan las razones por las que determinados pioneros apoyaron la introducción del estándar Extensible Business Reporting Language (XBRL desde sus comienzos en España. Los pioneros españoles fueron capaces de visualizar las posibilidades de XBRL como una herramienta efectiva para facilitar la transmisión de información económico-financiera. En aquel momento, se disponía de una limitada información técnica sobre XBRL porque se encontraba en plena fase de desarrollo. Por tanto, su apuesta por la introducción del XBRL estuvo más basada en la intuición que en un pleno conocimiento de sus ventajas técnicas. Más aún, su apoyo a la innovación fue activo, y no pasivo.

  20. 《啊,拓荒者!》中的梦意象解析%An Analysis of Dream Image in Alas ,Pioneer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    美国女作家薇拉·凯瑟在小说《啊,拓荒者!》中塑造了一个几乎无所不能的女性拓荒者——亚历山德拉,她既有着男性的睿智果敢、开拓进取,又有着女性的善解人意、关怀体贴。然而,读者却鲜有机会走进她的内心世界,看到她成熟背后的挣扎与痛苦。本文试图通过弗洛伊德的心理分析理论解析小说中反复出现的梦的意象,揭示亚历山德拉的心路成长历程,展现出一个生命质地更加饱满的拓荒者形象。%The American writer Willa Cather depicts a almighty female pioneer Alexandra. She demonstrates wisdom, courage and adventurous spirit like men and also has the female's good nature of kindness and considera- tion. However, readers have rare opportunity to perceive her inner world to appreciate the struggle and affliction concealed by her maturity. This paper tries to analyze the repeated occurrence of dream image according to Freudian psychoanalytic theory to reveal Alexandra's psychology development, presenting a pioneer with more rich life character.

  1. Connecting the Pioneers, Current Leaders and the Nature and History of Space Weather with K-12 Classrooms and the General Public (United States)

    Ng, C.; Thompson, B. J.; Cline, T.; Lewis, E.; Barbier, B.; Odenwald, S.; Spadaccini, J.; James, N.; Stephenson, B.; Davis, H. B.; Major, E. R.; Space Weather Living History


    The Space Weather Living History program will explore and share the breakthrough new science and captivating stories of space environments and space weather by interviewing space physics pioneers and leaders active from the International Geophysical Year (IGY) to the present. Our multi-mission project will capture, document and preserve the living history of space weather utilizing original historical materials (primary sources). The resulting products will allow us to tell the stories of those involved in interactive new media to address important STEM needs, inspire the next generation of explorers, and feature women as role models. The project is divided into several stages, and the first stage, which began in mid-2011, focuses on resource gathering. The goal is to capture not just anecdotes, but the careful analogies and insights of researchers and historians associated with the programs and events. The Space Weather Living History Program has a Scientific Advisory Board, and with the Board's input our team will determine the chronology, key researchers, events, missions and discoveries for interviews. Education activities will be designed to utilize autobiographies, newspapers, interviews, research reports, journal articles, conference proceedings, dissertations, websites, diaries, letters, and artworks. With the help of a multimedia firm, we will use some of these materials to develop an interactive timeline on the web, and as a downloadable application in a kiosk and on tablet computers. In summary, our project augments the existing historical records with education technologies, connect the pioneers, current leaders and the nature and history of space weather with K-12 classrooms and the general public, covering all areas of studies in Heliophysics. The project is supported by NASA award NNX11AJ61G.

  2. Assessing SfM-Photogrammetry potential at micro-scale on a rapidly evolving mud-bank: case study on a mesocosm study within pioneer mangroves in French Guiana (South America) (United States)

    Fleury, Jules; Brunier, Guillaume; Michaud, Emma; Anthony, Edward; Dussouillez, Philippe; Morvan, Sylvain


    Mud banks are the loci of rich bio-geo-chemical processes occuring rapidly at infra-tide frequency. Their surface topography is commonly affected by many of these processes, including bioturbation, water drainage or dessication. Quantifying surface morphology and changes on a mud bank at the micro-scale is a challenging task due to a number of issues. First, the water-saturated nature of the soil makes it difficult to measure High Resolution Topography (HRT) with classical methods. Second, setting up an instrumented experiment without disrupting the signal being studied is hardly achieved at micro-scale. Finally, the highly mobile nature of this environment enhancing strong spatio-temporal heterogeneity is hard to capture. Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) and SfM (Surface from Motion)-Photogrammetry are two techniques that enable mapping of micro-scale features, but the first technique is not suitable because of the poor quality of the backscattered laser signal on wet surfaces and the need to set up several measuring stations on a complex, unstable substrate. Thus, we set up an experiment to assess the feasibility and the accuracy of SfM in such a context. We took the opportunity of the installation of a pontoon dedicated to the study of bio-geochemical processes within benthic mesocosms installed on a mud bank inhabited by pioneer mangroves trees to develop an adapted photogrammetry protocol based on a full-frame remotely triggered camera sensor mounted on a pole. The incident light on the surface was also controlled with a light-diffusing device. We obtained sub-millimetric resolution 3D-topography and visible imagery. Surveys were carried out every 2 hours at low tide to detect surface changes due to water content variation as well as bioturbation mainly caused by crabs digging galleries and feeding on sediment surface. Both the qualitative and quantitative results seem very promising and lead us to expect new insights into heterogeneous surface processes on a

