WorldWideScience

Sample records for machinery printers plotters

  1. Plotter Research: Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointer, Richard A.

    The document provides an introduction to computer graphics and is intended to be used as reference material to assist the high school drafting student in compiling information. A teletype machine with an acoustical coupler for telephone hookup and a time-sharing Peripherals Corporation flatbed plotter were acquired, and an illustrated programer's…

  2. CMS plotter graphics training manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cawby, R.D.

    1981-03-01

    This manual includes explanations of several graphics programs that use a Conversation Monitor System (CMS) terminal and a table-top plotter to produce a copy on bond paper or transparency film. 13 figures.

  3. Machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ China Council for the Promotion of International Trade, Machin-ery Sub-Council (referred to as CCPIT MSC) & China Chamber of International Commerce, Machinery Chamber of Commerce was founded in 1988 as one of the first group of industrial trade promotion agencies approved by the governing authorities of China.

  4. Virtual Prototyping through Co-simulation of a Cartesian Plotter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothuis, M.A.; Damstra, A.S.; Broenink, Johannes F.

    This paper shows a model-based design trajectory for the development of real-time embedded control software using virtual prototyping. As a test case, a Cartesian plotter is designed. Functional correctness of the plotter software has been ensured by means of co-simulation using a virtual prototype

  5. JLIN: A java based linkage disequilibrium plotter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCaskie Pamela A

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A great deal of effort and expense are being expended internationally in attempts to detect genetic polymorphisms contributing to susceptibility to complex human disease. Techniques such as Linkage Disequilibrium mapping are being increasingly used to examine and compare markers across increasingly large datasets. Visualisation techniques are becoming essential to analyse the ever-growing volume of data and results available with any given analysis. Results JLIN (Java LINkage disequilibrium plotter is a software package designed for customisable, intuitive visualisation of Linkage Disequilibrium (LD across all common computing platforms. Customisation allows the user to choose particular visualisations, statistical measures and measurement ranges. JLIN also allows the user to export images of the LD visualisation in several common document formats. Conclusion JLIN allows the user to visually compare and contrast the results of a range of statistical measures on the input dataset(s. These measures include the commonly used D' and r2 statistics and empirical p-values. JLIN has a number of unique and novel features that improve on existing LD visualisation tools.

  6. Stereoscopic Diagrams Prepared by a Desk Calculator and Plotter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayman, H. J. G.

    1977-01-01

    Describes the use of a Hewlett-Packard 9810A programmable desk calculator with plotter for drawing ball-and-line stereopairs as well as three-dimensional structural formulas which are useful for teaching stereochemical principles and molecular structure. (MLH)

  7. The Fly Printer - Extended

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beloff, Laura; Klaus, Malena

    2016-01-01

    Artist talk / Work-in-progress What is the purpose of a machine or an artifact, like the Fly Printer, that is dislocated, that produces images that have no meaning, no instrumentality, that depict nothing in the world? The biological and the cultural are reunited in this apparatus as a possibilit...... the results. The extended version of the Fly Printer containing the technological perception and DNNs is a collaboration between Laura Beloff and Malene Theres Klaus...

  8. DELTA 3D PRINTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ȘOVĂILĂ Florin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available 3D printing is a very used process in industry, the generic name being “rapid prototyping”. The essential advantage of a 3D printer is that it allows the designers to produce a prototype in a very short time, which is tested and quickly remodeled, considerably reducing the required time to get from the prototype phase to the final product. At the same time, through this technique we can achieve components with very precise forms, complex pieces that, through classical methods, could have been accomplished only in a large amount of time. In this paper, there are presented the stages of a 3D model execution, also the physical achievement after of a Delta 3D printer after the model.

  9. Network migration for printers

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Further to the recent General Purpose (office) Network reorganisation (as announced in the Bulletin - see here), please note that the majority of print devices will be automatically migrated to the new network IP address range on Tuesday 27 September.   This change should be transparent for these devices and therefore end-users, provided you have installed the printers from the Print Service website. A small number of devices will require manual intervention from the Printer Support team in order to migrate correctly. These devices will not change their IP address until the manual intervention, which will be carried out before Monday 3rd October. However, if you have mistakenly connected directly to the printer’s IP address, then your printing will be affected – please uninstall the printer (for help, see: KB3785), and re-install it from the Print Service website (or follow instructions for visitor machines). Please do this as soon as possible in order to avoid printing issues, t...

  10. Activity Landscape Plotter: A Web-based Application for the Analysis of Structure-Activity Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Medina, Mariana; Méndez-Lucio, Oscar; Medina-Franco, Jose Luis

    2017-02-24

    Activity landscape modeling is a powerful method for the quantitative analysis of structure-activity relationships. This cheminformatics area is in continuous growth and several quantitative and visual approaches are constantly being developed. However, these approaches often fall into disuse due to their limited access. Herein, we present Activity Landscape Plotter as the first freely available web-based tool to automatically analyze structure-activity relationships of compound data sets. Based on the concept of activity landscape modeling, the online service performs pair-wise structure and activity relationships from an input data set supplied by the user. For visual analysis, Activity Landscape Plotter generates Structure-Activity Similarity and Dual Activity Difference maps. The user can interactively navigate through the maps and export all the pairwise structure-activity information as comma delimited files. Activity Landscape Plotter is freely accessible at https://unam-shiny-difacquim.shinyapps.io/ActLSmaps/.

  11. Development of three-axis inkjet printer for gear sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iba, Daisuke; Rodriguez Lopez, Ricardo; Kamimoto, Takahiro; Nakamura, Morimasa; Miura, Nanako; Iizuka, Takashi; Masuda, Arata; Moriwaki, Ichiro; Sone, Akira

    2016-04-01

    The long-term objective of our research is to develop sensor systems for detection of gear failure signs. As a very first step, this paper proposes a new method to create sensors directly printed on gears by a printer and conductive ink, and shows the printing system configuration and the procedure of sensor development. The developing printer system is a laser sintering system consisting of a laser and CNC machinery. The laser is able to synthesize micro conductive patterns, and introduced to the CNC machinery as a tool. In order to synthesize sensors on gears, we first design the micro-circuit pattern on a gear through the use of 3D-CAD, and create a program (G-code) for the CNC machinery by CAM. This paper shows initial experiments with the laser sintering process in order to obtain the optimal parameters for the laser setting. This new method proposed here may provide a new manufacturing process for mechanical parts, which have an additional functionality to detect failure, and possible improvements include creating more economical and sustainable systems.

  12. 3-D printers for libraries

    CERN Document Server

    Griffey, Jason

    2014-01-01

    As the maker movement continues to grow and 3-D printers become more affordable, an expanding group of hobbyists is keen to explore this new technology. In the time-honored tradition of introducing new technologies, many libraries are considering purchasing a 3-D printer. Jason Griffey, an early enthusiast of 3-D printing, has researched the marketplace and seen several systems first hand at the Consumer Electronics Show. In this report he introduces readers to the 3-D printing marketplace, covering such topics asHow fused deposition modeling (FDM) printing workBasic terminology such as build

  13. Linking of the BENSON graph-plotter with the Elektronika-1001 computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtts, I. Y.; Nilolaev, N. Y.; Popov, M. V.; Soglasnov, V. A.

    1980-01-01

    A device, developed by the Institute of Space Research of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, for linking the Elektronika-100I computer with the BENSON graph-plotter is described. Programs are compiled which provide display of graphic and alphanumeric information. Instructions for their utilization are given.

  14. Biemsderfer plotter for field recording of structural measurements on equal area nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Donald U.

    2005-05-01

    The Biemsderfer plotter is a pie-shaped template anchored by a thumb-tack at the center of an equal area net. A 90° angle between its two arms allows one side to be laid parallel to the strike of a plane while the pole is plotted as a dot along the other arm. Variations for use with lineations are equally simple. Its chief virtue is field-friendly ease of producing hard-copy equal area plots while the geologist is still able to make further observations on the outcrop about each data class. These plotters may be low-tech tools but their use with some of the strategies described commonly produces a quantum leap in the quality of recognition and recording of field structural data.

  15. Methylation plotter: a web tool for dynamic visualization of DNA methylation data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallona, Izaskun; Díez-Villanueva, Anna; Peinado, Miguel A

    2014-01-01

    Methylation plotter is a Web tool that allows the visualization of methylation data in a user-friendly manner and with publication-ready quality. The user is asked to introduce a file containing the methylation status of a genomic region. This file can contain up to 100 samples and 100 CpGs. Optionally, the user can assign a group for each sample (i.e. whether a sample is a tumoral or normal tissue). After the data upload, the tool produces different graphical representations of the results following the most commonly used styles to display this type of data. They include an interactive plot that summarizes the status of every CpG site and for every sample in lollipop or grid styles. Methylation values ranging from 0 (unmethylated) to 1 (fully methylated) are represented using a gray color gradient. A practical feature of the tool allows the user to choose from different types of arrangement of the samples in the display: for instance, sorting by overall methylation level, by group, by unsupervised clustering or just following the order in which data were entered. In addition to the detailed plot, Methylation plotter produces a methylation profile plot that summarizes the status of the scrutinized region, a boxplot that sums up the differences between groups (if any) and a dendrogram that classifies the data by unsupervised clustering. Coupled with this analysis, descriptive statistics and testing for differences at both CpG and group levels are provided. The implementation is based in R/shiny, providing a highly dynamic user interface that generates quality graphics without the need of writing R code. Methylation plotter is freely available at http://gattaca.imppc.org:3838/methylation_plotter/.

  16. Particle parameter analyzing system. [x-y plotter circuits and display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, D. O.; Roy, N. L. (Inventor)

    1969-01-01

    An X-Y plotter circuit apparatus is described which displays an input pulse representing particle parameter information, that would ordinarily appear on the screen of an oscilloscope as a rectangular pulse, as a single dot positioned on the screen where the upper right hand corner of the input pulse would have appeared. If another event occurs, and it is desired to display this event, the apparatus is provided to replace the dot with a short horizontal line.

  17. Development of Low-cost plotter for educational purposes using Arduino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, Siriparapu; Thirumal Reddy, Palwai; Marimuthu, K. Prakash

    2017-08-01

    With the development of CAD/CAM/CAE concept to product realization time has reduced drastically. Most of the activities such as design, drafting, and visualizations are carried out using high-end computers and commercial software. This has reduced the overall lead-time to market. It is important in the current scenario to equip the students with knowledge of advanced technological developments in order to use them effectively. However, the cost associated with the systems are very high which is not affordable to students. The present work is an attempt to build a low-cost plotter integrating some of the software that are available and components got from scrapped electronic devices. Here the authors are introducing G-code plotter with 3-axis which can implement the given g-code in 2D plane (X-Y). Lifting pen and adjusting to the base component is in the Z-axis. All conventional plotting devices existing until date are costly and need basic knowledge before operating. Our aim is to make students understand the working of plotter and the usage of G-code, achieving this at a much affordable cost. Arduino Uno controls the stepper motors, which can accurately plot the given dimensions.

  18. Wireless 3D Chocolate Printer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FROILAN G. DESTREZA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is for the BSHRM Students of Batangas State University (BatStateU ARASOF for the researchers believe that the Wireless 3D Chocolate Printer would be helpful in their degree program especially on making creative, artistic, personalized and decorative chocolate designs. The researchers used the Prototyping model as procedural method for the successful development and implementation of the hardware and software. This method has five phases which are the following: quick plan, quick design, prototype construction, delivery and feedback and communication. This study was evaluated by the BSHRM Students and the assessment of the respondents regarding the software and hardware application are all excellent in terms of Accuracy, Effecitveness, Efficiency, Maintainability, Reliability and User-friendliness. Also, the overall level of acceptability of the design project as evaluated by the respondents is excellent. With regard to the observation about the best raw material to use in 3D printing, the chocolate is good to use as the printed material is slightly distorted,durable and very easy to prepare; the icing is also good to use as the printed material is not distorted and is very durable but consumes time to prepare; the flour is not good as the printed material is distorted, not durable but it is easy to prepare. The computation of the economic viability level of 3d printer with reference to ROI is 37.14%. The recommendation of the researchers in the design project are as follows: adding a cooling system so that the raw material will be more durable, development of a more simplified version and improving the extrusion process wherein the user do not need to stop the printing process just to replace the empty syringe with a new one.

  19. Advanced 3D Printers for Cellular Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-30

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Final Report for DURIP grant W911NF-14-1-0416 This DURIP grant has allowed for the purchase of three 3D printers ...06-2016 1-Aug-2014 31-Dec-2015 Final Report: Advanced 3D printers for Cellular Solids The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are...Papers published in non peer-reviewed journals: Final Report: Advanced 3D printers for Cellular Solids Report Title Final Report for DURIP grant W911NF

  20. 3D holographic printer: fast printing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, Alexander V; Putilin, Andrey N; Kopenkin, Sergey S; Borodin, Yuriy P; Druzhin, Vladislav V; Dubynin, Sergey E; Dubinin, German B

    2014-02-10

    This article describes the general operation principles of devices for synthesized holographic images such as holographic printers. Special emphasis is placed on the printing speed. In addition, various methods to increase the printing process are described and compared.

  1. Will 3D printers manufacture your meals?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bommel, K.J.C. van

    2013-01-01

    These days, 3D printers are laying down plastics, metals, resins, and other materials in whatever configurations creative people can dream up. But when the next 3D printing revolution comes, you'll be able to eat it.

  2. Will 3D printers manufacture your meals?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bommel, K.J.C. van

    2013-01-01

    These days, 3D printers are laying down plastics, metals, resins, and other materials in whatever configurations creative people can dream up. But when the next 3D printing revolution comes, you'll be able to eat it.

  3. Maintaining and troubleshooting your 3D printer

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining and Troubleshooting Your 3D Printer by Charles Bell is your guide to keeping your 3D printer running through preventive maintenance, repair, and diagnosing and solving problems in 3D printing. If you've bought or built a 3D printer such as a MakerBot only to be confounded by jagged edges, corner lift, top layers that aren't solid, or any of a myriad of other problems that plague 3D printer enthusiasts, then here is the book to help you get past all that and recapture the joy of creative fabrication. The book also includes valuable tips for builders and those who want to modify the

  4. Color control of printers by neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Shoji

    1998-07-01

    A method is proposed for solving the mapping problem from the 3D color space to the 4D CMYK space of printer ink signals by means of a neural network. The CIE-L*a*b* color system is used as the device-independent color space. The color reproduction problem is considered as the problem of controlling an unknown static system with four inputs and three outputs. A controller determines the CMYK signals necessary to produce the desired L*a*b* values with a given printer. Our solution method for this control problem is based on a two-phase procedure which eliminates the need for UCR and GCR. The first phase determines a neural network as a model of the given printer, and the second phase determines the combined neural network system by combining the printer model and the controller in such a way that it represents an identity mapping in the L*a*b* color space. Then the network of the controller part realizes the mapping from the L*a*b* space to the CMYK space. Practical algorithms are presented in the form of multilayer feedforward networks. The feasibility of the proposed method is shown in experiments using a dye sublimation printer and an ink jet printer.

  5. Three-dimensional plotter technology for fabricating polymeric scaffolds with micro-grooved surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, JoonGon; Kim, GeunHyung

    2009-01-01

    Various mechanical techniques have been used to fabricate biomedical scaffolds, including rapid prototyping (RP) devices that operate from CAD files of the target feature information. The three-dimensional (3-D) bio-plotter is one RP system that can produce design-based scaffolds with good mechanical properties for mimicking cartilage and bones. However, the scaffolds fabricated by RP have very smooth surfaces, which tend to discourage initial cell attachment. Initial cell attachment, migration, differentiation and proliferation are strongly dependent on the chemical and physical characteristics of the scaffold surface. In this study, we propose a new 3-D plotting method supplemented with a piezoelectric system for fabricating surface-modified scaffolds. The effects of the physically-modified surface on the mechanical and hydrophilic properties were investigated, and the results of cell culturing of chondrocytes indicate that this technique is a feasible new method for fabricating high-quality 3-D polymeric scaffolds.

  6. Windows Program For Driving The TDU-850 Printer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Brett T.

    1995-01-01

    Program provides WYSIWYG compatibility between video display and printout. PDW is Microsoft Windows printer-driver computer program for use with Raytheon TDU-850 printer. Provides previously unavailable linkage between printer and IBM PC-compatible computers running Microsoft Windows. Enhances capabilities of Raytheon TDU-850 hardcopier by emulating all textual and graphical features normally supported by laser/ink-jet printers and makes printer compatible with any Microsoft Windows application. Also provides capabilities not found in laser/ink-jet printer drivers by providing certain Windows applications with ability to render high quality, true gray-scale photographic hardcopy on TDU-850. Written in C language.

  7. Sound Professions: Transformations on being a printer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Garay

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of the evolution of the printing trade requires an attentive observation of how different printing techniques have shaped the trade since the Nineteenth century. Particular printing techniques determine how printers relate to space, to the machine and to the trade itself. Through ethnographic exercises this article explores how the introduction of digital printing techniques has transformed the printing trade in San Nicolás (a traditional neighborhood in Cali, Colombia. I propose this transformation is best described and understood through an ethnographic analysis of the relations between printers and their machines and through a detailed description of the printing offices soundscape.

  8. Full-color holographic 3D printer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Masami; Shigeta, Hiroaki; Nishihara, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Takahashi, Susumu; Ohyama, Nagaaki; Kobayashi, Akihiko; Iwata, Fujio

    2003-05-01

    A holographic 3D printer is a system that produces a direct hologram with full-parallax information using the 3-dimensional data of a subject from a computer. In this paper, we present a proposal for the reproduction of full-color images with the holographic 3D printer. In order to realize the 3-dimensional color image, we selected the 3 laser wavelength colors of red (λ=633nm), green (λ=533nm), and blue (λ=442nm), and we built a one-step optical system using a projection system and a liquid crystal display. The 3-dimensional color image is obtained by synthesizing in a 2D array the multiple exposure with these 3 wavelengths made on each 250mm elementary hologram, and moving recording medium on a x-y stage. For the natural color reproduction in the holographic 3D printer, we take the approach of the digital processing technique based on the color management technology. The matching between the input and output colors is performed by investigating first, the relation between the gray level transmittance of the LCD and the diffraction efficiency of the hologram and second, by measuring the color displayed by the hologram to establish a correlation. In our first experimental results a non-linear functional relation for single and multiple exposure of the three components were found. These results are the first step in the realization of a natural color 3D image produced by the holographic color 3D printer.

  9. Gamma spectra pictures using a digital plotter. Program MONO; Representacion de Espectros directos mediante un trazado digital. Prograa MONO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Los Arcos, J. M.

    1978-07-01

    The program MONO has been written for a CALCOMP-936 digital plotter operating off- -line with a UMI VAC 1106 computer, to obtain graphic representations of single gamma spectra stored on magnetic tape. It allows to plot the whole spectrum or only a part, as well as to draw a given spectrum on the same or different picture than the previous one. Ten representation scales are available and at up nine comment lines can be written in a graphic. (Author) 4 refs.

  10. Improving machinery reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Bloch, Heinz P

    1998-01-01

    This totally revised, updated and expanded edition provides proven techniques and procedures that extend machinery life, reduce maintenance costs, and achieve optimum machinery reliability. This essential text clearly describes the reliability improvement and failure avoidance steps practiced by best-of-class process plants in the U.S. and Europe.

  11. Pad printer for electronics. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    This is the Final report on DARPA-sponsored development Program Pad Printer for Electronics DE-FC04-95AL87486 which was initiated in February, 1995 and intended to run 24 months to February 1997. The Program has significant value to the Thick Film processing industry, an electronic manufacturing alternative for producing functional modules integrated at the multichip level. The result is highly reliable, high volumetric efficiency, subassemblies for military applications and for commercial applications in severe environments, such as automotive, portable communications, and bio-implantable devices. The program progressed quite satisfactorily through 19 months, when it encountered severe, non-technical, difficulties. Resolving these difficulties resulted in several months of delay in completing the Program, but resulted in only a trivial increase in total program cost and no increase in cost to the sponsor. The principle Objective of the Program was the development of a printing system -- machine and appropriate inks -- compatible with existing thick-film processing but offering a 5x improvement in line density. This objective has been met. The Pad Printer is capable of printing suitable inks in traces 25 g wide on 50g centers to a fired thickness of 3 {mu}; each of these parameters is roughly 1/5 the value of the current alternative, silk-screen printing. The available inks represent an assortment of conductor, dielectric, and insulator formulations and the knowledge developed permits extending this family of inks to new and diverse functional materials. An important secondary objective was maximum compatibility with existing Thick Film processing; the printer and ink systems may be substituted directly for the silk screen printers in existing processes. The Program reached or exceeded its other Technical Objectives in almost every case and, in those few instances where the objective was only partially met, work continues under private funding.

  12. Implementation of a 3D printer into a small business

    OpenAIRE

    Kodejšová, Jana

    2017-01-01

    This thesis deals with the implementation of a 3D printer into a small business. The theoret-ical part deals with technology of 3D printing, types of 3D printers, as well as basic materi-als suitable for 3D printing. The practical part is devoted to the purchasing of a 3D printer for this company that deals with the service and the supply of bicycles and other cycling needs. There is chosen the most suitable 3D printer for this business, and there are also ex-amples of specific parts that thi...

  13. Cavitation in Hydraulic Machinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjeldsen, M.

    1996-11-01

    The main purpose of this doctoral thesis on cavitation in hydraulic machinery is to change focus towards the coupling of non-stationary flow phenomena and cavitation. It is argued that, in addition to turbulence, superimposed sound pressure fluctuations can have a major impact on cavitation and lead to particularly severe erosion. For the design of hydraulic devices this finding may indicate how to further limit the cavitation problems. Chapter 1 reviews cavitation in general in the context of hydraulic machinery, emphasizing the initial cavitation event and the role of the water quality. Chapter 2 discusses the existence of pressure fluctuations for situations common in such machinery. Chapter 3 on cavitation dynamics presents an algorithm for calculating the nucleation of a cavity cluster. Chapter 4 describes the equipment used in this work. 53 refs., 55 figs.,10 tabs.

  14. 一种简单的六色打印数字半调算法%A Simple Digital Halftone Algorithm for Six Color Inkjet Printer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田玉敏; 吴自力; 柯丽芳

    2004-01-01

    Traditional ink-jet printer with CMYK inks has limited color gamut. To improve the quality of printing images, many plotters added two inter-grade colors Lc and Lm, which makes it more color-levels achieved.The color images printed with six-color printer have less artificial textures produced by halftone. The advantages of six-color printing are introduced. A new pattern and halftone algorithm for six-color printer is presented. Research has proved that the algorithm is simple and practical.%传统的喷墨打印机通常采用四色墨水(CMYK)打印,但CMYK四色墨水所能提供的色彩有限,为进一步提高彩色图像的输出质量,目前很多新型打印机在原有CMYK墨水的基础上增加了浅品红(Lm)和浅青墨水(Lc),从而使打印机可实现的色阶更加丰富.使用六色墨水打印不仅提高了输出图像的分辨率和清晰度,增强了图像细节,而且还使图像的色调过渡更平滑,降低了半调技术产生的图样干扰,极大地提高了打印图像质量.简单介绍了六色打印的优点,提出了一种适用六色打印的模板和误差分散数字半调算法,实验表明,该算法简单实用.

  15. Bacterial mitotic machineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, Kenn; Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Ebersbach, Gitte

    2004-01-01

    Here, we review recent progress that yields fundamental new insight into the molecular mechanisms behind plasmid and chromosome segregation in prokaryotic cells. In particular, we describe how prokaryotic actin homologs form mitotic machineries that segregate DNA before cell division. Thus, the P...

  16. Vibration of hydraulic machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yulin; Liu, Shuhong; Dou, Hua-Shu; Qian, Zhongdong

    2013-01-01

    Vibration of Hydraulic Machinery deals with the vibration problem which has significant influence on the safety and reliable operation of hydraulic machinery. It provides new achievements and the latest developments in these areas, even in the basic areas of this subject. The present book covers the fundamentals of mechanical vibration and rotordynamics as well as their main numerical models and analysis methods for the vibration prediction. The mechanical and hydraulic excitations to the vibration are analyzed, and the pressure fluctuations induced by the unsteady turbulent flow is predicted in order to obtain the unsteady loads. This book also discusses the loads, constraint conditions and the elastic and damping characters of the mechanical system, the structure dynamic analysis, the rotor dynamic analysis and the system instability of hydraulic machines, including the illustration of monitoring system for the instability and the vibration in hydraulic units. All the problems are necessary for vibration pr...

  17. 3D PRINTERS – NEW POSSIBILITIES IN EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Szulżyk-Cieplak

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years a significant growth of three-dimensional printing has been noticed. Although 3D printers have been around for about 30 years, they were very expensive, that is why they were available in the industry only in the majority . In recent years, prices of 3D printers have fallen more than tenfold, owing to the fact they are used not only in large enterprises but also in all kinds of educational institutions, small businesses or in do-it-yourself men’s houses. They are, inter alia, used to construct physical models, so much needed in education. Nowadays, one of the most popular 3D printing technologies is FDM (Fused Deposition Modeling. Relatively low prices of printers in this technology make them available for almost everyone. The paper discusses the technology of rapid prototyping, with particular emphasis on the use of 3D printing and appropriately matched printer to designed laboratory stand.

  18. Custom 3D Printers Revolutionize Space Supply Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Under a series of SBIR contracts with Marshall Space Flight Center, start-up company Made In Space, located on the center's campus, developed a high-precision 3D printer capable of manufacturing items in microgravity. The company will soon have a printer installed on the International Space Station, altering the space supply chain. It will print supplies and tools for NASA, as well as nanosatellite shells and other items for public and private entities.

  19. Bacterial mitotic machineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, Kenn; Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Ebersbach, Gitte;

    2004-01-01

    Here, we review recent progress that yields fundamental new insight into the molecular mechanisms behind plasmid and chromosome segregation in prokaryotic cells. In particular, we describe how prokaryotic actin homologs form mitotic machineries that segregate DNA before cell division. Thus, the Par......M protein of plasmid R1 forms F actin-like filaments that separate and move plasmid DNA from mid-cell to the cell poles. Evidence from three different laboratories indicate that the morphogenetic MreB protein may be involved in segregation of the bacterial chromosome....

  20. Matrix analysis of electrical machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Hancock, N N

    2013-01-01

    Matrix Analysis of Electrical Machinery, Second Edition is a 14-chapter edition that covers the systematic analysis of electrical machinery performance. This edition discusses the principles of various mathematical operations and their application to electrical machinery performance calculations. The introductory chapters deal with the matrix representation of algebraic equations and their application to static electrical networks. The following chapters describe the fundamentals of different transformers and rotating machines and present torque analysis in terms of the currents based on the p

  1. Pumping machinery theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Badr, Hassan M

    2014-01-01

    Pumping Machinery Theory and Practice comprehensively covers the theoretical foundation and applications of pumping machinery. Key features: Covers characteristics of centrifugal pumps, axial flow pumps and displacement pumpsConsiders pumping machinery performance and operational-type problemsCovers advanced topics in pumping machinery including multiphase flow principles, and two and three-phase flow pumping systemsCovers different methods of flow rate control and relevance to machine efficiency and energy consumptionCovers different methods of flow rate control and relevance to machine effi

  2. Skill Sheets for Agricultural Machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    This set of 21 skill sheets for agricultural machinery was developed for use in high school and vocational school agricultural mechanics programs. Each sheet covers a single operational procedure for a piece of agricultural machinery, and includes: (1) a diagram, (2) a step-by-step operational procedure, (3) abilities or understandings taught, (4)…

  3. Rapid Laser Photosensitive Resin 3D Printing Plotter%绘图仪式高速激光树脂3D打印设备研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晏恒峰; 方浩博; 陈继民

    2015-01-01

    In order to further explore the realization method of 3D printing, and to get a promotion in the precision and efficiency, based on the structure of the plotter, combined with the stereolithography (SLA) technology, a new stereolithography plotter ( SLP) design was presented for 3D printing with photosensitive resin. Its movement structure was similar with the plotter, and laser focus part did xy two-dimensional motion directly. Its focus length was much shorter than that of SLA, so its power requirement of light source was lower. Compared to the SLA and digital light processing ( DLP), its work field can be extended more easily.%为了进一步探索3D打印实现方法,提高精度和效率,在绘图仪的结构基础上,结合光固化立体打印技术(SLA)的原理,设计了一种用于树脂材料的绘图仪式3D打印设备(SLP),它拥有绘图仪式的运动结构,激光及聚焦部分可直接做xy二维运动. 相对于SLA技术,SLP大幅减小了焦距,所以对光源的要求更低. 相比SLA和数字光处理技术(DLP),SLP加工幅面更容易扩大.

  4. Modeling And Position Control Of Scara Type 3D Printer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Saygamp305n Ogulmuamp351

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work a scara robot type 3D printer system is dynamically modeled and position control of the system is realized. For this aim computer aided design model of three degrees of freedom robotic system is created using SolidWorks program then obtained model is exported to MATLABSimMechanics software for position control. Also mathematical model of servo motors used in robotic 3D printer system is included in control methodology to design proportional controllers. Uncontrolled and controlled position results are simulated and given in the form of the graphics.

  5. Growth factor array fabrication using a color ink jet printer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kohei; Miyazaki, Takeshi; Matsuda, Ryoichi

    2003-04-01

    We have developed a novel method for growth factor analysis using a commercial color ink jet printer to fabricate substrata patterned with growth factors. We prepared substrata with insulin printed in a simple pattern or containing multiple areas of varying quantities of printed insulin. When we cultured the mouse myoblast cell line, C2C12, on the insulin-patterned substrata, the cells were grown in the same pattern with the insulin-printed pattern. Cell culture with the latter substrata demonstrated that quantity control of insulin deposition by a color ink jet printer is possible. For further applications, we developed substrata with insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) spotted in 16 different areas in varying combinations and concentrations (growth factor array). With this growth factor array, C2C12 cells were cultured, and the onset of muscle cell differentiation was monitored for the expression of the myogenic regulator myogenin. The ratio of cells expressing myogenin varied with the doses of IGF-I and bFGF in the sections, demonstrating a feasibility of growth factor array fabrication by a color ink jet printer. Since a printer manipulates several colors, this method can be easily applied to multivariate analyses of growth factors and attachment factors affecting cell growth and differentiation. This method may provide a powerful tool for cell biology and tissue engineering, especially for stem cell research in investigating unknown conditions for differentiation.

  6. INK AND CLEANER WASTE REDUCTION EVALUATION FOR FLEXOGRAPHIC PRINTERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report describes the technical and economic effects incurred by a flexographic label printer who changed the type of ink and cleaning agent used in its print shop. The changes were incurred as the best way to eliminate all hazardous materials. The company's corporate managem...

  7. X-Ray Diffraction Simulation Using Laser Pointers and Printers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Neil E.

    2001-01-01

    Uses a laser pointer to demonstrate the analogy between optical and X-ray diffraction and a laser printer with 600 or 1200 dot resolution to create and modify arrays, print them on transparencies, and illuminate them with laser pointers. Includes 14 references. (Author/YDS)

  8. X-Ray Diffraction Simulation Using Laser Pointers and Printers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Neil E.

    2001-01-01

    Uses a laser pointer to demonstrate the analogy between optical and X-ray diffraction and a laser printer with 600 or 1200 dot resolution to create and modify arrays, print them on transparencies, and illuminate them with laser pointers. Includes 14 references. (Author/YDS)

  9. Engineering Tests of Experimental Ammonia Process Printer-Developer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1950-07-06

    up for an experimental am:tmoa process printer- developer to meet the military characteristics. Thlis machine was Krocurod under development contract ...over the top of the can. A small light on the front panel of the mucl -ine indicates when the level of the ammonia in the storage tank is such that

  10. 76 FR 13617 - Depository Library Council to the Public Printer Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... Depository Library Council to the Public Printer Meeting The Depository Library Council to the Public Printer... Depository Library Program. All sessions are open to the public. The sleeping rooms available at the Crowne... Safety Act regulations. William J. Boarman, Public Printer of the United States. BILLING CODE 1520-01-P...

  11. 3D jet printer of edible gels for food creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serizawa, Ryo; Shitara, Mariko; Gong, Jin; Makino, Masato; Kabir, M. Hasnat; Furukawa, Hidemitsu

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, aging is progressing in Japan. Elderly people can't swallow the food well. So, the need of soft food is increasing greatly with the aging of the population. There are so few satisfying foods for the elderly to enjoy a meal. An equipment of printing soft food gives the elderly a big dream and is promising. In this study, we aim at developing a 3D edible gel printer in order to make soft food for the elderly. We made a prototype of the 3D edible gel printer. The printer consists of syringe pump and dispenser. The syringe pump extrudes the solution. The dispenser allows to model threedimensional objects. We use agar solution as the ink to carry out the printing. Agar's gelation deeply depends on temperature. Therefore temperature control of the solution is important to mold optimal shapes because the physical crosslinking network of agar's solution is instable. We succeeded in making the gels and plate-shape gel using the 3D edible gel printer. Further more, in order to increase the gelation speed agar's solution, we changed the dispenser and the printing test is being done now. 4 kinds of soft food prepared from agar and gelatin were printed by the 3D edible gel printer. The compression tests of the printed soft food samples were done and their hardness is measured because the hardness is one of very important factors which influence the food texture greatly. In the future, the viscosity of the agar solution or other food ink should be adjusted to suitable for printing.

  12. 46 CFR 169.241 - Machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery. 169.241 Section 169.241 Shipping COAST GUARD... Certification Inspections § 169.241 Machinery. (a) At each inspection for certification and periodic inspection.... Mechanisms are operationally tested and visually examined. (3) Auxiliary machinery. All machinery...

  13. Evaluation of 3D Printer Accuracy in Producing Fractal Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikegawa, Kana; Takamatsu, Kyuuichirou; Kawakami, Masaru; Furukawa, Hidemitsu; Mayama, Hiroyuki; Nonomura, Yoshimune

    2017-01-01

    Hierarchical structures, also known as fractal structures, exhibit advantageous material properties, such as water- and oil-repellency as well as other useful optical characteristics, owing to its self-similarity. Various methods have been developed for producing hierarchical geometrical structures. Recently, fractal structures have been manufactured using a 3D printing technique that involves computer-aided design data. In this study, we confirmed the accuracy of geometrical structures when Koch curve-like fractal structures with zero to three generations were printed using a 3D printer. The fractal dimension was analyzed using a box-counting method. This analysis indicated that the fractal dimension of the third generation hierarchical structure was approximately the same as that of the ideal Koch curve. These findings demonstrate that the design and production of fractal structures can be controlled using a 3D printer. Although the interior angle deviated from the ideal value, the side length could be precisely controlled.

  14. Feasibility of Bioprinting with a Modified Desktop 3D Printer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Todd A; Epstein, Casey J; Schwartz, John; Krush, Alex; Lagalante, Dan J; Mercadante, Kevin P; Zeltsman, David; Smith, Lee P; Grande, Daniel A

    2016-12-01

    Numerous studies have shown the capabilities of three-dimensional (3D) printing for use in the medical industry. At the time of this publication, basic home desktop 3D printer kits can cost as little as $300, whereas medical-specific 3D bioprinters can cost more than $300,000. The purpose of this study is to show how a commercially available desktop 3D printer could be modified to bioprint an engineered poly-l-lactic acid scaffold containing viable chondrocytes in a bioink. Our bioprinter was used to create a living 3D functional tissue-engineered cartilage scaffold. In this article, we detail the design, production, and calibration of this bioprinter. In addition, the bioprinted cells were tested for viability, proliferation, biochemistry, and gene expression; these tests showed that the cells survived the printing process, were able to continue dividing, and produce the extracellular matrix expected of chondrocytes.

  15. A Unix print filter for controlling an HP Laserjet printer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, F.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report describes a Unix print filter designed to control an Hewlett Packard Laserjet or other printer that uses Hewlett Packard's Printer Control Language (HP-PCL). The filter gives users the ability to control print pitch, orientation, and indentation by using standard flags to the Unix 1pr. command or multiple entries in the /etc/printcap file and allows both ascii and binary (i.e., graphics and down-loadable fonts) files to be printed. Additionally, the filter provides some accounting capability. The supported print pitch and orientation options are described, as are the different configuration options. The code for the filter and sample entries for the /etc/printcap file are included.

  16. A Unix print filter for controlling an HP Laserjet printer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, F.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report describes a Unix print filter designed to control an Hewlett Packard Laserjet or other printer that uses Hewlett Packard`s Printer Control Language (HP-PCL). The filter gives users the ability to control print pitch, orientation, and indentation by using standard flags to the Unix 1pr. command or multiple entries in the /etc/printcap file and allows both ascii and binary (i.e., graphics and down-loadable fonts) files to be printed. Additionally, the filter provides some accounting capability. The supported print pitch and orientation options are described, as are the different configuration options. The code for the filter and sample entries for the /etc/printcap file are included.

  17. A Unix Print Filter for Controlling an HP Laserjet Printer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, F.M.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes a Unix print filter designed to control an Hewlett Packard Laserjet or other printer that uses Hewlett Packard's Printer Control Language (HP-PCL). The filter gives users the ability to control print pitch, orientation, and indentation by using standard flags to the Unix lpr command or multiple entries in the /etc/printcap file and allows both ascii and binary (i.e., graphics and down-loadable fonts) files to be printed. Additionally, the filter provides some accounting capability. The supported print pitch and orientation options are described, as are the different configuration options. The code for the filter is included in Appendix A and sample entries for the /etc/printcap file are included in Appendix B and C.

  18. Special interpolation to minimize grain in printer color separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huanzhao

    2005-01-01

    A 3-D lookup table (LUT) approach has been developed for color separation for color inkjet printers to better control the color separation and ink limit. This method starts from the color separation for critical points, followed by 1-D interpolation to determine the color separation for grid points in critical lines, followed by 2-D interpolations to determine the color separation for grid points in critical planes, followed by 3-D interpolation to determine the color separation for the remaining grid points in the 3-D LUT. To control the spreading of K and high-density ink to some regions, such as the highlight region and the flesh tone region, we start from controlling the ink propagation in line interpolation, which is a fairly easy step, then control the ink propagation in planes, and finally control the ink propagation in 3-D interpolation. With this process, a 3-D LUT for the conversion from a printer RGB space or a virtual CMY space to an n-colorant space is built to maximize the printer gamut and to minimize grain. This paper describes the details of special interpolations to fill the grids in a 3-D color separation LUT, which includes controlling ink propagation in grids on selected lines, followed by special interpolations to minimize grain in plane-interpolation, followed by special interpolations to fill the remaining grids in the 3-D LUT.

  19. Textile Machinery: Imports Rebound Again

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Yan

    2007-01-01

    @@ In the year of 2006, the general situation of China's textile machinery equipment imports had shown a clear sign of revival from the downward trend of two years ago, with a total annual import of 4.1 billion USD, an increase of 19.05% against the same period of 2005.

  20. Tractor & Machinery Safety. 1984 Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana State Office of Public Instruction, Helena. Dept. of Vocational Education Services.

    This curriculum guide is intended for use in teaching an instructional unit in tractor and machinery safety that is geared toward college freshmen. Addressed in the individual lessons of the unit are the following topics: understanding the importance of safe and efficient tractor operation, understanding the characteristics of tractors, preparing…

  1. Energy Savings Thanks to French Textile Machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ The French Textile Machinery Manufacturers' Association (UCMTF) has presented, during a seminar it organized for textile professionals and students, the spectacular energy savings achieved thanks to state of the art machinery.

  2. Italian Textile Machinery Seminar in Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Association of Italian Textile Machinery Manufacturers (ACIMIT) and the Italian Trade Commission will hold a technological seminar on "Italian textile machinery: the way to improve Bangladesh textile competitiveness"

  3. 3D Printer Instrumentation to Create Varied Geometries of Robotic Limbs and Heterogeneous Granular Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-20

    11-May-2015 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: 3D Printer Instrumentation to Create Varied Geometries of Robotic Limbs... 3D Printer Instrumentation to Create Varied Geometries of Robotic Limbs and Heterogeneous Granular Media Report Title There is a need for robotic...studies, we request Research Instrumentation (RI) to purchase two 3D printers , which we will use to fabricate a wide of variety of objects that will

  4. 30 CFR 56.14204 - Machinery lubrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Machinery lubrication. 56.14204 Section 56.14204 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14204 Machinery lubrication. Machinery...

  5. 30 CFR 57.14204 - Machinery lubrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Machinery lubrication. 57.14204 Section 57.14204 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14204 Machinery lubrication. Machinery...

  6. 46 CFR 176.804 - Machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery. 176.804 Section 176.804 Shipping COAST GUARD... CERTIFICATION Material Inspections § 176.804 Machinery. At each initial and subsequent inspection for... ready for inspections of machinery, fuel, and piping systems, including the following: (a) Operation...

  7. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery alarms. 130.450 Section 130.450 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms....

  8. A desktop 3D printer in safety-critical Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm, Tórur Biskopstø; Schoeberl, Martin

    2012-01-01

    It is desirable to bring Java technology to safety-critical systems. To this end The Open Group has created the safety-critical Java specification, which will allow Java applications, written according to the specification, to be certifiable in accordance with safety-critical standards. Although...... there exist several safety-critical Java framework implementations, there is a lack of safety-critical use cases implemented according to the specification. In this paper we present a 3D printer and its safety-critical Java level 1 implementation as a use case. With basis in the implementation we evaluate...

  9. Color separation criteria for spectral multi-ink printer characterization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Binyu Wang; Haisong Xu; M. Ronnier Luo

    2012-01-01

    Seven color separation criteria are evaluated and compared for multi-ink printer characterization,which is a union of five 3-ink and six 4-ink cellular Yule-Nielsen spectral Neugebauer (CYNSN) submodels.In the experimental stage,testing reflectances from printing samples and Munsell color samples are employed.The results show that the prediction and actual accuracy of all the seven selection criteria are approximately the same for printing samples.As for the Munsell samples,the combE00 & MI outperforms other selection criteria because it combines one color difference with two metamerism indices,which are important for the heterogeneous samples during prediction.

  10. A Diana-Driven Pretty-Printer for ADA,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-22

    to Include a rich collection of tools such as compilers. editors . pretty-printers, cross-reference generators, verifiers, and so on, to assist the...text strings inherent to the node ( TextO . "Textl. "Text2?. and "Text3") and the source text for its descendants (the text produced by dpTYPEI. dp_TYPE2...value of the attribute Is assumed. Vzoosduzo dp.leaf( Node: in TREE) is PM " Texto "), PflILXT(Node)); end dp-leaf; 2. 1. 1. Simple Example We now apply

  11. PRODUCTION WITH 3D PRINTERS IN TEXTILES [REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    KESKIN Reyhan; GOCEK Ikilem

    2015-01-01

    3D printers are gaining more attention, finding different applications and 3D printing is being regarded as a ‘revolution’ of the 2010s for production. 3D printing is a production method that produces 3-dimensional objects by combining very thin layers over and over to form the object using 3D scanners or via softwares either private or open source. 3D printed materials find application in a large range of fields including aerospace, automotive, medicine and material science. There are severa...

  12. MACHINERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were collected using a portable data acquisition system: SKF Microlog. Data were collected' ... Modelling (HMM) ofvibrational signals. ... trifugal pump designed for a pressure increase of. 6.6 bars at ..... These frequency amplitudes are located at the vertical. axial and .... distribution centre the residual chlorine concen-.

  13. Strategies for Improving Enterprise Standardization Management of Tropical Crop Machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ There are two categories of tropical crop machinery. One comprises operation machinery that is used for planting, managing and harvesting tropical crops, while the other comprises process machinery for processing tropical crops. Tropical crop machinery is distinguished from other agricultural machinery by the special crops that such machinery cultivates and processes.

  14. 78 FR 56706 - Depository Library Council to the Public Printer; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... Depository Library Council to the Public Printer; Meeting The Depository Library Council to the Public... discuss the Federal Depository Library Program. All sessions are open to the public. The United States... Disabilities Act and meets all Fire Safety Act regulations. Davita Vance-Cooks, Public Printer of the...

  15. 76 FR 58005 - Meeting Notice; Depository Library Council to the Public Printer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... Meeting Notice; Depository Library Council to the Public Printer The Depository Library Council to the Public Printer (DLC) will meet on Monday, October 17, through Thursday, October 20, 2011, from 8 a.m. to..., to discuss the Federal Depository Library Program. All sessions are open to the public. The...

  16. Verification of photon attenuation characteristics for 3D printer based small animal lung model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Se Ho; Lee, Seung Wook [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Han, Su Chul; Park, Seung Woo [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Since it is difficult to measure absorbed dose to mice in vivo, replica mice are mostly used as alternative. In this study, realistic mouse phantom was fabricated by using 3D printer (object500 connex3, Stratasys, USA). Elemental inks as material of 3D printer were selected corresponding to mouse tissue. To represent lung, selected material was partially used with air layer. In order to verify material equivalent, super-flex bolus was simply compared to verify photon attenuation characteristics. In the case of lung, Hounsfield unit (HU) of the phantom were compared with a live mouse. In this study, we fabricated mouse phantom by using 3D printer, and practically verified photon attenuation characteristics. The fabricated phantom shows tissue equivalence as well as similar geometry with live mouse. As more and more growing of 3D printer technique, 3D printer based small preclinical animal phantom would increase reliability of verification of absorbed dose in small animal for preclinical study.

  17. High-Efficiency Solar-Powered 3-D Printers for Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jephias Gwamuri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The release of the open source 3-D printer known as the RepRap (a self-Replicating Rapid prototyper resulted in the potential for distributed manufacturing of products for significantly lower costs than conventional manufacturing. This development, coupled with open source-appropriate technology (OSAT, has enabled the opportunity for 3-D printers to be used for sustainable development. In this context, OSAT provides the opportunity to modify and improve the physical designs of their printers and desired digitally-shared objects. However, these 3-D printers require electricity while more than a billion people still lack electricity. To enable the utilization of RepRaps in off-grid communities, solar photovoltaic (PV-powered mobile systems have been developed, but recent improvements in novel delta-style 3-D printer designs allows for reduced costs and improved performance. This study builds on these innovations to develop and experimentally validate a mobile solar-PV-powered delta 3-D printer system. It is designed to run the RepRap 3-D printer regardless of solar flux. The electrical system design is tested outdoors for operating conditions: (1 PV charging battery and running 3-D printer; (2 printing under low insolation; (3 battery powering the 3-D printer alone; (4 PV charging the battery only; and (5 battery fully charged with PV-powered 3-D printing. The results show the system performed as required under all conditions providing feasibility for adoption in off-grid rural communities. 3-D printers powered by affordable mobile PV solar systems have a great potential to reduce poverty through employment creation, as well as ensuring a constant supply of scarce products for isolated communities.

  18. Creating transient cell membrane pores using a standard inkjet printer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owczarczak, Alexander B; Shuford, Stephen O; Wood, Scott T; Deitch, Sandra; Dean, Delphine

    2012-03-16

    Bioprinting has a wide range of applications and significance, including tissue engineering, direct cell application therapies, and biosensor microfabrication. Recently, thermal inkjet printing has also been used for gene transfection. The thermal inkjet printing process was shown to temporarily disrupt the cell membranes without affecting cell viability. The transient pores in the membrane can be used to introduce molecules, which would otherwise be too large to pass through the membrane, into the cell cytoplasm. The application being demonstrated here is the use of thermal inkjet printing for the incorporation of fluorescently labeled g-actin monomers into cells. The advantage of using thermal ink-jet printing to inject molecules into cells is that the technique is relatively benign to cells. Cell viability after printing has been shown to be similar to standard cell plating methods. In addition, inkjet printing can process thousands of cells in minutes, which is much faster than manual microinjection. The pores created by printing have been shown to close within about two hours. However, there is a limit to the size of the pore created (~10 nm) with this printing technique, which limits the technique to injecting cells with small proteins and/or particles. A standard HP DeskJet 500 printer was modified to allow for cell printing. The cover of the printer was removed and the paper feed mechanism was bypassed using a mechanical lever. A stage was created to allow for placement of microscope slides and coverslips directly under the print head. Ink cartridges were opened, the ink was removed and they were cleaned prior to use with cells. The printing pattern was created using standard drawing software, which then controlled the printer through a simple print command. 3T3 fibroblasts were grown to confluence, trypsinized, and then resuspended into phosphate buffered saline with soluble fluorescently labeled g-actin monomers. The cell suspension was pipetted into the

  19. On determining the color gamut of N-ink printers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Parraman, Carinna

    2009-01-01

    With the development of digital printing technologies, increasing number of primaries are adopted in colour reproduction systems aiming to improve the quality of the print, in particular, to achieve larger colour gamut, better colour constancy, and smoother colour transition. This introduces a huge challenge to the existing device characterisation techniques, e.g. for the task of calculating the colour gamut of an 11-ink printer alone, things may become mission impossible according to literature.1 This paper aims to address the issue from an artist's point of view, which reveals the fundamentals of the colour gamut of a given medium. The solution is interestingly simple that the empirical method of measuring printed colours for colour gamut calculation remains to be practical and efficient for N-ink printing system characterisation.

