WorldWideScience

Sample records for machine shop rolling

  1. Machine shop basics

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Rex

    2004-01-01

    Use the right tool the right wayHere, fully updated to include new machines and electronic/digital controls, is the ultimate guide to basic machine shop equipment and how to use it. Whether you're a professional machinist, an apprentice, a trade student, or a handy homeowner, this fully illustrated volume helps you define tools and use them properly and safely. It's packed with review questions for students, and loaded with answers you need on the job.Mark Richard Miller is a Professor and Chairman of the Industrial Technology Department at Texas A&M University in Kingsville, T

  2. Standardized Curriculum for Machine Tool Operation/Machine Shop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized vocational education course titles and core contents for two courses in Mississippi are provided: machine tool operation/machine shop I and II. The first course contains the following units: (1) orientation; (2) shop safety; (3) shop math; (4) measuring tools and instruments; (5) hand and bench tools; (6) blueprint reading; (7)…

  3. Production Machine Shop Employment Competencies. Part Four: The Milling Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishart, Gus; Werner, Claire

    Competencies for production machine shop are provided for the fourth of four topic areas: the milling machine. Each competency appears in a one-page format. It is presented as a goal statement followed by one or more "indicator" statements, which are performance objectives describing an ability that, upon attainment, will establish…

  4. Precision forming machine with rolling plate cross wedge rolling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Roller cross wedge rolling(CWR)machines have high rigidity, but sector dies are difficult to process. Plate CWR machines have low rigidity and need large floor space, but plate dies are easy to process. Neither roller CWR machine nor plate CWR machine can produce larger workpieces. Based on the above conclusions, this paper presents the mechanical principle of the precision forming machine with rolling plate CWR. Then, its design principle and machine construction are presented. There are a top press roller above the upper sliding plate and a bottom press roller under the lower sliding plate. The press rollers make rolling contact with the sliding plates. The plate dies are mounted on the upper and lower sliding plates, respectively. Furthermore, the axes of both press rollers and centerline of work-piece always keep in the identical vertical plane during forming process. These make the machine retain advantages of high rigidity for roller CWR machine and simpleness of manufacturing dies for plate CWR machine, and abandon defects of poor rigidity for plate CWR machine and difficulty of manufac-turing dies for roller CWR machine. Moreover, the machine can produce larger workpieces.

  5. Precision forming machine with rolling plate cross wedge rolling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG YuQuan; LI ZhiGang; WANG MingHui; GUAN XiaoFang

    2009-01-01

    Roller cross wedge rolling (CWR) machines have high rigidity, but sector dies are difficult to process.Plate CWR machines have low rigidity and need large floor space, but plate dies are easy to process.Neither roller CWR machine nor plate CWR machine can produce larger workpieces.Based on the above conclusions, this paper presents the mechanical principle of the precision forming machine with rolling plate CWR.Then, its design principle and machine construction are presented.There are a top press roller above the upper sliding plate and a bottom press roller under the lower sliding plate.The press rollers make rolling contact with the sliding plates.The plate dies are mounted on the upper and lower sliding plates, respectively.Furthermore, the axes of both press rollers and centerline of work-piece always keep in the identical vertical plane during forming process.These make the machine re-tain advantages of high rigidity for roller CWR machine and simpleness of manufacturing dies for plate CWR machine, and abandon defects of poor rigidity for plate CWR machine and difficulty of manufac-turing dies for roller CWR machine.Moreover, the machine can produce larger workpieces.