  3. Semiconductor Research Experimental Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Balkan, Naci


    The book describes the fundamentals, latest developments and use of key experimental techniques for semiconductor research. It explains the application potential of various analytical methods and discusses the opportunities to apply particular analytical techniques to study novel semiconductor compounds, such as dilute nitride alloys. The emphasis is on the technique rather than on the particular system studied.

  4. Low current beam techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint, A.; Laird, J.S.; Bardos, R.A.; Legge, G.J.F. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Nishijima, T.; Sekiguchi, H. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan).


    Since the development of Scanning Transmission Microscopy (STIM) imaging in 1983 many low current beam techniques have been developed for the scanning (ion) microprobe. These include STIM tomography, Ion Beam Induced Current, Ion Beam Micromachining and Microlithography and Ionoluminense. Most of these techniques utilise beam currents of 10{sup -15} A down to single ions controlled by beam switching techniques This paper will discuss some of the low beam current techniques mentioned above, and indicate, some of their recent applications at MARC. A new STIM technique will be introduced that can be used to obtain Z-contrast with STIM resolution. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Pioneers: A Case Study of a Film Caught in the Two Line Struggle in Literature and Art in the People's Republic of China. Occasional Paper No. 77-5. (United States)

    Morrison, Linda

    The controversy surrounding the Chinese film "Pioneers" is analyzed and presented as a case study of a film caught in the recent two-line struggle in literature and art in the People's Republic of China. Within the history of the arts in China, there has been a difference of opinion between those in favor of the continued portrayal of…

  6. Methods of Data Collection, Sample Processing, and Data Analysis for Edge-of-Field, Streamgaging, Subsurface-Tile, and Meteorological Stations at Discovery Farms and Pioneer Farm in Wisconsin, 2001-7 (United States)

    Stuntebeck, Todd D.; Komiskey, Matthew J.; Owens, David W.; Hall, David W.


    The University of Wisconsin (UW)-Madison Discovery Farms (Discovery Farms) and UW-Platteville Pioneer Farm (Pioneer Farm) programs were created in 2000 to help Wisconsin farmers meet environmental and economic challenges. As a partner with each program, and in cooperation with the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources and the Sand County Foundation, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Wisconsin Water Science Center (WWSC) installed, maintained, and operated equipment to collect water-quantity and water-quality data from 25 edge-offield, 6 streamgaging, and 5 subsurface-tile stations at 7 Discovery Farms and Pioneer Farm. The farms are located in the southern half of Wisconsin and represent a variety of landscape settings and crop- and animal-production enterprises common to Wisconsin agriculture. Meteorological stations were established at most farms to measure precipitation, wind speed and direction, air and soil temperature (in profile), relative humidity, solar radiation, and soil moisture (in profile). Data collection began in September 2001 and is continuing through the present (2008). This report describes methods used by USGS WWSC personnel to collect, process, and analyze water-quantity, water-quality, and meteorological data for edge-of-field, streamgaging, subsurface-tile, and meteorological stations at Discovery Farms and Pioneer Farm from September 2001 through October 2007. Information presented includes equipment used; event-monitoring and samplecollection procedures; station maintenance; sample handling and processing procedures; water-quantity, waterquality, and precipitation data analyses; and procedures for determining estimated constituent concentrations for unsampled runoff events.

  7. Pioneers: A Case Study of a Film Caught in the Two Line Struggle in Literature and Art in the People's Republic of China. Occasional Paper No. 77-5. (United States)

    Morrison, Linda

    The controversy surrounding the Chinese film "Pioneers" is analyzed and presented as a case study of a film caught in the recent two-line struggle in literature and art in the People's Republic of China. Within the history of the arts in China, there has been a difference of opinion between those in favor of the continued portrayal of…

  8. Research on the Practice of Integrating Psychological Health Education into Young Pioneers Work%心理健康教育与少先队工作整合的实践研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Young Pioneers are still at their childhood from the perspective of developmental psychology. Childhood is an impor-tant and key period for Young Pioneers' physical and psychologi-cal growth when they develop their good habits, cultivate positive psychological qualities and form healthy personalities. And the work implemented by Young Pioneers through various carriers plays a pivotal role in cultivating their healthy psychological quality. Therefore, how to effectively integrate psychological health education into Young Pioneers work in order to better serve quality-oriented education, seems particularly important.%从发展心理学角度来说少先队员属于童年期,童年期是心理发展的一个重要阶段,少先队员正处于身心发育的成长期,是养成良好习惯,培养积极的心理品质,塑造健康人格的关键时期,而少先队通过各种活动载体开展的工作对少先队员健康心理素质的培养起着非常重要的作用。因此,如何将心理健康教育与少先队工作有效整合更好地为素质教育服务,就显得尤为重要。