  20. Developing Process of Tropical Crop Machinery Standardization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ General Situation Tropical crop machinery is a new special mechanical profession, which began to develop from 1950s to 1960s in China. Because the weather, soil and farm crops varieties in tropical region are greatly different from those in the other regions, most of the traditional farm machinery can't be directly used in tropical region or on the tropical crops. Tropical crop machinery needs a special design and manufacture. So some professional research institutes and education units were set up and some enterprises were built at that time, and the profession of tropical crop machinery was formed.

  1. Membrane manipulations by the ESCRT machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odorizzi, Greg

    2015-01-01

    The endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRTs) collectively comprise a machinery that was first known for its function in the degradation of transmembrane proteins in the endocytic pathway of eukaryotic cells. Since their discovery, however, ESCRTs have been recognized as playing important roles at the plasma membrane, which appears to be the original site of function for the ESCRT machinery. This article reviews some of the major research findings that have shaped our current understanding of how the ESCRT machinery controls membrane dynamics and considers new roles for the ESCRT machinery that might be driven by these mechanisms.

  2. Oils degradation in agricultural machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtěch Kumbár

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating of oils condition in agricultural machinery is very important. With monitoring and evaluating we can prevent technical and economic losses. In this paper there were monitored the liquid lubricants taken from mobile thresher New Holland CX 860. Chemical and viscosity degradation of the lubricants were evaluated. Temperature dependence dynamic viscosity was observed in the range of temperature from −10 °C to 80 °C (for all oils. Considerable temperature dependence dynamic viscosity was found and demonstrated in case of all samples, which is in accordance with theoretical assumptions and literature data. Mathematical models were developed and tested. Temperature dependence dynamic viscosity was modeled using a polynomial 6th degree. The proposed models can be used for prediction of flow behavior of oils.

  3. High-speed, high-precision thermal printing heads for bar code printers; Kosoku koseisai bar cord printer yo TPH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Thermal printing heads (TPHs), having the world's first resolution of 24 dots/mm and printing speed of 254 mm/s, have been developed. The high-precision, high-durability TPH is realized, based on the high-precision techniques as one of the company's strong areas, combined with the techniques for high power-resistant film structure and high wear-resistant protective film. At the same time, the structure of high thermal conductivity and thermal efficiency is adopted, to control heat accumulation and realize high-quality images. It is expected to find wide use in various areas, centered by distribution industry, e.g., for bar code label printers, and name plate, postal card and name card printing, with the standardized recording width of A6 size and resolution of 8 to 24 dots/mm. (translated by NEDO)

  4. Spectral characterisation of colour printer based on a novel grey component replacement method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinyi Guo; Haisong Xu; M.Ronnier Luo; Binyu Wang

    2011-01-01

    Conventional printer characterisation models are generally based on the assumption that the densities of primary colours are additive.However,additivity failure frequently occurs in practice.We propose a novel grey component replacement(GCR) method based on the spectral density sub-additivity equations in this letter for spectral characterisation of a 4-ink colour printer.The method effectively correct the feasibility of the proposed method and to evaluate the model performance.Finally,the GCR model for characterising colour printer with high spectral and colorimetric prediction accuracy is established.

  5. The Olympic of Textile Machinery closed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The five days 2012 China International Textile Machinery Exhibition ITMA Asia Exhibition, which attracted much attention from the industry, was closed at the Shanghai New International Expo Center on June 16, more than 1300 textile enterprises from nearly 30 countries around the world gathered on the exhibition, the world’s latest textile machinery technologies, crafts and equipments were also presented one by one.

  6. 46 CFR 115.804 - Machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery. 115.804 Section 115.804 Shipping COAST GUARD....804 Machinery. At each initial and subsequent inspection for certification of a vessel, the owner or managing operator shall be prepared to conduct tests and have the vessel ready for inspections of...

  7. China Textile Machinery Expresses Self-Surpassing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    It’s difficult to imagine that any sector of the textile industry has benefited more from innovations in the past 10 years than textile machinery. Advanced textile machinery has brought new life to the production segment of the business and fulfills the essential preconditions for economically efficient textile production.

  8. 46 CFR 58.01-40 - Machinery, angles of inclination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery, angles of inclination. 58.01-40 Section 58.01... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-40 Machinery, angles of inclination. (a) Propulsion machinery and all auxiliary machinery essential to the propulsion and safety of the vessel must...

  9. 46 CFR 58.01-45 - Machinery space, ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space, ventilation. 58.01-45 Section 58.01-45... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-45 Machinery space, ventilation. Each machinery space must be ventilated to ensure that, when machinery or boilers are operating at full power in...

  10. 3D Printers Can Provide an Added Dimension for Teaching Structure-Energy Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blauch, David N.; Carroll, Felix A.

    2014-01-01

    A 3D printer is used to prepare a variety of models representing potential energy as a function of two geometric coordinates. These models facilitate the teaching of structure-energy relationships in molecular conformations and in chemical reactions.

  11. 3D Printers Can Provide an Added Dimension for Teaching Structure-Energy Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blauch, David N.; Carroll, Felix A.

    2014-01-01

    A 3D printer is used to prepare a variety of models representing potential energy as a function of two geometric coordinates. These models facilitate the teaching of structure-energy relationships in molecular conformations and in chemical reactions.

  12. Printer identification based on graylevel co-occurrence features for security and forensic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkilineni, Aravind K.; Chiang, Pei-Ju; Ali, Gazi N.; Chiu, George T. C.; Allebach, Jan P.; Delp, Edward J., III

    2005-03-01

    In today's digital world securing different forms of content is very important in terms of protecting copyright and verifying authenticity. Many techniques have been developed to protect audio, video, digital documents, images, and programs (executable code). One example is watermarking of digital audio and images. We believe that a similar type of protection for printed documents is very important. The goals of our work are to securely print and trace documents on low cost consumer printers such as inkjet and electrophotographic (laser) printers. We will accomplish this through the use of intrinsic and extrinsic features obtained from modelling the printing process. In this paper we describe the use of image texture analysis to identify the printer used to print a document. In particular we will describe a set of features that can be used to provide forensic information about a document. We will demonstrate our methods using 10 EP printers.

  13. Stochastic noise in splicing machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melamud, Eugene; Moult, John

    2009-08-01

    The number of known alternative human isoforms has been increasing steadily with the amount of available transcription data. To date, over 100 000 isoforms have been detected in EST libraries, and at least 75% of human genes have at least one alternative isoform. In this paper, we propose that most alternative splicing events are the result of noise in the splicing process. We show that the number of isoforms and their abundance can be predicted by a simple stochastic noise model that takes into account two factors: the number of introns in a gene and the expression level of a gene. The results strongly support the hypothesis that most alternative splicing is a consequence of stochastic noise in the splicing machinery, and has no functional significance. The results are also consistent with error rates tuned to ensure that an adequate level of functional product is produced and to reduce the toxic effect of accumulation of misfolding proteins. Based on simulation of sampling of virtual cDNA libraries, we estimate that error rates range from 1 to 10% depending on the number of introns and the expression level of a gene.

  14. Ultra-Portable Solar-Powered 3D Printers for Onsite Manufacturing of Medical Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Julielynn Y

    2015-09-01

    The first space-based fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printer is powered by solar photovoltaics. This study seeks to demonstrate the feasibility of using solar energy to power a FDM 3D printer to manufacture medical resources at the Mars Desert Research Station and to design an ultra-portable solar-powered 3D printer for off-grid environments. Six solar panels in a 3×2 configuration, a voltage regulator/capacitor improvised from a power adapter, and two 12V batteries in series were connected to power a FDM 3D printer. Three designs were printed onsite and evaluated by experts post analogue mission. A solar-powered 3D printer composed of off-the-shelf components was designed to be transported in airline carry-on luggage. During the analogue mission, the solar-powered printer could only be operated for 3D printer was designed that could print an estimated 16 dental tools or 8 mallet finger splints or 7 scalpel handles on one fully charged 12V 150Wh battery with a 110V AC converter. It is feasible to use solar energy to power a 3D printer to manufacture functional and personalized medical resources at a Mars analogue research station. Based on these findings, a solar-powered suitcase 3D printing system containing solar panels, 12V battery with charge controller and AC inverter, and back-up solar charge controller and inverter was designed for transport to and use in off-grid communities.

  15. Fabrication of low cost soft tissue prostheses with the desktop 3D printer

    OpenAIRE

    Yong He; Guang-huai Xue; Jian-zhong Fu

    2014-01-01

    Soft tissue prostheses such as artificial ear, eye and nose are widely used in the maxillofacial rehabilitation. In this report we demonstrate how to fabricate soft prostheses mold with a low cost desktop 3D printer. The fabrication method used is referred to as Scanning Printing Polishing Casting (SPPC). Firstly the anatomy is scanned with a 3D scanner, then a tissue casting mold is designed on computer and printed with a desktop 3D printer. Subsequently, a chemical polishing method is used ...

  16. Compatibility analysis of 3D printer resin for biological applications

    KAUST Repository

    Sivashankar, Shilpa

    2016-08-30

    The salient features of microfluidics such as reduced cost, handling small sample and reagent volumes and less time required to fabricate the devices has inspired the present work. The incompatibility of three-dimensional printer resins in their native form and the method to improve their compatibility to many biological processes via surface modification are reported. The compatibility of the material to build microfluidic devices was evaluated in three different ways: (i) determining if the ultraviolet (UV) cured resin inhibits the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), i.e. testing devices for PCR compatibility; (ii) observing agglutination complex formed on the surface of the UV cured resin when anti-C-reactive protein (CRP) antibodies and CRP proteins were allowed to agglutinate; and (iii) by culturing human embryonic kidney cell line cells and testing for its attachment and viability. It is shown that only a few among four in its native form could be used for fabrication of microchannels and that had the least effect on biological molecules that could be used for PCR and protein interactions and cells, whereas the others were used after treating the surface. Importance in building lab-on-chip/micrototal analysis systems and organ-on-chip devices is found.

  17. Protein microdeposition using a conventional ink-jet printer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roda, A; Guardigli, M; Russo, C; Pasini, P; Baraldini, M

    2000-03-01

    Many recent bioanalytical systems based on immunologic and hybridization reactions in a mono- or bidimensional microarray format require technology that can produce arrays of spots containing biospecific molecules. Some microarray deposition instruments are commercially available, and other devices have been described in recent papers. We describe a system obtained by adapting a commercial ink-jet printer and used to produce mono- and bidimensional arrays of spots containing horseradish peroxidase on cellulose paper. In a few minutes, it was possible to obtain bidimensional arrays containing several thousands of spots with a diameter as low as 0.2 mm, with each of which requiring only a few nanoliters of the enzyme deposition solution. The quantity of enzyme in each spot was evaluated with a chemiluminescent reaction and a charge-coupled device-based, low-light imaging luminograph. The chemiluminescence measurements revealed that the reproducibility of the enzyme deposition was satisfactory for analytical purposes, with the variation coefficients being lower than 10% in almost all cases.

  18. Delayed manifestations of CNS effects in formerly exposed printers--a 20-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordling Nilson, Linda; Karlson, Björn; Nise, Gun; Malmberg, Birgitta; Orbæk, Palle

    2010-01-01

    Whether long-term occupational exposure to organic solvents may affect mental and cognitive functioning later in life, remains unclear. In this study, twelve rotogravure printers formerly exposed to toluene and 19 referents, all initially examined in the mid-1980s, were reexamined after twenty years, applying neuropsychological tests, symptoms and social interaction questionnaires, medical examination, and exposure assessment of each individual's cumulative exposure. By far the most extensive exposure, mainly toluene, had occurred before 1985. The printers were found to have deteriorated more than their referents in cognitive functioning affecting reasoning and associative learning. No relevant additional exposure during the lengthy time period between assessments could explain this discrepancy. In addition, printers performed significantly worse than the referents in verbal memory and sustained attention at follow-up, where also a dose-effect relationship was noted for reasoning. While the printers did not report more subjective cognitive complaints than the referents, a slightly higher depression score was noted for the printers. The findings of significantly worse deteriorations in cognitive functioning in previously toluene-exposed printers are in line with our hypothesis that sub-clinical deficits during the working life may become manifest later in life, indicating that exposure may in fact interact with ageing. However, considering the small study groups the results must be interpreted with caution. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Textile Machinery:Imports Rebound Again

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In the year of 2006,the general situation of China’s textile machinery equipment imports had shown a clear sign of revival from the downward trend of two years ago,with a total annual import of 4.1 billion USD,an increase of 19.05% against the same period of 2005. Continuingly,the year of 2007 has witnessed a sustainable growth trend of textile machinery equipment imports in the first quarter and the trend definitely will be maintained through the whole year.According to statistics released from China Customs,the imports of textile machinery reached 1.098 billion USD in the first three months of 2007, up by 35.26% year-on-year. Then,why China’s textile machinery imports warm up again after two years’ cool down?

  20. A comprehensive overview of hybrid construction machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jixin Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing attention of energy saving and emission reduction technology, the recent application of hybrid powertrain technology affects the development of construction machinery industry. This article reviews these publications and provides comprehensive references. This article reviews the state-of-art for the hybrid wheel loader and excavator, which focuses on powertrain configuration, energy storage devices, and energy management strategies. The basis of classification and characteristic of each powertrain configuration are described. Advantages and disadvantages of batteries, supercapacitors, hydraulic accumulators, and flywheel used in hybrid construction machinery are summarized. The existing energy management strategies for hybrid construction machinery are also elaborated. The technological challenges and developing trends in the near future for hybrid construction machinery are discussed.

  1. Energy Savings Thanks to French Textile Machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The French Textile Machinery Manufacturers’ Association (UCMTF) has presented,during a seminar it organized for textile professionals and students,the spectacular energy savings achieved thanks to state of the art

  2. Textile Machinery Import and Export in 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Along with the rebounded international market, in the year of 2011, the foreign trade of textile machinery industry preserved a stable development: the import amount saw a slightly decrease, while the total import and export value kept an increasing trend. According to the Customs, the export and import of textile machinery totalized 2.245 billion USD and 5.364 billion USD, increasing by 27.81% and 24.70%, respectively, comparing with the same period of time in 2010.

  3. PRODUCTION WITH 3D PRINTERS IN TEXTILES [REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KESKIN Reyhan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available 3D printers are gaining more attention, finding different applications and 3D printing is being regarded as a ‘revolution’ of the 2010s for production. 3D printing is a production method that produces 3-dimensional objects by combining very thin layers over and over to form the object using 3D scanners or via softwares either private or open source. 3D printed materials find application in a large range of fields including aerospace, automotive, medicine and material science. There are several 3D printing methods such as fused deposition modeling (FDM, stereolithographic apparatus (SLA, selective laser sintering (SLS, inkjet 3D printing and laminated object manufacturing (LOM. 3D printing process involves three steps: production of the 3D model file, conversion of the 3D model file into G-code and printing the object. 3D printing finds a large variety of applications in many fields; however, textile applications of 3D printing remain rare. There are several textile-like 3D printed products mostly for use in fashion design, for research purposes, for technical textile applications and for substituting traditional textiles suchas weft-knitted structures and lace patterns. 3D printed textile-like structures are not strong enough for textile applications as they tend to break easily and although they have the drape of a textile material, they still lack the flexibility of textiles. 3D printing technology has to gain improvement to produce materials that will be an equivalent for textile materials, and has to be a faster method to compete with traditional textile production methods.

  4. Emission of particulate matter from a desktop three-dimensional (3D) printer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jinghai; LeBouf, Ryan F.; Duling, Matthew G.; Nurkiewicz, Timothy; Chen, Bean T.; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Virji, M. Abbas; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Desktop three-dimensional (3D) printers are becoming commonplace in business offices, public libraries, university labs and classrooms, and even private homes; however, these settings are generally not designed for exposure control. Prior experience with a variety of office equipment devices such as laser printers that emit ultrafine particles (UFP) suggests the need to characterize 3D printer emissions to enable reliable risk assessment. The aim of this study was to examine factors that influence particulate emissions from 3D printers and characterize their physical properties to inform risk assessment. Emissions were evaluated in a 0.5-m3 chamber and in a small room (32.7 m3) using real-time instrumentation to measure particle number, size distribution, mass, and surface area. Factors evaluated included filament composition and color, as well as the manufacturer-provided printer emissions control technologies while printing an object. Filament type significantly influenced emissions, with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) emitting larger particles than polylactic acid (PLA), which may have been the result of agglomeration. Geometric mean particle sizes and total particle (TP) number and mass emissions differed significantly among colors of a given filament type. Use of a cover on the printer reduced TP emissions by a factor of 2. Lung deposition calculations indicated a threefold higher PLA particle deposition in alveoli compared to ABS. Desktop 3D printers emit high levels of UFP, which are released into indoor environments where adequate ventilation may not be present to control emissions. Emissions in nonindustrial settings need to be reduced through the use of a hierarchy of controls, beginning with device design, followed by engineering controls (ventilation) and administrative controls such as choice of filament composition and color. PMID:27196745

  5. Emission of particulate matter from a desktop three-dimensional (3D) printer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jinghai; LeBouf, Ryan F; Duling, Matthew G; Nurkiewicz, Timothy; Chen, Bean T; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Virji, M Abbas; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B

    2016-01-01

    Desktop three-dimensional (3D) printers are becoming commonplace in business offices, public libraries, university labs and classrooms, and even private homes; however, these settings are generally not designed for exposure control. Prior experience with a variety of office equipment devices such as laser printers that emit ultrafine particles (UFP) suggests the need to characterize 3D printer emissions to enable reliable risk assessment. The aim of this study was to examine factors that influence particulate emissions from 3D printers and characterize their physical properties to inform risk assessment. Emissions were evaluated in a 0.5-m(3) chamber and in a small room (32.7 m(3)) using real-time instrumentation to measure particle number, size distribution, mass, and surface area. Factors evaluated included filament composition and color, as well as the manufacturer-provided printer emissions control technologies while printing an object. Filament type significantly influenced emissions, with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) emitting larger particles than polylactic acid (PLA), which may have been the result of agglomeration. Geometric mean particle sizes and total particle (TP) number and mass emissions differed significantly among colors of a given filament type. Use of a cover on the printer reduced TP emissions by a factor of 2. Lung deposition calculations indicated a threefold higher PLA particle deposition in alveoli compared to ABS. Desktop 3D printers emit high levels of UFP, which are released into indoor environments where adequate ventilation may not be present to control emissions. Emissions in nonindustrial settings need to be reduced through the use of a hierarchy of controls, beginning with device design, followed by engineering controls (ventilation) and administrative controls such as choice of filament composition and color.

  6. Differentiation of coloured inks of inkjet printer cartridges by thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, N L; Ho, S S H; Li, C K

    2005-01-01

    Document examiners are frequently asked to determine whether or not a colour printout has originated from a particular inkjet printer. The printer can rarely be identified unless some unique defects or irregularities of the printer are present on the printout. However, it is possible to decipher the make and/or model of the printer by comparing the ink-profile of the questioned printout with that of a seized inkjet printer cartridge or from one in a database. This paper presents an overview of a systematic approach to characterising and discriminating the inks of different inkjet printer cartridges using thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with multi-wavelength ultra-violet/visible (UV/Vis) detection. Ink samples from 23 different inkjet printer cartridges (including originals and substitutes) of different brands and colour printouts, printed by known printers were examined with newly developed chromatographic methods. Subsequently, a database of the ink-profiles was generated. The methods provide a useful tool for discriminating coloured inks in inkjet printer cartridges of different brands.

  7. 46 CFR 58.20-15 - Installation of refrigerating machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Installation of refrigerating machinery. 58.20-15... AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Refrigeration Machinery § 58.20-15 Installation of refrigerating machinery. (a) Where refrigerating machines are installed in which anhydrous ammonia is used as...

  8. 46 CFR 169.625 - Compartments containing diesel machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel machinery. 169.625... SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.625 Compartments containing diesel machinery. (a) Spaces containing machinery must be fitted with adequate dripproof ventilators, trunks,...

  9. 46 CFR 174.195 - Bulkheads in machinery spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bulkheads in machinery spaces. 174.195 Section 174.195... in machinery spaces. (a) The bulkhead in each machinery space of each OSV must be watertight to the bulkhead deck. (b) Each penetration of, and each opening in, a bulkhead in a machinery space must— (1)...

  10. 46 CFR 58.01-35 - Main propulsion auxiliary machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. 58.01-35 Section 58... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-35 Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. Auxiliary machinery vital to the main propulsion system must be provided in duplicate unless the...

  11. 46 CFR 58.01-25 - Means of stopping machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Means of stopping machinery. 58.01-25 Section 58.01-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-25 Means of stopping machinery. Machinery...

  12. 46 CFR 42.15-35 - Machinery space openings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space openings. 42.15-35 Section 42.15-35... BY SEA Conditions of Assignment of Freeboard § 42.15-35 Machinery space openings. (a) Machinery space..., funnel, or machinery space ventilators in an exposed position on the freeboard or superstructure...

  13. 46 CFR 45.149 - Machinery space openings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space openings. 45.149 Section 45.149 Shipping... Assignment § 45.149 Machinery space openings. (a) Machinery space openings in position 1 or 2 must be framed... funnel or machinery space ventilator that must be kept open for the essential operations of the ship...

  14. Synthesis of crystalline gels on a light-induced polymerization 3D printer (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jin; Mao, Yuchen; Miyazaki, Takuya; Zhu, Meifang

    2017-04-01

    3D printing, also knows as Additive Manufacturing (AM), was first commercialized in 1986, and has been growing at breakneck speed since 2009 when Stratasys' key patent expired. Currently the 3D printing machines coming on the market can be broadly classified into three categories from the material state point of view: plastic filament printers, powder (or pellet) printers, film printers and liquid photopolymer printers. Much of the work in our laboratory revolves around the crystalline gels. We have succeeded in developing them with high toughness, high flexibility, particularly with many functions as shape memory, energy storage, freshness-retaining, water-absorbing, etc. These crystalline gels are synthesized by light-induced radical polymerization that involves light-reactive monomer having the property of curing with light of a sufficient energy to drive the reaction from liquid to solid. Note that the light-induced polymerized 3D printing uses the same principle. To open up the possibilities for broader application of our crystalline functional gels, we are interested in making them available for 3D printing. In this paper, we share the results of our latest research on the 3D printing of crystalline gels on light-induced 3D printers.

  15. Potential usefulness of a video printer for producing secondary images from digitized chest radiographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Robert M.; MacMahon, Heber; Doi, Kunio; Bosworth, Eric

    1991-05-01

    Communication between radiologists and clinicians could be improved if a secondary image (copy of the original image) accompanied the radiologic report. In addition, the number of lost original radiographs could be decreased, since clinicians would have less need to borrow films. The secondary image should be simple and inexpensive to produce, while providing sufficient image quality for verification of the diagnosis. We are investigating the potential usefulness of a video printer for producing copies of radiographs, i.e. images printed on thermal paper. The video printer we examined (Seikosha model VP-3500) can provide 64 shades of gray. It is capable of recording images up to 1,280 pixels by 1,240 lines and can accept any raster-type video signal. The video printer was characterized in terms of its linearity, contrast, latitude, resolution, and noise properties. The quality of video-printer images was also evaluated in an observer study using portable chest radiographs. We found that observers could confirm up to 90 of the reported findings in the thorax using video- printer images, when the original radiographs were of high quality. The number of verified findings was diminished when high spatial resolution was required (e.g. detection of a subtle pneumothorax) or when a low-contrast finding was located in the mediastinal area or below the diaphragm (e.g. nasogastric tubes).

  16. Rapid patterning of 'tunable' hydrophobic valves on disposable microchips by laser printer lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Yiwen; Wang, Shibo; Li, Jingyi; Riehl, Paul S; Begley, Matthew; Landers, James P

    2013-05-01

    We recently defined a method for fabricating multilayer microdevices using poly(ethylene terephthalate) transparency film and printer toner, and showed these could be successfully applied to DNA extraction and amplification (Duarte et al., Anal. Chem. 2011, 83, 5182-5189). Here, we advance the functionality of these microdevices with flow control enabled by hydrophobic valves patterned using laser printer lithography. Laser printer patterning of toner within the microchannel induces a dramatic change in surface hydrophobicity (change in contact angle of DI water from 51° to 111°) with good reproducibility. Moreover, the hydrophobicity of the surface can be controlled by altering the density of the patterned toner via varying the gray-scale setting on the laser printer, which consequently tunes the valve's burst pressure. Toner density provided a larger burst pressure bandwidth (158 ± 18 Pa to 573 ± 16 Pa) than could be achieved by varying channel geometry (492 ± 18 Pa to 573 ± 16 Pa). Finally, we used a series of tuned toner valves (with varied gray-scale) for passive valve-based fluidic transfer in a predictable manner through the architecture of a rotating PeT microdevice. While an elementary demonstration, this presents the possibility for simplistic and cost-effective microdevices with valved fluid flow control to be fabricated using nothing more than a laser printer, a laser cutter and a laminator.

  17. ADJUSTMENT, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF CROP HARVESTING MACHINERY. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY--SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED FOR HELPING TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY-LEVEL STUDENTS FOR AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE OCCUPATIONS AS PARTS MEN, MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, AND SERVICE SUPERVISORS, THIS GUIDE AIMS TO DEVELOP STUDENT COMPETENCY IN ADJUSTING, REPAIRING, AND MAINTAINING CROP HARVESTING MACHINERY. SUGGESTIONS FOR INTRODUCTION OF THE…

  18. USING THERE DIMENSIONAL PRINTERS AS A NEW EXPRESSION IN CERAMIC ART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanver OZGUVEN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available With the start of use computer technology to create piece of art, many artist start to create their works via the technology. In recent years, it has begun to be seen many samples in ceramics, as can be seen from other area like Paintings, Graphic Design, Cinema ect. 3D printer technology has begun to use ceramic materials in recent 10 years and has göne forward remarkably. In this article,by describing working prencible of 3D printers and types, it will be informed about using the technology in ceramic art. It will be featured on centers that work on this subject and their projects. As a new shaping method, 3D printers will be featured to mention ceramic artists and their works.

  19. “3D Turtle Graphics” by using a 3D Printer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasusi Kanada

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available When creating shapes by using a 3D printer, usually, a static (declarative model designed by using a 3D CAD system is translated to a CAM program and it is sent to the printer. However, widely-used FDM-type 3D printers input a dynamical (procedural program that describes control of motions of the print head and extrusion of the filament. If the program is expressed by using a programming language or a library in a straight manner, solids can be created by a method similar to turtle graphics. An open-source library that enables “turtle 3D printing” method was described by Python and tested. Although this method currently has a problem that it cannot print in the air; however, if this problem is solved by an appropriate method, shapes drawn by 3D turtle graphics freely can be embodied by this method.

  20. Mitochondrial Machineries for Protein Import and Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, Nils; Pfanner, Nikolaus

    2017-03-15

    Mitochondria are essential organelles with numerous functions in cellular metabolism and homeostasis. Most of the >1,000 different mitochondrial proteins are synthesized as precursors in the cytosol and are imported into mitochondria by five transport pathways. The protein import machineries of the mitochondrial membranes and aqueous compartments reveal a remarkable variability of mechanisms for protein recognition, translocation, and sorting. The protein translocases do not operate as separate entities but are connected to each other and to machineries with functions in energetics, membrane organization, and quality control. Here, we discuss the versatility and dynamic organization of the mitochondrial protein import machineries. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms of mitochondrial protein translocation is crucial for understanding the integration of protein translocases into a large network that controls organelle biogenesis, function, and dynamics. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Biochemistry Volume 86 is June 20, 2017. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  1. The RNA polymerase I transcription machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Jackie; Zomerdijk, Joost C B M

    2006-01-01

    The rRNAs constitute the catalytic and structural components of the ribosome, the protein synthesis machinery of cells. The level of rRNA synthesis, mediated by Pol I (RNA polymerase I), therefore has a major impact on the life and destiny of a cell. In order to elucidate how cells achieve the stringent control of Pol I transcription, matching the supply of rRNA to demand under different cellular growth conditions, it is essential to understand the components and mechanics of the Pol I transcription machinery. In this review, we discuss: (i) the molecular composition and functions of the Pol I enzyme complex and the two main Pol I transcription factors, SL1 (selectivity factor 1) and UBF (upstream binding factor); (ii) the interplay between these factors during pre-initiation complex formation at the rDNA promoter in mammalian cells; and (iii) the cellular control of the Pol I transcription machinery.

  2. Machinery condition monitoring principles and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Mohanty, Amiya Ranjan

    2015-01-01

    Find the Fault in the MachinesDrawing on the author's more than two decades of experience with machinery condition monitoring and consulting for industries in India and abroad, Machinery Condition Monitoring: Principles and Practices introduces the practicing engineer to the techniques used to effectively detect and diagnose faults in machines. Providing the working principle behind the instruments, the important elements of machines as well as the technique to understand their conditions, this text presents every available method of machine fault detection occurring in machines in general, an

  3. Incorporating a 3-dimensional printer into the management of early-stage cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Min-Hyun; Kim, Dae-Yeon; Kim, Namkug; Rhim, Chae Chun; Kim, Jong-Hyeok; Nam, Joo-Hyun

    2016-08-01

    We used a 3-dimensional (3D) printer to create anatomical replicas of real lesions and tested its application in cervical cancer. Our study patient decided to undergo radical hysterectomy after seeing her 3D model which was then used to plan and simulate this surgery. Using 3D printers to create patient-specific 3D tumor models may aid cervical cancer patients make treatment decisions. This technology will lead to better surgical and oncological outcomes for cervical cancer patients. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;114:150-152. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Digital color management in full-color holographic three-dimensional printer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fei; Murakami, Yuri; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    2012-07-01

    We propose a new method of color management for a full-color holographic, three-dimensional (3D) printer, which produces a volume reflection holographic stereogram using red, green, and blue three-color lasers. For natural color management in the holographic 3D printer, we characterize its color reproduction characteristics based on the spectral measurement of reproduced light. Then the color conversion formula, which comprises a one-dimensional lookup table and a 3×3 matrix, was derived from the measurement data. The color reproducibility was evaluated by printing a color chart hologram, and the average CIELAB ΔE=13.19 is fairly small.

  5. Automation Tool for Comparing the Two Different Printouts From the Same Application for PCL3GUI Based HP Inkjet Printers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akula Bhargavaram

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available PCL(Printer Control language is a page description language (PDL developed by Hewlett-Packard as a printer protocol. Most of the HP Inkjet Printers accept PCL3GUI commands in order to process a print job. Today printers support several features. Printer driver plays a vital role in the product’s success. It takes several months to ensure that all print features and value added content are working correctly as per designed. Currently, a human tester is required to make a judgment whether or not the printed output is correct by visually comparing the output on paper to the document within the printing application or comparing to a printed gold master. This process is both time consuming, labor intensive, costly and error prone given that the pass-fail decision is dependent on a trained observer reviewing the prints. In order to eliminate these drawbacks an automation tool is developed to automate the manual testing process

  6. Italian Textile Machinery Industry Focuses on Sustainability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    As for fashion industry,Italian brands always play as one of the leaders influencing the global trends.This time,in Shanghai,the Italian textile machinery manufacturers highlight the latest proposals on sustainability and eco-friendly technology.

  7. Italian Textite Machinery Industry Focuses on Sustainability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2010-01-01

    @@ At the ITMA Asia+CITME 2010,which was held on June 22at the Shanghai New International Expo Centre in Shanghai,Italian textile machinery manufacturers represented one of the largest foreign delegations: 115exhibitors occupying a total surface area of about 4,000 sq.meters.

  8. Active Vibration Dampers For Rotating Machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kascack, Albert F.; Ropchock, John J.; Lakatos, Tomas F.; Montague, Gerald T.; Palazzolo, Alan; Lin, Reng Rong

    1994-01-01

    Active dampers developed to suppress vibrations in rotating machinery. Essentially feedback control systems and reciprocating piezoelectric actuators. Similar active damper containing different actuators described in LEW-14488. Concept also applicable to suppression of vibrations in stationary structures subject to winds and earthquakes. Active damper offers adjustable suppression of vibrations. Small and lightweight and responds faster to transients.

  9. CCPIT Machinery Exhibition Succeeded in Kuala Lumpur

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      From August 18 to 20, 2005, China Council for the Promotion of International Trade(CCPIT) held China Machinery and Electronics Trade Exhibition, CME 2005 in Kuala Lumpur, the capital of Malaysia on behalf of China, a good job has been done.……

  10. CCPIT Machinery Exhibition Succeeded in Kuala Lumpur

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ From August 18 to 20, 2005, China Council for the Promotion of International Trade(CCPIT) held China Machinery and Electronics Trade Exhibition, CME 2005 in Kuala Lumpur, the capital of Malaysia on behalf of China, a good job has been done.

  11. Brownian machinery in physics and biology

    OpenAIRE

    Hänggi, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Brownian machinery in physics and biology. - In: Noise in physical systems and 1/f fluctuations : proceedings of the 16th internat. conference, Gainesville, Fl., 22-25 Oct. 2001 / Ed.: Gijs Bosman. - New Jersey u.a. : World Scientific, 2001. - S. 397-399

  12. Computational design of hydrogen fluid machinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaupert, K.A. [Ebara Cryodynamics Div., Sparks, NV (United States)

    2001-06-01

    This paper presented computational design methods for liquid hydrogen fluid machinery for which the aerospace industry holds a particular interest. The main design points are reliability, efficiency and predictability. The methods described here were based on experience gained in the liquefied natural gas sector. The main design validation tools presented in this paper were computational fluid dynamics, computational rotordynamics, and computational stress analysis. Recent advances have made it possible to incorporate the influence of unsteady phenomena. These new design techniques make it possible to increase the reliability, efficiency and predictability of fluid machinery. A design example for an Ebara Cryodynamics multi-stage impeller/diffuser-return vane combination operating in liquefied natural gas was presented. The fluid machinery characteristics were compared for liquid hydrogen and liquefied natural gas to demonstrate the technical feasibility of industrial liquid hydrogen fluid machinery. Currently, no significant demand exists for liquid hydrogen turbomachinery except for the rocket engine industry. But the emergence of the hydrogen economy will promote the growth in liquefied natural gas and or liquid hydrogen cryogenic turbomachinery. 11 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  13. Response of solvent-exposed printers and unexposed controls to six-hour toluene exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper; Andersen, I B; Lundqvist, G R

    1985-01-01

    of intoxication, and irritation of the eyes, nose and throat. Furthermore, the subjects exposed to toluene showed decreased manual dexterity, decreased color discrimination, and decreased accuracy in visual perception. There was no significant difference in the effects of toluene on printers compared to those...

  14. APPLICATIONS OF REPRAP THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTERS IN DENTISTRY- A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru-Victor BURDE

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – This paper is intended to summarize the current available literature in which low-cost, open-source RepRap 3D printers are incorporated in the field of dentistry in an attempt to improve or replace conventional clinical and/or laboratory procedures. Methodology– An electronic search of publications from January 2004 to July 2014 was performed, by two researchers, in two electronic databases: Medline (PubMed and EMBASE Library. All searches were limited to human subjects investigations, published in English. Search terms included general and specific terms from the field of dentistry and additive manufacturing. Findings – The contribution of RepRap 3D printers to the field of dentistry is so far limited to only two applications, respectively reconstruction of study models for orthodontic measurements and reconstruction of skull segments. Originality/value – This review brings focus on the few researches and applications of low-cost RepRap printers in the dental field. In spite of the promising results reported, there still remains a sizable sector in which the capabilities of these low-cost, open source 3d printers are to be tested.

  15. 3D Systems” ‘Stuck in the Middle’ of the 3D Printer Boom?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Hoffmann (Alan)

    2014-01-01

    textabstract3D Systems, the pioneer of 3D printing, predicted a future where "kids from 8 to 80" could design and print their ideas at home. By 2013, 9 years after the creation of the first working 3D printer, there were more than 30 major 3D printing companies competing for market share. 3DS and it

  16. Historical review and future trends of scanning optical systems for laser-beam printers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minoura, Kazuo

    1993-12-01

    Flying spot scanning technologies providing a constant velocity were presented in 1963 and in 1969, although the concept of `f-0' was not yet explained definitely. After the middle of the 1970s, laser diodes became worthy of notice and a compact-sized laser beam printer was developed. Along with that development, the `f-0 lens' was defined based on the optical design theory in 1979 and also popular-type `f-0 lenses' were developed through the analytical design method. On the other hand, the author and colleagues worked out the best way of enabling metal light deflectors to apply in a popular-type system in 1984; which means the optical system of `deflection error compensation' with the simple composition including a toric lens. The epoch-making optical system raised the productivity of laser beam printers and also has been providing high-definition image printing. As for recent trends, low-priced and compact- sized printers are expanding their share of the market. The author predicts that future laser scanning technologies will be focused in low-priced and process-simplified printers looking closely into high-definition image quality.

  17. From the printer: Potential of three-dimensional printing for orthopaedic applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mok, S.; Nizak, R.; Fu, S.C.; Ho, K.K.; Qin, L.; Saris, Daniël B.F.; Chan, K.; Malda, J.

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printers can create complex structures based on digital models. The combination of medical diagnostic imaging with 3D printing has great potential in day-to-day clinics for patient-specific solutions and applications. In the musculoskeletal system, 3D printing is used to creat

  18. Modeling the transparent shape memory gels by 3D printer Acculas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Hiroaki; Arai, Masanori; Gong, Jin; Sakai, Kazuyuki; Kawakami, Masaru; Furukawa, Hidemitsu

    2016-04-01

    In our group, highly transparent shape memory gels were successfully synthesized for the first time in the world. These gels have the high strength of 3MPs modulus even with the water content of 40wt% water and high transparency. We consider that these highly transparent and high strength gels can be applied to the optical devices such as intraocular-lenses and optical fibers. In previous research by our group, attempts were made to manufacture the gel intraocular-lenses using highly transparent shape memory gels. However, it was too difficult to print the intraocular-lens finely enough. Here, we focus on a 3D printer, which can produce objects of irregular shape. 3D printers generally we fused deposition modeling (FDM), a stereo lithography apparatus (SLA) and selective laser sintering (SLS). Because highly transparent shape memory gels are gelled by light irradiation, we used 3D printer with stereo lithography apparatus (SLA). In this study, we found the refractive index of highly transparent shape memory gels depend on monomer concentration, and does not depend on the cross-linker or initiator concentration. Furthermore, the cross-linker and initiator concentration can change the gelation progression rate. As a result, we have developed highly transparent shape memory gels, which can have a range of refractive indexes, and we defined the optimal conditions that can be modeling in the 3D printer by changing the cross-linker and initiator concentration. With these discoveries we were able to produce a gel intraocular-lens replica.

  19. Low cost lab-on-a-chip prototyping with a consumer grade 3D printer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comina, Germán; Suska, Anke; Filippini, Daniel

    2014-08-21

    Versatile prototyping of 3D printed lab-on-a-chip devices, supporting different forms of sample delivery, transport, functionalization and readout, is demonstrated with a consumer grade printer, which centralizes all critical fabrication tasks. Devices cost 0.57US$ and are demonstrated in chemical sensing and micromixing examples, which exploit established principles from reference technologies.

  20. Microfluidic impact printer with interchangeable cartridges for versatile non-contact multiplexed micropatterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yuzhe; Huang, Eric; Lam, Kit S; Pan, Tingrui

    2013-05-21

    Biopatterning has been increasingly used for well-defined cellular microenvironment, patterned surface topology, and guided biological cues; however, it meets challenges on biocompatibility, thermal and chemical sensitivity, as well as limited availability of reagents. In this paper, we aim at combining the desired features from non-contact inkjet printing and dot-matrix impact printing to establish a versatile multiplexed micropatterning platform, referred to as Microfluidic Impact Printer (MI-Printer), for emerging biomedical applications. Using this platform, we can achieve the distinct features of no cross-contamination, sub-microliter ink loading with a minimal dead volume, high-throughput printing, biocompatible non-contact processing, sequential patterning with self-alignment, wide adaptability for complex media (e.g., cell suspension or colloidal solutions), interchangeable/disposable cartridge design, and simple assembly and configuration, all highly desirable towards laboratory-based research and development. Specifically, the printing resolution of the MI-printer platform has been experimentally characterized and theoretically analysed. Optimal printing resolution of 80 μm has been repeatedly obtained. Furthermore, two useful functions of the MI-printer, multiplexed printing and combinatorial printing, have been experimentally demonstrated with less than 10 μm misalignment. Moreover, molecular and biological patterning, utilizing the multiplexed and combinatorial printing, has been implemented to illustrate the utility of this versatile printing technique for emerging biomedical applications.

  1. From the printer: Potential of three-dimensional printing for orthopaedic applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mok, S.; Nizak, R.; Fu, S.C.; Ho, K.K.; Qin, L.; Saris, Daniël B.F.; Chan, K.; Malda, J.

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printers can create complex structures based on digital models. The combination of medical diagnostic imaging with 3D printing has great potential in day-to-day clinics for patient-specific solutions and applications. In the musculoskeletal system, 3D printing is used to

  2. From the printer: Potential of three-dimensional printing for orthopaedic applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mok, Sze-Wing; Nizak, Razmara; Fu, Sai-Chuen; Ho, Ki-Wai Kevin; Qin, Ling; Saris, Daniel B. F.; Chan, Kai-Ming; Malda, J

    Three-dimensional (3D) printers can create complex structures based on digital models. The combination of medical diagnostic imaging with 3D printing has great potential in day-to-day clinics for patient-specific solutions and applications. In the musculoskeletal system, 3D printing is used to

  3. 3D Systems” ‘Stuck in the Middle’ of the 3D Printer Boom?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Hoffmann (Alan)

    2014-01-01

    textabstract3D Systems, the pioneer of 3D printing, predicted a future where "kids from 8 to 80" could design and print their ideas at home. By 2013, 9 years after the creation of the first working 3D printer, there were more than 30 major 3D printing companies competing for market share. 3DS and

  4. Response of solvent-exposed printers and unexposed controls to six-hour toluene exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper; Andersen, I B; Lundqvist, G R

    1985-01-01

    of intoxication, and irritation of the eyes, nose and throat. Furthermore, the subjects exposed to toluene showed decreased manual dexterity, decreased color discrimination, and decreased accuracy in visual perception. There was no significant difference in the effects of toluene on printers compared to those...

  5. 77 FR 58381 - Depository Library Council to the Public Printer; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... Depository Library Council to the Public Printer; Meeting The Depository Library Council to the Public... of this meeting is to discuss the Federal Depository Library Program. All sessions are open to the public. The sleeping rooms available at the Doubletree Hotel will be at the Government rate of $...

  6. 75 FR 18209 - Depository Library Council to the Public Printer; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... Depository Library Council to the Public Printer; Meeting The Depository Library Council to the Public... Street, Buffalo, New York. The purpose of this meeting is to discuss the Federal Depository Library Program. All sessions are open to the public. The sleeping rooms available at the Adam's Mark,...

  7. 75 FR 61760 - Depository Library Council to the Public Printer; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... Depository Library Council to the Public Printer; Meeting The Depository Library Council to the Public... Navy Drive, Arlington, VA. The purpose of this meeting is to discuss the Federal Depository Library Program. All sessions are open to the public. The sleeping rooms available at the Doubletree Hotel will...

  8. From the printer: Potential of three-dimensional printing for orthopaedic applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mok, Sze-Wing; Nizak, Razmara; Fu, Sai-Chuen; Ho, Ki-Wai Kevin; Qin, Ling; Saris, Daniel B. F.; Chan, Kai-Ming; Malda, J

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printers can create complex structures based on digital models. The combination of medical diagnostic imaging with 3D printing has great potential in day-to-day clinics for patient-specific solutions and applications. In the musculoskeletal system, 3D printing is used to creat

  9. Demand for Skilled Workers in Commercial Printing as Perceived by Commercial Printers, Printing Educators, and Printing Trade Services Suppliers. A Summary Report of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Jesus J.

    A study was conducted to determine if differences existed between and among the perceptions of commercial printers, printer educators, and printing trade services suppliers in Texas regarding current and future employment trends for skilled workers in commercial printing. A random sample of commercial printers, high school printing educators, and…

  10. Present Situation of Petroleum Machinery Manufacturers in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xilu

    2008-01-01

    Since China joined the WTO, the environment for the development of petroleum machinery industry in the country has changed a lot. As international petroleum machinery manufacturers enter into Chinese market, petroleum machinery manufacturers of the country are facing fierce competition both at home and abroad.

  11. 30 CFR 56.14205 - Machinery, equipment, and tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Machinery, equipment, and tools. 56.14205... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14205 Machinery, equipment, and tools....

  12. 46 CFR 58.01-20 - Machinery guards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery guards. 58.01-20 Section 58.01-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-20 Machinery guards. Gears, couplings, flywheels...

  13. 46 CFR 109.205 - Inspection of boilers and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection of boilers and machinery. 109.205 Section 109... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.205 Inspection of boilers and machinery. The chief engineer or engineer in charge, before he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a unit shall...

  14. 29 CFR 1915.165 - Ship's deck machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship's deck machinery. 1915.165 Section 1915.165 Labor... (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Ship's Machinery and Piping Systems § 1915.165 Ship's deck machinery. (a) Before work is performed on the anchor windlass or any...

  15. 46 CFR 122.208 - Accidents to machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 122.208 Section 122.208 Shipping... Voyage Records § 122.208 Accidents to machinery. The owner, managing operator, or master shall report damage to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery that renders further use of the item...

  16. 29 CFR 1915.164 - Ship's propulsion machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship's propulsion machinery. 1915.164 Section 1915.164 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Machinery and Piping Systems § 1915.164 Ship's propulsion machinery. (a) Before work is performed on...

  17. 46 CFR 109.419 - Report of unsafe machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Report of unsafe machinery. 109.419 Section 109.419... OPERATIONS Reports, Notifications, and Records Reports and Notifications § 109.419 Report of unsafe machinery. If a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or other machinery on a unit is unsafe to operate, the...

  18. 30 CFR 57.14205 - Machinery, equipment, and tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Machinery, equipment, and tools. 57.14205... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14205 Machinery, equipment, and...

  19. 46 CFR 252.33 - Hull and machinery insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull and machinery insurance. 252.33 Section 252.33... Subsidy Rates § 252.33 Hull and machinery insurance. (a) Subsidy items. The fair and reasonable net premium costs (including stamp taxes) of hull and machinery, increased value, excess general...

  20. 29 CFR 1910.214 - Cooperage machinery. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperage machinery. 1910.214 Section 1910.214 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Machinery and Machine Guarding § 1910.214 Cooperage machinery....

  1. 46 CFR 196.30-5 - Accidents to machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 196.30-5 Section 196.30-5... Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 196.30-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use...

  2. 46 CFR 97.30-5 - Accidents to machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 97.30-5 Section 97.30-5 Shipping... Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 97.30-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use...

  3. 46 CFR 185.208 - Accidents to machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 185.208 Section 185.208 Shipping...) OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 185.208 Accidents to machinery. The owner, managing operator, or master shall report damage to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery that...

  4. 46 CFR 78.33-5 - Accidents to machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 78.33-5 Section 78.33-5 Shipping... Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 78.33-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use of the...

  5. 46 CFR 185.352 - Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces. 185.352 Section 185.352 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS... machinery spaces. The mechanical exhaust for the ventilation of a gasoline machinery space, required...

  6. 46 CFR 130.460 - Placement of machinery alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Placement of machinery alarms. 130.460 Section 130.460..., AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.460 Placement of machinery alarms. (a) Visible and audible alarms must be installed at the pilothouse to...

  7. 46 CFR 171.095 - Machinery space bulkhead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space bulkhead. 171.095 Section 171.095... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.095 Machinery space... transverse watertight bulkheads to separate the machinery space from the remainder of the vessel....

  8. 46 CFR 111.103-3 - Machinery space ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space ventilation. 111.103-3 Section 111.103-3...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-3 Machinery space ventilation. (a) Each machinery space ventilation system must have two controls to stop the ventilation, one of which may be the...

  9. 33 CFR 157.39 - Machinery space bilges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Machinery space bilges. 157.39... Vessel Operation § 157.39 Machinery space bilges. (a) A tank vessel may discharge an oily mixture from a machinery space bilge that is combined with an oil cargo residue if the vessel discharges in compliance...