  6. Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Machine Tool Operation/Machine Shop (Program CIP: 48.0503--Machine Shop Assistant). Secondary Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

    This document, which reflects Mississippi's statutory requirement that instructional programs be based on core curricula and performance-based assessment, contains outlines of the instructional units required in local instructional management plans and daily lesson plans for machine tool operation/machine shop I and II. Presented first are a…

  7. Production Machine Shop Employment Competencies. Part One: Practices and Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishart, Gus; Werner, Claire

    Competencies for production machine shop are provided for the first of four topic areas: principles and practice of machine shop. Each competency appears in a one-page format. It is presented as a goal statement followed by one or more "indicator" statements, which are performance objectives describing an ability that, upon attainment,…

  8. Tube bending on the roll machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepershin, Rostislav I.

    2013-10-01

    Computer simulation of the elastic-plastic tube bending by pushing on three-roll machine with work hardening effect consideration is presented. Non-steady tube bending process for specified curvature is simulated with axis of bending roll displacement, followed by transfer to the steady-state bending process. Estimation of curvature, constrained by tube section elliptical distortion modeled by plastic hinge mechanism is given. Elastic-plastic bending moment versus curvature and critical curvature estimation reasonably correlated with experiments.

  9. MACHINING OPTIMISATION AND OPERATION ALLOCATION FOR NC LATHE MACHINES IN A JOB SHOP MANUFACTURING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUSSA I. MGWATU

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerical control (NC machines in a job shop may not be cost and time effective if the assignment of cutting operations and optimisation of machining parameters are overlooked. In order to justify better utilisation and higher productivity of invested NC machine tools, it is necessary to determine the optimum machining parameters and realize effective assignment of cutting operations on machines. This paper presents two mathematical models for optimising machining parameters and effectively allocating turning operations on NC lathe machines in a job shop manufacturing system. The models are developed as non-linear programming problems and solved using a commercial LINGO software package. The results show that the decisions of machining optimisation and operation allocation on NC lathe machines can be simultaneously made while minimising both production cost and cycle time. In addition, the results indicate that production cost and cycle time can be minimised while significantly reducing or totally eliminating idle times among machines.

  10. Production Machine Shop Employment Competencies. Part Three: The Engine Lathe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishart, Gus; Werner, Claire

    Competencies for production machine shop are provided for the third of four topic areas: the engine lathe. Each competency appears in a one-page format. It is presented as a goal statement followed by one or more "indicator" statements, which are performance objectives describing an ability that, upon attainment, will establish…

  11. Assignment Book in Print Reading for Machine Shop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This student assignment book is designed for use in a course on print reading as applied to the machine shop course. Introductory materials include a student progress record, a list of references, and a pretest. For each of eight lessons, information sheets with one or more assignment sheets and a test are provided. The lessons cover the role of…

  12. Machine Shop. Module 6: Milling. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walden, Charles H.

    This document consists of materials for a 12-unit course on the following topics: (1) introduction to milling; (2) structure and accessories; (3) safety and maintenance; (4) cutting-tool variables; (5) basic set-up activities; (6) squaring a workpiece; (7) hole-making operations; (8) form milling; (9) machining keyways; (10) milling angular…

  13. One-way successive plate cross wedge rolling machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In our last paper(Sci China Ser E-Tech Sci,2009,52(11):3117-3121) we designed the precision forming machine with rolling plate CWR(cross wedge rolling).This kind of machine colligates the advantages of high rigidity and small floor space for roller CWR machine and those of simple die manufacture and high precision for plate CWR machine.At the same time,it abandons the shortcomings of complex die manufacture and poor precision for roller CWR machine,and those of poor rigidity and large floor space for plate CWR machine.During rolling,the upper and lower rolling plates of the machine make reciprocating slide toward or away from each other,so the inertial forces should be overcome,which will cause great energy loss,besides,large floor space is needed when the rolled workpiece is large.In order to solve the above problems,this paper presents the one-way successive plate CWR machine,whose rolling plates need not make reciprocating slide.Hence,it has high energy utilization efficiency and production efficiency.Furthermore,the roll scale can be removed automatically.In particular,the machine can produce large axisymmetrical workpieces.

  14. Design and fabrication of metal briquette machine for shop floor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramod, R.; Kumar, G. B. Veeresh; Prashanth B., N.