  9. Artificial chordae for degenerative mitral valve disease: critical analysis of current techniques (United States)

    Ibrahim, Michael; Rao, Christopher; Athanasiou, Thanos


    The surgical repair of degenerative mitral valve disease involves a number of technical points of importance. The use of artificial chordae for the repair of degenerative disease has increased as a part of the move from mitral valve replacement to repair of the mitral valve. The use of artificial chordae provides an alternative to the techniques pioneered by Carpentier (including the quadrangular resection, transfer of native chordae and papillary muscle shortening/plasty), which can be more technically difficult. Despite a growth in their uptake and the indications for their use, a number of challenges remain for the use of artificial chordae in mitral valve repair, particularly in the determination of the correct length to ensure optimal leaflet coaptation. Here, we analyse over 40 techniques described for artificial chordae mitral valve repair in the setting of degenerative disease. PMID:22962321

  10. Clasroom Observation Techniques


    Akbayrak, Burcu


    In this article observation techniques as a data collecting tool used in social and educational research are examined and discussed. First the concepts and purposes of the observation technique are explained and later systematic and non-systematic observation techniques are described. Two research projects conducted in the classroom are then summarized. These are ‘ORACLE’ (Observational Research and Classroom Learning Evaluation Project), and ‘PRINDEP’ (Primary Needs Independent Evaluation Pr...

  11. Chronic total occlusions — Current techniques and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Touma


    Full Text Available Chronic total occlusions (CTOs of coronary arteries represent a common and significant challenge to interventional cardiology. Medical therapy is often regarded as an adequate long term strategy in the management of these lesions with surgical intervention for refractory symptoms. Extensive collateralisation is used as a marker of distal coronary perfusion, further reinforcing non-invasive strategies. This together with relatively low percutaneous success rates outside of specialised centres has meant that rates of percutaneous intervention have remained low. Increasing evidence suggests that CTOs are not a benign entity. Further, symptom control and quality of life improve significantly with successful percutaneous revascularisation. Both factors have reignited interest in percutaneous modalities. The Japanese have been pioneers in the field of CTO intervention although their success rates have been difficult to replicate. New techniques and equipment developed in North America offer an alternative to the Japanese approach. These techniques focus on time, radiation and contrast minimisation. This review will assess the histopathology of CTO and shifting paradigms in CTO treatment strategies.

  12. Persian fencing techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manouchehr Moshtagh Khorasani


    Full Text Available There are numerous manuscripts, poems and stories that describe, specifically and in detail, the different techniques used in Persian swordsmanship. The present article explains the origins and the techniques of Persian swordsmanship. The article also describes the traditional code of conduct for Persian warriors. Additionally, it describes an array of techniques that were deployed in actual combat in Iran’s history. Some of these techniques are represented via the miniatures that are reproduced herein. This is the first article on Persian swordsmanship published in any periodical.

  13. Principles of fluorescence techniques

    CERN Document Server


    Fluorescence techniques are being used and applied increasingly in academics and industry. The Principles of Fluorescence Techniques course will outline the basic concepts of fluorescence techniques and the successful utilization of the currently available commercial instrumentation. The course is designed for students who utilize fluorescence techniques and instrumentation and for researchers and industrial scientists who wish to deepen their knowledge of fluorescence applications. Key scientists in the field will deliver theoretical lectures. The lectures will be complemented by the direct utilization of steady-state and lifetime fluorescence instrumentation and confocal microscopy for FLIM and FRET applications provided by leading companies.

  14. Web based concept project for information and communication of monitoring policy and techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, D. S.; Sordi, G. M. A. A., E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares / CNEN, Av. Lineu Prestes 2242, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)


    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is growing in Brazil and worldwide. The servers processing power added to the technology of relational databases allow to integrate information from different sources, enabling complex queries with reduced response time. We believe that the use of information technology for the radiological protection programs for human activities shall help greatly the radioactive facility that requires such use. Therefore, this project aims the informatization of the monitoring policy and techniques in Portuguese, providing Brazilian radioactive facilities a complete repository for research, consultation and information in a quick, integrated and efficient way. In order to meet national and international standards, the development of this project includes concepts, definitions and theory about monitoring procedures in order to interrelate information, currently scattered in several publications and documents, in a consistent and appropriate manner. The Web platform tools and functionalities were developed according to our target public needs, regarding new possibilities of media, like mobile access, feeds of content and information sharing. Moreover, taking into account this is a pioneer project with the prospect of long-term use, our challenge involves the combination of multiple computer technologies that allows a robust, effective, and flexible system, which can be easily adapted according to future technological innovations. This pioneer project shell help greatly both radioactive facilities and researchers, and it is our target to make it an international reference for Portuguese Spoken countries. (Author)

