WorldWideScience

Sample records for machine translation soviet

  1. Machine Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张严心

    2015-01-01

    As a kind of ancillary translation tool, Machine Translation has been paid increasing attention to and received different kinds of study by a great deal of researchers and scholars for a long time. To know the definition of Machine Translation and to analyse its benefits and problems are significant for translators in order to make good use of Machine Translation, and helpful to develop and consummate Machine Translation Systems in the future.

  2. Machine Translation and Other Translation Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melby, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Examines the application of linguistic theory to machine translation and translator tools, discusses the use of machine translation and translator tools in the real world of translation, and addresses the impact of translation technology on conceptions of language and other issues. Findings indicate that the human mind is flexible and linguistic…

  3. Machine Translation Effect on Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mika Yasuoka; Bjørn, Pernille

    2011-01-01

    Intercultural collaboration facilitated by machine translation has gradually spread in various settings. Still, little is known as for the practice of machine-translation mediated communication. This paper investigates how machine translation affects intercultural communication in practice. Based...... determines communication process largely, our data indicates communication relies more on a dynamic process where participants establish common ground than on reproducibility and grammatical accuracy.......Intercultural collaboration facilitated by machine translation has gradually spread in various settings. Still, little is known as for the practice of machine-translation mediated communication. This paper investigates how machine translation affects intercultural communication in practice. Based...... on communication in which multilingual communication system is applied, we identify four communication types and its’ influences on stakeholders’ communication process, especially focusing on establishment and maintenance of common ground. Different from our expectation that quality of machine translation results...

  4. Automatic Evaluation of Machine Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Mercedes Garcia; Koglin, Arlene; Mesa-Lao, Bartolomé

    2015-01-01

    The availability of systems capable of producing fairly accurate translations has increased the popularity of machine translation (MT). The translation industry is steadily incorporating MT in their workflows engaging the human translator to post-edit the raw MT output in order to comply with a set...

  5. Parsing statistical machine translation output

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter, S.; Monz, C.; Vetulani, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Despite increasing research into the use of syntax during statistical machine translation, the incorporation of syntax into language models has seen limited success. We present a study of the discriminative abilities of generative syntax-based language models, over and above standard n-gram models,

  6. Automatic Evaluation of Machine Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Mercedes Garcia; Koglin, Arlene; Mesa-Lao, Bartolomé

    2015-01-01

    The availability of systems capable of producing fairly accurate translations has increased the popularity of machine translation (MT). The translation industry is steadily incorporating MT in their workflows engaging the human translator to post-edit the raw MT output in order to comply with a set...... of post-editing effort, namely i) temporal (time), ii) cognitive (mental processes) and iii) technical (keyboard activity). For the purposes of this research, TER scores were correlated with two different indicators of post-editing effort as computed in the CRITT Translation Process Database (TPR......-DB) *. On the one hand, post-editing temporal effort was measured using FDur values (duration of segment production time excluding keystroke pauses >_ 200 seconds) and KDur values (duration of coherent keyboard activity excluding keystroke pauses >_ 5 seconds). On the other hand, post-editing technical effort...

  7. On automatic machine translation evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darinka Verdonik

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An important task of developing machine translation (MT is evaluating system performance. Automatic measures are most commonly used for this task, as manual evaluation is time-consuming and costly. However, to perform an objective evaluation is not a trivial task. Automatic measures, such as BLEU, TER, NIST, METEOR etc., have their own weaknesses, while manual evaluations are also problematic since they are always to some extent subjective. In this paper we test the influence of a test set on the results of automatic MT evaluation for the subtitling domain. Translating subtitles is a rather specific task for MT, since subtitles are a sort of summarization of spoken text rather than a direct translation of (written text. Additional problem when translating language pair that does not include English, in our example Slovene-Serbian, is that commonly the translations are done from English to Serbian and from English to Slovenian, and not directly, since most of the TV production is originally filmed in English. All this poses additional challenges to MT and consequently to MT evaluation. Automatic evaluation is based on a reference translation, which is usually taken from an existing parallel corpus and marked as a test set. In our experiments, we compare the evaluation results for the same MT system output using three types of test set. In the first round, the test set are 4000 subtitles from the parallel corpus of subtitles SUMAT. These subtitles are not direct translations from Serbian to Slovene or vice versa, but are based on an English original. In the second round, the test set are 1000 subtitles randomly extracted from the first test set and translated anew, from Serbian to Slovenian, based solely on the Serbian written subtitles. In the third round, the test set are the same 1000 subtitles, however this time the Slovene translations were obtained by manually correcting the Slovene MT outputs so that they are correct translations of the

  8. Evaluating Arabic to English Machine Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laith S. Hadla

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Online text machine translation systems are widely used throughout the world freely. Most of these systems use statistical machine translation (SMT that is based on a corpus full with translation examples to learn from them how to translate correctly. Online text machine translation systems differ widely in their effectiveness, and therefore we have to fairly evaluate their effectiveness. Generally the manual (human evaluation of machine translation (MT systems is better than the automatic evaluation, but it is not feasible to be used. The distance or similarity of MT candidate output to a set of reference translations are used by many MT evaluation approaches. This study presents a comparison of effectiveness of two free online machine translation systems (Google Translate and Babylon machine translation system to translate Arabic to English. There are many automatic methods used to evaluate different machine translators, one of these methods; Bilingual Evaluation Understudy (BLEU method. BLEU is used to evaluate translation quality of two free online machine translation systems under consideration. A corpus consists of more than 1000 Arabic sentences with two reference English translations for each Arabic sentence is used in this study. This corpus of Arabic sentences and their English translations consists of 4169 Arabic words, where the number of unique Arabic words is 2539. This corpus is released online to be used by researchers. These Arabic sentences are distributed among four basic sentence functions (declarative, interrogative, exclamatory, and imperative. The experimental results show that Google machine translation system is better than Babylon machine translation system in terms of precision of translation from Arabic to English.

  9. Machine Translation in Post-Contemporary Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Grace Hui Chin

    2010-01-01

    This article focusing on translating techniques via personal computer or laptop reports updated artificial intelligence progresses before 2010. Based on interpretations and information for field of MT [Machine Translation] by Yorick Wilks' book, "Machine Translation, Its scope and limits," this paper displays understandable theoretical frameworks…

  10. Machine Translation Tools - Tools of The Translator's Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastberg, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In this article three of the more common types of translation tools are presented, discussed and critically evaluated. The types of translation tools dealt with in this article are: Fully Automated Machine Translation (or FAMT), Human Aided Machine Translation (or HAMT) and Machine Aided Human...... Translation (or MAHT). The strengths and weaknesses of the different types of tools are discussed and evaluated by means of a number of examples. The article aims at two things: at presenting a sort of state of the art of what is commonly referred to as “machine translation” as well as at providing the reader...... with a sound basis for considering what translation tool (if any) is the most appropriate in order to meet his or her specific translation needs....

  11. Adding Statistical Machine Translation Adaptation to Computer-Assisted Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    on Telecommunications. Tehran, 2012, 822–826. Bertoldi, N.; Federico, M. Domain Adaptation for Statistical Machine Translation with Monolingual ...for Interactive Machine Translation. ICMI’11. Alicante, Spain: ACM, 2011, 197–200. 14 Haffari, G.; Sarkar, A. Active Learning for Multilingual

  12. Machine Translation Based on Translation Corresponding Tree Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A representation schema called translation corresponding tree (TCT) has been applied to a Portuguese to Chinese example-based machine translation system. The translation examples are annotated by the representation of the TCT structure. Each TCT describes not only the syntactic structure of the source sentence (i.e., Portuguese in our system) but also the translation correspondences (i.e., Chinese translation). In addition, the TCT nodes describe the corresponding linguistic relationships between the source and target languages. The translation examples can be effectively represented with this annotation schema and organized in the bilingual knowledge database or example base. In the real machine translation process, the target language is synthesized with higher quality by referring to the TCT translation information.

  13. Discriminative syntactic reranking for statistical machine translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter, S.; Monz, C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a method that successfully exploits simple syntactic features for n-best translation candidate reranking using perceptrons. Our approach uses discriminative language modelling to rerank the n-best translations generated by a statistical machine translation system. The performanc

  14. Fundamentals of Machine Learning for Neural Machine Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Kelleher, John

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a short introduction to neural networks and how they are used for machine translation and concludes with some discussion on the current research challenges being addressed by neural machine translation (NMT) research. The primary goal of this paper is to give a no-tears introduction to NMT to readers that do not have a computer science or mathematical background. The secondary goal is to provide the reader with a deep enough understanding of NMT that they can appreciate th...

  15. Using example-based machine translation to translate DVD subtitles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flanagan, Marian

    Audiovisual Translation (AVT), and in particular subtitling, has been recognised as an area that could potentially benefit from the introduction of machine translation (followed by post-editing). In recent years the demands on subtitlers have increased, while the payment to subtitlers and time al...

  16. The Dostoevsky Machine in Georgetown: scientific translation in the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordin, Michael D

    2016-04-01

    Machine Translation (MT) is now ubiquitous in discussions of translation. The roots of this phenomenon - first publicly unveiled in the so-called 'Georgetown-IBM Experiment' on 9 January 1954 - displayed not only the technological utopianism still associated with dreams of a universal computer translator, but was deeply enmeshed in the political pressures of the Cold War and a dominating conception of scientific writing as both the goal of machine translation as well as its method. Machine translation was created, in part, as a solution to a perceived crisis sparked by the massive expansion of Soviet science. Scientific prose was also perceived as linguistically simpler, and so served as the model for how to turn a language into a series of algorithms. This paper follows the rise of the Georgetown program - the largest single program in the world - from 1954 to the (as it turns out, temporary) collapse of MT in 1964.

  17. Project-specific Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Linguistic Data Consortium’s Reflex Pack for Less Commonly Taught Languages (LCTL) (7). The corpora labeled Sada -e-Azadi (SeA) (11) and Afghan Recovery...Linguistics, Philadelphia, PA, 2002, 311–318. 11. Sada -e Azadi. http://www.sada-e-azadi.net (accessed 2011). 12. Stolcke, A. SRILM - An Extensible...Translation Center QAMO Qamoosuna (dictionaries) RH Ranger Handbook SCFG Synchronous Context Free Grammar SeA Sada -e-Azadi SME subject matter expert SMT

  18. Rule-based machine translation for Aymara

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coler, Matthew; Homola, Petr; Jones, Mari

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the ongoing result of an approach developed by the collaboration of a computational linguist with a field linguist that addresses one of the oft-overlooked keys to language maintenance: the development of modern language-learning tools. Although machine translation isn’t commonly

  19. Findings of the 2010 Joint Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation and Metrics for Machine Translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Callison-Burch, C.; Koehn, P.; Monz, C.; Peterson, K.; Przybocki, M.; Zaidan, O.F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the WMT10 and MetricsMATR10 shared tasks, which included a translation task, a system combination task, and an evaluation task. We conducted a large-scale manual evaluation of 104 machine translation systems and 41 system combination entries. We used the ranking of

  20. On Using Very Large Target Vocabulary for Neural Machine Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Jean, Sébastien; Cho, Kyunghyun; Memisevic, Roland; Bengio, Yoshua

    2014-01-01

    Neural machine translation, a recently proposed approach to machine translation based purely on neural networks, has shown promising results compared to the existing approaches such as phrase-based statistical machine translation. Despite its recent success, neural machine translation has its limitation in handling a larger vocabulary, as training complexity as well as decoding complexity increase proportionally to the number of target words. In this paper, we propose a method that allows us ...

  1. Unraveling the Contribution of Image Captioning and Neural Machine Translation for Multimodal Machine Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lala Chiraag

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent work on multimodal machine translation has attempted to address the problem of producing target language image descriptions based on both the source language description and the corresponding image. However, existing work has not been conclusive on the contribution of visual information. This paper presents an in-depth study of the problem by examining the differences and complementarities of two related but distinct approaches to this task: textonly neural machine translation and image captioning. We analyse the scope for improvement and the effect of different data and settings to build models for these tasks. We also propose ways of combining these two approaches for improved translation quality.

  2. Resolution of Unidentified Words in Machine Translation

    CERN Document Server

    Ullah, Sana; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a mechanism of resolving unidentified lexical units in text-based machine translation (TBMT). In machine translation system it is unlikely to have a complete MT lexicon and hence there is a need of a mechanism to handle the problem of unidentified words. These unknown words could be abbreviations, names, acronyms and newly introduced terms. We have proposed an algorithm for the resolution of the unidentified words. This algorithm takes discourse unit (primitive discourse) as a unit of analysis and provides real time updates to the lexicon. We have manually applied the algorithm to news paper fragments. Along with anaphora and cataphora1 resolution, many unknown words especially names and abbreviations were updated to the lexicon. Moreover flowchart of the proposed algorithm is also presented.

  3. An Evaluation of Output Quality of Machine Translation (Padideh Software vs. Google Translate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haniyeh Sadeghi Azer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the translation quality of two machine translation systems in translating six different text-types, from English to Persian. The evaluation was based on criteria proposed by Van Slype (1979. The proposed model for evaluation is a black-box type, comparative and adequacy-oriented evaluation. To conduct the evaluation, a questionnaire was assigned to end-users to evaluate the outputs to examine and determine, if the machine-generated translations are intelligible and acceptable from their point of view and which one of the machine-generated translations produced by Padideh software and Google Translate is more acceptable and useful from the end-users point of view. The findings indicate that, the machine-generated translations are intelligible and acceptable in translating certain text-types, for end-users and Google Translate is more acceptable from end-users point of view. Keywords: Machine Translation, Machine Translation Evaluation, Translation Quality

  4. Findings of the 2014 Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bojar, O.; Buck, C.; Federmann, C.; Haddow, B.; Koehn, P.; Leveling, J.; Monz, C.; Pecina, P.; Post, M.; Saint-Amand, H.; Soricut, R.; Specia, L.; Tamchyna, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the WMT14 shared tasks, which included a standard news translation task, a separate medical translation task, a task for run-time estimation of machine translation quality, and a metrics task. This year, 143 machine translation systems from 23 institutions were sub

  5. Findings of the 2011 workshop on statistical machine translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Callison-Burch, C.; Koehn, P.; Monz, C.; Zaidan, O.F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the WMT11 shared tasks, which included a translation task, a system combination task, and a task for machine translation evaluation metrics. We conducted a large-scale manual evaluation of 148 machine translation systems and 41 system combination entries. We used t

  6. Love-hate for man-machine metaphors in Soviet physiology: from Pavlov to "physiological cybernetics".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerovitch, Slava

    2002-06-01

    This article reinterprets the debate between orthodox followers of the Pavlovian reflex theory and Soviet "cybernetic physiologists" in the 1950s and 60s as a clash of opposing man-machine metaphors. While both sides accused each other of "mechanistic," reductionist methodology, they did not see anything "mechanistic" about their own central metaphors: the telephone switchboard metaphor for nervous activity (the Pavlovians), and the analogies between the human brain and a computer (the cyberneticians). I argue that the scientific utility of machine analogies was closely intertwined with their philosophical and political meanings and that new interpretations of these metaphors emerged as a result of political conflicts and a realignment of forces within the scientific community and in society at large. I suggest that the constant travel of man-machine analogies, back and forth between physiology and technology has blurred the traditional categories of the "mechanistic" and the "organic" in Soviet neurophysiology, as perhaps in the history of physiology in general.

  7. Machine translation of TV subtitles for large scale production

    OpenAIRE

    Volk, Martin; Sennrich, Rico; Hardmeier, Christian; Tidström, Frida

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes our work on building and employing Statistical Machine Translation systems for TV subtitles in Scandinavia. We have built translation systems for Danish, English, Norwegian and Swedish. They are used in daily subtitle production and translate large volumes. As an example we report on our evaluation results for three TV genres. We discuss our lessons learned in the system development process which shed interesting light on the practical use of Machine Translation technology.

  8. Selected Soviet Military Translations (Air Force and Civil Defense Materials),

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    suspension of bombs in an. airplane can bo causes for this negative plionomonon. Cross action of tho controls consists of tho fact -chat under certain...controlled manually. The effect of the place of suspension of bombs is shown when tho machine is put into a turn,, or when it is held in a turn, as...and Sergey Stopanonko have repeatedly won first prizes in city and republic competitions. ’ , A , Twenty-seven sports.drivers of scooters and

  9. Evaluation of Hindi to Punjabi Machine Translation System

    CERN Document Server

    Goyal, Vishal

    2009-01-01

    Machine Translation in India is relatively young. The earliest efforts date from the late 80s and early 90s. The success of every system is judged from its evaluation experimental results. Number of machine translation systems has been started for development but to the best of author knowledge, no high quality system has been completed which can be used in real applications. Recently, Punjabi University, Patiala, India has developed Punjabi to Hindi Machine translation system with high accuracy of about 92%. Both the systems i.e. system under question and developed system are between same closely related languages. Thus, this paper presents the evaluation results of Hindi to Punjabi machine translation system. It makes sense to use same evaluation criteria as that of Punjabi to Hindi Punjabi Machine Translation System. After evaluation, the accuracy of the system is found to be about 95%.

  10. An Overall Perspective of Machine Translation with its Shortcomings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Akbari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The petition for language translation has strikingly augmented recently due to cross-cultural communication and exchange of information. In order to communicate well, text should be translated correctly and completely in each field such as legal documents, technical texts, scientific texts, publicity leaflets, and instructional materials. In this connection, Machine translation is of great importance in translation. The term “Machine Translation” was first proposed by George Artsrouni and Smirnov Troyanski (1933 to design a storage design on paper tape. This paper sought to investigate an overall perspective of Machine Translation models and its metrics in detail. Finally, it scrutinized the ins and outs shortcomings of Machine Translation

  11. Quantum Neural Network Based Machine Translator for Hindi to English

    OpenAIRE

    Ravi Narayan; V. P. Singh; S. Chakraverty

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the machine learning based machine translation system for Hindi to English, which learns the semantically correct corpus. The quantum neural based pattern recognizer is used to recognize and learn the pattern of corpus, using the information of part of speech of individual word in the corpus, like a human. The system performs the machine translation using its knowledge gained during the learning by inputting the pair of sentences of Devnagri-Hindi and English. To analyze t...

  12. Quantum Neural Network Based Machine Translator for Hindi to English

    OpenAIRE

    Ravi Narayan; Singh, V. P.; S. Chakraverty

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the machine learning based machine translation system for Hindi to English, which learns the semantically correct corpus. The quantum neural based pattern recognizer is used to recognize and learn the pattern of corpus, using the information of part of speech of individual word in the corpus, like a human. The system performs the machine translation using its knowledge gained during the learning by inputting the pair of sentences of Devnagri-Hindi and English. To analyze t...

  13. LSTM Neural Reordering Feature for Statistical Machine Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Yiming; Wang, Shijin; Li, Jianfeng

    2015-01-01

    Artificial neural networks are powerful models, which have been widely applied into many aspects of machine translation, such as language modeling and translation modeling. Though notable improvements have been made in these areas, the reordering problem still remains a challenge in statistical machine translations. In this paper, we present a novel neural reordering model that directly models word pairs and alignment. By utilizing LSTM recurrent neural networks, much longer context could be ...

  14. Machine Translation as a Complex System: The Role of Esperanto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federic Gobbo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The history of machine translation and the history of Esperanto have long been connected, as they are two different ways to deal with the same problem: the problem of communication across language barriers. Language can be considered a Complex Adaptive System (CAS, and machine translation too. In fact, there are multiple agents (both natural and artificial involved, interacting with one another and committed to achieve a common goal, i.e., the machine translation task. The main characteristics of language as a CAS are also shared in machine translation, especially if we consider the example-based, statistical approach, which is nowadays paradigmatic and unavoidable. In fact, control is distributed, there is no ideal representing agent (intrinsic diversity, there are perpetual dynamics in performance, adapted through amplification and competition of new examples from the crowd of users. On the other hand, Esperanto, being a living language, can be considered a CAS, but of a special kind, because its intrinsic regularity in structure simplifies the task of machine translation, at least up to a certain level. This paper reviews how Esperanto has enhanced the development of human-machine communication in general and within machine translation in particular, tracing some prospects for further development of machine translation, where Esperanto could play a key role.

  15. Exact Decoding for Phrase-Based Statistical Machine Translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aziz, W.; Dymetman, M.; Specia, L.

    2014-01-01

    The combinatorial space of translation derivations in phrase-based statistical machine translation is given by the intersection between a translation lattice and a target language model. We replace this intractable intersection by a tractable relaxation which incorporates a low-order upperbound on t

  16. Machine Translation in the German Classroom: Detection, Reaction, Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steding, Soren

    2009-01-01

    There are many websites today that offer free machine translations and although beginning students of German are not always proficient enough to judge the quality of these translations or to fully understand certain translation results, they use these services nonetheless for their assignments. The problem for the educator is to distinguish…

  17. Exploration and exploitation of multilingual data for statistical machine translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter, S.C.

    2012-01-01

    Shortly after the birth of computer science, researchers realised the importance of machine translation as a task worth of concentrated effort, but it is only recently that algorithms are able to provide automatic translations usable by the masses. Modern translation systems are dependent on bilingu

  18. Quantum Neural Network Based Machine Translator for Hindi to English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Narayan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the machine learning based machine translation system for Hindi to English, which learns the semantically correct corpus. The quantum neural based pattern recognizer is used to recognize and learn the pattern of corpus, using the information of part of speech of individual word in the corpus, like a human. The system performs the machine translation using its knowledge gained during the learning by inputting the pair of sentences of Devnagri-Hindi and English. To analyze the effectiveness of the proposed approach, 2600 sentences have been evaluated during simulation and evaluation. The accuracy achieved on BLEU score is 0.7502, on NIST score is 6.5773, on ROUGE-L score is 0.9233, and on METEOR score is 0.5456, which is significantly higher in comparison with Google Translation and Bing Translation for Hindi to English Machine Translation.

  19. Quantum neural network based machine translator for Hindi to English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Ravi; Singh, V P; Chakraverty, S

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the machine learning based machine translation system for Hindi to English, which learns the semantically correct corpus. The quantum neural based pattern recognizer is used to recognize and learn the pattern of corpus, using the information of part of speech of individual word in the corpus, like a human. The system performs the machine translation using its knowledge gained during the learning by inputting the pair of sentences of Devnagri-Hindi and English. To analyze the effectiveness of the proposed approach, 2600 sentences have been evaluated during simulation and evaluation. The accuracy achieved on BLEU score is 0.7502, on NIST score is 6.5773, on ROUGE-L score is 0.9233, and on METEOR score is 0.5456, which is significantly higher in comparison with Google Translation and Bing Translation for Hindi to English Machine Translation.

  20. Syntactic Reordering for Arabic- English Phrase-Based Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatem, Arwa; Omar, Nazlia

    Machine Translation (MT) refers to the use of a machine for performing translation task which converts text or speech in one Natural Language (Source Language (SL)) into another Natural Language (Target Language (TL)). The translation from Arabic to English is difficult task due to the Arabic languages are highly inflectional, rich morphology and relatively free word order. Word ordering plays an important part in the translation process. The paper proposes a transfer-based approach in Arabic to English MT to handle the word ordering problem. Preliminary tested indicate that our system, AE-TBMT is competitive when compared against other approaches from the literature.

  1. Machine Translation of Noun Phrases from English to Igala using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA

    2014-06-01

    Jun 1, 2014 ... for easier processing of concepts This clearly shows that ... research organizations and government agencies to .... first hybrid machine translation in 2009. English and ... sentence structure in the target language. There is no ...

  2. ARABIC-MALAY MACHINE TRANSLATION USING RULE-BASED APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Jumaa Alsaket

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Arabic machine translation has been taking place in machine translation projects in recent years. This study concentrates on the translation of Arabic text to its equivalent in Malay language. The problem of this research is the syntactic and morphological differences between Arabic and Malay adjective sentences. The main aim of this study is to design and develop Arabic-Malay machine translation model. First, we analyze the adjective role in the Arabic and Malay languages. Based on this analysis, we identify the transfer bilingual rules form source language to target language so that the translation of source language to target language can be performed by computers successfully. Then, we build and implement a machine translation prototype called AMTS to translate from Arabic to Malay based on rule based approach. The system is evaluated on set of simple Arabic sentences. The techniques used to evaluate the correctness of the system translation are the BLEU metric algorithm and the human judgment. The results of the BLEU algorithm show that the AMTS system performs better than Google in the translation of Arabic sentences into Malay. In addition, the average accuracy given by human judges is 92.3% for our system and 75.3% for Google.

  3. An Evaluation of Output Quality of Machine Translation (Padideh Software vs. Google Translate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azer, Haniyeh Sadeghi; Aghayi, Mohammad Bagher

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the translation quality of two machine translation systems in translating six different text-types, from English to Persian. The evaluation was based on criteria proposed by Van Slype (1979). The proposed model for evaluation is a black-box type, comparative and adequacy-oriented evaluation. To conduct the evaluation, a…

  4. Bean Soup Translation: Flexible, Linguistically-Motivated Syntax for Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehay, Dennis Nolan

    2012-01-01

    Machine translation (MT) systems attempt to translate texts from one language into another by translating words from a "source language" and rearranging them into fluent utterances in a "target language." When the two languages organize concepts in very different ways, knowledge of their general sentence structure, or…

  5. Machine Translation-Assisted Language Learning: Writing for Beginners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ignacio; Pena, Maria Isabel

    2011-01-01

    The few studies that deal with machine translation (MT) as a language learning tool focus on its use by advanced learners, never by beginners. Yet, freely available MT engines (i.e. Google Translate) and MT-related web initiatives (i.e. Gabble-on.com) position themselves to cater precisely to the needs of learners with a limited command of a…

  6. Chunk Alignment for Corpus-Based Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Dong

    2011-01-01

    Since sub-sentential alignment is critically important to the translation quality of an Example-Based Machine Translation (EBMT) system, which operates by finding and combining phrase-level matches against the training examples, we developed a new alignment algorithm for the purpose of improving the EBMT system's performance. This new…

  7. Machine Translation with Many Manually Labeled Discourse Connectives

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Thomas; Polakova, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents machine translation experiments from English to Czech with a large amount of manually annotated discourse connectives. The gold-standard discourse relation annotation leads to better translation performance in ranges of 4–60% for some ambiguous English connectives and helps to find correct syntactical constructs in Czech for less ambiguous connectives. Automatic scoring confirms the stability of the newly built discourse-aware translation systems. Error analysis and human t...

  8. Approaches to handle scarce resources for Bengali statistical machine translation

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Maxim

    2010-01-01

    Machine translation (MT) is a hard problem because of the highly complex, irregular and diverse nature of natural language. MT refers to computerized systems that utilize software to translate text from one natural language into another with or without human assistance. It is impossible to accurately model all the linguistic rules and relationships that shape the translation process, and therefore MT has to make decisions based on incomplete data. In order to handle this incomplete data, a pr...

  9. Integrating Automatic Speech Recognition and Machine Translation for Better Translation Outputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liyanapathirana, Jeevanthi

    than typing, making the translation process faster. The spoken translation is analyzed and combined with the machine translation output of the same sentence using different methods. We study a number of different translation models in the context of n-best list rescoring methods. As an alternative...... to the n-best list rescoring, we also use word graphs with the expectation of arriving at a tighter integration of ASR and MT models. Integration methods include constraining ASR models using language and translation models of MT, and vice versa. We currently develop and experiment different methods...... on the Danish – English language pair, with the use of a speech corpora and parallel text. The methods are investigated to check ways that the accuracy of the spoken translation of the translator can be increased with the use of machine translation outputs, which would be useful for potential computer...

  10. Linguistically motivated statistical machine translation models and algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Xiong, Deyi

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a wide variety of algorithms and models to integrate linguistic knowledge into Statistical Machine Translation (SMT). It helps advance conventional SMT to linguistically motivated SMT by enhancing the following three essential components: translation, reordering and bracketing models. It also serves the purpose of promoting the in-depth study of the impacts of linguistic knowledge on machine translation. Finally it provides a systematic introduction of Bracketing Transduction Grammar (BTG) based SMT, one of the state-of-the-art SMT formalisms, as well as a case study of linguistically motivated SMT on a BTG-based platform.

  11. Precise machine translation of computer science study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Marais, L

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available mobile (Android) application for translating discrete mathematics definitions between English and Afrikaans. The main component of the system is a Grammatical Framework (GF) application grammar which produces syntactically and semantically accurate...

  12. Machine Translation in the Hands of Trainee Translators – an Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sycz-Opoń Joanna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Automated translation (machine translation, MT is systematically gaining popularity among professional translators, who claim that editing MT output requires less time and effort than translating from scratch. MT technology is also offered in leading translator’s workstations, e.g., SDL Trados Studio, memoQ, Déjà Vu and Wordfast. Therefore, the dilemma arises: should MT be introduced into formal translation training? In order to answer this question, first, it is necessary to understand how trainee translators actually use MT.

  13. Machine Translation Using Constraint-Based Synchronous Grammar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WONG Fai; DONG Mingchui; HU Dongcheng

    2006-01-01

    A synchronous grammar based on the formalism of context-free grammar was developed by generalizing the first component of production that models the source text. Unlike other synchronous grammars,the grammar allows multiple target productions to be associated to a single production rule which can be used to guide a parser to infer different possible translational equivalences for a recognized input string according to the feature constraints of symbols in the pattern. An extended generalized LR algorithm was adapted to the parsing of the proposed formalism to analyze the syntactic structure of a language. The grammar was used as the basis for building a machine translation system for Portuguese to Chinese translation. The empirical results show that the grammar is more expressive when modeling the translational equivalences of parallel texts for machine translation and grammar rewriting applications.

  14. English to Sanskrit Machine Translation Using Transfer Based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Ganesh R.; Godse, Sachin P.

    2010-11-01

    Translation is one of the needs of global society for communicating thoughts and ideas of one country with other country. Translation is the process of interpretation of text meaning and subsequent production of equivalent text, also called as communicating same meaning (message) in another language. In this paper we gave detail information on how to convert source language text in to target language text using Transfer Based Approach for machine translation. Here we implemented English to Sanskrit machine translator using transfer based approach. English is global language used for business and communication but large amount of population in India is not using and understand the English. Sanskrit is ancient language of India most of the languages in India are derived from Sanskrit. Sanskrit can be act as an intermediate language for multilingual translation.

  15. English to Tamil machine translation system using universal networking language

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    RAJESWARI SRIDHAR; PAVITHRA SETHURAMAN; KASHYAP KRISHNAKUMAR

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes English to Tamil machine translation system, using the universal networking language (UNL) as the intermediate representation. The UNL approach is a hybrid approach of the rule and knowledge-based approaches to machine translation. UNL is a declarative formal language, specifically designed to represent semantic data extracted from a natural language text. The input English sentence is converted to UNL (enconversion), which is then converted to a Tamil sentence (deconversion) by ensuring thatthe meaning of the input sentence is preserved. The representation of UNL was modified to suit the translation process. A new sentence formation algorithm was also proposed to rearrange the translated Tamil words to sentences. The translation system was evaluated using bilingual evaluation understudy (BLEU) score. A BLEU score of 0.581 was achieved, which is an indication that most of the information in the input sentence is retained in the translated sentence. The scores obtained using the UNL based approach were compared with existingapproaches to translation, and it can be concluded that the UNL is a more suited approach to machine translation.

  16. Using example-based machine translation to translate DVD subtitles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flanagan, Marian

    allotted to produce the subtitles have both decreased. Therefore, this market is recognised as a potential real-world application of MT. Recent publications have introduced Corpus-Based MT approaches to translate subtitles. An SMT system has been implemented in a Swedish subtitling company to translate...... between Swedish and Danish and Swedish and Norwegian subtitles, with the company already reporting a successful return on their investment. The hybrid EBMT/SMT system used in the current research, on the other hand, remains within the confines of academic research, and the real potential of the system...... more accessible for use within the AVT industry, and to put the system in a position where it could compete commercially with the SMT approach....

  17. TRANSLATOR OF FINITE STATE MACHINE MODEL PARAMETERS FROM MATLAB ENVIRONMENT INTO HUMAN-MACHINE INTERFACE APPLICATION

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Technology and means for automatic translation of FSM model parameters from Matlab application to human-machine interface application is proposed. The example of technology application to the electric apparatus model is described.

  18. Machine translation with minimal reliance on parallel resources

    CERN Document Server

    Tambouratzis, George; Sofianopoulos, Sokratis

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a unified view on a new methodology for Machine Translation (MT). This methodology extracts information from widely available resources (extensive monolingual corpora) while only assuming the existence of a very limited parallel corpus, thus having a unique starting point to Statistical Machine Translation (SMT). In this book, a detailed presentation of the methodology principles and system architecture is followed by a series of experiments, where the proposed system is compared to other MT systems using a set of established metrics including BLEU, NIST, Meteor and TER. Additionally, a free-to-use code is available, that allows the creation of new MT systems. The volume is addressed to both language professionals and researchers. Prerequisites for the readers are very limited and include a basic understanding of the machine translation as well as of the basic tools of natural language processing.

  19. Good Applications for Crummy Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    multilingual 16 computational linguistics __.__n _____ODE 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICTION 18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 19. SECURITY...relatively few keystrokes. Peter Brown (personal communication) once remarked that such a super-fast typewriter ought to be possible in the monolingual case... Multilingual System under Development, Computational Linguistics, 11:2-3, pp. 155-169. [81 Kay, M. (1980) "The Proper Place of Men and Machines in Language

  20. Translating DVD Subtitles English-German, English-Japanese, Using Example-based Machine Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armstrong, Stephen; Caffrey, Colm; Flanagan, Marian

    2006-01-01

    Due to limited budgets and an ever-diminishing time-frame for the production of subtitles for movies released in cinema and DVD, there is a compelling case for a technology-based translation solution for subtitles. In this paper we describe how an Example-Based Machine Translation (EBMT) approach...

  1. Transliteration normalization for Information Extraction and Machine Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuval Marton

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Foreign name transliterations typically include multiple spelling variants. These variants cause data sparseness and inconsistency problems, increase the Out-of-Vocabulary (OOV rate, and present challenges for Machine Translation, Information Extraction and other natural language processing (NLP tasks. This work aims to identify and cluster name spelling variants using a Statistical Machine Translation method: word alignment. The variants are identified by being aligned to the same “pivot” name in another language (the source-language in Machine Translation settings. Based on word-to-word translation and transliteration probabilities, as well as the string edit distance metric, names with similar spellings in the target language are clustered and then normalized to a canonical form. With this approach, tens of thousands of high-precision name transliteration spelling variants are extracted from sentence-aligned bilingual corpora in Arabic and English (in both languages. When these normalized name spelling variants are applied to Information Extraction tasks, improvements over strong baseline systems are observed. When applied to Machine Translation tasks, a large improvement potential is shown.

  2. Statistical Machine Translation Features with Multitask Tensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Setiawan, Hendra; Huang, Zhongqiang; Devlin, Jacob; Lamar, Thomas; Zbib, Rabih; Schwartz, Richard; Makhoul, John

    2015-01-01

    We present a three-pronged approach to improving Statistical Machine Translation (SMT), building on recent success in the application of neural networks to SMT. First, we propose new features based on neural networks to model various non-local translation phenomena. Second, we augment the architecture of the neural network with tensor layers that capture important higher-order interaction among the network units. Third, we apply multitask learning to estimate the neural network parameters joi...

  3. Neural Networks Classifier for Data Selection in Statistical Machine Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Peris, Álvaro; Chinea-Rios, Mara; Casacuberta, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    We address the data selection problem in statistical machine translation (SMT) as a classification task. The new data selection method is based on a neural network classifier. We present a new method description and empirical results proving that our data selection method provides better translation quality, compared to a state-of-the-art method (i.e., Cross entropy). Moreover, the empirical results reported are coherent across different language pairs.

  4. On the Properties of Neural Machine Translation: Encoder-Decoder Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Kyunghyun; van Merrienboer, Bart; Bahdanau, Dzmitry; Bengio, Yoshua

    2014-01-01

    Neural machine translation is a relatively new approach to statistical machine translation based purely on neural networks. The neural machine translation models often consist of an encoder and a decoder. The encoder extracts a fixed-length representation from a variable-length input sentence, and the decoder generates a correct translation from this representation. In this paper, we focus on analyzing the properties of the neural machine translation using two models; RNN Encoder--Decoder and...

