WorldWideScience

Sample records for machining strategy choice

  1. Strategy-proof social choice

    OpenAIRE

    Barberà, Salvador, 1946-

    2010-01-01

    This paper surveys the literature on strategy-proofness from a historical perspective. While I discuss the connections with other works on incentives in mechanism design, the main emphasis is on social choice models. This article has been prepared for the Handbook of Social Choice and Welfare, Volume 2, Edited by K. Arrow, A. Sen and K. Suzumura

  2. Material Choice for spindle of machine tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouasmi, S.; Merzoug, B.; Abba, G.; Kherredine, L.

    2012-02-01

    The requirements of contemporary industry and the flashing development of modern sciences impose restrictions on the majority of the elements of machines; the resulting financial constraints can be satisfied by a better output of the production equipment. As for those concerning the design, the resistance and the correct operation of the product, these require the development of increasingly precise parts, therefore the use of increasingly powerful tools [5]. The precision of machining and the output of the machine tools are generally determined by the precision of rotation of the spindle, indeed, more this one is large more the dimensions to obtain are in the zone of tolerance and the defects of shape are minimized. During the development of the machine tool, the spindle which by definition is a rotating shaft receiving and transmitting to the work piece or the cutting tool the rotational movement, must be designed according to certain optimal parameters to be able to ensure the precision required. This study will be devoted to the choice of the material of the spindle fulfilling the imposed requirements of precision.

  3. Material Choice for spindle of machine tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouasmi, S; Merzoug, B; Kherredine, L; Abba, G

    2012-01-01

    The requirements of contemporary industry and the flashing development of modern sciences impose restrictions on the majority of the elements of machines; the resulting financial constraints can be satisfied by a better output of the production equipment. As for those concerning the design, the resistance and the correct operation of the product, these require the development of increasingly precise parts, therefore the use of increasingly powerful tools [5]. The precision of machining and the output of the machine tools are generally determined by the precision of rotation of the spindle, indeed, more this one is large more the dimensions to obtain are in the zone of tolerance and the defects of shape are minimized. During the development of the machine tool, the spindle which by definition is a rotating shaft receiving and transmitting to the work piece or the cutting tool the rotational movement, must be designed according to certain optimal parameters to be able to ensure the precision required. This study will be devoted to the choice of the material of the spindle fulfilling the imposed requirements of precision.

  4. Machine learning for evolution strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Kramer, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces numerous algorithmic hybridizations between both worlds that show how machine learning can improve and support evolution strategies. The set of methods comprises covariance matrix estimation, meta-modeling of fitness and constraint functions, dimensionality reduction for search and visualization of high-dimensional optimization processes, and clustering-based niching. After giving an introduction to evolution strategies and machine learning, the book builds the bridge between both worlds with an algorithmic and experimental perspective. Experiments mostly employ a (1+1)-ES and are implemented in Python using the machine learning library scikit-learn. The examples are conducted on typical benchmark problems illustrating algorithmic concepts and their experimental behavior. The book closes with a discussion of related lines of research.

  5. Strategy as Mutually Contingent Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Martin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Schelling’s The Strategy of Conflict carries significant behavioral implications which have been overlooked by economic readers. I argue that these implications are central to Schelling’s vision of game theory, that they fit well with recent advances in experimental psychology and behavioral economics, and provide a comprehensive framework that can inform research on strategy. In my view, Schelling develops a non-mathematical approach to strategy which anticipates on Gigerenzer and Selten’s “ecological rationality” program. This approach maps the processes involved in strategic reasoning and highlights their reliance on the particular information structure of interactive social environments. Building on this approach, I model strategy as a heuristic form of reasoning that governs the way in which individuals search for and provide cues in situations of mutually contingent choice. I conclude by examining how the reference to ecological rationality can help clarify Schelling’s contribution to game theory and outline potential avenues of research into strategic reasoning and interaction.

  6. Optimization of pocket machining strategy in HSM

    OpenAIRE

    Msaddek, El Bechir; Bouaziz, Zoubeir; Dessein, Gilles; Baili, Maher

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Our two major concerns, which should be taken into consideration as soon as we start the selecting the machining parameters, are the minimization of the machining time and the maintaining of the high-speed machining machine in good state. The manufacturing strategy is one of the parameters which practically influences the time of the different geometrical forms manufacturing, as well as the machine itself. In this article, we propose an optimization methodology of the ...

  7. Strategy Choices of Potential Entrepreneurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alstete, Jeffrey W.

    2014-01-01

    The author examined the written business plans of 380 students who completed courses in entrepreneurship and small business management over an 11-year period. An analysis categorized the plans into five generic competitive strategy types, and the results found that 58% chose a traditional, focused differentiation approach. A large portion (28%)…

  8. A comparative study of machine learning classifiers for modeling travel mode choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenauer, J; Helbich, M

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of travel mode choice is an important task in transportation planning and policy making in order to understand and predict travel demands. While advances in machine learning have led to numerous powerful classifiers, their usefulness for modeling travel mode choice remains largely

  9. Construction machine control guidance implementation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Machine Controlled Guidance (MCG) technology may be used in roadway and bridge construction to improve construction efficiencies, potentially resulting in reduced project costs and accelerated schedules. The technology utilizes a Global Positioning S...

  10. Identifying decision strategies in a consumer choice situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Reisen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In two studies on mobile phone purchase decisions, we investigated consumers' decision strategies with a newly developed process tracing tool called extit{InterActive Process Tracing} (IAPT. This tool is a combination of several process tracing techniques (Active Information Search, Mouselab, and retrospective verbal protocol. After repeatedly choosing one of four mobile phones, participants formalized their strategy so that it could be used to make choices for them. The choices made by the identified strategies correctly predicted the observed choices in 73\\% (Experiment 1 and 67\\% (Experiment 2 of the cases. Moreover, in Experiment 2 we directly compared Mouselab and eye tracking with respect to their impact on information search and strategy description. We found only minor differences between these two methods. We conclude that IAPT is a useful research tool to identify choice strategies, and that using eye tracking technology did not increase its validity beyond that gained with Mouselab.

  11. Students' perspectives on promoting healthful food choices from campus vending machines: a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Habiba I; Jarrar, Amjad H; Abo-El-Enen, Mostafa; Al Shamsi, Mariam; Al Ashqar, Huda

    2015-05-28

    Increasing the healthfulness of campus food environments is an important step in promoting healthful food choices among college students. This study explored university students' suggestions on promoting healthful food choices from campus vending machines. It also examined factors influencing students' food choices from vending machines. Peer-led semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with 43 undergraduate students (33 females and 10 males) recruited from students enrolled in an introductory nutrition course in a large national university in the United Arab Emirates. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and coded to generate themes using N-Vivo software. Accessibility, peer influence, and busy schedules were the main factors influencing students' food choices from campus vending machines. Participants expressed the need to improve the nutritional quality of the food items sold in the campus vending machines. Recommendations for students' nutrition educational activities included placing nutrition tips on or beside the vending machines and using active learning methods, such as competitions on nutrition knowledge. The results of this study have useful applications in improving the campus food environment and nutrition education opportunities at the university to assist students in making healthful food choices.

  12. Children's Choice Strategies: The Effects of Age and Task Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereby-Meyer, Yoella; Assor, Avi; Katz, Idit

    2004-01-01

    Two experiments examined the effect of age and cognitive demands on children's choice strategies. Children aged 8-9 and 12-13 years were asked to choose among either two or four products that differed in several attributes of varying importance to them. Choice tasks were designed to differentiate between the lexicographic and the equal-weighting…

  13. Punishment Strategies: First Choice or Last Resort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukowiak, Twila; Bridges, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Is it appropriate to implement punishment strategies in the home and school settings when children display disrespectful and inappropriate behaviors? This article depicts the advantages and disadvantages of teachers and parents utilizing an array of punishment strategies including: (a) reprimands, (b) response cost, (c) timeout, and (d) corporal…

  14. Choice and Application of Marketing Strategies of Selected Book ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to identity the type of marketing strategies employed by book publishers in Nigeria, the criteria for the choice and application of marketing strategies, being used to reach each segment of the market. The survey research method was adopted for the study. Forty market managers and 60 sales ...

  15. Age-based differences in strategy use in choice tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darrell A. Worthy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We incorporated behavioral and computational modeling techniques to examine age-based differences in strategy use in two four-choice decision-making tasks. Healthy older (aged 60-82 years and younger adults (aged 18-23 years performed one of two decision-making tasks that differed in the degree to which rewards for each option depended on the choices made on previous trials. In the choice-independent task rewards for each choice were not affected by the sequence of previous choices that had been made. In contrast, in the choice-dependent task rewards for each option were based on how often each option had been chosen in the past. We compared the fits of a model that assumes the use of a win-stay-lose-shift (WSLS heuristic to make decisions, to the fits of a reinforcement-learning (RL model that compared expected reward values for each option to make decisions. Younger adults were best fit by the RL model, while older adults showed significantly more evidence of being best fit by the WSLS heuristic model. This led older adults to perform worse than younger adults in the choice-independent task, but better in the choice-dependent task. These results coincide with previous work in our labs that also found better performance for older adults in choice-dependent tasks (Worthy et al., 2011, and the present results suggest that qualitative age-based differences in the strategies used in choice tasks may underlie older adults’ advantage in choice-dependent tasks. We discuss possible factors behind these differences such as neurobiological changes associated with aging, and increased use of heuristics by older adults.

  16. Distribution Learning in Evolutionary Strategies and Restricted Boltzmann Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause, Oswin

    The thesis is concerned with learning distributions in the two settings of Evolutionary Strategies (ESs) and Restricted Boltzmann Machines (RBMs). In both cases, the distributions are learned from samples, albeit with different goals. Evolutionary Strategies are concerned with finding an optimum ...

  17. Strategy Use and Strategy Choice in Fraction Magnitude Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Lisa K.; DeWolf, Melissa; Siegler, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    We examined, on a trial-by-trial basis, fraction magnitude comparison strategies of adults with more and less mathematical knowledge. College students with high mathematical proficiency used a large variety of strategies that were well tailored to the characteristics of the problems and that were guaranteed to yield correct performance if executed…

  18. How Domain-General and Domain-Specific Knowledge Interact to Produce Strategy Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.

    1989-01-01

    Reviews evidence that children use diverse cognitive strategies; discusses the adaptive value of using diverse strategies; describes models of strategy choice based on rational calculations; and presents an overview of the distributions of associations model of children's strategy choice. (RH)

  19. A systematic literature review of nutrition interventions in vending machines that encourage consumers to make healthier choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, A; Allman-Farinelli, M

    2015-12-01

    Internationally, vending machines are scrutinized for selling energy-dense nutrient-poor foods and beverages, and the contribution to overconsumption and subsequent risk of obesity. The aim of this review is to determine the efficacy of nutrition interventions in vending machine in eliciting behaviour change to improve diet quality or weight status of consumers. Electronic databases Cochrane, EMBASE, CINAHL, Science Direct and PubMed were searched from inception. (i) populations that have access to vending machines; (ii) nutrition interventions; (iii) measured outcomes of behaviour change (e.g. sales data, dietary intake or weight change); and (iv) experimental trials where controls were not exposed to the intervention. Risk of bias was assessed independently by two researchers, and higher quality research formed the basis of this qualitative review. Twelve articles from 136 searched were included for synthesis. Intervention settings included schools, universities and workplaces. Reducing price or increasing the availability increased sales of healthier choices. The results of point-of-purchase nutrition information interventions were heterogeneous and when measured changes to purchases were small. This review offers evidence that pricing and availability strategies are effective at improving the nutritional quality foods and beverages purchased from vending machines. Evidence on how these interventions alter consumer's overall diet or body mass index is needed. © 2015 World Obesity.

  20. Spontaneous gestures influence strategy choices in problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibali, Martha W; Spencer, Robert C; Knox, Lucy; Kita, Sotaro

    2011-09-01

    Do gestures merely reflect problem-solving processes, or do they play a functional role in problem solving? We hypothesized that gestures highlight and structure perceptual-motor information, and thereby make such information more likely to be used in problem solving. Participants in two experiments solved problems requiring the prediction of gear movement, either with gesture allowed or with gesture prohibited. Such problems can be correctly solved using either a perceptual-motor strategy (simulation of gear movements) or an abstract strategy (the parity strategy). Participants in the gesture-allowed condition were more likely to use perceptual-motor strategies than were participants in the gesture-prohibited condition. Gesture promoted use of perceptual-motor strategies both for participants who talked aloud while solving the problems (Experiment 1) and for participants who solved the problems silently (Experiment 2). Thus, spontaneous gestures influence strategy choices in problem solving.

  1. Consumer food choices: the role of price and pricing strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhuis, Ingrid H M; Waterlander, Wilma E; de Mul, Anika

    2011-12-01

    To study differences in the role of price and value in food choice between low-income and higher-income consumers and to study the perception of consumers about pricing strategies that are of relevance during grocery shopping. A cross-sectional study was conducted using structured, written questionnaires. Food choice motives as well as price perceptions and opinion on pricing strategies were measured. The study was carried out in point-of-purchase settings, i.e. supermarkets, fast-food restaurants and sports canteens. Adults (n 159) visiting a point-of-purchase setting were included. Price is an important factor in food choice, especially for low-income consumers. Low-income consumers were significantly more conscious of value and price than higher-income consumers. The most attractive strategies, according to the consumers, were discounting healthy food more often and applying a lower VAT (Value Added Tax) rate on healthy food. Low-income consumers differ in their preferences for pricing strategies. Since price is more important for low-income consumers we recommend mainly focusing on their preferences and needs.

  2. Strategy choice mediates the link between auditory processing and spelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Tru E; Brachman, Kyle J

    2014-01-01

    Relations among linguistic auditory processing, nonlinguistic auditory processing, spelling ability, and spelling strategy choice were examined. Sixty-three undergraduate students completed measures of auditory processing (one involving distinguishing similar tones, one involving distinguishing similar phonemes, and one involving selecting appropriate spellings for individual phonemes). Participants also completed a modified version of a standardized spelling test, and a secondary spelling test with retrospective strategy reports. Once testing was completed, participants were divided into phonological versus nonphonological spellers on the basis of the number of words they spelled using phonological strategies only. Results indicated a) moderate to strong positive correlations among the different auditory processing tasks in terms of reaction time, but not accuracy levels, and b) weak to moderate positive correlations between measures of linguistic auditory processing (phoneme distinction and phoneme spelling choice in the presence of foils) and spelling ability for phonological spellers, but not for nonphonological spellers. These results suggest a possible explanation for past contradictory research on auditory processing and spelling, which has been divided in terms of whether or not disabled spellers seemed to have poorer auditory processing than did typically developing spellers, and suggest implications for teaching spelling to children with good versus poor auditory processing abilities.

  3. Strategies and Principles of Distributed Machine Learning on Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric P. Xing

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The rise of big data has led to new demands for machine learning (ML systems to learn complex models, with millions to billions of parameters, that promise adequate capacity to digest massive datasets and offer powerful predictive analytics (such as high-dimensional latent features, intermediate representations, and decision functions thereupon. In order to run ML algorithms at such scales, on a distributed cluster with tens to thousands of machines, it is often the case that significant engineering efforts are required—and one might fairly ask whether such engineering truly falls within the domain of ML research. Taking the view that “big” ML systems can benefit greatly from ML-rooted statistical and algorithmic insights—and that ML researchers should therefore not shy away from such systems design—we discuss a series of principles and strategies distilled from our recent efforts on industrial-scale ML solutions. These principles and strategies span a continuum from application, to engineering, and to theoretical research and development of big ML systems and architectures, with the goal of understanding how to make them efficient, generally applicable, and supported with convergence and scaling guarantees. They concern four key questions that traditionally receive little attention in ML research: How can an ML program be distributed over a cluster? How can ML computation be bridged with inter-machine communication? How can such communication be performed? What should be communicated between machines? By exposing underlying statistical and algorithmic characteristics unique to ML programs but not typically seen in traditional computer programs, and by dissecting successful cases to reveal how we have harnessed these principles to design and develop both high-performance distributed ML software as well as general-purpose ML frameworks, we present opportunities for ML researchers and practitioners to further shape and enlarge the area

  4. Individual Differences in Strategy Choices: Good Students, Not-So-Good Students, and Perfectionists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.

    1988-01-01

    Issues include consistent individual differences in children's strategy choices, interpretation of differences within a framework, and the relation of differences to standardized test performance. (RJC)

  5. Strategy of valid 14C dates choice in syngenetic permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil'chuk, Y. K.; Vasil'chuk, A. C.

    2014-11-01

    The main problem of radiocarbon dating within permafrost is the uncertain reliability of the 14C dates. Syngenetic sediments contain allochthonous organic deposit that originated at a distance from its present position. Due to the very good preservation of organic materials in permafrost conditions and numerous re-burials of the fossils from ancient deposits into younger ones the dates could be both younger and older than the true age of dated material. The strategy for the most authentic radiocarbon date selection for dating of syncryogenic sediments is considered taking into account the fluvial origin of the syngenetic sediments. The re-deposition of organic material is discussed in terms of cyclic syncryogenic sedimentation and also the possible re-deposition of organic material in subaerial-subaqueous conditions. The advantages and the complications of dating organic micro-inclusions from ice wedges by the accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) method are discussed applying to true age of dated material search. Radiocarbon dates of different organic materials from the same samples are compared. The younger age of the yedoma from cross-sections of Duvanny Yar in Kolyma River and Mamontova Khayata in the mouth of Lena River is substantiated due to the principle of the choice of the youngest 14C date from the set.

  6. An (un)healthy poster: When environmental cues affect consumers' food choices at vending machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckli, Sabrina; Stämpfli, Aline E; Messner, Claude; Brunner, Thomas A

    2016-01-01

    Environmental cues can affect food decisions. There is growing evidence that environmental cues influence how much one consumes. This article demonstrates that environmental cues can similarly impact the healthiness of consumers' food choices. Two field studies examined this effect with consumers of vending machine foods who were exposed to different posters. In field study 1, consumers with a health-evoking nature poster compared to a pleasure-evoking fun fair poster or no poster in their visual sight were more likely to opt for healthy snacks. Consumers were also more likely to buy healthy snacks when primed by an activity poster than when exposed to the fun fair poster. In field study 2, this consumer pattern recurred with a poster of skinny Giacometti sculptures. Overall, the results extend the mainly laboratory-based evidence by demonstrating the health-relevant impact of environmental cues on food decisions in the field. Results are discussed in light of priming literature emphasizing the relevance of preexisting associations, mental concepts and goals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Parameter Communication Optimization Strategy for Distributed Machine Learning in Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jilin; Tu, Hangdi; Ren, Yongjian; Wan, Jian; Zhou, Li; Li, Mingwei; Wang, Jue; Yu, Lifeng; Zhao, Chang; Zhang, Lei

    2017-09-21

    In order to utilize the distributed characteristic of sensors, distributed machine learning has become the mainstream approach, but the different computing capability of sensors and network delays greatly influence the accuracy and the convergence rate of the machine learning model. Our paper describes a reasonable parameter communication optimization strategy to balance the training overhead and the communication overhead. We extend the fault tolerance of iterative-convergent machine learning algorithms and propose the Dynamic Finite Fault Tolerance (DFFT). Based on the DFFT, we implement a parameter communication optimization strategy for distributed machine learning, named Dynamic Synchronous Parallel Strategy (DSP), which uses the performance monitoring model to dynamically adjust the parameter synchronization strategy between worker nodes and the Parameter Server (PS). This strategy makes full use of the computing power of each sensor, ensures the accuracy of the machine learning model, and avoids the situation that the model training is disturbed by any tasks unrelated to the sensors.

  8. Educational strategies to reduce risk: a choice of social responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica La Longa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study develops the critical reflections of the activities for information, training and education that have been conducted by a group of researchers of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia in recent years. In particular, from an epistemological point of view, our analysis involves: (i science outreach, the link between science and the world; (ii science teaching and its role in the contact between science and schools; and (iii risk education, seen as a process that can develop a culture of risk in relation to the territory in which we live. These issues are critically analyzed on the basis of experience gained since 1995. The educational methodologies tested in ‘peacetime’ (in the absence of seismic events with the EDURISK Project are compared with those experienced during an emergency in Abruzzo, Italy. Today, we increasingly refer to prevention as the primary strategy of defense against risk. However, very often the responsibility of prevention falls on others, such as the government, institutions and/or local authorities. The citizens then perceive themselves as powerless against the inevitability of natural events, and they refer to these ‘rulers’ for the implementation of effective prevention policies. So, as researchers, what are the most effective actions we can take to influence risk reduction and to motivate the choices of the people? Must the effectiveness of our interventions be based on scientific information or on specific training, or must it be reached through the development of values, actions and awareness? Must our interventions be oriented and developed to inform, to train or to educate?

  9. Tool path strategy and cutting process monitoring in intelligent machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Wang, Chengdong; An, Qinglong; Ming, Weiwei

    2018-06-01

    Intelligent machining is a current focus in advanced manufacturing technology, and is characterized by high accuracy and efficiency. A central technology of intelligent machining—the cutting process online monitoring and optimization—is urgently needed for mass production. In this research, the cutting process online monitoring and optimization in jet engine impeller machining, cranio-maxillofacial surgery, and hydraulic servo valve deburring are introduced as examples of intelligent machining. Results show that intelligent tool path optimization and cutting process online monitoring are efficient techniques for improving the efficiency, quality, and reliability of machining.

  10. Estradiol does not influence strategy choice but place strategy choice is associated with increased cell proliferation in the hippocampus of female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, Julia; Epp, Jonathan R; Galea, Liisa A M

    2010-09-01

    Adult neurogenesis occurs in the hippocampus of most mammals. While the function of adult hippocampal neurogenesis is not known, there is a relationship between neurogenesis and hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. Ovarian hormones can influence learning and memory and strategy choice. In competitive memory tasks, higher levels of estradiol shift female rats towards the use of the place strategy. Previous studies using a cue-competition paradigm find that 36% of male rats will use a hippocampus-dependent place strategy and place strategy users had lower levels of cell proliferation in the hippocampus. Here, we used the same paradigm to test whether endogenous or exogenous ovarian hormones influence strategy choice in the cue-competition paradigm and whether cell proliferation was related to strategy choice. We tested ovariectomized estradiol-treated (10 microg of estradiol benzoate) or sham-operated female rats on alternating blocks of hippocampus-dependent and hippocampus-independent versions of the Morris water task. Rats were then given a probe session with the platform visible and in a novel location. Preferred strategy was classified as place strategy (hippocampus-dependent) if they swam to the old platform location or cue strategy (hippocampus-independent) if they swam to the visible platform. All groups showed a preference for the cue strategy. However, proestrous rats were more likely to be place strategy users than rats not in proestrus. Female place strategy users had increased cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus compared to cue strategy users. Our study suggests that 78% of female rats chose the cue strategy instead of the place strategy. In summary the present results suggest that estradiol does not shift strategy use in this paradigm and that cell proliferation is related to strategy use with greater cell proliferation seen in place strategy users in female rats. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Evaluation of Surface Integrity During Machining of Inconel 718 with Various Laser Assistance Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciechowski Szymon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the evaluation of surface integrity formed during turning of Inconel 718 with the application of various laser assistance strategies. The primary objective of the work was to determine the relations between the applied machining strategy and the obtained surface integrity, in order to select the effective cutting conditions allowing the obtainment of high surface quality. The carried out experiment included the machining of Inconel 718 in the conventional turning conditions, as well as during the continuous laser assisted machining and sequential laser assistance. The surface integrity was evaluated by the measurements of machined surface topographies, microstructures and the microhardness. Results revealed that surface integrity of Inconel 718 is strongly affected by the selected machining strategy. The significant improvement of the surface roughness formed during machining of Inconel 718, can be reached by the application of simultaneous laser heating and cutting (LAM.

  12. Maintenance strategies to reduce downtime due to machine positional errors

    OpenAIRE

    Shagluf, Abubaker; Longstaff, A.P.; Fletcher, S.

    2014-01-01

    Proceedings of Maintenance Performance Measurement and Management (MPMM) Conference 2014 Manufacturing strives to reduce waste and increase Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE). When managing machine tool maintenance a manufacturer must apply an appropriate decision technique in order to reveal hidden costs associated with production losses, reduce equipment downtime competentely and similiarly identify the machines performance. Total productive maintenance (TPM) is a maintenance progr...

  13. Star marketer’s impact on the market strategy choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlašić Goran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We focus on understanding the role of star marketers in pursuing a market-driven vs. a market-driving strategy. Results indicate that market-driving and market-driven strategies are two approaches that can be pursued by market-oriented firms. A star marketer has a robust positive influence on market-driving strategy. In contrast, a star marketer has no meaningful influence on market-driven strategy. In short, while star marketers are very important for market-driving strategy and long term success, they represent an unnecessary cost and provide no added value to companies focusing on market-driven strategies and short term results.

  14. Star marketer’s impact on the market strategy choice

    OpenAIRE

    Goran, Vlašić; Hair, Joe F.; Krupka, Zoran

    2017-01-01

    We focus on understanding the role of star marketers in pursuing a market-driven vs. a market-driving strategy. Results indicate that market-driving and market-driven strategies are two approaches that can be pursued by market-oriented firms. A star marketer has a robust positive influence on market-driving strategy. In contrast, a star marketer has no meaningful influence on market-driven strategy. In short, while star marketers are very important for market-driving strategy and long term su...

  15. Consumer acceptance of intervention strategies for healthy food choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Colin

    2016-01-01

    The need for more effective interventions to combat the obesity problem has been expressed by many public health experts. While consumer support is important for intervention effectiveness, little is known about why consumers accept or do not accept food choice interventions. The present thesis

  16. Expanding the Education Universe: A Fifty-State Strategy for Course Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickman, Michael

    2014-01-01

    After twenty years of expanding school-choice options, state leaders, educators, and families have a new tool: course choice, a strategy for students to learn from unconventional providers that might range from top-tier universities or innovative community colleges to local employers, labs, or hospitals. In "Expanding the Education Universe:…

  17. Implementation of A Better Choice Healthy Food and Drink Supply Strategy for staff and visitors in government-owned health facilities in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jane; Lee, Amanda; Obersky, Natalie; Edwards, Rachael

    2015-06-01

    The present paper reports on a quality improvement activity examining implementation of A Better Choice Healthy Food and Drink Supply Strategy for Queensland Health Facilities (A Better Choice). A Better Choice is a policy to increase supply and promotion of healthy foods and drinks and decrease supply and promotion of energy-dense, nutrient-poor choices in all food supply areas including food outlets, staff dining rooms, vending machines, tea trolleys, coffee carts, leased premises, catering, fundraising, promotion and advertising. An online survey targeted 278 facility managers to collect self-reported quantitative and qualitative data. Telephone interviews were sought concurrently with the twenty-five A Better Choice district contact officers to gather qualitative information. Public sector-owned and -operated health facilities in Queensland, Australia. One hundred and thirty-four facility managers and twenty-four district contact officers participated with response rates of 48.2% and 96.0%, respectively. Of facility managers, 78.4% reported implementation of more than half of the A Better Choice requirements including 24.6% who reported full strategy implementation. Reported implementation was highest in food outlets, staff dining rooms, tea trolleys, coffee carts, internal catering and drink vending machines. Reported implementation was more problematic in snack vending machines, external catering, leased premises and fundraising. Despite methodological challenges, the study suggests that policy approaches to improve the food and drink supply can be implemented successfully in public-sector health facilities, although results can be limited in some areas. A Better Choice may provide a model for improving food supply in other health and workplace settings.

  18. Freedom of choice in technology strategy? An analysis of technology strategy in the large commercial aircraft industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, E.J.; Steenhuis, H.J.

    2004-01-01

    Many companies experience difficult situations as a result of their selected strategy. Strategic management theories implicitly assume that companies have a free choice in setting their strategy. Hence, when companies experience difficult situations this is because of management inadequacy. It is

  19. A strategy for quantum algorithm design assisted by machine learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Jeongho; Lee, Jinhyoung; Ryu, Junghee; Yoo, Seokwon; Pawłowski, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    We propose a method for quantum algorithm design assisted by machine learning. The method uses a quantum–classical hybrid simulator, where a ‘quantum student’ is being taught by a ‘classical teacher’. In other words, in our method, the learning system is supposed to evolve into a quantum algorithm for a given problem, assisted by a classical main-feedback system. Our method is applicable for designing quantum oracle-based algorithms. We chose, as a case study, an oracle decision problem, called a Deutsch–Jozsa problem. We showed by using Monte Carlo simulations that our simulator can faithfully learn a quantum algorithm for solving the problem for a given oracle. Remarkably, the learning time is proportional to the square root of the total number of parameters, rather than showing the exponential dependence found in the classical machine learning-based method. (paper)

  20. A strategy for quantum algorithm design assisted by machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Jeongho; Ryu, Junghee; Yoo, Seokwon; Pawłowski, Marcin; Lee, Jinhyoung

    2014-07-01

    We propose a method for quantum algorithm design assisted by machine learning. The method uses a quantum-classical hybrid simulator, where a ‘quantum student’ is being taught by a ‘classical teacher’. In other words, in our method, the learning system is supposed to evolve into a quantum algorithm for a given problem, assisted by a classical main-feedback system. Our method is applicable for designing quantum oracle-based algorithms. We chose, as a case study, an oracle decision problem, called a Deutsch-Jozsa problem. We showed by using Monte Carlo simulations that our simulator can faithfully learn a quantum algorithm for solving the problem for a given oracle. Remarkably, the learning time is proportional to the square root of the total number of parameters, rather than showing the exponential dependence found in the classical machine learning-based method.

  1. Machine learning strategies for systems with invariance properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Julia; Jones, Reese; Templeton, Jeremy

    2016-08-01

    In many scientific fields, empirical models are employed to facilitate computational simulations of engineering systems. For example, in fluid mechanics, empirical Reynolds stress closures enable computationally-efficient Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes simulations. Likewise, in solid mechanics, constitutive relations between the stress and strain in a material are required in deformation analysis. Traditional methods for developing and tuning empirical models usually combine physical intuition with simple regression techniques on limited data sets. The rise of high performance computing has led to a growing availability of high fidelity simulation data. These data open up the possibility of using machine learning algorithms, such as random forests or neural networks, to develop more accurate and general empirical models. A key question when using data-driven algorithms to develop these empirical models is how domain knowledge should be incorporated into the machine learning process. This paper will specifically address physical systems that possess symmetry or invariance properties. Two different methods for teaching a machine learning model an invariance property are compared. In the first method, a basis of invariant inputs is constructed, and the machine learning model is trained upon this basis, thereby embedding the invariance into the model. In the second method, the algorithm is trained on multiple transformations of the raw input data until the model learns invariance to that transformation. Results are discussed for two case studies: one in turbulence modeling and one in crystal elasticity. It is shown that in both cases embedding the invariance property into the input features yields higher performance at significantly reduced computational training costs.

  2. Contextual Clues Vocabulary Strategies Choice among Business Management Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Siti Nurshafezan; Muhammad, Ahmad Mazli; Kasim, Aini Mohd

    2018-01-01

    New trends in vocabulary learning focus on strategic vocabulary learning to create more active and independent language learners. Utilising suitable contextual clues strategies is seen as vital in enabling and equipping language learners with the skill to guess word meaning accurately, moving away from dependency on a dictionary to improve their…

  3. Strategies to Promote High School Students' Healthful Food Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, Ali; Fredericks, Lynn; Wylie-Rosett, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Studies have suggested that skill-building through hands-on cooking as a nutrition education strategy, is effective to improve overall dietary quality among participants. FamilyCook Productions' "Diet for a Healthy Planet with Teen Battle Chefs(TM)" curriculum using this approach, was piloted in 2008 in a Brooklyn public high school…

  4. How the choice of Operating System can affect databases on a Virtual Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Jan; Eriksson, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    As databases grow in size, the need for optimizing databases is becoming a necessity. Choosing the right operating system to support your database becomes paramount to ensure that the database is fully utilized. Furthermore with the virtualization of operating systems becoming more commonplace, we find ourselves with more choices than we ever faced before. This paper demonstrates why the choice of operating system plays an integral part in deciding the right database for your system in a virt...

  5. An adaptive regularization parameter choice strategy for multispectral bioluminescence tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Jinchao; Qin Chenghu; Jia Kebin; Han Dong; Liu Kai; Zhu Shouping; Yang Xin; Tian Jie [Medical Image Processing Group, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 2728, Beijing 100190 (China); College of Electronic Information and Control Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Medical Image Processing Group, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 2728, Beijing 100190 (China); Medical Image Processing Group, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 2728, Beijing 100190 (China) and School of Life Sciences and Technology, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Bioluminescence tomography (BLT) provides an effective tool for monitoring physiological and pathological activities in vivo. However, the measured data in bioluminescence imaging are corrupted by noise. Therefore, regularization methods are commonly used to find a regularized solution. Nevertheless, for the quality of the reconstructed bioluminescent source obtained by regularization methods, the choice of the regularization parameters is crucial. To date, the selection of regularization parameters remains challenging. With regards to the above problems, the authors proposed a BLT reconstruction algorithm with an adaptive parameter choice rule. Methods: The proposed reconstruction algorithm uses a diffusion equation for modeling the bioluminescent photon transport. The diffusion equation is solved with a finite element method. Computed tomography (CT) images provide anatomical information regarding the geometry of the small animal and its internal organs. To reduce the ill-posedness of BLT, spectral information and the optimal permissible source region are employed. Then, the relationship between the unknown source distribution and multiview and multispectral boundary measurements is established based on the finite element method and the optimal permissible source region. Since the measured data are noisy, the BLT reconstruction is formulated as l{sub 2} data fidelity and a general regularization term. When choosing the regularization parameters for BLT, an efficient model function approach is proposed, which does not require knowledge of the noise level. This approach only requests the computation of the residual and regularized solution norm. With this knowledge, we construct the model function to approximate the objective function, and the regularization parameter is updated iteratively. Results: First, the micro-CT based mouse phantom was used for simulation verification. Simulation experiments were used to illustrate why multispectral data were used

  6. Self-Efficacy, Attitudes, and Choice of Strategies for English Pronunciation Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardegna, Veronica G.; Lee, Juhee; Kusey, Crystal

    2018-01-01

    This article proposes a structural model of English language learners' self-efficacy beliefs, attitudes toward learning pronunciation skills, and choice of pronunciation learning strategies. Participants' responses (N = 704) to two self-reported questionnaires--Strategies for Pronunciation Improvement (SPI) inventory and Learner Attitudes for…

  7. Mental Computation or Standard Algorithm? Children's Strategy Choices on Multi-Digit Subtractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbeyns, Joke; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed children's use of mental computation strategies and the standard algorithm on multi-digit subtractions. Fifty-eight Flemish 4th graders of varying mathematical achievement level were individually offered subtractions that either stimulated the use of mental computation strategies or the standard algorithm in one choice and two…

  8. The Effect of Compliance-Gaining Strategy Choice and Communicator Style on Sales Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish-Sprowl, John; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Explores the relationship among compliance-gaining strategy choice, communicator image, and sales person effectiveness. Finds no statistically significant relationship between the use of compliance-gaining strategies and sales success, but indicates a link between communicator image and sales success. (SR)

  9. Work conditions and the food choice coping strategies of employed parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Carol M; Farrell, Tracy J; Blake, Christine E; Jastran, Margaret; Wethington, Elaine; Bisogni, Carole A

    2009-01-01

    How work conditions relate to parents' food choice coping strategies. Pilot telephone survey. City in the northeastern United States (US). Black, white, and Hispanic employed mothers (25) and fathers (25) randomly recruited from low-/moderate-income zip codes; 78% of those reached and eligible participated. Sociodemographic characteristics; work conditions (hours, shift, job schedule, security, satisfaction, food access); food choice coping strategies (22 behavioral items for managing food in response to work and family demands (ie, food prepared at/away from home, missing meals, individualizing meals, speeding up, planning). Two-tailed chi-square and Fisher exact tests (P restaurant meals, missed breakfast, and prepared entrees. Job security, satisfaction, and food access were also associated with gender-specific strategies. Structural work conditions among parents such as job hours, schedule, satisfaction, and food access are associated with food choice coping strategies with importance for dietary quality. Findings have implications for worksite interventions but need examination in a larger sample.

  10. Consumer Acceptance of Population-Level Intervention Strategies for Healthy Food Choices: The Role of Perceived Effectiveness and Perceived Fairness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, C.; Lans, van der I.A.; Rijnsoever, F.J.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates acceptance of intervention strategies for low-calorie snack choices that vary regarding the effect they have on consumers’ freedom of choice (providing information, guiding choice through (dis)incentives, and restricting choice). We examine the mediating effects of

  11. DEFINITION AND CHOICE OF FINANCIAL STRATEGY OF CORPORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Michel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The current stage of economic development of theRussian Federationmakes the question of the analysis of the financial condition of corporations, as well as the development of their financial strategy. This is due to a large share of unprofitable enterprises in theRussian Federation, as well as low levels of liquidity and autonomy. Given that the financial condition of the company depends largely on the success of its activities, the analysis of the financial condition of the company paid much attention. Pledge of survival and the foundation stability of enterprises and organizations in a market economy is financial stability. Financial stability of the company is able to manipulate the funds to ensure the sustainability of production and sales through effective use, and to minimize the cost of its expansion and renovation. View of this article is devoted to the most important task of strategic management, namely the identification and selection of effective financial strategy of the corporation. 

  12. Evolution of learned strategy choice in a frequency-dependent game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsnelson, Edith; Motro, Uzi; Feldman, Marcus W; Lotem, Arnon

    2012-03-22

    In frequency-dependent games, strategy choice may be innate or learned. While experimental evidence in the producer-scrounger game suggests that learned strategy choice may be common, a recent theoretical analysis demonstrated that learning by only some individuals prevents learning from evolving in others. Here, however, we model learning explicitly, and demonstrate that learning can easily evolve in the whole population. We used an agent-based evolutionary simulation of the producer-scrounger game to test the success of two general learning rules for strategy choice. We found that learning was eventually acquired by all individuals under a sufficient degree of environmental fluctuation, and when players were phenotypically asymmetric. In the absence of sufficient environmental change or phenotypic asymmetries, the correct target for learning seems to be confounded by game dynamics, and innate strategy choice is likely to be fixed in the population. The results demonstrate that under biologically plausible conditions, learning can easily evolve in the whole population and that phenotypic asymmetry is important for the evolution of learned strategy choice, especially in a stable or mildly changing environment.

  13. Beyond labelling: what strategies do nut allergic individuals employ to make food choices? A qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Barnett

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Food labelling is an important tool that assists people with peanut and tree nut allergies to avoid allergens. Nonetheless, other strategies are also developed and used in food choice decision making. In this paper, we examined the strategies that nut allergic individuals deploy to make safe food choices in addition to a reliance on food labelling. METHODS: THREE QUALITATIVE METHODS: an accompanied shop, in-depth semi-structured interviews, and the product choice reasoning task - were used with 32 patients that had a clinical history of reactions to peanuts and/or tree nuts consistent with IgE-mediated food allergy. Thematic analysis was applied to the transcribed data. RESULTS: Three main strategies were identified that informed the risk assessments and food choice practices of nut allergic individuals. These pertained to: (1 qualities of product such as the product category or the country of origin, (2 past experience of consuming a food product, and (3 sensory appreciation of risk. Risk reasoning and risk management behaviours were often contingent on the context and other physiological and socio-psychological needs which often competed with risk considerations. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding and taking into account the complexity of strategies and the influences of contextual factors will allow healthcare practitioners, allergy nutritionists, and caregivers to advise and educate patients more effectively in choosing foods safely. Governmental bodies and policy makers could also benefit from an understanding of these food choice strategies when risk management policies are designed and developed.

  14. Treatment in chronic migraine: choice of reabilitation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana STANESCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Migraine is a disabling neurologic condition with a spontaneous clinical evolution into a chronic form. Migraine progression from an episodic into a chronic form is realized through a period of time involving several months or years, during which an increase attack frequency occurs. .According to the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-3 chronic migraine is a type of primary headache occurring on 15 or more days per month for more than 3 months, in which more than 8 days per month headache meet criteria for migraine with or without aura or respond to specific migraine treatment. The prevalence of chronic migraine is estimated between 1- 3% of general population. Persons with chronic migraine are more likely to suffer from severe disability; chronic migraine has an important socio-economic impact. Diagnostic approach in chronic migraine includes exclusion of a secondary headache disorder and confirmation of a primary episodic headache. When a patient is found to overuse pain medication, diagnosis of both chronic migraine and MOH should be considered. Treating episodic migraine early and managing attack frequency using preventive medication and behavioural interventions will be benefic in reducing the risk of chronicisation. Lifestyle changes are important for avoiding triggers for migraine attacks; treatment of comorbidities is equally important because these conditions exacerbate patient’s tendency to have headaches. The initial relief step for drug abusers always relies in drug withdrawal. For migraine attacks treatment begins with non-pharmacologic interventions (staying in a quiet, dark room, pressure on painful areas, applying cold compresses , simple OTC analgetics (NSAIDs, paracetamol, aspirin, acetaminophen. If these are not effective, triptans are the drugs of choice. Preventive treatment is always recommended in patients with chronic migraine because the high frequency of headache attacks. Treatment should be

  15. Salience and Strategy Choice in 2 × 2 Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan W. Leland

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a model of boundedly rational play in single-shot 2 × 2 games. Players choose strategies based on the perceived salience of their own payoffs and, if own-payoff salience is uninformative, on the perceived salience of their opponent’s payoffs. When own payoffs are salient, the model’s predictions correspond to those of Level-1 players in a cognitive hierarchy model. When it is the other player’s payoffs that are salient, the predictions of the model correspond to those of traditional game theory. The model provides unique predictions for the entire class of 2 × 2 games. It identifies games where a Nash equilibrium will always occur, ones where it will never occur, and ones where it will occur only for certain payoff values. It also predicts the outcome of games for which there are no pure Nash equilibria. Experimental results supporting these predictions are presented.

  16. Application of Elements of TPM Strategy for Operation Analysis of Mining Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodny, Jaroslaw; Tutak, Magdalena

    2017-12-01

    Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) strategy includes group of activities and actions in order to maintenance machines in failure-free state and without breakdowns thanks to tending limitation of failures, non-planned shutdowns, lacks and non-planned service of machines. These actions are ordered to increase effectiveness of utilization of possessed devices and machines in company. Very significant element of this strategy is connection of technical actions with changes in their perception by employees. Whereas fundamental aim of introduction this strategy is improvement of economic efficiency of enterprise. Increasing competition and necessity of reduction of production costs causes that also mining enterprises are forced to introduce this strategy. In the paper examples of use of OEE model for quantitative evaluation of selected mining devices were presented. OEE model is quantitative tool of TPM strategy and can be the base for further works connected with its introduction. OEE indicator is the product of three components which include availability and performance of the studied machine and the quality of the obtained product. The paper presents the results of the effectiveness analysis of the use of a set of mining machines included in the longwall system, which is the first and most important link in the technological line of coal production. The set of analyzed machines included the longwall shearer, armored face conveyor and cruscher. From a reliability point of view, the analyzed set of machines is a system that is characterized by the serial structure. The analysis was based on data recorded by the industrial automation system used in the mines. This method of data acquisition ensured their high credibility and a full time synchronization. Conclusions from the research and analyses should be used to reduce breakdowns, failures and unplanned downtime, increase performance and improve production quality.

  17. Interaction between behavioral and pharmacological treatment strategies to decrease cocaine choice in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Matthew L; Blough, Bruce E; Negus, S Stevens

    2013-02-01

    Behavioral and pharmacotherapeutic approaches constitute two prominent strategies for treating cocaine dependence. This study investigated interactions between behavioral and pharmacological strategies in a preclinical model of cocaine vs food choice. Six rhesus monkeys, implanted with a chronic indwelling double-lumen venous catheter, initially responded under a concurrent schedule of food delivery (1-g pellets, fixed-ratio (FR) 100 schedule) and cocaine injections (0-0.1 mg/kg/injection, FR 10 schedule) during continuous 7-day treatment periods with saline or the agonist medication phenmetrazine (0.032-0.1 mg/kg/h). Subsequently, the FR response requirement for cocaine or food was varied (food, FR 100; cocaine, FR 1-100; cocaine, FR 10; food, FR 10-300), and effects of phenmetrazine on cocaine vs food choice were redetermined. Decreases in the cocaine FR or increases in the food FR resulted in leftward shifts in the cocaine choice dose-effect curve, whereas increases in the cocaine FR or decreases in the food FR resulted in rightward shifts in the cocaine choice dose-effect curve. The efficacy of phenmetrazine to decrease cocaine choice varied systematically as a function of the prevailing response requirements, such that phenmetrazine efficacy was greatest when cocaine choice was maintained by relatively low unit cocaine doses. These results suggest that efficacy of pharmacotherapies to modulate cocaine use can be influenced by behavioral contingencies of cocaine availability. Agonist medications may be most effective under contingencies that engender choice of relatively low cocaine doses.

  18. Probability matching in risky choice: the interplay of feedback and strategy availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Ben R; Koehler, Derek J; James, Greta; Rakow, Tim; van Ravenzwaaij, Don

    2013-04-01

    Probability matching in sequential decision making is a striking violation of rational choice that has been observed in hundreds of experiments. Recent studies have demonstrated that matching persists even in described tasks in which all the information required for identifying a superior alternative strategy-maximizing-is present before the first choice is made. These studies have also indicated that maximizing increases when (1) the asymmetry in the availability of matching and maximizing strategies is reduced and (2) normatively irrelevant outcome feedback is provided. In the two experiments reported here, we examined the joint influences of these factors, revealing that strategy availability and outcome feedback operate on different time courses. Both behavioral and modeling results showed that while availability of the maximizing strategy increases the choice of maximizing early during the task, feedback appears to act more slowly to erode misconceptions about the task and to reinforce optimal responding. The results illuminate the interplay between "top-down" identification of choice strategies and "bottom-up" discovery of those strategies via feedback.

  19. A Virtual Machine Migration Strategy Based on Time Series Workload Prediction Using Cloud Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbing Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aimed at resolving the issues of the imbalance of resources and workloads at data centers and the overhead together with the high cost of virtual machine (VM migrations, this paper proposes a new VM migration strategy which is based on the cloud model time series workload prediction algorithm. By setting the upper and lower workload bounds for host machines, forecasting the tendency of their subsequent workloads by creating a workload time series using the cloud model, and stipulating a general VM migration criterion workload-aware migration (WAM, the proposed strategy selects a source host machine, a destination host machine, and a VM on the source host machine carrying out the task of the VM migration. Experimental results and analyses show, through comparison with other peer research works, that the proposed method can effectively avoid VM migrations caused by momentary peak workload values, significantly lower the number of VM migrations, and dynamically reach and maintain a resource and workload balance for virtual machines promoting an improved utilization of resources in the entire data center.

  20. Influence of the large-small split effect on strategy choice in complex subtraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yan Hui; Wu, Hao; Shang, Rui Hong; Chao, Xiaomei; Ren, Ting Ting; Zheng, Li Ling; Mo, Lei

    2018-04-01

    Two main theories have been used to explain the arithmetic split effect: decision-making process theory and strategy choice theory. Using the inequality paradigm, previous studies have confirmed that individuals tend to adopt a plausibility-checking strategy and a whole-calculation strategy to solve large and small split problems in complex addition arithmetic, respectively. This supports strategy choice theory, but it is unknown whether this theory also explains performance in solving different split problems in complex subtraction arithmetic. This study used small, intermediate and large split sizes, with each split condition being further divided into problems requiring and not requiring borrowing. The reaction times (RTs) for large and intermediate splits were significantly shorter than those for small splits, while accuracy was significantly higher for large and middle splits than for small splits, reflecting no speed-accuracy trade-off. Further, RTs and accuracy differed significantly between the borrow and no-borrow conditions only for small splits. This study indicates that strategy choice theory is suitable to explain the split effect in complex subtraction arithmetic. That is, individuals tend to choose the plausibility-checking strategy or the whole-calculation strategy according to the split size. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  1. Derailing healthy choices: an audit of vending machines at train stations in NSW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bridget; Flood, Victoria M; Bicego, Cecilia; Yeatman, Heather

    2012-04-01

    Train stations provide opportunities for food purchases and many consumers are exposed to these venues daily, on their commute to and from work. This study aimed to describe the food environment that commuters are exposed to at train stations in NSW. One hundred train stations were randomly sampled from the Greater Sydney Metropolitan region, representing a range of demographic areas. A purpose-designed instrument was developed to collect information on the availability, promotion and cost of food and beverages in vending machines. Items were classified as high/low in energy according to NSW school canteen criteria. Of the 206 vending machines identified, 84% of slots were stocked with high-energy food and beverages. The most frequently available items were chips and extruded snacks (33%), sugar-sweetened soft drinks (18%), chocolate (12%) and confectionery (10%). High energy foods were consistently cheaper than lower-energy alternatives. Transport sites may cumulatively contribute to excess energy consumption as the items offered are energy dense. Interventions are required to improve train commuters' access to healthy food and beverages.