  15. UIAGM Ropehandling Techniques. (United States)

    Cloutier, K. Ross

    The Union Internationale des Associations des Guides de Montagne's (UIAGM) rope handling techniques are intended to form the standard for guiding ropework worldwide. These techniques have become the legal standard for instructional institutions and commercial guiding organizations in UIAGM member countries: Austria, Canada, France, Germany, Great…

  16. Emerging optical nanoscopy techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montgomery PC


    Full Text Available Paul C Montgomery, Audrey Leong-Hoi Laboratoire des Sciences de l'Ingénieur, de l'Informatique et de l'Imagerie (ICube, Unistra-CNRS, Strasbourg, France Abstract: To face the challenges of modern health care, new imaging techniques with subcellular resolution or detection over wide fields are required. Far field optical nanoscopy presents many new solutions, providing high resolution or detection at high speed. We present a new classification scheme to help appreciate the growing number of optical nanoscopy techniques. We underline an important distinction between superresolution techniques that provide improved resolving power and nanodetection techniques for characterizing unresolved nanostructures. Some of the emerging techniques within these two categories are highlighted with applications in biophysics and medicine. Recent techniques employing wider angle imaging by digital holography and scattering lens microscopy allow superresolution to be achieved for subcellular and even in vivo, imaging without labeling. Nanodetection techniques are divided into four subcategories using contrast, phase, deconvolution, and nanomarkers. Contrast enhancement is illustrated by means of a polarized light-based technique and with strobed phase-contrast microscopy to reveal nanostructures. Very high sensitivity phase measurement using interference microscopy is shown to provide nanometric surface roughness measurement or to reveal internal nanometric structures. Finally, the use of nanomarkers is illustrated with stochastic fluorescence microscopy for mapping intracellular structures. We also present some of the future perspectives of optical nanoscopy. Keywords: microscopy, imaging, superresolution, nanodetection, biophysics, medical imaging

  17. Emerging optical nanoscopy techniques (United States)

    Montgomery, Paul C; Leong-Hoi, Audrey


    To face the challenges of modern health care, new imaging techniques with subcellular resolution or detection over wide fields are required. Far field optical nanoscopy presents many new solutions, providing high resolution or detection at high speed. We present a new classification scheme to help appreciate the growing number of optical nanoscopy techniques. We underline an important distinction between superresolution techniques that provide improved resolving power and nanodetection techniques for characterizing unresolved nanostructures. Some of the emerging techniques within these two categories are highlighted with applications in biophysics and medicine. Recent techniques employing wider angle imaging by digital holography and scattering lens microscopy allow superresolution to be achieved for subcellular and even in vivo, imaging without labeling. Nanodetection techniques are divided into four subcategories using contrast, phase, deconvolution, and nanomarkers. Contrast enhancement is illustrated by means of a polarized light-based technique and with strobed phase-contrast microscopy to reveal nanostructures. Very high sensitivity phase measurement using interference microscopy is shown to provide nanometric surface roughness measurement or to reveal internal nanometric structures. Finally, the use of nanomarkers is illustrated with stochastic fluorescence microscopy for mapping intracellular structures. We also present some of the future perspectives of optical nanoscopy. PMID:26491270

  18. Scientific techniques in Egyptology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, G.W.A.


    The paper concerns the contribution made by scientific method to Egyptology, in the areas of dating, provenance and medicine. The dating techniques, the analysis techniques and the use of radiology to determine the lifestyle of ancient Egyptians are all described. (U.K.).

  19. Techniques for Teachers Section (United States)

    Tait, A., Ed.


    Includes a simple technique to demonstrate Millikan's oil drop experiment, an environmental studies experiment to measure dissolved oxygen in water samples, and a technique to demonstrate action-reaction. Science materials described are the Pol-A-Star Tomiscope, Nuffield chemistry film loops, air pucks and pH meters. (JR)

  20. Reliability prediction techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittaker, B.; Worthington, B.; Lord, J.F.; Pinkard, D.


    The paper demonstrates the feasibility of applying reliability assessment techniques to mining equipment. A number of techniques are identified and described and examples of their use in assessing mining equipment are given. These techniques include: reliability prediction; failure analysis; design audit; maintainability; availability and the life cycle costing. Specific conclusions regarding the usefulness of each technique are outlined. The choice of techniques depends upon both the type of equipment being assessed and its stage of development, with numerical prediction best suited for electronic equipment and fault analysis and design audit suited to mechanical equipment. Reliability assessments involve much detailed and time consuming work but it has been demonstrated that the resulting reliability improvements lead to savings in service costs which more than offset the cost of the evaluation.