  5. Complex Networks Analysis of Manual and Machine Translations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amancio, Diego R.; Antiqueira, Lucas; Pardo, Thiago A. S.; da F. Costa, Luciano; Oliveira, Osvaldo N.; Nunes, Maria G. V.

    Complex networks have been increasingly used in text analysis, including in connection with natural language processing tools, as important text features appear to be captured by the topology and dynamics of the networks. Following previous works that apply complex networks concepts to text quality measurement, summary evaluation, and author characterization, we now focus on machine translation (MT). In this paper we assess the possible representation of texts as complex networks to evaluate cross-linguistic issues inherent in manual and machine translation. We show that different quality translations generated by MT tools can be distinguished from their manual counterparts by means of metrics such as in- (ID) and out-degrees (OD), clustering coefficient (CC), and shortest paths (SP). For instance, we demonstrate that the average OD in networks of automatic translations consistently exceeds the values obtained for manual ones, and that the CC values of source texts are not preserved for manual translations, but are for good automatic translations. This probably reflects the text rearrangements humans perform during manual translation. We envisage that such findings could lead to better MT tools and automatic evaluation metrics.

  6. Foreign Developments in Information Processing and Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    on developments in the following fields of language data processing: Machine translation studies; questions on structural linguistics, phonological ...34katakana" or in phonetic syllables without the use of any "kanji" or Chinese characters, the "kun"- pronunciation of Chinese characters was adopted as

  7. Human in the Loop Machine Translation of Medical Terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    March 30–31, 2009, http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/W/W09/W09-0x24. 3. Chiang, D.; Lopez, A.; Madnani, N.; Monz, C.; Resnik , P.; Subotin, M. The Hiero... Resnik , P. S. Machine Translation by Pattern Matching; University of Maryland at College Park, College Park, MD, 2008, ISBN: 978-0-549-57255-8

  8. Translating DVD Subtitles English-German, English-Japanese, Using Example-based Machine Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armstrong, Stephen; Caffrey, Colm; Flanagan, Marian

    2006-01-01

    Due to limited budgets and an ever-diminishing time-frame for the production of subtitles for movies released in cinema and DVD, there is a compelling case for a technology-based translation solution for subtitles. In this paper we describe how an Example-Based Machine Translation (EBMT) approach...... to the translation of English DVD subtitles into German and Japanese can aid the subtitler. Our research focuses on an EBMT tool that produces fully automated translations, which in turn can be edited if required. To our knowledge this is the first time that any EBMT approach has been used with DVD subtitle...

  9. JTEC panel report on machine translation in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, Jaime; Rich, Elaine; Johnson, David; Tomita, Masaru; Vasconcellos, Muriel; Wilks, Yorick

    1992-01-01

    The goal of this report is to provide an overview of the state of the art of machine translation (MT) in Japan and to provide a comparison between Japanese and Western technology in this area. The term 'machine translation' as used here, includes both the science and technology required for automating the translation of text from one human language to another. Machine translation is viewed in Japan as an important strategic technology that is expected to play a key role in Japan's increasing participation in the world economy. MT is seen in Japan as important both for assimilating information into Japanese as well as for disseminating Japanese information throughout the world. Most of the MT systems now available in Japan are transfer-based systems. The majority of them exploit a case-frame representation of the source text as the basis of the transfer process. There is a gradual movement toward the use of deeper semantic representations, and some groups are beginning to look at interlingua-based systems.

  10. A Study on Automatic Scoring for Machine Translation Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Jianmin(姚建民); Zhang Jing; Zhao Tiejun; Li Sheng

    2004-01-01

    String similarity measures of edit distance, cosine correlation and Dice coefficient are adopted to evaluate machine translation results. Experiment shows that the evaluation method distinguishes well between "good" and "bad" translations. Another experiment manifests a consistency between human and automatic scorings of 6 general-purpose MT systems. Equational analysis validates the experimental results. Although the data and graphs are very promising, correlation coefficient and significance tests at 0.01 level are made to ensure the reliability of the results. Linear regression is made to map the automatic scoring results to human scorings.

  11. Empirical Investigation of Optimization Algorithms in Neural Machine Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Parnia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Training neural networks is a non-convex and a high-dimensional optimization problem. In this paper, we provide a comparative study of the most popular stochastic optimization techniques used to train neural networks. We evaluate the methods in terms of convergence speed, translation quality, and training stability. In addition, we investigate combinations that seek to improve optimization in terms of these aspects. We train state-of-the-art attention-based models and apply them to perform neural machine translation. We demonstrate our results on two tasks: WMT 2016 En→Ro and WMT 2015 De→En.

  12. INTEGRATING MACHINE TRANSLATION AND SPEECH SYNTHESIS COMPONENT FOR ENGLISH TO DRAVIDIAN LANGUAGE SPEECH TO SPEECH TRANSLATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. SANGEETHA

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an interface between the machine translation and speech synthesis system for converting English speech to Tamil text in English to Tamil speech to speech translation system. The speech translation system consists of three modules: automatic speech recognition, machine translation and text to speech synthesis. Many procedures for incorporation of speech recognition and machine translation have been projected. Still speech synthesis system has not yet been measured. In this paper, we focus on integration of machine translation and speech synthesis, and report a subjective evaluation to investigate the impact of speech synthesis, machine translation and the integration of machine translation and speech synthesis components. Here we implement a hybrid machine translation (combination of rule based and statistical machine translation and concatenative syllable based speech synthesis technique. In order to retain the naturalness and intelligibility of synthesized speech Auto Associative Neural Network (AANN prosody prediction is used in this work. The results of this system investigation demonstrate that the naturalness and intelligibility of the synthesized speech are strongly influenced by the fluency and correctness of the translated text.

  13. Using the TED Talks to Evaluate Spoken Post-editing of Machine Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liyanapathirana, Jeevanthi; Popescu-Belis, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a solution to evaluate spoken post-editing of imperfect machine translation output by a human translator. We compare two approaches to the combination of machine translation (MT) and automatic speech recognition (ASR): a heuristic algorithm and a machine learning method...

  14. Building a Large-Scale Knowledge Base for Machine Translation

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, K; Knight, Kevin; Luk, Steve K.

    1994-01-01

    Knowledge-based machine translation (KBMT) systems have achieved excellent results in constrained domains, but have not yet scaled up to newspaper text. The reason is that knowledge resources (lexicons, grammar rules, world models) must be painstakingly handcrafted from scratch. One of the hypotheses being tested in the PANGLOSS machine translation project is whether or not these resources can be semi-automatically acquired on a very large scale. This paper focuses on the construction of a large ontology (or knowledge base, or world model) for supporting KBMT. It contains representations for some 70,000 commonly encountered objects, processes, qualities, and relations. The ontology was constructed by merging various online dictionaries, semantic networks, and bilingual resources, through semi-automatic methods. Some of these methods (e.g., conceptual matching of semantic taxonomies) are broadly applicable to problems of importing/exporting knowledge from one KB to another. Other methods (e.g., bilingual match...

  15. Countability and Number in Japanese-to-English Machine Translation

    CERN Document Server

    Bond, F; Ikehara, S; Bond, Francis; Ogura, Kentaro; Ikehara, Satoru

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a heuristic method that uses information in the Japanese text along with knowledge of English countability and number stored in transfer dictionaries to determine the countability and number of English noun phrases. Incorporating this method into the machine translation system ALT-J/E, helped to raise the percentage of noun phrases generated with correct use of articles and number from 65% to 73%.

  16. Analysis of MultiWord Expression Translation Errors in Statistical Machine Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klyueva, Natalia; Liyanapathirana, Jeevanthi

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the usage of multiword expressions (MWE) in Statistical Machine Translation (SMT). We exploit the Moses SMT toolkit to train models for French-English and Czech-Russian language pairs. For each language pair, two models were built: a baseline model without additional MWE...

  17. Urdu to Punjabi Machine Translation: An Incremental Training Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umrinderpal Singh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The statistical machine translation approach is highly popular in automatic translation research area and promising approach to yield good accuracy. Efforts have been made to develop Urdu to Punjabi statistical machine translation system. The system is based on an incremental training approach to train the statistical model. In place of the parallel sentences corpus has manually mapped phrases which were used to train the model. In preprocessing phase, various rules were used for tokenization and segmentation processes. Along with these rules, text classification system was implemented to classify input text to predefined classes and decoder translates given text according to selected domain by the text classifier. The system used Hidden Markov Model(HMM for the learning process and Viterbi algorithm has been used for decoding. Experiment and evaluation have shown that simple statistical model like HMM yields good accuracy for a closely related language pair like Urdu-Punjabi. The system has achieved 0.86 BLEU score and in manual testing and got more than 85% accuracy.

  18. RM-structure alignment based statistical machine translation model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Jiadong; Zhao Tiejun

    2008-01-01

    A novel model based on structure alignments is proposed for statistical machine translation in this paper.Meta-structure and sequence of meta-structure for a parse tree are defined.During the translation process, a parse tree is decomposed to deal with the structure divergence and the alignments can be constructed at different levels of recombination of meta-structure (RM).This method can perform the structure mapping across the sub-tree structure between languages.As a result, we get not only the translation for the target language, but sequence of meta-structure of its parse tree at the same time.Experiments show that the model in the framework of log-linear model has better generative ability and significantly outperforms Pharaoh, a phrase-based system.

  19. Word Transition Entropy as an Indicator for Expected Machine Translation Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael; Schaeffer, Moritz

    2014-01-01

    While most machine translation evaluation techniques (BLEU, NIST, TER, METEOR) assess translation quality based on a set of reference translations, we suggest to evaluate the literality of a set of (human or machine generated) translations to infer their potential quality. We provide evidence which...... suggests that more literal translations are produced more easily, by humans and machine, and are also less error prone. Literal translations may not be appropriate or even possible for all languages, types of texts, and translation purposes. However, in this paper we show that an assessment...... of the literality of translations allows us to (1) evaluate human and machine translations in a similar fashion and (2) may be instrumental to predict machine translation quality scores,...

  20. Machine Translation Approaches and Survey for Indian Languages

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Nadeem Jadoon; Anwar, Waqas; Durrani, Nadir

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we present an analysis regarding the performance of the state-of-art Phrase-based Statistical Machine Translation (SMT) on multiple Indian languages. We report baseline systems on several language pairs. The motivation of this study is to promote the development of SMT and linguistic resources for these language pairs, as the current state-of-the-art is quite bleak due to sparse data resources. The success of an SMT system is contingent on the availability of a large parallel c...

  1. Classifiers in Japanese-to-English Machine Translation

    CERN Document Server

    Bond, F; Ikehara, S; Bond, Francis; Ogura, Kentaro; Ikehara, Satoru

    1996-01-01

    This paper proposes an analysis of classifiers into four major types: UNIT, METRIC, GROUP and SPECIES, based on properties of both Japanese and English. The analysis makes possible a uniform and straightforward treatment of noun phrases headed by classifiers in Japanese-to-English machine translation, and has been implemented in the MT system ALT-J/E. Although the analysis is based on the characteristics of, and differences between, Japanese and English, it is shown to be also applicable to the unrelated language Thai.

  2. The Changing Face of the of Former Soviet Cities: Elucidated by Remote Sensing and Machine Learning Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poghosyan, Armen

    2017-04-01

    Despite remote sensing of urbanization emerged as a powerful tool to acquire critical knowledge about urban growth and its effects on global environmental change, human-environment interface as well as environmentally sustainable urban development, there is lack of studies utilizing remote sensing techniques to investigate urbanization trends in the Post-Soviet states. The unique challenges accompanying the urbanization in the Post-Soviet republics combined with the expected robust urban growth in developing countries over the next several decades highlight the critical need for a quantitative assessment of the urban dynamics in the former Soviet states as they navigate towards a free market democracy. This study uses total of 32 Level-1 precision terrain corrected (L1T) Landsat scenes with 30-m resolution as well as further auxiliary population and economic data for ten cities distributed in nine former Soviet republics to quantify the urbanization patterns in the Post-Soviet region. Land cover in each urban center of this study was classified by using Support Vector Machine (SVM) learning algorithm with overall accuracies ranging from 87 % to 97 % for 29 classification maps over three time steps during the past twenty-five years in order to estimate quantities, trends and drivers of urban growth in the study area. The results demonstrated several spatial and temporal urbanization patterns observed across the Post-Soviet states and based on urban expansion rates the cities can be divided into two groups, fast growing and slow growing urban centers. The relatively fast-growing urban centers have an average urban expansion rate of about 2.8 % per year, whereas the slow growing cities have an average urban expansion rate of about 1.0 % per year. The total area of new land converted to urban environment ranged from as low as 26 km2 to as high as 780 km2 for the ten cities over the 1990 - 2015 period, while the overall urban land increase ranged from 11.3 % to 96

  3. Topic-aware pivot language approach for statistical machine translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-song SU; Xiao-dong SHI; Yan-zhou HUANG; Yang LIU; Qing-qiang WU; Yi-dong CHEN; Huai-lin DONG

    2014-01-01

    The pivot language approach for statistical machine translation (SMT) is a good method to break the resource bottleneck for certain language pairs. However, in the implementation of conventional approaches, pivot-side context information is far from fully utilized, resulting in erroneous estimations of translation probabilities. In this study, we propose two topic-aware pivot language approaches to use different levels of pivot-side context. The fi rst method takes advantage of document-level context by assuming that the bridged phrase pairs should be similar in the document-level topic distributions. The second method focuses on the effect of local context. Central to this approach are that the phrase sense can be refl ected by local context in the form of probabilistic topics, and that bridged phrase pairs should be compatible in the latent sense distributions. Then, we build an interpolated model bringing the above methods together to further enhance the system performance. Experimental results on French-Spanish and French-German translations using English as the pivot language demonstrate the effectiveness of topic-based context in pivot-based SMT.

  4. Advances in Fully-Automatic and Interactive Phrase-Based Statistical Machine Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz Martínez, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents different contributions in the fields of fully-automatic statistical machine translation and interactive statistical machine translation. In the field of statistical machine translation there are three problems that are to be addressed, namely, the modelling problem, the training problem and the search problem. In this thesis we present contributions regarding these three problems. Regarding the modelling problem, an alternative derivation of phrase-based s...

  5. ScaleMT: a free/open-source framework for building scalable machine translation web services

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Cartagena, Víctor M.; Pérez-Ortiz, Juan Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Machine translation web services usage is growing amazingly mainly because of the translation quality and reliability of the service provided by the Google Ajax Language API. To allow the open-source machine ranslation projects to compete with Google’s one and gain visibility on the internet, we have developed ScaleMT: a free/open-source framework that exposes existing machine translation engines as public web services. This framework is highly scalable as it can run coordinately on many serv...

  6. Quantitative evaluation of English-Japanese machine translation of medical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuchi, T; Kaihara, S

    1991-08-01

    Although many machine-translation programs are currently available, few evaluation methods of such translation exist for any given application area. It is difficult to evaluate machine-translation systems objectively because the quality of a translation depends on the combination of three factors: the translation program, the dictionary, and the original document. In this study, we developed a quantitative evaluation method for assessing machine translation, which evaluates these three factors separately. We applied this method to the translation of English to Japanese for medical literature and the method proved to be a good indicator for further system improvement. Using this method we also discovered other important points for machine translation, such as the examination of target documents for the construction of a better application dictionary.

  7. A discourse based approach in text-based machine translation

    CERN Document Server

    Ullah, Sana; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical research based approach to ellipsis resolution in machine translation. Moreover, the formula of discourse is applied in order to resolve ellipses. The validity of the discourse formula is analyzed by applying it to the real world text i.e. newspaper fragments. The source text is converted into mono-sentential discourses where complex discourses require further dissection either directly into primitive discourses or first into compound discourses and later into primitive ones. The procedure of dissection needs further improvement i.e. discovering as many primitive discourse forms as possible [1]. This work is further improvement to the concepts presented by Khan (Khan, 1995). Likewise, an attempt has been made to investigate new primitive discourses i.e. patterns from the given text.

  8. Machine Translation as a complex system, and the phenomenon of Esperanto

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gobbo, F.

    2015-01-01

    The history of machine translation and the history of Esperanto have long been connected, as they are two different ways to deal with the same problem: the problem of communication across language barriers. Language can be considered a Complex Adaptive System (CAS), and machine translation too. In f

  9. Exploring the Further Integration of Machine Translation in English-Chinese Cross Language Information Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; He, Daqing

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to examine the further integration of machine translation technologies with cross language information access in providing web users the capabilities of accessing information beyond language barriers. Machine translation and cross language information access are related technologies, and yet they have their own unique…

  10. Impact of Machine-Translated Text on Entity and Relationship Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Impact of Machine-Translated Text on Entity and Relationship Extraction by Mark R Mittrick and John T Richardson ARL-TN-0649 December...2014 Impact of Machine-Translated Text on Entity and Relationship Extraction Mark R Mittrick and John T Richardson Computational and...

  11. Machine Translation as a complex system, and the phenomenon of Esperanto

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gobbo, F.

    2015-01-01

    The history of machine translation and the history of Esperanto have long been connected, as they are two different ways to deal with the same problem: the problem of communication across language barriers. Language can be considered a Complex Adaptive System (CAS), and machine translation too. In f

  12. Analysing Quality of English-Hindi Machine Translation Engine outputs using Baysian Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Rashmi Gupta; Nisheeth Joshi; Iti Mathur

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the problem for estimating the quality of machine translation outputs which are independent of human intervention and are generally addressed using machine learning techniques.There are various measures through which a machine learns translations quality. Automatic Evaluation metrics produce good co-relation at corpus level but cannot produce the same results at the same segment or sentence level. In this paper 16 features are extracted from the input sentence...

  13. An Efficient Machine Translation System for English to Indian Languages Using Hybrid Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sangeetha

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Machine Translation is an essential approach for localization, and is especially appropriate in a linguistically diversenation like India. Automatic translation between languages which are morphologically rich and syntactically different is generally regarded as a complex task. A number of machine translation systems have been proposed in literature. But, conventional rule-based machine translation system is costly in terms of formulating rules. It introduces inconsistencies, and it is inflexible to be robust. Statistical MT is an approach that automatically attains knowledge from a vast amount of training data. This approach is characterized by the use of machine learning techniques. But, still there is scope for better performance of the system. In this paper, a Hybrid Machine Translation (HMT approach is proposed which is the combination of rule based and statistical technique for translating text from English to Indian languages such as Tamil, Malayalam and Hindi. The rule based machine translation technique, involves the formation of rules which helps to re-order the syntactic structures of the source language sentence along with its dependency information which brings close to the structure of the target sentence. The parser identifies the syntactical elements in English sentences and suggests its Indian languages translation taking into account various grammatical forms of those Indian languages. Context Free Grammars (CFG is used in generation of the language structures, and then the errors in the translated sentences are corrected by applying a statistical technique. Simplifying and segmenting an input language text becomes mandatory in order to improve the machine translation quality. The experimental results show that the proposed approach competes with the machine translation methods reported in the literature and it provides the best translated output in each language.

  14. Domain Adaptation for Machine Translation with Instance Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biçici Ergun

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Domain adaptation for machine translation (MT can be achieved by selecting training instances close to the test set from a larger set of instances. We consider 7 different domain adaptation strategies and answer 7 research questions, which give us a recipe for domain adaptation in MT. We perform English to German statistical MT (SMT experiments in a setting where test and training sentences can come from different corpora and one of our goals is to learn the parameters of the sampling process. Domain adaptation with training instance selection can obtain 22% increase in target 2-gram recall and can gain up to 3:55 BLEU points compared with random selection. Domain adaptation with feature decay algorithm (FDA not only achieves the highest target 2-gram recall and BLEU performance but also perfectly learns the test sample distribution parameter with correlation 0:99. Moses SMT systems built with FDA selected 10K training sentences is able to obtain F1 results as good as the baselines that use up to 2M sentences. Moses SMT systems built with FDA selected 50K training sentences is able to obtain F1 point better results than the baselines.

  15. Can multilingual machine translation help make medical record content more comprehensible to patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng-Treitler, Qing; Kim, Hyeoneui; Rosemblat, Graciela; Keselman, Alla

    2010-01-01

    With the development of electronic personal health records, more patients are gaining access to their own medical records. However, comprehension of medical record content remains difficult for many patients. Because each record is unique, it is also prohibitively costly to employ human translators to solve this problem. In this study, we investigated whether multilingual machine translation could help make medical record content more comprehensible to patients who lack proficiency in the language of the records. We used a popular general-purpose machine translation tool called Babel Fish to translate 213 medical record sentences from English into Spanish, Chinese, Russian and Korean. We evaluated the comprehensibility and accuracy of the translation. The text characteristics of the incorrectly translated sentences were also analyzed. In each language, the majority of the translations were incomprehensible (76% to 92%) and/or incorrect (77% to 89%). The main causes of the translation are vocabulary difficulty and syntactical complexity. A general-purpose machine translation tool like the Babel Fish is not adequate for the translation of medical records; however, a machine translation tool can potentially be improved significantly, if it is trained to target certain narrow domains in medicine.

  16. Quantifying the Efficiency of a Translator: The Effect of Syntactical and Literal Written Translations on Language Comprehension Using the Machine Translation System FALCon

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloh, Ian A.; Morton, Jillian; Jantzi, Jennifer K.; Rodriguez, Amy M.; Graham, John

    2008-01-01

    This study introduces a new method of evaluating human comprehension in the context of machine translation using a language translation program known as the FALCon (Forward Area Language Converter). The participants include 48 freshmen from the United States Military Academy enrolled in the General Psychology course, PL100. Results of this study…

  17. Quantifying the Efficiency of a Translator: The Effect of Syntactical and Literal Written Translations on Language Comprehension Using the Machine Translation System FALCon (Foreign Area Language Converter)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloh, Ian A.; Morton, Jillian; Jantzi, Jennifer K.; Rodriguez, Amy M.; Graham, John

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to introduce a new method of evaluating human comprehension in the context of machine translation using a language translation program known as the FALCon (Forward Area Language Converter). The FALCon works by converting documents into digital images via scanner, and then converting those images to electronic text by…

  18. Using the TED Talks to Evaluate Spoken Post-editing of Machine Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liyanapathirana, Jeevanthi; Popescu-Belis, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a solution to evaluate spoken post-editing of imperfect machine translation output by a human translator. We compare two approaches to the combination of machine translation (MT) and automatic speech recognition (ASR): a heuristic algorithm and a machine learning method....... To obtain a data set with spoken post-editing information, we use the French version of TED talks as the source texts submitted to MT, and the spoken English counterparts as their corrections, which are submitted to an ASR system. We experiment with various levels of artificial ASR noise and also...

  19. Translation of Untranslatable Words — Integration of Lexical Approximation and Phrase-Table Extension Techniques into Statistical Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Michael; Arora, Karunesh; Sumita, Eiichiro

    This paper proposes a method for handling out-of-vocabulary (OOV) words that cannot be translated using conventional phrase-based statistical machine translation (SMT) systems. For a given OOV word, lexical approximation techniques are utilized to identify spelling and inflectional word variants that occur in the training data. All OOV words in the source sentence are then replaced with appropriate word variants found in the training corpus, thus reducing the number of OOV words in the input. Moreover, in order to increase the coverage of such word translations, the SMT translation model is extended by adding new phrase translations for all source language words that do not have a single-word entry in the original phrase-table but only appear in the context of larger phrases. The effectiveness of the proposed methods is investigated for the translation of Hindi to English, Chinese, and Japanese.

  20. ADAPTING HYBRID MACHINE TRANSLATION TECHNIQUES FOR CROSS-LANGUAGE TEXT RETRIEVAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. ISWARYA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research work aims in developing Tamil to English Cross - language text retrieval system using hybrid machine translation approach. The hybrid machine translation system is a combination of rule based and statistical based approaches. In an existing word by word translation system there are lot of issues and some of them are ambiguity, Out-of-Vocabulary words, word inflections, and improper sentence structure. To handle these issues, proposed architecture is designed in such a way that, it contains Improved Part-of-Speech tagger, machine learning based morphological analyser, collocation based word sense disambiguation procedure, semantic dictionary, and tense markers with gerund ending rules, and two pass transliteration algorithm. From the experimental results it is clear that the proposed Tamil Query based translation system achieves significantly better translation quality over existing system, and reaches 95.88% of monolingual performance.

  1. An Evaluative Study of Machine Translation in the EFL Scenario of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raneem Khalid Al-Tuwayrish

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Artificial Intelligence or AI as it is popularly known and its corollary, Machine Translation (MT have long engaged scientists, thinkers and linguists alike in the twenty first century. However, the wider question that lies in the relation between technology and translation is, What does technology do to language? This is an important question in the current paradigm because new translation technologies, such as, translation memories, data-based machine translation, and collaborative translation, far from being just additional tools, are changing the very nature of the translators’ cognitive activity, social relations, and professional standing. In fact, in some translation situations such as when translating technical materials or subject matter that are not a specialization with human translators, one potentially needs technology.  The purview of this paper, however, is limited to the role of MT in day to day situations where the generic MT tools like Google Translate or Bing Translator are encouraged. Further, it endeavours to weigh and empirically demonstrate the pros and cons of MT with a view to recommending measures for better communication training in the EFL set up of Saudi Arabia. Keywords: AI, MT, translation, technology, necessity, communication

  2. Advancement in Productivity of Arabic into English Machine Translation Systems from 2008 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Al-Sha'r, Awatif M.; AbuSeileek, Ali F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper attempts to compare between the advancements in the productivity of Arabic into English Machine Translation Systems between two years, 2008 and 2013. It also aims to evaluate the progress achieved by various systems of Arabic into English electronic translation between the two years. For tracing such advancement, a comparative analysis…

  3. The Integration of Project-Based Methodology into Teaching in Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madkour, Magda

    2016-01-01

    This quantitative-qualitative analytical research aimed at investigating the effect of integrating project-based teaching methodology into teaching machine translation on students' performance. Data was collected from the graduate students in the College of Languages and Translation, at Imam Muhammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, Riyadh, Saudi…

  4. Integrating source-language context into phrase-based statistical machine translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haque, R.; Kumar Naskar, S.; Bosch, A.P.J. van den; Way, A.

    2011-01-01

    The translation features typically used in Phrase-Based Statistical Machine Translation (PB-SMT) model dependencies between the source and target phrases, but not among the phrases in the source language themselves. A swathe of research has demonstrated that integrating source context modelling dire

  5. Recycling Texts: Human evaluation of example-based machine translation subtitles for DVD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flanagan, Marian

    2009-01-01

    This project focuses on translation reusability in audiovisual contexts. Specifically, the project seeks to establish (1) whether target language subtitles produced by an Example-Based Machine Translation (EBMT) system are considered intelligible and acceptable by viewers of movies on DVD, and (2...

  6. Machine-Aided Translation: From Terminology Banks to Interactive Translation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Concetta C.; Serain, Daniel

    The rapid growth of the need for technical translations in recent years has led specialists to utilize computer technology to improve the efficiency and quality of translation. The two approaches considered were automatic translation and terminology banks. Since the results of fully automatic translation were considered unsatisfactory by various…

  7. Statistical Sign Language Machine Translation: from English written text to American Sign Language Gloss

    CERN Document Server

    Othman, Achraf

    2011-01-01

    This works aims to design a statistical machine translation from English text to American Sign Language (ASL). The system is based on Moses tool with some modifications and the results are synthesized through a 3D avatar for interpretation. First, we translate the input text to gloss, a written form of ASL. Second, we pass the output to the WebSign Plug-in to play the sign. Contributions of this work are the use of a new couple of language English/ASL and an improvement of statistical machine translation based on string matching thanks to Jaro-distance.

  8. 互联网机器翻译%Web-based Machine Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海峰; 吴华; 刘占一

    2011-01-01

    该文在回顾机器翻译发展的基础上,总结了主要的机器翻译方法,并主要阐述互联网机器翻译的特点及面临的挑战.面向互联网机器翻译的应用需求,并针对互联网资源具有海量、高噪声、时效性、稀疏的特点,提出了多策略混合翻译方法、资源挖掘和过滤以及分布式处理技术、领域自适应技术,针对数据稀疏论述枢轴语言技术和新语种快速部署技术;然后结合翻译与搜索技术,阐述翻译个性化特点和方案.最后,论述机器翻译技术和产品的应用.%This paper digs into the characteristics and challenges of web-based machine translation, and proposes possible solutions. First of all, we look back on the history of machine translation and summarize its methods. Next, we analyze the characteristics of internet bilingual corpora and monolingual corpora as: large scale, with lots of noise, real-time and sometimes sparse. Based on the features described above, we propose the hybrid machine translation method, corpus mining and filtering methods, and distributed computing methods. Furthermore, the pivot language approach is adopted to tackle the data sparseness problem, thus enabling the quick development of multilingual machine translation systems. We then discuss the approach to support the personalization of machine translation via the combination of translation technology and search technology. Finally the applications and products of machine translation technology are presented.

  9. Predicting post-translational lysine acetylation using support vector machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnad, Florian; Ren, Shubin; Choudhary, Chunaram

    2010-01-01

    spectrometry to identify 3600 lysine acetylation sites on 1750 human proteins covering most of the previously annotated sites and providing the most comprehensive acetylome so far. This dataset should provide an excellent source to train support vector machines (SVMs) allowing the high accuracy in silico...

  10. Evaluation of Machine Translation Errors in English and Iraqi Arabic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    are made. Llitjós, Carbonell & Lavie (2005) created a hierarchical taxonomy of errors for use in refining rules of transfer-based MT systems...Translation. Proceedings of MT Summit XII. Llitjós, A., Carbonell , J., and Lavie, A. (2005). A framework for interactive and automatic refinement of

  11. Self-Organizing Machine Translation Example-Driven Induction of Transfer Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Juola, P

    1994-01-01

    With the advent of faster computers, the notion of doing machine translation from a huge stored database of translation examples is no longer unreasonable. This paper describes an attempt to merge the Example-Based Machine Translation (EBMT) approach with psycholinguistic principles. A new formalism for context- free grammars, called *marker-normal form*, is demonstrated and used to describe language data in a way compatible with psycholinguistic theories. By embedding this formalism in a standard multivariate optimization framework, a system can be built that infers correct transfer functions for a set of bilingual sentence pairs and then uses those functions to translate novel sentences. The validity of this line of reasoning has been tested in the development of a system called METLA-1. This system has been used to infer English->French and English->Urdu transfer functions from small corpora. The results of those experiments are examined, both in engineering terms as well as in more linguistic terms. In ge...

  12. A Lexical Conceptual Approach to Generation for Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    etc.). Once a verb has been selected to translate the predicate, the semantic arguments of the deep structure are filled with the instantiated...8217strid iii ts oft it, argumtents. Two examples are t he E nglish words shish and stil ilr: (4) (i) He slashed the woman * ’Dio cuchilladas a la mujer ...are simplified once rules and general inferencing are eliminated: LCS and $-role mappings obviate the need for complicated network searches and rule

  13. Climbing the Tower of Babel: Perfecting Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    Peter Norvig , and Fernando Pereira, "The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Data," IEEE Intelligence Systems, (2009): 8. So, this [trillion-word] corpus...Alon Halevy, Peter Norvig , and Fernando Pereira, Google assisted translation? Some experts believe technology can develop MT capabilities with...recognition.htm (accessed 28 September 2010). Halevy, Alon, Peter Norvig , and Fernando Pereira. "The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Data." IEEE

  14. Hindi to English Transfer Based Machine Translation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi Pal Singh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In large societies like India there is a huge demand to convert one human language into another. Lots of work has been done in this area. Many transfer based MTS have developed for English to other languages, as MANTRA CDAC Pune, MATRA CDAC Pune, SHAKTI IISc Bangalore and IIIT Hyderabad. Still there is a little work done for Hindi to other languages. Currently we are working on it. In this paper we focus on designing a system, that translate the document from Hindi to English by using transfer based approach. This system takes an input text check its structure through parsing. Reordering rules are used to generate the text in target language. It is better than Corpus Based MTS because Corpus Based MTS require large amount of word aligned data for translation that is not available for many languages while Transfer Based MTS requires only knowledge of both the languages (source language and target language to make transfer rules. We get correct translation for simple assertive sentences and almost correct for complex and compound sentences.

  15. English-Lithuanian-English Machine Translation lexicon and engine: current state and future work

    CERN Document Server

    Barisevičius, G

    2011-01-01

    This article overviews the current state of the English-Lithuanian-English machine translation system. The first part of the article describes the problems that system poses today and what actions will be taken to solve them in the future. The second part of the article tackles the main issue of the translation process. Article briefly overviews the word sense disambiguation for MT technique using Google.

  16. An open-source highly scalable web service architecture for the Apertium machine translation engine

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Cartagena, Víctor M.; Pérez-Ortiz, Juan Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Some machine translation services like Google Ajax Language API have become very popular as they make the collaboratively created contents of the web 2.0 available to speakers of many languages. One of the keys of its success is its clear and easy-to-use application programming interface (API) and a scalable and reliable service. This paper describes a highly scalable implementation of an Apertium-based translation web service, that aims to make contents available to speakers of lesser resour...

  17. ANALYTICAL MODEL OF CALCULUS FOR INFLUENCE THE TRANSLATION GUIDE WEAR OVER THE MACHINING ACCURACY ON THE MACHINE TOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivona PETRE

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The wear of machine tools guides influences favorably to vibrations. As a result of guides wear, the initial trajectory of cutting tools motion will be modified, the generating dimensional accuracy discrepancies and deviations of geometrical shape of the work pieces. As it has already been known, the wear of mobile and rigid guides is determined by many parameters (pressure, velocity, friction length, lubrication, material. The choice of one or another analytic model and/or the experimental model of the wear is depending by the working conditions, assuming that the coupling material is known.The present work’s goal is to establish an analytic model of calculus showing the influence of the translation guides wear over the machining accuracy on machine-tools.

  18. Web-Based Machine Translation as a Tool for Promoting Electronic Literacy and Language Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses a pervasive problem of concern to teachers of many foreign languages: the use of Web-Based Machine Translation (WBMT) by students who do not understand the complexities of this relatively new tool. Although networked technologies have greatly increased access to many language and communication tools, WBMT is still…

  19. Four Generations of Machine Translation Research and Prospects for the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Yorick

    This paper begins with a description of four generations of research in machine translation: the original efforts of 1957 to 1965 and three types of surviving and sometimes competing present projects. The three types of present projects include those relying on "brute force" methods involving larger and faster computers; those based on a…

  20. Improving the quality of automated DVD subtitles via example-based machine translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armstrong, Stephen; Caffrey, Colm; Flanagan, Marian

    Denoual (2005) discovered that, contrary to popular belief, an Example-Based Machine Translation system trained on heterogeneous data produced significantly better results than a system trained on homogeneous data. Using similar evaluation metrics and a few additional ones, in this paper we show ...

  1. Development of Chinese-English Machine Translation System. Fnal Technical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, William S-Y; Chan, Stephen W.

    The report documents progress and results of a 2-1/3 year effort to further the prototype Chinese-English Machine Translation System. Additional rules were incorporated into the existing grammar for Chinese analysis and interlingual transfer, with emphasis on the latter. CHIDIC was updated and revised. Approximately 16,000 new entries were added…

  2. Improvement of Machine Translation Evaluation by Simple Linguistically Motivated Features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu-Yun Yang; Shu-Qi Sun; Jun-Guo Zhu; Sheng Li; Tie-Jun Zhao; Xiao-Ning Zhu

    2011-01-01

    Adopting the regression SVM framework, this paper proposes a linguistically motivated feature engineering strategy to develop an MT evaluation metric with a better correlation with human assessments. In contrast to current practices of "greedy" combination of all available features, six features are suggested according to the human intuition for translation quality. Then the contribution of linguistic features is examined and analyzed via a hill-climbing strategy. Experiments indicate that, compared to either the SVM-ranking model or the previous attempts on exhaustive linguistic features, the regression SVM model with six linguistic information based features generalizes across different datasets better, and augmenting these linguistic features with proper non-linguistic metrics can achieve additional improvements.