    2017-07-01

    Efforts have to be taken to ensure efficient waste management system in shop floors, with minimum utilization of space and energy when it comes to disposing metal chips formed during machining processes. The salvaging of junk metallic chips and the us e of scrap are important for the economic production of a steelworks. For this purpose, we have fabricated a metal chip compaction machine, which can compact the metal chips into small briquettes. The project started with the survey of chips formed in shop floors and the practices involved in waste management. Study was done on the requirements for a better compaction. The heating chamber was designed taking into consideration the temperature required for an easy compaction of the metal chips. The power source for compaction and the pneumatic design for mechanism was done following the appropriate calculations regarding the air pressure provided and thrust required. The processes were tested under different conditions and found effective. The fabrication of the machine has been explained in detail and the results have been discussed.

  15. SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS FOR ROLLING PROCESS BASED ON SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Yanwei; Wu Tihua; Zhao Jingyi; Wang Yiqun

    2005-01-01

    A method for the calculation of the sensitivity factors of the rolling process has been obtained by differentiating the roll force model based on support vector machine. It can eliminate the algebraic loop of the analytical model of the rolling process. The simulations in the first stand of five stand cold tandem rolling mill indicate that the calculation for sensitivities by this proposed method can obtain a good accuracy, and an appropriate adjustment on the control variables determined directly by the sensitivity has an excellent compensation accuracy. Moreover, the roll gap has larger effect on the exit thickness than both front tension and back tension, and it is more efficient to select the roll gap as the controlvariable of the thickness control system in the first stand.

  16. Improvement of machining quality of copper-plated roll mold by controlling temperature variation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tae-Jin JE; Eun-Chae JEON; Sang-Cheon PARK; Doo-Sun CHOI; Kyung-Hyun WHANG; Myung-Chang KANG

    2011-01-01

    Micro prism film used in LCD industry can be manufactured by roll to roll method with copper-plated roll mold. As copper-plated roll mold is getting larger, pitch error is getting severer. The pitch error drops the quality of micro prism film. The main cause of the pitch error was investigated during machining large roll mold whose machined length was 1 200 mm. The temperature of machining system was elevated during machining roll mold, and this elevation induced thermal expansion of the system. The temperature variation around the roll mold also made thermal expansion of the roll mold. The amount of thermal expansion had strong relationship to the amount of pitch error. Therefore, the roll mold was machined after warming-up of machining system and precise temperature controller around copper-plated roll mold was installed, which minimized the temperature variation. Finally,precise micro prism patterns without pitch error were machined on the large roll mold.

  17. Factors Affecting the Behavior of Engineering Students toward Safety Practices in the Machine Shop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie Kristian M. Neria

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the factors that affect the behavior of engineering student toward safety practices in the machine shop. Descriptive type of research was utilized in the study. Results showed that most of the engineering students clearly understand the signage shown in the machine shop. Students are aware that they should not leave the machines unattended. Most of the engineering students handle and use the machine properly. The respondents have an average extent of safety practices in the machine shop which means that they are applying safety practices in their every activity in machine shop. There is strong relationship between the safety practices and the factors affecting behavior in terms of signage, reminder of teacher and rules and regulation.

  18. Machine Shop Practice, 13-2. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Army Ordnance Center and School, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD.

    This military-developed text consists of self-instructional materials dealing with the basic tools and equipment used in metalworking shops. Covered in the individual lessons are the following topics: materials and processes; shop mathematics; blueprint reading and sketching; handtools, measuring instruments, and basic metalworking machines;…

  19. Tabu search for the job-shop scheduling problem with multi-purpose machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurink, Johann; Jurisch, Bernd; Thole, Monika

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we study the following generalization of the job-shop scheduling problem. Each operation can be performed by one machine out of a set of machines given for this operation. The processing time does not depend on the machine which has been chosen for processing the operation. This proble

  20. Shopping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Frants; Arvedsen, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    Shopping behandles som fænomen og begivenhed og som konkret undervisningstilgang til Visuel Kultur......Shopping behandles som fænomen og begivenhed og som konkret undervisningstilgang til Visuel Kultur...