  10. In vivo epigenetic effects induced by engineered nanomaterials: A case study of copper oxide and laser printer-emitted engineered nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoyan; Miousse, Isabelle R; Pirela, Sandra V; Moore, Jodene K; Melnyk, Stepan; Koturbash, Igor; Demokritou, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Evidence continues to grow on potential environmental health hazards associated with engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). While the geno- and cytotoxic effects of ENMs have been investigated, their potential to target the epigenome remains largely unknown. The aim of this study is two-fold: 1) determining whether or not industry relevant ENMs can affect the epigenome in vivo and 2) validating a recently developed in vitro epigenetic screening platform for inhaled ENMs. Laser printer-emitted engineered nanoparticles (PEPs) released from nano-enabled toners during consumer use and copper oxide (CuO) were chosen since these particles induced significant epigenetic changes in a recent in vitro companion study. In this study, the epigenetic alterations in lung tissue, alveolar macrophages and peripheral blood from intratracheally instilled mice were evaluated. The methylation of global DNA and transposable elements (TEs), the expression of the DNA methylation machinery and TEs, in addition to general toxicological effects in the lung were assessed. CuO exhibited higher cell-damaging potential to the lung, while PEPs showed a greater ability to target the epigenome. Alterations in the methylation status of global DNA and TEs, and expression of TEs and DNA machinery in mouse lung were observed after exposure to CuO and PEPs. Additionally, epigenetic changes were detected in the peripheral blood after PEPs exposure. Altogether, CuO and PEPs can induce epigenetic alterations in a mouse experimental model, which in turn confirms that the recently developed in vitro epigenetic platform using macrophage and epithelial cell lines can be successfully utilized in the epigenetic screening of ENMs.

  11. OPTIMAL MAINTENANCE AND REPLACEMENT OF EXTRACTION MACHINERY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suresh P.SETHI; Hong-Mo YEH; Rong ZHANG; Andrew K.S.JARDINE

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers a problem of optimal preventive maintenance and replacement schedule ofequipment devoted to extracting resources from known deposits. Typical examples are oil drills, mine shovels, etc. At most one replacement of the existing machinery by a new one is allowed. The problem is formulated as an optimal control problem subject to the state constraint that the remaining deposit at any given time is nonnegative. We show that the optimal preventive maintenance, production rates, and the replacement and salvage times of the existing machinery and the new one, if required, can be obtained by solving sequentially a series of free-end-point optimal control problems. Moreover, an algorithm based on this result is developed and used to solve two illustrative examples.

  12. The Autophagic Machinery in Enterovirus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey K. F. Lai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Enterovirus genus of the Picornaviridae family comprises many important human pathogens, including polioviruses, rhinovirus, enterovirus A71, and enterovirus D68. They cause a wide variety of diseases, ranging from mild to severe life-threatening diseases. Currently, no effective vaccine is available against enteroviruses except for poliovirus. Enteroviruses subvert the autophagic machinery to benefit their assembly, maturation, and exit from host. Some enteroviruses spread between cells via a process described as autophagosome-mediated exit without lysis (AWOL. The early and late phases of autophagy are regulated through various lipids and their metabolizing enzymes. Some of these lipids and enzymes are specifically regulated by enteroviruses. In the present review, we summarize the current understanding of the regulation of autophagic machinery by enteroviruses, and provide updates on recent developments in this field.

  13. Machinery prognostics and prognosis oriented maintenance management

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Jihong

    2014-01-01

    This book gives a complete presentatin of the basic essentials of machinery prognostics and prognosis oriented maintenance management, and takes a look at the cutting-edge discipline of intelligent failure prognosis technologies for condition-based maintenance.  Latest research results and application methods are introduced for signal processing, reliability moelling, deterioration evaluation, residual life prediction and maintenance-optimization as well as applications of these methods.

  14. Property Analysis of the Agricultural Machinery Lubricants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tone Ploj

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available We need to produce enough healthy and cheap food as well as to preserve the ecologic equilibrium. This can be achived by using modern machinery and up- to-date knowledge and technology. Agricultural machinery, in which 40-60% of all funds are invested, is poorly maintained and underused. The main causes for this are poor knowledge and extensive farm land fragmentation. The fact that over 140,000 tractors in Slovenia are on average 9.6 years old, i.e. that more than 80% of overall agricultural machinery is obsolete, should be a matter of serious concern. In the paper we follow tribological conditions in particular tractor assemblies. In the first part of the paper we have treated the required conditions of tractor manufacturers in Europe and primarily in Slovenia, what has served us in the final phase of the research for elaboration of the model. In this way we have got data about the presence of particular tractor types. We have separately elaborated the necessary specifications of engine lubricants, transmission, gears, hydraulics and wet breaks. We have carried out chemical and mechanical analyses of all accessible lubricants in agricultural mechanisation. The results of the new oils were coordinated with the required specifications of tractor manufacturers and so we have got such a model, that certainly meet all lubricating requirements of our tractors.

  15. The exportomer: the peroxisomal receptor export machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platta, Harald W; Hagen, Stefanie; Erdmann, Ralf

    2013-04-01

    Peroxisomes constitute a dynamic compartment of almost all eukaryotic cells. Depending on environmental changes and cellular demands peroxisomes can acquire diverse metabolic roles. The compartmentalization of peroxisomal matrix enzymes is a prerequisite to carry out their physiologic function. The matrix proteins are synthesized on free ribosomes in the cytosol and are ferried to the peroxisomal membrane by specific soluble receptors. Subsequent to cargo release into the peroxisomal matrix, the receptors are exported back to the cytosol to facilitate further rounds of matrix protein import. This dislocation step is accomplished by a remarkable machinery, which comprises enzymes required for the ubiquitination as well as the ATP-dependent extraction of the receptor from the membrane. Interestingly, receptor ubiquitination and dislocation are the only known energy-dependent steps in the peroxisomal matrix protein import process. The current view is that the export machinery of the receptors might function as molecular motor not only in the dislocation of the receptors but also in the import step of peroxisomal matrix protein by coupling ATP-dependent removal of the peroxisomal import receptor with cargo translocation into the organelle. In this review we will focus on the architecture and function of the peroxisomal receptor export machinery, the peroxisomal exportomer.

  16. The plastid-dividing machinery: formation, constriction and fission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yamato; Miyagishima, Shin-ya; Kuroiwa, Haruko; Kuroiwa, Tsuneyoshi

    2012-12-01

    Plastids divide by constriction of the plastid-dividing (PD) machinery, which encircles the division site. The PD machinery consists of the stromal inner machinery which includes the inner PD and filamenting temperature-sensitive mutant Z (FtsZ) rings and the cytosolic outer machinery which includes the outer PD and dynamin rings. The major constituent of the PD machinery is the outer PD ring, which consists of a bundle of polyglucan filaments. In addition, recent proteomic studies suggest that the PD machinery contains additional proteins that have not been characterized. The PD machinery forms from the inside to the outside of the plastid. The constriction seems to occur by sliding of the polyglucan filaments of the outer PD ring, aided by dynamin. The final fission of the plastid is probably promoted by the 'pinchase' activity of dynamin.

  17. With the advent of domestic 3-dimensional (3D) printers and their associated reduced cost, is it now time for every medical school to have their own 3D printer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrini, Christopher; Campo-Celaya, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy is the backbone of medical education and new techniques to improve learning are frequently explored. With the introduction of 3D printers specifically for the home market, the price of this technology has reached affordable levels. Using patient scan data, accurate 3D models can be printed that represent real human variation in anatomy to provide an innovative, inexpensive and valuable adjunct to anatomical teaching. Is it now time for every medical school to have their own 3D printer?

  18. R3DO: A Plastic Recycling System For Creating 3D Printer Feedstock On-Orbit Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An automated in-space recycling system for 3D printer feedstock will provide game-changing resupply benefits including but not limited to launch mass reduction,...

  19. Atmospheric nonequilibrium mini-plasma jet created by a 3D printer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamatsu, Toshihiro, E-mail: toshihiro@plasma.es.titech.ac.jp [Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Gastroenterology, 7-5-1 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, 650-0017 (Japan); Tokyo Institute of Technology, Department of Energy Sciences, J2-32, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama, 226-8502 (Japan); Kawano, Hiroaki; Miyahara, Hidekazu; Okino, Akitoshi [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Department of Energy Sciences, J2-32, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama, 226-8502 (Japan); Azuma, Takeshi [Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Gastroenterology, 7-5-1 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, 650-0017 (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    In this study, a small-sized plasma jet source with a 3.7 mm head diameter was created via a 3D printer. The jet’s emission properties and OH radical concentrations (generated by argon, helium, and nitrogen plasmas) were investigated using optical emission spectrometry (OES) and electron spin resonance (ESR). As such, for OES, each individual gas plasma propagates emission lines that derive from gases and ambient air inserted into the measurement system. For the case of ESR, a spin adduct of the OH radical is typically observed for all gas plasma treatment scenarios with a 10 s treatment by helium plasma generating the largest amount of OH radicals at 110 μM. Therefore, it was confirmed that a plasma jet source made by a 3D printer can generate stable plasmas using each of the aforementioned three gases.

  20. Investigation into the Accuracy of Colours Reproduced by the Ricoh Printer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrius Gedvila

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the reproduction accuracy of Ricoh Aficio colour 3006 printer. The study has been conducted analyzing four-color (CMYK gradation curves – the compliance of zonal absorbance with standard references and printing stability of gradation scales. The obtained colours have been measured spectrophotometrically determining the coordinates of colours CIE L*a*b* and differences in colours ΔE. Eight printing regimes and their settings have been examined. It has been found that the printer Ricoh has inaccurately colour grading. However, the quality of colour reproduction is sufficient for printing data not requiring high accuracy of colour reproduction. Colour grading significantly differs from the theoretical approaches, though some regimes (Gamma, Brightness, CMYK simulation allows achieving theoretical values. Despite the high inaccuracy of gradation, differences in colour are not high enough due to corrections made by software.Article in Lithuanian

  1. A drop-on-demand ink-jet printer for combinatorial libraries and functionally graded ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohebi, Mohammad Masoud; Evans, Julian R G

    2002-01-01

    A printer has been designed and built for the preparation of combinatorial libraries of ceramics and for solid freeforming of functionally graded ceramics with three-dimensionally programmable spatial variation in composition. Several ceramic suspensions (as inks) can be subjected to micromixing behind the nozzle and printed at precise positions. Both mixing and positioning are computer-controlled. The machine consists of an XY table to control the geometry, a set of electromagnetic valves that manage the mixing, a combined electromagnetic valve and sapphire nozzle that form the print head, and a computer that controls the whole system. The mixing valves can eject as little as 1 mg/s ink into the mixing chamber. The printer has been controlled, run, calibrated and tested; the composition and geometry of printed mixtures can be controlled precisely. This method for the controlled mixing of powders facilitates the advance of combinatorial methods within the materials sciences.

  2. Atmospheric nonequilibrium mini-plasma jet created by a 3D printer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiro Takamatsu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a small-sized plasma jet source with a 3.7 mm head diameter was created via a 3D printer. The jet’s emission properties and OH radical concentrations (generated by argon, helium, and nitrogen plasmas were investigated using optical emission spectrometry (OES and electron spin resonance (ESR. As such, for OES, each individual gas plasma propagates emission lines that derive from gases and ambient air inserted into the measurement system. For the case of ESR, a spin adduct of the OH radical is typically observed for all gas plasma treatment scenarios with a 10 s treatment by helium plasma generating the largest amount of OH radicals at 110 μM. Therefore, it was confirmed that a plasma jet source made by a 3D printer can generate stable plasmas using each of the aforementioned three gases.

  3. ANALYSIS OF PRINTING PARAMETERS FOR PRODUCTION OF COMPONENTS WITH ​EASY3DMAKER​ PRINTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Rengevič

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The presented article deals with analyses and testing appropriate parameters for the production of components manufactured with rapid prototyping technology - Easy3DMaker printer. The quality of the printed component with a specific shape is analyzed. The analyzed materials are ABS Printplus and PLA Printplus. These materials are printed at different temperatures and speeds. combinations of different settings were tested in order to find the best conditions for printing with different nozzles. The quality of individual printed samples is assessed visually and by touch. The efficiency in terms of print time under various conditions was also analyzed. The main benefit of testing is the establishment of appropriate conditions for printing components on a Easy3DMaker printer. The article does not focus on mechanical properties of the examined samples.

  4. 46 CFR 30.10-42 - Machinery space-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space-TB/ALL. 30.10-42 Section 30.10-42...-42 Machinery space—TB/ALL. The term machinery space means any space that contains machinery and related equipment including Category A machinery spaces, propelling machinery, boilers, oil fuel...

  5. Fabrication of a customized bone scaffold using a homemade medical 3D printer for comminuted fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Do-Kun; Jung, Joo-Young; Shin, Han-Back; Kim, Moo-Sub; Choe, Bo-Young; Kim, Sunmi; Suh, Tae Suk; Lee, Keum Sil; Xing, Lei

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to show a 3D printed reconstruction model of a bone destroyed by a comminuted fracture. After a thoracic limb of a cow with a comminuted fracture was scanned by using computed tomography, a scaffold was designed by using a 3D modeling tool for its reconstruction and fabricated by using a homemade medical 3D printer. The homemade medical 3D printer was designed for medical use. In order to reconstruct the geometry of the destroyed bone, we use the geometry of a similar section (reference geometry) of normal bone in the 3D modeling process. The missing part between the destroyed ridge and the reference geometry was filled with an effective space by using a manual interpolation. Inexpensive materials and free software were used to construct the medical 3D printer system. The fabrication of the scaffold progressed according to the design of reconstructed bone by using this medical 3D printer. The material of the scaffold was biodegradable material, and could be transplanted into the human body. The fabricated scaffold was correctly inserted into the fractured bone in place of the destroyed portion, with good agreement. According to physical stress test results, the performance of printing resolution was 0.1 mm. The average geometrical error of the scaffold was below 0.3 mm. The reconstructed bone by using the fabricated scaffold was able to support the weight of the human body. No process used to obtain the result was complex or required many resources. The methods and results in this study show several possible clinical applications in fields such as orthopedics or oncology without a need to purchase high-price instruments for 3D printing.

  6. Developments of VCSELs for printers and optical communications at Fuji Xerox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Takashi; Takeda, Kazutaka; Otoma, Hiromi; Murakami, Akemi; Sakurai, Jun; Nakayama, Hideo; Gu, Xiaodong; Koyama, Fumio

    2016-03-01

    We review the characteristics of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) for use in printers and optical communications. In 2003, we launched the world's first laser printer with a 780-nm single-mode 8×4 VCSEL array introduced to the light exposure system in order to meet the market demands for improving the image quality and speed for laser printers. The design of the VCSEL array enabled us to increase the pixel density and the printing speed by projecting 32 beams at a time to the photoconductor in the exposure process. High uniformity with less than 5% of variation has been achieved for both the optical output and the divergence angle. Currently, our high-end color printer is capable of producing the resolution of 2400 dpi (dots per inch) at the speed of 137 ppm (pages per minute). In the field of optical interconnections and networks, 850-nm VCSELs are needed as high-speed optical transmitters (>=10Gbps). In order to address communication traffic that will increase further as well as to reduce their power consumption to an even lower level, we assessed the lasing characteristics of 850-nm VCSELs with InGaAs strained quantum-well (QW) active layers by changing the ratio of Indium composition. As a result, we succeeded in reducing the power consumption per bit to 43 fJ/bit at 10-Gbps, which is much lower than that of commercial GaAs QW VCSELs. Also, we studied 850-nm transverse-coupled-cavity VCSELs, which enabled us to achieve a high 3dB modulation bandwidth (>23 GHz) and realize eye-openings at the large-signal modulation rate of 36 Gbps.

  7. Dispensing an enzyme-conjugated solution into an ELISA plate by adapting ink-jet printers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonini, Luca; Accoto, Dino; Petroni, Silvia; Guglielmelli, Eugenio

    2008-04-24

    The rapid and precise delivery of small volumes of bio-fluids (from picoliters to nanoliters) is a key feature of modern bioanalytical assays. Commercial ink-jet printers are low-cost systems which enable the dispensing of tiny droplets at a rate which may exceed 10(4) Hz per nozzle. Currently, the main ejection technologies are piezoelectric and bubble-jet. We adapted two commercial printers, respectively a piezoelectric and a bubble-jet one, for the deposition of immunoglobulins into an ELISA plate. The objective was to perform a comparative evaluation of the two classes of ink-jet technologies in terms of required hardware modifications and possible damage on the dispensed molecules. The hardware of the two printers was modified to dispense an enzyme conjugate solution, containing polyclonal rabbit anti-human IgG labelled with HRP in 7 wells of an ELISA plate. Moreover, the ELISA assay was used to assess the functional activity of the biomolecules after ejection. ELISA is a common and well-assessed technique to detect the presence of particular antigens or antibodies in a sample. We employed an ELISA diagnostic kit for the qualitative screening of anti-ENA antibodies to verify the ability of the dispensed immunoglobulins to bind the primary antibodies in the wells. Experimental tests showed that the dispensing of immunoglobulins using the piezoelectric printer does not cause any detectable difference on the outcome of the ELISA test if compared to manual dispensing using micropipettes. On the contrary, the thermal printhead was not able to reliably dispense the bio-fluid, which may mean that a surfactant is required to modify the wetting properties of the liquid.

  8. Effect of image capture device on the accuracy of black-box printer models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Jason; Sun, Jian; Ju, Yanling; Kashti, Tamar; Frank, Tal; Kella, Dror; Fischer, Mani; Ulichney, Robert; Adams, Guy; Allebach, Jan

    2014-01-01

    In the process of electrophotograpic (EP) printing, the deposition of toner to the printer-addressable pixel is greatly influenced by the neighboring pixels of the digital halftone. To account for these effects, printer models can either be embedded in the halftoning algorithm, or used to predict the printed halftone image at the input to an algorithm that is used to assess print quality. Most recently,1 we developed a series of six new models to accurately account for local neighborhood effects and the influence of a 45 x 45 neighborhood of pixels on the central printer-addressable pixel. We refer to all these models as black-box models, since they are based solely on measuring what is on the printed page, and do not incorporate any information about the marking process itself. In this paper, we will compare black-box models developed with three different capture devices: an Epson Expression 10000XL (Epson America, Inc., Long Beach, CA, USA) flatbed scanner operated at 2400 dpi with an active field of view of 309.88 mm x 436.88 mm, a QEA PIAS-II (QEA, Inc., Billerica, MA, USA) camera with resolution 7663.4 dpi and a field of view of 2.4 mm x 3.2 mm, and Dr. CID, a 1:1 magnification 3.35 micron true resolution Dyson Relay lens-based 3 Mpixel USB CMOS imaging device2 with resolution 7946.8 dpi and a field of view of 4.91 mm 6.55 mm developed at Hewlett-Packard Laboratories { Bristol. Our target printer is an HP Indigo 5000 Digital Press (HP Indigo, Ness Ziona, Israel). In this paper, we will compare the accuracy of the black-box model predictions of print microstructure using models trained from images captured with these three devices.

  9. A customized bolus produced using a 3-dimensional printer for radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shin-Wook; Shin, Hun-Joo; Kay, Chul Seung; Son, Seok Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Boluses are used in high-energy radiotherapy in order to overcome the skin sparing effect. In practice though, commonly used flat boluses fail to make a perfect contact with the irregular surface of the patient's skin, resulting in air gaps. Hence, we fabricated a customized bolus using a 3-dimensional (3D) printer and evaluated its feasibility for radiotherapy. We designed two kinds of bolus for production on a 3D printer, one of which was the 3D printed flat bolus for the Blue water phantom and the other was a 3D printed customized bolus for the RANDO phantom. The 3D printed flat bolus was fabricated to verify its physical quality. The resulting 3D printed flat bolus was evaluated by assessing dosimetric parameters such as D1.5 cm, D5 cm, and D10 cm. The 3D printed customized bolus was then fabricated, and its quality and clinical feasibility were evaluated by visual inspection and by assessing dosimetric parameters such as Dmax, Dmin, Dmean, D90%, and V90%. The dosimetric parameters of the resulting 3D printed flat bolus showed that it was a useful dose escalating material, equivalent to a commercially available flat bolus. Analysis of the dosimetric parameters of the 3D printed customized bolus demonstrated that it is provided good dose escalation and good contact with the irregular surface of the RANDO phantom. A customized bolus produced using a 3D printer could potentially replace commercially available flat boluses.

  10. Modification of inkjet printer for polymer sensitive layer preparation on silicon-based gas sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianjian Li

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Inkjet printing is a versatile, low cost deposition technology with the capabilities for the localized deposition of high precision, patterned deposition in a programmable way, and the parallel deposition of a variety of materials. This paper demonstrates a new method of modifying the consumer inkjet printer to prepare polymer-sensitive layers on silicon wafer for gas sensor applications. A special printing tray for the modified inkjet printer to support a 4-inch silicon wafer is designed. The positioning accuracy of the deposition system is tested, based on the newly modified printer. The experimental data show that the positioning errors in the horizontal direction are negligibly small, while the positioning errors in the vertical direction rise with the increase of the printing distance of the wafer. The method for making suitable ink to be deposited to form the polymer-sensitive layer is also discussed. In the testing, a solution of 0.1 wt% polyvinyl alcohol (PVA was used as ink to prepare a sensitive layer with certain dimensions at a specific location on the surface of the silicon wafer, and the results prove the feasibility of the methods presented in this article.

  11. Raman spectroscopy and capillary electrophoresis applied to forensic colour inkjet printer inks analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Król, Małgorzata; Karoly, Agnes; Kościelniak, Paweł

    2014-09-01

    Forensic laboratories are increasingly engaged in the examination of fraudulent documents, and what is important, in many cases these are inkjet-printed documents. That is why systematic approaches to inkjet printer inks comparison and identification have been carried out by both non-destructive and destructive methods. In this study, micro-Raman spectroscopy and capillary electrophoresis (CE) were applied to the analysis of colour inkjet printer inks. Micro-Raman spectroscopy was used to study the chemical composition of colour inks in situ on a paper surface. It helps to characterize and differentiate inkjet inks, and can be used to create a spectra database of inks taken from different cartridge brands and cartridge numbers. Capillary electrophoresis in micellar electrophoretic capillary chromatography mode was applied to separate colour and colourless components of inks, enabling group identification of those components which occur in a sufficient concentration (giving intensive peaks). Finally, on the basis of the obtained results, differentiation of the analysed inks was performed. Twenty-three samples of inkjet printer inks were examined and the discriminating power (DP) values for both presented methods were established in the routine work of experts during the result interpretation step. DP was found to be 94.0% (Raman) and 95.6% (CE) when all the analysed ink samples were taken into account, and it was 96.7% (Raman) and 98.4% (CE), when only cartridges with different index numbers were considered.

  12. Analysis of electric machinery and drive systems

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Paul C; Sudhoff, Scott D; Pekarek, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Introducing a new edition of the popular reference on machine analysis Now in a fully revised and expanded edition, this widely used reference on machine analysis boasts many changes designed to address the varied needs of engineers in the electric machinery, electric drives, and electric power industries. The authors draw on their own extensive research efforts, bringing all topics up to date and outlining a variety of new approaches they have developed over the past decade. Focusing on reference frame theory that has been at the core of this work since the first edition, th

  13. The RNA polymerase I transcription machinery

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, Jackie; Zomerdijk, Joost C. B. M.

    2006-01-01

    The rRNAs constitute the catalytic and structural components of the ribosome, the protein synthesis machinery of cells. The level of rRNA synthesis, mediated by Pol I (RNA polymerase I), therefore has a major impact on the life and destiny of a cell. In order to elucidate how cells achieve the stringent control of Pol I transcription, matching the supply of rRNA to demand under different cellular growth conditions, it is essential to understand the components and mechanics of the Pol I transc...

  14. Scale Effect Features During Simulation Tests of 3D Printer-Made Vane Pump Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Petrov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article "Scale effect features during simulation tests of 3D printer-made vane pump models" discusses the influence of scale effect on translation of pump parameters from models, made with 3D-prototyping methods, to full-scale pumps. Widely spread now 3D-printer production of pump model parts or entire layouts can be considered to be the main direction of vane pumps modeling. This is due to the widespread development of pumps in different CAD-systems and the significant cost reduction in manufacturing such layouts, as compared to casting and other traditional methods.The phenomenon of scale effect in vane hydraulic machines, i.e. violation of similarity conditions when translating pump parameters from model to full-scale pumps is studied in detail in the theory of similarity. However, as the experience in the 3d-printer manufacturing of models and their testing gains it becomes clear that accounting large-scale effect for such models has a number of differences from the conventional techniques. The reason for this is the features of micro and macro geometry of parts made in different kinds of 3D-printers (extrusive, and powder sintering methods, ultraviolet light, etc..The article considers the converting features of external and internal mechanical losses, leakages, and hydraulic losses, as well as the specifics of the balance tests for such models. It also presents the basic conversion formulas describing the factors affecting the value of these losses. It shows photographs of part surfaces of models, manufactured by 3D-printer and subjected to subsequent machining. The paper shows results of translation from several pump models (layouts to the full-scale ones, using the techniques described, and it also shows that the error in translation efficiency does not exceed 1.15%. The conclusion emphasizes the importance of the balance tests of models to accumulate statistical data on the scale effect for pump layouts made by different 3D

  15. Rotating Machinery Predictive Maintenance Through Expert System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sarath Kumar

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern rotating machines such as turbomachines, either produce or absorb huge amount of power. Some of the common applications are: steam turbine-generator and gas turbine-compressor-generator trains produce power and machines, such as pumps, centrifugal compressors, motors, generators, machine tool spindles, etc., are being used in industrial applications. Condition-based maintenance of rotating machinery is a common practice where the machine's condition is monitored constantly, so that timely maintenance can be done. Since modern machines are complex and the amount of data to be interpreted is huge, we need precise and fast methods in order to arrive at the best recommendations to prevent catastrophic failure and to prolong the life of the equipment. In the present work using vibration characteristics of a rotor-bearing system, the condition of a rotating machinery (electrical rotor is predicted using an off-line expert system. The analysis of the problem is carried out in an Object Oriented Programming (OOP framework using the finite element method. The expert system which is also developed in an OOP paradigm gives the type of the malfunctions, suggestions and recommendations. The system is implemented in C++.

  16. Evolution of the chloroplast division machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongbo GAO; Fuli GAO

    2011-01-01

    Chloroplasts are photosynthetic organelles derived from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria during evolution.Dramatic changes occurred during the process of the formation and evolution of chloroplasts,including the large-scale gene transfer from chloroplast to nucleus.However,there are still many essential characters remaining.For the chloroplast division machinery,FtsZ proteins,Ftn2,SulA and part of the division site positioning system- MinD and MinE are still conserved.New or at least partially new proteins,such as FtsZ family proteins FtsZl and ARC3,ARC6H,ARC5,PDV1,PDV2 and MCD1,were introduced for the division of chloroplasts during evolution.Some bacterial cell division proteins,such as FtsA,MreB,Ftn6,FtsW and Ftsl,probably lost their function or were gradually lost.Thus,the chloroplast division machinery is a dynamically evolving structure with both conservation and innovation.

  17. On Development of Agricultural Machinery Operating Service in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chongjing; TAN; Shi; YANG

    2015-01-01

    Development of agricultural machinery operating service in Chongqing takes on rapid increase in number of service organizations,diversified service methods,improvement in service level,and constant service income. However,there are some problems,including unreasonable composition and small scale of service organization,imbalanced development of four service methods,low service level,and low operating income of agricultural machinery households. To accelerate development of agricultural machinery operating service in Chongqing,it is recommended to take following measures: adjusting subsidy for purchase and operation of agricultural machinery; improving fiscal and taxation and financial system; speeding up infrastructure construction,establishing agricultural machinery information network,and improving organizational form and methods of agricultural machinery operating service.

  18. ABOUT ETHICS IN PLANT, MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT VALUATION DOMAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Adrian Achim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we put in discussion some ethical aspects of plant, machinery and equipment valuation. After a presentation of the general issues of ethics in valuation domain, we analyze the application of the fundamental ethical principles in plant, machinery and equipment valuation domain. To support our conclusions we use some findings of a study that we conducted to identify the particularities of the plant, machinery and equipment valuation activity in Romania.

  19. General Course of Failure Distributions at Complex Machineries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naqib Daneshjo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the process of maintenance management of machinery and devices there is necessity to keep in the mind "construction technologicity” (ability of construction technology. This term is used in evaluating of machinery construction, their groups and components in terms of production. The aim of management and planning maintenance of machinery is the failure-free operation in the application process. The range of machinery maintenance machines from routine one and inspection to general repairs is important to organize in a way to prevent unplanned idle time and failures or very likely to accidents.

  20. Accessorizing the human mitochondrial transcription machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestwick, Megan L; Shadel, Gerald S

    2013-06-01

    The human genome comprises large chromosomes in the nucleus and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) housed in the dynamic mitochondrial network. Human cells contain up to thousands of copies of the double-stranded, circular mtDNA molecule that encodes essential subunits of the oxidative phosphorylation complexes and the rRNAs and tRNAs needed to translate these in the organelle matrix. Transcription of human mtDNA is directed by a single-subunit RNA polymerase, POLRMT, which requires two primary transcription factors, TFB2M (transcription factor B2, mitochondrial) and TFAM (transcription factor A, mitochondrial), to achieve basal regulation of the system. Here, we review recent advances in understanding the structure and function of the primary human transcription machinery and the other factors that facilitate steps in transcription beyond initiation and provide more intricate control over the system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. On the mechanochemical machinery underlying chromatin remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusufaly, Tahir I.

    This dissertation discuss two recent efforts, via a unique combination of structural bioinformatics and density functional theory, to unravel some of the details concerning how molecular machinery within the eukaryotic cell nucleus controls chromatin architecture. The first, a study of the 5-methylation of cytosine in 5'-CG-3' : 5'-CG-3' base-pair steps, reveals that the methyl groups roughen the local elastic energy landscape of the DNA. This enhances the probability of the canonical B-DNA structure transitioning into the undertwisted A-like and overtwisted C-like forms seen in nucleosomes, or looped segments of DNA bound to histones. The second part focuses on the formation of salt bridges between arginine residues in histones and phosphate groups on the DNA backbone. The arginine residues are ob- served to apply a tunable mechanical load to the backbone, enabling precision-controlled activation of DNA deformations.

  2. The SNARE machinery in mast cell secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel eLorentz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells are known as inflammatory cells which exert their functions in allergic and anaphylactic reactions by secretion of numerous inflammatory mediators. During an allergic response, the high-affinity IgE receptor, FcεRI, becomes cross-linked by receptor-bound IgE and antigen resulting in immediate release of pre-synthesized mediators – stored in granules – as well as in de novo synthesis of various mediators like cytokines and chemokines. Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-Sensitive Factor (NSF Attachment Protein (SNAP Receptors (SNARE proteins were found to play a central role in regulating membrane fusion events during exocytosis. In addition, several accessory regulators like Munc13, Munc18, Rab GTPases, SCAMPs, complexins or synaptotagmins were found to be involved in membrane fusion. In this review we summarize our current knowledge about the SNARE machinery and its mechanism of action in mast cell secretion.

  3. Numerical Noise Prediction in Fluid Machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Iris PANTLE; Franco MAGAGNATO; Martin GABI

    2005-01-01

    Numerical methods successively became important in the design and optimization of fluid machinery. However,as noise emission is considered, one can hardly find standardized prediction methods combining flow and acoustical optimization. Several numerical field methods for sound calculations have been developed. Due to the complexity of the considered flow, approaches must be chosen to avoid exhaustive computing. In this contribution the noise of a simple propeller is investigated. The configurations of the calculations comply with an existing experimental setup chosen for evaluation. The used in-house CFD solver SPARC contains an acoustic module based on Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings Acoustic Analogy. From the flow results of the time dependent Large Eddy Simulation the time dependent acoustic sources are extracted and given to the acoustic module where relevant sound pressure levels are calculated. The difficulties, which arise while proceeding from open to closed rotors and from gas to liquid are discussed.

  4. A customized bolus produced using a 3-dimensional printer for radiotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Wook Kim

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Boluses are used in high-energy radiotherapy in order to overcome the skin sparing effect. In practice though, commonly used flat boluses fail to make a perfect contact with the irregular surface of the patient's skin, resulting in air gaps. Hence, we fabricated a customized bolus using a 3-dimensional (3D printer and evaluated its feasibility for radiotherapy. METHODS: We designed two kinds of bolus for production on a 3D printer, one of which was the 3D printed flat bolus for the Blue water phantom and the other was a 3D printed customized bolus for the RANDO phantom. The 3D printed flat bolus was fabricated to verify its physical quality. The resulting 3D printed flat bolus was evaluated by assessing dosimetric parameters such as D1.5 cm, D5 cm, and D10 cm. The 3D printed customized bolus was then fabricated, and its quality and clinical feasibility were evaluated by visual inspection and by assessing dosimetric parameters such as Dmax, Dmin, Dmean, D90%, and V90%. RESULTS: The dosimetric parameters of the resulting 3D printed flat bolus showed that it was a useful dose escalating material, equivalent to a commercially available flat bolus. Analysis of the dosimetric parameters of the 3D printed customized bolus demonstrated that it is provided good dose escalation and good contact with the irregular surface of the RANDO phantom. CONCLUSIONS: A customized bolus produced using a 3D printer could potentially replace commercially available flat boluses.

  5. A Customized Bolus Produced Using a 3-Dimensional Printer for Radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shin-Wook; Shin, Hun-Joo; Kay, Chul Seung; Son, Seok Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Objective Boluses are used in high-energy radiotherapy in order to overcome the skin sparing effect. In practice though, commonly used flat boluses fail to make a perfect contact with the irregular surface of the patient’s skin, resulting in air gaps. Hence, we fabricated a customized bolus using a 3-dimensional (3D) printer and evaluated its feasibility for radiotherapy. Methods We designed two kinds of bolus for production on a 3D printer, one of which was the 3D printed flat bolus for the Blue water phantom and the other was a 3D printed customized bolus for the RANDO phantom. The 3D printed flat bolus was fabricated to verify its physical quality. The resulting 3D printed flat bolus was evaluated by assessing dosimetric parameters such as D1.5 cm, D5 cm, and D10 cm. The 3D printed customized bolus was then fabricated, and its quality and clinical feasibility were evaluated by visual inspection and by assessing dosimetric parameters such as Dmax, Dmin, Dmean, D90%, and V90%. Results The dosimetric parameters of the resulting 3D printed flat bolus showed that it was a useful dose escalating material, equivalent to a commercially available flat bolus. Analysis of the dosimetric parameters of the 3D printed customized bolus demonstrated that it is provided good dose escalation and good contact with the irregular surface of the RANDO phantom. Conclusions A customized bolus produced using a 3D printer could potentially replace commercially available flat boluses. PMID:25337700

  6. Machinery failure analysis and troubleshooting practical machinery management for process plants

    CERN Document Server

    Bloch, Heinz P

    2012-01-01

    Solve the machinery failure problems costing you time and money with this classic, comprehensive guide to analysis and troubleshooting  Provides detailed, complete and accurate information on anticipating risk of component failure and avoiding equipment downtime Includes numerous photographs of failed parts to ensure you are familiar with the visual evidence you need to recognize Covers proven approaches to failure definition and offers failure identification and analysis methods that can be applied to virtually all problem situations Demonstr

  7. Natural gas for waterless offset printer; Erdgas fuer Offsetdruckmaschine ohne Wasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadelmann, M.

    1997-11-01

    The new waterless offset printer offers better print quality, less waste paper, and environment-friendly operation. Mengis Druck at Visp decided in favour of an environment-friendly drying process, i.e. direct heating with natural gas. Natural gas is also used for post-combustion of the solvent-burdenend waste air from the drier, so that the waste heat can be recovered without problems. (orig.) [Deutsch] Bessere Druckqualitaet, weniger Papierausschuss und umweltschonenden Betrieb bietet die neue wasserlose Offsetdruckmaschine. Mengis Druck in Visp waehlte dazu auch ein umweltschonendes Trockenverfahren, naemlich Direktbefeuerung mit Erdgas. Auch die Nachverbrennung der loesungsmittelhaltigen Trocknerabluft erfolgt mit Erdgas. So kann die Abwaerme problemlos genutzt werden. (orig.)

  8. DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING TOOL FOR PAPER HANDLING AND/OR PRINTER DEVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Gutiérrez

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A useful development and testing tool for Hewlett Packard paper handling and/or printer devices is presented.The system provides a microprocessor based general architecture integrated by two PCB cards and asoftware application, used to improve new product design and testing. Paper handling devices operation isbased on DC motors, stepper motors and sensors components, so a graphical user interface was developedin order to configure, drive, and test them. The implemented tool allows a time reduction greater than 50% forthe development and test of prototypes.

  9. How open hardware drives digital fabrication tools such as the 3D printer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Söderberg

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A case study of hobbyists developing a desktop 3D printer, indicative of a broader movement around open hardware development, is used to advance a theoretical apparatus drawing on social movement research. This is proposed as an alternative to how innovation by users is typically studied in innovation studies literature, namely, as discrete, isolated cases. Open hardware development projects make up a larger ecology, held together by common ideas, a shared communication infrastructure, conferences and licenses, among other things, and it therefore makes sense to look at them as part of a single movement.

  10. Ink-jet printer heads for ultra-small-drop protein crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, E I; Cachau, R E

    2002-12-01

    Mass-produced automated piezoelectric driven picoliter delivery systems (printer heads) are fast, inexpensive, and reliable devices that are capable of delivering a very large range of volumes and are ideally suited for high-throughput protein crystallography studies. We used this technology to set up under-oil crystallization experiments with drop sizes from the 200-nL to 3-microL volume range, commonly used in protein crystallography, and show its application in setting ultra-small (2 nL) drops, the smallest drop volume reported to date for this type of assay.

  11. Thermal Testing for Resin Structure Including Artificial Cavity Made by Three-Dimensional Printer

    OpenAIRE

    倉橋, 貴彦; 丸岡, 宏太郎; 井山, 徹郎; Kurahashi, Takahiko; Maruoka, Kotaro; Iyama, Tetsuro

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the thermal testing is carried out by using the resin structure with artificial cavity made by three-dimensional printer. There are some non-destructive testing method such as the ultrasonic testing method, the thermal testing method and so on. It is known that the size of defect can be found at the target point by using the ultrasonic testing method. On the other hand, the thermal testing method has a characteristic that the location of the defect, the cavity, the corrosion an...

  12. Powering an in-space 3D printer using solar light energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, Skye; McGuire, Thomas; Parsons, Michael; Hirsch, Michael P.; Straub, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes how a solar power source can enable in-space 3D printing without requiring conversion to electric power and back. A design for an in-space 3D printer is presented, with a particular focus on the power generation system. Then, key benefits are presented and evaluated. Specifically, the approach facilitates the design of a spacecraft that can be built, launched, and operated at very low cost levels. The proposed approach also facilitates easy configuration of the amount of energy that is supplied. Finally, it facilitates easier disposal by removing the heavy metals and radioactive materials required for a nuclear-power solution.

  13. 斯里兰卡印刷商协会%Srilands Printer Association

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王以俊

    2010-01-01

    @@ 斯里兰卡印刷商协会(Srilanka association of printers,缩写为SLAP)是一个有限责任企业(limited lidbility enterprise),其依据1982年第17号法案成立.它是代表斯里兰卡印刷业界利益的权威机构,成员来自印刷业界,并且该协会是一个非营利性的组织.其最初成立于1956年.

  14. Industrial Machinery Maintenance and Repair. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This vocational program guide is intended to assist in the organization, operation, and evaluation of a program in industrial machinery maintenance and repair in school districts, area vocational centers, and community colleges. The following topics are covered: job duties of millwrights, maintenance mechanics, and machinery erectors; program…

  15. Stepwise evolution of the Sec machinery in Proteobacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, EO; Driessen, AJM; Sluis, Eli O. van der

    2006-01-01

    The Sec machinery facilitates the translocation of proteins across and into biological membranes. In several of the Proteobacteria, this machinery contains accessory features that are not present in any other bacterial division. The genomic distribution of these features in the context of bacterial

  16. Recession Hits China’s Textile Machinery Markets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China’s textile machinery industry saw a continued decline intotaI profit and a hefty slump in imports and exports in the first twomonths this year.Analysts anticipated a continued weakening ofmomentum for China’s textile machinery markets owing to weakerconsumer spending and easing export growth.

  17. ITALIAN TEXTILE MACHINERY WORKSHOP IN SUZHOU(CHINA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Association of Italian Textile Machinery Manufacturers (ACIMIT)and the Italian Trade Commission(ICE)held a technical workshop on Italian textile machinery for the production of technical textiles and nonwovens in China.The workshop occurred in Suzhou(Juangsu Province),on May 24th-25th,2007.

  18. 46 CFR 282.23 - Hull and machinery insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull and machinery insurance. 282.23 Section 282.23... COMMERCE OF THE UNITED STATES Calculation of Subsidy Rates § 282.23 Hull and machinery insurance. (a) Subsidy items. The fair and reasonable net premium costs (including stamp taxes) of hull and...

  19. 46 CFR 111.103-9 - Machinery stop stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery stop stations. 111.103-9 Section 111.103-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-9 Machinery stop stations. (a) Each forced...

  20. Occupational incidents with self-propelled machinery in Austrian agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrhofer, Hannes; Quendler, Elisabeth; Boxberger, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery, and material handling machinery are the most commonly used self-propelled machineries in Austrian agriculture, and they have similarities in main accident scenarios. Statistical data of all occupational incidents with these machines reported between 2008 and 2010 were analyzed to obtain information about the circumstances of the incidents, and about the victims and their work environments. Criteria of recognized occupational incidents provided by the Austrian Social Insurance Institution for Farmers were analyzed according to machinery category by means of cross-tabulation and chi-square tests. The results were discussed and evaluated in the context of the literature. The results of the analysis of the databases show that 786 occupational incidents with tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery, and material handling machinery occurred in Austrian agriculture between 2008 and 2010. There were 231 occupational incidents in 2008; the number rose to 268 in 2009 and to 286 in 2010. A total of 41 incidents were fatal. For the machinery categories analyzed, the majority of injured victims were male, older than 40 years, Austrian citizens, and managers of a mixed-agricultural farm. A large number of the incidents occurred in all machinery categories by loss of control during operating a vehicle.

  1. Evolution and diversification of the basal transcription machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duttke, Sascha H C

    2015-03-01

    Transcription initiation was once thought to be regulated primarily by sequence-specific transcription factors with the basal transcription machinery being largely invariant. Gradually it became apparent that the basal transcription machinery greatly diversified during evolution and new studies now demonstrate that diversification of the TATA-binding protein (TBP) family yielded specialized and largely independent transcription systems.

  2. 46 CFR 119.465 - Ventilation of spaces containing diesel machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of spaces containing diesel machinery. 119... MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 119.465 Ventilation of spaces containing diesel machinery. (a) A space containing diesel machinery must be fitted with adequate means, such as...

  3. Dynamic organization of the mitochondrial protein import machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Sebastian P; Stiller, Sebastian B; Wiedemann, Nils; Pfanner, Nikolaus

    2016-11-01

    Mitochondria contain elaborate machineries for the import of precursor proteins from the cytosol. The translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM) performs the initial import of precursor proteins and transfers the precursors to downstream translocases, including the presequence translocase and the carrier translocase of the inner membrane, the mitochondrial import and assembly machinery of the intermembrane space, and the sorting and assembly machinery of the outer membrane. Although the protein translocases can function as separate entities in vitro, recent studies revealed a close and dynamic cooperation of the protein import machineries to facilitate efficient transfer of precursor proteins in vivo. In addition, protein translocases were found to transiently interact with distinct machineries that function in the respiratory chain or in the maintenance of mitochondrial membrane architecture. Mitochondrial protein import is embedded in a regulatory network that ensures protein biogenesis, membrane dynamics, bioenergetic activity and quality control.

  4. Hacking for astronomy: can 3D printers and open-hardware enable low-cost sub-/millimeter instrumentation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferkinhoff, Carl

    2014-07-01

    There have been several exciting developments in the technologies commonly used n in the hardware hacking community. Advances in low cost additive-manufacturing processes (i.e. 3D-printers) and the development of openhardware projects, which have produced inexpensive and easily programmable micro-controllers and micro-computers (i.e. Arduino and Raspberry Pi) have opened a new door for individuals seeking to make their own devices. Here we describe the potential for these technologies to reduce costs in construction and development of submillimeter/millimeter astronomical instrumentation. Specifically we have begun a program to measure the optical properties of the custom plastics used in 3D-printers as well as the printer accuracy and resolution to assess the feasibility of directly printing sub- /millimeter transmissive optics. We will also discuss low cost designs for cryogenic temperature measurement and control utilizing Arduino and Raspberry Pi.

  5. Investigation of Harmonic Characteristics in Printer due to Different Types of Voltage Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Risnidar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses about harmonic characteristics due to different types of voltage sources. Usually, the voltage source is sinusoidal. But in actual condition the load that receives voltage sources through the elements where the output voltage of element as input to the load is not pure sinusoidal, for example voltage source at Power of Common Coupling (PCC between transformer and linear load and nonlinear load. This research has been done  with Schhafner Power Quality Analyzer and PM300 Power Quality Analyzer, was focused to all harmonic characteristics as power, voltage, current, power factor (p.f., Harmonic Distortion, and harmonic energy losses cost. The load is printer because the printer is one of electronic device causes harmonics. The voltage sources in this research are sine wave, triangle wave and harmonic order combinations of 3rd, 5th and 9th. Why this research discuses voltage source for Harmonic order 3rd, 5th and 9th and don not combination of 3rd, 5th and 7th, because the combination 3rd, 5th and 9th is more complicated then combination of 3rd, 5th and 7th.

  6. Establishment of gel materials with different mechanical properties by 3D gel printer SWIM-ER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Takafumi; Tase, Taishi; Okada, Koji; Saito, Azusa; Takamatsu, Kyuuichiro; Kawakami, Masaru; Furukawa, Hidemitsu

    2016-04-01

    A 3D printer is a device which can directly produce objects whose shape is the same as the original 3D digital data. Hydrogels have unique properties such as high water content, low frictional properties, biocompatibility, material permeability and high transparency, which are rare in hard and dry materials. These superior characteristics of gels promise useful medical applications. We have been working on the development of a 3D gel printer, SWIM-ER (Soft and Wet Industrial - Easy Realizer), which can make models of organs and artificial blood vessels with gel material. However, 3D printing has a problem: the mechanical properties of the printed object vary depending on printing conditions, and this matter was investigated with SWIM-ER. In the past, we found that mechanical properties of 3D gel objects depend on the deposition orientation in SWIM-ER. In this study, gels were printed with different laser scanning speeds. The mechanical properties of these gels were investigated by compression tests, water content measurements and SMILS (Scanning Microscopic Light Scattering).

  7. Anatomical Reproducibility of a Head Model Molded by a Three-dimensional Printer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Kosuke; Nemoto, Masaaki; Masuda, Hiroyuki; Okonogi, Shinichi; Nomoto, Jun; Harada, Naoyuki; Sugo, Nobuo; Miyazaki, Chikao

    2015-01-01

    We prepared rapid prototyping models of heads with unruptured cerebral aneurysm based on image data of computed tomography angiography (CTA) using a three-dimensional (3D) printer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anatomical reproducibility and accuracy of these models by comparison with the CTA images on a monitor. The subjects were 22 patients with unruptured cerebral aneurysm who underwent preoperative CTA. Reproducibility of the microsurgical anatomy of skull bone and arteries, the length and thickness of the main arteries, and the size of cerebral aneurysm were compared between the CTA image and rapid prototyping model. The microsurgical anatomy and arteries were favorably reproduced, apart from a few minute regions, in the rapid prototyping models. No significant difference was noted in the measured lengths of the main arteries between the CTA image and rapid prototyping model, but errors were noted in their thickness (p 3D printer. It was concluded that these models are useful tools for neurosurgical simulation. The thickness of the main arteries and size of cerebral aneurysm should be comprehensively judged including other neuroimaging in consideration of errors.

  8. Fabrication of low cost soft tissue prostheses with the desktop 3D printer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yong; Xue, Guang-huai; Fu, Jian-zhong

    2014-11-27

    Soft tissue prostheses such as artificial ear, eye and nose are widely used in the maxillofacial rehabilitation. In this report we demonstrate how to fabricate soft prostheses mold with a low cost desktop 3D printer. The fabrication method used is referred to as Scanning Printing Polishing Casting (SPPC). Firstly the anatomy is scanned with a 3D scanner, then a tissue casting mold is designed on computer and printed with a desktop 3D printer. Subsequently, a chemical polishing method is used to polish the casting mold by removing the staircase effect and acquiring a smooth surface. Finally, the last step is to cast medical grade silicone into the mold. After the silicone is cured, the fine soft prostheses can be removed from the mold. Utilizing the SPPC method, soft prostheses with smooth surface and complicated structure can be fabricated at a low cost. Accordingly, the total cost of fabricating ear prosthesis is about $30, which is much lower than the current soft prostheses fabrication methods.