  3. Finding Translation Examples for Under-Resourced Language Pairs or for Narrow Domains; the Case for Machine Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Tufis

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The cyberspace is populated with valuable information sources, expressed in about 1500 different languages and dialects. Yet, for the vast majority of WEB surfers this wealth of information is practically inaccessible or meaningless. Recent advancements in cross-lingual information retrieval, multilingual summarization, cross-lingual question answering and machine translation promise to narrow the linguistic gaps and lower the communication barriers between humans and/or software agents. Most of these language technologies are based on statistical machine learning techniques which require large volumes of cross lingual data. The most adequate type of cross-lingual data is represented by parallel corpora, collection of reciprocal translations. However, it is not easy to find enough parallel data for any language pair might be of interest. When required parallel data refers to specialized (narrow domains, the scarcity of data becomes even more acute. Intelligent information extraction techniques from comparable corpora provide one of the possible answers to this lack of translation data.

  4. An overview of the EtsaTrans machine translation system: compilation of an administrative domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ehlers

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The EtsaTrans machine translation system has been in development at the University of the Free State for the last four years and is currently the only machine translation system being developed in South Africa for specialised and nongeneral translation needs. The purpose of this exposition is to present the program through its phases of development, and to report on current levels of performance. We analyse the output, the size of the database, and then propose the future implementation of a part of speech tagger and word stemmer into the program to improve its linguistic performance. Our goal with the system is not to translate all types of document, but to work in a specialised domain that will allow the system to translate documents that are repetitive in nature. This will enable translators to spend more time on non-repetitive subject matter. By capturing the nature of the language of such repetitive documents in the database, we are able to create a standardised language usage for the specialised domain.

  5. On the application of AntConc in pre-translation of machine translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王培; 赵茫茫

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces the application of a green software of corpus tool named AntConc. The article mainly focuses on its glossary function, analysis of frequency and concordance of lexical chunks, which makes the translation work more formal and standard.

  6. Soviet Cybernetics: Recent News Items, Number Thirteen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Wade B.

    An issue of "Soviet Cybernetics: Recent News Items" consists of English translations of the leading recent Soviet contributions to the study of cybernetics. Articles deal with cybernetics in the 21st Century; the Soviet State Committee on Science and Technology; economic reforms in Rudnev's ministry; an interview with Rudnev; Dnepr-2; Dnepr-2…

  7. Handbook of natural language processing and machine translation DARPA global autonomous language exploitation

    CERN Document Server

    Olive, Joseph P; McCary, John

    2011-01-01

    This comprehensive handbook, written by leading experts in the field, details the groundbreaking research conducted under the breakthrough GALE program - The Global Autonomous Language Exploitation within the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), while placing it in the context of previous research in the fields of natural language and signal processing, artificial intelligence and machine translation. The most fundamental contrast between GALE and its predecessor programs was its holistic integration of previously separate or sequential processes. In earlier language research pro

  8. Myanmar-English Bidirectional Machine Translation System with Numerical Particles Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Yin Win

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper the development of MyanmarEnglish bidirectional machine translation system is implemented applying Rule based machine translation approach. Stanford and ML2KR parsers are used for preprocessing step. From this step, parsers generate corresponding parse tree structures. Used parsers generate corresponding CFG rules which are collected and created as synchronous context free grammar SCFG rules. Myanmar language can be written free order style, but it must be verb final structure. Therefore, CFG rules are required for reordering the structure of the two languages. After that tree to tree transformation is carried on the source tree structure which corresponds with used parser (Stanford parser or ML2KR‟s parser. When source parse tree is transformed as target parse tree, it is changed according to the SCFG rules. And then system carries out the morphological synthesis. In this stage, we need to solve only for English to Myanmar machine translation because Myanmar language is morphologically rich language. Therefore, particles for Myanmar language can be solved in this system by proposed algorithm. After finishing morphological synthesis, this system generates meaningful and appropriate smoothing sentences

  9. Pre-editing and Recursive-Phrase Composites for a Better English-to-Arabic Machine Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Al-A'ali

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This research presents an approach for an English-to-Arabic Machine Translation System based on Building correct grammar and phrase structures first and then automatically deriving Translation Rules for phrase translation. For every English phrase, the grammar is first analysed and then a corresponding Arabic translation is given which would be used by the machine learning system to produce a translation rule with the help of a dictionary and the user. These same derived rules can partially be used for other phrase sequences especially in the case of a phrase consisting of a number of smaller phrases and thus implemeting the idea of recusive phrase strucutres. The approach was implemented and tested on simple cases and the results are given which indicate that this approach is successful for small to medium phrases. Our approach is an enhancement on existing phrase translation techniques because it analyses the source language grammar first, then builds a syntactic structure before proceeding with the machine learning process of learning the translation rules. Our approach is enhancement on existing phrase based translations in two directions: the grammar editing before the translation rules and the derived translation rules can be complete for complete phrases or are rules for translating smaller phrases which are subsets of larger phrases. The approach has improved the speed and correctness of phrase translations.

  10. Adaptation of machine translation for multilingual information retrieval in the medical domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecina, Pavel; Dušek, Ondřej; Goeuriot, Lorraine; Hajič, Jan; Hlaváčová, Jaroslava; Jones, Gareth J F; Kelly, Liadh; Leveling, Johannes; Mareček, David; Novák, Michal; Popel, Martin; Rosa, Rudolf; Tamchyna, Aleš; Urešová, Zdeňka

    2014-07-01

    We investigate machine translation (MT) of user search queries in the context of cross-lingual information retrieval (IR) in the medical domain. The main focus is on techniques to adapt MT to increase translation quality; however, we also explore MT adaptation to improve effectiveness of cross-lingual IR. Our MT system is Moses, a state-of-the-art phrase-based statistical machine translation system. The IR system is based on the BM25 retrieval model implemented in the Lucene search engine. The MT techniques employed in this work include in-domain training and tuning, intelligent training data selection, optimization of phrase table configuration, compound splitting, and exploiting synonyms as translation variants. The IR methods include morphological normalization and using multiple translation variants for query expansion. The experiments are performed and thoroughly evaluated on three language pairs: Czech-English, German-English, and French-English. MT quality is evaluated on data sets created within the Khresmoi project and IR effectiveness is tested on the CLEF eHealth 2013 data sets. The search query translation results achieved in our experiments are outstanding - our systems outperform not only our strong baselines, but also Google Translate and Microsoft Bing Translator in direct comparison carried out on all the language pairs. The baseline BLEU scores increased from 26.59 to 41.45 for Czech-English, from 23.03 to 40.82 for German-English, and from 32.67 to 40.82 for French-English. This is a 55% improvement on average. In terms of the IR performance on this particular test collection, a significant improvement over the baseline is achieved only for French-English. For Czech-English and German-English, the increased MT quality does not lead to better IR results. Most of the MT techniques employed in our experiments improve MT of medical search queries. Especially the intelligent training data selection proves to be very successful for domain adaptation of

  11. Toward an example-based machine translation from written text to ASL using virtual agent animation

    CERN Document Server

    Boulares, Mehrez

    2012-01-01

    Modern computational linguistic software cannot produce important aspects of sign language translation. Using some researches we deduce that the majority of automatic sign language translation systems ignore many aspects when they generate animation; therefore the interpretation lost the truth information meaning. Our goals are: to translate written text from any language to ASL animation; to model maximum raw information using machine learning and computational techniques; and to produce a more adapted and expressive form to natural looking and understandable ASL animations. Our methods include linguistic annotation of initial text and semantic orientation to generate the facial expression. We use the genetic algorithms coupled to learning/recognized systems to produce the most natural form. To detect emotion we are based on fuzzy logic to produce the degree of interpolation between facial expressions. Roughly, we present a new expressive language Text Adapted Sign Modeling Language TASML that describes all ...

  12. A Novel Approach for English to South Dravidian Language Statistical Machine Translation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unnikrishnan P

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Development of a well fledged bilingual machine translation (MT system for any two natural languages with limited electronic resources and tools is a challenging and demanding task. This paper presents the development of a statistical machine translation (SMT system for English to South Dravidian languages like Malayalam and Kannada by incorporating syntactic and morphological information. SMT is a data oriented statistical framework for translating text from one natural language to another based on the knowledge extracted from bilingual corpus. Even though there are efforts towards building such an English to South Dravidian translation system ,unfortunately we do not have an efficient translation system till now. The first and most important step in SMT is creating a well aligned parallel corpus for training the system. Experimental research shows that the existing methodology for bilingual parallel corpus creation is not efficient for English to South Dravidian language in the SMT system. In order toincrease the performance of the translation system, we have introduced a new approach in creating parallel corpus. The mainideas which we have implemented and proven very effective forEnglish to south Dravidian languages SMT system are: (i reordering the English source sentence according to Dravidian syntax, (ii using the root suffix separation on both English and Dravidian words and iii use of morphological information which substantially reduce the corpus size required for training the system. Since the navailability of full fledged parsing and morphological tools for Malayalam and Kannada languages, sentence synthesis was done both manually and existing morph analyzer created by Amrita university. From the experiment we found that the performance of our systems are significantly well and achieves a very competitive accuracy for small sized bilingual corpora. The proposed ideas can be directly used for other south Dravidian languages like Tamil

  13. Domain adaptation of statistical machine translation with domain-focused web crawling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecina, Pavel; Toral, Antonio; Papavassiliou, Vassilis; Prokopidis, Prokopis; Tamchyna, Aleš; Way, Andy; van Genabith, Josef

    In this paper, we tackle the problem of domain adaptation of statistical machine translation (SMT) by exploiting domain-specific data acquired by domain-focused crawling of text from the World Wide Web. We design and empirically evaluate a procedure for automatic acquisition of monolingual and parallel text and their exploitation for system training, tuning, and testing in a phrase-based SMT framework. We present a strategy for using such resources depending on their availability and quantity supported by results of a large-scale evaluation carried out for the domains of environment and labour legislation, two language pairs (English-French and English-Greek) and in both directions: into and from English. In general, machine translation systems trained and tuned on a general domain perform poorly on specific domains and we show that such systems can be adapted successfully by retuning model parameters using small amounts of parallel in-domain data, and may be further improved by using additional monolingual and parallel training data for adaptation of language and translation models. The average observed improvement in BLEU achieved is substantial at 15.30 points absolute.

  14. Our Policies, Their Text: German Language Students' Strategies with and Beliefs about Web-Based Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kelsey D.; Heidrich, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Most educators are aware that some students utilize web-based machine translators for foreign language assignments, however, little research has been done to determine how and why students utilize these programs, or what the implications are for language learning and teaching. In this mixed-methods study we utilized surveys, a translation task,…

  15. Discriminative feature-rich models for syntax-based machine translation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Kevin R.

    2012-12-01

    This report describes the campus executive LDRD %E2%80%9CDiscriminative Feature-Rich Models for Syntax-Based Machine Translation,%E2%80%9D which was an effort to foster a better relationship between Sandia and Carnegie Mellon University (CMU). The primary purpose of the LDRD was to fund the research of a promising graduate student at CMU; in this case, Kevin Gimpel was selected from the pool of candidates. This report gives a brief overview of Kevin Gimpel's research.

  16. Improving a Japanese-Spanish Machine Translation System Using Wikipedia Medical Articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica C. Ramirez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The quality, length and coverage of a parallel corp us are fundamental features in the performance of a Statistical Machine Translation Sy stem (SMT. For some pair of languages there is a considerable lack of resources suitable for Natural Language Processing tasks. This paper introduces a technique for extracting medical information from the Wikipedia page. Using a medical ontological dictionary and then we evaluate on a Japanese-Spanish SMT system. The study shows an increment in the BLEU sc ore.

  17. RuLearn: an Open-source Toolkit for the Automatic Inference of Shallow-transfer Rules for Machine Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Cartagena Víctor M.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents ruLearn, an open-source toolkit for the automatic inference of rules for shallow-transfer machine translation from scarce parallel corpora and morphological dictionaries. ruLearn will make rule-based machine translation a very appealing alternative for under-resourced language pairs because it avoids the need for human experts to handcraft transfer rules and requires, in contrast to statistical machine translation, a small amount of parallel corpora (a few hundred parallel sentences proved to be sufficient. The inference algorithm implemented by ruLearn has been recently published by the same authors in Computer Speech & Language (volume 32. It is able to produce rules whose translation quality is similar to that obtained by using hand-crafted rules. ruLearn generates rules that are ready for their use in the Apertium platform, although they can be easily adapted to other platforms. When the rules produced by ruLearn are used together with a hybridisation strategy for integrating linguistic resources from shallow-transfer rule-based machine translation into phrase-based statistical machine translation (published by the same authors in Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research, volume 55, they help to mitigate data sparseness. This paper also shows how to use ruLearn and describes its implementation.

  18. Preliminary study of online machine translation use of nursing literature: quality evaluation and perceived usability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anazawa Ryoko

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Japanese nurses are increasingly required to read published international research in clinical, educational, and research settings. Language barriers are a significant obstacle, and online machine translation (MT is a tool that can be used to address this issue. We examined the quality of Google Translate® (English to Japanese and Korean to Japanese, which is a representative online MT, using a previously verified evaluation method. We also examined the perceived usability and current use of online MT among Japanese nurses. Findings Randomly selected nursing abstracts were translated and then evaluated for intelligibility and usability by 28 participants, including assistants and research associates from nursing universities throughout Japan. They answered a questionnaire about their online MT use. From simple comparison of mean scores between two language pairs, translation quality was significantly better, with respect to both intelligibility and usability, for Korean-Japanese than for English-Japanese. Most respondents perceived a language barrier. Online MT had been used by 61% of the respondents and was perceived as not useful enough. Conclusion Nursing articles translated from Korean into Japanese by an online MT system could be read at an acceptable level of comprehension, but the same could not be said for English-Japanese translations. Respondents with experience using online MT used it largely to grasp the overall meanings of the original text. Enrichment in technical terms appeared to be the key to better usability. Users will be better able to use MT outputs if they improve their foreign language proficiency as much as possible. Further research is being conducted with a larger sample size and detailed analysis.

  19. A Conjoint Analysis Framework for Evaluating User Preferences in Machine Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhoff, Katrin; Capurro, Daniel; Turner, Anne M

    2014-03-01

    Despite much research on machine translation (MT) evaluation, there is surprisingly little work that directly measures users' intuitive or emotional preferences regarding different types of MT errors. However, the elicitation and modeling of user preferences is an important prerequisite for research on user adaptation and customization of MT engines. In this paper we explore the use of conjoint analysis as a formal quantitative framework to assess users' relative preferences for different types of translation errors. We apply our approach to the analysis of MT output from translating public health documents from English into Spanish. Our results indicate that word order errors are clearly the most dispreferred error type, followed by word sense, morphological, and function word errors. The conjoint analysis-based model is able to predict user preferences more accurately than a baseline model that chooses the translation with the fewest errors overall. Additionally we analyze the effect of using a crowd-sourced respondent population versus a sample of domain experts and observe that main preference effects are remarkably stable across the two samples.

  20. Extracting Date/Time Expressions in Super-Function Based Japanese-English Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasayama, Manabu; Kuroiwa, Shingo; Ren, Fuji

    Super-Function Based Machine Translation(SFBMT) which is a type of Example-Based Machine Translation has a feature which makes it possible to expand the coverage of examples by changing nouns into variables, however, there were problems extracting entire date/time expressions containing parts-of-speech other than nouns, because only nouns/numbers were changed into variables. We describe a method for extracting date/time expressions for SFBMT. SFBMT uses noun determination rules to extract nouns and a bilingual dictionary to obtain correspondence of the extracted nouns between the source and the target languages. In this method, we add a rule to extract date/time expressions and then extract date/time expressions from a Japanese-English bilingual corpus. The evaluation results shows that the precision of this method for Japanese sentences is 96.7%, with a recall of 98.2% and the precision for English sentences is 94.7%, with a recall of 92.7%.

  1. Clinical utility of machine learning approaches in schizophrenia: Improving diagnostic confidence for translational neuroimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarina eIwabuchi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Machine-learning approaches are becoming commonplace in the neuroimaging literature as potential diagnostic and prognostic tools for the study of clinical populations. However, very few studies provide clinically informative measures to aid in decision-making and resource allocation. Head-to-head comparison of neuroimaging-based multivariate classifiers is an essential first step to promote translation of these tools to clinical practice. We systematically evaluated the classifier performance using back-to-back structural MRI in two field strengths (3-Tesla and 7-Tesla to discriminate patients with schizophrenia (n=19 from healthy controls (n=20. Grey (GM and white matter (WM images were used as inputs into a support vector machine (SVM to classify patients and control subjects. 7T classifiers outperformed the 3T classifiers with accuracy reaching as high as 77% for the 7T GM classifier compared to 66.6% for the 3T GM classifier. Furthermore, diagnostic odds ratio (a measure that is not affected by variations in sample characteristics and number needed to predict (a measure based on Bayesian certainty of a test result indicated superior performance of the 7T classifiers, whereby for each correct diagnosis made, the number of patients that need to be examined using the 7T GM classifier was one less than the number that need to be examined if a different classifier was used. Using a hypothetical example, we highlight how these findings could have significant implications for clinical decision-making. We encourage the reporting of measures proposed here in future studies utilizing machine-learning approaches. This will not only promote the search for an optimum diagnostic tool but also aid in the translation of neuroimaging to clinical use.

  2. Possessive Pronouns as Determiners in Japanese-to-English Machine Translation

    CERN Document Server

    Bond, F; Ikehara, S; Bond, Francis; Ogura, Kentaro; Ikehara, Satoru

    1996-01-01

    Possessive pronouns are used as determiners in English when no equivalent would be used in a Japanese sentence with the same meaning. This paper proposes a heuristic method of generating such possessive pronouns even when there is no equivalent in the Japanese. The method uses information about the use of possessive pronouns in English treated as a lexical property of nouns, in addition to contextual information about noun phrase referentiality and the subject and main verb of the sentence that the noun phrase appears in. The proposed method has been implemented in NTT Communication Science Laboratories' Japanese-to-English machine translation system ALT-J/E. In a test set of 6,200 sentences, the proposed method increased the number of noun phrases with appropriate possessive pronouns generated, by 263 to 609, at the cost of generating 83 noun phrases with inappropriate possessive pronouns.

  3. Offering a New Approach for Approximate Pattern Matching in Example-Based Machine Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Akbari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a new model is proposed in order to measure the degree of similarity between two sentences in machine translation based on example. The proposed model has applied genetic algorithm beside a new fitness function which is based on semantic load matching between the two sentences. Here, verbs are considered as the heart of a sentence because they are the main part of a sentence and carry the major part of the semantic load in the sentence; therefore more attention is paid to the verbs in the fitness function. It is noteworthy that the proposed model is largely dependent on the verbal part and the extracted synonyms from WordNet as well as the arrangement of words. The results are promising by precision and recall, indicating that the proposed method improves the quality of the retrieved matched sentences.

  4. Comparison of Parallel Kinematic Machines with Three Translational Degrees of Freedom and Linear Actuation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PRAUSE Isabel; CHARAF EDDINE Sami; CORVES Burkhard

    2015-01-01

    The development of new robot structures, in particular of parallel kinematic machines(PKM), is widely systematized by different structure synthesis methods. Recent research increasingly focuses on PKM with less than six degrees of freedom(DOF). However, an overall comparison and evaluation of these structures is missing. In order to compare symmetrical PKM with three translational DOF, different evaluation criteria are used. Workspace, maximum actuation forces and velocities, power, actuator stiffness, accuracy and transmission behavior are taken into account to investigate strengths and weaknesses of the PKMs. A selection scheme based on possible configurations of translational PKM including different frame configurations is presented. Moreover, an optimization method based on a genetic algorithm is described to determine the geometric parameters of the selected PKM for an exemplary load case and a prescribed workspace. The values of the mentioned criteria are determined for all considered PKM with respect to certain boundary conditions. The distribution and spreading of these values within the prescribed workspace is presented by using box plots for each criterion. Thereby, the performance characteristics of the different structures can be compared directly. The results show that there is no“best”PKM. Further inquiries such as dynamic or stiffness analysis are necessary to extend the comparison and to finally select a PKM.

  5. A Reordering Model Using a Source-Side Parse-Tree for Statistical Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Kei; Yamamoto, Hirofumi; Okuma, Hideo; Sumita, Eiichiro; Tokuda, Keiichi

    This paper presents a reordering model using a source-side parse-tree for phrase-based statistical machine translation. The proposed model is an extension of IST-ITG (imposing source tree on inversion transduction grammar) constraints. In the proposed method, the target-side word order is obtained by rotating nodes of the source-side parse-tree. We modeled the node rotation, monotone or swap, using word alignments based on a training parallel corpus and source-side parse-trees. The model efficiently suppresses erroneous target word orderings, especially global orderings. Furthermore, the proposed method conducts a probabilistic evaluation of target word reorderings. In English-to-Japanese and English-to-Chinese translation experiments, the proposed method resulted in a 0.49-point improvement (29.31 to 29.80) and a 0.33-point improvement (18.60 to 18.93) in word BLEU-4 compared with IST-ITG constraints, respectively. This indicates the validity of the proposed reordering model.

  6. OxLM: A Neural Language Modelling Framework for Machine Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Baltescu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an open source implementation1 of a neural language model for machine translation. Neural language models deal with the problem of data sparsity by learning distributed representations for words in a continuous vector space. The language modelling probabilities are estimated by projecting a word's context in the same space as the word representations and by assigning probabilities proportional to the distance between the words and the context's projection. Neural language models are notoriously slow to train and test. Our framework is designed with scalability in mind and provides two optional techniques for reducing the computational cost: the so-called class decomposition trick and a training algorithm based on noise contrastive estimation. Our models may be extended to incorporate direct n-gram features to learn weights for every n-gram in the training data. Our framework comes with wrappers for the cdec and Moses translation toolkits, allowing our language models to be incorporated as normalized features in their decoders (inside the beam search.

  7. Toward an example-based machine translation from written text to ASL using virtual agent animation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrez Boulares

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern computational linguistic software cannot produce important aspects of sign language translation. Using some researches we deduce that the majority of automatic sign language translation systems ignore many aspects when they generate animation; therefore the interpretation lost the truth information meaning. This problem is due to sign language consideration as a derivative language, but it is a complete language with its own unique grammar. This grammar is related to semantic-cognitive models of spatially, time, action and facial expression to represent complex information to make sign interpretation more efficiently, smooth, expressive and natural-looking human gestures. All this aspects give us useful insights into the design principles that have evolved in natural communication between people. In this work we are interested in American Sign Language, because it is the simplest and most standardized sign language. Our goals are: to translate written text from any language to ASL animation; to model maximum raw information using machine learning and computational techniques; and to produce a more adapted and expressive form to natural looking and understandable ASL animations. Our methods include linguistic annotation of initial text and semantic orientation to generate the facial expression. We use genetic algorithms coupled to learning/recognized systems to produce the most natural form. To detect emotion we based on fuzzy logic to produce the degree of interpolation between facial expressions. Roughly, we present a new expressive language Text Adapted Sign Modeling Language TASML that describes all maximum aspects related to a good sign language interpretation. This paper is organized as follow: the next section is devoted to present the comprehension effect of using Space/Time/SVO form in ASL animation based on experimentation. In section 3, we describe our technical considerations. We present the general approach we adopted to

  8. Soviet Counterinsurgency

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    not result in the development of a comprehensive Marxist-Leninist military doctrine. As D.F. White notes, it was left to Trotsky , Frunze, Tukhachevsky...significantly alter the basic structure and interrelationships of d Meade Earle, "Lenin, Trotsky , Stalin: Soviet Concepts of War," in: Makers of Modern...Sokolovskii, ed., Soviet Military Strategv, trans. Herbert S. Dinerstein, Leon Goure, and Thomas Wolfe (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1963): 48-49. 22Joseph

  9. Prediction of post-translational modification sites using multiple kernel support vector machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BingHua Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Protein post-translational modification (PTM is an important mechanism that is involved in the regulation of protein function. Considering the high-cost and labor-intensive of experimental identification, many computational prediction methods are currently available for the prediction of PTM sites by using protein local sequence information in the context of conserved motif. Here we proposed a novel computational method by using the combination of multiple kernel support vector machines (SVM for predicting PTM sites including phosphorylation, O-linked glycosylation, acetylation, sulfation and nitration. To largely make use of local sequence information and site-modification relationships, we developed a local sequence kernel and Gaussian interaction profile kernel, respectively. Multiple kernels were further combined to train SVM for efficiently leveraging kernel information to boost predictive performance. We compared the proposed method with existing PTM prediction methods. The experimental results revealed that the proposed method performed comparable or better performance than the existing prediction methods, suggesting the feasibility of the developed kernels and the usefulness of the proposed method in PTM sites prediction.

  10. CloudLM: a Cloud-based Language Model for Machine Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrández-Tordera Jorge

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Language models (LMs are an essential element in statistical approaches to natural language processing for tasks such as speech recognition and machine translation (MT. The advent of big data leads to the availability of massive amounts of data to build LMs, and in fact, for the most prominent languages, using current techniques and hardware, it is not feasible to train LMs with all the data available nowadays. At the same time, it has been shown that the more data is used for a LM the better the performance, e.g. for MT, without any indication yet of reaching a plateau. This paper presents CloudLM, an open-source cloud-based LM intended for MT, which allows to query distributed LMs. CloudLM relies on Apache Solr and provides the functionality of state-of-the-art language modelling (it builds upon KenLM, while allowing to query massive LMs (as the use of local memory is drastically reduced, at the expense of slower decoding speed.

  11. Apertium goes SOA: an efficient and scalable service based on the Apertium rule-based machine translation platform

    OpenAIRE

    Minervini, Pasquale

    2009-01-01

    Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) is a paradigm for organising and using distributed services that may be under the control of different ownership domains and implemented using various technology stacks. In some contexts, an organisation using an IT infrastructure implementing the SOA paradigm can take a great benefit from the integration, in its business processes, of efficient machine translation (MT) services to overcome language barriers. This paper describes the architecture and the de...

  12. Soviet Cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Elizabeth

    Recent social and political changes in the USSR have made available some 60 previously unreleased films, which were produced during the last 20 years and withheld from release by the Union of Soviet Filmmakers. In 1986, much of this group's leadership was removed leading to an atmosphere more favorable to wider distribution. Some of these films…

  13. Devised Guidelines of Rapid Post-Editing in Machine Translation Out⁃put of Mark on Some Aspects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈亚媛; 王庆怡

    2012-01-01

      One of uses of machine translation (MT), is helping readers to read for the gist of a foreign text through a draft translation produced by MT engines. Rapid post-editing, as Jeffrey Allen defines it as a“strictly minimal editing on texts in order to remove blatant and significant errors without considering stylistic issues”, can help present the reader with a roughly comprehensible translation as quickly as possible. The purpose of this article is on a proposed set of rapid post-editing guidelines for Biblical Chinese-English MT, with its application on editing the English MT version of Chapter one of Mark (马尔谷福音) of the Chinese Catholic Bible (天主教思高本圣经) as an example.

  14. Rule Based Machine Translation of Noun Phrases from Punjabi to English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamaljeet Kaur Batra

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents automatic translation of noun phrases from Punjabi to English using transfer approach. The system has analysis, translation and synthesis component. The steps involved are pre processing, tagging, ambiguity resolution, translation and synthesis of words in target language. The accuracy is calculated for each step and the overall accuracy of the system is calculated to be about 85% for a particular type of noun phrases.

  15. Conception d'une methodologie generale d'evaluation de la traduction automatique (Conception of a General Methodology for Evaluating Machine Translation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Slype, Georges

    1982-01-01

    It is proposed that assessment of human translation versus machine translation programs use methods and criteria that measure efficiency and cost effectiveness and are efficient and cost-effective in themselves. A variety of methods and criteria are evaluated and discussed. (MSE)

  16. 中日两国机器翻译研究进展及比较%Machine Translation Research in China and Japan: Advances and Comparison

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张均胜; 何彦青; 李颖; 王惠临

    2011-01-01

    Machine translation investigates the use of computer software to translate text or speech from one natural language to another. Since the first computer was invented, people have been studying and exploring high quality and high efficiency of machine translation technology. Recently, rule-based machine translation, example-based machine translation and statistical translation are the main three translation patterns. There are some approaches ofsystem combination for better machine translation results. With the development of science, technology, economy and culture, machine translation has become more important in breaking the language barrier between Chinese and Japanese for promoting China-Japanese exchanges and cooperation. Machine translation researchers in China and Japan have carried out a large number of Chinese-Japanese/Japanese-Chinese machine translation of theoretical research and system development They have achieved a lot of effective results, however, it is still far from the practical translation application of large-scale and high quality. Therefore, it is necessary for researchers in China and Japan to cooperate in machine translation technology and system development for Ch inese-to-Japanese and Japanese-to-Chinese, especially in the parallel corpus, dictionary, terminology, syntactic analysis and so on. This paper presents an overview of the China-Japanese machine translation research and rampares machine translation research in China and Japan. We also discuss the prospects of China-Japanese cooperation in machine translation research.%机器翻译研究用计算机实现不同自然语言之间的翻译.自第一台计算机诞生开始,人们一直在研究和探索高质量高效率的机器翻译技术.近年来,基于规则的机器翻译、基于实例的机器翻译和基于统计的机器翻译这几种主要的翻译模式共同存在且相互补充,并有不断融合之势.随着中国和日本在科技、经济和文化交流的不

  17. Breaking the language barrier: machine assisted diagnosis using the medical speech translator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starlander, Marianne; Bouillon, Pierrette; Rayner, Manny; Chatzichrisafis, Nikos; Hockey, Beth Ann; Isahara, Hitoshi; Kanzaki, Kyoko; Nakao, Yukie; Santaholma, Marianne

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we describe and evaluate an Open Source medical speech translation system (MedSLT) intended for safety-critical applications. The aim of this system is to eliminate the language barriers in emergency situation. It translates spoken questions from English into French, Japanese and Finnish in three medical subdomains (headache, chest pain and abdominal pain), using a vocabulary of about 250-400 words per sub-domain. The architecture is a compromise between fixed-phrase translation on one hand and complex linguistically-based systems on the other. Recognition is guided by a Context Free Grammar Language Model compiled from a general unification grammar, automatically specialised for the domain. We present an evaluation of this initial prototype that shows the advantages of this grammar-based approach for this particular translation task in term of both reliability and use.

  18. Translation

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    "Translation" is a life narrative about the ways in which cultural histories shape personal stories, and the capacity of the imagination to develop alternative narratives about oneself and the world. It can also be read a way of addressing the effects of what Ato Quayson calls the global process of postcolonializing. Quaysons critical perspective might be used as an interpretive lens for seeing some of the ways in which  this autobiographical narrative complicates the jargon of race, cl...

  19. Translation

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    "Translation" is a life narrative about the ways in which cultural histories shape personal stories, and the capacity of the imagination to develop alternative narratives about oneself and the world. It can also be read a way of addressing the effects of what Ato Quayson calls the global process of postcolonializing. Quaysons critical perspective might be used as an interpretive lens for seeing some of the ways in which  this autobiographical narrative complicates the jargon of race, class, ...

  20. Improving Statistical Machine Translation Through N-best List Re-ranking and Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    Language Processing, 1352–1362. Association for Computational Linguistics, Edinburgh, Scotland , UK., July 2011. URL http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/D11-1125...Josef. “Minimum Error Rate Training in Statistical Machine Translation”. Erhard Hinrichs and Dan Roth (editors), Proceedings of the 41st Annual Meeting of

  1. Reading Strategies in a L2: A Study on Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnal, Adriana Riess; Pereira, Vera Vanmacher

    2015-01-01

    This article aims at understanding cognitive strategies which are involved in reading academic texts in English as a L2/FL. Specifically, we focus on reading comprehension when a text is read either using Google translator or not. From this perspective we must consider the reading process in its complexity not only as a decoding process. We follow…

  2. Exeter at CLEF 2003: Experiments with machine translation for monolingual, bilingual and multilingual retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Lam-Adesina, Adenike M.; Jones, Gareth J.F.

    2004-01-01

    The University of Exeter group participated in the monolingual, bilingual and multilingual-4 retrieval tasks this year. The main focus of our investigation this year was the small multilingual task comprising four languages, French, German, Spanish and English. We adopted a document translation strategy and tested four merging techniques to combine results from the separate document collections, as well as a merged collection strategy. For both the monolingual and bilingual tasks we explored ...

  3. A nonparametric Bayesian method of translating machine learning scores to probabilities in clinical decision support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Brian; Cohen, K Bretonnel; Santel, Daniel; Bayram, Ulya; Pestian, John

    2017-08-07

    Probabilistic assessments of clinical care are essential for quality care. Yet, machine learning, which supports this care process has been limited to categorical results. To maximize its usefulness, it is important to find novel approaches that calibrate the ML output with a likelihood scale. Current state-of-the-art calibration methods are generally accurate and applicable to many ML models, but improved granularity and accuracy of such methods would increase the information available for clinical decision making. This novel non-parametric Bayesian approach is demonstrated on a variety of data sets, including simulated classifier outputs, biomedical data sets from the University of California, Irvine (UCI) Machine Learning Repository, and a clinical data set built to determine suicide risk from the language of emergency department patients. The method is first demonstrated on support-vector machine (SVM) models, which generally produce well-behaved, well understood scores. The method produces calibrations that are comparable to the state-of-the-art Bayesian Binning in Quantiles (BBQ) method when the SVM models are able to effectively separate cases and controls. However, as the SVM models' ability to discriminate classes decreases, our approach yields more granular and dynamic calibrated probabilities comparing to the BBQ method. Improvements in granularity and range are even more dramatic when the discrimination between the classes is artificially degraded by replacing the SVM model with an ad hoc k-means classifier. The method allows both clinicians and patients to have a more nuanced view of the output of an ML model, allowing better decision making. The method is demonstrated on simulated data, various biomedical data sets and a clinical data set, to which diverse ML methods are applied. Trivially extending the method to (non-ML) clinical scores is also discussed.

  4. Based on HNC Theory of Machine Translation Research ---English-Chinese Translation%基于HNC理论机助人译--英汉翻译对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆小鹿

    2014-01-01

    [Abstract]Machine Translation is indispensable to modern information era to overcome barriers of the language communication . HNC theory by using the method of primitives, hierarchical, network, formal, integrates the sentence structures with semantics, Based on the HNC theory, interprets the conversion of sentence category and patterns between English and Chinese and Contrast between English and Chinese.%机器翻译是现代信息时代克服语言交流障碍不可缺少的的手段。 HNC理论采用基元化、层次化、网络化、形式化的方法,通过句类精妙地把自然语言的表层结构和深层语义联系起来。通过机器翻译,对比研究英汉翻译中的句类句式转换的问题。

  5. Integrated Features by Administering the Support Vector Machine (SVM of Translational Initiations Sites in Alternative Polymorphic Contex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Arneida Husin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Many algorithms and methods have been proposed for classification problems in bioinformatics. In this study, the discriminative approach in particular support vector machines (SVM is employed to recognize the studied TIS patterns. The applied discriminative approach is used to learn about some discriminant functions of samples that have been labelled as positive or negative. After learning, the discriminant functions are employed to decide whether a new sample is true or false. In this study, support vector machines (SVM is employed to recognize the patterns for studied translational initiation sites in alternative weak context. The method has been optimized with the best parameters selected; c=100, E=10-6 and ex=2 for non linear kernel function. Results show that with top 5 features and non linear kernel, the best prediction accuracy achieved is 95.8%. J48 algorithm is applied to compare with SVM with top 15 features and the results show a good prediction accuracy of 95.8%. This indicates that the top 5 features selected by the IGR method and that are performed by SVM are sufficient to use in the prediction of TIS in weak contexts.

  6. Qualitative: Open Source Python Tool for Quality Estimation over Multiple Machine Translation Outputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleftherios Avramidis

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available “Qualitative” is a python toolkit for ranking and selection of sentence-level output by different MT systems using Quality Estimation. The toolkit implements a basic pipeline for annotating the given sentences with black-box features. Consequently, it applies a machine learning mechanism in order to rank data based on models pre-trained on human preferences. The preprocessing pipeline includes support for language models, PCFG parsing, language checking tools and various other pre-processors and feature generators. The code follows the principles of object-oriented programming to allow modularity and extensibility. The tool can operate by processing both batch-files and single sentences. An XML-RPC interface is provided for hooking up with web-services and a graphical animated web-based interface demonstrates its potential on-line use.

