WorldWideScience

Sample records for machines implicit array

  1. Assessing Implicit Knowledge in BIM Models with Machine Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krijnen, Thomas; Tamke, Martin

    2015-01-01

    architects and engineers are able to deduce non-explicitly explicitly stated information, which is often the core of the transported architectural information. This paper investigates how machine learning approaches allow a computational system to deduce implicit knowledge from a set of BIM models....

  2. Implicit Smartphone User Authentication with Sensors and Contextual Machine Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Wei-Han; Lee, Ruby B.

    2017-01-01

    Authentication of smartphone users is important because a lot of sensitive data is stored in the smartphone and the smartphone is also used to access various cloud data and services. However, smartphones are easily stolen or co-opted by an attacker. Beyond the initial login, it is highly desirable to re-authenticate end-users who are continuing to access security-critical services and data. Hence, this paper proposes a novel authentication system for implicit, continuous authentication of the...

  3. Electromagnetic linear machines with dual Halbach array design and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Liang; Peng, Juanjuan; Zhang, Lei; Jiao, Zongxia

    2017-01-01

    This book extends the conventional two-dimensional (2D) magnet arrangement into 3D pattern for permanent magnet linear machines for the first time, and proposes a novel dual Halbach array. It can not only effectively increase the radial component of magnetic flux density and output force of tubular linear machines, but also significantly reduce the axial flux density, radial force and thus system vibrations and noises. The book is also the first to address the fundamentals and provide a summary of conventional arrays, as well as novel concepts for PM pole design in electric linear machines. It covers theoretical study, numerical simulation, design optimization and experimental works systematically. The design concept and analytical approaches can be implemented to other linear and rotary machines with similar structures. The book will be of interest to academics, researchers, R&D engineers and graduate students in electronic engineering and mechanical engineering who wish to learn the core principles, met...

  4. Quadrilateral Micro-Hole Array Machining on Invar Thin Film: Wet Etching and Electrochemical Fusion Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woong-Kirl Choi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-precision products which contain a micro-hole array have recently shown remarkable demand growth in many fields, especially in the semiconductor and display industries. Photoresist etching and electrochemical machining are widely known as precision methods for machining micro-holes with no residual stress and lower surface roughness on the fabricated products. The Invar shadow masks used for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs contain numerous micro-holes and are currently machined by a photoresist etching method. However, this method has several problems, such as uncontrollable hole machining accuracy, non-etched areas, and overcutting. To solve these problems, a machining method that combines photoresist etching and electrochemical machining can be applied. In this study, negative photoresist with a quadrilateral hole array pattern was dry coated onto 30-µm-thick Invar thin film, and then exposure and development were carried out. After that, photoresist single-side wet etching and a fusion method of wet etching-electrochemical machining were used to machine micro-holes on the Invar. The hole machining geometry, surface quality, and overcutting characteristics of the methods were studied. Wet etching and electrochemical fusion machining can improve the accuracy and surface quality. The overcutting phenomenon can also be controlled by the fusion machining. Experimental results show that the proposed method is promising for the fabrication of Invar film shadow masks.

  5. Halbach array motor/generators: A novel generalized electric machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merritt, B.T.; Post, R.F.; Dreifuerst, G.R.; Bender, D.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    For many years Klaus Halbach has been investigating novel designs for permanent magnet arrays, using advanced analytical approaches and employing a keen insight into such systems. One of his motivations for this research was to find more efficient means for the utilization of permanent magnets for use in particle accelerators and in the control of particle beams. As a result of his pioneering work, high power free-electron laser systems, such as the ones built at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, became feasible, and his arrays have been incorporated into other particle-focusing systems of various types. This paper reports another, quite different, application of Klaus` work, in the design of high power, high efficiency, electric generators and motors. When tested, these motor/generator systems display some rather remarkable properties. Their success derives from the special properties which these arrays, which the authors choose to call {open_quotes}Halbach arrays,{close_quotes} possess.

  6. Servo scanning 3D micro EDM for array micro cavities using on-machine fabricated tool electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Hao; Li, Yong; Zhang, Long

    2018-02-01

    Array micro cavities are useful in many fields including in micro molds, optical devices, biochips and so on. Array servo scanning micro electro discharge machining (EDM), using array micro electrodes with simple cross-sectional shape, has the advantage of machining complex 3D micro cavities in batches. In this paper, the machining errors caused by offline-fabricated array micro electrodes are analyzed in particular, and then a machining process of array servo scanning micro EDM is proposed by using on-machine fabricated array micro electrodes. The array micro electrodes are fabricated on-machine by combined procedures including wire electro discharge grinding, array reverse copying and electrode end trimming. Nine-array tool electrodes with Φ80 µm diameter and 600 µm length are obtained. Furthermore, the proposed process is verified by several machining experiments for achieving nine-array hexagonal micro cavities with top side length of 300 µm, bottom side length of 150 µm, and depth of 112 µm or 120 µm. In the experiments, a chip hump accumulates on the electrode tips like the built-up edge in mechanical machining under the conditions of brass workpieces, copper electrodes and the dielectric of deionized water. The accumulated hump can be avoided by replacing the water dielectric by an oil dielectric.

  7. Precise on-machine extraction of the surface normal vector using an eddy current sensor array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yongqing; Lian, Meng; Liu, Haibo; Ying, Yangwei; Sheng, Xianjun

    2016-01-01

    To satisfy the requirements of on-machine measurement of the surface normal during complex surface manufacturing, a highly robust normal vector extraction method using an Eddy current (EC) displacement sensor array is developed, the output of which is almost unaffected by surface brightness, machining coolant and environmental noise. A precise normal vector extraction model based on a triangular-distributed EC sensor array is first established. Calibration of the effects of object surface inclination and coupling interference on measurement results, and the relative position of EC sensors, is involved. A novel apparatus employing three EC sensors and a force transducer was designed, which can be easily integrated into the computer numerical control (CNC) machine tool spindle and/or robot terminal execution. Finally, to test the validity and practicability of the proposed method, typical experiments were conducted with specified testing pieces using the developed approach and system, such as an inclined plane and cylindrical and spherical surfaces. (paper)

  8. Precise on-machine extraction of the surface normal vector using an eddy current sensor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongqing; Lian, Meng; Liu, Haibo; Ying, Yangwei; Sheng, Xianjun

    2016-11-01

    To satisfy the requirements of on-machine measurement of the surface normal during complex surface manufacturing, a highly robust normal vector extraction method using an Eddy current (EC) displacement sensor array is developed, the output of which is almost unaffected by surface brightness, machining coolant and environmental noise. A precise normal vector extraction model based on a triangular-distributed EC sensor array is first established. Calibration of the effects of object surface inclination and coupling interference on measurement results, and the relative position of EC sensors, is involved. A novel apparatus employing three EC sensors and a force transducer was designed, which can be easily integrated into the computer numerical control (CNC) machine tool spindle and/or robot terminal execution. Finally, to test the validity and practicability of the proposed method, typical experiments were conducted with specified testing pieces using the developed approach and system, such as an inclined plane and cylindrical and spherical surfaces.

  9. The performance of disk arrays in shared-memory database machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Randy H.; Hong, Wei

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, we examine how disk arrays and shared memory multiprocessors lead to an effective method for constructing database machines for general-purpose complex query processing. We show that disk arrays can lead to cost-effective storage systems if they are configured from suitably small formfactor disk drives. We introduce the storage system metric data temperature as a way to evaluate how well a disk configuration can sustain its workload, and we show that disk arrays can sustain the same data temperature as a more expensive mirrored-disk configuration. We use the metric to evaluate the performance of disk arrays in XPRS, an operational shared-memory multiprocessor database system being developed at the University of California, Berkeley.

  10. Low-Cost Fabrication of Hollow Microneedle Arrays Using CNC Machining and UV Lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lê Thanh, Hoà; Ta, B.Q.; Le The, H.

    2015-01-01

    In order to produce disposable microneedles for blood-collection devices in smart homecare monitoring systems, we have developed a simple low-cost scalable process for mass fabrication of sharp-tipped microneedle arrays. The key feature in this process is a design of computer numerical control......-machined aluminum sample (CAS). The inclined sidewalls on the CAS enable microfabricated traditional-shaped microneedles (TMNs) to be produced in the desired shape. This process provides significant advantages over other methods that use inclined lithography or anisotropic wet etching. TMNs with a length of 1510 mu...

  11. Magnetic Flux Distribution of Linear Machines with Novel Three-Dimensional Hybrid Magnet Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Yao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to propose a novel tubular linear machine with hybrid permanent magnet arrays and multiple movers, which could be employed for either actuation or sensing technology. The hybrid magnet array produces flux distribution on both sides of windings, and thus helps to increase the signal strength in the windings. The multiple movers are important for airspace technology, because they can improve the system’s redundancy and reliability. The proposed design concept is presented, and the governing equations are obtained based on source free property and Maxwell equations. The magnetic field distribution in the linear machine is thus analytically formulated by using Bessel functions and harmonic expansion of magnetization vector. Numerical simulation is then conducted to validate the analytical solutions of the magnetic flux field. It is proved that the analytical model agrees with the numerical results well. Therefore, it can be utilized for the formulation of signal or force output subsequently, depending on its particular implementation.

  12. Discussion paper for a highly parallel array processor-based machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagstrom, R.; Bolotin, G.; Dawson, J.

    1984-01-01

    The architectural plant for a quickly realizable implementation of a highly parallel special-purpose computer system with peak performance in the range of 6 billion floating point operations per second is discussed. The architecture is suitable to Lattice Gauge theoretical computations of fundamental physics interest and may be applicable to a range of other problems which deal with numerically intensive computational problems. The plan is quickly realizable because it employs a maximum of commercially available hardware subsystems and because the architecture is software-transparent to the individual processors, allowing straightforward re-use of whatever commercially available operating-systems and support software that is suitable to run on the commercially-produced processors. A tiny prototype instrument, designed along this architecture has already operated. A few elementary examples of programs which can run efficiently are presented. The large machine which the authors would propose to build would be based upon a highly competent array-processor, the ST-100 Array Processor, and specific design possibilities are discussed. The first step toward realizing this plan practically is to install a single ST-100 to allow algorithm development to proceed while a demonstration unit is built using two of the ST-100 Array Processors

  13. An implantable integrated low-power amplifier-microelectrode array for Brain-Machine Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Erin; Sankar, Viswanath; Rowe, William; Sanchez, Justin C; Nishida, Toshikazu

    2010-01-01

    One of the important challenges in designing Brain-Machine Interfaces (BMI) is to build implantable systems that have the ability to reliably process the activity of large ensembles of cortical neurons. In this paper, we report the design, fabrication, and testing of a polyimide-based microelectrode array integrated with a low-power amplifier as part of the Florida Wireless Integrated Recording Electrode (FWIRE) project at the University of Florida developing a fully implantable neural recording system for BMI applications. The electrode array was fabricated using planar micromachining MEMS processes and hybrid packaged with the amplifier die using a flip-chip bonding technique. The system was tested both on bench and in-vivo. Acute and chronic neural recordings were obtained from a rodent for a period of 42 days. The electrode-amplifier performance was analyzed over the chronic recording period with the observation of a noise floor of 4.5 microVrms, and an average signal-to-noise ratio of 3.8.

  14. Modular implicits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo White

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We present modular implicits, an extension to the OCaml language for ad-hoc polymorphism inspired by Scala implicits and modular type classes. Modular implicits are based on type-directed implicit module parameters, and elaborate straightforwardly into OCaml's first-class functors. Basing the design on OCaml's modules leads to a system that naturally supports many features from other languages with systematic ad-hoc overloading, including inheritance, instance constraints, constructor classes and associated types.

  15. Intelligent fault diagnosis of photovoltaic arrays based on optimized kernel extreme learning machine and I-V characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zhicong; Wu, Lijun; Cheng, Shuying; Lin, Peijie; Wu, Yue; Lin, Wencheng

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •An improved Simulink based modeling method is proposed for PV modules and arrays. •Key points of I-V curves and PV model parameters are used as the feature variables. •Kernel extreme learning machine (KELM) is explored for PV arrays fault diagnosis. •The parameters of KELM algorithm are optimized by the Nelder-Mead simplex method. •The optimized KELM fault diagnosis model achieves high accuracy and reliability. -- Abstract: Fault diagnosis of photovoltaic (PV) arrays is important for improving the reliability, efficiency and safety of PV power stations, because the PV arrays usually operate in harsh outdoor environment and tend to suffer various faults. Due to the nonlinear output characteristics and varying operating environment of PV arrays, many machine learning based fault diagnosis methods have been proposed. However, there still exist some issues: fault diagnosis performance is still limited due to insufficient monitored information; fault diagnosis models are not efficient to be trained and updated; labeled fault data samples are hard to obtain by field experiments. To address these issues, this paper makes contribution in the following three aspects: (1) based on the key points and model parameters extracted from monitored I-V characteristic curves and environment condition, an effective and efficient feature vector of seven dimensions is proposed as the input of the fault diagnosis model; (2) the emerging kernel based extreme learning machine (KELM), which features extremely fast learning speed and good generalization performance, is utilized to automatically establish the fault diagnosis model. Moreover, the Nelder-Mead Simplex (NMS) optimization method is employed to optimize the KELM parameters which affect the classification performance; (3) an improved accurate Simulink based PV modeling approach is proposed for a laboratory PV array to facilitate the fault simulation and data sample acquisition. Intensive fault experiments are

  16. Micro-machined high-frequency (80 MHz) PZT thick film linear arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qifa; Wu, Dawei; Liu, Changgeng; Zhu, Benpeng; Djuth, Frank; Shung, K

    2010-10-01

    This paper presents the development of a micromachined high-frequency linear array using PZT piezoelectric thick films. The linear array has 32 elements with an element width of 24 μm and an element length of 4 mm. Array elements were fabricated by deep reactive ion etching of PZT thick films, which were prepared from spin-coating of PZT sol-gel composite. Detailed fabrication processes, especially PZT thick film etching conditions and a novel transferring-and-etching method, are presented and discussed. Array designs were evaluated by simulation. Experimental measurements show that the array had a center frequency of 80 MHz and a fractional bandwidth (-6 dB) of 60%. An insertion loss of -41 dB and adjacent element crosstalk of -21 dB were found at the center frequency.

  17. Fabrication of a micro-hole array on metal foil by nanosecond pulsed laser beam machining using a cover plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Kyoung Ho; Lee, Se Won; Jee, Won Young; Chu, Chong Nam; Kim, Janggil

    2015-01-01

    A novel laser beam machining (LBM) method is proposed to achieve higher precision and better quality beyond the limits of a commercialized nanosecond pulsed laser system. The use of a cover plate is found to be effective for the precision machining of a thin metal foil at micro scale. For verifying the capability of cover plate laser beam machining (c-LBM) technology, a 30 by 30 array of micro-holes was fabricated on 8 µm-thick stainless steel 304 (STS) foil. As a result, thermal deformation and cracks were significantly reduced in comparison with the results using LBM without a cover plate. The standard deviation of the inscribed and circumscribed circle of the holes with a diameter of 12 µm was reduced to 33% and 81%, respectively and the average roundness improved by 77%. Moreover, the smallest diameter obtainable by c-LBM in the given equipment was found to be 6.9 µm, which was 60% less than the minimum size hole by LBM without a cover plate. (technical note)

  18. Phased transducer array for acoustic energy harvesting inside an MRI machine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klymko, V.; Roes, M.G.L.; Duivenbode, van J.; Lomonova, E.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, an array of piezoelectric speakers is used to focus acoustic energy on a single transducer that acts as a harvester. The transmitting transducers are located along a curve that fits inside the magnetic resonance interferometer (MRI) torus interior. The numerical results for the

  19. A Flexible Ultrasound Transducer Array with Micro-Machined Bulk PZT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel flexible piezoelectric micro-machined ultrasound transducer, which is based on PZT and a polyimide substrate. The transducer is made on the polyimide substrate and packaged with medical polydimethylsiloxane. Instead of etching the PZT ceramic, this paper proposes a method of putting diced PZT blocks into holes on the polyimide which are pre-etched. The device works in d31 mode and the electromechanical coupling factor is 22.25%. Its flexibility, good conformal contacting with skin surfaces and proper resonant frequency make the device suitable for heart imaging. The flexible packaging ultrasound transducer also has a good waterproof performance after hundreds of ultrasonic electric tests in water. It is a promising ultrasound transducer and will be an effective supplementary ultrasound imaging method in the practical applications.

  20. A flexible ultrasound transducer array with micro-machined bulk PZT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Xue, Qing-Tang; Chen, Yuan-Quan; Shu, Yi; Tian, He; Yang, Yi; Xie, Dan; Luo, Jian-Wen; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2015-01-23

    This paper proposes a novel flexible piezoelectric micro-machined ultrasound transducer, which is based on PZT and a polyimide substrate. The transducer is made on the polyimide substrate and packaged with medical polydimethylsiloxane. Instead of etching the PZT ceramic, this paper proposes a method of putting diced PZT blocks into holes on the polyimide which are pre-etched. The device works in d31 mode and the electromechanical coupling factor is 22.25%. Its flexibility, good conformal contacting with skin surfaces and proper resonant frequency make the device suitable for heart imaging. The flexible packaging ultrasound transducer also has a good waterproof performance after hundreds of ultrasonic electric tests in water. It is a promising ultrasound transducer and will be an effective supplementary ultrasound imaging method in the practical applications.

  1. Power and phase monitoring system for the lower hybrid phased array heating system on ATC machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, B.W.

    1975-01-01

    A four waveguide phased array slow wave structure has been constructed to couple microwave energy into plasma in the ATC Tokamac at Princeton. Theory has indicated that the coupling of power into the plasma column is a strong function of the imposed fourier spectrum at the antenna aperture. To optimize heating, and to verify theoretical results, a precision amplitude and phase monitoring system has been designed and constructed. The system data output is routed to an IBM 1800 computer where the fourier spectrum in n/sub parallel/ space is computed for discrete increments of time during an RF pulse. Computer output data is used to update the adjustment of transmission line parameters in between pulses

  2. Brain machine interfaces combining microelectrode arrays with nanostructured optical biochemical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajj-Hassan, Mohamad; Gonzalez, Timothy; Ghafer-Zadeh, Ebrahim; Chodavarapu, Vamsy; Musallam, Sam; Andrews, Mark

    2009-02-01

    Neural microelectrodes are an important component of neural prosthetic systems which assist paralyzed patients by allowing them to operate computers or robots using their neural activity. These microelectrodes are also used in clinical settings to localize the locus of seizure initiation in epilepsy or to stimulate sub-cortical structures in patients with Parkinson's disease. In neural prosthetic systems, implanted microelectrodes record the electrical potential generated by specific thoughts and relay the signals to algorithms trained to interpret these thoughts. In this paper, we describe novel elongated multi-site neural electrodes that can record electrical signals and specific neural biomarkers and that can reach depths greater than 8mm in the sulcus of non-human primates (monkeys). We hypothesize that additional signals recorded by the multimodal probes will increase the information yield when compared to standard probes that record just electropotentials. We describe integration of optical biochemical sensors with neural microelectrodes. The sensors are made using sol-gel derived xerogel thin films that encapsulate specific biomarker responsive luminophores in their nanostructured pores. The desired neural biomarkers are O2, pH, K+, and Na+ ions. As a prototype, we demonstrate direct-write patterning to create oxygen-responsive xerogel waveguide structures on the neural microelectrodes. The recording of neural biomarkers along with electrical activity could help the development of intelligent and more userfriendly neural prosthesis/brain machine interfaces as well as aid in providing answers to complex brain diseases and disorders.

  3. A Field Programmable Gate Array-Based Reconfigurable Smart-Sensor Network for Wireless Monitoring of New Generation Computer Numerically Controlled Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Stiharu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Computer numerically controlled (CNC machines have evolved to adapt to increasing technological and industrial requirements. To cover these needs, new generation machines have to perform monitoring strategies by incorporating multiple sensors. Since in most of applications the online Processing of the variables is essential, the use of smart sensors is necessary. The contribution of this work is the development of a wireless network platform of reconfigurable smart sensors for CNC machine applications complying with the measurement requirements of new generation CNC machines. Four different smart sensors are put under test in the network and their corresponding signal processing techniques are implemented in a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA-based sensor node.

  4. A Field Programmable Gate Array-Based Reconfigurable Smart-Sensor Network for Wireless Monitoring of New Generation Computer Numerically Controlled Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Tapia, Sandra Veronica; Vera-Salas, Luis Alberto; Osornio-Rios, Roque Alfredo; Dominguez-Gonzalez, Aurelio; Stiharu, Ion; de Jesus Romero-Troncoso, Rene

    2010-01-01

    Computer numerically controlled (CNC) machines have evolved to adapt to increasing technological and industrial requirements. To cover these needs, new generation machines have to perform monitoring strategies by incorporating multiple sensors. Since in most of applications the online Processing of the variables is essential, the use of smart sensors is necessary. The contribution of this work is the development of a wireless network platform of reconfigurable smart sensors for CNC machine applications complying with the measurement requirements of new generation CNC machines. Four different smart sensors are put under test in the network and their corresponding signal processing techniques are implemented in a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)-based sensor node. PMID:22163602

  5. Status On Multi-microsecond Prepulse Technique On Sphinx Machine Going From Nested To Single Wire Array For 800 ns Implosion Time Z-pinch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maury, P.; Calamy, H.; Grunenwald, J.; Lassalle, F.; Zucchini, F.; Loyen, A.; Georges, A.; Morell, A.; Bedoch, J. P.

    2009-01-01

    The Sphinx machine[1] is a 6 MA, 1 μS driver based on the LTD technology, used for Z-pinch experiments. Important improvements of Sphinx radiation output were recently obtained using a multi-microsecond current prepulse[2]. Total power per unit of length is multiplied by a factor of 6 and FWHM divided by a factor of 2.5. Early breakdown of the wires during the prepulse phase dramatically changes the ablation phase leading to an improvement of axial homogeneity of both the implosion and the final radiating column. As a consequence, the cathode bubble observed on classical shots is definitively removed. The implosion is then centered and zippering effect is reduced, leading to simultaneous x-ray emission of the whole length. A great reproducibility is obtained. Nested arrays were used before to mitigate the Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities during the implosion phase. Further experiments with pre-pulse technique are described here were inner array was removed. The goal of these experiments was to see if long prepulse could give stable enough implosion with single array and at the same time increase the η parameter by reducing the mass of the load. Experimental results of single wire array loads of typical dimension 5 cm in height with implosion time between 700 and 900 ns and diameter varying between 80 and 140 mm are given. Parameters of the loads were varying in term of radius and number of wires. Comparisons with nested wire array loads are done and trends are proposed. Characteristics of both the implosion and the final radiating column are shown. 2D MHD numerical simulations of single wire array become easier as there is no interaction between outer and inner array anymore. A systematic study was done using injection mass model to benchmark simulation with experiments.

  6. Status On Multi-microsecond Prepulse Technique On Sphinx Machine Going From Nested To Single Wire Array For 800 ns Implosion Time Z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maury, P.; Calamy, H.; Grunenwald, J.; Lassalle, F.; Zucchini, F.; Loyen, A.; Georges, A.; Morell, A.; Bedoch, J. P.

    2009-01-01

    The Sphinx machine [1] is a 6 MA, 1 μS driver based on the LTD technology, used for Z-pinch experiments. Important improvements of Sphinx radiation output were recently obtained using a multi-microsecond current prepulse [2] . Total power per unit of length is multiplied by a factor of 6 and FWHM divided by a factor of 2.5. Early breakdown of the wires during the prepulse phase dramatically changes the ablation phase leading to an improvement of axial homogeneity of both the implosion and the final radiating column. As a consequence, the cathode bubble observed on classical shots is definitively removed. The implosion is then centered and zippering effect is reduced, leading to simultaneous x-ray emission of the whole length. A great reproducibility is obtained. Nested arrays were used before to mitigate the Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities during the implosion phase. Further experiments with pre-pulse technique are described here were inner array was removed. The goal of these experiments was to see if long prepulse could give stable enough implosion with single array and at the same time increase the η parameter by reducing the mass of the load. Experimental results of single wire array loads of typical dimension 5 cm in height with implosion time between 700 and 900 ns and diameter varying between 80 and 140 mm are given. Parameters of the loads were varying in term of radius and number of wires. Comparisons with nested wire array loads are done and trends are proposed. Characteristics of both the implosion and the final radiating column are shown. 2D MHD numerical simulations of single wire array become easier as there is no interaction between outer and inner array anymore. A systematic study was done using injection mass model to benchmark simulation with experiments.

  7. Reducing Implicit Prejudice

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Calvin; Nosek, Brian; Hoffman, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    Implicit prejudice are social preferences that exist outside of conscious awareness or conscious control. We summarize evidence for three mechanisms that influence the expression of implicit prejudice: associative change, contextual change, and change in control over implicit prejudice. We then review the evidence (or lack thereof) for five open issues in implicit prejudice reduction research: 1) what shows effectiveness in real-world application; 2) what doesn’t work for implicit prejudice r...

  8. 1- to 10-keV x-ray backlighting of annular wire arrays on the Sandia Z-machine using bent-crystal imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rambo, Patrick K.; Wenger, David Franklin; Bennett, Guy R.; Sinars, Daniel Brian; Smith, Ian Craig; Porter, John Larry Jr.; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Rovang, Dean Curtis; Anderson, Jessica E.

    2003-01-01

    Annular wire array implosions on the Sandia Z-machine can produce >200 TW and 1-2 MJ of soft x rays in the 0.1-10 keV range. The x-ray flux and debris in this environment present significant challenges for radiographic diagnostics. X-ray backlighting diagnostics at 1865 and 6181 eV using spherically-bent crystals have been fielded on the Z-machine, each with a ∼0.6 eVspectral bandpass, 10 (micro)m spatial resolution, and a 4 mm by 20mm field of view. The Z-Beamlet laser, a 2-TW, 2-kJ Nd:glass laser(λ = 527 nm), is used to produce 0.1-1 J x-ray sources for radiography. The design, calibration, and performance of these diagnostics is presented.

  9. Towards a theoretical foundation for explicitation and implicitation

    OpenAIRE

    De Metsenaere, Hinde; Vandepitte, Sonia

    2017-01-01

    Explicitation and implicitation are two translation studies concepts that have given rise to a vast array of studies. These studies are, however, often difficult to compare, primarily because explicitation and implicitation have been interpreted differently, not rarely intuitively, by many translation studies researchers. This is due to the fact that the underlying concepts of explicitness and implicitness have not yet been satisfactorily defined for translation studies purposes. It is there...

  10. Wire Array Z-pinches on Sphinx Machine: Experimental Results and Relevant Points of Microsecond Implosion Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calamy, H.; Hamann, F.; Lassalle, F.; Bayol, F.; Mangeant, C.; Morell, A.; Huet, D.; Bedoch, J. P.; Chittenden, J. P.; Lebedev, S. V.; Jennings, C. A.; Bland, S. N.

    2006-01-01

    Centre d'Etudes de Gramat (France) has developed an efficient long implosion time (800 ns) Aluminum plasma radiation source (PRS). Based on the LTD technology, the SPHINX facility is developed as a 1-3MJ, 1μs rise time, 4-10 MA current driver. In this paper, it was used in 1MJ, 4MA configuration to drive Aluminum nested wire arrays Z-pinches with K-shell yield up to 20 kJ and a FWHM of the x-ray pulse of about 50 ns. We present latest SPHINX experiments and some of the main physic issues of the microsecond regime. Experimental setup and results are described with the aim of giving trends that have been obtained. The main features of microsecond implosion of wire arrays can be analyzed thanks to same methods and theories as used for faster Z-pinches. The effect of load polarity was examined. The stability of the implosion , one of the critical point of microsecond wire arrays due to the load dimensions imposed by the time scale, is tackled. A simple scaling from 100 ns Z-pinch results to 800 ns ones gives good results and the use of nested arrays improves dramatically the implosion quality and the Kshell yield of the load. However, additional effects such as the impact of the return current can geometry on the implosion have to be taken into account on our loads. Axial inhomogeneity of the implosion the origin of which is not yet well understood occurs in some shots and impacts the radiation output. The shape of the radiative pulse is discussed and compared with the homogeneity of the implosion. Numerical 2D R-Z and R-θ simulations are used to highlight some experimental results and understand the plasma conditions during these microsecond wire arrays implosions.

  11. Wire Array Z-pinches on Sphinx Machine: Experimental Results and Relevant Points of Microsecond Implosion Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calamy, H.; Hamann, F.; Lassalle, F.; Bayol, F.; Mangeant, C.; Morell, A.; Huet, D.; Bedoch, J.P.; Chittenden, J.P.; Lebedev, S.V.; Jennings, C.A.; Bland, S.N.

    2006-01-01

    Centre d'Etudes de Gramat (France) has developed an efficient long implosion time (800 ns) Aluminum plasma radiation source (PRS). Based on the LTD technology, the SPHINX facility is developed as a 1-3MJ, 1μs rise time, 4-10 MA current driver. In this paper, it was used in 1MJ, 4MA configuration to drive Aluminum nested wire arrays Z-pinches with K-shell yield up to 20 kJ and a FWHM of the x-ray pulse of about 50 ns. We present latest SPHINX experiments and some of the main physic issues of the microsecond regime. Experimental setup and results are described with the aim of giving trends that have been obtained. The main features of microsecond implosion of wire arrays can be analyzed thanks to same methods and theories as used for faster Z-pinches. The effect of load polarity was examined. The stability of the implosion , one of the critical point of microsecond wire arrays due to the load dimensions imposed by the time scale, is tackled. A simple scaling from 100 ns Z-pinch results to 800 ns ones gives good results and the use of nested arrays improves dramatically the implosion quality and the Kshell yield of the load. However, additional effects such as the impact of the return current can geometry on the implosion have to be taken into account on our loads. Axial inhomogeneity of the implosion the origin of which is not yet well understood occurs in some shots and impacts the radiation output. The shape of the radiative pulse is discussed and compared with the homogeneity of the implosion. Numerical 2D R-Z and R-θ simulations are used to highlight some experimental results and understand the plasma conditions during these microsecond wire arrays implosions

  12. Solving Kepler's equation using implicit functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortari, Daniele; Elipe, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    A new approach to solve Kepler's equation based on the use of implicit functions is proposed here. First, new upper and lower bounds are derived for two ranges of mean anomaly. These upper and lower bounds initialize a two-step procedure involving the solution of two implicit functions. These two implicit functions, which are non-rational (polynomial) Bézier functions, can be linear or quadratic, depending on the derivatives of the initial bound values. These are new initial bounds that have been compared and proven more accurate than Serafin's bounds. The procedure reaches machine error accuracy with no more that one quadratic and one linear iterations, experienced in the "tough range", where the eccentricity is close to one and the mean anomaly to zero. The proposed method is particularly suitable for space-based applications with limited computational capability.

  13. Implicit Theories of Persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskos-Ewoldsen, David R.

    1997-01-01

    Explores whether individuals have implicit theories of persuasion. Examines how persuasive strategies are cognitively represented--identifies types of tactics in attitude change and social acceptability of persuasive strategies. Finds implicit theories of persuasion reflect the audience's familiarity with the topic. Finds also that implicit…

  14. Implicit plasma simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langdon, A.B.

    1985-01-01

    Implicit time integration methods have been used extensively in numerical modelling of slowly varying phenomena in systems that also support rapid variation. Examples include diffusion, hydrodynamics and reaction kinetics. This article discussed implementation of implicit time integration in plasma codes of the ''particle-in-cell'' family, and the benefits to be gained

  15. Framing (implicitly) matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Joel; Antalikova, Radka

    2014-01-01

    Denmark is currently experiencing the highest immigration rate in its modern history. Population surveys indicate that negative public attitudes toward immigrants actually stem from attitudes toward their (perceived) Islamic affiliation. We used a framing paradigm to investigate the explicit...... and implicit attitudes of Christian and Atheist Danes toward targets framed as Muslims or as immigrants. The results showed that explicit and implicit attitudes were more negative when the target was framed as a Muslim, rather than as an immigrant. Interestingly, implicit attitudes were qualified...... by the participants’ religion. Specifically, analyses revealed that Christians demonstrated more negative implicit attitudes toward immigrants than Muslims. Conversely, Atheists demonstrated more negative implicit attitudes toward Muslims than Atheists. These results suggest a complex relationship between religion...

  16. Case for a field-programmable gate array multicore hybrid machine for an image-processing application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakvic, Ryan N.; Ives, Robert W.; Lira, Javier; Molina, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    General purpose computer designers have recently begun adding cores to their processors in order to increase performance. For example, Intel has adopted a homogeneous quad-core processor as a base for general purpose computing. PlayStation3 (PS3) game consoles contain a multicore heterogeneous processor known as the Cell, which is designed to perform complex image processing algorithms at a high level. Can modern image-processing algorithms utilize these additional cores? On the other hand, modern advancements in configurable hardware, most notably field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) have created an interesting question for general purpose computer designers. Is there a reason to combine FPGAs with multicore processors to create an FPGA multicore hybrid general purpose computer? Iris matching, a repeatedly executed portion of a modern iris-recognition algorithm, is parallelized on an Intel-based homogeneous multicore Xeon system, a heterogeneous multicore Cell system, and an FPGA multicore hybrid system. Surprisingly, the cheaper PS3 slightly outperforms the Intel-based multicore on a core-for-core basis. However, both multicore systems are beaten by the FPGA multicore hybrid system by >50%.

  17. Awareness of Implicit Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Adam; Judd, Charles M.; Hirsh, Holen K.; Blair, Irene V.

    2013-01-01

    Research on implicit attitudes has raised questions about how well people know their own attitudes. Most research on this question has focused on the correspondence between measures of implicit attitudes and measures of explicit attitudes, with low correspondence interpreted as showing that people have little awareness of their implicit attitudes. We took a different approach and directly asked participants to predict their results on upcoming IAT measures of implicit attitudes toward five different social groups. We found that participants were surprisingly accurate in their predictions. Across four studies, predictions were accurate regardless of whether implicit attitudes were described as true attitudes or culturally learned associations (Studies 1 and 2), regardless of whether predictions were made as specific response patterns (Study 1) or as conceptual responses (Studies 2–4), and regardless of how much experience or explanation participants received before making their predictions (Study 4). Study 3 further suggested that participants’ predictions reflected unique insight into their own implicit responses, beyond intuitions about how people in general might respond. Prediction accuracy occurred despite generally low correspondence between implicit and explicit measures of attitudes, as found in prior research. All together, the research findings cast doubt on the belief that attitudes or evaluations measured by the IAT necessarily reflect unconscious attitudes. PMID:24294868

  18. Electromagnetic direct implicit PIC simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langdon, A.B.

    1983-01-01

    Interesting modelling of intense electron flow has been done with implicit particle-in-cell simulation codes. In this report, the direct implicit PIC simulation approach is applied to simulations that include full electromagnetic fields. The resulting algorithm offers advantages relative to moment implicit electromagnetic algorithms and may help in our quest for robust and simpler implicit codes

  19. Finger Search in the Implicit Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Nielsen, Jesper Asbjørn Sindahl; Truelsen, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    We address the problem of creating a dictionary with the finger search property in the strict implicit model, where no information is stored between operations, except the array of elements. We show that for any implicit dictionary supporting finger searches in q(t) = Ω(logt) time, the time to move...... the finger to another element is Ω(q− 1(logn)), where t is the rank distance between the query element and the finger. We present an optimal implicit static structure matching this lower bound. We furthermore present a near optimal implicit dynamic structure supporting search, change-finger, insert......, and delete in times $\\mathcal{O}(q(t))$, $\\mathcal{O}(q^{-1}(\\log n)\\log n)$, $\\mathcal{O}(\\log n)$, and $\\mathcal{O}(\\log n)$, respectively, for any q(t) = Ω(logt). Finally we show that the search operation must take Ω(logn) time for the special case where the finger is always changed to the element...

  20. Implicit measure for yoga research: Yoga implicit association test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judu V Ilavarasu

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Implicit measures may be used in the yoga field to assess constructs, which are difficult to self-report or may have social desirability threat. Y-IAT may be used to evaluate implicit preference toward yoga.

  1. Sexual Murderers' Implicit Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beech, Anthony; Fisher, Dawn; Ward, Tony

    2005-01-01

    Interviews with 28 sexual murderers were subjected to grounded theory analysis. Five implicit theories (ITs) were identified: dangerous world, male sex drive is uncontrollable, entitlement, women as sexual objects, and women as unknowable. These ITs were found to be identical to those identified in the literature as being present in rapists. The…

  2. Representational Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Photography not only represents space. Space is produced photographically. Since its inception in the 19th century, photography has brought to light a vast array of represented subjects. Always situated in some spatial order, photographic representations have been operatively underpinned by social...... to the enterprises of the medium. This is the subject of Representational Machines: How photography enlists the workings of institutional technologies in search of establishing new iconic and social spaces. Together, the contributions to this edited volume span historical epochs, social environments, technological...... possibilities, and genre distinctions. Presenting several distinct ways of producing space photographically, this book opens a new and important field of inquiry for photography research....

  3. Mindfulness - en implicit utopi?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Maj

    2014-01-01

    The field of mindfulness and meditation has met growing interest in the western world during the last decades. Mindfulness aims to develop a friendly, accepting and mindful awareness in the present moment. Critiques have argued that this aim is deployed in a new kind of management technology where...... mindfulness is used for individualized stress-reduction in order to keep up with existing or worsened working conditions instead of stress-reducing changes in the common working conditions. Mindfulness research emphasizes positive outcomes in coping with demands and challenges in everyday life especially...... considering suffering (for example stress and pain). While explicit constructions of Utopia present ideas of specific societal communities in well-functioning harmony, the interest in mindfulness can in contradistinction be considered an implicit critique of present life-conditions and an “implicit utopia...

  4. Chinese implicit leadership theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, W; Chia, R C; Fang, L

    2000-12-01

    In a 1st attempt to identify an implicit theory of leadership among Chinese people, the authors developed the Chinese Implicit Leadership Scale (CILS) in Study 1. In Study 2, they administered the CILS to 622 Chinese participants from 5 occupation groups, to explore differences in perceptions of leadership. Factor analysis yielded 4 factors of leadership: Personal Morality, Goal Efficiency, Interpersonal Competence, and Versatility. Social groups differing in age, gender, education level, and occupation rated these factors. Results showed no significant gender differences, and the underlying cause for social group differences was education level. All groups gave the highest ratings to Interpersonal Competence, reflecting the enormous importance of this factor, which is consistent with Chinese collectivist values.

  5. Multithreaded implicitly dealiased convolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Malcolm; Bowman, John C.

    2018-03-01

    Implicit dealiasing is a method for computing in-place linear convolutions via fast Fourier transforms that decouples work memory from input data. It offers easier memory management and, for long one-dimensional input sequences, greater efficiency than conventional zero-padding. Furthermore, for convolutions of multidimensional data, the segregation of data and work buffers can be exploited to reduce memory usage and execution time significantly. This is accomplished by processing and discarding data as it is generated, allowing work memory to be reused, for greater data locality and performance. A multithreaded implementation of implicit dealiasing that accepts an arbitrary number of input and output vectors and a general multiplication operator is presented, along with an improved one-dimensional Hermitian convolution that avoids the loop dependency inherent in previous work. An alternate data format that can accommodate a Nyquist mode and enhance cache efficiency is also proposed.

  6. Implicit Real Vector Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Degbomont

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the symbolic representation of non-convex real polyhedra, i.e., sets of real vectors satisfying arbitrary Boolean combinations of linear constraints. We develop an original data structure for representing such sets, based on an implicit and concise encoding of a known structure, the Real Vector Automaton. The resulting formalism provides a canonical representation of polyhedra, is closed under Boolean operators, and admits an efficient decision procedure for testing the membership of a vector.

  7. Implicit Moment Invariants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flusser, Jan; Kautský, J.; Šroubek, Filip

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 1 (2010), s. 72-86 ISSN 0920-5691 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA ČR GA102/08/1593 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Implicit invariants * Orthogonal polynomials * Polynomial image deformation Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 4.930, year: 2010 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/ZOI/flusser-0329394.pdf

  8. Piezoelectric transducer array microspeaker

    KAUST Repository

    Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo

    2016-12-19

    In this paper we present the fabrication and characterization of a piezoelectric micro-speaker. The speaker is an array of micro-machined piezoelectric membranes, fabricated on silicon wafer using advanced micro-machining techniques. Each array contains 2n piezoelectric transducer membranes, where “n” is the bit number. Every element of the array has a circular shape structure. The membrane is made out four layers: 300nm of platinum for the bottom electrode, 250nm or lead zirconate titanate (PZT), a top electrode of 300nm and a structural layer of 50

  9. Implicit learning as an ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Scott Barry; Deyoung, Colin G; Gray, Jeremy R; Jiménez, Luis; Brown, Jamie; Mackintosh, Nicholas

    2010-09-01

    The ability to automatically and implicitly detect complex and noisy regularities in the environment is a fundamental aspect of human cognition. Despite considerable interest in implicit processes, few researchers have conceptualized implicit learning as an ability with meaningful individual differences. Instead, various researchers (e.g., Reber, 1993; Stanovich, 2009) have suggested that individual differences in implicit learning are minimal relative to individual differences in explicit learning. In the current study of English 16-17year old students, we investigated the association of individual differences in implicit learning with a variety of cognitive and personality variables. Consistent with prior research and theorizing, implicit learning, as measured by a probabilistic sequence learning task, was more weakly related to psychometric intelligence than was explicit associative learning, and was unrelated to working memory. Structural equation modeling revealed that implicit learning was independently related to two components of psychometric intelligence: verbal analogical reasoning and processing speed. Implicit learning was also independently related to academic performance on two foreign language exams (French, German). Further, implicit learning was significantly associated with aspects of self-reported personality, including intuition, Openness to Experience, and impulsivity. We discuss the implications of implicit learning as an ability for dual-process theories of cognition, intelligence, personality, skill learning, complex cognition, and language acquisition. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Implicit memory. Retention without remembering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roediger, H L

    1990-09-01

    Explicit measures of human memory, such as recall or recognition, reflect conscious recollection of the past. Implicit tests of retention measure transfer (or priming) from past experience on tasks that do not require conscious recollection of recent experiences for their performance. The article reviews research on the relation between explicit and implicit memory. The evidence points to substantial differences between standard explicit and implicit tests, because many variables create dissociations between these tests. For example, although pictures are remembered better than words on explicit tests, words produce more priming than do pictures on several implicit tests. These dissociations may implicate different memory systems that subserve distinct memorial functions, but the present argument is that many dissociations can be understood by appealing to general principles that apply to both explicit and implicit tests. Phenomena studied under the rubric of implicit memory may have important implications in many other fields, including social cognition, problem solving, and cognitive development.

  11. NanoCMM : a 3D coordinate measuring machine with low moving mass for measuring small products in array with nanometer uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seggelen, van J.K.

    2007-01-01

    To measure dimensions and shape of complex three dimensional products (e.g. engines, mouldings, etc) with low uncertainty, Coordinate Measuring Machines (CMMs) are adequate instruments due to their universal applicability, easy measurement set-up and measuring flexibility. Motion software is

  12. Implicit Memory in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Latchford

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of neuropsychological studies have revealed that memory problems are relatively common in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. It may be useful to compare MS with conditions such as Huntington's disease (HD, which have been referred to as subcortical dementia. A characteristic of these conditions may be an impairment in implicit (unconscious memory, but not in explicit (conscious memory. The present study examined the functioning of explicit and implicit memory in MS. Results showed that implicit memory was not significantly impaired in the MS subjects, and that they were impaired on recall but not recognition. A correlation was found between implicit memory performance and disability status in MS patients. Findings also suggest the possibility of long-term priming of implicit memory in the control subjects. The implications of these results are discussed.

  13. Semi-implicit magnetohydrodynamic calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnack, D.D.; Barnes, D.C.; Mikic, Z.; Harned, D.S.; Caramana, E.J.

    1987-01-01

    A semi-implicit algorithm for the solution of the nonlinear, three-dimensional, resistive MHD equations in cylindrical geometry is presented. The specific model assumes uniform density and pressure, although this is not a restriction of the method. The spatial approximation employs finite differences in the radial coordinate, and the pseudo-spectral algorithm in the periodic poloidal and axial coordinates. A leapfrog algorithm is used to advance wave-like terms; advective terms are treated with a simple predictor--corrector method. The semi-implicit term is introduced as a simple modification to the momentum equation. Dissipation is treated implicitly. The resulting algorithm is unconditionally stable with respect to normal modes. A general discussion of the semi-implicit method is given, and specific forms of the semi-implicit operator are compared in physically relevant test cases. Long-time simulations are presented. copyright 1987 Academic Press, Inc

  14. Implicit User Interest Profile

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, K

    2002-01-01

    User interest profile presents items that the users are interested in. Typically those items can be listed or grouped. Listing is good but it does not possess interests at different abstraction levels - the higher-level interests are more general, while the lower-level ones are more specific. Furthermore, more general interests, in some sense, correspond to longer-term interests, while more specific interests correspond to shorter-term interests. This hierarchical user interest profile has obvious advantages: specifying user's specific interests and general interests and representing their relationships. Current user interest profile structures mostly do not use implicit method, nor use an appropriate clustering algorithm especially for conceptually hierarchical structures. This research studies building a hierarchical user interest profile (HUIP) and the hierarchical divisive algorithm (HDC). Several users visit hundreds of web pages and each page is recorded in each users profile. These web pages are used t...