  9. The gray-scale ink-jet printer: value in making hard copies of digital images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, M J; Snell, J; Cail, W S; Maier, T; Buck, D A

    1995-01-01

    Referring physicians often are supplied with copies of images to illustrate a report of the findings of a radiologic study or so that the radiologist can retain the original images. The increasing costs of production, film, and recovery of chemicals have enhanced the requirement for a clean, low-cost dry printing process. An ink-jet gray-scale paper printer (Unitone, Scitex Medical Systems, Bedford, MA) can print high-quality (300 dots per inch [dpi]) images with an effective 10-bit gray scale range by using the Hertz continuous ink-jet method [1-3], which does not require the use of a darkroom or hazardous chemicals. Several types of media (matte paper, glossy paper, transparency film) with a printing area of 26.9 x 43.7 cm (10.6 x 17.4 inches) may be used. The consumables are approximately 50-70% less expensive than the cost of silver halide film, providing a cost advantage over film for referral and archival copies. The results of an initial evaluation of the ink-jet printer at our institution are reported here.

  10. Design and Analysis of Fused Deposition Modeling 3D Printer Nozzle for Color Mixing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanling Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fused deposition modeling (FDM has been one of the most widely used rapid prototyping (RP technologies leading to the increase in market attention. Obviously it is desirable to print 3D objects; however, existing FDM printers are restricted to printing only monochrome objects because of the entry-level nozzle structure, and literature on the topic is also sparse. In this paper, the CAD model of the nozzle is established first by UG (Unigraphics NX software to show the structure of fused deposition modeling 3D printer nozzle for color mixing. Second, the flow channel model of the nozzle is extracted and simplified. Then, the CAD and finite element model are established by UG and ICEM CFD software, respectively, to prepare for the simulation. The flow field is simulated by Fluent software. The nozzle’s suitable temperature at different extrusion speeds is obtained, and the reason for the blockage at the intersection of the heating block is revealed. Finally, test verification of the nozzle is performed, which can produce mixed-color artifacts stably.

  11. Research on HCI Prototype Design of Ink Automatic Control System for Offset Printer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jianyu; GAO Lixin; CUI Lingli; WANG Yingwang; LI Xianghui

    2006-01-01

    In order to solve the low efficiency and poor precision problems of traditional ink control methods on domestic offset printers, developing modern ink automatic control system has become more and more urgent. As an important subsystem, the human computer interface (HCI) is a key function for the wholly automatic control. Once this goal is obtained, all the printing procedures especially the automatic control of ink volume should be finished with human computer interface in different areas. Considering the HCI design theory and structure characteristics of domestic printers comprehensively, the HCI prototype for automatic ink control system has been developed based on Visual Basic platform. As the individual ink key is instead of the integrated key, the division result of ink fountain can be displayed on the interface. Through the interface, the dynamic adjusting functions such as modifying ink volume, locking or unlocking each ink key and real-time displaying the adjusting results etc. can be completed. The simulation test has shown that the opening and practical feature of the prototype is satisfactory.

  12. Fabrication of low cost soft tissue prostheses with the desktop 3D printer

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yong; Xue, Guang-Huai; Fu, Jian-Zhong

    2014-11-01

    Soft tissue prostheses such as artificial ear, eye and nose are widely used in the maxillofacial rehabilitation. In this report we demonstrate how to fabricate soft prostheses mold with a low cost desktop 3D printer. The fabrication method used is referred to as Scanning Printing Polishing Casting (SPPC). Firstly the anatomy is scanned with a 3D scanner, then a tissue casting mold is designed on computer and printed with a desktop 3D printer. Subsequently, a chemical polishing method is used to polish the casting mold by removing the staircase effect and acquiring a smooth surface. Finally, the last step is to cast medical grade silicone into the mold. After the silicone is cured, the fine soft prostheses can be removed from the mold. Utilizing the SPPC method, soft prostheses with smooth surface and complicated structure can be fabricated at a low cost. Accordingly, the total cost of fabricating ear prosthesis is about $30, which is much lower than the current soft prostheses fabrication methods.

  13. Spectral-based color separation method for a multi-ink printer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Binyu Wang; Haisong Xu; M.Ronnier Luo; Jinyi Guo

    2011-01-01

    @@ A spectral-based 8-ink characterization model is developed to accurately predict the recipe for a multi-ink printer.The 8-ink color separation method is a union of five 3-ink and six 4-ink combinations based on the cellular Yule-Nielsen spectral Neugebauer model with a recipe selection strategy.The performance levels of the forward and backward models are evaluated for individual ink combinations using printed testing samples.Furthermore, the spectral-based method performs better compared with the XYZ-based approach.On the basis of the backward model performance, a novel fast recipe selection strategy is proposed and estimated.%A spectral-based 8-ink characterization model is developed to accurately predict the recipe for a multi-ink printer. The 8-ink color separation method is a union of five 3-ink and six 4-ink combinations based on the cellular Yule-Nielsen spectral Neugebauer model with a recipe selection strategy. The performance levels of the forward and backward models are evaluated for individual ink combinations using printed testing samples. Furthermore, the spectral-based method performs better compared with the XYZ-based approach. On the basis of the backward model performance, a novel fast recipe selection strategy is proposed and estimated.

  14. A Personal Desktop Liquid-Metal Printer as a Pervasive Electronics Manufacturing Tool for Society in the Near Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It has long been a dream in the electronics industry to be able to write out electronics directly, as simply as printing a picture onto paper with an office printer. The first-ever prototype of a liquid-metal printer has been invented and demonstrated by our lab, bringing this goal a key step closer. As part of a continuous endeavor, this work is dedicated to significantly extending such technology to the consumer level by making a very practical desktop liquid-metal printer for society in the near future. Through the industrial design and technical optimization of a series of key technical issues such as working reliability, printing resolution, automatic control, human-machine interface design, software, hardware, and integration between software and hardware, a high-quality personal desktop liquid-metal printer that is ready for mass production in industry was fabricated. Its basic features and important technical mechanisms are explained in this paper, along with demonstrations of several possible consumer end-uses for making functional devices such as light-emitting diode (LED displays. This liquid-metal printer is an automatic, easy-to-use, and low-cost personal electronics manufacturing tool with many possible applications. This paper discusses important roles that the new machine may play for a group of emerging needs. The prospective future of this cutting-edge technology is outlined, along with a comparative interpretation of several historical printing methods. This desktop liquid-metal printer is expected to become a basic electronics manufacturing tool for a wide variety of emerging practices in the academic realm, in industry, and in education as well as for individual end-users in the near future.

  15. Ribosome evolution: Emergence of peptide synthesis machinery

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Koji Tamura

    2011-12-01

    Proteins, the main players in current biological systems, are produced on ribosomes by sequential amide bond (peptide bond) formations between amino-acid-bearing tRNAs. The ribosome is an exquisite super-complex of RNA-proteins, containing more than 50 proteins and at least 3 kinds of RNAs. The combination of a variety of side chains of amino acids (typically 20 kinds with some exceptions) confers proteins with extraordinary structure and functions. The origin of peptide bond formation and the ribosome is crucial to the understanding of life itself. In this article, a possible evolutionary pathway to peptide bond formation machinery (proto-ribosome) will be discussed, with a special focus on the RNA minihelix (primordial form of modern tRNA) as a starting molecule. Combining the present data with recent experimental data, we can infer that the peptidyl transferase center (PTC) evolved from a primitive system in the RNA world comprising tRNA-like molecules formed by duplication of minihelix-like small RNA.

  16. Occupational Accidents with Agricultural Machinery in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogler, Robert; Quendler, Elisabeth; Boxberger, Josef

    2016-01-01

    The number of recognized accidents with fatalities during agricultural and forestry work, despite better technology and coordinated prevention and trainings, is still very high in Austria. The accident scenarios in which people are injured are very different on farms. The common causes of accidents in agriculture and forestry are the loss of control of machine, means of transport or handling equipment, hand-held tool, and object or animal, followed by slipping, stumbling and falling, breakage, bursting, splitting, slipping, fall, and collapse of material agent. In the literature, a number of studies of general (machine- and animal-related accidents) and specific (machine-related accidents) agricultural and forestry accident situations can be found that refer to different databases. From the database Data of the Austrian Workers Compensation Board (AUVA) about occupational accidents with different agricultural machinery over the period 2008-2010 in Austria, main characteristics of the accident, the victim, and the employer as well as variables on causes and circumstances by frequency and contexts of parameters were statistically analyzed by employing the chi-square test and odds ratio. The aim of the study was to determine the information content and quality of the European Statistics on Accidents at Work (ESAW) variables to evaluate safety gaps and risks as well as the accidental man-machine interaction.

  17. Rapid detection and curation of conserved DNA via enhanced-BLAT and EvoPrinterHD analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brody Thomas

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multi-genome comparative analysis has yielded important insights into the molecular details of gene regulation. We have developed EvoPrinter, a web-accessed genomics tool that provides a single uninterrupted view of conserved sequences as they appear in a species of interest. An EvoPrint reveals with near base-pair resolution those sequences that are essential for gene function. Results We describe here EvoPrinterHD, a 2nd-generation comparative genomics tool that automatically generates from a single input sequence an enhanced view of sequence conservation between evolutionarily distant species. Currently available for 5 nematode, 3 mosquito, 12 Drosophila, 20 vertebrate, 17 Staphylococcus and 20 enteric bacteria genomes, EvoPrinterHD employs a modified BLAT algorithm [enhanced-BLAT (eBLAT], which detects up to 75% more conserved bases than identified by the BLAT alignments used in the earlier EvoPrinter program. The new program also identifies conserved sequences within rearranged DNA, highlights repetitive DNA, and detects sequencing gaps. EvoPrinterHD currently holds over 112 billion bp of indexed genomes in memory and has the flexibility of selecting a subset of genomes for analysis. An EvoDifferences profile is also generated to portray conserved sequences that are uniquely lost in any one of the orthologs. Finally, EvoPrinterHD incorporates options that allow for (1 re-initiation of the analysis using a different genome's aligning region as the reference DNA to detect species-specific changes in less-conserved regions, (2 rapid extraction and curation of conserved sequences, and (3 for bacteria, identifies unique or uniquely shared sequences present in subsets of genomes. Conclusion EvoPrinterHD is a fast, high-resolution comparative genomics tool that automatically generates an uninterrupted species-centric view of sequence conservation and enables the discovery of conserved sequences within rearranged DNA. When

  18. China's Textile Machinery Industry:Where to Go?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    China's textile machinery especially cotton-spinning machinery, after several decades of development, has been relatively mature and closer to the foreign advanced level day by day; however, there are still many problems. Since China's entry into WTO, domestic textile enterprises have seized this excellent opportunity to obtain fast development and progress. Currently, accelerating the pace of technological innovation for the development of series of products, vigorously implementing the export strategy to seek new ways for technical upgrade, and exploring the new R&D mode for China's textile machinery are hanging over the enterprises' heads.

  19. Safe design and construction of machinery regulation, practice and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Bluff, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The origin of this book is the compelling evidence that a high proportion of machinery-related deaths and injuries are attributable to genuine and serious risks originating within machine design and construction. This trend continues despite significant legal obligations, notably the European regulatory regime giving effect to the Machinery Directive (among others), and a substantial body of specialist knowledge originating in the disciplines of human factors and safety engineering. Grounded in empirical research with machinery manufacturers, this book aims to elucidate the factors and process

  20. Development and improvement: Status of Textile Machinery Manufacturing in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The past over 20 years of reform & open-door practices has witnessed an amazingly rapid development in China’s textile machinery manufacturing.1. The change in the production scale: the number oftextile machinery manufacturers grew from over 150 plants listed exceptionally in the category of textile industrial system in the old traditional planned economy to the over 500 plants that come from all sectors of industries engaged in textile machinery manufacturing in the new socialist market-driven economy. The production output value grew from 870 million RMB(Chinese Yuan) in 1987 to 14.7 billion RMB, 18

  1. The ESCRT machinery: new roles at new holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos, Y; Carlton, J G

    2016-02-01

    The ESCRT machinery drives a diverse collection of membrane remodeling events, including multivesicular body biogenesis, release of enveloped retroviruses and both reformation of the nuclear envelope and cytokinetic abscission during mitotic exit. These events share the requirement for a topologically equivalent membrane remodeling for their completion and the cells deployment of the ESCRT machinery in these different contexts highlights its functionality as a transposable membrane-fission machinery. Here, we will examine recent data describing ESCRT-III dependent membrane remodeling and explore new roles for the ESCRT-III complex at the nuclear envelope.

  2. Using 3D Printers to Model Earth Surface Topography for Increased Student Understanding and Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thesenga, David; Town, James

    2014-05-01

    In February 2000, the Space Shuttle Endeavour flew a specially modified radar system during an 11-day mission. The purpose of the multinational Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) was to "obtain elevation data on a near-global scale to generate the most complete high-resolution digital topographic database of Earth" by using radar interferometry. The data and resulting products are now publicly available for download and give a view of the landscape removed of vegetation, buildings, and other structures. This new view of the Earth's topography allows us to see previously unmapped or poorly mapped regions of the Earth as well as providing a level of detail that was previously unknown using traditional topographic mapping techniques. Understanding and appreciating the geographic terrain is a complex but necessary requirement for middle school aged (11-14yo) students. Abstract in nature, topographic maps and other 2D renderings of the Earth's surface and features do not address the inherent spatial challenges of a concrete-learner and traditional methods of teaching can at times exacerbate the problem. Technological solutions such as 3D-imaging in programs like Google Earth are effective but lack the tactile realness that can make a large difference in learning comprehension and retention for these young students. First developed in the 1980's, 3D printers were not commercial reality until recently and the rapid rise in interest has driven down the cost. With the advent of sub US1500 3D printers, this technology has moved out of the high-end marketplace and into the local office supply store. Schools across the US and elsewhere in the world are adding 3D printers to their technological workspaces and students have begun rapid-prototyping and manufacturing a variety of projects. This project attempted to streamline the process of transforming SRTM data from a GeoTIFF format by way of Python code. The resulting data was then inputted into a CAD-based program for

  3. White-Paper Report: Textile Machinery Industry (2005-2009) Economic Performance in Chinese Textile Machinery Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Internal Impacts on Textile Machinery Sector 1.Industrial Scale Like many other industrial sectors,the textile machinery industry was also affected by global financial crisis that led to credit crunch in the important markets where consumers'spending plummeted.The textile machinery manufacturers ran into a lot of problems in the balance sheets when international markets were structured in a way that is different from domestic market in terms of consumers'demand.It is very hard for these manufacturers to gain some market share simply by shifting their export-oriented products to local clients in hope to overcome difficulties.

  4. ShanghaiTex 2011,Textile Machinery Giants Gather in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2011-01-01

    "Over 1000 exhibitions from 18 countries and regions,taking an exhibition area of 92000 square meters wide,ShanghaiTex 2011 unveiled the textile machinery industrial exhibition shows in the city of Shanghai this June.

  5. The kinematics of machinery outlines of a theory of machines

    CERN Document Server

    Reuleaux, Franz

    2012-01-01

    A classic on the kinematics of machinery, this volume was written by the Father of Kinematics. Reuleaux writes with authority and precision, developing the subject from its fundamentals. 450 figures. 1876 edition.

  6. Open innovation and supply chain management in food machinery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    companies are thus building strong supply chain partnerships with business .... Focusing on studies referring to food and food machinery fields, Sarkar and Costa (2008) reviews three examples of open ...... Harvard Business Review, Vol. 80,.

  7. Therapeutic interventions to disrupt the protein synthetic machinery in melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardos, Gregory R; Robertson, Gavin P

    2015-09-01

    Control of the protein synthetic machinery is deregulated in many cancers, including melanoma, to increase the protein production. Tumor suppressors and oncogenes play key roles in protein synthesis from the transcription of rRNA and ribosome biogenesis to mRNA translation initiation and protein synthesis. Major signaling pathways are altered in melanoma to modulate the protein synthetic machinery, thereby promoting tumor development. However, despite the importance of this process in melanoma development, involvement of the protein synthetic machinery in this cancer type is an underdeveloped area of study. Here, we review the coupling of melanoma development to deregulation of the protein synthetic machinery. We examine existing knowledge regarding RNA polymerase I inhibition and mRNA translation focusing on their inhibition for therapeutic applications in melanoma. Furthermore, the contribution of amino acid biosynthesis and involvement of ribosomal proteins are also reviewed as future therapeutic strategies to target deregulated protein production in melanoma.

  8. In-body tissue-engineered aortic valve (Biovalve type VII) architecture based on 3D printer molding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Yasuhide; Takewa, Yoshiaki; Sumikura, Hirohito; Yamanami, Masashi; Matsui, Yuichi; Oie, Tomonori; Kishimoto, Yuichiro; Arakawa, Mamoru; Ohmuma, Kentaro; Tajikawa, Tsutomu; Kanda, Keiichi; Tatsumi, Eisuke

    2015-01-01

    In-body tissue architecture--a novel and practical regeneration medicine technology--can be used to prepare a completely autologous heart valve, based on the shape of a mold. In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) printer was used to produce the molds. A 3D printer can easily reproduce the 3D-shape and size of native heart valves within several processing hours. For a tri-leaflet, valved conduit with a sinus of Valsalva (Biovalve type VII), the mold was assembled using two conduit parts and three sinus parts produced by the 3D printer. Biovalves were generated from completely autologous connective tissue, containing collagen and fibroblasts, within 2 months following the subcutaneous embedding of the molds (success rate, 27/30). In vitro evaluation, using a pulsatile circulation circuit, showed excellent valvular function with a durability of at least 10 days. Interposed between two expanded polytetrafluoroethylene grafts, the Biovalves (N = 3) were implanted in goats through an apico-aortic bypass procedure. Postoperative echocardiography showed smooth movement of the leaflets with minimal regurgitation under systemic circulation. After 1 month of implantation, smooth white leaflets were observed with minimal thrombus formation. Functional, autologous, 3D-shaped heart valves with clinical application potential were formed following in-body embedding of specially designed molds that were created within several hours by 3D printer. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Emergence of Home Manufacturing in the Developed World: Return on Investment for Open-Source 3-D Printers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily E. Petersen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Through reduced 3-D printer cost, increased usability, and greater material selection, additive manufacturing has transitioned from business manufacturing to the average prosumer. This study serves as a representative model for the potential future of 3-D printing in the average American household by employing a printer operator who was relatively unfamiliar with 3-D printing and the 3-D design files of common items normally purchased by the average consumer. Twenty-six items were printed in thermoplastic and a cost analysis was performed through comparison to comparable, commercially available products at a low and high price range. When compared to the low-cost items, investment in a 3-D printer represented a return of investment of over 100% in five years. The simple payback time for the high-cost comparison was less than 6 months, and produced a 986% return. Thus, fully-assembled commercial open source 3-D printers can be highly profitable investments for American consumers. Finally, as a preliminary gauge of the effect that widespread prosumer use of 3-D printing might have on the economy, savings were calculated based on the items’ download rates from open repositories. Results indicate that printing these selected items have already saved prosumers over $4 million by substituting for purchases.

  10. Clinical Application of Solid Model Based on Trabecular Tibia Bone CT Images Created by 3D Printer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jaemo; Park, Chan-Soo; Kim, Yeoun-Jae; Kim, Kwang Gi

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this work is to use a 3D solid model to predict the mechanical loads of human bone fracture risk associated with bone disease conditions according to biomechanical engineering parameters. We used special image processing tools for image segmentation and three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction to generate meshes, which are necessary for the production of a solid model with a 3D printer from computed tomography (CT) images of the human tibia's trabecular and cortical bones. We examined the defects of the mechanism for the tibia's trabecular bones. Image processing tools and segmentation techniques were used to analyze bone structures and produce a solid model with a 3D printer. These days, bio-imaging (CT and magnetic resonance imaging) devices are able to display and reconstruct 3D anatomical details, and diagnostics are becoming increasingly vital to the quality of patient treatment planning and clinical treatment. Furthermore, radiographic images are being used to study biomechanical systems with several aims, namely, to describe and simulate the mechanical behavior of certain anatomical systems, to analyze pathological bone conditions, to study tissues structure and properties, and to create a solid model using a 3D printer to support surgical planning and reduce experimental costs. These days, research using image processing tools and segmentation techniques to analyze bone structures to produce a solid model with a 3D printer is rapidly becoming very important.

  11. Fundamental Study on Applicability of Powder-Based 3D Printer for Physical Modeling in Rock Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fereshtenejad, Sayedalireza; Song, Jae-Joon

    2016-06-01

    Applications of 3D printing technology become more widespread in many research fields because of its rapid development and valuable capabilities. In rock mechanics and mining engineering, this technology has the potential to become a useful tool that might help implement a number of research studies previously considered impractical. Most commercial 3D printers cannot print prototypes with mechanical properties that match precisely those of natural rock samples. Therefore, some additional enhancements are required for 3D printers to be effectively utilized for rock mechanics applications. In this study, we printed and studied specimens using a powder-based commercial ZPrinter® 450 with ZP® 150 powder and Zb® 63 binder used as raw materials. The specimens printed by this 3D printer exhibited relatively low strength and ductile behavior, implying that it needs further improvements. Hence, we focused on several ways to determine the best combination of printing options and post-processing including the effects of the printing direction, printing layer thickness, binder saturation level, and heating process on the uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) and stress-strain behavior of the printed samples. The suggested procedures have demonstrated their effectiveness by obtaining the printed samples that behave similarly to the natural rocks with low UCS. Although our optimization methods were particularly successful, further improvements are required to expand 3D printer application in the area of rock mechanics.

  12. Recent Advances in Precision Machinery and Manufacturing Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Chien-Hung; Hsieh, Wen-Hsiang; Chang, Zong-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Precision machinery and manufacturing technology are be- coming more important in current and future technologies. New knowledge in this field will aid in the advancement of various technologies that are needed to gain industrial competitiveness. To this end, the special issue aims to disseminate...... manufacturing systems, sensors and materials, CAD/CAM/CAE for precision machinery, computation/numerical method, intelligent system and ap- proach, vibration engineering, mechanism design, and fluid- dynamics/thermodynamics....

  13. Designing a Machinery Control System (MCS) Security Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    smart carrier machinery control system SCADA supervisory control and data acquisition SPST single pole single throw TF functional test TE exception...in Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition ( SCADA ) systems, industrial control systems (ICS’s) and machinery control systems (MCS’s). Today’s modern...for newly discovered security flaws. The concern over vulnerabilities in SCADA systems is due to the equipment they control and their impact, as an

  14. A Study of Sugarcane Leaf-Removal Machinery during Harvest

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Sugarcane leaf-removing tools could help speed up sugarcane harvest and reduce contamination. Moreover, leaf-removal machinery can solve the problems of sugarcane burning and workers can increase sugarcane harvest production too. The purpose of this research was to study the use of leaf-removal machinery in the post-harvest production of sugarcane to reduce harvest production time and contaminant. Approach: This study focused on the LK92-11 variety of sugarcane having a har...

  15. A Rapid Generation Method of Character Doll with Rotatable Limbs Oriented to 3D Printer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Lin; CHU Xiao-li; Nie Wen-chao

    2014-01-01

    Currently, 3D printing of the character dolls is a very practical application for the average person. But the model of doll which can be obtained is static so the posture of the doll is single. On the other hand, the modification of the model is very difficult to non-professions. This paper proposes an rapid generation method of character doll with rotatable limbs, which is through adding the sphere joint to the doll’s model automatically. After the model is segmented by drawing a line interactively, the sphere joint is created based on the segmentation boundary through entity modeling method. Lastly the two models of the doll and the joint are composited and printed. Some doll’s model are tested on the FDM(Fused Deposition Modeling) 3D printer using this process. The results are more interesting and the efficiency has been greatly improved compared with modifying the model manually.

  16. From the printer: Potential of three-dimensional printing for orthopaedic applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sze-Wing Mok

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D printers can create complex structures based on digital models. The combination of medical diagnostic imaging with 3D printing has great potential in day-to-day clinics for patient-specific solutions and applications. In the musculoskeletal system, 3D printing is used to create custom-made implants, patient-specific instrumentation, and to regenerate tissues, in particular bone and cartilage. The major limiting factors for bioprinting include the lack of printing techniques with optimal printing resolution and materials with ideal mechanical strengths while maintaining cellular functionality. Before “tissues from the printer” can be widely applied, further research and development on improving and optimising printing techniques and biomaterials, and knowledge on the development of printed constructs into living tissues, is essential for future clinical application of this technology.

  17. A Feasibility Study into the Use of Three-Dimensional Printer Modelling in Acetabular Fracture Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. W. Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of challenges associated with the operative treatment of acetabular fractures. The approach used is often extensive, while operative time and perioperative blood loss can also be significant. With the proliferation of 3D printer technology, we present a fast and economical way to aid the operative planning of complex fractures. We used augmented stereoscopic 3D CT reconstructions to allow for an appreciation of the normal 3D anatomy of the pelvis on the fractured side and to use the models for subsequent intraoperative contouring of pelvic reconstruction plates. This leads to a reduction in the associated soft tissue trauma, reduced intraoperative time and blood loss, minimal handling of the plate, and reduced fluoroscopic screening times. We feel that the use of this technology to customize implants, plates, and the operative procedure to a patient’s unique anatomy can only lead to improved outcomes.

  18. Cherenkov radiation from the target with predetermined dielectric properties, produced by a 3D-printer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumenko, G.; Potylitsyn, A.; Bleko, V.; Soboleva, V.; Stuchebrov, S.

    2017-07-01

    Most targets made of industrial materials, used for the generation of Cherenkov radiation (ChR) have a refractive index n > 1.4 in millimeter wavelength region. It is often a problem to get out the radiation from such cylindrical or flat targets because the angle of incidence of ChR on the outer surface of target is greater than the angle of total internal reflection. In this work we present the solution of this problem by the usage of the targets with predetermined dielectric properties, manufactured using 3-D printer. We demonstrate the emission of ChR in millimeter wavelength region from the such flat target with the refractive index n = 1.37 . Suggested technique allows us to fabricate targets with turned refractive index.

  19. Rehand: Realistic electric prosthetic hand created with a 3D printer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Masahiro; Sato, Ryo; Higashihara, Takanori; Ogasawara, Tsukasa; Kawashima, Noritaka

    2015-01-01

    Myoelectric prosthetic hands provide an appearance with five fingers and a grasping function to forearm amputees. However, they have problems in weight, appearance, and cost. This paper reports on the Rehand, a realistic electric prosthetic hand created with a 3D printer. It provides a realistic appearance that is same as the cosmetic prosthetic hand and a grasping function. A simple link mechanism with one linear actuator for grasping and 3D printed parts achieve low cost, light weight, and ease of maintenance. An operating system based on a distance sensor provides a natural operability equivalent to the myoelectric control system. A supporter socket allows them to wear the prosthetic hand easily. An evaluation using the Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure (SHAP) demonstrated that an amputee was able to operate various objects and do everyday activities with the Rehand.

  20. Fabrication of cerebral aneurysm simulator with a desktop 3D printer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Gao, Qing; Du, Song; Chen, ZiChen; Fu, JianZhong; Chen, Bing; Liu, ZhenJie; He, Yong

    2017-05-17

    Now, more and more patients are suffering cerebral aneurysm. However, long training time limits the rapid growth of cerebrovascular neurosurgeons. Here we developed a novel cerebral aneurysm simulator which can be better represented the dynamic bulging process of cerebral aneurysm The proposed simulator features the integration of a hollow elastic vascular model, a skull model and a brain model, which can be affordably fabricated at the clinic (Fab@Clinic), under $25.00 each with the help of a low-cost desktop 3D printer. Moreover, the clinical blood flow and pulsation pressure similar to the human can be well simulated, which can be used to train the neurosurgical residents how to clip aneurysms more effectively.

  1. A feasibility study into the use of three-dimensional printer modelling in acetabular fracture surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, A W; Duncan, J M; Daurka, J S; Lewis, A; Cobb, J

    2015-01-01

    There are a number of challenges associated with the operative treatment of acetabular fractures. The approach used is often extensive, while operative time and perioperative blood loss can also be significant. With the proliferation of 3D printer technology, we present a fast and economical way to aid the operative planning of complex fractures. We used augmented stereoscopic 3D CT reconstructions to allow for an appreciation of the normal 3D anatomy of the pelvis on the fractured side and to use the models for subsequent intraoperative contouring of pelvic reconstruction plates. This leads to a reduction in the associated soft tissue trauma, reduced intraoperative time and blood loss, minimal handling of the plate, and reduced fluoroscopic screening times. We feel that the use of this technology to customize implants, plates, and the operative procedure to a patient's unique anatomy can only lead to improved outcomes.

  2. Line printing solution-processable small molecules with uniform surface profile via ink-jet printer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huimin; Xu, Wei; Tan, Wanyi; Zhu, Xuhui; Wang, Jian; Peng, Junbiao; Cao, Yong

    2016-03-01

    Line printing offers a feasible approach to remove the pixel well structure which is widely used to confine the ink-jet printed solution. In the study, a uniform line is printed by an ink-jet printer. To achieve a uniform surface profile of the printed line, 10vol% low-volatile solvent DMA (3,4-Dimethylanisole) is mixed with high-volatile solvent Pxy (p-xylene) as the solvent. After a solution-processable small molecule is dissolved, the surface tension of DMA solution becomes lower than that of Pxy solution, which creates an inward Marangoni flow during the solvent evaporation. The inward Marangoni flow balances out the outward capillary flow, thereby forming a flat film surface. The line width of the printed line depends on the contact angle of the solution on the hole injection layer.

  3. Standard test method for abrasiveness of ink-impregnated fabric printer ribbons and other web materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the abrasiveness of ink-impregnated fabric printer ribbons and other web materials by means of a sliding wear test. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  4. Multi Media Dry Imager and printer: Codonics Medical Disc Publisher: Virtua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Tual

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Multi media dry imager and printer: Codonics"nCodonics, a privately held corporation headquartered in Cleveland, Ohio, has been pioneering medical hardcopy solutions for over a decade, and is the industry leader in multi-media imagers. The first to introduce color DICOM printers, we are now represented in over 80 countries by thousands of people with over 25,000 installations worldwide. "nNow, Codonics revolutionizes the medical industry with the introduction of the Horizon Multi-media imager. Horizon instantly delivers diagnostic film, stunning color prints, and cost-saving white films. This all-in-one imager is an enormous breakthrough in performance, cost and quality for healthcare facilities. Horizon's unprecedented variety in printing options creates a new freedom of choice and allows users to match the output with the need, resulting in solutions capable of immediately reducing costs, minimizing waste and maximizing workflow. Horizon packs this all into one compact device, weighing less than 70 pounds and taking up less than two feet of desk space, eliminating costly sitting requirements. "nCodonics delivers a lot more than state-of-the-art medical imagers. Our focus is providing a greater value to your radiology department. Codonics was the first to introduce an exclusive medical-intended film alternative, DirectVista Paper. Printed the same way as our diagnostic film with no toners, wax or ribbons to ever replace, white film can be room light viewed and is preferred by referring physicians. "nCodonics implements design and test methodologies used in the aerospace industry to deliver the most reliable products in the world with the industry's lowest service and maintenance costs. The small size and light weight of Codonics imagers allow for further ground breaking innovation in the area of medical imager service. Codonics provides a replacement unit if any problem cannot be solved by our 24/7 technical support team. This

  5. Fabrication of cerebral aneurysm simulator with a desktop 3D printer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Gao, Qing; Du, Song; Chen, Zichen; Fu, Jianzhong; Chen, Bing; Liu, Zhenjie; He, Yong

    2017-05-01

    Now, more and more patients are suffering cerebral aneurysm. However, long training time limits the rapid growth of cerebrovascular neurosurgeons. Here we developed a novel cerebral aneurysm simulator which can be better represented the dynamic bulging process of cerebral aneurysm The proposed simulator features the integration of a hollow elastic vascular model, a skull model and a brain model, which can be affordably fabricated at the clinic (Fab@Clinic), under $25.00 each with the help of a low-cost desktop 3D printer. Moreover, the clinical blood flow and pulsation pressure similar to the human can be well simulated, which can be used to train the neurosurgical residents how to clip aneurysms more effectively.

  6. Computer Simulation of Robotic Device Components in 3D Printer Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Kiselev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a relevant problem "Computer simulation of robotic device components in manufacturing on a 3D printer" and highlights the problem of computer simulation based on the cognitive programming technology of robotic device components. The paper subject is urgent because computer simulation of force-torque and accuracy characteristics of robot components in terms of their manufacturing properties and conditions from polymeric and metallic materials is of paramount importance for programming and manufacturing on the 3D printers. Two types of additive manufacturing technologies were used:1. FDM (Fused deposition modeling - layered growth of products from molten plastic strands;2. SLM (Selective laser melting - selective laser sintering of metal powders, which, in turn, create:• conditions for reducing the use of expensive equipment;• reducing weight and increasing strength through optimization of  the lattice structures when using a bionic design;• a capability to implement mathematical modeling of individual components of robotic and other devices in terms of appropriate characteristics;• a 3D printing capability to create unique items, which cannot be made by other known methods.The paper aim was to confirm the possibility of ensuring the strength and accuracy characteristics of cases when printing from polymeric and metallic materials on a 3D printer. The investigation emphasis is on mathematical modeling based on the cognitive programming technology using the additive technologies in their studies since it is, generally, impossible to make the obtained optimized structures on the modern CNC machines.The latter allows us to create a program code to be clear to other developers without cost, additional time for development, adaptation and implementation.Year by year Russian companies increasingly use a 3D-print system in mechanical engineering, aerospace industry, and for scientific purposes. Machines for the additive

  7. Transfer of bisphenol A from thermal printer paper to the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, Sandra; Tschudin, Patrik; Grob, Koni

    2010-09-01

    Of 13 thermal printing papers analyzed, 11 contained 8-17 g/kg bisphenol A (BPA). When taking hold of a receipt consisting of thermal printing paper for 5 s, roughly 1 microg BPA (0.2-6 microg) was transferred to the forefinger and the middle finger if the skin was rather dry and about ten times more if these fingers were wet or very greasy. This amount transferred to dry skin was neither significantly increased when taking hold of the paper at up to 10 sites, nor reduced when BPA-free paper was contacted afterwards. After 60-90 min, BPA applied to the skin as a solution in ethanol was only partially or no longer at all extractable with ethanol, whereas BPA transferred to the skin by holding thermal printer paper remained largely extractable after 2 h. This suggests that penetration of the skin depends on the conditions. Extractability experiments did not enable us to conclude whether BPA passes through the skin, but indicated that it can enter the skin to such a depth that it can no longer be washed off. If this BPA ends up in the human metabolism, exposure of a person repeatedly touching thermal printer paper for 10 h/day, such as at a cash register, could reach 71 microg/day, which is 42 times less than the present tolerable daily intake (TDI). However, if more than just the finger pads contact the BPA-containing paper or a hand cream enhances permeability of the skin, this margin might be smaller.

  8. Study on 3D printer production of auxiliary device for upper limb for medical imaging test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyeong Gyun [Dept. of Radiological Science, Far East University, Eumsung (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Jae Ho [Jukwang Precision Co., Ltd., Gumi (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seong Dae [Dept. of Mechanical system engineering, Kumoh Institute of Technology, Gumi (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    There is a progressive development in the medical imaging technology, especially of descriptive capability for anatomical structure of human body thanks to advancement of information technology and medical devices. But however maintenance of correct posture is essential for the medical imaging checkup on the shoulder joint requiring rotation of the upper limb due to the complexity of human body. In the cases of MRI examination, long duration and fixed posture are critical, as failure to comply with them leads to minimal possibility of reproducibility only with the efforts of the examiner and will of the patient. Thus, this study aimed to develop an auxiliary device that enables rotation of the upper limb as well as fixing it at quantitative angles for medical imaging examination capable of providing diagnostic values. An auxiliary device has been developed based on the results of precedent studies, by designing a 3D model with the CATIA software, an engineering application, and producing it with the 3D printer. The printer is Objet350 Connex from Stratasys, and acrylonitrile- butadiene-styrene(ABS) is used as the material of the device. Dimensions are 120 X 150 X 190 mm, with the inner diameter of the handle being 125.9 mm. The auxiliary device has 4 components including the body (outside), handle (inside), fixture terminal and the connection part. The body and handle have the gap of 2.1 mm for smooth rotation, while the 360 degree of scales have been etched on the handle so that the angle required for observation may be recorded per patient for traceability and dual examination.

  9. Characterization of emissions from a desktop 3D printer and indoor air measurements in office settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinle, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Emissions from a desktop 3D printer based on fused deposition modeling (FDM) technology were measured in a test chamber and indoor air was monitored in office settings. Ultrafine aerosol (UFA) emissions were higher while printing a standard object with polylactic acid (PLA) than with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) polymer (2.1 × 10(9) vs. 2.4 × 10(8) particles/min). Prolonged use of the printer led to higher emission rates (factor 2 with PLA and 4 with ABS, measured after seven months of occasional use). UFA consisted mainly of volatile droplets, and some small (100-300 nm diameter) iron containing and soot-like particles were found. Emissions of inhalable and respirable dust were below the limit of detection (LOD) when measured gravimetrically, and only slightly higher than background when measured with an aerosol spectrometer. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) were in the range of 10 µg/min. Styrene accounted for more than 50% of total VOC emitted when printing with ABS; for PLA, methyl methacrylate (MMA, 37% of TVOC) was detected as the predominant compound. Two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), fluoranthene and pyrene, were observed in very low amounts. All other analyzed PAH, as well as inorganic gases and metal emissions except iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn), were below the LOD or did not differ from background without printing. A single 3D print (165 min) in a large, well-ventilated office did not significantly increase the UFA and VOC concentrations, whereas these were readily detectable in a small, unventilated room, with UFA concentrations increasing by 2,000 particles/cm(3) and MMA reaching a peak of 21 µg/m(3) and still being detectable in the room even 20 hr after printing.

  10. Low-Cost 3D Printers Enable High-Quality and Automated Sample Preparation and Molecular Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kamfai; Coen, Mauricio; Hardick, Justin; Gaydos, Charlotte A; Wong, Kah-Yat; Smith, Clayton; Wilson, Scott A; Vayugundla, Siva Praneeth; Wong, Season

    2016-01-01

    Most molecular diagnostic assays require upfront sample preparation steps to isolate the target's nucleic acids, followed by its amplification and detection using various nucleic acid amplification techniques. Because molecular diagnostic methods are generally rather difficult to perform manually without highly trained users, automated and integrated systems are highly desirable but too costly for use at point-of-care or low-resource settings. Here, we showcase the development of a low-cost and rapid nucleic acid isolation and amplification platform by modifying entry-level 3D printers that cost between $400 and $750. Our modifications consisted of replacing the extruder with a tip-comb attachment that houses magnets to conduct magnetic particle-based nucleic acid extraction. We then programmed the 3D printer to conduct motions that can perform high-quality extraction protocols. Up to 12 samples can be processed simultaneously in under 13 minutes and the efficiency of nucleic acid isolation matches well against gold-standard spin-column-based extraction technology. Additionally, we used the 3D printer's heated bed to supply heat to perform water bath-based polymerase chain reactions (PCRs). Using another attachment to hold PCR tubes, the 3D printer was programmed to automate the process of shuttling PCR tubes between water baths. By eliminating the temperature ramping needed in most commercial thermal cyclers, the run time of a 35-cycle PCR protocol was shortened by 33%. This article demonstrates that for applications in resource-limited settings, expensive nucleic acid extraction devices and thermal cyclers that are used in many central laboratories can be potentially replaced by a device modified from inexpensive entry-level 3D printers.

  11. Low-Cost 3D Printers Enable High-Quality and Automated Sample Preparation and Molecular Detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamfai Chan

    Full Text Available Most molecular diagnostic assays require upfront sample preparation steps to isolate the target's nucleic acids, followed by its amplification and detection using various nucleic acid amplification techniques. Because molecular diagnostic methods are generally rather difficult to perform manually without highly trained users, automated and integrated systems are highly desirable but too costly for use at point-of-care or low-resource settings. Here, we showcase the development of a low-cost and rapid nucleic acid isolation and amplification platform by modifying entry-level 3D printers that cost between $400 and $750. Our modifications consisted of replacing the extruder with a tip-comb attachment that houses magnets to conduct magnetic particle-based nucleic acid extraction. We then programmed the 3D printer to conduct motions that can perform high-quality extraction protocols. Up to 12 samples can be processed simultaneously in under 13 minutes and the efficiency of nucleic acid isolation matches well against gold-standard spin-column-based extraction technology. Additionally, we used the 3D printer's heated bed to supply heat to perform water bath-based polymerase chain reactions (PCRs. Using another attachment to hold PCR tubes, the 3D printer was programmed to automate the process of shuttling PCR tubes between water baths. By eliminating the temperature ramping needed in most commercial thermal cyclers, the run time of a 35-cycle PCR protocol was shortened by 33%. This article demonstrates that for applications in resource-limited settings, expensive nucleic acid extraction devices and thermal cyclers that are used in many central laboratories can be potentially replaced by a device modified from inexpensive entry-level 3D printers.

  12. Development and characterization of an exposure platform suitable for physico-chemical, morphological and toxicological characterization of printer-emitted particles (PEPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirela, Sandra V; Pyrgiotakis, Georgios; Bello, Dhimiter; Thomas, Treye; Castranova, Vincent; Demokritou, Philip

    2014-06-01

    An association between laser printer use and emissions of particulate matter (PM), ozone and volatile organic compounds has been reported in recent studies. However, the detailed physico-chemical, morphological and toxicological characterization of these printer-emitted particles (PEPs) and possible incorporation of engineered nanomaterials into toner formulations remain largely unknown. In this study, a printer exposure generation system suitable for the physico-chemical, morphological, and toxicological characterization of PEPs was developed and used to assess the properties of PEPs from the use of commercially available laser printers. The system consists of a glovebox type environmental chamber for uninterrupted printer operation, real-time and time-integrated particle sampling instrumentation for the size fractionation and sampling of PEPs and an exposure chamber for inhalation toxicological studies. Eleven commonly used laser printers were evaluated and ranked based on their PM emission profiles. Results show PM peak emissions are brand independent and varied between 3000 to 1 300 000 particles/cm³, with modal diameters ranging from 49 to 208 nm, with the majority of PEPs in the nanoscale (particles from a nano-enabled product (printer toner) raises questions about health implications to users. The presented PEGS platform will help in assessing the toxicological profile of PEPs and the link to the physico-chemical and morphological properties of emitted PM and toner formulations.

  13. Development of the Synchronous Transmission System of High Speed Relief Curved Lid Printer%高速凸版曲面印盖机同步传动系统的开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王贤洵; 王贤淮; 王昌佑; 许中明

    2013-01-01

    A multi-station synchronous transmission system of high speed relief curved lid printer, which is capable of synchronizing printing with UV ink and printing and caring with light ink, was developed by researching the key technology for the equipment's transmission system. The system consists of two major components, namely, step dividing plate of multi-station and step dividing device of multi-station synchronous transmission. The system successfully simplifies the printing process executed by similar printing machinery in China, which usually involves primary printing with UV ink followed by secondary printing with light oil and caring with specialized machinery. By streamlining the production process and reducing the operators needed, this technology improves automation and efficiency of printing equipment.%  对高速圆柱形凸版曲面印盖机传动系统关键技术进行研究,开发出一种具有UV油墨及光油二次印刷、二次固化的多工位同步传动系统,该系统由多工位步进分度转盘和多工位同步传动步进分度器两大部件组成。该系统的应用,改变了国内同类设备UV彩印后再配套上光机、固化机进行再次印刷及固化的繁琐工艺,在提高设备自动化程度和效率的同时,缩短了生产流程,也减少了所需操作人员的数量。

  14. 30 CFR 75.1725 - Machinery and equipment; operation and maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Machinery and equipment; operation and....1725 Machinery and equipment; operation and maintenance. (a) Mobile and stationary machinery and equipment shall be maintained in safe operating condition and machinery or equipment in unsafe...

  15. 46 CFR 91.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the..., respecting material and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of...

  16. 46 CFR 62.50-20 - Additional requirements for minimally attended machinery plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional requirements for minimally attended machinery... requirements for minimally attended machinery plants. Note: Minimally attended machinery plants include vessel machinery plants and spaces that are automated, but not to a degree where the plant could be left...

  17. 46 CFR 169.631 - Separation of machinery and fuel tank spaces from accommodation spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Separation of machinery and fuel tank spaces from...) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.631 Separation of machinery and fuel tank spaces from accommodation spaces. (a) Machinery and fuel tank spaces must...

  18. 46 CFR 189.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels... chapter, respecting material and construction of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and certificate...

  19. 46 CFR 169.629 - Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks... SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.629 Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks. Spaces containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks must have...

  20. 46 CFR 71.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery..., boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the standards... and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of classification...

  1. Interaction of anesthetics with neurotransmitter release machinery proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zheng; McMillan, Kyle; Pike, Carolyn M; Cahill, Anne L; Herring, Bruce E; Wang, Qiang; Fox, Aaron P

    2013-02-01

    General anesthetics produce anesthesia by depressing central nervous system activity. Activation of inhibitory GABA(A) receptors plays a central role in the action of many clinically relevant general anesthetics. Even so, there is growing evidence that anesthetics can act at a presynaptic locus to inhibit neurotransmitter release. Our own data identified the neurotransmitter release machinery as a target for anesthetic action. In the present study, we sought to examine the site of anesthetic action more closely. Exocytosis was stimulated by directly elevating the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration at neurotransmitter release sites, thereby bypassing anesthetic effects on channels and receptors, allowing anesthetic effects on the neurotransmitter release machinery to be examined in isolation. Three different PC12 cell lines, which had the expression of different release machinery proteins stably suppressed by RNA interference, were used in these studies. Interestingly, there was still significant neurotransmitter release when these knockdown PC12 cells were stimulated. We have previously shown that etomidate, isoflurane, and propofol all inhibited the neurotransmitter release machinery in wild-type PC12 cells. In the present study, we show that knocking down synaptotagmin I completely prevented etomidate from inhibiting neurotransmitter release. Synaptotagmin I knockdown also diminished the inhibition produced by propofol and isoflurane, but the magnitude of the effect was not as large. Knockdown of SNAP-25 and SNAP-23 expression also changed the ability of these three anesthetics to inhibit neurotransmitter release. Our results suggest that general anesthetics inhibit the neurotransmitter release machinery by interacting with multiple SNARE and SNARE-associated proteins.

  2. FOREWORD: 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yulin; Wang, Zhengwei; Liu, Shuhong; Yuan, Shouqi; Luo, Xingqi; Wang, Fujun

    2012-11-01

    The 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems, will be held in Beijing, China, 19-23 August 2012. It is jointly organized by Tsinghua University, State Key Laboratory of Hydro Science and Hydraulic Engineering, China, Jiangsu University, Xi'an University of Technology, China Agricultural University, National Engineering Research Center of Hydropower Equipment and Dongfang Electric Machinery Co., Ltd. It is the second time that China hosts such a symposium. By the end of 2011, the China electrical power system had a total of 1 050 GW installed power, out of which 220 GW was in hydropower plants. The energy produced in hydropower facilities was 662.6 TWh from a total of 4,720 TWh electrical energy production in 2011. Moreover, in 2020, new hydropower capacities are going to be developed, with a total of 180 GW installed power and an estimated 708 TWh/year energy production. And in 2011, the installed power of pumped storage stations was about 25GW. In 2020, the data will be 70GW. At the same time, the number of pumps used in China is increasing rapidly. China produces about 29,000,000 pumps with more than 220 series per year. By the end of 2011, the Chinese pumping system has a total of 950 GW installed power. The energy consumed in pumping facilities was 530 TWh in 2011. The pump energy consumption accounted for about 12% of the national electrical energy production. Therefore, there is a large market in the field of hydraulic machinery including water turbines, pump turbines and a variety of pumps in China. There are also many research projects in this field. For example, we have conducted National Key Research Projects on 1000 MW hydraulic turbine, and on the pump turbines with high head, as well as on the large capacity pumps for water supply. Tsinghua University of Beijing is proud to host the 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems. Tsinghua University was established in 1911, after the founding of the People's Republic of China. It

  3. Multiscale singular value manifold for rotating machinery fault diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Yi; Lu, BaoChun; Zhang, Deng Feng [School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology,Nanjing (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Time-frequency distribution of vibration signal can be considered as an image that contains more information than signal in time domain. Manifold learning is a novel theory for image recognition that can be also applied to rotating machinery fault pattern recognition based on time-frequency distributions. However, the vibration signal of rotating machinery in fault condition contains cyclical transient impulses with different phrases which are detrimental to image recognition for time-frequency distribution. To eliminate the effects of phase differences and extract the inherent features of time-frequency distributions, a multiscale singular value manifold method is proposed. The obtained low-dimensional multiscale singular value manifold features can reveal the differences of different fault patterns and they are applicable to classification and diagnosis. Experimental verification proves that the performance of the proposed method is superior in rotating machinery fault diagnosis.