  1. [New microbiological techniques]. (United States)

    Schubert, S; Wieser, A; Bonkat, G


    Microbiological diagnostic procedures have changed rapidly in recent years. This is especially true in the field of molecular diagnostics. Classical culture-based techniques are still the gold standard in many areas; however, they are already complemented by automated and also molecular techniques to guarantee faster and better quality results. The most commonly used techniques include real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) based systems and nucleic acid hybridization. These procedures are used most powerfully from direct patient samples or in assays to detect the presence of nonculturable or fastidious organisms. Further techniques such as DNA sequencing are not yet used routinely for urological samples and can be considered experimental. However, in conjunction with dropping prices and further technical developments, these techniques promise to be used much more in the near future. Regarding bacterial identification from culture, mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has become the technique of choice in recent years especially in Europe. It has tremendously shortened the time to result. This is now going to be extended to antibiotic susceptibility testing. This is of paramount importance in view of ever rising antimicrobial resistance rates. Techniques described in this review offer a faster and better microbiological diagnosis. Such continuous improvements are critical especially in times of cost pressure and rising antimicrobial resistance rates. It is in our interest to provide the best possible care for patients and in this regard a good and effective communication between the laboratory and the clinician is of vital importance.

  2. Can the Pioneer anomaly be induced by velocity-dependent forces? Tests in the outer regions of solar system with planetary dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Iorio, Lorenzo


    In this paper we analyze the impact on the orbital motions of the outer planets of the solar system from Jupiter to Pluto of some velocity-dependent forces recently proposed to phenomenologically explain the Pioneer anomaly, and compare their predictions (secular variations of the longitude of perihelion \\varpi or of the semimajor axis a and the eccentricity e) with the latest observational determinations by E.V. Pitjeva with the EPM2006 ephemerides. It turns out that while the predicted centennial shifts of a are so huge that they would have been easily detected for all planets with the exception of Neptune, the predicted anomalous precessions of \\varpi are too small, with the exception of Jupiter, so that they are still compatible with the estimated corrections to the standard Newton-Einstein perihelion precessions. As a consequence, we incline to discard those extra-forces predicting secular variations of a and e, also for some other reasons, and to give a chance, at least observationally, to those models ...

  3. Diversity of free-living nitrogen-fixing microorganisms in the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere of pioneer plants growing on wastelands of copper mine tailings. (United States)

    Zhan, Jing; Sun, Qingye


    The composition of free-living nitrogen-fixing microbial communities in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere of pioneer plants growing on wastelands of copper mine tailings was studied by the presence of nifH genes using Polymerase Chain Reaction-Denatured Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) approach. Eleven rhizosphere tailing samples and nine non-rhizosphere tailing samples from six plant communities were collected from two wastelands with different discarded periods. The nested PCR method was used to amplify the nifH genes from environmental DNA extracted from tailing samples. Twenty-two of 37 nifH gene sequences retrieved from DGGE gels clustered in Proteobacteria (α-Proteobacteria and β-Proteobacteria) and 15 nifH gene sequences in Cyanobacteria. Most nifH gene fragments sequenced were closely related to uncultured bacteria and cyanobacteria and exhibited less than 90% nucleotide acid identity with bacteria in the database, suggesting that the nifH gene fragments detected in copper mine tailings may represent novel sequences of nitrogen-fixers. Our results indicated that the non-rhizosphere tailings generally presented higher diversity of nitrogen-fixers than rhizosphere tailings and the diversity of free-living nitrogen-fixers in tailing samples was mainly affected by the physico-chemical properties of the wastelands and plant species, especially the changes of nutrient and heavy metal contents caused by the colonization of plant community. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. The Salman Mosque: The Pioneer of the Mosque Design Idea, the Driving Force Behind the Coinage of the Term ‘Campus Mosque’ in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhini Dewiyanti


    Full Text Available This article is a part of a journey to understand the existential meaning of the Salman Mosque. One of the topics to be raised is the knowledge that the Salman mosque is capable of becoming a reformer in various fields. The focus of discussion is on the design idea and the Salman Mosque as the pioneer for coinage of the term ‘campus mosque’ in Indonesia. The design of the Salman Mosque that brought about a radical change in its beginning, established the Salman mosque as reformer. Through the qualitative approach conducted between 2011 until 2015, information was obtained through explorative interviews with the mosque architects: Achmad Noeman and those involved with the daily activities of the mosque such as: management, members of mosque units and divisions, residents of the mosque dormitory and prominent figures of society. This assessment is expected to be able to provide knowledge on the Salman mosque especially as it is associated with the term ‘campus mosque’.