  2. Generalized outcome-based strategy classification: comparing deterministic and probabilistic choice models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbig, Benjamin E; Moshagen, Morten

    2014-12-01

    Model comparisons are a vital tool for disentangling which of several strategies a decision maker may have used--that is, which cognitive processes may have governed observable choice behavior. However, previous methodological approaches have been limited to models (i.e., decision strategies) with deterministic choice rules. As such, psychologically plausible choice models--such as evidence-accumulation and connectionist models--that entail probabilistic choice predictions could not be considered appropriately. To overcome this limitation, we propose a generalization of Bröder and Schiffer's (Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 19, 361-380, 2003) choice-based classification method, relying on (1) parametric order constraints in the multinomial processing tree framework to implement probabilistic models and (2) minimum description length for model comparison. The advantages of the generalized approach are demonstrated through recovery simulations and an experiment. In explaining previous methods and our generalization, we maintain a nontechnical focus--so as to provide a practical guide for comparing both deterministic and probabilistic choice models.

  3. Sleep Deprivation Alters Choice Strategy Without Altering Uncertainty or Loss Aversion Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Dhaniel A Mullette-Gillman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sleep deprivation alters decision making; however, it is unclear what specific cognitive processes are modified to drive altered choices. In this manuscript, we examined how one night of total sleep deprivation (TSD alters economic decision making. We specifically examined changes in uncertainty preferences dissociably from changes in the strategy with which participants engage with presented choice information. With high test-retest reliability, we show that TSD does not alter uncertainty preferences or loss aversion. Rather, TSD alters the information the participants rely upon to make their choices. Utilizing a choice strategy metric which contrasts the influence of maximizing and satisficing information on choice behavior, we find that TSD alters the relative reliance on maximizing information and satisficing information, in the gains domain. This alteration is the result of participants both decreasing their reliance on cognitively-complex maximizing information and a concomitant increase in the use of readily-available satisficing information. TSD did not result in a decrease in overall information use in either domain. These results show that sleep deprivation alters decision making by altering the informational strategies that participants employ, without altering their preferences.

  4. Sleep deprivation alters choice strategy without altering uncertainty or loss aversion preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullette-Gillman, O'Dhaniel A; Kurnianingsih, Yoanna A; Liu, Jean C J

    2015-01-01

    Sleep deprivation alters decision making; however, it is unclear what specific cognitive processes are modified to drive altered choices. In this manuscript, we examined how one night of total sleep deprivation (TSD) alters economic decision making. We specifically examined changes in uncertainty preferences dissociably from changes in the strategy with which participants engage with presented choice information. With high test-retest reliability, we show that TSD does not alter uncertainty preferences or loss aversion. Rather, TSD alters the information the participants rely upon to make their choices. Utilizing a choice strategy metric which contrasts the influence of maximizing and satisficing information on choice behavior, we find that TSD alters the relative reliance on maximizing information and satisficing information, in the gains domain. This alteration is the result of participants both decreasing their reliance on cognitively-complex maximizing information and a concomitant increase in the use of readily-available satisficing information. TSD did not result in a decrease in overall information use in either domain. These results show that sleep deprivation alters decision making by altering the informational strategies that participants employ, without altering their preferences.

  5. Zero waste machine coolant management strategy at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, B.; Algarra, F.; Wilburn, D.

    1998-01-01

    Machine coolants are used in machining equipment including lathes, grinders, saws and drills. The purpose of coolants is to wash away machinery debris in the form of metal fines, lubricate, and disperse heat between the part and the machine tool. An effective coolant prolongs tool life and protects against part rejection, commonly due to scoring or scorching. Traditionally, coolants have a very short effective life in the machine, often times being disposed of as frequently as once per week. The cause of coolant degradation is primarily due to the effects of bacteria, which thrive in the organic rich coolant environment. Bacteria in this environment reproduce at a logarithmic rate, destroying the coolant desirable aspects and causing potential worker health risks associated with the use of biocides to control the bacteria. The strategy described in this paper has effectively controlled bacterial activity without the use of biocides, avoided disposal of a hazardous waste, and has extended coolant life indefinitely. The Machine Coolant Management Strategy employed a combination of filtration, heavy lubricating oil removal, and aeration, which maintained the coolant peak performance without the use of biocides. In FY96, the Laboratory generated and disposed of 19,880 kg of coolants from 9 separate sites at a cost of $145K. The single largest generator was the main machine shop producing an average 14,000 kg annually. However, in FY97, the waste generation for the main machine shop dropped to 4,000 kg after the implementation of the zero waste strategy. It is expected that this value will be further reduced in FY98

  6. Discrete strategies to reduce intake of discretionary food choices: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieger, Jessica A; Wycherley, Thomas P; Johnson, Brittany J; Golley, Rebecca K

    2016-05-06

    On a population level, dietary improvement strategies have had limited success in preventing the surge in overweight and obesity or reducing risk factors for chronic disease. While numerous multi-component studies have examined whole-of-diet strategies, and single component (i.e. discrete) dietary intervention strategies have targeted an increase in core foods (e.g. fruits, vegetables, dairy), there is a paucity of evidence on the effectiveness of dietary intervention strategies targeting a decrease in discretionary choices. The aim of this review was to identify dietary intervention strategies that are potentially relevant to reducing intake of discretionary choices in 2-65 year olds. A scoping review was carried out to map the literature on key discrete dietary intervention strategies that are potentially applicable to reducing discretionary choices, and to identify the targeted health/nutrition effects (e.g. improve nutrient intake, decrease sugar intake, and reduce body weight) of these strategies. Studies conducted in participants aged 2-65 years and published in English by July 20, 2015, were located through electronic searches including the Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase, CINAHL, and Scopus. Three thousand two hundred and eighty three studies were identified from the search, of which 44 met the selection criteria. The dietary intervention strategies included reformulation (n = 13), substitution (n = 5), restriction/elimination (n = 9), supplementation (n = 13), and nutrition education/messages (n = 4). The key findings of the review were: restricting portion size was consistently beneficial for reducing energy intake in the acute setting; reformulating foods from higher fat to lower fat could be useful to reduce saturated fat intake; substituting discretionary choices for high fibre snacks, fruit, or low/no-calorie beverages may be an effective strategy for reducing energy intake; supplementing nutrient dense foods such as nuts and

  7. Barriers and Strategies for Healthy Food Choices among American Indian Tribal College Students: A Qualitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Jill F; Stastny, Sherri; Brunt, Ardith; Agnew, Wanda

    2018-06-01

    American Indian and Alaskan Native individuals experience disproportionate levels of chronic health conditions such as type 2 diabetes and overweight and obesity that are influenced by dietary patterns and food choices. Understanding factors that influence healthy food choices among tribal college students can enrich education and programs that target dietary intake. To build an understanding of factors that influence healthy food choices among tribal college students at increased risk for college attrition. A nonexperimental cohort design was used for qualitative descriptive analysis. Participants (N=20) were purposively sampled, newly enrolled, academically underprepared tribal college students enrolled in a culturally relevant life skills course at an upper Midwest tribal college between September 2013 and May 2015. Participant demographic characteristics included various tribal affiliations, ages, and number of dependents. Participant responses to qualitative research questions about dietary intake, food choices, self-efficacy for healthy food choices, psychosocial determinants, and barriers to healthy food choices during telephone interviews were used as measures. Qualitative analysis included prestudy identification of researcher bias/assumptions, audiorecording and transcription, initial analysis (coding), secondary analysis (sorting and identifying meaning), and verification (comparative pattern analysis). Qualitative analysis revealed a variety of themes and subthemes about healthy food choices. Main themes related to barriers included taste, food gathering and preparation, and difficulty clarifying healthy food choices. Main themes related to strategies included taste, cultural traditions and practices, and personal motivation factors. Qualitative analysis identified barrier and strategy themes that may assist nutrition and dietetics practitioners working with tribal/indigenous communities, tribal college educators and health specialists, and tribal

  8. Work Conditions and the Food Choice Coping Strategies of Employed Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Carol M.; Farrell, Tracy J.; Blake, Christine E.; Jastran, Margaret; Wethington, Elaine; Bisogni, Carole A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: How work conditions relate to parents' food choice coping strategies. Design: Pilot telephone survey. Setting: City in the northeastern United States (US). Participants: Black, white, and Hispanic employed mothers (25) and fathers (25) randomly recruited from low-/moderate-income zip codes; 78% of those reached and eligible…

  9. Understanding consumer acceptance of intervention strategies for healthy food choices: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Colin; Van der Lans, Ivo A; Van Rijnsoever, Frank J; Van Trijp, Hans C M

    2013-11-13

    The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity poses a major threat to public health. Intervention strategies for healthy food choices potentially reduce obesity rates. Reviews of the effectiveness of interventions, however, show mixed results. To maximise effectiveness, interventions need to be accepted by consumers. The aim of the present study is to explore consumer acceptance of intervention strategies for low-calorie food choices. Beliefs that are associated with consumer acceptance are identified. Data was collected in the Netherlands in 8 semi-structured interviews and 4 focus group discussions (N = 39). Nine archetypical strategies representing educational, marketing and legal interventions served as reference points. Verbatim transcriptions were coded both inductively and deductively with the framework approach. We found that three beliefs are related to consumer acceptance: 1) general beliefs regarding obesity, such as who is responsible for food choice; 2) the perceived effectiveness of interventions; and 3) the perceived fairness of interventions. Furthermore, the different aspects underlying these general and intervention-specific beliefs were identified. General and intervention-specific beliefs are associated with consumer acceptance of interventions for low-calorie food choices. Policymakers in the food domain can use the findings to negotiate the development of interventions and to assess the feasibility of interventions. With respect to future research, we recommend that segments of consumers based on perceptions of intervention strategies are identified.

  10. Understanding consumer acceptance of intervention strategies for healthy food choices: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity poses a major threat to public health. Intervention strategies for healthy food choices potentially reduce obesity rates. Reviews of the effectiveness of interventions, however, show mixed results. To maximise effectiveness, interventions need to be accepted by consumers. The aim of the present study is to explore consumer acceptance of intervention strategies for low-calorie food choices. Beliefs that are associated with consumer acceptance are identified. Methods Data was collected in the Netherlands in 8 semi-structured interviews and 4 focus group discussions (N = 39). Nine archetypical strategies representing educational, marketing and legal interventions served as reference points. Verbatim transcriptions were coded both inductively and deductively with the framework approach. Results We found that three beliefs are related to consumer acceptance: 1) general beliefs regarding obesity, such as who is responsible for food choice; 2) the perceived effectiveness of interventions; and 3) the perceived fairness of interventions. Furthermore, the different aspects underlying these general and intervention-specific beliefs were identified. Conclusions General and intervention-specific beliefs are associated with consumer acceptance of interventions for low-calorie food choices. Policymakers in the food domain can use the findings to negotiate the development of interventions and to assess the feasibility of interventions. With respect to future research, we recommend that segments of consumers based on perceptions of intervention strategies are identified. PMID:24225034

  11. Quantifying rural livelihood strategies in developing countries using an activity choice approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Øystein Juul; Rayamajhi, Santosh; Uberhuaga de Arratia, Patricia D C

    2013-01-01

    outcomes are compared across strategies and household differences in asset holdings are analyzed using multinomial logit regression. Findings reveal that income diversification is the norm, that a higher degree of specialization does not characterize more remunerative livelihood strategies, that nonfarm......This article uses a quantitative activity choice approach, based on identification of activity variables and application of latent class cluster analysis, to identify five major rural livelihood strategies pursued by households (n= 576) in Bolivia, Nepal, and Mozambique. Income sources and welfare...... income significantly contributes to higher income earnings, that environmental reliance does not vary across strategies, and that small-scale farmers are the largest and poorest livelihood group. Some livelihood strategies are superior to all other strategies in terms of income earned; access to more...

  12. From Multilatina to Global Latina: Unveiling the corporate-level international strategy choices of Grupo Nutresa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA A DE VILLA

    Full Text Available Research on Multilatinas has underexplored multinationals from Colombia and their corporate-level international strategy choices to develop into Global Latinas. Building on interviews, documents, and archival data about Grupo Nutresa -Colombia's most international firm in manufactured goods-, this study unveils and discusses this firm's corporate-level international strategy choices between 1960 and 2014. A prevailing notion is that most multinationals from Latin America continue to target international operations to focus mainly on their home region through an export, multidomestic or transnational corporate-level international strategy. In contrast, data show that Grupo Nutresa chose to evolve through a sequential approach from an export to a transnational corporate-level international strategy while its international operations were able to transcend its home region to reach North America, Asia, Europe, Africa, and Oceania. These results add to international business research on emergent market multinational companies (EMNCs from Latin America by unveiling the corporate-level international strategy choices of a Colombian origin Multilatina that transformed into a Global Latina.

  13. Integrating Regret Psychology to Travel Mode Choice for a Transit-Oriented Evacuation Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi An

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Facing the potential dangers from sudden disasters in urban cities, emergency administrators have to make an appropriate evacuation plan to mitigate negative consequences. However, little attention has been paid to evacuee real decision psychology when developing a strategy. The aim of this paper is to analyze evacuee mode choice behavior considering regret aversion psychology during evacuation. First, the utility-based and regret-based models are formulated to obtain evacuees’ preferences on travel mode choice, respectively. According to the data collected from the stated preference (SP survey on evacuee mode choice, the estimation results show that the regret-based model performs better than the utility model. Moreover, based on the estimates from behavioral analysis, the elasticities of evacuee mode choices are calculated, and transit strategy simulation is undertaken to investigate the influence on evacuee mode switching from private automobile to public transit. The results are expected to help emergency administrators to make a transit-oriented strategy for a sustainable evacuation plan, especially for the benefit of carless people.

  14. Prediction of protein subcellular localization using support vector machine with the choice of proper kernel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Mehedi Hasan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The prediction of subcellular locations of proteins can provide useful hints for revealing their functions as well as for understanding the mechanisms of some diseases and, finally, for developing novel drugs. As the number of newly discovered proteins has been growing exponentially, laboratory-based experiments to determine the location of an uncharacterized protein in a living cell have become both expensive and time-consuming. Consequently, to tackle these challenges, computational methods are being developed as an alternative to help biologists in selecting target proteins and designing related experiments. However, the success of protein subcellular localization prediction is still a complicated and challenging problem, particularly when query proteins may have multi-label characteristics, i.e. their simultaneous existence in more than one subcellular location, or if they move between two or more different subcellular locations as well. At this point, to get rid of this problem, several types of subcellular localization prediction methods with different levels of accuracy have been proposed. The support vector machine (SVM has been employed to provide potential solutions for problems connected with the prediction of protein subcellular localization. However, the practicability of SVM is affected by difficulties in selecting its appropriate kernel as well as in selecting the parameters of that selected kernel. The literature survey has shown that most researchers apply the radial basis function (RBF kernel to build a SVM based subcellular localization prediction system. Surprisingly, there are still many other kernel functions which have not yet been applied in the prediction of protein subcellular localization. However, the nature of this classification problem requires the application of different kernels for SVM to ensure an optimal result. From this viewpoint, this paper presents the work to apply different kernels for SVM in protein

  15. Employed parents’ satisfaction with food choice coping strategies: influence of gender and structure

    OpenAIRE

    Blake, Christine E.; Devine, Carol M.; Wethington, Elaine; Jastran, Margaret; Farrell, Tracy J.; Bisogni, Carole A.

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to understand parents’ evaluations of the way they integrated work-family demands to manage food and eating. Employed, low/moderate-income, urban, U.S., Black, White, and Latino mothers (35) and fathers (34) participated in qualitative interviews exploring work and family conditions and spillover, food roles, and food-choice coping and family-adaptive strategies. Parents expressed a range of evaluations from overall satisfaction to overall dissatisfaction as well as dissatisf...

  16. Neural Signatures of Rational and Heuristic Choice Strategies: A Single Trial ERP Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymon Wichary

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In multi-attribute choice, people use heuristics to simplify decision problems. We studied the use of heuristic and rational strategies and their electrophysiological correlates. Since previous work linked the P3 ERP component to attention and decision making, we were interested whether the amplitude of this component is associated with decision strategy use. To this end, we recorded EEG when participants performed a two-alternative choice task, where they could acquire decision cues in a sequential manner and use them to make choices. We classified participants’ choices as consistent with a rational Weighted Additive rule (WADD or a simple heuristic Take The Best (TTB. Participants differed in their preference for WADD and TTB. Using a permutation-based single trial approach, we analyzed EEG responses to consecutive decision cues and their relation to the individual strategy preference. The preference for WADD over TTB was associated with overall higher signal amplitudes to decision cues in the P3 time window. Moreover, the preference for WADD was associated with similar P3 amplitudes to consecutive cues, whereas the preference for TTB was associated with substantial decreases in P3 amplitudes to consecutive cues. We also found that the preference for TTB was associated with enhanced N1 component to cues that discriminated decision alternatives, suggesting very early attention allocation to such cues by TTB users. Our results suggest that preference for either WADD or TTB has an early neural signature reflecting differences in attentional weighting of decision cues. In light of recent findings and hypotheses regarding P3, we interpret these results as indicating the involvement of catecholamine arousal systems in shaping predecisional information processing and strategy selection.

  17. Neural Signatures of Rational and Heuristic Choice Strategies: A Single Trial ERP Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichary, Szymon; Magnuski, Mikołaj; Oleksy, Tomasz; Brzezicka, Aneta

    2017-01-01

    In multi-attribute choice, people use heuristics to simplify decision problems. We studied the use of heuristic and rational strategies and their electrophysiological correlates. Since previous work linked the P3 ERP component to attention and decision making, we were interested whether the amplitude of this component is associated with decision strategy use. To this end, we recorded EEG when participants performed a two-alternative choice task, where they could acquire decision cues in a sequential manner and use them to make choices. We classified participants' choices as consistent with a rational Weighted Additive rule (WADD) or a simple heuristic Take The Best (TTB). Participants differed in their preference for WADD and TTB. Using a permutation-based single trial approach, we analyzed EEG responses to consecutive decision cues and their relation to the individual strategy preference. The preference for WADD over TTB was associated with overall higher signal amplitudes to decision cues in the P3 time window. Moreover, the preference for WADD was associated with similar P3 amplitudes to consecutive cues, whereas the preference for TTB was associated with substantial decreases in P3 amplitudes to consecutive cues. We also found that the preference for TTB was associated with enhanced N1 component to cues that discriminated decision alternatives, suggesting very early attention allocation to such cues by TTB users. Our results suggest that preference for either WADD or TTB has an early neural signature reflecting differences in attentional weighting of decision cues. In light of recent findings and hypotheses regarding P3, we interpret these results as indicating the involvement of catecholamine arousal systems in shaping predecisional information processing and strategy selection.

  18. Leadership style and choice of strategy in conflict management among Israeli nurse managers in general hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendel, Tova; Fish, Miri; Galon, Vered

    2005-03-01

    To identify conflict mode choices of head nurses in general hospitals and examine the relationship between leadership style, choice of strategy in handling conflicts and demographic characteristics. Nurse managers deal with conflicts daily. The choice of conflict management mode is associated with managerial effectiveness. The ability to creatively manage conflict situations, towards constructive outcomes is becoming a standard requirement. Head nurses (N = 60) in five general hospitals in central Israel were surveyed, using a 3-part questionnaire: The Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument, the Multi-factor Leadership Questionnaire, Form 5X-Short (MLQ 5X) and demographic data. Head nurses perceive themselves significantly more as transformational leaders than as transactional leaders. Compromise was found to be the most commonly used conflict management strategy. Approximately half of the nurses surveyed used only one mode in conflict management. Transformational leadership significantly affected the conflict strategy chosen. Head nurses tend to choose a conflict-handling mode which is concerned a form of a Lose-Lose approach. Preparation in conflict management should start from undergraduate education.

  19. Solving the redundancy allocation problem with multiple strategy choices using a new simplified particle swarm optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Xiangyong; Gao, Liqun; Ouyang, Haibin; Li, Steven

    2015-01-01

    In most research on redundancy allocation problem (RAP), the redundancy strategy for each subsystem is assumed to be predetermined and fixed. This paper focuses on a specific RAP with multiple strategy choices (RAP-MSC), in which both active redundancy and cold standby redundancy can be selected as an additional decision variable for individual subsystems. To do so, the component type, redundancy strategy and redundancy level for each subsystem should be chosen subject to the system constraints appropriately such that the system reliability is maximized. Meanwhile, imperfect switching for cold standby redundancy is considered and a k-Erlang distribution is introduced to model the time-to-failure component as well. Given the importance and complexity of RAP-MSC, we propose a new efficient simplified version of particle swarm optimization (SPSO) to solve such NP-hard problems. In this method, a new position updating scheme without velocity is presented with stochastic disturbance and a low probability. Moreover, it is compared with several well-known PSO variants and other state-of-the-art approaches in the literature to evaluate its performance. The experiment results demonstrate the superiority of SPSO as an alternative for solving the RAP-MSC. - Highlights: • A more realistic RAP form with multiple strategy choices is focused. • Redundancy strategies are to be selected rather than fixed in general RAP. • A new simplified particle swarm optimization is proposed. • Higher reliabilities are achieved than the state-of-the-art approaches.

  20. Understanding patients’ decision-making strategies in hospital choice: Literature review and a call for experimental research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Fischer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Insights from psychology and cognitive science have, as yet, barely entered hospital choice research. This conceptual article closes this gap by reviewing and conceptually framing the current literature on hospital choice and patient information behavior and by discussing which tools are needed to advance scientific methodology in the study of patient decision-making strategies in hospital choice. Specifically, we make a call for more experimental research in hospital choice in order to complement existing theories, methods, and tools. This article introduces computerized process-tracing tools in hospital choice research, and also outlines a hands-on example, to provide a basis for future research.

  1. The influence of affect on suboptimal strategy choice in the Monty Hall dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efendic Emir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Monty Hall dilemma (MHD presents an intriguing choice anomaly that offers insight into human reasoning. It presents a specific subclass of decision tasks that require the adequate use of Bayes theorem in order to make optimal decisions. In the MHD, participants are presented with three doors with only one door hiding the prize. After their initial choice of a door, they are offered additional information. A different door (one that does not hide the prize and one not chosen by the participant is opened to reveal nothing behind it. Afterwards, the participants are offered to stay with their initial choice or to switch to the other remaining door. The better strategy is to always switch; a counterintuitive one for most people. We examine the notorious difficulty of the MHD from an affective perspective while relying on the dual processing approach to thinking. We varied participants’ reliance on their affective reactions as opposed to a neutral condition and hypothesized that the affective reactions associated with the staying option contribute to worse performance on the task. Indeed, the participants in the affective condition chose the staying option more often than our control participants. Using the MHD as an appropriate paradigm of conditional probability reasoning we show that, for this type of task, an affective strategy is highly inefficient. We attribute these results to the affective reactions associated with the staying option, with regret avoidance associated with the switch option, and the conditional probability construction of the dilemma.

  2. An efficient simulated annealing algorithm for the redundancy allocation problem with a choice of redundancy strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambari, Amirhossain; Najafi, Amir Abbas; Rahmati, Seyed Habib A.; Karimi, Aida

    2013-01-01

    The redundancy allocation problem (RAP) is an important reliability optimization problem. This paper studies a specific RAP in which redundancy strategies are chosen. To do so, the choice of the redundancy strategies among active and cold standby is considered as decision variables. The goal is to select the redundancy strategy, component, and redundancy level for each subsystem such that the system reliability is maximized. Since RAP is a NP-hard problem, we propose an efficient simulated annealing algorithm (SA) to solve it. In addition, to evaluating the performance of the proposed algorithm, it is compared with well-known algorithms in the literature for different test problems. The results of the performance analysis show a relatively satisfactory efficiency of the proposed SA algorithm

  3. Rational choice and the political bases of changing Israeli counterinsurgency strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brym, Robert J; Andersen, Robert

    2011-09-01

    Israeli counterinsurgency doctrine holds that the persistent use of credible threat and disproportionate military force results in repeated victories that eventually teach the enemy the futility of aggression. The doctrine thus endorses classical rational choice theory's claim that narrow cost-benefit calculations shape fixed action rationales. This paper assesses whether Israel's strategic practice reflects its counterinsurgency doctrine by exploring the historical record and the association between Israeli and Palestinian deaths due to low-intensity warfare. In contrast to the expectations of classical rational choice theory, the evidence suggests that institutional, cultural and historical forces routinely override simple cost-benefit calculations. Changing domestic and international circumstances periodically cause revisions in counterinsurgency strategy. Credible threat and disproportionate military force lack the predicted long-term effect. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2011.

  4. Role of the man-machine interface in accident management strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oewre, Fridtjov

    2001-01-01

    First, this paper gives a short general review on important safety issues in the field of man-machine interaction as expressed by important nuclear safety organisations. Then follows a summary discussion on what constitutes a modern Man-Machine Interface (MMI) and what is normally meant with accident management and accident management strategies. Furthermore, the paper focuses on three major issues in the context of accident management. First, the need for reliable information in accidents and how this can be obtained by additional computer technology. Second, the use of procedures is discussed, and basic MMI aspects of computer support for procedure presentation are identified followed by a presentation of a new approach on how to computerise procedures. Third, typical information needs for characteristic end-users in accidents, such as the control room operators, technical support staff and plant emergency teams, is discussed. Some ideas on how to apply virtual reality technology in accident management is also presented

  5. Vulnerability to Weather Disasters: the Choice of Coping Strategies in Rural Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer F. Helgeson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available When a natural disaster hits, the affected households try to cope with its impacts. A variety of coping strategies, from reducing current consumption to disposing of productive assets, may be employed. The latter strategies are especially worrisome because they may reduce the capacity of the household to generate income in the future, possibly leading to chronic poverty. We used the results of a household survey in rural Uganda to ask, first, what coping strategies would tend to be employed in the event of a weather disaster, second, given that multiple strategies can be chosen, in what combinations would they tend to be employed, and, third, given that asset-liquidation strategies can be particularly harmful for the future income prospects of households, what determines their uptake? Our survey is one of the largest of its kind, containing over 3000 observations garnered by local workers using smartphone technology. We found that in this rural sample, by far, the most frequently reported choice would be to sell livestock. This is rather striking because asset-based theories would predict more reliance on strategies like eating and spending less today, which avoid disposal of productive assets. It may well be that livestock is held as a form of liquid savings to, among other things, help bounce back from a weather disaster. Although, we did find that other strategies that might undermine future prospects were avoided, notably selling land or the home and disrupting the children's education. Our econometric analysis revealed a fairly rich set of determinants of different subsets of coping strategies. Perhaps most notably, households with a more educated head are much less likely to choose coping strategies involving taking their own children out of education.

  6. Choice of jumping strategy in two standard jumps, squat and countermovement jump--effect of training background or inherited preference?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Susanne; Voigt, M; Simonsen, Erik Bruun

    1999-01-01

    . The jumps were recorded on highspeed film (500 Hz) combined with registration of ground reaction forces, and net joint moments were calculated by inverse dynamics. The purpose was to investigate the choice of strategy in two standard jumps, squat jump and countermovement jump. The volleyball jump...... was performed with a sequential strategy and the ballet jump was performed with a simultaneous strategy. In the two standard jumps, the choice of strategy was individual and not related to training background. This was additionally confirmed in a test of seven ballet dancers and seven volleyball players....

  7. Organizational Lerning and Strategy: Information Processing Approach of Organizaitonal Learning to Perform Strategic Choice Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustian Budi Prasetya

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Study of organizational learning required to discuss the issue of strategy to understand company’s organizational knowledge and how company applied the organizational knowledge toward the changing of the environment. Method of the analysis for this research was based on desk research thoroughly on the existing literature. This research analyzed the viewpoints of different researchers in organizational learning and elaborates the information processing abilities approach of Organizational Learning (OL. Based on desk research on literature, the research discussed information processing approach to explain organizational learning and strategy choice by describing the importance of information and assumptions, the activities of knowledge acquisition, interpreting and distribution of the knowledge, typology of exploitation and exploration learning. It proposed the importance of the company to perform alignment between internal managerial process arrangement and external environment while doing the learning, based on the strategic choice space, as theatrical clustering map of the learning, the fit, the alignment, and the alliances of the organization. This research finds that the strategic space might help the analysis of balancing between exploitation and exploration learning while applying the analysis of varied firm characteristics, strategic orientation, and industrial environments.

  8. A Virtual Inertia Control Strategy for DC Microgrids Analogized with Virtual Synchronous Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Wenhua; Chen, Yandong; Luo, An

    2017-01-01

    In a DC microgrid (DC-MG), the dc bus voltage is vulnerable to power fluctuation derived from the intermittent distributed energy or local loads variation. In this paper, a virtual inertia control strategy for DC-MG through bidirectional grid-connected converters (BGCs) analogized with virtual...... synchronous machine (VSM) is proposed to enhance the inertia of the DC-MG, and to restrain the dc bus voltage fluctuation. The small-signal model of the BGC system is established, and the small-signal transfer function between the dc bus voltage and the dc output current of the BGC is deduced. The dynamic...... for the BGC is introduced to smooth the dynamic response of the dc bus voltage. By analyzing the control system stability, the appropriate virtual inertia control parameters are selected. Finally, simulations and experiments verified the validity of the proposed control strategy....

  9. Shopping for food with children: A strategy for directing their choices toward novel foods containing vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allirot, Xavier; Maiz, Edurne; Urdaneta, Elena

    2018-01-01

    Involving children in the different steps of meal preparation has been suggested as a strategy for enhancing dietary habits in childhood. It has previously been shown that involving children in cooking can increase their willingness to taste novel foods and direct their food choices towards foods containing vegetables. The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of involving children in food purchasing on food choices, intake, liking and appetite. A between-subject experiment was conducted with 86 children (from 8 to 10 years old). Forty-three children (PURCHASE group) participated in a workshop dedicated to purchasing the necessary ingredients online for the preparation of three unfamiliar foods containing vegetables: apple and beetroot juice, zucchini tortilla sandwich and spinach cookies. Forty-three children (CONTROL group) participated instead in a creativity workshop. Afterwards, all the children were invited to choose, for an afternoon snack, between three familiar vs. unfamiliar foods: orange vs. apple and beetroot juice, potatoes vs. zucchini tortilla sandwich and chocolate vs. spinach cookie. The mean number of unfamiliar foods chosen per child was higher in the PURCHASE (0.70 ± 0.14) vs. CONTROL (0.19 ± 0.07) group (P = 0.003). The liking for 1 of the 3 unfamiliar foods was higher in the PURCHASE group (P < 0.05). We did not find any difference between the two groups in food intake estimation and in the levels of subjective appetite. This study demonstrates that involving children in purchasing food can help in directing their food choices towards unfamiliar foods containing vegetables. It highlights the importance of involving children in the different steps of meal preparation for decreasing food neophobia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Employed parents' satisfaction with food-choice coping strategies. Influence of gender and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Christine E; Devine, Carol M; Wethington, Elaine; Jastran, Margaret; Farrell, Tracy J; Bisogni, Carole A

    2009-06-01

    This study aimed to understand parents' evaluations of the way they integrated work-family demands to manage food and eating. Employed, low/moderate-income, urban, U.S., Black, White, and Latino mothers (35) and fathers (34) participated in qualitative interviews exploring work and family conditions and spillover, food roles, and food-choice coping and family-adaptive strategies. Parents expressed a range of evaluations from overall satisfaction to overall dissatisfaction as well as dissatisfaction limited to work, family life, or daily schedule. Evaluation criteria differed by gender. Mothers evaluated satisfaction on their ability to balance work and family demands through flexible home and work conditions, while striving to provide healthy meals for their families. Fathers evaluated satisfaction on their ability to achieve schedule stability and participate in family meals, while meeting expectations to contribute to food preparation. Household, and especially work structural conditions, often served as sizeable barriers to parents fulfilling valued family food roles. These relationships highlight the critical need to consider the intersecting influences of gender and social structure as influences on adults' food choices and dietary intake and to address the challenges of work and family integration among low income employed parents as a way to promote family nutrition in a vulnerable population.

  11. Influence of learning strategy on response time during complex value-based learning and choice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Farashahi

    Full Text Available Measurements of response time (RT have long been used to infer neural processes underlying various cognitive functions such as working memory, attention, and decision making. However, it is currently unknown if RT is also informative about various stages of value-based choice, particularly how reward values are constructed. To investigate these questions, we analyzed the pattern of RT during a set of multi-dimensional learning and decision-making tasks that can prompt subjects to adopt different learning strategies. In our experiments, subjects could use reward feedback to directly learn reward values associated with possible choice options (object-based learning. Alternatively, they could learn reward values of options' features (e.g. color, shape and combine these values to estimate reward values for individual options (feature-based learning. We found that RT was slower when the difference between subjects' estimates of reward probabilities for the two alternative objects on a given trial was smaller. Moreover, RT was overall faster when the preceding trial was rewarded or when the previously selected object was present. These effects, however, were mediated by an interaction between these factors such that subjects were faster when the previously selected object was present rather than absent but only after unrewarded trials. Finally, RT reflected the learning strategy (i.e. object-based or feature-based approach adopted by the subject on a trial-by-trial basis, indicating an overall faster construction of reward value and/or value comparison during object-based learning. Altogether, these results demonstrate that the pattern of RT can be informative about how reward values are learned and constructed during complex value-based learning and decision making.

  12. A user-specific human-machine interaction strategy for a prosthetic shank adapter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuhlenmiller Florian

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available For people with lower limb amputation, a user-specific human-machine interaction with their prostheses is required to ensure safe and comfortable assistance. Especially during dynamic turning manoeuvres, users experience high loads at the stump, which decreases comfort and may lead to long-term tissue damage. Preliminary experiments with users wearing a configurable, passive torsional adaptor indicate increased comfort and safety achieved by adaptation of torsional stiffness and foot alignment. Moreover, the results show that the individual preference regarding both parameters depend on gait situation and individual preference. Hence, measured loads in the structure of the prosthesis and subjective feedback regarding comfort and safety during different turning motions are considered in a user-specific human-machine interaction strategy for a prosthetic shank adaptor. Therefore, the interrelations of gait parameters with optimal configuration are stored in an individual preference-setting matrix. Stiffness and foot alignment are actively adjusted to the optimal parameters by a parallel elastic actuator. Two subjects reported that they experienced appropriate variation of stiffness and foot alignment, a noticeable reduction of load at the stump and that they could turn with less effort.

  13. The Scenario Approach to the Development of Strategy of Prevention of Raider Seizure for Machine-Building Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momot Tetiana V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes the methodical approach to the choice and substantiation of efficiency of managerial decisions on ensuring economic safety at counteraction of raiding, based on an intellectual instrumental analysis. The ranking of alternatives of managerial decisions on the basis of the received weighted estimates and their fuzzy composition is used. A graphical interpretation of the membership functions of the calculated fuzzy expected utilities of management alternatives for the machine-building enterprises has been constructed and is presented.

  14. A distributed parallel genetic algorithm of placement strategy for virtual machines deployment on cloud platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yu-Shuang; Xu, Gao-Chao; Fu, Xiao-Dong

    2014-01-01

    The cloud platform provides various services to users. More and more cloud centers provide infrastructure as the main way of operating. To improve the utilization rate of the cloud center and to decrease the operating cost, the cloud center provides services according to requirements of users by sharding the resources with virtualization. Considering both QoS for users and cost saving for cloud computing providers, we try to maximize performance and minimize energy cost as well. In this paper, we propose a distributed parallel genetic algorithm (DPGA) of placement strategy for virtual machines deployment on cloud platform. It executes the genetic algorithm parallelly and distributedly on several selected physical hosts in the first stage. Then it continues to execute the genetic algorithm of the second stage with solutions obtained from the first stage as the initial population. The solution calculated by the genetic algorithm of the second stage is the optimal one of the proposed approach. The experimental results show that the proposed placement strategy of VM deployment can ensure QoS for users and it is more effective and more energy efficient than other placement strategies on the cloud platform.

  15. A Distributed Parallel Genetic Algorithm of Placement Strategy for Virtual Machines Deployment on Cloud Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shuang Dong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The cloud platform provides various services to users. More and more cloud centers provide infrastructure as the main way of operating. To improve the utilization rate of the cloud center and to decrease the operating cost, the cloud center provides services according to requirements of users by sharding the resources with virtualization. Considering both QoS for users and cost saving for cloud computing providers, we try to maximize performance and minimize energy cost as well. In this paper, we propose a distributed parallel genetic algorithm (DPGA of placement strategy for virtual machines deployment on cloud platform. It executes the genetic algorithm parallelly and distributedly on several selected physical hosts in the first stage. Then it continues to execute the genetic algorithm of the second stage with solutions obtained from the first stage as the initial population. The solution calculated by the genetic algorithm of the second stage is the optimal one of the proposed approach. The experimental results show that the proposed placement strategy of VM deployment can ensure QoS for users and it is more effective and more energy efficient than other placement strategies on the cloud platform.

  16. Retrieving Tract Variables From Acoustics: A Comparison of Different Machine Learning Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Vikramjit; Nam, Hosung; Espy-Wilson, Carol Y; Saltzman, Elliot; Goldstein, Louis

    2010-09-13

    Many different studies have claimed that articulatory information can be used to improve the performance of automatic speech recognition systems. Unfortunately, such articulatory information is not readily available in typical speaker-listener situations. Consequently, such information has to be estimated from the acoustic signal in a process which is usually termed "speech-inversion." This study aims to propose and compare various machine learning strategies for speech inversion: Trajectory mixture density networks (TMDNs), feedforward artificial neural networks (FF-ANN), support vector regression (SVR), autoregressive artificial neural network (AR-ANN), and distal supervised learning (DSL). Further, using a database generated by the Haskins Laboratories speech production model, we test the claim that information regarding constrictions produced by the distinct organs of the vocal tract (vocal tract variables) is superior to flesh-point information (articulatory pellet trajectories) for the inversion process.

  17. Addressing health workforce distribution concerns: a discrete choice experiment to develop rural retention strategies in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robyn, Paul Jacob; Shroff, Zubin; Zang, Omer Ramses; Kingue, Samuel; Djienouassi, Sebastien; Kouontchou, Christian; Sorgho, Gaston

    2015-03-01

    Nearly every nation in the world faces shortages of health workers in remote areas. Cameroon is no exception to this. The Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) is currently considering several rural retention strategies to motivate qualified health personnel to practice in remote rural areas. To better calibrate these mechanisms and to develop evidence-based retention strategies that are attractive and motivating to health workers, a Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE) was conducted to examine what job attributes are most attractive and important to health workers when considering postings in remote areas. The study was carried out between July and August 2012 among 351 medical students, nursing students and health workers in Cameroon. Mixed logit models were used to analyze the data. Among medical and nursing students a rural retention bonus of 75% of base salary (aOR= 8.27, 95% CI: 5.28-12.96, Pimpact measurements were also estimated to identify combination of incentives that health workers would find most attractive. Based on these findings, the study recommends the introduction of a system of substantial monetary bonuses for rural service along with ensuring adequate and functional equipment and uninterrupted supplies. By focusing on the analysis of locally relevant, actionable incentives, generated through the involvement of policy-makers at the design stage, this study provides an example of research directly linked to policy action to address a vitally important issue in global health.

  18. The Relation of Students’ Choice of Private Higher Education and Marketing Strategies in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozbal Okai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Severe market conditions and advancing technology demand a well-planned and a strategic marketing approach in all sectors as well as in education sector. This study examined the relationship between the students’ choice and the marketing strategies of private higher education (HE in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BIH. To perceive this relation, we chose one of the private universities in Sarajevo. The study is based on a student survey which employed a questionnaire of 55 questions under 4 sub-groups and was done by 146 students. The first step of the questionnaire was determining the motives of the students to attend a private HE institution. The next part was to investigate the information sources of the students. These two steps followed the understanding of the evaluation criteria and the decision process of the students. Finally, the survey was concluded with the post enrollment observations of the students. The data obtained analyzed by SPSS software. The results revealed a strong consistency. The students were willing to have quality education and improve themselves via HE. They were using internet as a prior information source but would not make a final decision without parents’ confirmation. The overall satisfaction of the students showed that our subject university communicates with the target groups efficiently and enjoys the benefits of positive ‘word of mouth’ marketing. Finally, we addressed the marketing strategies that we reaped throughout the study to suggest a course of action to private HEIs in the conclusion part.

  19. Multi-objective reliability optimization of series-parallel systems with a choice of redundancy strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safari, Jalal

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a variant of the Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II) to solve a novel mathematical model for multi-objective redundancy allocation problems (MORAP). Most researchers about redundancy allocation problem (RAP) have focused on single objective optimization, while there has been some limited research which addresses multi-objective optimization. Also all mathematical multi-objective models of general RAP assume that the type of redundancy strategy for each subsystem is predetermined and known a priori. In general, active redundancy has traditionally received greater attention; however, in practice both active and cold-standby redundancies may be used within a particular system design. The choice of redundancy strategy then becomes an additional decision variable. Thus, the proposed model and solution method are to select the best redundancy strategy, type of components, and levels of redundancy for each subsystem that maximizes the system reliability and minimize total system cost under system-level constraints. This problem belongs to the NP-hard class. This paper presents a second-generation Multiple-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm (MOEA), named NSGA-II to find the best solution for the given problem. The proposed algorithm demonstrates the ability to identify a set of optimal solutions (Pareto front), which provides the Decision Maker (DM) with a complete picture of the optimal solution space. After finding the Pareto front, a procedure is used to select the best solution from the Pareto front. Finally, the advantages of the presented multi-objective model and of the proposed algorithm are illustrated by solving test problems taken from the literature and the robustness of the proposed NSGA-II is discussed.

  20. Mate choice when males are in patches: optimal strategies and good rules of thumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, John M C; Halupka, Konrad

    2004-11-07

    In standard mate-choice models, females encounter males sequentially and decide whether to inspect the quality of another male or to accept a male already inspected. What changes when males are clumped in patches and there is a significant cost to travel between patches? We use stochastic dynamic programming to derive optimum strategies under various assumptions. With zero costs to returning to a male in the current patch, the optimal strategy accepts males above a quality threshold which is constant whenever one or more males in the patch remain uninspected; this threshold drops when inspecting the last male in the patch, so returns may occur only then and are never to a male in a previously inspected patch. With non-zero within-patch return costs, such a two-threshold rule still performs extremely well, but a more gradual decline in acceptance threshold is optimal. Inability to return at all need not decrease performance by much. The acceptance threshold should also decline if it gets harder to discover the last males in a patch. Optimal strategies become more complex when mean male quality varies systematically between patches or years, and females estimate this in a Bayesian manner through inspecting male qualities. It can then be optimal to switch patch before inspecting all males on a patch, or, exceptionally, to return to an earlier patch. We compare performance of various rules of thumb in these environments and in ones without a patch structure. A two-threshold rule performs excellently, as do various simplifications of it. The best-of-N rule outperforms threshold rules only in non-patchy environments with between-year quality variation. The cutoff rule performs poorly.

  1. Consumer Acceptance of Population-Level Intervention Strategies for Healthy Food Choices: The Role of Perceived Effectiveness and Perceived Fairness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Bos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates acceptance of intervention strategies for low-calorie snack choices that vary regarding the effect they have on consumers’ freedom of choice (providing information, guiding choice through (disincentives, and restricting choice. We examine the mediating effects of perceived effectiveness and perceived fairness, and the moderating effects of barriers to choose low-calorie snacks and perceived responsibility for food choice. Data was collected through an online survey, involving three waves that were completed over a seven week timespan. Information was collected on barriers and perceived responsibility, and evaluations of a total of 128 intervention strategies with varying levels of intrusiveness that were further systematically varied in terms of source, location, approach/avoidance, type, and severity. A total of 1173 respondents completed all three waves. We found that the effect of intervention intrusiveness on acceptance was mediated by the perceived personal- and societal effectiveness, and the perceived fairness of interventions. For barriers and perceived responsibility, only main effects on intervention-specific beliefs were found. Government interventions were accepted less than interventions by food manufacturers. In conclusion, the present study shows that acceptance of interventions depends on perceptions of personal- and societal effectiveness and fairness, thereby providing novel starting points for increasing acceptance of both existing and new food choice interventions.

  2. Consumer Acceptance of Population-Level Intervention Strategies for Healthy Food Choices: The Role of Perceived Effectiveness and Perceived Fairness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Colin; Van Der Lans, Ivo; Van Rijnsoever, Frank; Van Trijp, Hans

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates acceptance of intervention strategies for low-calorie snack choices that vary regarding the effect they have on consumers’ freedom of choice (providing information, guiding choice through (dis)incentives, and restricting choice). We examine the mediating effects of perceived effectiveness and perceived fairness, and the moderating effects of barriers to choose low-calorie snacks and perceived responsibility for food choice. Data was collected through an online survey, involving three waves that were completed over a seven week timespan. Information was collected on barriers and perceived responsibility, and evaluations of a total of 128 intervention strategies with varying levels of intrusiveness that were further systematically varied in terms of source, location, approach/avoidance, type, and severity. A total of 1173 respondents completed all three waves. We found that the effect of intervention intrusiveness on acceptance was mediated by the perceived personal- and societal effectiveness, and the perceived fairness of interventions. For barriers and perceived responsibility, only main effects on intervention-specific beliefs were found. Government interventions were accepted less than interventions by food manufacturers. In conclusion, the present study shows that acceptance of interventions depends on perceptions of personal- and societal effectiveness and fairness, thereby providing novel starting points for increasing acceptance of both existing and new food choice interventions. PMID:26389949

  3. Consumer Acceptance of Population-Level Intervention Strategies for Healthy Food Choices: The Role of Perceived Effectiveness and Perceived Fairness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Colin; Lans, Ivo Van Der; Van Rijnsoever, Frank; Van Trijp, Hans

    2015-09-15

    The present study investigates acceptance of intervention strategies for low-calorie snack choices that vary regarding the effect they have on consumers' freedom of choice (providing information, guiding choice through (dis)incentives, and restricting choice). We examine the mediating effects of perceived effectiveness and perceived fairness, and the moderating effects of barriers to choose low-calorie snacks and perceived responsibility for food choice. Data was collected through an online survey, involving three waves that were completed over a seven week timespan. Information was collected on barriers and perceived responsibility, and evaluations of a total of 128 intervention strategies with varying levels of intrusiveness that were further systematically varied in terms of source, location, approach/avoidance, type, and severity. A total of 1173 respondents completed all three waves. We found that the effect of intervention intrusiveness on acceptance was mediated by the perceived personal- and societal effectiveness, and the perceived fairness of interventions. For barriers and perceived responsibility, only main effects on intervention-specific beliefs were found. Government interventions were accepted less than interventions by food manufacturers. In conclusion, the present study shows that acceptance of interventions depends on perceptions of personal- and societal effectiveness and fairness, thereby providing novel starting points for increasing acceptance of both existing and new food choice interventions.