  4. Intelligent Control Scheme of Engineering Machinery of Cluster Hybrid System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Qiang; WANG Hongli

    2005-01-01

    In a hybrid system, the subsystems with discrete dynamics play a central role in a hybrid system. In the course of engineering machinery of cluster construction, the discrete control law is hard to obtain because the construction environment is complex and there exist many affecting factors. In this paper, hierarchically intelligent control, expert control and fuzzy control are introduced into the discrete subsystems of engineering machinery of cluster hybrid system, so as to rebuild the hybrid system and make the discrete control law easily and effectively obtained. The structures, reasoning mechanism and arithmetic of intelligent control are replanted to discrete dynamic, conti-nuous process and the interface of the hybrid system. The structures of three types of intelligent hybrid system are presented and the human experiences summarized from engineering machinery of cluster are taken into account.

  5. A New Fault Diagnosis Method of Rotating Machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hao Chen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new fault diagnosis procedure for rotating machinery using the wavelet packets-fractal technology and a radial basis function neural network. The faults of rotating machinery considered in this study include imbalance, misalignment, looseness and imbalance combined with misalignment conditions. When such faults occur, they usually induce non-stationary vibrations to the machine. After measuring the vibration signals, the wavelet packets transform is applied to these signals. The fractal dimension of each frequency bands is extracted and the box counting dimension is used to depict the failure characteristics of the vibration signals. The failure modes are then classified by a radial basis function neural network. An experimental study was performed to evaluate the proposed method and the results show that the method can effectively detect and recognize different kinds of faults of rotating machinery.

  6. Integrated measure and control system for textile machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuantao; Zhao, Jinzhi; Zhao, Zexiang

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, textile mechanical drive control is researched. Textile machinery integrated measure and control system is established. The system is composed of micro-computer, PLC, transducer, implement device, all kinds of detective components and industrial Ethernet etc. Technology of industrial field bus control and Internet technique are applied. The system is on a background of textile production technique, such as spring, woven, chemical fiber, non-woven, dyeing and finishing. A network based open integrated control system is developed. Various characteristics of production technique flow and textile machinery movement discipline are presented. Configuration software is introduced according to user's control tasks. Final remote automatic controls are finished. This may make development cost reduced, and development periods shortened. Some problems in textile machinery development process are solved, which may make transparency factory and remote development realized.

  7. The Effect of Technology on Alienation from Work. Testing Blauner's Inverted U-Curve Hypothesis for 110 Industrial Organizations and 245 Retrained Printers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Frank M.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Presents new evidence on the effect of technology on worker alienation, using data from the organizational level as well as the individual level. In the latter approach, the impact of automation on the work of newspaper printers is examined. (SK)

  8. Deposition of PEDOT: PSS Nanoparticles as a Conductive Microlayer Anode in OLEDs Device by Desktop Inkjet Printer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ummartyotin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple microfabrication technique for delivering macromolecules and patterning microelectrode arrays using desktop inkjet printer was described. Aqueous solution of nanoparticle of poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT doped with polystyrene sulfonic acid (PSS was prepared while its particle size, the surface tension, and the viscosity of the solution were adjusted to be suitable for deposition on a flexible cellulose nanocomposite substrate via inkjet printer. The statistical average of PEDOT: PSS particle size of 100 nm was observed. The microthickness, surface morphology, and electrical conductivity of the printed substrate were then characterized by profilometer, atomic force microscope (AFM, and four-point probe electrical measurement, respectively. The inkjet deposition of PEDOT: PSS was successfully carried out, whilst retained its transparency feature. Highly smooth surface (roughness ~23–44 nm was achieved.

  9. Evaluation of usefulness and availability for orthopedic surgery using clavicle fracture model manufactured by desktop 3D printer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Wang Kyun [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Cheongju Medical Center, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    Usefulness and clinical availability for surgery efficiency were evaluated by conducting pre-operative planning with a model manufactured by desktop 3D printer by using clavicle CT image. The patient-customized clavicle fracture model was manufactured by desktop 3D printer of FDM wire laminated processing method by converting the CT image into STL file in Open Source DICOM Viewer Osirix. Also, the model of the original shape before damaged was restored and manufactured by Mirror technique based on STL file of not fractured clavicle of the other side by using the symmetry feature of the human body. For the model, the position and size, degree of the fracture was equally printed out. Using the clavicle model directly manufactured with low cost and less time in Department of Radiology is considered to be useful because it can reduce secondary damage during surgery and increase surgery efficiency with Minimal invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis(MIPO)

  10. MicroRNA Machinery Genes as Novel Biomarkers for Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing-Tao; Wang, Jin; Srivastava, Vibhuti; Sen, Subrata; Liu, Song-Mei

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) directly and indirectly affect tumorigenesis. To be able to perform their myriad roles, miRNA machinery genes, such as Drosha, DGCR8, Dicer1, XPO5, TRBP, and AGO2, must generate precise miRNAs. These genes have specific expression patterns, protein-binding partners, and biochemical capabilities in different cancers. Our preliminary analysis of data from The Cancer Genome Atlas consortium on multiple types of cancer revealed significant alterations in these miRNA machinery genes. Here, we review their biological structures and functions with an eye toward understanding how they could serve as cancer biomarkers.

  11. Low-Cost 3D Printers Enable High-Quality and Automated Sample Preparation and Molecular Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kamfai; Coen, Mauricio; Hardick, Justin; Gaydos, Charlotte A.; Wong, Kah-Yat; Smith, Clayton; Wilson, Scott A.; Vayugundla, Siva Praneeth; Wong, Season

    2016-01-01

    Most molecular diagnostic assays require upfront sample preparation steps to isolate the target’s nucleic acids, followed by its amplification and detection using various nucleic acid amplification techniques. Because molecular diagnostic methods are generally rather difficult to perform manually without highly trained users, automated and integrated systems are highly desirable but too costly for use at point-of-care or low-resource settings. Here, we showcase the development of a low-cost and rapid nucleic acid isolation and amplification platform by modifying entry-level 3D printers that cost between $400 and $750. Our modifications consisted of replacing the extruder with a tip-comb attachment that houses magnets to conduct magnetic particle-based nucleic acid extraction. We then programmed the 3D printer to conduct motions that can perform high-quality extraction protocols. Up to 12 samples can be processed simultaneously in under 13 minutes and the efficiency of nucleic acid isolation matches well against gold-standard spin-column-based extraction technology. Additionally, we used the 3D printer’s heated bed to supply heat to perform water bath-based polymerase chain reactions (PCRs). Using another attachment to hold PCR tubes, the 3D printer was programmed to automate the process of shuttling PCR tubes between water baths. By eliminating the temperature ramping needed in most commercial thermal cyclers, the run time of a 35-cycle PCR protocol was shortened by 33%. This article demonstrates that for applications in resource-limited settings, expensive nucleic acid extraction devices and thermal cyclers that are used in many central laboratories can be potentially replaced by a device modified from inexpensive entry-level 3D printers. PMID:27362424

  12. Accuracy of three-dimensional, paper-based models generated using a low-cost, three-dimensional printer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, Raphael; Szymor, Piotr; Kozakiewicz, Marcin

    2014-12-01

    Our study aimed to determine the accuracy of a low-cost, paper-based 3D printer by comparing a dry human mandible to its corresponding three-dimensional (3D) model using a 3D measuring arm. One dry human mandible and its corresponding printed model were evaluated. The model was produced using DICOM data from cone beam computed tomography. The data were imported into Maxilim software, wherein automatic segmentation was performed, and the STL file was saved. These data were subsequently analysed, repaired, cut and prepared for printing with netfabb software. These prepared data were used to create a paper-based model of a mandible with an MCor Matrix 300 printer. Seventy-six anatomical landmarks were chosen and measured 20 times on the mandible and the model using a MicroScribe G2X 3D measuring arm. The distances between all the selected landmarks were measured and compared. Only landmarks with a point inaccuracy less than 30% were used in further analyses. The mean absolute difference for the selected 2016 measurements was 0.36 ± 0.29 mm. The mean relative difference was 1.87 ± 3.14%; however, the measurement length significantly influenced the relative difference. The accuracy of the 3D model printed using the paper-based, low-cost 3D Matrix 300 printer was acceptable. The average error was no greater than that measured with other types of 3D printers. The mean relative difference should not be considered the best way to compare studies. The point inaccuracy methodology proposed in this study may be helpful in future studies concerned with evaluating the accuracy of 3D rapid prototyping models. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The feasibility of producing patient-specific acrylic cranioplasty implants with a low-cost 3D printer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Eddie T W; Ling, Ji Min; Dinesh, Shree Kumar

    2016-05-01

    OBJECT Commercially available, preformed patient-specific cranioplasty implants are anatomically accurate but costly. Acrylic bone cement is a commonly used alternative. However, the manual shaping of the bone cement is difficult and may not lead to a satisfactory implant in some cases. The object of this study was to determine the feasibility of fabricating molds using a commercial low-cost 3D printer for the purpose of producing patient-specific acrylic cranioplasty implants. METHODS Using data from a high-resolution brain CT scan of a patient with a calvarial defect posthemicraniectomy, a skull phantom and a mold were generated with computer software and fabricated with the 3D printer using the fused deposition modeling method. The mold was used as a template to shape the acrylic implant, which was formed via a polymerization reaction. The resulting implant was fitted to the skull phantom and the cranial index of symmetry was determined. RESULTS The skull phantom and mold were successfully fabricated with the 3D printer. The application of acrylic bone cement to the mold was simple and straightforward. The resulting implant did not require further adjustment or drilling prior to being fitted to the skull phantom. The cranial index of symmetry was 96.2% (the cranial index of symmetry is 100% for a perfectly symmetrical skull). CONCLUSIONS This study showed that it is feasible to produce patient-specific acrylic cranioplasty implants with a low-cost 3D printer. Further studies are required to determine applicability in the clinical setting. This promising technique has the potential to bring personalized medicine to more patients around the world.

  14. Custom 3D printer and resin for 18 μm × 20 μm microfluidic flow channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Hua; Bickham, Bryce P; Woolley, Adam T; Nordin, Gregory P

    2017-08-22

    While there is great interest in 3D printing for microfluidic device fabrication, to-date the achieved feature sizes have not been in the truly microfluidic regime (digital light processor stereolithographic (DLP-SLA) 3D printer and a specifically-designed, low cost, custom resin can readily achieve flow channel cross sections as small as 18 μm × 20 μm. Our 3D printer has a projected image plane resolution of 7.6 μm and uses a 385 nm LED, which dramatically increases the available selection of UV absorbers for resin formulation compared to 3D printers with 405 nm LEDs. Beginning with 20 candidate absorbers, we demonstrate the evaluation criteria and process flow required to develop a high-resolution resin. In doing so, we introduce a new mathematical model for characterizing the resin optical penetration depth based only on measurement of the absorber's molar absorptivity. Our final resin formulation uses 2-nitrophenyl phenyl sulfide (NPS) as the UV absorber. We also develop a novel channel narrowing technique that, together with the new resin and 3D printer resolution, enables small flow channel fabrication. We demonstrate the efficacy of our approach by fabricating 3D serpentine flow channels 41 mm long in a volume of only 0.12 mm(3), and by printing high aspect ratio flow channels <25 μm wide and 3 mm tall. These results indicate that 3D printing is finally positioned to challenge the pre-eminence of methods such as soft lithography for microfluidic device prototyping and fabrication.

  15. A Simple Huckel Molecular Orbital Plotter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Raghunathan

    2013-01-01

    A program is described and presented to readily plot the molecular orbitals from a Huckel calculation. The main features of the program and the scope of its applicability are discussed through some example organic molecules. (Contains 2 figures.)

  16. Print-to-print: printer-enabled out-of-cleanroom multiobject microprinting method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Siyuan; Zhao, Siwei; Pan, Tingrui

    2014-01-01

    Micropatterning techniques have gained growing interests from a broad range of engineering and biology researches as it realizes the high-throughput and highly quantitative investigations on miniature biological objects (e.g., cells and bacteria) by spatially defined micropatterns. However, most of the existing techniques rely on expensive instruments or intensive cleanroom access which may not be easy to be utilized in a regular biological laboratory. Here, we present the detailed procedures of a simple versatile microprinting process, referred to as Print-to-Print (P2P), to form multiobject micropatterns for potential biological applications. Only a solid-phase printer and custom-made superhydrophobic (SH) films are utilized for the printing and no thermal or chemical treatment is involved during the entire printing process. Moreover, the noncontact nature of droplet transferring and printing steps can be highly advantageous for sensitive biological uses. By the P2P process, a minimal feature resolution of 229 ± 17 μm has been successfully achieved. What's more, this approach has been applied to form micropatterning on various commonly used substrates in biology as well as multiobject co-patterns. In addition, the SH substrates have also been demonstrated to be reusable.

  17. Direct-Write Digital Holography. Development and research of a hologram printer

    CERN Document Server

    Tapsell, John

    2008-01-01

    Chapter 1 gives a brief history of the field of holography along with an overview of this thesis. A more detailed description of holography is provided in Chapter 2 along with a discussion of digital holography. Chapter 3 examines the design of a one-step monochromatic hologram printer capable producing white-light viewable transmission holograms created with the aid of an LCOS display system and printed in a dot-matrix sequence. The lens system employed includes a microlens array and an afocal relay telescope which are both quantitatively examined in order to maximise the contrast, diffraction efficiency and depth of view of the final hologram image. A brief overview of speckle reduction techniques and their applicability to pulsed digital holography is presented along with experimental results of the use of a microlens array to reduce speckle effects. Chapter 4 presents an analysis of the unwanted side effects of the angular intensity distribution of a hologram pixel, using a case study for analysis. Chapte...

  18. Designing and building a permanent magnet Zeeman slower for calcium atoms using a 3D printer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsagian, Alexandria; Kleinert, Michaela

    2015-10-01

    We present the design of a Zeeman slower for calcium atoms using permanent magnets instead of more traditional electromagnets and the novel technique of 3D printing to create a very robust and flexible structure for these magnets. Zeeman slowers are ideal tools to slow atoms from several hundreds of meters per second to just a few tens of meters per second. These slower atoms can then easily be trapped in a magneto-optical trap, making Zeeman slowers a very valuable tool in many cold atom labs. The use of permanent magnets and 3D printing results in a highly stable and robust slower that is suitable for undergraduate laboratories. In our design, we arranged 28 magnet pairs, 2.0 cm apart along the axis of the slower and at varying radial distances from the axis. We determined the radial position of the magnets by simulating the combined field of all magnet pairs using Mathematica and comparing it to the ideal theoretical field for a Zeeman slower. Finally, we designed a stable, robust, compact, and easy-to-align mounting structure for the magnets in Google Sketchup, which we then printed using a commercially available 3D printer by Solidoodle. The resulting magnetic field is well suited to slow calcium atoms from the 770 m/s rms velocity at a temperature of 950 K, down to the capture velocity of the magneto-optical trap.

  19. Characterization of solid UV curable 3D printer resins for biological applications

    KAUST Repository

    Sivashankar, Shilpa

    2016-12-19

    In this paper, we report a simple method to evaluate biocompatibility of solid UV cross-linked resin as a material for microfluidic devices that can be used for biological applications. We evaluated the biocompatibility of the material in two different ways (1) determining if the UV cured resin inhibits the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and (2) observing agglutination complex formed on the surface of the UV cured resin when anti-CRP antibodies and C- reactive protein (CRP) proteins were allowed to agglutinate. Six different types of 3D printer resins were compared to test the biocompatibility. The study showed that only few among them could be used for fabrication of micro channels and that had least effect on biological molecules that could be used for PCR and protein interactions. Through these studies it is possible to estimate the curing time of various resin and their type of interaction with biomolecules. This study finds importance in on-chip tissue engineering and organ-on-chip applications.

  20. Development of patient-specific molecular imaging phantoms using a 3D printer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gear, J I; Long, C; Rushforth, D; Chittenden, S J; Cummings, C; Flux, G D

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate rapid prototyping technology for the production of patient-specific, cost-effective liquid fillable phantoms directly from patient CT data. Liver, spleen, and kidney volumes were segmented from patient CT data. Each organ was converted to a shell and filling holes and leg supports were added using computer aided design software and prepared for printing. Additional fixtures were added to the liver to allow lesion inserts to be fixed within the structure. Phantoms were printed from an ultraviolet curable photopolymer using polyjet technology on an Objet EDEN 500V 3D printer. The final print material is a clear solid acrylic plastic which is watertight, rigid, and sufficiently durable to withstand multiple assembly and scanning protocols. Initial scans of the phantoms have been performed with Tc-99m SPECT and F-18 PET/CT. The organ geometry showed good correspondence with anatomical references. The methodology developed can be generally applied to other anatomical or geometrical phantoms for molecular imaging.

  1. Reduction of the recorded speckle noise in holographic 3D printer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsugi, Takeru; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    2013-01-14

    A holographic 3D printer produces a high-quality 3D image reproduced by a full-color, full-parallax holographic stereogram with high-density light-ray recording. In order to produce a high-resolution holographic stereogram, we have to solve the problem of speckle noise in this system. For equalizing an intensity distribution inside the elementary hologram, the object beam is modulated by a diffuser. However the diffuser typically generates speckles, which is recorded in the holographic stereogram. It is localized behind the reconstructed image as a granularity noise. First we show the problems of some conventional ways for suppressing the granularity noise using a band-limited diffuser, and then we analyze an approach using a moving diffuser for the reduction of this noise. In the result, it is found that recording with a moving diffuser is effective for reducing the granularity noise at infinity of reconstructed image, although an alternative noise occurs. Moreover we propose a new method introducing multiple exposures to suppress the noise effectively.

  2. Construction of realistic phantoms from patient images and a commercial three-dimensional printer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Shuai; Chen, Baiyu; Vrieze, Thomas; Kuhlmann, Joel; Yu, Lifeng; Alexander, Amy; Matsumoto, Jane; Morris, Jonathan; McCollough, Cynthia H

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to use three-dimensional (3-D) printing techniques to construct liver and brain phantoms having realistic pathologies, anatomic structures, and heterogeneous backgrounds. Patient liver and head computed tomography (CT) images were segmented into tissue, vessels, liver lesion, white and gray matter, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Stereolithography files of each object were created and imported into a commercial 3-D printer. Printing materials were assigned to each object after test scans, which showed that the printing materials had CT numbers ranging from 70 to 121 HU at 120 kV. Printed phantoms were scanned on a CT scanner and images were evaluated. CT images of the liver phantom had measured CT numbers of 77.8 and 96.6 HU for the lesion and background, and 137.5 to 428.4 HU for the vessels channels, which were filled with iodine solutions. The difference in CT numbers between lesions and background (18.8 HU) was representative of the low-contrast values needed for optimization tasks. The liver phantom background was evaluated with Haralick features and showed similar texture between patient and phantom images. CT images of the brain phantom had CT numbers of 125, 134, and 108 HU for white matter, gray matter, and CSF, respectively. The CT number differences were similar to those in patient images.

  3. Data path design and image quality aspects of the next generation multifunctional printer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassé, M. H. H.; de Smet, S. P. R. C.

    2008-01-01

    Multifunctional devices (MFDs) are increasingly used as a document hub. The MFD is used as a copier, scanner, printer, and it facilitates digital document distribution and sharing. This imposes new requirements on the design of the data path and its image processing. Various design aspects need to be taken into account, including system performance, features, image quality, and cost price. A good balance is required in order to develop a competitive MFD. A modular datapath architecture is presented that supports all the envisaged use cases. Besides copying, colour scanning is becoming an important use case of a modern MFD. The copy-path use case is described and it is shown how colour scanning can also be supported with a minimal adaptation to the architecture. The key idea is to convert the scanner data to an opponent colour space representation at the beginning of the image processing pipeline. The sub-sampling of chromatic information allows for the saving of scarce hardware resources without significant perceptual loss of quality. In particular, we have shown that functional FPGA modules from the copy application can also be used for the scan-to-file application. This makes the presented approach very cost-effective while complying with market conform image quality standards.

  4. Optically addressable single-use microfluidic valves by laser printer lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Cordero, Jose L; Kurzbuch, Dirk; Benito-Lopez, Fernando; Diamond, Dermot; Lee, Luke P; Ricco, Antonio J

    2010-10-21

    We report the design, fabrication, and characterization of practical microfluidic valves fabricated using laser printer lithography. These optofluidic valves are opened by directing optical energy from a solid-state laser, with similar power characteristics to those used in CD/DVD drives, to a spot of printed toner where localized heating melts an orifice in the polymer layer in as little as 500 ms, connecting previously isolated fluidic components or compartments. Valve functionality, response time, and laser input energy dependence of orifice size are reported for cyclo-olefin polymer (COP) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films. Implementation of these optofluidic valves is demonstrated on pressure-driven and centrifugal microfluidic platforms. In addition, these "one-shot" valves comprise a continuous polymer film that hermetically isolates on-chip fluid volumes within fluidic devices using low-vapor-permeability materials; we confirmed this for a period of one month. The fabrication and integration of optofluidic valves are compatible with a range of polymer microfabrication technologies and should facilitate the development of fully integrated, reconfigurable, and automated lab-on-a-chip systems, particularly when reagents must be stored on chip for extended periods, e.g. for medical diagnostic devices, lab-on-a-chip synthetic systems, or hazardous biochemical analysis platforms.

  5. White-Paper Report:Textile Machinery Industry (2005-2009) Economic Performance in Chinese Textile Machinery Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This report is accomplished by China Textile Machinery and Accessories Association to be part of the Annual Report of China Textile Industry that comes out in the middle of the year.Given that all the official statistics are channeled to each industrial sector four times a year(March,May,Aug.Nov.) ,it comes as no surprise at all when an annual report is prepared at the beginning of the new year by taking eleven months into account because of the data availability from the government.This report of Chinese textile machinery industry is also based on the data attainable from Jan.to Nov.in 2009.

  6. Rapid Growth of China Petroleum Machinery Manufacturing (continued)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Zhiqian; Sun Zuchen; Wang Keyu

    1996-01-01

    @@ Technology for petroleum machinery design and manufacturing upgraded remarkably The basic research on rock bit. drilling pump. pump valve, piston, flooding pumps, derrick, shale shaker.hydraulic blowout preventer, torque converter, pumping unit. sucker rod. submersible pump. fracturing pump centrifugal pump. pneumatic parts, geophone and acquisition station has reached the advanced international level.

  7. 46 CFR 58.01-50 - Machinery space, noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... around machinery—90 dB(A) (c) If adding a source of noise would cause a machinery space to exceed the... isolated so that the space does not exceed that noise level. If the space is manned, a refuge from noise...

  8. The capacity of sugar beet farms’ machinery and equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata BZOWSKA – BAKALARZ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The survey investigates into equipment of sugar beet farms of the Lublin region, Poland, with machinery – with reference to plantation size and yields. To assess the production potential of the farms, the authors determined the age structure of the machinery owned by the farmers and established the scale of investment in new equipment. The machinery most important for sugar beet production are pre-sowing and post-harvest tillage units, sprayers, seed drills, combine harvesters and self-unloading trailers. In most cases, the surveyed farmers own most of these machines, but they are often obsolete: 37% of them is in operation for more than 15 years. As for the machines dedicated solely to sugar beet growing (harvesters and seeders, their age structure is most unfavourable – 70% of them have been used for over 15 years. A trend towards increasing plantation sizes provides incentives for introducing innovation to cultivation methods. However, the scale of investment in new machinery is small, especially in the case of small and medium-sized farms that dominate in the region. The authors surveyed also the scale of using professional services in the field of tillage processes to determine changes in farming practices.

  9. TRACTOR REPAIR. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY--SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO HELP TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY STUDENTS FOR THE AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE OCCUPATIONS AS PARTS MEN, MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, AND SERVICE SUPERVISORS. IT WAS DESIGNED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF RESEARCH FROM STATE STUDIES. THE MAJOR OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP (1) AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE…

  10. Analysis of noise control measures on outdoor machinery using EQUIP+

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dittrich, M.G.

    2006-01-01

    Noise control of different types of outdoor machinery covered by EU Directive 2000/14/EC such as construction machines, generators and other equipment powered by internal combustion engines requires knowledge of the noise path model and the potential noise control measures. As there is often a

  11. Giardia mitosomal protein import machinery differentially recognizes mitochondrial targeting signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyindodo-Ogari, Lilian; Schwartzbach, Steven D; Estraño, Carlos E

    2014-01-01

    Giardia lamblia mitosomes are believed to be vestigial mitochondria which lack a genome. Similar to higher eukaryotes, mitosomal proteins possess either N-terminal or internal mitosomal targeting sequences. To date, some components of the higher eukaryote archetypal mitochondrial protein import apparatus have been identified and characterized in Giardia mitosomes; therefore, it is expected that mitochondrial signals will be recognized by the mitosomal protein import system. To further determine the level of conservation of the Giardia mitosome protein import apparatus, we expressed mitochondrial proteins from higher eukaryotes in Giardia. These recombinant proteins include Tom20 and Tom22; two components of the mitochondrial protein import machinery. Our results indicate that N-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequence is recognized by the mitosomal protein import machinery; however, interestingly the internal mitochondrial targeting sequences of higher eukaryotes are not recognized by the mitosome. Our results indicate that Giardia mitosome protein transport machinery shows differential recognition of higher eukaryotic mitochondria transfer signals, suggesting a divergence of the transport system in G. lamblia. Therefore, our data support the hypothesis that the protein import machinery in Giardia lamblia mitosome is an incomplete vestigial derivative of mitochondria components.

  12. Implications of material selection on the design of packaging machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, J P

    2009-01-01

    Material selection has significant implications on the design and cost of horizontal-form-fill-seal packaging machinery. To avoid excessive costs, machine redesigns and project delays, material selection must be reconciled early in the project and revisited throughout the construction of the machine.

  13. PTP1B targets the endosomal sorting machinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stuible, Matthew; Abella, Jasmine V; Feldhammer, Matthew;

    2010-01-01

    STAM2 specifically suppressed Akt activation, and a phosphorylation-deficient STAM2 mutant displayed prolonged localization on endosomes following EGF stimulation. These results reveal a novel link between the dephosphorylation and endocytic machinery and suggest that PTP1B can affect RTK signaling...

  14. 46 CFR 169.315 - Ventilation (other than machinery spaces).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation (other than machinery spaces). 169.315 Section 169.315 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Hull Structure § 169.315 Ventilation (other than...

  15. 500 Million Yuan Textile Machinery Project Located in Laiyang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Textile machinery project with 500 million Yuan investment was formally signed in Yantai Laiyang Development Zone on November 15, which is the l Oth project in the development zone with more than 100 million Yuan investment, and the 5th project in the development zone with more than 500 million Yuan investment.

  16. ADJUSTMENT, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF TILLAGE, PLANTING, SPRAYING, AND FERTILIZING MACHINERY. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY--SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO HELP TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY-LEVEL STUDENTS FOR THE AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE OCCUPATIONS AS PARTS MEN, MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, AND SERVICE SUPERVISORS. IT WAS DESIGNED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF RESEARCH FROM STATE STUDIES. THE MAJOR OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP (1) STUDENT UNDERSTANDING…

  17. 3D printer generated thorax phantom with mobile tumor for radiation dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Rulon; Liacouras, Peter; Thomas, Andrew; Kang, Minglei; Lin, Liyong; Simone, Charles B.

    2015-07-01

    This article describes the design, construction, and properties of an anthropomorphic thorax phantom with a moving surrogate tumor. This novel phantom permits detection of dose both inside and outside a moving tumor and within the substitute lung tissue material. A 3D printer generated the thorax shell composed of a chest wall, spinal column, and posterior regions of the phantom. Images of a computed tomography scan of the thorax from a patient with lung cancer provided the template for the 3D printing. The plastic phantom is segmented into two materials representing the muscle and bones, and its geometry closely matches a patient. A surrogate spherical plastic tumor controlled by a 3D linear stage simulates a lung tumor's trajectory during normal breathing. Sawdust emulates the lung tissue in terms of average and distribution in Hounsfield numbers. The sawdust also provides a forgiving medium that permits tumor motion and sandwiching of radiochromic film inside the mobile surrogate plastic tumor for dosimetry. A custom cork casing shields the film and tumor and eliminates film bending during extended scans. The phantom, lung tissue surrogate, and radiochromic film are exposed to a seven field plan based on an ECLIPSE plan for 6 MV photons from a Trilogy machine delivering 230 cGy to the isocenter. The dose collected in a sagittal plane is compared to the calculated plan. Gamma analysis finds 8.8% and 5.5% gamma failure rates for measurements of large amplitude trajectory and static measurements relative to the large amplitude plan, respectively. These particular gamma analysis results were achieved using parameters of 3% dose and 3 mm, for regions receiving doses >150 cGy. The plan assumes a stationary detection grid unlike the moving radiochromic film and tissues. This difference was experimentally observed and motivated calculated dose distributions that incorporated the phase of the tumor periodic motion. These calculations modestly improve agreement between

  18. 3D printer generated thorax phantom with mobile tumor for radiation dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, Rulon [Henry Jackson Foundation, Bethesda, Maryland 20817 (United States); Liacouras, Peter [Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, Maryland 20899 (United States); Thomas, Andrew [ATC Healthcare, Washington, District of Columbia 20006 (United States); Kang, Minglei; Lin, Liyong; Simone, Charles B. [Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    This article describes the design, construction, and properties of an anthropomorphic thorax phantom with a moving surrogate tumor. This novel phantom permits detection of dose both inside and outside a moving tumor and within the substitute lung tissue material. A 3D printer generated the thorax shell composed of a chest wall, spinal column, and posterior regions of the phantom. Images of a computed tomography scan of the thorax from a patient with lung cancer provided the template for the 3D printing. The plastic phantom is segmented into two materials representing the muscle and bones, and its geometry closely matches a patient. A surrogate spherical plastic tumor controlled by a 3D linear stage simulates a lung tumor’s trajectory during normal breathing. Sawdust emulates the lung tissue in terms of average and distribution in Hounsfield numbers. The sawdust also provides a forgiving medium that permits tumor motion and sandwiching of radiochromic film inside the mobile surrogate plastic tumor for dosimetry. A custom cork casing shields the film and tumor and eliminates film bending during extended scans. The phantom, lung tissue surrogate, and radiochromic film are exposed to a seven field plan based on an ECLIPSE plan for 6 MV photons from a Trilogy machine delivering 230 cGy to the isocenter. The dose collected in a sagittal plane is compared to the calculated plan. Gamma analysis finds 8.8% and 5.5% gamma failure rates for measurements of large amplitude trajectory and static measurements relative to the large amplitude plan, respectively. These particular gamma analysis results were achieved using parameters of 3% dose and 3 mm, for regions receiving doses >150 cGy. The plan assumes a stationary detection grid unlike the moving radiochromic film and tissues. This difference was experimentally observed and motivated calculated dose distributions that incorporated the phase of the tumor periodic motion. These calculations modestly improve agreement between

  19. 3D printer generated thorax phantom with mobile tumor for radiation dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Rulon; Liacouras, Peter; Thomas, Andrew; Kang, Minglei; Lin, Liyong; Simone, Charles B

    2015-07-01

    This article describes the design, construction, and properties of an anthropomorphic thorax phantom with a moving surrogate tumor. This novel phantom permits detection of dose both inside and outside a moving tumor and within the substitute lung tissue material. A 3D printer generated the thorax shell composed of a chest wall, spinal column, and posterior regions of the phantom. Images of a computed tomography scan of the thorax from a patient with lung cancer provided the template for the 3D printing. The plastic phantom is segmented into two materials representing the muscle and bones, and its geometry closely matches a patient. A surrogate spherical plastic tumor controlled by a 3D linear stage simulates a lung tumor's trajectory during normal breathing. Sawdust emulates the lung tissue in terms of average and distribution in Hounsfield numbers. The sawdust also provides a forgiving medium that permits tumor motion and sandwiching of radiochromic film inside the mobile surrogate plastic tumor for dosimetry. A custom cork casing shields the film and tumor and eliminates film bending during extended scans. The phantom, lung tissue surrogate, and radiochromic film are exposed to a seven field plan based on an ECLIPSE plan for 6 MV photons from a Trilogy machine delivering 230 cGy to the isocenter. The dose collected in a sagittal plane is compared to the calculated plan. Gamma analysis finds 8.8% and 5.5% gamma failure rates for measurements of large amplitude trajectory and static measurements relative to the large amplitude plan, respectively. These particular gamma analysis results were achieved using parameters of 3% dose and 3 mm, for regions receiving doses >150 cGy. The plan assumes a stationary detection grid unlike the moving radiochromic film and tissues. This difference was experimentally observed and motivated calculated dose distributions that incorporated the phase of the tumor periodic motion. These calculations modestly improve agreement between

  20. The Research of Computer Aided Farm Machinery Designing Method Based on Ergonomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiyin; Li, Xinling; Song, Qiang; Zheng, Ying

    Along with agricultural economy development, the farm machinery product type Increases gradually, the ergonomics question is also getting more and more prominent. The widespread application of computer aided machinery design makes it possible that farm machinery design is intuitive, flexible and convenient. At present, because the developed computer aided ergonomics software has not suitable human body database, which is needed in view of farm machinery design in China, the farm machinery design have deviation in ergonomics analysis. This article puts forward that using the open database interface procedure in CATIA to establish human body database which aims at the farm machinery design, and reading the human body data to ergonomics module of CATIA can product practical application virtual body, using human posture analysis and human activity analysis module to analysis the ergonomics in farm machinery, thus computer aided farm machinery designing method based on engineering can be realized.

  1. Brief introduction of under- stage machinery (continued)%舞台下部机械(续)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋宏

    2003-01-01

    It briefly introduces the use of typical under- stage machinery such as stage lifts, stage wagons and turntables in theater. It summarizes the functions,characteristics and drive modes of each type of under -stage machinery at present time.

  2. 49 CFR 1242.42 - Administration, repair and maintenance, machinery repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration, repair and maintenance, machinery repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired property, fringe benefits, other casualties and insurance... maintenance, machinery repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired property, fringe benefits,...

  3. 46 CFR 30.10-6a - Category A machinery space-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Category A machinery space-TB/ALL. 30.10-6a Section 30... Definitions § 30.10-6a Category A machinery space—TB/ALL. The term Category A machinery space means any space and trunks and ducts to such a space that contains: (a) Internal combustion machinery used for...

  4. Taian Companion Machinery Co.,Ltd:Seize Opportunities Relying on Self-Intellectual Innovatio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sherry Liu

    2011-01-01

    Since its first participation of ShanghaiTex 2011 last year,Companion Machinery Co.,Ltd hasmade an important step,"letting theworld know Companion Machinery,and making Companion Machinery go outside" by upholding concepts of "Being friends, partners and collaborators".

  5. 40 CFR 180.521 - Fumigants for grain-mill machinery; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fumigants for grain-mill machinery... Tolerances § 180.521 Fumigants for grain-mill machinery; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Fumigants may be safely used in or on grain-mill machinery in accordance with the following prescribed...

  6. 76 FR 67181 - Windsor Machinery Co., Inc.; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Windsor Machinery Co., Inc.; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2011, Windsor Machinery Co., Inc. filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4... an annual generation of 1,600 megawatt-hours. Applicant Contact: Sarah L. Bower, Windsor Machinery...

  7. 46 CFR 174.200 - Damaged stability in machinery spaces for all OSVs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Damaged stability in machinery spaces for all OSVs. 174... Vessels § 174.200 Damaged stability in machinery spaces for all OSVs. Each OSV must be shown by design... case of damage between any two watertight bulkheads in each machinery space....

  8. 30 CFR 57.3460 - Maintenance between machinery or equipment and ribs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance between machinery or equipment and... NONMETAL MINES Ground Control Precautions-Underground Only § 57.3460 Maintenance between machinery or equipment and ribs. Persons shall not perform maintenance work between machinery or equipment and...

  9. 46 CFR 182.465 - Ventilation of spaces containing diesel machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., with ventilation installations in accordance with ABYC H-32 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 175... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of spaces containing diesel machinery. 182... VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements §...

  10. 30 CFR 57.3430 - Activity between machinery or equipment and the highwall or bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Activity between machinery or equipment and the... AND NONMETAL MINES Ground Control Precautions-Surface Only § 57.3430 Activity between machinery or equipment and the highwall or bank. Persons shall not work or travel between machinery or equipment and...

  11. 46 CFR 196.15-15 - Examination of boilers and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 196.15-15 Section... VESSELS OPERATIONS Test, Drills, and Inspections § 196.15-15 Examination of boilers and machinery. (a) It shall be the duty of the chief engineer when he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a...

  12. 49 CFR 173.222 - Dangerous goods in equipment, machinery or apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dangerous goods in equipment, machinery or... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.222 Dangerous goods in equipment, machinery or apparatus. Hazardous materials in machinery or apparatus are excepted from the specification packaging requirements of...

  13. 46 CFR 62.50-30 - Additional requirements for periodically unattended machinery plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... section 4-6-4/13.5 of the ABS Steel Vessel Rules (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 62.05-1). (d... machinery plants. 62.50-30 Section 62.50-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... requirements for periodically unattended machinery plants. Note: Periodically unattended machinery...

  14. 49 CFR 393.130 - What are the rules for securing heavy vehicles, equipment and machinery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., equipment and machinery? 393.130 Section 393.130 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... heavy vehicles, equipment and machinery? (a) Applicability. The rules in this section apply to the transportation of heavy vehicles, equipment and machinery which operate on wheels or tracks, such as front...

  15. 33 CFR 150.620 - What are the requirements for protecting personnel from machinery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... machinery through the use of guard devices or other measures that comply with 29 CFR 1910.212, or through... protecting personnel from machinery? 150.620 Section 150.620 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Health Machine Guards § 150.620 What are the requirements for protecting personnel from machinery?...

  16. 46 CFR 32.56-30 - Category A machinery spaces: Bulkheads and decks-T/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Category A machinery spaces: Bulkheads and decks-T/ALL... EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Structural Fire Protection for Tank Ships With a Keel Laying Date On or After January 1, 1975 § 32.56-30 Category A machinery spaces: Bulkheads and decks—T/ALL....

  17. 46 CFR 32.56-40 - Category A machinery spaces: Insulation-T/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Category A machinery spaces: Insulation-T/ALL. 32.56-40..., MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Structural Fire Protection for Tank Ships With a Keel Laying Date On or After January 1, 1975 § 32.56-40 Category A machinery spaces: Insulation—T/ALL. Structural...

  18. 77 FR 64462 - Conference on International Trade Issues Facing U.S. Machinery Manufacturing Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... Conference on International Trade Issues Facing U.S. Machinery Manufacturing Industries AGENCY: Manufacturing... December 4, 2012 the Office of Transportation and Machinery will hold a one-day conference on bi-lateral and multi-lateral international trade issues impacting the U.S. machinery manufacturing...

  19. 46 CFR 97.15-15 - Examination of boilers and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 97.15-15 Section... VESSELS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 97.15-15 Examination of boilers and machinery. It shall be the duty of the chief engineer when assuming charge of the boilers and machinery of a vessel...

  20. 46 CFR 153.233 - Separation of tanks from machinery, service and other spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Separation of tanks from machinery, service and other... Design and Equipment Cargo Containment Systems § 153.233 Separation of tanks from machinery, service and... joint: (1) Machinery spaces. (2) Service spaces. (3) Accommodation spaces. (4) Spaces for...

  1. 46 CFR 116.620 - Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. 116.620... AND ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 116.620 Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. In addition to the requirements of this subpart, ventilation systems for spaces containing machinery or fuel...

  2. 30 CFR 77.404 - Machinery and equipment; operation and maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Machinery and equipment; operation and... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.404 Machinery and equipment; operation and maintenance. (a) Mobile and stationary machinery and equipment shall be maintained in...

  3. 46 CFR 177.620 - Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. 177.620... (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 177.620 Ventilation of machinery and... containing machinery or fuel tanks must comply with the requirements of part 182 of this chapter....

  4. 46 CFR 78.17-30 - Examination of boilers and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 78.17-30 Section... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 78.17-30 Examination of boilers and machinery. It shall be the duty of the chief engineer when assuming charge of the boilers and machinery of a vessel to...

  5. 30 CFR 56.3430 - Activity between machinery or equipment and the highwall or bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Activity between machinery or equipment and the... NONMETAL MINES Ground Control Precautions § 56.3430 Activity between machinery or equipment and the highwall or bank. Persons shall not work or travel between machinery or equipment and the highwall or...

  6. 46 CFR 167.65-60 - Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer. 167.65... machinery by engineer. It shall be the duty of an engineer when he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a nautical school ship to examine the same forthwith and thoroughly, and if he finds any...

  7. 46 CFR 32.35-1 - Boilers and machinery-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boilers and machinery-TB/ALL. 32.35-1 Section 32.35-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Main and Auxiliary Machinery § 32.35-1 Boilers and machinery—TB/ALL. Boilers, main and...

  8. The trend of German packaging machinery design%德国包装机械设计趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Germany, the US, Japan and Italy are among the world big packaging machinery countries. The German packaging machinery takes the lead in the fields of design, manufacture and technical performance. German packaging machinery valued at Euro 3.4 billion in 2002.70%of the European packaging machinery is made by Germany. Germany exports 77% packaging machinery; amounting to 29% of the export market of the world packaging machinery.

  9. Human Machine Interaction by Simulation of Dynamics of Construction Machinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Thomas Heegaard

    This industrial Ph.D. project concerns whole-body vibrations in human operated construction machinery. The emissions of these vibrations is closely related to the subjective experience of comfort and in some cases these vibrations can occur in a level which can cause the operator back disorders...... on long term basis. Whole-body vibrations are potential damaging for the human operator in a frequency range for which the dynamics of the machines are dominated by the inputs of the operator. The objective of this project is to reduce the amount of potential damaging wholebody vibrations for two...... different kinds of machinery; an articulated backhoe loader and an articulated dump truck. In this work a standardized procedure containing a set of duty cycles for measuring and declaring whole-body vibrations has been proposed for both of these machines. The result of the measuring is important...

  10. Manifold learning-based subspace distance for machinery damage assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chuang; Zhang, Zhousuo; He, Zhengjia; Shen, Zhongjie; Chen, Binqiang

    2016-03-01

    Damage assessment is very meaningful to keep safety and reliability of machinery components, and vibration analysis is an effective way to carry out the damage assessment. In this paper, a damage index is designed by performing manifold distance analysis on vibration signal. To calculate the index, vibration signal is collected firstly, and feature extraction is carried out to obtain statistical features that can capture signal characteristics comprehensively. Then, manifold learning algorithm is utilized to decompose feature matrix to be a subspace, that is, manifold subspace. The manifold learning algorithm seeks to keep local relationship of the feature matrix, which is more meaningful for damage assessment. Finally, Grassmann distance between manifold subspaces is defined as a damage index. The Grassmann distance reflecting manifold structure is a suitable metric to measure distance between subspaces in the manifold. The defined damage index is applied to damage assessment of a rotor and the bearing, and the result validates its effectiveness for damage assessment of machinery component.

  11. Remote detection of rotating machinery with a portable atomic magnetometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmugi, Luca; Gori, Lorenzo; Hussain, Sarah; Deans, Cameron; Renzoni, Ferruccio

    2017-01-20

    We demonstrate remote detection of rotating machinery, using an atomic magnetometer at room temperature and in an unshielded environment. The system relies on the coupling of the AC magnetic signature of the target with the spin-polarized, precessing atomic vapor of a radio-frequency optical atomic magnetometer. The AC magnetic signatures of rotating equipment or electric motors appear as sidebands in the power spectrum of the atomic sensor, which can be tuned to avoid noisy bands that would otherwise hamper detection. A portable apparatus is implemented and experimentally tested. Proof-of-concept investigations are performed with test targets mimicking possible applications, and the operational conditions for optimum detection are determined. Our instrument provides comparable or better performance than a commercial fluxgate and allows detection of rotating machinery behind a wall. These results demonstrate the potential for ultrasensitive devices for remote industrial and usage monitoring, security, and surveillance.

  12. B2B Marketing in the Flexographic Machinery Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Verner, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Soma Engineering, Czech engineering company, designed its new marketing strategy in order to succeed amongst its competitors in the flexographic machinery market. Goal of the thesis is to verify if the new marketing strategy of SOMA engineering leads to desired positioning of the company and its products in selected markets. In case, the research indicates that the strategy does not work, identify the areas/attributes where the company lacks behind the desired positioning. Desired positioning...

  13. The Diagnosis of Reciprocating Machinery by Bayesian Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A Bayesian Network is a reasoning tool based on probability theory and has many advantages that other reasoning tools do not have. This paper discusses the basic theory of Bayesian networks and studies the problems in constructing Bayesian networks. The paper also constructs a Bayesian diagnosis network of a reciprocating compressor. The example helps us to draw a conclusion that Bayesian diagnosis networks can diagnose reciprocating machinery effectively.

  14. Abrasive Wear of Alloyed Cast Steels Applied for Heavy Machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Studnicki A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the results and analysis of abrasive wear studies were shown for two grades of cast steels: low-alloyed cast steel applied for heavy machinery parts such as housing, covers etc. and chromium cast steels applied for kinetic nodes of pin-sleeve type. Studies were performed using the modified in Department of Foundry pin-on-disc method.

  15. A Study of Sugarcane Leaf-Removal Machinery during Harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sopa Cansee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Sugarcane leaf-removing tools could help speed up sugarcane harvest and reduce contamination. Moreover, leaf-removal machinery can solve the problems of sugarcane burning and workers can increase sugarcane harvest production too. The purpose of this research was to study the use of leaf-removal machinery in the post-harvest production of sugarcane to reduce harvest production time and contaminant. Approach: This study focused on the LK92-11 variety of sugarcane having a harvesting period of 12 months, a density of 9,387 stems/rai and could produce 14.01 tons/rai including cane top and, leaves and leaf sheaths of 1675.2 and 180 kg/rai. Sugarcane leaf-removal machinery was applied to a small engine power from a grass-cutting machine. A rotate dish applied 4 different materials, tendon string, soft wire, medium wire and sling for sugarcane leaf-removing. The machine was operated at a constant speed. The efficiency of the sugarcane leaf-removal machinery indicated the capacity of sugarcane leaf-removing by area and operation time. Results: The quantity of leaves and leaf sheaths affect the speed of harvest production. Moreover, leaves and leaf sheaths increase the waste material in production and also contaminate the sugar and the sugar production system with clay, sand, and mud from the fields. Traditional methods for sugarcane harvest without removing leaf took 37 h/rai to complete, but sugarcane leaf-removing could reduce the sugarcane harvest process to 11.4 h/rai. Conclusion: The material of the blades in de-leafing machine is crucial to the efficiency of harvest production time. Blades made from poor materials can cause tangling and clogging in the rotator dish, which increases maintenance time. Further developments in sugarcane leaf removal systems will create dramatic improvement in sugarcane production.

  16. siRNA machinery in whitefly (Bemisia tabaci).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar; Dixit, Sameer; Sharma, Shailesh; Singh, Harpal; Kumar, Jitesh; Verma, Praveen C; Chandrashekar, K

    2013-01-01

    RNA interference has been emerged as an utmost tool for the control of sap sucking insect pests. Systemic response is necessary to control them in field condition. Whitefly is observed to be more prone to siRNA in recent studies, however the siRNA machinery and mechanism is not well established. To identify the core siRNA machinery, we curated transcriptome data of whitefly from NCBI database. Partial mRNA sequences encoding Dicer2, R2D2, Argonaute2 and Sid1 were identified by tblastn search of homologous sequences from Aphis glycines and Tribolium castaneum. Complete encoding sequences were obtained by RACE, protein sequences derived by Expasy translate tool and confirmed by blastp analysis. Conserved domain search and Prosite-Scan showed similar domain architecture as reported in homologs from related insects. We found helicase, PAZ, RNaseIIIa, RNaseIIIb and double-stranded RNA-binding fold (DSRBF) in Dicer2; DsRBD in R2D2; and PAZ and PIWI domains in Argonaute2. Eleven transmembrane domains were detected in Sid1. Sequence homology and phylogenetic analysis revealed that RNAi machinery of whitefly is close to Aphids. Real-time PCR analysis showed similar expression of these genes in different developmental stages as reported in A. glycines and T. castaneum. Further, the expression level of above genes was quite similar to the housekeeping gene actin. Availability of core siRNA machinery including the Sid1 and their universal expression in reasonable quantity indicated significant response of whitefly towards siRNA. Present report opens the way for controlling whitefly, one of the most destructive crop insect pest.