  15. Implicit and fully implicit exponential finite difference methods

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Burgers' equation; exponential finite difference method; implicit exponential finite difference method; ... This paper describes two new techniques which give improved exponential finite difference solutions of Burgers' equation. ... Current Issue

  16. How "implicit" are implicit color effects in memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Hubert D; Steiner, Astrid; Ecker, Ullrich K H

    2002-01-01

    Processing colored pictures of objects results in a preference to choose the former color for a specific object in a subsequent color choice test (Wippich & Mecklenbräuker, 1998). We tested whether this implicit memory effect is independent of performances in episodic color recollection (recognition). In the study phase of Experiment 1, the color of line drawings was either named or its appropriateness was judged. We found only weak implicit memory effects for categorical color information. In Experiment 2, silhouettes were colored by subjects during the study phase. Performances in both the implicit and the explicit test were good. Selections of "old" colors in the implicit test, though, were almost completely confined to items for which the color was also remembered explicitly. In Experiment 3, we applied the opposition technique in order to check whether we could find any implicit effects regarding items for which no explicit color recollection was possible. This was not the case. We therefore draw the conclusion that implicit color preference effects are not independent of explicit recollection, and that they are probably based on the same episodic memory traces that are used in explicit tests.

  17. A washable, stretchable, and self-powered human-machine interfacing Triboelectric nanogenerator for wireless communications and soft robotics pressure sensor arrays

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Abdelsalam

    2017-01-20

    Flexible and stretchable human-machine Interfacing devices have attracted great attention due to the need for portable, ergonomic, and geometrically compatible devices in the new era of computer technology. Triboelectric nanogenerators (TENG) have shown promising potential for self-powered human–machine interacting devices. In this paper, a flexible, stretchable and self-powered keyboard is developed based on vertical contact-separation mode TENG. The keyboard is fabricated using urethane, silicone rubbers and Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) electrodes. The structure shows a highly flexible, stretchable, and mechanically durable behavior, which can be conformal on different surfaces. The keyboard is capable of converting mechanical energy of finger tapping to electrical energy based on contact electrification, which can eliminate the need of external power source. The device can be utilized for wireless communication with computers owing to the self-powering mechanism. The keyboards also demonstrate consistent behavior in generating voltage signals regardless of touching objects’ materials and environmental effects like humidity. In addition, the proposed system can be used for keystroke dynamic-based authentication. Therefore, highly secured accessibility to the computers can be achieved owing to the keyboard’s high sensitivity and accurate selectivity of different users.

  18. A washable, stretchable, and self-powered human-machine interfacing Triboelectric nanogenerator for wireless communications and soft robotics pressure sensor arrays

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Abdelsalam; Zhang, Steven L.; Hassan, Islam; Saadatnia, Zia; Zi, Yunlong; Zu, Jean; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-01-01

    Flexible and stretchable human-machine Interfacing devices have attracted great attention due to the need for portable, ergonomic, and geometrically compatible devices in the new era of computer technology. Triboelectric nanogenerators (TENG) have shown promising potential for self-powered human–machine interacting devices. In this paper, a flexible, stretchable and self-powered keyboard is developed based on vertical contact-separation mode TENG. The keyboard is fabricated using urethane, silicone rubbers and Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) electrodes. The structure shows a highly flexible, stretchable, and mechanically durable behavior, which can be conformal on different surfaces. The keyboard is capable of converting mechanical energy of finger tapping to electrical energy based on contact electrification, which can eliminate the need of external power source. The device can be utilized for wireless communication with computers owing to the self-powering mechanism. The keyboards also demonstrate consistent behavior in generating voltage signals regardless of touching objects’ materials and environmental effects like humidity. In addition, the proposed system can be used for keystroke dynamic-based authentication. Therefore, highly secured accessibility to the computers can be achieved owing to the keyboard’s high sensitivity and accurate selectivity of different users.

  19. Machine Shop Grinding Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, James

    This curriculum manual is one in a series of machine shop curriculum manuals intended for use in full-time secondary and postsecondary classes, as well as part-time adult classes. The curriculum can also be adapted to open-entry, open-exit programs. Its purpose is to equip students with basic knowledge and skills that will enable them to enter the…

  20. Approximate Implicitization Using Linear Algebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver J. D. Barrowclough

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a family of algorithms for approximate implicitization of rational parametric curves and surfaces. The main approximation tool in all of the approaches is the singular value decomposition, and they are therefore well suited to floating-point implementation in computer-aided geometric design (CAGD systems. We unify the approaches under the names of commonly known polynomial basis functions and consider various theoretical and practical aspects of the algorithms. We offer new methods for a least squares approach to approximate implicitization using orthogonal polynomials, which tend to be faster and more numerically stable than some existing algorithms. We propose several simple propositions relating the properties of the polynomial bases to their implicit approximation properties.

  1. Implicit computational complexity and compilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubiano, Thomas

    Complexity theory helps us predict and control resources, usually time and space, consumed by programs. Static analysis on specific syntactic criterion allows us to categorize some programs. A common approach is to observe the program’s data’s behavior. For instance, the detection of non...... evolution and a lot of research came from this theory. Until now, these implicit complexity theories were essentially applied on more or less toy languages. This thesis applies implicit computational complexity methods into “real life” programs by manipulating intermediate representation languages...

  2. Ego depletion impairs implicit learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kelsey R; Sanchez, Daniel J; Wesley, Abigail H; Reber, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    Implicit skill learning occurs incidentally and without conscious awareness of what is learned. However, the rate and effectiveness of learning may still be affected by decreased availability of central processing resources. Dual-task experiments have generally found impairments in implicit learning, however, these studies have also shown that certain characteristics of the secondary task (e.g., timing) can complicate the interpretation of these results. To avoid this problem, the current experiments used a novel method to impose resource constraints prior to engaging in skill learning. Ego depletion theory states that humans possess a limited store of cognitive resources that, when depleted, results in deficits in self-regulation and cognitive control. In a first experiment, we used a standard ego depletion manipulation prior to performance of the Serial Interception Sequence Learning (SISL) task. Depleted participants exhibited poorer test performance than did non-depleted controls, indicating that reducing available executive resources may adversely affect implicit sequence learning, expression of sequence knowledge, or both. In a second experiment, depletion was administered either prior to or after training. Participants who reported higher levels of depletion before or after training again showed less sequence-specific knowledge on the post-training assessment. However, the results did not allow for clear separation of ego depletion effects on learning versus subsequent sequence-specific performance. These results indicate that performance on an implicitly learned sequence can be impaired by a reduction in executive resources, in spite of learning taking place outside of awareness and without conscious intent.

  3. Implicit learning in psychotic patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmand, B.; Kop, W. J.; Kuipers, T.; Bosveld, J.

    1992-01-01

    Implicit verbal learning of psychotic patients (n = 59) and non-psychotic control patients (n = 20) was studied using stem completion and association tasks in lexical and semantic priming paradigms. Performance on these tasks was contrasted with explicit memory on Rey's verbal learning test.

  4. Media multitasking and implicit learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Kathleen S; Shin, Myoungju

    2017-07-01

    Media multitasking refers to the simultaneous use of different forms of media. Previous research comparing heavy media multitaskers and light media multitaskers suggests that heavy media multitaskers have a broader scope of attention. The present study explored whether these differences in attentional scope would lead to a greater degree of implicit learning for heavy media multitaskers. The study also examined whether media multitasking behaviour is associated with differences in visual working memory, and whether visual working memory differentially affects the ability to process contextual information. In addition to comparing extreme groups (heavy and light media multitaskers) the study included analysis of people who media multitask in moderation (intermediate media multitaskers). Ninety-four participants were divided into groups based on responses to the media use questionnaire, and completed the contextual cueing and n-back tasks. Results indicated that the speed at which implicit learning occurred was slower in heavy media multitaskers relative to both light and intermediate media multitaskers. There was no relationship between working memory performance and media multitasking group, and no relationship between working memory and implicit learning. There was also no evidence for superior performance of intermediate media multitaskers. A deficit in implicit learning observed in heavy media multitaskers is consistent with previous literature, which suggests that heavy media multitaskers perform more poorly than light media multitaskers in attentional tasks due to their wider attentional scope.

  5. Implicit, explicit and speculative knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ditmarsch, H.; French, T.; Velázquez-Quesada, F.R.; Wáng, Y.N.

    We compare different epistemic notions in the presence of awareness of propositional variables: the logic of implicit knowledge (in which explicit knowledge is definable), the logic of explicit knowledge, and the logic of speculative knowledge. Speculative knowledge is a novel epistemic notion that

  6. Towards a Formal Treatment of Implicit Invocation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dingel, J

    1997-01-01

    .... A formal computational model for implicit invocation is presented. We develop a verification framework for implicit invocation that is based on Jones' rely/guarantee reasoning for concurrent systems Jon83,St(phi)91...

  7. The role of expectedness in the implicitation and explicitation of discourse relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, J.; Evers-Vermeul, J.; Sanders, T.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Translation of discourse connectives varies more in human translations than in machine translations. Building on Murray’s (1997) continuity hypothesis and Sanders’ (2005) causality-by-default hypothesis we investigate whether expectedness influences the degree of implicitation and explicitation of

  8. Sustainable machining

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an overview on current sustainable machining. Its chapters cover the concept in economic, social and environmental dimensions. It provides the reader with proper ways to handle several pollutants produced during the machining process. The book is useful on both undergraduate and postgraduate levels and it is of interest to all those working with manufacturing and machining technology.

  9. Can implicit motivation be measured?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Alexandra; Scholderer, Joachim

    According to recent neurobiological models, food choices are influenced by two separate reward systems: motivational wanting (incentive salience of the reward) and affective liking (hedonic pleasure associated with the reward). Both are assumed to have conscious and unconscious components. Applying...... such promising conceptual frameworks within consumer research would not only be helpful for understanding human appetite but also has implications for predicting consumer behaviour. Since the affective liking system has strong similarities to contemporary attitude theories, implicit and explicit measures...... of evaluation could be applied. However, no comparable procedures have been developed for the motivational wanting component; generally accepted “low-tech” measures are therefore still lacking! Thus, the aim of this study was to develop and test implicit measures of wanting that can be used as dependent...

  10. Implicit normativity in scientific advice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folker, Anna Paldam; Andersen, Hanne; Sandøe, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on implicit normative considerations underlying scientific advice-those normative questions, decisions, or issues that scientific advisers and the general public are not fully aware of but that nevertheless have implications for the character of the advice given. Using...... nutritional science as an example, we identify three such implicit normative issues. The first concerns the aim of scientific advice: whether it is about avoiding harm or promoting good. The second concerns the intended beneficiaries of the advice: whether advice should be framed to benefit the society...... as a whole or with special concern for the most vulnerable members of the population. The third consideration involves scientific advisers' attempts to balance the strengths of the scientific evidence with the expected consequences of scientific advice. We hope to promote more explicit discussion...

  11. Ego Depletion Impairs Implicit Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kelsey R.; Sanchez, Daniel J.; Wesley, Abigail H.; Reber, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Implicit skill learning occurs incidentally and without conscious awareness of what is learned. However, the rate and effectiveness of learning may still be affected by decreased availability of central processing resources. Dual-task experiments have generally found impairments in implicit learning, however, these studies have also shown that certain characteristics of the secondary task (e.g., timing) can complicate the interpretation of these results. To avoid this problem, the current experiments used a novel method to impose resource constraints prior to engaging in skill learning. Ego depletion theory states that humans possess a limited store of cognitive resources that, when depleted, results in deficits in self-regulation and cognitive control. In a first experiment, we used a standard ego depletion manipulation prior to performance of the Serial Interception Sequence Learning (SISL) task. Depleted participants exhibited poorer test performance than did non-depleted controls, indicating that reducing available executive resources may adversely affect implicit sequence learning, expression of sequence knowledge, or both. In a second experiment, depletion was administered either prior to or after training. Participants who reported higher levels of depletion before or after training again showed less sequence-specific knowledge on the post-training assessment. However, the results did not allow for clear separation of ego depletion effects on learning versus subsequent sequence-specific performance. These results indicate that performance on an implicitly learned sequence can be impaired by a reduction in executive resources, in spite of learning taking place outside of awareness and without conscious intent. PMID:25275517

  12. Object recognition by implicit invariants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flusser, Jan; Kautsky, J.; Šroubek, Filip

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 2007, č. 4673 (2007), s. 856-863 ISSN 0302-9743. [Computer Analysis of Images and Patterns. Vienna, 27.08.2007-29.08.2007] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Invariants * implicit invariants * moments * orthogonal polynomials * nonlinear object deformation Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 0.402, year: 2005 http:// staff .utia.cas.cz/sroubekf/papers/CAIP_07.pdf

  13. Securities regulation and implicit penalties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghua Chen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The extant literature offers extensive support for the significant role played by institutions in financial markets, but implicit regulation and monitoring have yet to be examined. This study fills this void in the literature by employing unique Chinese datasets to explore the implicit regulation and penalties imposed by the Chinese government in regulating the initial public offering (IPO market. Of particular interest are the economic consequences of underwriting IPO deals for client firms that violate regulatory rules in China’s capital market. We provide evidence to show that the associated underwriters’ reputations are impaired and their market share declines. We further explore whether such negative consequences result from a market disciplinary mechanism or a penalty imposed by the government. To analyze the possibility of a market disciplinary mechanism at work, we investigate (1 the market reaction to other client firms whose IPO deals were underwritten by underwriters associated with a violation at the time the violation was publicly disclosed and (2 the under-pricing of IPO deals undertaken by these underwriters after such disclosure. To analyze whether the government imposes an implicit penalty, we examine the application processing time for future IPO deals underwritten by the associated underwriters and find it to be significantly longer than for IPO deals underwritten by other underwriters. Overall, there is little evidence to suggest that the market penalizes underwriters for the rule-violating behavior of their client firms in China. Instead, the Chinese government implicitly penalizes them by imposing more stringent criteria on and lengthening the processing time of the IPO deals they subsequently underwrite.

  14. Ego depletion impairs implicit learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey R Thompson

    Full Text Available Implicit skill learning occurs incidentally and without conscious awareness of what is learned. However, the rate and effectiveness of learning may still be affected by decreased availability of central processing resources. Dual-task experiments have generally found impairments in implicit learning, however, these studies have also shown that certain characteristics of the secondary task (e.g., timing can complicate the interpretation of these results. To avoid this problem, the current experiments used a novel method to impose resource constraints prior to engaging in skill learning. Ego depletion theory states that humans possess a limited store of cognitive resources that, when depleted, results in deficits in self-regulation and cognitive control. In a first experiment, we used a standard ego depletion manipulation prior to performance of the Serial Interception Sequence Learning (SISL task. Depleted participants exhibited poorer test performance than did non-depleted controls, indicating that reducing available executive resources may adversely affect implicit sequence learning, expression of sequence knowledge, or both. In a second experiment, depletion was administered either prior to or after training. Participants who reported higher levels of depletion before or after training again showed less sequence-specific knowledge on the post-training assessment. However, the results did not allow for clear separation of ego depletion effects on learning versus subsequent sequence-specific performance. These results indicate that performance on an implicitly learned sequence can be impaired by a reduction in executive resources, in spite of learning taking place outside of awareness and without conscious intent.

  15. Explicit Versus Implicit Income Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas J. Kniesner; James P. Z‎iliak

    2001-01-01

    October 2001 (Revised from July 2001). Abstract: By supplementing income explicitly through payments or implicitly through taxes collected, income-based taxes and transfers make disposable income less variable. Because disposable income determines consumption, policies that smooth disposable income also create welfare improving consumption insurance. With data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics we find that annual consumption variation is reduced by almost 20 percent due to explicit and ...

  16. I trust it, but I don't know why: effects of implicit attitudes toward automation on trust in an automated system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Stephanie M; Heimbaugh, Heather; LaChapell, Jennifer; Lee, Deborah

    2013-06-01

    This study is the first to examine the influence of implicit attitudes toward automation on users' trust in automation. Past empirical work has examined explicit (conscious) influences on user level of trust in automation but has not yet measured implicit influences. We examine concurrent effects of explicit propensity to trust machines and implicit attitudes toward automation on trust in an automated system. We examine differential impacts of each under varying automation performance conditions (clearly good, ambiguous, clearly poor). Participants completed both a self-report measure of propensity to trust and an Implicit Association Test measuring implicit attitude toward automation, then performed an X-ray screening task. Automation performance was manipulated within-subjects by varying the number and obviousness of errors. Explicit propensity to trust and implicit attitude toward automation did not significantly correlate. When the automation's performance was ambiguous, implicit attitude significantly affected automation trust, and its relationship with propensity to trust was additive: Increments in either were related to increases in trust. When errors were obvious, a significant interaction between the implicit and explicit measures was found, with those high in both having higher trust. Implicit attitudes have important implications for automation trust. Users may not be able to accurately report why they experience a given level of trust. To understand why users trust or fail to trust automation, measurements of implicit and explicit predictors may be necessary. Furthermore, implicit attitude toward automation might be used as a lever to effectively calibrate trust.

  17. [Psychological theory and implicit sociology.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sévigny, R

    1983-01-01

    This text is based on the hypothesis that every theory on the psychology of personality must inevitably, in one manner or another, have a sociological referent, that is to say, it must refer to a body of knowledge which deals with a diversity of social contexts and their relations to individuals. According to this working hypothesis, such a sociology is implicit. This text then discusses a group of theoretical approaches in an effort to verify this hypothesis. This approach allows the extrication of diverse forms or diverse expressions of this implicit sociology within this context several currents are rapidly explored : psychoanalysis, behaviorism, gestalt, classical theory of needs. The author also comments on the approach, inspired by oriental techniques or philosophies, which employs the notion of myth to deepen self awareness. Finally, from the same perspective, he comments at greater length on the work of Carl Rogers, highlighting the diverse form of implicit sociology. In addition to Carl Rogers, this text refers to Freud, Jung, Adler, Reich, Perls, Goodman, Skinner as well as to Ginette Paris and various analysts of Taoism. In conclusion, the author indicates the significance of his analysis from double viewpoint of psychological theory and practice.

  18. Fully implicit kinetic modelling of collisional plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousseau, V.A.

    1996-05-01

    This dissertation describes a numerical technique, Matrix-Free Newton Krylov, for solving a simplified Vlasov-Fokker-Planck equation. This method is both deterministic and fully implicit, and may not have been a viable option before current developments in numerical methods. Results are presented that indicate the efficiency of the Matrix-Free Newton Krylov method for these fully-coupled, nonlinear integro-differential equations. The use and requirement for advanced differencing is also shown. To this end, implementations of Chang-Cooper differencing and flux limited Quadratic Upstream Interpolation for Convective Kinematics (QUICK) are presented. Results are given for a fully kinetic ion-electron problem with a self consistent electric field calculated from the ion and electron distribution functions. This numerical method, including advanced differencing, provides accurate solutions, which quickly converge on workstation class machines. It is demonstrated that efficient steady-state solutions can be achieved to the non-linear integro-differential equation, obtaining quadratic convergence, without incurring the large memory requirements of an integral operator. Model problems are presented which simulate plasma impinging on a plate with both high and low neutral particle recycling typical of a divertor in a Tokamak device. These model problems demonstrate the performance of the new solution method

  19. A practical implicit finite-difference method: examples from seismic modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yang; Sen, Mrinal K

    2009-01-01

    We derive explicit and new implicit finite-difference formulae for derivatives of arbitrary order with any order of accuracy by the plane wave theory where the finite-difference coefficients are obtained from the Taylor series expansion. The implicit finite-difference formulae are derived from fractional expansion of derivatives which form tridiagonal matrix equations. Our results demonstrate that the accuracy of a (2N + 2)th-order implicit formula is nearly equivalent to that of a (6N + 2)th-order explicit formula for the first-order derivative, and (2N + 2)th-order implicit formula is nearly equivalent to (4N + 2)th-order explicit formula for the second-order derivative. In general, an implicit method is computationally more expensive than an explicit method, due to the requirement of solving large matrix equations. However, the new implicit method only involves solving tridiagonal matrix equations, which is fairly inexpensive. Furthermore, taking advantage of the fact that many repeated calculations of derivatives are performed by the same difference formula, several parts can be precomputed resulting in a fast algorithm. We further demonstrate that a (2N + 2)th-order implicit formulation requires nearly the same memory and computation as a (2N + 4)th-order explicit formulation but attains the accuracy achieved by a (6N + 2)th-order explicit formulation for the first-order derivative and that of a (4N + 2)th-order explicit method for the second-order derivative when additional cost of visiting arrays is not considered. This means that a high-order explicit method may be replaced by an implicit method of the same order resulting in a much improved performance. Our analysis of efficiency and numerical modelling results for acoustic and elastic wave propagation validates the effectiveness and practicality of the implicit finite-difference method

  20. Simple machines

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Just how simple are simple machines? With our ready-to-use resource, they are simple to teach and easy to learn! Chocked full of information and activities, we begin with a look at force, motion and work, and examples of simple machines in daily life are given. With this background, we move on to different kinds of simple machines including: Levers, Inclined Planes, Wedges, Screws, Pulleys, and Wheels and Axles. An exploration of some compound machines follows, such as the can opener. Our resource is a real time-saver as all the reading passages, student activities are provided. Presented in s

  1. Implicit and explicit attitudes among students

    OpenAIRE

    Félix Neto

    2009-01-01

    Mental processing and mental experience is not the same thing. The former is the operation of the mind; the latter is the subjective life that emerges from these operations. In social evaluation, implicit and explicit attitudes express this distinction. https://implicit.harvard.edu/ was created to provide experience with the Implicit Association Test (IAT) a procedure designed to measure social knowledge that may operate outside of awareness. In this paper we examined the relationships betwee...

  2. Implicit and semi-implicit schemes in the Versatile Advection Code : numerical tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tóth, G.; Keppens, R.; Bochev, Mikhail A.

    1998-01-01

    We describe and evaluate various implicit and semi-implicit time integration schemes applied to the numerical simulation of hydrodynamical and magnetohydrodynamical problems. The schemes were implemented recently in the software package Versatile Advection Code, which uses modern shock capturing

  3. Face machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, D.

    1999-06-01

    The article surveys latest equipment available from the world`s manufacturers of a range of machines for tunnelling. These are grouped under headings: excavators; impact hammers; road headers; and shields and tunnel boring machines. Products of thirty manufacturers are referred to. Addresses and fax numbers of companies are supplied. 5 tabs., 13 photos.

  4. Electric machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi [Niskayuna, NY; Reddy, Patel Bhageerath [Madison, WI

    2012-07-17

    An interior permanent magnet electric machine is disclosed. The interior permanent magnet electric machine comprises a rotor comprising a plurality of radially placed magnets each having a proximal end and a distal end, wherein each magnet comprises a plurality of magnetic segments and at least one magnetic segment towards the distal end comprises a high resistivity magnetic material.

  5. Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirrane, Diane E.

    1990-01-01

    As scientists seek to develop machines that can "learn," that is, solve problems by imitating the human brain, a gold mine of information on the processes of human learning is being discovered, expert systems are being improved, and human-machine interactions are being enhanced. (SK)

  6. Nonplanar machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritson, D.

    1989-05-01

    This talk examines methods available to minimize, but never entirely eliminate, degradation of machine performance caused by terrain following. Breaking of planar machine symmetry for engineering convenience and/or monetary savings must be balanced against small performance degradation, and can only be decided on a case-by-case basis. 5 refs

  7. An implicit Smooth Particle Hydrodynamic code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, Charles E. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2000-05-01

    An implicit version of the Smooth Particle Hydrodynamic (SPH) code SPHINX has been written and is working. In conjunction with the SPHINX code the new implicit code models fluids and solids under a wide range of conditions. SPH codes are Lagrangian, meshless and use particles to model the fluids and solids. The implicit code makes use of the Krylov iterative techniques for solving large linear-systems and a Newton-Raphson method for non-linear corrections. It uses numerical derivatives to construct the Jacobian matrix. It uses sparse techniques to save on memory storage and to reduce the amount of computation. It is believed that this is the first implicit SPH code to use Newton-Krylov techniques, and is also the first implicit SPH code to model solids. A description of SPH and the techniques used in the implicit code are presented. Then, the results of a number of tests cases are discussed, which include a shock tube problem, a Rayleigh-Taylor problem, a breaking dam problem, and a single jet of gas problem. The results are shown to be in very good agreement with analytic solutions, experimental results, and the explicit SPHINX code. In the case of the single jet of gas case it has been demonstrated that the implicit code can do a problem in much shorter time than the explicit code. The problem was, however, very unphysical, but it does demonstrate the potential of the implicit code. It is a first step toward a useful implicit SPH code.

  8. Implicit and explicit processes in social cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frith, Christopher; Frith, Uta

    2008-01-01

    In this review we consider research on social cognition in which implicit processes can be compared and contrasted with explicit, conscious processes. In each case, their function is distinct, sometimes complementary and sometimes oppositional. We argue that implicit processes in social interaction...... are automatic and are often opposed to conscious strategies. While we are aware of explicit processes in social interaction, we cannot always use them to override implicit processes. Many studies show that implicit processes facilitate the sharing of knowledge, feelings, and actions, and hence, perhaps...

  9. Implicit Attitudes Toward Green Consumer Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Vantomme

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the usefulness of implicit (automatic attitudes to explain the weak attitude-behaviour relationships often found in green consumer behaviour research. Therefore, not only explicit but also implicit attitudes toward green consumer behaviour were measured by means of the Implicit Association Test (IAT. Explicit measures revealed positive attitudes, while the IAT showed more positive attitudes toward the ecological than toward the traditional product (Experiment 1 or no differences in these attitudes (Experiment 2 and follow-up study. When existing products were involved, implicit attitudes related to behavioural intention, even where the explicit attitude measure did not.

  10. The achievements of the Z-machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larousserie, D.

    2008-01-01

    The ZR-machine that represents the latest generation of Z-pinch machines has recently begun preliminary testing before its full commissioning in Albuquerque (Usa). During its test the machine has well operated with electrical currents whose intensities of 26 million Ampere are already 2 times as high as the intensity of the operating current of the previous Z-machine. In 2006 the Z-machine reached temperatures of 2 billions Kelvin while 100 million Kelvin would be sufficient to ignite thermonuclear fusion. In fact the concept of Z-pinch machines was imagined in the fifties but the technological breakthrough that has allowed this recent success and the reborn of Z-machine, was the replacement of gas by an array of metal wires through which the electrical current flows and vaporizes it creating an imploding plasma. It is not well understood why Z-pinch machines generate far more radiation than theoretically expected. (A.C.)

  11. Specialization of Generic Array Accesses After Inlining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryohei Tokuda

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We have implemented an optimization that specializes type-generic array accesses after inlining of polymorphic functions in the native-code OCaml compiler. Polymorphic array operations (read and write in OCaml require runtime type dispatch because of ad hoc memory representations of integer and float arrays. It cannot be removed even after being monomorphized by inlining because the intermediate language is mostly untyped. We therefore extended it with explicit type application like System F (while keeping implicit type abstraction by means of unique identifiers for type variables. Our optimization has achieved up to 21% speed-up of numerical programs.

  12. Electric machines with axial magnetic flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuca, I.; Ambros, T.; Burduniuc, M.; Deaconu, S. I.; Turcanu, A.

    2018-01-01

    The paper contains information on the performance of axial machines compared to cylindrical ones. At the same time, various constructive schemes of synchronous electromechanical converters with permanent magnets and asynchronous with short-circuited rotor are presented. In the developed constructions, the aim is to maximize the usage of the material of the stator windings. The design elements of the axial machine magnetic system are presented. The FEMM application depicted the array of the magnetic field of an axial machine.

  13. Measuring implicit attitudes: A positive framing bias flaw in the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Brian; Watson, Derrick G; Brown, Gordon D A

    2016-02-01

    How can implicit attitudes best be measured? The Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP), unlike the Implicit Association Test (IAT), claims to measure absolute, not just relative, implicit attitudes. In the IRAP, participants make congruent (Fat Person-Active: false; Fat Person-Unhealthy: true) or incongruent (Fat Person-Active: true; Fat Person-Unhealthy: false) responses in different blocks of trials. IRAP experiments have reported positive or neutral implicit attitudes (e.g., neutral attitudes toward fat people) in cases in which negative attitudes are normally found on explicit or other implicit measures. It was hypothesized that these results might reflect a positive framing bias (PFB) that occurs when participants complete the IRAP. Implicit attitudes toward categories with varying prior associations (nonwords, social systems, flowers and insects, thin and fat people) were measured. Three conditions (standard, positive framing, and negative framing) were used to measure whether framing influenced estimates of implicit attitudes. It was found that IRAP scores were influenced by how the task was framed to the participants, that the framing effect was modulated by the strength of prior stimulus associations, and that a default PFB led to an overestimation of positive implicit attitudes when measured by the IRAP. Overall, the findings question the validity of the IRAP as a tool for the measurement of absolute implicit attitudes. A new tool (Simple Implicit Procedure:SIP) for measuring absolute, not just relative, implicit attitudes is proposed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. The Machine within the Machine

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Although Virtual Machines are widespread across CERN, you probably won't have heard of them unless you work for an experiment. Virtual machines - known as VMs - allow you to create a separate machine within your own, allowing you to run Linux on your Mac, or Windows on your Linux - whatever combination you need.   Using a CERN Virtual Machine, a Linux analysis software runs on a Macbook. When it comes to LHC data, one of the primary issues collaborations face is the diversity of computing environments among collaborators spread across the world. What if an institute cannot run the analysis software because they use different operating systems? "That's where the CernVM project comes in," says Gerardo Ganis, PH-SFT staff member and leader of the CernVM project. "We were able to respond to experimentalists' concerns by providing a virtual machine package that could be used to run experiment software. This way, no matter what hardware they have ...

  15. Machine translation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, M

    1982-04-01

    Each language has its own structure. In translating one language into another one, language attributes and grammatical interpretation must be defined in an unambiguous form. In order to parse a sentence, it is necessary to recognize its structure. A so-called context-free grammar can help in this respect for machine translation and machine-aided translation. Problems to be solved in studying machine translation are taken up in the paper, which discusses subjects for semantics and for syntactic analysis and translation software. 14 references.

  16. On implicit racial prejudice against infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, L.J.; Maio, G.R.; Karremans, J.C.T.M.; Leygue, C.

    2017-01-01

    Because of the innocence and dependence of children, it would be reassuring to believe that implicit racial prejudice against out-group children is lower than implicit prejudice against out-group adults. Yet, prior research has not directly tested whether or not adults exhibit less spontaneous

  17. Implicit and Explicit Instruction of Spelling Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, M. J.; Verhoeven, L.; Bosman, A. M. T.

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed to compare the differential effectiveness of explicit and implicit instruction of two Dutch spelling rules. Students with and without spelling disabilities were instructed a spelling rule either implicitly or explicitly in two experiments. Effects were tested in a pretest-intervention-posttest control group design. Experiment 1…

  18. Implicit Measures: A Normative Analysis and Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Houwer, Jan; Teige-Mocigemba, Sarah; Spruyt, Adriaan; Moors, Agnes

    2009-01-01

    Implicit measures can be defined as outcomes of measurement procedures that are caused in an automatic manner by psychological attributes. To establish that a measurement outcome is an implicit measure, one should examine (a) whether the outcome is causally produced by the psychological attribute it was designed to measure, (b) the nature of the…

  19. Digital electrostatic acoustic transducer array

    KAUST Repository

    Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo

    2016-12-19

    In this paper we present the fabrication and characterization of an array of electrostatic acoustic transducers. The array is micromachined on a silicon wafer using standard micro-machining techniques. Each array contains 2n electrostatic transducer membranes, where “n” is the bit number. Every element of the array has a hexagonal membrane shape structure, which is separated from the substrate by 3µm air gap. The membrane is made out 5µm thick polyimide layer that has a bottom gold electrode on the substrate and a gold top electrode on top of the membrane (250nm). The wafer layout design was diced in nine chips with different array configurations, with variation of the membrane dimensions. The device was tested with 90 V giving and sound output level as high as 35dB, while actuating all the elements at the same time.

  20. Digital electrostatic acoustic transducer array

    KAUST Repository

    Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo; Castro, David; Conchouso Gonzalez, David; Kosel, Jü rgen; Foulds, Ian G.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present the fabrication and characterization of an array of electrostatic acoustic transducers. The array is micromachined on a silicon wafer using standard micro-machining techniques. Each array contains 2n electrostatic transducer membranes, where “n” is the bit number. Every element of the array has a hexagonal membrane shape structure, which is separated from the substrate by 3µm air gap. The membrane is made out 5µm thick polyimide layer that has a bottom gold electrode on the substrate and a gold top electrode on top of the membrane (250nm). The wafer layout design was diced in nine chips with different array configurations, with variation of the membrane dimensions. The device was tested with 90 V giving and sound output level as high as 35dB, while actuating all the elements at the same time.

  1. Machine Learning

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Machine learning, which builds on ideas in computer science, statistics, and optimization, focuses on developing algorithms to identify patterns and regularities in data, and using these learned patterns to make predictions on new observations. Boosted by its industrial and commercial applications, the field of machine learning is quickly evolving and expanding. Recent advances have seen great success in the realms of computer vision, natural language processing, and broadly in data science. Many of these techniques have already been applied in particle physics, for instance for particle identification, detector monitoring, and the optimization of computer resources. Modern machine learning approaches, such as deep learning, are only just beginning to be applied to the analysis of High Energy Physics data to approach more and more complex problems. These classes will review the framework behind machine learning and discuss recent developments in the field.

  2. Machine Translation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Research Mt System Example: The 'Janus' Translating Phone Project. The Janus ... based on laptops, and simultaneous translation of two speakers in a dialogue. For more ..... The current focus in MT research is on using machine learning.

  3. Implicit and explicit interethnic attitudes and ethnic discrimination in hiring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blommaert, E.C.C.A.; Tubergen, F.A. van; Coenders, M.T.A.

    2012-01-01

    We study effects of explicit and implicit interethnic attitudes on ethnic discrimination in hiring. Unlike explicit attitudes, implicit attitudes are characterised by reduced controllability, awareness or intention. Effects of implicit interethnic attitudes on ethnic discrimination in the labour

  4. Reducing Prejudice With Labels: Shared Group Memberships Attenuate Implicit Bias and Expand Implicit Group Boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scroggins, W Anthony; Mackie, Diane M; Allen, Thomas J; Sherman, Jeffrey W

    2016-02-01

    In three experiments, we used a novel Implicit Association Test procedure to investigate the impact of group memberships on implicit bias and implicit group boundaries. Results from Experiment 1 indicated that categorizing targets using a shared category reduced implicit bias by increasing the extent to which positivity was associated with Blacks. Results from Experiment 2 revealed that shared group membership, but not mere positivity of a group membership, was necessary to reduce implicit bias. Quadruple process model analyses indicated that changes in implicit bias caused by shared group membership are due to changes in the way that targets are evaluated, not to changes in the regulation of evaluative bias. Results from Experiment 3 showed that categorizing Black targets into shared group memberships expanded implicit group boundaries. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  5. Parallel Implicit Algorithms for CFD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, David E.

    1998-01-01

    The main goal of this project was efficient distributed parallel and workstation cluster implementations of Newton-Krylov-Schwarz (NKS) solvers for implicit Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD.) "Newton" refers to a quadratically convergent nonlinear iteration using gradient information based on the true residual, "Krylov" to an inner linear iteration that accesses the Jacobian matrix only through highly parallelizable sparse matrix-vector products, and "Schwarz" to a domain decomposition form of preconditioning the inner Krylov iterations with primarily neighbor-only exchange of data between the processors. Prior experience has established that Newton-Krylov methods are competitive solvers in the CFD context and that Krylov-Schwarz methods port well to distributed memory computers. The combination of the techniques into Newton-Krylov-Schwarz was implemented on 2D and 3D unstructured Euler codes on the parallel testbeds that used to be at LaRC and on several other parallel computers operated by other agencies or made available by the vendors. Early implementations were made directly in Massively Parallel Integration (MPI) with parallel solvers we adapted from legacy NASA codes and enhanced for full NKS functionality. Later implementations were made in the framework of the PETSC library from Argonne National Laboratory, which now includes pseudo-transient continuation Newton-Krylov-Schwarz solver capability (as a result of demands we made upon PETSC during our early porting experiences). A secondary project pursued with funding from this contract was parallel implicit solvers in acoustics, specifically in the Helmholtz formulation. A 2D acoustic inverse problem has been solved in parallel within the PETSC framework.

  6. A Navier-Strokes Chimera Code on the Connection Machine CM-5: Design and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jespersen, Dennis C.; Levit, Creon; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    We have implemented a three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes code on the Connection Machine CM-5. The code is set up for implicit time-stepping on single or multiple structured grids. For multiple grids and geometrically complex problems, we follow the 'chimera' approach, where flow data on one zone is interpolated onto another in the region of overlap. We will describe our design philosophy and give some timing results for the current code. A parallel machine like the CM-5 is well-suited for finite-difference methods on structured grids. The regular pattern of connections of a structured mesh maps well onto the architecture of the machine. So the first design choice, finite differences on a structured mesh, is natural. We use centered differences in space, with added artificial dissipation terms. When numerically solving the Navier-Stokes equations, there are liable to be some mesh cells near a solid body that are small in at least one direction. This mesh cell geometry can impose a very severe CFL (Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy) condition on the time step for explicit time-stepping methods. Thus, though explicit time-stepping is well-suited to the architecture of the machine, we have adopted implicit time-stepping. We have further taken the approximate factorization approach. This creates the need to solve large banded linear systems and creates the first possible barrier to an efficient algorithm. To overcome this first possible barrier we have considered two options. The first is just to solve the banded linear systems with data spread over the whole machine, using whatever fast method is available. This option is adequate for solving scalar tridiagonal systems, but for scalar pentadiagonal or block tridiagonal systems it is somewhat slower than desired. The second option is to 'transpose' the flow and geometry variables as part of the time-stepping process: Start with x-lines of data in-processor. Form explicit terms in x, then transpose so y-lines of data are

  7. Halbach arrays in precision motion control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trumper, D.L.; Williams, M.E. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The Halbach array was developed for use as an optical element in particle accelerators. Following up on a suggestion from Klaus Halbach, the authors have investigated the utility of such arrays as the permanent magnet structure for synchronous machines in cartesian, polar, and cylindrical geometries. Their work has focused on the design of a novel Halbach array linear motor for use in a magnetic suspension stage for photolithography. This paper presents the details of the motor design and its force and power characteristics.

  8. Array capabilities and future arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radford, D.

    1993-01-01

    Early results from the new third-generation instruments GAMMASPHERE and EUROGAM are confirming the expectation that such arrays will have a revolutionary effect on the field of high-spin nuclear structure. When completed, GAMMASHPERE will have a resolving power am order of magnitude greater that of the best second-generation arrays. When combined with other instruments such as particle-detector arrays and fragment mass analysers, the capabilites of the arrays for the study of more exotic nuclei will be further enhanced. In order to better understand the limitations of these instruments, and to design improved future detector systems, it is important to have some intelligible and reliable calculation for the relative resolving power of different instrument designs. The derivation of such a figure of merit will be briefly presented, and the relative sensitivities of arrays currently proposed or under construction presented. The design of TRIGAM, a new third-generation array proposed for Chalk River, will also be discussed. It is instructive to consider how far arrays of Compton-suppressed Ge detectors could be taken. For example, it will be shown that an idealised open-quote perfectclose quotes third-generation array of 1000 detectors has a sensitivity an order of magnitude higher again than that of GAMMASPHERE. Less conventional options for new arrays will also be explored

  9. Manual phased arrays for weld inspections using North American codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moles, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Phased arrays are primarily a method of generating and receiving ultrasound, not a new technology. In addition, the physics of ultrasound generated by phased arrays is identical to that from conventional monocrystals. Not surprisingly, all the major North American (and some European) codes accept phased arrays, either explicitly or implicitly. However, the technique and procedures needs to be proven, typically by a Performance Demonstration. The ASME (AmeicanSociety for Mechanical Engineers) Section V and API RP2X explicitly accept phased arrays. Three ASME code cases have been written specifically fo manual phased array: Code Cases 2541. 2557 and 2558. Over and above the general requirements of Article 4, these Code Cases require full waveform calibration. This is echoed in ASTM E-2491, a Standard Guide for setting up phased arrays. In addition. details such as focusing and reporting are addressed. The American Petroleum Institute QUTE procedure did not need any modifications to be compatible with manual phased arrays. The American Welding Society (AWS) Structural Welding Code D1.1 implicitly accepts phased arrays. New technologies such as phased arrays can be proven using Annex K. Nonetheless, a manual phased array unit using the standard AWS probe and displaying 45, 60 and 70degrees waveforms would be acceptable for D1.1 a s is . Overall, most major North American codes accept phased arrays, however, the technique and procedures must be proven, often using a Performance Demonstration. (author)

  10. The achievements of the Z-machine; Les exploits de la Z-machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larousserie, D

    2008-03-15

    The ZR-machine that represents the latest generation of Z-pinch machines has recently begun preliminary testing before its full commissioning in Albuquerque (Usa). During its test the machine has well operated with electrical currents whose intensities of 26 million Ampere are already 2 times as high as the intensity of the operating current of the previous Z-machine. In 2006 the Z-machine reached temperatures of 2 billions Kelvin while 100 million Kelvin would be sufficient to ignite thermonuclear fusion. In fact the concept of Z-pinch machines was imagined in the fifties but the technological breakthrough that has allowed this recent success and the reborn of Z-machine, was the replacement of gas by an array of metal wires through which the electrical current flows and vaporizes it creating an imploding plasma. It is not well understood why Z-pinch machines generate far more radiation than theoretically expected. (A.C.)

  11. Implicit memory in music and language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettlinger, Marc; Margulis, Elizabeth H; Wong, Patrick C M

    2011-01-01

    Research on music and language in recent decades has focused on their overlapping neurophysiological, perceptual, and cognitive underpinnings, ranging from the mechanism for encoding basic auditory cues to the mechanism for detecting violations in phrase structure. These overlaps have most often been identified in musicians with musical knowledge that was acquired explicitly, through formal training. In this paper, we review independent bodies of work in music and language that suggest an important role for implicitly acquired knowledge, implicit memory, and their associated neural structures in the acquisition of linguistic or musical grammar. These findings motivate potential new work that examines music and language comparatively in the context of the implicit memory system.

  12. Machine Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerlauth, Markus; Schmidt, Rüdiger; Wenninger, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    The present architecture of the machine protection system is being recalled and the performance of the associated systems during the 2011 run will be briefly summarized. An analysis of the causes of beam dumps as well as an assessment of the dependability of the machine protection systems (MPS) itself is being presented. Emphasis will be given to events that risked exposing parts of the machine to damage. Further improvements and mitigations of potential holes in the protection systems will be evaluated along with their impact on the 2012 run. The role of rMPP during the various operational phases (commissioning, intensity ramp up, MDs...) will be discussed along with a proposal for the intensity ramp up for the start of beam operation in 2012

  13. Machine Learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikkagoudar, Satish; Chatterjee, Samrat; Thomas, Dennis G.; Carroll, Thomas E.; Muller, George

    2017-04-21

    The absence of a robust and unified theory of cyber dynamics presents challenges and opportunities for using machine learning based data-driven approaches to further the understanding of the behavior of such complex systems. Analysts can also use machine learning approaches to gain operational insights. In order to be operationally beneficial, cybersecurity machine learning based models need to have the ability to: (1) represent a real-world system, (2) infer system properties, and (3) learn and adapt based on expert knowledge and observations. Probabilistic models and Probabilistic graphical models provide these necessary properties and are further explored in this chapter. Bayesian Networks and Hidden Markov Models are introduced as an example of a widely used data driven classification/modeling strategy.

  14. Machine Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Zerlauth, Markus; Wenninger, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    The present architecture of the machine protection system is being recalled and the performance of the associated systems during the 2011 run will be briefly summarized. An analysis of the causes of beam dumps as well as an assessment of the dependability of the machine protection systems (MPS) itself is being presented. Emphasis will be given to events that risked exposing parts of the machine to damage. Further improvements and mitigations of potential holes in the protection systems will be evaluated along with their impact on the 2012 run. The role of rMPP during the various operational phases (commissioning, intensity ramp up, MDs...) will be discussed along with a proposal for the intensity ramp up for the start of beam operation in 2012.

  15. Machine Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerlauth, Markus; Schmidt, Rüdiger; Wenninger, Jörg [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    The present architecture of the machine protection system is being recalled and the performance of the associated systems during the 2011 run will be briefly summarized. An analysis of the causes of beam dumps as well as an assessment of the dependability of the machine protection systems (MPS) itself is being presented. Emphasis will be given to events that risked exposing parts of the machine to damage. Further improvements and mitigations of potential holes in the protection systems will be evaluated along with their impact on the 2012 run. The role of rMPP during the various operational phases (commissioning, intensity ramp up, MDs...) will be discussed along with a proposal for the intensity ramp up for the start of beam operation in 2012.