  4. Linkage studies on Gilles de la Tourette syndrome: What is the strategy of choice?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heutink, P.; Wetering, J.M. van de; Oostra, B.A. [Erasmus Univ. Rotterdam (Netherlands)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    For a linkage study it is important to ascertain family material that is sufficiently informative. The statistical power of linkage sample can be determined via computer simulation. For complex traits uncertain parameters such as incomplete penetrance, frequency of phenocopies, gene frequency and variable expression have to be taken into account. One can either include only the most severe phenotype in the analysis or apply multiple linkage tests for a gradually broadened disease phenotype. Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a chronic neurological disorder characterized by multiple, intermittent motor and vocal tics. Segregation analyses suggests that GTS and milder phenotypes are caused by a single dominant gene. We report here the results of an extensive simulation study on a large set of families. We compared the effectiveness of linkage tests with only the GTS phenotype versus multiple tests that included various milder phenotypes and different gene frequencies. The scenario of multiple tests yielded superior power. Our results show that computer simulation can indicate the strategy of choice in linkage studies of multiple, complex phenotypes. 33 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Food choice as a key management strategy for functional gastrointestinal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Peter R; Shepherd, Susan J

    2012-05-01

    Recognition of food components that induce functional gut symptoms in patient's functional bowel disorders (FBD) has been challenging. Food directly or indirectly provides considerable afferent input into the enteric nervous system. There is an altered relationship between the afferent input and perception/efferent response in FBD. Defining the nature of food-related stimuli may provide a means of minimizing such an input and gut symptoms. Using this premise, reducing the intake of FODMAPs (fermentable oligo-, di-, and mono-saccharides and polyols)--poorly absorbed short-chain carbohydrates that, by virtue of their small molecular size and rapid fermentability, will distend the intestinal lumen with liquid and gas--improves symptoms in the majority of patients. Well-developed methodologies to deliver the diet via dietician-led education are available. Another abundant source of afferent input is natural and added food chemicals (such as salicylates, amines, and glutamates). Studies are needed to assess the efficacy of the low food chemical dietary approach. A recent placebo-controlled trial of FODMAP-poor gluten provided the first valid evidence that non-celiac gluten intolerance might actually exist, but its prevalence and underlying mechanisms require elucidation. Food choice via the low FODMAP and potentially other dietary strategies is now a realistic and efficacious therapeutic approach for functional gut symptoms.

  6. Objective function choice for control of a thermocapillary flow using an adjoint-based control strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muldoon, Frank H.; Kuhlmann, Hendrik C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Suppression of oscillations in a thermocapillary flow is addressed by optimization. • The gradient of the objective function is obtained by solving the adjoint equations. • The issue of choosing an objective function is investigated. - Abstract: The problem of suppressing flow oscillations in a thermocapillary flow is addressed using a gradient-based control strategy. The physical problem addressed is the “open boat” process of crystal growth, the flow in which is driven by thermocapillary and buoyancy effects. The problem is modeled by the two-dimensional unsteady incompressible Navier–Stokes and energy equations under the Boussinesq approximation. The goal of the control is to suppress flow oscillations which arise when the driving forces are such that the flow becomes unsteady. The control is a spatially and temporally varying temperature gradient boundary condition at the free surface. The control which minimizes the flow oscillations is found using a conjugate gradient method, where the gradient of the objective function with respect to the control variables is obtained from solving a set of adjoint equations. The issue of choosing an objective function that can be both optimized in a computationally efficient manner and optimization of which provides control that damps the flow oscillations is investigated. Almost complete suppression of the flow oscillations is obtained for certain choices of the objective function.

  7. Food choices coping strategies of eating disorder patients' parents: what happens when both mother and father work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jáuregui-Lobera, I; Ruiz-Prieto, I; Bolaños-Ríos, P; Garrido-Casals, O

    2013-11-01

    Recently, it has been reported that food choices of relatives of eating disorder (ED) patients are not adequate having in mind a healthy model of eating habits. The aim of this study was to analyse how work conditions relate to parents' food choice coping strategies in both families with a member suffering from an ED and families with no sick members. In addition, the differences in those strategies between the two types of working parents were studied. A total of 80 employed fathers (n = 27) and mothers (n = 53) of patients with an ED (n =50) and healthy offsprings (n = 30) were interviewed. The mean age was 43.57 ± 5.69 and they had moderate incomes. Food choice coping strategies, used by working parents to integrate work and family demands, were measured by means of 22 items included in five categories. Considering the food choice coping strategies, ED patients' relatives show better skills than relatives of healthy offsprings do. The fact of preparing more meals at home and less fast food as main meal are good examples of those better strategies as well as to miss less number of breakfasts and lunches because of work-family conflict, grabbing less frequently and overeat less after missing a meal. The therapeutic effort to improve the food choices of ED patients' relatives, especially when both father and mother work, are a key point to improve the eating habits of ED patients, thus contributing to a better outcome. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  8. Spectral methods in machine learning and new strategies for very large datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belabbas, Mohamed-Ali; Wolfe, Patrick J.

    2009-01-01

    Spectral methods are of fundamental importance in statistics and machine learning, because they underlie algorithms from classical principal components analysis to more recent approaches that exploit manifold structure. In most cases, the core technical problem can be reduced to computing a low-rank approximation to a positive-definite kernel. For the growing number of applications dealing with very large or high-dimensional datasets, however, the optimal approximation afforded by an exact spectral decomposition is too costly, because its complexity scales as the cube of either the number of training examples or their dimensionality. Motivated by such applications, we present here 2 new algorithms for the approximation of positive-semidefinite kernels, together with error bounds that improve on results in the literature. We approach this problem by seeking to determine, in an efficient manner, the most informative subset of our data relative to the kernel approximation task at hand. This leads to two new strategies based on the Nyström method that are directly applicable to massive datasets. The first of these—based on sampling—leads to a randomized algorithm whereupon the kernel induces a probability distribution on its set of partitions, whereas the latter approach—based on sorting—provides for the selection of a partition in a deterministic way. We detail their numerical implementation and provide simulation results for a variety of representative problems in statistical data analysis, each of which demonstrates the improved performance of our approach relative to existing methods. PMID:19129490

  9. Behavioral Contexts, Food-Choice Coping Strategies, and Dietary Quality of a Multiethnic Sample of Employed Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Christine E.; Wethington, Elaine; Farrell, Tracy J.; Bisogni, Carole A.; Devine, Carol M.

    2012-01-01

    Employed parents’ work and family conditions provide behavioral contexts for their food choices. Relationships between employed parents’ food-choice coping strategies, behavioral contexts, and dietary quality were evaluated. Data on work and family conditions, sociodemographic characteristics, eating behavior, and dietary intake from two 24-hour dietary recalls were collected in a random sample cross-sectional pilot telephone survey in the fall of 2006. Black, white, and Latino employed mothers (n=25) and fathers (n=25) were recruited from a low/moderate income urban area in upstate New York. Hierarchical cluster analysis (Ward’s method) identified three clusters of parents differing in use of food-choice coping strategies (ie, Individualized Eating, Missing Meals, and Home Cooking). Cluster sociodemographic, work, and family characteristics were compared using χ2 and Fisher’s exact tests. Cluster differences in dietary quality (Healthy Eating Index 2005) were analyzed using analysis of variance. Clusters differed significantly (P≤0.05) on food-choice coping strategies, dietary quality, and behavioral contexts (ie, work schedule, marital status, partner’s employment, and number of children). Individualized Eating and Missing Meals clusters were characterized by nonstandard work hours, having a working partner, single parenthood and with family meals away from home, grabbing quick food instead of a meal, using convenience entrées at home, and missing meals or individualized eating. The Home Cooking cluster included considerably more married fathers with nonemployed spouses and more home-cooked family meals. Food-choice coping strategies affecting dietary quality reflect parents’ work and family conditions. Nutritional guidance and family policy needs to consider these important behavioral contexts for family nutrition and health. PMID:21338739

  10. Addressing Health Workforce Distribution Concerns: A Discrete Choice Experiment to Develop Rural Retention Strategies in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Jacob Robyn

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Nearly every nation in the world faces shortages of health workers in remote areas. Cameroon is no exception to this. The Ministry of Public Health (MoPH is currently considering several rural retention strategies to motivate qualified health personnel to practice in remote rural areas. Methods To better calibrate these mechanisms and to develop evidence-based retention strategies that are attractive and motivating to health workers, a Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE was conducted to examine what job attributes are most attractive and important to health workers when considering postings in remote areas. The study was carried out between July and August 2012 among 351 medical students, nursing students and health workers in Cameroon. Mixed logit models were used to analyze the data. Results Among medical and nursing students a rural retention bonus of 75% of base salary (aOR= 8.27, 95% CI: 5.28-12.96, P< 0.001 and improved health facility infrastructure (aOR= 3.54, 95% CI: 2.73-4.58 respectively were the attributes with the largest effect sizes. Among medical doctors and nurse aides, a rural retention bonus of 75% of base salary was the attribute with the largest effect size (medical doctors aOR= 5.60, 95% CI: 4.12-7.61, P< 0.001; nurse aides aOR= 4.29, 95% CI: 3.11-5.93, P< 0.001. On the other hand, improved health facility infrastructure (aOR= 3.56, 95% CI: 2.75-4.60, P< 0.001, was the attribute with the largest effect size among the state registered nurses surveyed. Willingness-to-Pay (WTP estimates were generated for each health worker cadre for all the attributes. Preference impact measurements were also estimated to identify combination of incentives that health workers would find most attractive. Conclusion Based on these findings, the study recommends the introduction of a system of substantial monetary bonuses for rural service along with ensuring adequate and functional equipment and uninterrupted supplies. By focusing on

  11. Detecting epileptic seizure with different feature extracting strategies using robust machine learning classification techniques by applying advance parameter optimization approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Lal

    2018-06-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder produced due to abnormal excitability of neurons in the brain. The research reveals that brain activity is monitored through electroencephalogram (EEG) of patients suffered from seizure to detect the epileptic seizure. The performance of EEG detection based epilepsy require feature extracting strategies. In this research, we have extracted varying features extracting strategies based on time and frequency domain characteristics, nonlinear, wavelet based entropy and few statistical features. A deeper study was undertaken using novel machine learning classifiers by considering multiple factors. The support vector machine kernels are evaluated based on multiclass kernel and box constraint level. Likewise, for K-nearest neighbors (KNN), we computed the different distance metrics, Neighbor weights and Neighbors. Similarly, the decision trees we tuned the paramours based on maximum splits and split criteria and ensemble classifiers are evaluated based on different ensemble methods and learning rate. For training/testing tenfold Cross validation was employed and performance was evaluated in form of TPR, NPR, PPV, accuracy and AUC. In this research, a deeper analysis approach was performed using diverse features extracting strategies using robust machine learning classifiers with more advanced optimal options. Support Vector Machine linear kernel and KNN with City block distance metric give the overall highest accuracy of 99.5% which was higher than using the default parameters for these classifiers. Moreover, highest separation (AUC = 0.9991, 0.9990) were obtained at different kernel scales using SVM. Additionally, the K-nearest neighbors with inverse squared distance weight give higher performance at different Neighbors. Moreover, to distinguish the postictal heart rate oscillations from epileptic ictal subjects, and highest performance of 100% was obtained using different machine learning classifiers.

  12. Substantiating Recommendations on the Choice of an Efficient Strategy of the State Regulation for System of Monitoring Economy Branches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashchaulov Vitalii V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with substantiating recommendations on the choice of an effective strategy of the State regulation for system of monitoring economy branches. To display the financial aspect of the enterprise's strategic positioning in the sectoral environment, a modified ADL matrix was used. A matrix of choosing an optimum variant (scenario of the enterprise's financial strategy has been considered taking into account possibilities of its use in the system of monitoring the development of economic sectors. Disadvantages in the use of modified ADL matrices and in choosing an optimum variant (scenario financial strategy of the enterprise's financial strategy have been identified. Factors of internal and external environment, which affect the strategic choice of enterprises, have been determined and analyzed. The SPACE matrix for building the model of choosing a strategy of financing the development of enterprises in the economy branches has been modified in the context of the system of monitoring the development of economy branches. A description of the strategies proposed by author for financing the development of enterprise has been provided, their advantages and disadvantages have been determined. Individual tools of the proposed models of actions can be accepted as a way of improving the strategic positions with a view to achieving a higher quantitative-qualitative situation as well as adjustment of the existing model of behavior.

  13. Big Data Analytics and Machine Intelligence Capability Development at NASA Langley Research Center: Strategy, Roadmap, and Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambur, Manjula Y.; Yagle, Jeremy J.; Reith, William; McLarney, Edward

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, a team of researchers, engineers and information technology specialists at NASA Langley Research Center developed a Big Data Analytics and Machine Intelligence Strategy and Roadmap as part of Langley's Comprehensive Digital Transformation Initiative, with the goal of identifying the goals, objectives, initiatives, and recommendations need to develop near-, mid- and long-term capabilities for data analytics and machine intelligence in aerospace domains. Since that time, significant progress has been made in developing pilots and projects in several research, engineering, and scientific domains by following the original strategy of collaboration between mission support organizations, mission organizations, and external partners from universities and industry. This report summarizes the work to date in Data Intensive Scientific Discovery, Deep Content Analytics, and Deep Q&A projects, as well as the progress made in collaboration, outreach, and education. Recommendations for continuing this success into future phases of the initiative are also made.

  14. Which Infidelity Type Makes You More Jealous? Decision Strategies in a Forced-Choice between Sexual and Emotional Infidelity

    OpenAIRE

    Achim Schützwohl

    2004-01-01

    This study tested the prediction derived from the evolutionary psychological analysis of jealousy that men and women selecting the adaptively primary infidelity type (i.e., female sexual and male emotional infidelity, respectively) in a forced-choice response format need to engage in less elaborate decision strategies than men and women selecting the adaptively secondary infidelity type (i.e., male sexual and female emotional infidelity, respectively). Unknown to the participants, decision ti...

  15. Which Infidelity Type Makes You More Jealous? Decision Strategies in a Forced-Choice between Sexual and Emotional Infidelity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achim Schützwohl

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the prediction derived from the evolutionary psychological analysis of jealousy that men and women selecting the adaptively primary infidelity type (i.e., female sexual and male emotional infidelity, respectively in a forced-choice response format need to engage in less elaborate decision strategies than men and women selecting the adaptively secondary infidelity type (i.e., male sexual and female emotional infidelity, respectively. Unknown to the participants, decision times were registered as an index of the elaborateness of their decision strategies. The results clearly support the prediction. Implications and limitations of the present findings are discussed.

  16. A strategy for man-machine system development in process industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirstad, J.

    1986-12-01

    A framework for Man-Machine System design in process industry projects is reported. It is based in the Guidelines for the Design of Man-Machine interfaces which have been generated in cooperation within the European Workshop for Industrial Computer Systems (EWICS). The application of EWICS Guidelines in industrial projects is demonstrated by six User Scenarios, which represent typical projects from different industries, e.g. electrical power generation and distribution, water control, pulp and paper production, oil and gas production. In all these projects Man-Machine System design has been conducted. It is recommended in the report that each Company develops its set of Man-Machine Systems Standard techniques/procedures. At present there are several techniques/procedures available which, for moderate costs, can be adapted to specific Company conditions. A menu of such Man-Machine System techniques/procedures is presented. Means of estimating the costs and benefits of Man-Machine System design are also described. (author)

  17. Different strategy of hand choice after learning of constant and incremental dynamical perturbation in arm reaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chie eHabagishi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In daily life, we encounter situations where we must quickly decide which hand to use for a motor action. Here, we investigated whether the hand chosen for a motor action varied over a short timescale (i.e., hours with changes in arm dynamics. Participants performed a reaching task in which they moved a specified hand to reach a target on a virtual reality display. During the task, a resistive viscous force field was abruptly applied to only the dominant hand. To evaluate changes in hand choice caused by this perturbation, participants performed an interleaved choice test in which they could freely choose either hand for reaching. Furthermore, to investigate the effect of temporal changes on arm dynamics and hand choice, we exposed the same participants to another condition in which the force field was introduced gradually. When the abrupt force was applied, use of the perturbed hand significantly decreased and not changed during the training. In contrast, when the incremental force was applied, use of the perturbed hand gradually decreased as force increased. Surprisingly, even though the final amount of force was identical between the two conditions, hand choice was significantly biased toward the unperturbed hand in the gradual condition. These results suggest that time-varying changes in arm dynamics may have a greater influence on hand choice than the amplitude of the resistant force itself.

  18. How do Framing Strategies Influence the User's Choice of Content on the Web?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Constantiou, Ioanna; Hoebel, Natascha; Zicari, Roberto V.

    2012-01-01

    A Web user is exposed to a large number of information services available from different sources. Online news is offered combined with relevant service attributes such as pictures, small text, users' recommendations, etc. We previously investigated the Web user's choice of online news, focusing...

  19. A Novel Machine Learning Strategy Based on Two-Dimensional Numerical Models in Financial Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingzhen Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Machine learning is the most commonly used technique to address larger and more complex tasks by analyzing the most relevant information already present in databases. In order to better predict the future trend of the index, this paper proposes a two-dimensional numerical model for machine learning to simulate major U.S. stock market index and uses a nonlinear implicit finite-difference method to find numerical solutions of the two-dimensional simulation model. The proposed machine learning method uses partial differential equations to predict the stock market and can be extensively used to accelerate large-scale data processing on the history database. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm reduces the prediction error and improves forecasting precision.

  20. Drug choice as a self-handicapping strategy in response to noncontingent success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglas, S; Jones, E E

    1978-04-01

    In two closely related experiments, college student subjects were instructed to choose between a drug that allegedly interfered with performance and a drug that allegedly enhanced performance. This choice was the main dependent measure of the experiment. The drug choice intervened between work on soluble or insoluble problems and a promised retest on similar problems. In Experiment 1, all subjects received success feedback after their initial problem-solving attempts, thus creating one condition in which the success appeared to be accidental (noncontingent on performance) and one in which the success appeared to be contingent on appropriate knowledge. Males in the noncontingent-success condition were alone in preferring the performance-inhibiting drug, presumably because they wished to externalize probable failure on the retest. The predicted effect, however, did not hold for female subjects. Experiment 2 replicated the unique preference shown by males after noncontingent success and showed the critical importance of success feedback.

  1. Strategies in electro-chemical machining of tungsten for divertor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauss, W.; Holstein, N.; Konys, J.

    2007-01-01

    For future application in a fusion power system a modular structured He cooled divertor concept is investigated under the framework of EFDA which is based on the use of pure W or W alloys for the thermally highly loaded parts. Due to the underlying physico-chemical principles electro-chemical machining (ECM) is the only shaping process which will not introduce microstructural defects, e.g. microcracks into work pieces as known by example from electro-discharge machining (EDM). However, ECM processes have no industrial application in W machining up to yet due to passivation effects using standard electrolytes known from steel working. Therefore, a systematical electrochemical development program was launched, and the electrochemical behavior of W was examined and passivation effects could be eliminated, successfully. The electrochemical shaping processes can be divided into two main categories. The first one is M-ECM, which represents the lithographic route based on structured anode masks, and the other is C-ECM, working with a negatively structured cathode as tool which is copied by electro-chemical dissolution. Both ECM branches are discussed on base of first machined structured parts, showing their process depending advantages and potential enhancements are revealed by applying pulsed currents instead of DC dissolution technique

  2. The impact of two multiple-choice question formats on the problem-solving strategies used by novices and experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coderre, Sylvain P; Harasym, Peter; Mandin, Henry; Fick, Gordon

    2004-11-05

    Pencil-and-paper examination formats, and specifically the standard, five-option multiple-choice question, have often been questioned as a means for assessing higher-order clinical reasoning or problem solving. This study firstly investigated whether two paper formats with differing number of alternatives (standard five-option and extended-matching questions) can test problem-solving abilities. Secondly, the impact of the alternatives number on psychometrics and problem-solving strategies was examined. Think-aloud protocols were collected to determine the problem-solving strategy used by experts and non-experts in answering Gastroenterology questions, across the two pencil-and-paper formats. The two formats demonstrated equal ability in testing problem-solving abilities, while the number of alternatives did not significantly impact psychometrics or problem-solving strategies utilized. These results support the notion that well-constructed multiple-choice questions can in fact test higher order clinical reasoning. Furthermore, it can be concluded that in testing clinical reasoning, the question stem, or content, remains more important than the number of alternatives.

  3. Human Reliability and the Current Dilemma in Human-Machine Interface Design Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passalacqua, Roberto; Yamada, Fumiaki

    2002-01-01

    Since human error dominates the probability of failures of still-existing human-requiring systems (as the Monju reactor), the human-machine interface needs to be improved. Several rationales may lead to the conclusion that 'humans' should limit themselves to monitor the 'machine'. For example, this is the trend in the aviation industry: newest aircrafts are designed to be able to return to a safe state by the use of control systems, which do not need human intervention. Thus, the dilemma whether we really need operators (for example in the nuclear industry) might arise. However, social-technical approaches in recent human error analyses are pointing out the so-called 'organizational errors' and the importance of a human-machine interface harmonization. Typically plant's operators are a 'redundant' safety system with a much lower reliability (than the machine): organizational factors and harmonization requirements suggest designing the human-machine interface in a way that allows improvement of operator's reliability. In addition, taxonomy studies of accident databases have also proved that operators' training should promote processes of decision-making. This is accomplished in the latest trends of PSA technology by introducing the concept of a 'Safety Monitor' that is a computer-based tool that uses a level 1 PSA model of the plant. Operators and maintenance schedulers of the Monju FBR will be able to perform real-time estimations of the plant risk level. The main benefits are risk awareness and improvements in decision-making by operators. Also scheduled maintenance can be approached in a more rational (safe and economic) way. (authors)

  4. Mate choice for major histocompatibility complex genetic divergence as a bet-hedging strategy in the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Melissa L.; Dionne, Mélanie; Miller, Kristina M.; Bernatchez, Louis

    2012-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-dependent mating preferences have been observed across vertebrate taxa and these preferences are expected to promote offspring disease resistance and ultimately, viability. However, little empirical evidence linking MHC-dependent mate choice and fitness is available, particularly in wild populations. Here, we explore the adaptive potential of previously observed patterns of MHC-dependent mate choice in a wild population of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Québec, Canada, by examining the relationship between MHC genetic variation and adult reproductive success and offspring survival over 3 years of study. While Atlantic salmon choose their mates in order to increase MHC diversity in offspring, adult reproductive success was in fact maximized between pairs exhibiting an intermediate level of MHC dissimilarity. Moreover, patterns of offspring survival between years 0+ and 1+, and 1+ and 2+ and population genetic structure at the MHC locus relative to microsatellite loci indicate that strong temporal variation in selection is likely to be operating on the MHC. We interpret MHC-dependent mate choice for diversity as a likely bet-hedging strategy that maximizes parental fitness in the face of temporally variable and unpredictable natural selection pressures. PMID:21697172

  5. Maintenance Strategies to Reduce Downtime Due to\\ud Machine Positional Errors

    OpenAIRE

    Shagluf, Abubaker; Longstaff, Andrew P.; Fletcher, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Manufacturing strives to reduce waste and increase\\ud Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE). When managing machine tool maintenance a manufacturer must apply an appropriate decision technique in order to reveal hidden costs associated with production losses, reduce equipment downtime\\ud competently and similarly identify the machines’ performance.\\ud Total productive maintenance (TPM) is a maintenance program that involves concepts for maintaining plant and equipment effectively. OEE is a pow...

  6. [Influence of learning styles of nursing students on teaching strategies choice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacas Pérez, Juan Crisostomo; Mérida Serrano, Rosario; Molina Recio, Guillermo; Mesa Blanco, María del Pilar

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this research focuses on the framework of teaching strategies, by acknowledging learning styles as first determination and, in relation to the changes that these are going through, identifying the teaching strategies best rated and preferred by the students. This is a prospective open cohort study with the students of Nursing Diploma 2007/2010 of the Universidad de Córdoba. Once the population was identified in the first year (first analysis), annual measurings were undertaken every year during their training. In order to study the learning styles, the questionnaire CHAEA was administered and a scale from 1 to 10 (1 = highest, 10 = lowest) was used to determine the preferences for learning strategies. The results show the variability of the learner (up to 11 styles). However, the dominant style is the reflective, followed by the theoretical and the pragmatic. The least developed was the active style. As the years of training go by, a tendency towards a dual style (reflective-theoretical) can be observed. In relation to teaching strategies, the preferred ones were those set in professional areas, workshops and debates. Relevant changes were also seen as they advanced in their training. The results establish a specific significant relationship between learning styles and teaching strategies.

  7. Choice of conflict resolution strategy is linked to sociability in dog puppies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemer, Stefanie; Müller, Corsin; Virányi, Zsófia; Huber, Ludwig; Range, Friederike

    2013-12-01

    Measures that are likely to increase sociability in dog puppies, such as appropriate socialisation, are considered important in preventing future fear or aggression related problems. However, the interplay between sociability and conflict behaviour has rarely been investigated. Moreover, while many studies have addressed aggression in domestic dogs, alternative, non-aggressive conflict resolution strategies have received less scientific attention. Here we tested 134 Border collie puppies, aged 40-50 days, in a personality test which included friendly interactions with an unfamiliar person, exposure to a novel object, and three brief restraint tests. Considering the latter to be mild 'conflict' situations, we analysed whether the puppies' behaviour in the restraint tests was related to their sociability or to their boldness towards the novel object. Strategies employed by the puppies during restraint tests included trying to interact socially with the experimenter, remaining passive, and attempting to move away. In line with findings from humans and goats, puppies scoring high on sociability were more likely to adopt an interactive conflict resolution strategy, while those with low sociability scores tended to react passively. In contrast, avoidance behaviours were unrelated to sociability, possibly reflecting inconsistency in the flight strategy in dogs. Boldness towards a novel object was not related to sociability or to puppies' reactions in restraint tests. This is one of the first studies to demonstrate a link between sociability and conflict resolution strategies in non-human animals.

  8. Reliability optimization of series-parallel systems with a choice of redundancy strategies using a genetic algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavakkoli-Moghaddam, R. [Department of Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11365/4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)], E-mail: tavakoli@ut.ac.ir; Safari, J. [Department of Industrial Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: jalalsafari@pideco.com; Sassani, F. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)], E-mail: sassani@mech.ubc.ca

    2008-04-15

    This paper proposes a genetic algorithm (GA) for a redundancy allocation problem for the series-parallel system when the redundancy strategy can be chosen for individual subsystems. Majority of the solution methods for the general redundancy allocation problems assume that the redundancy strategy for each subsystem is predetermined and fixed. In general, active redundancy has received more attention in the past. However, in practice both active and cold-standby redundancies may be used within a particular system design and the choice of the redundancy strategy becomes an additional decision variable. Thus, the problem is to select the best redundancy strategy, component, and redundancy level for each subsystem in order to maximize the system reliability under system-level constraints. This belongs to the NP-hard class of problems. Due to its complexity, it is so difficult to optimally solve such a problem by using traditional optimization tools. It is demonstrated in this paper that GA is an efficient method for solving this type of problems. Finally, computational results for a typical scenario are presented and the robustness of the proposed algorithm is discussed.

  9. Reliability optimization of series-parallel systems with a choice of redundancy strategies using a genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavakkoli-Moghaddam, R.; Safari, J.; Sassani, F.

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a genetic algorithm (GA) for a redundancy allocation problem for the series-parallel system when the redundancy strategy can be chosen for individual subsystems. Majority of the solution methods for the general redundancy allocation problems assume that the redundancy strategy for each subsystem is predetermined and fixed. In general, active redundancy has received more attention in the past. However, in practice both active and cold-standby redundancies may be used within a particular system design and the choice of the redundancy strategy becomes an additional decision variable. Thus, the problem is to select the best redundancy strategy, component, and redundancy level for each subsystem in order to maximize the system reliability under system-level constraints. This belongs to the NP-hard class of problems. Due to its complexity, it is so difficult to optimally solve such a problem by using traditional optimization tools. It is demonstrated in this paper that GA is an efficient method for solving this type of problems. Finally, computational results for a typical scenario are presented and the robustness of the proposed algorithm is discussed

  10. Strategic Choices of Finnish Universities in the Light of General Strategy Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoma, Mikko; Risikko, Tanja; Erkkilä, Paula

    2016-01-01

    This study examines university strategies from the content perspective. Since the early 1980s, the pressure to adopt strategic management in universities and other higher education institutions has increased because of issues including reduced public funding, pressures and possibilities for internationalization, developments in teaching…

  11. The Influence of Individual and Situational Factors on Children's Choice of a Conflict Management Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamm, Anni; Tõugu, Pirko; Tulviste, Tiia

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of individual and situational factors on nursery school children's conflict management strategies. This observational study of triadic interaction was carried out among 69 children whose mean age was 48 months. The video-recorded data were coded for the type of…

  12. A comprehensive dwelling unit choice model accommodating psychological constructs within a search strategy for consideration set formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This study adopts a dwelling unit level of analysis and considers a probabilistic choice set generation approach for residential choice modeling. In doing so, we accommodate the fact that housing choices involve both characteristics of the dwelling u...

  13. Healthier choices in an Australian health service: a pre-post audit of an intervention to improve the nutritional value of foods and drinks in vending machines and food outlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Colin; Pond, Nicole; Davies, Lynda; Francis, Jeryl Lynn; Campbell, Elizabeth; Wiggers, John

    2013-11-25

    Vending machines and shops located within health care facilities are a source of food and drinks for staff, visitors and outpatients and they have the potential to promote healthy food and drink choices. This paper describes perceptions of parents and managers of health-service located food outlets towards the availability and labelling of healthier food options and the food and drinks offered for sale in health care facilities in Australia. It also describes the impact of an intervention to improve availability and labelling of healthier foods and drinks for sale. Parents (n = 168) and food outlet managers (n = 17) were surveyed. Food and drinks for sale in health-service operated food outlets (n = 5) and vending machines (n = 90) in health care facilities in the Hunter New England region of NSW were audited pre (2007) and post (2010/11) the introduction of policy and associated support to increase the availability of healthier choices. A traffic light system was used to classify foods from least (red) to most healthy choices (green). Almost all (95%) parents and most (65%) food outlet managers thought food outlets on health service sites should have signs clearly showing healthy choices. Parents (90%) also thought all food outlets on health service sites should provide mostly healthy items compared to 47% of managers. The proportion of healthier beverage slots in vending machines increased from 29% to 51% at follow-up and the proportion of machines that labelled healthier drinks increased from 0 to 26%. No outlets labelled healthier items at baseline compared to 4 out of 5 after the intervention. No changes were observed in the availability or labelling of healthier food in vending machines or the availability of healthier food or drinks in food outlets. Baseline availability and labelling of healthier food and beverage choices for sale in health care facilities was poor in spite of the support of parents and outlet managers for such initiatives. The intervention

  14. The choice of nuclear material measurement strategy in bulk-form in material balance area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, V.M.; Sergeev, S.A.; Kirsanov, V.S.

    1999-01-01

    Concepts have been defined such as Shipment batch, Technological batch, and Accounting batch, it has been found that Shipment and Technological batches should be formed through the arrangement of group of measured Accounting batches. The strategy for nuclear material (NM) measurement based on the Accounting batch is shown to give a possibility to use the advantages for the accounting purposes: ensure safeguards of non-diversion of NM at quantitative (numerical) level, which is a higher grade of safeguards compared to the systems of accounting and control now in force of the US and EURATOM; ensure a guaranteed accuracy and reliability (confidence level) when making up NM balance in Material Balance Area (MBA) and at Federal level, which has been realized only in part in the NM control and accounting systems. Strategy of NM measurement for MBAs counting NM in bulk form has been proposed [ru

  15. Ukrainian Nuclear Society International Conference 'Strategy of the nuclear power development: The choice of Ukraine'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishnevskij, I.N.; Trofimenko, A.P.

    2001-01-01

    Abstracts of the papers presented at the International Conference of the Ukrainian Nuclear Society 'Strategy of the nuclear power development'. The following problems are considered: present situation with the nuclear power and its safety; nuclear fuel cycle development; waste and spent nuclear fuel management; reactors' decommissioning issues; modernization of the NPP with WWER reactors; future reactors; economics of nuclear power; safety culture; legal and regulatory framework, state nuclear regulatory control; PR in nuclear power industry; staff training

  16. The competitive advantage of nations and choice of entry strategies : a three scenario case study

    OpenAIRE

    Helvik, Marianne; Harnecker, Maria Luisa Garrido

    2005-01-01

    Michael E. Porter’s Diamond framework has been used as an analysis tool the last 15 years to define the competitive advantage of nations, but few researchers have discussed if there is a link between the Diamond framework and how international firms can pursue the best entry mode. Different variables will be presented linking the Diamond framework to entry strategies, designing an extended framework. Three case scenarios are used for analysis purposes; the first two originating in Porter’s Di...

  17. The Milling Assistant, Case-Based Reasoning, and machining strategy: A report on the development of automated numerical control programming systems at New Mexico State University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burd, W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Culler, D.; Eskridge, T.; Cox, L.; Slater, T. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States)

    1993-08-01

    The Milling Assistant (MA) programming system demonstrates the automated development of tool paths for Numerical Control (NC) machine tools. By integrating a Case-Based Reasoning decision processor with a commercial CAD/CAM software, intelligent tool path files for milled and point-to-point features can be created. The operational system is capable of reducing the time required to program a variety of parts and improving product quality by collecting and utilizing ``best of practice`` machining strategies.

  18. Relative thinking in consumer choice between differentiated goods and services and its implications for business strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofer H. Azar

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article shows that when people consider differentiated goods or services that differ in price and quality, they exhibit a decision-making bias of ``relative thinking'': relative price differences affect them even when economic theory suggests that only absolute price differences matter. This result is obtained in four different consumption categories. Sometimes subjects are affected only by relative price differences (``full relative thinking'' and sometimes also by absolute price differences (``partial relative thinking''. This behavior has implications for various disciplines, and it is particularly relevant in models dealing with horizontal or vertical differentiation, optimal pricing, competitive strategy, or advertising.

  19. Mate choice and the evolutionary stability of a fixed threshold in a sequential search strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Cheng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The sequential search strategy is a prominent model of searcher behavior, derived as a rule by which females might sample and choose a mate from a distribution of prospective partners. The strategy involves a threshold criterion against which prospective mates are evaluated. The optimal threshold depends on the attributes of prospective mates, which are likely to vary across generations or within the lifetime of searchers due to stochastic environmental events. The extent of this variability and the cost to acquire information on the distribution of the quality of prospective mates determine whether a learned or environmentally canalized threshold is likely to be favored. In this paper, we determine conditions on cross-generational perturbations of the distribution of male phenotypes that allow for the evolutionary stability of an environmentally canalized threshold. In particular, we derive conditions under which there is a genetically determined threshold that is optimal over an evolutionary time scale in comparison to any other unlearned threshold. These considerations also reveal a simple algorithm by which the threshold could be learned.

  20. Choice of method - evaluation of strategies and systems for disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-10-01

    This report deals with the question of how the Swedish spent nuclear fuel is to be disposed of. What are the requirements? What are the alternatives? In the main chapter of the report, an evaluation is made of the KBS-3 method compared with other strategies and systems for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. An appendix to the report presents in general terms how the KBS-3 method has developed from the end of the 1970s up to today. The report is one of a number of supporting documents for SKB's applications for construction and operation of the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. In parallel with and as a basis for the present report, SKB has prepared the reports Principer, strategier och system foer slutligt omhaendertagande av anvaent kaernbraensle ('Principles, strategies and systems for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel') /Grundfelt 2010a/, Jaemfoerelse mellan KBS-3-metoden och deponering i djupa borrhaal foer slutlig foervaring av anvaent kaernbraensle ('Comparison between the KBS-3 method and deposition in deep boreholes for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel') /Grundfelt 2010b/ and Utvecklingen av KBS-3- metoden. Genomgaang av forskningsprogram, saekerhetsanalyser, myndighetsgranskningar samt SKB:s internationella forskningssamarbete ('Development of the KBS-3 method. Review of research programmes, safety assessments, regulatory reviews and SKB's international research cooperation') /SKB 2010a/. The reports are in Swedish, but contain summaries in English. The first report is an update of the comprehensive account of alternative methods presented by SKB in 2000. The second report presents a comparison between the KBS-3 method and the Deep Boreholes concept, plus a status report on research and development in the area of Deep Boreholes. The last report describes how the KBS-3 method has been developed from the end of the 1970s up to today. It further describes how the method has been further developed and refined over the years, but also what the

  1. Choice of method - evaluation of strategies and systems for disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-10-15

    This report deals with the question of how the Swedish spent nuclear fuel is to be disposed of. What are the requirements? What are the alternatives? In the main chapter of the report, an evaluation is made of the KBS-3 method compared with other strategies and systems for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. An appendix to the report presents in general terms how the KBS-3 method has developed from the end of the 1970s up to today. The report is one of a number of supporting documents for SKB's applications for construction and operation of the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. In parallel with and as a basis for the present report, SKB has prepared the reports Principer, strategier och system foer slutligt omhaendertagande av anvaent kaernbraensle ('Principles, strategies and systems for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel') /Grundfelt 2010a/, Jaemfoerelse mellan KBS-3-metoden och deponering i djupa borrhaal foer slutlig foervaring av anvaent kaernbraensle ('Comparison between the KBS-3 method and deposition in deep boreholes for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel') /Grundfelt 2010b/ and Utvecklingen av KBS-3- metoden. Genomgaang av forskningsprogram, saekerhetsanalyser, myndighetsgranskningar samt SKB:s internationella forskningssamarbete ('Development of the KBS-3 method. Review of research programmes, safety assessments, regulatory reviews and SKB's international research cooperation') /SKB 2010a/. The reports are in Swedish, but contain summaries in English. The first report is an update of the comprehensive account of alternative methods presented by SKB in 2000. The second report presents a comparison between the KBS-3 method and the Deep Boreholes concept, plus a status report on research and development in the area of Deep Boreholes. The last report describes how the KBS-3 method has been developed from the end of the 1970s up to today. It further describes how the method has been further developed and

  2. Attributes of seasonal home range influence choice of migratory strategy in white-tailed deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Charles R.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Myers, Woodrow L.; Lukacs, Paul M.; Nelson, Gerald P.

    2018-01-01

    Partial migration is a common life-history strategy among ungulates living in seasonal environments. The decision to migrate or remain on a seasonal range may be influenced strongly by access to high-quality habitat. We evaluated the influence of access to winter habitat of high quality on the probability of a female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) migrating to a separate summer range and the effects of this decision on survival. We hypothesized that deer with home ranges of low quality in winter would have a high probability of migrating, and that survival of an individual in winter would be influenced by the quality of their home range in winter. We radiocollared 67 female white-tailed deer in 2012 and 2013 in eastern Washington, United States. We estimated home range size in winter using a kernel density estimator; we assumed the size of the home range was inversely proportional to its quality and the proportion of crop land within the home range was proportional to its quality. Odds of migrating from winter ranges increased by 3.1 per unit increase in home range size and decreased by 0.29 per unit increase in the proportion of crop land within a home range. Annual survival rate for migrants was 0.85 (SD = 0.05) and 0.84 (SD = 0.09) for residents. Our finding that an individual with a low-quality home range in winter is likely to migrate to a separate summer range accords with the hypothesis that competition for a limited amount of home ranges of high quality should result in residents having home ranges of higher quality than migrants in populations experiencing density dependence. We hypothesize that density-dependent competition for high-quality home ranges in winter may play a leading role in the selection of migration strategy by female white-tailed deer.

  3. Reading Strategies in a L2: A Study on Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnal, Adriana Riess; Pereira, Vera Vanmacher

    2015-01-01

    This article aims at understanding cognitive strategies which are involved in reading academic texts in English as a L2/FL. Specifically, we focus on reading comprehension when a text is read either using Google translator or not. From this perspective we must consider the reading process in its complexity not only as a decoding process. We follow…

  4. Application of discrete choice experiments to enhance stakeholder engagement as a strategy for advancing implementation: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloum, Ramzi G; Shenkman, Elizabeth A; Louviere, Jordan J; Chambers, David A

    2017-11-23

    One of the key strategies to successful implementation of effective health-related interventions is targeting improvements in stakeholder engagement. The discrete choice experiment (DCE) is a stated preference technique for eliciting individual preferences over hypothetical alternative scenarios that is increasingly being used in health-related applications. DCEs are a dynamic approach to systematically measure health preferences which can be applied in enhancing stakeholder engagement. However, a knowledge gap exists in characterizing the extent to which DCEs are used in implementation science. We conducted a systematic literature search (up to December 2016) of the English literature to identify and describe the use of DCEs in engaging stakeholders as an implementation strategy. We searched the following electronic databases: MEDLINE, Econlit, PsychINFO, and the CINAHL using mesh terms. Studies were categorized according to application type, stakeholder(s), healthcare setting, and implementation outcome. Seventy-five publications were selected for analysis in this systematic review. Studies were categorized by application type: (1) characterizing demand for therapies and treatment technologies (n = 32), (2) comparing implementation strategies (n = 22), (3) incentivizing workforce participation (n = 11), and (4) prioritizing interventions (n = 10). Stakeholders included providers (n = 27), patients (n = 25), caregivers (n = 5), and administrators (n = 2). The remaining studies (n = 16) engaged multiple stakeholders (i.e., combination of patients, caregivers, providers, and/or administrators). The following implementation outcomes were discussed: acceptability (n = 75), appropriateness (n = 34), adoption (n = 19), feasibility (n = 16), and fidelity (n = 3). The number of DCE studies engaging stakeholders as an implementation strategy has been increasing over the past decade. As DCEs are more widely used as a

  5. Development of on the machine process monitoring and control strategy in Robot Assisted Polishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilny, Lukas; Bissacco, Giuliano

    2015-01-01

    Robot Assisted Polishing (RAP) can be used to polish rotational symmetric and free form components achieving surface roughness down to Sa 10 nm. With the aim to enable unmanned robust and cost efficient application of RAP, this paper presents the development of a monitoring and control strategy....... The multisensory approach was experimentally validated in polishing with bonded abrasives demonstrating its suitability for process control in RAP....

  6. Endoscopic Ultrasonography in the Diagnosis and Treatment Strategy Choice of Esophageal Leiomyoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ling-Jia; Chen, Xin; Dai, Yi-Ning; Xu, Cheng-Fu; Ji, Feng; Chen, Li-Hua; Chen, Hong-Tan; Chen, Chun-Xiao

    2017-04-01

    Esophageal leiomyoma is the most common benign tumor of the esophagus, and it originates from mesenchymal tissue. This study analyzed the clinicopathological characteristics of esophageal leiomyoma and aimed to evaluate the role of endoscopic ultrasonography in the diagnosis and treatment selection for these lesions. Two hundred and twenty-five patients who had suspected esophageal leiomyomas in endoscopic ultrasonography were enrolled at the Endoscopy Center of The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University from January 1st, 2009 to May 31th, 2015. The main outcomes included the demographic and morphological characteristics, symptoms, comparisons of diagnosis and treatment methods, adverse events, and prognosis. One hundred and sixty-seven patients were diagnosed as having an esophageal leiomyoma by pathological examination. The mean patient age was 50.57±9.983 years. In total, 62.9% of the lesions originated from the muscularis mucosa, and the others originated from the muscularis propria. The median distance to the incisors was 30±12 cm. The median diameter was 0.72±0.99 cm. As determined by endoscopic ultrasonography, most existing leiomyomas were homogeneous, endophytic, and spherical. The leiomyomas from the muscularis mucosa were smaller than those from the muscularis propria and much closer to the incisors (pleiomyomas presented less adverse events and better recovery (pleiomyomas. Endoscopic ultrasonography has demonstrated high accuracy in the diagnosis of esophageal leiomyomas and provides great support in selecting treatments; however, EUS cannot completely avoid misdiagnosis, so combining it with other examinations may be a good strategy to solve this problem.

  7. Endoscopic Ultrasonography in the Diagnosis and Treatment Strategy Choice of Esophageal Leiomyoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Jia Sun

    avoid misdiagnosis, so combining it with other examinations may be a good strategy to solve this problem.

  8. Fiscal 1999 research report on long-term energy technology strategy. Basic research on industrial technology strategy (Individual technology strategy). Machine industry technology field (Machine tool); 1999 nendo choki energy gijutsu senryaku nado ni kansuru chosa hokokusho. Sangyo gijutsu senryaku sakutei kiban chosa (bun'yabetsu gijjtsu senryaku) kikai sangyo gijutsu bun'ya (kosaku kikai bun'ya)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal 1999 basic research result on industrial technology strategy of a machine tool field. Corresponding to construction of an environment-friendly recycling economic society and economic growth as estimated change in social and industrial structure during 2010-2025, major themes are reuse of machine tools, energy saving, environment design, chip treatment and resource recovery. With preparation of information infrastructures in an advanced information society, major issues are 3D-CAD, remote diagnosis, remote control and self-restoration. Because of decline of the birth rate, positive employment of aged persons and women is desirable. New machining technology for new materials, and fusion of various machining technologies are important. For micro-technology, study should be made on the concept and effect of micro-factory (energy saving, space saving, cost reduction, higher accuracy and higher speed). For higher-accuracy machine tool, static, dynamic, thermal and movement characteristics are the key for improving the proper technology. For faster machining. fine basic structural element, faster main spindle and faster feed are important. (NEDO)

  9. Involving children in cooking activities: A potential strategy for directing food choices toward novel foods containing vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allirot, Xavier; da Quinta, Noelia; Chokupermal, Krithika; Urdaneta, Elena

    2016-08-01

    Involving children in cooking has been suggested as a strategy to improve dietary habits in childhood. Interventions in schools including cooking, gardening and tasting activities have showed promising results. Several cross-sectional surveys demonstrated associations between frequency of involvement in food preparation and better diet quality. However, experimental studies confirming the beneficial effect of cooking on food choices in children are missing from the literature. The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of involving children in cooking on their willingness to taste novel foods, food intake, liking and hunger. A between-subject experiment was conducted with 137 children between 7 and 11 years old. 69 children (COOK group) participated in the preparation of three unfamiliar foods containing vegetables: apple/beetroot juice, zucchini tortilla sandwich and spinach cookies. 68 children (CONTROL group) participated, instead, in a creative workshop. Afterwards, the children were invited to choose, for an afternoon snack, between three familiar vs. unfamiliar foods: orange vs. apple/beetroot juice, potato vs. zucchini tortilla sandwich and chocolate vs. spinach cookie. The mean number of unfamiliar foods chosen per child was higher in the COOK vs. CONTROL group (P = 0.037). The overall willingness to taste the unfamiliar foods was also higher in the COOK group (P = 0.011). The liking for the whole afternoon snack (P = 0.034), for 2 of 3 unfamiliar foods and for 1 of 3 familiar foods was higher in the COOK group (P food intake and hunger/satiety scores. This study demonstrated that involving children in cooking can increase their willingness to taste novel foods and direct food choices towards foods containing vegetables. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Toolpath Strategy and Optimum Combination of Machining Parameter during Pocket Mill Process of Plastic Mold Steels Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Y. T.; Baskoro, S. Y.; Manurung, V. A. T.

    2018-02-01

    Plastic based products spread all over the world in many aspects of life. The ability to substitute other materials is getting stronger and wider. The use of plastic materials increases and become unavoidable. Plastic based mass production requires injection process as well Mold. The milling process of plastic mold steel material was done using HSS End Mill cutting tool that is widely used in a small and medium enterprise for the reason of its ability to be re sharpened and relatively inexpensive. Study on the effect of the geometry tool states that it has an important effect on the quality improvement. Cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut and radii are input parameters beside to the tool path strategy. This paper aims to investigate input parameter and cutting tools behaviors within some different tool path strategy. For the reason of experiments efficiency Taguchi method and ANOVA were used. Response studied is surface roughness and cutting behaviors. By achieving the expected quality, no more additional process is required. Finally, the optimal combination of machining parameters will deliver the expected roughness and of course totally reduced cutting time. However actually, SMEs do not optimally use this data for cost reduction.