  17. Performance of machinery in potato production in one growing season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Zhou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Statistics on the machinery performance are essential for farm managers to make better decisions. In this paper, the performance of all machineries in five sequential operations, namely bed forming, stone separation, planting, spraying and harvesting in the potato production system, were investigated during one growing season. In order to analyse and decompose the recorded GPS data into various time and distance elements for estimation of the machinery performance, an automatic GPS analysis tool was developed. The field efficiency and field capacity were estimated for each operation. Specifically, the measured average field efficiency was 71.3% for bed forming, 68.5% for stone separation, 40.3% for planting, 69.7% for spraying, and 67.4% for harvesting. The measured average field capacities were 1.46 ha/h, 0.53 ha/h, 0.47 ha/h, 10.21 ha/h, 0.51 ha/h, for the bed forming, stone separation, planting, spraying, and harvesting operations, respectively. These results deviate from the corresponding estimations calculated based on norm data from the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE. The deviations indicate that norms provided by ASABE cannot be used directly for the prediction of performance of the machinery used in this work. Moreover, the measured data of bed forming and stone separation could be used as supplementary data for the ASABE which does not provide performance norms for these two operations. The gained results can help farm managers to make better management and operational decisions that result in potential improvement in productivity and profitability as well as in potential environmental benefits.

  18. Construction Machinery as Sensors in Internet of Things

    OpenAIRE

    Stopar, Gregor

    2016-01-01

    In diploma thesis we will make an overview of the field of internet of things with a focus on its use in industry. We will overview cloud services aswell and its integration with internet of things. We will implement a system which uses both technologies and serves as a control system for construction machinery, where we will present chosen components, technologies, protocols and design of system. We will create an embedded system with sensors for gathering information from machines and sendi...

  19. Performance of machinery in potato production in one growing season

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, K.; Jensen, A.L.; Bochtis, D.D.; Sørensen, C.G.

    2015-07-01

    Statistics on the machinery performance are essential for farm managers to make better decisions. In this paper, the performance of all machineries in five sequential operations, namely bed forming, stone separation, planting, spraying and harvesting in the potato production system, were investigated during one growing season. In order to analyse and decompose the recorded GPS data into various time and distance elements for estimation of the machinery performance, an automatic GPS analysis tool was developed. The field efficiency and field capacity were estimated for each operation. Specifically, the measured average field efficiency was 71.3% for bed forming, 68.5% for stone separation, 40.3% for planting, 69.7% for spraying, and 67.4% for harvesting. The measured average field capacities were 1.46 ha/h, 0.53 ha/h, 0.47 ha/h, 10.21 ha/h, 0.51 ha/h, for the bed forming, stone separation, planting, spraying, and harvesting operations, respectively. These results deviate from the corresponding estimations calculated based on norm data from the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE). The deviations indicate that norms provided by ASABE cannot be used directly for the prediction of performance of the machinery used in this work. Moreover, the measured data of bed forming and stone separation could be used as supplementary data for the ASABE which does not provide performance norms for these two operations. The gained results can help farm managers to make better management and operational decisions that result in potential improvement in productivity and profitability as well as in potential environmental benefits. (Author)

  20. Government Doc.: Guideline for Chinese Textile Machinery Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Editor's note: Ministry of Industry and Information Technology(MIIT)has issued an instructive guideline for the development of textile machinery industry in China in an effort to cope with the impact of financial crisis and elaborate on its support for the specific area of interest in promoting this industry in the days to come.This document is taken as an guidebook for textile players to know where this industry will go,and what goals to reach.

  1. Dedicated monitoring and machinery protection systems on reciprocating compressors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grande, Alvaro; Wenisch, Markus [Hoerbiger Ventilwerke GmbH and Co KG, Wien (Austria); Jacobs, Denis [HOERBIGER do Brasil Industria de Equipamentos, Cajamar, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Growing demands on reciprocating compressors (recips) in the process gas industry require particular solutions for machinery protection and performance monitoring systems. Compared to rotating equipment, monitoring systems for recips have to consider the special mechanical and physical characteristics, such as oscillating masses, variable vibration behaviour and varying operating conditions. Furthermore, they provide valuable information about the performance of cylinder related components allowing the operator the optimization of efficiency and availability, and therefore increase production. (author)

  2. An Evaluation of Aerosol Extinguishing Systems for Machinery Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-01

    MSC/Cir. 1007) “Guidelines for the Approval of Fixed Aerosol Fire-Extinguishing Systems Equivalent to Fixed Gas Fire -Extinguishing Systems...Committee/Circular (MSC/Circ.) 1007 “Guidelines for the Approval of Fixed Aerosol Fire-Extinguishing Systems Equivalent to Fixed Gas Fire -Extinguishing...combustibles in machinery spaces. This test is also required in the approval of both halocarbon and inert gas fire extinguishing systems. These issues

  3. Surface topography study of prepared 3D printed moulds via 3D printer for silicone elastomer based nasal prosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Abdul Manaf; Din, Tengku Noor Daimah Tengku; Mohamad, Dasmawati; Rahim, Tuan Noraihan Azila Tuan; Akil, Hazizan Md; Rajion, Zainul Ahmad

    2016-12-01

    Conventional prosthesis fabrication is highly depends on the hand creativity of laboratory technologist. The development in 3D printing technology offers a great help in fabricating affordable and fast yet esthetically acceptable prostheses. This study was conducted to discover the potential of 3D printed moulds for indirect silicone elastomer based nasal prosthesis fabrication. Moulds were designed using computer aided design (CAD) software (Solidworks, USA) and converted into the standard tessellation language (STL) file. Three moulds with layer thickness of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3mm were printed utilizing polymer filament based 3D printer (Makerbot Replicator 2X, Makerbot, USA). Another one mould was printed utilizing liquid resin based 3D printer (Objet 30 Scholar, Stratasys, USA) as control. The printed moulds were then used to fabricate maxillofacial silicone specimens (n=10)/mould. Surface profilometer (Surfcom Flex, Accretech, Japan), digital microscope (KH77000, Hirox, USA) and scanning electron microscope (Quanta FEG 450, Fei, USA) were used to measure the surface roughness as well as the topological properties of fabricated silicone. Statistical analysis of One-Way ANOVA was employed to compare the surface roughness of the fabricated silicone elastomer. Result obtained demonstrated significant differences in surface roughness of the fabricated silicone (p<0.01). Further post hoc analysis also revealed significant differences in silicone fabricated using different 3D printed moulds (p<0.01). A 3D printed mould was successfully prepared and characterized. With surface topography that could be enhanced, inexpensive and rapid mould fabrication techniques, polymer filament based 3D printer is potential for indirect silicone elastomer based nasal prosthesis fabrication.

  4. WE-D-18A-05: Construction of Realistic Liver Phantoms From Patient Images and a Commercial 3D Printer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leng, S; Vrieze, T; Kuhlmann, J; Yu, L; Matsumoto, J; Morris, J; McCollough, C [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To assess image quality and radiation dose reduction in abdominal CT imaging, physical phantoms having realistic background textures and lesions are highly desirable. The purpose of this work was to construct a liver phantom with realistic background and lesions using patient CT images and a 3D printer. Methods: Patient CT images containing liver lesions were segmented into liver tissue, contrast-enhanced vessels, and liver lesions using commercial software (Mimics, Materialise, Belgium). Stereolithography (STL) files of each segmented object were created and imported to a 3D printer (Object350 Connex, Stratasys, MN). After test scans were performed to map the eight available printing materials into CT numbers, printing materials were assigned to each object and a physical liver phantom printed. The printed phantom was scanned on a clinical CT scanner and resulting images were compared with the original patient CT images. Results: The eight available materials used to print the liver phantom had CT number ranging from 62 to 117 HU. In scans of the liver phantom, the liver lesions and veins represented in the STL files were all visible. Although the absolute value of the CT number in the background liver material (approx. 85 HU) was higher than in patients (approx. 40 HU), the difference in CT numbers between lesions and background were representative of the low contrast values needed for optimization tasks. Future work will investigate materials with contrast sufficient to emulate contrast-enhanced arteries. Conclusion: Realistic liver phantoms can be constructed from patient CT images using a commercial 3D printer. This technique may provide phantoms able to determine the effect of radiation dose reduction and noise reduction techniques on the ability to detect subtle liver lesions in the context of realistic background textures.

  5. Spatiotemporal Regulation of Nuclear Transport Machinery and Microtubule Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoyuki Okada

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Spindle microtubules capture and segregate chromosomes and, therefore, their assembly is an essential event in mitosis. To carry out their mission, many key players for microtubule formation need to be strictly orchestrated. Particularly, proteins that assemble the spindle need to be translocated at appropriate sites during mitosis. A small GTPase (hydrolase enzyme of guanosine triphosphate, Ran, controls this translocation. Ran plays many roles in many cellular events: nucleocytoplasmic shuttling through the nuclear envelope, assembly of the mitotic spindle, and reorganization of the nuclear envelope at the mitotic exit. Although these events are seemingly distinct, recent studies demonstrate that the mechanisms underlying these phenomena are substantially the same as explained by molecular interplay of the master regulator Ran, the transport factor importin, and its cargo proteins. Our review focuses on how the transport machinery regulates mitotic progression of cells. We summarize translocation mechanisms governed by Ran and its regulatory proteins, and particularly focus on Ran-GTP targets in fission yeast that promote spindle formation. We also discuss the coordination of the spatial and temporal regulation of proteins from the viewpoint of transport machinery. We propose that the transport machinery is an essential key that couples the spatial and temporal events in cells.

  6. On the reversed Brayton cycle with high speed machinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, J.

    1996-12-31

    This work was carried out in the laboratory of Fluid Dynamics, at Lappeenranta University of Technology during the years 1991-1996. The research was a part of larger high speed technology development research. First, there was the idea of making high speed machinery applications with the Brayton cycle. There was a clear need to deepen the knowledge of the cycle itself and to make a new approach in the field of the research. Also, the removal of water from the humid air seemed very interesting. The goal of this work was to study methods of designing high speed machinery for the reversed Brayton cycle, from theoretical principles to practical applications. The reversed Brayton cycle can be employed as an air dryer, a heat pump or a refrigerating machine. In this research the use of humid air as a working fluid has an environmental advantage, as well. A new calculation method for the Brayton cycle is developed. In this method especially the expansion process in the turbine is important because of the condensation of the water vapour in the humid air. This physical phenomena can have significant effects on the level of performance of the application. Also, the influence of calculating the process with actual, achievable process equipment efficiencies is essential for the development of future machinery. The above theoretical calculations are confirmed with two different laboratory prototypes. (53 refs.)

  7. Assembly of the bacterial type III secretion machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diepold, Andreas; Wagner, Samuel

    2014-07-01

    Many bacteria that live in contact with eukaryotic hosts, whether as symbionts or as pathogens, have evolved mechanisms that manipulate host cell behaviour to their benefit. One such mechanism, the type III secretion system, is employed by Gram-negative bacterial species to inject effector proteins into host cells. This function is reflected by the overall shape of the machinery, which resembles a molecular syringe. Despite the simplicity of the concept, the type III secretion system is one of the most complex known bacterial nanomachines, incorporating one to more than hundred copies of up to twenty different proteins into a multi-MDa transmembrane complex. The structural core of the system is the so-called needle complex that spans the bacterial cell envelope as a tripartite ring system and culminates in a needle protruding from the bacterial cell surface. Substrate targeting and translocation are accomplished by an export machinery consisting of various inner membrane embedded and cytoplasmic components. The formation of such a multimembrane-spanning machinery is an intricate task that requires precise orchestration. This review gives an overview of recent findings on the assembly of type III secretion machines, discusses quality control and recycling of the system and proposes an integrated assembly model.

  8. A phantom production by using 3-dimensional printer and In-vivo dosimetry for a prostate cancer patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jung Nam; Na, Jong Eok; Bae, Sun Myung; Jung, Dong Min; Yoon, In Ha; Bae, Jae Bum; Kwack, Jung Won; Baek, Geum Mun [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, ASAN Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of a 3D printed phantom for in-vivo dosimetry of a prostate cancer patient. The phantom is produced to equally describe prostate and rectum based on a 3D volume contour of an actual prostate cancer patient who is treated in Asan Medical Center by using a 3D printer (3D EDISON+, Lokit, Korea). CT(Computed tomography) images of phantom are acquired by computed tomography (Lightspeed CT, GE, USA). By using treatment planning system (Eclipse version 10.0, Varian, USA), treatment planning is established after volume of a prostate cancer patient is compared with volume of the phantom. MOSFET(Metal OXIDE Silicon Field Effect Transistor) is estimated to identify precision and is located in 4 measuring points (bladder, prostate, rectal anterior wall and rectal posterior wall) to analyzed treatment planning and measured value. Prostate volume and rectum volume of prostate cancer patient represent 30.61 cc and 51.19 cc respectively. In case of a phantom, prostate volume and rectum volume represent 31.12 cc and 53.52 cc respectively. A variation of volume between a prostate cancer patient and a phantom is less than 3%. Precision of MOSFET represents less than 3%. It indicates linearity and correlation coefficient indicates from 0.99 - 1.00 depending on dose variation. Each accuracy of bladder, prostate, rectal anterior wall and rectal posterior wall represent 1.4%, 2.6%, 3.7% and 1.5% respectively. In- vivo dosimetry represents entirely less than 5% considering precision of MOSFET. By using a 3D printer, possibility of phantom production based on prostate is verified precision within 3%. effectiveness of In-vivo dosimetry is confirmed from a phantom which is produced by a 3D printer. In-vivo dosimetry is evaluated entirely less than 5% considering precision of MOSFET. Therefore, This study is confirmed the usefulness of a 3D printed phantom for in-vivo dosimetry of a prostate cancer patient. It is necessary to additional

  9. Tools for Teaching Mathematical Functions and Geometric Figures to Tactile Visualization through a Braille Printer for Visual Impairment People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena León

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we showed the features and facilities offered by two new computer programs developed for the treatment and generation of geometric figures and math functions, through a Braille printer designed for visually impaired people. The programs have complete accessible features, in which users with full visual impairments can communicate with the systems via short-keys, and the speech synthesizer. The system sends sound messages that will accompanying the user during all the process to generate geometrical figures or to do a mathematical treatment. Finally, a tactile visualization displays as the results to the person with visual impairment, thus they will can complete their geometry and mathematical studies.

  10. 光栅印刷加网的打印优化研究%Printer Optimization for Lenticular Screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jessica D. Armour; Daniel L. Lau; 张桂兰

    2009-01-01

    Digital Halftoning refers to any process used to convert continuous-tone images into an arrangement of black and white pixels, creating the illusion of a continuous-tone image. Lenticular screening is the process of multiplexing multiple images together column-wise into a single image which is then printed onto the flat side of a lenticular lens array such that from a given angle only one of the component images is visible. Lenticular screening presents a unique challenge to digital halftoning as a new generation of halftoning algorithms are needed in order to reduce the errors in lenticular prints caused by both lack of correlation between neighboring pixels and printer distortion. In this paper, we have addressed the issue of printer distortion, attempting to reduce error in lenticular prints by achieving a higher level of control over the printer being used for the print. We took into account the influence of a printed pixel on the resulting gray-level of surrounding pixels, adjusting printer resolution to account for dot overlap from various channels in order to reduce blurring within prints.%数字加网是指将连续调图像转换成由像素排列的图像的过程,使观察者产生一种连续调图像的错觉.光栅印刷加网是将组成柱面状的复用多张图像形成单一图像,然后打印到一个柱面透镜阵列的平面侧,这样从某一特定角度只能看到组合图像的一部分.为了减少光栅印刷中因相邻像素间缺乏关联和打印机失真而造成的误差,光栅印刷加网作为新一代的加网算法对数字加网提出挑战.在本论文中,讨论了打印机的失真问题,通过更好地控制打印机,达到光栅印刷中减少加网错误的目的.同时,考虑到打印像素对周围像素所产生的灰阶影响,通过各种方法调整打印机分辨率以解决网点重叠,从而减少打印图像模糊.

  11. Production of radioactive phantoms using a standard inkjet printer and the public domain multi-printing code GENIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scafè, R; Auer, P; Bennati, P; La Porta, L; Pisacane, F; Cinti, M N; Pellegrini, R; De Vincentis, G; Conte, G; Pani, R

    2011-10-01

    The public domain code GENIA, based on multi-printing method for producing surface sources with appropriate radioactivity, is described. The conventional technique, running on standard inkjet printer with radio-marked ink filling, is improved by repeating elementary printing commands in the same band. Well outlined sources with adjustable radioactivity can be obtained without refilling. The intrinsic limitation of printable radioactivity, depending on the value available at nozzles at printing time, was overcome. In addition the method permits the accurate calibration of the amount of activity released onto the paper.

  12. RFID技术在打印机中的应用%RFID Technology in the Passbook Printer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林晓铮

    2012-01-01

    With the development of RFID technology and the decrease of the RFID tag cost,RFID technology is beginning to be used in the financial field.This article introduces the using of the FRID technology in the passbook printer and gives an example to demonstrate its realization.%随着RFID技术的不断完善以及RFID标签的成本的不断降低,RFID技术在金融行业逐渐开始应用。本文介绍了FRID在存折打印机中的应用,并给出了相关演示案例。

  13. New Technique for Developing a Proton Range Compensator With Use of a 3-Dimensional Printer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Sang Gyu, E-mail: sg.ju@samsung.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Min Kyu; Hong, Chae-Seon; Kim, Jin Sung; Han, Youngyih; Choi, Doo Ho [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Dongho; Lee, Se Byeong [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: A new system for manufacturing a proton range compensator (RC) was developed by using a 3-dimensional printer (3DP). The physical accuracy and dosimetric characteristics of the new RC manufactured by 3DP (RC{sub 3}DP) were compared with those of a conventional RC (RC{sub C}MM) manufactured by a computerized milling machine (CMM). Methods and Materials: An RC for brain tumor treatment with a scattered proton beam was calculated with a treatment planning system, and the resulting data were converted into a new format for 3DP using in-house software. The RC{sub 3}DP was printed with ultraviolet curable acrylic plastic, and an RC{sub C}MM was milled into polymethylmethacrylate using a CMM. The inner shape of both RCs was scanned by using a 3D scanner and compared with TPS data by applying composite analysis (CA; with 1-mm depth difference and 1 mm distance-to-agreement criteria) to verify their geometric accuracy. The position and distal penumbra of distal dose falloff at the central axis and field width of the dose profile at the midline depth of spread-out Bragg peak were measured for the 2 RCs to evaluate their dosimetric characteristics. Both RCs were imaged on a computed tomography scanner to evaluate uniformity of internal density. The manufacturing times for both RCs were compared to evaluate the production efficiency. Results: The pass rates for the CA test were 99.5% and 92.5% for RC{sub 3}DP and RC{sub C}MM, respectively. There was no significant difference in dosimetric characteristics and uniformity of internal density between the 2 RCs. The net fabrication times of RC{sub 3}DP and RC{sub C}MM were about 18 and 3 hours, respectively. Conclusions: The physical accuracy and dosimetric characteristics of RC{sub 3}DP were comparable with those of the conventional RC{sub C}MM, and significant system minimization was provided.

  14. Factors associated with small-scale agricultural machinery adoption in Bangladesh: Census findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottaleb, Khondoker Abdul; Krupnik, Timothy J; Erenstein, Olaf

    2016-08-01

    There is strong advocacy for agricultural machinery appropriate for smallholder farmers in South Asia. Such 'scale-appropriate' machinery can increase returns to land and labour, although the still substantial capital investment required can preclude smallholder ownership. Increasing machinery demand has resulted in relatively well-developed markets for rental services for tillage, irrigation, and post-harvest operations. Many smallholders thereby access agricultural machinery that may have otherwise been cost prohibitive to purchase through fee-for-service arrangements, though opportunity for expansion remains. To more effectively facilitate the development and investment in scale-appropriate machinery, there is a need to better understand the factors associated with agricultural machinery purchases and service provision. This paper first reviews Bangladesh's historical policy environment that facilitated the development of agricultural machinery markets. It then uses recent Bangladesh census data from 814,058 farm households to identify variables associated with the adoption of the most common smallholder agricultural machinery - irrigation pumps, threshers, and power tillers (mainly driven by two-wheel tractors). Multinomial probit model results indicate that machinery ownership is positively associated with household assets, credit availability, electrification, and road density. These findings suggest that donors and policy makers should focus not only on short-term projects to boost machinery adoption. Rather, sustained emphasis on improving physical and civil infrastructure and services, as well as assuring credit availability, is also necessary to create an enabling environment in which the adoption of scale-appropriate farm machinery is most likely.

  15. Risk assessments and safe machinery ensuring compliance with the EU directives

    CERN Document Server

    Jespen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    This book describes the prerequisites for the placing on the market and the safe use of machinery in compliance with the relevant EU Directives, especially the Machinery Directive 2006/42. It provides readers with high-level knowledge concerning the Essential Health and Safety Requirements (EHSR) that machinery must fulfill. The approach and principles of the Machinery Directive were most recently made worldwide acknowledged in the ILO code of practice on safe machinery, released in 2013. The book addresses that code, as well as providing valuable insight into other EU Product and Workplace legislation. Focusing on the key aspect of safe machinery, the “machinery safety risk assessment”, which allows readers to better understand the more difficult aspects of risk assessments, the book equips readers to tackle problems at the manufacturing stage and in different use scenarios, introducing them to risk reduction techniques and functional safety aspects.

  16. Open-Source Wax RepRap 3-D Printer for Rapid Prototyping Paper-Based Microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, J M; Anzalone, N C; Heldt, C L

    2016-08-01

    The open-source release of self-replicating rapid prototypers (RepRaps) has created a rich opportunity for low-cost distributed digital fabrication of complex 3-D objects such as scientific equipment. For example, 3-D printable reactionware devices offer the opportunity to combine open hardware microfluidic handling with lab-on-a-chip reactionware to radically reduce costs and increase the number and complexity of microfluidic applications. To further drive down the cost while improving the performance of lab-on-a-chip paper-based microfluidic prototyping, this study reports on the development of a RepRap upgrade capable of converting a Prusa Mendel RepRap into a wax 3-D printer for paper-based microfluidic applications. An open-source hardware approach is used to demonstrate a 3-D printable upgrade for the 3-D printer, which combines a heated syringe pump with the RepRap/Arduino 3-D control. The bill of materials, designs, basic assembly, and use instructions are provided, along with a completely free and open-source software tool chain. The open-source hardware device described here accelerates the potential of the nascent field of electrochemical detection combined with paper-based microfluidics by dropping the marginal cost of prototyping to nearly zero while accelerating the turnover between paper-based microfluidic designs. © 2016 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  17. Total body irradiation with a compensator fabricated using a 3D optical scanner and a 3D printer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So-Yeon; Kim, Jung-in; Joo, Yoon Ha; Lee, Jung Chan; Park, Jong Min

    2017-05-01

    We propose bilateral total body irradiation (TBI) utilizing a 3D printer and a 3D optical scanner. We acquired surface information of an anthropomorphic phantom with the 3D scanner and fabricated the 3D compensator with the 3D printer, which could continuously compensate for the lateral missing tissue of an entire body from the beam’s eye view. To test the system’s performance, we measured doses with optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters (OSLDs) as well as EBT3 films with the anthropomorphic phantom during TBI without a compensator, conventional bilateral TBI, and TBI with the 3D compensator (3D TBI). The 3D TBI showed the most uniform dose delivery to the phantom. From the OSLD measurements of the 3D TBI, the deviations between the measured doses and the prescription dose ranged from  -6.7% to 2.4% inside the phantom and from  -2.3% to 0.6% on the phantom’s surface. From the EBT3 film measurements, the prescription dose could be delivered to the entire body of the phantom within  ±10% accuracy, except for the chest region, where tissue heterogeneity is extreme. The 3D TBI doses were much more uniform than those of the other irradiation techniques, especially in the anterior-to-posterior direction. The 3D TBI was advantageous, owing to its uniform dose delivery as well as its efficient treatment procedure.

  18. Operative simulation of anterior clinoidectomy using a rapid prototyping model molded by a three-dimensional printer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonogi, Shinichi; Kondo, Kosuke; Harada, Naoyuki; Masuda, Hiroyuki; Nemoto, Masaaki; Sugo, Nobuo

    2017-05-15

    As the anatomical three-dimensional (3D) positional relationship around the anterior clinoid process (ACP) is complex, experience of many surgeries is necessary to understand anterior clinoidectomy (AC). We prepared a 3D synthetic image from computed tomographic angiography (CTA) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data and a rapid prototyping (RP) model from the imaging data using a 3D printer. The objective of this study was to evaluate anatomical reproduction of the 3D synthetic image and intraosseous region after AC in the RP model. In addition, the usefulness of the RP model for operative simulation was investigated. The subjects were 51 patients who were examined by CTA and MRI before surgery. The size of the ACP, thickness and length of the optic nerve and artery, and intraosseous length after AC were measured in the 3D synthetic image and RP model, and reproducibility in the RP model was evaluated. In addition, 10 neurosurgeons performed AC in the completed RP models to investigate their usefulness for operative simulation. The RP model reproduced the region in the vicinity of the ACP in the 3D synthetic image, including the intraosseous region, at a high accuracy. In addition, drilling of the RP model was a useful operative simulation method of AC. The RP model of the vicinity of ACP, prepared using a 3D printer, showed favorable anatomical reproducibility, including reproduction of the intraosseous region. In addition, it was concluded that this RP model is useful as a surgical education tool for drilling.

  19. Total body irradiation with a compensator fabricated using a 3D optical scanner and a 3D printer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So-Yeon; Kim, Jung-In; Joo, Yoon Ha; Lee, Jung Chan; Park, Jong Min

    2017-05-07

    We propose bilateral total body irradiation (TBI) utilizing a 3D printer and a 3D optical scanner. We acquired surface information of an anthropomorphic phantom with the 3D scanner and fabricated the 3D compensator with the 3D printer, which could continuously compensate for the lateral missing tissue of an entire body from the beam's eye view. To test the system's performance, we measured doses with optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters (OSLDs) as well as EBT3 films with the anthropomorphic phantom during TBI without a compensator, conventional bilateral TBI, and TBI with the 3D compensator (3D TBI). The 3D TBI showed the most uniform dose delivery to the phantom. From the OSLD measurements of the 3D TBI, the deviations between the measured doses and the prescription dose ranged from  -6.7% to 2.4% inside the phantom and from  -2.3% to 0.6% on the phantom's surface. From the EBT3 film measurements, the prescription dose could be delivered to the entire body of the phantom within  ±10% accuracy, except for the chest region, where tissue heterogeneity is extreme. The 3D TBI doses were much more uniform than those of the other irradiation techniques, especially in the anterior-to-posterior direction. The 3D TBI was advantageous, owing to its uniform dose delivery as well as its efficient treatment procedure.

  20. Use of 3D printers to create a patient-specific 3D bolus for external beam therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleson, Sarah; Baker, Jamie; Hsia, An Ting; Xu, Zhigang

    2015-05-08

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that an inexpensive 3D printer can be used to manufacture patient-specific bolus for external beam therapy, and to show we can accurately model this printed bolus in our treatment planning system for accurate treatment delivery. Percent depth-dose measurements and tissue maximum ratios were used to determine the characteristics of the printing materials, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene and polylactic acid, as bolus material with physical density of 1.04 and 1.2 g/cm3, and electron density of 3.38 × 10²³ electrons/cm3 and 3.80 × 10²³ electrons/ cm3, respectively. Dose plane comparisons using Gafchromic EBT2 film and the RANDO phantom were used to verify accurate treatment planning. We accurately modeled a printing material in Eclipse treatment planning system, assigning it a Hounsfield unit of 260. We were also able to verify accurate treatment planning using gamma analysis for dose plane comparisons. With gamma criteria of 5% dose difference and 2 mm DTA, we were able to have 86.5% points passing, and with gamma criteria of 5% dose difference and 3 mm DTA, we were able to have 95% points passing. We were able to create a patient-specific bolus using an inexpensive 3D printer and model it in our treatment planning system for accurate treatment delivery.

  1. Research on Development and Trend Analysis of 3D Printer Models%三维打印机机型发展与趋势分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛晰

    2015-01-01

    介绍了三维打印的发展历程及各型三维打印机的性能特点。按照三维打印机的发展时段,可分为传统型三维打印机、特种型三维打印机和普及型三维打印机这三种大的类型。由于三维打印机具备现代工业的技术特点,在三维软件技术整合方面、三维打印材料标准化应用方面以及对传统行业的刺激等方面都呈现出显著的影响作用。%Three dimensional printing is also called 3D print, it is a modern industrialized production technology based on superposition forming manufacturing method, to achieve this forming manufacturing method, the application of the device is called a 3D printer. In accordance with the development of time 3D printers, they can be divided into three types such as the traditional 3D printer, special type 3D printer and popular type of 3D printer. Due to the characteristics of modern industrial technology of 3D printers, it contributed to the integration of 3D software technology, standardization application in 3D printing materials, and the stimulation of traditional industrial and commercial industry exhibit significant effect.

  2. Development of a stereolithography (STL input and computer numerical control (CNC output algorithm for an entry-level 3-D printer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown, Andrew

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a prototype Stereolithography (STL file format slicing and tool-path generation algorithm, which serves as a data front-end for a Rapid Prototyping (RP entry- level three-dimensional (3-D printer. Used mainly in Additive Manufacturing (AM, 3-D printers are devices that apply plastic, ceramic, and metal, layer by layer, in all three dimensions on a flat surface (X, Y, and Z axis. 3-D printers, unfortunately, cannot print an object without a special algorithm that is required to create the Computer Numerical Control (CNC instructions for printing. An STL algorithm therefore forms a critical component for Layered Manufacturing (LM, also referred to as RP. The purpose of this study was to develop an algorithm that is capable of processing and slicing an STL file or multiple files, resulting in a tool-path, and finally compiling a CNC file for an entry-level 3- D printer. The prototype algorithm was implemented for an entry-level 3-D printer that utilises the Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM process or Solid Freeform Fabrication (SFF process; an AM technology. Following an experimental method, the full data flow path for the prototype algorithm was developed, starting with STL data files, and then processing the STL data file into a G-code file format by slicing the model and creating a tool-path. This layering method is used by most 3-D printers to turn a 2-D object into a 3-D object. The STL algorithm developed in this study presents innovative opportunities for LM, since it allows engineers and architects to transform their ideas easily into a solid model in a fast, simple, and cheap way. This is accomplished by allowing STL models to be sliced rapidly, effectively, and without error, and finally to be processed and prepared into a G-code print file.

  3. Formation of Temperature Mode in Internal Spaces of Armored Machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. I. Dziachek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An algorithm and a program  have been developed for calculation of temperature mode in a T-72 tank tower while using numerical methods. The paper reveals a satisfactory convergence of calculated and experimental data. The results pertaining to investigation of influence of various factors on the processes of temperature mode formation in the internal surfaces of the studied object are presented in the paper. The obtained results make it possible to develop technical solutions in respect of protection against condensation of water vapor on the internal surfaces of armored machinery.

  4. Parallel Simulation of 3-D Turbulent Flow Through Hydraulic Machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐宇; 吴玉林

    2003-01-01

    Parallel calculational methods were used to analyze incompressible turbulent flow through hydraulic machinery. Two parallel methods were used to simulate the complex flow field. The space decomposition method divides the computational domain into several sub-ranges. Parallel discrete event simulation divides the whole task into several parts according to their functions. The simulation results were compared with the serial simulation results and particle image velocimetry (PIV) experimental results. The results give the distribution and configuration of the complex vortices and illustrate the effectiveness of the parallel algorithms for numerical simulation of turbulent flows.

  5. Function complex for automated system of coke machinery remote control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonov, N.F.; Pankrat' ev, O.N.; Bannikov, L.S.; Slatin, E.I.; Parfenov, G.I.

    1979-05-01

    this paper discusses a functional control system for remote control of coking plants introduced at the KBAiM of the Giprokoks. The control block allows for three modes of operation: fully automatic, by predesignated program according to oven design and technology; semi-automatic, in which individual programs perform automatically, checked and initiated by the operator; and remote, in which the operator controls each operation from the control console. The functions of selecting the location for the coke machinery, signal transmission and control selection have been incorporated as three autonomous but interfacing systems. (In Russian)

  6. Operation Analysis for Electrical Machinery Based on Reluctance Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kenji; Ichinokura, Osamu

    In this paper, we describe the basis of a magnetic circuit method and introduce a reluctance network analysis (RNA) proposed by authors. The RNA, which is based on the magnetic circuit method, has some suitable merits for simulating electrical machineries such as a simple analytical model, ease of coupled analysis with electrical circuits, motion, and thermal fields. In addition to these merits, a general-purpose circuit simulator like “SPICE" can be utilized as a solver. We present some applications of the RNA to operation analysis for an orthogonal-core, a switched reluctance motor, and a permanent magnet generator.

  7. Targeting Transcription Elongation Machinery for Breast Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    INVESTIGATOR:    Kunxin  Luo CONTRACTING  ORGANIZATION:   University  of  California,  Berkeley REPORT  DATE:  May 2017   TYPE  OF  REPORT:    Annual...NUMBER A ND  ADDRESS(ES) University of California, Berkeley Berkeley, CA 94704 9. SPONSORING  /  MONITORING  AGENCY  NAME(S)  AND  ADDRESS(ES) 10...direct role for the P-TEFb transcription elongation machinery in breast cancer progression. However, in addition to residing in the 7SK snRNP

  8. Government Doc.:Guideline for Chinese Textile Machinery Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Ministry of industry and information Technology(MIIT) has issued an instructive guideline for the development of textile machinery industry in China in an effort to cope with the impact of financial crisis and elaborate on its support for the specific area of interest in promoting this industry in the days to come.This document is taken as an guidebook for textile players to know where this industry will go,and what goals to reach.Whether you are an investor or a competitor,we advise you to study it,to understand it and to take advantage of it.It’s good for all.

  9. Elements of active vibration control for rotating machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, Heinz

    1990-01-01

    The success or failure of active vibration control is determined by the availability of suitable actuators, modeling of the entire system including all active elements, positioning of the actuators and sensors, and implementation of problem-adapted control concepts. All of these topics are outlined and their special problems are discussed in detail. Special attention is given to efficient modeling of systems, especially for considering the active elements. Finally, design methods for and the application of active vibration control on rotating machinery are demonstrated by several real applications.

  10. Seismic Location Station for Detection of Unobserved Moving Military Machineries

    OpenAIRE

    Bayramov, Azad; Hashimov, Elshan

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to develop a seismic location station that can detect unobserved, moving military objects, and heavy military machineries behind a forest or a mountain at a distance of 1-2 kilometers from the determined location. Seismic location station includes specific 3D seismic detectors based on the very sensible piezoelectric sensors. The proposed piezoelectric detectors are based on the PVDF+BaTiO3+PZT polymer hybrid composite fabricated based on nano sized BaTiO3 (o...

  11. Effect of machinery wheel load on grass yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ole; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Kristensen, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    Effect of machinery wheel load on grass   Ole Green1, Rasmus N. Jørgensen2, Kristian Kristensen3, René Gislum3, Dionysis Bochtis1, & Claus G. Sørensen1   1University of Aarhus, Dept. of Agricultural Engineering 2University of Southern Denmark, Inst. of Chemical Eng., Biotechnology and Environmental...... 3University of Aarhus, Dept. of Genetics and Biotechnology   Corresponding author: Ole Green Address & e-mail: Research Centre Foulum, Blichers Allé 20, 8830 Tjele. Ole.Green@agrsci.dk     Abstract   Different traffic intensities have been shown to have a negative influence on the yield of grass...

  12. Human Machine Interaction by Simulation of Dynamics of Construction Machinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Thomas Heegaard

    different kinds of machinery; an articulated backhoe loader and an articulated dump truck. In this work a standardized procedure containing a set of duty cycles for measuring and declaring whole-body vibrations has been proposed for both of these machines. The result of the measuring is important......-body vibration exposure was more than 20 percent and at the same time the fuel consumption was reduced significant. Training of operators is hence beneficial for both employees and employers of the construction industry. The whole-body vibration exposure on operators of dump trucks are dominated by off...

  13. The Use of a 3D Printer in Pre-operative Planning for a Patient Requiring Acetabular Reconstructive Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, James M; Nahas, Samuel; Akhtar, Kashif; Daurka, Jasvinder

    2015-01-01

    Surgical management of acetabular fractures is often highly complex, and a successful outcome depends upon an appreciation of the fracture pattern and the most appropriate approach to reduce and hold it. Currently, computed tomography (CT) images are used in conjunction with plain x-rays to identify the main fracture components and their spatial relationship to one another, and as such surgeons still have to make decisions based upon their ability to visualise the fracture from the images available. 3D printers have now become widely available and inexpensive, and can be used to rapidly produce life-size models based on CT scans of an individual patient. The availability of patient specific, accurate and detailed models of complex acetabular fractures can aid planning of surgical management on a patient specific basis. This report describes the use of a 3D printer to create a life-size model reconstruction of the pelvis of a 48 year old male patient who sustained a left sided associated both column acetabular fracture following a motorbike accident in the Sahara Desert. The model allowed visualisation of the multiple fracture fragments and their relative displacements. The tactile feedback allowed assessment of the different fracture fragments. The relative displacement of the quadrilateral plate and posterior column fragments could be assessed and the surgeon felt that these would be amenable to reduction from an ilioinguinal approach. An anatomic reduction was achieved and was held with the application of a pelvic brim plate with 2 screws lagging the posterior column/quadrilateral plate fragment. There are previous examples of 3D models being used in orthopaedic surgery through the use of rapid prototyping, however this method is usually expensive and time consuming. Advances in 3D printer technology offer surgeons a number of advantages when treating these complex fractures. With the ever-increasing economy, ease of use and speed of additive processing, the

  14. Failure Accommodation Tested in Magnetic Suspension Systems for Rotating Machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenza, Andy J.

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field and Texas A&M University are developing techniques for accommodating certain types of failures in magnetic suspension systems used in rotating machinery. In recent years, magnetic bearings have become a viable alternative to rolling element bearings for many applications. For example, industrial machinery such as machine tool spindles and turbomolecular pumps can today be bought off the shelf with magnetically supported rotating components. Nova Gas Transmission Ltd. has large gas compressors in Canada that have been running flawlessly for years on magnetic bearings. To help mature this technology and quiet concerns over the reliability of magnetic bearings, NASA researchers have been investigating ways of making the bearing system tolerant to faults. Since the potential benefits from an oil-free, actively controlled bearing system are so attractive, research that is focused on assuring system reliability and safety is justifiable. With support from the Fast Quiet Engine program, Glenn's Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch is working to demonstrate fault-tolerant magnetic suspension systems targeted for aerospace engine applications. The Flywheel Energy Storage Program is also helping to fund this research.

  15. Viral interactions with components of the splicing machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, F

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic genes are often interrupted by stretches of sequence with no protein coding potential or obvious function. After transcription, these interrupting sequences must be removed to give rise to the mature messenger RNA. This fundamental process is called RNA splicing and is achieved by complicated machinery made of protein and RNA that assembles around the RNA to be edited. Viruses also use RNA splicing to maximize their coding potential and economize on genetic space, and use clever strategies to manipulate the splicing machinery to their advantage. This article gives an overview of the splicing process and provides examples of viral strategies that make use of various components of the splicing system to promote their replicative cycle. Representative virus families have been selected to illustrate the interaction with various regulatory proteins and ribonucleoproteins. The unifying theme is fine regulation through protein-protein and protein-RNA interactions with the spliceosome components and associated factors to promote or prevent spliceosome assembly on given splice sites, in addition to a strong influence from cis-regulatory sequences on viral transcripts. Because there is an intimate coupling of splicing with the processes that direct mRNA biogenesis, a description of how these viruses couple the regulation of splicing with the retention or stability of mRNAs is also included. It seems that a unique balance of suppression and activation of splicing and nuclear export works optimally for each family of viruses.

  16. Regulation of alternative splicing by the core spliceosomal machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltzman, Arneet L.; Pan, Qun; Blencowe, Benjamin J.

    2011-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) plays a major role in the generation of proteomic diversity and in gene regulation. However, the role of the basal splicing machinery in regulating AS remains poorly understood. Here we show that the core snRNP (small nuclear ribonucleoprotein) protein SmB/B′ self-regulates its expression by promoting the inclusion of a highly conserved alternative exon in its own pre-mRNA that targets the spliced transcript for nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD). Depletion of SmB/B′ in human cells results in reduced levels of snRNPs and a striking reduction in the inclusion levels of hundreds of additional alternative exons, with comparatively few effects on constitutive exon splicing levels. The affected alternative exons are enriched in genes encoding RNA processing and other RNA-binding factors, and a subset of these exons also regulate gene expression by activating NMD. Our results thus demonstrate a role for the core spliceosomal machinery in controlling an exon network that appears to modulate the levels of many RNA processing factors. PMID:21325135

  17. Rapid detection of biothreat agents based on cellular machinery.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Todd W.; Gantt, Richard W.

    2004-12-01

    This research addresses rapid and sensitive identification of biological agents in a complex background. We attempted to devise a method by which the specificity of the cellular transcriptional machinery could be used to detect and identify bacterial bio-terror agents in a background of other organisms. Bacterial cells contain RNA polymerases and transcription factors that transcribe genes into mRNA for translation into proteins. RNA polymerases in conjunction with transcription factors recognize regulatory elements (promoters) upstream of the gene. These promoters are, in many cases, recognized by the polymerase and transcription factor combinations of one species only. We have engineered a plasmid, for Escherichia coli, containing the virA promoter from the target species Shigella flexneri. This promoter was fused to a reporter gene Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP). In theory the indicator strain (carrying the plasmid) is mixed with the target strain and the two are lysed. The cellular machinery from both cells mixes and the GFP is produced. This report details the results of testing this system.

  18. High-Dimensional Statistical Learning: Roots, Justifications, and Potential Machineries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollanvari, Amin

    2015-01-01

    High-dimensional data generally refer to data in which the number of variables is larger than the sample size. Analyzing such datasets poses great challenges for classical statistical learning because the finite-sample performance of methods developed within classical statistical learning does not live up to classical asymptotic premises in which the sample size unboundedly grows for a fixed dimensionality of observations. Much work has been done in developing mathematical–statistical techniques for analyzing high-dimensional data. Despite remarkable progress in this field, many practitioners still utilize classical methods for analyzing such datasets. This state of affairs can be attributed, in part, to a lack of knowledge and, in part, to the ready-to-use computational and statistical software packages that are well developed for classical techniques. Moreover, many scientists working in a specific field of high-dimensional statistical learning are either not aware of other existing machineries in the field or are not willing to try them out. The primary goal in this work is to bring together various machineries of high-dimensional analysis, give an overview of the important results, and present the operating conditions upon which they are grounded. When appropriate, readers are referred to relevant review articles for more information on a specific subject. PMID:27081307

  19. High-Dimensional Statistical Learning: Roots, Justifications, and Potential Machineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollanvari, Amin

    2015-01-01

    High-dimensional data generally refer to data in which the number of variables is larger than the sample size. Analyzing such datasets poses great challenges for classical statistical learning because the finite-sample performance of methods developed within classical statistical learning does not live up to classical asymptotic premises in which the sample size unboundedly grows for a fixed dimensionality of observations. Much work has been done in developing mathematical-statistical techniques for analyzing high-dimensional data. Despite remarkable progress in this field, many practitioners still utilize classical methods for analyzing such datasets. This state of affairs can be attributed, in part, to a lack of knowledge and, in part, to the ready-to-use computational and statistical software packages that are well developed for classical techniques. Moreover, many scientists working in a specific field of high-dimensional statistical learning are either not aware of other existing machineries in the field or are not willing to try them out. The primary goal in this work is to bring together various machineries of high-dimensional analysis, give an overview of the important results, and present the operating conditions upon which they are grounded. When appropriate, readers are referred to relevant review articles for more information on a specific subject.

  20. Systems and methods for autonomously controlling agricultural machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Bingham, Dennis N.; Svoboda, John M.; Hess, J. Richard

    2003-07-08

    Systems and methods for autonomously controlling agricultural machinery such as a grain combine. The operation components of a combine that function to harvest the grain have characteristics that are measured by sensors. For example, the combine speed, the fan speed, and the like can be measured. An important sensor is the grain loss sensor, which may be used to quantify the amount of grain expelled out of the combine. The grain loss sensor utilizes the fluorescence properties of the grain kernels and the plant residue to identify when the expelled plant material contains grain kernels. The sensor data, in combination with historical and current data stored in a database, is used to identify optimum operating conditions that will result in increased crop yield. After the optimum operating conditions are identified, an on-board computer can generate control signals that will adjust the operation of the components identified in the optimum operating conditions. The changes result in less grain loss and improved grain yield. Also, because new data is continually generated by the sensor, the system has the ability to continually learn such that the efficiency of the agricultural machinery is continually improved.

  1. A task-based analysis of machinery entanglement injuries among Western Canadian farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Gopinath; Crowe, Trever G; Peng, Yingwei; Hagel, Louise; Dosman, James; Pickett, William

    2011-10-01

    Machinery entanglements are a leading cause of hospitalized injury on Canadian farms. This study evaluates the role farm tasks play in the occurrence of machinery entanglement events. A retrospective case series of 41 entanglement injuries involving 35 farm-machinery types was assembled. Only a few limited tasks were implicated in the majority of entanglements. These tasks were as follows: (1) field adjustments of machinery; (2) product handling and conveyance; and (3) driveline attachments and servicing. Hazards inherent and common to these tasks affected the behavior of farmers, leading to entanglements. This study establishes a need to identify hazards and assess risks associated with different tasks involving the use of farm machinery under actual field situations. Systemic changes are required to improve existing machinery safety practices through engineering, work methods, and work practice modifications. In addition to design solutions, occupational health and safety strategies should consider activities associated with hazardous situations to inform the content of injury prevention efforts.

  2. Studies on the Future of the Standardization for Tropical Agricultural Machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Tropical crops mainly represented by natural rubber,sisal hemp, sugarcane, cassava, coffee, pepper and coconut, and tropical fruits represented by pineapple,mango, banana, longan, litchi are special economical crops in tropical and subtropical regions in our country. Tropical agricultural machinery is the machinery used for planting, managing, harvesting and processing tropical crops and fruits. In recent years, tropical agricultural machinery has been growing very fast,and has a significantly positive effect on the growth of agricultural economy in tropical regions.

  3. Duplication of complete dentures using general-purpose handheld optical scanner and 3-dimensional printer: Introduction and clinical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurahashi, Kosuke; Matsuda, Takashi; Goto, Takaharu; Ishida, Yuichi; Ito, Teruaki; Ichikawa, Tetsuo

    2017-01-01

    To introduce a new clinical procedure for fabricating duplicates of complete dentures by bite pressure impression using digital technology, and to discuss its clinical significance. The denture is placed on a rotary table and the 3-dimensional form of the denture is digitized using a general-purpose handheld optical scanner. The duplicate denture is made of polylactic acid by a 3-dimensional printer using the 3-dimensional data. This procedure has the advantages of wasting less material, employing less human power, decreasing treatment time at the chair side, lowering the rates of contamination, and being readily fabricated at the time of the treatment visit. Copyright © 2016 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Pengaturan Orientasi Posisi Objek pada Proses Rapid Prototyping Menggunakan 3D Printer Terhadap Waktu Proses dan Kwalitas Produk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobron Lubis

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid prototyping can be defined as the methods used to create a scale model (prototype from the start part of a product (part or assembly (assembly quickly by using the data of computer aided design (CAD three dimensional. In the process of printing 3D objects setting is crucial to product quality and processing time is done. This research was conducted with the object orientation variation in the vertical and horizontal of the two types of polymer material ABS and PLA in order to determine the processing time and product quality. This research was carried out by using a printer 3D. From this study showed that the process of making specimens for PLA and ABS material selection object orientation in horizontal position produces a shorter process time and surface condition of surface roughness values ​​are smaller than the vertical orientation position.

  5. STUDY OF THE PARAMETERS OF EFFICIENCY IN CENTRES FOR REPAIR OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Stoyanova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper makes a thorough study of the parameters of efficiency in the centers for the repair of agricultural machinery, considering production and technological structure, the basic principles for design of the process of service, the quantitative indicators for servicing. It presents a theoretical model for the management of services in the service business, taking into account the basic system requirements for maintenance of agricultural machinery, the main elements of the standards of customer service, choice of forms for maintenance of agricultural machinery. Opportunities are proposed for the optimization of repair activities in the centers for repair of agricultural machinery.