  16. Teletherapy machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panyam, Vinatha S.; Rakshit, Sougata; Kulkarni, M.S.; Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2017-01-01

    Radiation Standards Section (RSS), RSSD, BARC is the national metrology institute for ionizing radiation. RSS develops and maintains radiation standards for X-ray, beta, gamma and neutron radiations. In radiation dosimetry, traceability, accuracy and consistency of radiation measurements is very important especially in radiotherapy where the success of patient treatment is dependent on the accuracy of the dose delivered to the tumour. Cobalt teletherapy machines have been used in the treatment of cancer since the early 1950s and India had its first cobalt teletherapy machine installed at the Cancer Institute, Chennai in 1956

  17. Implicit LES using adaptive filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guangrui; Domaradzki, Julian A.

    2018-04-01

    In implicit large eddy simulations (ILES) numerical dissipation prevents buildup of small scale energy in a manner similar to the explicit subgrid scale (SGS) models. If spectral methods are used the numerical dissipation is negligible but it can be introduced by applying a low-pass filter in the physical space, resulting in an effective ILES. In the present work we provide a comprehensive analysis of the numerical dissipation produced by different filtering operations in a turbulent channel flow simulated using a non-dissipative, pseudo-spectral Navier-Stokes solver. The amount of numerical dissipation imparted by filtering can be easily adjusted by changing how often a filter is applied. We show that when the additional numerical dissipation is close to the subgrid-scale (SGS) dissipation of an explicit LES the overall accuracy of ILES is also comparable, indicating that periodic filtering can replace explicit SGS models. A new method is proposed, which does not require any prior knowledge of a flow, to determine the filtering period adaptively. Once an optimal filtering period is found, the accuracy of ILES is significantly improved at low implementation complexity and computational cost. The method is general, performing well for different Reynolds numbers, grid resolutions, and filter shapes.

  18. SNP Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jari Louhelainen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The papers published in this Special Issue “SNP arrays” (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Arrays focus on several perspectives associated with arrays of this type. The range of papers vary from a case report to reviews, thereby targeting wider audiences working in this field. The research focus of SNP arrays is often human cancers but this Issue expands that focus to include areas such as rare conditions, animal breeding and bioinformatics tools. Given the limited scope, the spectrum of papers is nothing short of remarkable and even from a technical point of view these papers will contribute to the field at a general level. Three of the papers published in this Special Issue focus on the use of various SNP array approaches in the analysis of three different cancer types. Two of the papers concentrate on two very different rare conditions, applying the SNP arrays slightly differently. Finally, two other papers evaluate the use of the SNP arrays in the context of genetic analysis of livestock. The findings reported in these papers help to close gaps in the current literature and also to give guidelines for future applications of SNP arrays.

  19. An Implicit Model Development Process for Bounding External, Seemingly Intangible/Non-Quantifiable Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    This research expands the modeling and simulation (M and S) body of knowledge through the development of an Implicit Model Development Process (IMDP...When augmented to traditional Model Development Processes (MDP), the IMDP enables the development of models that can address a broader array of...potential impacts on operational effectiveness. Specifically, the IMDP provides a formalized methodology for developing an improved model definition

  20. Implicit attitudes towards risky and safe driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Sømhovd, Mikael Julius; Møller, Mette

    ; further, self-reports of the intention to drive safely (or not) are socially sensitive. Therefore, we examined automatic preferences towards safe and risky driving with a Go/No-go Association Task (GNAT). The results suggest that (1) implicit attitudes towards driving behavior can be measured reliably...... with the GNAT; (2) implicit attitudes towards safe driving versus towards risky driving may be separable constructs. We propose that research on driving behavior may benefit from routinely including measures of implicit cognition. A practical advantage is a lesser susceptibility to social desirability biases......, compared to self-report methods. Pending replication in future research, the apparent dissociation between implicit attitudes towards safe versus risky driving that we observed may contribute to a greater theoretical understanding of the causes of unsafe and risky driving behavior....

  1. Implicit environmental costs in hydroelectric development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsen, A.J.; Wenstoep, F.; Strand, J.

    1992-01-01

    The ranking of hydropower projects under the Norwegian Master Plan for Water Resources is used to derive implicit government preferences for a number of environmental attributes described by ordinal scores for each project. Higher negative scores are generally associated with greater implicit willingness to pay to avoid the environmental damage tied to the attribute, caused by hydropower development. The total (ordinary economic and implicit environmental) cost for each project are derived, and the environmental costs per capacity unit are found to be on the same order as the economic costs, lower for projects ranked for early exploitation, and higher for projects to be saved permanently. An implicit long-run marginal cost curve for Norwegian hydropower development is derived, which is generally upward sloping, but not uniformly so. This can be due to the model specification problems or ranking inconsistencies, both of which are likely to be present. 11 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  2. Machine testning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This document is used in connection with a laboratory exercise of 3 hours duration as a part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The exercise includes a series of tests carried out by the student on a conventional and a numerically controled lathe, respectively. This document...

  3. Implicit Recognition Based on Lateralized Perceptual Fluency

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas, Iliana M.; Voss, Joel L.; Paller, Ken A.

    2012-01-01

    In some circumstances, accurate recognition of repeated images in an explicit memory test is driven by implicit memory. We propose that this “implicit recognition” results from perceptual fluency that influences responding without awareness of memory retrieval. Here we examined whether recognition would vary if images appeared in the same or different visual hemifield during learning and testing. Kaleidoscope images were briefly presented left or right of fixation during divided-attention enc...

  4. Implicit Discourse: Contributions to a Sociological Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Espluga Trenc

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the variety of types or dimensions of implicit discourse. Specifically, a typological characterisation is proposed, based on the intentions of the producer of the discourse, including a distinction between four basic dimensions: insinuated discourse, hidden discourse, ?failed? discourse and underlying discourse. Some examples are provided of each dimension, and then it is held that the proposed typology is useful for the sociological analysis of implicit discourse, that is, for its detection and interpretation.

  5. Processing implicit control: evidence from reading times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eMcCourt

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sentences such as The ship was sunk to collect the insurance exhibit an unusual form of anaphora, implicit control, where neither anaphor nor antecedent is audible. The nonfinite reason clause has an understood subject, PRO, that is anaphoric; here it may be understood as naming the agent of the event of the host clause. Yet since the host is a short passive, this agent is realized by no audible dependent. The putative antecedent to PRO is therefore implicit, which it normally cannot be. What sorts of representations subserve the comprehension of this dependency? Here we present four self-paced reading time studies directed at this question. Previous work showed no processing cost for implicit versus explicit control, and took this to support the view that PRO is linked syntactically to a silent argument in the passive. We challenge this conclusion by reporting that we also find no processing cost for remote implicit control, as in: The ship was sunk. The reason was to collect the insurance. Here the dependency crosses two independent sentences, and so cannot, we argue, be mediated by syntax. Our Experiments 1-4 examined the processing of both implicit (short passive and explicit (active or long passive control in both local and remote configurations. Experiments 3 and 4 added either three days ago or just in order to the local conditions, to control for the distance between the passive and infinitival verbs, and for the predictability of the reason clause, respectively. We replicate the finding that implicit control does not impose an additional processing cost. But critically we show that remote control does not impose a processing cost either. Reading times at the reason clause were never slower when control was remote. In fact they were always faster. Thus efficient processing of local implicit control cannot show that implicit control is mediated by syntax; nor, in turn, that there is a silent but grammatically active argument in passives.

  6. Measuring Implicit Rental Rates for Farm Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Hrubovcak, James

    1986-01-01

    Developing implicit rental rates for capital inputs is an Important step in understanding the Impact of tax law changes on agricultural investments This article develops a methodology for estimating implicit rental rates and presents annual estimates of rental rates for seven categories of farm equipment and structures from 1955 to 1979 This article also compares these rental rates With those estimated under a no-tax alternative The author developed a method for estimating marginal Federal In...

  7. New Implicit General Linear Method | Ibrahim | Journal of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A New implicit general linear method is designed for the numerical olution of stiff differential Equations. The coefficients matrix is derived from the stability function. The method combines the single-implicitness or diagonal implicitness with property that the first two rows are implicit and third and fourth row are explicit.

  8. Unconscious Motivation. Part I: Implicit Attitudes toward L2 Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hoorie, Ali H.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the first investigation in the second language acquisition field assessing learners' implicit attitudes using the Implicit Association Test, a computerized reaction-time measure. Examination of the explicit and implicit attitudes of Arab learners of English (N = 365) showed that, particularly for males, implicit attitudes toward…

  9. Machine rates for selected forest harvesting machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.W. Brinker; J. Kinard; Robert Rummer; B. Lanford

    2002-01-01

    Very little new literature has been published on the subject of machine rates and machine cost analysis since 1989 when the Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station Circular 296, Machine Rates for Selected Forest Harvesting Machines, was originally published. Many machines discussed in the original publication have undergone substantial changes in various aspects, not...

  10. Analyzing Array Manipulating Programs by Program Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, J. Robert M.; Gange, Graeme; Navas, Jorge A.; Schachte, Peter; Sondergaard, Harald; Stuckey, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    We explore a transformational approach to the problem of verifying simple array-manipulating programs. Traditionally, verification of such programs requires intricate analysis machinery to reason with universally quantified statements about symbolic array segments, such as "every data item stored in the segment A[i] to A[j] is equal to the corresponding item stored in the segment B[i] to B[j]." We define a simple abstract machine which allows for set-valued variables and we show how to translate programs with array operations to array-free code for this machine. For the purpose of program analysis, the translated program remains faithful to the semantics of array manipulation. Based on our implementation in LLVM, we evaluate the approach with respect to its ability to extract useful invariants and the cost in terms of code size.

  11. electrode array

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    A geoelectric investigation employing vertical electrical soundings (VES) using the Ajayi - Makinde Two-Electrode array and the ... arrangements used in electrical D.C. resistivity survey. These include ..... Refraction Tomography to Study the.

  12. Electric machines

    CERN Document Server

    Gross, Charles A

    2006-01-01

    BASIC ELECTROMAGNETIC CONCEPTSBasic Magnetic ConceptsMagnetically Linear Systems: Magnetic CircuitsVoltage, Current, and Magnetic Field InteractionsMagnetic Properties of MaterialsNonlinear Magnetic Circuit AnalysisPermanent MagnetsSuperconducting MagnetsThe Fundamental Translational EM MachineThe Fundamental Rotational EM MachineMultiwinding EM SystemsLeakage FluxThe Concept of Ratings in EM SystemsSummaryProblemsTRANSFORMERSThe Ideal n-Winding TransformerTransformer Ratings and Per-Unit ScalingThe Nonideal Three-Winding TransformerThe Nonideal Two-Winding TransformerTransformer Efficiency and Voltage RegulationPractical ConsiderationsThe AutotransformerOperation of Transformers in Three-Phase EnvironmentsSequence Circuit Models for Three-Phase Transformer AnalysisHarmonics in TransformersSummaryProblemsBASIC MECHANICAL CONSIDERATIONSSome General PerspectivesEfficiencyLoad Torque-Speed CharacteristicsMass Polar Moment of InertiaGearingOperating ModesTranslational SystemsA Comprehensive Example: The ElevatorP...

  13. Charging machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medlin, J.B.

    1976-01-01

    A charging machine for loading fuel slugs into the process tubes of a nuclear reactor includes a tubular housing connected to the process tube, a charging trough connected to the other end of the tubular housing, a device for loading the charging trough with a group of fuel slugs, means for equalizing the coolant pressure in the charging trough with the pressure in the process tubes, means for pushing the group of fuel slugs into the process tube and a latch and a seal engaging the last object in the group of fuel slugs to prevent the fuel slugs from being ejected from the process tube when the pusher is removed and to prevent pressure liquid from entering the charging machine. 3 claims, 11 drawing figures

  14. Genesis machines

    CERN Document Server

    Amos, Martyn

    2014-01-01

    Silicon chips are out. Today's scientists are using real, wet, squishy, living biology to build the next generation of computers. Cells, gels and DNA strands are the 'wetware' of the twenty-first century. Much smaller and more intelligent, these organic computers open up revolutionary possibilities. Tracing the history of computing and revealing a brave new world to come, Genesis Machines describes how this new technology will change the way we think not just about computers - but about life itself.

  15. On the inexplicability of the implicit: differences in the information provided by implicit and explicit tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DeCoster, J.; Banner, M.J.; Smith, E.R.; Semin, G.R.

    2006-01-01

    Implicit measures are often preferred to overt questioning in many areas of psychology. Their covert nature allows them to circumvent conscious expectations and biases, theoretically providing more objective indicators of people's true attitudes and bel iefs. However, we argue that implicit and

  16. Functional imaging of implicit marijuana associations during performance on an Implicit Association Test (IAT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ames, S.L.; Grenard, J.L.; Stacy, A.W.; Xiao, L.; He, Q.; Wong, S.W; Xue, G.; Wiers, R.W.; Bechara, A.

    2013-01-01

    This research evaluated the neural correlates of implicit associative memory processes (habit-based processes) through the imaging (fMRI) of a marijuana Implicit Association Test. Drug-related associative memory effects have been shown to consistently predict level of drug use. To observe

  17. Wave-Style Token Machines and Quantum Lambda Calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Dal Lago

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Particle-style token machines are a way to interpret proofs and programs, when the latter are written following the principles of linear logic. In this paper, we show that token machines also make sense when the programs at hand are those of a simple quantum lambda-calculus with implicit qubits. This, however, requires generalising the concept of a token machine to one in which more than one particle travel around the term at the same time. The presence of multiple tokens is intimately related to entanglement and allows us to give a simple operational semantics to the calculus, coherently with the principles of quantum computation.

  18. Using the Implicit Association Test to Assess Children's Implicit Attitudes toward Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Judy A; Hampson, Sarah E; Greenwald, Anthony G; Gordon, Judith; Widdop, Chris

    2010-09-01

    The development and psychometric properties of an Implicit Association Test (IAT) measuring implicit attitude toward smoking among fifth grade children were described. The IAT with "sweets" as the contrast category resulted in higher correlations with explicit attitudes than did the IAT with "healthy foods" as the contrast category. Children with family members who smoked (versus non-smoking) and children who were high in sensation seeking (versus low) had a significantly more favorable implicit attitude toward smoking. Further, implicit attitudes became less favorable after engaging in tobacco prevention activities targeting risk perceptions of addiction. Results support the reliability and validity of this version of the IAT and illustrate its usefulness in assessing young children's implicit attitude toward smoking.

  19. How explicit and implicit test instructions in an implicit learning task affect performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Witt

    Full Text Available Typically developing children aged 5 to 8 years were exposed to artificial grammar learning. Following an implicit exposure phase, half of the participants received neutral instructions at test while the other half received instructions making a direct, explicit reference to the training phase. We first aimed to assess whether implicit learning operated in the two test conditions. We then evaluated the differential impact of age on learning performances as a function of test instructions. The results showed that performance did not vary as a function of age in the implicit instructions condition, while age effects emerged when explicit instructions were employed at test. However, performance was affected differently by age and the instructions given at test, depending on whether the implicit learning of short or long units was assessed. These results suggest that the claim that the implicit learning process is independent of age needs to be revised.

  20. Filter arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Ralph H.; Doty, Patrick F.

    2017-08-01

    The various technologies presented herein relate to a tiled filter array that can be used in connection with performance of spatial sampling of optical signals. The filter array comprises filter tiles, wherein a first plurality of filter tiles are formed from a first material, the first material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a first wavelength band pass therethrough. A second plurality of filter tiles is formed from a second material, the second material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a second wavelength band pass therethrough. The first plurality of filter tiles and the second plurality of filter tiles can be interspersed to form the filter array comprising an alternating arrangement of first filter tiles and second filter tiles.

  1. Implicit memory for music in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, A R; O'Connor, M G

    2000-07-01

    Short, unfamiliar melodies were presented to young and older adults and to Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients in an implicit and an explicit memory task. The explicit task was yes-no recognition, and the implicit task was pleasantness ratings, in which memory was shown by higher ratings for old versus new melodies (the mere exposure effect). Young adults showed retention of the melodies in both tasks. Older adults showed little explicit memory but did show the mere exposure effect. The AD patients showed neither. The authors considered and rejected several artifactual reasons for this null effect in the context of the many studies that have shown implicit memory among AD patients. As the previous studies have almost always used the visual modality for presentation, they speculate that auditory presentation, especially of nonverbal material, may be compromised in AD because of neural degeneration in auditory areas in the temporal lobes.

  2. Implicit particle simulation of electromagnetic plasma phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamimura, T.; Montalvo, E.; Barnes, D.C.; Leboeuf, J.N.; Tajima, T.

    1986-11-01

    A direct method for the implicit particle simulation of electromagnetic phenomena in magnetized, multi-dimensional plasmas is developed. The method is second-order accurate for ωΔt < 1, with ω a characteristic frequency and time step Δt. Direct time integration of the implicit equations with simplified space differencing allows the consistent inclusion of finite particle size. Decentered time differencing of the Lorentz force permits the efficient simulation of strongly magnetized plasmas. A Fourier-space iterative technique for solving the implicit field corrector equation, based on the separation of plasma responses perpendicular and parallel to the magnetic field and longitudinal and transverse to the wavevector, is described. Wave propagation properties in a uniform plasma are in excellent agreement with theoretical expectations. Applications to collisionless tearing and coalescence instabilities further demonstrate the usefulness of the algorithm. (author)

  3. Implicit Memory in Music and Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc eEttlinger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Research on music and language in recent decades has focused on their overlapping neurophysiological, perceptual, and cognitive underpinnings, ranging from the mechanism for encoding basic auditory cues to the mechanism for detecting violations in phrase structure. These overlaps have most often been identified in musicians with musical knowledge that was acquired explicitly, through formal training. In this paper, we review independent bodies of work in music and language that suggest an important role for implicitly acquired knowledge, implicit memory, and their associated neural structures in the acquisition of linguistic or musical grammar. These findings motivate potential new work that examines music and language comparatively in the context of the implicit memory system.

  4. Shear machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astill, M.; Sunderland, A.; Waine, M.G.

    1980-01-01

    A shear machine for irradiated nuclear fuel elements has a replaceable shear assembly comprising a fuel element support block, a shear blade support and a clamp assembly which hold the fuel element to be sheared in contact with the support block. A first clamp member contacts the fuel element remote from the shear blade and a second clamp member contacts the fuel element adjacent the shear blade and is advanced towards the support block during shearing to compensate for any compression of the fuel element caused by the shear blade (U.K.)

  5. Electricity of machine tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gijeon media editorial department

    1977-10-01

    This book is divided into three parts. The first part deals with electricity machine, which can taints from generator to motor, motor a power source of machine tool, electricity machine for machine tool such as switch in main circuit, automatic machine, a knife switch and pushing button, snap switch, protection device, timer, solenoid, and rectifier. The second part handles wiring diagram. This concludes basic electricity circuit of machine tool, electricity wiring diagram in your machine like milling machine, planer and grinding machine. The third part introduces fault diagnosis of machine, which gives the practical solution according to fault diagnosis and the diagnostic method with voltage and resistance measurement by tester.

  6. Environmentally Friendly Machining

    CERN Document Server

    Dixit, U S; Davim, J Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Environment-Friendly Machining provides an in-depth overview of environmentally-friendly machining processes, covering numerous different types of machining in order to identify which practice is the most environmentally sustainable. The book discusses three systems at length: machining with minimal cutting fluid, air-cooled machining and dry machining. Also covered is a way to conserve energy during machining processes, along with useful data and detailed descriptions for developing and utilizing the most efficient modern machining tools. Researchers and engineers looking for sustainable machining solutions will find Environment-Friendly Machining to be a useful volume.

  7. Measuring Systematic Risk Using Implicit Beta

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew F. Siegel

    1995-01-01

    A new technology is proposed for estimating the systematic (beta) risk of a firm's stock. Just as the implicit volatility of an asset is revealed by an ordinary call option, the "implicit beta" of a stock would be revealed by the price of an option to exchange shares of stock for shares of a market index. Considerable benefits would accrue to those involved with the theory and practice of finance, if and when these exchange options begin trading, due to the availability of instantaneous, up-t...

  8. Machine Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, R

    2014-01-01

    The protection of accelerator equipment is as old as accelerator technology and was for many years related to high-power equipment. Examples are the protection of powering equipment from overheating (magnets, power converters, high-current cables), of superconducting magnets from damage after a quench and of klystrons. The protection of equipment from beam accidents is more recent. It is related to the increasing beam power of high-power proton accelerators such as ISIS, SNS, ESS and the PSI cyclotron, to the emission of synchrotron light by electron–positron accelerators and FELs, and to the increase of energy stored in the beam (in particular for hadron colliders such as LHC). Designing a machine protection system requires an excellent understanding of accelerator physics and operation to anticipate possible failures that could lead to damage. Machine protection includes beam and equipment monitoring, a system to safely stop beam operation (e.g. dumping the beam or stopping the beam at low energy) and an ...

  9. Connection machine: a computer architecture based on cellular automata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillis, W D

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes the connection machine, a programmable computer based on cellular automata. The essential idea behind the connection machine is that a regular locally-connected cellular array can be made to behave as if the processing cells are connected into any desired topology. When the topology of the machine is chosen to match the topology of the application program, the result is a fast, powerful computing engine. The connection machine was originally designed to implement knowledge retrieval operations in artificial intelligence programs, but the hardware and the programming techniques are apparently applicable to a much larger class of problems. A machine with 100000 processing cells is currently being constructed. 27 references.

  10. Efficient parallel implicit methods for rotary-wing aerodynamics calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissink, Andrew M.

    Euler/Navier-Stokes Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methods are commonly used for prediction of the aerodynamics and aeroacoustics of modern rotary-wing aircraft. However, their widespread application to large complex problems is limited lack of adequate computing power. Parallel processing offers the potential for dramatic increases in computing power, but most conventional implicit solution methods are inefficient in parallel and new techniques must be adopted to realize its potential. This work proposes alternative implicit schemes for Euler/Navier-Stokes rotary-wing calculations which are robust and efficient in parallel. The first part of this work proposes an efficient parallelizable modification of the Lower Upper-Symmetric Gauss Seidel (LU-SGS) implicit operator used in the well-known Transonic Unsteady Rotor Navier Stokes (TURNS) code. The new hybrid LU-SGS scheme couples a point-relaxation approach of the Data Parallel-Lower Upper Relaxation (DP-LUR) algorithm for inter-processor communication with the Symmetric Gauss Seidel algorithm of LU-SGS for on-processor computations. With the modified operator, TURNS is implemented in parallel using Message Passing Interface (MPI) for communication. Numerical performance and parallel efficiency are evaluated on the IBM SP2 and Thinking Machines CM-5 multi-processors for a variety of steady-state and unsteady test cases. The hybrid LU-SGS scheme maintains the numerical performance of the original LU-SGS algorithm in all cases and shows a good degree of parallel efficiency. It experiences a higher degree of robustness than DP-LUR for third-order upwind solutions. The second part of this work examines use of Krylov subspace iterative solvers for the nonlinear CFD solutions. The hybrid LU-SGS scheme is used as a parallelizable preconditioner. Two iterative methods are tested, Generalized Minimum Residual (GMRES) and Orthogonal s-Step Generalized Conjugate Residual (OSGCR). The Newton method demonstrates good

  11. Analysis of machining and machine tools

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Steven Y

    2016-01-01

    This book delivers the fundamental science and mechanics of machining and machine tools by presenting systematic and quantitative knowledge in the form of process mechanics and physics. It gives readers a solid command of machining science and engineering, and familiarizes them with the geometry and functionality requirements of creating parts and components in today’s markets. The authors address traditional machining topics, such as: single and multiple point cutting processes grinding components accuracy and metrology shear stress in cutting cutting temperature and analysis chatter They also address non-traditional machining, such as: electrical discharge machining electrochemical machining laser and electron beam machining A chapter on biomedical machining is also included. This book is appropriate for advanced undergraduate and graduate mechani cal engineering students, manufacturing engineers, and researchers. Each chapter contains examples, exercises and their solutions, and homework problems that re...

  12. Tomographic array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The configuration of a tomographic array in which the object can rotate about its axis is described. The X-ray detector is a cylindrical screen perpendicular to the axis of rotation. The X-ray source has a line-shaped focus coinciding with the axis of rotation. The beam is fan-shaped with one side of this fan lying along the axis of rotation. The detector screen is placed inside an X-ray image multiplier tube

  13. Tomographic array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A tomographic array with the following characteristics is described. An X-ray screen serving as detector is placed before a photomultiplier tube which itself is placed in front of a television camera connected to a set of image processors. The detector is concave towards the source and is replacable. Different images of the object are obtained simultaneously. Optical fibers and lenses are used for transmission within the system

  14. Implicit theories and ability emotional intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Rosario; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that people differ in their implicit theories about the essential characteristics of intelligence and emotions. Some people believe these characteristics to be predetermined and immutable (entity theorists), whereas others believe that these characteristics can be changed through learning and behavior training (incremental theorists). The present study provides evidence that in healthy adults (N = 688), implicit beliefs about emotions and emotional intelligence (EI) may influence performance on the ability-based Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). Adults in our sample with incremental theories about emotions and EI scored higher on the MSCEIT than entity theorists, with implicit theories about EI showing a stronger relationship to scores than theories about emotions. Although our participants perceived both emotion and EI as malleable, they viewed emotions as more malleable than EI. Women and young adults in general were more likely to be incremental theorists than men and older adults. Furthermore, we found that emotion and EI theories mediated the relationship of gender and age with ability EI. Our findings suggest that people’s implicit theories about EI may influence their emotional abilities, which may have important consequences for personal and professional EI training. PMID:26052309

  15. Implicit Recognition Based on Lateralized Perceptual Fluency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliana M. Vargas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In some circumstances, accurate recognition of repeated images in an explicit memory test is driven by implicit memory. We propose that this “implicit recognition” results from perceptual fluency that influences responding without awareness of memory retrieval. Here we examined whether recognition would vary if images appeared in the same or different visual hemifield during learning and testing. Kaleidoscope images were briefly presented left or right of fixation during divided-attention encoding. Presentation in the same visual hemifield at test produced higher recognition accuracy than presentation in the opposite visual hemifield, but only for guess responses. These correct guesses likely reflect a contribution from implicit recognition, given that when the stimulated visual hemifield was the same at study and test, recognition accuracy was higher for guess responses than for responses with any level of confidence. The dramatic difference in guessing accuracy as a function of lateralized perceptual overlap between study and test suggests that implicit recognition arises from memory storage in visual cortical networks that mediate repetition-induced fluency increments.

  16. Household portfolios and implicit risk aversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucciol, A.; Miniaci, R.

    2008-01-01

    We derive from a sample of US households the distribution of the risk aversion implicit in their portfolio choice. Our estimate minimizes the distance between the certainty equivalent return generated with observed portfolios and portfolios that are optimal in a mean-variance framework. Taking into

  17. On index-2 linear implicit difference equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen Huu Du, [No Value; Le Cong Loi, [No Value; Trinh Khanh Duy, [No Value; Vu Tien Viet, [No Value

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with an index-2 notion for linear implicit difference equations (LIDEs) and with the solvability of initial value problems (IVPs) for index-2 LIDEs. Besides, the cocycle property as well as the multiplicative ergodic theorem of Oseledets type are also proved. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc.

  18. Waveform relaxation methods for implicit differential equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. van der Houwen; W.A. van der Veen

    1996-01-01

    textabstractWe apply a Runge-Kutta-based waveform relaxation method to initial-value problems for implicit differential equations. In the implementation of such methods, a sequence of nonlinear systems has to be solved iteratively in each step of the integration process. The size of these systems

  19. Implicit emotion regulation affects outcome evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiwei; Tang, Ping; Gu, Ruolei; Luo, Wenbo; Luo, Yue-jia

    2015-06-01

    Efficient implicit emotion regulation processes, which run without awareness, are important for human well-being. In this study, to investigate the influence of implicit emotion regulation on psychological and electrophysiological responses to gains and losses, participants were required to select between two Chinese four-character idioms to match the meaning of the third one before they performed a monetary gambling task. According to whether their meanings were related to emotion regulation, the idioms fell into two categories. Event-related potentials and self-rating emotional experiences to outcome feedback were recorded during the task. Priming emotion regulation reduced subjective emotional experience to both gains and losses and the amplitudes of the feedback-related negativity, while the P3 component was not influenced. According to these results, we suggest that the application of implicit emotion regulation effectively modulated the subjective emotional experience and the motivational salience of current outcomes without the cost of cognitive resources. This study implicates the potential significance of implicit emotion regulation in decision-making processes. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Age effects on explicit and implicit memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma eWard

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well documented that explicit memory (e.g., recognition declines with age. In contrast, many argue that implicit memory (e.g., priming is preserved in healthy aging. For example, priming on tasks such as perceptual identification is often not statistically different in groups of young and older adults. Such observations are commonly taken as evidence for distinct explicit and implicit learning/memory systems. In this article we discuss several lines of evidence that challenge this view. We describe how patterns of differential age-related decline may arise from differences in the ways in which the two forms of memory are commonly measured, and review recent research suggesting that under improved measurement methods, implicit memory is not age-invariant. Formal computational models are of considerable utility in revealing the nature of underlying systems. We report the results of applying single and multiple-systems models to data on age effects in implicit and explicit memory. Model comparison clearly favours the single-system view. Implications for the memory systems debate are discussed.

  1. Implicit theories and ability emotional intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSARIO eCABELLO

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that people differ in their implicit theories about the essential characteristics of intelligence and emotions. Some people believe these characteristics to be predetermined and immutable (entity theorists, whereas others believe that these characteristics can be changed through learning and behavior training (incremental theorists. The present study provides evidence that in healthy adults (N = 688, implicit beliefs about emotions and emotional intelligence (EI may influence performance on the ability-based Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT. Adults in our sample with incremental theories about emotions and EI scored higher on the MSCEIT than entity theorists, with implicit theories about EI showing a stronger relationship to scores than theories about emotions. Although our participants perceived both emotion and EI as malleable, they viewed emotions as more malleable than EI. Women and young adults in general were more likely to be incremental theorists than men and older adults. Furthermore, we found that emotion and EI theories mediated the relationship of gender and age with ability EI. Our findings suggest that people’s implicit theories about EI may influence their emotional abilities, which may have important consequences for personal and professional EI training.

  2. Implicit Measures of Association in Psychopathology Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roefs, Anne; Huijding, Jorg; Smulders, Fren T. Y.; MacLeod, Colin M.; de Jong, Peter J.; Wiers, Reinout W.; Jansen, Anita T. M.

    Studies obtaining implicit measures of associations in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., Text Revision; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) Axis 1 psychopathology are organized into three categories: (a) studies comparing groups having a disorder with controls, (b)

  3. Implicit Measures of Association in Psychopathology Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roefs, Anne; Huijding, Jorg; Smulders, Fren T. Y.; MacLeod, Colin M.; de Jong, Peter J.; Wiers, Reinout W.; Jansen, Anita T. M.

    2011-01-01

    Validity;Measures (Individuals);Studies obtaining implicit measures of associations in "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed., Text Revision; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) Axis I psychopathology are organized into three categories: (a) studies comparing groups having a disorder with controls, (b) experimental…

  4. Implicit measures of association in psychopathology research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roefs, A.; Huijding, J.; Smulders, F.T.Y.; MacLeod, C.M.; de Jong, P.J.; Wiers, R.W.; Jansen, A.T.M.

    2011-01-01

    Studies obtaining implicit measures of associations in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., Text Revision; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) Axis I psychopathology are organized into three categories: (a) studies comparing groups having a disorder with controls, (b)

  5. Implicit moral evaluations: A multinomial modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, C Daryl; Payne, B Keith; Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter; Scheffer, Julian A; Inzlicht, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Implicit moral evaluations-i.e., immediate, unintentional assessments of the wrongness of actions or persons-play a central role in supporting moral behavior in everyday life. Yet little research has employed methods that rigorously measure individual differences in implicit moral evaluations. In five experiments, we develop a new sequential priming measure-the Moral Categorization Task-and a multinomial model that decomposes judgment on this task into multiple component processes. These include implicit moral evaluations of moral transgression primes (Unintentional Judgment), accurate moral judgments about target actions (Intentional Judgment), and a directional tendency to judge actions as morally wrong (Response Bias). Speeded response deadlines reduced Intentional Judgment but not Unintentional Judgment (Experiment 1). Unintentional Judgment was stronger toward moral transgression primes than non-moral negative primes (Experiments 2-4). Intentional Judgment was associated with increased error-related negativity, a neurophysiological indicator of behavioral control (Experiment 4). Finally, people who voted for an anti-gay marriage amendment had stronger Unintentional Judgment toward gay marriage primes (Experiment 5). Across Experiments 1-4, implicit moral evaluations converged with moral personality: Unintentional Judgment about wrong primes, but not negative primes, was negatively associated with psychopathic tendencies and positively associated with moral identity and guilt proneness. Theoretical and practical applications of formal modeling for moral psychology are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Implicit Theory of Leadership among Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Rodney T.; Pederson, Tom

    Although scholars have developed and applied various explicit conceptualizations of leadership to the study of educational administration, far less attention has been given to implicit or informal conceptions of leadership. Some recent studies claim that leadership impact on organizational performance is minimal or illusory; others argue that more…

  7. Age effects on explicit and implicit memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Emma V; Berry, Christopher J; Shanks, David R

    2013-01-01

    It is well-documented that explicit memory (e.g., recognition) declines with age. In contrast, many argue that implicit memory (e.g., priming) is preserved in healthy aging. For example, priming on tasks such as perceptual identification is often not statistically different in groups of young and older adults. Such observations are commonly taken as evidence for distinct explicit and implicit learning/memory systems. In this article we discuss several lines of evidence that challenge this view. We describe how patterns of differential age-related decline may arise from differences in the ways in which the two forms of memory are commonly measured, and review recent research suggesting that under improved measurement methods, implicit memory is not age-invariant. Formal computational models are of considerable utility in revealing the nature of underlying systems. We report the results of applying single and multiple-systems models to data on age effects in implicit and explicit memory. Model comparison clearly favors the single-system view. Implications for the memory systems debate are discussed.

  8. Implicit and explicit prejudice and interracial interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dovidio, J.F.; Kawakami, K.L.; Gaertner, S.L.

    2002-01-01

    The present research examined how implicit racial associations and explicit racial attitudes of Whites relate to behaviors and impressions in interracial interactions, Specifically, the authors examined how response latency and self-report measures predicted bias and perceptions of bias in verbal

  9. Implicit recognition based on lateralized perceptual fluency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Iliana M; Voss, Joel L; Paller, Ken A

    2012-02-06

    In some circumstances, accurate recognition of repeated images in an explicit memory test is driven by implicit memory. We propose that this "implicit recognition" results from perceptual fluency that influences responding without awareness of memory retrieval. Here we examined whether recognition would vary if images appeared in the same or different visual hemifield during learning and testing. Kaleidoscope images were briefly presented left or right of fixation during divided-attention encoding. Presentation in the same visual hemifield at test produced higher recognition accuracy than presentation in the opposite visual hemifield, but only for guess responses. These correct guesses likely reflect a contribution from implicit recognition, given that when the stimulated visual hemifield was the same at study and test, recognition accuracy was higher for guess responses than for responses with any level of confidence. The dramatic difference in guessing accuracy as a function of lateralized perceptual overlap between study and test suggests that implicit recognition arises from memory storage in visual cortical networks that mediate repetition-induced fluency increments.

  10. Strategic Game Moves Mediate Implicit Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Elizabeth; Baker, Ryan S.; Asbell-Clarke, Jodi

    2015-01-01

    Educational games have the potential to be innovative forms of learning assessment, by allowing us to not just study their knowledge but the process that takes students to that knowledge. This paper examines the mediating role of players' moves in digital games on changes in their pre-post classroom measures of implicit science learning. We…

  11. Implicit Assumptions in High Potentials Recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posthumus, Jan; Bozer, Gil; Santora, Joseph C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Professionals of human resources (HR) use different criteria in practice than they verbalize. Thus, the aim of this research was to identify the implicit criteria used for the selection of high-potential employees in recruitment and development settings in the pharmaceutical industry. Design/methodology/approach: A semi-structured…

  12. Assessment of implicit sexual associations in non-incarcerated pedophiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, M.L. van; Baaren, R.B. van; Chakhssi, F.; Loonen, M.G.M.; Lippman, Maarten; Dijksterhuis, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Offences committed by pedophiles are crimes that evoke serious public concern and outrage. Although recent research using implicit measures has shown promise in detecting deviant sexual associations, the discriminatory and predictive quality of implicit tasks has not yet surpassed traditional

  13. Machine Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R

    2014-01-01

    The protection of accelerator equipment is as old as accelerator technology and was for many years related to high-power equipment. Examples are the protection of powering equipment from overheating (magnets, power converters, high-current cables), of superconducting magnets from damage after a quench and of klystrons. The protection of equipment from beam accidents is more recent. It is related to the increasing beam power of high-power proton accelerators such as ISIS, SNS, ESS and the PSI cyclotron, to the emission of synchrotron light by electron–positron accelerators and FELs, and to the increase of energy stored in the beam (in particular for hadron colliders such as LHC). Designing a machine protection system requires an excellent understanding of accelerator physics and operation to anticipate possible failures that could lead to damage. Machine protection includes beam and equipment monitoring, a system to safely stop beam operation (e.g. dumping the beam or stopping the beam at low energy) and an interlock system providing the glue between these systems. The most recent accelerator, the LHC, will operate with about 3 × 10 14 protons per beam, corresponding to an energy stored in each beam of 360 MJ. This energy can cause massive damage to accelerator equipment in case of uncontrolled beam loss, and a single accident damaging vital parts of the accelerator could interrupt operation for years. This article provides an overview of the requirements for protection of accelerator equipment and introduces the various protection systems. Examples are mainly from LHC, SNS and ESS

  14. NUEN-618 Class Project: Actually Implicit Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, R. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Brunner, T. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-12-14

    This research describes a new method for the solution of the thermal radiative transfer (TRT) equations that is implicit in time which will be called Actually Implicit Monte Carlo (AIMC). This section aims to introduce the TRT equations, as well as the current workhorse method which is known as Implicit Monte Carlo (IMC). As the name of the method proposed here indicates, IMC is a misnomer in that it is only semi-implicit, which will be shown in this section as well.

  15. Machine terms dictionary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-04-15

    This book gives descriptions of machine terms which includes machine design, drawing, the method of machine, machine tools, machine materials, automobile, measuring and controlling, electricity, basic of electron, information technology, quality assurance, Auto CAD and FA terms and important formula of mechanical engineering.

  16. Optimization of machining parameters of hard porcelain on a CNC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimization of machining parameters of hard porcelain on a CNC machine by Taguchi-and RSM method. ... Journal Home > Vol 10, No 1 (2018) > ... The conduct of experiments was made by employing the Taguchi's L27 Orthogonal array to ...

  17. Measuring the bias against low-income country research: an Implicit Association Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Matthew; Macinko, James; Jimenez, Geronimo; Mullachery, Pricila

    2017-11-06

    With an increasing array of innovations and research emerging from low-income countries there is a growing recognition that even high-income countries could learn from these contexts. It is well known that the source of a product influences perception of that product, but little research has examined whether this applies also in evidence-based medicine and decision-making. In order to examine likely barriers to learning from low-income countries, this study uses established methods in cognitive psychology to explore whether healthcare professionals and researchers implicitly associate good research with rich countries more so than with poor countries. Computer-based Implicit Association Test (IAT) distributed to healthcare professionals and researchers. Stimuli representing Rich Countries were chosen from OECD members in the top ten (>$36,000 per capita) World Bank rankings and Poor Countries were chosen from the bottom thirty (based medicine and diffusion of innovations.

  18. Using the Implicit Association Test to Assess Children's Implicit Attitudes toward Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Andrews, Judy A.; Hampson, Sarah E.; Greenwald, Anthony G.; Gordon, Judith; Widdop, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The development and psychometric properties of an Implicit Association Test (IAT) measuring implicit attitude toward smoking among fifth grade children were described. The IAT with “sweets” as the contrast category resulted in higher correlations with explicit attitudes than did the IAT with “healthy foods” as the contrast category. Children with family members who smoked (versus non-smoking) and children who were high in sensation seeking (versus low) had a significantly more favorable impli...

  19. Explicit versus Implicit Stereotypes: "What Biases Do I Really Hold?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Melanie

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an activity in which students explore the impact of implicit stereotypes in everyday interactions while examining issues of attitudinal measurement. Social cognitions that underlie stereotypes often operate implicitly and even unconsciously. Consequently, these implicit attitudes have the potential to affect the way people…

  20. Implicit Referential Meaning with Reference to English Arabic Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zughoul, Basem

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how English implicit referential meaning is translated into Arabic by analyzing sentences containing implicit referential meanings found in the novel "Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban". The analysis shows that the translation of English implicit referential meaning into Arabic can be…

  1. Chinese Undergraduates' Explicit and Implicit Attitudes toward Persons with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuang; Ma, Li; Zhang, Jian-Xin

    2011-01-01

    The present study is aimed at examining implicit and explicit attitudes toward persons with disabilities among Chinese college students. The "Implicit Association Test" was used to measure their implicit attitudes, whereas their explicit attitudes toward persons with disabilities were measured by using a scale of three items.…

  2. Implicit finite-difference simulations of seismic wave propagation

    KAUST Repository

    Chu, Chunlei; Stoffa, Paul L.

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new finite-difference modeling method, implicit both in space and in time, for the scalar wave equation. We use a three-level implicit splitting time integration method for the temporal derivative and implicit finite-difference operators of arbitrary order for the spatial derivatives. Both the implicit splitting time integration method and the implicit spatial finite-difference operators require solving systems of linear equations. We show that it is possible to merge these two sets of linear systems, one from implicit temporal discretizations and the other from implicit spatial discretizations, to reduce the amount of computations to develop a highly efficient and accurate seismic modeling algorithm. We give the complete derivations of the implicit splitting time integration method and the implicit spatial finite-difference operators, and present the resulting discretized formulas for the scalar wave equation. We conduct a thorough numerical analysis on grid dispersions of this new implicit modeling method. We show that implicit spatial finite-difference operators greatly improve the accuracy of the implicit splitting time integration simulation results with only a slight increase in computational time, compared with explicit spatial finite-difference operators. We further verify this conclusion by both 2D and 3D numerical examples. © 2012 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  3. Gender Differences in Implicit and Explicit Memory for Affective Passages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Leslie A.; Rabin, Laura; Vardy, Susan Bernstein.; Frohlich, Jonathan; Wyatt, Gwinne; Dimitri, Diana; Constante, Shimon; Guterman, Elan

    2004-01-01

    Thirty-two participants were administered 4 verbal tasks, an Implicit Affective Task, an Implicit Neutral Task, an Explicit Affective Task, and an Explicit Neutral Task. For the Implicit Tasks, participants were timed while reading passages aloud as quickly as possible, but not so quickly that they did not understand. A target verbal passage was…

  4. On the Reliability of Implicit and Explicit Memory Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchner, Axel; Wippich, Werner

    2000-01-01

    Studied the reliability of implicit and explicit memory tests in experiments involving these tests. Results with 168, 84, 120, and 128 undergraduates show that methodological artifacts may cause implicit memory tests to have lower reliability than explicit memory tests, but that implicit tests need not necessarily be less reliable. (SLD)

  5. Implicit finite-difference simulations of seismic wave propagation

    KAUST Repository

    Chu, Chunlei

    2012-03-01

    We propose a new finite-difference modeling method, implicit both in space and in time, for the scalar wave equation. We use a three-level implicit splitting time integration method for the temporal derivative and implicit finite-difference operators of arbitrary order for the spatial derivatives. Both the implicit splitting time integration method and the implicit spatial finite-difference operators require solving systems of linear equations. We show that it is possible to merge these two sets of linear systems, one from implicit temporal discretizations and the other from implicit spatial discretizations, to reduce the amount of computations to develop a highly efficient and accurate seismic modeling algorithm. We give the complete derivations of the implicit splitting time integration method and the implicit spatial finite-difference operators, and present the resulting discretized formulas for the scalar wave equation. We conduct a thorough numerical analysis on grid dispersions of this new implicit modeling method. We show that implicit spatial finite-difference operators greatly improve the accuracy of the implicit splitting time integration simulation results with only a slight increase in computational time, compared with explicit spatial finite-difference operators. We further verify this conclusion by both 2D and 3D numerical examples. © 2012 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  6. Implicit associations in cybersex addiction: Adaption of an Implicit Association Test with pornographic pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snagowski, Jan; Wegmann, Elisa; Pekal, Jaro; Laier, Christian; Brand, Matthias

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies show similarities between cybersex addiction and substance dependencies and argue to classify cybersex addiction as a behavioral addiction. In substance dependency, implicit associations are known to play a crucial role, and such implicit associations have not been studied in cybersex addiction, so far. In this experimental study, 128 heterosexual male participants completed an Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998) modified with pornographic pictures. Further, problematic sexual behavior, sensitivity towards sexual excitation, tendencies towards cybersex addiction, and subjective craving due to watching pornographic pictures were assessed. Results show positive relationships between implicit associations of pornographic pictures with positive emotions and tendencies towards cybersex addiction, problematic sexual behavior, sensitivity towards sexual excitation as well as subjective craving. Moreover, a moderated regression analysis revealed that individuals who reported high subjective craving and showed positive implicit associations of pornographic pictures with positive emotions, particularly tended towards cybersex addiction. The findings suggest a potential role of positive implicit associations with pornographic pictures in the development and maintenance of cybersex addiction. Moreover, the results of the current study are comparable to findings from substance dependency research and emphasize analogies between cybersex addiction and substance dependencies or other behavioral addictions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Addiction Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Godley

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Entry into the crypt William Burroughs shared with his mother opened and shut around a failed re-enactment of William Tell’s shot through the prop placed upon a loved one’s head. The accidental killing of his wife Joan completed the installation of the addictation machine that spun melancholia as manic dissemination. An early encryptment to which was added the audio portion of abuse deposited an undeliverable message in WB. Wil- liam could never tell, although his corpus bears the in- scription of this impossibility as another form of pos- sibility. James Godley is currently a doctoral candidate in Eng- lish at SUNY Buffalo, where he studies psychoanalysis, Continental philosophy, and nineteenth-century litera- ture and poetry (British and American. His work on the concept of mourning and “the dead” in Freudian and Lacanian approaches to psychoanalytic thought and in Gothic literature has also spawned an essay on zombie porn. Since entering the Academy of Fine Arts Karlsruhe in 2007, Valentin Hennig has studied in the classes of Sil- via Bächli, Claudio Moser, and Corinne Wasmuht. In 2010 he spent a semester at the Dresden Academy of Fine Arts. His work has been shown in group exhibi- tions in Freiburg and Karlsruhe.