  7. Determination of referential property and number of nouns in Japanese sentences for machine translation into English

    CERN Document Server

    Murata, M; Murata, Masaki; Nagao, Makoto

    1994-01-01

    When translating Japanese nouns into English, we face the problem of articles and numbers which the Japanese language does not have, but which are necessary for the English composition. To solve this difficult problem we classified the referential property and the number of nouns into three types respectively. This paper shows that the referential property and the number of nouns in a sentence can be estimated fairly reliably by the words in the sentence. Many rules for the estimation were written in forms similar to rewriting rules in expert systems. We obtained the correct recognition scores of 85.5\\% and 89.0\\% in the estimation of the referential property and the number respectively for the sentences which were used for the construction of our rules. We tested these rules for some other texts, and obtained the scores of 68.9\\% and 85.6\\% respectively.

  8. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    the slogan: "To Live and Work at an Prosper!" This hieroglyph cannot be translated into any Accelerated Pace"? Would you find something like this...reflection of reality. Take for instance this one: "The Soviet People Is I have heard that Eastern hieroglyphics have a hidden the Eternal Builder of...improved a great deal. people. They are our own hieroglyphs . "More Fertilizers from Our Plant Put More Variety on the Soviet People’s Table!" This is a

  9. The strategic offense initiative? The Soviets and Star Wars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwick, Peter J.

    2014-05-01

    Historians of the Cold War have paid too little attention to Soviet fears of "space-strike weapons" - that is, possible offensive uses of President Ronald Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative. In fifteen years or so, soldiers will no longer shoot rifles but will use some kind of lightning, some sort of a machine emitting a holocaustal electrical beam. Tell me, what can we invent in this line so as to surprise our neighbors?... Alas, we are only capable of imitating and purchasing weapons from others, and we do well if we manage to repair them ourselves. --Fyodor Dostoevsky, A Writer's Diary, 1873. [Khlinov, a physicist]: "I know that he has made an important discovery concerning the transmission of infra-red rays over a distance.... Heat waves at a temperature of a thousand degrees centigrade transmitted parallel to each other constitute a monstrous weapon of destruction and defense in time of war. The whole secret lies in the transmission of a ray that does not disperse. So far nobody has been able to do this. Judging by your story, Garin has constructed a machine that will do it. If so it is an extremely important discovery." "I've been thinking for a long time that this invention smells of higher politics," said Shelga. --Aleksei Tolstoy, The Garin Death Ray, 1927 (translated by George Hanna)

  10. The strategic offense initiative? The Soviets and Star Wars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westwick, Peter J. [History Department, University of Southern California, Los Angles, California (United States)

    2014-05-09

    Historians of the Cold War have paid too little attention to Soviet fears of 'space-strike weapons' - that is, possible offensive uses of President Ronald Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative. In fifteen years or so, soldiers will no longer shoot rifles but will use some kind of lightning, some sort of a machine emitting a holocaustal electrical beam. Tell me, what can we invent in this line so as to surprise our neighbors?... Alas, we are only capable of imitating and purchasing weapons from others, and we do well if we manage to repair them ourselves. --Fyodor Dostoevsky, A Writer's Diary, 1873. [Khlinov, a physicist]: 'I know that he has made an important discovery concerning the transmission of infra-red rays over a distance.... Heat waves at a temperature of a thousand degrees centigrade transmitted parallel to each other constitute a monstrous weapon of destruction and defense in time of war. The whole secret lies in the transmission of a ray that does not disperse. So far nobody has been able to do this. Judging by your story, Garin has constructed a machine that will do it. If so it is an extremely important discovery.' 'I've been thinking for a long time that this invention smells of higher politics,' said Shelga. --Aleksei Tolstoy, The Garin Death Ray, 1927 (translated by George Hanna)

  11. Background Information on the Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    ministries) in 1965." In this childish disregard for truth lies a pride in Soviet 1969 there were 220.t)0) scientists with doctor’s or achievement and a...novel pharisees drown everything," he was unduly Cancer Ward, published abroad in 1969, depicts the pessimistic. On the tenth anniversary of his death, in...1974. Whitney, Parts III and IV. New York; Harper& Row. 1975. Solzhenitsyn, A. Cancer Ward. Translated by Bethell & Burg. Terz. A. (Sinyavsky). On

  12. Fundamental Soviet Labor Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Emily Clark

    1973-01-01

    The crucial assumption underlying new Soviet legislation is the existence of common interest of workers and management in production; stressing cooperation, consultation, and creative participation and an increase in the role of trade unions in decision making. (Editor)

  13. Soviet Space Program Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    in advance and some events were even broadcast live. Immediately following the first success- ful launch of their new Energia space launch vehicle in...early 1988. Just as a handbook written a couple of years ago would need updating with Mir, Energia , and the SL-16, this handbook will one day need up...1986. Johnson, Nicholas L. The Soviet Year in Space 1983. Colorado Springs, CO: Teledyne Brown Engineering, 1984. Lawton, A. " Energia - Soviet Super

  14. Soviet Development of Gyrotrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    Relationship Type of Device Remarks V, - Vc, anomalous Doppler Capable of 100 percent efficiency, CRM but more cumbersome than Cheren- kov devices V...authors; and discusses inlividual Soviet reseaLc- groups, the basic organizational units responAiLle for the CRM and gyrotron research and development. The...maintained a cCnEistEnt iecord of significant achievements; it has managed to overcome the systenic yeaxness of the Soviet R&C systeg in teimg atle to

  15. Soviet Military Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    vaned uber -as copoiteprpelans, lsofo imroingth.e.e.i.ees of dis.*~’ - "- .. ’ Soviet industrial modernization programs quire computer technology...Greenland C 1 NORTH , S ATLANTIC OCEAN Mexicos oU.. 3 OOCEAN Gas NOITMLTRPRONLARA * Lt~ Aeula InludngCua).......................A Svit nn Trantr 117I...are larger than those of Canada, island neighbors have little or no armed Brazil or Mexico . With Soviet assistance forces of their own. Cuban military

  16. A survey of statistical machine translation using paraphrasing technology%引入复述技术的统计机器翻译研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      基于对引入复述技术的统计机器翻译研究现状的分析,提出具有研究价值的课题方向。首先归纳了复述的概念,总结了引入复述技术的统计机器翻译各类方法。然后对复述知识在统计机器翻译中的模型训练、参数调整、待译语句改写和机器翻译自动评测等方面应用的主流方法进行了概括、比较和分析,说明了复述与统计机器翻译是紧密相关的,强调了复述在统计机器翻译应用中的关键问题是复述的正确性和多样性。最后指出提高复述资源的精确度、建立复述与机器翻译的联合模型、采用新方法解决稀疏问题等是有待进一步研究的课题。%In this paper, the research team discussed possible new prospective research directions of paraphrasing technology in statistical machine translation (SMT), based on reviews of state-of-the-art technology.First the re-search team introduced the concept of paraphrases , and next a summarization of the latest progress utilizing para-phrasing technology in SMT was conducted.Finally, conclusions were drawn, data was compared and an analysis of the main issues of incorporating paraphrases into SMT , including translation model training, parameter tuning, in-put sentences rewriting and machine translation evaluation was performed .The results proved that there is an inher-ent connection between paraphrasing and SMT .The results also point out that the correctness and diversity of para-phrasing are the key issues to apply paraphrasing to SMT .It was highly noted that the improvement in the quality of paraphrasing resource, the establishment of a joint model of paraphrasing and machine translation and the new pro -posed approach to solve data sparseness are problems which need further study .

  17. Machine-translatability and post-editing effort: an empirical study using translog and choice network analysis

    OpenAIRE

    O'Brien, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    Studies on Controlled Language (CL) suggest that by removing features that are known to be problematic for MT (termed here “negative translatability indicators”, or “NTIs”), the MT output can be improved. It is assumed that an improvement in the output will result in lower post-editing effort. This study tests that assumption by measuring the technical, temporal and cognitive post-editing effort (Krings 2001) for English sentences in a user manual that have been translated into German using a...

  18. Translation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Pinheiro

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss three translation techniques: literal, cultural, and artistic. Literal translation is a well-known technique, which means that it is quite easy to find sources on the topic. Cultural and artistic translation may be new terms. Whilst cultural translation focuses on matching contexts, artistic translation focuses on matching reactions. Because literal translation matches only words, it is not hard to find situations in which we should not use this technique.  Because artistic translation focuses on reactions, judging the quality of an artistic translation work is one of the most difficult things one can do. We end up having a score of complexity and humanity for each one of the mentioned techniques: Literal translation would be the closest thing we have to the machines world and artistic translation would be the closest thing we have to the purely human world. By creating these classifications and studying the subtleties of each one of them, we are adding degrees of quality to our courses and to translation as a professional field. The main contribution of this paper is then the formalization of such a piece of knowledge. We, however, also lay the foundations for studies of this type.

  19. Lost in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The intricacies of language still eludes even the most sophisticated technology IT is no surprise Jost Zetzsche,an English-to-German translator,raised the question of whether machine translation would ever replace the human variety in front of 700 interpreters and translators who gathered in San Francisco to discuss topical issues in the translation industry.

  20. Translators and Tools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Technology is not yet advanced enough to capture the nuances of language It is no surprise Jost Zetzsche,an English-to-German translator,raised the question of whether machine translation would ever replace the human variety in front of 700 interpreters and translators who gathered in San Francisco to discuss topical issues in the translation industry.

  1. Lost in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Zhitao; Chen Wen

    2011-01-01

    IT is no surprise Jost Zetzsche,an English-to-German translator,raised the question of whether machine translation would ever replace the human variety in front of 700 interpreters and translators who gathered in San Francisco to discuss topical issues in the translation industry.

  2. Translation: Aids, Robots, and Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreyewsky, Alexander

    1981-01-01

    Examines electronic aids to translation both as ways to automate it and as an approach to solve problems resulting from shortage of qualified translators. Describes the limitations of robotic MT (Machine Translation) systems, viewing MAT (Machine-Aided Translation) as the only practical solution and the best vehicle for further automation. (MES)

  3. Soviet Military Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-01

    military lpresence. To cite just one example, a Soviet Navy task force operated in the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico from November 1982 to February 1985...year, Other Surface Combatants: Additionally, the Mi Prduction Naval Ship Cmo itlfon. . USSR and NATO USSR and NATO MI.l T6ype 1976’ 1979’ 1m, 101I...the Caribbean, Gulf of Soviet assistance to Grenada has taken the • Mexico and nearby portions of the Atlantic form of supplying weapons, construction

  4. Soviet debate on missile defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrott, B.

    1987-04-01

    Although the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) is meant to cope with the danger of a Soviet nuclear attack, the recent US debate over SDI has paid surprisingly little attention to Soviet views of ballistic missile defense. Despite the existence of a substantial body of pertinent scholarship, the debate has failed to take adequate account of major changes in Soviet ballistic missile defense policy since the mid-1960s. It has also neglected the links between current Soviet military policy and broader Soviet political and economic choices. The Soviets regard SDI not as a novel undertaking to reduce the risks of nuclear war but as an extension of the geopolitical competition between the superpowers. This competition has been dominated in the 1980s, in the Soviet view, by sharply increased US assertiveness and the decline of detente. Viewing SDI as a manifestation of these general trends, Soviet decision makers find the prospect of an unregulated race in ballistic missile defenses and military space technologies deeply unsettling. The deterioration of superpower relations has raised serious doubts in Moscow about the wisdom of Soviet external policy during the 1970s and has provoked sharp internal differences over policy toward the US. Already highly suspicious of the Reagan administration, the elite is united by a general conviction that SDI is an American gambit that may ultimately undercut past Soviet strategic gains and pose a grave new threat to Soviet security. 14 references.

  5. Towards a French/French Sign Language Machine-Translation System (TLF Vers un système de traduction automatique : français/langue des signes française (TLF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaspard Breton

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a work in the framewok of machine translation from French to French Sign Language (FSL with synthesis of gestures through a virtual agent. We first give some descriptive and theoretical elements about the FSL. Then we propose a formalization of the standard part of the FSL lexicon as well as propositions concerning some morpho-syntactic phenomena. Then we present the machine translation system based on interlingua representation system "TiLT" developed at France Telecom R&D and the adaptation of its generation module to FSL. We end with the avatar technology also developed at France Telecom R&D and its FSL treatment.

  6. Multilingual online machine translation research%多语言在线机器翻译研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董兴华; 徐春; 王磊; 周喜

    2012-01-01

    This paper gives a description of implementing an online, high-powered multilingual translation engine, which consists of three language pairs, that is, Uyghur-Chinese, Kazakh-Chinese and Kyrgyz-Chinese, based on additional knowledge base and multithreading and task distributing technology. The translation engine is easy to be extended to other language pairs, which has an ability of translating words, phrases, sentences, files and webs in one language to those of another.%描述了通过使用外部知识库和基于短语的翻译模型,利用多线程、任务分发的技术实现了一个在线的、高性能的多语言翻译引擎,已初步实现了维汉、哈汉、柯汉三种语言间的翻译.翻译引擎很容易扩展到其他语言对,具有翻译词、短语、句子、文件和网页的功能.

  7. Soviet Naval Infantry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-06-10

    many ways was a self-made hero. He took the title of Generalissimo, a rank one step above IPrit urd, op. cit., p. 256. 2Msam ezw (Red Stir), 24 July...respective fleet headquarters. 3 Ibid. 4Kenneth R. hliting, Develog1 ent of the Soviet Armed Forces. 1917- SAir University Study No. AU-201-72- 1D , Mxwell

  8. Soviet Military Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    boats, anyd numperous armored personnfel carriers. Costas Rica ( Panama K.\\~if" :r:’’rI ; %’’ Th Ii* Z t~ 1."I ) Some of the $600 million in Soviet...additional 4.000 trainers or* available. *US Estimate of 1I66 NATO dafta Excludes minesweesping boats and drones 92 NATO-WARSAW PACT Comparison’ 230 7

  9. Soviet equipment flies in

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1978-01-01

    End of February 1977 a Soviet Ilyushin-76 heavy freight aircraft landed at Cointrin airport having on board fifty large wire proprtional chambers and associated apparatus, together weighing 10 tons, supplied by the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, USSR. The equipment was for the CERN- Dubna-Munich-Saclay experiment NA4 on deep inelastic muon scattering being set up in the North Area of SPS. See Weekly Bulletin 11/78.

  10. Soviet Union, Military Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    duels was his only because he operated boldly and not according to stereotype. It is true that he was not always immediately able to prove the...Moscow KRASNAYA ZVEZDA in Russian 6 May 87 P 3 [Article by Col G. Gladkov: "Laser Duels : People and Trainers"] [Text] The "direct confrontation...34 And this inculcation of revanchist and anti-Soviet spirit is started at childhood . The section of the book that is dedicated to Tokyo’s block

  11. Determinants of Soviet Household Income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    by Kenneth Smith

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available World Values Survey data are used to examine household income in the Soviet Union. The data, gathered Summer/Fall 1990, provide a rare opportunity to empirically examine microeconomic factors influencing a Soviet household’s position in the regional/national income distribution. The survey contains data - collected regionally - from the three Baltic republics, Belarus, and the Moscow region. The data indicate certain patterns that existed and determined Soviet household income though there are often considerable regional variations. Further, there are marked differences between income distribution determinants in the Soviet Union and the U.S. and West Germany though similarities exist as well

  12. Automatic translation among spoken languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Sharon M.; Costigan, Kelly

    1994-01-01

    The Machine Aided Voice Translation (MAVT) system was developed in response to the shortage of experienced military field interrogators with both foreign language proficiency and interrogation skills. Combining speech recognition, machine translation, and speech generation technologies, the MAVT accepts an interrogator's spoken English question and translates it into spoken Spanish. The spoken Spanish response of the potential informant can then be translated into spoken English. Potential military and civilian applications for automatic spoken language translation technology are discussed in this paper.

  13. Matvei Petrovich Bronstein and Soviet theoretical physics in the thirties

    CERN Document Server

    Gorelik, Gennady E

    1994-01-01

    Gennady E. Gorelik and Victor Ya. Frenkel Matvei Petrovich Bronstein and Soviet Theoretical Physics in the Thirties Translated by Valentina M. Levina The short life and tragic death of Matvei Petrovich Bronstein (1906-1938) may be seen as a symbol of the man's time and his country. One of the most remarkable features of Soviet history was the impressive advance of its physical sciences against the brutal and violent background of totalitarianism. Soviet advances in nuclear and space technology form an important part of world history. These achievements had their roots in the 1930s, when Bronstein's generation entered science. Among his friends were the famous physicists Lev Landau and George Gamow. Bronstein worked in the vast field of theoretical physics, ranging from nuclear physics to astrophysics and from relativistic quantum theory to cosmology. His pioneering work on quantizing gravitation goes beyond the history of physics, because today the quantum theory of gravitation occupies a special place in fun...

  14. Soviet Studies in Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Paul R., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Article surveys the special theories and empirical studies of language acquisition carried out by Soviet psychologists, especially in the period since 1950. The basic principles of materialism, historicism and social reference characteristic of Soviet Marxist psychology are placed in contrast to certain current tendencies in American linguistics.…

  15. The Origins of Soviet Sociolinguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandist, Craig

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the origins of Soviet sociolinguistics and suggests that the historical significance of the reception and reinterpretation of these ideas is considerable, leading to a reconsideration of the origins of sociolinguistics and the relationship between Marxism and the language sciences in the early years of the Soviet Union. (Author/VWL)

  16. Soviet energy export prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scanlan, Tony

    1991-05-01

    The Soviet Union produces 20% of world energy but since 1988 this is in decline. Awakening consumerism and a sea-change in the structure of foreign trade and internal investment are placing this key industry into unprecedented uncertainty. The difference between success and failure goes beyond the 1988 peak of six million barrels daily of exports in oil equivalent. The article quantifies the key areas of energy uncertainty as equal in volume to total OPEC output and sees the long-term changes of success more than ever dependent on coordinated planning and investment as well as on market reality. (Author).

  17. Soviet Marxism and population policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonfrank, A

    1984-01-01

    American demographers have maintained that Marxism, notably Soviet Marxism, is consistently pronatalist. The Soviet view is said to be that population growth is not a problem and that birth control policies in either developed or developing societies are to be rejected; the "correct" (i.e., socialist) socioeconomic structure is the true solution to alleged population problems. Such representations of Soviet thought greatly oversimplify the Soviet position as well as fail to discern the changes in Soviet thought that have been occurring. Since the 1960s Soviet writers have increasingly acknowledged that population growth is, to a considerable degree, independent of the economic base of society and that conscious population policies may be needed to either increase or decrease the rate of population growth. Even socialist societies can have population problems. And where population growth is too rapid, as in the developing countries, policies to slow such growth are needed because of the threat to economic development. However, the Soviets continue to stress that birth control policies must go hand-in-hand with social and economic development policies if they are to be effective.

  18. 理性主义与经验主义相结合的机器翻译研究策略%Rationalism and Empiricism on the Combination in Machine Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐金安

    2011-01-01

    主要介绍了基于规则、基于实例和基于统计等3种主流机器翻译方法,探讨了自然语言处理技术和机器翻译中基于规则的理性主义方法和基于统计的经验主义方法的优缺点,结合机器翻译研究的现状和发展方向,提出了规则和统计相结合的机器翻译方法的基本思路,阐述了词义消歧中的理性主义方法和经验主义方法相结合的发展方向,对机器翻译的发展趋势进行了探讨.%This paper firstly discussed the development of machine translation, secondly described the advantages and disadvantages of the rationalism and empiricism in natural language processing and machine translation, and thirdly introduced our basic ideas of combination of the rule-based approach and statistical approach.Furthermore, the paper deliberated the tendency of combination of the rationalism and empiricism in word sense disambiguation, finally summarized the developmental tendency of machine translation.

  19. Machine Transliteration

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, K; Knight, Kevin; Graehl, Jonathan

    1997-01-01

    It is challenging to translate names and technical terms across languages with different alphabets and sound inventories. These items are commonly transliterated, i.e., replaced with approximate phonetic equivalents. For example, "computer" in English comes out as "konpyuutaa" in Japanese. Translating such items from Japanese back to English is even more challenging, and of practical interest, as transliterated items make up the bulk of text phrases not found in bilingual dictionaries. We describe and evaluate a method for performing backwards transliterations by machine. This method uses a generative model, incorporating several distinct stages in the transliteration process.

  20. Statistical Machine Translation of Japanese

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    spoken, it may be phonologically displayed as /W AA T AA SH IY/, where each of the six elements between the slashes is a written representation of...phonemes. A chart showing the possible assignment of kana to phonemes is in Figure 3.1. The complete phonetic symbol set in Table 6.4 is the set of...sequences output by the recognizer. 6.6 Acoustic Model 66 The acoustic model, P(O|S) from Bayes’ rule, maps acoustic features to distinct phonetic

  1. Translator awareness Translator awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram Wilss

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available If we want to encompass adequately the wide-ranging field of human translation, it is necessary to include in translation studies (TS the concept of translator awareness (or translator consciousness, for that matter. However, this is more easily said than done, because this concept does not easily lend itself to definition, let alone to measurement, e. g., by investigating translator behaviour. To put it bluntly: Translator awareness is a fuzzy concept. Like many obviously difficult-to-define concepts, with which dialogue in TS is burdened, translator awareness lacks an articulated theory within which different forms of translator behaviour can be convincingly related to, or distinguished from, one another. Hence, TS has so far not tackled, at least not systematically, the issue of translator awareness. If we want to encompass adequately the wide-ranging field of human translation, it is necessary to include in translation studies (TS the concept of translator awareness (or translator consciousness, for that matter. However, this is more easily said than done, because this concept does not easily lend itself to definition, let alone to measurement, e. g., by investigating translator behaviour. To put it bluntly: Translator awareness is a fuzzy concept. Like many obviously difficult-to-define concepts, with which dialogue in TS is burdened, translator awareness lacks an articulated theory within which different forms of translator behaviour can be convincingly related to, or distinguished from, one another. Hence, TS has so far not tackled, at least not systematically, the issue of translator awareness.

  2. The Soviet Union and Soviet citizens in Finnish magazines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuija Saarinen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article’s is to study Finnish popular journalism in 1970s and 1980s. A magazine studied in this article is Hymy (Smile, and it has been estimated that in the beginning of 1970s approximately the whole literary population of Finland read it. The purpose of this study is to analyze the different images Hymy created and published of the Soviet Union and the Soviet citizens. The central research question analyzes what kinds of issues Hymy published about the Soviet Union and its citizens before 1991. This study gives special attention to the reasons why the articles were written in the first place, and secondly, what was the nature of their content.        Hymy published 224 articles on the Soviet Union. The articles were mostly written in the spirit of criticism – not in the spirit of “friendship of the peoples” that was the official political stance of Finland toward the Soviet Union. Magazines had to be aware of the official Finnish political rhetoric concerning the relationship with the Soviet Union. Hymy as a popular magazine found a way to evade the official mandate. In Hymy, people were able to read anti-Soviet sentiments without any censoring. Therefore, Hymy not only provided its readers views and beliefs that expressed the popular beliefs and values, but also sympathized with them. The Cold War era in the 1970s and 1980s was still a post-traumatic period for Finns. The magazine Hymy was an important channel to publish stories on painful, embarrassing, and tragic subjects.

  3. Collectivity and Individuality in Soviet Educational Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, James

    1980-01-01

    Urie Bronfenbrenner has characterized Soviet education as collective, and Amerian education as individualistic. Bronfenbrenner's suggestion, made 10 years ago, that the United States should adopt some of the Soviet methods, is still valid today. (GDC)

  4. The Analysis of Soviet Military Manpower

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    A.A.Grechko Churchill called the Soviet Union ’an enigma wrapped inside a riddle’. The end of the cold war, detente, and growth of east west contacts...The average rifleman was able to hold out for days without hot food , prepared rations, bread or tobacco. At such times, he subsisted on wild berries or...impacts on the readiness of Soviet soldier. A. RESERVE DUTY AND MOBILIZATION When Hitler attacked the Soviet Union in June 1941, the Soviet leadership

  5. Measuring Cognitive Translation Effort with Activity Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Carl, Michael; Lacruz, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Despite the increased quality of Machine Translation output, human interaction will remain a crucial activity to guarantee the quality of the final translation products. Human-computer interaction in translation will likely be the more successful the more we understand the properties and compleme...... methods in empirical translation process research and suggests ngrams of Activity Units for measuring the translation process....

  6. Soviet Tactical Doctrine and Capabilities for Warfare at Night and Under Conditions of Limited Visibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-04-13

    spotted. Prior to nightfall, motorized troops of course dig In, and machine gunners, orenadlers, and riflemen mark with pegs their primary and...op. cit., p. 122. 21 The Soviet deta f,’r t ., fol li wirn s .-n,is Is Ir.,;tructIve: 3 4 Source of Sound Dist,,nce of Audibility Gun Fire i to 15 km

  7. Soviet Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotchetkov, Dmitri

    2017-01-01

    Rapid growth of the high energy physics program in the USSR during 1960s-1970s culminated with a decision to build the Accelerating and Storage Complex (UNK) to carry out fixed target and colliding beam experiments. The UNK was to have three rings. One ring was to be built with conventional magnets to accelerate protons up to the energy of 600 GeV. The other two rings were to be made from superconducting magnets, each ring was supposed to accelerate protons up to the energy of 3 TeV. The accelerating rings were to be placed in an underground tunnel with a circumference of 21 km. As a 3 x 3 TeV collider, the UNK would make proton-proton collisions with a luminosity of 4 x 1034 cm-1s-1. Institute for High Energy Physics in Protvino was a project leading institution and a site of the UNK. Accelerator and detector research and development studies were commenced in the second half of 1970s. State Committee for Utilization of Atomic Energy of the USSR approved the project in 1980, and the construction of the UNK started in 1983. Political turmoil in the Soviet Union during late 1980s and early 1990s resulted in disintegration of the USSR and subsequent collapse of the Russian economy. As a result of drastic reduction of funding for the UNK, in 1993 the project was restructured to be a 600 GeV fixed target accelerator only. While the ring tunnel and proton injection line were completed by 1995, and 70% of all magnets and associated accelerator equipment were fabricated, lack of Russian federal funding for high energy physics halted the project at the end of 1990s.

  8. Pattern recognition & machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Anzai, Y

    1992-01-01

    This is the first text to provide a unified and self-contained introduction to visual pattern recognition and machine learning. It is useful as a general introduction to artifical intelligence and knowledge engineering, and no previous knowledge of pattern recognition or machine learning is necessary. Basic for various pattern recognition and machine learning methods. Translated from Japanese, the book also features chapter exercises, keywords, and summaries.

  9. Determinants of Soviet emigration policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedgut, T H

    1991-06-01

    "The object of this paper is the presentation and analysis of the political values that are expressed in Soviet emigration policy. Underlying this is an attempt to discern points of change in these values, in particular through the post-World War II history of the USSR. Our concluding point will be the new law on entry and exit from the USSR, pending before the Supreme Soviet [in 1991] with its passage promised in the nearest future." The study covers the period from the 1920s to the present.

  10. Soviet applications for hypersonic vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Reuben F.

    Consistent with Soviet historical practice in the fields of space vehicle design and aircraft procurement, a hypersonic-cruise aerospacecraft will be used only for specialized missions. Most Soviet surveillance of seas and landmasses will be conducted via satellite, while military missions will be carried out by conventional aircraft and ASAT missions will be performed by unmanned systems. An aerospace vehicle will fill the gaps that have ineluctably emerged between these established systems' capabilities due to their comparatively modest technological sophistication. It can be confidently expected that the aerospaceplane's design will involve the synergistic integration of existing technologies.

  11. On Yao's method of translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, X.; Hoede, C.

    2002-01-01

    Machine Translation, i.e., translating one kind of natural language to another kind of natural language by using a computer system, is a very important research branch in Artificial Intelligence. Yao developed a method of translation that he called ``Lexical-Semantic Driven". In his system he introd

  12. The challenges of translating culturally specific elements: the case of Mikhail Bulgakov’s The Master and Margarita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Kaloh Vid

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mikhail Bulgakov’s novel The Master and Margarita, a highly complex and multi-levelled narrative, is a challenge for any translator. The emphasis in the current research is on the translation strategies used when translating culturally-specific elements, or historical realia, referred to as “Sovietisms,” in three English translations of the novel by Glenny (1967, Pevear and Volokhonsky (1997 and Aplin (2008. Sovietisms refer to items characteristic of the Soviet discourse of the 1930s: word-formations of the non-standard “Soviet Russian.” Bulgakov’s language is sated with Soviet vocabulary, which refers to various cultural and socio-political elements of Soviet reality. Sovietisms occur at various levels (lexical,syntactic, stylistic and rhetorical and should be carefully translated as a significant characteristic of Bulgakov’s style. A complete domestication of Sovietisms may lead to a loss of a connotative meaning essential for understanding the context, while a foreignisation of these terms, which are most likely unknown to western readers, may disturb fluidity of reading and cause confusion. The purpose of this analysis, thus, is to illustrate the use of domesticating/foreignising strategies employed by Bulgakov’s translators and to assess the translation choices. The comparative analysis employs the taxonomies suggested by Vlakhov and Florin (1995 and Vinay and Darbelnet (1958/1989 as the grounds for the case study.

  13. Translations and Translators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nida, Eugene A.

    1979-01-01

    The necessity for stylistic appropriateness in translation as well as correct content is discussed. To acquire this skill, translators must be trained in stylistics through close examination of their own language and must have practice in translating for different audiences at different levels. (PMJ)

  14. Translating Words, Translating Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Whitaker

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available What exactly does (or should translation from one language into another try to do? Attempt to convey to readers of the target language (the language into which one is translating something of the strangeness, difference and historicity of the original in the source language (the language from which one is translating? Or must translation try to bridge the gap between source and target language, by rendering the original in a thoroughly contemporary style and diction, as if this were a work being written now for the first time? And related to these the further questions: how closely should a translation render the genre, language, metre, style and content of the original? How far can a translation depart from the original without ceasing to be a translation – in other words, where is one to situate the border between “translation”, “version” and “adaptation”?

  15. To Weaken the Language Barriers for the Chinese Minorities by the Machine Translation Technology%利用机器翻译技术消弱少数民族语言障碍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴凤娟

    2011-01-01

    As a multi-ethnic region, there are both advantages and disadvantages for China. The language barrier is always a great obstruction for the development of the minority nationalities. The machine translation specific to the languages of Chinese minorities contribute to advance the culture communication, to drive the economic growth and to build a harmonious society. By now some development has been made in this field. But if we want to get the actual applying effect, there is a long road before us. To advance the machine translation specific to the languages of Chinese minorities is of great significance.%我国多民族聚居的局面有利有弊,语言障碍一直是少数民族地区发展的巨大阻力.针对少数民族语言的机器翻译有助于推进文化交流、带动经济发展、建立和谐社会.目前该领域的研究已取得了一定进展,但要达到实际应用效果仍有较长的路要走.大力推进针对少数民族的机器翻译工作意义重大.

  16. A Comparative Study of "Google Translate" Translations: An Error Analysis of English-to-Persian and Persian-to-English Translations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Hadis; Hashemian, Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Both lack of time and the need to translate texts for numerous reasons brought about an increase in studying machine translation with a history spanning over 65 years. During the last decades, Google Translate, as a statistical machine translation (SMT), was in the center of attention for supporting 90 languages. Although there are many studies on…

  17. 面向移动终端的统计机器翻译解码定点化方法%A Fixed Point Decoding Approach for Statistical Machine Translation on Mobile Terminals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李响; 徐金安; 姜文斌; 吕雅娟; 刘群

    2011-01-01

    面向移动终端的统计机器翻译需求越来越多,但无浮点运算单元的处理器限制了翻译速度.该文提出了一种对统计机器翻译解码运算的定点化运算方法,缓解了无浮点运算单元的处理器对翻译速度的影响.基于PC和移动终端的实验表明,在保证翻译质量的情况下,利用定点处理浮点运算的解码器的运算速度较编译器模拟的浮点运算速度提高135.6%.因此,该方法可以有效地提高浮点运算能力薄弱的移动终端统计机器翻译速度.%The demand for statistical machine translation (SMT) on mobile terminals is increasing, but the processor without floating point unit (FPU) restricts the translation speed. This paper proposes an approach to switch floating point operation to fixed point operation for decoder of SMT system on mobile terminals, and increase the translation speed on the processor without FPU. The experiments based on PC and mobile terminal show while this approach assures the quality of translation, the speed of our approach is 135.6% faster than the speed of floating point operation emulated by compiler. Therefore, this approach can efficiently increase the translation speed of SMT system on mobile terminals with weak ability in floating point operation.

  18. Completeness of Compositional Translation for Context-Free Grammars

    CERN Document Server

    Huijsen, W O

    1996-01-01

    A machine translation system is said to be *complete* if all expressions that are correct according to the source-language grammar can be translated into the target language. This paper addresses the completeness issue for compositional machine translation in general, and for compositional machine translation of context-free grammars in particular. Conditions that guarantee translation completeness of context-free grammars are presented.

  19. 从机器翻译历程看自然语言处理研究的发展策略%The Development Strategy for Natural Language Processing Research Inspired from a Historical View on Machine Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙茂松; 周建设

    2016-01-01

    Machine translation (MT) is one of the major research fi elds of natural language processing (NLP), and it always spearheads the research frontier in NLP. In this paper, after a systematic survey of the development history of MT from a macroscopic perspective, with particular emphasis on the main development path of underlying methodologies and core technologies in MT, we drew a general picture of the milestones that marked the key points of a long journey for both theoretical study and practical accomplishment for the past seven decades. The latest fruitful development achieved in the area of MT application shows that, the paradigm shift from the tradi-tional linguistic rule-based approaches to the so-called empirical approach, based on increasingly available amounts of “raw data” in the form of massive collections of texts and their translations, compounded by the phenomenal advancement of computer technology, will become the driving force that will potentially lead to the breakthrough in MT. Based on the above observation and analysis, some sug-gestions on the short-term development strategy for machine translation as well as natural language processing in China are proposed.%本文试图从超脱细节的宏观角度,对机器翻译的发展历程进行扼要的总结和深刻的评介,着重于刻画各个时期在基本方法和核心技术上的主要特征,从而勾勒出机器翻译的全过程演进脉络。在上述考察和分析的基础上,文章对国内机器翻译乃至自然语言处理研究的近期发展策略提出了若干建议。

  20. A Taxonomy of Human Translation Styles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael; Dragsted, Barbara; Lykke Jakobsen, Arnt

    2011-01-01

    While the translation profession becomes increasingly technological, we are still far from understanding how humans actually translate and how they could be best supported by machines. In this paper we outline a method which helps to uncover characteristics of human translation processes. Based o...... on the translators' activity data, we develop a taxonomy of translation styles. The taxonomy could serve to inform the development of advanced translation assistance tools and provide a basis for a felicitous and grounded integration of human machine interaction in translation....

  1. The German Reunification Issue: A Soviet Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    Soviet Union is economic. The psychological reason -- West Germany does a special human trade in trying to save fellow Germans from isola- tion behind...in Poland not only compromised Comunism , it also caused ominous cracks in the Soviet bloc. Though Russia has managed to retain the strongest position...forced to make concessions has a fatal psychological flaw. It is true that nations sometimea sacrifice some prestige to avoid war. The Soviets did exactly

  2. The Validity of Soviet Military Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    produced widely divergent viewpoints. The Library Journal endorsed the volume: "Gervasi provides evidence that President Reagan’s claims have no...10Finnegan, Richard B. "A Review of The Myth of Soviet Military Supremacy" Library Journal , June 1, 1986, p. 114. l"Jones, David R. "A Review of The Myth of...Soviet Military Supremacy," Library Journal , June 1, 1986, p. 114. Friedman, Norman "The Soviet Fleet in Transition" U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings

  3. Translation Method and Computer Programme for Assisting the Same

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a translation method comprising the steps of: a translator speaking a translation of a written source text in a target language, an automatic speech recognition system converting the spoken translation into a set of phone and word hypotheses in the target language......, a machine translation system translating the written source text into a set of translations hypotheses in the target language, and an integration module combining the set of spoken word hypotheses and the set of machine translation hypotheses obtaining a text in the target language. Thereby obtaining...... a significantly improved and faster translation compared to what is achieved by known translation methods....