  5. PioneeringWork of Sima Qian on Compilation of Literature%论司马迁在文献编纂学上的开创之功

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛金玲; 丁海燕


    Sima Qian created the peak in history and his great book, Historical Records, was a great pioneering work as an ini⁃tiative in archive literature compilation. It mainly reflected on literature compilation stylistic rules and layout, compilation principle, compilation method and compilation content. It not only created a new paradigm of literature compilation after Confucius, but also a far-reaching impact on future generations.%司马迁将史学推向了一个后人难以逾越的高峰,他的巨著《史记》,又是一部文献学研究开疆辟域之作。《史记》在文献编纂学上的开创之功,主要表现在编纂体例、编纂原则、编纂方法、编纂内容等方面,它创立了继孔子之后文献编纂学新的范式,对后世影响深远。

  6. Bacterial communities associated with the rhizosphere of pioneer plants (Bahia xylopoda and Viguiera linearis) growing on heavy metals-contaminated soils. (United States)

    Navarro-Noya, Yendi E; Jan-Roblero, Janet; González-Chávez, Maria del Carmen; Hernández-Gama, Regina; Hernández-Rodríguez, César


    In this study, the bacterial communities associated with the rhizospheres of pioneer plants Bahia xylopoda and Viguiera linearis were explored. These plants grow on silver mine tailings with high concentration of heavy metals in Zacatecas, Mexico. Metagenomic DNAs from rhizosphere and bulk soil were extracted to perform a denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis (DGGE) and to construct 16S rRNA gene libraries. A moderate bacterial diversity and twelve major phylogenetic groups including Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Gemmatimonadetes, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia, Nitrospirae and Actinobacteria phyla, and divisions TM7, OP10 and OD1 were recognized in the rhizospheres. Only 25.5% from the phylotypes were common in the rhizosphere libraries and the most abundant groups were members of the phyla Acidobacteria and Betaproteobacteria (Thiobacillus spp., Nitrosomonadaceae). The most abundant groups in bulk soil library were Acidobacteria and Actinobacteria, and no common phylotypes were shared with the rhizosphere libraries. Many of the clones detected were related with chemolithotrophic and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, characteristic of an environment with a high concentration of heavy metal-sulfur complexes, and lacking carbon and organic energy sources.

  7. Cheng Yuhuai: A Research Pioneer of Differential Equation in China%程毓淮:我国微分方程研究的先驱

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵奎奇; 化存才


    程毓淮是西南联大和北京大学的著名校友,与他的老师魏嗣銮共同为我国微分方程研究的先驱,是把中国数学研究引向世界前沿的带路人.世界著名数学家樊畿和现任中科院院士的黄祖洽在西南联大时都得到过他的直接教诲和热情鼓励.%Chen Yuhuai was a renowned alumnus of the National Southwestern Associated University and Peking University. He and his teacher Wei Siluan were the pioneers in the research of Differential Equation in China as well as the ones who have brought Chinese Mathematical Research to the leading edge of the world. Famous mathematician Ky Fan and current Academician of Chinese Academy of Sciences Huang Zuzhi both met Mr. Chen during their period at the National Southwestern Associated University, and received his direct advise and warm encouragement.

  8. Problem zone and pioneer region. The Baltic region between controversies of energy policy and cooperative projects; Problemzone und Vorreiterregion. Der Ostseeraum im Spannungsfeld energiepolitischer Kontroversen und Kooperationsvorhaben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, Kai-Olaf


    This publication describes how for the EU states bordering on the Baltic coast energy policy and energy economy have become crucial fields of bilateral and regional cooperation. On the one side this is attributable to the controversial Nord Stream Pipeline, growing concerns over the security of supply, vulnerabilities in energy policy - be they real or imagined - and to competing energy economic interests. On the other side, what has drawn numerous players' attention to the greater Baltic region as an attractive area in terms of energy policy are the prospects for multilateral cooperation projects and associated hopes for greater regional solidarity in issues of energy policy. In this sense the Baltic region is not only an energy political problem zone but also a potential pioneer region, namely when it comes to energy economic and energy political integration within the EU. This ambivalence should continue to characterise the region for the foreseeable future. The extent to which energy economic integration will in future prevail over particular national interests of energy and security policy will greatly depend on the initiatives which the EU Baltic states succeed in launching cooperatively at EU level.

  9. Beyond Popper and Polanyi: Leonor Michaelis, a critical and passionate pioneer of research at the interface of medicine, enzymology, and physical chemistry. (United States)

    Deichmann, Ute


    The biochemist and biophysicist Leonor Michaelis (1875-1949) was a renowned pioneer who worked at the interface of physical chemistry and biochemistry. He is best known for his work on the physical chemistry of proteins and enzymes and for the mathematical derivation, together with Maud Menten, of the affinity constant of the enzyme substrate bond, now known as the Michaelis-Menten constant. His thorough experimentation and careful theorizing made him critical of his contemporaries in medical biochemistry, whose work did not withstand scrutiny. His strong influence resulted from combining new concepts and approaches with traditional ones, thus bridging conceptual gaps. Most importantly, his success was brought about because he combined a critical and sharp mind with competence, passion, and determination. A review of Michaelis's approach and achievements shows that critical theory testing, as suggested by Popper, cannot explain scientific advance if taken alone; the existence of a passionate commitment to scientific beliefs, as emphasized by Polanyi, is another necessary prerequisite for the development of science.