  8. Machine musicianship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Robert

    2002-05-01

    The training of musicians begins by teaching basic musical concepts, a collection of knowledge commonly known as musicianship. Computer programs designed to implement musical skills (e.g., to make sense of what they hear, perform music expressively, or compose convincing pieces) can similarly benefit from access to a fundamental level of musicianship. Recent research in music cognition, artificial intelligence, and music theory has produced a repertoire of techniques that can make the behavior of computer programs more musical. Many of these were presented in a recently published book/CD-ROM entitled Machine Musicianship. For use in interactive music systems, we are interested in those which are fast enough to run in real time and that need only make reference to the material as it appears in sequence. This talk will review several applications that are able to identify the tonal center of musical material during performance. Beyond this specific task, the design of real-time algorithmic listening through the concurrent operation of several connected analyzers is examined. The presentation includes discussion of a library of C++ objects that can be combined to perform interactive listening and a demonstration of their capability.

  9. Analysis of 3-D effects in segmented cylindrical quasi-Halbach magnet arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meessen, K.J.; Paulides, J.J.H.; Lomonova, E.

    2011-01-01

    To improve the performance of permanent magnet (PM) machines, quasi-Halbach PM arrays are used to increase the magnetic loading in these machines. In tubular PM actuators, these arrays are often approximated using segmented magnets resulting in a 3-D magnetic field effect. This paper describes the

  10. Multilevel Drift-Implicit Tau-Leap

    KAUST Repository

    Ben Hammouda, Chiheb

    2016-01-06

    The dynamics of biochemical reactive systems with small copy numbers of one or more reactant molecules is dominated by stochastic effects. For those systems, discrete state-space and stochastic simulation approaches were proved to be more relevant than continuous state-space and deterministic ones. In systems characterized by having simultaneously fast and slowtimescales, the existing discrete space-state stochastic path simulation methods such as the stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA) and the explicit tauleap method can be very slow. Implicit approximations were developed in the literature to improve numerical stability and provide efficient simulation algorithms for those systems. In this work, we propose an efficient Multilevel Monte Carlo method in the spirit of the work by Anderson and Higham (2012) that uses drift-implicit tau-leap approximations at levels where the explicit tauleap method is not applicable due to numerical stability issues. We present numerical examples that illustrate the performance of the proposed method.

  11. Signed distance function implicit geologic modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Mentzingen Rolo

    Full Text Available Abstract Prior to every geostatistical estimation or simulation study there is a need for delimiting the geologic domains of the deposit, which is traditionally done manually by a geomodeler in a laborious, time consuming and subjective process. For this reason, novel techniques referred to as implicit modelling have appeared. These techniques provide algorithms that replace the manual digitization process of the traditional methods by some form of automatic procedure. This paper covers a few well established implicit methods currently available with special attention to the signed distance function methodology. A case study based on a real dataset was performed and its applicability discussed. Although it did not replace an experienced geomodeler, the method proved to be capable in creating semi-automatic geological models from the sampling data, especially in the early stages of exploration.

  12. Implicit and explicit ethnocentrism: revisiting the ideologies of prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, William A; Nezlek, John B; Banaji, Mahzarin R

    2004-10-01

    Two studies investigated relationships among individual differences in implicit and explicit prejudice, right-wing ideology, and rigidity in thinking. The first study examined these relationships focusing on White Americans' prejudice toward Black Americans. The second study provided the first test of implicit ethnocentrism and its relationship to explicit ethnocentrism by studying the relationship between attitudes toward five social groups. Factor analyses found support for both implicit and explicit ethnocentrism. In both studies, mean explicit attitudes toward out groups were positive, whereas implicit attitudes were negative, suggesting that implicit and explicit prejudices are distinct; however, in both studies, implicit and explicit attitudes were related (r = .37, .47). Latent variable modeling indicates a simple structure within this ethnocentric system, with variables organized in order of specificity. These results lead to the conclusion that (a) implicit ethnocentrism exists and (b) it is related to and distinct from explicit ethnocentrism.

  13. Micro-machined calorimetric biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doktycz, Mitchel J.; Britton, Jr., Charles L.; Smith, Stephen F.; Oden, Patrick I.; Bryan, William L.; Moore, James A.; Thundat, Thomas G.; Warmack, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for detecting and monitoring micro-volumetric enthalpic changes caused by molecular reactions. Micro-machining techniques are used to create very small thermally isolated masses incorporating temperature-sensitive circuitry. The thermally isolated masses are provided with a molecular layer or coating, and the temperature-sensitive circuitry provides an indication when the molecules of the coating are involved in an enthalpic reaction. The thermally isolated masses may be provided singly or in arrays and, in the latter case, the molecular coatings may differ to provide qualitative and/or quantitative assays of a substance.

  14. Decisional Bias as Implicit Moral Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Toni; Saltzstein, Herbert D.

    2017-01-01

    Decisional bias (false alarm rate) when judging the guilt/innocence of a suspect is offered as an implicit measure of moral judgment. Combining two data sets, 215 participants, ages 10-12, 13-15, and 16-18 watched the visually identical film involving a person setting a fire, framed either as (1) intentional but not resulting in a fire (BI-NF),…

  15. Implicit Coordination Strategies for Effective Team Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butchibabu, Abhizna; Sparano-Huiban, Christopher; Sonenberg, Liz; Shah, Julie

    2016-06-01

    We investigated implicit communication strategies for anticipatory information sharing during team performance of tasks with varying degrees of complexity. We compared the strategies used by teams with the highest level of performance to those used by the lowest-performing teams to evaluate the frequency and methods of communications used as a function of task structure. High-performing teams share information by anticipating the needs of their teammates rather than explicitly requesting the exchange of information. As the complexity of a task increases to involve more interdependence among teammates, the impact of coordination on team performance also increases. This observation motivated us to conduct a study of anticipatory information sharing as a function of task complexity. We conducted an experiment in which 13 teams of four people performed collaborative search-and-deliver tasks with varying degrees of complexity in a simulation environment. We elaborated upon prior characterizations of communication as implicit versus explicit by dividing implicit communication into two subtypes: (a) deliberative/goal information and (b) reactive status updates. We then characterized relationships between task structure, implicit communication, and team performance. We found that the five teams with the fastest task completion times and lowest idle times exhibited higher rates of deliberative communication versus reactive communication during high-complexity tasks compared with the five teams with the slowest completion times and longest idle times (p = .039). Teams in which members proactively communicated information about their next goal to teammates exhibited improved team performance. The findings from our work can inform the design of communication strategies for team training to improve performance of complex tasks. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  16. Cultural Variation in Implicit Mental Illness Stigma

    OpenAIRE

    Cheon, Bobby K.; Chiao, Joan Y.

    2012-01-01

    Culture shapes how individuals perceive and respond to others with mental illness. Prior studies have suggested that Asians and Asian Americans typically endorse greater stigma of mental illness compared to Westerners (White Europeans and Americans). However, whether these differences in stigma arise from cultural variations in automatic affective reactions or deliberative concerns of the appropriateness of one’s reactions to mental illness remains unknown. Here we compared implicit and expli...

  17. Understanding leader representations: Beyond implicit leadership theory

    OpenAIRE

    Knee, Robert Everett

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to establish evidence for the suggested integration of the theories of connectionism and leadership. Recent theoretical writings in the field of leadership have suggested that the dynamic representations generated by the connectionist perspective is an appropriate approach to understanding how we perceive leaders. Similarly, implicit leadership theory (ILT) explains that our cognitive understandings of leaders are based on a cognitive structure that we u...

  18. The hormonal correlates of implicit power motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Stanton, Steven J.; Schultheiss, Oliver C.

    2009-01-01

    Attempts to link testosterone to dominance dispositions using self-report measures of dominance have yielded inconsistent findings. Similarly, attempts to link testosterone changes to a situational outcome like winning or losing a dominance contest have yielded inconsistent findings. However, research has consistently shown that an indirect measure of an individual’s dominance disposition, implicit power motivation, is positively related to baseline testosterone levels and, in interaction wit...

  19. Decomposed Implicit Models of Piecewise - Linear Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Brzobohaty

    1992-05-01

    Full Text Available The general matrix form of the implicit description of a piecewise-linear (PWL network and the symbolic block diagram of the corresponding circuit model are proposed. Their decomposed forms enable us to determine quite separately the existence of the individual breakpoints of the resultant PWL characteristic and their coordinates using independent network parameters. For the two-diode and three-diode cases all the attainable types of the PWL characteristic are introduced.

  20. Implicit Consensus: Blockchain with Unbounded Throughput

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Zhijie; Cong, Kelong; Pouwelse, Johan; Erkin, Zekeriya

    2017-01-01

    Recently, the blockchain technique was put in the spotlight as it introduced a systematic approach for multiple parties to reach consensus without needing trust. However, the application of this technique in practice is severely restricted due to its limitations in throughput. In this paper, we propose a novel consensus model, namely the implicit consensus, with a distinctive blockchain-based distributed ledger in which each node holds its individual blockchain. In our system, the consensus i...

  1. Benchmarking the Multidimensional Stellar Implicit Code MUSIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffrey, T.; Pratt, J.; Viallet, M.; Baraffe, I.; Popov, M. V.; Walder, R.; Folini, D.; Geroux, C.; Constantino, T.

    2017-04-01

    We present the results of a numerical benchmark study for the MUltidimensional Stellar Implicit Code (MUSIC) based on widely applicable two- and three-dimensional compressible hydrodynamics problems relevant to stellar interiors. MUSIC is an implicit large eddy simulation code that uses implicit time integration, implemented as a Jacobian-free Newton Krylov method. A physics based preconditioning technique which can be adjusted to target varying physics is used to improve the performance of the solver. The problems used for this benchmark study include the Rayleigh-Taylor and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities, and the decay of the Taylor-Green vortex. Additionally we show a test of hydrostatic equilibrium, in a stellar environment which is dominated by radiative effects. In this setting the flexibility of the preconditioning technique is demonstrated. This work aims to bridge the gap between the hydrodynamic test problems typically used during development of numerical methods and the complex flows of stellar interiors. A series of multidimensional tests were performed and analysed. Each of these test cases was analysed with a simple, scalar diagnostic, with the aim of enabling direct code comparisons. As the tests performed do not have analytic solutions, we verify MUSIC by comparing it to established codes including ATHENA and the PENCIL code. MUSIC is able to both reproduce behaviour from established and widely-used codes as well as results expected from theoretical predictions. This benchmarking study concludes a series of papers describing the development of the MUSIC code and provides confidence in future applications.

  2. Implicit time accurate simulation of unsteady flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Buuren, René; Kuerten, Hans; Geurts, Bernard J.

    2001-03-01

    Implicit time integration was studied in the context of unsteady shock-boundary layer interaction flow. With an explicit second-order Runge-Kutta scheme, a reference solution to compare with the implicit second-order Crank-Nicolson scheme was determined. The time step in the explicit scheme is restricted by both temporal accuracy as well as stability requirements, whereas in the A-stable implicit scheme, the time step has to obey temporal resolution requirements and numerical convergence conditions. The non-linear discrete equations for each time step are solved iteratively by adding a pseudo-time derivative. The quasi-Newton approach is adopted and the linear systems that arise are approximately solved with a symmetric block Gauss-Seidel solver. As a guiding principle for properly setting numerical time integration parameters that yield an efficient time accurate capturing of the solution, the global error caused by the temporal integration is compared with the error resulting from the spatial discretization. Focus is on the sensitivity of properties of the solution in relation to the time step. Numerical simulations show that the time step needed for acceptable accuracy can be considerably larger than the explicit stability time step; typical ratios range from 20 to 80. At large time steps, convergence problems that are closely related to a highly complex structure of the basins of attraction of the iterative method may occur. Copyright

  3. Attentional load and implicit sequence learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, David R; Rowland, Lee A; Ranger, Mandeep S

    2005-06-01

    A widely employed conceptualization of implicit learning hypothesizes that it makes minimal demands on attentional resources. This conjecture was investigated by comparing learning under single-task and dual-task conditions in the sequential reaction time (SRT) task. Participants learned probabilistic sequences, with dual-task participants additionally having to perform a counting task using stimuli that were targets in the SRT display. Both groups were then tested for sequence knowledge under single-task (Experiments 1 and 2) or dual-task (Experiment 3) conditions. Participants also completed a free generation task (Experiments 2 and 3) under inclusion or exclusion conditions to determine if sequence knowledge was conscious or unconscious in terms of its access to intentional control. The experiments revealed that the secondary task impaired sequence learning and that sequence knowledge was consciously accessible. These findings disconfirm both the notion that implicit learning is able to proceed normally under conditions of divided attention, and that the acquired knowledge is inaccessible to consciousness. A unitary framework for conceptualizing implicit and explicit learning is proposed.

  4. Multigrid treatment of implicit continuum diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisquez, Manaure; Zhu, Ben; Rogers, Barrett

    2017-10-01

    Implicit treatment of diffusive terms of various differential orders common in continuum mechanics modeling, such as computational fluid dynamics, is investigated with spectral and multigrid algorithms in non-periodic 2D domains. In doubly periodic time dependent problems these terms can be efficiently and implicitly handled by spectral methods, but in non-periodic systems solved with distributed memory parallel computing and 2D domain decomposition, this efficiency is lost for large numbers of processors. We built and present here a multigrid algorithm for these types of problems which outperforms a spectral solution that employs the highly optimized FFTW library. This multigrid algorithm is not only suitable for high performance computing but may also be able to efficiently treat implicit diffusion of arbitrary order by introducing auxiliary equations of lower order. We test these solvers for fourth and sixth order diffusion with idealized harmonic test functions as well as a turbulent 2D magnetohydrodynamic simulation. It is also shown that an anisotropic operator without cross-terms can improve model accuracy and speed, and we examine the impact that the various diffusion operators have on the energy, the enstrophy, and the qualitative aspect of a simulation. This work was supported by DOE-SC-0010508. This research used resources of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC).

  5. Effect of the Machined Surfaces of AISI 4337 Steel to Cutting Conditions on Dry Machining Lathe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Robbi; Napid, Suhardi; Hasibuan, Abdurrozzaq; Rahmah Sibuea, Siti; Yusmartato, Y.

    2018-04-01

    The objective of the research is to obtain a cutting condition which has a good chance of realizing dry machining concept on AISI 4337 steel material by studying surface roughness, microstructure and hardness of machining surface. The data generated from the experiment were then processed and analyzed using the standard Taguchi method L9 (34) orthogonal array. Testing of dry and wet machining used surface test and micro hardness test for each of 27 test specimens. The machining results of the experiments showed that average surface roughness (Raavg) was obtained at optimum cutting conditions when VB 0.1 μm, 0.3 μm and 0.6 μm respectively 1.467 μm, 2.133 μm and 2,800 μm fo r dry machining while which was carried out by wet machining the results obtained were 1,833 μm, 2,667 μm and 3,000 μm. It can be concluded that dry machining provides better surface quality of machinery results than wet machining. Therefore, dry machining is a good choice that may be realized in the manufacturing and automotive industries.

  6. Machine technology: a survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    An attempt was made to find existing machines that have been upgraded and that could be used for large-scale decontamination operations outdoors. Such machines are in the building industry, the mining industry, and the road construction industry. The road construction industry has yielded the machines in this presentation. A review is given of operations that can be done with the machines available

  7. Machine Shop Lathes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, James

    This guide, the second in a series of five machine shop curriculum manuals, was designed for use in machine shop courses in Oklahoma. The purpose of the manual is to equip students with basic knowledge and skills that will enable them to enter the machine trade at the machine-operator level. The curriculum is designed so that it can be used in…

  8. Superconducting rotating machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.L. Jr.; Kirtley, J.L. Jr.; Thullen, P.

    1975-01-01

    The opportunities and limitations of the applications of superconductors in rotating electric machines are given. The relevant properties of superconductors and the fundamental requirements for rotating electric machines are discussed. The current state-of-the-art of superconducting machines is reviewed. Key problems, future developments and the long range potential of superconducting machines are assessed

  9. Cognitive Technologies: The Design of Joint Human-Machine Cognitive Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Woods, David D.

    1985-01-01

    This article explores the implications of one type of cognitive technology, techniques and concepts to develop joint human-machine cognitive systems, for the application of computational technology by examining the joint cognitive system implicit in a hypothetical computer consultant that outputs some form of problem solution. This analysis reveals some of the problems can occur in cognitive system design-e.g., machine control of the interaction, the danger of a responsibility-authority doubl...

  10. Role of implicit learning abilities in metaphor understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouillet, Luc; Stefaniak, Nicolas; Declercq, Christelle; Obert, Alexandre

    2018-05-01

    Although the use of metaphors is a central component of language, the processes that sustain their comprehension have yet to be specified. Work in the fields of both metaphors and implicit learning suggests that implicit learning abilities facilitate the comprehension of metaphors. However, to date, no study has directly explored the relationships between the understanding of metaphors and so-called implicit learning tasks. We used a meaning decision task comparing literal, metaphorical and meaningless expressions to assess metaphor understanding and a probabilistic serial reaction time task for assessing implicit learning. Our results show that implicit learning positively predicts the time gap between responses to literal and metaphorical expressions and negatively predicts the difference between metaphorical and meaningless expressions. Thus, when confronted with novel metaphors, participants with higher implicit learning abilities are better able to identify that the expressions have some meaning. These results are interpreted in the context of metaphor understanding and psycholinguistic theories. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Moderators of Implicit-Explicit Exercise Cognition Concordance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Tanya R; Rodgers, Wendy M; Markland, David; Hall, Craig R

    2016-12-01

    Investigating implicit-explicit concordance can aid in understanding underlying mechanisms and possible intervention effects. This research examined the concordance between implicit associations of exercise with health or appearance and related explicit motives. Variables considered as possible moderators were behavioral regulations, explicit attitudes, and social desirability. Participants (N = 454) completed measures of implicit associations of exercise with health and appearance and questionnaire measures of health and appearance motives, attitudes, social desirability, and behavioral regulations. Attitudes significantly moderated the relationship between implicit associations of exercise with health and health motives. Identified regulations significantly moderated implicit-explicit concordance with respect to associations with appearance. These results suggest that implicit and explicit exercise-related cognitions are not necessarily independent and their relationship to each other may be moderated by attitudes or some forms of behavioral regulation. Future research that takes a dual-processing approach to exercise behavior should consider potential theoretical moderators of concordance.

  12. Implicit and explicit timing in oculomotor control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilhame Ameqrane

    Full Text Available The passage of time can be estimated either explicitly, e.g. before leaving home in the morning, or implicitly, e.g. when catching a flying ball. In the present study, the latency of saccadic eye movements was used to evaluate differences between implicit and explicit timing. Humans were required to make a saccade between a central and a peripheral position on a computer screen. The delay between the extinction of a central target and the appearance of an eccentric target was the independent variable that could take one out of four different values (400, 900, 1400 or 1900 ms. In target trials, the delay period lasted for one of the four durations randomly. At the end of the delay, a saccade was initiated by the appearance of an eccentric target. Cue&target trials were similar to target trials but the duration of the delay was visually cued. In probe trials, the duration of the upcoming delay was cued, but there was no eccentric target and subjects had to internally generate a saccade at the estimated end of the delay. In target and cue&target trials, the mean and variance of latency distributions decreased as delay duration increased. In cue&target trials latencies were shorter. In probe trials, the variance increased with increasing delay duration and scalar variability was observed. The major differences in saccadic latency distributions were observed between visually-guided (target and cue&target trials and internally-generated saccades (probe trials. In target and cue&target trials the timing of the response was implicit. In probe trials, the timing of the response was internally-generated and explicitly based on the duration of the visual cue. Scalar timing was observed only during probe trials. This study supports the hypothesis that there is no ubiquitous timing system in the brain but independent timing processes active depending on task demands.

  13. Predicting film genres with implicit ideals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew McGregor Olney

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new approach to defining film genre based on implicit ideals. When viewers rate the likability of a film, they indirectly express their ideal of what a film should be. Across six studies we investigate the category structure that emerges from likability ratings and the category structure that emerges from the features of film. We further compare these data-driven category structures with human annotated film genres. We conclude that film genres are structured more around ideals than around features of film. This finding lends experimental support to the notion that film genres are set of shifting, fuzzy, and highly contextualized psychological categories.

  14. Predicting film genres with implicit ideals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olney, Andrew McGregor

    2012-01-01

    We present a new approach to defining film genre based on implicit ideals. When viewers rate the likability of a film, they indirectly express their ideal of what a film should be. Across six studies we investigate the category structure that emerges from likability ratings and the category structure that emerges from the features of film. We further compare these data-driven category structures with human annotated film genres. We conclude that film genres are structured more around ideals than around features of film. This finding lends experimental support to the notion that film genres are set of shifting, fuzzy, and highly contextualized psychological categories.

  15. On implicit abstract neutral nonlinear differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernández, Eduardo, E-mail: lalohm@ffclrp.usp.br [Universidade de São Paulo, Departamento de Computação e Matemática, Faculdade de Filosofia Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto (Brazil); O’Regan, Donal, E-mail: donal.oregan@nuigalway.ie [National University of Ireland, School of Mathematics, Statistics and Applied Mathematics (Ireland)

    2016-04-15

    In this paper we continue our developments in Hernández and O’Regan (J Funct Anal 261:3457–3481, 2011) on the existence of solutions for abstract neutral differential equations. In particular we extend the results in Hernández and O’Regan (J Funct Anal 261:3457–3481, 2011) for the case of implicit nonlinear neutral equations and we focus on applications to partial “nonlinear” neutral differential equations. Some applications involving partial neutral differential equations are presented.

  16. Implicit Self-Esteem in Borderline Personality and Depersonalization Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Hedrick, Alexis N.; Berlin, Heather A.

    2012-01-01

    Self-identity is disrupted in people with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and depersonalization disorder (DPD), fluctuating with sudden shifts in affect in BPD and experienced as detached in DPD. Measures of implicit self-esteem, free from conscious control and presentation biases, may highlight how such disruptions of self-concept differentially affect these two populations on an unconscious level. We examined implicit self-esteem using the Implicit Association Test, along with measure...

  17. The Use of Hypermedia in Implicit Vocabulary Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Nora de Souza

    2011-01-01

    The present work is aimed at investigating the role of hypermedia in implicit vocabulary acquisition in foreign language. On theoretical grounds, the work presents a reflection which contextualizes the discussion on implicit approaches to vocabulary teaching. Besides, a review and a discussion of the literature is carried out, with regard to the advantages of hypermedia in English Language Teaching. Following that, the selection of hypermedia material for implicit vocabulary teaching is prese...

  18. Applications of implicit restarting in optimization and control Dan Sorensen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, D. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Implicit restarting is a technique for combining the implicitly shifted QR mechanism with a k-step Arnoldi or Lanczos factorization to obtain a truncated form of the implicitly shifted QR-iteration suitable for large scale eigenvalue problems. The software package ARPACK based upon this technique has been successfully used to solve large scale symmetric and nonsymmetric (generalized) eigenvalue problems arising from a variety of applications.

  19. Measuring Implicit Attitudes of 4-Year-Olds: The Preschool Implicit Association Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvencek, Dario; Greenwald, Anthony G.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2011-01-01

    The Preschool Implicit Association Test (PSIAT) is an adaptation of an established social cognition measure (IAT) for use with preschool children. Two studies with 4-year-olds found that the PSIAT was effective in evaluating (a) attitudes toward commonly liked objects ("flowers"="good") and (b) gender attitudes ("girl"="good" or "boy"="good"). The…

  20. Diamond machining of micro-optical components and structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gläbe, Ralf; Riemer, Oltmann

    2010-05-01

    Diamond machining originates from the 1950s to 1970s in the USA. This technology was originally designed for machining of metal optics at macroscopic dimensions with so far unreached tolerances. During the following decades the machine tools, the monocrystalline diamond cutting tools, the workpiece materials and the machining processes advanced to even higher precision and flexibility. For this reason also the fabrication of small functional components like micro optics at a large spectrum of geometries became technologically and economically feasible. Today, several kinds of fast tool machining and multi axis machining operations can be applied for diamond machining of micro optical components as well as diffractive optical elements. These parts can either be machined directly as single or individual component or as mold insert for mass production by plastic replication. Examples are multi lens arrays, micro mirror arrays and fiber coupling lenses. This paper will give an overview about the potentials and limits of the current diamond machining technology with respect to micro optical components.

  1. Implicit self-stigma in people with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüsch, Nicolas; Corrigan, Patrick W; Todd, Andrew R; Bodenhausen, Galen V

    2010-02-01

    People with mental illness often internalize negative stereotypes, resulting in self-stigma and low self-esteem ("People with mental illness are bad and therefore I am bad, too"). Despite strong evidence for self-stigma's negative impact as assessed by self-report measures, it is unclear whether self-stigma operates in an automatic, implicit manner, potentially outside conscious awareness and control. We therefore assessed (i) negative implicit attitudes toward mental illness and (ii) low implicit self-esteem using 2 Brief Implicit Association Tests in 85 people with mental illness. Implicit self-stigma was operationalized as the product of both implicit measures. Explicit self-stigma and quality of life were assessed by self-report. Greater implicit and explicit self-stigma independently predicted lower quality of life after controlling for depressive symptoms, diagnosis, and demographic variables. Our results suggest that implicit self-stigma is a measurable construct and is associated with negative outcomes. Attempts to reduce self-stigma should take implicit processes into account.

  2. The Use of Hypermedia in Implicit Vocabulary Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Nora de Souza

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present work is aimed at investigating the role of hypermedia in implicit vocabulary acquisition in foreign language. On theoretical grounds, the work presents a reflection which contextualizes the discussion on implicit approaches to vocabulary teaching. Besides, a review and a discussion of the literature is carried out, with regard to the advantages of hypermedia in English Language Teaching. Following that, the selection of hypermedia material for implicit vocabulary teaching is presented. This material was used in the data collecting which comprised 75 students. The material was evaluated by the students through a questionnaire. The results show that the use of hypermedia can significantly contribute to implicit vocabulary acquisition.

  3. Implicit Valuation of the Near-Miss is Dependent on Outcome Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Parker J; Tata, Matthew S; Bennett, Patrick J; Sekuler, Allison B; Gruber, Aaron J

    2018-03-01

    Gambling studies have described a "near-miss effect" wherein the experience of almost winning increases gambling persistence. The near-miss has been proposed to inflate the value of preceding actions through its perceptual similarity to wins. We demonstrate here, however, that it acts as a conditioned stimulus to positively or negatively influence valuation, dependent on reward expectation and cognitive engagement. When subjects are asked to choose between two simulated slot machines, near-misses increase valuation of machines with a low payout rate, whereas they decrease valuation of high payout machines. This contextual effect impairs decisions and persists regardless of manipulations to outcome feedback or financial incentive provided for good performance. It is consistent with proposals that near-misses cause frustration when wins are expected, and we propose that it increases choice stochasticity and overrides avoidance of low-valued options. Intriguingly, the near-miss effect disappears when subjects are required to explicitly value machines by placing bets, rather than choosing between them. We propose that this task increases cognitive engagement and recruits participation of brain regions involved in cognitive processing, causing inhibition of otherwise dominant systems of decision-making. Our results reveal that only implicit, rather than explicit strategies of decision-making are affected by near-misses, and that the brain can fluidly shift between these strategies according to task demands.

  4. Coupling in reflector arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen

    1968-01-01

    In order to reduce the space occupied by a reflector array, it is desirable to arrange the array antennas as close to each other as possible; however, in this case coupling between the array antennas will reduce the reflecting properties of the reflector array. The purpose of the present communic......In order to reduce the space occupied by a reflector array, it is desirable to arrange the array antennas as close to each other as possible; however, in this case coupling between the array antennas will reduce the reflecting properties of the reflector array. The purpose of the present...

  5. Machine tool structures

    CERN Document Server

    Koenigsberger, F

    1970-01-01

    Machine Tool Structures, Volume 1 deals with fundamental theories and calculation methods for machine tool structures. Experimental investigations into stiffness are discussed, along with the application of the results to the design of machine tool structures. Topics covered range from static and dynamic stiffness to chatter in metal cutting, stability in machine tools, and deformations of machine tool structures. This volume is divided into three sections and opens with a discussion on stiffness specifications and the effect of stiffness on the behavior of the machine under forced vibration c

  6. Transient subchannel simulation of sodium boiling in a 37 rods bundle with semi implicit and full implicit algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azad, Hamed Moslehi; Shirani, A.S. [Shahid Beheshti Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    2017-07-15

    Thermal hydraulic analysis of sodium boiling in fuel assemblies is an important issue in safety of sodium cooled reactors and subchannel method is an efficient approach in transient two phase flow analyses. Almost all of the subchannel codes which use two-fluid model in two phase flow analysis, are based on semi implicit algorithm. With the full implicit method it is possible to use larger time steps. In order to compare the semi implicit algorithm with full implicit algorithm, two transient subchannel numerical programs which one is based on semi implicit algorithm and the other is based on full implicit algorithm have been written in FORTRAN in this work for simulation of transients in sodium cooled Kompakter-Natriumsiede-Kreislauf (KNS) at the former Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK) in Germany.

  7. Cultural Variation in Implicit Mental Illness Stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Bobby K; Chiao, Joan Y

    2012-10-01

    Culture shapes how individuals perceive and respond to others with mental illness. Prior studies have suggested that Asians and Asian Americans typically endorse greater stigma of mental illness compared to Westerners (White Europeans and Americans). However, whether these differences in stigma arise from cultural variations in automatic affective reactions or deliberative concerns of the appropriateness of one's reactions to mental illness remains unknown. Here we compared implicit and explicit attitudes toward mental illness among Asian and Caucasian Americans. Asian Americans showed stronger negative implicit attitudes toward mental illness relative to Caucasian Americans, suggesting that cultural variation in stigma of mental illness can be observed even when concerns regarding the validity and appropriateness of one's attitudes toward mental illness are minimized. Asian Americans also explicitly endorsed greater desire for social distance from mental illness relative to Caucasian Americans. These findings suggest that cultural variations in mental illness stigma may arise from cultural differences in automatic reactions to mental illness, though cultural variations in deliberative processing may further shape differences in these immediate reactions to mental illness.

  8. Implicit face prototype learning from geometric information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Or, Charles C-F; Wilson, Hugh R

    2013-04-19

    There is evidence that humans implicitly learn an average or prototype of previously studied faces, as the unseen face prototype is falsely recognized as having been learned (Solso & McCarthy, 1981). Here we investigated the extent and nature of face prototype formation where observers' memory was tested after they studied synthetic faces defined purely in geometric terms in a multidimensional face space. We found a strong prototype effect: The basic results showed that the unseen prototype averaged from the studied faces was falsely identified as learned at a rate of 86.3%, whereas individual studied faces were identified correctly 66.3% of the time and the distractors were incorrectly identified as having been learned only 32.4% of the time. This prototype learning lasted at least 1 week. Face prototype learning occurred even when the studied faces were further from the unseen prototype than the median variation in the population. Prototype memory formation was evident in addition to memory formation of studied face exemplars as demonstrated in our models. Additional studies showed that the prototype effect can be generalized across viewpoints, and head shape and internal features separately contribute to prototype formation. Thus, implicit face prototype extraction in a multidimensional space is a very general aspect of geometric face learning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Positive implicit attitudes toward odor words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulsing, Patricia J; Smeets, Monique A M; van den Hout, Marcel A

    2007-07-01

    Associations between certain odors and for instance health effects may lead to positive or negative attitudes toward these odors. However, in experiments we conducted using the Implicit Association Test (IAT), we encountered attitudes even to odor "words." The IAT is based on the principle that reaction times measuring the association between words from a target dimension (in this case, odor vs. a neutral reference category) and an attribute dimension (i.e., positive or negative words) reflect the attitude to the target, where attitude-congruent associations between target and attribute are reflected by shorter reaction times. In a first experiment, we found distinctly positive attitudes to the concept odor in a student sample, which was replicated in a second experiment. In the main experiment, subjects in the aromatherapy group, who prefer using scented consumer products for relaxation purposes, showed a significantly more positive attitude toward odor words in the IAT than a control group, who did not have such a preference. The fact that results from the implicit test were not always associated with explicitly stated attitudes toward the odor words attests to the fact that the IAT measures the attitude of interest in a different way. As such, the IAT has added value in circumstances where explicit tests can be biased.

  10. Implicit and explicit attitudes towards conventional and complementary and alternative medicine treatments: Introduction of an Implicit Association Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, James A; Hohmann, Cynthia; Lister, Kelsi; Albertyn, Riani; Bradshaw, Renee; Johnson, Christine

    2016-06-01

    This study examined associations between anticipated future health behaviour and participants' attitudes. Three Implicit Association Tests were developed to assess safety, efficacy and overall attitude. They were used to examine preference associations between conventional versus complementary and alternative medicine among 186 participants. A structural equation model suggested only a single implicit association, rather than three separate domains. However, this single implicit association predicted additional variance in anticipated future use of complementary and alternative medicine beyond explicit. Implicit measures should give further insight into motivation for complementary and alternative medicine use. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Ambulatory assessed implicit affect is associated with salivary cortisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joram eMossink

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the presumed pathways linking negative emotions to adverse somatic health is an overactive HPA-axis, usually indicated by elevated cortisol levels. Traditionally, research has focused on consciously reported negative emotions. Yet, given that the majority of information processing occurs without conscious awareness, stress physiology might also be influenced by affective processes that people are not aware of. In a 24-hour ambulatory study we examined whether cortisol levels were associated with two implicit measures. Implicit affect was assessed using the Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test, and implicit negative memory bias was assessed with the word fragment completion tasks. In 55 healthy participants, we measured subjective stress levels, worries, implicit and explicit affect each hour during waking hours. Also, saliva samples were collected at three fixed times during the day, as well as upon waking and 30 minutes thereafter (cortisol awakening response. Multilevel analyses of the daytime cortisol levels revealed that the presence of an implicit negative memory bias was associated with increased cortisol levels. Additionally, implicit PA and, unexpectedly, implicit NA were negatively associated with cortisol levels. Finally, participants demonstrating higher levels of implicit sadness during the first measurement day, had a stronger cortisol rise upon awakening at the next day. Contrary to previous research, no associations between explicit affect and cortisol were apparent. The current study was the first to examine the concurrent relation between implicit measures and stress physiology in daily life. The results suggest that the traditional focus on consciously reported feelings and emotions is limited, and that implicit measures can add to our understanding of how stress and emotions contribute to daily physiological activity and, in the long term, health problems.

  12. MITS machine operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flinchem, J.

    1980-01-01

    This document contains procedures which apply to operations performed on individual P-1c machines in the Machine Interface Test System (MITS) at AiResearch Manufacturing Company's Torrance, California Facility

  13. Brain versus Machine Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M Carmena

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Dr. Octopus, the villain of the movie "Spiderman 2", is a fusion of man and machine. Neuroscientist Jose Carmena examines the facts behind this fictional account of a brain- machine interface

  14. Applied machining technology

    CERN Document Server

    Tschätsch, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    Machining and cutting technologies are still crucial for many manufacturing processes. This reference presents all important machining processes in a comprehensive and coherent way. It includes many examples of concrete calculations, problems and solutions.

  15. Machining with abrasives

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Mark J

    2011-01-01

    Abrasive machining is key to obtaining the desired geometry and surface quality in manufacturing. This book discusses the fundamentals and advances in the abrasive machining processes. It provides a complete overview of developing areas in the field.

  16. Machine medical ethics

    CERN Document Server

    Pontier, Matthijs

    2015-01-01

    The essays in this book, written by researchers from both humanities and sciences, describe various theoretical and experimental approaches to adding medical ethics to a machine in medical settings. Medical machines are in close proximity with human beings, and getting closer: with patients who are in vulnerable states of health, who have disabilities of various kinds, with the very young or very old, and with medical professionals. In such contexts, machines are undertaking important medical tasks that require emotional sensitivity, knowledge of medical codes, human dignity, and privacy. As machine technology advances, ethical concerns become more urgent: should medical machines be programmed to follow a code of medical ethics? What theory or theories should constrain medical machine conduct? What design features are required? Should machines share responsibility with humans for the ethical consequences of medical actions? How ought clinical relationships involving machines to be modeled? Is a capacity for e...

  17. Machine protection systems

    CERN Document Server

    Macpherson, A L

    2010-01-01

    A summary of the Machine Protection System of the LHC is given, with particular attention given to the outstanding issues to be addressed, rather than the successes of the machine protection system from the 2009 run. In particular, the issues of Safe Machine Parameter system, collimation and beam cleaning, the beam dump system and abort gap cleaning, injection and dump protection, and the overall machine protection program for the upcoming run are summarised.

  18. Implicit time-dependent finite different algorithm for quench simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Norikiyo; Takahashi, Yoshikazu; Tsuji, Hiroshi

    1994-12-01

    A magnet in a fusion machine has many difficulties in its application because of requirement of a large operating current, high operating field and high breakdown voltage. A cable-in-conduit (CIC) conductor is the best candidate to overcome these difficulties. However, there remained uncertainty in a quench event in the cable-in-conduit conductor because of a difficulty to analyze a fluid dynamics equation. Several scientists, then, developed the numerical code for the quench simulation. However, most of them were based on an explicit time-dependent finite difference scheme. In this scheme, a discrete time increment is strictly restricted by CFL (Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy) condition. Therefore, long CPU time was consumed for the quench simulation. Authors, then, developed a new quench simulation code, POCHI1, which is based on an implicit time dependent scheme. In POCHI1, the fluid dynamics equation is linearlized according to a procedure applied by Beam and Warming and then, a tridiagonal system can be offered. Therefore, no iteration is necessary to solve the fluid dynamics equation. This leads great reduction of the CPU time. Also, POCHI1 can cope with non-linear boundary condition. In this study, comparison with experimental results was carried out. The normal zone propagation behavior was investigated in two samples of CIC conductors which had different hydraulic diameters. The measured and simulated normal zone propagation length showed relatively good agreement. However, the behavior of the normal voltage shows a little disagreement. These results indicate necessity to improve the treatment of the heat transfer coefficient in the turbulent flow region and the electric resistivity of the copper stabilizer in high temperature and high field region. (author)

  19. Dictionary of machine terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    This book has introduction of dictionary of machine terms, and a compilation committee and introductory remarks. It gives descriptions of the machine terms in alphabetical order from a to Z and also includes abbreviation of machine terms and symbol table, way to read mathematical symbols and abbreviation and terms of drawings.

  20. Mankind, machines and people

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugli, A

    1984-01-01

    The following questions are addressed: is there a difference between machines and men, between human communication and communication with machines. Will we ever reach the point when the dream of artificial intelligence becomes a reality. Will thinking machines be able to replace the human spirit in all its aspects. Social consequences and philosophical aspects are addressed. 8 references.

  1. A Universal Reactive Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Reif; Mørk, Simon; Sørensen, Morten U.

    1997-01-01

    Turing showed the existence of a model universal for the set of Turing machines in the sense that given an encoding of any Turing machine asinput the universal Turing machine simulates it. We introduce the concept of universality for reactive systems and construct a CCS processuniversal...

  2. HTS machine laboratory prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    machine. The machine comprises six stationary HTS field windings wound from both YBCO and BiSCOO tape operated at liquid nitrogen temperature and enclosed in a cryostat, and a three phase armature winding spinning at up to 300 rpm. This design has full functionality of HTS synchronous machines. The design...

  3. Your Sewing Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Marion E.

    The programed instruction manual is designed to aid the student in learning the parts, uses, and operation of the sewing machine. Drawings of sewing machine parts are presented, and space is provided for the student's written responses. Following an introductory section identifying sewing machine parts, the manual deals with each part and its…

  4. Preferences for cervical cancer screening: The role of implicit associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korfage, I.J.; Kwaadsteniet, E.W. de; Voorst, A. van; Stiggelbout, A.M.; Vries, M. de; Pieterse, A.H.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: Implicit associations influence behaviour, but their impact on cancer screening intentions is unknown. Methods: We assessed implicit associations with cervical cancer screening using an evaluative priming task. Participants were shown primes ('Pap test', neutral or non-word) followed by

  5. Implicit and Explicit Learning in Individuals with Agrammatic Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchard, Julia; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2014-01-01

    Implicit learning is a process of acquiring knowledge that occurs without conscious awareness of learning, whereas explicit learning involves the use of overt strategies. To date, research related to implicit learning following stroke has been largely restricted to the motor domain and has rarely addressed implications for language. The present…

  6. Implicit Attitudes toward the Self Over Time in Chinese Undergraduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Yang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Although the explicit attitudes of Chinese people toward the self over time are known (i.e., past = present < future, little is known about their implicit attitudes. Two studies were conducted to measure the implicit subjective temporal trajectory (STT of Chinese undergraduates. Study 1 used a Go/No-go association task to measure participants’ implicit attitudes toward their past, present, and future selves. The obtained implicit STT was different from the explicit pattern found in former research. It showed that the future self was viewed to be identical to the present self and participants implicitly evaluated their present self as better than the past self. Since this comparison of the past and present selves suggested a cultural difference, we aimed to replicate this finding in Study 2. Using an implicit association test, we again found that the present self was more easily associated with positive valence than the past self. Overall, both studies reveal an implicitly inclining-flat STT (i.e., past < present = future for Chinese undergraduates. Implications of this difference in explicit-implicit measures and the cultural differences of temporal self appraisals are discussed.

  7. Implicit Learning Abilities Predict Treatment Response in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    early behavioral interventions are the most effective treatment for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), but almost half of the children do not make...behavioral intervention . 2. KEYWORDS Autism Spectrum Disorder , implicit learning, associative learning, individual differences, functional Magnetic...2 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0261 TITLE: Implicit Learning Abilities Predict Treatment Response in Autism Spectrum Disorders PRINCIPAL

  8. Exposure to sexism can decrease implicit gender stereotype bias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos, Miguel R.; Barreto, Manuela; Ellemers, Naomi; Moya, Miguel; Ferreira, Lucia; Calanchini, Jimmy

    Two studies examined the effect of exposure to sexism on implicit gender bias, focusing specifically on stereotypes of men as competent and women as warm. Male and female participants were exposed to sexism or no sexism. In both Experiment 1 (Implicit Association Task; N = 115) and Experiment 2

  9. Intact memory for implicit contextual information in Korsakoff's amnesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudman, Erik; Van der Stigchel, Stefan; Wester, Arie J.; Kessels, Roy P. C.; Postma, Albert

    Implicit contextual learning is the ability to acquire contextual information from our surroundings without conscious awareness. Such contextual information facilitates the localization of objects in space. In a typical implicit contextual learning paradigm, subjects need to find a target among a

  10. The Ms. Stereotype Revisited: Implicit and Explicit Facets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolmson, Kelly A.; Sinclair, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    Implicit and explicit stereotypes toward the title Ms. were examined. Participants read a short description of a target person whose title of address varied (Ms., Mrs., Miss, Mr.). They then rated the person on agentic and communal traits and completed an Implicit Association Test. Replicating earlier research (Dion, 1987), at an explicit level,…

  11. Implicit Motives and Men's Perceived Constraint in Fatherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppen, Jessica; Waldvogel, Patricia; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Research shows that implicit motives influence social relationships. However, little is known about their role in fatherhood and, particularly, how men experience their paternal role. Therefore, this study examined the association of implicit motives and fathers' perceived constraint due to fatherhood. Furthermore, we explored their relation to fathers' life satisfaction. Participants were fathers with biological children ( N = 276). They were asked to write picture stories, which were then coded for implicit affiliation and power motives. Perceived constraint and life satisfaction were assessed on a visual analog scale. A higher implicit need for affiliation was significantly associated with lower perceived constraint, whereas the implicit need for power had the opposite effect. Perceived constraint had a negative influence on life satisfaction. Structural equation modeling revealed significant indirect effects of implicit affiliation and power motives on life satisfaction mediated by perceived constraint. Our findings indicate that men with a higher implicit need for affiliation experience less constraint due to fatherhood, resulting in higher life satisfaction. The implicit need for power, however, results in more perceived constraint and is related to decreased life satisfaction.