  4. Soviet Dissent and the American National Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    traditional Muslim culture of the region r emains. The Centr -al Asian nationalities continue to resist industrialization and urbanization, 4 0 the former...8217Growing Soviet Dissidence’, p. 97. 2, obert Sharlet, "Growing Soviet Dissidence " , p. 97’, 07 potential of acting as a catalyst to unify the...34Dissent in the Soviet Union", p. 3. R obert Sharlet, "Dissent and Repression in the Soviet Union’, p, 1 16. 1 16 I ’ ’. substitute has been invented

  5. Scientific research in the Soviet Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mtingwa, S.K.

    1990-03-19

    I report on the scientific aspects of my US/USSR Interacademy Exchange Visit to the Soviet Union. My research was conducted at three different institutes: the Lebedev Physical Institute in Moscow, the Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute in Gatchina, and the Yerevan Physics Institute in Soviet Armenia. I included relevant information about the Soviet educational system, salaries of Soviet physicists, work habits and research activities at the three institutes, and the relevance of that research to work going on in the United States. 18 refs.

  6. MT In Business English Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志新

    2009-01-01

    In this article the operational principles of MT in business English translation is briefly introduced with an aim to point out that to improve the MT quality machine study is a key factor to work on.

  7. Translating China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    sidney Shapiro, an American-born translator famous for his translation of Chinese literary works, received the Lifetime Achievement Award in Translation by the Translators Association of China on December 2, 2010.

  8. Translation Theory 'Translated'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæraas, Arild; Nielsen, Jeppe

    2016-01-01

    Translation theory has proved to be a versatile analytical lens used by scholars working from different traditions. On the basis of a systematic literature review, this study adds to our understanding of the ‘translations’ of translation theory by identifying the distinguishing features of the mo......, but also overlapping. We discuss the ways in which the three versions of translation theory may be combined and enrich each other so as to inform future research, thereby offering a more complete understanding of translation in and across organizational settings.......Translation theory has proved to be a versatile analytical lens used by scholars working from different traditions. On the basis of a systematic literature review, this study adds to our understanding of the ‘translations’ of translation theory by identifying the distinguishing features of the most...... common theoretical approaches to translation within the organization and management discipline: actor-network theory, knowledge-based theory, and Scandinavian institutionalism. Although each of these approaches already has borne much fruit in research, the literature is diverse and somewhat fragmented...

  9. Understanding Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Gottlieb, Henrik; Klitgård, Ida

    Understanding Translation is designed as a textbook for courses on the theory and practice of translation in general and of particular types of translation - such as interpreting, screen translation and literary translation. The aim of the book is to help you gain an in-depth understanding...... - translators, language teachers, translation users and literary, TV and film critics, for instance. Discussions focus on translation between Danish and English....

  10. Understanding Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Gottlieb, Henrik; Klitgård, Ida

    Understanding Translation is designed as a textbook for courses on the theory and practice of translation in general and of particular types of translation - such as interpreting, screen translation and literary translation. The aim of the book is to help you gain an in-depth understanding of the...... - translators, language teachers, translation users and literary, TV and film critics, for instance. Discussions focus on translation between Danish and English....

  11. Translations from the Soviet Journal of Atomic Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1962-02-15

    used to obtain pho- tographe of the plat’na in- the traps at various moments of’ time. "Me use ot electricoal probes of various types madie it possible... motors ;-- Vertioil exper2mental obannels; -- Conerete saield-ing; -" Compensating oylinder; 16 -- Thermal oolumi gate valve; 7--m Themal coilum. .. 8...reflector; 3-- Conrete shielding; 4 -G Gt valve; 5 -- Gate valve motor ; 6 -- Plug with slit collimator; 7 -- Monocbromator crystal unit; 8 -- Lead crystal; 9

  12. Synonymy and translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de Franciska; Appelo, Lisette

    1987-01-01

    This paper is meant to give some insight into the interaction between on the one hand theoretical concepts in the field of formal semantics, and on the other hand linguistic research directed towards an application, more specifically, the research in the machine translation project Rosetta. The cent

  13. Synonymy and Translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Franciska M.G.; Appelo, Lisette

    1987-01-01

    This paper is meant to give some insight into the interaction between on the one hand theoretical concepts in the field of formal semantics, and on the other hand linguistic research directed towards an application, more specifically, the research in the machine translation project Rosetta. The

  14. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    22 Jul88] 26 EAST EUROPE Ukrainian Contribution to Soviet-Polish Collaboration [A. Golovin , K. Chavaga, Z. Zhizhara; PRAVDA UKRAINY, 12 Jul 88...Jul 88 p 3 [Article by RATAU correspondents A. Golovin , K. Cha- vaga, Z. Zhizhara: "The UkSSR: A Growing Contribu- tion to Soviet-Polish Cooperation

  15. American and Soviet Relations Since Detente

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    basketball, the Soviets send their athletcs to participate in other sports events: A Nice Place to Visit ... 163 acrobatics gymnastics boxing judo canoeing...and Soviets would try to outlast each other in the high heat and humidity of a saut.a, brought to the Middle East by Swedish troops. The So- viets and

  16. Soviet Military Decisionmaking: A Framework for Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    and Asa P. Smith (eds.), Image and Reality in World Politics, Columbia University Press, New York, 1967. Festinger , Leon , A Theo of Cognitive...University, 1956. Trotsky, Leon , "The Revolution Betrayed," in Samuel Hendel (ed.), The Soviet Crucible: The Soviet Government in Theory and Practice, D. Van

  17. War, Militarism and the Soviet State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, David

    This paper surveys obstacles to disarmament in the Soviet Union, with emphasis on the role of the military tradition in Russia and the centrality of the defense sector to Soviet society. The hypothesis is that, although the role of militarism is strong, there are potential forces for demilitarization, including, for example, the friction caused by…

  18. The Soviet Soldier - Premilitary and Political Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    FORCES, TAE AN OATH AND SOLEMNLY SWEAR M0 BE AN UPRIGHT, BRADE , DISCIPLINED, VIGILANT SOLDIER, M0 STRICTLY PRESERVE MILITARY AND GOVERNMET SECETS...Scituate, Mass.: 1973 Ivanov, Yu., Col., "Servicemen’s Code of Life", Soviet Military Review, February, 1982 Jones, David R., Soviet Arned Forces Review

  19. Translating Means Translating Meaning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海燕

    2000-01-01

    美国著名翻译理论家尤金·奈达说 :“翻译即译意 (Translating m eans translating m eaning)。”就实质而言 ,翻译即译意。就是把一种语言表达的意义用另一种语言表达出来。翻译分理解与表达两个步骤。理解是翻译的基础 ,表达直接决定译文的成败与优劣 ,两者缺一不可

  20. Human Translator and Translation Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辰

    2016-01-01

    With the great development of technology, translation technology exerts great influence on human translators because during their translation process, they may use many computer-aided translation tools, such as TRADOS, Snowman, WordFisher and etc. However, they always misunderstand the concept of computer-aided translation, so this thesis managed to providedetails about some translation technology and human translators' strengths so as to help them improve the productivity and the quality of theirtranslation works effectively and efficiently.

  1. FOREIGN POLICY SOVIET CONSTRUCT. LESSONS LEARNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin MEGHEŞAN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Soviet foreign policy is a field where theories abund. Most of these theories contend that one or more factors are extremely important determinant factors for Soviet behaviour in all or most situations. Soviet foreign policy has usually been analysed in terms of the leader’s objectives, their perceptions and iniatives in the outer environment of the world politics, and their response to development abroad. The main purpose of this article is to briefly examine the internal and external factors that shape Soviet foreign policy and behavior, and to analyse the forces that shape Soviet international behaviour, focusing on the national interest issue. Why Soviet foreign policy? Because we consider that even a brief look into the Soviet foreign policy may represent the key to understanding Russias current behaviour on the world stage. The first step in constructing viable security strategies is to understand the surrounding political world, as well as what Russia was, is and could be.

  2. When Machines Design Machines!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    Until recently we were the sole designers, alone in the driving seat making all the decisions. But, we have created a world of complexity way beyond human ability to understand, control, and govern. Machines now do more trades than humans on stock markets, they control our power, water, gas...... and food supplies, manage our elevators, microclimates, automobiles and transport systems, and manufacture almost everything. It should come as no surprise that machines are now designing machines. The chips that power our computers and mobile phones, the robots and commercial processing plants on which we...... depend, all are now largely designed by machines. So what of us - will be totally usurped, or are we looking at a new symbiosis with human and artificial intelligences combined to realise the best outcomes possible. In most respects we have no choice! Human abilities alone cannot solve any of the major...

  3. The Soviet Armed Forces: A History of Their Organizational Development, A Soviet View

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Armed Forces shattered the myth that Hitler’s army was invincible, and began what was to become a decisive turning point in the war. The Communist...elements, are constantly galvanizing the "Soviet threat" and "Soviet military advantage" myths , thus increasing the scale of anticommunist...the Supreme Soviet issues the edict "On the Institution of General and Flag Ranks for Senior Supervisory Personnel in the Armed Forces." 12 Annul

  4. The ethics of Soviet medical practice: behaviours and attitudes of physicians in Soviet Estonia.

    OpenAIRE

    Barr, D A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study and report the attitudes and practices of physicians in a former Soviet republic regarding issues pertaining to patients' rights, physician negligence and the acceptance of gratuities from patients. DESIGN: Survey questionnaire administered to physicians in 1991 at the time of the Soviet breakup. SETTING: Estonia, formerly a Soviet republic, now an independent state. SURVEY SAMPLE: A stratified, random sample of 1,000 physicians, representing approximately 20 per cent of ...

  5. Soviet Night Operations in World War II (Leavenworth Papers, Number 6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    1948):81, translated and digested from an article in Reuista de la Oficialidad de Complementa, Apendice de la Revista Ejercito (Spain), May 1947. 2...Strategy (Santa Monica, CA: The Rand Corporation, July 1976), p. 46, DTIC ADA 028881. 72. Zstoriia Vtorai Mirovoi Veiny, 1939-1945 [History of the Second...Soviet Strategy. Santa Monica, CA: The Rand Corporation, July 1976, DTIC ADA 028881. Duncan, W. D. “Tanks and Infantry in Night Attacks.” Military

  6. Computer-aided Translation Technology and Its Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪美侠; 何大顺

    2014-01-01

    This article begins with a brief analysis of the significance of translation technology in different spheres of modern life, followed by a distinction between machine translation (MT) and computer-aided translation (CAT). It then describes some trans-lation resources and tools and examines the negative and positive aspects of computer-aided translations. Finally it comes to a conclusion that it would be greatly efficient and productive for the translators to acquire the new skills in the translation work-place.

  7. On the Systematicity of Human Translation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael; Dragsted, Barbara; Lykke Jakobsen, Arnt

    While translation careers and the translation profession become more globalised and more technological, we are still far from understanding how humans actually translate and how they could be best supported by machines. In this paper we attempt to outline a method which helps to uncover character...

  8. 基于有限状态自动机的远程命令识别与解析%Recognition & Translation of Remote Commands Based on Finite State Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛凤翔; 韩冰

    2013-01-01

    远程命令识别与解析是嵌入式环境中终端-控制台和上-下位机模式实现远程管控的基础和关键.文中分析水下探测智能终端的工作过程,提出了一种基于有限状态自动机的远程命令识别与解析方法,智能终端可以根据工作状态自动机模型对远程命令进行快速、准确地响应,避免了复杂的计算和繁琐的决策过程.实验发现,水下探测智能终端及时识别出控制台发送的管控指令,按要求转入相应的工作状态,该方法有效地提高了水下探测智能终端机的工作性能.%It is a fundamental and key problem of how to correctly recognize and translate remote commands for terminal-console and upper-low computer to conduct remote management and control in embedded systems.By carefully analyzing working procedure of underwater probe terminal in this paper,an effective method based on finite state machine model is put forward,which can quickly and accurately respond the remote instructions,and avoid complicated computation and decision.Applied practices show the underwater probe intelligent terminal can understand kinds of management-control instructions sent from console machine,and properly tune to corresponding working mode,which can greatly improve the performance of underwater probe intelligent terminal.

  9. Research on joint Chinese-Japanese word segmentation for phrase-based statistical machine translation%面向短语统计机器翻译的汉日联合分词研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴培昊; 徐金安; 张玉洁

    2015-01-01

    Unknown words and word segmentation granularity are two main problems for Chinese-Japanese machine translation. Word segmentation is the first important step for Chinese and Japanese natural language processing. As Chi-nese and Japanese word segmentation is processed with different tagging system and semantic performance, the granularity of word segmentation results should be readjusted to improve the performance of Statistical Machine Translation(SMT). This paper proposes an approach to adjust the word segmentation granularity for improving the performance of SMT, which combines Hanzi-Kanji comparison table and Japanese-Chinese dictionary. Experimental results express that the pro-posed method could adjust the granularity between Chinese and Japanese effectively and improve the performance of SMT. This paper analyses the experimental results and discusses the effect of joint Chinese-Japanese word segmentation granularity for phrase-based SMT.%未登录词与分词粒度是汉日日汉机器翻译研究的两个主要问题。与英语等西方语言不同,汉语与日语词语间不存在空格,分词为汉日双语处理的重要工作。由于词性标注体系、文法及语义表现上的差异,分词结果的粒度需要进一步调整,以改善统计机器翻译系统的性能。提出了面向统计机器翻译的基于汉日汉字对照表及日汉词典信息的汉语与日语的分词粒度调整方法。实验结果表明,该方法能有效地调节源语言和目标语言端的分词粒度,提高统计机器翻译系统的性能。通过对比实验结果,分析探讨分词粒度对汉日双语统计系统性能的影响。

  10. Former Soviet Union (FSU) Gravity Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded gravity anomaly data for the Former Soviet Union (FSU) and Eastern Europe has been received by the National Geophysical Data Center(NGDC). The data file...

  11. Historical Soviet Daily Snow Depth (HSDSD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The HSDSD product is based on observations from 284 World Meteorological Organization (WMO) stations throughout Russia and the former Soviet Union. The area covered...

  12. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-22

    Or the adaptation by Albert Camus ’ of Dostoyevskiy’s novel, "The Possessed," in the Theater imeni A.S. Pushkin? Or the fact the Soviet Army... Albert Vlasov, chairman of the Board of the Novosti Press Agency (APN), at the Moscow forum of six Euro- pean periodicals, which MN has already...Soviet people. He referred to humanists like Albert Schweitzer and Linus Pauling. Here arc his initial ideas: the first—"the disunity of humanity

  13. Soviet Military Thinking and Nuclear Weapons Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    these sources, see Kent D. Lee, Susan L. Clark, Robbin F. Laird, The Debate about Soviet Military Doctrine and Forces, IDA Paper P-2348, January 1990...result, the future holds considerably more 22 See Kent Lee, Susan L. Clark, and Robbin F. Laird, The Debate About Soviet Military Doctrine and I Forces...presentation at the Kennan Institute, 16 January 1990. 46 3 I issues by issuing nuclear-free zone initiatives (such as in Northern Europe), pledging no

  14. Soviet satellite communications science and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birch, J.N.; Campanella, S.J.; Gordon, G.D.; McElroy, D.R.; Pritchard, W.L.; Stamminger, R.

    1991-08-01

    This is a report by six US scientists and engineers concerning the current state of the art and projections of future Soviet satellite communications technologies. The panel members are experts in satellite stabilization, spacecraft environments, space power generation, launch systems, spacecraft communications sciences and technologies, onboard processing, ground stations, and other technologies that impact communications. The panel assessed the Soviet ability to support high-data-rate space missions at 128 Mbps by evaluating current and projected Soviet satellite communications technologies. A variety of space missions were considered, including Earth-to-Earth communications via satellites in geostationary or highly elliptical orbits, those missions that require space-to-Earth communications via a direct path and those missions that require space-to-Earth communications via a relay satellite. Soviet satellite communications capability, in most cases, is 10 years behind that of the United States and other industrialized nations. However, based upon an analysis of communications links needed to support these missions using current Soviet capabilities, it is well within the current Soviet technology to support certain space missions outlined above at rates of 128 Mbps or higher, although published literature clearly shows that the Soviet Union has not exceeded 60 Mbps in its current space system. These analyses are necessary but not sufficient to determine mission data rates, and other technologies such as onboard processing and storage could limit the mission data rate well below that which could actually be supported via the communications links. Presently, the Soviet Union appears to be content with data rates in the low-Earth-orbit relay via geostationary mode of 12 Mbps. This limit is a direct result of power amplifier limits, spacecraft antenna size, and the utilization of K{sub u}-band frequencies. 91 refs., 16 figs., 15 tabs.

  15. Soviet Economic Stringencies: External Reactions and Repercussions,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    Western measures to ease these stringencies either as a direct emollient , or as a quid pro quo (i.e. the "linkage" variant). In general, I expect reactions...attitudes. Still others, like the author of this paper, believe that . economic stringencies will have no predictable effect on Soviet . attitudes, but...adopt a . similar position. They regard with favor the constricting effect that such stringencies will have on the ability of Soviet leadership to

  16. Calling the Sino-Soviet Split

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    also had then looted Manchuria and heightened the USSR�s covert influence in China�s northwestern province of Sinkiang .44 Chinese anger on these scores...p., 155. Beijing later pub licly accused the Soviet Union of fomenting large-scale subversion and sabotage in Sinkiang , and warned the Soviets not to...to May 1969, along the Manchuria-Siberia and Sinkiang -Kazakhstan borders. 62. Whiting, to author, 19 October 1996. 63. Hilsmari, To Move a Nation: The

  17. On Ideology, Language, and Identity: Language Politics in the Soviet and Post-Soviet Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balockaite, Rasa

    2014-01-01

    The paper illuminates links between state politics and language politics in Lithuania during different historical periods: (a) the thaw period, (b) the stagnation period, (c) the liberalization periods of Soviet socialism, and (d) the two post-Soviet decades characterized by both nationalism and liberalization. Based on analysis of the texts by…

  18. Revisiting Soviet oil subsidies to East Europe: System maintenance in the Soviet hegemony, 1970--1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Mark Andrew

    Throughout the 1970s and 1980s the Soviet Union sold oil shipments to the member-states of the Council of Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA) at a fraction of the world market price (wmp). Contrary to arguments made by previous scholars that it paid a subsidy, namely the difference between the wmp and the CMEA price, either as a reward for material contributions to Soviet foreign policy objectives or as a consequence of membership in a customs union, the Soviet Union provided subsidized oil shipments as a form of economic assistance in maintaining its hegemony. Using non-parametric statistical analysis of previous scholars' data and comparative case studies based on interviews of Soviet decision-makers and on archival research, this study shows that the Soviet Union acted as a hegemon, which created a protectionist trade regime, used oil policy as means of hegemonic maintenance. The CMEA, the embodiment of values espoused in the Soviet trade regime identified as "embedded supranationalism", stood as the institutional antithesis of a customs unions, which embodied the values of the Western liberal trade regime. Soviet leaders did not use oil subsidies or trade relations in general as means of calibrating CMEA member-states' domestic or foreign policy behavior. Soviet leaders used subsidized oil as a means of supporting East European national economic development with the ultimate goal of creating politically legitimate governments thereby ensuring political stability in its cordon sanitaire with the West.

  19. Translational Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    A long-established approach to legal translation focuses on terminological equivalence making translators strictly follow the words of source texts. Recent research suggests that there is room for some creativity allowing translators to deviate from the source texts. However, little attention...... is given to genre conventions in source texts and the ways in which they can best be translated. I propose that translators of statutes with an informative function in expert-to-expert communication may be allowed limited translational creativity when translating specific types of genre convention....... This creativity is a result of translators adopting either a source-language or a target-language oriented strategy and is limited by the pragmatic principle of co-operation. Examples of translation options are provided illustrating the different results in target texts. The use of a target-language oriented...

  20. English Translation of Chinese Personal Names

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐洁

    2008-01-01

    This paper talks about the translation of personal names from Chinese into English, which is complicated by different factors, including orthographic, phonetic, geographic and social ones. To translate personal names appropriately, a wide range of knowledge is required. Although translation machine is more often used nowadays, it cannot take place of person in the end. Several types of name translation will be talked about in this paper.

  1. The Temple Translator’s Workstation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    allows both translator/analysts and monolingual analysts to use the machine- translation function for assessing the relevance of a translated...using a multilingual editor (Figure2). Source documents and their translations are managed using the Tipster Document Manager developed at CRL...an English morphological generator [Penman 88]. • A multilingual document editor (the Tipster Editor for Documents developed at CRL under the

  2. Jokes as the Truth about Soviet Socialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christie Davies

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The political jokes told in Estonia and other parts of the SovietEmpire were very important to those who told them. They were tiny areas of freedom, a brief escape from socialist hegemony. Those scholars such as Alexander Shtromas who took the jokes seriously were alone in predicting the rapid collapse and demise of the Soviet Union. Shtromas’ thesis was rooted in a hardheaded analysis of power and politics but he knew that the jokes were a good indication of the failure of socialism and of the alienation from the entire systemof both the broad masses and the intellectuals. Most Western Sovietologists’, some of them malign sympathisers with the socialist ethos, were foolish enough to think that the Soviet socialist order was a legitimate and enduring type of society. A knowledge of the jokes of socialism was a better guide to Soviet reality than the official Soviet versions and data or the theories of those Western scholars, particularly the revisionists, who tried to be ‘fair’ to the Soviet Union; fairness to evil is the father of lies. Jokes are not serious statements but when viewed within a comparative framework they can reveal a great deal about what a particular society is like. Jokes have no consequences whatsoever but they are a good indicator of where the tensions in a society lie. The political jokes of the Soviet Union and its empire revealed that social order to be riddledwith contradictions and ripe for collapse as soon as those controlling the means of force began to falter. Force alone had kept the system in being.

  3. Semantic Vector Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Vincent, Etter

    2011-01-01

    We first present our work in machine translation, during which we used aligned sentences to train a neural network to embed n-grams of different languages into an $d$-dimensional space, such that n-grams that are the translation of each other are close with respect to some metric. Good n-grams to n-grams translation results were achieved, but full sentences translation is still problematic. We realized that learning semantics of sentences and documents was the key for solving a lot of natural language processing problems, and thus moved to the second part of our work: sentence compression. We introduce a flexible neural network architecture for learning embeddings of words and sentences that extract their semantics, propose an efficient implementation in the Torch framework and present embedding results comparable to the ones obtained with classical neural language models, while being more powerful.

  4. Machine Learning and Radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shijun; Summers, Ronald M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we give a short introduction to machine learning and survey its applications in radiology. We focused on six categories of applications in radiology: medical image segmentation, registration, computer aided detection and diagnosis, brain function or activity analysis and neurological disease diagnosis from fMR images, content-based image retrieval systems for CT or MRI images, and text analysis of radiology reports using natural language processing (NLP) and natural language understanding (NLU). This survey shows that machine learning plays a key role in many radiology applications. Machine learning identifies complex patterns automatically and helps radiologists make intelligent decisions on radiology data such as conventional radiographs, CT, MRI, and PET images and radiology reports. In many applications, the performance of machine learning-based automatic detection and diagnosis systems has shown to be comparable to that of a well-trained and experienced radiologist. Technology development in machine learning and radiology will benefit from each other in the long run. Key contributions and common characteristics of machine learning techniques in radiology are discussed. We also discuss the problem of translating machine learning applications to the radiology clinical setting, including advantages and potential barriers. PMID:22465077

  5. Translation Nation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The International Federation of Translators will hold its largest ever world congress in China on the eve of 2008 Olympic Games china’ s position as a powerhouse of the translation industry is to be cemented,

  6. Translating Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Chevrel

    2007-07-01

    Europe thinks in many languages and Europe is a land of translation. Translation is a means of transmitting culture, a means of making it available to others and an invitation to share. It is a cement which binds Europe together.

  7. teaching translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Bolaños Cuéllar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The advance in cultural-oriented perspectives in Translation Studies has sometimes played down the text linguistic nature of translation. A pilot study in teaching translation was carried out to make students aware of the text linguistic character of translating and help them to improve their translation skills, particularly with an emphasis on self-awareness and self-correcting strategies. The theoretical background is provided by the Dynamic Translation Model (2004, 2005 proposed by the author, with relevant and important contributions taken from Genette’s (1982 transtextuality phenomena (hypertext, hypotext, metatext, paratext, intertext and House and Kasper’s (1981 pragmatic modality markers (downgraders, upgraders. The key conceptual role of equivalence as a defining feature of translation is also dealt with. The textual relationship between Source Language Text (slt is deemed to be pivotal for performing translation and correction tasks in the classroom. Finally, results of the pilot study are discussed and some conclusions are drawn.

  8. Literal Translation and Free Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭佼

    2011-01-01

    @@ Dispute over the method of literal translation and that of free translation had a long history in China, in East Jin Dynasty Daoan(道安314-385),a well-known monk, was the representative of those who firmly advocated literal translation.Since he feared that free translation might not be true to the original, he advocated strict literal translation so as to preserve the true features.Works under his direction were typical of word-for-word translation, in which no alteration was made except accidental changes in word order.

  9. Former Soviet Union Hydrological Snow Surveys, 1966-1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Former Soviet Union Hydrological Snow Surveys are based on observations made by personnel at 1,345 sites throughout the Former Soviet Union between 1966 and...

  10. Soviet space flight: the human element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garshnek, V

    1989-07-01

    Building on past experience and knowledge, the Soviet manned space flight effort has become broad, comprehensive, and forward-looking. Their long-running space station program has provided the capabilities to investigate long-term effects of microgravity on human physiology and behavior, and test various countermeasures against microgravity-induced physiological deconditioning. Since the beginning of Soviet manned space flight, the biomedical training and preparation of cosmonauts has evolved from a process that increased human tolerance to space flight factors, to a system of interrelated measures to prepare cosmonauts physically and psychologically to live and work in space. Currently, the Soviet Union is constructing a multimodular space station, the Mir. With the emergence of dedicated laboratory modules, the Soviets have begun the transition from small-scale experimental research to large-scale production activities and specialized scientific work in space. In the future, additional laboratory modules will be added, including one dedicated to biomedical research, called the "Medilab." The longest manned space flight to date (326 d) has been completed by the Soviets. The biomedical effects of previous long-duration flights, and perhaps those of still greater length, may contribute important insight into the possibility of extended missions beyond Earth, such as a voyage to Mars.

  11. Manually Classified Errors in Czech-Slovak Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Galuščáková, Petra; Bojar, Ondřej

    2012-01-01

    Outputs of five Czech-Slovak machine translation systems (Česílko, Česílko 2, Google Translate and Moses with different settings) for first 50 sentences of WMT 2010 testing set. The translations were manually processed and the errors were marked and classified according to the scheme by Vilar et al. (David Vilar, Jia Xu, Luis Fernando D’Haro, Hermann Ney: Error Analysis of Statistical Machine Translation Output, Proceedings of LREC-2006, 2006)

  12. Handling Translation Divergences in Generation-Heavy Hybrid Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-01

    currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE MAR 2002 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-03-2002 to 00-03-2002 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE...n$<a>@?N+A< g?CE(CBIg HT?CN+`

  13. Understanding and Writing G & M Code for CNC Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveland, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In modern CAD and CAM manufacturing companies, engineers design parts for machines and consumable goods. Many of these parts are cut on CNC machines. Whether using a CNC lathe, milling machine, or router, the ideas and designs of engineers must be translated into a machine-readable form called G & M Code that can be used to cut parts to precise…

  14. Understanding and Writing G & M Code for CNC Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveland, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In modern CAD and CAM manufacturing companies, engineers design parts for machines and consumable goods. Many of these parts are cut on CNC machines. Whether using a CNC lathe, milling machine, or router, the ideas and designs of engineers must be translated into a machine-readable form called G & M Code that can be used to cut parts to precise…

  15. Soviet Acquisition of Militarily Significant Western Technology: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    report defines the scope of the without allowing the technological gap to widen. The Soviet effort. It outlines how the Soviets go about main reasons for...they acquired, more than the Soviets to narrow the microelectronics technological gap with 2,500 pieces of major Western controlled and uncontrolled

  16. South African sign language assistive translation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olivrin, GJ

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe a novel approach and practical solution to an interactive sign language machine translation system from English to South African Sign Language. They interface the system with the GNApp application, which is an augmentative...

  17. Advancing further the history of Soviet psychology: moving forward from dominant representations in Western and Soviet psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Rey, Fernando L

    2014-02-01

    This article discusses the works of some Soviet scholars of psychology, their theoretical positions, and the times within which their works were developed. Dominant representations of Soviet psychology and some of the main Soviet authors are revisited in the light of a blending of facts actively associated with their emergence in both Soviet and Western psychology. From the beginning, Soviet psychology was founded upon Marxism. However, the ways by which that psychology pretended to become Marxist in its philosophical basis were diverse and often contradictory. Other philosophical and theoretical positions also influenced Soviet psychologists. Different moments of that contradictory process are discussed in this article, and through this, I bring to light their interrelations and the consequences for the development of Soviet psychology. This article reinterprets several myths found within Soviet psychology, in which different theoretical representations have become institutionalized for long periods in both Soviet and Western psychology. Particular attention is given to identifying the conditions that presented Vygotsky, Luria, and Leontiev as part of the same paradigm, and which paved the way for a perception of Leontiev and his group as paralleling Vygotsky's importance among American psychologists. Many of the sources that are used in this article were published in Soviet psychology only after the 1970s. Unlike the different and interesting works that began to appear on diverse trends in Soviet psychology, this article details in depth the articulation of topics and questions that still now are presented as different chapters in the analysis of Soviet psychology.

  18. Soviet Air Power, 1917-1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-08-01

    Except for 80 British Sunbeam engines and 250 British aircraft, the imports all 18 came from France. General Golovin points out that in September 1916...Petrograd Soviet of Worker’s and Soldier’s Deputies 19 N. N. Golovin , The Russian Army in World War I, Archan Books, 1969, pp. 150-151. Lest the...aircraft industry during 9The Soviet Aircraft Industry, pp. 13-14. 51 the First and Second Five-Year Plans. By 1940 the industry was turn- ing out

  19. Grammatical Metaphor, Controlled Languageand Machine Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Margrethe

    2003-01-01

    , syntactic and pragmatic restrictions on the writing style of the author. We will focus on syntactic restrictions and investigate whether a writing style in which various forms of grammatical metaphors have been dissolved in order to make the text more accessible to human readers, will in fact make the texts...... more suitable for MT. The basis of our investigation is a small corpus of English LSP texts that have been evaluated regarding their accessibility and acceptability by human users. The MT-system we will introduce as an additional "user" of the texts is the English-Danish prototype of the Comprendium MT-system....

  20. Using Linguistic Knowledge in Statistical Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    48 2.4 Conjugation of verb ktb ’to write ’. The common verb stem for each of the two...is shared throughout the Arabic speaking region, with little local variation. It is almost always used for writing , to the exclusion of the spoken...connected to the adjacent letters. Arabic has three vowel (a, u, i). Both vowel and consonant duration are phonemic. Short vowels and consonant doubling are

  1. UNITRAN: An Interlingual Machine Translation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    modification in the interlingual approach as embodied by CETA and Sharp. ’Grenoble Universitv, France , 1961. 4 4 English Spanish French Japanese Parameter...comer: Yo como el pan. gustar: El libro me gusta a mi. eat: I eat the bread. like: I like the book. Figure 9: There is no thematic divergence between

  2. A Survey of Statistical Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    are multilingual governments and news agencies and companies operating in the global marketplace. The internet enables them to easily publish...SMT research. Because they are the product of day-to-day 1 human activities, they are constantly growing. Multilingual governments interested in...for one language. 5 The monolingual syntax will look much like our example fragment CFG (Rules C1-C8). In order to use this monolingual syntax in an

  3. Machine translation its scope and limits

    CERN Document Server

    Wilks, Yorick

    2008-01-01

    Author won Antonio Zampolli prize for outstanding contributions to the language technology Comprehensive look at MT technology from the perspective of a participant in its history and developmentDetails the deep differences and struggles between rival groups on how best to do MTConsiders MT as a fundamental part of Artificial Intelligence and the ultimate test-bed for all computational linguistics 

  4. Dependency Structures for Statistical Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Nguyen

    2012-01-01

    Dependency structures represent a sentence as a set of dependency relations. Normally the dependency structures from a tree connect all the words in a sentence. One of the most defining characters of dependency structures is the ability to bring long distance dependency between words to local dependency structures. Another the main attraction of…

  5. Toward Determining the Comprehensibility of Machine Translations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    responses to a stimulus (Macmillan and Creelman , 1991). It has been applied in areas such as lie detection (truth/lie), inspection (ac- ceptable...1-1/(2N) (Macmil- lan and Creelman , 1991). Negative values, which usually indicate response confusion, were eliminated. The results of...Macmillan, Neil and C. Douglas Creelman . (1991). Detection theory: A User’s guide. Cambridge Univer- sity Press, pp. 10 &125. Marchant

  6. Machine on Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    front of the Judge, how did we come to justify the ethical use of such a machine? The Judge called for a recess so that he could further educate ...commerce, where money would change hands, or for the purposes of controlling critical systems.”29 The initial group that set up the ARPANET did not... EBook of Fundamental Principals of the Metaphysic of Morals, May, 2004 [ EBook #5682 translated by Thomas Kingsmill Abbott, 12. http://manybooks.net

  7. The Soviet doctor and the treatment of drug addiction: "A difficult and most ungracious task"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latypov Alisher B

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper reviews the development of early Soviet drug treatment approaches by focusing on the struggle for disciplinary power between leading social and mental hygienists and clinical psychiatrists as a defining moment for Soviet drug treatment speciality that became known as "narcology." From this vantage point, I engage in the examination of the rise and fall of various treatment methods and conceptualizations of addiction in Russian metropolitan centres and look at how they were imported (or not to other Soviet republics. As clinical psychiatrists appeared as undisputed victors from the battle with social and mental hygienists, the entire narcological arsenal was subdued in order to serve the needs of mainstream psychiatry. However, what that 'mainstream' would be, was not entirely clear. When, in 1934, Aleksandr Rapoport insisted on the need for re-working narcological knowledge in line with the Marxist approach, he could only raise questions and recognise that there were almost no "dialectically illuminated scientific data" to address these questions. The maintenance treatment of opiate users, which emerged as the most effective one based on the results of a six-year study published in 1936, was definitely not attuned to the political and ideological environment of the late 1930s. Maintenance was rather considered as a temporary solution, in the absence of radical therapeutic measures to free Soviet society from "narkomania." As the Great Terror swept across the Soviet Union, Stalin's regime achieved its objective of eliminating drug addiction from the surface of public life by driving opiate users deep underground and incarcerating many of them in prisons and the Gulag camps. In the final section, I briefly discuss the changing perceptions of drug use during the World War II and outline subsequent transformations in Soviet responses to the post-war opiate addiction [Additional file 1]. Additional file 1 Abstract. The Soviet

  8. Rare and endangered species of plants--the soviet side.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, T S

    1983-01-07

    In late 1972, the Soviet Union embarked on a program to identify and document plant species that are threatened with extinction. Perhaps 2000 species in the Soviet Union are in need of monitoring or protective measures, while nearly 200 may be in immediate danger of extinction. Currently, the Soviet Union has an official, national list of endangered species, and each of the 15 republics has prepared a regional list. Once a revised national list is prepared, Soviet scientists hope that the Supreme Soviet will pass a law protecting those species. A corresponding law for endangered animals was passed in 1980.

  9. Sustainable machining

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an overview on current sustainable machining. Its chapters cover the concept in economic, social and environmental dimensions. It provides the reader with proper ways to handle several pollutants produced during the machining process. The book is useful on both undergraduate and postgraduate levels and it is of interest to all those working with manufacturing and machining technology.

  10. Revising Translations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kirsten Wølch; Schjoldager, Anne

    2011-01-01

    out by specialised revisers, but by staff translators, who revise the work of colleagues and freelancers on an ad hoc basis. Corrections are mostly given in a peer-to-peer fashion, though the work of freelancers and inexperienced in-house translators is often revised in an authoritative (nonnegotiable......) way. Most respondents and interviewees are worried about increasing pressures on the translation market, which, combined with customers’ general lack of understanding of the translation process, mean that systematic, all-encompassing quality assurance is rarely financially viable....