  10. Martin Gibbs (1922-2006): Pioneer of (14)C research, sugar metabolism & photosynthesis; vigilant Editor-in-Chief of Plant Physiology; sage Educator; and humanistic Mentor. (United States)

    Black, Clanton C


    The very personal touch of Professor Martin Gibbs as a worldwide advocate for photosynthesis and plant physiology was lost with his death in July 2006. Widely known for his engaging humorous personality and his humanitarian lifestyle, Martin Gibbs excelled as a strong international science diplomat; like a personal science family patriarch encouraging science and plant scientists around the world. Immediately after World War II he was a pioneer at the Brookhaven National Laboratory in the use of (14)C to elucidate carbon flow in metabolism and particularly carbon pathways in photosynthesis. His leadership on carbon metabolism and photosynthesis extended for four decades of working in collaboration with a host of students and colleagues. In 1962, he was selected as the Editor-in-Chief of Plant Physiology. That appointment initiated 3 decades of strong directional influences by Gibbs on plant research and photosynthesis. Plant Physiology became and remains a premier source of new knowledge about the vital and primary roles of plants in earth's environmental history and the energetics of our green-blue planet. His leadership and charismatic humanitarian character became the quintessence of excellence worldwide. Martin Gibbs was in every sense the personification of a model mentor not only for scientists but also shown in devotion to family. Here we pay tribute and honor to an exemplary humanistic mentor, Martin Gibbs.

  11. Implication of high risk human papillomavirus HR-HPV infection in prostate cancer in Indian population--a pioneering case-control analysis. (United States)

    Singh, Neha; Hussain, Showket; Kakkar, Nandita; Singh, Shrawan K; Sobti, Ranbir C; Bharadwaj, Mausumi


    Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer with sexual history as a consistent risk factor. This is the pioneering study that evaluates the frequency of HPV infection in prostate cancer in India. Ninety five (95) histopathologically confirmed cancer and fifty five (55) BPH from Indian population were analyzed for HPV infection using a pair of consensus sequence primer followed by type specific PCRs for both high-risk and low-risk HPV types. The data demonstrate HPV infection in 41% of prostate tumor biopsies and 20% in BPH. Subsequent PCR- based HPV typing using type - specific primers revealed 32% were infected with HPV type 16 whereas 6% were found to be positive for HPV type 18, while in BPH controls only 5% of the BPH controls were infected with HPV 16 and this difference was highly significant (p = 0.0004). Significant proportion of HPV infected (74%) cases belonged to stage III and IV (p infection in prostate cancer in Indian population and strengthens the hypothesis that HPV infection could be one of the co factor associated with progression of prostate cancer.

  12. Three glycosylated serine-rich repeat proteins play a pivotal role in adhesion and colonization of the pioneer commensal bacterium, Streptococcus salivarius. (United States)

    Couvigny, Benoit; Lapaque, Nicolas; Rigottier-Gois, Lionel; Guillot, Alain; Chat, Sophie; Meylheuc, Thierry; Kulakauskas, Saulius; Rohde, Manfred; Mistou, Michel-Yves; Renault, Pierre; Doré, Joel; Briandet, Romain; Serror, Pascale; Guédon, Eric


    Bacterial adhesion is a critical step for colonization of the host. The pioneer colonizer and commensal bacterium of the human gastrointestinal tract, Streptococcus salivarius, has strong adhesive properties but the molecular determinants of this adhesion remain uncharacterized. Serine-rich repeat (SRR) glycoproteins are a family of adhesins that fulfil an important role in adhesion. In general, Gram-positive bacterial genomes have a unique SRR glycoprotein-encoding gene. We demonstrate that S. salivarius expresses three large and glycosylated surface-exposed proteins - SrpA, SrpB and SrpC - that show characteristics of SRR glycoproteins and are secreted through the accessory SecA2/Y2 system. Two glycosyltransferases - GtfE/F - encoded outside of the secA2/Y2 locus, unusually, perform the first step of the sequential glycosylation process, which is crucial for SRR activity. We show that SrpB and SrpC play complementary adhesive roles involved in several steps of the colonization process: auto-aggregation, biofilm formation and adhesion to a variety of host epithelial cells and components. We also show that at least one of the S. salivarius SRR glycoproteins is important for colonization in mice. SrpA, SrpB and SrpC are the main factors underlying the multifaceted adhesion of S. salivarius and, therefore, play a major role in host colonization. © 2017 The Authors. Environmental Microbiology published by Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. 论李大钊在民族问题上的开拓性建树%On Li Dazhao's Pioneering Contributions to the National Issues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    before and after "the May 4th Movement",Li Dazhao made unremitting explorations on China's national problems such as self-determination,ethnic equality,ethnic development and "federalism" under the guidance of Marxism,and made a major contribution to China's national liberation movement such as China's national revolution jurisdiction,federalism and the Mongolian national liberation movement.Li Dazhao is worth of the pioneer of China's ethnic problems.%"五四"前后,李大钊以马克思主义为指导,对中国的民族问题如民族自决、民族平等、民族发展和"联邦主义"等问题进行了坚持不懈的探索,并在中国民族革命的归属、联邦制和蒙古民族解放运动等方面为中国的民族解放运动做出了重大贡献。李大钊无愧为中国民族问题研究的先驱。