  12. Implicit Motives and Men’s Perceived Constraint in Fatherhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppen, Jessica; Waldvogel, Patricia; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Research shows that implicit motives influence social relationships. However, little is known about their role in fatherhood and, particularly, how men experience their paternal role. Therefore, this study examined the association of implicit motives and fathers’ perceived constraint due to fatherhood. Furthermore, we explored their relation to fathers’ life satisfaction. Participants were fathers with biological children (N = 276). They were asked to write picture stories, which were then coded for implicit affiliation and power motives. Perceived constraint and life satisfaction were assessed on a visual analog scale. A higher implicit need for affiliation was significantly associated with lower perceived constraint, whereas the implicit need for power had the opposite effect. Perceived constraint had a negative influence on life satisfaction. Structural equation modeling revealed significant indirect effects of implicit affiliation and power motives on life satisfaction mediated by perceived constraint. Our findings indicate that men with a higher implicit need for affiliation experience less constraint due to fatherhood, resulting in higher life satisfaction. The implicit need for power, however, results in more perceived constraint and is related to decreased life satisfaction. PMID:27933023

  13. Implicit action tendencies and evaluations in unwanted snacking behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, J.; Keijsers, G.P.J.; Rinck, M.; Sharbanee, J.; Vroling, M.S.; Backer, E.S.

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated automatic/implicit and controlled/explicit processes in snacking behavior. Participants who were bothered by their habit of eating snacks were compared to participants with another habit. A reaction time task was used to assess implicit action tendencies in which

  14. Age and time effects on implicit and explicit learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verneau, M.; Kamp, J. van der; Savelsbergh, G.J.P.; Looze, M.P. de

    2014-01-01

    Study Context: It has been proposed that effects of aging are more pronounced for explicit than for implicit motor learning. The authors evaluated this claim by comparing the efficacy of explicit and implicit learning of a movement sequence in young and older adults, and by testing the resilience

  15. Age and Time Effects on Implicit and Explicit Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verneau, M.M.N.; van der Kamp, J.; Savelsbergh, G.J.P.; de Looze, M.P.

    2014-01-01

    Study Context: It has been proposed that effects of aging are more pronounced for explicit than for implicit motor learning. The authors evaluated this claim by comparing the efficacy of explicit and implicit learning of a movement sequence in young and older adults, and by testing the resilience

  16. Implicit Motives and Men’s Perceived Constraint in Fatherhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Ruppen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Research shows that implicit motives influence social relationships. However, little is known about their role in fatherhood and, particularly, how men experience their paternal role. Therefore, this study examined the association of implicit motives and fathers’ perceived constraint due to fatherhood. Furthermore, we explored their relation to fathers’ life satisfaction. Participants were fathers with biological children (N = 276. They were asked to write picture stories, which were then coded for implicit affiliation and power motives. Perceived constraint and life satisfaction were assessed on a visual analog scale. A higher implicit need for affiliation was significantly associated with lower perceived constraint, whereas the implicit need for power had the opposite effect. Perceived constraint had a negative influence on life satisfaction. Structural equation modeling revealed significant indirect effects of implicit affiliation and power motives on life satisfaction mediated by perceived constraint. Our findings indicate that men with a higher implicit need for affiliation experience less constraint due to fatherhood, resulting in higher life satisfaction. The implicit need for power, however, results in more perceived constraint and is related to decreased life satisfaction.

  17. Implicit versus explicit : An ACT-R learning perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taatgen, N.A.

    1999-01-01

    Dienes & Perner propose a theory of implicit and explicit knowledge that is not entirely complete. It does not address many of the empirical issues, nor does it explain the difference between implicit and explicit learning. It does, however, provide a possible unified explanation, as opposed to the

  18. Developmental Differences in Implicit and Explicit Memory Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Lori A.; Peynircioglu, Zehra F.; Blaxton, Teresa A.

    1998-01-01

    Compared perceptual and conceptual implicit and explicit memory performance of preschool, elementary, and college students. Found that conceptual explicit memory improved with age. Perceptual explicit memory and implicit memory showed no developmental change. Perceptual processing during study led to better performance than conceptual processing…

  19. Intact memory for implicit contextual information in Korsakoff's amnesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudman, E.; Stigchel, S. van der; Wester, A.J.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Postma, A.

    2011-01-01

    Implicit contextual learning is the ability to acquire contextual information from our surroundings without conscious awareness. Such contextual information facilitates the localization of objects in space. In a typical implicit contextual learning paradigm, subjects need to find a target among a

  20. Assessment of implicit sexual associations in non-incarcerated pedophiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Matthijs L; van Baaren, Rick B; Chakhssi, Farid; Loonen, Marijke G M; Lippman, Maarten; Dijksterhuis, Ap

    2013-11-01

    Offences committed by pedophiles are crimes that evoke serious public concern and outrage. Although recent research using implicit measures has shown promise in detecting deviant sexual associations, the discriminatory and predictive quality of implicit tasks has not yet surpassed traditional assessment methods such as questionnaires and phallometry. The current research extended previous findings by examining whether a combination of two implicit tasks, the Implicit Association Task (IAT) and the Picture Association Task (PAT), was capable of differentiating pedophiles from non-pedophiles, and whether the PAT, which allows separate analysis for male, female, boy and girl stimulus categories, was more sensitive to specific sexual associations in pedophiles than the IAT. A total of 20 male self-reported pedophiles (10 offender and 10 non-offenders) and 20 male self-reported heterosexual controls completed the two implicit measures. Results indicated that the combination of both tasks produced the strongest results to date in detecting implicit pedophilic preferences (AUC = .97). Additionally, the PAT showed promise in decomposing the sexual associations in pedophiles. Interestingly, as there was an equal distribution of offenders and non-offenders in the pedophile group, it was possible to test for implicit association differences between these groups. This comparison showed no clear link between having these implicit sexual associations and actual offending.

  1. Teaching about Implicit Prejudices and Stereotypes: A Pedagogical Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Virgil H., III; Devos, Thierry; Rivera, Luis M.; Smith, Heather; Vega, Luis A.

    2014-01-01

    Social psychology instructors from five distinct state universities in California examined the effect of incorporating the implicit association test (IAT) in a teaching module on students' perceived knowledge of implicit biases and motivation to control prejudice. Students (N = 258) completed a knowledge survey on prejudice, stereotypes, and…

  2. Implicit Race/Ethnic Prejudice in Mexican Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Christelle Fabiola; Gasquoine, Philip Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Implicit race/ethnic prejudice was assessed using Spanish- and English-language versions of an Implicit Association Test that used Hispanic/Anglo first names and pleasant/unpleasant words as stimuli. This test was administered to a consecutive sample of Mexican American adults residing in the Rio Grande Valley region of Texas of whom about…

  3. High School Students' Implicit Theories of What Facilitates Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Eileen Carlton; Miles, Rhea; Petersen, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background: Research has primarily concentrated on adults' implicit theories about high quality science education for all students. Little work has considered the students' perspective. This study investigated high school students' implicit theories about what helped them learn science. Purpose: This study addressed (1) What characterizes high…

  4. LOMEGA: a low frequency, field implicit method for plasma simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, D.C.; Kamimura, T.

    1982-04-01

    Field implicit methods for low frequency plasma simulation by the LOMEGA (Low OMEGA) codes are described. These implicit field methods may be combined with particle pushing algorithms using either Lorentz force or guiding center force models to study two-dimensional, magnetized, electrostatic plasmas. Numerical results for ωsub(e)deltat>>1 are described. (author)

  5. A nanoplasmonic switch based on molecular machines

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Yue Bing

    2009-06-01

    We aim to develop a molecular-machine-driven nanoplasmonic switch for its use in future nanophotonic integrated circuits (ICs) that have applications in optical communication, information processing, biological and chemical sensing. Experimental data show that an Au nanodisk array, coated with rotaxane molecular machines, switches its localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR) reversibly when it is exposed to chemical oxidants and reductants. Conversely, bare Au nanodisks and disks coated with mechanically inert control compounds, do not display the same switching behavior. Along with calculations based on time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT), these observations suggest that the nanoscale movements within surface-bound "molecular machines" can be used as the active components in plasmonic devices. ©2009 IEEE.

  6. The implicit function theorem history, theory, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Krantz, Steven G

    2003-01-01

    The implicit function theorem is part of the bedrock of mathematics analysis and geometry. Finding its genesis in eighteenth century studies of real analytic functions and mechanics, the implicit and inverse function theorems have now blossomed into powerful tools in the theories of partial differential equations, differential geometry, and geometric analysis. There are many different forms of the implicit function theorem, including (i) the classical formulation for Ck functions, (ii) formulations in other function spaces, (iii) formulations for non-smooth function, (iv) formulations for functions with degenerate Jacobian. Particularly powerful implicit function theorems, such as the Nash-Moser theorem, have been developed for specific applications (e.g., the imbedding of Riemannian manifolds). All of these topics, and many more, are treated in the present volume. The history of the implicit function theorem is a lively and complex store, and intimately bound up with the development of fundamental ideas in a...

  7. The time course of explicit and implicit categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J David; Zakrzewski, Alexandria C; Herberger, Eric R; Boomer, Joseph; Roeder, Jessica L; Ashby, F Gregory; Church, Barbara A

    2015-10-01

    Contemporary theory in cognitive neuroscience distinguishes, among the processes and utilities that serve categorization, explicit and implicit systems of category learning that learn, respectively, category rules by active hypothesis testing or adaptive behaviors by association and reinforcement. Little is known about the time course of categorization within these systems. Accordingly, the present experiments contrasted tasks that fostered explicit categorization (because they had a one-dimensional, rule-based solution) or implicit categorization (because they had a two-dimensional, information-integration solution). In Experiment 1, participants learned categories under unspeeded or speeded conditions. In Experiment 2, they applied previously trained category knowledge under unspeeded or speeded conditions. Speeded conditions selectively impaired implicit category learning and implicit mature categorization. These results illuminate the processing dynamics of explicit/implicit categorization.

  8. Seeing the forest through the trees: a comparison of different IAT variants measuring implicit alcohol associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, K.; Nosek, B.; Wiers, R.W.

    2010-01-01

    Dual-process models propose that addictive behaviors are determined by an implicit, impulsive system and an explicit, reflective system. Consistent with these models, research has demonstrated implicit affective associations with alcohol, using the Implicit Association Test (IAT), that predict

  9. Angular biasing in implicit Monte-Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, G.B.

    1994-01-01

    Calculations of indirect drive Inertial Confinement Fusion target experiments require an integrated approach in which laser irradiation and radiation transport in the hohlraum are solved simultaneously with the symmetry, implosion and burn of the fuel capsule. The Implicit Monte Carlo method has proved to be a valuable tool for the two dimensional radiation transport within the hohlraum, but the impact of statistical noise on the symmetric implosion of the small fuel capsule is difficult to overcome. We present an angular biasing technique in which an increased number of low weight photons are directed at the imploding capsule. For typical parameters this reduces the required computer time for an integrated calculation by a factor of 10. An additional factor of 5 can also be achieved by directing even smaller weight photons at the polar regions of the capsule where small mass zones are most sensitive to statistical noise

  10. Reference List About Implicit and Unconscious Bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munar, Ana Maria; Villeseche, Florence; Wiedemann, Cecilie Dam

    to publications accessible through the CBS library website and/or specifications of where and how to access each publication. In addition, as part of this effort and in line with the task list of the Council for Diversity and Inclusion, the report “Gender and Leadership Practices at Copenhagen Business School......The compilation of this reference list is one of the initiatives of the action plan developed by the Council for Diversity and Inclusion at Copenhagen Business School (CBS). This reference list is the first in a series of efforts initiated by this Council to develop an academic resource pool......, everyday human thought and activity” (Hardin and Banaji, 2013, pp. 13-14). Research also indicates that it is possible to implement procedures and strategic actions that help reduce implicit biases (Devine, Forscher, Austin, & Cox, 2012). Although extensive, this list does not include all existing academic...

  11. A Membrane Model from Implicit Elasticity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, A. D.; Liao, J.; Einstein, D. R.

    2014-01-01

    A Fungean solid is derived for membranous materials as a body defined by isotropic response functions whose mathematical structure is that of a Hookean solid where the elastic constants are replaced by functions of state derived from an implicit, thermodynamic, internal-energy function. The theory utilizes Biot’s (1939) definitions for stress and strain that, in 1-dimension, are the stress/strain measures adopted by Fung (1967) when he postulated what is now known as Fung’s law. Our Fungean membrane model is parameterized against a biaxial data set acquired from a porcine pleural membrane subjected to three, sequential, proportional, planar extensions. These data support an isotropic/deviatoric split in the stress and strain-rate hypothesized by our theory. These data also demonstrate that the material response is highly non-linear but, otherwise, mechanically isotropic. These data are described reasonably well by our otherwise simple, four-parameter, material model. PMID:24282079

  12. Quantum machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biamonte, Jacob; Wittek, Peter; Pancotti, Nicola; Rebentrost, Patrick; Wiebe, Nathan; Lloyd, Seth

    2017-09-13

    Fuelled by increasing computer power and algorithmic advances, machine learning techniques have become powerful tools for finding patterns in data. Quantum systems produce atypical patterns that classical systems are thought not to produce efficiently, so it is reasonable to postulate that quantum computers may outperform classical computers on machine learning tasks. The field of quantum machine learning explores how to devise and implement quantum software that could enable machine learning that is faster than that of classical computers. Recent work has produced quantum algorithms that could act as the building blocks of machine learning programs, but the hardware and software challenges are still considerable.

  13. Asynchronized synchronous machines

    CERN Document Server

    Botvinnik, M M

    1964-01-01

    Asynchronized Synchronous Machines focuses on the theoretical research on asynchronized synchronous (AS) machines, which are "hybrids” of synchronous and induction machines that can operate with slip. Topics covered in this book include the initial equations; vector diagram of an AS machine; regulation in cases of deviation from the law of full compensation; parameters of the excitation system; and schematic diagram of an excitation regulator. The possible applications of AS machines and its calculations in certain cases are also discussed. This publication is beneficial for students and indiv

  14. Update-in-Place Analysis for True Multidimensional Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Fitzgerald

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Applicative languages have been proposed for defining algorithms for parallel architectures because they are implicitly parallel and lack side effects. However, straightforward implementations of applicative-language compilers may induce large amounts of copying to preserve program semantics. The unnecessary copying of data can increase both the execution time and the memory requirements of an application. To eliminate the unnecessary copying of data, the Sisal compiler uses both build-in-place and update-in-place analyses. These optimizations remove unnecessary array copy operations through compile-time analysis. Both build-in-place and update-in-place are based on hierarchical ragged arrays, i.e., the vector-of-vectors array model. Although this array model is convenient for certain applications, many optimizations are precluded, e.g., vectorization. To compensate for this deficiency, new languages, such as Sisal 2.0, have extended array models that allow for both high-level array operations to be performed and efficient implementations to be devised. In this article, we introduce a new method to perform update-in-place analysis that is applicable to arrays stored either in hierarchical or in contiguous storage. Consequently, the array model that is appropriate for an application can be selected without the loss of performance. Moreover, our analysis is more amenable for distributed memory and large software systems.

  15. Predicting Market Impact Costs Using Nonparametric Machine Learning Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saerom Park

    Full Text Available Market impact cost is the most significant portion of implicit transaction costs that can reduce the overall transaction cost, although it cannot be measured directly. In this paper, we employed the state-of-the-art nonparametric machine learning models: neural networks, Bayesian neural network, Gaussian process, and support vector regression, to predict market impact cost accurately and to provide the predictive model that is versatile in the number of variables. We collected a large amount of real single transaction data of US stock market from Bloomberg Terminal and generated three independent input variables. As a result, most nonparametric machine learning models outperformed a-state-of-the-art benchmark parametric model such as I-star model in four error measures. Although these models encounter certain difficulties in separating the permanent and temporary cost directly, nonparametric machine learning models can be good alternatives in reducing transaction costs by considerably improving in prediction performance.

  16. Predicting Market Impact Costs Using Nonparametric Machine Learning Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Saerom; Lee, Jaewook; Son, Youngdoo

    2016-01-01

    Market impact cost is the most significant portion of implicit transaction costs that can reduce the overall transaction cost, although it cannot be measured directly. In this paper, we employed the state-of-the-art nonparametric machine learning models: neural networks, Bayesian neural network, Gaussian process, and support vector regression, to predict market impact cost accurately and to provide the predictive model that is versatile in the number of variables. We collected a large amount of real single transaction data of US stock market from Bloomberg Terminal and generated three independent input variables. As a result, most nonparametric machine learning models outperformed a-state-of-the-art benchmark parametric model such as I-star model in four error measures. Although these models encounter certain difficulties in separating the permanent and temporary cost directly, nonparametric machine learning models can be good alternatives in reducing transaction costs by considerably improving in prediction performance.

  17. Characterizing implicit mental health associations across clinical domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werntz, Alexandra J; Steinman, Shari A; Glenn, Jeffrey J; Nock, Matthew K; Teachman, Bethany A

    2016-09-01

    Implicit associations are relatively uncontrollable associations between concepts in memory. The current investigation focuses on implicit associations in four mental health domains (alcohol use, anxiety, depression, and eating disorders) and how these implicit associations: a) relate to explicit associations and b) self-reported clinical symptoms within the same domains, and c) vary based on demographic characteristics (age, gender, race, ethnicity, and education). Participants (volunteers over age 18 to a research website) completed implicit association (Implicit Association Tests), explicit association (self + psychopathology or attitudes toward food, using semantic differential items), and symptom measures at the Project Implicit Mental Health website tied to: alcohol use (N = 12,387), anxiety (N = 21,304), depression (N = 24,126), or eating disorders (N = 10,115). Within each domain, implicit associations showed small to moderate associations with explicit associations and symptoms, and predicted self-reported symptoms beyond explicit associations. In general, implicit association strength varied little by race and ethnicity, but showed small ties to age, gender, and education. This research was conducted on a public research and education website, where participants could take more than one of the studies. Among a large and diverse sample, implicit associations in the four domains are congruent with explicit associations and self-reported symptoms, and also add to our prediction of self-reported symptoms over and above explicit associations, pointing to the potential future clinical utility and validity of using implicit association measures with diverse populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure as a Measure of Implicit Depression and the Role of Psychological Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, Ian; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

    2012-01-01

    A broad implicit measure of depressive emotional reactions was created by mapping the content of the depression scale from the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) on to the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP). Participants were asked to relate pairings of antecedents and emotional reactions that followed the formula "When X…

  19. Mainstream Teachers' Implicit Beliefs about English Language Learners: An Implicit Association Test Study of Teacher Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Jamie; Lakin, Joni

    2018-01-01

    Teacher attitudes toward inclusion of English Learners (ELs) in the mainstream classroom have primarily focused on explicit beliefs as accessed through observation, case studies, and self-report surveys. The authors explore implicit mainstream teacher beliefs about ELs using the newly created Implicit Association Test-EL, with correlations to…

  20. Cellular automata in photonic cavity arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Liew, T C H

    2016-10-31

    We propose theoretically a photonic Turing machine based on cellular automata in arrays of nonlinear cavities coupled with artificial gauge fields. The state of the system is recorded making use of the bistability of driven cavities, in which losses are fully compensated by an external continuous drive. The sequential update of the automaton layers is achieved automatically, by the local switching of bistable states, without requiring any additional synchronization or temporal control.

  1. Overweight people have low levels of implicit weight bias, but overweight nations have high levels of implicit weight bias.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maddalena Marini

    Full Text Available Although a greater degree of personal obesity is associated with weaker negativity toward overweight people on both explicit (i.e., self-report and implicit (i.e., indirect behavioral measures, overweight people still prefer thin people on average. We investigated whether the national and cultural context - particularly the national prevalence of obesity - predicts attitudes toward overweight people independent of personal identity and weight status. Data were collected from a total sample of 338,121 citizens from 71 nations in 22 different languages on the Project Implicit website (https://implicit.harvard.edu/ between May 2006 and October 2010. We investigated the relationship of the explicit and implicit weight bias with the obesity both at the individual (i.e., across individuals and national (i.e., across nations level. Explicit weight bias was assessed with self-reported preference between overweight and thin people; implicit weight bias was measured with the Implicit Association Test (IAT. The national estimates of explicit and implicit weight bias were obtained by averaging the individual scores for each nation. Obesity at the individual level was defined as Body Mass Index (BMI scores, whereas obesity at the national level was defined as three national weight indicators (national BMI, national percentage of overweight and underweight people obtained from publicly available databases. Across individuals, greater degree of obesity was associated with weaker implicit negativity toward overweight people compared to thin people. Across nations, in contrast, a greater degree of national obesity was associated with stronger implicit negativity toward overweight people compared to thin people. This result indicates a different relationship between obesity and implicit weight bias at the individual and national levels.

  2. Implicit and explicit memory in survivors of chronic interpersonal violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minshew, Reese; D'Andrea, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the relationship of implicit and explicit memory to a range of symptoms in a sample of 27 women with exposure to chronic interpersonal violence (IPV). Participants viewed the first 3 letters ("stems") of trauma-related, general threat, and neutral words; valenced words were matched with neutral words with the same stem. Free recall and a word-stem completion task were used to test explicit and implicit memory, respectively. Participants exhibited increased implicit memory for trauma-related words as compared with both general threat words and neutral "match" words. They also showed increased explicit memory for both general threat and trauma-related words. Finally, although neither implicit nor explicit memory was correlated with PTSD symptoms, implicit memory for trauma-related words was significantly correlated with symptoms associated with ongoing IPV. Interpersonal sensitivity, hostility, and alexithymia were significantly correlated with implicit, but not explicit, memory for trauma words. Somatization, dissociation, and alexithymia were negatively correlated with explicit, but not implicit, memory for general-threat words. These findings suggest that memory processes in survivors of IPV are closely related to the symptom profile associated with complex trauma. Exploring memory processes in survivors of IPV may lend unique insight into the development and maintenance of the symptom profile associated with IPV. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Implicit and explicit memory for spatial information in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessels, R P C; Feijen, J; Postma, A

    2005-01-01

    There is abundant evidence that memory impairment in dementia in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is related to explicit, conscious forms of memory, whereas implicit, unconscious forms of memory function remain relatively intact or are less severely affected. Only a few studies have been performed on spatial memory function in AD, showing that AD patients' explicit spatial memory is impaired, possibly related to hippocampal dysfunction. However, studies on implicit spatial memory in AD are lacking. The current study set out to investigate implicit and explicit spatial memory in AD patients (n=18) using an ecologically valid computer task, in which participants had to remember the locations of various objects in common rooms. The contribution of implicit and explicit memory functions was estimated by means of the process dissociation procedure. The results show that explicit spatial memory is impaired in AD patients compared with a control group (n=21). However, no group difference was found on implicit spatial function. This indicates that spared implicit memory in AD extends to the spatial domain, while the explicit spatial memory function deteriorates. Clinically, this finding might be relevant, in that an intact implicit memory function might be helpful in overcoming problems in explicit processing. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Components of implicit stigma against mental illness among Chinese students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaogang Wang

    Full Text Available Although some research has examined negative automatic aspects of attitudes toward mental illness via relatively indirect measures among Western samples, it is unclear whether negative attitudes can be automatically activated in individuals from non-Western countries. This study attempted to validate results from Western samples with Chinese college students. We first examined the three-component model of implicit stigma (negative cognition, negative affect, and discriminatory tendencies toward mental illness with the Single Category Implicit Association Test (SC-IAT. We also explored the relationship between explicit and implicit stigma among 56 Chinese university college students. In the three separate SC-IATs and the combined SC-IAT, automatic associations between mental illness and negative descriptors were stronger relative to those with positive descriptors and the implicit effect of cognitive and affective SC-IATs were significant. Explicit and implicit measures of stigma toward mental illness were unrelated. In our sample, women's overall attitudes toward mental illness were more negative than men's were, but no gender differences were found for explicit measures. These findings suggested that implicit stigma toward mental illness exists in Chinese students, and provide some support for the three-component model of implicit stigma toward mental illness. Future studies that focus on automatic components of stigmatization and stigma-reduction in China are warranted.

  5. Modeling stimulus variation in three common implicit attitude tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolsiefer, Katie; Westfall, Jacob; Judd, Charles M

    2017-08-01

    We explored the consequences of ignoring the sampling variation due to stimuli in the domain of implicit attitudes. A large literature in psycholinguistics has examined the statistical treatment of random stimulus materials, but the recommendations from this literature have not been applied to the social psychological literature on implicit attitudes. This is partly because of inherent complications in applying crossed random-effect models to some of the most common implicit attitude tasks, and partly because no work to date has demonstrated that random stimulus variation is in fact consequential in implicit attitude measurement. We addressed this problem by laying out statistically appropriate and practically feasible crossed random-effect models for three of the most commonly used implicit attitude measures-the Implicit Association Test, affect misattribution procedure, and evaluative priming task-and then applying these models to large datasets (average N = 3,206) that assess participants' implicit attitudes toward race, politics, and self-esteem. We showed that the test statistics from the traditional analyses are substantially (about 60 %) inflated relative to the more-appropriate analyses that incorporate stimulus variation. Because all three tasks used the same stimulus words and faces, we could also meaningfully compare the relative contributions of stimulus variation across the tasks. In an appendix, we give syntax in R, SAS, and SPSS for fitting the recommended crossed random-effects models to data from all three tasks, as well as instructions on how to structure the data file.

  6. Implicit Beliefs about Ideal Body Image Predict Body Image Dissatisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niclas eHeider

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We examined whether implicit measures of actual and ideal body image can be used to predict body dissatisfaction in young female adults. Participants completed two Implicit Relational Assessment Procedures (IRAPs to examine their implicit beliefs concerning actual (e.g., I am thin and desired ideal body image (e.g., I want to be thin. Body dissatisfaction was examined via self-report questionnaires and rating scales. As expected, differences in body dissatisfaction exerted a differential influence on the two IRAP scores. Specifically, the implicit belief that one is thin was lower in participants who exhibited a high degree of body dissatisfaction than in participants who exhibited a low degree of body dissatisfaction. In contrast, the implicit desire to be thin (i.e., thin ideal body image was stronger in participants who exhibited a high level of body dissatisfaction than in participants who were less dissatisfied with their body. Adding further weight to the idea that both IRAP measures captured different underlying constructs, we also observed that they correlated differently with body mass index, explicit body dissatisfaction, and explicit measures of actual and ideal body image. More generally, these findings underscore the advantage of using implicit measures that incorporate relational information relative to implicit measures that allow for an assessment of associative relations only.

  7. An Optically-Assisted 3-D Cellular Array Machine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lin, Freddie

    1997-01-01

    .... In this Phase II project, we developed a discrete-component based Cellular Neural Network (CNN) circuitry, which can perform CNN based analog image processing, such as edge detection and image enhancement, in real time...

  8. Ship localization in Santa Barbara Channel using machine learning classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Haiqiang; Ozanich, Emma; Gerstoft, Peter

    2017-11-01

    Machine learning classifiers are shown to outperform conventional matched field processing for a deep water (600 m depth) ocean acoustic-based ship range estimation problem in the Santa Barbara Channel Experiment when limited environmental information is known. Recordings of three different ships of opportunity on a vertical array were used as training and test data for the feed-forward neural network and support vector machine classifiers, demonstrating the feasibility of machine learning methods to locate unseen sources. The classifiers perform well up to 10 km range whereas the conventional matched field processing fails at about 4 km range without accurate environmental information.

  9. Reusing Implicit Cooperation. A Novel Approach to Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Lancieri

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The study described in this paper deals with information reuse obtained by implicit co-operation, particularly by recycling the contents of a proxy cache (shared memory. The objective is to automatically feed a Web server with large multimedia objects implicitly centred on community fields of interests. We show that the strategy of reusing previously downloaded information provides interesting advantages at a low cost; in particular, to reduce Web access time, to improve information retrieval, and to reduce Internet bandwidth use. Moreover, we use the conceptual frameworks of forgetting and collective intelligence to develop a model on which the operation of implicit cooperation is based.

  10. Subliminal mere exposure and explicit and implicit positive affective responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Joshua A; King, Laura A

    2011-06-01

    Research suggests that repeated subliminal exposure to environmental stimuli enhances positive affective responses. To date, this research has primarily concentrated on the effects of repeated exposure on explicit measures of positive affect (PA). However, recent research suggests that repeated subliminal presentations may increase implicit PA as well. The present study tested this hypothesis. Participants were either subliminally primed with repeated presentations of the same stimuli or only exposed to each stimulus one time. Results confirmed predictions showing that repeated exposure to the same stimuli increased both explicit and implicit PA. Implications for the role of explicit and implicit PA in attitudinal judgements are discussed.

  11. Virtual Machine Language 2.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Joseph E.; Grasso, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    VML (Virtual Machine Language) is an advanced computing environment that allows spacecraft to operate using mechanisms ranging from simple, time-oriented sequencing to advanced, multicomponent reactive systems. VML has developed in four evolutionary stages. VML 0 is a core execution capability providing multi-threaded command execution, integer data types, and rudimentary branching. VML 1 added named parameterized procedures, extensive polymorphism, data typing, branching, looping issuance of commands using run-time parameters, and named global variables. VML 2 added for loops, data verification, telemetry reaction, and an open flight adaptation architecture. VML 2.1 contains major advances in control flow capabilities for executable state machines. On the resource requirements front, VML 2.1 features a reduced memory footprint in order to fit more capability into modestly sized flight processors, and endian-neutral data access for compatibility with Intel little-endian processors. Sequence packaging has been improved with object-oriented programming constructs and the use of implicit (rather than explicit) time tags on statements. Sequence event detection has been significantly enhanced with multi-variable waiting, which allows a sequence to detect and react to conditions defined by complex expressions with multiple global variables. This multi-variable waiting serves as the basis for implementing parallel rule checking, which in turn, makes possible executable state machines. The new state machine feature in VML 2.1 allows the creation of sophisticated autonomous reactive systems without the need to develop expensive flight software. Users specify named states and transitions, along with the truth conditions required, before taking transitions. Transitions with the same signal name allow separate state machines to coordinate actions: the conditions distributed across all state machines necessary to arm a particular signal are evaluated, and once found true, that

  12. Pattern recognition & machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Anzai, Y

    1992-01-01

    This is the first text to provide a unified and self-contained introduction to visual pattern recognition and machine learning. It is useful as a general introduction to artifical intelligence and knowledge engineering, and no previous knowledge of pattern recognition or machine learning is necessary. Basic for various pattern recognition and machine learning methods. Translated from Japanese, the book also features chapter exercises, keywords, and summaries.

  13. Support vector machines applications

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Guodong

    2014-01-01

    Support vector machines (SVM) have both a solid mathematical background and good performance in practical applications. This book focuses on the recent advances and applications of the SVM in different areas, such as image processing, medical practice, computer vision, pattern recognition, machine learning, applied statistics, business intelligence, and artificial intelligence. The aim of this book is to create a comprehensive source on support vector machine applications, especially some recent advances.

  14. The Newest Machine Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Yeong Seop; Choe, Byeong Do; Bang, Meong Sung

    2005-08-01

    This book gives descriptions of machine material with classification of machine material and selection of machine material, structure and connection of material, coagulation of metal and crystal structure, equilibrium diagram, properties of metal material, elasticity and plasticity, biopsy of metal, material test and nondestructive test. It also explains steel material such as heat treatment of steel, cast iron and cast steel, nonferrous metal materials, non metallic materials, and new materials.

  15. Introduction to machine learning

    OpenAIRE

    Baştanlar, Yalın; Özuysal, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    The machine learning field, which can be briefly defined as enabling computers make successful predictions using past experiences, has exhibited an impressive development recently with the help of the rapid increase in the storage capacity and processing power of computers. Together with many other disciplines, machine learning methods have been widely employed in bioinformatics. The difficulties and cost of biological analyses have led to the development of sophisticated machine learning app...

  16. Machinability of advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Davim, J Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Machinability of Advanced Materials addresses the level of difficulty involved in machining a material, or multiple materials, with the appropriate tooling and cutting parameters.  A variety of factors determine a material's machinability, including tool life rate, cutting forces and power consumption, surface integrity, limiting rate of metal removal, and chip shape. These topics, among others, and multiple examples comprise this research resource for engineering students, academics, and practitioners.

  17. Machining of titanium alloys

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a collection of examples illustrating the resent research advances in the machining of titanium alloys. These materials have excellent strength and fracture toughness as well as low density and good corrosion resistance; however, machinability is still poor due to their low thermal conductivity and high chemical reactivity with cutting tool materials. This book presents solutions to enhance machinability in titanium-based alloys and serves as a useful reference to professionals and researchers in aerospace, automotive and biomedical fields.

  18. Assessment of implicit self-esteem in bipolar manic and euthymic patients using the implicit association test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Young; Ryu, Vin; Ha, Ra Yeon; Lee, Su Jin; Choi, Won-Jung; Ha, Kyooseob; Cho, Hyun-Sang

    2014-04-01

    Although self-esteem is thought to be an important psychological factor in bipolar disorder, little is known about implicit and explicit self-esteem in manic patients. In this study, we investigated differences in implicit and explicit self-esteem among bipolar manic patients, bipolar euthymic patients, and healthy controls using the Implicit Association Test (IAT). Participants included 19 manic patients, 27 euthymic patients, and 27 healthy controls. Participants completed a self-esteem scale to evaluate explicit self-esteem and performed the self-esteem IAT to evaluate implicit self-esteem. There were no differences among groups in explicit self-esteem. However, there were significant differences among groups in implicit self-esteem. Manic patients had higher IAT scores than euthymic patients and a trend toward higher IAT scores than healthy controls. Our findings suggest that, on the latent level, a manic state is not simply the opposite of a depressed state. Furthermore, there may be a discontinuity of implicit self-esteem between manic and euthymic states. These unexpected results may be due to characteristics of the study participants or the methods used to assess implicit self-esteem. Nevertheless, they provide greater insights on the psychological status of manic patients. © 2014.

  19. Fiber Laser Array

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simpson, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    ...., field-dependent, loss within the coupled laser array. During this program, Jaycor focused on the construction and use of an experimental apparatus that can be used to investigate the coherent combination of an array of fiber lasers...

  20. Tribology in machine design

    CERN Document Server

    Stolarski, Tadeusz

    1999-01-01

    ""Tribology in Machine Design is strongly recommended for machine designers, and engineers and scientists interested in tribology. It should be in the engineering library of companies producing mechanical equipment.""Applied Mechanics ReviewTribology in Machine Design explains the role of tribology in the design of machine elements. It shows how algorithms developed from the basic principles of tribology can be used in a range of practical applications within mechanical devices and systems.The computer offers today's designer the possibility of greater stringen

  1. Induction machine handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2002-01-01

    Often called the workhorse of industry, the advent of power electronics and advances in digital control are transforming the induction motor into the racehorse of industrial motion control. Now, the classic texts on induction machines are nearly three decades old, while more recent books on electric motors lack the necessary depth and detail on induction machines.The Induction Machine Handbook fills industry's long-standing need for a comprehensive treatise embracing the many intricate facets of induction machine analysis and design. Moving gradually from simple to complex and from standard to

  2. Chaotic Boltzmann machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hideyuki; Imura, Jun-ichi; Horio, Yoshihiko; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    The chaotic Boltzmann machine proposed in this paper is a chaotic pseudo-billiard system that works as a Boltzmann machine. Chaotic Boltzmann machines are shown numerically to have computing abilities comparable to conventional (stochastic) Boltzmann machines. Since no randomness is required, efficient hardware implementation is expected. Moreover, the ferromagnetic phase transition of the Ising model is shown to be characterised by the largest Lyapunov exponent of the proposed system. In general, a method to relate probabilistic models to nonlinear dynamics by derandomising Gibbs sampling is presented. PMID:23558425

  3. Electrical machines & drives

    CERN Document Server

    Hammond, P

    1985-01-01

    Containing approximately 200 problems (100 worked), the text covers a wide range of topics concerning electrical machines, placing particular emphasis upon electrical-machine drive applications. The theory is concisely reviewed and focuses on features common to all machine types. The problems are arranged in order of increasing levels of complexity and discussions of the solutions are included where appropriate to illustrate the engineering implications. This second edition includes an important new chapter on mathematical and computer simulation of machine systems and revised discussions o

  4. Nanocomposites for Machining Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Sidorenko

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Machining tools are used in many areas of production. To a considerable extent, the performance characteristics of the tools determine the quality and cost of obtained products. The main materials used for producing machining tools are steel, cemented carbides, ceramics and superhard materials. A promising way to improve the performance characteristics of these materials is to design new nanocomposites based on them. The application of micromechanical modeling during the elaboration of composite materials for machining tools can reduce the financial and time costs for development of new tools, with enhanced performance. This article reviews the main groups of nanocomposites for machining tools and their performance.

  5. Machine listening intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cella, C. E.

    2017-05-01

    This manifesto paper will introduce machine listening intelligence, an integrated research framework for acoustic and musical signals modelling, based on signal processing, deep learning and computational musicology.

  6. Machine learning with R

    CERN Document Server

    Lantz, Brett

    2013-01-01

    Written as a tutorial to explore and understand the power of R for machine learning. This practical guide that covers all of the need to know topics in a very systematic way. For each machine learning approach, each step in the process is detailed, from preparing the data for analysis to evaluating the results. These steps will build the knowledge you need to apply them to your own data science tasks.Intended for those who want to learn how to use R's machine learning capabilities and gain insight from your data. Perhaps you already know a bit about machine learning, but have never used R; or

  7. Rotating electrical machines

    CERN Document Server

    Le Doeuff, René

    2013-01-01

    In this book a general matrix-based approach to modeling electrical machines is promulgated. The model uses instantaneous quantities for key variables and enables the user to easily take into account associations between rotating machines and static converters (such as in variable speed drives).   General equations of electromechanical energy conversion are established early in the treatment of the topic and then applied to synchronous, induction and DC machines. The primary characteristics of these machines are established for steady state behavior as well as for variable speed scenarios. I

  8. Source localization in an ocean waveguide using supervised machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Haiqiang; Reeves, Emma; Gerstoft, Peter

    2017-09-01

    Source localization in ocean acoustics is posed as a machine learning problem in which data-driven methods learn source ranges directly from observed acoustic data. The pressure received by a vertical linear array is preprocessed by constructing a normalized sample covariance matrix and used as the input for three machine learning methods: feed-forward neural networks (FNN), support vector machines (SVM), and random forests (RF). The range estimation problem is solved both as a classification problem and as a regression problem by these three machine learning algorithms. The results of range estimation for the Noise09 experiment are compared for FNN, SVM, RF, and conventional matched-field processing and demonstrate the potential of machine learning for underwater source localization.

  9. Are there intelligent Turing machines?

    OpenAIRE

    Bátfai, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a new computing model based on the cooperation among Turing machines called orchestrated machines. Like universal Turing machines, orchestrated machines are also designed to simulate Turing machines but they can also modify the original operation of the included Turing machines to create a new layer of some kind of collective behavior. Using this new model we can define some interested notions related to cooperation ability of Turing machines such as the intelligence quo...

  10. Diagonalization of complex symmetric matrices: Generalized Householder reflections, iterative deflation and implicit shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, J. H.; Lubasch, M.; Stevens, J.; Jentschura, U. D.

    2017-12-01

    We describe a matrix diagonalization algorithm for complex symmetric (not Hermitian) matrices, A ̲ =A̲T, which is based on a two-step algorithm involving generalized Householder reflections based on the indefinite inner product 〈 u ̲ , v ̲ 〉 ∗ =∑iuivi. This inner product is linear in both arguments and avoids complex conjugation. The complex symmetric input matrix is transformed to tridiagonal form using generalized Householder transformations (first step). An iterative, generalized QL decomposition of the tridiagonal matrix employing an implicit shift converges toward diagonal form (second step). The QL algorithm employs iterative deflation techniques when a machine-precision zero is encountered "prematurely" on the super-/sub-diagonal. The algorithm allows for a reliable and computationally efficient computation of resonance and antiresonance energies which emerge from complex-scaled Hamiltonians, and for the numerical determination of the real energy eigenvalues of pseudo-Hermitian and PT-symmetric Hamilton matrices. Numerical reference values are provided.

  11. Moderators of the Relationship between Implicit and Explicit Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosek, Brian A.

    2005-01-01

    Automatic and controlled modes of evaluation sometimes provide conflicting reports of the quality of social objects. This paper presents evidence for four moderators of the relationship between automatic (implicit) and controlled (explicit) evaluations. Implicit and explicit preferences were measured for a variety of object pairs using a large sample. The average correlation was r = .36, and 52 of the 57 object pairs showed a significant positive correlation. Results of multilevel modeling analyses suggested that: (a) implicit and explicit preferences are related, (b) the relationship varies as a function of the objects assessed, and (c) at least four variables moderate the relationship – self-presentation, evaluative strength, dimensionality, and distinctiveness. The variables moderated implicit-explicit correspondence across individuals and accounted for much of the observed variation across content domains. The resulting model of the relationship between automatic and controlled evaluative processes is grounded in personal experience with the targets of evaluation. PMID:16316292

  12. Skepticism: Genuine unbelief or implicit beliefs in the supernatural?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Marjaana; Svedholm-Häkkinen, Annika M; Riekki, Tapani

    2016-05-01

    We examined whether skeptics hold implicit supernatural beliefs or implicit cognitive underpinnings of the beliefs. In study 1 (N=57), participants read a biological or a religious story about death. The story content had no effect on skeptics' (or believers') afterlife beliefs. Study 2 examined the relationships between religious and non-religious paranormal beliefs and implicit views about whether supernatural and religious phenomena are imaginary or real (n1=33, n2=31). The less supernatural beliefs were endorsed the easier it was to connect "supernatural" with "imaginary". Study 3 (N=63) investigated whether participants' supernatural beliefs and ontological confusions differ between speeded and non-speeded response conditions. Only non-analytical skeptics' ontological confusions increased in speeded conditions. The results indicate that skeptics overall do not hold implicit supernatural beliefs, but that non-analytically thinking skeptics may, under supporting conditions, be prone to biases that predispose to supernatural beliefs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Implicit visual learning and the expression of learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Hilde; Eberhardt, Katharina; Kunde, Alexander; Rose, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Although the existence of implicit motor learning is now widely accepted, the findings concerning perceptual implicit learning are ambiguous. Some researchers have observed perceptual learning whereas other authors have not. The review of the literature provides different reasons to explain this ambiguous picture, such as differences in the underlying learning processes, selective attention, or differences in the difficulty to express this knowledge. In three experiments, we investigated implicit visual learning within the original serial reaction time task. We used different response devices (keyboard vs. mouse) in order to manipulate selective attention towards response dimensions. Results showed that visual and motor sequence learning differed in terms of RT-benefits, but not in terms of the amount of knowledge assessed after training. Furthermore, visual sequence learning was modulated by selective attention. However, the findings of all three experiments suggest that selective attention did not alter implicit but rather explicit learning processes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Environmental context effects in conceptual explicit and implicit memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Andrew; Dagnall, Neil; Coyle, Anne-Marie

    2007-05-01

    Previous research has found environmental context effects for both conceptual explicit and conceptual implicit memory (Parker, Gellatly, & Waterman, 1999). The research presented here challenges these findings on methodological grounds. Experiment 1 assessed the effects of context change on category-exemplar generation (conceptual implicit memory test) and category-cued recall (conceptual explicit memory test). Experiment 2 assessed the effects of context change on word association (conceptual implicit memory test) and word associate cued recall (conceptual explicit memory test). In both experiments, study-test changes in environmental context were found to influence performance only on tests of explicit memory. It is concluded that when retrieval cues across explicit and implicit tests are matched, and the probability of explicit contamination is reduced, then only conceptual explicit test performance is reduced by study-test changes in environmental context.

  15. An implicit non-staggered Cartesian grid method for incompressible ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Immersed boundary; non-staggered; implicit; viscous flow. 1. ... functions for elastic boundaries (Saiki & Biringen 1996; Lai & Peskin 2000; Zhu & Peskin ... the effects of pressure and thereby explicitly achieving a strong coupling between them.