  11. Application of discrete choice experiments to enhance stakeholder engagement as a strategy for advancing implementation: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramzi G. Salloum

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the key strategies to successful implementation of effective health-related interventions is targeting improvements in stakeholder engagement. The discrete choice experiment (DCE is a stated preference technique for eliciting individual preferences over hypothetical alternative scenarios that is increasingly being used in health-related applications. DCEs are a dynamic approach to systematically measure health preferences which can be applied in enhancing stakeholder engagement. However, a knowledge gap exists in characterizing the extent to which DCEs are used in implementation science. Methods We conducted a systematic literature search (up to December 2016 of the English literature to identify and describe the use of DCEs in engaging stakeholders as an implementation strategy. We searched the following electronic databases: MEDLINE, Econlit, PsychINFO, and the CINAHL using mesh terms. Studies were categorized according to application type, stakeholder(s, healthcare setting, and implementation outcome. Results Seventy-five publications were selected for analysis in this systematic review. Studies were categorized by application type: (1 characterizing demand for therapies and treatment technologies (n = 32, (2 comparing implementation strategies (n = 22, (3 incentivizing workforce participation (n = 11, and (4 prioritizing interventions (n = 10. Stakeholders included providers (n = 27, patients (n = 25, caregivers (n = 5, and administrators (n = 2. The remaining studies (n = 16 engaged multiple stakeholders (i.e., combination of patients, caregivers, providers, and/or administrators. The following implementation outcomes were discussed: acceptability (n = 75, appropriateness (n = 34, adoption (n = 19, feasibility (n = 16, and fidelity (n = 3. Conclusions The number of DCE studies engaging stakeholders as an implementation strategy has been increasing over the

  12. Porter's Five Competitive Forces Framework and Other Factors That Influence the Choice of Response Strategies Adopted by Public Universities in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathooko, Francis M.; Ogutu, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to establish the extent to which Porter's five competitive forces (PFCF) framework, among other factors drive the choice of response strategies adopted by public universities in Kenya. Design/Methodology/Approach: The study design was descriptive and utilized a cross-sectional survey of all the public…

  13. Strategy Choice in Solving Arithmetic Word Problems: Are There Differences between Students with Learning Disabilities, G-V Poor Performance, and Typical Achievement Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Juan E. Jimenez; Espinel, Ana Isabel Garcia

    2002-01-01

    A study was designed to test whether there are differences between Spanish children (ages 7-9) with arithmetic learning disabilities (n=60), garden-variety (G-V) poor performance (n=44), and typical children (n=44) in strategy choice when solving arithmetic word problems. No significant differences were found between children with dyscalculia and…

  14. Cracking the code: a decode strategy for the international business machines punch cards of Korean war soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsunaga, Erin M

    2006-05-01

    During the Korean War, International Business Machines (IBM) punch cards were created for every individual involved in military combat. Each card contained all pertinent personal information about the individual and was utilized to keep track of all soldiers involved. However, at present, all of the information known about these punch cards reveals only their format and their significance; there is little to no information on how these cards were created or how to interpret the information contained without the aid of the computer system used during the war. Today, it is believed there is no one available to explain this computerized system, nor do the original computers exist. This decode strategy is the result of an attempt to decipher the information on these cards through the use of all available medical and dental records for each individual examined. By cross-referencing the relevant personal information with the known format of the cards, a basic guess-and-check method was utilized. After examining hundreds of IBM punch cards, however, it has become clear that the punch card method of recording information was not infallible. In some cases, there are gaps of information on cards where there are data recorded on personal records; in others, information is punched incorrectly onto the cards, perhaps as the result of a transcription error. Taken all together, it is clear that the information contained on each individual's card should be taken solely as another form of personal documentation.

  15. Big Data and Machine Learning-Strategies for Driving This Bus: A Summary of the 2016 Intersociety Summer Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruskal, Jonathan B; Berkowitz, Seth; Geis, J Raymond; Kim, Woojin; Nagy, Paul; Dreyer, Keith

    2017-06-01

    The 38th radiology Intersociety Committee reviewed the current state and future direction of clinical data science and its application to radiology practice. The assembled participants discussed the need to use current technology to better generate and demonstrate radiologists' value for our patients and referring providers. The attendants grappled with the potentially disruptive applications of machine learning to image analysis. Although the prospect of algorithms' interpreting images automatically initially shakes the core of the radiology profession, the group emerged with tremendous optimism about the future of radiology. Emerging technologies will provide enormous opportunities for radiologists to augment and improve the quality of care they provide to their patients. Radiologists must maintain an active role in guiding the development of these technologies. The conference ended with a call to action to develop educational strategies for future leaders, communicate optimism for our profession's future, and engage with industry to ensure the ethics and clinical relevance of developing technologies. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Machine Learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikkagoudar, Satish; Chatterjee, Samrat; Thomas, Dennis G.; Carroll, Thomas E.; Muller, George

    2017-04-21

    The absence of a robust and unified theory of cyber dynamics presents challenges and opportunities for using machine learning based data-driven approaches to further the understanding of the behavior of such complex systems. Analysts can also use machine learning approaches to gain operational insights. In order to be operationally beneficial, cybersecurity machine learning based models need to have the ability to: (1) represent a real-world system, (2) infer system properties, and (3) learn and adapt based on expert knowledge and observations. Probabilistic models and Probabilistic graphical models provide these necessary properties and are further explored in this chapter. Bayesian Networks and Hidden Markov Models are introduced as an example of a widely used data driven classification/modeling strategy.

  17. The Use of Point-of-Sale Machines in School Cafeterias as a Method of Parental Influence over Child Lunch Food Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrepont, Emmy; Cullen, Karen W.; Taylor, Wendell C.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Computerized point-of-sale (POS) machine software that allows parents to place restrictions on their child's school meal accounts is available. Parents could restrict specific foods (e.g., chips), identify specific days the child can purchase extra foods, or set monetary limits. This descriptive study examines the use of parental…

  18. The use of point-of-sale machines in school cafeterias as a method of parental influence over child lunch food choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Computerized point-of-sale (POS) machine software that allows parents to place restrictions on their child’s school meal accounts is available. Parents could restrict specific foods (eg, chips), identify specific days the child can purchase extra foods, or set monetary limits. This descriptive study...

  19. Motivation, justification, normalization: talk strategies used by Canadian medical tourists regarding their choices to go abroad for hip and knee surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Keri; Crooks, Valorie A; Chouinard, Vera; Snyder, Jeremy; Johnston, Rory; Casey, Victoria

    2014-04-01

    Contributing to health geography scholarship on the topic, the objective of this paper is to reveal Canadian medical tourists' perspectives regarding their choices to seek knee replacement or hip replacement or resurfacing (KRHRR) at medical tourism facilities abroad rather than domestically. We address this objective by examining the 'talk strategies' used by these patients in discussing their choices and the ways in which such talk is co-constructed by others. Fourteen interviews were conducted with Canadians aged 42-77 who had gone abroad for KRHRR. Three types of talk strategies emerged through thematic analysis of their narratives: motivation, justification, and normalization talk. Motivation talk referenced participants' desires to maintain or resume physical activity, employment, and participation in daily life. Justification talk emerged when participants described how limitations in the domestic system drove them abroad. Finally, being a medical tourist was talked about as being normal on several bases. Among other findings, the use of these three talk strategies in patients' narratives surrounding medical tourism for KRHRR offers new insight into the language-health-place interconnection. Specifically, they reveal the complex ways in which medical tourists use talk strategies to assert the soundness of their choice to shift the site of their own medical care on a global scale while also anticipating, if not even guarding against, criticism of what ultimately is their own patient mobility. These talk strategies provide valuable insight into why international patients are opting to engage in the spatially explicit practice of medical tourism and who and what are informing their choices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Control strategy minimizing the converter-alternating current motor losses: application to electric traction; Strategies de commande minimisant les pertes d'un ensemble convertisseur - machine alternative: application a la traction electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastiani, Ph.

    2001-02-01

    Improving the efficiency of the converter-alternating current motor system is a major task in electric traction. Global energy optimisation implies a specific approach at system scale. To reach this goal, we have chosen an algebraic method using sub-system models. To start with, a synchronous machine Park model is developed to take account magnetic saturation and iron losses. Then, an averaged model of the voltage inverter is used in order to obtain a simplified model of the losses to be implemented in our optimisation method. This is how the global model is built including losses in the synchronous machine along with the losses of the power converter. Experimental results are there to validate our approach. This study proposes a method based on algebraic formulation of the general laws to control torque. Algorithms take into account magnetic circuits saturation and power losses in both the machine and its converter. Here again, experimental results validate the algorithm on several test benches. Achieved efficiency improvement is important compared to existing usual control strategies. The proposed method can be generalised to other machine-converter systems. As a matter of fact we have extended our study to the induction machine. As a complement ti this study we have looked at the effects natural limitations of voltages and currents in the torque-speed plane. Therefore algebraic formulation of the torque-speed plane and optimisation strategies are proposed including those constraints. (author)

  1. The eyes have it: Using eye tracking to inform information processing strategies in multi-attributes choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Mandy; Krucien, Nicolas; Hermens, Frouke

    2018-04-01

    Although choice experiments (CEs) are widely applied in economics to study choice behaviour, understanding of how individuals process attribute information remains limited. We show how eye-tracking methods can provide insight into how decisions are made. Participants completed a CE, while their eye movements were recorded. Results show that although the information presented guided participants' decisions, there were also several processing biases at work. Evidence was found of (a) top-to-bottom, (b) left-to-right, and (c) first-to-last order biases. Experimental factors-whether attributes are defined as "best" or "worst," choice task complexity, and attribute ordering-also influence information processing. How individuals visually process attribute information was shown to be related to their choices. Implications for the design and analysis of CEs and future research are discussed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. What does location choice reveal about knowledge-seeking strategies of emerging market multinationals in the EU?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jindra, Bjørn; Hassan, Sohaib Shahzad; Cantner, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    The European Union is one of the largest recipients of outward foreign direct investment from emerging economies. We apply different discrete choice models to analyze the location choice of 4555 emerging market firms in 93 sub-national regions of the European Union. In particular, we test to what...... extent these firms’ location choices are related to agglomeration economies and knowledge externalities, because these have been suggested as potential sources to propel learning and technological catching-up. Our results indicate that emerging market firms’ location choices are positively affected...... by agglomeration economies and knowledge externalities. In addition, we can identify differences in the valuation of various sub-national location factors as well as differences in the substitution pattern between alternative regions for firms originating from emerging markets. The evidence supports the argument...

  3. The choice of strategy of development of the enterprise entering into the integrated structure on the basis of obtaining additional competitive benefits by the enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Khorev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In article process of the choice of strategy of development of the enterprise, entering into the integrated structure (IS taking into account a possibility of obtaining additional competitive benefits by the enterprise from this occurrence is considered. The enterprises as a part of IS has to use a possibility of realization of effect of a synergy. In relation to the enterprise which is in IS, the synergy has not one concept, but three interrelations, different according to types, between the enterprises, namely: material, non-material and competitive. Such opinion of M. Porter shares most of the experts working in the sphere of strategic management. Realization of a synergy allows to improve overall performance not only IS (2 + 2 = 5 in general, but also and separately the enterprises entering IS. Overall performance of the enterprises improves thanks to obtaining additional competitive benefits by the enterprises in the form of decrease in expenses and differentiation of production that is realized by means of competitive strategy. Realization of effect of a synergy thanks to establishment of interrelations, as a rule, is followed also by increase in production of the enterprises entering IS that can be realized by means of growth strategy. Thus, it is desirable to develop strategy of development of the enterprise entering IS as the combined strategy consisting of two strategy: competitive and growth. The matrix of alternative strategy of development of the enterprise entering IS in the form of combinations competitive and strategy of growth, and also model of the choice of the similar combined strategy taking into account a possibility of obtaining additional competitive benefits by the enterprise is given in article. For an assessment of competitive advantages of the enterprise as a part of IS by means of ball estimates of experts the technique of a similar assessment, and a matrix of the arising interrelations of the enterprises in IS is

  4. A measurement strategy and an error-compensation model for the on-machine laser measurement of large-scale free-form surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Bin; Li, Feng; Liu, Hongqi; Cai, Hui; Mao, Xinyong; Peng, Fangyu

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a novel measurement strategy and an error-compensation model for the measurement of large-scale free-form surfaces in on-machine laser measurement systems. To improve the measurement accuracy, the effects of the scan depth, surface roughness, incident angle and azimuth angle on the measurement results were investigated experimentally, and a practical measurement strategy considering the position and orientation of the sensor is presented. Also, a semi-quantitative model based on geometrical optics is proposed to compensate for the measurement error associated with the incident angle. The normal vector of the measurement point is determined using a cross-curve method from the acquired surface data. Then, the azimuth angle and incident angle are calculated to inform the measurement strategy and error-compensation model, respectively. The measurement strategy and error-compensation model are verified through the measurement of a large propeller blade on a heavy machine tool in a factory environment. The results demonstrate that the strategy and the model are effective in increasing the measurement accuracy. (paper)

  5. PCA-based polling strategy in machine learning framework for coronary artery disease risk assessment in intravascular ultrasound: A link between carotid and coronary grayscale plaque morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Tadashi; Ikeda, Nobutaka; Shukla, Devarshi; Jain, Pankaj K; Londhe, Narendra D; Shrivastava, Vimal K; Banchhor, Sumit K; Saba, Luca; Nicolaides, Andrew; Shafique, Shoaib; Laird, John R; Suri, Jasjit S

    2016-05-01

    Percutaneous coronary interventional procedures need advance planning prior to stenting or an endarterectomy. Cardiologists use intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) for screening, risk assessment and stratification of coronary artery disease (CAD). We hypothesize that plaque components are vulnerable to rupture due to plaque progression. Currently, there are no standard grayscale IVUS tools for risk assessment of plaque rupture. This paper presents a novel strategy for risk stratification based on plaque morphology embedded with principal component analysis (PCA) for plaque feature dimensionality reduction and dominant feature selection technique. The risk assessment utilizes 56 grayscale coronary features in a machine learning framework while linking information from carotid and coronary plaque burdens due to their common genetic makeup. This system consists of a machine learning paradigm which uses a support vector machine (SVM) combined with PCA for optimal and dominant coronary artery morphological feature extraction. Carotid artery proven intima-media thickness (cIMT) biomarker is adapted as a gold standard during the training phase of the machine learning system. For the performance evaluation, K-fold cross validation protocol is adapted with 20 trials per fold. For choosing the dominant features out of the 56 grayscale features, a polling strategy of PCA is adapted where the original value of the features is unaltered. Different protocols are designed for establishing the stability and reliability criteria of the coronary risk assessment system (cRAS). Using the PCA-based machine learning paradigm and cross-validation protocol, a classification accuracy of 98.43% (AUC 0.98) with K=10 folds using an SVM radial basis function (RBF) kernel was achieved. A reliability index of 97.32% and machine learning stability criteria of 5% were met for the cRAS. This is the first Computer aided design (CADx) system of its kind that is able to demonstrate the ability of coronary

  6. Higher Education Marketing Strategies Based on Factors Impacting the Enrollees' Choice of a University and an Academic Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalimullin, Aydar M.; Dobrotvorskaya, Svetlana G.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of studying the stated problem is due to the fact that for increasing the efficiency of higher education marketing it is necessary to take into account several factors, namely, factors that impact the choice of a university and an academic program by enrollees, as well as socio-psychological characteristics of the latter, while…

  7. Our Policies, Their Text: German Language Students' Strategies with and Beliefs about Web-Based Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kelsey D.; Heidrich, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Most educators are aware that some students utilize web-based machine translators for foreign language assignments, however, little research has been done to determine how and why students utilize these programs, or what the implications are for language learning and teaching. In this mixed-methods study we utilized surveys, a translation task,…

  8. Review on the Pavement-repairing Measures as a Condition for the Choice of Road-Maintenance Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedevska Ivana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The road-maintenance strategies vary from one country to another, and even between the road management authorities within a one single country. It is not surprising, as there is not best maintenance method, nor a universal set of strategies that can be applied equally everywhere. Generally, there are strategies acceptable in certain conditions, but the factors influencing the selection process are diverse and very complex. This paper will present a review of the various measures that can be applied on the roads, which is certainly the basic condition of selection of an appropriate maintenance strategy.

  9. Evaluation of strategies to communicate harmful and potentially harmful constituent (HPHC) information through cigarette package inserts: a discrete choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloum, Ramzi G; Louviere, Jordan J; Getz, Kayla R; Islam, Farahnaz; Anshari, Dien; Cho, Yoojin; O'Connor, Richard J; Hammond, David; Thrasher, James F

    2017-07-13

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has regulatory authority to use inserts to communicate with consumers about harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) in tobacco products; however, little is known about the most effective manner for presenting HPHC information. In a discrete choice experiment, participants evaluated eight choice sets, each of which showed two cigarette packages from four different brands and tar levels (high vs low), accompanied by an insert that included between-subject manipulations (ie, listing of HPHCs vs grouping by disease outcome and numeric values ascribed to HPHCs vs no numbers) and within-subject manipulations (ie, 1 of 4 warning topics; statement linking an HPHC with disease vs statement with no HPHC link). For each choice set, participants were asked: (1) which package is more harmful and (2) which motivates them to not smoke; each with a 'no difference' option. Alternative-specific logit models regressed choice on attribute levels. 1212 participants were recruited from an online consumer panel (725 18-29-year-old smokers and susceptible non-smokers and 487 30-64-year-old smokers). Participants were more likely to endorse high-tar products as more harmful than low-tar products, with a greater effect when numeric HPHC information was present. Compared with a simple warning statement, the statement linking HPHCs with disease encouraged quit motivation. Numeric HPHC information on inserts appears to produce misunderstandings that some cigarettes are less harmful than others. Furthermore, brief narratives that link HPHCs to smoking-related disease may promote cessation versus communications that do not explicitly link HPHCs to disease. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Context dependency and consumer acceptance of risk reducing strategies - a choice experiment study on salmonella risks in pork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkbak, Morten Raun; Christensen, Tove; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte

    2012-01-01

    The paper investigates to what extent context dependency is present, when consumers are introduced to different risk reducing technologies and how this will affect their preferences for reductions in food risks. In particular, choice experiments are used to elicit consumer preferences for reducin...... findings of bad news having greater effect than good news – now applied to context dependency of preferences for food safety technologies....

  11. A singular choice for multiple choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2006-01-01

    How should multiple choice tests be scored and graded, in particular when students are allowed to check several boxes to convey partial knowledge? Many strategies may seem reasonable, but we demonstrate that five self-evident axioms are sufficient to determine completely the correct strategy. We ...

  12. Pricing effects on food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Simone A

    2003-03-01

    Individual dietary choices are primarily influenced by such considerations as taste, cost, convenience and nutritional value of foods. The current obesity epidemic has been linked to excessive consumption of added sugars and fat, as well as to sedentary lifestyles. Fat and sugar provide dietary energy at very low cost. Food pricing and marketing practices are therefore an essential component of the eating environment. Recent studies have applied economic theories to changing dietary behavior. Price reduction strategies promote the choice of targeted foods by lowering their cost relative to alternative food choices. Two community-based intervention studies used price reductions to promote the increased purchase of targeted foods. The first study examined lower prices and point-of-purchase promotion on sales of lower fat vending machine snacks in 12 work sites and 12 secondary schools. Price reductions of 10%, 25% and 50% on lower fat snacks resulted in an increase in sales of 9%, 39% and 93%, respectively, compared with usual price conditions. The second study examined the impact of a 50% price reduction on fresh fruit and baby carrots in two secondary school cafeterias. Compared with usual price conditions, price reductions resulted in a four-fold increase in fresh fruit sales and a two-fold increase in baby carrot sales. Both studies demonstrate that price reductions are an effective strategy to increase the purchase of more healthful foods in community-based settings such as work sites and schools. Results were generalizable across various food types and populations. Reducing prices on healthful foods is a public health strategy that should be implemented through policy initiatives and industry collaborations.

  13. Making Communication Strategy Choices in a Fast Evolving Crisis Situation—Results from a Table-Top Discussion on an Anthrax Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aino Ruggiero

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at clarifying a timely topic of how communication strategy choices are made in evolving, complex crises, such as those caused by terrorism involving chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear (CBRN agents. This is done by examining data gathered from a table-top discussion among crisis communication experts, focusing on a scenario of an anthrax attack and analysed qualitatively. The communication experts followed the evolving crisis situation by gathering inputs from various actors in the crisis management network, thereby creating situational understanding, and interpreted these inputs for decision-making on communication strategies. The underlying process of coping with complexity in evolving CBRN terrorism crises can be described as a continuous, dynamic process that can best be explained with a combination of traditional and more modern crisis communication approaches. Strategy-making in crisis situations by communication experts is still largely a black box. In this study, a novel approach of decomposing strategy-making by observing a table-top discussion is chosen to clarify the process. By identifying the core elements involved, a more detailed picture of communication strategy-making is created, thus promoting preparedness and professional resilience in the field.

  14. On the management of life insurance company risk by strategic choice of product mix, investment strategy and surplus appropriation schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohnert, Alexander; Gatzert, Nadine; Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the impact of management’s strategic choice of asset and liability composition in life insurance on shortfall risk and the shareholders’ fair risk charge. In contrast to previous work, we focus on the effectiveness of management decisions regarding the product...... mix and the riskiness of the asset side under different surplus appropriation schemes. We propose a model setting that comprises temporary life annuities and endowment insurance contracts. Our numerical results show that the effectiveness of management decisions in regard to risk reduction strongly...

  15. Making Healthy Choices Easier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldborg Hansen, Pelle; Skov, Laurits Rohden; Lund Skov, Katrine

    2016-01-01

    . However, integration and testing of the nudge approach as part of more comprehensive public health strategies aimed at making healthy choices easier is being threatened by inadequate understandings of its scientific character, relationship with regulation and its ethical implications. This article reviews...... working with or incorporating the nudge approach into programs or policies aimed at making healthy choices easier...

  16. A Novel Multiple Choice Question Generation Strategy: Alternative Uses for Controlled Vocabulary Thesauri in Biomedical-Sciences Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopetegui, Marcelo A; Lara, Barbara A; Yen, Po-Yin; Çatalyürek, Ümit V; Payne, Philip R O

    2015-01-01

    Multiple choice questions play an important role in training and evaluating biomedical science students. However, the resource intensive nature of question generation limits their open availability, reducing their contribution to evaluation purposes mainly. Although applied-knowledge questions require a complex formulation process, the creation of concrete-knowledge questions (i.e., definitions, associations) could be assisted by the use of informatics methods. We envisioned a novel and simple algorithm that exploits validated knowledge repositories and generates concrete-knowledge questions by leveraging concepts' relationships. In this manuscript we present the development and validation of a prototype which successfully produced meaningful concrete-knowledge questions, opening new applications for existing knowledge repositories, potentially benefiting students of all biomedical sciences disciplines.

  17. E-learning for sustainable development - rationale, strategies, choices and actions. Experiences from the study programme MSc in Development Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Åke Bjørke

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The concept of e-learning is vague. ICT-supported education, online education, distance education, e-teaching and e-learning – what is the difference? This article describes the differences and practical pedagogical consequences depending on the choices made and is based on a concrete example and experiences. Modern ICT-supported educational methods demand awareness of various classifications of knowledge when developing curricula and appropriate learning activities.In the quest for a more sustainable development, there are now opportunities to leapfrog several stages. The education sector may jump directly to state of the art in e-pedagogy for building blended or purely online learning environments. To achieve this, investments in the training of teachers might be even more crucial than investing in the technology.

  18. Solving theoretical and empirical conundrums in international strategy research by matching foreign entry mode choices and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Several theoretical and empirical developments in the literature on foreign entry mode and performance, and on (international) strategy more generally, were influenced or prefigured by Brouthers’ (2002) JIBS Decade Award winning paper. Regarding theory, Brouthers is an archetype of the integration

  19. Machine Shop Grinding Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, James

    This curriculum manual is one in a series of machine shop curriculum manuals intended for use in full-time secondary and postsecondary classes, as well as part-time adult classes. The curriculum can also be adapted to open-entry, open-exit programs. Its purpose is to equip students with basic knowledge and skills that will enable them to enter the…

  20. A Study of Resin as Master Jewellery Material, Surface Quality and Machining Time Improvement by Implementing Appropriate Cutting Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puspaputra Paryana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a research about art and jewellery product machining that focused in the selection of appropriate material for jewellery master which is machined by CNC. CNC is used for better surface finish for no undercut design and more complex ornament. The need of production speed requires minimum process without reducing the quality of detail ornament significantly. Problems occur when high surface quality is required. In that condition high speed spindle is used with low feeding speed, as a result is high temperature in cutter-material area will melt the resin and build the build-up edge (BUE. Due to the existence of BUE, the cutting tool will no longer cut the resin, as a result the resin will then melt due to friction and the melt resin will then stuck on the relief and surface finish become worst and rework should be done. When required surface is achieved problem also occur in next going process, that is silicon mould making. Due to galvanization process for silicon at about 170°C, resin material may be broken or cracked. Research is then conducted to select appropriate resin type suitable for all production steps.

  1. Parental Choice of School, Class Strategies, and Educational Inequality: An Essay Review of "School Choice in China--A Different Tale?" (X. Wu, New York, NY: Routledge, 2014, 168 pp. ISBN 978-0-415-81769-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuning; Apple, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    Given the increasingly global nature of marketized school choice policies, this makes it even more crucial to investigate how the multiple scales, forms, and emphases of school choice in different countries are influenced by particular political, economic, and cultural conditions. While much of the critical research on school choice policies has…

  2. Segmentasi Citra menggunakan Support Vector Machine (SVM dan Ellipsoid Region Search Strategy (ERSS Arimoto Entropy berdasarkan Ciri Warna dan Tekstur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukman Hakim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Segmentasi citra merupakan suatu metode penting dalam pengolahan citra digital yang bertujuan membagi citra menjadi beberapa region yang homogen berdasarkan kriteria kemiripan tertentu. Salah satu syarat utama yang harus dimiliki suatu metode segmentasi citra yaitu menghasilkan citra boundary yang optimal.Untuk memenuhi syarat tersebut suatu metode segmentasi membutuhkan suatu klasifikasi piksel citra yang dapat memisahkan piksel secara linier dan non-linear. Pada penelitian ini, penulis mengusulkan metode segmentasi citra menggunakan SVM dan entropi Arimoto berbasis ERSS sehingga tahan terhadap derau dan mempunyai kompleksitas yang rendah untuk menghasilkan citra boundary yang optimal. Pertama, ekstraksi ciri warna dengan local homogeneity dan ciri tekstur dengan menggunakan Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM yang menghasilkan beberapa fitur. Kedua, pelabelan dengan Arimoto berbasis ERSS yang digunakan sebagai kelas dalam klasifikasi. Ketiga, hasil ekstraksi fitur dan training kemudian diklasifikasi berdasarkan label dengan SVM yang telah di-training. Dari percobaan yang dilakukan menunjukkan hasil segmentasi kurang optimal dengan akurasi 69 %. Reduksi fitur perlu dilakukan untuk menghasilkan citra yang tersegmentasi dengan baik. Kata kunci: segmentasi citra, support vector machine, ERSS Arimoto Entropy, ekstraksi ciri. Abstract Image segmentation is an important tool in image processing that divides an image into homogeneous regions based on certain similarity criteria, which ideally should be meaning-full for a certain purpose. Optimal boundary is one of the main criteria that an image segmentation method should has. A classification method that can partitions pixel linearly or non-linearly is needed by an image segmentation method. We propose a color image segmentation using Support Vector Machine (SVM classification and ERSS Arimoto entropy thresholding to get optimal boundary of segmented image that noise-free and low complexity

  3. Classification of nervous system withdrawn and approved drugs with ToxPrint features via machine learning strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onay, Aytun; Onay, Melih; Abul, Osman

    2017-04-01

    Early-phase virtual screening of candidate drug molecules plays a key role in pharmaceutical industry from data mining and machine learning to prevent adverse effects of the drugs. Computational classification methods can distinguish approved drugs from withdrawn ones. We focused on 6 data sets including maximum 110 approved and 110 withdrawn drugs for all and nervous system diseases to distinguish approved drugs from withdrawn ones. In this study, we used support vector machines (SVMs) and ensemble methods (EMs) such as boosted and bagged trees to classify drugs into approved and withdrawn categories. Also, we used CORINA Symphony program to identify Toxprint chemotypes including over 700 predefined chemotypes for determination of risk and safety assesment of candidate drug molecules. In addition, we studied nervous system withdrawn drugs to determine the key fragments with The ParMol package including gSpan algorithm. According to our results, the descriptors named as the number of total chemotypes and bond CN_amine_aliphatic_generic were more significant descriptors. The developed Medium Gaussian SVM model reached 78% prediction accuracy on test set for drug data set including all disease. Here, bagged tree and linear SVM models showed 89% of accuracies for phycholeptics and psychoanaleptics drugs. A set of discriminative fragments in nervous system withdrawn drug (NSWD) data sets was obtained. These fragments responsible for the drugs removed from market were benzene, toluene, N,N-dimethylethylamine, crotylamine, 5-methyl-2,4-heptadiene, octatriene and carbonyl group. This paper covers the development of computational classification methods to distinguish approved drugs from withdrawn ones. In addition, the results of this study indicated the identification of discriminative fragments is of significance to design a new nervous system approved drugs with interpretation of the structures of the NSWDs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. MiYA, an efficient machine-learning workflow in conjunction with the YeastFab assembly strategy for combinatorial optimization of heterologous metabolic pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yikang; Li, Gang; Dong, Junkai; Xing, Xin-Hui; Dai, Junbiao; Zhang, Chong

    2018-05-01

    Facing boosting ability to construct combinatorial metabolic pathways, how to search the metabolic sweet spot has become the rate-limiting step. We here reported an efficient Machine-learning workflow in conjunction with YeastFab Assembly strategy (MiYA) for combinatorial optimizing the large biosynthetic genotypic space of heterologous metabolic pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using β-carotene biosynthetic pathway as example, we first demonstrated that MiYA has the power to search only a small fraction (2-5%) of combinatorial space to precisely tune the expression level of each gene with a machine-learning algorithm of an artificial neural network (ANN) ensemble to avoid over-fitting problem when dealing with a small number of training samples. We then applied MiYA to improve the biosynthesis of violacein. Feed with initial data from a colorimetric plate-based, pre-screened pool of 24 strains producing violacein, MiYA successfully predicted, and verified experimentally, the existence of a strain that showed a 2.42-fold titer improvement in violacein production among 3125 possible designs. Furthermore, MiYA was able to largely avoid the branch pathway of violacein biosynthesis that makes deoxyviolacein, and produces very pure violacein. Together, MiYA combines the advantages of standardized building blocks and machine learning to accelerate the Design-Build-Test-Learn (DBTL) cycle for combinatorial optimization of metabolic pathways, which could significantly accelerate the development of microbial cell factories. Copyright © 2018 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Report of an EU-US symposium on understanding nutrition-related consumer behavior: strategies to promote a lifetime of healthy food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, Karl E; Rowe, Sylvia; Bellows, Laura L; Johnson, Susan L; Hetherington, Marion M; de Froidmont-Görtz, Isabelle; Lammens, Veerle; Hubbard, Van S

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes an EU-US Task Force on Biotechnology Research symposium on healthy food choices and nutrition-related purchasing behaviors. This meeting was unique in its transdisciplinary approach to obesity and in bringing together scientists from academia, government, and industry. Discussion relevant to funders and researchers centered on (1) increased use of public-private partnerships, (2) the complexity of food behaviors and obesity risk and multilevel aspects that must be considered, and (3) the importance of transatlantic cooperation and collaboration that could accelerate advances in this field. A call to action stressed these points along with a commitment to enhanced communication strategies. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. All rights reserved.

  6. A risk to himself: attitudes toward psychiatric patients and choice of psychosocial strategies among nurses in medical-surgical units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeela, Pádraig; Scott, P Anne; Treacy, Margaret; Hyde, Abbey; O'Mahony, Rebecca

    2012-04-01

    Psychiatric patients are liable to stereotyping by healthcare providers. We explored attitudes toward caring for psychiatric patients among 13 nurses working in general hospitals in Ireland. Participants thought aloud in response to a simulated patient case and described a critical incident of a patient for whom they had cared. Two attitudinal orientations were identified that correspond to stereotypical depictions of risk and vulnerability. The nurses described psychosocial care strategies that were pragmatic rather than authentically person-centered, with particular associations between risk-oriented attitudes and directive nursing care. Nurses had expectations likely to impede relationship building and collaborative care. Implications arising include the need for improved knowledge about psychiatric conditions and for access to professional development in targeted therapeutic communication skills. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Development of master-slave energy management strategy based on fuzzy logic hysteresis state machine and differential power processing compensation for a PEMFC-LIB-SC hybrid tramway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Fei; Zhao, Yuanzhe; Li, Xiaopeng; Liu, Zhixiang; Chen, Weirong; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Donghua

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A power system model for the PEMFC based commercial hybrid tramway was established. •An energy management strategy based on master FuHSM and slave DPPC was proposed. •The optimal OER operation of PEMFC subsystem was achieved. •The real-time EMS based HCM optimization was achieved. •The influence on system fuel economy and PEMFC performance degradation was verified. -- Abstract: A hybrid power system configuration based on proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), lion-lithium battery (LIB) and supercapacitor (SC) was designed without grid connection for the hybrid tramway. To adapt to the rapid load power change and achieve higher fuel efficiency and optimal oxygen excess ratio (OER) operation of the PEMFC power subsystem, a master-slave energy management strategy based on fuzzy logic hysteresis state machine (FuHSM) and differential power processing compensation (DPPC) was proposed for the hybrid tramway, effectively taking into consideration of the dynamic response and optimum OER tracing of the integrated PEMFC subsystem. The master FuHSM controller was utilized to grantee the optimal power coordination of the multiple power sources and the slave DPPC controller was responsible for further compensating the load power demand to enhance the dynamic performance and bus voltage stability. Furthermore, the equivalent H 2 consumption minimization optimization considering characteristics of the proposed energy management strategy was realized by means of EIA-PSO algorithm to further improve the fuel economy of the overall hybrid power system. The results demonstrate that the proposed energy management strategy can guarantee the stability of the hybrid power system throughout the driving cycle. In addition, more efficient power coordination dynamics among the PEMFC, LIB and SC subsystems could be achieved without additional performance degradation of the integrated PEMFC subsystem, and the results of the comparisons with other control strategies

  8. Reduced motivation in the BACHD rat model of Huntington disease is dependent on the choice of food deprivation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Erik Karl Håkan; Clemens, Laura Emily; Riess, Olaf; Nguyen, Huu Phuc

    2014-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disease characterized by motor, cognitive, psychiatric and metabolic symptoms. Animal models of HD show phenotypes that can be divided into similar categories, with the metabolic phenotype of certain models being characterized by obesity. Although interesting in terms of modeling metabolic symptoms of HD, the obesity phenotype can be problematic as it might confound the results of certain behavioral tests. This concerns the assessment of cognitive function in particular, as tests for such phenotypes are often based on food depriving the animals and having them perform tasks for food rewards. The BACHD rat is a recently established animal model of HD, and in order to ensure that behavioral characterization of these rats is done in a reliable way, a basic understanding of their physiology is needed. Here, we show that BACHD rats are obese and suffer from discrete developmental deficits. When assessing the motivation to lever push for a food reward, BACHD rats were found to be less motivated than wild type rats, although this phenotype was dependent on the food deprivation strategy. Specifically, the phenotype was present when rats of both genotypes were deprived to 85% of their respective free-feeding body weight, but not when deprivation levels were adjusted in order to match the rats' apparent hunger levels. The study emphasizes the importance of considering metabolic abnormalities as a confounding factor when performing behavioral characterization of HD animal models.

  9. Reduced motivation in the BACHD rat model of Huntington disease is dependent on the choice of food deprivation strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Karl Håkan Jansson

    Full Text Available Huntington disease (HD is an inherited neurodegenerative disease characterized by motor, cognitive, psychiatric and metabolic symptoms. Animal models of HD show phenotypes that can be divided into similar categories, with the metabolic phenotype of certain models being characterized by obesity. Although interesting in terms of modeling metabolic symptoms of HD, the obesity phenotype can be problematic as it might confound the results of certain behavioral tests. This concerns the assessment of cognitive function in particular, as tests for such phenotypes are often based on food depriving the animals and having them perform tasks for food rewards. The BACHD rat is a recently established animal model of HD, and in order to ensure that behavioral characterization of these rats is done in a reliable way, a basic understanding of their physiology is needed. Here, we show that BACHD rats are obese and suffer from discrete developmental deficits. When assessing the motivation to lever push for a food reward, BACHD rats were found to be less motivated than wild type rats, although this phenotype was dependent on the food deprivation strategy. Specifically, the phenotype was present when rats of both genotypes were deprived to 85% of their respective free-feeding body weight, but not when deprivation levels were adjusted in order to match the rats' apparent hunger levels. The study emphasizes the importance of considering metabolic abnormalities as a confounding factor when performing behavioral characterization of HD animal models.

  10. Russian Gas for Europe. Creating Access and Choice. Underpinning Russia's gas export strategy with Gazprom's infrastructure investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smeenk, T.

    2010-07-01

    This study deals with Gazprom's investment strategy regarding Russia's gas exports and export market behaviour, with a focus on European infrastructure projects, in a the geopolitical context. Because of its large gas reserves, Russia is well-positioned to take advantage of gas exports even as it faces possible competition from other gas suppliers and uncertain gas demand. Gas export earnings are an important source of income for Russia. As a government-controlled firm, Gazprom depends to a large extent on Europe for its hard-currency income. For Russia and Gazprom, the stream of income from gas exports and its expansion are economically vital. In this regard, gas export infrastructures such as Nord and South Stream could act as important instruments to expand Gazprom's market share in current markets and in growth markets. This study uses a real-option game model to assess the overall value of gas infrastructures in the face of demand uncertainties and potential competition. The result of this approach illustrates the strategic-economic character of Gazprom's infrastructure investments in possibly creating a first-mover's advantage. Yet, the model is of a highly stylised nature. Therefore, other aspects should be taken into account in assessing gas infrastructure investments. Besides the goal of possibly expanding Gazprom's market share, infrastructure investments could serve to mitigate overall transit risks. However, Gazprom's organisational constraints in realising gas infrastructures could put into question the rationale of such investments. In addition, Gazprom's position as well as that of Russian gas may be pressured by European (regulatory) policy in favour of alternative gas and other energy sources. The desired market outcomes for Gazprom have an impact on the prioritisation of Russian investments in the gas value chain.

  11. Constructing food choice decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobal, Jeffery; Bisogni, Carole A

    2009-12-01

    Food choice decisions are frequent, multifaceted, situational, dynamic, and complex and lead to food behaviors where people acquire, prepare, serve, give away, store, eat, and clean up. Many disciplines and fields examine decision making. Several classes of theories are applicable to food decision making, including social behavior, social facts, and social definition perspectives. Each offers some insights but also makes limiting assumptions that prevent fully explaining food choice decisions. We used constructionist social definition perspectives to inductively develop a food choice process model that organizes a broad scope of factors and dynamics involved in food behaviors. This food choice process model includes (1) life course events and experiences that establish a food choice trajectory through transitions, turning points, timing, and contexts; (2) influences on food choices that include cultural ideals, personal factors, resources, social factors, and present contexts; and (3) a personal system that develops food choice values, negotiates and balances values, classifies foods and situations, and forms/revises food choice strategies, scripts, and routines. The parts of the model dynamically interact to make food choice decisions leading to food behaviors. No single theory can fully explain decision making in food behavior. Multiple perspectives are needed, including constructionist thinking.

  12. Fundamentals of machine design

    CERN Document Server

    Karaszewski, Waldemar

    2011-01-01

    A forum of researchers, educators and engineers involved in various aspects of Machine Design provided the inspiration for this collection of peer-reviewed papers. The resultant dissemination of the latest research results, and the exchange of views concerning the future research directions to be taken in this field will make the work of immense value to all those having an interest in the topics covered. The book reflects the cooperative efforts made in seeking out the best strategies for effecting improvements in the quality and the reliability of machines and machine parts and for extending

  13. Sustainable machining

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an overview on current sustainable machining. Its chapters cover the concept in economic, social and environmental dimensions. It provides the reader with proper ways to handle several pollutants produced during the machining process. The book is useful on both undergraduate and postgraduate levels and it is of interest to all those working with manufacturing and machining technology.

  14. Exploring problem solving strategies on multiple-choice science items: Comparing native Spanish-speaking English Language Learners and mainstream monolinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachchaf, Rachel Rae

    The purpose of this study was to compare how English language learners (ELLs) and monolingual English speakers solved multiple-choice items administered with and without a new form of testing accommodation---vignette illustration (VI). By incorporating theories from second language acquisition, bilingualism, and sociolinguistics, this study was able to gain more accurate and comprehensive input into the ways students interacted with items. This mixed methods study used verbal protocols to elicit the thinking processes of thirty-six native Spanish-speaking English language learners (ELLs), and 36 native-English speaking non-ELLs when solving multiple-choice science items. Results from both qualitative and quantitative analyses show that ELLs used a wider variety of actions oriented to making sense of the items than non-ELLs. In contrast, non-ELLs used more problem solving strategies than ELLs. There were no statistically significant differences in student performance based on the interaction of presence of illustration and linguistic status or the main effect of presence of illustration. However, there were significant differences based on the main effect of linguistic status. An interaction between the characteristics of the students, the items, and the illustrations indicates considerable heterogeneity in the ways in which students from both linguistic groups think about and respond to science test items. The results of this study speak to the need for more research involving ELLs in the process of test development to create test items that do not require ELLs to carry out significantly more actions to make sense of the item than monolingual students.

  15. 商业战略,声誉风险与企业避税行为%Strategy Choice, Reputation Cost and Tax Avoidance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕伟; 陈丽花; 佘名元

    2011-01-01

    商业战略是指一个公司指导其在自己所在行业如何竞争的战略总和,包括一系列财务政策、组织结构等活动。制定恰当的商业战略是一个公司在自己所处行业中获得可持续竞争优势的最佳方法。商业战略决定了一个公司对风险和不确定性的态度,而风险态度进一步又将影响企业避税行为。从上述理论出发,本文基于中国上市公司数据研究了商业战略和避税行为之间的关系。本文发现,与采用探索者战略的企业相比,采用防御者战略的企业节税水平较小、现金税率更高,表明处于防御者地位的企业避税行为更消极,也意味着防御者认为激进税收筹划带来的成本和不确定性超过了节税的收益。同时,本文发现,不同战略的企业对声誉的依赖不同,从而避税导致的声誉风险存在差异。对于知名度较高的企业,战略选择对避税行为的影响也更显著。本文贡献在于,采用公开数据构造了多维变量来衡量公司战略。同时本文也是首篇研究战略与税务决策关系的文献。%A firm's business-level strategy dictates how the firm competes in its chosen line of business. The best way for a firm to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage in its chosen market is to reinforce its businesslevel strategy with a host of activities, including functional policies, organization structure, etc. The choices made by each firm are likely to determine, to some extent, the level of tax avoidance because the firm strategies are, in part, based on firms' willingness to deal with risk and uncertainty. We examine whether a firm's business strategy influences its level of tax avoidance. We find that firm engaging in a strategy that focuses on minimizing and reducing the uncertainty of costs avoid fewer taxes than firms that not only follow a strategy focusing on product differentiation and the aggressive pursuit of

  16. Effects of different organic weed management strategies on the physicochemical, sensory, and antioxidant properties of machine-harvested blackberry fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavender, George; Liu, Mingyang; Hobbs, Deborah; Frei, Balz; Strik, Bernadine; Zhao, Yanyun

    2014-10-01

    The effect of 3 different weed management strategies, nonweeding, hand weeding, and weed mat, were examined on physicochemical, sugar profile, and antioxidant properties of 2 cultivars of blackberry (Rubus spp), "Marion" and "Black Diamond" harvested at 3 time intervals during the 2012 season. Sensory analysis on flavor intensity of 6 different descriptors by an experienced panel was also performed on "Black Diamond" berries harvested at the same interval during the 2013 season. While weed management had no effect on pH, titratable acidity, and total soluble solids of either cultivar (P > 0.05), it showed a marked effect on total phenolics (5.65 to 7.80 mg GAE/g FW), total monomeric anthocyanins (1.07 to 2.85 mg/g FW), ORAC (271.51 to 644.97 μMol TE/g FW), FRAP (408.56 to 719.10 μMol Fe(2+) /g FW), sugar profile, and flavor intensity. Hand-weeding resulted in fruit antioxidant content and capacity as much as 30% greater, though the effect was not seen in the late harvest, where the nonweeded samples tended to have higher values. Overall, weed mat samples had the lowest antioxidant content and capacity in all harvests. Sugar profiling exhibited a greater variability based on cultivar and harvest, but overall, weed mat samples had lower sugar levels than fruit from the other 2 methods. Interestingly, the intensity of sensory attributes for "Black Diamond" appear to possibly be inversely related to phenolic and anthocyanin content, with the weed mat management strategy resulting in the highest values for virtually all sensory attributes. This study provided valuable information about the impact of organic production method on the quality of blackberries. Weed management is one of the largest costs associated with organic agriculture because of limited availability of approved herbicides. While much work has been done to evaluate the effect of different methods on plant growth and yield, few have determined the impact of weed management methods on fruit quality. This

  17. Simple machines

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Just how simple are simple machines? With our ready-to-use resource, they are simple to teach and easy to learn! Chocked full of information and activities, we begin with a look at force, motion and work, and examples of simple machines in daily life are given. With this background, we move on to different kinds of simple machines including: Levers, Inclined Planes, Wedges, Screws, Pulleys, and Wheels and Axles. An exploration of some compound machines follows, such as the can opener. Our resource is a real time-saver as all the reading passages, student activities are provided. Presented in s

  18. Pricing and availability intervention in vending machines at four bus garages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Simone A; Hannan, Peter J; Harnack, Lisa J; Mitchell, Nathan R; Toomey, Traci L; Gerlach, Anne

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of lowering prices and increasing availability on sales of healthy foods and beverages from 33 vending machines in 4 bus garages as part of a multicomponent worksite obesity prevention intervention. Availability of healthy items was increased to 50% and prices were lowered at least 10% in the vending machines in two metropolitan bus garages for an 18-month period. Two control garages offered vending choices at usual availability and prices. Sales data were collected monthly from each of the vending machines at the four garages. Increases in availability to 50% and price reductions of an average of 31% resulted in 10% to 42% higher sales of the healthy items. Employees were mostly price responsive for snack purchases. Greater availability and lower prices on targeted food and beverage items from vending machines was associated with greater purchases of these items over an 18-month period. Efforts to promote healthful food purchases in worksite settings should incorporate these two strategies.

  19. Face machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, D.

    1999-06-01

    The article surveys latest equipment available from the world`s manufacturers of a range of machines for tunnelling. These are grouped under headings: excavators; impact hammers; road headers; and shields and tunnel boring machines. Products of thirty manufacturers are referred to. Addresses and fax numbers of companies are supplied. 5 tabs., 13 photos.

  20. Electric machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi [Niskayuna, NY; Reddy, Patel Bhageerath [Madison, WI

    2012-07-17

    An interior permanent magnet electric machine is disclosed. The interior permanent magnet electric machine comprises a rotor comprising a plurality of radially placed magnets each having a proximal end and a distal end, wherein each magnet comprises a plurality of magnetic segments and at least one magnetic segment towards the distal end comprises a high resistivity magnetic material.

  1. Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirrane, Diane E.

    1990-01-01

    As scientists seek to develop machines that can "learn," that is, solve problems by imitating the human brain, a gold mine of information on the processes of human learning is being discovered, expert systems are being improved, and human-machine interactions are being enhanced. (SK)

  2. Nonplanar machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritson, D.

    1989-05-01

    This talk examines methods available to minimize, but never entirely eliminate, degradation of machine performance caused by terrain following. Breaking of planar machine symmetry for engineering convenience and/or monetary savings must be balanced against small performance degradation, and can only be decided on a case-by-case basis. 5 refs

  3. Vector control of induction machines

    CERN Document Server

    Robyns, Benoit

    2012-01-01

    After a brief introduction to the main law of physics and fundamental concepts inherent in electromechanical conversion, ""Vector Control of Induction Machines"" introduces the standard mathematical models for induction machines - whichever rotor technology is used - as well as several squirrel-cage induction machine vector-control strategies. The use of causal ordering graphs allows systematization of the design stage, as well as standardization of the structure of control devices. ""Vector Control of Induction Machines"" suggests a unique approach aimed at reducing parameter sensitivity for

  4. The Machine within the Machine

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Although Virtual Machines are widespread across CERN, you probably won't have heard of them unless you work for an experiment. Virtual machines - known as VMs - allow you to create a separate machine within your own, allowing you to run Linux on your Mac, or Windows on your Linux - whatever combination you need.   Using a CERN Virtual Machine, a Linux analysis software runs on a Macbook. When it comes to LHC data, one of the primary issues collaborations face is the diversity of computing environments among collaborators spread across the world. What if an institute cannot run the analysis software because they use different operating systems? "That's where the CernVM project comes in," says Gerardo Ganis, PH-SFT staff member and leader of the CernVM project. "We were able to respond to experimentalists' concerns by providing a virtual machine package that could be used to run experiment software. This way, no matter what hardware they have ...