  14. HSA21 Single-Minded 2 (Sim2 Binding Sites Co-Localize with Super-Enhancers and Pioneer Transcription Factors in Pluripotent Mouse ES Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Letourneau

    Full Text Available The HSA21 encoded Single-minded 2 (SIM2 transcription factor has key neurological functions and is a good candidate to be involved in the cognitive impairment of Down syndrome. We aimed to explore the functional capacity of SIM2 by mapping its DNA binding sites in mouse embryonic stem cells. ChIP-sequencing revealed 1229 high-confidence SIM2-binding sites. Analysis of the SIM2 target genes confirmed the importance of SIM2 in developmental and neuronal processes and indicated that SIM2 may be a master transcription regulator. Indeed, SIM2 DNA binding sites share sequence specificity and overlapping domains of occupancy with master transcription factors such as SOX2, OCT4 (Pou5f1, NANOG or KLF4. The association between SIM2 and these pioneer factors is supported by co-immunoprecipitation of SIM2 with SOX2, OCT4, NANOG or KLF4. Furthermore, the binding of SIM2 marks a particular sub-category of enhancers known as super-enhancers. These regions are characterized by typical DNA modifications and Mediator co-occupancy (MED1 and MED12. Altogether, we provide evidence that SIM2 binds a specific set of enhancer elements thus explaining how SIM2 can regulate its gene network in neuronal features.

  15. GROUP PROFILE Computer Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey V. Sidorenkov


    Full Text Available This article contains a description of the structure, the software and functional capabilities, and the scope and purposes of application of the Group Profile (GP computer technique. This technique rests on a conceptual basis (the microgroup theory, includes 16 new and modified questionnaires, and a unique algorithm, tied to the questionnaires, for identification of informal groups. The GP yields a wide range of data about the group as a whole (47 indices, each informal group (43 indices, and each group member (16 indices. The GP technique can be used to study different types of groups: production (work groups, design teams, military units, etc., academic (school classes, student groups, and sports.

  16. Spectrometric techniques 2

    CERN Document Server

    Vanasse, George A


    Spectrometric Techniques, Volume II provides information pertinent to vacuum ultraviolet techniques to complete the demonstration of the diversity of methods available to the spectroscopist interested in the ultraviolet visible and infrared spectral regions. This book discusses the specific aspects of the technique of Fourier transform spectroscopy.Organized into five chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the large number of systematic effects in the recording of an interferogram. This text then examines the design approach for a Fourier transform spectrometer with focus on optics.

  17. Computer techniques for electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Mittra, R


    Computer Techniques for Electromagnetics discusses the ways in which computer techniques solve practical problems in electromagnetics. It discusses the impact of the emergence of high-speed computers in the study of electromagnetics. This text provides a brief background on the approaches used by mathematical analysts in solving integral equations. It also demonstrates how to use computer techniques in computing current distribution, radar scattering, and waveguide discontinuities, and inverse scattering. This book will be useful for students looking for a comprehensive text on computer techni

  18. Separation techniques: Chromatography (United States)

    Coskun, Ozlem


    Chromatography is an important biophysical technique that enables the separation, identification, and purification of the components of a mixture for qualitative and quantitative analysis. Proteins can be purified based on characteristics such as size and shape, total charge, hydrophobic groups present on the surface, and binding capacity with the stationary phase. Four separation techniques based on molecular characteristics and interaction type use mechanisms of ion exchange, surface adsorption, partition, and size exclusion. Other chromatography techniques are based on the stationary bed, including column, thin layer, and paper chromatography. Column chromatography is one of the most common methods of protein purification. PMID:28058406

  19. Internal septorhinoplasty technique. (United States)

    Waite, Peter D


    The internal septorhinoplasty was the standard operating procedure until the popularity of the external or open rhinoplasty technique. The internal technique of the rhinoplasty should be in the armamentarium of every cosmetic surgeon. There will always be indications for both internal and external rhinoplasty. The advantages of the internal technique are several. Rhinoplasty should be treatment planned based on the individual diagnosis. With experience, most surgeons find the internal rhinoplasty to be successful and extremely rewarding. A simple internal rhinoplasty will produce a good result and satisfied patients.

  20. Spectrometric techniques 4

    CERN Document Server

    Vanasse, George A


    Spectrometric Techniques, Volume IV discusses three widely diversified areas of spectrometric techniques. The book focuses on three spectrometric methods. Chapter 1 discusses the phenomenology and applications of Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS), the most commonly used optical technique that exploit the Raman effect. The second chapter is concerned with diffraction gratings and mountings for the Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectral Region. Chapter 3 accounts the uses of mass spectrometry, detectors, types of spectrometers, and ion sources. Physicists and chemists will find the book a go