  16. Implicit Methods for the Magnetohydrodynamic Description of Magnetically Confined Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardin, S C

    2010-09-28

    Implicit algorithms are essential for predicting the slow growth and saturation of global instabilities in today’s magnetically confined fusion plasma experiments. Present day algorithms for obtaining implicit solutions to the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations for highly magnetized plasma have their roots in algorithms used in the 1960s and 1970s. However, today’s computers and modern linear and non-linear solver techniques make practical much more comprehensive implicit algorithms than were previously possible. Combining these advanced implicit algorithms with highly accurate spatial representations of the vector fields describing the plasma flow and magnetic fields and with improved methods of calculating anisotropic thermal conduction now makes possible simulations of fusion experiments using realistic values of plasma parameters and actual configuration geometry.

  17. Implicit Methods for the Magnetohydrodynamic Description of Magnetically Confined Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardin, S.C.

    2010-01-01

    Implicit algorithms are essential for predicting the slow growth and saturation of global instabilities in today's magnetically confined fusion plasma experiments. Present day algorithms for obtaining implicit solutions to the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations for highly magnetized plasma have their roots in algorithms used in the 1960s and 1970s. However, today's computers and modern linear and non-linear solver techniques make practical much more comprehensive implicit algorithms than were previously possible. Combining these advanced implicit algorithms with highly accurate spatial representations of the vector fields describing the plasma flow and magnetic fields and with improved methods of calculating anisotropic thermal conduction now makes possible simulations of fusion experiments using realistic values of plasma parameters and actual configuration geometry.

  18. Explicit and Implicit Approach Motivation Interact to Predict Interpersonal Arrogance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Michael D.; Ode, Scott; Spencer L., Palder; Fetterman, Adam K.

    2012-01-01

    Self-reports of approach motivation are unlikely to be sufficient in understanding the extent to which the individual reacts to appetitive cues in an approach-related manner. A novel implicit probe of approach tendencies was thus developed, one that assessed the extent to which positive affective (versus neutral) stimuli primed larger size estimates, as larger perceptual sizes co-occur with locomotion toward objects in the environment. In two studies (total N = 150), self-reports of approach motivation interacted with this implicit probe of approach motivation to predict individual differences in arrogance, a broad interpersonal dimension previously linked to narcissism, antisocial personality tendencies, and aggression. The results of the two studies were highly parallel in that self-reported levels of approach motivation predicted interpersonal arrogance in the particular context of high, but not low, levels of implicit approach motivation. Implications for understanding approach motivation, implicit probes of it, and problematic approach-related outcomes are discussed. PMID:22399360

  19. Negative affect reduces performance in implicit sequence learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junchen Shang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is well documented that positive rather than negative moods encourage integrative processing of conscious information. However, the extent to which implicit or unconscious learning can be influenced by affective states remains unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A Serial Reaction Time (SRT task with sequence structures requiring integration over past trials was adopted to examine the effect of affective states on implicit learning. Music was used to induce and maintain positive and negative affective states. The present study showed that participants in negative rather than positive states learned less of the regularity. Moreover, the knowledge was shown by a Bayesian analysis to be largely unconscious as participants were poor at recognizing the regularity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results demonstrated that negative rather than positive affect inhibited implicit learning of complex structures. Our findings help to understand the effects of affective states on unconscious or implicit processing.

  20. Explicit and implicit approach motivation interact to predict interpersonal arrogance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Michael D; Ode, Scott; Palder, Spencer L; Fetterman, Adam K

    2012-07-01

    Self-reports of approach motivation are unlikely to be sufficient in understanding the extent to which the individual reacts to appetitive cues in an approach-related manner. A novel implicit probe of approach tendencies was thus developed, one that assessed the extent to which positive affective (versus neutral) stimuli primed larger size estimates, as larger perceptual sizes co-occur with locomotion toward objects in the environment. In two studies (total N = 150), self-reports of approach motivation interacted with this implicit probe of approach motivation to predict individual differences in arrogance, a broad interpersonal dimension previously linked to narcissism, antisocial personality tendencies, and aggression. The results of the two studies were highly parallel in that self-reported levels of approach motivation predicted interpersonal arrogance in the particular context of high, but not low, levels of implicit approach motivation. Implications for understanding approach motivation, implicit probes of it, and problematic approach-related outcomes are discussed.

  1. A parallel nearly implicit time-stepping scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Botchev, Mike A.; van der Vorst, Henk A.

    2001-01-01

    Across-the-space parallelism still remains the most mature, convenient and natural way to parallelize large scale problems. One of the major problems here is that implicit time stepping is often difficult to parallelize due to the structure of the system. Approximate implicit schemes have been suggested to circumvent the problem. These schemes have attractive stability properties and they are also very well parallelizable. The purpose of this article is to give an overall assessment of the pa...

  2. Implicit methods for the Navier-Stokes equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, S.; Kwak, D.

    1990-01-01

    Numerical solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations using explicit schemes can be obtained at the expense of efficiency. Conventional implicit methods which often achieve fast convergence rates suffer high cost per iteration. A new implicit scheme based on lower-upper factorization and symmetric Gauss-Seidel relaxation offers very low cost per iteration as well as fast convergence. High efficiency is achieved by accomplishing the complete vectorizability of the algorithm on oblique planes of sweep in three dimensions.

  3. Effects of Divided Attention at Retrieval on Conceptual Implicit Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Prull, Matthew W.; Lawless, Courtney; Marshall, Helen M.; Sherman, Annabella T. K.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether conceptual implicit memory is sensitive to process-specific interference at the time of retrieval. Participants performed the implicit memory test of category exemplar generation (Experiments 1 and 3), or the matched explicit memory test of category-cued recall (Experiment 2), both of which are conceptually-driven memory tasks, under one of two divided attention (DA) conditions in which participants simultaneously performed a distracting task. The distracting...

  4. Data simulation in machine olfaction with the R package chemosensors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Ziyatdinov

    Full Text Available In machine olfaction, the design of applications based on gas sensor arrays is highly dependent on the robustness of the signal and data processing algorithms. While the practice of testing the algorithms on public benchmarks is not common in the field, we propose software for performing data simulations in the machine olfaction field by generating parameterized sensor array data. The software is implemented as an R language package chemosensors which is open-access, platform-independent and self-contained. We introduce the concept of a virtual sensor array which can be used as a data generation tool. In this work, we describe the data simulation workflow which basically consists of scenario definition, virtual array parameterization and the generation of sensor array data. We also give examples of the processing of the simulated data as proof of concept for the parameterized sensor array data: the benchmarking of classification algorithms, the evaluation of linear- and non-linear regression algorithms, and the biologically inspired processing of sensor array data. All the results presented were obtained under version 0.7.6 of the chemosensors package whose home page is chemosensors.r-forge.r-project.org.

  5. Microsoft Azure machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Mund, Sumit

    2015-01-01

    The book is intended for those who want to learn how to use Azure Machine Learning. Perhaps you already know a bit about Machine Learning, but have never used ML Studio in Azure; or perhaps you are an absolute newbie. In either case, this book will get you up-and-running quickly.

  6. The Hooey Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarnati, James T.; Tice, Craig J.

    1992-01-01

    Describes how students can make and use Hooey Machines to learn how mechanical energy can be transferred from one object to another within a system. The Hooey Machine is made using a pencil, eight thumbtacks, one pushpin, tape, scissors, graph paper, and a plastic lid. (PR)

  7. Nanocomposites for Machining Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidorenko, Daria; Loginov, Pavel; Mishnaevsky, Leon

    2017-01-01

    Machining tools are used in many areas of production. To a considerable extent, the performance characteristics of the tools determine the quality and cost of obtained products. The main materials used for producing machining tools are steel, cemented carbides, ceramics and superhard materials...

  8. A nucleonic weighing machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The design and operation of a nucleonic weighing machine fabricated for continuous weighing of material over conveyor belt are described. The machine uses a 40 mCi cesium-137 line source and a 10 litre capacity ionization chamber. It is easy to maintain as there are no moving parts. It can also be easily removed and reinstalled. (M.G.B.)

  9. An asymptotical machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristallini, Achille

    2016-07-01

    A new and intriguing machine may be obtained replacing the moving pulley of a gun tackle with a fixed point in the rope. Its most important feature is the asymptotic efficiency. Here we obtain a satisfactory description of this machine by means of vector calculus and elementary trigonometry. The mathematical model has been compared with experimental data and briefly discussed.

  10. Machine learning with R

    CERN Document Server

    Lantz, Brett

    2015-01-01

    Perhaps you already know a bit about machine learning but have never used R, or perhaps you know a little R but are new to machine learning. In either case, this book will get you up and running quickly. It would be helpful to have a bit of familiarity with basic programming concepts, but no prior experience is required.

  11. The deleuzian abstract machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner Petersen, Erik

    2005-01-01

    To most people the concept of abstract machines is connected to the name of Alan Turing and the development of the modern computer. The Turing machine is universal, axiomatic and symbolic (E.g. operating on symbols). Inspired by Foucault, Deleuze and Guattari extended the concept of abstract...

  12. Human Machine Learning Symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kenneth R.; Hoque, Md Tamjidul; Williams, Kim H.

    2017-01-01

    Human Machine Learning Symbiosis is a cooperative system where both the human learner and the machine learner learn from each other to create an effective and efficient learning environment adapted to the needs of the human learner. Such a system can be used in online learning modules so that the modules adapt to each learner's learning state both…

  13. A Cache-Oblivious Implicit Dictionary with the Working Set Property

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Kejlberg-Rasmussen, Casper; Truelsen, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present an implicit dictionary with the working set property i.e. a dictionary supporting \\op{insert}($e$), \\op{delete}($x$) and \\op{predecessor}($x$) in~$\\O(\\log n)$ time and \\op{search}($x$) in $\\O(\\log\\ell)$ time, where $n$ is the number of elements stored in the dictionary...... and $\\ell$ is the number of distinct elements searched for since the element with key~$x$ was last searched for. The dictionary stores the elements in an array of size~$n$ using \\emph{no} additional space. In the cache-oblivious model the operations \\op{insert}($e$), \\op{delete}($x$) and \\op...

  14. White and Black American Children’s Implicit Intergroup Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newheiser, Anna-Kaisa; Olson, Kristina R.

    2011-01-01

    Despite a decline in explicit prejudice, adults and children from majority groups (e.g., White Americans) often express bias implicitly, as assessed by the Implicit Association Test. In contrast, minority-group (e.g., Black American) adults on average show no bias on the IAT. In the present research, representing the first empirical investigation of whether Black children’s IAT responses parallel those of Black adults, we examined implicit bias in 7–11-year-old White and Black American children. Replicating previous findings with adults, whereas White children showed a robust ingroup bias, Black children showed no bias. Additionally, we investigated the role of valuing status in the development of implicit bias. For Black children, explicit preference for high status predicted implicit outgroup bias: Black children who explicitly expressed high preference for rich (vs. poor) people showed an implicit preference for Whites comparable in magnitude to White children’s ingroup bias. Implications for research on intergroup bias are discussed. PMID:22184478

  15. The explicit and implicit dance in psychoanalytic change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosshage, James L

    2004-02-01

    How the implicit/non-declarative and explicit/declarative cognitive domains interact is centrally important in the consideration of effecting change within the psychoanalytic arena. Stern et al. (1998) declare that long-lasting change occurs in the domain of implicit relational knowledge. In the view of this author, the implicit and explicit domains are intricately intertwined in an interactive dance within a psychoanalytic process. The author views that a spirit of inquiry (Lichtenberg, Lachmann & Fosshage 2002) serves as the foundation of the psychoanalytic process. Analyst and patient strive to explore, understand and communicate and, thereby, create a 'spirit' of interaction that contributes, through gradual incremental learning, to new implicit relational knowledge. This spirit, as part of the implicit relational interaction, is a cornerstone of the analytic relationship. The 'inquiry' more directly brings explicit/declarative processing to the foreground in the joint attempt to explore and understand. The spirit of inquiry in the psychoanalytic arena highlights both the autobiographical scenarios of the explicit memory system and the mental models of the implicit memory system as each contributes to a sense of self, other, and self with other. This process facilitates the extrication and suspension of the old models, so that new models based on current relational experience can be gradually integrated into both memory systems for lasting change.

  16. Precision machining commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    To accelerate precision machining development so as to realize more of the potential savings within the next few years of known Department of Defense (DOD) part procurement, the Air Force Materials Laboratory (AFML) is sponsoring the Precision Machining Commercialization Project (PMC). PMC is part of the Tri-Service Precision Machine Tool Program of the DOD Manufacturing Technology Five-Year Plan. The technical resources supporting PMC are provided under sponsorship of the Department of Energy (DOE). The goal of PMC is to minimize precision machining development time and cost risk for interested vendors. PMC will do this by making available the high precision machining technology as developed in two DOE contractor facilities, the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory of the University of California and the Union Carbide Corporation, Nuclear Division, Y-12 Plant, at Oak Ridge, Tennessee

  17. Introduction to machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baştanlar, Yalin; Ozuysal, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    The machine learning field, which can be briefly defined as enabling computers make successful predictions using past experiences, has exhibited an impressive development recently with the help of the rapid increase in the storage capacity and processing power of computers. Together with many other disciplines, machine learning methods have been widely employed in bioinformatics. The difficulties and cost of biological analyses have led to the development of sophisticated machine learning approaches for this application area. In this chapter, we first review the fundamental concepts of machine learning such as feature assessment, unsupervised versus supervised learning and types of classification. Then, we point out the main issues of designing machine learning experiments and their performance evaluation. Finally, we introduce some supervised learning methods.

  18. LHC Report: machine development

    CERN Multimedia

    Rogelio Tomás García for the LHC team

    2015-01-01

    Machine development weeks are carefully planned in the LHC operation schedule to optimise and further study the performance of the machine. The first machine development session of Run 2 ended on Saturday, 25 July. Despite various hiccoughs, it allowed the operators to make great strides towards improving the long-term performance of the LHC.   The main goals of this first machine development (MD) week were to determine the minimum beam-spot size at the interaction points given existing optics and collimation constraints; to test new beam instrumentation; to evaluate the effectiveness of performing part of the beam-squeezing process during the energy ramp; and to explore the limits on the number of protons per bunch arising from the electromagnetic interactions with the accelerator environment and the other beam. Unfortunately, a series of events reduced the machine availability for studies to about 50%. The most critical issue was the recurrent trip of a sextupolar corrector circuit –...

  19. Machine Learning-based Intelligent Formal Reasoning and Proving System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shengqing; Huang, Xiaojian; Fang, Jiaze; Liang, Jia

    2018-03-01

    The reasoning system can be used in many fields. How to improve reasoning efficiency is the core of the design of system. Through the formal description of formal proof and the regular matching algorithm, after introducing the machine learning algorithm, the system of intelligent formal reasoning and verification has high efficiency. The experimental results show that the system can verify the correctness of propositional logic reasoning and reuse the propositional logical reasoning results, so as to obtain the implicit knowledge in the knowledge base and provide the basic reasoning model for the construction of intelligent system.

  20. Making the implicit explicit: A look inside the implicit discount rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleich, Joachim; Gassmann, Xavier; Faure, Corinne; Meissner, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Implicit discount rates (IDRs) are employed in energy models to capture household investment decisions, yet the factors behind the IDR and their respective implications for policy-making usually remain blurred and fractional. The proposed comprehensive framework distinguishes three broad categories of factors underlying the IDR for household adoption of energy-efficient technologies (EETs): preferences (notably over time, risk, loss, debt, and the environment), predictable (ir)rational behavior (bounded rationality, rational inattention, behavioral biases), and external barriers to energy efficiency. Existing empirical findings suggest that the factors underlying the IDRs that differ across household characteristics and technologies should be accounted for in energy models. Furthermore, the framework allows for a fresh look at the interplay of IDRs and policies. We argue that a simple observation of high IDRs (or observing correlations between IDRs and socio-economic characteristics) does not provide guidance for policy-making since the underlying sources cannot be identified. Instead, we propose that some of the factors underlying the IDR - notably external barriers - can be changed (through directed policy interventions) whereas other factors - notably preferences and predictable (ir)rational behavior - are innate and can only be taken into account (through reactive policy interventions). - Highlights: • Implicit discount rates (IDRs) reflect preferences, predictable (ir)rational behaviors and external barriers. • The factors underlying the IDRs can be used to design directed and reactive policies. • IDRs in energy models should vary by household and technology characteristics.

  1. Academic Publishing: Making the Implicit Explicit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecile Badenhorst

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available For doctoral students, publishing in peer-reviewed journals is a task many face with anxiety and trepidation. The world of publishing, from choosing a journal, negotiating with editors and navigating reviewers’ responses is a bewildering place. Looking in from the outside, it seems that successful and productive academic writers have knowledge that is inaccessible to novice scholars. While there is a growing literature on writing for scholarly publication, many of these publications promote writing and publishing as a straightforward activity that anyone can achieve if they follow the rules. We argue that the specific and situated contexts in which academic writers negotiate publishing practices is more complicated and messy. In this paper, we attempt to make explicit our publishing processes to highlight the complex nature of publishing. We use autoethnographic narratives to provide discussion points and insights into the challenges of publishing peer reviewed articles. One narrative is by a doctoral student at the beginning of her publishing career, who expresses her desires, concerns and anxieties about writing for publication. The other narrative focuses on the publishing practices of a more experienced academic writer. Both are international scholars working in the Canadian context. The purpose of this paper is to explore academic publishing through the juxtaposition of these two narratives to make explicit some of the more implicit processes. Four themes emerge from these narratives. To publish successfully, academic writers need: (1 to be discourse analysts; (2 to have a critical competence; (3 to have writing fluency; and (4 to be emotionally intelligent.

  2. Not explicit but implicit memory is influenced by individual perception style

    OpenAIRE

    Hine, Kyoko; Tsushima, Yoshiaki

    2018-01-01

    Not only explicit but also implicit memory has considerable influence on our daily life. However, it is still unclear whether explicit and implicit memories are sensitive to individual differences. Here, we investigated how individual perception style (global or local) correlates with implicit and explicit memory. As a result, we found that not explicit but implicit memory was affected by the perception style: local perception style people more greatly used implicit memory than global percept...

  3. Interaction between scene-based and array-based contextual cueing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Gail M; Jiang, Yuhong V

    2013-07-01

    Contextual cueing refers to the cueing of spatial attention by repeated spatial context. Previous studies have demonstrated distinctive properties of contextual cueing by background scenes and by an array of search items. Whereas scene-based contextual cueing reflects explicit learning of the scene-target association, array-based contextual cueing is supported primarily by implicit learning. In this study, we investigated the interaction between scene-based and array-based contextual cueing. Participants searched for a target that was predicted by both the background scene and the locations of distractor items. We tested three possible patterns of interaction: (1) The scene and the array could be learned independently, in which case cueing should be expressed even when only one cue was preserved; (2) the scene and array could be learned jointly, in which case cueing should occur only when both cues were preserved; (3) overshadowing might occur, in which case learning of the stronger cue should preclude learning of the weaker cue. In several experiments, we manipulated the nature of the contextual cues present during training and testing. We also tested explicit awareness of scenes, scene-target associations, and arrays. The results supported the overshadowing account: Specifically, scene-based contextual cueing precluded array-based contextual cueing when both were predictive of the location of a search target. We suggest that explicit, endogenous cues dominate over implicit cues in guiding spatial attention.

  4. Machine Learning and Radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shijun; Summers, Ronald M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we give a short introduction to machine learning and survey its applications in radiology. We focused on six categories of applications in radiology: medical image segmentation, registration, computer aided detection and diagnosis, brain function or activity analysis and neurological disease diagnosis from fMR images, content-based image retrieval systems for CT or MRI images, and text analysis of radiology reports using natural language processing (NLP) and natural language understanding (NLU). This survey shows that machine learning plays a key role in many radiology applications. Machine learning identifies complex patterns automatically and helps radiologists make intelligent decisions on radiology data such as conventional radiographs, CT, MRI, and PET images and radiology reports. In many applications, the performance of machine learning-based automatic detection and diagnosis systems has shown to be comparable to that of a well-trained and experienced radiologist. Technology development in machine learning and radiology will benefit from each other in the long run. Key contributions and common characteristics of machine learning techniques in radiology are discussed. We also discuss the problem of translating machine learning applications to the radiology clinical setting, including advantages and potential barriers. PMID:22465077

  5. Machine learning and radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shijun; Summers, Ronald M

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we give a short introduction to machine learning and survey its applications in radiology. We focused on six categories of applications in radiology: medical image segmentation, registration, computer aided detection and diagnosis, brain function or activity analysis and neurological disease diagnosis from fMR images, content-based image retrieval systems for CT or MRI images, and text analysis of radiology reports using natural language processing (NLP) and natural language understanding (NLU). This survey shows that machine learning plays a key role in many radiology applications. Machine learning identifies complex patterns automatically and helps radiologists make intelligent decisions on radiology data such as conventional radiographs, CT, MRI, and PET images and radiology reports. In many applications, the performance of machine learning-based automatic detection and diagnosis systems has shown to be comparable to that of a well-trained and experienced radiologist. Technology development in machine learning and radiology will benefit from each other in the long run. Key contributions and common characteristics of machine learning techniques in radiology are discussed. We also discuss the problem of translating machine learning applications to the radiology clinical setting, including advantages and potential barriers. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. DNA-based machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fuan; Willner, Bilha; Willner, Itamar

    2014-01-01

    The base sequence in nucleic acids encodes substantial structural and functional information into the biopolymer. This encoded information provides the basis for the tailoring and assembly of DNA machines. A DNA machine is defined as a molecular device that exhibits the following fundamental features. (1) It performs a fuel-driven mechanical process that mimics macroscopic machines. (2) The mechanical process requires an energy input, "fuel." (3) The mechanical operation is accompanied by an energy consumption process that leads to "waste products." (4) The cyclic operation of the DNA devices, involves the use of "fuel" and "anti-fuel" ingredients. A variety of DNA-based machines are described, including the construction of "tweezers," "walkers," "robots," "cranes," "transporters," "springs," "gears," and interlocked cyclic DNA structures acting as reconfigurable catenanes, rotaxanes, and rotors. Different "fuels", such as nucleic acid strands, pH (H⁺/OH⁻), metal ions, and light, are used to trigger the mechanical functions of the DNA devices. The operation of the devices in solution and on surfaces is described, and a variety of optical, electrical, and photoelectrochemical methods to follow the operations of the DNA machines are presented. We further address the possible applications of DNA machines and the future perspectives of molecular DNA devices. These include the application of DNA machines as functional structures for the construction of logic gates and computing, for the programmed organization of metallic nanoparticle structures and the control of plasmonic properties, and for controlling chemical transformations by DNA machines. We further discuss the future applications of DNA machines for intracellular sensing, controlling intracellular metabolic pathways, and the use of the functional nanostructures for drug delivery and medical applications.

  7. Performance of solar photovoltaic array fed water pumping system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the design and performance analysis of a solar photovoltaic (SPV) array fed water pumping system utilizing a special class of highly rugged machine with simple drive system called switched reluctance motor (SRM) drive. The proposed method of water pumping system also provides the cost effective ...

  8. Silicon monolithic microchannel-cooled laser diode array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skidmore, J. A.; Freitas, B. L.; Crawford, J.; Satariano, J.; Utterback, E.; DiMercurio, L.; Cutter, K.; Sutton, S.

    2000-01-01

    A monolithic microchannel-cooled laser diode array is demonstrated that allows multiple diode-bar mounting with negligible thermal cross talk. The heat sink comprises two main components: a wet-etched Si layer that is anodically bonded to a machined glass block. The continuous wave (cw) thermal resistance of the 10 bar diode array is 0.032 degree sign C/W, which matches the performance of discrete microchannel-cooled arrays. Up to 1.5 kW/cm 2 is achieved cw at an emission wavelength of ∼808 nm. Collimation of a diode array using a monolithic lens frame produced a 7.5 mrad divergence angle by a single active alignment. This diode array offers high average power/brightness in a simple, rugged, scalable architecture that is suitable for large two-dimensional areas. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  9. Battling memory requirements of array programming through streaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mads Ruben Burgdorff; Avery, James Emil; Blum, Troels

    2016-01-01

    A barrier to efficient array programming, for example in Python/NumPy, is that algorithms written as pure array operations completely without loops, while most efficient on small input, can lead to explosions in memory use. The present paper presents a solution to this problem using array streaming......, implemented in the automatic parallelization high-performance framework Bohrium. This makes it possible to use array programming in Python/NumPy code directly, even when the apparent memory requirement exceeds the machine capacity, since the automatic streaming eliminates the temporary memory overhead...... by performing calculations in per-thread registers. Using Bohrium, we automatically fuse, JIT-compile, and execute NumPy array operations on GPGPUs without modification to the user programs. We present performance evaluations of three benchmarks, all of which show dramatic reductions in memory use from...

  10. High school students' implicit theories of what facilitates science learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton Parsons, Eileen; Miles, Rhea; Petersen, Michael

    2011-11-01

    Background: Research has primarily concentrated on adults' implicit theories about high quality science education for all students. Little work has considered the students' perspective. This study investigated high school students' implicit theories about what helped them learn science. Purpose: This study addressed (1) What characterizes high school students' implicit theories of what facilitates their learning of science?; (2) With respect to students' self-classifications as African American or European American and female or male, do differences exist in the students' implicit theories? Sample, design and methods: Students in an urban high school located in south-eastern United States were surveyed in 2006 about their thoughts on what helps them learn science. To confirm or disconfirm any differences, data from two different samples were analyzed. Responses of 112 African American and 118 European American students and responses from 297 European American students comprised the data for sample one and two, respectively. Results: Seven categories emerged from the deductive and inductive analyses of data: personal responsibility, learning arrangements, interest and knowledge, communication, student mastery, environmental responsiveness, and instructional strategies. Instructional strategies captured 82% and 80% of the data from sample one and two, respectively; consequently, this category was further subjected to Mann-Whitney statistical analysis at p ethnic differences. Significant differences did not exist for ethnicity but differences between females and males in sample one and sample two emerged. Conclusions: African American and European American students' implicit theories about instructional strategies that facilitated their science learning did not significantly differ but female and male students' implicit theories about instructional strategies that helped them learn science significantly differed. Because students attend and respond to what they think

  11. Changing theories of change: strategic shifting in implicit theory endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leith, Scott A; Ward, Cindy L P; Giacomin, Miranda; Landau, Enoch S; Ehrlinger, Joyce; Wilson, Anne E

    2014-10-01

    People differ in their implicit theories about the malleability of characteristics such as intelligence and personality. These relatively chronic theories can be experimentally altered, and can be affected by parent or teacher feedback. Little is known about whether people might selectively shift their implicit beliefs in response to salient situational goals. We predicted that, when motivated to reach a desired conclusion, people might subtly shift their implicit theories of change and stability to garner supporting evidence for their desired position. Any motivated context in which a particular lay theory would help people to reach a preferred directional conclusion could elicit shifts in theory endorsement. We examine a variety of motivated situational contexts across 7 studies, finding that people's theories of change shifted in line with goals to protect self and liked others and to cast aspersions on disliked others. Studies 1-3 demonstrate how people regulate their implicit theories to manage self-view by more strongly endorsing an incremental theory after threatening performance feedback or memories of failure. Studies 4-6 revealed that people regulate the implicit theories they hold about favored and reviled political candidates, endorsing an incremental theory to forgive preferred candidates for past gaffes but leaning toward an entity theory to ensure past failings "stick" to opponents. Finally, in Study 7, people who were most threatened by a previously convicted child sex offender (i.e., parents reading about the offender moving to their neighborhood) gravitated most to the entity view that others do not change. Although chronic implicit theories are undoubtedly meaningful, this research reveals a previously unexplored source of fluidity by highlighting the active role people play in managing their implicit theories in response to goals. 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  12. Implicit versus explicit associative learning and experimentally induced placebo hypoalgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L Martin-Pichora

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Andrea L Martin-Pichora1,2, Tsipora D. Mankovsky-Arnold3, Joel Katz11Department of Psychology, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada; 2Centre for Student Development and Counseling, Ryerson University, Toronto, ON, Canada; 3Department of Psychology, McGill University, Montreal, QC, CanadaAbstract: The present study examined whether 1 placebo hypoalgesia can be generated through implicit associative learning (ie, conditioning in the absence of conscious awareness and 2 the magnitude of placebo hypoalgesia changes when expectations about pain are made explicit. The temperature of heat pain stimuli was surreptitiously lowered during conditioning trials for the placebo cream and the magnitude of the placebo effect was assessed during a subsequent set of trials when the temperature was the same for both placebo and control conditions. To assess whether placebo hypoalgesia could be generated from an implicit tactile stimulus, a 2 × 2 design was used with direction of cream application as one factor and verbal information about which cream was being applied as the second factor. A significant placebo effect was observed when participants received verbal information about which cream was being applied but not following implicit conditioning alone. However, 87.5% of those who showed a placebo response as the result of implicit conditioning were able to accurately guess the order of cream application during the final trial, despite a lack of awareness about the sensory manipulation and low confidence in their ratings, suggesting implicit learning in some participants. In summary, implicit associative learning was evident in some participants but it was not sufficient to produce a placebo effect suggesting some level of explicit expectation or cognitive mediation may be necessary. Notably, the placebo response was abolished when expectations were made explicit, suggesting a delicate interplay between attention and expectation.Keywords: placebo hypoalgesia

  13. Unilateral implicit motor learning deficit in developmental dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Hong-Yan, Bi

    2011-02-01

    It has been suggested that developmental dyslexia involves various literacy, sensory, motor skill, and processing speed deficits. Some recent studies have shown that individuals with developmental dyslexia exhibit implicit motor learning deficits, which may be related to cerebellar functioning. However, previous studies on implicit motor learning in developmental dyslexics have produced conflicting results. Findings from cerebellar lesion patients have shown that patients' implicit motor learning performance varied when different hands were used to complete tasks. This suggests that dyslexia may have different effects on implicit motor learning between the two hands if cerebellar dysfunction is involved. To specify this question, we used a one-handed version of a serial reaction time task to compare the performance of 27 Chinese children with developmental dyslexics with another 27 age-matched children without reading difficulties. All the subjects were students from two primary schools, Grades 4 to 6. The results showed that children with developmental dyslexic responded more slowly than nondyslexic children, and exhibited no implicit motor learning in the condition of left-hand response. In contrast, there was no significant difference in reaction time between two groups of children when they used the right hand to respond. This finding indicates that children with developmental dyslexia exhibited normal motor skill and implicit motor learning ability provided the right hand was used. Taken together, these results suggested that Chinese children with developmental dyslexia exhibit unilateral deficits in motor skill and implicit motor learning in the left hand. Our findings lend partial support to the cerebellar deficit theory of developmental dyslexia.

  14. Fundamentals of machine design

    CERN Document Server

    Karaszewski, Waldemar

    2011-01-01

    A forum of researchers, educators and engineers involved in various aspects of Machine Design provided the inspiration for this collection of peer-reviewed papers. The resultant dissemination of the latest research results, and the exchange of views concerning the future research directions to be taken in this field will make the work of immense value to all those having an interest in the topics covered. The book reflects the cooperative efforts made in seeking out the best strategies for effecting improvements in the quality and the reliability of machines and machine parts and for extending

  15. Machine Learning for Hackers

    CERN Document Server

    Conway, Drew

    2012-01-01

    If you're an experienced programmer interested in crunching data, this book will get you started with machine learning-a toolkit of algorithms that enables computers to train themselves to automate useful tasks. Authors Drew Conway and John Myles White help you understand machine learning and statistics tools through a series of hands-on case studies, instead of a traditional math-heavy presentation. Each chapter focuses on a specific problem in machine learning, such as classification, prediction, optimization, and recommendation. Using the R programming language, you'll learn how to analyz

  16. Creativity in Machine Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Thoma, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Recent machine learning techniques can be modified to produce creative results. Those results did not exist before; it is not a trivial combination of the data which was fed into the machine learning system. The obtained results come in multiple forms: As images, as text and as audio. This paper gives a high level overview of how they are created and gives some examples. It is meant to be a summary of the current work and give people who are new to machine learning some starting points.

  17. Machine Tool Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    A NASA-developed software package has played a part in technical education of students who major in Mechanical Engineering Technology at William Rainey Harper College. Professor Hack has been using (APT) Automatically Programmed Tool Software since 1969 in his CAD/CAM Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing curriculum. Professor Hack teaches the use of APT programming languages for control of metal cutting machines. Machine tool instructions are geometry definitions written in APT Language to constitute a "part program." The part program is processed by the machine tool. CAD/CAM students go from writing a program to cutting steel in the course of a semester.

  18. A GPU-accelerated semi-implicit fractional-step method for numerical solutions of incompressible Navier-Stokes equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Sanghyun; Park, Junshin; You, Donghyun

    2018-01-01

    Utility of the computational power of Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) is elaborated for solutions of incompressible Navier-Stokes equations which are integrated using a semi-implicit fractional-step method. The Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI) and the Fourier-transform-based direct solution methods used in the semi-implicit fractional-step method take advantage of multiple tridiagonal matrices whose inversion is known as the major bottleneck for acceleration on a typical multi-core machine. A novel implementation of the semi-implicit fractional-step method designed for GPU acceleration of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations is presented. Aspects of the programing model of Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA), which are critical to the bandwidth-bound nature of the present method are discussed in detail. A data layout for efficient use of CUDA libraries is proposed for acceleration of tridiagonal matrix inversion and fast Fourier transform. OpenMP is employed for concurrent collection of turbulence statistics on a CPU while the Navier-Stokes equations are computed on a GPU. Performance of the present method using CUDA is assessed by comparing the speed of solving three tridiagonal matrices using ADI with the speed of solving one heptadiagonal matrix using a conjugate gradient method. An overall speedup of 20 times is achieved using a Tesla K40 GPU in comparison with a single-core Xeon E5-2660 v3 CPU in simulations of turbulent boundary-layer flow over a flat plate conducted on over 134 million grids. Enhanced performance of 48 times speedup is reached for the same problem using a Tesla P100 GPU.

  19. Using the Implicit Association Test and the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure to Measure Attitudes toward Meat and Vegetables in Vegetarians and Meat-Eaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Murtagh, Louise; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; Stewart, Ian

    2010-01-01

    The current study aimed to assess the implicit attitudes of vegetarians and non-vegetarians towards meat and vegetables, using the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP). Both measures involved asking participants to respond, under time pressure, to pictures of meat or vegetables as either positive…

  20. AAA+ Machines of Protein Destruction in Mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhuwaider, Adnan Ali H; Dougan, David A

    2017-01-01

    The bacterial cytosol is a complex mixture of macromolecules (proteins, DNA, and RNA), which collectively are responsible for an enormous array of cellular tasks. Proteins are central to most, if not all, of these tasks and as such their maintenance (commonly referred to as protein homeostasis or proteostasis) is vital for cell survival during normal and stressful conditions. The two key aspects of protein homeostasis are, (i) the correct folding and assembly of proteins (coupled with their delivery to the correct cellular location) and (ii) the timely removal of unwanted or damaged proteins from the cell, which are performed by molecular chaperones and proteases, respectively. A major class of proteins that contribute to both of these tasks are the AAA+ (ATPases associated with a variety of cellular activities) protein superfamily. Although much is known about the structure of these machines and how they function in the model Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli , we are only just beginning to discover the molecular details of these machines and how they function in mycobacteria. Here we review the different AAA+ machines, that contribute to proteostasis in mycobacteria. Primarily we will focus on the recent advances in the structure and function of AAA+ proteases, the substrates they recognize and the cellular pathways they control. Finally, we will discuss the recent developments related to these machines as novel drug targets.

  1. Carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng; Lin, Yuehe; Yantasee, Wassana; Liu, Guodong; Lu, Fang; Tu, Yi

    2008-11-18

    The present invention relates to microelectode arrays (MEAs), and more particularly to carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays (CNT-NEAs) for chemical and biological sensing, and methods of use. A nanoelectrode array includes a carbon nanotube material comprising an array of substantially linear carbon nanotubes each having a proximal end and a distal end, the proximal end of the carbon nanotubes are attached to a catalyst substrate material so as to form the array with a pre-determined site density, wherein the carbon nanotubes are aligned with respect to one another within the array; an electrically insulating layer on the surface of the carbon nanotube material, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the electrically insulating layer; a second adhesive electrically insulating layer on the surface of the electrically insulating layer, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the second adhesive electrically insulating layer; and a metal wire attached to the catalyst substrate material.

  2. Josephson junction arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bindslev Hansen, J.; Lindelof, P.E.

    1985-01-01

    In this review we intend to cover recent work involving arrays of Josephson junctions. The work on such arrays falls naturally into three main areas of interest: 1. Technical applications of Josephson junction arrays for high-frequency devices. 2. Experimental studies of 2-D model systems (Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition, commensurate-incommensurate transition in frustrated (flux) lattices). 3. Investigations of phenomena associated with non-equilibrium superconductivity in and around Josephson junctions (with high current density). (orig./BUD)

  3. Phased-array radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookner, E.

    1985-02-01

    The operating principles, technology, and applications of phased-array radars are reviewed and illustrated with diagrams and photographs. Consideration is given to the antenna elements, circuitry for time delays, phase shifters, pulse coding and compression, and hybrid radars combining phased arrays with lenses to alter the beam characteristics. The capabilities and typical hardware of phased arrays are shown using the US military systems COBRA DANE and PAVE PAWS as examples.

  4. Extending the Implicit Association Test (IAT): assessing consumer attitudes based on multi-dimensional implicit associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattol, Valentin; Sääksjärvi, Maria; Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2011-01-05

    The authors present a procedural extension of the popular Implicit Association Test (IAT) that allows for indirect measurement of attitudes on multiple dimensions (e.g., safe-unsafe; young-old; innovative-conventional, etc.) rather than on a single evaluative dimension only (e.g., good-bad). In two within-subjects studies, attitudes toward three automobile brands were measured on six attribute dimensions. Emphasis was placed on evaluating the methodological appropriateness of the new procedure, providing strong evidence for its reliability, validity, and sensitivity. This new procedure yields detailed information on the multifaceted nature of brand associations that can add up to a more abstract overall attitude. Just as the IAT, its multi-dimensional extension/application (dubbed md-IAT) is suited for reliably measuring attitudes consumers may not be consciously aware of, able to express, or willing to share with the researcher.

  5. IMPLICIT DESERVINGNESS: IMPLICIT ASSOCIATION TEST FOR BELIEF IN A JUST WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Gabriel Modesto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research aim ed to develop and produc e evidence of t he validity of an I mplicit Association Test (IAT for BJW. T wo studies were developed to achieve this objective . Study 1 tested the convergent validity of a preliminary version of an IAT with an explicit measure (Global Belief in Just World Scale . The sam ple consisted of 119 participants who took part via the internet . After adjustments of the preliminary version, two IATs were developed, one for the general dimension (G - IAT and an other for the personal dimension of BJW (P - IAT . Both implicit measures and the explicit BJW measure were applied to 139 participants in a study conducted online. Both IATs demonstrated satisfactory psychometric properties and only the G - IAT correlates with the GBJWS as hypothesized.

  6. Robotic inspection of fiber reinforced composites using phased array UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetson, Jeffrey T.; De Odorico, Walter

    2014-02-01

    Ultrasound is the current NDE method of choice to inspect large fiber reinforced airframe structures. Over the last 15 years Cartesian based scanning machines using conventional ultrasound techniques have been employed by all airframe OEMs and their top tier suppliers to perform these inspections. Technical advances in both computing power and commercially available, multi-axis robots now facilitate a new generation of scanning machines. These machines use multiple end effector tools taking full advantage of phased array ultrasound technologies yielding substantial improvements in inspection quality and productivity. This paper outlines the general architecture for these new robotic scanning systems as well as details the variety of ultrasonic techniques available for use with them including advances such as wide area phased array scanning and sound field adaptation for non-flat, non-parallel surfaces.

  7. Storage array reflection considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, M.J.; Jordan, W.C.; Taylor, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    The assumptions used for reflection conditions of single containers are fairly well established and consistently applied throughout the industry in nuclear criticality safety evaluations. Containers are usually considered to be either fully water reflected (i.e., surrounded by 6 to 12 in. of water) for safety calculations or reflected by 1 in. of water for nominal (structural material and air) conditions. Tables and figures are usually available for performing comparative evaluations of containers under various loading conditions. Reflection considerations used for evaluating the safety of storage arrays of fissile material are not as well established. When evaluating arrays, it has become more common for analysts to use calculations to demonstrate the safety of the array configuration. In performing these calculations, the analyst has considerable freedom concerning the assumptions made for modeling the reflection of the array. Considerations are given for the physical layout of the array with little or no discussion (or demonstration) of what conditions are bounded by the assumed reflection conditions. For example, an array may be generically evaluated by placing it in a corner of a room in which the opposing walls are far away. Typically, it is believed that complete flooding of the room is incredible, so the array is evaluated for various levels of water mist interspersed among array containers. This paper discusses some assumptions that are made regarding storage array reflection

  8. The EUROBALL array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi Alvarez, C.

    1998-01-01

    The quality of the multidetector array EUROBALL is described, with emphasis on the history and formal organization of the related European collaboration. The detector layout is presented together with the electronics and Data Acquisition capabilities. The status of the instrument, its performances and the main features of some recently developed ancillary detectors will also be described. The EUROBALL array is operational in Legnaro National Laboratory (Italy) since April 1997 and is expected to run up to November 1998. The array represents a significant improvement in detector efficiency and sensitivity with respect to the previous generation of multidetector arrays

  9. Rectenna array measurement results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    The measured performance characteristics of a rectenna array are reviewed and compared to the performance of a single element. It is shown that the performance may be extrapolated from the individual element to that of the collection of elements. Techniques for current and voltage combining were demonstrated. The array performance as a function of various operating parameters is characterized and techniques for overvoltage protection and automatic fault clearing in the array demonstrated. A method for detecting failed elements also exists. Instrumentation for deriving performance effectiveness is described. Measured harmonic radiation patterns and fundamental frequency scattered patterns for a low level illumination rectenna array are presented.

  10. Arrayed waveguide Sagnac interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capmany, José; Muñoz, Pascual; Sales, Salvador; Pastor, Daniel; Ortega, Beatriz; Martinez, Alfonso

    2003-02-01

    We present a novel device, an arrayed waveguide Sagnac interferometer, that combines the flexibility of arrayed waveguides and the wide application range of fiber or integrated optics Sagnac loops. We form the device by closing an array of wavelength-selective light paths provided by two arrayed waveguides with a single 2 x 2 coupler in a Sagnac configuration. The equations that describe the device's operation in general conditions are derived. A preliminary experimental demonstration is provided of a fiber prototype in passive operation that shows good agreement with the expected theoretical performance. Potential applications of the device in nonlinear operation are outlined and discussed.

  11. Coordinate measuring machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This document is used in connection with three exercises of 2 hours duration as a part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The exercises concern three aspects of coordinate measuring: 1) Measuring and verification of tolerances on coordinate measuring machines, 2) Traceabilit...... and uncertainty during coordinate measurements, 3) Digitalisation and Reverse Engineering. This document contains a short description of each step in the exercise and schemes with room for taking notes of the results.......This document is used in connection with three exercises of 2 hours duration as a part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The exercises concern three aspects of coordinate measuring: 1) Measuring and verification of tolerances on coordinate measuring machines, 2) Traceability...

  12. Machine Vision Handbook

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The automation of visual inspection is becoming more and more important in modern industry as a consistent, reliable means of judging the quality of raw materials and manufactured goods . The Machine Vision Handbook  equips the reader with the practical details required to engineer integrated mechanical-optical-electronic-software systems. Machine vision is first set in the context of basic information on light, natural vision, colour sensing and optics. The physical apparatus required for mechanized image capture – lenses, cameras, scanners and light sources – are discussed followed by detailed treatment of various image-processing methods including an introduction to the QT image processing system. QT is unique to this book, and provides an example of a practical machine vision system along with extensive libraries of useful commands, functions and images which can be implemented by the reader. The main text of the book is completed by studies of a wide variety of applications of machine vision in insp...

  13. Enter the machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palittapongarnpim, Pantita; Sanders, Barry C.

    2018-05-01

    Quantum tomography infers quantum states from measurement data, but it becomes infeasible for large systems. Machine learning enables tomography of highly entangled many-body states and suggests a new powerful approach to this problem.

  14. Introduction to AC machine design

    CERN Document Server

    Lipo, Thomas A

    2018-01-01

    AC electrical machine design is a key skill set for developing competitive electric motors and generators for applications in industry, aerospace, and defense. This book presents a thorough treatment of AC machine design, starting from basic electromagnetic principles and continuing through the various design aspects of an induction machine. Introduction to AC Machine Design includes one chapter each on the design of permanent magnet machines, synchronous machines, and thermal design. It also offers a basic treatment of the use of finite elements to compute the magnetic field within a machine without interfering with the initial comprehension of the core subject matter. Based on the author's notes, as well as after years of classroom instruction, Introduction to AC Machine Design: * Brings to light more advanced principles of machine design--not just the basic principles of AC and DC machine behavior * Introduces electrical machine design to neophytes while also being a resource for experienced designers * ...