  5. Machine translation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, M

    1982-04-01

    Each language has its own structure. In translating one language into another one, language attributes and grammatical interpretation must be defined in an unambiguous form. In order to parse a sentence, it is necessary to recognize its structure. A so-called context-free grammar can help in this respect for machine translation and machine-aided translation. Problems to be solved in studying machine translation are taken up in the paper, which discusses subjects for semantics and for syntactic analysis and translation software. 14 references.

  6. Educational Choice. A Background Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quality Education for Minorities Network, Washington, DC.

    This paper addresses school choice, one proposal to address parental involvement concerns, focusing on historical background, definitions, rationale for advocating choice, implementation strategies, and implications for minorities and low-income families. In the past, transfer payment programs such as tuition tax credits and vouchers were…

  7. Machine Learning

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Machine learning, which builds on ideas in computer science, statistics, and optimization, focuses on developing algorithms to identify patterns and regularities in data, and using these learned patterns to make predictions on new observations. Boosted by its industrial and commercial applications, the field of machine learning is quickly evolving and expanding. Recent advances have seen great success in the realms of computer vision, natural language processing, and broadly in data science. Many of these techniques have already been applied in particle physics, for instance for particle identification, detector monitoring, and the optimization of computer resources. Modern machine learning approaches, such as deep learning, are only just beginning to be applied to the analysis of High Energy Physics data to approach more and more complex problems. These classes will review the framework behind machine learning and discuss recent developments in the field.

  8. Machine Translation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Research Mt System Example: The 'Janus' Translating Phone Project. The Janus ... based on laptops, and simultaneous translation of two speakers in a dialogue. For more ..... The current focus in MT research is on using machine learning.

  9. A novel design and driving strategy for a hybrid electric machine with torque performance enhancement both taking reluctance and electromagnetic attraction effects into account

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, W.-N.; Chen, W.-P.; Teng, C.-C.; Chen, M.-P.

    2006-01-01

    A novel design, the hybrid electric machine, that owns improved competence for the output torque regulation as well as enlarged power density comparing to the conventional brushless machines by making use of the simultaneous performance overlapping concept based on magnetism is proposed in this paper. The developed design concept is focused on electric machine structure and its counterpart drive for applying two main magnetic-power transmitting paths by combination of both features of magnetic tendencies of flux generation that may flow in the path with minimum reluctance and direction owning the electromagnetic motive attraction. The verifications demonstrate that the outputted torque owns effective improvement by the presented concept of the electric machine based on the equivalent 3-hp frame than the conventional brushless motors

  10. 陕西电信天翼3G双模智能机市场发展策略研究%Shanxi Telecom Tianyi 3G Dual-mode Intelligent Machine Market Development Strategy Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾琳

    2013-01-01

    中国电信陕西公司天翼3G智能终端销售在2011年至2012年间快速上升,但2012年下半年,智能机发展出现阶段性波动,增长率降低;同时竞争对手发力双模智能机,快速挖转中国移动用户。分析和论证发展天翼3G双模智能机的必要性,并从产品、价格、渠道、宣传和促销4方面提出了天翼3G双模智能机发展的具体策略,对于陕西电信进一步加快智能机的发展,拓展社会开放渠道,保持3G市场领先优势具有重要意义。%3G intelligent terminal sales of Shaanxi China Telecom Tianyi form 2011 to 2012 years the rises rapidly,but the second half of 2012, intelligent machine development stage of volatility, growth rate decreased,rival force of dual-mode intelligent machine, fast digging to China Mobile users at the same time. This paper focuses on a telecommunications enterprise employee's point of view, fully aware of the changing market environment and competition strategy, the necessity analysis and demonstration of development day wing 3G dual-mode intelligent machines, and specific strategies day wing development 3G dual-mode intelligent machine is put forward from the product, price, channel, promotion and promotion four aspects, for Shaanxi to further accelerate the development of the telecom intelligent machine, expand social open channel, it is important to keep the 3G market advantage.

  11. Progress Evaluation for the Restaurant Industry Assessed by a Voluntary Marketing-Mix and Choice-Architecture Framework That Offers Strategies to Nudge American Customers toward Healthy Food Environments, 2006–2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivica Kraak

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of restaurant food and beverage products high in fat, sugar and sodium contribute to obesity and non-communicable diseases. We evaluated restaurant-sector progress to promote healthy food environments for Americans. We conducted a desk review of seven electronic databases (January 2006–January 2017 to examine restaurant strategies used to promote healthful options in the United States (U.S.. Evidence selection (n = 84 was guided by the LEAD principles (i.e., locate, evaluate, and assemble evidence to inform decisions and verified by data and investigator triangulation. A marketing-mix and choice-architecture framework was used to examine eight voluntary strategies (i.e., place, profile, portion, pricing, promotion, healthy default picks, priming or prompting and proximity to evaluate progress (i.e., no, limited, some or extensive toward 12 performance metrics based on available published evidence. The U.S. restaurant sector has made limited progress to use pricing, profile (reformulation, healthy default picks (choices, promotion (responsible marketing and priming and prompting (information and labeling; and some progress to reduce portions. No evidence was available to assess progress for place (ambience and proximity (positioning to promote healthy choices during the 10-year review period. Chain and non-chain restaurants can apply comprehensive marketing-mix and nudge strategies to promote healthy food environments for customers.

  12. Progress Evaluation for the Restaurant Industry Assessed by a Voluntary Marketing-Mix and Choice-Architecture Framework That Offers Strategies to Nudge American Customers toward Healthy Food Environments, 2006-2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraak, Vivica; Englund, Tessa; Misyak, Sarah; Serrano, Elena

    2017-07-12

    Consumption of restaurant food and beverage products high in fat, sugar and sodium contribute to obesity and non-communicable diseases. We evaluated restaurant-sector progress to promote healthy food environments for Americans. We conducted a desk review of seven electronic databases (January 2006-January 2017) to examine restaurant strategies used to promote healthful options in the United States (U.S.). Evidence selection ( n = 84) was guided by the LEAD principles (i.e., locate, evaluate, and assemble evidence to inform decisions) and verified by data and investigator triangulation. A marketing-mix and choice-architecture framework was used to examine eight voluntary strategies (i.e., place, profile, portion, pricing, promotion, healthy default picks, priming or prompting and proximity) to evaluate progress (i.e., no, limited, some or extensive) toward 12 performance metrics based on available published evidence. The U.S. restaurant sector has made limited progress to use pricing, profile (reformulation), healthy default picks (choices), promotion (responsible marketing) and priming and prompting (information and labeling); and some progress to reduce portions. No evidence was available to assess progress for place (ambience) and proximity (positioning) to promote healthy choices during the 10-year review period. Chain and non-chain restaurants can apply comprehensive marketing-mix and nudge strategies to promote healthy food environments for customers.

  13. Progress Evaluation for the Restaurant Industry Assessed by a Voluntary Marketing-Mix and Choice-Architecture Framework That Offers Strategies to Nudge American Customers toward Healthy Food Environments, 2006–2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misyak, Sarah; Serrano, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Consumption of restaurant food and beverage products high in fat, sugar and sodium contribute to obesity and non-communicable diseases. We evaluated restaurant-sector progress to promote healthy food environments for Americans. We conducted a desk review of seven electronic databases (January 2006–January 2017) to examine restaurant strategies used to promote healthful options in the United States (U.S.). Evidence selection (n = 84) was guided by the LEAD principles (i.e., locate, evaluate, and assemble evidence to inform decisions) and verified by data and investigator triangulation. A marketing-mix and choice-architecture framework was used to examine eight voluntary strategies (i.e., place, profile, portion, pricing, promotion, healthy default picks, priming or prompting and proximity) to evaluate progress (i.e., no, limited, some or extensive) toward 12 performance metrics based on available published evidence. The U.S. restaurant sector has made limited progress to use pricing, profile (reformulation), healthy default picks (choices), promotion (responsible marketing) and priming and prompting (information and labeling); and some progress to reduce portions. No evidence was available to assess progress for place (ambience) and proximity (positioning) to promote healthy choices during the 10-year review period. Chain and non-chain restaurants can apply comprehensive marketing-mix and nudge strategies to promote healthy food environments for customers. PMID:28704965

  14. Vincent's Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolwijk, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Official publication to accompany the important exhibition Vincent's Choice, Van Gogh's 'musee imaginaire' at the Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam marking the 150th anniversary of the artist's birth. The exhibition runs from 14th February to 15th June 2003.Thanks to van Gogh's correspondence, it has been

  15. A Concrete Framework for Environment Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biernacka, Malgorzata; Danvy, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    calculus with explicit substitutions), we extend it minimally so that it can also express one-step reduction strategies, and we methodically derive a series of environment machines from the specification of two one-step reduction strategies for the lambda-calculus: normal order and applicative order....... The derivation extends Danvy and Nielsen’s refocusing-based construction of abstract machines with two new steps: one for coalescing two successive transitions into one, and the other for unfolding a closure into a term and an environment in the resulting abstract machine. The resulting environment machines...... include both the Krivine machine and the original version of Krivine’s machine, Felleisen et al.’s CEK machine, and Leroy’s Zinc abstract machine....

  16. Straight choices

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The HEP community is already discussing what kind of projects will take over from the Tevatron and LHC in around 2020. There is general agreement that the next collider must be a truly international collaboration, there is much less agreement on where it will be built. The most important consideration though is that the best possible machine is built Somewhere in the world (1 page editorial).

  17. Machine learning approach for single molecule localisation microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colabrese, Silvia; Castello, Marco; Vicidomini, Giuseppe; Del Bue, Alessio

    2018-04-01

    Single molecule localisation (SML) microscopy is a fundamental tool for biological discoveries; it provides sub-diffraction spatial resolution images by detecting and localizing "all" the fluorescent molecules labeling the structure of interest. For this reason, the effective resolution of SML microscopy strictly depends on the algorithm used to detect and localize the single molecules from the series of microscopy frames. To adapt to the different imaging conditions that can occur in a SML experiment, all current localisation algorithms request, from the microscopy users, the choice of different parameters. This choice is not always easy and their wrong selection can lead to poor performance. Here we overcome this weakness with the use of machine learning. We propose a parameter-free pipeline for SML learning based on support vector machine (SVM). This strategy requires a short supervised training that consists in selecting by the user few fluorescent molecules (∼ 10-20) from the frames under analysis. The algorithm has been extensively tested on both synthetic and real acquisitions. Results are qualitatively and quantitatively consistent with the state of the art in SML microscopy and demonstrate that the introduction of machine learning can lead to a new class of algorithms competitive and conceived from the user point of view.

  18. Identification and prioritization of the effective factors on the choice of optimal marketing strategy in recession situations using fuzzy and Group Analytic Hierarchy Process

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Kariznoee; Vahideh Sotoudeh Molashahi; Sakineh Arab kouhsar; Ali Kaab Amir

    2014-01-01

    It is obvious that recession situation leads to demands reduction. Therefore, companies encounter challenges and weak businesses are disappeared and resistant and strength companies remain. In this situation considering the marketing department especially marketing strategy play a significant role. There are many marketing strategies. Companies use these strategies based on their needs or formulate new strategy with regard to their internal and external circumstances. This paper identify and ...

  19. The choices before us.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streeten, P P

    1980-01-01

    This introduction is from the 16th World Conference of SID in Colombo, Sri Lanka, August 1979, which addressed the theme of development choices for the 1980's and beyond. Choices may refer to different political, ideological or social systems. Choices may refer to strategies and technical issues, e.g. agriculture vs. industry. A third meaning of choice is implicit in the idea of a Third World, or alternative, method of development. The third meaning implies a rejection of Western institutions, values, and standards. In the past, the transfer of Western or in this case Northern, institutions and standards has disappointed and created obstacles to development. The rapid rate of population growth forces choices of population control and resource management. Common themes of development have emerged from conference discussions: the need to build development efforts on indigenous values; the need for new institutions both at the sub-national and at the super-national level; and, the need to adjust to inevitable changes rationally and with foresight. The nation state is too large for many functions that are better decentralized and left to village or district administrations, yet it is too small to respond to global challenges and environmental risks like harvest failure, credit risks, marketing risks, failure of supplies. The interests of the state are not identical with those of society or particular groups in society.

  20. Machine Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerlauth, Markus; Schmidt, Rüdiger; Wenninger, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    The present architecture of the machine protection system is being recalled and the performance of the associated systems during the 2011 run will be briefly summarized. An analysis of the causes of beam dumps as well as an assessment of the dependability of the machine protection systems (MPS) itself is being presented. Emphasis will be given to events that risked exposing parts of the machine to damage. Further improvements and mitigations of potential holes in the protection systems will be evaluated along with their impact on the 2012 run. The role of rMPP during the various operational phases (commissioning, intensity ramp up, MDs...) will be discussed along with a proposal for the intensity ramp up for the start of beam operation in 2012

  1. Machine Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Zerlauth, Markus; Wenninger, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    The present architecture of the machine protection system is being recalled and the performance of the associated systems during the 2011 run will be briefly summarized. An analysis of the causes of beam dumps as well as an assessment of the dependability of the machine protection systems (MPS) itself is being presented. Emphasis will be given to events that risked exposing parts of the machine to damage. Further improvements and mitigations of potential holes in the protection systems will be evaluated along with their impact on the 2012 run. The role of rMPP during the various operational phases (commissioning, intensity ramp up, MDs...) will be discussed along with a proposal for the intensity ramp up for the start of beam operation in 2012.

  2. Machine Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerlauth, Markus; Schmidt, Rüdiger; Wenninger, Jörg [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    The present architecture of the machine protection system is being recalled and the performance of the associated systems during the 2011 run will be briefly summarized. An analysis of the causes of beam dumps as well as an assessment of the dependability of the machine protection systems (MPS) itself is being presented. Emphasis will be given to events that risked exposing parts of the machine to damage. Further improvements and mitigations of potential holes in the protection systems will be evaluated along with their impact on the 2012 run. The role of rMPP during the various operational phases (commissioning, intensity ramp up, MDs...) will be discussed along with a proposal for the intensity ramp up for the start of beam operation in 2012.

  3. Teletherapy machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panyam, Vinatha S.; Rakshit, Sougata; Kulkarni, M.S.; Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2017-01-01

    Radiation Standards Section (RSS), RSSD, BARC is the national metrology institute for ionizing radiation. RSS develops and maintains radiation standards for X-ray, beta, gamma and neutron radiations. In radiation dosimetry, traceability, accuracy and consistency of radiation measurements is very important especially in radiotherapy where the success of patient treatment is dependent on the accuracy of the dose delivered to the tumour. Cobalt teletherapy machines have been used in the treatment of cancer since the early 1950s and India had its first cobalt teletherapy machine installed at the Cancer Institute, Chennai in 1956

  4. Constructive Consumer Choice Processes.

    OpenAIRE

    Bettman, James R; Luce, Mary Frances; Payne, John W

    1998-01-01

    Consumer decision making has been a focal interest in consumer research, and consideration of current marketplace trends ( e.g., technological change, an information explosion) indicates that this topic will continue to be critically important. We argue that consumer choice is inherently constructive. Due to limited processing capacity, consumers often do not have well-defined existing preferences, but construct them using a variety of strategies contingent on task demands. After describing c...

  5. The Complexity of Abstract Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beniamino Accattoli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The lambda-calculus is a peculiar computational model whose definition does not come with a notion of machine. Unsurprisingly, implementations of the lambda-calculus have been studied for decades. Abstract machines are implementations schema for fixed evaluation strategies that are a compromise between theory and practice: they are concrete enough to provide a notion of machine and abstract enough to avoid the many intricacies of actual implementations. There is an extensive literature about abstract machines for the lambda-calculus, and yet—quite mysteriously—the efficiency of these machines with respect to the strategy that they implement has almost never been studied. This paper provides an unusual introduction to abstract machines, based on the complexity of their overhead with respect to the length of the implemented strategies. It is conceived to be a tutorial, focusing on the case study of implementing the weak head (call-by-name strategy, and yet it is an original re-elaboration of known results. Moreover, some of the observation contained here never appeared in print before.

  6. Machine testning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This document is used in connection with a laboratory exercise of 3 hours duration as a part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The exercise includes a series of tests carried out by the student on a conventional and a numerically controled lathe, respectively. This document...

  7. Machine rates for selected forest harvesting machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.W. Brinker; J. Kinard; Robert Rummer; B. Lanford

    2002-01-01

    Very little new literature has been published on the subject of machine rates and machine cost analysis since 1989 when the Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station Circular 296, Machine Rates for Selected Forest Harvesting Machines, was originally published. Many machines discussed in the original publication have undergone substantial changes in various aspects, not...

  8. Machinability of Stellite 6 hardfacing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudzinski D.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports some experimental findings concerning the machinability at high cutting speed of nickel-base weld-deposited hardfacings for the manufacture of hot tooling. The forging work involves extreme impacts, forces, stresses and temperatures. Thus, mould dies must be extremely resistant. The aim of the project is to create a rapid prototyping process answering to forging conditions integrating a Stellite 6 hardfacing deposed PTA process. This study talks about the dry machining of the hardfacing, using a two tips machining tool and a high speed milling machine equipped by a power consumption recorder Wattpilote. The aim is to show the machinability of the hardfacing, measuring the power and the tip wear by optical microscope and white light interferometer, using different strategies and cutting conditions.

  9. Decomposition of the compound Atwood machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes Coelho, R.

    2017-11-01

    Non-standard solving strategies for the compound Atwood machine problem have been proposed. The present strategy is based on a very simple idea. Taking an Atwood machine and replacing one of its bodies by another Atwood machine, we have a compound machine. As this operation can be repeated, we can construct any compound Atwood machine. This rule of construction is transferred to a mathematical model, whereby the equations of motion are obtained. The only difference between the machine and its model is that instead of pulleys and bodies, we have reference frames that move solidarily with these objects. This model provides us with the accelerations in the non-inertial frames of the bodies, which we will use to obtain the equations of motion. This approach to the problem will be justified by the Lagrange method and exemplified by machines with six and eight bodies.

  10. Locked in or true love: Branding among banks : A qualitative study of technologies, brand equity, switching barriers, choice criteria and future strategies in the context of retail banking

    OpenAIRE

    Abrahamsson, David

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to increase the knowledge about technology based services affection of the ability of retail banks to build customer based brand equity among students. Design/methodology/approach – A conceptual model has been developed from theories regarding customer based brand equity, switching barriers and choice criteria. Based on this conceptual model, seven in depth interviews including several brand elicitation techniques were conducted. Findings – The findings ...

  11. Electric machines

    CERN Document Server

    Gross, Charles A

    2006-01-01

    BASIC ELECTROMAGNETIC CONCEPTSBasic Magnetic ConceptsMagnetically Linear Systems: Magnetic CircuitsVoltage, Current, and Magnetic Field InteractionsMagnetic Properties of MaterialsNonlinear Magnetic Circuit AnalysisPermanent MagnetsSuperconducting MagnetsThe Fundamental Translational EM MachineThe Fundamental Rotational EM MachineMultiwinding EM SystemsLeakage FluxThe Concept of Ratings in EM SystemsSummaryProblemsTRANSFORMERSThe Ideal n-Winding TransformerTransformer Ratings and Per-Unit ScalingThe Nonideal Three-Winding TransformerThe Nonideal Two-Winding TransformerTransformer Efficiency and Voltage RegulationPractical ConsiderationsThe AutotransformerOperation of Transformers in Three-Phase EnvironmentsSequence Circuit Models for Three-Phase Transformer AnalysisHarmonics in TransformersSummaryProblemsBASIC MECHANICAL CONSIDERATIONSSome General PerspectivesEfficiencyLoad Torque-Speed CharacteristicsMass Polar Moment of InertiaGearingOperating ModesTranslational SystemsA Comprehensive Example: The ElevatorP...

  12. Charging machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medlin, J.B.

    1976-01-01

    A charging machine for loading fuel slugs into the process tubes of a nuclear reactor includes a tubular housing connected to the process tube, a charging trough connected to the other end of the tubular housing, a device for loading the charging trough with a group of fuel slugs, means for equalizing the coolant pressure in the charging trough with the pressure in the process tubes, means for pushing the group of fuel slugs into the process tube and a latch and a seal engaging the last object in the group of fuel slugs to prevent the fuel slugs from being ejected from the process tube when the pusher is removed and to prevent pressure liquid from entering the charging machine. 3 claims, 11 drawing figures

  13. Genesis machines

    CERN Document Server

    Amos, Martyn

    2014-01-01

    Silicon chips are out. Today's scientists are using real, wet, squishy, living biology to build the next generation of computers. Cells, gels and DNA strands are the 'wetware' of the twenty-first century. Much smaller and more intelligent, these organic computers open up revolutionary possibilities. Tracing the history of computing and revealing a brave new world to come, Genesis Machines describes how this new technology will change the way we think not just about computers - but about life itself.

  14. Choice & Consequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Azam

    to support hypothesis generation, hypothesis testing, and decision making. In addition to sensors in buildings, infrastructure, or the environment, we also propose the instrumentation of user interfaces to help measure performance in decision making applications. We show the benefits of applying principles...... between cause and effect in complex systems complicates decision making. To address this issue, we examine the central role that data-driven decision making could play in critical domains such as sustainability or medical treatment. We developed systems for exploratory data analysis and data visualization...... of data analysis and instructional interface design, to both simulation systems and decision support interfaces. We hope that projects such as these will help people to understand the link between their choices and the consequences of their decisions....

  15. Escolha, estratégia e competição por escolas públicas Choice, strategy and competition for public schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio da Costa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Usualmente, políticas que buscam estimular a liberdade de escolha de escolas por parte dos pais visam declaradamente promover melhoria educacional por meio de mecanismos competitivos e/ou de accountability. Há discussão acumulada na sociologia sobre os quase-mercados formados em políticas de escolha escolar. O artigo investiga os processos de escolha e de acesso escolar em um contexto que denominamos "quase-mercado oculto". No caso brasileiro, a ausência de regulação permite que severos mecanismos de segmentação se manifestem em meio à complexa hierarquia escolar existente nas redes compostas por escolas públicas "comuns". O artigo apresenta a elaboração conceitual presente na literatura internacional e nossas reflexões para o caso brasileiro, além de resultados de uma pesquisa, especialmente de sua fase qualitativa, referente às entrevistas realizadas com professores(as, diretores(as e com pais de alunos do Ensino Fundamental da rede municipal na cidade do Rio de Janeiro.Frequently, policies that seek to encourage parents´ school choice aim to promote educational improvement by means of competitive and/or accountability mechanisms. There is a growing discussion within sociology around the quasi-markets formed with school choice policies. The paper investigates the processes of school choice and access in a context called "hidden quasi-market". In the Brazilian context, the absence of regulation allows the emergence of severe mechanisms of segmentation that take place within a complex school hierarchy existing among "ordinary" school systems. The article presents a conceptual elaboration present in the international literature and our considerations regarding the Brazilian context. It also brings some results, especially those concerning the qualitative phase of the research, including interviews with teachers, principals and students’ parents from municipal elementary schools in the city of Rio de Janeiro.

  16. Representational Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Photography not only represents space. Space is produced photographically. Since its inception in the 19th century, photography has brought to light a vast array of represented subjects. Always situated in some spatial order, photographic representations have been operatively underpinned by social...... to the enterprises of the medium. This is the subject of Representational Machines: How photography enlists the workings of institutional technologies in search of establishing new iconic and social spaces. Together, the contributions to this edited volume span historical epochs, social environments, technological...... possibilities, and genre distinctions. Presenting several distinct ways of producing space photographically, this book opens a new and important field of inquiry for photography research....

  17. Shear machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astill, M.; Sunderland, A.; Waine, M.G.

    1980-01-01

    A shear machine for irradiated nuclear fuel elements has a replaceable shear assembly comprising a fuel element support block, a shear blade support and a clamp assembly which hold the fuel element to be sheared in contact with the support block. A first clamp member contacts the fuel element remote from the shear blade and a second clamp member contacts the fuel element adjacent the shear blade and is advanced towards the support block during shearing to compensate for any compression of the fuel element caused by the shear blade (U.K.)

  18. Electricity of machine tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gijeon media editorial department

    1977-10-01

    This book is divided into three parts. The first part deals with electricity machine, which can taints from generator to motor, motor a power source of machine tool, electricity machine for machine tool such as switch in main circuit, automatic machine, a knife switch and pushing button, snap switch, protection device, timer, solenoid, and rectifier. The second part handles wiring diagram. This concludes basic electricity circuit of machine tool, electricity wiring diagram in your machine like milling machine, planer and grinding machine. The third part introduces fault diagnosis of machine, which gives the practical solution according to fault diagnosis and the diagnostic method with voltage and resistance measurement by tester.

  19. Environmentally Friendly Machining

    CERN Document Server

    Dixit, U S; Davim, J Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Environment-Friendly Machining provides an in-depth overview of environmentally-friendly machining processes, covering numerous different types of machining in order to identify which practice is the most environmentally sustainable. The book discusses three systems at length: machining with minimal cutting fluid, air-cooled machining and dry machining. Also covered is a way to conserve energy during machining processes, along with useful data and detailed descriptions for developing and utilizing the most efficient modern machining tools. Researchers and engineers looking for sustainable machining solutions will find Environment-Friendly Machining to be a useful volume.

  20. Machine Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, R

    2014-01-01

    The protection of accelerator equipment is as old as accelerator technology and was for many years related to high-power equipment. Examples are the protection of powering equipment from overheating (magnets, power converters, high-current cables), of superconducting magnets from damage after a quench and of klystrons. The protection of equipment from beam accidents is more recent. It is related to the increasing beam power of high-power proton accelerators such as ISIS, SNS, ESS and the PSI cyclotron, to the emission of synchrotron light by electron–positron accelerators and FELs, and to the increase of energy stored in the beam (in particular for hadron colliders such as LHC). Designing a machine protection system requires an excellent understanding of accelerator physics and operation to anticipate possible failures that could lead to damage. Machine protection includes beam and equipment monitoring, a system to safely stop beam operation (e.g. dumping the beam or stopping the beam at low energy) and an ...

  1. Statistical-learning strategies generate only modestly performing predictive models for urinary symptoms following external beam radiotherapy of the prostate: A comparison of conventional and machine-learning methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahya, Noorazrul; Ebert, Martin A.; Bulsara, Max; House, Michael J.; Kennedy, Angel; Joseph, David J.; Denham, James W.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Given the paucity of available data concerning radiotherapy-induced urinary toxicity, it is important to ensure derivation of the most robust models with superior predictive performance. This work explores multiple statistical-learning strategies for prediction of urinary symptoms following external beam radiotherapy of the prostate. Methods: The performance of logistic regression, elastic-net, support-vector machine, random forest, neural network, and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) to predict urinary symptoms was analyzed using data from 754 participants accrued by TROG03.04-RADAR. Predictive features included dose-surface data, comorbidities, and medication-intake. Four symptoms were analyzed: dysuria, haematuria, incontinence, and frequency, each with three definitions (grade ≥ 1, grade ≥ 2 and longitudinal) with event rate between 2.3% and 76.1%. Repeated cross-validations producing matched models were implemented. A synthetic minority oversampling technique was utilized in endpoints with rare events. Parameter optimization was performed on the training data. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) was used to compare performance using sample size to detect differences of ≥0.05 at the 95% confidence level. Results: Logistic regression, elastic-net, random forest, MARS, and support-vector machine were the highest-performing statistical-learning strategies in 3, 3, 3, 2, and 1 endpoints, respectively. Logistic regression, MARS, elastic-net, random forest, neural network, and support-vector machine were the best, or were not significantly worse than the best, in 7, 7, 5, 5, 3, and 1 endpoints. The best-performing statistical model was for dysuria grade ≥ 1 with AUROC ± standard deviation of 0.649 ± 0.074 using MARS. For longitudinal frequency and dysuria grade ≥ 1, all strategies produced AUROC>0.6 while all haematuria endpoints and longitudinal incontinence models produced AUROC<0.6. Conclusions

  2. Statistical-learning strategies generate only modestly performing predictive models for urinary symptoms following external beam radiotherapy of the prostate: A comparison of conventional and machine-learning methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yahya, Noorazrul, E-mail: noorazrul.yahya@research.uwa.edu.au [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Western Australia 6009, Australia and School of Health Sciences, National University of Malaysia, Bangi 43600 (Malaysia); Ebert, Martin A. [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Western Australia 6009, Australia and Department of Radiation Oncology, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Western Australia 6008 (Australia); Bulsara, Max [Institute for Health Research, University of Notre Dame, Fremantle, Western Australia 6959 (Australia); House, Michael J. [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Western Australia 6009 (Australia); Kennedy, Angel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Western Australia 6008 (Australia); Joseph, David J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Western Australia 6008, Australia and School of Surgery, University of Western Australia, Western Australia 6009 (Australia); Denham, James W. [School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Newcastle, New South Wales 2308 (Australia)

    2016-05-15

    Purpose: Given the paucity of available data concerning radiotherapy-induced urinary toxicity, it is important to ensure derivation of the most robust models with superior predictive performance. This work explores multiple statistical-learning strategies for prediction of urinary symptoms following external beam radiotherapy of the prostate. Methods: The performance of logistic regression, elastic-net, support-vector machine, random forest, neural network, and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) to predict urinary symptoms was analyzed using data from 754 participants accrued by TROG03.04-RADAR. Predictive features included dose-surface data, comorbidities, and medication-intake. Four symptoms were analyzed: dysuria, haematuria, incontinence, and frequency, each with three definitions (grade ≥ 1, grade ≥ 2 and longitudinal) with event rate between 2.3% and 76.1%. Repeated cross-validations producing matched models were implemented. A synthetic minority oversampling technique was utilized in endpoints with rare events. Parameter optimization was performed on the training data. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) was used to compare performance using sample size to detect differences of ≥0.05 at the 95% confidence level. Results: Logistic regression, elastic-net, random forest, MARS, and support-vector machine were the highest-performing statistical-learning strategies in 3, 3, 3, 2, and 1 endpoints, respectively. Logistic regression, MARS, elastic-net, random forest, neural network, and support-vector machine were the best, or were not significantly worse than the best, in 7, 7, 5, 5, 3, and 1 endpoints. The best-performing statistical model was for dysuria grade ≥ 1 with AUROC ± standard deviation of 0.649 ± 0.074 using MARS. For longitudinal frequency and dysuria grade ≥ 1, all strategies produced AUROC>0.6 while all haematuria endpoints and longitudinal incontinence models produced AUROC<0.6. Conclusions

  3. Mechanics of Wood Machining

    CERN Document Server

    Csanády, Etele

    2013-01-01

    Wood is one of the most valuable materials for mankind, and since our earliest days wood materials have been widely used. Today we have modern woodworking machine and tools; however, the raw wood materials available are continuously declining. Therefore we are forced to use this precious material more economically, reducing waste wherever possible. This new textbook on the “Mechanics of Wood Machining” combines the quantitative, mathematical analysis of the mechanisms of wood processing with practical recommendations and solutions. Bringing together materials from many sources, the book contains new theoretical and experimental approaches and offers a clear and systematic overview of the theory of wood cutting, thermal loading in wood-cutting tools, dynamic behaviour of tool and work piece, optimum choice of operational parameters and energy consumption, the wear process of the tools, and the general regularities of wood surface roughness. Diagrams are provided for the quick estimation of various process ...

  4. Adoption as a gosling strategy to obtain better parental care? Experimental evidence for gosling choice and age-dependency of adoption in greylag geese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmbach, E; van der Aa, P; Komdeur, J

    2005-01-01

    Adoptions of unrelated young by successful breeders are a form of alloparental care which has been observed in many species of geese. Depending on costs and benefits to the parents, adoptions might represent an inter-generational conflict ora mutually beneficial strategy. Although most studies of

  5. The Impact of Academic Self-Concept, Expectations and the Choice of Learning Strategy on Academic Achievement: The Case of Business Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Carlos M.

    2009-01-01

    This study provides evidence of the impact of two critical self-regulation components--academic self-concept and outcome expectations--on the selection of learning strategies conducive to academic achievement in undergraduate business education. Self-concept theory is the framework for the analysis of students' motivations and learning behaviors.…

  6. Guinevere's choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesse, M H

    1995-06-01

    This paper examines four retellings of the Arthurian legend of Guinevere and Lancelot from a bio-evolutionary perspective. The historical and social conditions which provide contexts for the retellings are described, and those conditions are related to underlying male and female reproductive strategies. Since the authors of the selected texts, Chrétien de Troyes, Thomas Malory, Alfred Lord Tennyson, and William Morris, are all male, the assumption is made that these versions of the legend reflect male reproductive preoccupations and encode male attitudes toward femaleness in general and toward female adultery in particular.

  7. Automation of a universal machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez S, J.

    1997-01-01

    The development of the hardware and software of a control system for a servo-hydraulic machine is presented. The universal machine is an Instron, model 1331, used to make mechanical tests. The software includes the acquisition of data from the measurements, processing and graphic presentation of the results in the assay of the 'tension' type. The control is based on a PPI (Programmable Peripheral Interface) 8255, in which the different states of the machine are set. The control functions of the machine are: a) Start of an assay, b) Pause in the assay, c) End of the assay, d) Choice of the control mode of the machine, that they could be in load, stroke or strain modes. For the data acquisition, a commercial card, National Products, model DAS-16, plugged in a slot of a Pc was used. Three transducers provide the analog signals, a cell of load, a LVDT and a extensometer. All the data are digitalized and handled in order to get the results in the appropriate working units. A stress-strain graph is obtained in the screen of the Pc for a tension test for a specific material. The points of maximum stress, rupture stress and the yield stress of the material under test are shown. (Author)

  8. Analysis of machining and machine tools

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Steven Y

    2016-01-01

    This book delivers the fundamental science and mechanics of machining and machine tools by presenting systematic and quantitative knowledge in the form of process mechanics and physics. It gives readers a solid command of machining science and engineering, and familiarizes them with the geometry and functionality requirements of creating parts and components in today’s markets. The authors address traditional machining topics, such as: single and multiple point cutting processes grinding components accuracy and metrology shear stress in cutting cutting temperature and analysis chatter They also address non-traditional machining, such as: electrical discharge machining electrochemical machining laser and electron beam machining A chapter on biomedical machining is also included. This book is appropriate for advanced undergraduate and graduate mechani cal engineering students, manufacturing engineers, and researchers. Each chapter contains examples, exercises and their solutions, and homework problems that re...

  9. PROBLEMS OF STRATEGY FORMATION IT-MARKETING, CRITERIA AND THE DECISIVE RULE OF THE INTEGRATION MODEL CHOICE IN ECONOMIC AND MARKETING PRACTICE OF THE ENTERPRISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia I. Reshetko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In article value of IT marketing at the modern enterprise is estimated. Parameters ofan assessment of appeal of IT marketing forproduction structures according to which themanagement of manufacturing enterprisescan approach to this question reasonablyare given. In article various strategy of integration of IT marketing for the enterprises which are at various stages of developmentare also considered. The main emphasis is placed on the detailed description of thesestrategy, and also the factors promotingtheir effective introduction.

  10. Machine Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R

    2014-01-01

    The protection of accelerator equipment is as old as accelerator technology and was for many years related to high-power equipment. Examples are the protection of powering equipment from overheating (magnets, power converters, high-current cables), of superconducting magnets from damage after a quench and of klystrons. The protection of equipment from beam accidents is more recent. It is related to the increasing beam power of high-power proton accelerators such as ISIS, SNS, ESS and the PSI cyclotron, to the emission of synchrotron light by electron–positron accelerators and FELs, and to the increase of energy stored in the beam (in particular for hadron colliders such as LHC). Designing a machine protection system requires an excellent understanding of accelerator physics and operation to anticipate possible failures that could lead to damage. Machine protection includes beam and equipment monitoring, a system to safely stop beam operation (e.g. dumping the beam or stopping the beam at low energy) and an interlock system providing the glue between these systems. The most recent accelerator, the LHC, will operate with about 3 × 10 14 protons per beam, corresponding to an energy stored in each beam of 360 MJ. This energy can cause massive damage to accelerator equipment in case of uncontrolled beam loss, and a single accident damaging vital parts of the accelerator could interrupt operation for years. This article provides an overview of the requirements for protection of accelerator equipment and introduces the various protection systems. Examples are mainly from LHC, SNS and ESS

  11. A Benchmark for Banks’ Strategy in Online Presence – An Innovative Approach Based on Elements of Search Engine Optimization (SEO and Machine Learning Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Elena CIOLAC

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to offer a new decision tool to assist banks in evaluating their efficiency of Internet presence and in planning the IT investments towards gaining better Internet popularity. The methodology used in this paper goes beyond the simple website interface analysis and uses web crawling as a source for collecting website performance data and employed web technologies and servers. The paper complements this technical perspective with a proposed scorecard used to assess the efforts of banks in Internet presence that reflects the banks’ commitment to Internet as a distribution channel. An innovative approach based on Machine Learning Techniques, the K-Nearest Neighbor Algorithm, is proposed by the author to estimate the Internet Popularity that a bank is likely to achieve based on its size and efforts in Internet presence.

  12. Efficacy of patient selection strategies for carotid endarterectomy by contrast-enhanced MRA on a 1 T machine and duplex ultrasound in a regional hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korteweg, M.A.; Kerkhoff, H.; Bakker, J.; Elgersma, O.E.H.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) and duplex ultrasound (DUS) could replace digital subtraction angiography (DSA) for diagnosing internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis in regional centres with less specialized technicians and equipment, such as a 1 Tesla MRI machine. Materials and methods: Sixty-six consecutive, symptomatic patients with ICA stenosis, as evidenced using DSA, were included. In the first 34 patients DUS was validated and cut-off criteria were established. Data were analysed by receiver operating characteristic curve and logistic regression. Two observers analysed the DUS and CE-MRA results of 32 patients. Stenoses were categorized in accordance with North American Symptomatic Endarterectomy Trial (NASCET) measurement criteria. Results: Peak systolic velocity (PSV) in the ICA was defined as a better parameter for defining stenosis than end diastolic velocity and the PSV ICA:common carotid artery ratio. The optimal PSV threshold was 230 cm/s. Four ICAs were not interpretable on DUS, and one on CE-MRA. Two patients did not undergo CE-MRA. The sensitivities and specificities were calculated: for DUS these were 100% and 68% respectively; for observer 1 on CE-MRA these were 93% and 89%, respectively; for observer 2 these were 92% and 87%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity for combined DUS/CE-MRA were 100% and 85%, respectively. Seventy-eight percent of CE-MRA and DUS correlated. The weighted Kappa for CE-MRA and DSA were 0.8 and 0.9, respectively. Conclusion: DUS and CE-MRA are effective non-invasive methods for selecting patients with ICA stenosis for carotid endarterectomy in non-specialized centres using a 1 T machine. The present results suggest that no referrals to more specialized centres for non-invasive diagnostic work-up for carotid artery stenoses will be necessary

  13. Driving and control strategies in alternative current machines of permanent magnet with non-sinusoidal flux; Estrategias de acionamento e controle em maquinas CA de ima permanente com fluxo nao senoidal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Jose Roberto Boffino de Almeida

    1997-07-01

    The aim of this work is to study and analyze the torque performance of brush less machines with non-sinusoidal distributed magnetic fluxes. The machine type considered is a surface mount permanent magnet brush less machine. Three mathematical models for the machine are considered: the per stator phase, the vectorial and the linear second order speed-voltage models. Machines with different stator windings are compared including the permanent magnet synchronous machines with sinusoidal distributed stator windings. The torque outputs of these machines are obtained considering two kinds of open loop driving systems: one with a six-pulse waveform and other with a sinusoidal waveform. Finally, a vectorial control is proposed for the non-sinusoidal machines. The torque ripple as well the overall performance of non-sinusoidal machines with vectorial control is compared to that of sinusoidal machines. (author)

  14. Machine terms dictionary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-04-15

    This book gives descriptions of machine terms which includes machine design, drawing, the method of machine, machine tools, machine materials, automobile, measuring and controlling, electricity, basic of electron, information technology, quality assurance, Auto CAD and FA terms and important formula of mechanical engineering.

  15. Transitivity of an entangled choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makowski, Marcin; Piotrowski, Edward W

    2011-01-01

    We describe a quantum model of a simple choice game (constructed upon the entangled state of two qubits), which involves the fundamental problem of transitive-intransitive preferences. We compare attainability of optimal intransitive strategies in both classical and quantum models with the use of geometrical interpretation.

  16. Choice certainty in Discrete Choice Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uggeldahl, Kennet Christian; Jacobsen, Catrine; Lundhede, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we conduct a Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE) using eye tracking technology to investigate if eye movements during the completion of choice sets reveal information about respondents’ choice certainty. We hypothesise that the number of times that respondents shift their visual...

  17. Addiction Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Godley

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Entry into the crypt William Burroughs shared with his mother opened and shut around a failed re-enactment of William Tell’s shot through the prop placed upon a loved one’s head. The accidental killing of his wife Joan completed the installation of the addictation machine that spun melancholia as manic dissemination. An early encryptment to which was added the audio portion of abuse deposited an undeliverable message in WB. Wil- liam could never tell, although his corpus bears the in- scription of this impossibility as another form of pos- sibility. James Godley is currently a doctoral candidate in Eng- lish at SUNY Buffalo, where he studies psychoanalysis, Continental philosophy, and nineteenth-century litera- ture and poetry (British and American. His work on the concept of mourning and “the dead” in Freudian and Lacanian approaches to psychoanalytic thought and in Gothic literature has also spawned an essay on zombie porn. Since entering the Academy of Fine Arts Karlsruhe in 2007, Valentin Hennig has studied in the classes of Sil- via Bächli, Claudio Moser, and Corinne Wasmuht. In 2010 he spent a semester at the Dresden Academy of Fine Arts. His work has been shown in group exhibi- tions in Freiburg and Karlsruhe.

  18. Machine musicianship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Robert

    2002-05-01

    The training of musicians begins by teaching basic musical concepts, a collection of knowledge commonly known as musicianship. Computer programs designed to implement musical skills (e.g., to make sense of what they hear, perform music expressively, or compose convincing pieces) can similarly benefit from access to a fundamental level of musicianship. Recent research in music cognition, artificial intelligence, and music theory has produced a repertoire of techniques that can make the behavior of computer programs more musical. Many of these were presented in a recently published book/CD-ROM entitled Machine Musicianship. For use in interactive music systems, we are interested in those which are fast enough to run in real time and that need only make reference to the material as it appears in sequence. This talk will review several applications that are able to identify the tonal center of musical material during performance. Beyond this specific task, the design of real-time algorithmic listening through the concurrent operation of several connected analyzers is examined. The presentation includes discussion of a library of C++ objects that can be combined to perform interactive listening and a demonstration of their capability.

  19. Strategy - The after-Fukushima of the French nuclear sector - Nuclear must be an explicit choice - Siemens, leader of a nuclear-free Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupin, L.

    2012-01-01

    A first article comments the consequences of the Fukushima accident for the French nuclear sector: the risk of an extreme accident must be taken into account; this will result in works and investments; the cost of the French nuclear-based electricity will increase; the debate on the dismantling costs will be on again. Despite these problems, the French nuclear industry relies on its development perspectives abroad, notably in China. In an interview, the chairman of Areva discusses his first six months of action, evokes the implementation of the strategic action plan and the consequences of France's financial degradation, evokes the UraMin affair, the consequences of the Fukushima accident on Areva's offer, the costs of works required by the ASN, the perspectives for the EPR reactor, Areva's activities in the renewable energy sector. A last article comments the strategy of the German company Siemens who decided to phase out nuclear, and to focus notably of wind energy

  20. Pairwise Choice Markov Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Ragain, Stephen; Ugander, Johan

    2016-01-01

    As datasets capturing human choices grow in richness and scale---particularly in online domains---there is an increasing need for choice models that escape traditional choice-theoretic axioms such as regularity, stochastic transitivity, and Luce's choice axiom. In this work we introduce the Pairwise Choice Markov Chain (PCMC) model of discrete choice, an inferentially tractable model that does not assume any of the above axioms while still satisfying the foundational axiom of uniform expansio...

  1. Energy conversion loops for flux-switching PM machine analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ilhan, E.; Motoasca, T.E.; Paulides, J.J.H.; Lomonova, E.

    2012-01-01

    Induction and synchronous machines have traditionally been the first choice of automotive manufacturers for electric/hybrid vehicles. However, these conventional machines are not able anymore to meet the increasing demands for a higher energy density due to space limitation in cars. Flux-switching

  2. Controls and Machine Protection Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Carrone, E.

    2016-01-01

    Machine protection, as part of accelerator control systems, can be managed with a 'functional safety' approach, which takes into account product life cycle, processes, quality, industrial standards and cybersafety. This paper will discuss strategies to manage such complexity and the related risks, with particular attention to fail-safe design and safety integrity levels, software and hardware standards, testing, and verification philosophy. It will also discuss an implementation of a machine protection system at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory's Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS).

  3. Russian consumers' motives for food choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honkanen, P.; Frewer, L.J.

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge about food choice motives which have potential to influence consumer consumption decisions is important when designing food and health policies, as well as marketing strategies. Russian consumers¿ food choice motives were studied in a survey (1081 respondents across four cities), with the

  4. Promoting the purchase of low-calorie foods from school vending machines: a cluster-randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocken, Paul L; Eeuwijk, Jennifer; Van Kesteren, Nicole M C; Dusseldorp, Elise; Buijs, Goof; Bassa-Dafesh, Zeina; Snel, Jeltje

    2012-03-01

    Vending machines account for food sales and revenue in schools. We examined 3 strategies for promoting the sale of lower-calorie food products from vending machines in high schools in the Netherlands. A school-based randomized controlled trial was conducted in 13 experimental schools and 15 control schools. Three strategies were tested within each experimental school: increasing the availability of lower-calorie products in vending machines, labeling products, and reducing the price of lower-calorie products. The experimental schools introduced the strategies in 3 consecutive phases, with phase 3 incorporating all 3 strategies. The control schools remained the same. The sales volumes from the vending machines were registered. Products were grouped into (1) extra foods containing empty calories, for example, candies and potato chips, (2) nutrient-rich basic foods, and (3) beverages. They were also divided into favorable, moderately unfavorable, and unfavorable products. Total sales volumes for experimental and control schools did not differ significantly for the extra and beverage products. Proportionally, the higher availability of lower-calorie extra products in the experimental schools led to higher sales of moderately unfavorable extra products than in the control schools, and to higher sales of favorable extra products in experimental schools where students have to stay during breaks. Together, availability, labeling, and price reduction raised the proportional sales of favorable beverages. Results indicate that when the availability of lower-calorie foods is increased and is also combined with labeling and reduced prices, students make healthier choices without buying more or fewer products from school vending machines. Changes to school vending machines help to create a healthy school environment. © 2012, American School Health Association.

  5. Mexico's critical choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcos, E.

    1990-01-01

    In Mexico, the 1982 fall in international oil prices shook the national conscience and pushed the Mexican people in search of a new national image and toward the choices they must make to attain that image. But, according to the author of this paper, the country as a whole has already made critical choices for overall strategy and there are reasons for optimism. In the current economic environment of growing domestic demand and enhanced international competitiveness, the author sees PEMEX (the Mexican national oil company) facing not only the challenge of responding to the rapid changes taking place in the Mexican economy, but also making a significant contribution toward the solid and stable growth of the country. The relevant question is how PEMEX will live up to these expectations. This paper describes several steps PEMEX has taken already or is preparing to take in order to meet this challenge, including: investment in the domestic petrochemical industry; entry into the Eurobond market; development of new methods of project financing

  6. Machine technology: a survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    An attempt was made to find existing machines that have been upgraded and that could be used for large-scale decontamination operations outdoors. Such machines are in the building industry, the mining industry, and the road construction industry. The road construction industry has yielded the machines in this presentation. A review is given of operations that can be done with the machines available

  7. Machine Shop Lathes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, James

    This guide, the second in a series of five machine shop curriculum manuals, was designed for use in machine shop courses in Oklahoma. The purpose of the manual is to equip students with basic knowledge and skills that will enable them to enter the machine trade at the machine-operator level. The curriculum is designed so that it can be used in…

  8. Superconducting rotating machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.L. Jr.; Kirtley, J.L. Jr.; Thullen, P.