  11. A Review of Soviet Studies in the Psychology of Learning and Teaching Mathematics (6 Volumes). Proceedings of the National Academy of Education, Vol. 4, 1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bruggen, Johan C.; Freudenthal, Hans

    The English translations of the first six volumes of Studies on the Teaching and Learning of Mathematics in the Soviet Union are viewed in this document. The contents of each volume are briefly described: vol. 1, The Learning of Mathematical Concepts; vol. 2, The Structure of Mathematical Abilities; vol. 3, Problem Solving in Arithmetic and…

  12. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    scientific and methodologi- cal production of different associates is quite different. The leaders in science and pedagogy hold new forms of...Soviet government and the people of Azerbaijan. At the congress the following dialog took place between M. J. Baghyrov and S. M. Afandiyev. M. J

  13. Suggestopedia and Soviet Sleep-Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, W. Jane

    This paper examines the parallels between suggestopedia and Soviet sleep-learning for learning foreign languages. Both systems are based on the idea that the acquisition of information can occur in states below the optimal level of consciousness. Hypnopedia makes use of the period of paradoxical or light sleep that usually occurs just as one is…

  14. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    made use of precisely this fairy tale by forming aggressive military blocs all over the world: NATO, SEATO, CENTO, ANZUS and others. The Pentagon...by tales about "the Soviet threat." The fact that the FRG and Japan are playing one of the main roles in these plans is also significant. And both

  15. Transforming Clients into Surrogates: The Soviet Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-01

    principle in remarks at a luncheon meeting of the Washington, D.C., -. Chapter of the American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies , November 30...American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies , November 30, 1983. ., . -31- the Soviets been willing to become major suppliers of

  16. Soviet Railroad Troops: An Updated Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Lecture presented at the United States Army Russian Institute, 6 December 1979. 39S. Troyan , "Baikal-Amur Railroad, A Road of Courage", Soviet Military...34. (Bridges On The BAM) Tyl i Snabzheniye, No. 9, 1979, pp.27-28. "Transport zimoy". (Transport In Winter) Pravda, 24 January 1978, p.1 . Troyan , S

  17. Soviet Strategic Airlift and Power Projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-06

    tending interests of Ethiopia, Somalia, the Soviet Union, and the United States. In September 1974, Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie I was de- posed in a...MIengistu Haile Mariam, believed firmly that MVarxism-Leninism was the only way to transform the feudal Ethiopian state into a truly revolutionary society

  18. Glasnost and Secrecy in the Soviet Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-21

    protection of secrets in the mass media." In short, he would issue the kind of paralegal acts which until now have contributed greatl) to maintenance...visit to the Shikhany chemical weapons factory. The Soviets must have assumed that the West knew about the facility (just as the location of a biological

  19. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-12

    direction of the European theatre , which means that SB will be maintained. This is a difficult theoretical problem which can only be resolved by...aura of romanticism surrounding service in the fleet. How is today’s generation of Soviet seamen coping with the ocean vigil? [Makarov] I for one

  20. Soviet Tactical Doctrine for Urban Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-12-01

    in the Transcarpa- thian Military District, an article in a Soviet military journal states: A model of a populated point of a city type with a center...guns designated for firing by direct lay and also firn of motorized rifle pndraelLaniy*E lay passages in enemy obstacles. (s p. 43) Thi attached

  1. Landmarks in the Literature: Super Soviet Pedagogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, Patrick L.

    1979-01-01

    Anton Makarenko became a national hero for effecting education for communism in the 1920s. His book, "The Road to Life," is an artistic achievement and the most widely read and influential work on education in the Soviet Union. But Makarenko's legacy is more myth than model in present-day Russia. (Author/SJL)

  2. Current Priorities of Soviet School Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soviet Education, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Six articles discuss top priorities of Soviet education policy. Topics discussed include labor training, revision of the curriculum for the 10-year general education program, quantitative v qualitative demands on the educational system, and extended-day programs for the children of working mothers. (DB)

  3. Soviet precision timekeeping research and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vessot, R.F.C.; Allan, D.W.; Crampton, S.J.B.; Cutler, L.S.; Kern, R.H.; McCoubrey, A.O.; White, J.D.

    1991-08-01

    This report is the result of a study of Soviet progress in precision timekeeping research and timekeeping capability during the last two decades. The study was conducted by a panel of seven US scientists who have expertise in timekeeping, frequency control, time dissemination, and the direct applications of these disciplines to scientific investigation. The following topics are addressed in this report: generation of time by atomic clocks at the present level of their technology, new and emerging technologies related to atomic clocks, time and frequency transfer technology, statistical processes involving metrological applications of time and frequency, applications of precise time and frequency to scientific investigations, supporting timekeeping technology, and a comparison of Soviet research efforts with those of the United States and the West. The number of Soviet professionals working in this field is roughly 10 times that in the United States. The Soviet Union has facilities for large-scale production of frequency standards and has concentrated its efforts on developing and producing rubidium gas cell devices (relatively compact, low-cost frequency standards of modest accuracy and stability) and atomic hydrogen masers (relatively large, high-cost standards of modest accuracy and high stability). 203 refs., 45 figs., 9 tabs.

  4. Suggestopedia and Soviet Sleep-Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, W. Jane

    This paper examines the parallels between suggestopedia and Soviet sleep-learning for learning foreign languages. Both systems are based on the idea that the acquisition of information can occur in states below the optimal level of consciousness. Hypnopedia makes use of the period of paradoxical or light sleep that usually occurs just as one is…

  5. First Soviet Sea-Launched Ballistic Rockets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri F. Katorin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article it is told about the creation of the first generation of Soviet ballistic missiles for the armament of submarines. The basic stages of their development, tests and adoption for the armament are described. Are cited the data about the people, is most which actively participated in these processes.

  6. Inside the World of the Soviet Professional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Carl R.

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a fall 1986 journey of Carl Rogers to the U.S.S.R. during which Rogers conducted lectures and workshops on humanistic psychology. Elaborates on workshop sessions with Russian psychologists and therapists. Concludes with general observations about what the workshops may have accomplished and on the Soviet lifestyle in general. (BR)

  7. Revising Translations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kirsten Wølch; Schjoldager, Anne

    2011-01-01

    out by specialised revisers, but by staff translators, who revise the work of colleagues and freelancers on an ad hoc basis. Corrections are mostly given in a peer-to-peer fashion, though the work of freelancers and inexperienced in-house translators is often revised in an authoritative (nonnegotiable...

  8. Reading for the Masses: Popular Soviet Fiction, 1976-80. Research Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedberg, Maurice

    Noting that Soviet prose, drama, and poetry reveal the nuances of the moods and policies fostered by the Soviet government while reflecting the Soviet reading public's interests and aspirations, this report describes a study of the values and attitudes by which the Soviets live as reflected in the literature published in Soviet literary magazines…

  9. Binary translation using peephole translation rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sorav; Aiken, Alex

    2010-05-04

    An efficient binary translator uses peephole translation rules to directly translate executable code from one instruction set to another. In a preferred embodiment, the translation rules are generated using superoptimization techniques that enable the translator to automatically learn translation rules for translating code from the source to target instruction set architecture.

  10. Simple machines

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Just how simple are simple machines? With our ready-to-use resource, they are simple to teach and easy to learn! Chocked full of information and activities, we begin with a look at force, motion and work, and examples of simple machines in daily life are given. With this background, we move on to different kinds of simple machines including: Levers, Inclined Planes, Wedges, Screws, Pulleys, and Wheels and Axles. An exploration of some compound machines follows, such as the can opener. Our resource is a real time-saver as all the reading passages, student activities are provided. Presented in s

  11. Understanding the Soviet Threat: The Necessity of Analyzing Soviet Military Thought and Actions from a Soviet Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    American Democratic tradition: the eighteenth-century Age of Enlightenment . While a historical review of this period may at first seem irrelevant to the...Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Louis, Baron de Montesquieu (both from eighteenth-century France). The resulting "natural rights philosophy" and...in the thought and decision-making processes and to evaluate his actions from that perspective. To project American values into Soviet military

  12. Soviet Robots in the Solar System Mission Technologies and Discoveries

    CERN Document Server

    Huntress, JR , Wesley T

    2011-01-01

    The Soviet robotic space exploration program began in a spirit of bold adventure and technical genius. It ended after the fall of the Soviet Union and the failure of its last mission to Mars in 1996. Soviet Robots in the Solar System chronicles the scientific and engineering accomplishments of this enterprise from its infancy to its demise. Each flight campaign is set into context of national politics and international competition with the United States. Together with its many detailed illustrations and images, Soviet Robots in the Solar System presents the most detailed technical description of Soviet robotic space flights provides a unique insight into programmatic, engineering, and scientific issues covers mission objectives, spacecraft engineering, flight details, scientific payload and results describes in technical depth Soviet lunar and planetary probes

  13. The Soviet economic decline : historical and republican data

    OpenAIRE

    Easterly, William; Fischer, Stanley; DEC

    1994-01-01

    Soviet growth for 1960-89 was the worst in the world, after controlling for investment and human capital. And relative performance worsens over time. The authors explain the declining Soviet growth rate from 1950 to 1987 by the declining marginal product of capital. The rate of total factor productivity growth is roughly constant over that period. Although the Soviet slowdown has conventionally been attributed to extensive growth (rising capital-to-output ratios), extensive growth is also a f...

  14. The Soviet Economic Decline: Historical and Republican Data

    OpenAIRE

    William Easterly; Stanley Fischer

    1994-01-01

    Soviet growth over 1960-89 was the worst in the world after we control for investment and human capital; the relative performance worsens over time. The declining Soviet growth rate over 1950-87 is explained by the declining marginal product of capital; the rate of TFP growth is roughly constant over that period. While the Soviet slowdown has conventionally been attributed to extensive growth (rising capital to output ratios), extensive growth is also a feature of market-oriented economies li...

  15. Electric machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi [Niskayuna, NY; Reddy, Patel Bhageerath [Madison, WI

    2012-07-17

    An interior permanent magnet electric machine is disclosed. The interior permanent magnet electric machine comprises a rotor comprising a plurality of radially placed magnets each having a proximal end and a distal end, wherein each magnet comprises a plurality of magnetic segments and at least one magnetic segment towards the distal end comprises a high resistivity magnetic material.

  16. JPRS Report:. Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-26

    of an emotional nature frequently impact the understanding of some process or other. Negative phenomena in the life of society are over dramatized...cent of the territory of Tadzhikistan is mountains, but hikers and mountain climbers are few and far between. Mountain tourism is poorly developed...economic, and sociocultural construction, pass laws and other decisions of the Soviets, and monitor the work of state organs, enterprises

  17. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-27

    we had encountered a kind of mythological octopus with its single center, which for a long time had carefully prepared to overthrow the Soviet...34habitual criminals [vory v zakone]." We perceived as juridically incorrect his assertion that "the informals are camouflaged criminals." New...life, there is another statistic we’d like to know: are there now fewer ’habitual criminals’ at large, or ’ camouflaged ’ informals (who in fact are not

  18. Inside the Soviet Army in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    tality against the civilian population in contravention to inter- nationally accepted norms of warfare conduct are common. " Freelance " looting and...publications in Lithuania and Ukraine. Four Estonian draft- age youth who defected to Sweden cited their desire to avoid service in Afghanistan as the...punished severely, if pursued in an unau- thorized, " freelance " manner. We were given countless examples of every aspect of Soviet misconduct. Most of the

  19. JPRS Report. Soviet Union: Political Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    didactic command style has started to dominate with respect to the Komsomol, and together with orga- nizational independence the organization has lost its...and the liquidation of literacy were conducive to the creation of the Kurdish newspaper RYYA TAZA (NOVYY PUT) in the repub- lic. Its first issue came...of Soviet power. But the main thing, perhaps, besides complete literacy , one should consider the fact that the Kurds have fully gone over to a

  20. The Process of Soviet Weapons Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-03-01

    system on the BMP from an early 1940s German design. But the validity and usefulness of a theory, especially one that makes predictions about the future...when the 1940 publication of a highly significant Soviet discovery of spontaneous fission resulted in a complete lack of an American response, the...taken from I. N. Golovin , I. V. Khurchatov, Atomizdat, Moscow, 1973, and from Herbert York, The Advisors. Oppenheimer, Teller, and the Superbomb, W. H

  1. Soviet Policy in Cuba and Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-06

    document dated June 30, 1973, instructing all Communist Party members in Santiago to secure arms and to evacuate the upper class barrio alto in case of...loans. (Other reports indicated a figure of $100 million.) It was also announced in Santiago that the Soviet Union had granted $108 million for long-term...Chile at Rojo, Santiago : Universidad Tecnica del Estado, 1971. See also Luis Corvalan, El Camino de Victoria, Santiago : Impresova Horizonte, 1971, pp

  2. US - Former Soviet Union environmental management activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Office of Environmental Management (EM) has been delegated the responsibility for US DOE`s cleanup of nuclear weapons complex. The nature and the magnitude of the waste management and environmental remediation problem requires the identification of technologies and scientific expertise from domestic and foreign sources. This booklet makes comparisons and describes coordinated projects and workshops between the USA and the former Soviet Union.

  3. Underwater Activities in the Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-03-01

    22-23. 731. Submarine for rivers. Yunyy tekhnik, no. 7, 1967, 27. 732. From "Meduza" to " Delfin ." Tygodnik morski, no. 9, 3 March 1974, p. 8, cols...technik, no. 3, 1974, insert between 240-241. 747. Delfin -II. Morze, no. 4, 1974, 24. 748. Zaferman, M. L. , and Ü. N. Kiselev. Instrument methods...Soviet minisub Atlant-1. Veda a zivot, no. 6, 1974, 359. 758. Podwysocki, T. Delfin puts to sea. Horyronty techniki, no

  4. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-14

    intention of quitting the United States for some reason or other, but one could not suppose that it would do so to align itself with Mexico . On the...In 1951 a regional congress in New York revived this organization within the World War II emigre community. Former Bandera followers exerted... Bandera "folklore"—were instilling nationalistic ideology and hostility toward Soviet rule in the minds of adolescents and even children? One can

  5. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    American officer: "Let’s go in there, Comrade Major." Worth’s brows rose . Viktor also realized his inadvert- ence. What could he do? He was accustomed...It can be straightened out only by applying social and governmental solutions. What are the current provisions pertaining to housing for... Nikola - yevich Tukhachevskiy and an entire galaxy of Soviet military leaders who had been tempered in the crucibles of military ordeals of World War

  6. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    competitions among Air Defense missile units under the general heading: "Combat Training: Quality and Efficiency; 180 Seconds of Dueling Decided Who Would be...mission. It is well-known that in the duel with the airborne "enemy" the skill of highly trained professionals effect- ing the launch—i.e...hundreds of them), were done by Soviet designers—a group led by S. Turkov, a childhood friend of Peregudov who volun- teered for the navy along with

  7. JPRS Report: Soviet Union, International Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    III. DIKHLOFOS FOR PANI KOVALSKA appeared from the stores, and already costs R25 at the local market -Dikhlofos [insecticide], perfume , make-up...15 WEST EUROPE Industrial Company ’Elkem’ Moves Into Soviet Market [Oslo AFTENPOSTEN, 16 Sep 91] ................. 16 EAST...secrets behind the functioning of a market find a common language, cannot we do the same? economy and the system of social guarantees and struc- tures

  8. Analysis of the Soviet Crisis Management Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-09-30

    between Congo (Zaire) and Portugual ; Congo charges that Tshombe opposition forces are . operating out of Portuguese Cabinda; Portugal charges that Congo has...regime (for example, South Vietnam, Rhodesia, Portuguese colonies in Africa), or denial of military access (that is, Western and Chinese). * The USSR was...172 601118 French paratroops intervene to aid pro-French regime in Gabon. *• 173 610315- The Soviet Union opposes continued Portuguese colonial

  9. The Soviet Union and German Reunification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-17

    supporters , but it also undermined the viability of the East German regime and destroyed whatever legitimacy it might have had. 2 1 Thus, just as...continued Soviet military presence in Germany and the creation of a viable Communist East German state. Accordingly, Zhdanov and his supporters were against...socialist state, to recommend to the Socialist Unity Party of Germany to abandon the slogan of the struggle to build socialism . The Central Committee

  10. The Postwar Soviet-American Relations. Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Sandache

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The postwar Soviet-American relations, circumscribed to the so-called period of the Cold War, represent one of the most interesting and complex chapters of the contemporary universal history. This study aims at capturing some significant snapshots that marked the two world superpowers manner of reporting to the military and diplomatic challenges of the 1945-1960 interval, characterized by an unusual density of political events.

  11. Literal Translation using Google Translate in Translating the Text from French to English in Digital Tourism Brochure Bienvenue Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rila Hilma

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Translation is basically change of form. The form from which the translation is made will be called the source language and the form into which it is to be changed will be called the receptor language. Translation consists of transferring the meaning of the source language into the receptor language. Translating is not an easy job to do because many things to be considered to do this activity because translation means determining the meaning of a text, then reconstructing this same meaning using the appropriate structure and form in the receptor language. Translation is basically divided by two types of translation, one is literal and the other is idiomatic. Literal translation is really strict to the structure and form then often can not well express the true meaning of source language. Idiomatic translation makes every effort to communicate the meaning of the source language text in the natural forms of the receptor language. Then the most popular translation machine, Google Translate, in this study shows the results of translation which remain odd, unnatural, and nonsensical because the unsuccessful of message delivery, which is notably the typically error of literal translation.

  12. Interactive Translation Prediction versus Conventional Post-editing in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchis-Trilles, German; Alabau, Vicent; Buck, Christian;

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a field trial in computer-assisted professional translation to compare Interactive Translation Prediction (ITP) against conventional post- editing (PE) of machine translation (MT) output. In contrast to the conventional PE set-up, where an MT system first produces a static translatio...

  13. Ukrainization: between big time politics and current objectives of soviet construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Yu. Vasilev

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to Soviet politics of Ukrainization, analyses theoretical aspects and practice of its implementation in Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and Ukraine.

  14. Sketch of a Noisy Channel Model for the Translation Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael

    The paper develops a Noisy Channel Model for the translation process that is based on actual user activity data. It builds on the monitor model and makes a distinction between early, automatic and late, conscious translation processes: while early priming processes are at the basis of a "literal ...... of the Center for Research and Innovation in Translation and Translation Technology (CRITT) at IBC....... of International Business Communication. His current research interests are related to the investigation of human translation processes and how advanced computer tools (such as machine translation) can fruitfully complement and support the human (translation) activities. Furthermore, he is the director...

  15. The Soviet Union: population trends and dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feshbach, M

    1982-08-01

    Focus in this discussion of population trends and dilemmas in the Soviet Union is on demographic problems, data limitations, early population growth, geography and resources, the 15 republics of the Soviet Union and nationalities, agriculture and the economy, population growth over the 1950-1980 period (national trend, regional differences); age and sex composition of the population, fertility trends, nationality differentials in fertility, the reasons for fertility differentials (child care, divorce, abortion and contraception, illegitimacy), labor shortages and military personnel, mortality (mortality trends, life expectancy), reasons for mortality increases, urbanization and emigration, and future population prospects and projections. For mid-1982 the population of the Soviet Union was estimated at 270 million. The country's current rate of natural increase (births minus deaths) is about 0.8% a year, higher than current rates of natural increase in the U.S. (0.7%) and in developed countries as a whole (0.6%). Net immigration plays no part in Soviet population growth, but emigration was noticeable in some years during the 1970s, while remaining insignificant relative to total population size. National population growth has dropped by more than half in the last 2 decades, from 1.8% a year in the 1950s to 0.8% in 1980-1981, due mostly to declining fertility. The national fertility decline masks sharp differences among the 15 republics and even more so among the some 125 nationalities. In 1980, the Russian Republic had an estimated fertility rate of 1.9 births/woman, and the rate was just 2.0 in the other 2 Slavic republics, the Ukraine and Belorussia. In the Central Asian republics the rates ranged up to 5.8. Although the Russians will no doubt continue to be the dominant nationality, low fertility and a relatively higher death rate will reduce their share of the total population by less than half by the end of the century. Soviet leaders have launched a

  16. A "Living" Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N.R.Bogatyrev

    2004-01-01

    Biomimetics (or bionics) is the engineering discipline that constructs artificial systems using biological principles. The ideal final result in biomimetics is to create a living machine. But what are the desirable and non-desirable properties of biomimetic product? Where can natural prototypes be found? How can technical solutions be transferred from nature to technology? Can we use living nature like LEGO bricks for construction our machines? How can biology help us? What is a living machine? In biomimetic practice only some "part" (organ, part of organ, tissue) of the observed whole organism is utilized. A possible template for future super-organism extension for biomimetic methods might be drawn from experiments in holistic ecological agriculture (ecological design, permaculture, ecological engineering, etc. ). The necessary translation of these rules to practical action can be achieved with the Russian Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ), specifically adjusted to biology. Thus, permaculture, reinforced by a TRIZ conceptual framework, might provide the basis for Super-Organismic Bionics, which is hypothesized as necessary for effective ecological engineering. This hypothesis is supported by a case study-the design of a sustainable artificial nature reserve for wild pollinators as a living machine.

  17. The Machine within the Machine

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Although Virtual Machines are widespread across CERN, you probably won't have heard of them unless you work for an experiment. Virtual machines - known as VMs - allow you to create a separate machine within your own, allowing you to run Linux on your Mac, or Windows on your Linux - whatever combination you need.   Using a CERN Virtual Machine, a Linux analysis software runs on a Macbook. When it comes to LHC data, one of the primary issues collaborations face is the diversity of computing environments among collaborators spread across the world. What if an institute cannot run the analysis software because they use different operating systems? "That's where the CernVM project comes in," says Gerardo Ganis, PH-SFT staff member and leader of the CernVM project. "We were able to respond to experimentalists' concerns by providing a virtual machine package that could be used to run experiment software. This way, no matter what hardware they have ...

  18. Translating democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doerr, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    grassroots activists in social movements use translation as a novel practice to debate political alternatives in the European Union's (EU) multilingual public sphere. In recent years, new cross-European protest movements have created the multilingual discursive democracy arena known as the European Social...... in institutionalized habits and norms of deliberation. Addressing democratic theorists, my findings suggest that translation could be a way to think about difference not as a hindrance but as a resource for democracy in linguistically heterogeneous societies and public spaces, without presupposing a shared language...

  19. Amharic Speech Recognition for Speech Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Melese, Michael; Besacier, Laurent; Meshesha, Million

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The state-of-the-art speech translation can be seen as a cascade of Automatic Speech Recognition, Statistical Machine Translation and Text-To-Speech synthesis. In this study an attempt is made to experiment on Amharic speech recognition for Amharic-English speech translation in tourism domain. Since there is no Amharic speech corpus, we developed a read-speech corpus of 7.43hr in tourism domain. The Amharic speech corpus has been recorded after translating standard Bas...

  20. Machine Learning

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Machine learning, which builds on ideas in computer science, statistics, and optimization, focuses on developing algorithms to identify patterns and regularities in data, and using these learned patterns to make predictions on new observations. Boosted by its industrial and commercial applications, the field of machine learning is quickly evolving and expanding. Recent advances have seen great success in the realms of computer vision, natural language processing, and broadly in data science. Many of these techniques have already been applied in particle physics, for instance for particle identification, detector monitoring, and the optimization of computer resources. Modern machine learning approaches, such as deep learning, are only just beginning to be applied to the analysis of High Energy Physics data to approach more and more complex problems. These classes will review the framework behind machine learning and discuss recent developments in the field.

  1. Socialism and Education in Cuba and Soviet Uzbekistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charon-Cardona, Euridice

    2013-01-01

    During the Cold War over half a million Asians, Africans and Latin Americans studied and graduated in the Soviet Union's universities and technical schools as part of this country's educational aid policies. Cuba was an intermediary player in the Cold War geopolitical contest between the United States and the Soviet Union, fuelled by the…

  2. Post-Soviet space in contemporary curricula and cooperation projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guschin Alexander

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the current situation and prospects of the post-Soviet themes research in Russian higher education in the Humanities. The problem is considered in the context of the modernization of the national education, integration processes in the former Soviet Union, globalization and the development of international cooperation.

  3. Chronology of Soviet Dissidence: January 1970 through December 1982,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-17

    34* . 1970 * September 4 Soviet ballerina Natalya Makarova defected in London. October 10 Brief communique from the Secretariat of the USSR Writers...Soviet behavior. July 4 Ballerina Galina Chursina defected from Bolshoy Ballet troupe in Istanbul. 14-15 I. Grivnina, member of Psychiatric Abuses

  4. Security Assistance Rationales: The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    function to defray the cost of Soviet arms development. 96 The linkage of arms sales and comercial sales is not a factor in Soviet arms transfer to Eastern...of plant, R&D institution representatives, and politica .’wer over the GOSPLAN mechanism, does have a feedback loop. _.Ae defense ministries must be

  5. 'A people forgotten by history': Soviet Studies of the Kurds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leezenberg, M.

    2015-01-01

    The Russian/Soviet experience raises complex general questions concerning orientalism, conceptual hegemony, and the politics of (post-)colonial knowledge. Russia was not an empire in Said's sense, and drew much of its orientalist categories from non-imperialist German sources; the Soviet Union was e

  6. The Role of Women in the Soviet Armed Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-15

    Soldier," in The Soviet Military: Political Education , Training & Morale, by E. S. Williams, p. 124. 71. Olimpiyev and Gusev. 72. Saywell, p. 131. 73...67-68. Williams, E. S. The Soviet Military: Political , Education , Training & Morale. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1986. pp. 103-125. Women’s

  7. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Aviation & Cosmonautics, No. 1, January 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    million. An even greater effect is expected from the Mir station’s on-board gear. Using satellites of the Kosmos and Meteor-Priroda series along with...Soviet spacecraft and orbital stations, and using Soviet booster rockets to launch foreign satel- lites. It is common knowledge that the Kosmos

  8. International Influences on Post-Soviet Armenian Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzian, Shelley

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses the most recent international influences on Armenian education, illustrating how international standards are driving post-Soviet reform in the Armenian Secondary Schools. Since 1991, when Armenia became independent from the Soviet Union, organisations such as the World Bank and the Open Society Institute Assistance…

  9. Soviet Cultural Diplomacy in Denmark during the Cold War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederichsen, Kim

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses the Soviet apparatus for cultural diplomacy abroad during the Cold War period using the worlds oldest society for friendship with the Soviet Union as a case study. The article looks at question from 3 diffrent angels: 1: Organisation, planning and financing. 2: Activities. 3...

  10. Socialism and Education in Cuba and Soviet Uzbekistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charon-Cardona, Euridice

    2013-01-01

    During the Cold War over half a million Asians, Africans and Latin Americans studied and graduated in the Soviet Union's universities and technical schools as part of this country's educational aid policies. Cuba was an intermediary player in the Cold War geopolitical contest between the United States and the Soviet Union, fuelled by the…

  11. Striving to Sell SALT Two: Seven Years of Soviet Arguments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    provide the Soviets with a "breathing spell" in the arms competition which could be of benefit in overcoming the technological gap between the USSR and...the creation of an opportunity to help reduce the technological gap may have been an additional factor in Soviet interest in SALT. 5 The principal

  12. FROM THE HISTORY OF PHYSICS: The Landau school and the American Institute of Physics translation program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambegaokar, Vinay

    2008-12-01

    In the late 1950s and early 1960s several American scientists recognized the importance of results appearing in Russian language journals. Their efforts, aided by 'Cold War' considerations, culminated in the launch of the AIP program of translations into English of the then Soviet Union's leading physics journals. The present brief review gives a personal perspective on the history of that development.

  13. Can We Talk About Post-Soviet Science?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimar Ventsel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The authors of this essay have the background of a Soviet education. Aimar Ventsel began his studies during the Soviet era, at what was then Tartu State University. Natalia Struchkova graduated from Yakutsk State University, defended her thesis in Ulan-Ude, and continued to work and teach according to Soviet era programmes and methodology. Therefore, both authors have extensively read academic works from the Soviet period during their student years and after. The academic writing that is widespread in Russian and in many post-Soviet countries where the academic language is still Russian, differs substantially from the so-called Western writing. These differences cause misunderstandings between colleagues, but more importantly form a bottleneck affecting the publication and circulation of academic texts.

  14. The Soviet applied information sciences in a time of change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengston, J.; Cronin, R.R.; Davidson, R.B.

    1991-07-01

    The Foreign Applied Sciences Assessment Center (FASAC) conducts reviews of selected areas of foreign basic and applied science by US scientists who are technically expert and active in the fields reviewed. Several of the FASAC assessments of Soviet science have involved various aspects of the information sciences, including enabling technologies and applications, as well as the core information sciences. This report draws upon those FASAC assessment reports, the expert judgment of some of the authors of those reports, and other public sources to characterize the current state of the information sciences in the Soviet Union and the effects of information science capabilities upon other areas of Soviet science and technology. This report also provides estimates of the likely effect of the political and social reforms underway in the Soviet Union on future Soviet progress in the information sciences and, at a more general level, in science and technology. 41 refs., 7 tabs.

  15. Soviet Perceptions of War and Peace,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    holding such views" to be B. Russell, C. Lamont, D. Fleming, L. Pauling , and J.P. Sartre . Zemskov then stated that if a nuclear war does begin, "it...Portugal, 153 Detente. 182 - - U -. ’*1 Index Potsdam Conference, 44 Sartre , Jean P., 103 Power centers, See Multipolarity; Savkin. Y. E., 19-23...London. Routledge and Kegan Paul . 1977). p 3 Chapter Three Origins of the Cold War The Soviet View Dallas C. Brown, Jr. The Cold War, a presumably mortal

  16. The Defense Policy of the Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    PAGE READ) iNSTRULCTIONS I BEFORE COMPLETING F’ORM~I 11P40T ’mUMSER 2. G~OVT ACCESSION NO. 3. ACCIFtEN1VS CATAI- OG mUMe(R N-2771-AF . TI I- E n d S u...a general theory of military science, military art, military history, military pedagogy , military administration, military geography, military...foreign policy activity, the Soviet state actively and purposefully opposes the export of counterrevolution and the policy of oppression , supports the

  17. Transformation in Russian and Soviet Military History,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-01

    NJ: Princeton University Pi-ess, 1985. (on order) Golovin , Nikolai N. The Russian army in the World War. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1931...S45 1973) Shaskol’skii, Igor P. Bor’ba russkogo naroda za nevskie berega. Moskva: Gos. voen. izd-vo, 1940 . (DK 51.7 S53) Smith, Clarence J. The...perspective. Newport, bI: Naval War 2ol~e re, 1973. (AD-A044 938/9) 9 II. The Development of Soviet Military Doctrine (1918- 1940 ) Based upon her rich

  18. Soviet Style in War. Revised Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    our] dominant position over the Donbas ... cutting off all the enemy’s escape routes out of the Donbas ." For the "vic- torious reports that had been...retreat and an attempt to 172 Soviet Style in War avoid battle in the Donbas and reach the western bank of the Dnepr as soon as possible. ... Vatutin...Avtobiograficheskii ocherk. Donets: Izdatel’stvo Donbas , 1971. Erickson, J., The Road to Stalingrad, Stalin’s War with Germany. Vol. 1, New York: Harper and Row, 1975

  19. Beyond Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Mette Fog

    2013-01-01

    This article contributes to the growing scholarship on local development practitioners by re-examining conceptualizations of practitioners as ‘brokers’ strategically translating between ‘travelling’ (development institution) rationalities and ‘placed’ (recipient area) rationalities in relation...... and practice spurred by new challenges deriving from climate change anxiety, the study shows how local practitioners often make local activities fit into travelling development rationalities as a matter of habit, rather than as a conscious strategy. They may therefore cease to ‘translate’ between different...... rationalities. This is shown to have important implications for theory, research and practice concerning disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation in which such translation is often expected....

  20. Translational genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kussmann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The term “Translational Genomics” reflects both title and mission of this new journal. “Translational” has traditionally been understood as “applied research” or “development”, different from or even opposed to “basic research”. Recent scientific and societal developments have triggered a re-assessment of the connotation that “translational” and “basic” are either/or activities: translational research nowadays aims at feeding the best science into applications and solutions for human society. We therefore argue here basic science to be challenged and leveraged for its relevance to human health and societal benefits. This more recent approach and attitude are catalyzed by four trends or developments: evidence-based solutions; large-scale, high dimensional data; consumer/patient empowerment; and systems-level understanding.

  1. Hodnocení automatického překladu SMT systémů (Google translate, Bing) z francouzštiny do češtiny: kolokace z oblasti "bezpečnost potravin"

    OpenAIRE

    ŠVARCOVÁ, Zora

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor thesis is to test and evaluate the translation quality of selected terminological collocations related to "food safety" using free available translators (Microsoft Bing Translator, Google Translate). The work is divided into two parts theoretical and practical. Theoretical part is divided into several chapters, which focus on the development, history and use of statistical machine translation, the basic strategies of machine translation systems (rule-based machine tra...

  2. Machine Learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikkagoudar, Satish; Chatterjee, Samrat; Thomas, Dennis G.; Carroll, Thomas E.; Muller, George

    2017-04-21

    The absence of a robust and unified theory of cyber dynamics presents challenges and opportunities for using machine learning based data-driven approaches to further the understanding of the behavior of such complex systems. Analysts can also use machine learning approaches to gain operational insights. In order to be operationally beneficial, cybersecurity machine learning based models need to have the ability to: (1) represent a real-world system, (2) infer system properties, and (3) learn and adapt based on expert knowledge and observations. Probabilistic models and Probabilistic graphical models provide these necessary properties and are further explored in this chapter. Bayesian Networks and Hidden Markov Models are introduced as an example of a widely used data driven classification/modeling strategy.

  3. Applications and modelling of bulk HTSs in brushless ac machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, G.J. [Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PJ (United Kingdom). E-mail: gary.barnes at eng.ox.ac.uk; McCulloch, M.D.; Dew-Hughes, D. [Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PJ (United Kingdom)

    2000-06-01

    The use of high temperature superconducting material in its bulk form for engineering applications is attractive due to the large power densities that can be achieved. In brushless electrical machines, there are essentially four properties that can be exploited; their hysteretic nature, their flux shielding properties, their ability to trap large flux densities and their ability to produce levitation. These properties translate to hysteresis machines, reluctance machines, trapped-field synchronous machines and linear motors respectively. Each one of these machines is addressed separately and computer simulations that reveal the current and field distributions within the machines are used to explain their operation. (author)

  4. Applications and modelling of bulk HTSs in brushless ac machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, G. J.; McCulloch, M. D.; Dew-Hughes, D.

    2000-06-01

    The use of high temperature superconducting material in its bulk form for engineering applications is attractive due to the large power densities that can be achieved. In brushless electrical machines, there are essentially four properties that can be exploited; their hysteretic nature, their flux shielding properties, their ability to trap large flux densities and their ability to produce levitation. These properties translate to hysteresis machines, reluctance machines, trapped-field synchronous machines and linear motors respectively. Each one of these machines is addressed separately and computer simulations that reveal the current and field distributions within the machines are used to explain their operation.

  5. Theorizing About Translation and Translation Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Mukesh

    2012-01-01

    The act of translation between languages and cultures has been going on for centuries, but the act of theorizing about-translation is of recent origin. In the last forty years translation scholars have attempted to understand the process of translation and evaluate its merits giving rise to a whole range of conceptualizing which is now called translation studies. Translation studies , therefore, has grown within important scholastic enclosures of the west attempting to conduct political and i...

  6. Machine testning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This document is used in connection with a laboratory exercise of 3 hours duration as a part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The exercise includes a series of tests carried out by the student on a conventional and a numerically controled lathe, respectively. This document...

  7. Representational Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Dag; Dahlgren, Anna; Vestberg, Nina Lager

    to the enterprises of the medium. This is the subject of Representational Machines: How photography enlists the workings of institutional technologies in search of establishing new iconic and social spaces. Together, the contributions to this edited volume span historical epochs, social environments, technological...

  8. Soviet and post-Soviet environmental management: lessons from a case study on lead pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, V M; Orlova, A O

    2001-03-01

    Through a case study on lead pollution in the former Soviet Union, the linkage of policy, environmental science, and environmental management is explored, and compared with the US experience. Soviet bans on leaded gasoline and lead-based paint appear to have been effective. Regional governments, in cooperation with the petroleum industry, are taking the initiative in phasing out leaded gasoline, to some extent in defiance of federal policy. Problems with management of lead-acid batteries have been worsened by the collapse of the political system. Lack of reliable environmental data impedes reliable environmental assessment. The types of environmental measurements reflect an emphasis on multipollutant environmental contamination, rather than on human exposure to single pollutants.

  9. Transformation of the Soviet space program after the cold war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarasenko, M.V.