  15. Deep neural mapping support vector machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yujian; Zhang, Ting

    2017-09-01

    The choice of kernel has an important effect on the performance of a support vector machine (SVM). The effect could be reduced by NEUROSVM, an architecture using multilayer perceptron for feature extraction and SVM for classification. In binary classification, a general linear kernel NEUROSVM can be theoretically simplified as an input layer, many hidden layers, and an SVM output layer. As a feature extractor, the sub-network composed of the input and hidden layers is first trained together with a virtual ordinary output layer by backpropagation, then with the output of its last hidden layer taken as input of the SVM classifier for further training separately. By taking the sub-network as a kernel mapping from the original input space into a feature space, we present a novel model, called deep neural mapping support vector machine (DNMSVM), from the viewpoint of deep learning. This model is also a new and general kernel learning method, where the kernel mapping is indeed an explicit function expressed as a sub-network, different from an implicit function induced by a kernel function traditionally. Moreover, we exploit a two-stage procedure of contrastive divergence learning and gradient descent for DNMSVM to jointly training an adaptive kernel mapping instead of a kernel function, without requirement of kernel tricks. As a whole of the sub-network and the SVM classifier, the joint training of DNMSVM is done by using gradient descent to optimize the objective function with the sub-network layer-wise pre-trained via contrastive divergence learning of restricted Boltzmann machines. Compared to the separate training of NEUROSVM, the joint training is a new algorithm for DNMSVM to have advantages over NEUROSVM. Experimental results show that DNMSVM can outperform NEUROSVM and RBFSVM (i.e., SVM with the kernel of radial basis function), demonstrating its effectiveness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Independent operation of implicit working memory under cognitive load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Eunhee; Lee, Kyung Min; Kim, Min-Shik

    2017-10-01

    Implicit working memory (WM) has been known to operate non-consciously and unintentionally. The current study investigated whether implicit WM is a discrete mechanism from explicit WM in terms of cognitive resource. To induce cognitive resource competition, we used a conjunction search task (Experiment 1) and imposed spatial WM load (Experiment 2a and 2b). Each trial was composed of a set of five consecutive search displays. The location of the first four displays appeared as per pre-determined patterns, but the fifth display could follow the same pattern or not. If implicit WM can extract the moving pattern of stimuli, response times for the fifth target would be faster when it followed the pattern compared to when it did not. Our results showed implicit WM can operate when participants are searching for the conjunction target and even while maintaining spatial WM information. These results suggest that implicit WM is independent from explicit spatial WM. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. An implicit finite-difference operator for the Helmholtz equation

    KAUST Repository

    Chu, Chunlei; Stoffa, Paul L.

    2012-01-01

    We have developed an implicit finite-difference operator for the Laplacian and applied it to solving the Helmholtz equation for computing the seismic responses in the frequency domain. This implicit operator can greatly improve the accuracy of the simulation results without adding significant extra computational cost, compared with the corresponding conventional explicit finite-difference scheme. We achieved this by taking advantage of the inherently implicit nature of the Helmholtz equation and merging together the two linear systems: one from the implicit finite-difference discretization of the Laplacian and the other from the discretization of the Helmholtz equation itself. The end result of this simple yet important merging manipulation is a single linear system, similar to the one resulting from the conventional explicit finite-difference discretizations, without involving any differentiation matrix inversions. We analyzed grid dispersions of the discrete Helmholtz equation to show the accuracy of this implicit finite-difference operator and used two numerical examples to demonstrate its efficiency. Our method can be extended to solve other frequency domain wave simulation problems straightforwardly. © 2012 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  18. Is homophobia associated with an implicit same-sex attraction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macinnis, Cara C; Hodson, Gordon

    2013-01-01

    Some theorists propose that homophobia stems from underlying same-sex attraction. A few studies have tested this hypothesis, yet without a clear measure of implicit sexual attraction, producing mixed results. For the first time, we test this attraction-based account of homophobia among both men and women using an implicit measure of sexual attraction. No evidence of an attraction-based account of homophobia emerged. Instead, implicit same-sex attraction was related to positive evaluations of gay men and lesbians among female participants. Even in targeted analyses examining the relation between implicit same-sex attraction and homosexual evaluations among only those theoretically most likely to demonstrate an attraction-based homophobic effect, implicit same-sex attraction was not associated with evaluations of homosexuals or was associated with more positive evaluations of homosexuals. In addition, explicit same-sex attraction was related to positive evaluations of gay men and lesbians for male participants. These results are more in keeping with the attitude-similarity effect (i.e., people like, rather than dislike, similar others).

  19. Implicit CO_2 prices of fossil fuel use in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleiniger, Reto

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to assess the efficiency of the fossil fuel taxation scheme currently in effect in Switzerland. To this end, the concept of implicit CO_2 prices is introduced, based on which prices for different fossil fuel uses are derived. Implicit CO_2 prices are defined as the difference between actual prices paid by consumers and efficient domestic fuel prices. Efficient domestic fuel prices, in turn, consist of private production costs, a uniform value added tax and only local external costs, not including external costs due to CO_2 emissions and global climate change. The resulting prices differ substantially, which suggests that there is considerable cost-saving potential in reducing CO_2 emissions in Switzerland. For passenger cars and air traffic, the implicit prices are negative. For these uses, higher fuel charges would therefore be beneficial from a purely domestic perspective, i.e., without considering the negative repercussions of global warming. - Highlights: •Efficient fossil fuel policy must take into account local and global externalities. •Implicit CO_2 prices are applied as efficiency indicator of fossil energy policy. •Implicit CO_2 prices vary strongly for different fossil fuel uses in Switzerland. •There is a large cost-saving potential in terms of reducing CO_2 emissions.

  20. Cognitive load disrupts implicit theory-of-mind processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Dana; Lam, Rebecca; Bayliss, Andrew P; Dux, Paul E

    2012-08-01

    Eye movements in Sally-Anne false-belief tasks appear to reflect the ability to implicitly monitor the mental states of other individuals (theory of mind, or ToM). It has recently been proposed that an early-developing, efficient, and automatically operating ToM system subserves this ability. Surprisingly absent from the literature, however, is an empirical test of the influence of domain-general executive processing resources on this implicit ToM system. In the study reported here, a dual-task method was employed to investigate the impact of executive load on eye movements in an implicit Sally-Anne false-belief task. Under no-load conditions, adult participants displayed eye movement behavior consistent with implicit belief processing, whereas evidence for belief processing was absent for participants under cognitive load. These findings indicate that the cognitive system responsible for implicitly tracking beliefs draws at least minimally on executive processing resources. Thus, even the most low-level processing of beliefs appears to reflect a capacity-limited operation.

  1. Adaptive implicit method for thermal compositional reservoir simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, A.; Tchelepi, H.A. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[Stanford Univ., Palo Alto (United States)

    2008-10-15

    As the global demand for oil increases, thermal enhanced oil recovery techniques are becoming increasingly important. Numerical reservoir simulation of thermal methods such as steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is complex and requires a solution of nonlinear mass and energy conservation equations on a fine reservoir grid. The most currently used technique for solving these equations is the fully IMplicit (FIM) method which is unconditionally stable, allowing for large timesteps in simulation. However, it is computationally expensive. On the other hand, the method known as IMplicit pressure explicit saturations, temperature and compositions (IMPEST) is computationally inexpensive, but it is only conditionally stable and restricts the timestep size. To improve the balance between the timestep size and computational cost, the thermal adaptive IMplicit (TAIM) method uses stability criteria and a switching algorithm, where some simulation variables such as pressure, saturations, temperature, compositions are treated implicitly while others are treated with explicit schemes. This presentation described ongoing research on TAIM with particular reference to thermal displacement processes such as the stability criteria that dictate the maximum allowed timestep size for simulation based on the von Neumann linear stability analysis method; the switching algorithm that adapts labeling of reservoir variables as implicit or explicit as a function of space and time; and, complex physical behaviors such as heat and fluid convection, thermal conduction and compressibility. Key numerical results obtained by enhancing Stanford's General Purpose Research Simulator (GPRS) were also presented along with a list of research challenges. 14 refs., 2 tabs., 11 figs., 1 appendix.

  2. An implicit finite-difference operator for the Helmholtz equation

    KAUST Repository

    Chu, Chunlei

    2012-07-01

    We have developed an implicit finite-difference operator for the Laplacian and applied it to solving the Helmholtz equation for computing the seismic responses in the frequency domain. This implicit operator can greatly improve the accuracy of the simulation results without adding significant extra computational cost, compared with the corresponding conventional explicit finite-difference scheme. We achieved this by taking advantage of the inherently implicit nature of the Helmholtz equation and merging together the two linear systems: one from the implicit finite-difference discretization of the Laplacian and the other from the discretization of the Helmholtz equation itself. The end result of this simple yet important merging manipulation is a single linear system, similar to the one resulting from the conventional explicit finite-difference discretizations, without involving any differentiation matrix inversions. We analyzed grid dispersions of the discrete Helmholtz equation to show the accuracy of this implicit finite-difference operator and used two numerical examples to demonstrate its efficiency. Our method can be extended to solve other frequency domain wave simulation problems straightforwardly. © 2012 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  3. Metalworking and machining fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemir, Ali; Sykora, Frank; Dorbeck, Mark

    2010-10-12

    Improved boron-based metal working and machining fluids. Boric acid and boron-based additives that, when mixed with certain carrier fluids, such as water, cellulose and/or cellulose derivatives, polyhydric alcohol, polyalkylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, starch, dextrin, in solid and/or solvated forms result in improved metalworking and machining of metallic work pieces. Fluids manufactured with boric acid or boron-based additives effectively reduce friction, prevent galling and severe wear problems on cutting and forming tools.

  4. Superconducting machines. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleton, A.D.

    1977-01-01

    A brief account is given of the principles of superconductivity and superconductors. The properties of Nb-Ti superconductors and the method of flux stabilization are described. The basic features of superconducting d.c. machines are illustrated by the use of these machines for ship propulsion, steel-mill drives, industrial drives, aluminium production, and other d.c. power supplies. Superconducting a.c. generators and their design parameters are discussed. (U.K.)

  5. Quantum Machine Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Romero García, Cristian

    2017-01-01

    [EN] In a world in which accessible information grows exponentially, the selection of the appropriate information turns out to be an extremely relevant problem. In this context, the idea of Machine Learning (ML), a subfield of Artificial Intelligence, emerged to face problems in data mining, pattern recognition, automatic prediction, among others. Quantum Machine Learning is an interdisciplinary research area combining quantum mechanics with methods of ML, in which quantum properties allow fo...

  6. Human-machine interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, J Chris [Sandia Park, NM; Xavier, Patrick G [Albuquerque, NM; Abbott, Robert G [Albuquerque, NM; Brannon, Nathan G [Albuquerque, NM; Bernard, Michael L [Tijeras, NM; Speed, Ann E [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-04-28

    Digital technology utilizing a cognitive model based on human naturalistic decision-making processes, including pattern recognition and episodic memory, can reduce the dependency of human-machine interactions on the abilities of a human user and can enable a machine to more closely emulate human-like responses. Such a cognitive model can enable digital technology to use cognitive capacities fundamental to human-like communication and cooperation to interact with humans.

  7. Some relations between quantum Turing machines and Turing machines

    OpenAIRE

    Sicard, Andrés; Vélez, Mario

    1999-01-01

    For quantum Turing machines we present three elements: Its components, its time evolution operator and its local transition function. The components are related with the components of deterministic Turing machines, the time evolution operator is related with the evolution of reversible Turing machines and the local transition function is related with the transition function of probabilistic and reversible Turing machines.

  8. Reactor refueling machine simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohosky, T.L.; Swidwa, K.J.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes in combination: a nuclear reactor; a refueling machine having a bridge, trolley and hoist each driven by a separate motor having feedback means for generating a feedback signal indicative of movement thereof. The motors are operable to position the refueling machine over the nuclear reactor for refueling the same. The refueling machine also has a removable control console including means for selectively generating separate motor signals for operating the bridge, trolley and hoist motors and for processing the feedback signals to generate an indication of the positions thereof, separate output leads connecting each of the motor signals to the respective refueling machine motor, and separate input leads for connecting each of the feedback means to the console; and a portable simulator unit comprising: a single simulator motor; a single simulator feedback signal generator connected to the simulator motor for generating a simulator feedback signal in response to operation of the simulator motor; means for selectively connecting the output leads of the console to the simulator unit in place of the refueling machine motors, and for connecting the console input leads to the simulator unit in place of the refueling machine motor feedback means; and means for driving the single simulator motor in response to any of the bridge, trolley or hoist motor signals generated by the console and means for applying the simulator feedback signal to the console input lead associated with the motor signal being generated by the control console

  9. Focal plane array with modular pixel array components for scalability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Randolph R; Campbell, David V; Shinde, Subhash L; Rienstra, Jeffrey L; Serkland, Darwin K; Holmes, Michael L

    2014-12-09

    A modular, scalable focal plane array is provided as an array of integrated circuit dice, wherein each die includes a given amount of modular pixel array circuitry. The array of dice effectively multiplies the amount of modular pixel array circuitry to produce a larger pixel array without increasing die size. Desired pixel pitch across the enlarged pixel array is preserved by forming die stacks with each pixel array circuitry die stacked on a separate die that contains the corresponding signal processing circuitry. Techniques for die stack interconnections and die stack placement are implemented to ensure that the desired pixel pitch is preserved across the enlarged pixel array.

  10. Modelling Machine Tools using Structure Integrated Sensors for Fast Calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Montavon

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of the relative deviation between commanded and actual tool tip position, which limits the volumetric performance of the machine tool, enables the use of contemporary methods of compensation to reduce tolerance mismatch and the uncertainties of on-machine measurements. The development of a primarily optical sensor setup capable of being integrated into the machine structure without limiting its operating range is presented. The use of a frequency-modulating interferometer and photosensitive arrays in combination with a Gaussian laser beam allows for fast and automated online measurements of the axes’ motion errors and thermal conditions with comparable accuracy, lower cost, and smaller dimensions as compared to state-of-the-art optical measuring instruments for offline machine tool calibration. The development is tested through simulation of the sensor setup based on raytracing and Monte-Carlo techniques.

  11. [A new machinability test machine and the machinability of composite resins for core built-up].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, N

    2001-06-01

    A new machinability test machine especially for dental materials was contrived. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of grinding conditions on machinability of core built-up resins using this machine, and to confirm the relationship between machinability and other properties of composite resins. The experimental machinability test machine consisted of a dental air-turbine handpiece, a control weight unit, a driving unit of the stage fixing the test specimen, and so on. The machinability was evaluated as the change in volume after grinding using a diamond point. Five kinds of core built-up resins and human teeth were used in this study. The machinabilities of these composite resins increased with an increasing load during grinding, and decreased with repeated grinding. There was no obvious correlation between the machinability and Vickers' hardness; however, a negative correlation was observed between machinability and scratch width.

  12. Cross-Linguistic Evidence and the Licensing of Implicit Arguments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Kardos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the occurrence and the licensing of implicit object arguments, also referred to in the literature as null complements or understood arguments. Functionalist accounts (such as those by Groefsema and Németh T. which are couched in a relevance-theoretic framework have repeatedly claimed that this phenomenon is fundamentally dependent on dis-course-interpretational factors. In particular, it has been stated that implicit arguments can be used in Hungarian in a rather unrestricted way, and their occurrence is only limited by considerations of interpretability. We argue against both of these positions and try to show that cross-linguistic data can assist in revealing the circular nature and ultimate inadequacy of existing functional accounts of implicit argument licensing.

  13. Training implicit social anxiety associations: an experimental intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerkin, Elise M; Teachman, Bethany A

    2010-04-01

    The current study investigates an experimental anxiety reduction intervention among a highly socially anxious sample (N=108; n=36 per Condition; 80 women). Using a conditioning paradigm, our goal was to modify implicit social anxiety associations to directly test the premise from cognitive models that biased cognitive processing may be causally related to anxious responding. Participants were trained to preferentially process non-threatening information through repeated pairings of self-relevant stimuli and faces indicating positive social feedback. As expected, participants in this positive training condition (relative to our two control conditions) displayed less negative implicit associations following training, and were more likely to complete an impromptu speech (though they did not report less anxiety during the speech). These findings offer partial support for cognitive models and indicate that implicit associations are not only correlated with social anxiety, they may be causally related to anxiety reduction as well. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Implicit measures of environmental attitudes: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Patricia Sánchez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation aims to inquire about the capacity of three implicit instruments to measure the attitude toward natural and urban environments. One hundred and three students from a Mexican public university participated in the investigation. The implicit instruments used were the affective priming technique, the implicit association test, and the affect misattribution procedure. Further, an explicit scale was used for comparison. The results showed that all instruments converge in the same way; the nature images were viewed as more pleasant compared to the city images. Also, most results indicated good effect size values, observed power, and reliability, with the exception of the affective priming technique, which established low values. In addition, all instruments indicated weak correlations between each other. The results were discussed in terms of the capacity of the instruments to measure environmental attitudes, and also possible theoretical and methodological implications.

  15. Full versus divided attention and implicit memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, G; Prinsen, A

    1997-11-01

    Effects of full and divided attention during study on explicit and implicit memory performance were investigated in two experiments. Study time was manipulated in a third experiment. Experiment 1 showed that both similar and dissociative effects can be found in the two kinds of memory test, depending on the difficulty of the concurrent tasks used in the divided-attention condition. In this experiment, however, standard implicit memory tests were used and contamination by explicit memory influences cannot be ruled out. Therefore, in Experiments 2 and 3 the process dissociation procedure was applied. Manipulations of attention during study and of study time clearly affected the controlled (explicit) memory component, but had no effect on the automatic (implicit) memory component. Theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

  16. A theory upon origin of implicit musical language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    József P. Vas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The author suggests that the origin of musicality is implied in an implicit musical language every human being possesses in uterus due to a resonance and attunement with prenatal environment, mainly the mother. It is emphasized that ego-development and evolving implicit musical language can be regarded as parallel processes. To support this idea a lot of examples of musical representations are demonstrated by the author. Music is viewed as a tone of ego-functioning involving the musical representations of bodily and visceral senses, cross-modal perception, unity of sense of self, individual fate of ego, and tripolar and bipolar musical coping codes. Finally, a special form of music therapy is shown to illustrate how can implicit musical language be transformed into explicit language by virtue of participants’ spontaneity, creativity, and playfulness.

  17. A Qualitative Study of Job Interviewers’ Implicit Person Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundmann, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Job interviewers’ implicit person theories (i.e., beliefs that personalities are adaptable or fixed) were examined through a qualitative analysis of interviews with job interviewers. The study demonstrates that job interviewers tend to use generalized trait descriptions of applicants when...... the job interview are easily transferrable to the job they are seeking to fill. Thus, job interviewers appear to view applicants as persons with fixed personality traits, despite human adaptability. This is not necessarily because the job interviewer has a stable implicit entity theory of persons; instead...... determining their selection. This is problematic because it neglects the context’s interference with the applicant—for example, the effect of a new manager, colleagues, or company culture. The study demonstrates that job interviewers implicitly assume that the impressions they form of an applicant during...

  18. A Theory Upon Origin of Implicit Musical Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vas József, P

    2015-11-30

    The author suggests that the origin of musicality is implied in an implicit musical language every human being possesses in uterus due to a resonance and attunement with prenatal environment, mainly the mother. It is emphasized that ego-development and evolving implicit musical language can be regarded as parallel processes. To support this idea a lot of examples of musical representations are demonstrated by the author. Music is viewed as a tone of ego-functioning involving the musical representations of bodily and visceral senses, cross-modal perception, unity of sense of self, individual fate of ego, and tripolar and bipolar musical coping codes. Finally, a special form of music therapy is shown to illustrate how can implicit musical language be transformed into explicit language by virtue of participants' spontaneity, creativity, and playfulness.

  19. Implicit Self-Importance in an Interpersonal Pronoun Categorization Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, Adam K; Robinson, Michael D; Gilbertson, Elizabeth P

    2014-06-01

    Object relations theories emphasize the manner in which the salience/importance of implicit representations of self and other guide interpersonal functioning. Two studies and a pilot test (total N = 304) sought to model such representations. In dyadic contexts, the self is a "you" and the other is a "me", as verified in a pilot test. Study 1 then used a simple categorization task and found evidence for implicit self-importance: The pronoun "you" was categorized more quickly and accurately when presented in a larger font size, whereas the pronoun "me" was categorized more quickly and accurately when presented in a smaller font size. Study 2 showed that this pattern possesses value in understanding individual differences in interpersonal functioning. As predicted, arrogant people scored higher in implicit self-importance in the paradigm. Findings are discussed from the perspective of dyadic interpersonal dynamics.

  20. Semi-implicit and fully implicit shock-capturing methods for hyperbolic conservation laws with stiff source terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yee, H.C.; Shinn, J.L.

    1986-12-01

    Some numerical aspects of finite-difference algorithms for nonlinear multidimensional hyperbolic conservation laws with stiff nonhomogenous (source) terms are discussed. If the stiffness is entirely dominated by the source term, a semi-implicit shock-capturing method is proposed provided that the Jacobian of the source terms possesses certain properties. The proposed semi-implicit method can be viewed as a variant of the Bussing and Murman point-implicit scheme with a more appropriate numerical dissipation for the computation of strong shock waves. However, if the stiffness is not solely dominated by the source terms, a fully implicit method would be a better choice. The situation is complicated by problems that are higher than one dimension, and the presence of stiff source terms further complicates the solution procedures for alternating direction implicit (ADI) methods. Several alternatives are discussed. The primary motivation for constructing these schemes was to address thermally and chemically nonequilibrium flows in the hypersonic regime. Due to the unique structure of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors for fluid flows of this type, the computation can be simplified, thus providing a more efficient solution procedure than one might have anticipated

  1. Semi-implicit and fully implicit shock-capturing methods for hyperbolic conservation laws with stiff source terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yee, H.C.; Shinn, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    Some numerical aspects of finite-difference algorithms for nonlinear multidimensional hyperbolic conservation laws with stiff nonhomogeneous (source) terms are discussed. If the stiffness is entirely dominated by the source term, a semi-implicit shock-capturing method is proposed provided that the Jacobian of the source terms possesses certain properties. The proposed semi-implicit method can be viewed as a variant of the Bussing and Murman point-implicit scheme with a more appropriate numerical dissipation for the computation of strong shock waves. However, if the stiffness is not solely dominated by the source terms, a fully implicit method would be a better choice. The situation is complicated by problems that are higher than one dimension, and the presence of stiff source terms further complicates the solution procedures for alternating direction implicit (ADI) methods. Several alternatives are discussed. The primary motivation for constructing these schemes was to address thermally and chemically nonequilibrium flows in the hypersonic regime. Due to the unique structure of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors for fluid flows of this type, the computation can be simplified, thus providing a more efficient solution procedure than one might have anticipated. 46 references

  2. The Knife Machine. Module 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on the knife machine, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers one topic: performing special operations on the knife machine (a single needle or multi-needle machine which sews and cuts at the same time). These components are provided: an introduction, directions, an objective,…

  3. The Buttonhole Machine. Module 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on the bottonhole machine, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers two topics: performing special operations on the buttonhole machine (parts and purpose) and performing special operations on the buttonhole machine (gauged buttonholes). For each topic these components are…

  4. Seeing emotion with your ears: emotional prosody implicitly guides visual attention to faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Rigoulot

    Full Text Available Interpersonal communication involves the processing of multimodal emotional cues, particularly facial expressions (visual modality and emotional speech prosody (auditory modality which can interact during information processing. Here, we investigated whether the implicit processing of emotional prosody systematically influences gaze behavior to facial expressions of emotion. We analyzed the eye movements of 31 participants as they scanned a visual array of four emotional faces portraying fear, anger, happiness, and neutrality, while listening to an emotionally-inflected pseudo-utterance (Someone migged the pazing uttered in a congruent or incongruent tone. Participants heard the emotional utterance during the first 1250 milliseconds of a five-second visual array and then performed an immediate recall decision about the face they had just seen. The frequency and duration of first saccades and of total looks in three temporal windows ([0-1250 ms], [1250-2500 ms], [2500-5000 ms] were analyzed according to the emotional content of faces and voices. Results showed that participants looked longer and more frequently at faces that matched the prosody in all three time windows (emotion congruency effect, although this effect was often emotion-specific (with greatest effects for fear. Effects of prosody on visual attention to faces persisted over time and could be detected long after the auditory information was no longer present. These data imply that emotional prosody is processed automatically during communication and that these cues play a critical role in how humans respond to related visual cues in the environment, such as facial expressions.

  5. Seeing Emotion with Your Ears: Emotional Prosody Implicitly Guides Visual Attention to Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigoulot, Simon; Pell, Marc D.

    2012-01-01

    Interpersonal communication involves the processing of multimodal emotional cues, particularly facial expressions (visual modality) and emotional speech prosody (auditory modality) which can interact during information processing. Here, we investigated whether the implicit processing of emotional prosody systematically influences gaze behavior to facial expressions of emotion. We analyzed the eye movements of 31 participants as they scanned a visual array of four emotional faces portraying fear, anger, happiness, and neutrality, while listening to an emotionally-inflected pseudo-utterance (Someone migged the pazing) uttered in a congruent or incongruent tone. Participants heard the emotional utterance during the first 1250 milliseconds of a five-second visual array and then performed an immediate recall decision about the face they had just seen. The frequency and duration of first saccades and of total looks in three temporal windows ([0–1250 ms], [1250–2500 ms], [2500–5000 ms]) were analyzed according to the emotional content of faces and voices. Results showed that participants looked longer and more frequently at faces that matched the prosody in all three time windows (emotion congruency effect), although this effect was often emotion-specific (with greatest effects for fear). Effects of prosody on visual attention to faces persisted over time and could be detected long after the auditory information was no longer present. These data imply that emotional prosody is processed automatically during communication and that these cues play a critical role in how humans respond to related visual cues in the environment, such as facial expressions. PMID:22303454

  6. Triggering the GRANDE array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.L.; Bratton, C.B.; Gurr, J.; Kropp, W.; Nelson, M.; Sobel, H.; Svoboda, R.; Yodh, G.; Burnett, T.; Chaloupka, V.; Wilkes, R.J.; Cherry, M.; Ellison, S.B.; Guzik, T.G.; Wefel, J.; Gaidos, J.; Loeffler, F.; Sembroski, G.; Goodman, J.; Haines, T.J.; Kielczewska, D.; Lane, C.; Steinberg, R.; Lieber, M.; Nagle, D.; Potter, M.; Tripp, R.

    1990-01-01

    A brief description of the Gamma Ray And Neutrino Detector Experiment (GRANDE) is presented. The detector elements and electronics are described. The trigger logic for the array is then examined. The triggers for the Gamma Ray and the Neutrino portions of the array are treated separately. (orig.)

  7. ISS Solar Array Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James P.; Martin, Keith D.; Thomas, Justin R.; Caro, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Solar Array Management (SAM) software toolset provides the capabilities necessary to operate a spacecraft with complex solar array constraints. It monitors spacecraft telemetry and provides interpretations of solar array constraint data in an intuitive manner. The toolset provides extensive situational awareness to ensure mission success by analyzing power generation needs, array motion constraints, and structural loading situations. The software suite consists of several components including samCS (constraint set selector), samShadyTimers (array shadowing timers), samWin (visualization GUI), samLock (array motion constraint computation), and samJet (attitude control system configuration selector). It provides high availability and uptime for extended and continuous mission support. It is able to support two-degrees-of-freedom (DOF) array positioning and supports up to ten simultaneous constraints with intuitive 1D and 2D decision support visualizations of constraint data. Display synchronization is enabled across a networked control center and multiple methods for constraint data interpolation are supported. Use of this software toolset increases flight safety, reduces mission support effort, optimizes solar array operation for achieving mission goals, and has run for weeks at a time without issues. The SAM toolset is currently used in ISS real-time mission operations.

  8. Implicit theories concerning the intelligence of individuals with Down syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Enea-Drapeau

    Full Text Available Studies over the past three decades have shown that learning difficulties are not only determined by neurological disorders, but also by motivational and/or socio-cognitive factors Among these factors, implicit theories of intelligence (also referred to as conceptions, mindsets or beliefs about intelligence are key elements. The belief that intelligence is fixed (entity theory, as opposed to malleable (incremental theory, is generally associated with negative teaching practices and poorer student outcomes, yet beliefs about the intelligence of individuals with intellectual disabilities have not received much attention. We propose the first study on conceptions of intelligence of persons with intellectual disabilities, here people with Down syndrome. Participants were 55 professionally qualified people working with individuals with intellectual disabilities and 81 adults from the community. We compared what both groups of participants believe about intelligence of typical people and what they believe about the intelligence of individuals with Down syndrome. We also investigated implicit theories of intelligence as predictors of explicit judgments about intelligence and implicit attitudes toward people with Down syndrome. Whatever the work experience in the field of intellectual disability, implicit theories of intelligence were found to be less incremental when considering people with Down syndrome than when considering typical people; and the stronger the belief in entity theory, the more negative (and less positive the judgments expressed explicitly. Implicit theories of intelligence were also found to be predictors of negative implicit attitude but only in adults from the community. These findings offer prospects for improving practices by people working in the field of intellectual disability. They might interest a wide range of people caring for people with intellectual disabilities, such as teachers, but also other professional caregivers

  9. Implicit theories concerning the intelligence of individuals with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enea-Drapeau, Claire; Carlier, Michèle; Huguet, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Studies over the past three decades have shown that learning difficulties are not only determined by neurological disorders, but also by motivational and/or socio-cognitive factors Among these factors, implicit theories of intelligence (also referred to as conceptions, mindsets or beliefs about intelligence) are key elements. The belief that intelligence is fixed (entity theory), as opposed to malleable (incremental theory), is generally associated with negative teaching practices and poorer student outcomes, yet beliefs about the intelligence of individuals with intellectual disabilities have not received much attention. We propose the first study on conceptions of intelligence of persons with intellectual disabilities, here people with Down syndrome. Participants were 55 professionally qualified people working with individuals with intellectual disabilities and 81 adults from the community. We compared what both groups of participants believe about intelligence of typical people and what they believe about the intelligence of individuals with Down syndrome. We also investigated implicit theories of intelligence as predictors of explicit judgments about intelligence and implicit attitudes toward people with Down syndrome. Whatever the work experience in the field of intellectual disability, implicit theories of intelligence were found to be less incremental when considering people with Down syndrome than when considering typical people; and the stronger the belief in entity theory, the more negative (and less positive) the judgments expressed explicitly. Implicit theories of intelligence were also found to be predictors of negative implicit attitude but only in adults from the community. These findings offer prospects for improving practices by people working in the field of intellectual disability. They might interest a wide range of people caring for people with intellectual disabilities, such as teachers, but also other professional caregivers, and other

  10. Fabrication of a Micro-Lens Array Mold by Micro Ball End-Milling and Its Hot Embossing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Gao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Hot embossing is an efficient technique for manufacturing high-quality micro-lens arrays. The machining quality is significant for hot embossing the micro-lens array mold. This study investigates the effects of micro ball end-milling on the machining quality of AISI H13 tool steel used in the micro-lens array mold. The micro ball end-milling experiments were performed under different machining strategies, and the surface roughness and scallop height of the machined micro-lens array mold are measured. The experimental results showed that a three-dimensional (3D offset spiral strategy could achieve a higher machining quality in comparison with other strategies assessed in this study. Moreover, the 3D offset spiral strategy is more appropriate for machining the micro-lens array mold. With an increase of the cutting speed and feed rate, the surface roughness of the micro-lens array mold slightly increases, while a small step-over can greatly reduce the surface roughness. In addition, a hot embossing experiment was undertaken, and the obtained results indicated higher-quality production of the micro-lens array mold by the 3D offset spiral strategy.

  11. Hardware Tailored Linear Algebra for Implicit Integrators in Embedded NMPC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frison, Gianluca; Quirynen, Rien; Zanelli, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    . In the case of stiff or implicitly defined dynamics, implicit integration schemes are typically preferred. This paper proposes a tailored implementation of the necessary linear algebra routines (LU factorization and triangular solutions), in order to allow for a considerable computational speedup...... of such integrators. In particular, the open-source BLASFEO framework is presented as a library of efficient linear algebra routines for small to medium-scale embedded optimization applications. Its performance is illustrated on the nonlinear optimal control example of a chain of masses. The proposed library allows...

  12. A radiating shock evaluated using Implicit Monte Carlo Diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleveland, M.; Gentile, N.

    2013-01-01

    Implicit Monte Carlo [1] (IMC) has been shown to be very expensive when used to evaluate a radiation field in opaque media. Implicit Monte Carlo Diffusion (IMD) [2], which evaluates a spatial discretized diffusion equation using a Monte Carlo algorithm, can be used to reduce the cost of evaluating the radiation field in opaque media [2]. This work couples IMD to the hydrodynamics equations to evaluate opaque diffusive radiating shocks. The Lowrie semi-analytic diffusive radiating shock benchmark[a] is used to verify our implementation of the coupled system of equations. (authors)

  13. Object based implicit contextual learning: a study of eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselen, Marieke; Sampaio, Joana; Pina, Ana; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2011-02-01

    Implicit contextual cueing refers to a top-down mechanism in which visual search is facilitated by learned contextual features. In the current study we aimed to investigate the mechanism underlying implicit contextual learning using object information as a contextual cue. Therefore, we measured eye movements during an object-based contextual cueing task. We demonstrated that visual search is facilitated by repeated object information and that this reduction in response times is associated with shorter fixation durations. This indicates that by memorizing associations between objects in our environment we can recognize objects faster, thereby facilitating visual search.

  14. Exactly energy conserving semi-implicit particle in cell formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapenta, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    We report a new particle in cell (PIC) method based on the semi-implicit approach. The novelty of the new method is that unlike any of its semi-implicit predecessors at the same time it retains the explicit computational cycle and conserves energy exactly. Recent research has presented fully implicit methods where energy conservation is obtained as part of a non-linear iteration procedure. The new method (referred to as Energy Conserving Semi-Implicit Method, ECSIM), instead, does not require any non-linear iteration and its computational cycle is similar to that of explicit PIC. The properties of the new method are: i) it conserves energy exactly to round-off for any time step or grid spacing; ii) it is unconditionally stable in time, freeing the user from the need to resolve the electron plasma frequency and allowing the user to select any desired time step; iii) it eliminates the constraint of the finite grid instability, allowing the user to select any desired resolution without being forced to resolve the Debye length; iv) the particle mover has a computational complexity identical to that of the explicit PIC, only the field solver has an increased computational cost. The new ECSIM is tested in a number of benchmarks where accuracy and computational performance are tested. - Highlights: • We present a new fully energy conserving semi-implicit particle in cell (PIC) method based on the implicit moment method (IMM). The new method is called Energy Conserving Implicit Moment Method (ECIMM). • The novelty of the new method is that unlike any of its predecessors at the same time it retains the explicit computational cycle and conserves energy exactly. • The new method is unconditionally stable in time, freeing the user from the need to resolve the electron plasma frequency. • The new method eliminates the constraint of the finite grid instability, allowing the user to select any desired resolution without being forced to resolve the Debye length. • These

  15. Implicit thermohydraulic coupling of two-phause flow calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lekach, S.; Kaufman, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    A numerical scheme that implicitly couples the hydraulic variables with thermal variables during a one or two-phase transient calculation in a one-dimensional pipe is presented. The transients are performed to achieve a steady-state condition. It is shown that by preserving the strong interdependence that exists between the hydraulic and thermal variables with an implicit flux treatment, it is possible to achieve a greater degree of numerical stability and in less computer time than with an explicit treatment. The method is slightly more complex but the large time step advantage more than pays for the overhead

  16. Implicit integration of plasticity models for granular materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahadi, A.; Krenk, Steen

    2003-01-01

    A stress integration algorithm for granular materials based on fully implicit integration with explicit updating is presented. In the implicit method the solution makes use of the gradient to the potential surface at the final stress state which is unknown. The final stress and hardening parameters...... stresses are not supported the functions and their derivatives are not representative outside the compressive octant of the principal stress space. The elastic predictor is therefore preconditioned in order to ensure that the first predictor is within the valid region. Capability and robustness...

  17. Exactly energy conserving semi-implicit particle in cell formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapenta, Giovanni, E-mail: giovanni.lapenta@kuleuven.be

    2017-04-01

    We report a new particle in cell (PIC) method based on the semi-implicit approach. The novelty of the new method is that unlike any of its semi-implicit predecessors at the same time it retains the explicit computational cycle and conserves energy exactly. Recent research has presented fully implicit methods where energy conservation is obtained as part of a non-linear iteration procedure. The new method (referred to as Energy Conserving Semi-Implicit Method, ECSIM), instead, does not require any non-linear iteration and its computational cycle is similar to that of explicit PIC. The properties of the new method are: i) it conserves energy exactly to round-off for any time step or grid spacing; ii) it is unconditionally stable in time, freeing the user from the need to resolve the electron plasma frequency and allowing the user to select any desired time step; iii) it eliminates the constraint of the finite grid instability, allowing the user to select any desired resolution without being forced to resolve the Debye length; iv) the particle mover has a computational complexity identical to that of the explicit PIC, only the field solver has an increased computational cost. The new ECSIM is tested in a number of benchmarks where accuracy and computational performance are tested. - Highlights: • We present a new fully energy conserving semi-implicit particle in cell (PIC) method based on the implicit moment method (IMM). The new method is called Energy Conserving Implicit Moment Method (ECIMM). • The novelty of the new method is that unlike any of its predecessors at the same time it retains the explicit computational cycle and conserves energy exactly. • The new method is unconditionally stable in time, freeing the user from the need to resolve the electron plasma frequency. • The new method eliminates the constraint of the finite grid instability, allowing the user to select any desired resolution without being forced to resolve the Debye length. • These

  18. Implicit Theories of the Personality of the Ideal Creative Employee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bo; Drewsen, Lizette Kirstine; Maaløe, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    In order to examine implicit theories of the relation between Big-5 personality traits and creativity, this article draws on lexical searches for adjectives in job ads, in particular jobs with a stated creativity (as opposed to a not explicitly stated creativity) requirement. Our findings show...... that implicit theories of the link between personality and creativity significantly overlap with the explicit relations that have been identified in the creativity literature: Openness to Experience showed the largest positive effect (i.e., job ads that required creativity actually requested adjectives related...

  19. Machining of Metal Matrix Composites

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Machining of Metal Matrix Composites provides the fundamentals and recent advances in the study of machining of metal matrix composites (MMCs). Each chapter is written by an international expert in this important field of research. Machining of Metal Matrix Composites gives the reader information on machining of MMCs with a special emphasis on aluminium matrix composites. Chapter 1 provides the mechanics and modelling of chip formation for traditional machining processes. Chapter 2 is dedicated to surface integrity when machining MMCs. Chapter 3 describes the machinability aspects of MMCs. Chapter 4 contains information on traditional machining processes and Chapter 5 is dedicated to the grinding of MMCs. Chapter 6 describes the dry cutting of MMCs with SiC particulate reinforcement. Finally, Chapter 7 is dedicated to computational methods and optimization in the machining of MMCs. Machining of Metal Matrix Composites can serve as a useful reference for academics, manufacturing and materials researchers, manu...

  20. Element sharing in interleaved antenna arrays

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, WP

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available , there is a large variation in the results for a small number of shared elements which reduces as the number of times the GA is run increases. Taken together, these points suggest that the GA implemented here does not provide consistently good results when... levels in linear arrays,? IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett., vol. 9, pp. 771?774, 2010. [11] D. E. Goldberg, Genetic algorithms in search, optimization, and machine learning. Addison-Wesley, 1989. [12] T. Blickle and L. Thiele, ?A comparison...

  1. Virtual Machine in Automation Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Xing, Xiaoyuan

    2010-01-01

    Virtual machine, as an engineering tool, has recently been introduced into automation projects in Tetra Pak Processing System AB. The goal of this paper is to examine how to better utilize virtual machine for the automation projects. This paper designs different project scenarios using virtual machine. It analyzes installability, performance and stability of virtual machine from the test results. Technical solutions concerning virtual machine are discussed such as the conversion with physical...

  2. Non-conventional electrical machines

    CERN Document Server

    Rezzoug, Abderrezak

    2013-01-01

    The developments of electrical machines are due to the convergence of material progress, improved calculation tools, and new feeding sources. Among the many recent machines, the authors have chosen, in this first book, to relate the progress in slow speed machines, high speed machines, and superconducting machines. The first part of the book is dedicated to materials and an overview of magnetism, mechanic, and heat transfer.

  3. Advanced SLARette delivery machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodner, R.R.

    1995-01-01

    SLARette 1 equipment, comprising of a SLARette Delivery Machine, SLAR Tools, SLAR power supplies and SLAR Inspection Systems was designed, developed and manufactured to service fuel channels of CANDU 6 stations during the regular yearly station outages. The Mark 2 SLARette Delivery Machine uses a Push Tube system to provide the axial and rotary movements of the SLAR Tool. The Push Tubes are operated remotely but must be attached and removed manually. Since this operation is performed at the Reactor face, there is radiation dose involved for the workers. An Advanced SLARette Delivery Machine which incorporates a computer controlled telescoping Ram in the place of the Push Tubes has been recently designed and manufactured. Utilization of the Advanced SLARette Delivery Machine significantly reduces the amount of radiation dose picked up by the workers because the need to have workers at the face of the Reactor during the SLARette operation is greatly reduced. This paper describes the design, development and manufacturing process utilized to produce the Advanced SLARette Delivery Machine and the experience gained during the Gentilly-2 NGS Spring outage. (author)

  4. The Bearingless Electrical Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichsel, J.

    1992-01-01

    Electromagnetic bearings allow the suspension of solids. For rotary applications, the most important physical effect is the force of a magnetic circuit to a high permeable armature, called the MAXWELL force. Contrary to the commonly used MAXWELL bearings, the bearingless electrical machine will take advantage of the reaction force of a conductor carrying a current in a magnetic field. This kind of force, called Lorentz force, generates the torque in direct current, asynchronous and synchronous machines. The magnetic field, which already exists in electrical machines and helps to build up the torque, can also be used for the suspension of the rotor. Besides the normal winding of the stator, a special winding was added, which generates forces for levitation. So a radial bearing, which is integrated directly in the active part of the machine, and the motor use the laminated core simultaneously. The winding was constructed for the levitating forces in a special way so that commercially available standard ac inverters for drives can be used. Besides wholly magnetic suspended machines, there is a wide range of applications for normal drives with ball bearings. Resonances of the rotor, especially critical speeds, can be damped actively.

  5. Asymmetric quantum cloning machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerf, N.J.

    1998-01-01

    A family of asymmetric cloning machines for quantum bits and N-dimensional quantum states is introduced. These machines produce two approximate copies of a single quantum state that emerge from two distinct channels. In particular, an asymmetric Pauli cloning machine is defined that makes two imperfect copies of a quantum bit, while the overall input-to-output operation for each copy is a Pauli channel. A no-cloning inequality is derived, characterizing the impossibility of copying imposed by quantum mechanics. If p and p ' are the probabilities of the depolarizing channels associated with the two outputs, the domain in (√p,√p ' )-space located inside a particular ellipse representing close-to-perfect cloning is forbidden. This ellipse tends to a circle when copying an N-dimensional state with N→∞, which has a simple semi-classical interpretation. The symmetric Pauli cloning machines are then used to provide an upper bound on the quantum capacity of the Pauli channel of probabilities p x , p y and p z . The capacity is proven to be vanishing if (√p x , √p y , √p z ) lies outside an ellipsoid whose pole coincides with the depolarizing channel that underlies the universal cloning machine. Finally, the tradeoff between the quality of the two copies is shown to result from a complementarity akin to Heisenberg uncertainty principle. (author)

  6. Micro Machining Enhances Precision Fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Advanced thermal systems developed for the Space Station Freedom project are now in use on the International Space Station. These thermal systems employ evaporative ammonia as their coolant, and though they employ the same series of chemical reactions as terrestrial refrigerators, the space-bound coolers are significantly smaller. Two Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts between Creare Inc. of Hanover, NH and Johnson Space Center developed an ammonia evaporator for thermal management systems aboard Freedom. The principal investigator for Creare Inc., formed Mikros Technologies Inc. to commercialize the work. Mikros Technologies then developed an advanced form of micro-electrical discharge machining (micro-EDM) to make tiny holes in the ammonia evaporator. Mikros Technologies has had great success applying this method to the fabrication of micro-nozzle array systems for industrial ink jet printing systems. The company is currently the world leader in fabrication of stainless steel micro-nozzles for this market, and in 2001 the company was awarded two SBIR research contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center to advance micro-fabrication and high-performance thermal management technologies.

  7. Sensor array signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Naidu, Prabhakar S

    2009-01-01

    Chapter One: An Overview of Wavefields 1.1 Types of Wavefields and the Governing Equations 1.2 Wavefield in open space 1.3 Wavefield in bounded space 1.4 Stochastic wavefield 1.5 Multipath propagation 1.6 Propagation through random medium 1.7 ExercisesChapter Two: Sensor Array Systems 2.1 Uniform linear array (ULA) 2.2 Planar array 2.3 Distributed sensor array 2.4 Broadband sensor array 2.5 Source and sensor arrays 2.6 Multi-component sensor array2.7 ExercisesChapter Three: Frequency Wavenumber Processing 3.1 Digital filters in the w-k domain 3.2 Mapping of 1D into 2D filters 3.3 Multichannel Wiener filters 3.4 Wiener filters for ULA and UCA 3.5 Predictive noise cancellation 3.6 Exercises Chapter Four: Source Localization: Frequency Wavenumber Spectrum4.1 Frequency wavenumber spectrum 4.2 Beamformation 4.3 Capon's w-k spectrum 4.4 Maximum entropy w-k spectrum 4.5 Doppler-Azimuth Processing4.6 ExercisesChapter Five: Source Localization: Subspace Methods 5.1 Subspace methods (Narrowband) 5.2 Subspace methods (B...