    1975-01-01

    The opportunities and limitations of the applications of superconductors in rotating electric machines are given. The relevant properties of superconductors and the fundamental requirements for rotating electric machines are discussed. The current state-of-the-art of superconducting machines is reviewed. Key problems, future developments and the long range potential of superconducting machines are assessed

  9. Effect of the Machined Surfaces of AISI 4337 Steel to Cutting Conditions on Dry Machining Lathe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Robbi; Napid, Suhardi; Hasibuan, Abdurrozzaq; Rahmah Sibuea, Siti; Yusmartato, Y.

    2018-04-01

    The objective of the research is to obtain a cutting condition which has a good chance of realizing dry machining concept on AISI 4337 steel material by studying surface roughness, microstructure and hardness of machining surface. The data generated from the experiment were then processed and analyzed using the standard Taguchi method L9 (34) orthogonal array. Testing of dry and wet machining used surface test and micro hardness test for each of 27 test specimens. The machining results of the experiments showed that average surface roughness (Raavg) was obtained at optimum cutting conditions when VB 0.1 μm, 0.3 μm and 0.6 μm respectively 1.467 μm, 2.133 μm and 2,800 μm fo r dry machining while which was carried out by wet machining the results obtained were 1,833 μm, 2,667 μm and 3,000 μm. It can be concluded that dry machining provides better surface quality of machinery results than wet machining. Therefore, dry machining is a good choice that may be realized in the manufacturing and automotive industries.

  10. Research on machine learning framework based on random forest algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Qiong; Cheng, Hui; Han, Hai

    2017-03-01

    With the continuous development of machine learning, industry and academia have released a lot of machine learning frameworks based on distributed computing platform, and have been widely used. However, the existing framework of machine learning is limited by the limitations of machine learning algorithm itself, such as the choice of parameters and the interference of noises, the high using threshold and so on. This paper introduces the research background of machine learning framework, and combined with the commonly used random forest algorithm in machine learning classification algorithm, puts forward the research objectives and content, proposes an improved adaptive random forest algorithm (referred to as ARF), and on the basis of ARF, designs and implements the machine learning framework.

  11. Reliability analysis in intelligent machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcinroy, John E.; Saridis, George N.

    1990-01-01

    Given an explicit task to be executed, an intelligent machine must be able to find the probability of success, or reliability, of alternative control and sensing strategies. By using concepts for information theory and reliability theory, new techniques for finding the reliability corresponding to alternative subsets of control and sensing strategies are proposed such that a desired set of specifications can be satisfied. The analysis is straightforward, provided that a set of Gaussian random state variables is available. An example problem illustrates the technique, and general reliability results are presented for visual servoing with a computed torque-control algorithm. Moreover, the example illustrates the principle of increasing precision with decreasing intelligence at the execution level of an intelligent machine.

  12. Realistic Free-Spins Features Increase Preference for Slot Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lorance F; Macaskill, Anne C; Hunt, Maree J

    2017-06-01

    Despite increasing research into how the structural characteristics of slot machines influence gambling behaviour there have been no experimental investigations into the effect of free-spins bonus features-a structural characteristic that is commonly central to the design of slot machines. This series of three experiments investigated the free-spins feature using slot machine simulations to determine whether participants allocate more wagers to a machine with free spins, and, which components of free-spins features drive this preference. In each experiment, participants were exposed to two computer-simulated slot machines-one with a free-spins feature or similar bonus feature and one without. Participants then completed a testing phase where they could freely switch between the two machines. In Experiment 1, participants did not prefer the machine with a simple free-spins feature. In Experiment 2 the free-spins feature incorporated additional elements such as sounds, animations, and an increased win frequency; participants preferred to gamble on this machine. The Experiment 3 "bonus feature" machine resembled the free spins machine in Experiment 2 except spins were not free; participants showed a clear preference for this machine also. These findings indicate that (1) free-spins features have a major influence over machine choice and (2) the "freeness" of the free-spins bonus features is not an important driver of preference, contrary to self-report and interview research with gamblers.

  13. Machine tool structures

    CERN Document Server

    Koenigsberger, F

    1970-01-01

    Machine Tool Structures, Volume 1 deals with fundamental theories and calculation methods for machine tool structures. Experimental investigations into stiffness are discussed, along with the application of the results to the design of machine tool structures. Topics covered range from static and dynamic stiffness to chatter in metal cutting, stability in machine tools, and deformations of machine tool structures. This volume is divided into three sections and opens with a discussion on stiffness specifications and the effect of stiffness on the behavior of the machine under forced vibration c

  14. Pricing and Availability Intervention in Vending Machines at Four Bus Garages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Peter J; Harnack, Lisa J; Mitchell, Nathan R; Toomey, Traci L; Gerlach, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of lowering prices and increasing availability on sales of healthy foods and beverages from 33 vending machines in four bus garages as part of a multi-component worksite obesity prevention intervention. Methods Availability of healthy items was increased to 50% and prices were lowered at least 10% in the vending machines in two metropolitan bus garages for an 18-month period. Two control garages offered vending choices at usual availability and prices. Sales data were collected monthly from each of the vending machines at the four garages. Results Increases in availability to 50% and price reductions of an average of 31% resulted in 10-42% higher sales of the healthy items. Employees were most price-responsive for snack purchases. Conclusions Greater availability and lower prices on targeted food and beverage items from vending machines was associated with greater purchases of these items over an eighteen-month period. Efforts to promote healthful food purchases in worksite settings should incorporate these two strategies. PMID:20061884

  15. A Machine Learning Approach to Air Traffic Route Choice Modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos, Rodrigo; García-Cantú, Oliva; Herranz, Ricardo

    2018-01-01

    Air Traffic Flow and Capacity Management (ATFCM) is one of the constituent parts of Air Traffic Management (ATM). The goal of ATFCM is to make airport and airspace capacity meet traffic demand and, when capacity opportunities are exhausted, optimise traffic flows to meet the available capacity. One of the key enablers of ATFCM is the accurate estimation of future traffic demand. The available information (schedules, flight plans, etc.) and its associated level of uncertainty differ across the...

  16. Choice Shifts in Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Kfir Eliaz; Debraj Ray

    2004-01-01

    The phenomenon of "choice shifts" in group decision-making is fairly ubiquitous in the social psychology literature. Faced with a choice between a ``safe" and ``risky" decision, group members appear to move to one extreme or the other, relative to the choices each member might have made on her own. Both risky and cautious shifts have been identified in different situations. This paper demonstrates that from an individual decision-making perspective, choice shifts may be viewed as a systematic...

  17. Choice Probability Generating Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; McFadden, Daniel L; Bierlaire, Michel

    This paper considers discrete choice, with choice probabilities coming from maximization of preferences from a random utility field perturbed by additive location shifters (ARUM). Any ARUM can be characterized by a choice-probability generating function (CPGF) whose gradient gives the choice...... probabilities, and every CPGF is consistent with an ARUM. We relate CPGF to multivariate extreme value distributions, and review and extend methods for constructing CPGF for applications....

  18. MITS machine operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flinchem, J.

    1980-01-01

    This document contains procedures which apply to operations performed on individual P-1c machines in the Machine Interface Test System (MITS) at AiResearch Manufacturing Company's Torrance, California Facility

  19. Brain versus Machine Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M Carmena

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Dr. Octopus, the villain of the movie "Spiderman 2", is a fusion of man and machine. Neuroscientist Jose Carmena examines the facts behind this fictional account of a brain- machine interface

  20. Applied machining technology

    CERN Document Server

    Tschätsch, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    Machining and cutting technologies are still crucial for many manufacturing processes. This reference presents all important machining processes in a comprehensive and coherent way. It includes many examples of concrete calculations, problems and solutions.

  1. Machining with abrasives

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Mark J

    2011-01-01

    Abrasive machining is key to obtaining the desired geometry and surface quality in manufacturing. This book discusses the fundamentals and advances in the abrasive machining processes. It provides a complete overview of developing areas in the field.

  2. Machine medical ethics

    CERN Document Server

    Pontier, Matthijs

    2015-01-01

    The essays in this book, written by researchers from both humanities and sciences, describe various theoretical and experimental approaches to adding medical ethics to a machine in medical settings. Medical machines are in close proximity with human beings, and getting closer: with patients who are in vulnerable states of health, who have disabilities of various kinds, with the very young or very old, and with medical professionals. In such contexts, machines are undertaking important medical tasks that require emotional sensitivity, knowledge of medical codes, human dignity, and privacy. As machine technology advances, ethical concerns become more urgent: should medical machines be programmed to follow a code of medical ethics? What theory or theories should constrain medical machine conduct? What design features are required? Should machines share responsibility with humans for the ethical consequences of medical actions? How ought clinical relationships involving machines to be modeled? Is a capacity for e...

  3. Machine protection systems

    CERN Document Server

    Macpherson, A L

    2010-01-01

    A summary of the Machine Protection System of the LHC is given, with particular attention given to the outstanding issues to be addressed, rather than the successes of the machine protection system from the 2009 run. In particular, the issues of Safe Machine Parameter system, collimation and beam cleaning, the beam dump system and abort gap cleaning, injection and dump protection, and the overall machine protection program for the upcoming run are summarised.

  4. An introduction to quantum machine learning

    OpenAIRE

    Schuld, M.; Sinayskiy, I.; Petruccione, F.

    2014-01-01

    Machine learning algorithms learn a desired input-output relation from examples in order to interpret new inputs. This is important for tasks such as image and speech recognition or strategy optimisation, with growing applications in the IT industry. In the last couple of years, researchers investigated if quantum computing can help to improve classical machine learning algorithms. Ideas range from running computationally costly algorithms or their subroutines efficiently on a quantum compute...

  5. Geological Hazards analysis in Urban Tunneling by EPB Machine (Case study: Tehran subway line 7 tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Bakhshandeh Amnieh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Technological progress in tunneling has led to modern and efficient tunneling methods in vast underground spaces even under inappropriate geological conditions. Identification and access to appropriate and sufficient geological hazard data are key elements to successful construction of underground structures. Choice of the method, excavation machine, and prediction of suitable solutions to overcome undesirable conditions depend on geological studies and hazard analysis. Identifying and investigating the ground hazards in excavating urban tunnels by an EPB machine could augment the strategy for improving soil conditions during excavation operations. In this paper, challenges such as geological hazards, abrasion of the machine cutting tools, clogging around these tools and inside the chamber, diverse work front, severe water level fluctuations, existence of water, and fine-grained particles in the route were recognized in a study of Tehran subway line 7, for which solutions such as low speed boring, regular cutter head checks, application of soil improving agents, and appropriate grouting were presented and discussed. Due to the presence of fine particles in the route, foam employment was suggested as the optimum strategy where no filler is needed.

  6. Dictionary of machine terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    This book has introduction of dictionary of machine terms, and a compilation committee and introductory remarks. It gives descriptions of the machine terms in alphabetical order from a to Z and also includes abbreviation of machine terms and symbol table, way to read mathematical symbols and abbreviation and terms of drawings.

  7. Mankind, machines and people

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugli, A

    1984-01-01

    The following questions are addressed: is there a difference between machines and men, between human communication and communication with machines. Will we ever reach the point when the dream of artificial intelligence becomes a reality. Will thinking machines be able to replace the human spirit in all its aspects. Social consequences and philosophical aspects are addressed. 8 references.

  8. A Universal Reactive Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Reif; Mørk, Simon; Sørensen, Morten U.

    1997-01-01

    Turing showed the existence of a model universal for the set of Turing machines in the sense that given an encoding of any Turing machine asinput the universal Turing machine simulates it. We introduce the concept of universality for reactive systems and construct a CCS processuniversal...

  9. HTS machine laboratory prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    machine. The machine comprises six stationary HTS field windings wound from both YBCO and BiSCOO tape operated at liquid nitrogen temperature and enclosed in a cryostat, and a three phase armature winding spinning at up to 300 rpm. This design has full functionality of HTS synchronous machines. The design...

  10. Your Sewing Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Marion E.

    The programed instruction manual is designed to aid the student in learning the parts, uses, and operation of the sewing machine. Drawings of sewing machine parts are presented, and space is provided for the student's written responses. Following an introductory section identifying sewing machine parts, the manual deals with each part and its…

  11. Experimental Investigation – Magnetic Assisted Electro Discharge Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesava Reddy, Chirra; Manzoor Hussain, M.; Satyanarayana, S.; Krishna, M. V. S. Murali

    2018-04-01

    Emerging technology needs advanced machined parts with high strength and temperature resistance, high fatigue life at low production cost with good surface quality to fit into various industrial applications. Electro discharge machine is one of the extensively used machines to manufacture advanced machined parts which cannot be machined by other traditional machine with high precision and accuracy. Machining of DIN 17350-1.2080 (High Carbon High Chromium steel), using electro discharge machining has been discussed in this paper. In the present investigation an effort is made to use permanent magnet at various positions near the spark zone to improve surface quality of the machined surface. Taguchi methodology is used to obtain optimal choice for each machining parameter such as peak current, pulse duration, gap voltage and Servo reference voltage etc. Process parameters have significant influence on machining characteristics and surface finish. Improvement in surface finish is observed when process parameters are set at optimum condition under the influence of magnetic field at various positions.

  12. Choice probability generating functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; McFadden, Daniel; Bierlaire, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers discrete choice, with choice probabilities coming from maximization of preferences from a random utility field perturbed by additive location shifters (ARUM). Any ARUM can be characterized by a choice-probability generating function (CPGF) whose gradient gives the choice...... probabilities, and every CPGF is consistent with an ARUM. We relate CPGF to multivariate extreme value distributions, and review and extend methods for constructing CPGF for applications. The choice probabilities of any ARUM may be approximated by a cross-nested logit model. The results for ARUM are extended...

  13. Molecular machines open cell membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-López, Víctor; Chen, Fang; Nilewski, Lizanne G; Duret, Guillaume; Aliyan, Amir; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B; Robinson, Jacob T; Wang, Gufeng; Pal, Robert; Tour, James M

    2017-08-30

    Beyond the more common chemical delivery strategies, several physical techniques are used to open the lipid bilayers of cellular membranes. These include using electric and magnetic fields, temperature, ultrasound or light to introduce compounds into cells, to release molecular species from cells or to selectively induce programmed cell death (apoptosis) or uncontrolled cell death (necrosis). More recently, molecular motors and switches that can change their conformation in a controlled manner in response to external stimuli have been used to produce mechanical actions on tissue for biomedical applications. Here we show that molecular machines can drill through cellular bilayers using their molecular-scale actuation, specifically nanomechanical action. Upon physical adsorption of the molecular motors onto lipid bilayers and subsequent activation of the motors using ultraviolet light, holes are drilled in the cell membranes. We designed molecular motors and complementary experimental protocols that use nanomechanical action to induce the diffusion of chemical species out of synthetic vesicles, to enhance the diffusion of traceable molecular machines into and within live cells, to induce necrosis and to introduce chemical species into live cells. We also show that, by using molecular machines that bear short peptide addends, nanomechanical action can selectively target specific cell-surface recognition sites. Beyond the in vitro applications demonstrated here, we expect that molecular machines could also be used in vivo, especially as their design progresses to allow two-photon, near-infrared and radio-frequency activation.

  14. Molecular machines open cell membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-López, Víctor; Chen, Fang; Nilewski, Lizanne G.; Duret, Guillaume; Aliyan, Amir; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B.; Robinson, Jacob T.; Wang, Gufeng; Pal, Robert; Tour, James M.

    2017-08-01

    Beyond the more common chemical delivery strategies, several physical techniques are used to open the lipid bilayers of cellular membranes. These include using electric and magnetic fields, temperature, ultrasound or light to introduce compounds into cells, to release molecular species from cells or to selectively induce programmed cell death (apoptosis) or uncontrolled cell death (necrosis). More recently, molecular motors and switches that can change their conformation in a controlled manner in response to external stimuli have been used to produce mechanical actions on tissue for biomedical applications. Here we show that molecular machines can drill through cellular bilayers using their molecular-scale actuation, specifically nanomechanical action. Upon physical adsorption of the molecular motors onto lipid bilayers and subsequent activation of the motors using ultraviolet light, holes are drilled in the cell membranes. We designed molecular motors and complementary experimental protocols that use nanomechanical action to induce the diffusion of chemical species out of synthetic vesicles, to enhance the diffusion of traceable molecular machines into and within live cells, to induce necrosis and to introduce chemical species into live cells. We also show that, by using molecular machines that bear short peptide addends, nanomechanical action can selectively target specific cell-surface recognition sites. Beyond the in vitro applications demonstrated here, we expect that molecular machines could also be used in vivo, especially as their design progresses to allow two-photon, near-infrared and radio-frequency activation.

  15. Active vibration isolation of high precision machines

    CERN Document Server

    Collette, C; Artoos, K; Hauviller, C

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a review of active control strategies used to isolate high precisionmachines (e.g. telescopes, particle colliders, interferometers, lithography machines or atomic force microscopes) from external disturbances. The objective of this review is to provide tools to develop the best strategy for a given application. Firstly, the main strategies are presented and compared, using single degree of freedom models. Secondly, the case of huge structures constituted of a large number of elements, like particle colliders or segmented telescopes, is considered.

  16. Methods of equipment choice in shotcreting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharapov, R. R.; Yadykina, V. V.; Stepanov, M. A.; Kitukov, B. A.

    2018-03-01

    Shotcrete is widely used in architecture, hydraulic engineering structures, finishing works in tunnels, arc covers and ceilings. The problem of the equipment choice in shotcreting is very important. The main issues influencing the equipment choice are quality improvement and intensification of shotcreting. Main parameters and rational limits of technological characteristic of machines used in solving different problems in shotcreting are described. It is suggested to take into account peculiarities of shotcrete mixing processes and peculiarities of applying these mixtures with compressed air kinetic energy. The described method suggests choosing a mixer with the account of energy capacity, Reynolds number and rotational frequency of the mixing drum. The suggested choice procedure of the equipment nomenclature allows decreasing exploitation costs, increasing the quality of shotcrete and shotcreting in general.

  17. Quantum machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biamonte, Jacob; Wittek, Peter; Pancotti, Nicola; Rebentrost, Patrick; Wiebe, Nathan; Lloyd, Seth

    2017-09-13

    Fuelled by increasing computer power and algorithmic advances, machine learning techniques have become powerful tools for finding patterns in data. Quantum systems produce atypical patterns that classical systems are thought not to produce efficiently, so it is reasonable to postulate that quantum computers may outperform classical computers on machine learning tasks. The field of quantum machine learning explores how to devise and implement quantum software that could enable machine learning that is faster than that of classical computers. Recent work has produced quantum algorithms that could act as the building blocks of machine learning programs, but the hardware and software challenges are still considerable.

  18. Asynchronized synchronous machines

    CERN Document Server

    Botvinnik, M M

    1964-01-01

    Asynchronized Synchronous Machines focuses on the theoretical research on asynchronized synchronous (AS) machines, which are "hybrids” of synchronous and induction machines that can operate with slip. Topics covered in this book include the initial equations; vector diagram of an AS machine; regulation in cases of deviation from the law of full compensation; parameters of the excitation system; and schematic diagram of an excitation regulator. The possible applications of AS machines and its calculations in certain cases are also discussed. This publication is beneficial for students and indiv

  19. How to make moral choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2011-01-01

    Moral choice is committing to act for what one believes is right and good. It is less about what we know than about defining who we are. Three cases typical of those used in the principles or dilemmas approach to teaching ethics are presented. But they are analyzed using an alternative approach based on seven moral choice heuristics--approaches proven to increase the likelihood of locating the best course of action. The approaches suggested for analyzing moral choice situations include: (a) identify the outcomes of available alternative courses of action; (b) rule out strategies that involve deception, coercion, reneging on promises, collusion, and contempt for others; (c) be authentic (do not deceive yourself); (d) relate to others on a human basis; (e) downplay rational justifications; (f) match the solution to the problem, not the other way around; (g) execute on the best solution, do not hold out for the perfect one; and (h) take action to improve the choice after it has been made.

  20. Modelling Choice of Information Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agha Faisal Habib Pathan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the significance of traveller information sources including mono-modal and multimodal websites for travel decisions. The research follows a decision paradigm developed earlier, involving an information acquisition process for travel choices, and identifies the abstract characteristics of new information sources that deserve further investigation (e.g. by incorporating these in models and studying their significance in model estimation. A Stated Preference experiment is developed and the utility functions are formulated by expanding the travellers' choice set to include different combinations of sources of information. In order to study the underlying choice mechanisms, the resulting variables are examined in models based on different behavioural strategies, including utility maximisation and minimising the regret associated with the foregone alternatives. This research confirmed that RRM (Random Regret Minimisation Theory can fruitfully be used and can provide important insights for behavioural studies. The study also analyses the properties of travel planning websites and establishes a link between travel choices and the content, provenance, design, presence of advertisements, and presentation of information. The results indicate that travellers give particular credence to governmentowned sources and put more importance on their own previous experiences than on any other single source of information. Information from multimodal websites is more influential than that on train-only websites. This in turn is more influential than information from friends, while information from coachonly websites is the least influential. A website with less search time, specific information on users' own criteria, and real time information is regarded as most attractive

  1. Portfolio Optimization and Mortgage Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maj-Britt Nordfang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the optimal mortgage choice of an investor in a simple bond market with a stochastic interest rate and access to term life insurance. The study is based on advances in stochastic control theory, which provides analytical solutions to portfolio problems with a stochastic interest rate. We derive the optimal portfolio of a mortgagor in a simple framework and formulate stylized versions of mortgage products offered in the market today. This allows us to analyze the optimal investment strategy in terms of optimal mortgage choice. We conclude that certain extreme investors optimally choose either a traditional fixed rate mortgage or an adjustable rate mortgage, while investors with moderate risk aversion and income prefer a mix of the two. By matching specific investor characteristics to existing mortgage products, our study provides a better understanding of the complex and yet restricted mortgage choice faced by many household investors. In addition, the simple analytical framework enables a detailed analysis of how changes to market, income and preference parameters affect the optimal mortgage choice.

  2. Motives for food choice among Serbian consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagić Snježana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available People's motives for food choice depend on a number of very complex economic, social and individual factors. A Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ, an instrument that measures the importance of factors underlying food choice, was used to reveal the Serbian consumers' food choice motives by survey of 450 respondents of different age groups. A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted on the motive items, using 11 factors. Previous research shows that the nutrition in Serbia is not balanced enough, and therefore the analysis of motives for food choice is considered a useful tool for the planning of more efficient public policies and interventions aimed at influencing healthier eating habits. Hence the results can be useful for researchers as well as for public institutions which deal with creating the strategy of public health or businessmen who produce and sell food products, because knowing consumer behaviour is necessary for product success on the market.

  3. The innovation choice of market-driven strategy in the energy technology revolution of China%中国能源革命市场驱动策略的创新选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱翌; 张培栋; 王卉卉

    2016-01-01

    China’s energy resources status quo is “rich in coal, oil-poor, less gas”, high external dependency, bad environmental friendliness and low efficiency, which exposing some problems, such as the monopoly of conventional energy market, the deficiency of market motivation and the distortion of parity between new energy and their alternations. So the market driven strategy of China’s energy revolution should make a better choice in enhancing energy efficiency and improving the construction of applied energy, mobilizing more industry to join the energy market, establishing trade market with “development rights”, which taking the energy-efficiency, environmental improvement and resource conservation as measuring standard.%中国的能源资源现状是“富煤、贫油、少气”,能源对外依存度高、环境友好性差、能源使用效率低,暴露出常规能源市场垄断、高效清洁利用市场驱动力不足、新能源与替代产品的比价关系扭曲等问题。中国能源革命的市场驱动策略应在提高能源效率、改善用能结构,动员更多的行业加入能源市场,建立以能效提高、环境改善、资源节约为衡量标准的“发展权”交易市场等方面做出创新选择。

  4. Choice Criteria of Cosmetics among Chinese Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    LI, ZHU

    2014-01-01

    Becoming familiar with consumers’ choice criteria towards a certain kind of product can help marketers tailor more efficient market strategies. Cosmetics play a very important part in the lives of women. Plautus asserted, “A woman without paint is like food without salt”. In recent years, the Chinese cosmetic market has flourished. The aim of this dissertation is to understand the choice criteria of cosmetics in the context of the Chinese market. Country-of-origin, brand image and quality are...

  5. ENTERPRISE RESOURCE STRATEGIC PLANNING: TARGET CHOICE TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Lankin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Choice of the targets is one of most important elements of the resource planning system. Particular feature of the strategic planning is development of future alternatives for the enterprise. Main resource strategic planning cycle elements: examination of principal external and internal environment components; forming the company mission; development of long-term targets; concretization of the long-term targets through short-term aims; examination of strategies and final choice.

  6. Speakers' choice of frame in binary choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc van Buiten

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A distinction is proposed between extit{recommending for} preferred choice options and extit{recommending against} non-preferred choice options. In binary choice, both recommendation modes are logically, though not psychologically, equivalent. We report empirical evidence showing that speakers recommending for preferred options predominantly select positive frames, which are less common when speakers recommend against non-preferred options. In addition, option attractiveness is shown to affect speakers' choice of frame, and adoption of recommendation mode. The results are interpreted in terms of three compatibility effects, (i extit{recommendation mode---valence framing compatibility}: speakers' preference for positive framing is enhanced under extit{recommending for} and diminished under extit{recommending against} instructions, (ii extit{option attractiveness---valence framing compatibility}: speakers' preference for positive framing is more pronounced for attractive than for unattractive options, and (iii extit{recommendation mode---option attractiveness compatibility}: speakers are more likely to adopt a extit{recommending for} approach for attractive than for unattractive binary choice pairs.

  7. AUTOMATION OF A CHOICE OF SYSTEM OF LOGGING MACHINES FOR CARRYING OUT CLEANING CUTTING IN CONIFEROUS PLANTINGS Автоматизация выбора системы лесозаготовительных машин для проведения рубок ухода в хвойных насаждениях

    OpenAIRE

    Murzinov Y. V.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the special classification of logging machines and technologies of carrying out cleaning cutting is considered. The mathematical model of quantity of the damaged trees, remaining after cleaning cutting in coniferous plantings is described. The decision of optimization problem of quantity of damaged trees and productivity of logging machines at cleaning cutting is submitted. Possible decrease of quantity of damaged trees is shown, due to use of the automated choice of system o...

  8. Nano Mechanical Machining Using AFM Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostofa, Md. Golam

    Complex miniaturized components with high form accuracy will play key roles in the future development of many products, as they provide portability, disposability, lower material consumption in production, low power consumption during operation, lower sample requirements for testing, and higher heat transfer due to their very high surface-to-volume ratio. Given the high market demand for such micro and nano featured components, different manufacturing methods have been developed for their fabrication. Some of the common technologies in micro/nano fabrication are photolithography, electron beam lithography, X-ray lithography and other semiconductor processing techniques. Although these methods are capable of fabricating micro/nano structures with a resolution of less than a few nanometers, some of the shortcomings associated with these methods, such as high production costs for customized products, limited material choices, necessitate the development of other fabricating techniques. Micro/nano mechanical machining, such an atomic force microscope (AFM) probe based nano fabrication, has, therefore, been used to overcome some the major restrictions of the traditional processes. This technique removes material from the workpiece by engaging micro/nano size cutting tool (i.e. AFM probe) and is applicable on a wider range of materials compared to the photolithographic process. In spite of the unique benefits of nano mechanical machining, there are also some challenges with this technique, since the scale is reduced, such as size effects, burr formations, chip adhesions, fragility of tools and tool wear. Moreover, AFM based machining does not have any rotational movement, which makes fabrication of 3D features more difficult. Thus, vibration-assisted machining is introduced into AFM probe based nano mechanical machining to overcome the limitations associated with the conventional AFM probe based scratching method. Vibration-assisted machining reduced the cutting forces

  9. The machine intelligence Hex project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalup, Stephan K.; Mellor, Drew; Rosamond, Fran

    2005-12-01

    Hex is a challenging strategy board game for two players. To enhance students’ progress in acquiring understanding and practical experience with complex machine intelligence and programming concepts we developed the Machine Intelligence Hex (MIHex) project. The associated undergraduate student assignment is about designing and implementing Hex players and evaluating them in an automated tournament of all programs developed by the class. This article surveys educational aspects of the MIHex project. Additionally, fundamental techniques for game programming as well as specific concepts for Hex board evaluation are reviewed. The MIHex game server and possibilities of tournament organisation are described. We summarise and discuss our experiences from running the MIHex project assignment over four consecutive years. The impact on student motivation and learning benefits are evaluated using questionnaires and interviews.

  10. Informed Food Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian

    2014-01-01

    of informed food choice. An informed food choice is an enlightened food choice made by the individual based on the information made available. Food choices are made when shopping for food or when eating/drinking, and information is believed to give clarity to the options by increasing market transparency......Food production and consumption influence health, the environment, social structures, etc. For this reason consumers are increasingly interested in information about these effects. Disclosure of information about the consequences of food production and consumption is essential for the idea......, supporting rationality (the best choice), consumers’ self-governance (autonomy) and life coherence (integrity). On a practical level, informed food choice remains an ideal to strive for, as information on food often is inadequate....

  11. Promoting educated consumer choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edinger, Wieke Willemijn Huizing

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary EU food information legislation combines and balances two main consumer interests, i.e., a consumer right to information and the freedom of choice, into one single protective standard: informed choice. Although the recent legislative measures quite openly establish a link between...... informed choice and the rather abstract societal norm of “what is good for the consumer,” this does not justify the conclusion that food information legislation has become overly meddlesome in relation to EU consumers and their choice of food. Rather, there has been a gradual maturing of the EU legislator......’s perception of its task from the mere provision of food information to ensuring educated consumer choices. This development is a logical and necessary consequence of the growing complexity of food choices....

  12. Choice, changeover, and travel

    OpenAIRE

    Baum, William M.

    1982-01-01

    Since foraging in nature can be viewed as instrumental behavior, choice between sources of food, known as “patches,” can be viewed as choice between instrumental response alternatives. Whereas the travel required to change alternatives deters changeover in nature, the changeover delay (COD) usually deters changeover in the laboratory. In this experiment, pigeons were exposed to laboratory choice situations, concurrent variable-interval schedules, that were standard except for the introduction...

  13. Choice Neighborhood Grantees

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Choice Neighborhoods grants transform distressed neighborhoods, public and assisted projects into viable and sustainable mixed-income neighborhoods by linking...

  14. Pattern recognition & machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Anzai, Y

    1992-01-01

    This is the first text to provide a unified and self-contained introduction to visual pattern recognition and machine learning. It is useful as a general introduction to artifical intelligence and knowledge engineering, and no previous knowledge of pattern recognition or machine learning is necessary. Basic for various pattern recognition and machine learning methods. Translated from Japanese, the book also features chapter exercises, keywords, and summaries.

  15. Support vector machines applications

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Guodong

    2014-01-01

    Support vector machines (SVM) have both a solid mathematical background and good performance in practical applications. This book focuses on the recent advances and applications of the SVM in different areas, such as image processing, medical practice, computer vision, pattern recognition, machine learning, applied statistics, business intelligence, and artificial intelligence. The aim of this book is to create a comprehensive source on support vector machine applications, especially some recent advances.

  16. The Newest Machine Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Yeong Seop; Choe, Byeong Do; Bang, Meong Sung

    2005-08-01

    This book gives descriptions of machine material with classification of machine material and selection of machine material, structure and connection of material, coagulation of metal and crystal structure, equilibrium diagram, properties of metal material, elasticity and plasticity, biopsy of metal, material test and nondestructive test. It also explains steel material such as heat treatment of steel, cast iron and cast steel, nonferrous metal materials, non metallic materials, and new materials.

  17. Introduction to machine learning

    OpenAIRE

    Baştanlar, Yalın; Özuysal, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    The machine learning field, which can be briefly defined as enabling computers make successful predictions using past experiences, has exhibited an impressive development recently with the help of the rapid increase in the storage capacity and processing power of computers. Together with many other disciplines, machine learning methods have been widely employed in bioinformatics. The difficulties and cost of biological analyses have led to the development of sophisticated machine learning app...

  18. Machinability of advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Davim, J Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Machinability of Advanced Materials addresses the level of difficulty involved in machining a material, or multiple materials, with the appropriate tooling and cutting parameters.  A variety of factors determine a material's machinability, including tool life rate, cutting forces and power consumption, surface integrity, limiting rate of metal removal, and chip shape. These topics, among others, and multiple examples comprise this research resource for engineering students, academics, and practitioners.

  19. Machining of titanium alloys

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a collection of examples illustrating the resent research advances in the machining of titanium alloys. These materials have excellent strength and fracture toughness as well as low density and good corrosion resistance; however, machinability is still poor due to their low thermal conductivity and high chemical reactivity with cutting tool materials. This book presents solutions to enhance machinability in titanium-based alloys and serves as a useful reference to professionals and researchers in aerospace, automotive and biomedical fields.

  20. Shaping children's healthy eating habits with food placements? Food placements of high and low nutritional value in cartoons, Children's BMI, food-related parental mediation strategies, and food choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naderer, B.; Matthes, J.; Binder, A.; Marquart, F.; Mayrhofer, M.; Obereder, A.; Spielvogel, I.

    Research on media induced food choices of children has not sufficiently investigated whether food placements of snacks high in nutritional value can strengthen children's healthy eating behavior. Furthermore, we lack knowledge about the moderating role of children's individual characteristics such

  1. Transition Towards Energy Efficient Machine Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Zein, André

    2012-01-01

    Energy efficiency represents a cost-effective and immediate strategy of a sustainable development. Due to substantial environmental and economic implications, a strong emphasis is put on the electrical energy requirements of machine tools for metalworking processes. The improvement of energy efficiency is however confronted with diverse barriers, which sustain an energy efficiency gap of unexploited potential. The deficiencies lie in the lack of information about the actual energy requirements of machine tools, a minimum energy reference to quantify improvement potential and the possible actions to improve the energy demand. Therefore, a comprehensive concept for energy performance management of machine tools is developed which guides the transition towards energy efficient machine tools. It is structured in four innovative concept modules, which are embedded into step-by-step workflow models. The capability of the performance management concept is demonstrated in an automotive manufacturing environment. The ...

  2. Tribology in machine design

    CERN Document Server

    Stolarski, Tadeusz

    1999-01-01

    ""Tribology in Machine Design is strongly recommended for machine designers, and engineers and scientists interested in tribology. It should be in the engineering library of companies producing mechanical equipment.""Applied Mechanics ReviewTribology in Machine Design explains the role of tribology in the design of machine elements. It shows how algorithms developed from the basic principles of tribology can be used in a range of practical applications within mechanical devices and systems.The computer offers today's designer the possibility of greater stringen

  3. Induction machine handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2002-01-01

    Often called the workhorse of industry, the advent of power electronics and advances in digital control are transforming the induction motor into the racehorse of industrial motion control. Now, the classic texts on induction machines are nearly three decades old, while more recent books on electric motors lack the necessary depth and detail on induction machines.The Induction Machine Handbook fills industry's long-standing need for a comprehensive treatise embracing the many intricate facets of induction machine analysis and design. Moving gradually from simple to complex and from standard to

  4. Chaotic Boltzmann machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hideyuki; Imura, Jun-ichi; Horio, Yoshihiko; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    The chaotic Boltzmann machine proposed in this paper is a chaotic pseudo-billiard system that works as a Boltzmann machine. Chaotic Boltzmann machines are shown numerically to have computing abilities comparable to conventional (stochastic) Boltzmann machines. Since no randomness is required, efficient hardware implementation is expected. Moreover, the ferromagnetic phase transition of the Ising model is shown to be characterised by the largest Lyapunov exponent of the proposed system. In general, a method to relate probabilistic models to nonlinear dynamics by derandomising Gibbs sampling is presented. PMID:23558425

  5. Electrical machines & drives

    CERN Document Server

    Hammond, P

    1985-01-01

    Containing approximately 200 problems (100 worked), the text covers a wide range of topics concerning electrical machines, placing particular emphasis upon electrical-machine drive applications. The theory is concisely reviewed and focuses on features common to all machine types. The problems are arranged in order of increasing levels of complexity and discussions of the solutions are included where appropriate to illustrate the engineering implications. This second edition includes an important new chapter on mathematical and computer simulation of machine systems and revised discussions o

  6. Nanocomposites for Machining Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Sidorenko

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Machining tools are used in many areas of production. To a considerable extent, the performance characteristics of the tools determine the quality and cost of obtained products. The main materials used for producing machining tools are steel, cemented carbides, ceramics and superhard materials. A promising way to improve the performance characteristics of these materials is to design new nanocomposites based on them. The application of micromechanical modeling during the elaboration of composite materials for machining tools can reduce the financial and time costs for development of new tools, with enhanced performance. This article reviews the main groups of nanocomposites for machining tools and their performance.

  7. Machine listening intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cella, C. E.

    2017-05-01

    This manifesto paper will introduce machine listening intelligence, an integrated research framework for acoustic and musical signals modelling, based on signal processing, deep learning and computational musicology.

  8. Machine learning with R

    CERN Document Server

    Lantz, Brett

    2013-01-01

    Written as a tutorial to explore and understand the power of R for machine learning. This practical guide that covers all of the need to know topics in a very systematic way. For each machine learning approach, each step in the process is detailed, from preparing the data for analysis to evaluating the results. These steps will build the knowledge you need to apply them to your own data science tasks.Intended for those who want to learn how to use R's machine learning capabilities and gain insight from your data. Perhaps you already know a bit about machine learning, but have never used R; or

  9. Rotating electrical machines

    CERN Document Server

    Le Doeuff, René

    2013-01-01

    In this book a general matrix-based approach to modeling electrical machines is promulgated. The model uses instantaneous quantities for key variables and enables the user to easily take into account associations between rotating machines and static converters (such as in variable speed drives).   General equations of electromechanical energy conversion are established early in the treatment of the topic and then applied to synchronous, induction and DC machines. The primary characteristics of these machines are established for steady state behavior as well as for variable speed scenarios. I

  10. Are there intelligent Turing machines?

    OpenAIRE

    Bátfai, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a new computing model based on the cooperation among Turing machines called orchestrated machines. Like universal Turing machines, orchestrated machines are also designed to simulate Turing machines but they can also modify the original operation of the included Turing machines to create a new layer of some kind of collective behavior. Using this new model we can define some interested notions related to cooperation ability of Turing machines such as the intelligence quo...

  11. School Choice Marches forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    One year ago, the "Wall Street Journal" dubbed 2011 "the year of school choice," opining that "this year is shaping up as the best for reformers in a very long time." School-choice laws took great strides in 2011, both in the number of programs that succeeded across states and also in the size and scope of the adopted…

  12. Making Smart Food Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Healthy Aging Making Smart Food Choices Past Issues / Winter 2015 Table of Contents Everyday ... NIH www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Making Smart Food Choices To maintain a healthy weight, balance the calories ...

  13. Your Genes, Your Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Table of Contents Your Genes, Your Choices describes the Human Genome Project, the science behind it, and the ethical, legal, and social issues that are ... Nothing could be further from the truth. Your Genes, Your Choices points out how the progress of ...

  14. Machine learning in materials informatics: recent applications and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramprasad, Rampi; Batra, Rohit; Pilania, Ghanshyam; Mannodi-Kanakkithodi, Arun; Kim, Chiho

    2017-12-01

    Propelled partly by the Materials Genome Initiative, and partly by the algorithmic developments and the resounding successes of data-driven efforts in other domains, informatics strategies are beginning to take shape within materials science. These approaches lead to surrogate machine learning models that enable rapid predictions based purely on past data rather than by direct experimentation or by computations/simulations in which fundamental equations are explicitly solved. Data-centric informatics methods are becoming useful to determine material properties that are hard to measure or compute using traditional methods—due to the cost, time or effort involved—but for which reliable data either already exists or can be generated for at least a subset of the critical cases. Predictions are typically interpolative, involving fingerprinting a material numerically first, and then following a mapping (established via a learning algorithm) between the fingerprint and the property of interest. Fingerprints, also referred to as "descriptors", may be of many types and scales, as dictated by the application domain and needs. Predictions may also be extrapolative—extending into new materials spaces—provided prediction uncertainties are properly taken into account. This article attempts to provide an overview of some of the recent successful data-driven "materials informatics" strategies undertaken in the last decade, with particular emphasis on the fingerprint or descriptor choices. The review also identifies some challenges the community is facing and those that should be overcome in the near future.

  15. Kernel Machine SNP-set Testing under Multiple Candidate Kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Michael C.; Maity, Arnab; Lee, Seunggeun; Simmons, Elizabeth M.; Harmon, Quaker E.; Lin, Xinyi; Engel, Stephanie M.; Molldrem, Jeffrey J.; Armistead, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Joint testing for the cumulative effect of multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms grouped on the basis of prior biological knowledge has become a popular and powerful strategy for the analysis of large scale genetic association studies. The kernel machine (KM) testing framework is a useful approach that has been proposed for testing associations between multiple genetic variants and many different types of complex traits by comparing pairwise similarity in phenotype between subjects to pairwise similarity in genotype, with similarity in genotype defined via a kernel function. An advantage of the KM framework is its flexibility: choosing different kernel functions allows for different assumptions concerning the underlying model and can allow for improved power. In practice, it is difficult to know which kernel to use a priori since this depends on the unknown underlying trait architecture and selecting the kernel which gives the lowest p-value can lead to inflated type I error. Therefore, we propose practical strategies for KM testing when multiple candidate kernels are present based on constructing composite kernels and based on efficient perturbation procedures. We demonstrate through simulations and real data applications that the procedures protect the type I error rate and can lead to substantially improved power over poor choices of kernels and only modest differences in power versus using the best candidate kernel. PMID:23471868

  16. Tough and easy choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Søren Bøye; Lundhede, Thomas; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl

    2011-01-01

    and the best alternative to that. We test this hypothesis using data from two independent Choice Experiments both focusing on nature values. In modelling respondents’ self-reported certainty in choice, we find evidence that the stated level of certainty increases significantly as utility difference in choice......Respondents in Stated Preference studies may be uncertain about their preferences for the good presented to them. Inspired by Wang (J Environ Econ Manag 32:219–232, 1997) we hypothesize that respondents’ stated certainty in choice increases with the utility difference between the alternative chosen...... sets increases. In addition, stated certainty increases with income. Furthermore, there is some evidence that male respondents are inherently more certain in their choices than females, and a learning effect may increase stated certainty. We find evidence of this in the first study where the good...

  17. On synchronous parallel computations with independent probabilistic choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reif, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    This paper introduces probabilistic choice to synchronous parallel machine models; in particular parallel RAMs. The power of probabilistic choice in parallel computations is illustrate by parallelizing some known probabilistic sequential algorithms. The authors characterize the computational complexity of time, space, and processor bounded probabilistic parallel RAMs in terms of the computational complexity of probabilistic sequential RAMs. They show that parallelism uniformly speeds up time bounded probabilistic sequential RAM computations by nearly a quadratic factor. They also show that probabilistic choice can be eliminated from parallel computations by introducing nonuniformity

  18. HUMAN MACHINE COOPERATIVE TELEROBOTICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    William R. Hamel; Spivey Douglass; Sewoong Kim; Pamela Murray; Yang Shou; Sriram Sridharan; Ge Zhang; Scott Thayer; Rajiv V. Dubey

    2003-01-01

    research described as Human Machine Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR). The HMCTR combines the telerobot with robotic control techniques to improve the system efficiency and reliability in teleoperation mode. In this topical report, the control strategy, configuration and experimental results of Human Machines Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR), which modifies and limits the commands of human operator to follow the predefined constraints in the teleoperation mode, is described. The current implementation is a laboratory-scale system that will be incorporated into an engineering-scale system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the future

  19. HUMAN MACHINE COOPERATIVE TELEROBOTICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William R. Hamel; Spivey Douglass; Sewoong Kim; Pamela Murray; Yang Shou; Sriram Sridharan; Ge Zhang; Scott Thayer; Rajiv V. Dubey

    2003-06-30

    described as Human Machine Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR). The HMCTR combines the telerobot with robotic control techniques to improve the system efficiency and reliability in teleoperation mode. In this topical report, the control strategy, configuration and experimental results of Human Machines Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR), which modifies and limits the commands of human operator to follow the predefined constraints in the teleoperation mode, is described. The current implementation is a laboratory-scale system that will be incorporated into an engineering-scale system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the future.

  20. Energy Conversion Loops for Flux-Switching PM Machine Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ilhan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Induction and synchronous machines have traditionally been the first choice of automotive manufacturers for electric/hybrid vehicles. However, these conventional machines are not able anymore to meet the increasing demands for a higher energy density due to space limitation in cars. Flux-switching PM (FSPM machines with their high energy density are very suitable to answer this demand. In this paper, the energy conversion loop technique is implemented on FSPM for the first time. The energy conversion technique is a powerful tool for the visualization of machine characteristics, both linear and nonlinear. Further, the technique provides insight into the torque production mechanism. A stepwise explanation is given on how to create these loops for FSPM along with the machine operation.

  1. Predictors of return rate discrimination in slot machine play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Ewan; Blaszczynski, Alex

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which accurate estimates of payback percentages and volatility combined with prior learning, enabled players to successfully discriminate between multi-line/multi-credit slot machines that provided differing rates of reinforcement. The aim was to determine if the capacity to discriminate structural characteristics of gaming machines influenced player choices in selecting 'favourite' slot machines. Slot machine gambling history, gambling beliefs and knowledge, impulsivity, illusions of control, and problem solving style were assessed in a sample of 48 first year undergraduate psychology students. Participants were subsequently exposed to a choice paradigm where they could freely select to play either of two concurrently presented PC-simulated slot machines programmed to randomly differ in expected player return rates (payback percentage) and win frequency (volatility). Results suggest that prior learning and cognitions (particularly gambler's fallacy) but not payback, were major contributors to the ability of a player to discriminate volatility between slot machines. Participants displayed a general tendency to discriminate payback, but counter-intuitively placed more bets on the slot machine with lower payback percentage rates.

  2. Microsoft Azure machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Mund, Sumit

    2015-01-01

    The book is intended for those who want to learn how to use Azure Machine Learning. Perhaps you already know a bit about Machine Learning, but have never used ML Studio in Azure; or perhaps you are an absolute newbie. In either case, this book will get you up-and-running quickly.

  3. The Hooey Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarnati, James T.; Tice, Craig J.

    1992-01-01

    Describes how students can make and use Hooey Machines to learn how mechanical energy can be transferred from one object to another within a system. The Hooey Machine is made using a pencil, eight thumbtacks, one pushpin, tape, scissors, graph paper, and a plastic lid. (PR)

  4. Nanocomposites for Machining Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidorenko, Daria; Loginov, Pavel; Mishnaevsky, Leon

    2017-01-01

    Machining tools are used in many areas of production. To a considerable extent, the performance characteristics of the tools determine the quality and cost of obtained products. The main materials used for producing machining tools are steel, cemented carbides, ceramics and superhard materials...

  5. A nucleonic weighing machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The design and operation of a nucleonic weighing machine fabricated for continuous weighing of material over conveyor belt are described. The machine uses a 40 mCi cesium-137 line source and a 10 litre capacity ionization chamber. It is easy to maintain as there are no moving parts. It can also be easily removed and reinstalled. (M.G.B.)

  6. An asymptotical machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristallini, Achille

    2016-07-01

    A new and intriguing machine may be obtained replacing the moving pulley of a gun tackle with a fixed point in the rope. Its most important feature is the asymptotic efficiency. Here we obtain a satisfactory description of this machine by means of vector calculus and elementary trigonometry. The mathematical model has been compared with experimental data and briefly discussed.

  7. Machine learning with R

    CERN Document Server

    Lantz, Brett

    2015-01-01

    Perhaps you already know a bit about machine learning but have never used R, or perhaps you know a little R but are new to machine learning. In either case, this book will get you up and running quickly. It would be helpful to have a bit of familiarity with basic programming concepts, but no prior experience is required.