    1994-08-01

    Changes in the management of the space program and the operational status of various systems in the former Soviet Union are examined with particular emphasis on defense-related space systems. After the break-up of the Soviet Union, Russia assumed general responsibility for the entire scope of Soviet space activity. Space program management was re-organized to separate military and civilian activities. Russia is committed to maintaining military space capabilities, however, its top priority is now the conversion of military space technology for civilian uses, including global environmental problems.

  10. Soviet Gothic-fantastic: a study of Gothic and supernatural themes in early Soviet literature

    OpenAIRE

    Maguire, Muireann

    2009-01-01

    Related publication: Stalin's Ghosts www.peterlang.com?430787 This thesis analyses the persistence of Gothic-fantastic themes and motifs in the literature of Soviet Russia between 1920 and 1940. Nineteenth-century Russian literature was characterized by the almost universal assimilation of Gothic-fantastic themes and motifs, adapted from the fiction of Western writers such as E.T.A. Hoffmann, Ann Radcliffe and Edgar Allen Poe. Writers from Pushkin to Dostoevskii, including the major Sy...

  11. A double-sided linear primary permanent magnet vernier machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yi; Zou, Chunhua; Liu, Xianxing

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a new double-sided linear primary permanent magnet (PM) vernier (DSLPPMV) machine, which can offer high thrust force, low detent force, and improved power factor. Both PMs and windings of the proposed machine are on the short translator, while the long stator is designed as a double-sided simple iron core with salient teeth so that it is very robust to transmit high thrust force. The key of this new machine is the introduction of double stator and the elimination of translator yoke, so that the inductance and the volume of the machine can be reduced. Hence, the proposed machine offers improved power factor and thrust force density. The electromagnetic performances of the proposed machine are analyzed including flux, no-load EMF, thrust force density, and inductance. Based on using the finite element analysis, the characteristics and performances of the proposed machine are assessed.

  12. A Double-Sided Linear Primary Permanent Magnet Vernier Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Du

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a new double-sided linear primary permanent magnet (PM vernier (DSLPPMV machine, which can offer high thrust force, low detent force, and improved power factor. Both PMs and windings of the proposed machine are on the short translator, while the long stator is designed as a double-sided simple iron core with salient teeth so that it is very robust to transmit high thrust force. The key of this new machine is the introduction of double stator and the elimination of translator yoke, so that the inductance and the volume of the machine can be reduced. Hence, the proposed machine offers improved power factor and thrust force density. The electromagnetic performances of the proposed machine are analyzed including flux, no-load EMF, thrust force density, and inductance. Based on using the finite element analysis, the characteristics and performances of the proposed machine are assessed.

  13. Searching to Translate and Translating to Search: When Information Retrieval Meets Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ture, Ferhan

    2013-01-01

    With the adoption of web services in daily life, people have access to tremendous amounts of information, beyond any human's reading and comprehension capabilities. As a result, search technologies have become a fundamental tool for accessing information. Furthermore, the web contains information in multiple languages, introducing another barrier…

  14. 苏侨与苏联对新疆的影响(1949-1965)%Soviet Nationals and the Soviet Influence in Xinjiang (1949-1965)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丹慧

    2004-01-01

    @@ Xinjiang, China's westernmost province, shared more than 3,000 kilometres of border with the former Soviet Union, but is far from China's political and economic centre. Its special geographical position,coupled with ethnical, kin, religious and cultural relations, put Xinjiang under Soviet influence and control for many years. The underpinning of the everlasting Soviet influence lay in the extensive and profound social base built up by Soviet nationals living there.

  15. Adding machine and calculating machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In 1642 the French mathematician Blaise Pascal(1623-1662) invented a machine;.that could add and subtract. It had.wheels that each had: 1 to 10 marked off along its circumference. When the wheel at the right, representing units, made one complete circle, it engaged the wheel to its left, represents tens, and moved it forward one notch.

  16. SOVIET POSTERS IN PROMOTING AGRONOMIC KNOWLEDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsatsenko L. V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We attempt to combine professional agronomic knowledge with familiarity with graphic art presented in the form of a poster in the paper. The term "poster" is considered a large loose-leaf edition, combines visual and typographic elements and execute graphic communications. The main idea of the poster is to convey the information to the reader quickly and accurately. In the study of the material we have formed complex scientific and educational resources on the history of agricultural science, including the history of the popularization of agronomic knowledge. In our work, the poster is treated as an object of analysis, as the material of social and cultural analysis and as a tool to gather information on the development of agronomic knowledge through their visualization. In the course "History and methodology of scientific agronomy" one of the competencies of students is familiarity with the methodology popularization of agronomic knowledge, understanding of what is happening. In this regard, an attempt was made to consider the Soviet poster as a source of information on the development of scientific agriculture in the period from 1917 to 1980. The aim was to analyze the main events of this period, elements of the technology of agricultural production, species and varietal diversity of crops, as well as various events in the agricultural sector. The article considers four basic types of posters: promotional, political, instructional, scientific and educational. Each of these types of posters performs its function. The poster covered all stages of agrarian sector of the country, was a historical reflection of the Soviet period and always remained mobile, online and popular art form. Today, his role is small, because it has changed the ways of presenting information. However, its historical role unchanged, he has served as the Foundation of the modern advertising industry, including agronomic knowledge

  17. Soviet Union goes to Sussex for advice on science policy

    CERN Multimedia

    Brown, P

    1990-01-01

    Two state officials from the Soviet Union came to the SPRU, Sussex University, to learn about methods for forecasting trends in science and technology and ways of establishing priorities for basic scientific research (1/2 page).

  18. Generalized Geology of the Former Soviet Union (geo1ec)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The data set outlines and describes the general geologic age and type of bedrock of the Former Soviet Union and selected adjacent areas. It also includes shoreline...

  19. Translator's preface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamiell, James T

    2013-08-01

    Presents a preface from James T. Lamiell, who translates Wilhelm Wundt's Psychology's Struggle for Existence (Die Psychologie im Kampf ums Dasein), in which Wundt advised against the impending divorce of psychology from philosophy, into English. Lamiell comments that more than a decade into the 21st century, it appears that very few psychologists have any interest at all in work at the interface of psychology and philosophy. He notes that one clear indication of this is that the Society for Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology, which is Division 24 of the American Psychological Association (APA), remains one of the smallest of the APA's nearly 60 divisions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Kimchi, seaweed, and seasoned carrot in the Soviet culinary culture: the spread of Korean food in the Soviet Union and Korean diaspora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changzoo Song

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The half-million Soviet Koreans (or Koryŏ saram in the former Soviet Union are the descendants of the ethnic Koreans who migrated to the Russian Far East in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from the northern parts of the Korean peninsula. Their settlements were established in the wide areas of the Russian Far East, including the urban areas around Vladivostok. They were, however, forced-migrated to Central Asia in late 1937 under Stalin's rule. From Central Asia, these Soviet Koreans were further dispersed to other parts of the Soviet Union in the post-Stalin era. These multiple dispersions of Soviet Koreans not only transformed their culinary habit, but also helped Korean food spread among the peoples of the Soviet Union. As a result, Korean food, such as kimchi, miyŏk (edible kelp, and others, were introduced and widely consumed throughout the Soviet Union. This paper explores this unusual spread and popularity of Korean food in the Soviet Union, focusing on the migration history of the Soviet Koreans and Soviet culinary culture. This work is based on the author's fieldwork in the Soviet Union in the early 1900s and again in mid-2000s. The unusual diffusion and popularity of the Korean food in the former Soviet Union provides us with important insights on migration and globalization of ethnic food.

  1. Genesis machines

    CERN Document Server

    Amos, Martyn

    2014-01-01

    Silicon chips are out. Today's scientists are using real, wet, squishy, living biology to build the next generation of computers. Cells, gels and DNA strands are the 'wetware' of the twenty-first century. Much smaller and more intelligent, these organic computers open up revolutionary possibilities. Tracing the history of computing and revealing a brave new world to come, Genesis Machines describes how this new technology will change the way we think not just about computers - but about life itself.

  2. On Feminist Translation Theory and Literary Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    狄东睿

    2015-01-01

    Feminist translation theory emerged in the late 70s and early 80s of 20th Century. It is the combination of the feminist movement and the“cultural turn”of translation. It was introduced to China in the 1980s, and with the development of the transla⁃tion theory and translation practice, more and more Chinese translators want to study the feminist translation theory from the deep levels.

  3. Perceptions Management: Soviet Deception and Its Implications for National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    is emphasized because of the central position it occupies as an example of the longevity and viability of the democratic system of government...nature of the democratic system , Soviet ability to exploit weaknesses in democratic government, and differences in the way Americans and Soviets view the...people, with all segments of society taking an active part in developing and implementing the improvements. Because the democratic system gives rise to

  4. PROBLEMS OF INTEGRATION AT THE FORMER SOVIET UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Еlena А. Hudorenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides analysis of historical retrospective of integrationprocesses in former Soviet Union, ways and opportunities for furtherdevelopment thereof.The authors make a study of the problems of development and functioningof Eurasian cooperation, the effectiveness of interaction with certain states,analyze the reasons of failures, emphasize the achievements results ofcooperation, point out the opportunities for integration processes betweendifferent CIS and provide practical recommendations for effectiveness thereof in former Soviet Union.

  5. The Tenth Period of Soviet Third World Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    Mexican foreign minister, Bernardo Sepulveda Amor, received a lavish reception in Moscow in early May 1987 and was received personally by Gorbachev, at...consular delegation arrived in Jerusalem in July.23 20See interview with Sepulveda , Izvestiya, March 22, 1987. 21William R. Long, "Shevardnadze to Begin...fuller account of Soviet-Argentine trade, see Aldo Cesar Vacs, "Soviet Policy Toward Argentina and the Southern Cone," The Annals of the American Academy

  6. The Soviet Response to Korean Air Lines Flight 007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-07

    34 Defense & Foreign 22 . .. .*..- Affairs, November 1983, pp. 3 5-3 8 . 17 Steven J. Cimbala, "Why Did the Soviets Attack the Korean Airliner...135 returning to Alaska while the Korean flight continued on towards Petropavlovsk. Ogarkov commented, "It was natural that the Soviet Air Defense ...unable to do so.S4 When Western newspapers began reporting the Korean Air Lines disaster, several interviews were made with US dignitaries and defense

  7. Translating into Free Word Order Languages

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffman, B

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss machine translation of English text into Turkish, a relatively ``free'' word order language. I present algorithms that determine the topic and the focus of each target sentence (using salience (Centering Theory), old vs. new information, and contrastiveness in the discourse model) in order to generate the contextually appropriate word orders in the target language.

  8. SOVIET POSTERS IN LITHUANIA IN 1940–1953

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajoraite, Alma

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Soviet occupation and their ideology brought to Lithuania a new poster quality. The paper analyzes the problem of posters propaganda and manipulation, the inheritance of the not traditional documents and their inventory. The goal of this paper is to analyze the soviet posters in Lithuania in 1940–1953.The principal problems of this paper are to research the formation and the domination of the posters in Lithuania: which role they had in the politics. The paper also analyzes the soviet posters impact on farming and their influence to the society.To sum up, the new trend of art appeared in 1940 in Lithuania, which had the principal goal to propagate the soviet ideology in all the political and social spheres. The goal of the soviet posters as the media of information was to provide the distorted view of the reality. The soviet posters had dominated in Lithuania in 1940–1953. This period had left a very interesting and rich heritage. It is the importatant part of the cultural and historical heritage.

  9. DOSTOEVSKY'S RELIGIOSITY AS A METHODOLOGICAL PROBEM OF SOVIET LITERARY CRITICISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Sergeevich Shaulov

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Soviet literary criticism, especially in the first decades after the 1917 Revolution, was quite biased in its treatment of Dostoevsky and his works. The reasons for this bias lie both inside and outside the sphere of political ideology. We suggest that there exists a genetic link between some Soviet readings of Dostoevsky and a number of interpretations made in the author's lifetime. Also analysed are the attempts to 'domesticate' Dostoevsky and adapt his works to drastically different cultural conditions and political norms. It is indicative that this adaptation has always passed the stage of mythologizing the writer and his works. This mythologization paradoxically became a convergence point for Soviet (Lunacharsky, anti-Soviet (Berdyayev and purely philosophical (Bakhtin readings of Dostoevsky. Ultimately, the central Dostoevsky myth in post-revolutionary Russia was a version of Romantic mythology often directly expressed in comparing Dostoevsky with Prometheus. We also look at the negative readings of Dostoevsky, which construed the author as a certain mythological antagonist of the proletariat as the collective messiah. Such readings (exemplified in our article by Pereverzev's and Livshits' point at the ultimate limit of ethical assessment of Dostoevsky from the standpoint of rational secular humanism and the Soviet humanitarian thought as its version. Dostoevsky's artistic practice incorporates this tradition within the intranovel dialogue as just one of the voices and demonstrates its ethical insufficiency, which in its turn provokes the mixed reaction of 'appropriation' and 'rejection' from both Soviet thinkers and their contemporary heirs.

  10. JPRS Report, Soviet Union: Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-20

    but also because of certain snags inherent in the preparation of [Text] Hans-Georg Gadamer , resides in Heidelberg, translations. This matter has for...special attitude towards Gadamer : the same treatment units). First-class translators of philosophical works in has been accorded the overwhelming...I would like to return to Hans-Georg generations were brought up in the belief that there Gadamer . What is so appealing about his works and his

  11. Simulating Turing machines on Maurer machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    In a previous paper, we used Maurer machines to model and analyse micro-architectures. In the current paper, we investigate the connections between Turing machines and Maurer machines with the purpose to gain an insight into computability issues relating to Maurer machines. We introduce ways to

  12. Traduccion automatica mediante el ordenador (Automatic Translation Using a Computer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Julian L.

    This report on machine translation contains a brief history of the field; a description of the processes involved; a discussion of systems currently in use, including three software packages on the market (Teaching Assistant, Translate, and Globalink); reflections on implications for teaching; observations of results obtained when elements of…

  13. Environmentally Friendly Machining

    CERN Document Server

    Dixit, U S; Davim, J Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Environment-Friendly Machining provides an in-depth overview of environmentally-friendly machining processes, covering numerous different types of machining in order to identify which practice is the most environmentally sustainable. The book discusses three systems at length: machining with minimal cutting fluid, air-cooled machining and dry machining. Also covered is a way to conserve energy during machining processes, along with useful data and detailed descriptions for developing and utilizing the most efficient modern machining tools. Researchers and engineers looking for sustainable machining solutions will find Environment-Friendly Machining to be a useful volume.

  14. Korean to English Translation Using Synchronous TAGs

    CERN Document Server

    Egedi, D; Park, H S; Joshi, A K; Egedi, Dania; Palmer, Martha; Park, Hyun S.; Joshi, Aravind K.

    1994-01-01

    It is often argued that accurate machine translation requires reference to contextual knowledge for the correct treatment of linguistic phenomena such as dropped arguments and accurate lexical selection. One of the historical arguments in favor of the interlingua approach has been that, since it revolves around a deep semantic representation, it is better able to handle the types of linguistic phenomena that are seen as requiring a knowledge-based approach. In this paper we present an alternative approach, exemplified by a prototype system for machine translation of English and Korean which is implemented in Synchronous TAGs. This approach is essentially transfer based, and uses semantic feature unification for accurate lexical selection of polysemous verbs. The same semantic features, when combined with a discourse model which stores previously mentioned entities, can also be used for the recovery of topicalized arguments. In this paper we concentrate on the translation of Korean to English.

  15. A Comparison of Different Machine Transliteration Models

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, K; Oh, J; 10.1613/jair.1999

    2011-01-01

    Machine transliteration is a method for automatically converting words in one language into phonetically equivalent ones in another language. Machine transliteration plays an important role in natural language applications such as information retrieval and machine translation, especially for handling proper nouns and technical terms. Four machine transliteration models -- grapheme-based transliteration model, phoneme-based transliteration model, hybrid transliteration model, and correspondence-based transliteration model -- have been proposed by several researchers. To date, however, there has been little research on a framework in which multiple transliteration models can operate simultaneously. Furthermore, there has been no comparison of the four models within the same framework and using the same data. We addressed these problems by 1) modeling the four models within the same framework, 2) comparing them under the same conditions, and 3) developing a way to improve machine transliteration through this com...

  16. Terra: a Collection of Translation Error-Annotated Corpora

    OpenAIRE

    Popović, Maja; Fishel, Mark; Bojar, Ondřej

    2012-01-01

    Recently the first methods of automatic diagnostics of machine translation have emerged; since this area of research is relatively young, the efforts are not coordinated. We present a collection of translation error-annotated corpora, consisting of automatically produced trans- lations and their detailed manual translation error analysis. Using the collected corpora we evaluate the available state-of-the-art methods of MT diagnostics and assess, how well the methods perform, how they...

  17. Deconstructive Reconsideration of Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳清

    2014-01-01

    This paper is on the deconstructive reconsideration of the definition of translation, the relation of source text and translation, as well as the relation of translator and author. It also points out the differences between tranditioanal concepts of translation and deconstructive reconsideration of translation.

  18. On Becoming a Translator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹

    2015-01-01

    Douglas Robinson's Becoming a Translator:An Introduction to the Theory and Practice of Translation has been well received around the world.Fusing translation theory with advice and information about the practicalities of translating,it is an essential resource for novice and practicing translators.

  19. Translator Studies in Retrospect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭勤

    2009-01-01

    The concern about translator has run for thousands of years on which many translators and translation scholars have made comments.A rough examination of the translator within translation studies at home and abroad is expounded in a loosely chronological way as follows.

  20. On Becoming a Translator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹

    2015-01-01

    Douglas Robinson’s Becoming a Translator:An Introduction to the Theory and Practice of Translation has been well received around the world.Fusing translation theory with advice and information about the practicalities of translating,it is an essential resource for novice and practicing translators.

  1. Speaking your Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Barbara; Mees, Inger M.; Gorm Hansen, Inge

    2011-01-01

    In this article we discuss the translation processes and products of 14 MA students who produced translations from Danish (L1) into English (L2) under different working conditions: (1) written translation, (2) sight translation, and (3) sight translation with a speech recognition (SR) tool. Audio...

  2. Equivalence in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李良杰

    2013-01-01

    There are many researches about translation theories and methods in western translation history. Equivalence in transla⁃tion has always been the central issue for discussion. This paper gives a general review and comment on equivalence in translation in terms of three representative translation theorists and their views about equivalence in translation.

  3. Machine Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, R

    2014-01-01

    The protection of accelerator equipment is as old as accelerator technology and was for many years related to high-power equipment. Examples are the protection of powering equipment from overheating (magnets, power converters, high-current cables), of superconducting magnets from damage after a quench and of klystrons. The protection of equipment from beam accidents is more recent. It is related to the increasing beam power of high-power proton accelerators such as ISIS, SNS, ESS and the PSI cyclotron, to the emission of synchrotron light by electron–positron accelerators and FELs, and to the increase of energy stored in the beam (in particular for hadron colliders such as LHC). Designing a machine protection system requires an excellent understanding of accelerator physics and operation to anticipate possible failures that could lead to damage. Machine protection includes beam and equipment monitoring, a system to safely stop beam operation (e.g. dumping the beam or stopping the beam at low energy) and an ...

  4. Literal Translation using Google Translate in Translating the Text from French to English in Digital Tourism Brochure “Bienvenue À Paris”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rila Hilma

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Translation is basically change of form. The form from which the translation is made will be called the source language and the form into which it is to be changed will be called the receptor language. Translation consists of transferring the meaning of the source language into the receptor language. Translating is not an easy job to do because many things to be considered to do this activity because translation means determining the meaning of a text, then reconstructing this same meaning using the appropriate structure and form in the receptor language. Translation is basically divided by two types of translation, one is literal and the other is idiomatic. Literal translation is really strict to the structure and form then often can not well express the true meaning of source language. Idiomatic translation makes every effort to communicate the meaning of the source language text in the natural forms of the receptor language. Then the most popular translation machine, Google Translate, in this study shows the results of translation which remain odd, unnatural, and nonsensical because the unsuccessful of message delivery, which is notably the typically error of literal translation.

  5. Analysis of machining and machine tools

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Steven Y

    2016-01-01

    This book delivers the fundamental science and mechanics of machining and machine tools by presenting systematic and quantitative knowledge in the form of process mechanics and physics. It gives readers a solid command of machining science and engineering, and familiarizes them with the geometry and functionality requirements of creating parts and components in today’s markets. The authors address traditional machining topics, such as: single and multiple point cutting processes grinding components accuracy and metrology shear stress in cutting cutting temperature and analysis chatter They also address non-traditional machining, such as: electrical discharge machining electrochemical machining laser and electron beam machining A chapter on biomedical machining is also included. This book is appropriate for advanced undergraduate and graduate mechani cal engineering students, manufacturing engineers, and researchers. Each chapter contains examples, exercises and their solutions, and homework problems that re...

  6. Tactics of the Soviet Army Regiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-05-14

    for this project. Sug- gestions , comments, and recommended changes to this pub- lication are solicited and may be nade to Commander USACACDA ATTN...As a rule, anti-tank obstacles are covered by artillery, martar, and machine-gun fire. 1397 SISTEMA ZAGRAZHDENIY (obstacle plan) - The aggregate o

  7. Translation Theory and Translation Studies in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qin

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is a comparative study of "translation theory" and "translation studies" in China and the West. Its focus is to investigate whether there is translation theory in the Chinese tradition. My study begins with an examination of the debate in China over whether there has already existed a system of translation…

  8. The Soviet Union and population: theory, problems, and population policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Maio, A J

    1980-04-01

    Until the important public dialog on 3rd World population issues began in the Soviet Uuion in 1965, ideological limitations and bureaucratic interests prevented policy makers from recognizing the existence of a world of national "population problem." Since then, freer discussions of the Soviet Union's surprising decline in birthrate and labor shortages have led to serious policy questions. Conflicting policy goals, however, have resulted in only modest pronatalist policies. The Soviet population problem is a result of interregional disparities in population growth rates between the highly urbanized Soviet European populations with low birth rates and the least urbanized Central Asians with dramatically higher birth rates. As a result, these essentially Muslim people will provide the only major increases in labor resources and an increasing percentage of Soviet armed forces recruits. Policy planners are thus faced with difficult options. Current policies stressing technological transfers from the west and greater labor productivity, however, are unlikely to solve further labor shortages and regional imbalances. Ultimately, nonEuropana regions will be in an improved bargaining position for more favorable nationwide economic policies and for a greater role in policy planning.

  9. Scientific and technical training in the Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    Specific features and observations on the Soviet educational system and areas of apparent effectiveness are presented, noting that the literacy rate is over 98 percent in 1982. Educational goals are reoriented every five years to match with other projections of five-year plans. The Soviet constitution established strong educational goals, including schools, correspondence courses, lectures in native tongues, free tuition, and vocational training. The educational pattern from pre-school through graduate school lasts over 28 yr and contains two 2-yr periods of work, confined to specialties after graduate school. Mathematics is emphasized, as are physics, Marxism, and a foreign language. Approximately 300,000 engineers were graduated in the Soviet Union in 1982, compared with the 20-yr U.S. average of 50,000/yr. About 2/3 of Soviet engineers participate in defense work, a number which is four times the total number of U.S. engineers. It is asserted that the continual indoctrination, organization, and practical work experience will guarantee that the Soviet state will remain a dominant force in the world as long as centralized state control can be carried out.

  10. U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) Corporate Dari Document Transcription and Translation Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    text file format. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Transcription, Translation, guidelines, ground truth, Optical character recognition, OCR, Machine Translation, MT...foreign language into a target language in order to train, test, and evaluate optical character recognition (OCR) and machine translation (MT) embedded...the final word in this sequence). 5. Spacing: When printed words give the illusion of having a space in between letters in the word due to

  11. Speaking your Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Barbara; Mees, Inger M.; Gorm Hansen, Inge

    2011-01-01

    In this article we discuss the translation processes and products of 14 MA students who produced translations from Danish (L1) into English (L2) under different working conditions: (1) written translation, (2) sight translation, and (3) sight translation with a speech recognition (SR) tool. Audio...... output and keystrokes were recorded. Oral and written translation data were examined in order to investigate if task times and translation quality differed in the three modalities. Although task times were found to be highest in written translation, the quality was not consistently better. In addition...

  12. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    spearean sonnet . A page of a technical text translated into Russian from a European language is valued at 8 to 10 rubles. In Western countries...October 1988 73 EAST EUROPE It is this system, it seems to us, which is the model of the developed commodity production socialist economy. The

  13. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    NOVOSTI] Bureau in Buenos Aires; Russell (Bartley), professor from the University of Wisconsin in Milwaukee (United States); I. N. Zorin, leading...Motherland." Reportage by Gabriel Garcia Marquez Nos 1, 2 and 3 Roman Samsel (Poland), "The Loneliness of Distant Travels." Translation by Kseniya

  14. Changing Conceptions of Development Assistance to Education in the International Discourse on Post-Soviet Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takala, Tuomas; Piattoeva, Nelli

    2012-01-01

    The fall of the socialist system, and of the Soviet Union as a political entity, created a situation where external assistance to the transformation of the ex-Soviet countries into market economies and multi-party democracies became a domain of "development assistance". While the attractiveness of the ex-Soviet countries to the providers of…

  15. Friends to the End: "The New York Times" and the Soviet Union, 1943-1945.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, Donald O.

    From 1939 to 1943 the United States went from a period of total opposition to the Soviets to a gradual acceptance of its new ally. The "New York Times" editorial page shared in this trend: moving cautiously from complete rejection of the Soviets to acceptance of the Russian people, next the Red Army, and finally the Soviet government. The "Times"…

  16. Ideologies of Civic Participation in Central Asia: Liberal Arts in the Post-Soviet Democratic Ethos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Norma Jo; Thompson, Chad D.

    2010-01-01

    Higher educational practices in post-Soviet Central Asia remain predicated on an authoritarian conception of expertise rooted in an objective and universal science. While the substance of such education has changed since the Soviet era, the form of education remains rooted in Soviet-era discursive ideological practices, practices that encourage…

  17. 基于特征比较和最大熵模型的统计机器翻译错误检测%Error Detection for Statistical Machine Translation Based on Feature Comparison and Maximum Entropy Model Classifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜金华; 王莎

    2013-01-01

    首先介绍3种典型的用于翻译错误检测和分类的单词后验概率特征,即基于固定位置的词后验概率、基于滑动窗的词后验概率和基于词对齐的词后验概率,分析其对错误检测性能的影响;然后,将其分别与语言学特征如词性、词及由LG句法分析器抽取的句法特征等进行组合,利用最大熵分类器预测翻译错误,并在汉英NIST数据集上进行实验验证和比较.实验结果表明,不同的单词后验概率对分类错误率的影响是显著的,并且在词后验概率基础上加入语言学特征的组合特征可以显著降低分类错误率,提高译文错误预测性能.%The authors firstly introduce three typical word posterior probabilities (WPP) for error detection and classification, which are fixed position WPP, sliding window WPP, and alignment-based WPP, and analyzes their impact on the detection performance. Then each WPP feature is combined with three linguistic features (Word, POS and LG Parsing knowledge) over the maximum entropy classifier to predict the translation errors. Experimental results on Chinese-to-English NIST datasets show that the influences of different WPP features on the classification error rate (CER) are significant, and the combination of WPP with linguistic features can significantly reduce the CER and improve the prediction capability of the classifier.

  18. Agitation and Propagandistic Work in Soviet POW Camps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulzhaukhar K. Kokebayeva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the problem of agitation work done among POWs in Soviet camps, the creation of military units and political organizations from POWs. Not only armed force was used during the Second World War, but also the power of words. The battles were accompanied by the information warfare. Opponents tried to use all possible means to manipulate people’s minds. Main directions of agitation and propaganda were defined by the «Soviet bureau of military and political propaganda», as well as the 7th Division of Soviet army. In the propaganda work among German POWs, the priority was given on shaping the ideological and political views of former soldiers and officers of the Wehrmacht. As the result of the analysis of sources the author comes to conclusion that POWs of the Second World War period became the object of testing means and methods of ideological struggle of warring nations.

  19. Reflections through a Soviet Window. Rural Governance and Colonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Dekel-Chen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper probes the crossroads between the realities of life and the ambitions of the early Soviet regime in one corner of its vast countryside. As a test case, I explore the meeting of organized agrarianization of Jews from the former Pale of Settlement with the mechanisms of Soviet power in the geographical and national peripheries of what was seen until recently as a monolithic, centralized state. Barring the last four years before Operation Barbarossa, a non-governmental, non-denominational American-Jewish philanthropy (the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee [Joint or Agro-Joint] funded and administered much of this resettlement project in southern Ukraine and Crimea. As shall be seen, the arrival of an effective foreign organization not only shaped the lives of its client-colonists, but the very character of Soviet rural authority through the emergence of hybrid models of governance in the countryside.

  20. Comparison of Soviet and US space food and nutrition programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Selina

    1989-01-01

    The Soviet Space Food and Nutrition programs are compared with those of the U.S. The Soviets established the first Space Food programs in 1961, when one of the Soviet Cosmonauts experienced eating in zero gravity. This study indicates that some major differences exist between the two space food and nutrition programs regarding dietary habits. The major differences are in recommended nutrient intake and dietary patterns between the cosmonauts and astronauts. The intake of protein, carbohydrates and fats are significantly higher in cosmonaut diets compared to astronauts. Certain mineral elements such as phosphorus, sodium and iron are also significantly higher in the cosmonauts' diets. Cosmonauts also experience intake of certain unconventional food and plant extracts to resist stress and increase stamina.

  1. Word Translation Prediction for Morphologically Rich Languages with Bilingual Neural Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, K.; Bisazza, A.; Monz, C.

    2014-01-01

    Translating into morphologically rich languages is a particularly difficult problem in machine translation due to the high degree of inflectional ambiguity in the target language, often only poorly captured by existing word translation models. We present a general approach that exploits source-side

  2. Mutual Disambiguation of Eye Gaze and Speech for Sight Translation and Reading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulkarni, Rucha; Jain, Kritika; Bansal, Himanshu;

    Researchers are proposing interactive machine translation as a potential method to make language translation process more efficient and usable. Introduction of different modalities like eye gaze and speech are being explored to add to the interactivity of language translation system. Unfortunately...

  3. Towards improving English-Latvian translation: a system comparison and a new rescoring feature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khalilov, M.; Fonollosa, J.A.R.; Skadiņa, I.; Brālītis, E.; Pretkalniņa, L.; Calzolari, N.; Choukri, K.; Maegaard, B.; Mariani, J.; Odijk, J.; Piperidis, S.; Rosner, M.; Tapias, D.

    2010-01-01

    Translation into the languages with relatively free word order has received a lot less attention than translation into fixed word order languages (English), or into analytical languages (Chinese). At the same time this translation task is found among the most difficult challenges for machine transla

  4. English-Latvian SMT: the challenge of translating into a free word order language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khalilov, M.; Fonollosa, J.A.R.; Skadiņa, I.; Brālītis, E.; Pretkalniņa, L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of two approaches to statistical machine translation (SMT) and their application to a task of English-to-Latvian translation, which is still an open research line in the field of automatic translation. We consider a state-of-the-art phrase-based SMT and an alt

  5. Embedding Web-Based Statistical Translation Models in Cross-Language Information Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaij, W.; Nie, J.Y.; Simard, M.

    2003-01-01

    Although more and more language pairs are covered by machine translation (MT) services, there are still many pairs that lack translation resources. Cross-language information retrieval (CUR) is an application that needs translation functionality of a relatively low level of sophistication, since

  6. Embedding Web-Based Statistical Translation Models in Cross-Language Information Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaij, W.; Nie, J.Y.; Simard, M.

    2003-01-01

    Although more and more language pairs are covered by machine translation (MT) services, there are still many pairs that lack translation resources. Cross-language information retrieval (CUR) is an application that needs translation functionality of a relatively low level of sophistication, since cur

  7. Mutual Disambiguation of Eye Gaze and Speech for Sight Translation and Reading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulkarni, Rucha; Jain, Kritika; Bansal, Himanshu

    2013-01-01

    Researchers are proposing interactive machine translation as a potential method to make language translation process more efficient and usable. Introduction of different modalities like eye gaze and speech are being explored to add to the interactivity of language translation system. Unfortunatel...

  8. Automation of printing machine

    OpenAIRE

    Sušil, David

    2016-01-01

    Bachelor thesis is focused on the automation of the printing machine and comparing the two types of printing machines. The first chapter deals with the history of printing, typesettings, printing techniques and various kinds of bookbinding. The second chapter describes the difference between sheet-fed printing machines and offset printing machines, the difference between two representatives of rotary machines, technological process of the products on these machines, the description of the mac...

  9. JPRS Report Soviet Union, Economic Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    machine building situation, how- Vesuvius and powerful earthquakes like the recent one in ever, makes it impossible to speak about widescale Armenia...to Kiev. They were shipped by carrying layout for the fuselage and the central wing mounting them on the fuselage of an An-22, for which section was...determined right away: the to reach very high calculated stresses (37 to 39 kilograms high wing, six engines mounted on suspended pylons, the per square

  10. Criminal-legal prohibitions in the soviet juridical discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey V. Skorobogatov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to determine the place of criminal law prohibitions in the formation development and functioning of the Soviet legal discourse. Methods dialectic approach to the research of social phenomena which allows to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the unity of the objective and subjective factors as well as postmodern paradigm giving the opportunity to explore the legal reality at different levels including the lawinterpretation one. Dialectical approach and postmodern paradigm have determined the choice of specific research methods comparative hermeneutics discursive formally legal. Results basing on the analysis of normativelegal acts regulating criminal legal relations in the USSR the development of the Soviet criminal law was considered since its emergence to termination of existence. Conclusion on its restrictive nature was made which was in line with the main task of this sector of law ndash the protection of the Soviet system and socialist property from criminal encroachments. The normative regulatory basis of criminal law prohibitions determined the general nature of the Soviet legal discourse which was designed to prove the necessity and expediency of such means of protecting public and state interests in the period of building communism. Scientific novelty on the basis of use of the complex classical and postclassical methods the article for the first time studies the role of criminal law prohibitions in the development of Soviet legal discourse. Practical value the key issues and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and pedagogical activity while researching the issues of the nature and trends of development of the Soviet criminal law.

  11. On Collocations and Their Interaction with Parsing and Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Seretan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We address the problem of automatically processing collocations—a subclass of multi-word expressions characterized by a high degree of morphosyntactic flexibility—in the context of two major applications, namely, syntactic parsing and machine translation. We show that parsing and collocation identification are processes that are interrelated and that benefit from each other, inasmuch as syntactic information is crucial for acquiring collocations from corpora and, vice versa, collocational information can be used to improve parsing performance. Similarly, we focus on the interrelation between collocations and machine translation, highlighting the use of translation information for multilingual collocation identification, as well as the use of collocational knowledge for improving translation. We give a panorama of the existing relevant work, and we parallel the literature surveys with our own experiments involving a symbolic parser and a rule-based translation system. The results show a significant improvement over approaches in which the corresponding tasks are decoupled.

  12. Soviet Theater Nuclear Capabilities: The European Nuclear Balance in Transition,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-31

    womernn~laryI -Ir ofOnSovie1 Union ; NATO sms ame all system amlgiied to So Europea theater. Fiendh in lS. w*4ii not a part of NATO, have bean...confidence, and an increase in NATO’s vulnerabilities. In response, the author contends that if the Soviet Union is unwilling to negotiate a serious...senior researcher at the Strategic Studies Institute. SUMMARY Over the last decade and a half, the Soviet Union has been methodically improving the

  13. The Officer’s Handbook; A Soviet View

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-05-01

    Formation of the Central Aero-Mydrodynamic Institute ( TsAGI )—the center of Soviet aviation science and technology. 1918—Creation, on the initiative of...engined TsAGI -6 aircraft with a payload of 5,000kg, reached an altitude of 8,980m. 1936—Acceptance by the Red Army of the first 7.62mm automatic rifle...Hungary, the German Democratic Republic, Poland, Romania , the Soviet Union, and Czechoslovakia. Albania, by virtue of the position taken by its

  14. The Last Workshop on Theoretical Physics in the Soviet Union

    CERN Document Server

    Gato-Rivera, Beatriz

    2011-01-01

    Twenty years ago, in October 1990, I found myself attending a workshop on Theoretical Physics in Alushta (Ukraine) intended only for Soviet physicists. That trip to the USSR/CCCP as well as the preceding months at CERN were highly surrealistic with plenty of adventures, crucial events and anecdotes, the most amazing one involving Niels Bohr. A few months later the Soviet Union collapsed. In this article I make a personal account on the happenings of 1990, with emphasis on my incursions into the European communist world during, and also before, that year.