  6. Construction of realistic liver phantoms from patient images using 3D printer and its application in CT image quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Shuai; Yu, Lifeng; Vrieze, Thomas; Kuhlmann, Joel; Chen, Baiyu; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to use 3D printing techniques to construct a realistic liver phantom with heterogeneous background and anatomic structures from patient CT images, and to use the phantom to assess image quality with filtered back-projection and iterative reconstruction algorithms. Patient CT images were segmented into liver tissues, contrast-enhanced vessels, and liver lesions using commercial software, based on which stereolithography (STL) files were created and sent to a commercial 3D printer. A 3D liver phantom was printed after assigning different printing materials to each object to simulate appropriate attenuation of each segmented object. As high opacity materials are not available for the printer, we printed hollow vessels and filled them with iodine solutions of adjusted concentration to represent enhance levels in contrast-enhanced liver scans. The printed phantom was then placed in a 35×26 cm oblong-shaped water phantom and scanned repeatedly at 4 dose levels. Images were reconstructed using standard filtered back-projection and an iterative reconstruction algorithm with 3 different strength settings. Heterogeneous liver background were observed from the CT images and the difference in CT numbers between lesions and background were representative for low contrast lesions in liver CT studies. CT numbers in vessels filled with iodine solutions represented the enhancement of liver arteries and veins. Images were run through a Channelized Hotelling model observer with Garbor channels and ROC analysis was performed. The AUC values showed performance improvement using the iterative reconstruction algorithm and the amount of improvement increased with strength setting.

  7. Accessible bioprinting: adaptation of a low-cost 3D-printer for precise cell placement and stem cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, John A; Mollica, Peter A; Johnson, Garett D; Ogle, Roy C; Bruno, Robert D; Sachs, Patrick C

    2016-06-07

    The precision and repeatability offered by computer-aided design and computer-numerically controlled techniques in biofabrication processes is quickly becoming an industry standard. However, many hurdles still exist before these techniques can be used in research laboratories for cellular and molecular biology applications. Extrusion-based bioprinting systems have been characterized by high development costs, injector clogging, difficulty achieving small cell number deposits, decreased cell viability, and altered cell function post-printing. To circumvent the high-price barrier to entry of conventional bioprinters, we designed and 3D printed components for the adaptation of an inexpensive 'off-the-shelf' commercially available 3D printer. We also demonstrate via goal based computer simulations that the needle geometries of conventional commercially standardized, 'luer-lock' syringe-needle systems cause many of the issues plaguing conventional bioprinters. To address these performance limitations we optimized flow within several microneedle geometries, which revealed a short tapered injector design with minimal cylindrical needle length was ideal to minimize cell strain and accretion. We then experimentally quantified these geometries using pulled glass microcapillary pipettes and our modified, low-cost 3D printer. This systems performance validated our models exhibiting: reduced clogging, single cell print resolution, and maintenance of cell viability without the use of a sacrificial vehicle. Using this system we show the successful printing of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) into Geltrex and note their retention of a pluripotent state 7 d post printing. We also show embryoid body differentiation of hiPSC by injection into differentiation conducive environments, wherein we observed continuous growth, emergence of various evaginations, and post-printing gene expression indicative of the presence of all three germ layers. These data demonstrate an

  8. Construction of Realistic Liver Phantoms from Patient Images using 3D Printer and Its Application in CT Image Quality Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Shuai; Yu, Lifeng; Vrieze, Thomas; Kuhlmann, Joel; Chen, Baiyu; McCollough, Cynthia H

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to use 3D printing techniques to construct a realistic liver phantom with heterogeneous background and anatomic structures from patient CT images, and to use the phantom to assess image quality with filtered backprojection and iterative reconstruction algorithms. Patient CT images were segmented into liver tissues, contrast-enhanced vessels, and liver lesions using commercial software, based on which stereolithography (STL) files were created and sent to a commercial 3D printer. A 3D liver phantom was printed after assigning different printing materials to each object to simulate appropriate attenuation of each segmented object. As high opacity materials are not available for the printer, we printed hollow vessels and filled them with iodine solutions of adjusted concentration to represent enhance levels in contrast-enhanced liver scans. The printed phantom was then placed in a 35×26 cm oblong-shaped water phantom and scanned repeatedly at 4 dose levels. Images were reconstructed using standard filtered backprojection and an iterative reconstruction algorithm with 3 different strength settings. Heterogeneous liver background were observed from the CT images and the difference in CT numbers between lesions and background were representative for low contrast lesions in liver CT studies. CT numbers in vessels filled with iodine solutions represented the enhancement of liver arteries and veins. Images were run through a Channelized Hotelling model observer with Garbor channels and ROC analysis was performed. The AUC values showed performance improvement using the iterative reconstruction algorithm and the amount of improvement increased with strength setting.

  9. Tailor-made tricalcium phosphate bone implant directly fabricated by a three-dimensional ink-jet printer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igawa, Kazuyo; Mochizuki, Manabu; Sugimori, Osamu; Shimizu, Koutaro; Yamazawa, Kenji; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Kozo; Takato, Tsuyoshi; Nishimura, Ryouhei; Suzuki, Shigeki; Anzai, Masahiro; Chung, Ung-il; Sasaki, Nobuo

    2006-01-01

    Rapid prototyping (RP) is a molding technique that builds a three-dimensional (3D) model from computer-aided design (CAD) data. We fabricated new tailor-made bone implants (TIs) from alpha-tricalcium phosphate powder using an RP ink-jet printer based on computed tomography (CT) data, and evaluated their safety and efficacy. CT data of the skulls of seven beagle dogs were obtained and converted to CAD data, and bone defects were virtually made in the skull bilaterally. TIs were designed to fit the defects and were fabricated using the 3D ink-jet printer with six horizontal cylindrical holes running through the implants, designed for possible facilitation of vascular invasion and bone regeneration. As a control, hydroxyapatite implants (HIs) were cut manually from porous hydroxyapatite blocks. Then, craniectomy was performed to create real skull defects, and TIs and HIs were implanted. After implantation, CT was performed regularly, and the animals were euthanized at 24 weeks. No major side effects were observed. CT analysis showed narrowing of the cylindrical holes; bony bridging between the implants and the temporal bone was observed only for TIs. Histological analysis revealed substantial new bone formation inside the cylindrical holes in the TIs, while mainly connective tissues invaded the porous structures in HIs. Bone marrow was observed only in TIs. Osteoclasts were seen to resorb regenerated bone from inside the cylindrical holes and to invade and probably resorb the TIs. These data suggest that TIs are a safe and effective bone substitute, possessing osteoconductivity comparable with that of HIs.

  10. Printing artificial sweat using ink jet printers for the test set generation in forensics: an image quality assessment of the reproducibility of the printing results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Mario; Sturm, Jennifer; Dittmann, Jana

    2013-01-01

    In order to use scientific expert evidence in court hearings, several criteria must be met. In the US jurisdiction the Daubert decision2 has defined several criteria that might be assessed if a testimony is challenged. In particular the potential for testing or actual testing, as well as known or potential error rate are two very important criteria. In order to be able to compare the results with each other, the reproducible creation of evaluation samples is necessary. However, each latent fingerprint is unique due to external inuence factors such as sweat composition or pressure during the application of a trace. Hence, Schwarz1 introduces a method to print latent fingerprints using ink jet printers equipped with artificial sweat. In this paper we assess the image quality in terms of reproducibility and clarity of the printed artificial sweat patterns. For that, we determine the intra class variance from one printer on the same and on different substrates based on a subjective assessment, as well as the inter class variance between different printers of the same model using pattern recognition techniques. Our results indicate that the intra class variance is primarily inuenced by the drying behavior of the amino acid. The inter class is surprisingly large between identical models of one printer. Our evaluation is performed using 100 samples on an overhead foil and 50 samples on a compact disk surface with 5 different patterns (two line structures, a fingerprint image and two di_erent arrows with a larger area with amino acid) acquired with a Keyence VK-X110 laser scanning confocal microscope.11 The results show a significant difference between the two identical printers allowing for differentiating between them with an accuracy of up to 99%.

  11. Integrated logistics management system for operation of machinery and equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Frąś

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The main issue in the operations of machinery and equipment, which is the subject of theoretical and empirical research is to provide high reliability and durability with qualitative post-trade services of machinery and equipment. Quality of service can be achieved through planned maintenance activities supported by computer technology. The article presents the concept of an integrated system of logistics management operation of machinery and equipment, especially special one for stationary transport equipment. At the outset, it emphasized the importance and essence of technological transport and storage systems storage in modern manufacturing enterprise. Then the objective and the method of research have been set. An essential part of deliberations in the article is the concept of integrated logistics management system operation for stationary transport equipment. Authors of this article have presented the results the implementation and operation of the system. The results are presented in a descriptive and graphic form. Methods: The purpose of this article is to present the concept of implementing an integrated logistics management system for operation of stationary transport equipment. It goes through combination of planning, event logging service, warehouse management in the field of spare parts, account and records of the cost of service activities. The paper presents an analysis and evaluation method of brainstorming a new approach to logistics management operation stationary transport equipment. Authors takes into account the specific conditions of use of transport equipment and conduct the service, which have a significant impact on the time and place of cost and service as well. It should be noted that the developed system has been implemented. It was also carried out an assessment of its functionality and efficiency as the new IT tool for logistics management operation. Results and conclusions: The paper presents a new

  12. Regulation of host translational machinery by African swine fever virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Castelló

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available African swine fever virus (ASFV, like other complex DNA viruses, deploys a variety of strategies to evade the host's defence systems, such as inflammatory and immune responses and cell death. Here, we analyse the modifications in the translational machinery induced by ASFV. During ASFV infection, eIF4G and eIF4E are phosphorylated (Ser1108 and Ser209, respectively, whereas 4E-BP1 is hyperphosphorylated at early times post infection and hypophosphorylated after 18 h. Indeed, a potent increase in eIF4F assembly is observed in ASFV-infected cells, which is prevented by rapamycin treatment. Phosphorylation of eIF4E, eIF4GI and 4E-BP1 is important to enhance viral protein production, but is not essential for ASFV infection as observed in rapamycin- or CGP57380-treated cells. Nevertheless, eIF4F components are indispensable for ASFV protein synthesis and virus spread, since eIF4E or eIF4G depletion in COS-7 or Vero cells strongly prevents accumulation of viral proteins and decreases virus titre. In addition, eIF4F is not only activated but also redistributed within the viral factories at early times of infection, while eIF4G and eIF4E are surrounding these areas at late times. In fact, other components of translational machinery such as eIF2alpha, eIF3b, eIF4E, eEF2 and ribosomal P protein are enriched in areas surrounding ASFV factories. Notably, the mitochondrial network is polarized in ASFV-infected cells co-localizing with ribosomes. Thus, translation and ATP synthesis seem to be coupled and compartmentalized at the periphery of viral factories. At later times after ASFV infection, polyadenylated mRNAs disappear from the cytoplasm of Vero cells, except within the viral factories. The distribution of these pools of mRNAs is similar to the localization of viral late mRNAs. Therefore, degradation of cellular polyadenylated mRNAs and recruitment of the translation machinery to viral factories may contribute to the inhibition of host protein synthesis

  13. 3D super-resolution microscopy of bacterial division machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedyaykin, A. D.; Sabantsev, A. V.; Vishnyakov, I. E.; Morozova, N. E.; Polinovskaya, V. S.; Khodorkovskii, M. A.

    2016-08-01

    Super-resolution microscopy is a promising tool for the field of microbiology, as bacteria sizes are comparable to the resolution limit of light microscopy. Bacterial division machinery and FtsZ protein in particular attract much attention of scientists who use different super-resolution microscopy techniques, but most of the available data on FtsZ structures was obtained using two-dimensional (2D) super-resolution microscopy. Using 3D single-molecule localization microscopy (SMLM, namely dSTORM) to visualize FtsZ, we demonstrate that this approach allows more accurate interpretation of super-resolution images and provides new opportunities for the study of complex structures like bacterial divisome.

  14. C4 photosynthetic machinery: insights from maize chloroplast proteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi eZhao

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available C4 plants exhibit much higher CO2 assimilation rates than C3 plants. The specialized differentiation of mesophyll cell (M and bundle sheath cell (BS type chloroplasts is unique to C4 plants and improves photosynthesis efficiency. Maize (Zea mays is an important crop and model with C4 photosynthetic machinery. Current high-throughput quantitative proteomics approaches (e.g., 2DE, iTRAQ, and shotgun proteomics have been employed to investigate maize chloroplast structure and function. These proteomic studies have provided valuable information on C4 chloroplast protein components, photosynthesis, and other metabolic mechanisms underlying chloroplast biogenesis, stromal and membrane differentiation, as well as response to salinity, high/low temperature, and light stress. This review presents an overview of proteomics advances in maize chloroplast biology.

  15. Effect of machinery wheel load on grass yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ole; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Kristensen, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    Effect of machinery wheel load on grass   Ole Green1, Rasmus N. Jørgensen2, Kristian Kristensen3, René Gislum3, Dionysis Bochtis1, & Claus G. Sørensen1   1University of Aarhus, Dept. of Agricultural Engineering 2University of Southern Denmark, Inst. of Chemical Eng., Biotechnology and Environmental...... 3University of Aarhus, Dept. of Genetics and Biotechnology   Corresponding author: Ole Green Address & e-mail: Research Centre Foulum, Blichers Allé 20, 8830 Tjele. Ole.Green@agrsci.dk     Abstract   Different traffic intensities have been shown to have a negative influence on the yield of grass...... and clover. A full scale grass-clover field trial was established to estimate the effect on clover-grass yields as a function of different wheel loads and tire pressures. The trial comprised 16 different traffic intensities with 35 replicates and 1 traffic free treatment with 245 replicates, totalling 17...

  16. Stepwise Diagnosis for Rotating Machinery Using Force Identification Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shozo Kawamura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Machine condition monitoring and diagnosis have become increasingly important, and the application of these processes has been widely investigated. The authors previously proposed a stepwise diagnosis method for a beam structure. In that method, the location of the abnormality is first estimated using the force identification approach, and then the cause of the abnormality is identified. In this study, the stepwise diagnosis method was improved specifically for rotating machinery. The applicability of the proposed method was checked by using the experimental data. In the case of a rotor system with unbalance, it was shown that the location of the abnormality and its severity could be identified, and, in the case of a rotor system with stationary rubbing, the location of the abnormality could be accurately identified. Therefore, it was confirmed that the proposed diagnostic method is feasible for actual application.

  17. MULTIFUNCTIONAL NANO-BIO MATERIALS WITHIN CELLULAR MACHINERY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozhkova, E A; Ulasov, I V; Kim, D-H; Dimitrijevic, N M; Novosad, V; Bader, S D; Lesniak, M S; Rajh, T

    2011-08-01

    Functional nanoscale materials that possess specific physical or chemical properties can leverage energy transduction in vivo. Once these materials integrate with biomolecules they combine physical properties of inorganic material and the biorecognition capabilities of bio-organic moieties. Such nano-bio hybrids can be interfaced with living cells, the elementary functional units of life. These nano-bio systems are capable of bio-manipulation or actuation via altering intracellular biochemical pathways. Thus, nano-bio conjugates are appealing for a wide range of applications from the life sciences and nanomedicine to catalysis and clean energy production. Here we highlight recent progress in our efforts to develop smart nano-bio hybrid materials, and to study their performance within cellular machinery under application of external stimuli, such as light or magnetic fields.

  18. An allosteric photoredox catalyst inspired by photosynthetic machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifschitz, Alejo M; Young, Ryan M; Mendez-Arroyo, Jose; Stern, Charlotte L; McGuirk, C Michael; Wasielewski, Michael R; Mirkin, Chad A

    2015-03-30

    Biological photosynthetic machinery allosterically regulate light harvesting via conformational and electronic changes at the antenna protein complexes as a response to specific chemical inputs. Fundamental limitations in current approaches to regulating inorganic light-harvesting mimics prevent their use in catalysis. Here we show that a light-harvesting antenna/reaction centre mimic can be regulated by utilizing a coordination framework incorporating antenna hemilabile ligands and assembled via a high-yielding, modular approach. As in nature, allosteric regulation is afforded by coupling the conformational changes to the disruptions in the electrochemical landscape of the framework upon recognition of specific coordinating analytes. The hemilabile ligands enable switching using remarkably mild and redox-inactive inputs, allowing one to regulate the photoredox catalytic activity of the photosynthetic mimic reversibly and in situ. Thus, we demonstrate that bioinspired regulatory mechanisms can be applied to inorganic light-harvesting arrays displaying switchable catalytic properties and with potential uses in solar energy conversion and photonic devices.

  19. Structural insights into the bacterial carbon - phosphorus lyase machinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seweryn, Paulina; Van, Lan Bich; Kjeldgaard, Morten

    2015-01-01

    –phosphorus (C–P) bond. Despite its importance, the details of how this machinery catabolizes phosphonates remain unknown. Here we determine the crystal structure of the 240-kilodalton Escherichia coli C–P lyase core complex (PhnG–PhnH–PhnI–PhnJ; PhnGHIJ), and show that it is a two-fold symmetric hetero......-octamer comprising an intertwined network of subunits with unexpected self-homologies. It contains two potential active sites that probably couple phosphonate compounds to ATP and subsequently hydrolyse the C–P bond. We map the binding site of PhnK on the complex using electron microscopy, and show that it binds...... to a conserved insertion domain of PhnJ. Our results provide a structural basis for understanding microbial phosphonate breakdown....

  20. Responses of chromosome segregation machinery to mechanical perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itabashi, Takeshi; Takagi, Jun; Suzuki, Kazuya; Ishiwata, Shin'ichi

    2013-01-01

    For genome stability, the proper segregation of chromosomes is required. The exquisite process of chromosome segregation has charmed a lot of cell- and molecular biologists into watching what happens inside a mitotic cell and how each molecule contributes to this process for the accomplishment of accurate cell division1. The process to partition the duplicated genome to the daughter cells in each cell division is mediated by a self-organized structure called the mitotic spindle. It is well known that the mitotic spindle is a multi-component macromolecular machine composed of microtubules, molecular motors (kinesins, cytoplasmic dynein), and other regulatory molecules (microtubule-associated proteins, kinases, etc.). In recent years, most of the protein components of the mitotic spindle have been identified and the functions of these proteins have been characterized using molecular perturbations2,3. Thus, the mechanisms for spindle assembly and chromosome segregation are being revealed rapidly. However, the chromosome segregation machinery is poorly understood from the mechanical point of view, such as how the mitotic spindle within a cell responds to a variety of mechanical forces, originating from cell-cell interactions or environmental fluctuations. Recent advances in the controlled mechanical perturbation have indicated that the mitotic spindle possesses a structural pliability, size adaptability to the applied external forces, and a strong self-organizing ability. Mechanical perturbations revealed also the mechanochemical regulation of chromosome segregation machinery, which responds to the applied forces. Here, we discuss the current progress in the biophysical research on the architectural and functional dynamics of the mitotic spindle.

  1. Active magnetic bearings - a step towards smart rotating machinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordmann, R.; Aenis, M.; Knopf, E.; Strassburger, S. [Darmstadt Univ. of Technology, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    In the field of rotating machinery the number of applications of rotating systems running in active magnetic bearings (AMB's) is increasing. In comparison to conventional bearings magnetic bearings are a typical mechatronic product consisting of mechanical, electrical and electronic components. Such systems have the ability to pick up changes in its environment by sensors and to react to the system or process by means of actuators after an appropriate information processing carried out in a microprocessor. Nowadays, rotors in active magnetic bearings already offer a variety of advantages compared to conventional systems. Some of them are the tuning possibilities for stiffness and damping, the absence of friction and wear, the high running speeds, the vibration isolation and possible unbalance compensation, However, there is much more potential in such systems with respect to a smart behavior. With the mechatronic structure of a rotating machinery in AMB's consisting of built-in control, sensors, microprocessors, actuators and last but not least built-in software different novel features like identification, diagnosis, prognosis and correction can be realised. In this way it will be possible to design new machines with higher performance, higher reliability and a longer lifetime. This paper particularly describes a Smart Machine Technology for rotating machines with AMB's and concentrates on the mentioned smart features of identification, diagnosis and correction. After a general description of the smart technology followed by a presentation of the necessary development tools three applications will show the usefulness of this new technology. (Author)

  2. Narrative text analysis of accident reports with tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery and materials handling machinery in Austrian agriculture from 2008 to 2010 - a comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrhofer, Hannes; Quendler, Elisabeth; Boxberger, Josef

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was the identification of accident scenarios and causes by analysing existing accident reports of recognized agricultural occupational accidents with tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery and materials handling machinery from 2008 to 2010. As a result of a literature-based evaluation of past accident analyses, the narrative text analysis was chosen as an appropriate method. A narrative analysis of the text fields of accident reports that farmers used to report accidents to insurers was conducted to obtain detailed information about the scenarios and causes of accidents. This narrative analysis of reports was made the first time and yielded first insights for identifying antecedents of accidents and potential opportunities for technical based intervention. A literature and internet search was done to discuss and confirm the findings. The narrative text analysis showed that in more than one third of the accidents with tractors and materials handling machinery the vehicle rolled or tipped over. The most relevant accident scenarios with harvesting machinery were being trapped and falling down. The direct comparison of the analysed machinery categories showed that more than 10% of the accidents in each category were caused by technical faults, slippery or muddy terrain and incorrect or inappropriate operation of the vehicle. Accidents with tractors, harvesting machinery and materials handling machinery showed similarities in terms of causes, circumstances and consequences. Certain technical and communicative measures for accident prevention could be used for all three machinery categories. Nevertheless, some individual solutions for accident prevention, which suit each specific machine type, would be necessary.

  3. Narrative Text Analysis of Accident Reports with Tractors, Self-Propelled Harvesting Machinery and Materials Handling Machinery in Austrian Agriculture from 2008 to 2010 – A Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Hannes Mayrhofer; Elisabeth Quendler; Josef Boxberger

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was the identification of accident scenarios and causes by analysing existing accident reports of recognized agricultural occupational accidents with tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery and materials handling machinery from 2008 to 2010. As a result of a literature-based evaluation of past accident analyses, the narrative text analysis was chosen as an appropriate method. A narrative analysis of the text fields of accident reports that farmers used to report ac...

  4. Speed Improvement of Desktop 3D Printer Based on FDM%基于FDM的桌面型3D打印机速度提升技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍倪燕; 傅贵兴; 廖璘志

    2016-01-01

    由于桌面型3D打印机是一种以数字模型文件为基础的累积制造技术,容易受到打印速度的影响降低打印机工作效率,传统的桌面型3D打印机采用单路固定数据传输和逐层打印的方式,增加了打印时间,导致打印速度慢的问题。提出基于频分多路复用(FDM)的桌面型3D打印机速度提升算法。分析了桌面型3D打印机的工作原理,设计桌面型3D打印机的喷墨控制模型,采用打印效率和打印速度对偶分析方法,融入频分多路复用(FDM)方法实现桌面型3D打印机的多目标集优化控制,并对速度量化指标进行评估,根据不同频率传送各路打印请求消息,实现打印速度提升。仿真实验表明,该技术能有效降低各路打印输入信号的干扰频谱,实现3D打印机的喷墨准确控制,大幅降低打印时间和内存开销,提高打印速度。%Desktop 3 d printer is a kind of based on the digital model file, the accumulation of manufacturing technology of 3 d printers print speed is one of the important parameters reflect the printer work efficiency, the traditional desktop 3 d printer using single-channel fixed data transmission, affect the printing speed. Based on frequency division multiplexing (FDM) desktop 3 d printer faster algorithm. Desktop 3 d printer is analyzed the working principle of the design of a desktop 3 d printer ink jet control model, the printing and printing speed dual efficiency analysis method, integrated into the frequency division multiplexing (FDM) method implementation desktop 3 d printer set of multi-objective optimal control, and to evaluate speed quantitative indicators, according to the different frequency transfer print request message of all stripes, printing speed. Simulation experiments show that the technology can effectively reduce various print spectrum of input signal, realizes the 3 d printer inkjet accurate control, greatly reduce printing time and

  5. Leading Textile Machinery Manufacturers Snap up ITMA ASIA + CITME 2012 Exhibition Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Despite the current global economic slowdown, leading textile machinery manufacturers around the world are still attracted to prospects offered by the world's largest textile producer - China. This can be seen from the overwhelming response received by the combined textile machinery show,

  6. Italian Textile Machinery Manufacturers Reveal Sustainable Solutions at ITMA ASIA + CITME 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    ITMA ASIA + CITME is the international textile machinery trade show which is held every two years in China. Again this year, the Italian contingent is one of the largest to attend. In fact, there are 117 Italian textile machinery manufacturers from 12-16 June at the Shanghai New International Expo Centre.

  7. Economic Performance of Textile Machinery Industry in China(1-2, 2009)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ China's textile machinery industry saw a continued decline in total profit and a hefty slump in imports and exports in the first two months of 2009. Analysts anticipated a continued weakening of momentum for China's textile machinery markets, owing to weaker consumer spending and easing export growth.

  8. Genome-scale modeling of the protein secretory machinery in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feizi, Amir; Österlund, Tobias; Petranovic, Dina;

    2013-01-01

    The protein secretory machinery in Eukarya is involved in post-translational modification (PTMs) and sorting of the secretory and many transmembrane proteins. While the secretory machinery has been well-studied using classic reductionist approaches, a holistic view of its complex nature is lackin...

  9. Measuring embodied technological change in Indonesian textiles : The core-machinery approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szirmai, A; Timmer, MP; Van der Kamp, R

    2002-01-01

    This article focuses on the measurement of embodied technological change. It develops the core-machinery approach to capital measurement, which is based on an engineering perspective on technological change. Using technical characteristics of different types of machinery, technical progress in the c

  10. 46 CFR 28.840 - Means for stopping pumps, ventilation, and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Means for stopping pumps, ventilation, and machinery. 28.840 Section 28.840 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS... pumps, ventilation, and machinery. All electrically driven fuel oil transfer pumps, fuel oil unit...

  11. 49 CFR 1242.47 - Machinery (account XX-27-40).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery (account XX-27-40). 1242.47 Section 1242.47 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION...-Equipment § 1242.47 Machinery (account XX-27-40). Separate common expenses on the basis of the...

  12. 46 CFR 35.25-1 - Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer-T/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer-T/ALL. 35.25-1 Section 35.25-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Engine Department § 35.25-1 Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer—T/ALL. It shall be the...

  13. 46 CFR 111.103-1 - Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems. 111.103-1 Section 111.103-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems. Each power ventilation system...

  14. 29 CFR 1918.98 - Qualifications of machinery operators and supervisory training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... 12111-12117), the regulations implementing Title I (29 CFR Part 1630), and the Technical Assistance... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Qualifications of machinery operators and supervisory... General Working Conditions. § 1918.98 Qualifications of machinery operators and supervisory training....

  15. A Method of Rotating Machinery Fault Diagnosis Based on the Close Degree of Information Entropy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GENG Jun-bao; HUANG Shu-hong; JIN Jia-shan; CHEN Fei; LIU Wei

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a method of rotating machinery fault diagnosis based on the close degree of information entropy. In the view of the information entropy, we introduce four information entropy features of the rotating machinery, which describe the vibration condition of the machinery. The four features are, respectively, denominated as singular spectrum entropy, power spectrum entropy, wavelet space state feature entropy and wavelet power spectrum entropy. The value scopes of the four information entropy features of the rotating machinery in some typical fault conditions are gained by experiments, which can be acted as the standard features of fault diagnosis. According to the principle of the shorter distance between the more similar models, the decision-making method based on the close degree of information entropy is put forward to deal with the recognition of fault patterns. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach in an instance involving the fault pattern recognition of some rotating machinery.

  16. Genome-scale modeling of the protein secretory machinery in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizi, Amir; Österlund, Tobias; Petranovic, Dina; Bordel, Sergio; Nielsen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    The protein secretory machinery in Eukarya is involved in post-translational modification (PTMs) and sorting of the secretory and many transmembrane proteins. While the secretory machinery has been well-studied using classic reductionist approaches, a holistic view of its complex nature is lacking. Here, we present the first genome-scale model for the yeast secretory machinery which captures the knowledge generated through more than 50 years of research. The model is based on the concept of a Protein Specific Information Matrix (PSIM: characterized by seven PTMs features). An algorithm was developed which mimics secretory machinery and assigns each secretory protein to a particular secretory class that determines the set of PTMs and transport steps specific to each protein. Protein abundances were integrated with the model in order to gain system level estimation of the metabolic demands associated with the processing of each specific protein as well as a quantitative estimation of the activity of each component of the secretory machinery.

  17. Design of embedded ink-jet printer system in production line%流水线上嵌入式喷码机系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏文; 黄金兰; 董苗

    2014-01-01

    在现代的生产流水线上离不开喷码机的使用,国内传统的喷码机大部分都是以8/16位单片机为控制器的系统,依托于庞大的上位机,成本昂贵且不利于维护,为了提高喷印效率的同时又能降低喷码机的成本以及方便使用,设计一种嵌入式喷码机。采用三星公司基于ARM920T内核的S3C2440A芯片作为中央处理器,利用XAAR公司的XJ128喷头搭建嵌入式系统硬件平台,基于WinCE操作系统,开发相应的喷码器应用程序。该系统体积小巧,灵活性强,并且带有触摸屏,操作简单,成本较低易于移动,同时也更方便后期维护和升级。%Nowadays ink-jet printer is necessary in modern production line. Most of the conventional printers in China take 8/16-bit single chip microcomputer as a system of controller,which relies on huge host computers to a large extent,has expen-sive cost and goes against maintenance. In order to improve the jet printing efficiency,reduce the cost of ink-jet printer and make it easy to use,an embedded ink-jet printer was designed. An embedded hardware platform was established by print head XJ128 from XAAR. The S3C2440A chip with a core of ARM920T from Samsung was used as CPU. The application program cor-responding to the printer was developed with WinCE operating system. This ink-jet printer system with touch screen has low cost,small size and strong flexibility. It′s independent of PC,easy to move,convenient to operate,easy to maintain and up-grade as well.

  18. Radiation survey of aircraft and heavy machinery scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idriss, Hajo; Salih, Isam; Gumaa, Elsadig; Yassin, Abbas; Yousif, E H; Abdel Hamid, Saad Eldeen M; Sam, A K

    2012-12-01

    This study was conducted primarily to survey aircraft and heavy machinery at 30 locations within Khartoum State using handheld radiation survey meters to detect and identify any radiation sources that might be present and to estimate radiation dose levels. The survey has resulted in detection of 16 sealed sources of (90)Sr and one of (226)Ra in aircraft scrap. Of course, (90)Sr sources are used in military aircraft as temperature sensors while (226)Ra is used for indicating fuel levels. These sources were found intact without spreading radioactivity contamination; however, none was detected in heavy machine scrap. The levels of radiation dose measured at 0.1m from the source fall within the range of 25.1-40.2 μSv/h with an average value of 33.52 ± 4.06 μSv/h. These orphan sources have been separated from the scrap, tested for possible leakage, conditioned and stored in waste management facility. The result of this study has revealed without doubt that the scrap constitute a serious source of public exposure and highlights the importance of legislation making radiation monitoring of scrap in the country mandatory before it is sold to metal industry for reprocessing.

  19. Structure, Function and Regulation of the Hsp90 Machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90 is an ATP-dependent molecular chaperone which is essential in eukaryotes. It is required for the activation and stabilization of a wide variety of client proteins and many of them are involved in important cellular pathways. Since Hsp90 affects numerous physiological processes such as signal transduction, intracellular transport, and protein degradation, it became an interesting target for cancer therapy. Structurally, Hsp90 is a flexible dimeric protein composed of three different domains which adopt structurally distinct conformations. ATP binding triggers directionality in these conformational changes and leads to a more compact state. To achieve its function, Hsp90 works together with a large group of cofactors, termed co-chaperones. Co-chaperones form defined binary or ternary complexes with Hsp90, which facilitate the maturation of client proteins. In addition, posttranslational modifications of Hsp90, such as phosphorylation and acetylation, provide another level of regulation. They influence the conformational cycle, co-chaperone interaction, and inter-domain communications. In this review, we discuss the recent progress made in understanding the Hsp90 machinery.

  20. Origins and early evolution of the translation machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, George E.

    2010-09-01

    The modern ribosome is a complex biological machine that is responsible for chiral synthesis of cellular proteins according to the genetic code as specified by a mRNA. Major portions of the ribosomal machinery were likely in place before the last universal common ancestor (LUCA) of life. The early evolution of the ribosome has implications for the origin of the genetic code, the emergence of chirality in peptide synthesis, and the emergence of LUCA. Although codon assignments may remain a mystery, the history of the ribosome provides a context for dating the first usage of mRNA. In the case of chirality, the modern ribosome suggests that a small initial chiral preference for L-amino acids in the environment may have been greatly enhanced by a two step process in which the charging of a primitive tRNA and the subsequent synthesis of a peptide bond both had the same chiral preference. The resulting ability to make largely chiral peptides may have provided an advantage over other prebiotic mechanisms for making peptides. Finally, the late addition of factors such as EF-G may have greatly accelerated the emerging ribosome's ability to synthesize proteins, thereby allowing entities with this novel capability to emerge as the LUCA.

  1. Alterations in the ribosomal machinery in cancer and hematologic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenoy Niraj

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ribosomes are essential components of the protein translation machinery and are composed of more than 80 unique large and small ribosomal proteins. Recent studies show that in addition to their roles in protein translation, ribosomal proteins are also involved in extra-ribosomal functions of DNA repair, apoptosis and cellular homeostasis. Consequently, alterations in the synthesis or functioning of ribosomal proteins can lead to various hematologic disorders. These include congenital anemias such as Diamond Blackfan anemia and Shwachman Diamond syndrome; both of which are associated with mutations in various ribosomal genes. Acquired uniallelic deletion of RPS14 gene has also been shown to lead to the 5q syndrome, a distinct subset of MDS associated with macrocytic anemia. Recent evidence shows that specific ribosomal proteins are overexpressed in liver, colon, prostate and other tumors. Ribosomal protein overexpression can promote tumorigenesis by interactions with the p53 tumor suppressor pathway and also by direct effects on various oncogenes. These data point to a broad role of ribosome protein alterations in hematologic and oncologic diseases.

  2. Identification of an iron acquisition machinery in Flavobacterium columnare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Lingyu; Santander, Javier; Mellata, Melha; Zhang, Yuangxing; Curtiss, Roy

    2013-10-11

    Flavobacterium columnare, a fastidious Gram-negative pathogen and the causative agent of columnaris disease, is one of the most harmful pathogens in the freshwater fish-farming industry. Nevertheless the virulence mechanisms of F. columnare are not well understood. Bacterial iron uptake from the host during infection is an important mechanism of virulence. Here we identified and analyzed part of the iron uptake machinery of F. columnare. Under iron-limited conditions during in vitro growth, synthesis of an outer membrane protein of ~86 kDa was upregulated. This protein was identified as a TonB-dependent ferrichrome-iron receptor precursor (FhuA). Synthesis of siderophores in F. columnare was corroborated by chrome azurol S assays. A putative ferric uptake regulator (Fur) protein was also identified in the F. columnare genome. Structural analysis of the F. columnare Fur protein revealed that it was similar to Fur proteins involved in iron uptake regulation of other bacteria. Furthermore, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) Δfur mutants were partially complemented by the F. columnare fur gene. We conclude that a siderophore-mediated iron uptake system exists in F. columnare, and fur from F. columnare could partially complement S. Typhimurium Δfur mutant.

  3. Vibration monitoring of EDF rotating machinery using artificial neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alguindigue, I.E.; Loskiewicz-Buczak, A.; Uhrig, R.E. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering); Hamon, L.; Lefevre, F. (Electricite de France, 78 - Chatou (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches)

    1991-01-01

    Vibration monitoring of components in nuclear power plants has been used for a number of years. This technique involves the analysis of vibration data coming from vital components of the plant to detect features which reflect the operational state of machinery. The analysis leads to the identification of potential failures and their causes, and makes it possible to perform efficient preventive maintenance. Earlydetection is important because it can decrease the probability of catastrophic failures, reduce forced outgage, maximize utilization of available assets, increase the life of the plant, and reduce maintenance costs. This paper documents our work on the design of a vibration monitoring methodology based on neural network technology. This technology provides an attractive complement to traditional vibration analysis because of the potential of neural networks to operate in real-time mode and to handle data which may be distorted or noisy. Our efforts have been concentrated on the analysis and classification of vibration signatures collected by Electricite de France (EDF). Two neural networks algorithms were used in our project: the Recirculation algorithm and the Backpropagation algorithm. Although this project is in the early stages of development it indicates that neural networks may provide a viable methodology for monitoring and diagnostics of vibrating components. Our results are very encouraging.

  4. Vibration monitoring of EDF rotating machinery using artificial neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alguindigue, I.E.; Loskiewicz-Buczak, A.; Uhrig, R.E. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Hamon, L.; Lefevre, F. [Electricite de France, 78 - Chatou (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches

    1991-12-31

    Vibration monitoring of components in nuclear power plants has been used for a number of years. This technique involves the analysis of vibration data coming from vital components of the plant to detect features which reflect the operational state of machinery. The analysis leads to the identification of potential failures and their causes, and makes it possible to perform efficient preventive maintenance. Earlydetection is important because it can decrease the probability of catastrophic failures, reduce forced outgage, maximize utilization of available assets, increase the life of the plant, and reduce maintenance costs. This paper documents our work on the design of a vibration monitoring methodology based on neural network technology. This technology provides an attractive complement to traditional vibration analysis because of the potential of neural networks to operate in real-time mode and to handle data which may be distorted or noisy. Our efforts have been concentrated on the analysis and classification of vibration signatures collected by Electricite de France (EDF). Two neural networks algorithms were used in our project: the Recirculation algorithm and the Backpropagation algorithm. Although this project is in the early stages of development it indicates that neural networks may provide a viable methodology for monitoring and diagnostics of vibrating components. Our results are very encouraging.

  5. Network Based Real Time Condition Monitoring of Rotating Machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a network based real time condition monitoring system of rotating machinery. The system is built up in a double net structure consisting of local net (including client and server) and intranet. The client serves as a field data collector and processor that samples the vibration signals and process parameters of a machine monitored in the net and processes the sampled data. The data collected by the client are transmitted to the server that processes the data further and provides the results of the diagnosis of each machine to any distant terminals through intranet or internet. Such a structure of the monitoring system is advantageous in safety, reliability and reasonably shares the existing net resources. In order to ensure real time transmission of the data, two procedures of data transmission, virtual channel and data pool, are developed and applied in the monitoring system. The experimental results show that the monitoring system works well and is suitable to monitor a large group of rotating machines.

  6. Exportability of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation machinery into myelin sheath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Alessandro; Ravera, Silvia; Calzia, Daniela; Panfoli, Isabella

    2011-01-01

    White matter comprises over half of the brain, and its role in axonal survival is being reconsidered, consistently with the observation that axonal degeneration follows demyelination. The recent evidence of an extra-mitochondrial aerobic ATP production in isolated myelin vesicles, thanks to the expression therein of the mitochondrial Oxydative Phosphorylation (OXPHOS) machinery, stands in for myelin playing a functional bioenergetic role in ATP supply for the axon. The observation that subunits of the OXPHOS encoded by the mitochondrial genome are expressed in myelin, suggests that they can be the same as those of the inner mitochondrial membrane. This would mean that the OXPHOS is exportable. Here the hypothesis is exposed that the mitochondrion is the unique site of the assembly of the OXPHOS, so that this is exported to those sub cellular districts displaying high energy demand, such as myelin sheath. There the OXPHOS would display a higher efficiency in oxidative ATP production than inside the mitochondrion itself In this respect, the role of the glia in the nervous conduction is shed new light and the oligodendrocyte mitochondrial OXPHOS are hypothesized to be delivered to nascent myelin.

  7. Customer relationship management in the agricultural machinery market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Letícia Pit Nunes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Customer Relationship Management can be regarded as a business approach. The objective was to know the customers, meet their expectations, and thus build customer loyalty. Although, the agricultural sector makes significant economic contributions to the Brazilian market and induces sharp competition among its companies, a huge opportunity still presents itself for the diffusion and implementation of CRM in the agricultural machinery sector. This study aimed to highlight the importance of customer management, by introducing the customer relationship management (CRM concept. This is possible in the event of reselling agricultural machines, with the intention of retaining the customers and raising the profitability of these companies. It is necessary to understand CRM as more than a mere a concept or a tool. It is a business strategy, an endeavor that must be endorsed by the entire company. The concessionaire must be perceived as greater than a mere reseller. It is to be viewed rather as a problem solver, as one who offers services that are high in quality and meet client specifics.

  8. Sinusoidal synthesis based adaptive tracking for rotating machinery fault detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; McDonald, Geoff L.; Zhao, Qing

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a novel Sinusoidal Synthesis Based Adaptive Tracking (SSBAT) technique for vibration-based rotating machinery fault detection. The proposed SSBAT algorithm is an adaptive time series technique that makes use of both frequency and time domain information of vibration signals. Such information is incorporated in a time varying dynamic model. Signal tracking is then realized by applying adaptive sinusoidal synthesis to the vibration signal. A modified Least-Squares (LS) method is adopted to estimate the model parameters. In addition to tracking, the proposed vibration synthesis model is mainly used as a linear time-varying predictor. The health condition of the rotating machine is monitored by checking the residual between the predicted and measured signal. The SSBAT method takes advantage of the sinusoidal nature of vibration signals and transfers the nonlinear problem into a linear adaptive problem in the time domain based on a state-space realization. It has low computation burden and does not need a priori knowledge of the machine under the no-fault condition which makes the algorithm ideal for on-line fault detection. The method is validated using both numerical simulation and practical application data. Meanwhile, the fault detection results are compared with the commonly adopted autoregressive (AR) and autoregressive Minimum Entropy Deconvolution (ARMED) method to verify the feasibility and performance of the SSBAT method.

  9. Exploring GPS Data for Operational Analysis of Farm Machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Shamshiri

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Global Positioning System (GPS has made a great evolution in different aspects of modern agricultural sectors. Today, a growing number of crop producers are using GPS and other modern electronic and computer equipments to practice Site Specific Management (SSM and precision agriculture. This technology has the potential in agricultural mechanization by providing farmers with a sophisticated tool to measure yield on much smaller scales as well as precisely determination and automatic storing of variables such as field time, working area, machine travel distance and speed, fuel consumption and yield information. This study focuses on how to interpret and process raw GPS data for operational analysis of farm machinery. Exact determinations of field activities using GPS data along with accurate measurements and records of yield provide an integrated tool to calculate field efficiency and field machine index which in turn increases machine productivity and labor saving. The results can also provide graphical tools for visualizing machine operator’s performance as well as making decision on field and machine size and selection.

  10. Optimization of Hydraulic Machinery Bladings by Multilevel CFD Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thum Susanne

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The numerical design optimization for complex hydraulic machinery bladings requires a high number of design parameters and the use of a precise CFD solver yielding high computational costs. To reduce the CPU time needed, a multilevel CFD method has been developed. First of all, the 3D blade geometry is parametrized by means of a geometric design tool to reduce the number of design parameters. To keep geometric accuracy, a special B-spline modification technique has been developed. On the first optimization level, a quasi-3D Euler code (EQ3D is applied. To guarantee a sufficiently accurate result, the code is calibrated by a Navier-Stokes recalculation of the initial design and can be recalibrated after a number of optimization steps by another Navier-Stokes computation. After having got a convergent solution, the optimization process is repeated on the second level using a full 3D Euler code yielding a more accurate flow prediction. Finally, a 3D Navier-Stokes code is applied on the third level to search for the optimum optimorum by means of a fine-tuning of the geometrical parameters. To show the potential of the developed optimization system, the runner blading of a water turbine having a specific speed n q = 41 1 / min was optimized applying the multilevel approach.

  11. The oxidative protein folding machinery in plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aller, Isabel; Meyer, Andreas J

    2013-08-01

    Formation of intra-molecular disulfides and concomitant oxidative protein folding is essential for stability and catalytic function of many soluble and membrane-bound proteins in the endomembrane system, the mitochondrial inter-membrane space and the thylakoid lumen. Disulfide generation from free cysteines in nascent polypeptide chains is generally a catalysed process for which distinct pathways exist in all compartments. A high degree of similarities between highly diverse eukaryotic and bacterial systems for generation of protein disulfides indicates functional conservation of key processes throughout evolution. However, while many aspects about molecular function of enzymatic systems promoting disulfide formation have been demonstrated for bacterial and non-plant eukaryotic organisms, it is now clear that the plant machinery for oxidative protein folding displays distinct details, suggesting that the different pathways have been adapted to plant-specific requirements in terms of compartmentation, molecular function and regulation. Here, we aim to evaluate biological diversity by comparing the plant systems for oxidative protein folding to the respective systems from non-plant eukaryotes.

  12. A feasibility study for using ABS plastic and a low-cost 3D printer for patient-specific brachytherapy mould design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Benjamin D; Nilsson, Sanna; Poole, Christopher M

    2015-09-01

    This feasibility study aims to determine if a low-cost 3D printer (BitsFromBytes 3D Touch) with ABS plastic can print custom mould structures and catheter channels defined in a brachytherapy treatment planning system (Nucletron Oncentra) for patient-specific treatment. Printer accuracy was evaluated through physical measurement, and print quality was investigated by adjusting print parameters (print speed, layer thickness, percentage infill). Catheter positioning and reproducibility were measured over repeated insertions. ABS plastic water equivalency was investigated by comparing Ir-192 HDR source dose distributions, measured with radiochromic film, in ABS plastic and in water. Structures and catheter channels were printed accurately to within 0.5 mm laterally and 1 mm in the vertical print direction. Adjusting print parameters could reduce print time, albeit with reduced print quality. 3.5 mm channel diameters allowed for easy catheter insertion. Catheter positioning was reproducible to within 0.5 mm but, because of catheter flex within the channel, was on average 1 mm offset from defined TPS positions. This offset could be accounted for by repeating the treatment planning CT scan with the printed mould positioned on the patient. Dose attenuation in ABS plastic and in water was equivalent to within the measurement limitations. While clinical uses for this particular low-cost printer and ABS plastic are limited by print size restrictions and non-certification for biocompatibility, it has been demonstrated that a low-cost 3D printer set-up can accurately create custom moulds and catheter channels potentially acceptable for clinical use.

  13. Consumer exposures to laser printer-emitted engineered nanoparticles: A case study of life-cycle implications from nano-enabled products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirela, Sandra V; Sotiriou, Georgios A; Bello, Dhimiter; Shafer, Martin; Bunker, Kristin Lee; Castranova, Vincent; Thomas, Treye; Demokritou, Philip

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that printers emit nanoparticles during their operation. To-date, however, the physicochemical and toxicological characterization of "real world" printer-emitted nanoparticles (PEPs) remains incomplete, hampering proper risk assessment efforts. Here, we investigate our earlier hypothesis that engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are used in toners and ENMs are released during printing (consumer use). Furthermore, we conduct a detailed physicochemical and morphological characterization of PEPs in support of ongoing toxicological assessment. A comprehensive suite of state of the art analytical methods and tools was employed for the physicochemical and morphological characterization of 11 toners widely utilized in printers from major printer manufacturers and their PEPs. We confirmed that a number of ENMs incorporated into toner formulations (e.g. silica, alumina, titania, iron oxide, zinc oxide, copper oxide, cerium oxide, carbon black among others) and released into the air during printing. All evaluated toners contained large amounts of organic carbon (OC, 42-89%), metals/metal oxides (1-33%), and some elemental carbon (EC, 0.33-12%). The PEPs possess a composition similar to that of toner and contained 50-90% OC, 0.001-0.5% EC and 1-3% metals. While the chemistry of the PEPs generally reflected that of their toners, considerable differences are documented indicative of potential transformations taking place during consumer use (printing). We conclude that: (i) Routine incorporation of ENMs in toners classifies them as nano-enabled products (NEPs); (ii) These ENMs become airborne during printing; (iii) The chemistry of PEPs is complex and it reflects that of the toner and paper. This work highlights the importance of understanding life-cycle (LC) nano-EHS implications of NEPs and assessing real world exposures and associated toxicological properties rather than focusing on "raw" materials used in the synthesis of an NEP.