  8. Human-Machine Communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farbrot, J.E.; Nihlwing, Ch.; Svengren, H.

    2005-01-01

    New requirements for enhanced safety and design changes in process systems often leads to a step-wise installation of new information and control equipment in the control room of older nuclear power plants, where nowadays modern digital I and C solutions with screen-based human-machine interfaces (HMI) most often are introduced. Human factors (HF) expertise is then required to assist in specifying a unified, integrated HMI, where the entire integration of information is addressed to ensure an optimal and effective interplay between human (operators) and machine (process). Following a controlled design process is the best insurance for ending up with good solutions. This paper addresses the approach taken when introducing modern human-machine communication in the Oskarshamn 1 NPP, the results, and the lessons learned from this work with high operator involvement seen from an HF point of view. Examples of possibilities modern technology might offer for the operators are also addressed. (orig.)

  9. Machines and Metaphors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Martínez García-Posada

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The edition La ley del reloj. Arquitectura, máquinas y cultura moderna (Cátedra, Madrid, 2016 registers the useful paradox of the analogy between architecture and technique. Its author, the architect Eduardo Prieto, also a philosopher, professor and writer, acknowledges the obvious distance from machines to buildings, so great that it can only be solved using strange comparisons, since architecture does not move nor are the machines habitable, however throughout the book, from the origin of the metaphor of the machine, with clarity in his essay and enlightening erudition, he points out with certainty some concomitances of high interest, drawing throughout history a beautiful cartography of the fruitful encounter between organics and mechanics.

  10. Machine Learning for Security

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Applied statistics, aka ‘Machine Learning’, offers a wealth of techniques for answering security questions. It’s a much hyped topic in the big data world, with many companies now providing machine learning as a service. This talk will demystify these techniques, explain the math, and demonstrate their application to security problems. The presentation will include how-to’s on classifying malware, looking into encrypted tunnels, and finding botnets in DNS data. About the speaker Josiah is a security researcher with HP TippingPoint DVLabs Research Group. He has over 15 years of professional software development experience. Josiah used to do AI, with work focused on graph theory, search, and deductive inference on large knowledge bases. As rules only get you so far, he moved from AI to using machine learning techniques identifying failure modes in email traffic. There followed digressions into clustered data storage and later integrated control systems. Current ...

  11. Chatter and machine tools

    CERN Document Server

    Stone, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Focussing on occurrences of unstable vibrations, or Chatter, in machine tools, this book gives important insights into how to eliminate chatter with associated improvements in product quality, surface finish and tool wear. Covering a wide range of machining processes, including turning, drilling, milling and grinding, the author uses his research expertise and practical knowledge of vibration problems to provide solutions supported by experimental evidence of their effectiveness. In addition, this book contains links to supplementary animation programs that help readers to visualise the ideas detailed in the text. Advancing knowledge in chatter avoidance and suggesting areas for new innovations, Chatter and Machine Tools serves as a handbook for those desiring to achieve significant reductions in noise, longer tool and grinding wheel life and improved product finish.

  12. Implicit prosody mining based on the human eye image capture technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Pei-pei; Liu, Feng

    2013-08-01

    The technology of eye tracker has become the main methods of analyzing the recognition issues in human-computer interaction. Human eye image capture is the key problem of the eye tracking. Based on further research, a new human-computer interaction method introduced to enrich the form of speech synthetic. We propose a method of Implicit Prosody mining based on the human eye image capture technology to extract the parameters from the image of human eyes when reading, control and drive prosody generation in speech synthesis, and establish prosodic model with high simulation accuracy. Duration model is key issues for prosody generation. For the duration model, this paper put forward a new idea for obtaining gaze duration of eyes when reading based on the eye image capture technology, and synchronous controlling this duration and pronunciation duration in speech synthesis. The movement of human eyes during reading is a comprehensive multi-factor interactive process, such as gaze, twitching and backsight. Therefore, how to extract the appropriate information from the image of human eyes need to be considered and the gaze regularity of eyes need to be obtained as references of modeling. Based on the analysis of current three kinds of eye movement control model and the characteristics of the Implicit Prosody reading, relative independence between speech processing system of text and eye movement control system was discussed. It was proved that under the same text familiarity condition, gaze duration of eyes when reading and internal voice pronunciation duration are synchronous. The eye gaze duration model based on the Chinese language level prosodic structure was presented to change previous methods of machine learning and probability forecasting, obtain readers' real internal reading rhythm and to synthesize voice with personalized rhythm. This research will enrich human-computer interactive form, and will be practical significance and application prospect in terms of

  13. Introduction to adaptive arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Monzingo, Bob; Haupt, Randy

    2011-01-01

    This second edition is an extensive modernization of the bestselling introduction to the subject of adaptive array sensor systems. With the number of applications of adaptive array sensor systems growing each year, this look at the principles and fundamental techniques that are critical to these systems is more important than ever before. Introduction to Adaptive Arrays, 2nd Edition is organized as a tutorial, taking the reader by the hand and leading them through the maze of jargon that often surrounds this highly technical subject. It is easy to read and easy to follow as fundamental concept

  14. Clojure for machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Wali, Akhil

    2014-01-01

    A book that brings out the strengths of Clojure programming that have to facilitate machine learning. Each topic is described in substantial detail, and examples and libraries in Clojure are also demonstrated.This book is intended for Clojure developers who want to explore the area of machine learning. Basic understanding of the Clojure programming language is required, but thorough acquaintance with the standard Clojure library or any libraries are not required. Familiarity with theoretical concepts and notation of mathematics and statistics would be an added advantage.

  15. Machine learning systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, R

    1984-05-01

    With the dramatic rise of expert systems has come a renewed interest in the fuel that drives them-knowledge. For it is specialist knowledge which gives expert systems their power. But extracting knowledge from human experts in symbolic form has proved arduous and labour-intensive. So the idea of machine learning is enjoying a renaissance. Machine learning is any automatic improvement in the performance of a computer system over time, as a result of experience. Thus a learning algorithm seeks to do one or more of the following: cover a wider range of problems, deliver more accurate solutions, obtain answers more cheaply, and simplify codified knowledge. 6 references.

  16. Machine tool evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunsford, B.E.

    1976-01-01

    Continued improvement in numerical control (NC) units and the mechanical components used in the construction of today's machine tools, necessitate the use of more precise instrumentation to calibrate and determine the capabilities of these systems. It is now necessary to calibrate most tape-control lathes to a tool-path positioning accuracy of +-300 microinches in the full slide travel and, on some special turning and boring machines, a capability of +-100 microinches must be achieved. The use of a laser interferometer to determine tool-path capabilities is described

  17. Electrical machines & their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hindmarsh, J

    1984-01-01

    A self-contained, comprehensive and unified treatment of electrical machines, including consideration of their control characteristics in both conventional and semiconductor switched circuits. This new edition has been expanded and updated to include material which reflects current thinking and practice. All references have been updated to conform to the latest national (BS) and international (IEC) recommendations and a new appendix has been added which deals more fully with the theory of permanent-magnets, recognising the growing importance of permanent-magnet machines. The text is so arra

  18. Machine shop basics

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Rex

    2004-01-01

    Use the right tool the right wayHere, fully updated to include new machines and electronic/digital controls, is the ultimate guide to basic machine shop equipment and how to use it. Whether you're a professional machinist, an apprentice, a trade student, or a handy homeowner, this fully illustrated volume helps you define tools and use them properly and safely. It's packed with review questions for students, and loaded with answers you need on the job.Mark Richard Miller is a Professor and Chairman of the Industrial Technology Department at Texas A&M University in Kingsville, T

  19. Electrical machines diagnosis

    CERN Document Server

    Trigeassou, Jean-Claude

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring and diagnosis of electrical machine faults is a scientific and economic issue which is motivated by objectives for reliability and serviceability in electrical drives.This book provides a survey of the techniques used to detect the faults occurring in electrical drives: electrical, thermal and mechanical faults of the electrical machine, faults of the static converter and faults of the energy storage unit.Diagnosis of faults occurring in electrical drives is an essential part of a global monitoring system used to improve reliability and serviceability. This diagnosis is perf

  20. Neutron irradiation therapy machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Conventional neutron irradiation therapy machines, based on the use of cyclotrons for producing neutron beams, use a superconducting magnet for the cyclotron's magnetic field. This necessitates complex liquid He equipment and presents problems in general hospital use. If conventional magnets are used, the weight of the magnet poles considerably complicates the design of the rotating gantry. Such a therapy machine, gantry and target facilities are described in detail. The use of protons and deuterons to produce the neutron beams is compared and contrasted. (U.K.)

  1. Man - Machine Communication

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, Peter; Nielsen, Henning

    1984-01-01

    This report describes a Man-to-Machine Communication module which together with a STAC can take care of all operator inputs from the touch-screen, tracker balls and mechanical buttons. The MMC module can also contain a G64 card which could be a GPIB driver but many other G64 cards could be used. The soft-ware services the input devices and makes the results accessible from the CAMAC bus. NODAL functions for the Man Machine Communication is implemented in the STAC and in the ICC.

  2. MRTD: man versus machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rheenen, Arthur D.; Taule, Petter; Thomassen, Jan Brede; Madsen, Eirik Blix

    2018-04-01

    We present Minimum-Resolvable Temperature Difference (MRTD) curves obtained by letting an ensemble of observers judge how many of the six four-bar patterns they can "see" in a set of images taken with different bar-to-background contrasts. The same images are analyzed using elemental signal analysis algorithms and machine-analysis based MRTD curves are obtained. We show that by adjusting the minimum required signal-to-noise ratio the machine-based MRTDs are very similar to the ones obtained with the help of the human observers.

  3. Advances in Machine Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, William R; Villa, Gianluca; Neri, Mauro; Ronco, Claudio

    2018-01-01

    Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) machines have evolved into devices specifically designed for critically ill over the past 40 years. In this chapter, a brief history of this evolution is first provided, with emphasis on the manner in which changes have been made to address the specific needs of the critically ill patient with acute kidney injury. Subsequently, specific examples of technology developments for CRRT machines are discussed, including the user interface, pumps, pressure monitoring, safety features, and anticoagulation capabilities. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Unconscious motivation. Part II: Implicit attitudes and L2 achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali H. Al-Hoorie

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the attitudinal/motivational predictors of second language (L2 academic achievement. Young adult learners of English as a foreign language (N = 311 completed several self-report measures and the Single-Target Implicit Association Test. Examination of the motivational profiles of high and low achievers revealed that attachment to the L1 community and the ought-to L2 self were negatively associated with achievement, while explicit attitudes toward the L2 course and implicit attitudes toward L2 speakers were positively associated with it. The relationship between implicit attitudes and achievement could not be explained either by social desirability or by other cognitive confounds, and remained significant after controlling for explicit self-report measures. Explicit–implicit congruence also revealed a similar pattern, in that congruent learners were more open to the L2 community and obtained higher achievement. The results also showed that neither the ideal L2 self nor intended effort had any association with actual L2 achievement, and that intended effort was particularly prone to social desirability biases. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  5. Implicit Lagrangian equations and the mathematical modeling of physical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreau, Luc; van der Schaft, Arjan

    2002-01-01

    We introduce a class of optimal control problems on manifolds which gives rise (via the Pontryagin maximum principle) to a class of implicit Lagrangian systems (a notion which is introduced in the paper). We apply this to the mathematical modeling of interconnected mechanical systems and mechanical

  6. Implicit and Explicit Racial Attitudes Changed During Black Lives Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Jeremy; Gampa, Anup

    2018-07-01

    Lab-based interventions have been ineffective in changing individuals' implicit racial attitudes for more than brief durations, and exposure to high-status Black exemplars like Obama has proven ineffective in shifting societal-level racial attitudes. Antiracist social movements, however, offer a potential societal-level alternative for reducing racial bias. Racial attitudes were examined before and during Black Lives Matter (BLM) and its high points of struggle with 1,369,204 participants from 2009 to 2016. After controlling for changes in participant demographics, overall implicit attitudes were less pro-White during BLM than pre-BLM, became increasingly less pro-White across BLM, and were less pro-White during most periods of high BLM struggle. Considering changes in implicit attitudes by participant race, Whites became less implicitly pro-White during BLM, whereas Blacks showed little change. Regarding explicit attitudes, Whites became less pro-White and Blacks became less pro-Black during BLM, each moving toward an egalitarian "no preference" position.

  7. Implicit learning of recursive context-free grammars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrmeier, Martin; Fu, Qiufang; Dienes, Zoltan

    2012-01-01

    Context-free grammars are fundamental for the description of linguistic syntax. However, most artificial grammar learning experiments have explored learning of simpler finite-state grammars, while studies exploring context-free grammars have not assessed awareness and implicitness. This paper explores the implicit learning of context-free grammars employing features of hierarchical organization, recursive embedding and long-distance dependencies. The grammars also featured the distinction between left- and right-branching structures, as well as between centre- and tail-embedding, both distinctions found in natural languages. People acquired unconscious knowledge of relations between grammatical classes even for dependencies over long distances, in ways that went beyond learning simpler relations (e.g. n-grams) between individual words. The structural distinctions drawn from linguistics also proved important as performance was greater for tail-embedding than centre-embedding structures. The results suggest the plausibility of implicit learning of complex context-free structures, which model some features of natural languages. They support the relevance of artificial grammar learning for probing mechanisms of language learning and challenge existing theories and computational models of implicit learning.

  8. Implicit function with natural behavior over entire domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Taku; Saitoh, Ayumu; Kamitani, Atsushi; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2012-01-01

    To generate a smooth implicit function that behaves naturally over an entire domain, a method to smoothly combine an implicit function f(x) with a global support function g(x) has been proposed. The proposed method can be applied to large scattered point data, since the implicit function f(x) is generated by a partition-of-unity-based method. The global support function g(x) is generated by a radial basis function-based method or by the least-squares method. To ensure a smooth combination of f(x) and g(x), an appropriate weight function is employed. In numerical experiments, the proposed method is applied to large point data. The results illustrate that the proposed method can generate a smooth implicit function F(x) with natural behavior over the entire domain. In addition, on the given points, the accuracy of F(x) is exactly the same as that of f(x). Furthermore, the computational cost for generation of F(x) is almost the same as that of f(x). (author)

  9. Hyper-binding only apparent under fully implicit test conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Karen L; Hasher, Lynn

    2018-02-01

    We have previously shown that older adults hyper-bind, or form more extraneous associations than younger adults. For instance, when asked to perform a 1-back task on pictures superimposed with distracting words, older adults inadvertently form associations between target-distractor pairs and implicitly transfer these associations to a later paired associate learning task (showing a boost in relearning of preserved over disrupted pairs). We have argued that younger adults are better at suppressing the distracting words and thus, do not form these extraneous associations in the first place. However, an alternative explanation is that younger adults simply fail to access these associations during relearning, possibly because of their superior ability to form boundaries between episodes or shift mental contexts between tasks. In this study, we aimed to both replicate this original implicit transfer effect in older adults and to test whether younger adults show evidence of hyper-binding when informed about the relevance of past information. Our results suggest that regardless of the test conditions, younger adults do not hyper-bind. In contrast, older adults showed hyper-binding under (standard) implicit instructions, but not when made aware of a connection between tasks. These results replicate the original hyper-binding effect and reiterate its implicit nature. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Understanding and Overcoming Implicit Gender Bias in Plastic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Nicole A; Tannan, Shruti C; Kalliainen, Loree K

    2016-11-01

    Although explicit sex-based discrimination has largely been deemed unacceptable in professional settings, implicit gender bias persists and results in a significant lack of parity in plastic surgery and beyond. Implicit gender bias is the result of a complex interplay of cultural and societal expectations, learned behaviors, and standardized associations. As such, both male and female surgeons are subject to its influence. A review of the literature was conducted, examining theories of gender bias, current manifestations of gender bias in plastic surgery and other fields, and interventions designed to address gender bias. Multiple studies demonstrate persistent gender bias that impacts female physicians at all levels of training. Several institutions have enacted successful interventions to identify and address gender bias. Explicit gender bias has largely disappeared, yet unconscious or implicit gender bias persists. A wide-scale commitment to addressing implicit gender bias in plastic surgery is necessary and overdue. Recommendations include immediate actions that can be undertaken on an individual basis, and changes that should be implemented at a national and international level by leaders in the field.

  11. Implicit and explicit cognitions related to alcohol use in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, S.; Vorst, H.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Wiers, R.W.

    2010-01-01

    Research has indicated that implicit and explicit alcohol-related cognitions jointly predict alcohol use in adolescents and adults. Only few studies assessed these cognitions in children. Associations between alcohol cognitions and alcohol use were tested in two studies with 10 year olds (Study 1; N

  12. Implicit and explicit: cognitions related to alcohol use in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, S.; Vorst, H. van der; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Research has indicated that implicit and explicit alcohol-related cognitions jointly predict alcohol use in adolescents and adults. Only few studies assessed these cognitions in children. Associations between alcohol cognitions and alcohol use were tested in two studies with 10 year olds (Study 1: N

  13. A New Formulation for Symmetric Implicit Runge-Kutta-Nystrom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper we derive symmetric stable Implicit Runge-Kutta –Nystrom Method for the Integration of General Second Order ODEs by using the collocation approach.The block hybrid method obtained by the evaluation of the continuous interpolant at different nodes of the polynomial is symmetric and suitable for stiff intial ...

  14. Some Implicit Methods for Solving Harmonic Variational Inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aslam Noor

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we use the auxiliary principle technique to suggest an implicit method for solving the harmonic variational inequalities. It is shown that the convergence of the proposed method only needs pseudo monotonicity of the operator, which is a weaker condition than monotonicity.

  15. Testing the implicit processing hypothesis of precognitive dream experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valášek, Milan; Watt, Caroline; Hutton, Jenny; Neill, Rebecca; Nuttall, Rachel; Renwick, Grace

    2014-08-01

    Seemingly precognitive (prophetic) dreams may be a result of one's unconscious processing of environmental cues and having an implicit inference based on these cues manifest itself in one's dreams. We present two studies exploring this implicit processing hypothesis of precognitive dream experience. Study 1 investigated the relationship between implicit learning, transliminality, and precognitive dream belief and experience. Participants completed the Serial Reaction Time task and several questionnaires. We predicted a positive relationship between the variables. With the exception of relationships between transliminality and precognitive dream belief and experience, this prediction was not supported. Study 2 tested the hypothesis that differences in the ability to notice subtle cues explicitly might account for precognitive dream beliefs and experiences. Participants completed a modified version of the flicker paradigm. We predicted a negative relationship between the ability to explicitly detect changes and precognitive dream variables. This relationship was not found. There was also no relationship between precognitive dream belief and experience and implicit change detection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Unconscious Motivation. Part II: Implicit Attitudes and L2 Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hoorie, Ali H.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the attitudinal/motivational predictors of second language (L2) academic achievement. Young adult learners of English as a foreign language (N = 311) completed several self-report measures and the Single-Target Implicit Association Test. Examination of the motivational profiles of high and low achievers revealed that…

  17. Dissociating explicit and implicit effects of cross-media advertising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandeberg, L.; Murre, J.M.J.; Voorveld, H.A.M.; Smit, E.G.

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of cross-media advertising effects is mainly based on explicit psychological measures, such as self-reports. To fully understand the mechanisms responsible for the success of cross-media advertising, it is important to also use implicit measures. We used both types of measures to assess

  18. Implicit Learning of Recursive Context-Free Grammars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrmeier, Martin; Fu, Qiufang; Dienes, Zoltan

    2012-01-01

    Context-free grammars are fundamental for the description of linguistic syntax. However, most artificial grammar learning experiments have explored learning of simpler finite-state grammars, while studies exploring context-free grammars have not assessed awareness and implicitness. This paper explores the implicit learning of context-free grammars employing features of hierarchical organization, recursive embedding and long-distance dependencies. The grammars also featured the distinction between left- and right-branching structures, as well as between centre- and tail-embedding, both distinctions found in natural languages. People acquired unconscious knowledge of relations between grammatical classes even for dependencies over long distances, in ways that went beyond learning simpler relations (e.g. n-grams) between individual words. The structural distinctions drawn from linguistics also proved important as performance was greater for tail-embedding than centre-embedding structures. The results suggest the plausibility of implicit learning of complex context-free structures, which model some features of natural languages. They support the relevance of artificial grammar learning for probing mechanisms of language learning and challenge existing theories and computational models of implicit learning. PMID:23094021

  19. Implicit self-esteem in borderline personality and depersonalization disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis eHedrick

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Self-identity is disrupted in people with borderline personality disorder (BPD and depersonalization disorder (DPD, fluctuating with sudden shifts in affect in BPD and experienced as detached in DPD. Measures of implicit self-esteem, free from conscious control and presentation biases, may highlight how such disruptions of self-concept differentially affect these two populations on an unconscious level. We examined implicit self-esteem using the Implicit Association Test, along with measures of emotion, behavior, and temperament, in BPD (n=18, DPD (n=18, and healthy control (n=35 participants. DPD participants had significantly higher implicit self-esteem and were more harm avoidant than BPD and control participants, while BPD participants had more ‘frontal’ behaviors and impulsivity and less self-directedness and cooperativeness than DPD and control participants. Thus, while BPD and DPD commonly overlap in terms of dissociative symptoms and emotional irregularities, differences in self-esteem, behavior, and temperament can help identify where they diverge in terms of their cognition, behavior, and ultimately underlying neurobiology.

  20. Explicit versus Implicit Social Cognition Testing in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callenmark, Björn; Kjellin, Lars; Rönnqvist, Louise; Bölte, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Although autism spectrum disorder is defined by reciprocal social-communication impairments, several studies have found no evidence for altered social cognition test performance. This study examined explicit (i.e. prompted) and implicit (i.e. spontaneous) variants of social cognition testing in autism spectrum disorder. A sample of 19 adolescents…

  1. Comparison between implicit and hybrid solvation methods for the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Both implicit solvation method (dielectric polarizable continuum model, DPCM) and hybrid ... the free energy change (ΔGsol) as per the PCM ... Here the gas phase change is written as ΔGg = ΔEelec + ..... bution to the field of electrochemistry.

  2. Implementation Intentions Reduce Implicit Stereotype Activation and Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Heather Rose; Rivers, Andrew Michael; Sherman, Jeffrey W

    2018-05-01

    Research has found that implementation intentions, if-then action plans (e.g., "if I see a Black face, I will think safe"), reduce stereotyping on implicit measures. However, it is unknown by what process(es) implementation intentions reduce implicit stereotyping. The present research examines the effects of implementation intentions on stereotype activation (e.g., extent to which stereotypic information is accessible) and stereotype application (e.g., extent to which accessible stereotypes are applied in judgment). In addition, we assessed the efficiency of implementation intentions by manipulating cognitive resources (e.g., digit-span, restricted response window) while participants made judgments on an implicit stereotyping measure. Across four studies, implementation intentions reduced implicit stereotyping. This decrease in stereotyping was associated with reductions in both stereotype activation and application. In addition, these effects of implementation intentions were highly efficient and associated with reduced stereotyping even for groups for which people may have little practice inhibiting stereotypes (e.g., gender).

  3. Do Children with Developmental Dyslexia Have Impairments in Implicit Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlidou, Elpis V.; Kelly, M. Louise; Williams, Joanne M.

    2010-01-01

    We explored implicit learning in a group of typically developing and developmental dyslexic primary school children (9-12y) using a modified artificial grammar learning task. Performance was calculated using two measures of performance: a perfect free recall (PFR) score and a grammaticality judgment score. Both groups of children required the same…

  4. Modeling single versus multiple systems in implicit and explicit memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starns, Jeffrey J; Ratcliff, Roger; McKoon, Gail

    2012-04-01

    It is currently controversial whether priming on implicit tasks and discrimination on explicit recognition tests are supported by a single memory system or by multiple, independent systems. In a Psychological Review article, Berry and colleagues used mathematical modeling to address this question and provide compelling evidence against the independent-systems approach. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Implicit and Explicit Measurements of Affective Responses to Food Odors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, Wei; Wijk, de R.A.; Graaf, de C.; Boesveldt, S.

    2016-01-01

    One of the main functions of olfaction is to activate approach/avoidance behavior, toward or away from people, foods, or other odor sources. These behaviors are partly automated and therefore poorly accessible via introspection. Explicit tests need therefore be complemented by implicit tests to

  6. The present moment and implicit communication in group psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulman, Kathleen Hubbs

    2011-04-01

    The importance of the concepts of present moment and implicit communication to group psychotherapy is discussed in relation to the articles by Gans and by Counselman and Abernethy and to the life work of Anne Alonso. Clinical examples are used to illustrate the discussion.

  7. Effects of Divided Attention at Retrieval on Conceptual Implicit Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prull, Matthew W; Lawless, Courtney; Marshall, Helen M; Sherman, Annabella T K

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether conceptual implicit memory is sensitive to process-specific interference at the time of retrieval. Participants performed the implicit memory test of category exemplar generation (CEG; Experiments 1 and 3), or the matched explicit memory test of category-cued recall (Experiment 2), both of which are conceptually driven memory tasks, under one of two divided attention (DA) conditions in which participants simultaneously performed a distracting task. The distracting task was either syllable judgments (dissimilar processes), or semantic judgments (similar processes) on unrelated words. Compared to full attention (FA) in which no distracting task was performed, DA had no effect on CEG priming overall, but reduced category-cued recall similarly regardless of distractor task. Analyses of distractor task performance also revealed differences between implicit and explicit memory retrieval. The evidence suggests that, whereas explicit memory retrieval requires attentional resources and is disrupted by semantic and phonological distracting tasks, conceptual implicit memory is automatic and unaffected even when distractor and memory tasks involve similar processes.

  8. Effects of Divided Attention at Retrieval on Conceptual Implicit Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W. Prull

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether conceptual implicit memory is sensitive to process-specific interference at the time of retrieval. Participants performed the implicit memory test of category exemplar generation (Experiments 1 and 3, or the matched explicit memory test of category-cued recall (Experiment 2, both of which are conceptually-driven memory tasks, under one of two divided attention (DA conditions in which participants simultaneously performed a distracting task. The distracting task was either syllable judgments (dissimilar processes, or semantic judgments (similar processes on unrelated words. Compared to full attention (FA in which no distracting task was performed, DA had no effect on category exemplar generation priming overall, but reduced category-cued recall similarly regardless of distractor task. Analyses of distractor task performance also revealed differences between implicit and explicit memory retrieval. The evidence suggests that, whereas explicit memory retrieval requires attentional resources and is disrupted by semantic and phonological distracting tasks, conceptual implicit memory is automatic and unaffected even when distractor and memory tasks involve similar processes.

  9. Age differences in implicit memory: more apparent than real.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, R; Parkin, A J

    1993-01-01

    Elderly subjects and a group of young subjects identified fragmented picture sequences under conditions of focused attention. Two other groups of young subjects carried out this task under divided-attention conditions. Implicit memory, as measured by item-specific savings, was found in all groups, but this effect was smaller in the elderly group. The young subjects, but not elderly subjects, performed better on new items. The divided-attention conditions equated recall and recognition by the young and the elderly, but only the young subjects showed greater savings for recalled items. The elderly subjects' reduced implicit memory therefore stemmed from their inability to facilitate implicit memory with explicit memory. A second experiment, involving only young subjects tested after delay, produced findings similar to those for the young divided-attention subjects. Implicit memory, as measured by savings in picture completion, does not show an age-related change when the role of explicit memory is considered. Age does, however, reduce skill learning.

  10. Geologists' Implicit Persuasive Strategies and the Construction of Evaluative Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressen, Dacia

    2003-01-01

    Describes the basis for the evaluational practices of the field geology community, through a qualitative analysis of geologists' implicit strategies coupled with the situated analysis of the field account part-genre, its past and present disciplinary practices. (Author/VWL)

  11. Cooperative Epistemic Multi-Agent Planning With Implicit Coordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engesser, Thorsten; Bolander, Thomas; Mattmüller, Robert

    2015-01-01

    , meaning coordination is only allowed implicitly by means of the available epistemic actions. While this approach can be fruitfully applied to model reasoning in some simple social situations, we also provide some benchmark applications to show that the concept is useful for multi-agent systems in practice....

  12. Educational Psychology: Using Insights from Implicit Attitude Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glock, Sabine; Kovacs, Carrie

    2013-01-01

    Teachers' and preservice teachers' attitudes toward students are mental states that may contribute to teachers' judgments and students' achievement. However, in the past, educational research has mainly focused on explicit attitudes and has hardly considered the pivotal role of implicit attitudes in predicting behavior. Drawing…

  13. Factors influencing the implicitation of discourse relations across languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, Jet; Zufferey, Sandrine

    2015-01-01

    Relations that hold between discourse segments can, but need not, be made explicit by means of discourse connectives. Even though the explicit signaling of discourse relations is optional, not all relations can be easily conveyed implicitly. It has been proposed that readers and listeners have

  14. Implicit learning of recursive context-free grammars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Rohrmeier

    Full Text Available Context-free grammars are fundamental for the description of linguistic syntax. However, most artificial grammar learning experiments have explored learning of simpler finite-state grammars, while studies exploring context-free grammars have not assessed awareness and implicitness. This paper explores the implicit learning of context-free grammars employing features of hierarchical organization, recursive embedding and long-distance dependencies. The grammars also featured the distinction between left- and right-branching structures, as well as between centre- and tail-embedding, both distinctions found in natural languages. People acquired unconscious knowledge of relations between grammatical classes even for dependencies over long distances, in ways that went beyond learning simpler relations (e.g. n-grams between individual words. The structural distinctions drawn from linguistics also proved important as performance was greater for tail-embedding than centre-embedding structures. The results suggest the plausibility of implicit learning of complex context-free structures, which model some features of natural languages. They support the relevance of artificial grammar learning for probing mechanisms of language learning and challenge existing theories and computational models of implicit learning.

  15. A Multimodal Database for Affect Recognition and Implicit Tagging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soleymani, Mohammad; Lichtenauer, Jeroen; Pun, Thierry; Pantic, Maja

    MAHNOB-HCI is a multimodal database recorded in response to affective stimuli with the goal of emotion recognition and implicit tagging research. A multimodal setup was arranged for synchronized recording of face videos, audio signals, eye gaze data, and peripheral/central nervous system

  16. Prolonged multifocal electroretinographic implicit times in the ocular ischemic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Peter Kristian; Munch, Inger Christine; Sander, Birgit

    2010-01-01

    .4 +/- 1.7 mm Hg, respectively. Summed mfERG implicit times (N1, P1, N2) were prolonged in eyes with OIS, by 7.6%, 6.2%, and 7.5%, respectively, compared with fellow eyes (P macula, whereas the assessment of responses from...

  17. Motivation to Avoid Loss Improves Implicit Skill Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Danbee; Thompson, Kelsey R.; Reber, Paul J.

    2018-01-01

    Implicit learning reflects learning from experience that occurs without intention or awareness of the information acquired and is hypothesized to contribute to skill acquisition by improving performance with practice. The role of motivation has not been examined because this kind of memory is represented outside awareness. We manipulated…

  18. Carbody structural lightweighting based on implicit parameterized model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Ma, Fangwu; Wang, Dengfeng; Xie, Chen

    2014-05-01

    Most of recent research on carbody lightweighting has focused on substitute material and new processing technologies rather than structures. However, new materials and processing techniques inevitably lead to higher costs. Also, material substitution and processing lightweighting have to be realized through body structural profiles and locations. In the huge conventional workload of lightweight optimization, model modifications involve heavy manual work, and it always leads to a large number of iteration calculations. As a new technique in carbody lightweighting, the implicit parameterization is used to optimize the carbody structure to improve the materials utilization rate in this paper. The implicit parameterized structural modeling enables the use of automatic modification and rapid multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) in carbody structure, which is impossible in the traditional structure finite element method (FEM) without parameterization. The structural SFE parameterized model is built in accordance with the car structural FE model in concept development stage, and it is validated by some structural performance data. The validated SFE structural parameterized model can be used to generate rapidly and automatically FE model and evaluate different design variables group in the integrated MDO loop. The lightweighting result of body-in-white (BIW) after the optimization rounds reveals that the implicit parameterized model makes automatic MDO feasible and can significantly improve the computational efficiency of carbody structural lightweighting. This paper proposes the integrated method of implicit parameterized model and MDO, which has the obvious practical advantage and industrial significance in the carbody structural lightweighting design.

  19. Explicit- and Implicit Bullying Attitudes in Relation to Bullying Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goethem, A.A.J. van; Scholte, R.H.J.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine whether an assessment of implicit bullying attitudes could add to the prediction of bullying behavior after controlling for explicit bullying attitudes. Primary school children (112 boys and 125 girls, M age = 11 years, 5 months) completed two newly

  20. Explicit- and implicit bullying attitudes in relation to bullying behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goethem, A.A.J.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Wiers, R.W.

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine whether an assessment of implicit bullying attitudes could add to the prediction of bullying behavior after controlling for explicit bullying attitudes. Primary school children (112 boys and 125 girls, M age = 11 years, 5 months) completed two newly

  1. Implicit self-esteem compensation: automatic threat defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudman, Laurie A; Dohn, Matthew C; Fairchild, Kimberly

    2007-11-01

    Four experiments demonstrated implicit self-esteem compensation (ISEC) in response to threats involving gender identity (Experiment 1), implicit racism (Experiment 2), and social rejection (Experiments 3-4). Under conditions in which people might be expected to suffer a blow to self-worth, they instead showed high scores on 2 implicit self-esteem measures. There was no comparable effect on explicit self-esteem. However, ISEC was eliminated following self-affirmation (Experiment 3). Furthermore, threat manipulations increased automatic intergroup bias, but ISEC mediated these relationships (Experiments 2-3). Thus, a process that serves as damage control for the self may have negative social consequences. Finally, pretest anxiety mediated the relationship between threat and ISEC (Experiment 3), whereas ISEC negatively predicted anxiety among high-threat participants (Experiment 4), suggesting that ISEC may function to regulate anxiety. The implications of these findings for automatic emotion regulation, intergroup bias, and implicit self-esteem measures are discussed. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Are implicit emotion measurements evoked by food unrelated to liking?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojet, Jozina; Dürrschmid, Klaus; Danner, Lukas; Jöchl, Max; Heiniö, Raija Liisa; Holthuysen, Nancy; Köster, Egon

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to find a simple method to measure implicit and unconscious emotional effects of food consumption, a number of methods were compared in an experiment in which 3 groups of at least 24 subjects were each exposed to a pair of yoghurts of the same brand and marketed in the same way, but

  3. Implicit and explicit appraisals of the importance of intrusive thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teachman, Bethany A; Woody, Sheila R; Magee, Joshua C

    2006-06-01

    To evaluate cognitive theories of obsessions, the current study experimentally manipulated appraisals of the importance of intrusive thoughts. Undergraduate students (N = 156) completed measures of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms and beliefs and were primed with a list of commonly reported unwanted thoughts. Participants were then informed that unwanted thoughts are either (1) significant and indicative of their personal values, or (2) meaningless, or participants (3) received no instructions about unwanted thoughts. Participants then completed implicit and explicit measures of self-evaluation and interpretations of their unwanted thoughts. Results indicated that the manipulation shifted implicit appraisals of unwanted thoughts in the expected direction, but not self-evaluations of morality or dangerousness. Interestingly, explicit self-esteem and beliefs about the significance of unwanted thoughts were associated with measures of OCD beliefs, whereas implicit self-evaluations of dangerousness were better predicted by the interaction of pre-existing OCD beliefs with the manipulation. Results are discussed in terms of divergent predictors of implicit and explicit responses to unwanted thoughts.

  4. Implicit self-esteem in recurrently depressed patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Risch, A.K.; Bubal, A.; Birk, U.; Morina, N.; Steffens, M.C.; Stangier, U.

    2010-01-01

    Negative self-esteem is suggested to play an important role in the recurrence of depressive episodes. This study investigated whether repeated experiences of a negative view of the self within a recurrent course of depression might cause implicit self-esteem to be impaired and negative

  5. EdgeMaps: visualizing explicit and implicit relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörk, Marian; Carpendale, Sheelagh; Williamson, Carey

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we introduce EdgeMaps as a new method for integrating the visualization of explicit and implicit data relations. Explicit relations are specific connections between entities already present in a given dataset, while implicit relations are derived from multidimensional data based on shared properties and similarity measures. Many datasets include both types of relations, which are often difficult to represent together in information visualizations. Node-link diagrams typically focus on explicit data connections, while not incorporating implicit similarities between entities. Multi-dimensional scaling considers similarities between items, however, explicit links between nodes are not displayed. In contrast, EdgeMaps visualize both implicit and explicit relations by combining and complementing spatialization and graph drawing techniques. As a case study for this approach we chose a dataset of philosophers, their interests, influences, and birthdates. By introducing the limitation of activating only one node at a time, interesting visual patterns emerge that resemble the aesthetics of fireworks and waves. We argue that the interactive exploration of these patterns may allow the viewer to grasp the structure of a graph better than complex node-link visualizations.

  6. Grouping by Closure Influences Subjective Regularity and Implicit Preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Makin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A reflection between a pair of contours is more rapidly detected than a translation, but this effect is stronger when the contours are closed to form a single object compared to when they are closed to form 2 objects with a gap between them. That is, grouping changes the relative salience of different regularities. We tested whether this manipulation would also change preference for reflection or translation. We measured preference for these patterns using the Implicit Association Test (IAT. On some trials, participants saw words that were either positive or negative and had to classify them as quickly as possible. On interleaved trials, they saw reflection or translation patterns and again had to classify them. Participants were faster when 1 button was used for reflection and positive words and another button was used for translation and negative words, compared to when the reverse response mapping was used (translation and positive vs. reflection and negative. This reaction time difference indicates an implicit preference for reflection over translation. However, the size of the implicit preference was significantly reduced in the Two-objects condition. We concluded that factors that affect perceptual sensitivity also systematically affect implicit preference formation.

  7. Real time ray tracing of skeletal implicit surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rouiller, Olivier; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    Modeling and rendering in real time is usually done via rasterization of polygonal meshes. We present a method to model with skeletal implicit surfaces and an algorithm to ray trace these surfaces in real time in the GPU. Our skeletal representation of the surfaces allows to create smooth models...

  8. Changing fit and fat bias using an implicit retraining task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berry, Tanya R.; Elfeddali, Iman; de Vries, Hein

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To change implicit and explicit bias so that active obese people are regarded as more fit and normal weight sedentary people as less fit. Design: Study one created a questionnaire that measured perceptions of active obese persons and sedentary normal weight persons on fitness-related

  9. Explicit versus implicit social cognition testing in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callenmark, Björn; Kjellin, Lars; Rönnqvist, Louise; Bölte, Sven

    2014-08-01

    Although autism spectrum disorder is defined by reciprocal social-communication impairments, several studies have found no evidence for altered social cognition test performance. This study examined explicit (i.e. prompted) and implicit (i.e. spontaneous) variants of social cognition testing in autism spectrum disorder. A sample of 19 adolescents with autism spectrum disorder and 19 carefully matched typically developing controls completed the Dewey Story Test. 'Explicit' (multiple-choice answering format) and 'implicit' (free interview) measures of social cognition were obtained. Autism spectrum disorder participants did not differ from controls regarding explicit social cognition performance. However, the autism spectrum disorder group performed more poorly than controls on implicit social cognition performance in terms of spontaneous perspective taking and social awareness. Findings suggest that social cognition alterations in autism spectrum disorder are primarily implicit in nature and that an apparent absence of social cognition difficulties on certain tests using rather explicit testing formats does not necessarily mean social cognition typicality in autism spectrum disorder. © The Author(s) 2013.

  10. Implicit and Explicit Learning Mechanisms Meet in Monkey Prefrontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafee, Matthew V; Crowe, David A

    2017-10-11

    In this issue, Loonis et al. (2017) provide the first description of unique synchrony patterns differentiating implicit and explicit forms of learning in monkey prefrontal networks. Their results have broad implications for how prefrontal networks integrate the two learning mechanisms to control behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Efficient implicit FEM simulation of sheet metal forming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boogaard, Antonius H.; Meinders, Vincent T.; Huetink, Han

    2003-01-01

    For the simulation of industrial sheet forming processes, the time discretisation is one of the important factors that determine the accuracy and efficiency of the algorithm. For relatively small models, the implicit time integration method is preferred, because of its inherent equilibrium check.

  12. Implicit Beliefs, Achievement Goals, and Procrastination: A Mediational Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Andrew J.; Buro, Karen

    2009-01-01

    As a maladaptive behavioural outcome, procrastination should correlate with beliefs about ability and achievement goals that are themselves relatively maladaptive. Accordingly, procrastination should be predicted by entity as opposed to incremental implicit theories (i.e., viewing attributes such as ability as relatively fixed vs. malleable,…

  13. Implicit and explicit self-esteem in remitted depressed patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeijers, D.; Vrijsen, J.N.; Oostrom, I.I. van; Isaac, L.; Speckens, A.E.M.; Becker, E.S.; Rinck, M.

    2017-01-01

    Background and objectives: Low self-esteem is a symptom of depression and depression vulnerability. Prior research on self-esteem has largely focused on implicit (ISE) and explicit self-esteem (ESE) as two separate constructs, missing their interaction. Therefore, the current study investigated the

  14. Making the Implicit Explicit: Supporting Teachers to Bridge Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein-Fisch, Carrie; Trumbull, Elise; Garcia, Sandra Gloria

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we report the results of a longitudinal action research project in which elementary teachers used a cultural framework (individualism-collectivism) to understand differences between the culture of immigrant Latino families and the culture of U.S. schools. Making explicit the culture-based beliefs implicit in home and school…

  15. Relationship between Implicit Leadership and Proactive Behaviors of School Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskinkilic-Kara, Sultan-Bilge; Zafer-Gunes, Demet

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research is to define the school principals' implicit leadership theory and to reveal its relationship with the proactive behavior. The study is conducted in Bagcilar and Basaksehir districts in Istanbul and the target population of the research is 153 school principals working in state elementary schools, middle schools and high…

  16. Implicit Procedural Learning in Fragile X and Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussy, G.; Charrin, E.; Brun, A.; Curie, A.; des Portes, V.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Procedural learning refers to rule-based motor skill learning and storage. It involves the cerebellum, striatum and motor areas of the frontal lobe network. Fragile X syndrome, which has been linked with anatomical abnormalities within the striatum, may result in implicit procedural learning deficit. Methods: To address this issue, a…

  17. Implicit and explicit self-esteem in currently depressed individuals with and without suicidal ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Erik; De Raedt, Rudi; Dereu, Mieke; Van den Abbeele, Dirk

    2007-03-01

    In the present study, we have further explored implicit self-esteem in currently depressed individuals. Since suicidal ideation is associated with lower self-esteem in depressed individuals, we measured both implicit and explicit self-esteem in a population of currently depressed (CD) individuals, with and without suicidal ideation (SI), and in a group of non-depressed controls (ND). The results indicate that only CD individuals with SI show a discrepancy between their implicit and explicit self-esteem: that is, they exhibit high implicit and low explicit self-esteem. CD individuals without SI exhibit both low implicit and low explicit self-esteem; and ND controls exhibit both normal implicit and normal explicit self-esteem. These results provide new insights in the study of implicit self-esteem and the combination of implicit and explicit self-esteem in depression.

  18. Predicting dyscontrolled drinking with implicit and explicit measures of alcohol motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ostafin, Brian D.; Kassman, Kyle T.; de Jong, Peter J.; van Hemel-Ruiter, Madelon E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background A defining feature of alcohol addiction is dyscontrol – drinking despite intentions to restrain use. Given that dyscontrolled drinking involves an automatic (nonvolitional) element and that implicit measures are designed to assess automatic processes, it follows that implicit

  19. Implicit trait policies in multimedia situational judgment tests of leadership skills: Can they predict leadership behavior?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostrom, J.K.; Born, M.Ph.; Serlie, A.W.; Van der Molen, H.T.

    2012-01-01

    To explain why situational judgment tests are often correlated with personality measures, Motowidlo, Hooper, and Jackson (2006a, 2006b) developed the implicit trait policy theory. Implicit trait policies are beliefs about causal relationships between personality traits and behavioral effectiveness.

  20. ImWalkMF: Joint matrix factorization and implicit walk integrative learning for recommendation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Chuxu; Yu, Lu; Zhang, Xiangliang; Chawla, Nitesh

    2018-01-01

    Data sparsity and cold-start problems are prevalent in recommender systems. To address such problems, both the observable explicit social information (e.g., user-user trust connections) and the inferable implicit correlations (e.g., implicit