  15. Corpora and Translator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅丽莉

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction Recent years have witnessed a significant growth of corpora heat. One of the many fields where corpora have a growing impact is translation, both at a descriptive and a practical level. Chesterman pointed out that the focus of Translation Studies shifted from translation itself to translators, from regulative to descriptive studies, from philosophical to empirical studies (Chesterman, 1998).

  16. Sound Effects in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mees, Inger M.; Dragsted, Barbara; Gorm Hansen, Inge

    2015-01-01

    implications for the curriculum, (3) be pedagogically motivating, and (4) prepare students for employing translation technology in their future practice as translators. In a two-phase study in which 14 MA students translated texts in three modalities (sight, written, and oral translation using an SR program...

  17. On translation equivalence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石雏凤

    2009-01-01

    Nida's translation theories, especially for his "Dynamic equivalence theory", are highly praised and adopted in Chinese translation circle. Howev-er, there are a lot of criticism and misunderstanding at the same time. This paper explores the issue on translation equivalence so as to benefit our translation studies on both theory and practice level.

  18. Machine musicianship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Robert

    2002-05-01

    The training of musicians begins by teaching basic musical concepts, a collection of knowledge commonly known as musicianship. Computer programs designed to implement musical skills (e.g., to make sense of what they hear, perform music expressively, or compose convincing pieces) can similarly benefit from access to a fundamental level of musicianship. Recent research in music cognition, artificial intelligence, and music theory has produced a repertoire of techniques that can make the behavior of computer programs more musical. Many of these were presented in a recently published book/CD-ROM entitled Machine Musicianship. For use in interactive music systems, we are interested in those which are fast enough to run in real time and that need only make reference to the material as it appears in sequence. This talk will review several applications that are able to identify the tonal center of musical material during performance. Beyond this specific task, the design of real-time algorithmic listening through the concurrent operation of several connected analyzers is examined. The presentation includes discussion of a library of C++ objects that can be combined to perform interactive listening and a demonstration of their capability.

  19. FACTORS REGULATING LIBERAL TRANSLATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚海红

    2012-01-01

    Literal translation and liberal translation are two important methods and both play key roles in translation.However,some textbooks say that most translations are literal translations while others maintain most are liberal ones,besides,some others suggest a combination of the two.This paper focuses on the facts that regulate liberal translation.Because of the differences in culture,society,history,geography,and so on,there exists a great difference between Chinese language and English language,which does naturally lead to the liberal translation.

  20. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-14

    nuclear age, should 80 also become close for us—and then the very idea of a new way of thinking will lead to planetary solidarity. Joaquin Gutierrez...the fight against the reactionary regime of the dictator G. Garcia Moreno . President of Ecuador, 1897-1901 and 1906-1911. COPYRIGHT: Izdatelstvo...115 REVIEWS ’" — V. Goncharov: "A Philosophy of History," by Francis<re~JLiscano Fernandez and Leopoldo Zea [not translated] 121

  1. Russian, Soviet, and post-Soviet scientific migration: history and patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojevnikov, Alexei

    2011-03-01

    Immigrant scientists from other European countries (predominantly German) were crucial in establishing the tradition of modern science in the Russian Empire of the 18th and 19th centuries. Since the 1860s, however, outgoing waves of scientific migration started originating in Russia, bringing important innovations to international science. The scale and patterns of migration varied greatly with the turbulent time. The talk will describe several landmark stages of the proceess and their cultural consequences: from opening higher education possibilities for women during the late 19th century, to post-1917 academic refugees and Soviet defectors, to the 1960s brain drain provoked by the launch of Sputnik, and to what can be called the first truly global scientific diaspora of Russophone scientists after 1990.

  2. Some Major Steps to Translation and Translator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Hojat Shamami

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This work is an overview of the main issues at the core of theorizing translation practice and the features of a good translator or how to be a good translator and of course what are the Skills to become a Freelance Translator and Translation process. In this world of science and technology there is knowledge explosion every day. This knowledge which is generally written in the English language needs to be transmitted in various languages so that people who do not know how to speak and write the original language can get the knowledge necessary for industrial development and technological innovation to keep up with the rest of the world. To transmit this knowledge effectively, there is a need for competent translators in various languages.

  3. Organizing for Coalition Warfare: The Role of East European Warsaw Pact Forces in Soviet Military Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    Central Army Group (NATO) CFM Committee of Foreign Ministers (WTO) C-in-C Commander-in-Chief CP Communist Party CPSU Communist Party of the Soviet Union CWC...8217 4,100 832 2 Navies Major and minor warships 300W Few’ < 1 SOURCES: D. . Ustinov, Marshal of the Soviet Union , Chairman of the Main Editorial Commission...of Group of Soviet Forces in Germany (GSFG) disions with Northern Tier East Europea divisions Soviet armored division, Category 1 1.00 Soviet MD

  4. Cultural Context and Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏

    2009-01-01

    cultural context plays an important role in translation. Because translation is a cross-culture activity, the culture context that influ-ences translating is consisted of both the culture contexts of source language and target language. This article firstly analyzes the concept of context and cultural context, then according to the procedure of translating classifies cultural context into two stages and talks about how they respectively influence translating.

  5. Stylistic Requirement for Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Yin-zhen

    2016-01-01

    Stylistic research is subordinate to language use research. The fast maturing modern stylistics has greatly boosted trans-lation studies. Translation has a close relationship with stylistics. Many problems can be solved in translation practice by stylis-tic theories and analysis methods. Based on a brief introduction of stylistics and the relationship between stylistics and transla-tion, this paper will give a specific analysis of the stylistic requirement for translation.

  6. Dialog between a Lexicographer and a Translator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Kit

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dialog between a Lexicographer and a Translator The discussion between the authors of the paper concerns the most pressing issues encountered in natural language semantics, as well as in corpus linguistics and computational linguistics. A broad range of knowledge, allowing linguists and information scientists to work together, is required in these areas. The paper describes some primary problems of human and machine translation caused by gaps between different fields of knowledge. The authors suggest that interdisciplinary approach is required when it comes to contrastive studies in linguistics.

  7. Translation lexicon acquisition from bilingual dictionaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doermann, David S.; Ma, Huanfeng; Karagol-Ayan, Burcu; Oard, Douglas W.

    2001-12-01

    Bilingual dictionaries hold great potential as a source of lexical resources for training automated systems for optical character recognition, machine translation and cross-language information retrieval. In this work we describe a system for extracting term lexicons from printed copies of bilingual dictionaries. We describe our approach to page and definition segmentation and entry parsing. We have used the approach to parse a number of dictionaries and demonstrate the results for retrieval using a French-English Dictionary to generate a translation lexicon and a corpus of English queries applied to French documents to evaluation cross-language IR.

  8. Soviet News and Propaganda Analysis Based on RED STAR (The Official Newspaper of the Soviet Defense Establishment), 1 - 31 January 1982. Volume 2, Number 1, 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Czechoslovakian military training during a recent joint exercise in Western Czechoslovakia - DRUZHBA -82. In several feature articles Soviet propagandists...emphasized: "Czechoslovakian, Hungarian and Soviet military units excel in joint DRUZHBA -82 training in Western Czecho- slovakia." "President Husak of...Czechoslovakia welcomed the Warsaw Pact Chief, Marshall Kulikov. They discussed joint CZECH-SOVIET training in exercise DRUZHBA -82. They also

  9. Chapter 16: text mining for translational bioinformatics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Bretonnel Cohen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Text mining for translational bioinformatics is a new field with tremendous research potential. It is a subfield of biomedical natural language processing that concerns itself directly with the problem of relating basic biomedical research to clinical practice, and vice versa. Applications of text mining fall both into the category of T1 translational research-translating basic science results into new interventions-and T2 translational research, or translational research for public health. Potential use cases include better phenotyping of research subjects, and pharmacogenomic research. A variety of methods for evaluating text mining applications exist, including corpora, structured test suites, and post hoc judging. Two basic principles of linguistic structure are relevant for building text mining applications. One is that linguistic structure consists of multiple levels. The other is that every level of linguistic structure is characterized by ambiguity. There are two basic approaches to text mining: rule-based, also known as knowledge-based; and machine-learning-based, also known as statistical. Many systems are hybrids of the two approaches. Shared tasks have had a strong effect on the direction of the field. Like all translational bioinformatics software, text mining software for translational bioinformatics can be considered health-critical and should be subject to the strictest standards of quality assurance and software testing.

  10. Chapter 16: text mining for translational bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, K Bretonnel; Hunter, Lawrence E

    2013-04-01

    Text mining for translational bioinformatics is a new field with tremendous research potential. It is a subfield of biomedical natural language processing that concerns itself directly with the problem of relating basic biomedical research to clinical practice, and vice versa. Applications of text mining fall both into the category of T1 translational research-translating basic science results into new interventions-and T2 translational research, or translational research for public health. Potential use cases include better phenotyping of research subjects, and pharmacogenomic research. A variety of methods for evaluating text mining applications exist, including corpora, structured test suites, and post hoc judging. Two basic principles of linguistic structure are relevant for building text mining applications. One is that linguistic structure consists of multiple levels. The other is that every level of linguistic structure is characterized by ambiguity. There are two basic approaches to text mining: rule-based, also known as knowledge-based; and machine-learning-based, also known as statistical. Many systems are hybrids of the two approaches. Shared tasks have had a strong effect on the direction of the field. Like all translational bioinformatics software, text mining software for translational bioinformatics can be considered health-critical and should be subject to the strictest standards of quality assurance and software testing.

  11. Translation-coupling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleger, Brian; Mendez-Perez, Daniel

    2013-11-05

    Disclosed are systems and methods for coupling translation of a target gene to a detectable response gene. A version of the invention includes a translation-coupling cassette. The translation-coupling cassette includes a target gene, a response gene, a response-gene translation control element, and a secondary structure-forming sequence that reversibly forms a secondary structure masking the response-gene translation control element. Masking of the response-gene translation control element inhibits translation of the response gene. Full translation of the target gene results in unfolding of the secondary structure and consequent translation of the response gene. Translation of the target gene is determined by detecting presence of the response-gene protein product. The invention further includes RNA transcripts of the translation-coupling cassettes, vectors comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, hosts comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, methods of using the translation-coupling cassettes, and gene products produced with the translation-coupling cassettes.

  12. Translation-coupling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfleger, Brian; Mendez-Perez, Daniel

    2015-05-19

    Disclosed are systems and methods for coupling translation of a target gene to a detectable response gene. A version of the invention includes a translation-coupling cassette. The translation-coupling cassette includes a target gene, a response gene, a response-gene translation control element, and a secondary structure-forming sequence that reversibly forms a secondary structure masking the response-gene translation control element. Masking of the response-gene translation control element inhibits translation of the response gene. Full translation of the target gene results in unfolding of the secondary structure and consequent translation of the response gene. Translation of the target gene is determined by detecting presence of the response-gene protein product. The invention further includes RNA transcripts of the translation-coupling cassettes, vectors comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, hosts comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, methods of using the translation-coupling cassettes, and gene products produced with the translation-coupling cassettes.

  13. FREUDIAN COMPLEXES OF SOVIET AND POST-SOVIET PHILOLOGY IN STUDYING THE GOSPEL TEXT IN RUSSIAN LITERATURE

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Andreevich Esaulov

    2012-01-01

    The article looks at a number of marginal concepts of Freudian theory and at his articles on Dostoevsky that revealed the 'cultural unconscious' of the founder of psychoanalysis. We point at the similarities between Freud's cultural unconscious – with its negativity against of the “Christian God”, historical Russia and Russian people – and the Soviet type of culture, especially in its early period (1920s – early 1930s). The ardor of Freudo-Marxism typical for the highest levels of Soviet powe...

  14. Electrical machines mathematical fundamentals of machine topologies

    CERN Document Server

    Gerling, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Electrical Machines and Drives play a powerful role in industry with an ever increasing importance. This fact requires the understanding of machine and drive principles by engineers of many different disciplines. Therefore, this book is intended to give a comprehensive deduction of these principles. Special attention is given to the precise mathematical derivation of the necessary formulae to calculate machines and drives and to the discussion of simplifications (if applied) with the associated limits. The book shows how the different machine topologies can be deduced from general fundamentals, and how they are linked together. This book addresses graduate students, researchers, and developers of Electrical Machines and Drives, who are interested in getting knowledge about the principles of machine and drive operation and in detecting the mathematical and engineering specialties of the different machine and drive topologies together with their mutual links. The detailed - but nevertheless compact - mat...

  15. Laser machining of advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Dahotre, Narendra B

    2011-01-01

    Advanced materialsIntroductionApplicationsStructural ceramicsBiomaterials CompositesIntermetallicsMachining of advanced materials IntroductionFabrication techniquesMechanical machiningChemical Machining (CM)Electrical machiningRadiation machining Hybrid machiningLaser machiningIntroductionAbsorption of laser energy and multiple reflectionsThermal effectsLaser machining of structural ceramicsIntrodu

  16. Translation Theory 'Translated': Three Perspectives on Translation in Organizational Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæraas, Arild; Nielsen, Jeppe

    2016-01-01

    Translation theory has proved to be a versatile analytical lens used by scholars working from different traditions. On the basis of a systematic literature review, this study adds to our understanding of the ‘translations’ of translation theory by identifying the distinguishing features of the mo......, but also overlapping. We discuss the ways in which the three versions of translation theory may be combined and enrich each other so as to inform future research, thereby offering a more complete understanding of translation in and across organizational settings.......Translation theory has proved to be a versatile analytical lens used by scholars working from different traditions. On the basis of a systematic literature review, this study adds to our understanding of the ‘translations’ of translation theory by identifying the distinguishing features of the most...... common theoretical approaches to translation within the organization and management discipline: actor-network theory, knowledge-based theory, and Scandinavian institutionalism. Although each of these approaches already has borne much fruit in research, the literature is diverse and somewhat fragmented...

  17. Writing Through: Practising Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Scott

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay exists as a segment in a line of study and writing practice that moves between a critical theory analysis of translation studies conceptions of language, and the practical questions of what those ideas might mean for contemporary translation and writing practice. Although the underlying preoccupation of this essay, and my more general line of inquiry, is translation studies and practice, in many ways translation is merely a way into a discussion on language. For this essay, translation is the threshold of language. But the two trails of the discussion never manage to elude each other, and these concatenations have informed two experimental translation methods, referred to here as Live Translations and Series Translations. Following the essay are a number of poems in translation, all of which come from Blanco Nuclear by the contemporary Spanish poet, Esteban Pujals Gesalí. The first group, the Live Translations consist of transcriptions I made from audio recordings read in a public setting, in which the texts were translated in situ, either off the page of original Spanish-language poems, or through a process very much like that carried out by simultaneous translators, for which readings of the poems were played back to me through headphones at varying speeds to be translated before the audience. The translations collected are imperfect renderings, attesting to a moment in language practice rather than language objects. The second method involves an iterative translation process, by which three versions of any one poem are rendered, with varying levels of fluency, fidelity and servility. All three translations are presented one after the other as a series, with no version asserting itself as the primary translation. These examples, as well as the translation methods themselves, are intended as preliminary experiments within an endlessly divergent continuum of potential methods and translations, and not as a complete representation of

  18. The deleuzian abstract machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner Petersen, Erik

    2005-01-01

    production. In Kafka: Toward a Minor Literature, Deleuze and Guatari gave the most comprehensive explanation to the abstract machine in the work of art. Like the war-machines of Virilio, the Kafka-machine operates in three gears or speeds. Furthermore, the machine is connected to spatial diagrams...

  19. Sound Effects in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mees, Inger M.; Dragsted, Barbara; Gorm Hansen, Inge

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of a pilot study using speech recognition (SR) software, this paper attempts to illustrate the benefits of adopting an interdisciplinary approach in translator training. It shows how the collaboration between phoneticians, translators and interpreters can (1) advance research, (2) have...... implications for the curriculum, (3) be pedagogically motivating, and (4) prepare students for employing translation technology in their future practice as translators. In a two-phase study in which 14 MA students translated texts in three modalities (sight, written, and oral translation using an SR program......), Translog was employed to measure task times. The quality of the products was assessed by three experienced translators, and the number and types of misrecognitions were identified by a phonetician. Results indicate that SR translation provides a potentially useful supplement to written translation...

  20. Soviet Cineclubs: Baranov's Film/Media Education Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we analyze a historical form of media literacy education that is still insufficiently discussed in English language literature: Russian cineclubs. We focus on one particular cineclub that was created by a Soviet educator Oleg Baranov in the 1950s. We describe this cineclub's context and structure, and discuss its popularity among…

  1. Moral Education in Contemporary Belarus: Return to a Soviet Past?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorovitch, Anna

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses moral education in contemporary Belarus. It offers an insight into the problem of educational change in post-Soviet societies in general and investigates the need for moral education reform in Belarus in particular. It provides a brief description of the situation with respect to moral education in some former Soviet…

  2. Corruption Hierarchies in Higher Education in the Former Soviet Bloc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2009-01-01

    Corruption in higher education is known but not described theoretically. Decentralization and privatization of higher education and the increasing scale and scope of corruption in higher education in the former Soviet Bloc, as well as numerous other countries, urges better understanding of the problem within the context of socio-economic…

  3. Corruption Hierarchies in Higher Education in the Former Soviet Bloc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2009-01-01

    Corruption in higher education is known but not described theoretically. Decentralization and privatization of higher education and the increasing scale and scope of corruption in higher education in the former Soviet Bloc, as well as numerous other countries, urges better understanding of the problem within the context of socio-economic…

  4. Soviet Computers and Cybernetics: Shortcomings and Military Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    Soviet Military Decision Making, Thesis (Delivered to the Ninth National Conference of the American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies , October...Thesis. Ninth NatLonal Conference of the American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies , October 1978. Myagi, A. "Problemi khozrascheta VTs

  5. Financialised capitalism Soviet style? Varieties of state capture and crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, O.; Kalb, D.P.

    2010-01-01

    Looking for new ways to interpret the failings of the neo-liberal economy, this article argues that financialised capitalism at the eve of the 2008 financial crisis showed striking analogies with the characteristic combination of oligopoly and informality of the Soviet economy at the eve of its

  6. Educational Revolution from Above: Thatcher's Britain and Gorbachev's Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Martin; Voskresenskaya, Natalia

    1991-01-01

    Educational revolutions in Great Britain and the former Soviet Union were initiated by charismatic national leaders, looked back to more "authentic" conditions where teachers and students dominated formal education, encouraged parent participation, and sought to destroy bureaucratic intermediary agencies in the educational decision-making process.…

  7. Themes for Teaching the Geography of the Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausladen, Gary

    1991-01-01

    Provides a framework for introducing students to the geography of the Soviet Union. Identifies basic themes for a geographical approach, including (1) advantages and disadvantages of size and location; (2) spatial impact of political economy; (3) paradox of economic development; (4) challenges of governing a multinational state; (5) integration…

  8. Soviet Operational Intelligence in the Kursk Operation (July 1943)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    inaccurate information -6- from abroad, produced yet another operational disaster in the Donbas and around Khar’kov.3 This experience left a legacy of...operations, - 33 - which had been interrupted by German counterattacks in February and March 1943 in the Donbas region. The Soviet solution to this

  9. The 1947 Soviet famine and the entitlement approach to famines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellman, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the economics of the 1947 Soviet famine, using data from recently declassified archives. It is argued that the best estimate that can currently be given of the number of excess deaths in the range 1.0-1.5 million. The demographic loss was greater. During the famine

  10. THE SOVIET AIRSHIP CONSTRUCTION IN 1935-1937

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Karpova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article treats the history of the Soviet airship production in the period of 1935-1937, which became a turning point in its development. The new archive materials became public in the scientific community for the first time.

  11. The Soviet Union's Experience in the Elimination of Adult Illiteracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraevskii, Volodar V.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the Soviet Union's success in eradicating illiteracy and the role that adult education made in that effort. Elimination of illiteracy began in 1919 and was achieved by 1959, when 99.3 percent of males and 97.3 percent of females between the ages of 9 and 49 were literate. (JOW)

  12. SOVIET POLITICAL SCHOOLS, THE COMMUNIST PARTY ADULT INSTRUCTION SYSTEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MICKIEWICZ, ELLEN PROPPER

    A STUDY WAS MADE OF SOVIET ADULT POLITICAL EDUCATION MAINLY AS IT APPLIES TO RUSSIAN URBAN AREAS, WHERE THE SYSTEM IS MOST HIGHLY DEVELOPED. THIS SYSTEM, AN AGENCY FOR TRANSMITTING POLITICAL DOCTRINE, FORMS A PART OF THE VAST NETWORK OF FORMAL POLITICAL COMMUNICATION, WHICH INCLUDES THE MASS MEDIA, AGITATION, AND COMMUNIST PARTY LEADERSHIP…

  13. Soviet Reactions to Follow-On-To-Lance (FOTL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-26

    Edward Snow, Jr., "Soviet Propaganda and the Neutron Bomb Decision," Political Communication and Persuasion, 1 (No. 3, 1981), 257-68 an---.e i...the Neutron Bomb Decision." Political Communication and Persuasion No. 3 1981. Talbot, Strobe. "Buildup and Breakdown." Foreign Affairs, America and

  14. Acculturation and Communicative Mobility Among Former Soviet Nationalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarmann, Harald; Holman, Eugene

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the strategies that the former Soviet states are evolving to balance the interests of dominant ethnic groups with those of linguistic minorities while constructing a national identity, highlighting language policy in action and focusing on acculturation processes and geographic mobility among groups. A case study of Estonia is also…

  15. Education in the Soviet Union: Has "Perestroika" Met Its Match?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Gerald Howard

    1989-01-01

    In late 1988, the Soviet Union's "perestroika" entered a new stage aimed at developing human resources and fostering democratic processes. Educators' and parents' discontent with the centralized bureaucracy and rigid educational administrative structure will press officials to formulate a comprehensive new education theory to achieve 19…

  16. Educational perspectives for elderly migrants: A case of Soviet refugees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persidsky, Igor V.; Kelly, James J.

    1992-07-01

    Modern human migration is characterized by a large number of elderly immigrants, who are coming to the United States from developing countries as refugees. The emigration from the Soviet Union during the last 20 years presents a unique phenomenon in modern human migration because of (1) the high percentage of the elderly, about 17%; (2) origination from urban areas and rather high level of education; (3) beliefs and attitudes developed under the Soviet political, economic and cultural system; (4) non-minority status in the United States; and (5) strong support from the American Jewish community. The greatest problem in adjustment of the elderly is English fluency, because language determines the utilization of health services and social support which they need and which are available from the agencies. Special education programs for these elderly with bilingual/bicultural instructors must be identified as one of the most important intervention approaches. There is another educational strategy for the immigrant population which must be promoted: training/retraining of bilingual/bicultural professionals in geriatrics. American professionals who deal with the elderly Soviets must also be educated about Soviet culture, system of social welfare, health practices and social behavior.

  17. Three Historical Subcultures in Post-Soviet Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogrin, V. V.

    2014-01-01

    The teaching and public dissemination of Russian history in post-Soviet historiography has been shaped by a variety of approaches, including state-sponsored interpretations, views expressed in mass culture, and the work of academic historians. In this article, the author employs a specific method of differentiation to distinguish his present…

  18. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Kommunist, No. 14, September 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    34several cartfuls of sticks on his back." Landowners "looked at their peas- ants as strictly their private property" and, considering serfdom sacred...Dokumenty i Materialy" [Visit to the Soviet Union by Prime Minis- ter of the Republic of India Radjiv Gandhi , 2-4 July 1987. Documents and Materials

  19. A New Look at an Old Foe - The Soviet Officer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    graduation.4 3 in addition to the professional schools, all officers are required to continue their political education . This aspect of an officer’s...Boston: Allen and Unwin, 1985), p. 85. 2. Ibid. 3. Brenda Atkinson, Political Education in the Army of the Soviet Union (Fort Belvoir, Va.: United

  20. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Aviation & Cosmonautics, No. 12, December 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    tissue. The results of experiments on animals carried out during flights of Kosmos series biosatellites made it possible to efficiently schedule...ration are a good means of protecting against accelera- tions after weightlessness. Soviet biosatellites of the Kosmos series are making a noticeable...tal research aboard Kosmos biosatellites, Interkosmos satellites and manned orbiting stations. Working together with specialists of the GDR

  1. The Soviet Objective of War Termination: Limits and Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    Pact exercises such as " Druzhba -8l" and "Shield-82" have stressed deep territorial objectives, high speed offensive operations, and improved command and...Tier (Johnson 1981, 27). Recent examples include "Danube-84" and " Druzhba -86" (Staar 1984, 355; Dean 1987, 30) Thus, the Soviets train to interact with

  2. Perceptual and Cognitive Development of Preschoolers in Soviet Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pick, Herbert L., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Experiments on the cognitive and perceptual development of three- to seven-year-old Soviet children are described, especially the work of L. A. Venger, N. N. Poddyakov, and D. B. El'Konin. Visual-action and visual-image thinking are illustrated. (GDC)

  3. Managing U.S.-Soviet Relations in the 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    1970s and 1980s. Near or actual stagnation also meant widening of the technological gap with the West, continued inability to diversify Soviet exports...reaction, if only because the economics of reaction would be unlikely to yield a substantial narrowing of the technological gap with the West. As in

  4. Economic Leverage on the Soviet Union in the 1980s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    administration’s position is certainly not mercantilist in the sense of striving for a larger U.S. esport surplus; the concern is with the efect of Soviet...and the value of hard currency esports that would have to be forgone to the @I*" wsrere I dIne ’away from export sectors. (An Padma Duda pointed

  5. Planning by Decree: The Soviet Language Policy in Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorish, M. Mobin

    1984-01-01

    Identifies some ideological and political forces contributing to the Soviet dilemma caused by requiring a standardized proletarian culture (and language) amidst a multilingual and multicultural socialist society. Also focuses on linguistic planning, language change, and language development in the Central Asian part of the USSR. (SL)

  6. Is the shaman indeed risen in post-Soviet Siberia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olle Sundström

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In his exhaustive study of ‘shamanism’ among the Altaic peoples in Southern Siberia, the renowned Soviet ethnographer Leonid P. Potapov contends that ‘under the present conditions there are no remnants or survivals of Shamanism as such left in Altai’. What remains are legends and reminiscences, but these can no longer be told by people with personal experiences of Altaic ‘shamans’ and their rituals. According to Potapov, modern socialist culture has changed the minds of the Altaic peoples to the degree that they are now a materialistically thinking people, and ‘shamanism’ has completely disappeared. In addition, he contends that there are no prospects of its return after the deathblow dealt by Soviet anti-religious repression in the 1930s ‘shamanic’ rituals were forbidden and ritual paraphernalia such as drums and costumes were expropriated by the authorities. Considering that Potapov in his study follows Altaic ‘shamanism’ through 1500 years, depicting it as a ‘religion’ and ‘theology’ which stayed more or less intact over the centuries, his statement seems more like a pious hope based on the Soviet vision of a society liberated from superstition, religion, and spiritual exploitation. Potapov himself delineates Altaic ‘shamanism’s’ development from a ‘state religion’to a ‘folk religion’. From this perspective it might seem remarkable that ‘shamanism’ should not have survived 70 years of atheist repression, missionary work and the Soviet transformation of society. Already by the time Potapov’s book was published, during the very last months of the existence of the Soviet Union, there had, in fact, appeared a number of persons claiming to be ‘shamans’, with an ancestry dating from the time of ‘shamans’ of the first half of the twentieth century. These individuals were also part of organisations and movements promoting the revival of ‘shamanism’ in the autonomous Altai Republic. In

  7. contemporary translation studies and bible translation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the source text to the translation process, the product and/or reception of ... The methodological impact was a shift from normative linguistic-based ... ary Society Period, with formal-equivalent translations being made by mis- ... the theoretical foundation of the functional-equivalent approach problem- ... After a review of.

  8. Spiritualist Writing Machines: Telegraphy, Typtology, Typewriting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Enns

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how religious concepts both reflected and informed the development of new technologies for encoding, transmitting, and printing written information. While many spiritualist writing machines were based on existing technologies that were repurposed for spirit communication, others prefigured or even inspired more advanced technological innovations. The history of spiritualist writing machines thus not only represents a response to the rise of new media technologies in the nineteenth century, but it also reflects a set of cultural demands that helped to shape the development of new technologies, such as the need to replace handwriting with discrete, uniform lettering, which accelerated the speed of composition; the need to translate written information into codes, which could be transmitted across vast distances; and the need to automate the process of transmitting, translating, and transcribing written information, which seemed to endow the machines themselves with a certain degree of autonomy or even intelligence. While spiritualists and inventors were often (but not always motivated by different goals, the development of spiritualist writing machines and the development of technological writing machines were nevertheless deeply interrelated and interdependent.

  9. Translation, Quality and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Margrethe

    The paper investigates the feasibility and some of the possible consequences of applying quality management to translation. It first gives an introduction to two different schools of translation and to (total) quality management. It then examines whether quality management may, in theory......, be applied to translation and goes on to present a case study which involves a firm in the translation industry and which illustrates quality management in practice. The paper shows that applying quality management to translation is feasible and that doing so may translate into sustained growth....

  10. Translation, Quality and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Margrethe

    The paper investigates the feasibility and some of the possible consequences of applying quality management to translation. It first gives an introduction to two different schools of translation and to (total) quality management. It then examines whether quality management may, in theory......, be applied to translation and goes on to present a case study which involves a firm in the translation industry and which illustrates quality management in practice. The paper shows that applying quality management to translation is feasible and that doing so may translate into sustained growth....

  11. On Advertisement Language Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ya-lu

    2015-01-01

    Advertisement language is a special practical writing with abundant imagination, great creativity and instigation. During translation the diversity in social culture, language and ethnic psychology, etc. will be directly reflected into its effect, presenting both the trouble in business of translators and also significant influences on the business brand. Starting from the features of adver⁃tisement language itself, this paper integrates translation situations and measures from several schools over the latest 20 years, gives typical examples in advertising translation and analyzes from varies perspectives and points out some problems in today ’s ad⁃vertisement translation,aiming to provide some constructive opinions for translation of advertisements.

  12. Film Name Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师晓晓

    2014-01-01

    <正>1.Introduction A good translation of the name should convey the information of the film and attract the audience’s desire for going to the cinema.Translation of film names should have business,information,culture,aesthetic features,while a short eye-catching name aims to leave the audience an unforgettable impression.This thesis discusses the translation of English film names from the aspects of the importance of English film name translation,principles for translating English film names and methods of English film name translation.

  13. Reconstructing the Soviet National Economic Balance, 1965 - 1984: An Alternative Approach to Estimating Soviet Military Expenditures. Volume 1. Technical Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-11

    compared with input-output data for 1972 derived from Granberg (1978), Volkoy (1976), Matlin (1976), the NKh editions for 1967 and 1973 and other Soviet...Moscow: Statistika, 1979.3 Matlin , A. "Struktura Natsional’nogo Dokhoda." Voprosy Ekonomiki,I No. 9, 1976. Mayer, V. Uroven’Zluizni Naseleniya

  14. Translation between representation languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanbaalen, Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    A capability for translating between representation languages is critical for effective knowledge base reuse. A translation technology for knowledge representation languages based on the use of an interlingua for communicating knowledge is described. The interlingua-based translation process consists of three major steps: translation from the source language into a subset of the interlingua, translation between subsets of the interlingua, and translation from a subset of the interlingua into the target language. The first translation step into the interlingua can typically be specified in the form of a grammar that describes how each top-level form in the source language translates into the interlingua. In cases where the source language does not have a declarative semantics, such a grammar is also a specification of a declarative semantics for the language. A methodology for building translators that is currently under development is described. A 'translator shell' based on this methodology is also under development. The shell has been used to build translators for multiple representation languages and those translators have successfully translated nontrivial knowledge bases.

  15. Translation and Quality Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Margrethe

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this article is to consider the issue of quality in translation. Specifically, the question under consideration is whether quality assurance in relation to translation is feasible and, if so, what some of the implications for translation theory, translation practice and the teaching...... of translation would be. To provide a backdrop against which the issue may be discussed, I present an overview of the two areas which seem most likely to hold potential answers, viz., that of translation theory and that of quality management. Section 1. gives a brief outline of some contributions to translation...... theory which would seem likely to be of interest in this connection and section 2. gives a linguist's introduction to the part of the area of quality management which I consider relevant for present purposes. Section 3. is devoted to the case study of a small translation firm which has been certified...

  16. Accommodating Translational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Howard

    2008-01-01

    This is an article in a series illustrating the way scholars in communication have pursued translating their research into practice. The translational nature of communication accommodation theory and examples of its application are the focus of this contribution.

  17. Living in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke Jakobsen, Arnt

    Exaugural presentation. A retrospect of my personal itinerary from literature, across translation studies to translation process research and a look ahead. In the retrospect, I range over diverse topics, all of which have sprung from my concern with the phenomenon of translation. I reflect on how......, as humans, we generate meaning, interpret meaning, and reformulate or translate meaning. I also reflect on the way computing has influenced research into these phenomena as seen e.g. in my creation of the Translog program and in projects I have been involved in, such as OFT (Translation of Professional...... for global communication purposes, and for improving research into translation, the phenomenon of translation and the world of translation in which we all live....

  18. Stylistics in Translation Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmkjaer, Kirsten

    1994-01-01

    Suggests that trainee translators can be helped to move between the basic and advanced stages of training through practice in collocational translational stylistics. Describes the method and outlines its differences from monolingual stylistics. Illustrates the method with an example. (HB)

  19. Bacteriophages as Therapeutic and Prophylactic Means: Summary of the Soviet and Post Soviet Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanishvili, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophage (from 'bacteria' and Greek φαγεῖν phagein "to devour" or bacterial eaters) are bacterial viruses that infect and kill bacteria. Bacteriophages (shortly "phages") are among the most common and diverse entities in the biosphere. The estimated number of phages on earth is about 1032. Bacteriophages are often isolated from environmental sources, such as water samples, etc. Felix d'Herelle, one of the discoverers of bacteriophages, was the one who suggested them for therapy of human and animal bacterial infections. This idea was very popular in the world until the advent of antibiotics commercial after which production of therapeutic phages ceased in most of the Western countries, but not in the former Soviet Union. The application of antibiotics in the clinical practice, besides the well-known side effects, entails, in addition, the appearance of the forms of bacteria, resistant to newly synthesized preparations. It was concluded that a European and global strategy to address this gap is urgently needed. Now, faced with the alarming growth of a variety of antibiotic resistant bacterial infections, Western researchers and governments are giving phages a serious look. The phages nowadays are seen as a possible therapy against multi-drug-resistant strains of many bacteria. The therapeutic action of bacteriophages significantly differs from antibiotics, which makes them still active against multi-drug-resistant bacteria. Bacteriophages have a number of other advantages in comparison with antibiotics. First of all, they are efficient against multi-drug-resistant bacteria. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of the past and current experiences in the field of phage therapy in the countries where it has been traditionally applied in the clinical practice. Although the style and quality of old Soviet scientific publications dedicated to phage therapy are not challenging the international standards, there is still valuable information which

  20. Translating Others, Discovering Himself: Beckett as Translator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Gribben

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the work of Samuel Beckett in the light of his early work as a translator of the works of other writers.  In his translations for Negro: An Anthology (1934, the Anthology of Mexican Poetry (1958, or commissioned translations for journals such as “This Quarter”, early pre-figurings of Beckett’s own thematic and linguistic concerns abound.  Rarely viewed as more than acts of raising money for himself, Beckett’s acts of translation, examined chronologically, demonstrate a writer discovering his craft, and developing his unique voice, unencumbered by the expectations of originality.  This essay posits that Beckett’s works, with their distinctive voice and characterisation, owe much to the global perspective he gained through translating across cultural, continental divides, as well as experimenting with form, which became a staple of Beckett’s own work.  Without formal training or theoretical grounding in translation, Beckett utilises the act of translation as a means of finding himself, revisiting it as a means of shaping his own unique literary voice.