  14. The retinoic acid machinery in invertebrates: ancestral elements and vertebrate innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albalat, Ricard

    2009-12-10

    Recent discoveries have changed our view of the evolutionary history of retinoic acid (RA) machinery. It is no longer considered a vertebrate or chordate invention but rather a common genetic toolkit of diverse lineages of metazoans. In particular, the basic machinery of RA-metabolizing enzymes, retinoid-binding proteins and RA-binding nuclear receptors has been identified in protostome and deuterostome lineages. Moreover, the retinoid content and the effects of RA treatment have been described in a number of invertebrates, although the physiological role of RA signaling outside vertebrates is still not fully understood. This review summarizes the evidence gathered over many years on the invertebrate RA system, highlighting the ancient origin of the RA genetic machinery and a basic role in neuronal differentiation. Comparison of invertebrate and vertebrate RA toolkits suggests some innovations in the RA machinery of vertebrates that might have contributed to improving the physiological control of retinoid homeostasis, compensating for vitamin A fluctuations in this lineage. Analysis of the RA machinery in invertebrates also reveals independent losses of RA components during evolution, which might be related to changes in embryonic developmental modes and the absence of the temporal collinearity of hox clusters. Additional studies analyzing the biochemical and functional characteristics of the invertebrate RA genetic machinery are warranted to lend experimental support to the hypotheses sketched in this review. These hypotheses open, however, new perspectives toward understanding how the RA genetic machinery evolved to suit the physiological and developmental requirements of metazoans.

  15. 3D-printing of pH-responsive and functional polymers on an affordable desktop printer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadgorny, Milena; Xiao, Zeyun; Chen, Chao; Connal, Luke A

    2016-10-03

    In this work we describe the synthesis, thermal and rheological characterization, hot-melt extrusion and three-dimensional printing (3DP) of poly(2-vinylpyridine) (P2VP). We investigate the effect of thermal processing conditions on physical properties of produced filaments in order to achieve high quality, 3D- printable filaments for fused deposition modeling (FDM). We 3D-print P2VP filaments using an affordable 3D printer. The pyridine moieties are crosslinked and quaternized post-printing to form 3D-printed pH-responsive hydrogels. The printed objects exhibited dynamic and reversible pH-dependent swelling. These hydrogels act as flow regulating valves, controlling the flow rate with pH. Additionally, a macroporous P2VP membrane was 3D-printed and the coordinating ability of the pyridyl groups was harassed to immobilize silver precursors on its surface. After the reduction of silver ions, the structure was used to catalyze the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol with a high efficiency. This is a facile technique to print recyclable catalytic objects.

  16. Design Direction of Household 3D Printers%家用3D打印机设计方向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵翌鑫

    2016-01-01

    3D打印作为一种新的技术已经日趋成熟,完全可以作为一种非常适合家庭使用并且作为儿童开发智力的家用电器,本文讨论的市如何通过对3D打印机的智能化,美观化,实用化,让3D技术真正走进我们的生活,成为我们家庭中如电视、冰箱、洗衣机一样的日常家用电器,这应该是我们所需要研究的方向。%As a kind of new technology,3D printing is becoming more and more mature,and it is completely can be used as a kind of home appliance,which is very suitable for family use and can develop children intellectual.In this paper,how to make 3D technology truly come into our lives and become daily household electrical appliance like televisions,refrigerators,washing machines in our family through the intelligentialize, beautification and practical application of 3D printers is what we need to study.

  17. N-hexane neuropathy with vertigo and cold allodynia in a silk screen printer: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Sunil; Tandon, Ruchika

    2015-01-01

    N-hexane neuropathy is an occupational disease caused by exposure to n-hexane, which is used as a solvent in silk screen printing. Here, we describe a 35-year-old man, a silk screen printer by profession, who presented with dizziness, distal swelling of both lower limbs for 10 months and tingling and burning sensation in both feet for 9.5 months along with cold allodynia. The patient had normal results of a motor and sensory system examination, apart from an impaired temperature sense. Nerve conduction tests showed a conduction block in bilateral common peroneal nerves and absence of conduction in bilateral sural nerves. These symptoms resolved when further exposure to n-hexane was ceased but cold allodynia remained. Thus, cold allodynia and impaired temperature sense can be a manifestation of n-hexane neuropathy. Hence, abnormalities on nerve conduction studies can be detected in n-hexane neuropathy patients, even before clinical examination detects any such abnormalities. In the case of the patients presenting with sensory motor neuropathy, history of occupational exposure to n-hexane becomes important, as the sooner the disease is detected, the better the chances of recovery.

  18. An implantable two axis micromanipulator made with a 3D printer for recording neural activity in free-swimming fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Loranzie S; Van Wert, Jacey C; Mensinger, Allen F

    2017-08-15

    Chronically implanted electrodes allow monitoring neural activity from free moving animals. While a wide variety of implanted headstages, microdrives and electrodes exist for terrestrial animals, few have been developed for use with aquatic animals. A two axis micromanipulator was fabricated with a Formlabs 3D printer for implanting electrodes into free-swimming oyster toadfish (Opsanus tau). The five piece manipulator consisted of a base, body, electrode holder, manual screw drive and locking nut. The manipulator measured approximately 25×20×30mm (l×w×h) and weighed 5.28g after hand assembly. Microwire electrodes were inserted successfully with the manipulator to record high fidelity signals from the anterior lateral line nerve of the toadfish. The micromanipulator allowed the chronically implanted electrodes to be repositioned numerous times to record from multiple sites and extended successful recording time in the toadfish by several days. Three dimensional printing allowed an inexpensive (<$US 5 material), two axis micromanipulator to be printed relatively rapidly (<2h) to successfully record from multiple sites in the anterior lateral line nerve of free-swimming toadfish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Airborne particle emission of a commercial 3D printer: the effect of filament material and printing temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabile, L; Scungio, M; Buonanno, G; Arpino, F; Ficco, G

    2017-03-01

    The knowledge of exposure to the airborne particle emitted from three-dimensional (3D) printing activities is becoming a crucial issue due to the relevant spreading of such devices in recent years. To this end, a low-cost desktop 3D printer based on fused deposition modeling (FDM) principle was used. Particle number, alveolar-deposited surface area, and mass concentrations were measured continuously during printing processes to evaluate particle emission rates (ERs) and factors. Particle number distribution measurements were also performed to characterize the size of the emitted particles. Ten different materials and different extrusion temperatures were considered in the survey. Results showed that all the investigated materials emit particles in the ultrafine range (with a mode in the 10-30-nm range), whereas no emission of super-micron particles was detected for all the materials under investigation. The emission was affected strongly by the extrusion temperature. In fact, the ERs increase as the extrusion temperature increases. Emission rates up to 1×10(12)  particles min(-1) were calculated. Such high ERs were estimated to cause large alveolar surface area dose in workers when 3D activities run. In fact, a 40-min-long 3D printing was found to cause doses up to 200 mm(2) . © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. A comparative analysis of different hybrid MCDM techniques considering a case of selection of 3D printers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debapriyo Paul

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A multitude of techniques fall under the domain of Multi- Criteria Decision Making (MCDM which is used to select the best alternative among the available ones. The objective of this paper is to compare some of these techniques with respect to the problem of selection of 3D printers, which is associated with multiple attributes. The weights of the criteria were determined using analytical network process (ANP. Next, the alternatives were ranked using three different MCDM techniques- 1.TOPSIS which ranks alternatives having the shortest distance to the ideal solution as well as the greatest distance from the negative-ideal solution 2. Deng’s Similarity based Approach where the most preferred alternative should have the highest degree of similarity to the positive ideal solution and the lowest degree of similarity to the negative-ideal solution and 3.PROMETHEE and GAIA. The solutions for each of these three cases were analyzed thoroughly, and reasons for any deviations were discussed.

  1. 3D printing of MRI compatible components: why every MRI research group should have a low-budget 3D printer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Karl-Heinz; Gärtner, Clemens; Güllmar, Daniel; Krämer, Martin; Reichenbach, Jürgen R

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate low budget 3D printing technology to create MRI compatible components. A 3D printer is used to create customized MRI compatible components, a loop-coil platform and a multipart mouse fixation. The mouse fixation is custom fit for a dedicated coil and facilitates head fixation with bite bar, anesthetic gas supply and biomonitoring sensors. The mouse fixation was tested in a clinical 3T scanner. All parts were successfully printed and proved MR compatible. Both design and printing were accomplished within a few days and the final print results were functional with well defined details and accurate dimensions (Δ3D printer can be used to quickly progress from a concept to a functional device at very low production cost. While 3D printing technology does impose some restrictions on model geometry, additive printing technology can create objects with complex internal structures that can otherwise not be created by using lathe technology. Thus, we consider a 3D printer a valuable asset for MRI research groups. Copyright © 2014 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Integrated Voltage—Current Monitoring and Control of Gas Metal Arc Weld Magnetic Ball-Jointed Open Source 3-D Printer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuenyong Nilsiam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To provide process optimization of metal fabricating self-replicating rapid prototyper (RepRap 3-D printers requires a low-cost sensor and data logger system to measure current (I and voltage (V of the gas metal arc welders (GMAW. This paper builds on previous open-source hardware development to provide a real-time measurement of welder I-V where the measuring circuit is connected to two analog inputs of the Arduino that is used to control the 3-D printer itself. Franklin firmware accessed through a web interface that is used to control the printer allows storing the measured values and downloading those stored readings to the user’s computer. To test this custom current and voltage monitoring device this study reports on its use on an upgraded all metal RepRap during the printing of aluminum alloy (ER1100, ER4043, ER4943, ER4047, and ER5356. The voltage and current data were analyzed on a per alloy basis and also layer-by-layer in order to evaluate the device’s efficacy as a monitoring device for 3-D printing and the results of the integrated design are discussed.

  3. AN INVESTIGATION OF THE TRAINING AND SKILL REQUIREMENTS OF INDUSTRIAL MACHINERY MAINTENANCE WORKERS. VOLUME I. FINAL REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LYNN, FRANK

    DRAMATIC CHANGES IN THE CHARACTERISTICS AND COMPLEXITY OF PRODUCTION MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT HAVE CREATED A GROWING NEED FOR ADEQUATELY TRAINED AND SKILLED MACHINERY MAINTENANCE WORKERS IN INDUSTRY. THIS STUDY DEFINED THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LABOR MARKET FOR MACHINERY MAINTENANCE WORKERS SUCH AS MILLWRIGHTS, MECHANICAL HYDRAULIC, ELECTRICAL,…

  4. 46 CFR 32.56-25 - Category A machinery spaces: Windows and port lights-T/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Category A machinery spaces: Windows and port lights-T... SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Structural Fire Protection for Tank Ships With a Keel Laying Date On or After January 1, 1975 § 32.56-25 Category A machinery spaces: Windows and port...

  5. 46 CFR 167.65-70 - Reports of accidents, repairs, and unsafe boilers and machinery by engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... machinery by engineers. 167.65-70 Section 167.65-70 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... of accidents, repairs, and unsafe boilers and machinery by engineers. (a) Before making repairs to a... shall be the duty of all engineers when an accident occurs to the boilers or machinery in their...

  6. 46 CFR 61.20-3 - Main and auxiliary machinery and associated equipment, including fluid control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main and auxiliary machinery and associated equipment... SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PERIODIC TESTS AND INSPECTIONS Periodic Tests of Machinery and Equipment § 61.20-3 Main and auxiliary machinery and associated equipment, including fluid control...

  7. Molecular building blocks and their architecture in biologically/environmentally compatible soft matter chemical machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Taro; Banno, Taisuke; Nitta, Sachiko; Takinoue, Masahiro; Nomoto, Tomonori; Natsume, Yuno; Matsumura, Shuichi; Fujinami, Masanori

    2014-01-01

    This review briefly summarizes recent developments in the construction of biologically/environmentally compatible chemical machinery composed of soft matter. Since environmental and living systems are open systems, chemical machinery must continuously fulfill its functions not only through the influx and generation of molecules but also via the degradation and dissipation of molecules. If the degradation or dissipation of soft matter molecular building blocks and biomaterial molecules/polymers can be achieved, soft matter particles composed of them can be used to realize chemical machinery such as selfpropelled droplets, drug delivery carriers, tissue regeneration scaffolds, protocell models, cell-/tissuemarkers, and molecular computing systems.

  8. Origins of the machinery of recombination and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalier-Smith, T

    2002-02-01

    Mutation plays the primary role in evolution that Weismann mistakenly attributed to sex. Homologous recombination, as in sex, is important for population genetics--shuffling of minor variants, but relatively insignificant for large-scale evolution. Major evolutionary innovations depend much more on illegitimate recombination, which makes novel genes by gene duplication and by gene chimaerisation--essentially mutational forces. The machinery of recombination and sex evolved in two distinct bouts of quantum evolution separated by nearly 3 Gy of stasis; I discuss their nature and causes. The dominant selective force in the evolution of recombination and sex has been selection for replicational fidelity and viability; without the recombination machinery, accurate reproduction, stasis, resistance to radical deleterious evolutionary change and preservation of evolutionary innovations would be impossible. Recombination proteins betray in their phylogeny and domain structure a key role for gene duplication and chimaerisation in their own origin. They arose about 3.8 Gy ago to enable faithful replication and segregation of the first circular DNA genomes in precellular ancestors of Gram-negative eubacteria. Then they were recruited and modified by selfish genetic parasites (viruses; transposons) to help them spread from host to host. Bacteria differ fundamentally from eukaryotes in that gene transfer between cells, whether incidental to their absorptive feeding on DNA and virus infection or directly by plasmids, involves only genomic fragments. This was radically changed by the neomuran revolution about 850 million years ago when a posibacterium evolved into the thermophilic cenancestor of eukaryotes and archaebacteria (jointly called neomurans), radically modifying or substituting its DNA-handling enzymes (those responsible for transcription as well as for replication, repair and recombination) as a coadaptive consequence of the origin of core histones to stabilise its

  9. Modeling Integrated Cellular Machinery Using Hybrid Petri-Boolean Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berestovsky, Natalie; Zhou, Wanding; Nagrath, Deepak; Nakhleh, Luay

    2013-01-01

    The behavior and phenotypic changes of cells are governed by a cellular circuitry that represents a set of biochemical reactions. Based on biological functions, this circuitry is divided into three types of networks, each encoding for a major biological process: signal transduction, transcription regulation, and metabolism. This division has generally enabled taming computational complexity dealing with the entire system, allowed for using modeling techniques that are specific to each of the components, and achieved separation of the different time scales at which reactions in each of the three networks occur. Nonetheless, with this division comes loss of information and power needed to elucidate certain cellular phenomena. Within the cell, these three types of networks work in tandem, and each produces signals and/or substances that are used by the others to process information and operate normally. Therefore, computational techniques for modeling integrated cellular machinery are needed. In this work, we propose an integrated hybrid model (IHM) that combines Petri nets and Boolean networks to model integrated cellular networks. Coupled with a stochastic simulation mechanism, the model simulates the dynamics of the integrated network, and can be perturbed to generate testable hypotheses. Our model is qualitative and is mostly built upon knowledge from the literature and requires fine-tuning of very few parameters. We validated our model on two systems: the transcriptional regulation of glucose metabolism in human cells, and cellular osmoregulation in S. cerevisiae. The model produced results that are in very good agreement with experimental data, and produces valid hypotheses. The abstract nature of our model and the ease of its construction makes it a very good candidate for modeling integrated networks from qualitative data. The results it produces can guide the practitioner to zoom into components and interconnections and investigate them using such more

  10. Modeling integrated cellular machinery using hybrid Petri-Boolean networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Berestovsky

    Full Text Available The behavior and phenotypic changes of cells are governed by a cellular circuitry that represents a set of biochemical reactions. Based on biological functions, this circuitry is divided into three types of networks, each encoding for a major biological process: signal transduction, transcription regulation, and metabolism. This division has generally enabled taming computational complexity dealing with the entire system, allowed for using modeling techniques that are specific to each of the components, and achieved separation of the different time scales at which reactions in each of the three networks occur. Nonetheless, with this division comes loss of information and power needed to elucidate certain cellular phenomena. Within the cell, these three types of networks work in tandem, and each produces signals and/or substances that are used by the others to process information and operate normally. Therefore, computational techniques for modeling integrated cellular machinery are needed. In this work, we propose an integrated hybrid model (IHM that combines Petri nets and Boolean networks to model integrated cellular networks. Coupled with a stochastic simulation mechanism, the model simulates the dynamics of the integrated network, and can be perturbed to generate testable hypotheses. Our model is qualitative and is mostly built upon knowledge from the literature and requires fine-tuning of very few parameters. We validated our model on two systems: the transcriptional regulation of glucose metabolism in human cells, and cellular osmoregulation in S. cerevisiae. The model produced results that are in very good agreement with experimental data, and produces valid hypotheses. The abstract nature of our model and the ease of its construction makes it a very good candidate for modeling integrated networks from qualitative data. The results it produces can guide the practitioner to zoom into components and interconnections and investigate them

  11. Selenocysteine biosynthesis and insertion machinery in Naegleria gruberi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, M T A; Caldas, V E A; Costa, F C; Silvestre, D A M M; Thiemann, O H

    2013-04-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element primarily found in selenoproteins as the 21st amino acid (selenocysteine, Sec, or U). Selenoproteins play an important role in growth and proliferation and are typically involved in cellular redox balance. Selenocysteine is encoded by an in-frame UGA codon specified by a stem-loop structure, the Sec insertion sequence element (SECIS), which, in eukaryotes, is located in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR). The availability of the Naegleria gruberi (ATCC 30224) genome sequence and the use of this organism as a model system for the pathogenic amoeba N. fowleri allowed us to investigate the Sec incorporation pathway in this primitive eukaryote. Using bioinformatics tools, we identified gene sequences encoding PSTK (O-phosphoseryl-tRNA(Sec) kinase), SepSecS (O-phosphoseryl-tRNA:selenocysteinyl-tRNA synthase), SelD/SPS2 (selenophosphate synthetase), EFSec (selenocysteine-specific elongation factor) and SBP (SECIS binding protein). These findings were confirmed by RT-PCR and by sequencing. A potential tRNA(Ser)Sec (SelC) gene and a putative selenoprotein with sequence similarity to a mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase (TR3) were also identified. Our results show that the selenocysteine incorporation machinery is indeed present in N. gruberi. Interestingly, the SelD/SPS2 gene is 2214 bp in length and contains two distinct domains. The N-terminal region shows sequence similarity to predicted methyltransferase proteins, and the C-terminal region is homologous to prokaryotic SelD/SPS2. Our results suggest the possibility of novel selenoproteins.

  12. The actomyosin machinery is required for Drosophila retinal lumen formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jing; Mahato, Simpla; Zelhof, Andrew C

    2014-09-01

    Multicellular tubes consist of polarized cells wrapped around a central lumen and are essential structures underlying many developmental and physiological functions. In Drosophila compound eyes, each ommatidium forms a luminal matrix, the inter-rhabdomeral space, to shape and separate the key phototransduction organelles, the rhabdomeres, for proper visual perception. In an enhancer screen to define mechanisms of retina lumen formation, we identified Actin5C as a key molecule. Our results demonstrate that the disruption of lumen formation upon the reduction of Actin5C is not linked to any discernible defect in microvillus formation, the rhabdomere terminal web (RTW), or the overall morphogenesis and basal extension of the rhabdomere. Second, the failure of proper lumen formation is not the result of previously identified processes of retinal lumen formation: Prominin localization, expansion of the apical membrane, or secretion of the luminal matrix. Rather, the phenotype observed with Actin5C is phenocopied upon the decrease of the individual components of non-muscle myosin II (MyoII) and its upstream activators. In photoreceptor cells MyoII localizes to the base of the rhabdomeres, overlapping with the actin filaments of the RTW. Consistent with the well-established roll of actomyosin-mediated cellular contraction, reduction of MyoII results in reduced distance between apical membranes as measured by a decrease in lumen diameter. Together, our results indicate the actomyosin machinery coordinates with the localization of apical membrane components and the secretion of an extracellular matrix to overcome apical membrane adhesion to initiate and expand the retinal lumen.

  13. Modeling integrated cellular machinery using hybrid Petri-Boolean networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Berestovsky

    Full Text Available The behavior and phenotypic changes of cells are governed by a cellular circuitry that represents a set of biochemical reactions. Based on biological functions, this circuitry is divided into three types of networks, each encoding for a major biological process: signal transduction, transcription regulation, and metabolism. This division has generally enabled taming computational complexity dealing with the entire system, allowed for using modeling techniques that are specific to each of the components, and achieved separation of the different time scales at which reactions in each of the three networks occur. Nonetheless, with this division comes loss of information and power needed to elucidate certain cellular phenomena. Within the cell, these three types of networks work in tandem, and each produces signals and/or substances that are used by the others to process information and operate normally. Therefore, computational techniques for modeling integrated cellular machinery are needed. In this work, we propose an integrated hybrid model (IHM that combines Petri nets and Boolean networks to model integrated cellular networks. Coupled with a stochastic simulation mechanism, the model simulates the dynamics of the integrated network, and can be perturbed to generate testable hypotheses. Our model is qualitative and is mostly built upon knowledge from the literature and requires fine-tuning of very few parameters. We validated our model on two systems: the transcriptional regulation of glucose metabolism in human cells, and cellular osmoregulation in S. cerevisiae. The model produced results that are in very good agreement with experimental data, and produces valid hypotheses. The abstract nature of our model and the ease of its construction makes it a very good candidate for modeling integrated networks from qualitative data. The results it produces can guide the practitioner to zoom into components and interconnections and investigate them

  14. The unconventional Xer recombination machinery of Streptococci/Lactococci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Le Bourgeois

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Homologous recombination between circular sister chromosomes during DNA replication in bacteria can generate chromosome dimers that must be resolved into monomers prior to cell division. In Escherichia coli, dimer resolution is achieved by site-specific recombination, Xer recombination, involving two paralogous tyrosine recombinases, XerC and XerD, and a 28-bp recombination site (dif located at the junction of the two replication arms. Xer recombination is tightly controlled by the septal protein FtsK. XerCD recombinases and FtsK are found on most sequenced eubacterial genomes, suggesting that the Xer recombination system as described in E. coli is highly conserved among prokaryotes. We show here that Streptococci and Lactococci carry an alternative Xer recombination machinery, organized in a single recombination module. This corresponds to an atypical 31-bp recombination site (dif(SL associated with a dedicated tyrosine recombinase (XerS. In contrast to the E. coli Xer system, only a single recombinase is required to recombine dif(SL, suggesting a different mechanism in the recombination process. Despite this important difference, XerS can only perform efficient recombination when dif(SL sites are located on chromosome dimers. Moreover, the XerS/dif(SL recombination requires the streptococcal protein FtsK(SL, probably without the need for direct protein-protein interaction, which we demonstrated to be located at the division septum of Lactococcus lactis. Acquisition of the XerS recombination module can be considered as a landmark of the separation of Streptococci/Lactococci from other firmicutes and support the view that Xer recombination is a conserved cellular function in bacteria, but that can be achieved by functional analogs.

  15. TECHNOLOGICAL REFINEMENT OF GRAIN CROP PRODUCTION INVOLVING MACHINERY APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maslov G. G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been suggested the courses of the machine technologies refinement in the process of spiked cereals production. The course of their technical update was studied in our previous article. There were analyzed the drawbacks of the modern machine production of crops and we presented the course of their elimination due to the technology optimization, resource and energy preservation, machine technologies of soil improvement and new innovative technological solutions. The suggested technology optimization was designed taking into account rigorous alternation of crops in the rotation, optimizing of breeds and crossbreeds, application of intermediate crops simultaneously with harvesting the previous crop, introducing progressive methods of chemical treatment and synchronous tillage. The resource and energy preservation is based on the combination of technological operations coinciding with the tasks in agricultural terms during a single machinery pass across the field, application of the mobile power unit (UPU-450, low- and ultralow capacity spraying, optimization of choice of certain agrimethods in the process of crop production and the resource calculation of estimated crop yield. In the set of soil improvement courses we have studied the mechanization of the restoration processes of natural soil formation, defecate introduction, the use of stubbly remains, compulsory presence of permanent grasses in crop rotation. New innovative solutions in the crop production technologies include the refinement of the mechanization facilities in tillage, spraying, new methods of crop harvesting (unwinnowed bread, root tow, cleaning of thrashed heap after the harvesting, etc. We have analyzed the ways of mechanization of “organic farming” and seed treatment with biologic mixtures

  16. Magnetic bearings. Theory, design, and application to rotating machinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweitzer, Gerhard [Mechatronics Consulting, Kuesnacht (Switzerland); Maslen, Eric H. (eds.) [Virginia Univ., Charlottesville, VA (United States). Dept. Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Compiling the expertise of nine pioneers of the field, Magnetic Bearings - Theory, Design, and Application to Rotating Machinery offers an encyclopedic study of this rapidly emerging field with a balanced blend of commercial and academic perspectives. Every element of the technology is examined in detail, beginning at the component level and proceeding through a thorough exposition of the design and performance of these systems. The roster of authors boasts an average of twenty-five years of work developing magnetic bearing technology - a truly exceptional pool of experience. The book is organized in a logical fashion, starting with an overview of the technology and a survey of the range of applications. A background chapter then explains the central concepts of active magnetic bearings while avoiding a morass of technical details. From here, the reader continues to a meticulous, state-of-the-art exposition of the component technologies and the manner in which they are assembled to form the AMB/rotor system. These system models and performance objectives are then tied together through extensive discussions of control methods for both rigid and flexible rotors, including consideration of the problem of system dynamics identification. Supporting this, the issues of system reliability and fault management are discussed from several useful and complementary perspectives. At the end of the book, numerous special concepts and systems, including micro-scale bearings, self-bearing motors, and self-sensing bearings, are put forth as promising directions for new research and development. Newcomers to the field will find the material highly accessible while veteran practitioners will be impressed by the level of technical detail that emerges from a combination of sophisticated analysis and insights gleaned from many collective years of practical experience. An exhaustive, self-contained text on active magnetic bearing technology, this book should be a core reference for

  17. Impact of SMS/GPRS printers in reducing time to early infant diagnosis compared to routine result reporting: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojnov, Lara; Markby, Jessica; Boeke, Caroline; Penazzato, Martina; Urick, Brittany; Ghadrshenas, Anisa; Harris, Lindsay; Ford, Nathan; Peter, Trevor

    2017-08-18

    Despite significant gains made towards improving access, early infant diagnosis (EID) testing programs suffer from long test turnaround times that result in substantial loss to follow-up and mortality associated with delays in antiretroviral therapy initiation. These delays in treatment initiation are particularly impactful due to significant HIV-related infant mortality observed by 2-3 months of age. Short message service (SMS) and general packet radio service (GPRS) printers allow test results to be transmitted immediately to health care facilities upon completion of testing in the laboratory. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the benefit of using SMS/GPRS printers to increase the efficiency of EID test result delivery compared with traditional courier paper-based results delivery methods. We identified 11 studies contributing data for over 16,000 patients from East and Southern Africa. The test turnaround time from specimen collection to result received at the health care facility with courier paper-based methods was 68.0 days (n=6,835), while the test turnaround time with SMS/GPRS printers was 51.1 days (n=6,711), resulting in a 2.5 week (25%) reduction in turnaround time. Courier paper-based EID test result delivery methods are estimated to add 2.5 weeks to EID test turnaround times in low resource settings and increase the risk that infants receive test results during or after the early peak of infant mortality. SMS/GPRS result delivery to health care facility printers significantly reduced test turnaround time and may reduce this risk. SMS/GPRS printers should be considered for expedited delivery of EID and other centralized laboratory test results.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used

  18. The Management of Park Equipment and Machinery Used in the Construction Industry and Housing Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khayrullin Rustam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical model was created, applicable to elaboration of options of development of a park of equipment and machinery used in construction industry, housing and utility management. The model based on solving the linear programming problem by means of simplex method. The mathematical model allows develop the rational plans and quasi optimal plans. The model is based on the created in the article the financial management algorithms of procurement and of repairs of equipment and machinery. The algorithms allow to take into account joint consideration of indicators of modernity and operability of equipment and machinery. The basic model is developed. The model is included into the automated planning system. It is used for planning and preparation of proposals of draft policy documents for development of park devices, equipment and machinery.

  19. 2006 China Machinery and Electronical Products Trade Fair:Ample Fruits Shown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ 2006 Malaysia China Machinery and Electronical Products Trade Fair, organized by China Council for the Promotion of International Trade(CCPIT), was held in August in Prince World Trade Center(PWTC), Kuala Lumpur.

  20. Current Situations and Development Strategies for Integration of Peanut Agronomy and Agricultural Machinery in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhengfeng WU; Junhua LIU; Hao FENG; Dianxu CHEN; Caibin WANG

    2015-01-01

    The mechanization level of peanut production is the bottleneck restricting the development of peanut production in China,while integration of agronomy and agricultural machinery is an essential approach for improving mechanization level of peanut production. This paper elaborated requirements of peanut agronomy for agricultural machinery from peanut planting modes,land cultivation,sowing,harvesting,picking,and shelling,etc. Besides,it discussed requirements of agricultural machinery for agronomy from peanut seed quality,variety characteristics,planting modes,and soil condition. In addition,it analyzed existing problems and restricting factors of integration of peanut agronomy and agricultural machinery. Finally,it came up with recommendations for development strategies including increasing government fund input,optimizing industrial distribution,and multidisciplinary joint research.

  1. Mediator is an intrinsic component of the basal RNA polymerase II machinery in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacombe, Thierry; Poh, Siew Lay; Barbey, Régine; Kuras, Laurent

    2013-11-01

    Mediator is a prominent multisubunit coactivator that functions as a bridge between gene-specific activators and the basal RNA polymerase (Pol) II initiation machinery. Here, we study the poorly documented role of Mediator in basal, or activator-independent, transcription in vivo. We show that Mediator is still present at the promoter when the Pol II machinery is recruited in the absence of an activator, in this case through a direct fusion between a basal transcription factor and a heterologous DNA binding protein bound to the promoter. Moreover, transcription resulting from activator-independent recruitment of the Pol II machinery is impaired by inactivation of the essential Mediator subunit Med17 due to the loss of Pol II from the promoter. Our results strongly support that Mediator is an integral component of the minimal machinery essential in vivo for stable Pol II association with the promoter.

  2. The accident analysis of mobile mine machinery in Indian opencast coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R; Ghosh, A K

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of large mining machinery related accidents in Indian opencast coal mines. The trends of coal production, share of mining methods in production, machinery deployment in open cast mines, size and population of machinery, accidents due to machinery, types and causes of accidents have been analysed from the year 1995 to 2008. The scrutiny of accidents during this period reveals that most of the responsible factors are machine reversal, haul road design, human fault, operator's fault, machine fault, visibility and dump design. Considering the types of machines, namely, dumpers, excavators, dozers and loaders together the maximum number of fatal accidents has been caused by operator's faults and human faults jointly during the period from 1995 to 2008. The novel finding of this analysis is that large machines with state-of-the-art safety system did not reduce the fatal accidents in Indian opencast coal mines.

  3. Reconstitution of Biosynthetic Machinery for the Synthesis of the Highly Elaborated Indole Diterpene Penitrem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Chengwei; Tagami, Koichi; Minami, Atsushi;

    2015-01-01

    KULNJ). Importantly, without conventional gene disruption, reconstitution of the biosynthetic machinery provided sufficient data to determine the pathway. It was thus demonstrated that the Aspergillus oryzae reconstitution system is a powerful method for studying the biosynthesis of complex natural products....

  4. Factors Influencing Farmers’ Willingness to Participate in Plant Protection Machinery Subsidies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linping; WANG; Liangmei; CAI

    2013-01-01

    In order to have an overview of implementation of the subsidy policy for purchase of plant protection machinery in Fujian Province, based on the questionnaire data on Fujian Province, we use Logit model to conduct empirical analysis of factors influencing farmers’ willingness to participate in the subsidy policy for purchase of plant protection machinery. Research results show that there are 69.4% of farmers willing to participate in the subsidy policy for purchase of plant protection machinery; farmers’ growing area has a significant impact on the willingness to participate in the subsidy policy for purchase of plant protection machinery, and there is negative correlation; educational level, experience in planting, family farming pure income all have a significant positive impact on the willingness to participate in the subsidy policy.

  5. The Integration of YBCO Coated Conductors into Magnets and Rotating Machinery (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    AFRL-RZ-WP-TP-2012-0119 THE INTEGRATION OF YBCO COATED CONDUCTORS INTO MAGNETS AND ROTATING MACHINERY (POSTPRINT) G.A. Levin and P.N...COVERED (From - To) February 2012 Conference Paper Postprint 01 January 2004 – 01 January 2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE THE INTEGRATION OF YBCO COATED...Keystone, CO (August 29-September 2, 2005) The Integration of YBCO Coated Conductors into Magnets and Rotating Machinery G. A. Levin and P. N. Barnes

  6. The Management of Park Equipment and Machinery Used in the Construction Industry and Housing Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Khayrullin Rustam; Marichev Pavel

    2016-01-01

    The mathematical model was created, applicable to elaboration of options of development of a park of equipment and machinery used in construction industry, housing and utility management. The model based on solving the linear programming problem by means of simplex method. The mathematical model allows develop the rational plans and quasi optimal plans. The model is based on the created in the article the financial management algorithms of procurement and of repairs of equipment and machinery...

  7. Application of Choi—Williams Reduced Interference Time Frequency Distribution to Machinery Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard A. Gaberson

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses time frequency analysis of machinery diagnostic vibration signals. The short time Fourier transform, the Wigner, and the Choi–Williams distributions are explained and illustrated with test cases. Examples of Choi—Williams analyses of machinery vibration signals are presented. The analyses detect discontinuities in the signals and their timing, amplitude and frequency modulation, and the presence of different components in a vibration signal.

  8. Production paths – an innovative concept for heavy machinery production planning and control

    OpenAIRE

    R. Lenort; R. Klepek; A. Samolejová; Besta, P.

    2013-01-01

    The paper introduces a new concept for planning and control of complicated heavy machinery production which is based on the principle of „production paths“ – production paths planning and control concept. The concept refl ects the limited applicability of traditional concepts and systems for production planning and control in conditions of heavy machinery industry that is specifi c by the limited repeatability of product structures and volumes, by complicated and variant material ...

  9. STUDY OF THE PARAMETERS OF EFFICIENCY IN CENTRES FOR REPAIR OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The paper makes a thorough study of the parameters of efficiency in the centers for the repair of agricultural machinery, considering production and technological structure, the basic principles for design of the process of service, the quantitative indicators for servicing. It presents a theoretical model for the management of services in the service business, taking into account the basic system requirements for maintenance of agricultural machinery, the main elements of the standards of cu...

  10. THE IMPORTANCE OF THE AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY UNION IN IMPROVING THE AGRICULTURE LOGISTICS

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The author examines the role and significance of association Agriculture Machinery for the development and operation of agricultural machinery in the early 1960s. She stresses that the creation of workshops and maintenance sites helped the increase of the repair volume work in collective farms, which resulted in reducing the number of households made at comprehensive maintenance. She emphasizes that the enterprises of Agriculture Union system contributed to the development and strengthening o...

  11. ZF cPower – Hydrostatic-Mechanical Powersplit Transmission for Construction and Forest Machinery

    OpenAIRE

    Legner, Jürgen; Rebholz, Wolfgang; Morrison, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Until recently, hydrostatic-mechanical power split CVT drivelines have not found a place in construction machinery. The majority of these vehicles still use hydrodynamic powershift transmissions, full-hydrostatic transmissions or mechanical direct-shift transmissions. Hydrostatic drive lines are widely used in construction machinery possessing lower engine power. The upper power range is dominated by hydrodynamic powershift transmissions. Decisions made by vehicle manufacturers about which dr...

  12. Operational safety practices as determinants of machinery-related injury on Saskatchewan farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Gopinath R; Peng, Yingwei; Crowe, Trever G; Hagel, Louise; Dosman, James; Pickett, William

    2010-07-01

    Agricultural machinery is a major source of injury on farms. The importance of machinery safety practices as potential determinants of injury remains incompletely understood. We examined two such safety practices as risk factors for injury: (1) the presence of safety devices on machinery and (2) low levels of routine machinery maintenance. Our data source was the Saskatchewan Farm Injury Cohort baseline survey (n=2390 farms). Factor analysis was used to create measures of the two operational safety practices. The farm was the unit for all analyses and associations were evaluated using multiple Poisson regression models. Limited presence of safety devices on machinery during farm operations was associated with higher risks for injury (RR 1.94; 95% CI 1.13-3.33; p(trend)=0.02). Lower routine maintenance scores were associated with significantly reduced risks for injury (RR 0.54; 95% CI 0.29-0.98; p(trend)=0.05). The first finding implies that injury prevention programs require continued focus on the use of safety devices on machinery. The second finding could indicate that maintenance itself is a risk factor or that more modern equipment that requires less maintenance places the operator at lower risk. These findings provide etiological data that confirms the practical importance of operational safety practices as components of injury control strategies on farms. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Using Arduinos and 3D-printers to Build Research-grade Weather Stations and Environmental Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Many plant, soil, and surface-boundary-layer processes in the geosphere are governed by the microclimate at the land-air interface. Environmental monitoring is needed at smaller scales and higher frequencies than provided by existing weather monitoring networks. The objective of this project was to design, prototype, and test a research-grade weather station that is based on open-source hardware/software and off-the-shelf components. The idea is that anyone could make these systems with only elementary skills in fabrication and electronics. The first prototypes included measurements of air temperature, humidity, pressure, global irradiance, wind speed, and wind direction. The best approach for measuring precipitation is still being investigated. The data acquisition system was deigned around the Arduino microcontroller and included an LCD-based user interface, SD card data storage, and solar power. Sensors were sampled at 5 s intervals and means, standard deviations, and maximum/minimums were stored at user-defined intervals (5, 30, or 60 min). Several of the sensor components were printed in plastic using a hobby-grade 3D printer (e.g., RepRap Project). Both passive and aspirated radiation shields for measuring air temperature were printed in white Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS). A housing for measuring solar irradiance using a photodiode-based pyranometer was printed in opaque ABS. The prototype weather station was co-deployed with commercial research-grade instruments at an agriculture research unit near Fort Collins, Colorado, USA. Excellent agreement was found between Arduino-based system and commercial weather instruments. The technology was also used to support air quality research and automated air sampling. The next step is to incorporate remote access and station-to-station networking using Wi-Fi, cellular phone, and radio communications (e.g., Xbee).

  14. A Patient-Specific Polylactic Acid Bolus Made by a 3D Printer for Breast Cancer Radiation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So-Yeon; Choi, Chang Heon; Park, Jong Min; Chun, MinSoo; Han, Ji Hye; Kim, Jung-In

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and advantages of a patient-specific breast bolus made using a 3D printer technique. We used the anthropomorphic female phantom with breast attachments, which volumes are 200, 300, 400, 500 and 650 cc. We simulated the treatment for a right breast patient using parallel opposed tangential fields. Treatment plans were used to investigate the effect of unwanted air gaps under bolus on the dose distribution of the whole breast. The commercial Super-Flex bolus and 3D-printed polylactic acid (PLA) bolus were applied to investigate the skin dose of the breast with the MOSFET measurement. Two boluses of 3 and 5 mm thicknesses were selected. There was a good agreement between the dose distribution for a virtual bolus generated by the TPS and PLA bolus. The difference in dose distribution between the virtual bolus and Super-Flex bolus was significant within the bolus and breast due to unwanted air gaps. The average differences between calculated and measured doses in a 200 and 300 cc with PLA bolus were not significant, which were -0.7% and -0.6% for 3mm, and -1.1% and -1.1% for 5 mm, respectively. With the Super-Flex bolus, however, significant dose differences were observed (-5.1% and -3.2% for 3mm, and -6.3% and -4.2% for 5 mm). The 3D-printed solid bolus can reduce the uncertainty of the daily setup and help to overcome the dose discrepancy by unwanted air gaps in the breast cancer radiation therapy.

  15. Development of a valve-based cell printer for the formation of human embryonic stem cell spheroid aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner-Jones, Alan; Greenhough, Sebastian; King, Jason A; Gardner, John; Courtney, Aidan; Shu, Wenmiao

    2013-03-01

    In recent years, the use of a simple inkjet technology for cell printing has triggered tremendous interest and established the field of biofabrication. A key challenge has been the development of printing processes which are both controllable and less harmful, in order to preserve cell and tissue viability and functions. Here, we report on the development of a valve-based cell printer that has been validated to print highly viable cells in programmable patterns from two different bio-inks with independent control of the volume of each droplet (with a lower limit of 2 nL or fewer than five cells per droplet). Human ESCs were used to make spheroids by overprinting two opposing gradients of bio-ink; one of hESCs in medium and the other of medium alone. The resulting array of uniform sized droplets with a gradient of cell concentrations was inverted to allow cells to aggregate and form spheroids via gravity. The resulting aggregates have controllable and repeatable sizes, and consequently they can be made to order for specific applications. Spheroids with between 5 and 140 dissociated cells resulted in spheroids of 0.25-0.6 mm diameter. This work demonstrates that the valve-based printing process is gentle enough to maintain stem cell viability, accurate enough to produce spheroids of uniform size, and that printed cells maintain their pluripotency. This study includes the first analysis of the response of human embryonic stem cells to the printing process using this valve-based printing setup.

  16. Life Cycle Assessment of Recycling and Disposal of Waste Printers%废打印机回收处置的生命周期评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮久莉; 郭玉文; 乔琦

    2015-01-01

    Taking waste print-copy multifunction machine for example , the environmental impacts of recycling and disposal of waste printers were evaluated with life cycle assessment ( LCA) approach, and the countermeasures of supervision and management of recycling and disposal of waste printers in the future put forward .The results showed that the recycling and disposal of waste printers had positive environmental benefits , and life-cycle environmental impacts were mainly in decreasing the impacts of inorganic damage to respiratory system , the climate change , the ecological toxicity and the fossil energy , while exerting little change on the impacts of acidification , eutrophication and mineral resources .The transportation and power consumption were the main links to cause negative environmental impacts , and the recycling of metal and plastic in the disposal process generated positive environmental benefits .Sensitivity analysis results showed that the plastic was the most sensitive for life-cycle environmental impacts of waste printers , followed by the power consumption and then the metal recycling .For waste printer recycling and disposal in the future , it is necessary to carry out standardizing recycling and dismantling , lowering power consumption and promoting research on plastic and metal recycling technology , so as to further improve the environmental benefits brought about by recycling and disposal of waste printers .%以废打印复印一体机为例,应用生命周期评价( LCA)方法,对废打印机回收处置的环境影响进行评价,并对未来废打印机回收处置监管提出对策建议。结果表明,废打印机的回收处置有积极的环境效益,其生命周期环境影响主要体现在避免了无机物对呼吸系统损害、气候变化、生态毒性和化石燃料等方面,在酸化∕富营养化、矿产资源等方面影响稍小。其中,在造成的环境影响方面运输和电耗是主要环节,而

  17. ON NECESSITY FOR CREATION OF TECHNOLOGICAL MACHINERY SYSTEM IN CONSTRUCTION COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Vavilov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper substantiates the necessity for creation of a technological machinery system in multi-industry construction complex that is from development of raw material resources and production of construction materials (logging and mining industry, woodworking, production of crushed stone, cement, concrete etc. to construction of actual 3D and plate objects. Attention has been attracted to continuous renovation of construction technologies and emergence of new construction materials that requires corresponding technical facilities for their efficient application and creation of these facilities is lagging behind under existing conditions. Such approach leads to saturation of the Republican machinery park by import equipment and technology that correspond to introduced technologies and construction materials according to their parameters.In order to ensure success in import substitution it is necessary to create a prospective system of technological machinery that corresponds to new technologies and materials. Experience in creation of separate fragments of the machinery system reveals machinery similarity irrespective of construction complex sector. Such approach permits to create multi-functional technical facilities having not only similar basic machines but key equipment as well that differs only in design of finite element of working tool. It has been established that multi-functionality favours a significant reduction in financial expenses for renovation of machinery parks and an increase of modular machine number. It has been shown that the machinery system prompts in due time what technical facilities are to be created in order to realize non-waste technologies in the construction complex which are completed by production of certain useful products.

  18. WE-F-16A-06: Using 3D Printers to Create Complex Phantoms for Dose Verification, Quality Assurance, and Treatment Planning System Commissioning in Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassaee, A; Ding, X; McDonough, J; Reiche, M; Witztum, A; Teo, B [University Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To use 3D printers to design and construct complex geometrical phantoms for commissioning treatment planning systems, dose calculation algorithms, quality assurance (QA), dose delivery, and patient dose verifications. Methods: In radiotherapy, complex geometrical phantoms are often required for dose verification, dose delivery and calculation algorithm validation. Presently, fabrication of customized phantoms is limited due to time, expense and challenges in machining of complex shapes. In this work, we designed and utilized 3D printers to fabricate two phantoms for QA purposes. One phantom includes hills and valleys (HV) for verification of intensity modulated radiotherapy for photons, and protons (IMRT and IMPT). The other phantom includes cylindrical cavities (CC) of various sizes for dose verification of inhomogeneities. We evaluated the HV phantoms for an IMPT beam, and the CC phantom to study various inhomogeneity configurations using photon, electron, and proton beams. Gafcromic ™ films were used to quantify the dose distributions delivered to the phantoms. Results: The HV phantom has dimensions of 12 cm × 12 cm and consists of one row and one column of five peaks with heights ranging from 2 to 5 cm. The CC phantom has a size 10 cm × 14 cm and includes 6 cylindrical cavities with length of 7.2 cm and diameters ranging from 0.6 to 1.2 cm. The IMPT evaluation using the HV phantom shows good agreement as compared to the dose distribution calculated with treatment planning system. The CC phantom also shows reasonable agreements for using different algorithms for each beam modalities. Conclusion: 3D printers with submillimiter resolutions are capable of printing complex phantoms for dose verification and QA in radiotherapy. As printing costs decrease and the technology becomes widely available, phantom design and construction will be readily available to any clinic for testing geometries that were not previously feasible.

  19. Scaffold-Free Tubular Tissues Created by a Bio-3D Printer Undergo Remodeling and Endothelialization when Implanted in Rat Aortae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Manabu; Nakayama, Koichi; Noguchi, Ryo; Kamohara, Keiji; Furukawa, Kojirou; Uchihashi, Kazuyoshi; Toda, Shuji; Oyama, Jun-Ichi; Node, Koichi; Morita, Shigeki

    2015-01-01

    Small caliber vascular prostheses are not clinically available because synthetic vascular prostheses lack endothelial cells which modulate platelet activation, leukocyte adhesion, thrombosis, and the regulation of vasomotor tone by the production of vasoactive substances. We developed a novel method to create scaffold-free tubular tissue from multicellular spheroids (MCS) using a "Bio-3D printer"-based system. This system enables the creation of pre-designed three-dimensional structures using a computer controlled robotics system. With this system, we created a tubular structure and studied its biological features. Using a "Bio-3D printer," we made scaffold-free tubular tissues (inner diameter of 1.5 mm) from a total of 500 MCSs (2.5× 104 cells per one MCS) composed of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (40%), human aortic smooth muscle cells (10%), and normal human dermal fibroblasts (50%). The tubular tissues were cultured in a perfusion system and implanted into the abdominal aortas of F344 nude rats. We assessed the flow by ultrasonography and performed histological examinations on the second (n = 5) and fifth (n = 5) day after implantation. All grafts were patent and remodeling of the tubular tissues (enlargement of the lumen area and thinning of the wall) was observed. A layer of endothelial cells was confirmed five days after implantation. The scaffold-free tubular tissues made of MCS using a Bio-3D printer underwent remodeling and endothelialization. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the underlying mechanism of endothelialization and its function, as well as the long-term results.

  20. Scaffold-Free Tubular Tissues Created by a Bio-3D Printer Undergo Remodeling and Endothelialization when Implanted in Rat Aortae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Itoh

    Full Text Available Small caliber vascular prostheses are not clinically available because synthetic vascular prostheses lack endothelial cells which modulate platelet activation, leukocyte adhesion, thrombosis, and the regulation of vasomotor tone by the production of vasoactive substances. We developed a novel method to create scaffold-free tubular tissue from multicellular spheroids (MCS using a "Bio-3D printer"-based system. This system enables the creation of pre-designed three-dimensional structures using a computer controlled robotics system. With this system, we created a tubular structure and studied its biological features.Using a "Bio-3D printer," we made scaffold-free tubular tissues (inner diameter of 1.5 mm from a total of 500 MCSs (2.5× 104 cells per one MCS composed of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (40%, human aortic smooth muscle cells (10%, and normal human dermal fibroblasts (50%. The tubular tissues were cultured in a perfusion system and implanted into the abdominal aortas of F344 nude rats. We assessed the flow by ultrasonography and performed histological examinations on the second (n = 5 and fifth (n = 5 day after implantation. All grafts were patent and remodeling of the tubular tissues (enlargement of the lumen area and thinning of the wall was observed. A layer of endothelial cells was confirmed five days after implantation.The scaffold-free tubular tissues made of MCS using a Bio-3D printer underwent remodeling and endothelialization. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the underlying mechanism of endothelialization and its function, as well as the long-term results.