  1. Effectiveness of Podcasts as Laboratory Instructional Support: Learner Perceptions of Machine Shop and Welding Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauritzen, Louis Dee

    2014-01-01

    Machine shop students face the daunting task of learning the operation of complex three-dimensional machine tools, and welding students must develop specific motor skills in addition to understanding the complexity of material types and characteristics. The use of consumer technology by the Millennial generation of vocational students, the…

  2. Effectiveness of Podcasts as Laboratory Instructional Support: Learner Perceptions of Machine Shop and Welding Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauritzen, Louis Dee

    2014-01-01

    Machine shop students face the daunting task of learning the operation of complex three-dimensional machine tools, and welding students must develop specific motor skills in addition to understanding the complexity of material types and characteristics. The use of consumer technology by the Millennial generation of vocational students, the…

  3. Literature Review on the Hybrid Flow Shop Scheduling Problem with Unrelated Parallel Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Marcela Peña Tibaduiza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The flow shop hybrid problem with unrelated parallel machines has been less studied in the academia compared to the flow shop hybrid with identical processors. For this reason, there are few reports about the kind of application of this problem in industries. Method: A literature review of the state of the art on flow-shop scheduling problem was conducted by collecting and analyzing academic papers on several scientific databases. For this aim, a search query was constructed using keywords defining the problem and checking the inclusion of unrelated parallel machines in such definition; as a result, 50 papers were finally selected for this study. Results: A classification of the problem according to the characteristics of the production system was performed, also solution methods, constraints and objective functions commonly used are presented. Conclusions: An increasing trend is observed in studies of flow shop with multiple stages, but few are based on industry case-studies.

  4. CONWIP card setting in a flow-shop system with a batch production machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Braglia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical technique to determine the optimum number of cards to control material release in a CONWIP system. The work focuses on the card setting problem for a flow-shop system characterised by the presence of a batch processing machine (e.g. a kiln for long heat treatment. To control production, two different static approaches are developed: the first one is used when the bottleneck coincides with the batch processing machine and the second one is proposed when the bottleneck is another machine of the flow shop. In both contexts, by means of the appropriate model, one can optimize the performance of the flow-shop by maximizing the throughput and keeping the work in process at a minimum level. Numerical examples are also included in the paper to confirm the validity of the models and to demonstrate their practical utility.

  5. Cyclic flow shop scheduling problem with two-machine cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożejko Wojciech

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the paper a variant of cyclic production with setups and two-machine cell is considered. One of the stages of the problem solving consists of assigning each operation to the machine on which it will be carried out. The total number of such assignments is exponential. We propose a polynomial time algorithm finding the optimal operations to machines assignment.

  6. Production Machine Shop Employment Competencies. Part Two: Saws, Drills, and Grinders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishart, Gus; Werner, Claire

    Competencies for production machine shop are provided for the second of four topic areas: saws, drills, and grinders. Each competency appears in a one-page format. It is presented as a goal statement followed by one or more "indicator" statements, which are performance objectives describing an ability that, upon attainment, will…

  7. Scheduling of flow shop problems on 3 machines in fuzzy environment with double transport facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathish, Shakeela; Ganesan, K.

    2016-06-01

    Flow shop scheduling is a decision making problem in production and manufacturing field which has a significant impact on the performance of an organization. When the machines on which jobs are to be processed are placed at different places, the transportation time plays a significant role in production. Further two different transport agents where 1st takes the job from 1st machine to 2nd machine and then returns back to the first machine and the 2nd takes the job from 2nd machine to 3rd machine and then returns back to the 2nd machine are also considered. We propose a method to minimize the total make span; without converting the fuzzy processing time to classical numbers by using a new type of fuzzy arithmetic and a fuzzy ranking method. A numerical example is provided to explain the proposed method.