  8. The deleuzian abstract machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner Petersen, Erik

    2005-01-01

    To most people the concept of abstract machines is connected to the name of Alan Turing and the development of the modern computer. The Turing machine is universal, axiomatic and symbolic (E.g. operating on symbols). Inspired by Foucault, Deleuze and Guattari extended the concept of abstract...

  9. Human Machine Learning Symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kenneth R.; Hoque, Md Tamjidul; Williams, Kim H.

    2017-01-01

    Human Machine Learning Symbiosis is a cooperative system where both the human learner and the machine learner learn from each other to create an effective and efficient learning environment adapted to the needs of the human learner. Such a system can be used in online learning modules so that the modules adapt to each learner's learning state both…

  10. Boltzmann machines as a model for parallel annealing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, E.H.L.; Korst, J.H.M.

    1991-01-01

    The potential of Boltzmann machines to cope with difficult combinatorial optimization problems is investigated. A discussion of various (parallel) models of Boltzmann machines is given based on the theory of Markov chains. A general strategy is presented for solving (approximately) combinatorial

  11. Precision machining commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    To accelerate precision machining development so as to realize more of the potential savings within the next few years of known Department of Defense (DOD) part procurement, the Air Force Materials Laboratory (AFML) is sponsoring the Precision Machining Commercialization Project (PMC). PMC is part of the Tri-Service Precision Machine Tool Program of the DOD Manufacturing Technology Five-Year Plan. The technical resources supporting PMC are provided under sponsorship of the Department of Energy (DOE). The goal of PMC is to minimize precision machining development time and cost risk for interested vendors. PMC will do this by making available the high precision machining technology as developed in two DOE contractor facilities, the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory of the University of California and the Union Carbide Corporation, Nuclear Division, Y-12 Plant, at Oak Ridge, Tennessee

  12. Introduction to machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baştanlar, Yalin; Ozuysal, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    The machine learning field, which can be briefly defined as enabling computers make successful predictions using past experiences, has exhibited an impressive development recently with the help of the rapid increase in the storage capacity and processing power of computers. Together with many other disciplines, machine learning methods have been widely employed in bioinformatics. The difficulties and cost of biological analyses have led to the development of sophisticated machine learning approaches for this application area. In this chapter, we first review the fundamental concepts of machine learning such as feature assessment, unsupervised versus supervised learning and types of classification. Then, we point out the main issues of designing machine learning experiments and their performance evaluation. Finally, we introduce some supervised learning methods.

  13. LHC Report: machine development

    CERN Multimedia

    Rogelio Tomás García for the LHC team

    2015-01-01

    Machine development weeks are carefully planned in the LHC operation schedule to optimise and further study the performance of the machine. The first machine development session of Run 2 ended on Saturday, 25 July. Despite various hiccoughs, it allowed the operators to make great strides towards improving the long-term performance of the LHC.   The main goals of this first machine development (MD) week were to determine the minimum beam-spot size at the interaction points given existing optics and collimation constraints; to test new beam instrumentation; to evaluate the effectiveness of performing part of the beam-squeezing process during the energy ramp; and to explore the limits on the number of protons per bunch arising from the electromagnetic interactions with the accelerator environment and the other beam. Unfortunately, a series of events reduced the machine availability for studies to about 50%. The most critical issue was the recurrent trip of a sextupolar corrector circuit –...

  14. The axiom of choice

    CERN Document Server

    Jech, Thomas J

    2008-01-01

    Comprehensive in its selection of topics and results, this self-contained text examines the relative strengths and consequences of the axiom of choice. Each chapter contains several problems, graded according to difficulty, and concludes with some historical remarks.An introduction to the use of the axiom of choice is followed by explorations of consistency, permutation models, and independence. Subsequent chapters examine embedding theorems, models with finite supports, weaker versions of the axiom, and nontransferable statements. The final sections consider mathematics without choice, cardin

  15. Motivating Students by Increasing Student Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsell, Becky S.; Ream, Sarah M.; Seyller, Ann M.; Zobott, Pam L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to increase motivation in 7th grade students. Four teacher researchers examined the change in motivational levels as a result of choice strategies. They gathered data from four different classes, 101 students in all, to track levels of motivation. They monitored their levels of observable behavioral patterns with a…

  16. Platform Expansion Design as Strategic Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staykova, Kalina S.; Damsgaard, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we address how the strategic choice of platform expansion design impacts the subse-quent platform strategy. We identify two distinct approaches to platform expansion – platform bun-dling and platform constellations, which currently co-exist. The purpose of this paper is to outline...

  17. Choice probability generating functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; McFadden, Daniel; Bierlaire, Michel

    2010-01-01

    This paper establishes that every random utility discrete choice model (RUM) has a representation that can be characterized by a choice-probability generating function (CPGF) with specific properties, and that every function with these specific properties is consistent with a RUM. The choice...... probabilities from the RUM are obtained from the gradient of the CPGF. Mixtures of RUM are characterized by logarithmic mixtures of their associated CPGF. The paper relates CPGF to multivariate extreme value distributions, and reviews and extends methods for constructing generating functions for applications....... The choice probabilities of any ARUM may be approximated by a cross-nested logit model. The results for ARUM are extended to competing risk survival models....

  18. Make Better Food Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    10 tips Nutrition Education Series make better food choices 10 tips for women’s health Fruits Grains Dairy Vegetables Protein Make yourself a priority and take time to care for yourself. ChooseMyPlate. gov ...

  19. Veterans Choice Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — If you are already enrolled in VA health care, the Choice Program allows you to receive health care within your community. Using this program does NOT impact your...

  20. Neutron delayed choice experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    Delayed choice experiments for neutrons can help extend the interpretation of quantum mechanical phenomena. They may also rule out alternative explanations which static interference experiments allow. A simple example of a feasible neutron test is presented and discussed. (orig.)

  1. Consumer choice behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming; Percy, Larry; Hallum Hansen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the measurement of emotions and the study of the role ofemotions in consumer choice. Contemporary neurological findings suggest that emotionsmay play a role in its own right, quite different from the way in which they have beenconsidered in traditional consumer choice ...... behaviour theory. A large-scale study including800 respondents, covering 64 brands, provide findings on emotional response tendenciesfor the brands, and relate these to involvement, type of need gratification, purchasingbehaviour, etc.......The paper is concerned with the measurement of emotions and the study of the role ofemotions in consumer choice. Contemporary neurological findings suggest that emotionsmay play a role in its own right, quite different from the way in which they have beenconsidered in traditional consumer choice...

  2. Transition towards energy efficient machine tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zein, Andre [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkzeugmaschinen und Fertigungstechnik

    2012-07-01

    Provides unique data about industrial trends affecting the energy demand of machine tools. Presents a comprehensive methodology to assess the energy efficiency of machining processes. Contains an integrated management concept to implement energy performance measures into existing industrial systems. Includes an industrial case study with two exemplary applications. Energy efficiency represents a cost-effective and immediate strategy of a sustainable development. Due to substantial environmental and economic implications, a strong emphasis is put on the electrical energy requirements of machine tools for metalworking processes. The improvement of energy efficiency is however confronted with diverse barriers, which sustain an energy efficiency gap of unexploited potential. The deficiencies lie in the lack of information about the actual energy requirements of machine tools, a minimum energy reference to quantify improvement potential and the possible actions to improve the energy demand. Therefore, a comprehensive concept for energy performance management of machine tools is developed which guides the transition towards energy efficient machine tools. It is structured in four innovative concept modules, which are embedded into step-by-step workflow models. The capability of the performance management concept is demonstrated in an automotive manufacturing environment. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and practitioners challenged to enhance energy efficiency in manufacturing. The book may also be beneficial for graduate students who want to specialize in this field.

  3. Occupational choice and values.

    OpenAIRE

    Kantas, A.

    1985-01-01

    It is suggested that psychological and sociological approaches to occupational choice can be linked together by employment of three concepts: work salience, values and motivation. Employing Vroom's (1964) cognitive model of motivation occupational choice was examined as a value attainment process. The subjects were 225 male pupils of two different school complexes in Athens, Greece. They were asked to respond to a work salience questionnaire and to rank order a set of ...

  4. Consumer choice behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Flemming; Percy, Larry; Hallum Hansen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the measurement of emotions and the study of the role of emotions in consumer choice. Contemporary neurological findings suggest that emotions may play a role in its own right, quite different from the way in which they have been considered in traditional consumer choice behaviour theory. A large-scale study including 800 respondents, covering 64 brands, provide findings on emotional response tendencies for the brands, and relate these to involvement...

  5. Machine Learning and Radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shijun; Summers, Ronald M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we give a short introduction to machine learning and survey its applications in radiology. We focused on six categories of applications in radiology: medical image segmentation, registration, computer aided detection and diagnosis, brain function or activity analysis and neurological disease diagnosis from fMR images, content-based image retrieval systems for CT or MRI images, and text analysis of radiology reports using natural language processing (NLP) and natural language understanding (NLU). This survey shows that machine learning plays a key role in many radiology applications. Machine learning identifies complex patterns automatically and helps radiologists make intelligent decisions on radiology data such as conventional radiographs, CT, MRI, and PET images and radiology reports. In many applications, the performance of machine learning-based automatic detection and diagnosis systems has shown to be comparable to that of a well-trained and experienced radiologist. Technology development in machine learning and radiology will benefit from each other in the long run. Key contributions and common characteristics of machine learning techniques in radiology are discussed. We also discuss the problem of translating machine learning applications to the radiology clinical setting, including advantages and potential barriers. PMID:22465077

  6. Machine learning and radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shijun; Summers, Ronald M

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we give a short introduction to machine learning and survey its applications in radiology. We focused on six categories of applications in radiology: medical image segmentation, registration, computer aided detection and diagnosis, brain function or activity analysis and neurological disease diagnosis from fMR images, content-based image retrieval systems for CT or MRI images, and text analysis of radiology reports using natural language processing (NLP) and natural language understanding (NLU). This survey shows that machine learning plays a key role in many radiology applications. Machine learning identifies complex patterns automatically and helps radiologists make intelligent decisions on radiology data such as conventional radiographs, CT, MRI, and PET images and radiology reports. In many applications, the performance of machine learning-based automatic detection and diagnosis systems has shown to be comparable to that of a well-trained and experienced radiologist. Technology development in machine learning and radiology will benefit from each other in the long run. Key contributions and common characteristics of machine learning techniques in radiology are discussed. We also discuss the problem of translating machine learning applications to the radiology clinical setting, including advantages and potential barriers. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. DNA-based machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fuan; Willner, Bilha; Willner, Itamar

    2014-01-01

    The base sequence in nucleic acids encodes substantial structural and functional information into the biopolymer. This encoded information provides the basis for the tailoring and assembly of DNA machines. A DNA machine is defined as a molecular device that exhibits the following fundamental features. (1) It performs a fuel-driven mechanical process that mimics macroscopic machines. (2) The mechanical process requires an energy input, "fuel." (3) The mechanical operation is accompanied by an energy consumption process that leads to "waste products." (4) The cyclic operation of the DNA devices, involves the use of "fuel" and "anti-fuel" ingredients. A variety of DNA-based machines are described, including the construction of "tweezers," "walkers," "robots," "cranes," "transporters," "springs," "gears," and interlocked cyclic DNA structures acting as reconfigurable catenanes, rotaxanes, and rotors. Different "fuels", such as nucleic acid strands, pH (H⁺/OH⁻), metal ions, and light, are used to trigger the mechanical functions of the DNA devices. The operation of the devices in solution and on surfaces is described, and a variety of optical, electrical, and photoelectrochemical methods to follow the operations of the DNA machines are presented. We further address the possible applications of DNA machines and the future perspectives of molecular DNA devices. These include the application of DNA machines as functional structures for the construction of logic gates and computing, for the programmed organization of metallic nanoparticle structures and the control of plasmonic properties, and for controlling chemical transformations by DNA machines. We further discuss the future applications of DNA machines for intracellular sensing, controlling intracellular metabolic pathways, and the use of the functional nanostructures for drug delivery and medical applications.

  8. Machine Learning for Hackers

    CERN Document Server

    Conway, Drew

    2012-01-01

    If you're an experienced programmer interested in crunching data, this book will get you started with machine learning-a toolkit of algorithms that enables computers to train themselves to automate useful tasks. Authors Drew Conway and John Myles White help you understand machine learning and statistics tools through a series of hands-on case studies, instead of a traditional math-heavy presentation. Each chapter focuses on a specific problem in machine learning, such as classification, prediction, optimization, and recommendation. Using the R programming language, you'll learn how to analyz

  9. Creativity in Machine Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Thoma, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Recent machine learning techniques can be modified to produce creative results. Those results did not exist before; it is not a trivial combination of the data which was fed into the machine learning system. The obtained results come in multiple forms: As images, as text and as audio. This paper gives a high level overview of how they are created and gives some examples. It is meant to be a summary of the current work and give people who are new to machine learning some starting points.

  10. Machine Tool Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    A NASA-developed software package has played a part in technical education of students who major in Mechanical Engineering Technology at William Rainey Harper College. Professor Hack has been using (APT) Automatically Programmed Tool Software since 1969 in his CAD/CAM Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing curriculum. Professor Hack teaches the use of APT programming languages for control of metal cutting machines. Machine tool instructions are geometry definitions written in APT Language to constitute a "part program." The part program is processed by the machine tool. CAD/CAM students go from writing a program to cutting steel in the course of a semester.

  11. E-learning strategies of higer education institutions : an exploraty study into the influence of environmental contingencies on strategic choices of higher education institutions with respect to integrating e-learning in their education delivery and support processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boezerooy, P.

    2006-01-01

    Looking back at the main research question of this thesis ¿how do higher education institutions differ in their strategic choices with respect to integrating e- Learning into their educational delivery processes and how can these differences be explained?¿ the results of this study showed that

  12. Relevance as a metric for evaluating machine learning algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kota Gopalakrishna, A.; Ozcelebi, T.; Liotta, A.; Lukkien, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    In machine learning, the choice of a learning algorithm that is suitable for the application domain is critical. The performance metric used to compare different algorithms must also reflect the concerns of users in the application domain under consideration. In this work, we propose a novel

  13. Peak thrust operation of linear induction machines from parameter identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z.; Eastham, T.R.; Dawson, G.E. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    1995-12-31

    Various control strategies are being used to achieve high performance operation of linear drives. To maintain minimum volume and weight of the power supply unit on board the transportation vehicle, peak thrust per unit current operation is a desirable objective. True peak thrust per unit current through slip control is difficult to achieve because the parameters of linear induction machines vary during normal operation. This paper first develops a peak thrust per unit current control law based on the per-phase equivalent circuit for linear induction machines. The algorithm for identification of the variable parameters in induction machines is then presented. Application to an operational linear induction machine (LIM) demonstrates the utility of this algorithm. The control strategy is then simulated, based on an operational transit LIM, to show the capability of achieving true peak thrust operation for linear induction machines.

  14. Coordinate measuring machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This document is used in connection with three exercises of 2 hours duration as a part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The exercises concern three aspects of coordinate measuring: 1) Measuring and verification of tolerances on coordinate measuring machines, 2) Traceabilit...... and uncertainty during coordinate measurements, 3) Digitalisation and Reverse Engineering. This document contains a short description of each step in the exercise and schemes with room for taking notes of the results.......This document is used in connection with three exercises of 2 hours duration as a part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The exercises concern three aspects of coordinate measuring: 1) Measuring and verification of tolerances on coordinate measuring machines, 2) Traceability...

  15. Machine Vision Handbook

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The automation of visual inspection is becoming more and more important in modern industry as a consistent, reliable means of judging the quality of raw materials and manufactured goods . The Machine Vision Handbook  equips the reader with the practical details required to engineer integrated mechanical-optical-electronic-software systems. Machine vision is first set in the context of basic information on light, natural vision, colour sensing and optics. The physical apparatus required for mechanized image capture – lenses, cameras, scanners and light sources – are discussed followed by detailed treatment of various image-processing methods including an introduction to the QT image processing system. QT is unique to this book, and provides an example of a practical machine vision system along with extensive libraries of useful commands, functions and images which can be implemented by the reader. The main text of the book is completed by studies of a wide variety of applications of machine vision in insp...

  16. Enter the machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palittapongarnpim, Pantita; Sanders, Barry C.

    2018-05-01

    Quantum tomography infers quantum states from measurement data, but it becomes infeasible for large systems. Machine learning enables tomography of highly entangled many-body states and suggests a new powerful approach to this problem.

  17. Introduction to AC machine design

    CERN Document Server

    Lipo, Thomas A

    2018-01-01

    AC electrical machine design is a key skill set for developing competitive electric motors and generators for applications in industry, aerospace, and defense. This book presents a thorough treatment of AC machine design, starting from basic electromagnetic principles and continuing through the various design aspects of an induction machine. Introduction to AC Machine Design includes one chapter each on the design of permanent magnet machines, synchronous machines, and thermal design. It also offers a basic treatment of the use of finite elements to compute the magnetic field within a machine without interfering with the initial comprehension of the core subject matter. Based on the author's notes, as well as after years of classroom instruction, Introduction to AC Machine Design: * Brings to light more advanced principles of machine design--not just the basic principles of AC and DC machine behavior * Introduces electrical machine design to neophytes while also being a resource for experienced designers * ...

  18. Using Machine Learning to Search for MSSM Higgs Bosons

    CERN Document Server

    Diesing, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the performance of machine learning in the identification of Minimally Su- persymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) Higgs Bosons, and compares this performance to that of traditional cut strategies. Two boosted decision tree algorithms were tested, scikit-learn and XGBoost. These tests indicated that machine learning can perform significantly better than traditional cuts. However, since machine learning in this form cannot be directly implemented in a real MSSM Higgs analysis, this performance information was instead used to better understand the relationships between training variables. Further studies might use this information to construct an improved cut strategy.

  19. Metalworking and machining fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemir, Ali; Sykora, Frank; Dorbeck, Mark

    2010-10-12

    Improved boron-based metal working and machining fluids. Boric acid and boron-based additives that, when mixed with certain carrier fluids, such as water, cellulose and/or cellulose derivatives, polyhydric alcohol, polyalkylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, starch, dextrin, in solid and/or solvated forms result in improved metalworking and machining of metallic work pieces. Fluids manufactured with boric acid or boron-based additives effectively reduce friction, prevent galling and severe wear problems on cutting and forming tools.

  20. Superconducting machines. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleton, A.D.

    1977-01-01

    A brief account is given of the principles of superconductivity and superconductors. The properties of Nb-Ti superconductors and the method of flux stabilization are described. The basic features of superconducting d.c. machines are illustrated by the use of these machines for ship propulsion, steel-mill drives, industrial drives, aluminium production, and other d.c. power supplies. Superconducting a.c. generators and their design parameters are discussed. (U.K.)

  1. Quantum Machine Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Romero García, Cristian

    2017-01-01

    [EN] In a world in which accessible information grows exponentially, the selection of the appropriate information turns out to be an extremely relevant problem. In this context, the idea of Machine Learning (ML), a subfield of Artificial Intelligence, emerged to face problems in data mining, pattern recognition, automatic prediction, among others. Quantum Machine Learning is an interdisciplinary research area combining quantum mechanics with methods of ML, in which quantum properties allow fo...

  2. Human-machine interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, J Chris [Sandia Park, NM; Xavier, Patrick G [Albuquerque, NM; Abbott, Robert G [Albuquerque, NM; Brannon, Nathan G [Albuquerque, NM; Bernard, Michael L [Tijeras, NM; Speed, Ann E [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-04-28

    Digital technology utilizing a cognitive model based on human naturalistic decision-making processes, including pattern recognition and episodic memory, can reduce the dependency of human-machine interactions on the abilities of a human user and can enable a machine to more closely emulate human-like responses. Such a cognitive model can enable digital technology to use cognitive capacities fundamental to human-like communication and cooperation to interact with humans.

  3. Parental attitudes towards soft drink vending machines in high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendel-Paterson, Maia; French, Simone A; Story, Mary

    2004-10-01

    Soft drink vending machines are available in 98% of US high schools. However, few data are available about parents' opinions regarding the availability of soft drink vending machines in schools. Six focus groups with 33 parents at three suburban high schools were conducted to describe the perspectives of parents regarding soft drink vending machines in their children's high school. Parents viewed the issue of soft drink vending machines as a matter of their children's personal choice more than as an issue of a healthful school environment. However, parents were unaware of many important details about the soft drink vending machines in their children's school, such as the number and location of machines, hours of operation, types of beverages available, or whether the school had contracts with soft drink companies. Parents need more information about the number of soft drink vending machines at their children's school, the beverages available, the revenue generated by soft drink vending machine sales, and the terms of any contracts between the school and soft drink companies.

  4. Hydraulic Power Plant Machine Dynamic Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Günther Poll

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A method how to perform an entire structural and hydraulic diagnosis of prototype Francis power machines is presented and discussed in this report. Machine diagnosis of Francis units consists on a proper evaluation of acquired mechanical, thermal and hydraulic data obtained in different operating conditions of several rotary and non rotary machine components. Many different physical quantities of a Francis machine such as pressure, strains, vibration related data, water flow, air flow, position of regulating devices and displacements are measured in a synchronized way so that a relation of cause an effect can be developed for each operating condition and help one to understand all phenomena that are involved with such kind of machine. This amount of data needs to be adequately post processed in order to allow correct interpretation of the machine dynamics and finally these data must be compared with the expected calculated data not only to fine tuning the calculation methods but also to accomplish fully understanding of the influence of the water passages on such machines. The way how the power plant owner has to operate its Francis machines, many times also determined by a central dispatcher, has a high influence on the fatigue life time of the machine components. The diagnostic method presented in this report helps one to understand the importance of adequate operation to allow a low maintenance cost for the entire power plant. The method how to acquire these quantities is discussed in details together with the importance of correct sensor balancing, calibration and adequate correlation with the physical quantities. Typical results of the dynamic machine behavior, with adequate interpretation, obtained in recent measurement campaigns of some important hydraulic turbines were presented. The paper highlights the investigation focus of the hydraulic machine behavior and how to tailor the measurement strategy to accomplish all goals. Finally some

  5. Some relations between quantum Turing machines and Turing machines

    OpenAIRE

    Sicard, Andrés; Vélez, Mario

    1999-01-01

    For quantum Turing machines we present three elements: Its components, its time evolution operator and its local transition function. The components are related with the components of deterministic Turing machines, the time evolution operator is related with the evolution of reversible Turing machines and the local transition function is related with the transition function of probabilistic and reversible Turing machines.

  6. Reactor refueling machine simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohosky, T.L.; Swidwa, K.J.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes in combination: a nuclear reactor; a refueling machine having a bridge, trolley and hoist each driven by a separate motor having feedback means for generating a feedback signal indicative of movement thereof. The motors are operable to position the refueling machine over the nuclear reactor for refueling the same. The refueling machine also has a removable control console including means for selectively generating separate motor signals for operating the bridge, trolley and hoist motors and for processing the feedback signals to generate an indication of the positions thereof, separate output leads connecting each of the motor signals to the respective refueling machine motor, and separate input leads for connecting each of the feedback means to the console; and a portable simulator unit comprising: a single simulator motor; a single simulator feedback signal generator connected to the simulator motor for generating a simulator feedback signal in response to operation of the simulator motor; means for selectively connecting the output leads of the console to the simulator unit in place of the refueling machine motors, and for connecting the console input leads to the simulator unit in place of the refueling machine motor feedback means; and means for driving the single simulator motor in response to any of the bridge, trolley or hoist motor signals generated by the console and means for applying the simulator feedback signal to the console input lead associated with the motor signal being generated by the control console

  7. Virtual Class Support at the Virtual Machine Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Bach; Ernst, Erik

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes how virtual classes can be supported in a virtual machine.  Main-stream virtual machines such as the Java Virtual Machine and the .NET platform dominate the world today, and many languages are being executed on these virtual machines even though their embodied design choices...... conflict with the design choices of the virtual machine.  For instance, there is a non-trivial mismatch between the main-stream virtual machines mentioned above and dynamically typed languages.  One language concept that creates an even greater mismatch is virtual classes, in particular because fully...... general support for virtual classes requires generation of new classes at run-time by mixin composition.  Languages like CaesarJ and ObjectTeams can express virtual classes restricted to the subset that does not require run-time generation of classes, because of the restrictions imposed by the Java...

  8. Machine Protection: Availability for Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Apollonio, Andrea; Schmidt, Ruediger

    2015-03-16

    Machine availability is a key indicator for the performance of the next generation of particle accelerators. Availability requirements need to be carefully considered during the design phase to achieve challenging objectives in different fields, as e.g. particle physics and material science. For existing and future High-Power facilities, such as ESS (European Spallation Source) and HL-LHC (High-Luminosity LHC), operation with unprecedented beam power requires highly dependable Machine Protection Systems (MPS) to avoid any damage-induced downtime. Due to the high complexity of accelerator systems, finding the optimal balance between equipment safety and accelerator availability is challenging. The MPS architecture, as well as the choice of electronic components, have a large influence on the achievable level of availability. In this thesis novel methods to address the availability of accelerators and their protection systems are presented. Examples of studies related to dependable MPS architectures are given i...

  9. A new optimization tool path planning for 3-axis end milling of free-form surfaces based on efficient machining intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Duy-Duc; Monies, Frédéric; Rubio, Walter

    2018-05-01

    A large number of studies, based on 3-axis end milling of free-form surfaces, seek to optimize tool path planning. Approaches try to optimize the machining time by reducing the total tool path length while respecting the criterion of the maximum scallop height. Theoretically, the tool path trajectories that remove the most material follow the directions in which the machined width is the largest. The free-form surface is often considered as a single machining area. Therefore, the optimization on the entire surface is limited. Indeed, it is difficult to define tool trajectories with optimal feed directions which generate largest machined widths. Another limiting point of previous approaches for effectively reduce machining time is the inadequate choice of the tool. Researchers use generally a spherical tool on the entire surface. However, the gains proposed by these different methods developed with these tools lead to relatively small time savings. Therefore, this study proposes a new method, using toroidal milling tools, for generating toolpaths in different regions on the machining surface. The surface is divided into several regions based on machining intervals. These intervals ensure that the effective radius of the tool, at each cutter-contact points on the surface, is always greater than the radius of the tool in an optimized feed direction. A parallel plane strategy is then used on the sub-surfaces with an optimal specific feed direction for each sub-surface. This method allows one to mill the entire surface with efficiency greater than with the use of a spherical tool. The proposed method is calculated and modeled using Maple software to find optimal regions and feed directions in each region. This new method is tested on a free-form surface. A comparison is made with a spherical cutter to show the significant gains obtained with a toroidal milling cutter. Comparisons with CAM software and experimental validations are also done. The results show the

  10. A Navier-Strokes Chimera Code on the Connection Machine CM-5: Design and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jespersen, Dennis C.; Levit, Creon; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    We have implemented a three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes code on the Connection Machine CM-5. The code is set up for implicit time-stepping on single or multiple structured grids. For multiple grids and geometrically complex problems, we follow the 'chimera' approach, where flow data on one zone is interpolated onto another in the region of overlap. We will describe our design philosophy and give some timing results for the current code. A parallel machine like the CM-5 is well-suited for finite-difference methods on structured grids. The regular pattern of connections of a structured mesh maps well onto the architecture of the machine. So the first design choice, finite differences on a structured mesh, is natural. We use centered differences in space, with added artificial dissipation terms. When numerically solving the Navier-Stokes equations, there are liable to be some mesh cells near a solid body that are small in at least one direction. This mesh cell geometry can impose a very severe CFL (Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy) condition on the time step for explicit time-stepping methods. Thus, though explicit time-stepping is well-suited to the architecture of the machine, we have adopted implicit time-stepping. We have further taken the approximate factorization approach. This creates the need to solve large banded linear systems and creates the first possible barrier to an efficient algorithm. To overcome this first possible barrier we have considered two options. The first is just to solve the banded linear systems with data spread over the whole machine, using whatever fast method is available. This option is adequate for solving scalar tridiagonal systems, but for scalar pentadiagonal or block tridiagonal systems it is somewhat slower than desired. The second option is to 'transpose' the flow and geometry variables as part of the time-stepping process: Start with x-lines of data in-processor. Form explicit terms in x, then transpose so y-lines of data are

  11. [A new machinability test machine and the machinability of composite resins for core built-up].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, N

    2001-06-01

    A new machinability test machine especially for dental materials was contrived. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of grinding conditions on machinability of core built-up resins using this machine, and to confirm the relationship between machinability and other properties of composite resins. The experimental machinability test machine consisted of a dental air-turbine handpiece, a control weight unit, a driving unit of the stage fixing the test specimen, and so on. The machinability was evaluated as the change in volume after grinding using a diamond point. Five kinds of core built-up resins and human teeth were used in this study. The machinabilities of these composite resins increased with an increasing load during grinding, and decreased with repeated grinding. There was no obvious correlation between the machinability and Vickers' hardness; however, a negative correlation was observed between machinability and scratch width.

  12. Choosing health, constrained choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee Khoon Chan

    2009-12-01

    In parallel with the neo-liberal retrenchment of the welfarist state, an increasing emphasis on the responsibility of individuals in managing their own affairs and their well-being has been evident. In the health arena for instance, this was a major theme permeating the UK government's White Paper Choosing Health: Making Healthy Choices Easier (2004), which appealed to an ethos of autonomy and self-actualization through activity and consumption which merited esteem. As a counterpoint to this growing trend of informed responsibilization, constrained choices (constrained agency) provides a useful framework for a judicious balance and sense of proportion between an individual behavioural focus and a focus on societal, systemic, and structural determinants of health and well-being. Constrained choices is also a conceptual bridge between responsibilization and population health which could be further developed within an integrative biosocial perspective one might refer to as the social ecology of health and disease.

  13. A linear maglev guide for machine tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tieste, K D [Inst. of Mechanics, Univ. of Hannover (Germany); Popp, K [Inst. of Mechanics, Univ. of Hannover (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Machine tools require linear guides with high slide velocity and very high position accuracy. The three tasks of a linear guide - supporting, guiding and driving - shall be realised by means of active magnetic bearings (AMB). The resulting linear magnetically levitated (maglev) guide has to accomplish the following characteristics: High stiffness, good damping and low noise as well as low heat production. First research on a one degree-of-freedom (DOF) support magnet unit aimed at the development of components and efficient control strategies for the linear maglev guide. The actual research is directed to realise a five DOF linear maglev guide for machine tools without drive to answer the question whether the maglev principle can be used for a linear axis in a machine tool. (orig.)

  14. An introduction to quantum machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuld, Maria; Sinayskiy, Ilya; Petruccione, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    Machine learning algorithms learn a desired input-output relation from examples in order to interpret new inputs. This is important for tasks such as image and speech recognition or strategy optimisation, with growing applications in the IT industry. In the last couple of years, researchers investigated if quantum computing can help to improve classical machine learning algorithms. Ideas range from running computationally costly algorithms or their subroutines efficiently on a quantum computer to the translation of stochastic methods into the language of quantum theory. This contribution gives a systematic overview of the emerging field of quantum machine learning. It presents the approaches as well as technical details in an accessible way, and discusses the potential of a future theory of quantum learning.

  15. The Knife Machine. Module 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on the knife machine, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers one topic: performing special operations on the knife machine (a single needle or multi-needle machine which sews and cuts at the same time). These components are provided: an introduction, directions, an objective,…

  16. The Buttonhole Machine. Module 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on the bottonhole machine, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers two topics: performing special operations on the buttonhole machine (parts and purpose) and performing special operations on the buttonhole machine (gauged buttonholes). For each topic these components are…

  17. HUMAN DECISIONS AND MACHINE PREDICTIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinberg, Jon; Lakkaraju, Himabindu; Leskovec, Jure; Ludwig, Jens; Mullainathan, Sendhil

    2018-02-01

    Can machine learning improve human decision making? Bail decisions provide a good test case. Millions of times each year, judges make jail-or-release decisions that hinge on a prediction of what a defendant would do if released. The concreteness of the prediction task combined with the volume of data available makes this a promising machine-learning application. Yet comparing the algorithm to judges proves complicated. First, the available data are generated by prior judge decisions. We only observe crime outcomes for released defendants, not for those judges detained. This makes it hard to evaluate counterfactual decision rules based on algorithmic predictions. Second, judges may have a broader set of preferences than the variable the algorithm predicts; for instance, judges may care specifically about violent crimes or about racial inequities. We deal with these problems using different econometric strategies, such as quasi-random assignment of cases to judges. Even accounting for these concerns, our results suggest potentially large welfare gains: one policy simulation shows crime reductions up to 24.7% with no change in jailing rates, or jailing rate reductions up to 41.9% with no increase in crime rates. Moreover, all categories of crime, including violent crimes, show reductions; and these gains can be achieved while simultaneously reducing racial disparities. These results suggest that while machine learning can be valuable, realizing this value requires integrating these tools into an economic framework: being clear about the link between predictions and decisions; specifying the scope of payoff functions; and constructing unbiased decision counterfactuals. JEL Codes: C10 (Econometric and statistical methods and methodology), C55 (Large datasets: Modeling and analysis), K40 (Legal procedure, the legal system, and illegal behavior).

  18. Machining of Metal Matrix Composites

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Machining of Metal Matrix Composites provides the fundamentals and recent advances in the study of machining of metal matrix composites (MMCs). Each chapter is written by an international expert in this important field of research. Machining of Metal Matrix Composites gives the reader information on machining of MMCs with a special emphasis on aluminium matrix composites. Chapter 1 provides the mechanics and modelling of chip formation for traditional machining processes. Chapter 2 is dedicated to surface integrity when machining MMCs. Chapter 3 describes the machinability aspects of MMCs. Chapter 4 contains information on traditional machining processes and Chapter 5 is dedicated to the grinding of MMCs. Chapter 6 describes the dry cutting of MMCs with SiC particulate reinforcement. Finally, Chapter 7 is dedicated to computational methods and optimization in the machining of MMCs. Machining of Metal Matrix Composites can serve as a useful reference for academics, manufacturing and materials researchers, manu...

  19. Producers' Complex Risk Management Choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, J.M.E.; Isengildina, O.; Irwin, S.H.; Garcia, P.; Good, D.L.

    2008-01-01

    Producers have a wide variety of risk management instruments available, making their choice(s) complex. The way producers deal with this complexity can vary and may influence the impact that the determinants, such as risk aversion, have on their choices. A recently developed choice bracketing

  20. Virtual Machine in Automation Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Xing, Xiaoyuan

    2010-01-01

    Virtual machine, as an engineering tool, has recently been introduced into automation projects in Tetra Pak Processing System AB. The goal of this paper is to examine how to better utilize virtual machine for the automation projects. This paper designs different project scenarios using virtual machine. It analyzes installability, performance and stability of virtual machine from the test results. Technical solutions concerning virtual machine are discussed such as the conversion with physical...

  1. Non-conventional electrical machines

    CERN Document Server

    Rezzoug, Abderrezak

    2013-01-01

    The developments of electrical machines are due to the convergence of material progress, improved calculation tools, and new feeding sources. Among the many recent machines, the authors have chosen, in this first book, to relate the progress in slow speed machines, high speed machines, and superconducting machines. The first part of the book is dedicated to materials and an overview of magnetism, mechanic, and heat transfer.

  2. Fighting Terrorism With Strategy: Revisiting Competing Visions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schluckebier, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    ... the threat of international terrorism requires America to make a grand strategic choice, This paper examines those choices by presenting four post-Cold War strategy options neo-isolationism, selective...

  3. Search predicts and changes patience in intertemporal choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Eric J.

    2017-01-01

    Intertemporal choice impacts many important outcomes, such as decisions about health, education, wealth, and the environment. However, the psychological processes underlying decisions involving outcomes at different points in time remain unclear, limiting opportunities to intervene and improve people’s patience. This research examines information-search strategies used during intertemporal choice and their impact on decisions. In experiment 1, we demonstrate that search strategies vary substantially across individuals. We subsequently identify two distinct search strategies across individuals. Comparative searchers, who compare features across options, discount future options less and are more susceptible to acceleration versus delay framing than integrative searchers, who integrate the features of an option. Experiment 2 manipulates search using an unobtrusive method to establish a causal relationship between strategy and choice, randomly assigning participants to conditions promoting either comparative or integrative search. Again, comparative search promotes greater patience than integrative search. Additionally, when participants adopt a comparative search strategy, they also exhibit greater effects of acceleration versus delay framing. Although most participants reported that the manipulation did not change their behavior, promoting comparative search decreased discounting of future rewards substantially and speeded patient choices. These findings highlight the central role that heterogeneity in psychological processes plays in shaping intertemporal choice. Importantly, these results indicate that theories that ignore variability in search strategies may be inadvertently aggregating over different subpopulations that use very different processes. The findings also inform interventions in choice architecture to increase patience and improve consumer welfare. PMID:29078303

  4. Search predicts and changes patience in intertemporal choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeck, Crystal; Wall, Daniel; Johnson, Eric J

    2017-11-07

    Intertemporal choice impacts many important outcomes, such as decisions about health, education, wealth, and the environment. However, the psychological processes underlying decisions involving outcomes at different points in time remain unclear, limiting opportunities to intervene and improve people's patience. This research examines information-search strategies used during intertemporal choice and their impact on decisions. In experiment 1, we demonstrate that search strategies vary substantially across individuals. We subsequently identify two distinct search strategies across individuals. Comparative searchers, who compare features across options, discount future options less and are more susceptible to acceleration versus delay framing than integrative searchers, who integrate the features of an option. Experiment 2 manipulates search using an unobtrusive method to establish a causal relationship between strategy and choice, randomly assigning participants to conditions promoting either comparative or integrative search. Again, comparative search promotes greater patience than integrative search. Additionally, when participants adopt a comparative search strategy, they also exhibit greater effects of acceleration versus delay framing. Although most participants reported that the manipulation did not change their behavior, promoting comparative search decreased discounting of future rewards substantially and speeded patient choices. These findings highlight the central role that heterogeneity in psychological processes plays in shaping intertemporal choice. Importantly, these results indicate that theories that ignore variability in search strategies may be inadvertently aggregating over different subpopulations that use very different processes. The findings also inform interventions in choice architecture to increase patience and improve consumer welfare. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  5. Effects of cutting parameters on machinability characteristics of Ni-based superalloys: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaya Eren

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nickel based superalloys offer high strength, corrosion resistance, thermal stability and superb thermal fatigue properties. However, they have been one of the most difficult materials to machine due to these properties. Although we are witnessing improved machining strategies with the developing machining, tooling and inspection technologies, machining of nickel based superalloys is still a challenging task due to in-process strains and post process part quality demands.

  6. Advanced SLARette delivery machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodner, R.R.

    1995-01-01

    SLARette 1 equipment, comprising of a SLARette Delivery Machine, SLAR Tools, SLAR power supplies and SLAR Inspection Systems was designed, developed and manufactured to service fuel channels of CANDU 6 stations during the regular yearly station outages. The Mark 2 SLARette Delivery Machine uses a Push Tube system to provide the axial and rotary movements of the SLAR Tool. The Push Tubes are operated remotely but must be attached and removed manually. Since this operation is performed at the Reactor face, there is radiation dose involved for the workers. An Advanced SLARette Delivery Machine which incorporates a computer controlled telescoping Ram in the place of the Push Tubes has been recently designed and manufactured. Utilization of the Advanced SLARette Delivery Machine significantly reduces the amount of radiation dose picked up by the workers because the need to have workers at the face of the Reactor during the SLARette operation is greatly reduced. This paper describes the design, development and manufacturing process utilized to produce the Advanced SLARette Delivery Machine and the experience gained during the Gentilly-2 NGS Spring outage. (author)

  7. The Bearingless Electrical Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichsel, J.

    1992-01-01

    Electromagnetic bearings allow the suspension of solids. For rotary applications, the most important physical effect is the force of a magnetic circuit to a high permeable armature, called the MAXWELL force. Contrary to the commonly used MAXWELL bearings, the bearingless electrical machine will take advantage of the reaction force of a conductor carrying a current in a magnetic field. This kind of force, called Lorentz force, generates the torque in direct current, asynchronous and synchronous machines. The magnetic field, which already exists in electrical machines and helps to build up the torque, can also be used for the suspension of the rotor. Besides the normal winding of the stator, a special winding was added, which generates forces for levitation. So a radial bearing, which is integrated directly in the active part of the machine, and the motor use the laminated core simultaneously. The winding was constructed for the levitating forces in a special way so that commercially available standard ac inverters for drives can be used. Besides wholly magnetic suspended machines, there is a wide range of applications for normal drives with ball bearings. Resonances of the rotor, especially critical speeds, can be damped actively.

  8. Asymmetric quantum cloning machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerf, N.J.

    1998-01-01

    A family of asymmetric cloning machines for quantum bits and N-dimensional quantum states is introduced. These machines produce two approximate copies of a single quantum state that emerge from two distinct channels. In particular, an asymmetric Pauli cloning machine is defined that makes two imperfect copies of a quantum bit, while the overall input-to-output operation for each copy is a Pauli channel. A no-cloning inequality is derived, characterizing the impossibility of copying imposed by quantum mechanics. If p and p ' are the probabilities of the depolarizing channels associated with the two outputs, the domain in (√p,√p ' )-space located inside a particular ellipse representing close-to-perfect cloning is forbidden. This ellipse tends to a circle when copying an N-dimensional state with N→∞, which has a simple semi-classical interpretation. The symmetric Pauli cloning machines are then used to provide an upper bound on the quantum capacity of the Pauli channel of probabilities p x , p y and p z . The capacity is proven to be vanishing if (√p x , √p y , √p z ) lies outside an ellipsoid whose pole coincides with the depolarizing channel that underlies the universal cloning machine. Finally, the tradeoff between the quality of the two copies is shown to result from a complementarity akin to Heisenberg uncertainty principle. (author)

  9. Consumer rationality in choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conlon, B.J.

    2001-01-01

    The dissertation concentrates on consumer choice and the ability of current modelling approaches to capture the underlying behaviour of the individual decision-makers. The standard assumption of a rational utility maximising individual and its implications for observed behaviour are examined and

  10. Households' portfolio choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hochgürtel, S.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis presents four topics on households' portfolio choices. Empirically, households do not hold well-diversified wealth portfolios. In particular, they refrain from putting their savings into risky assets. We explore several ways that might help explaining this observation. Using Dutch

  11. Project Choice: Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, Kansas City, MO.

    Project Choice began with a simple goal: to increase the number of inner-city students who graduate from high school on time and become productive members of society. To that end, Ewing M. Kauffman, his Foundation, and associates designed and implemented a program that promised postsecondary education or training to some students in the Kansas…

  12. Angelina′s choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishu Singh Goel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This is an opinion piece on how a celebrity′s personal choice to undergo prophylactic mastectomy on discovery of an aberrant gene, when publicly promoted, carries in itself the power to influence and impact healthcare trends and decisions. When celebrities advocate causes that are universally and uniformly acceptable and indisputable as the best in the realm of healthcare and cure (e.g. no smoking, it creates well-being and awareness in society at large. But those which are personal choices made out of a repertoire of other available and effective options may, because of celebrity preference, don the mantle of a norm. They thus run the danger of being blindly replicated by others without proper awareness and knowledge of the true potential of disease, risk factors, and other existing remedial or risk-reducing measures. Society should thus be encouraged to question, debate, and understand the validity, authenticity, and reason of the choices, especially those with a medical basis. This tempering of information with intelligence and rationale and making informed choices based on facts will serve humanity as a whole.

  13. Choices and Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorp, Carmany

    1995-01-01

    Describes student use of Hyperstudio computer software to create history adventure games. History came alive while students learned efficient writing skills; learned to understand and manipulate cause, effect choice and consequence; and learned to incorporate succinct locational, climatic, and historical detail. (ET)

  14. Food choices in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekele, Alemayehu Dekeba; Beuving, Joost; Ruben, Ruerd

    2016-01-01

    This article reports results from a framed market experiment conducted to examine whether milk choices are responsive to changes in the nutritional characteristics of milk products. Using a random-effect Tobit model, we analyzed experimental data collected from 160 participants in urban Ethiopia.

  15. Choices in Pension Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.A.G. Alserda (Gosse)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThe organization of pensions differs greatly across, and within, countries, and these differences affect the large number of stakeholders differently. The choices that underlie these differences tend to be very complicated, as they have to be balanced over the interests of different

  16. Improving virtual screening predictive accuracy of Human kallikrein 5 inhibitors using machine learning models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xingang; Bagui, Sikha; Bagui, Subhash

    2017-08-01

    The readily available high throughput screening (HTS) data from the PubChem database provides an opportunity for mining of small molecules in a variety of biological systems using machine learning techniques. From the thousands of available molecular descriptors developed to encode useful chemical information representing the characteristics of molecules, descriptor selection is an essential step in building an optimal quantitative structural-activity relationship (QSAR) model. For the development of a systematic descriptor selection strategy, we need the understanding of the relationship between: (i) the descriptor selection; (ii) the choice of the machine learning model; and (iii) the characteristics of the target bio-molecule. In this work, we employed the Signature descriptor to generate a dataset on the Human kallikrein 5 (hK 5) inhibition confirmatory assay data and compared multiple classification models including logistic regression, support vector machine, random forest and k-nearest neighbor. Under optimal conditions, the logistic regression model provided extremely high overall accuracy (98%) and precision (90%), with good sensitivity (65%) in the cross validation test. In testing the primary HTS screening data with more than 200K molecular structures, the logistic regression model exhibited the capability of eliminating more than 99.9% of the inactive structures. As part of our exploration of the descriptor-model-target relationship, the excellent predictive performance of the combination of the Signature descriptor and the logistic regression model on the assay data of the Human kallikrein 5 (hK 5) target suggested a feasible descriptor/model selection strategy on similar targets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The effects of single instance, multiple instance, and general case training on generalized vending machine use by moderately and severely handicapped students.

    OpenAIRE

    Sprague, J R; Horner, R H

    1984-01-01

    This report provides an experimental analysis of generalized vending machine use by six moderately or severely retarded high school students. Dependent variables were training trials to criterion and performance on 10 nontrained "generalization" vending machines. A multiple-baseline design across subjects was used to compare three strategies for teaching generalized vending machine use. Training occurred with (a) a single vending machine, (b) three similar machines, or (c) three machines that...

  18. Human-Machine Communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farbrot, J.E.; Nihlwing, Ch.; Svengren, H.

    2005-01-01

    New requirements for enhanced safety and design changes in process systems often leads to a step-wise installation of new information and control equipment in the control room of older nuclear power plants, where nowadays modern digital I and C solutions with screen-based human-machine interfaces (HMI) most often are introduced. Human factors (HF) expertise is then required to assist in specifying a unified, integrated HMI, where the entire integration of information is addressed to ensure an optimal and effective interplay between human (operators) and machine (process). Following a controlled design process is the best insurance for ending up with good solutions. This paper addresses the approach taken when introducing modern human-machine communication in the Oskarshamn 1 NPP, the results, and the lessons learned from this work with high operator involvement seen from an HF point of view. Examples of possibilities modern technology might offer for the operators are also addressed. (orig.)

  19. Machines and Metaphors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Martínez García-Posada

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The edition La ley del reloj. Arquitectura, máquinas y cultura moderna (Cátedra, Madrid, 2016 registers the useful paradox of the analogy between architecture and technique. Its author, the architect Eduardo Prieto, also a philosopher, professor and writer, acknowledges the obvious distance from machines to buildings, so great that it can only be solved using strange comparisons, since architecture does not move nor are the machines habitable, however throughout the book, from the origin of the metaphor of the machine, with clarity in his essay and enlightening erudition, he points out with certainty some concomitances of high interest, drawing throughout history a beautiful cartography of the fruitful encounter between organics and mechanics.

  20. Machine Learning for Security

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Applied statistics, aka ‘Machine Learning’, offers a wealth of techniques for answering security questions. It’s a much hyped topic in the big data world, with many companies now providing machine learning as a service. This talk will demystify these techniques, explain the math, and demonstrate their application to security problems. The presentation will include how-to’s on classifying malware, looking into encrypted tunnels, and finding botnets in DNS data. About the speaker Josiah is a security researcher with HP TippingPoint DVLabs Research Group. He has over 15 years of professional software development experience. Josiah used to do AI, with work focused on graph theory, search, and deductive inference on large knowledge bases. As rules only get you so far, he moved from AI to using machine learning techniques identifying failure modes in email traffic. There followed digressions into clustered data storage and later integrated control systems. Current ...

  1. Chatter and machine tools

    CERN Document Server

    Stone, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Focussing on occurrences of unstable vibrations, or Chatter, in machine tools, this book gives important insights into how to eliminate chatter with associated improvements in product quality, surface finish and tool wear. Covering a wide range of machining processes, including turning, drilling, milling and grinding, the author uses his research expertise and practical knowledge of vibration problems to provide solutions supported by experimental evidence of their effectiveness. In addition, this book contains links to supplementary animation programs that help readers to visualise the ideas detailed in the text. Advancing knowledge in chatter avoidance and suggesting areas for new innovations, Chatter and Machine Tools serves as a handbook for those desiring to achieve significant reductions in noise, longer tool and grinding wheel life and improved product finish.

  2. Clojure for machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Wali, Akhil

    2014-01-01

    A book that brings out the strengths of Clojure programming that have to facilitate machine learning. Each topic is described in substantial detail, and examples and libraries in Clojure are also demonstrated.This book is intended for Clojure developers who want to explore the area of machine learning. Basic understanding of the Clojure programming language is required, but thorough acquaintance with the standard Clojure library or any libraries are not required. Familiarity with theoretical concepts and notation of mathematics and statistics would be an added advantage.

  3. Machine learning systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, R

    1984-05-01

    With the dramatic rise of expert systems has come a renewed interest in the fuel that drives them-knowledge. For it is specialist knowledge which gives expert systems their power. But extracting knowledge from human experts in symbolic form has proved arduous and labour-intensive. So the idea of machine learning is enjoying a renaissance. Machine learning is any automatic improvement in the performance of a computer system over time, as a result of experience. Thus a learning algorithm seeks to do one or more of the following: cover a wider range of problems, deliver more accurate solutions, obtain answers more cheaply, and simplify codified knowledge. 6 references.

  4. Machine tool evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunsford, B.E.

    1976-01-01

    Continued improvement in numerical control (NC) units and the mechanical components used in the construction of today's machine tools, necessitate the use of more precise instrumentation to calibrate and determine the capabilities of these systems. It is now necessary to calibrate most tape-control lathes to a tool-path positioning accuracy of +-300 microinches in the full slide travel and, on some special turning and boring machines, a capability of +-100 microinches must be achieved. The use of a laser interferometer to determine tool-path capabilities is described

  5. Electrical machines & their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hindmarsh, J

    1984-01-01

    A self-contained, comprehensive and unified treatment of electrical machines, including consideration of their control characteristics in both conventional and semiconductor switched circuits. This new edition has been expanded and updated to include material which reflects current thinking and practice. All references have been updated to conform to the latest national (BS) and international (IEC) recommendations and a new appendix has been added which deals more fully with the theory of permanent-magnets, recognising the growing importance of permanent-magnet machines. The text is so arra

  6. Machine shop basics

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Rex

    2004-01-01

    Use the right tool the right wayHere, fully updated to include new machines and electronic/digital controls, is the ultimate guide to basic machine shop equipment and how to use it. Whether you're a professional machinist, an apprentice, a trade student, or a handy homeowner, this fully illustrated volume helps you define tools and use them properly and safely. It's packed with review questions for students, and loaded with answers you need on the job.Mark Richard Miller is a Professor and Chairman of the Industrial Technology Department at Texas A&M University in Kingsville, T

  7. Electrical machines diagnosis

    CERN Document Server

    Trigeassou, Jean-Claude

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring and diagnosis of electrical machine faults is a scientific and economic issue which is motivated by objectives for reliability and serviceability in electrical drives.This book provides a survey of the techniques used to detect the faults occurring in electrical drives: electrical, thermal and mechanical faults of the electrical machine, faults of the static converter and faults of the energy storage unit.Diagnosis of faults occurring in electrical drives is an essential part of a global monitoring system used to improve reliability and serviceability. This diagnosis is perf

  8. Neutron irradiation therapy machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Conventional neutron irradiation therapy machines, based on the use of cyclotrons for producing neutron beams, use a superconducting magnet for the cyclotron's magnetic field. This necessitates complex liquid He equipment and presents problems in general hospital use. If conventional magnets are used, the weight of the magnet poles considerably complicates the design of the rotating gantry. Such a therapy machine, gantry and target facilities are described in detail. The use of protons and deuterons to produce the neutron beams is compared and contrasted. (U.K.)

  9. Man - Machine Communication

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, Peter; Nielsen, Henning

    1984-01-01

    This report describes a Man-to-Machine Communication module which together with a STAC can take care of all operator inputs from the touch-screen, tracker balls and mechanical buttons. The MMC module can also contain a G64 card which could be a GPIB driver but many other G64 cards could be used. The soft-ware services the input devices and makes the results accessible from the CAMAC bus. NODAL functions for the Man Machine Communication is implemented in the STAC and in the ICC.

  10. MRTD: man versus machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rheenen, Arthur D.; Taule, Petter; Thomassen, Jan Brede; Madsen, Eirik Blix

    2018-04-01

    We present Minimum-Resolvable Temperature Difference (MRTD) curves obtained by letting an ensemble of observers judge how many of the six four-bar patterns they can "see" in a set of images taken with different bar-to-background contrasts. The same images are analyzed using elemental signal analysis algorithms and machine-analysis based MRTD curves are obtained. We show that by adjusting the minimum required signal-to-noise ratio the machine-based MRTDs are very similar to the ones obtained with the help of the human observers.

  11. Advances in Machine Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, William R; Villa, Gianluca; Neri, Mauro; Ronco, Claudio

    2018-01-01

    Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) machines have evolved into devices specifically designed for critically ill over the past 40 years. In this chapter, a brief history of this evolution is first provided, with emphasis on the manner in which changes have been made to address the specific needs of the critically ill patient with acute kidney injury. Subsequently, specific examples of technology developments for CRRT machines are discussed, including the user interface, pumps, pressure monitoring, safety features, and anticoagulation capabilities. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. The Composition of Consideration and Choice Sets in Undergraduate University Choice: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, Philip L.; Brown, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    We examine university choice as a case of consumer decision making and adopt a brand elimination framework. This approach is predicated on the grounds that a large amount of research in consumer behavior has shown that in markets where there are many alternative brands, consumers use phased-decision strategies. In these research studies, the…

  13. Exploring how individuals complete the choice tasks in a discrete choice experiment: an interview study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorien Veldwijk

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To be able to make valid inferences on stated preference data from a Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE it is essential that researchers know if participants were actively involved, understood and interpreted the provided information correctly and whether they used complex decision strategies to make their choices and thereby acted in accordance with the continuity axiom. Methods During structured interviews, we explored how 70 participants evaluated and completed four discrete choice tasks aloud. Hereafter, additional questions were asked to further explore if participants understood the information that was provided to them and whether they used complex decision strategies (continuity axiom when making their choices. Two existing DCE questionnaires on rotavirus vaccination and prostate cancer-screening served as case studies. Results A large proportion of the participants was not able to repeat the exact definition of the risk attributes as explained to them in the introduction of the questionnaire. The majority of the participants preferred more optimal over less optimal risk attribute levels. Most participants (66 % mentioned three or more attributes when motivating their decisions, thereby acting in accordance with the continuity axiom. However, 16 out of 70 participants continuously mentioned less than three attributes when motivating their decision. Lower educated and less literate participants tended to mention less than three attributes when motivating their decision and used trading off between attributes less often as a decision-making strategy. Conclusion The majority of the participants seemed to have understood the provided information about the choice tasks, the attributes, and the levels. They used complex decision strategies (continuity axiom and are therefore capable to adequately complete a DCE. However, based on the participants’ age, educational level and health literacy additional, actions should be

  14. Shaping children's healthy eating habits with food placements? Food placements of high and low nutritional value in cartoons, Children's BMI, food-related parental mediation strategies, and food choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderer, Brigitte; Matthes, Jörg; Binder, Alice; Marquart, Franziska; Mayrhofer, Mira; Obereder, Agnes; Spielvogel, Ines

    2018-01-01

    Research on media induced food choices of children has not sufficiently investigated whether food placements of snacks high in nutritional value can strengthen children's healthy eating behavior. Furthermore, we lack knowledge about the moderating role of children's individual characteristics such as parental food-related mediation or BMI. The current study combines data from an experiment involving children with a survey of their parents. We exposed children to a cartoon either containing no food placements, placements of mandarins (i.e., snack high in nutritional value), or placements of fruit gums (i.e., snack low in nutritional value). Afterwards, food consumption was measured by giving children the option to choose between fruit gums or mandarins. Children in both snack placement conditions showed stronger preference for the snack low in nutritional value (i.e., fruit gum) compared to the control group. Interestingly, neither restrictive nor active food-related mediation prevented the effects of the placements on children's choice of snacks low in nutritional value. Compared to children with a low BMI, children with high BMI levels had a stronger disposition to choose the fruit gums if a snack high in nutritional value (i.e., mandarin) was presented. Thus, making snacks high in nutritional attractive for children through media presentation might need stronger persuasive cues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Machine speech and speaking about machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nye, A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Whitewater, WI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Current philosophy of language prides itself on scientific status. It boasts of being no longer contaminated with queer mental entities or idealist essences. It theorizes language as programmable variants of formal semantic systems, reimaginable either as the properly epiphenomenal machine functions of computer science or the properly material neural networks of physiology. Whether or not such models properly capture the physical workings of a living human brain is a question that scientists will have to answer. I, as a philosopher, come at the problem from another direction. Does contemporary philosophical semantics, in its dominant truth-theoretic and related versions, capture actual living human thought as it is experienced, or does it instead reflect, regardless of (perhaps dubious) scientific credentials, pathology of thought, a pathology with a disturbing social history.

  16. Making Healthy Choices Easier: Regulation versus Nudging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg; Skov, Laurits Rohden; Skov, Katrine Lund

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the nudge approach to behavior change has emerged from the behavioral sciences to challenge the traditional use of regulation in public health strategies to address modifiable individual-level behaviors related to the rise of noncommunicable diseases and their treatment. However, integration and testing of the nudge approach as part of more comprehensive public health strategies aimed at making healthy choices easier are being threatened by inadequate understandings of its scientific character, its relationship with regulation, and its ethical implications. This article reviews this character and its ethical implication with a special emphasis on the compatibility of nudging with traditional regulation, special domains of experience, and the need for a more nuanced approach to the ethical debate. The aim is to advance readers' understanding and give guidance to those who have considered working with or incorporating the nudge approach into programs or policies aimed at making healthful choices easier.

  17. Design of rotating electrical machines

    CERN Document Server

    Pyrhonen , Juha; Hrabovcova , Valeria

    2013-01-01

    In one complete volume, this essential reference presents an in-depth overview of the theoretical principles and techniques of electrical machine design. This timely new edition offers up-to-date theory and guidelines for the design of electrical machines, taking into account recent advances in permanent magnet machines as well as synchronous reluctance machines. New coverage includes: Brand new material on the ecological impact of the motors, covering the eco-design principles of rotating electrical machinesAn expanded section on the design of permanent magnet synchronous machines, now repo

  18. Fuzzy social choice theory

    CERN Document Server

    B Gibilisco, Michael; E Albert, Karen; N Mordeson, John; J Wierman, Mark; D Clark, Terry

    2014-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive analysis of the social choice literature and shows, by applying fuzzy sets, how the use of fuzzy preferences, rather than that of strict ones, may affect the social choice theorems. To do this, the book explores the presupposition of rationality within the fuzzy framework and shows that the two conditions for rationality, completeness and transitivity, do exist with fuzzy preferences. Specifically, this book examines: the conditions under which a maximal set exists; the Arrow’s theorem;  the Gibbard-Satterthwaite theorem; and the median voter theorem.  After showing that a non-empty maximal set does exists for fuzzy preference relations, this book goes on to demonstrating the existence of a fuzzy aggregation rule satisfying all five Arrowian conditions, including non-dictatorship. While the Gibbard-Satterthwaite theorem only considers individual fuzzy preferences, this work shows that both individuals and groups can choose alternatives to various degrees, resulting in a so...

  19. The choice that disappeared

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey; Saxe, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    This article criticise the notion that ethical consumerism can solve the ethical issues related to sustainability and food production through an analysis of the complexity of the concept of sustainability as related to food choices. The current trend of leaving the political discussion...... and regulation of the food area to the political consumer is shown to be problematic as shopping for sustainability might be much harder than initially believed due to the conflicting considerations entailed in the concept. Thus political consumerism may give way to fatalism as the complexity of choices become...... apparent and acts of citizenship increasingly are reduced to ethical consumerism supposed to be performed while shopping. The suggested solution is to let food policies be decided to a much higher degree through the political process engaging humans as citizens rather than consumers in the process....

  20. ParaChoice Model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heimer, Brandon Walter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Levinson, Rebecca Sobel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); West, Todd H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Analysis with the ParaChoice model addresses three barriers from the VTO Multi-Year Program Plan: availability of alternative fuels and electric charging station infrastructure, availability of AFVs and electric drive vehicles, and consumer reluctance to purchase new technologies. In this fiscal year, we first examined the relationship between the availability of alternative fuels and station infrastructure. Specifically, we studied how electric vehicle charging infrastructure affects the ability of EVs to compete with vehicles that rely on mature, conventional petroleum-based fuels. Second, we studied how the availability of less costly AFVs promotes their representation in the LDV fleet. Third, we used ParaChoice trade space analyses to help inform which consumers are reluctant to purchase new technologies. Last, we began analysis of impacts of alternative energy technologies on Class 8 trucks to isolate those that may most efficaciously advance HDV efficiency and petroleum use reduction goals.

  1. Food choices during Ramadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamina Rashid

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have assessed the dietary Practices of people with diabetes during Ramadan (1. A sub study of Ramadan prospective diabetes study (2 which was conducted at the outpatient department of Baqai Institute of Diabetology and endocrinology, Karachi Pakistan in 2009 analyzed the food choices of patients with diabetes during Ramadan. Several irregularities regarding dietary intake and food choices were noted among the study participants. Although, the patients were counseled regarding diet before Ramadan, many did not follow the dietary advice. All patients had taken food at Iftar but majority of them preferred fried items like samosas, pakoras (fried snack, chicken rolls etc. these deeply fried items can lead to post Iftar hyperglycemia. Patients were also opted for fruit chat, dahibara and chanachaat at Iftar, higher load of these items can also worsen glycemic control. The striking finding was almost absence of meat (protein intake at Iftar but study from India showed increment of all three macronutrients during Ramadan (3. This may result in higher intake of items from carbohydrate and fat groups resulting in hyperglycemia after iftar. Intake of vegetables at Iftar was also negligible and hence the diet was not well balanced. The food choices at sahoor included roti, paratha (fried bread, slices, khajla, pheni, meat, egg and milk. Though it is advisable to take complex carbohydrates, protein and fat at sahoor as these are slowly digestible and can prevent hypoglycemia during fasting but khajla pheni are extremely rich in fat and carbohydrate content and should be avoided (4. However, paratha in 2 teaspoon of oil can be taken at sahoor.Patients with diabetes who fast during the month of Ramadan should have pre Ramadan dietary guidance and counseling session in order to modify their food preferences and choices during the holy month of Ramadan (4.

  2. Leisure and Travel Choice

    OpenAIRE

    María José Caride; Eduardo L. Giménez

    2003-01-01

    It is commonly recognized the relevance of transportation costs for studying recre- ational demand. However, these costs are related with travel and modal choice deci- sions. This paper o ers a theoretical explanation of the new generation of the demand for recreational goods at destiny after the introduction of a new transportation mode that is not the cheapest nor the fastest among the available modes. The main feature of the model deals with the transportation mode-dependent preferences. T...

  3. Making molecular machines work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Browne, Wesley R.; Feringa, Ben L.

    2006-01-01

    In this review we chart recent advances in what is at once an old and very new field of endeavour the achievement of control of motion at the molecular level including solid-state and surface-mounted rotors, and its natural progression to the development of synthetic molecular machines. Besides a

  4. Massively collaborative machine learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijn, van J.N.

    2016-01-01

    Many scientists are focussed on building models. We nearly process all information we perceive to a model. There are many techniques that enable computers to build models as well. The field of research that develops such techniques is called Machine Learning. Many research is devoted to develop

  5. Turbulence and Flying Machines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    other to make the aircraft roll. For example, a downward dis- placement of the left aileron causes the airplane to roll to the right. In Figure 4 the elevators have been deflected downwards, giving rise to a 'nose-down' moment about the pitch axis. Delaying Turbulence. In the last few decades, flying machines have proliferated ...

  6. Consuming a Machinic Servicescape

    OpenAIRE

    Hietanen, Joel; Andéhn, Mikael; Iddon, Thom; Denny, Iain; Ehnhage, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Consumer encounters with servicescapes tend to emphasize the harmonic tendency of their value-creating potential. We contest this assumption from a critical non-representational perspective that foregrounds the machinic and repressive potentiality of such con- sumption contexts. We offer the airport servicescape as an illustrative example. 

  7. War Machines and Ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Galasz; Buhl, Kenneth Øhlenschlæger

    2018-01-01

    and save military lives. However, this opens up for discussions about ethical dilemmas about machines that autonomously are able to kill humans: What is an autonomous weapons system? What laws covers the use of fully autonomous weapons systems? Should it apply to International Humanitarian Law?...

  8. GPK heading machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krmasek, J.; Novosad, K.

    1981-01-01

    This article evaluates performance tests of the Soviet made GPK heading machine carried out in 4 coal mines in Czechoslovakia (Ostrava-Karvina region and Kladno mines). GPK works in coal seams and rocks with compression strength of 40 to 50 MPa. Dimensions of the tunnel are height 1.8 to 3.8 m and width 2.6 to 4.7 m, tunnel gradient plus to minus 10 degrees. GPK weighs 16 t, its conical shaped cutting head equipped with RKS-1 cutting tools is driven by an electric motor with 55 kW capacity. Undercarriage of the GPK, gathering-arm loader, hydraulic system, electric system and dust supression system (water spraying or pneumatic section) are characterized. Specifications of GPK heading machines are compared with PK-3r and F8 heading machines. Reliability, number of failures, dust level, noise, productivity depending on compression strength of rocks, heading rate in coal and in rocks, energy consumption, performance in inclined tunnels, and cutting tool wear are evaluated. Tests show that GPK can be used to drive tunnels in coal with rock constituting up to 50% of the tunnel crosscut, as long as rock compression strength does not exceed 50 MPa. In rocks characterized by higher compression strength cutting tool wear sharply increases. GPK is characterized by higher productivity than that of the PK-3r heading machine. Among the weak points of the GPK are: unsatisfactory reliability and excessive wear of its elements. (4 refs.) (In Czech)

  9. A Turing Machine Simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Aaron B.

    1981-01-01

    Presents a program in Level II BASIC for a TRS-80 computer that simulates a Turing machine and discusses the nature of the device. The program is run interactively and is designed to be used as an educational tool by computer science or mathematics students studying computational or automata theory. (MP)

  10. Machine Dictation and Transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Evelyn; And Others

    This instructional package contains both an instructor's manual and a student's manual for a course in machine dictation and transcription. The instructor's manual contains an overview with tips on teaching the course, letters for dictation, and a key to the letters. The student's manual contains an overview of the course and of the skills needed…

  11. Natural Nano-Machines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    transport, ion pump, ATP syn- thase. A popularized ..... gas. A lice: I could not understand how A T P m olecules serve as fuels for m olecular m achines. ..... [16] V Balzani, M Venturi and A Credi, Molecular Devices and Machines: a Journey into ...

  12. ADAM: ADaptive Autonomous Machine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oosten, Daan C.; Nijenhuis, Lucas F.J.; Bakkers, André; Vervoort, Wiek

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a part of the development of an adaptive autonomous machine that is able to move in an unknown world extract knowledge out of the perceived data, has the possibility to reason, and finally has the capability to exchange experiences and knowledge with other agents. The agent is

  13. Machine Parts as Metaphor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Gerald

    The connection between Language for Specific Purposes (LSP) and literature is discussed with examples of technical vocabulary drawn from a variety of writers, with particular attention to a sketch by the British dramatist Harold Pinter, "Trouble in the Works," which makes extensive use of the terminology of machine parts. It is noted…

  14. Machine-Learning Research

    OpenAIRE

    Dietterich, Thomas G.

    1997-01-01

    Machine-learning research has been making great progress in many directions. This article summarizes four of these directions and discusses some current open problems. The four directions are (1) the improvement of classification accuracy by learning ensembles of classifiers, (2) methods for scaling up supervised learning algorithms, (3) reinforcement learning, and (4) the learning of complex stochastic models.

  15. The impact of choice context on consumers' choice heuristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone; Scholderer, Joachim; Corsi, Armando M.

    2012-01-01

    Context effects in choice settings have received recent attention but little is known about the impact of context on choice consistency and the extent to which consumers apply choice heuristics. The sequence of alternatives in a choice set is examined here as one specific context effect. We compare...... how a change from a typical price order to a sensory order in wine menus affects consumer choice. We use pre-specified latent heuristic classes to analyse the existence of different choice processes, which begins to untangle the ‘black box’ of how consumers choose. Our findings indicate...... that in the absence of price order, consumers are less price-sensitive, pay more attention to visually salient cues, are less consistent in their choices and employ other simple choice heuristics more frequently than price. Implications for consumer research, marketing and consumer policy are discussed....

  16. Topological social choice

    CERN Document Server

    1997-01-01

    The origins of this volume can be traced back to a conference on "Ethics, Economic and Business" organized by Columbia Busi­ ness School in March of 1993, and held in the splendid facilities of Columbia's Casa Italiana. Preliminary versions of several of the papers were presented at that meeting. In July 1994 the Fields Institute of Mathematical Sciences sponsored a workshop on "Geometry, Topology and Markets": additional papers and more refined versions of the original papers were presented there. They were published in their present versions in Social Choice and Wel­ fare, volume 14, number 2, 1997. The common aim of these workshops and this volume is to crystallize research in an area which has emerged rapidly in the last fifteen years, the area of topological approaches to social choice and the theory of games. The area is attracting increasing interest from social choice theorists, game theorists, mathematical econ­ omists and mathematicians, yet there is no authoritative collection of papers in the a...

  17. Known Unknowns in Judgment and Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Walters, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation investigates how people make inferences about missing information. Whereas most prior literature focuses on how people process known information, I show that the extent to which people make inferences about missing information impacts judgments and choices. Specifically, I investigate how (1) awareness of known unknowns affects overconfidence in judgment in Chapter 1, (2) beliefs about the knowability of unknowns impacts investment strategies in Chapter 2, and (3) inferences...

  18. Entry Mode Choice in Emerging Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Gundersen, Anne Kathrine Navestad

    2012-01-01

    As the mature markets of developed economies have become increasingly saturated, firms are turning their attention towards emerging markets for further enterprise growth. However, these countries often present significant challenges for foreign entrants, forcing firms to adapt their strategies to the new context. While MNEs? entry mode choice is an extensively studied field, there is a deficit in the entry mode research on SMEs, and even more so when it comes to entry into emerging markets in...

  19. Hybrid machining processes perspectives on machining and finishing

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Kapil; Laubscher, R F

    2016-01-01

    This book describes various hybrid machining and finishing processes. It gives a critical review of the past work based on them as well as the current trends and research directions. For each hybrid machining process presented, the authors list the method of material removal, machining system, process variables and applications. This book provides a deep understanding of the need, application and mechanism of hybrid machining processes.

  20. Revisit of Machine Learning Supported Biological and Biomedical Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiang-Tian; Wang, Lu; Zeng, Tao

    2018-01-01

    Generally, machine learning includes many in silico methods to transform the principles underlying natural phenomenon to human understanding information, which aim to save human labor, to assist human judge, and to create human knowledge. It should have wide application potential in biological and biomedical studies, especially in the era of big biological data. To look through the application of machine learning along with biological development, this review provides wide cases to introduce the selection of machine learning methods in different practice scenarios involved in the whole biological and biomedical study cycle and further discusses the machine learning strategies for analyzing omics data in some cutting-edge biological studies. Finally, the notes on new challenges for machine learning due to small-sample high-dimension are summarized from the key points of sample unbalance, white box, and causality.

  1. NEW ASPECTS OF MANUFACTURING ON MACHINE TOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorian ŞTEF

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the paper are presented the modality to minimize the production time and increase the machining accuracy in the milling operations and to analyze different milling strategies. In this analyze the only on modification for face milling operation was to change the tool geometry by mounted a special shape insert WIPER, that have a different geometry, and for pocketing operations the changes was by using different milling strategies for manufacturing pockets. The application for this analyze is a simulation between the process technologies in virtual fabrication made using Esprit CAM (Computer Aided Manufacturing software.

  2. Machining of Machine Elements Made of Polymer Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baurova, N. I.; Makarov, K. A.

    2017-12-01

    The machining of the machine elements that are made of polymer composite materials (PCMs) or are repaired using them is considered. Turning, milling, and drilling are shown to be most widely used among all methods of cutting PCMs. Cutting conditions for the machining of PCMs are presented. The factors that most strongly affect the roughness parameters and the accuracy of cutting PCMs are considered.

  3. Improving the Spatial Prediction of Soil Organic Carbon Stocks in a Complex Tropical Mountain Landscape by Methodological Specifications in Machine Learning Approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareike Ließ

    Full Text Available Tropical forests are significant carbon sinks and their soils' carbon storage potential is immense. However, little is known about the soil organic carbon (SOC stocks of tropical mountain areas whose complex soil-landscape and difficult accessibility pose a challenge to spatial analysis. The choice of methodology for spatial prediction is of high importance to improve the expected poor model results in case of low predictor-response correlations. Four aspects were considered to improve model performance in predicting SOC stocks of the organic layer of a tropical mountain forest landscape: Different spatial predictor settings, predictor selection strategies, various machine learning algorithms and model tuning. Five machine learning algorithms: random forests, artificial neural networks, multivariate adaptive regression splines, boosted regression trees and support vector machines were trained and tuned to predict SOC stocks from predictors derived from a digital elevation model and satellite image. Topographical predictors were calculated with a GIS search radius of 45 to 615 m. Finally, three predictor selection strategies were applied to the total set of 236 predictors. All machine learning algorithms-including the model tuning and predictor selection-were compared via five repetitions of a tenfold cross-validation. The boosted regression tree algorithm resulted in the overall best model. SOC stocks ranged between 0.2 to 17.7 kg m-2, displaying a huge variability with diffuse insolation and curvatures of different scale guiding the spatial pattern. Predictor selection and model tuning improved the models' predictive performance in all five machine learning algorithms. The rather low number of selected predictors favours forward compared to backward selection procedures. Choosing predictors due to their indiviual performance was vanquished by the two procedures which accounted for predictor interaction.

  4. Improving the Spatial Prediction of Soil Organic Carbon Stocks in a Complex Tropical Mountain Landscape by Methodological Specifications in Machine Learning Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ließ, Mareike; Schmidt, Johannes; Glaser, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Tropical forests are significant carbon sinks and their soils' carbon storage potential is immense. However, little is known about the soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks of tropical mountain areas whose complex soil-landscape and difficult accessibility pose a challenge to spatial analysis. The choice of methodology for spatial prediction is of high importance to improve the expected poor model results in case of low predictor-response correlations. Four aspects were considered to improve model performance in predicting SOC stocks of the organic layer of a tropical mountain forest landscape: Different spatial predictor settings, predictor selection strategies, various machine learning algorithms and model tuning. Five machine learning algorithms: random forests, artificial neural networks, multivariate adaptive regression splines, boosted regression trees and support vector machines were trained and tuned to predict SOC stocks from predictors derived from a digital elevation model and satellite image. Topographical predictors were calculated with a GIS search radius of 45 to 615 m. Finally, three predictor selection strategies were applied to the total set of 236 predictors. All machine learning algorithms-including the model tuning and predictor selection-were compared via five repetitions of a tenfold cross-validation. The boosted regression tree algorithm resulted in the overall best model. SOC stocks ranged between 0.2 to 17.7 kg m-2, displaying a huge variability with diffuse insolation and curvatures of different scale guiding the spatial pattern. Predictor selection and model tuning improved the models' predictive performance in all five machine learning algorithms. The rather low number of selected predictors favours forward compared to backward selection procedures. Choosing predictors due to their indiviual performance was vanquished by the two procedures which accounted for predictor interaction.

  5. DESIGN OF GRASS BRIQUETTE MACHINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    E-mail addresses: 1 mike.ajieh@gmail.com, 2 dracigboanugo@yahoo.com, ... machine design was considered for processing biomass of grass origin. The machine operations include pulverization, compaction and extrusion of the briquettes.

  6. New Applications of Learning Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    * Machine learning framework for sound search * Genre classification * Music separation * MIMO channel estimation and symbol detection......* Machine learning framework for sound search * Genre classification * Music separation * MIMO channel estimation and symbol detection...

  7. Tattoo machines, needles and utilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkilde, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Starting out as a professional tattooist back in 1977 in Copenhagen, Denmark, Frank Rosenkilde has personally experienced the remarkable development of tattoo machines, needles and utilities: all the way from home-made equipment to industrial products of substantially improved quality. Machines can be constructed like the traditional dual-coil and single-coil machines or can be e-coil, rotary and hybrid machines, with the more convenient and precise rotary machines being the recent trend. This development has resulted in disposable needles and utilities. Newer machines are more easily kept clean and protected with foil to prevent crosscontaminations and infections. The machines and the tattooists' knowledge and awareness about prevention of infection have developed hand-in-hand. For decades, Frank Rosenkilde has been collecting tattoo machines. Part of his collection is presented here, supplemented by his personal notes. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. QCD machines - present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christ, N.H.

    1991-01-01

    The present status of the currently working and nearly working dedicated QCD machines is reviewed and proposals for future machines are discussed with particular emphasis on the QCD Teraflop Project in the US. (orig.)

  9. The Influence of School on the Choice of Language Learning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research seeks to examine the role that context or learning situation plays in strategy choice by comparing the strategy patterns of a private English medium secondary and a government secondary school in Botswana. More specifically, the main objectives of this study are to, firstly, investigate whether the 'type of ...

  10. Student Modeling and Machine Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Sison , Raymund; Shimura , Masamichi

    1998-01-01

    After identifying essential student modeling issues and machine learning approaches, this paper examines how machine learning techniques have been used to automate the construction of student models as well as the background knowledge necessary for student modeling. In the process, the paper sheds light on the difficulty, suitability and potential of using machine learning for student modeling processes, and, to a lesser extent, the potential of using student modeling techniques in machine le...

  11. Machine Translation Effect on Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mika Yasuoka; Bjørn, Pernille

    2011-01-01

    Intercultural collaboration facilitated by machine translation has gradually spread in various settings. Still, little is known as for the practice of machine-translation mediated communication. This paper investigates how machine translation affects intercultural communication in practice. Based...... on communication in which multilingual communication system is applied, we identify four communication types and its’ influences on stakeholders’ communication process, especially focusing on establishment and maintenance of common ground. Different from our expectation that quality of machine translation results...

  12. Nuclear reactor machine refuelling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashen, W.S.; Erwin, D.

    1977-01-01

    Part of an on-line fuelling machine for a CANDU pressure-tube reactor is described. The present invention provides a refuelling machine wherein the fuelling components, including the fuel carrier and the closure adapter, are positively positioned and retained within the machine magazine or positively secured to the machine charge tube head, and cannot be accidentally disengaged as in former practice. The positive positioning devices include an arcuate keeper plate. Simplified hooked fingers are used. (NDH)

  13. The Chainstitch Machine. Module 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on the chainstitch machine, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers one topic: performing special operations on the chainstitch machine. These components are provided: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student information, a student self-check, and…

  14. Modification of structural graphite machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavrenev, M.M.

    1979-01-01

    Studied are machining procedures for structural graphites (GMZ, MG, MG-1, PPG) most widely used in industry, of the article mass being about 50 kg. Presented are dependences necessary for the calculation of cross sections of chip suction tappers and duster pipelines in machine shops for structural graphite machining

  15. Adaptive Machine Aids to Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkweather, John A.

    With emphasis on man-machine relationships and on machine evolution, computer-assisted instruction (CAI) is examined in this paper. The discussion includes the background of machine assistance to learning, the current status of CAI, directions of development, the development of criteria for successful instruction, meeting the needs of users,…

  16. Machine Shop Fundamentals: Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael G.; And Others

    These instructional materials were developed and designed for secondary and adult limited English proficient students enrolled in machine tool technology courses. Part 1 includes 24 lessons covering introduction, safety and shop rules, basic machine tools, basic machine operations, measurement, basic blueprint reading, layout, and bench tools.…

  17. Evoked Emotions Predict Food Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalenberg, Jelle R.; Gutjar, Swetlana; ter Horst, Gert J.; de Graaf, Kees; Renken, Remco J.; Jager, Gerry

    2014-01-01

    In the current study we show that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores significantly improve food choice prediction over merely liking scores. Previous research has shown that liking measures correlate with choice. However, liking is no strong predictor for food choice in real life environments.

  18. Behavioral Economics and the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program:: Making the Healthy Choice the Easy Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammerman, Alice S; Hartman, Terry; DeMarco, Molly M

    2017-02-01

    The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) serves as an important nutritional safety net program for many Americans. Given its aim to use traditional economic levers to provide access to food, the SNAP program includes minimal nutritional requirements and restrictions. As food choices are influenced by more than just economic constraints, behavioral economics may offer insights and tools for altering food purchases for SNAP users. This manuscript outlines behavioral economics strategies that have potential to encourage healthier food choices within the SNAP program. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Which, When, and How: Hierarchical Clustering with Human–Machine Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanyang Zheng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Human–Machine Cooperations (HMCs can balance the advantages and disadvantages of human computation (accurate but costly and machine computation (cheap but inaccurate. This paper studies HMCs in agglomerative hierarchical clusterings, where the machine can ask the human some questions. The human will return the answers to the machine, and the machine will use these answers to correct errors in its current clustering results. We are interested in the machine’s strategy on handling the question operations, in terms of three problems: (1 Which question should the machine ask? (2 When should the machine ask the question (early or late? (3 How does the machine adjust the clustering result, if the machine’s mistake is found by the human? Based on the insights of these problems, an efficient algorithm is proposed with five implementation variations. Experiments on image clusterings show that the proposed algorithm can improve the clustering accuracy with few question operations.

  20. Overconfidence and Career Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Jonathan F; Thöni, Christian

    2016-01-01

    People self-assess their relative ability when making career choices. Thus, confidence in their own abilities is likely an important factor for selection into various career paths. In a sample of 711 first-year students we examine whether there are systematic differences in confidence levels across fields of study. We find that our experimental confidence measures significantly vary between fields of study: While students in business related academic disciplines (Political Science, Law, Economics, and Business Administration) exhibit the highest confidence levels, students of Humanities range at the other end of the scale. This may have important implications for subsequent earnings and professions students select themselves in.

  1. Complex Strategic Choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    to strategic decision making, Complex Strategic Choices presents a methodology which is further illustrated by a number of case studies and example applications. Dr. Techn. Steen Leleur has adapted previously established research based on feedback and input from various conferences, journals and students...... resulting in new material stemming from and focusing on practical application of a systemic approach. The outcome is a coherent and flexible approach named systemic planning. The inclusion of both the theoretical and practical aspects of systemic planning makes this book a key resource for researchers...

  2. Retirement Choice 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION...retirement choice in 2016. We start by describing the $30,000 bonus as an early, partial cash -out of the servicemember’s retirement pension. This...30,000 cash -out will be “paid back” later in the form of reduced retirement checks. By providing information on how much this cash -out will cost in

  3. Overconfidence and Career Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Jonathan F.; Thöni, Christian

    2016-01-01

    People self-assess their relative ability when making career choices. Thus, confidence in their own abilities is likely an important factor for selection into various career paths. In a sample of 711 first-year students we examine whether there are systematic differences in confidence levels across fields of study. We find that our experimental confidence measures significantly vary between fields of study: While students in business related academic disciplines (Political Science, Law, Economics, and Business Administration) exhibit the highest confidence levels, students of Humanities range at the other end of the scale. This may have important implications for subsequent earnings and professions students select themselves in. PMID:26808273

  4. MSAT an alternative choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, K. E.; Elmer, C.

    A number of potential applications are described of MSAT that use the unique properties of this transportation mechanism. Emphasis is placed on the market introduction strategy for the North American system.

  5. Prediction of Machine Tool Condition Using Support Vector Machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Peigong; Meng Qingfeng; Zhao Jian; Li Junjie; Wang Xiufeng

    2011-01-01

    Condition monitoring and predicting of CNC machine tools are investigated in this paper. Considering the CNC machine tools are often small numbers of samples, a condition predicting method for CNC machine tools based on support vector machines (SVMs) is proposed, then one-step and multi-step condition prediction models are constructed. The support vector machines prediction models are used to predict the trends of working condition of a certain type of CNC worm wheel and gear grinding machine by applying sequence data of vibration signal, which is collected during machine processing. And the relationship between different eigenvalue in CNC vibration signal and machining quality is discussed. The test result shows that the trend of vibration signal Peak-to-peak value in surface normal direction is most relevant to the trend of surface roughness value. In trends prediction of working condition, support vector machine has higher prediction accuracy both in the short term ('One-step') and long term (multi-step) prediction compared to autoregressive (AR) model and the RBF neural network. Experimental results show that it is feasible to apply support vector machine to CNC machine tool condition prediction.

  6. Effect of Machining Velocity in Nanoscale Machining Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, Sumaiya; Khondoker, Noman; Ibrahim, Raafat

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the generated forces and deformations of single crystal Cu with (100), (110) and (111) crystallographic orientations at nanoscale machining operation. A nanoindenter equipped with nanoscratching attachment was used for machining operations and in-situ observation of a nano scale groove. As a machining parameter, the machining velocity was varied to measure the normal and cutting forces. At a fixed machining velocity, different levels of normal and cutting forces were generated due to different crystallographic orientations of the specimens. Moreover, after machining operation percentage of elastic recovery was measured and it was found that both the elastic and plastic deformations were responsible for producing a nano scale groove within the range of machining velocities from 250-1000 nm/s. (paper)

  7. Quo vadis, Intelligent Machine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemarie Velik

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Artificial Intelligence (AI is a branch of computer science concerned with making computers behave like humans. At least this was the original idea. However, it turned out that this is no task easy to be solved. This article aims to give a comprehensible review on the last 60 years of artificial intelligence taking a philosophical viewpoint. It is outlined what happened so far in AI, what is currently going on in this research area, and what can be expected in future. The goal is to mediate an understanding for the developments and changes in thinking in course of time about how to achieve machine intelligence. The clear message is that AI has to join forces with neuroscience and other brain disciplines in order to make a step towards the development of truly intelligent machines.

  8. Smart Machine Protection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, S.; Nelson, D.; Grillo, A.; Spencer, N.; Hutchinson, D.; Olsen, J.; Millsom, D.; White, G.; Gromme, T.; Allison, S.; Underwood, K.; Zelazny, M.; Kang, H.

    1991-11-01

    A Machine Protection System implemented on the SLC automatically controls the beam repetition rates in the accelerator so that radiation or temperature faults slow the repetition rate to bring the fault within tolerance without shutting down the machine. This process allows the accelerator to aid in the fault diagnostic process, and the protection system automatically restores the beams back to normal rates when the fault is diagnosed and corrected. The user interface includes facilities to monitor the performance of the system, and track rate limits, faults, and recoveries. There is an edit facility to define the devices to be included in the protection system, along with their set points, limits, and trip points. This set point and limit data is downloaded into the CAMAC modules, and the configuration data is compiled into a logical decision tree for the 68030 processor. 3 figs

  9. Smart machine protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, S.; Nelson, D.; Grillo, A.

    1992-01-01

    A Machine Protection System implemented on the SLC automatically controls the beam repetition rates in the accelerator so that radiation or temperature faults slow the repetition rate to bring the fault within tolerance without shutting down the machine. This process allows the accelerators to aid in the fault diagnostic process, and the protection system automatically restores the beams back to normal rates when the fault is diagnosed and corrected. The user interface includes facilities to monitor the performance of the system, and track rate limits, faults, and recoveries. There is an edit facility to define the devices to be included in the protection system, along with their set points, limits, and trip points. This set point and limit data is downloaded into the CAMAC modules, and the configuration data is complied into a logical decision tree for the 68030 processor. (author)

  10. Operation and machine studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This annual report describes the GANIL (Grand accelerateur national d'ions lourds, Caen, France) operation and the machine studies realized in 1992. Metallic ions have been accelerated during 36 pc of the time; some were produced for the first time at GANIL: 125 Te, 52 Cr with ECR3, 181 Ta with ECR4. The various machine studies are: comparison of lifetimes of carbon sheets, charge exchange of very heavy ions in carbon foils and in the residual gas of the Ganil cyclotrons, commissioning of the new high intensity axial injection system for Ganil, tantalum acceleration with the new injector, a cyclotron as a mass spectrometer; other studies concerned: implementing the new control system, gettering flux measurement, energy deposited by neutrons and gamma rays in the cryogenic system of SISSI; latest developments on multicharged ECR ion sources, and an on-line isotopic separator test bench at Ganil

  11. Introduction to Machine Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, R

    2016-01-01

    Protection of accelerator equipment is as old as accelerator technology and was for many years related to high-power equipment. Examples are the protection of powering equipment from overheating (magnets, power converters, high-current cables), of superconducting magnets from damage after a quench and of klystrons. The protection of equipment from beam accidents is more recent, although there was one paper that discussed beam-induced damage for the SLAC linac (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center) as early as in 1967. It is related to the increasing beam power of high-power proton accelerators, to the emission of synchrotron light by electron-positron accelerators and to the increase of energy stored in the beam. Designing a machine protection system requires an excellent understanding of accelerator physics and operation to anticipate possible failures that could lead to damage. Machine protection includes beam and equipment monitoring, a system to safely stop beam operation (e.g. dumping the beam or stopping ...

  12. Vibration of machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Mun Gyu; Na, Sung Su; Baek, Gwang Hyeon; Song, Chul Gi; Han, Sang Bo

    2001-09-01

    This book deals with vibration of machine which gives descriptions of free vibration using SDOF system, forced vibration using SDOF system, vibration of multi-degree of freedom system like introduction and normal form, distribution system such as introduction, free vibration of bar and practice problem, approximate solution like lumped approximations and Raleigh's quotient, engineering by intuition and experience, real problem and experimental method such as technology of signal, fourier transform analysis, frequency analysis and sensor and actuator.

  13. Quantum Virtual Machine (QVM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-11-18

    There is a lack of state-of-the-art HPC simulation tools for simulating general quantum computing. Furthermore, there are no real software tools that integrate current quantum computers into existing classical HPC workflows. This product, the Quantum Virtual Machine (QVM), solves this problem by providing an extensible framework for pluggable virtual, or physical, quantum processing units (QPUs). It enables the execution of low level quantum assembly codes and returns the results of such executions.

  14. Machine Translation from Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habash, Nizar; Olive, Joseph; Christianson, Caitlin; McCary, John

    Machine translation (MT) from text, the topic of this chapter, is perhaps the heart of the GALE project. Beyond being a well defined application that stands on its own, MT from text is the link between the automatic speech recognition component and the distillation component. The focus of MT in GALE is on translating from Arabic or Chinese to English. The three languages represent a wide range of linguistic diversity and make the GALE MT task rather challenging and exciting.

  15. Unconventional wind machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheff, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    It is the purpose of this paper to introduce an unconventional wind machine which has economics comparable with nuclear power and is already available in the public market place. Specifically, up to about 17 MWE could be saved for other uses such as sale in most 1000 MWE plants of any type - nuclear, oil, gas, peat, or wood - which use conventional electrically driven fans in their cooling towers. 10 refs

  16. Progress Evaluation for the Restaurant Industry Assessed by a Voluntary Marketing-Mix and Choice-Architecture Framework That Offers Strategies to Nudge American Customers toward Healthy Food Environments, 2006–2017

    OpenAIRE

    Vivica Kraak; Tessa Englund; Sarah Misyak; Elena Serrano

    2017-01-01

    Consumption of restaurant food and beverage products high in fat, sugar and sodium contribute to obesity and non-communicable diseases. We evaluated restaurant-sector progress to promote healthy food environments for Americans. We conducted a desk review of seven electronic databases (January 2006–January 2017) to examine restaurant strategies used to promote healthful options in the United States (U.S.). Evidence selection (n = 84) was guided by the LEAD principles (i.e., locate, evaluate, a...

  17. Behind the machines

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    One of the first things we think about when someone mentions physics is the machines. But behind the machines, there are the men and women who design, build and operate them. In an exhibition at the Thinktank planetarium’s art gallery in Birmingham (UK), Claudia Marcelloni and her husband Neal Hartman—she is a photographer and Outreach Officer for ATLAS, while he is an engineer working on the ATLAS pixel detector—explore the human side of scientists.   The exhibition at the Thinktank Planetarium art gallery, Birmingham (UK). It all began two years ago with the publication of Exploring the mystery of matter, a book about ATLAS. “A Norwegian physicist friend, Heidi Sandaker, saw my photographs and suggested that I display them in a museum. I thought this was an interesting idea, except that the photos consisted entirely of depictions of machinery, with human beings completely absent. For me, showing the people who are behind the machines and the fascination ...

  18. Evolution of Replication Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Nina Y.; O'Donnell, Mike E.

    2016-01-01

    The machines that decode and regulate genetic information require the translation, transcription and replication pathways essential to all living cells. Thus, it might be expected that all cells share the same basic machinery for these pathways that were inherited from the primordial ancestor cell from which they evolved. A clear example of this is found in the translation machinery that converts RNA sequence to protein. The translation process requires numerous structural and catalytic RNAs and proteins, the central factors of which are homologous in all three domains of life, bacteria, archaea and eukarya. Likewise, the central actor in transcription, RNA polymerase, shows homology among the catalytic subunits in bacteria, archaea and eukarya. In contrast, while some “gears” of the genome replication machinery are homologous in all domains of life, most components of the replication machine appear to be unrelated between bacteria and those of archaea and eukarya. This review will compare and contrast the central proteins of the “replisome” machines that duplicate DNA in bacteria, archaea and eukarya, with an eye to understanding the issues surrounding the evolution of the DNA replication apparatus. PMID:27160337

  19. Machine Learning in Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deo, Rahul C

    2015-11-17

    Spurred by advances in processing power, memory, storage, and an unprecedented wealth of data, computers are being asked to tackle increasingly complex learning tasks, often with astonishing success. Computers have now mastered a popular variant of poker, learned the laws of physics from experimental data, and become experts in video games - tasks that would have been deemed impossible not too long ago. In parallel, the number of companies centered on applying complex data analysis to varying industries has exploded, and it is thus unsurprising that some analytic companies are turning attention to problems in health care. The purpose of this review is to explore what problems in medicine might benefit from such learning approaches and use examples from the literature to introduce basic concepts in machine learning. It is important to note that seemingly large enough medical data sets and adequate learning algorithms have been available for many decades, and yet, although there are thousands of papers applying machine learning algorithms to medical data, very few have contributed meaningfully to clinical care. This lack of impact stands in stark contrast to the enormous relevance of machine learning to many other industries. Thus, part of my effort will be to identify what obstacles there may be to changing the practice of medicine through statistical learning approaches, and discuss how these might be overcome. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Quantum Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Rupak

    2018-01-01

    Quantum computing promises an unprecedented ability to solve intractable problems by harnessing quantum mechanical effects such as tunneling, superposition, and entanglement. The Quantum Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (QuAIL) at NASA Ames Research Center is the space agency's primary facility for conducting research and development in quantum information sciences. QuAIL conducts fundamental research in quantum physics but also explores how best to exploit and apply this disruptive technology to enable NASA missions in aeronautics, Earth and space sciences, and space exploration. At the same time, machine learning has become a major focus in computer science and captured the imagination of the public as a panacea to myriad big data problems. In this talk, we will discuss how classical machine learning can take advantage of quantum computing to significantly improve its effectiveness. Although we illustrate this concept on a quantum annealer, other quantum platforms could be used as well. If explored fully and implemented efficiently, quantum machine learning could greatly accelerate a wide range of tasks leading to new technologies and discoveries that will significantly change the way we solve real-world problems.