  8. Machine Shop. Module 8: CNC (Computerized Numerical Control). Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosswhite, Dwight

    This document consists of materials for a five-unit course on the following topics: (1) safety guidelines; (2) coordinates and dimensions; (3) numerical control math; (4) programming for numerical control machines; and (5) setting and operating the numerical control machine. The instructor's guide begins with a list of competencies covered in the…

  9. Machine Shop. Module 8: CNC (Computerized Numerical Control). Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosswhite, Dwight

    This document consists of materials for a five-unit course on the following topics: (1) safety guidelines; (2) coordinates and dimensions; (3) numerical control math; (4) programming for numerical control machines; and (5) setting and operating the numerical control machine. The instructor's guide begins with a list of competencies covered in the…

  10. A two-stage flow shop scheduling problem on a batching machine and a discrete machine with blocking and shared setup times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Gong; L. Tang; C.W. Duin

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by applications in iron and steel industry, we consider a two-stage flow shop scheduling problem where the first machine is a batching machine subject to the blocking constraint and the second machine is a discrete machine with shared setup times. We show that the problem is strongly NP-ha

  11. A two-stage flow shop scheduling problem on a batching machine and a discrete machine with blocking and shared setup times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gong, H.; Tang, L.; Duin, C.W.

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by applications in iron and steel industry, we consider a two-stage flow shop scheduling problem where the first machine is a batching machine subject to the blocking constraint and the second machine is a discrete machine with shared setup times. We show that the problem is strongly

  12. Category 1 Project Machine Shop Improvements. Phase 3 Proposal. Revision A

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-26

    Controller (Water/2500 F) Grieve Convection Oven 18" x 17" x 13" 1 1980 Good Advantage Engineering Hopper Loader 1 1980 Good Arburg Hopper Dryer 1 1977...Good Nova-Tech Twin Bed Dessicant Dryer 1 1980 Good Figure 1-17. MOLD SHOP LAYOUT AND EQUIPMENT LISTING 1J 22 -Ir, Figure 1-18. MOLD SHOr 23 I II I I I...adjacent to the Machine Shop. This work cell brings the Sweco Tumbling Mill and most of the manual grinders and belt sanders into one area. Currently

  13. Job shop scheduling model for non-identic machine with fixed delivery time to minimize tardiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuma, K. K.; Maruf, A.

    2016-02-01

    Scheduling non-identic machines problem with low utilization characteristic and fixed delivery time are frequent in manufacture industry. This paper propose a mathematical model to minimize total tardiness for non-identic machines in job shop environment. This model will be categorized as an integer linier programming model and using branch and bound algorithm as the solver method. We will use fixed delivery time as main constraint and different processing time to process a job. The result of this proposed model shows that the utilization of production machines can be increase with minimal tardiness using fixed delivery time as constraint.

  14. A COMBINATORIAL PROPERTY OF PALLET-CONSTRAINED TWO MACHINE FLOW SHOP PROBLEM IN MINIMIZING MAKESPAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Sixiang; Han Hoogeveen; Petra Schuurman

    2002-01-01

    We consider the problem of scheduling n jobs in a pallet-constrained flowshop so as to minimize the makespan. In such a flow shop environment, each job needs apallet the entire time, from the start of its first operation until the completion of the lastoperation, and the number of pallets in the shop at any given time is limited by a positiveinteger K ≤ n. Generally speaking, the optimal schedules may be passing schedules. In thispaper, we present a combinatorial property which shows that for two machines, K(K ≥ 3)pallets, there exists a no-passing schedule which is an optimal schedule for n ≤ 2K - 1 and2K - 1 is tight.

  15. Two-machine flow shop scheduling integrated with preventive maintenance planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shijin; Liu, Ming

    2016-02-01

    This paper investigates an integrated optimisation problem of production scheduling and preventive maintenance (PM) in a two-machine flow shop with time to failure of each machine subject to a Weibull probability distribution. The objective is to find the optimal job sequence and the optimal PM decisions before each job such that the expected makespan is minimised. To investigate the value of integrated scheduling solution, computational experiments on small-scale problems with different configurations are conducted with total enumeration method, and the results are compared with those of scheduling without maintenance but with machine degradation, and individual job scheduling combined with independent PM planning. Then, for large-scale problems, four genetic algorithm (GA) based heuristics are proposed. The numerical results with several large problem sizes and different configurations indicate the potential benefits of integrated scheduling solution and the results also show that proposed GA-based heuristics are efficient for the integrated problem.

  16. The Influence Of The Ship's Steering Machine Over Yaw And Roll Motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel NICOLAU

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The steering machine is a nonlinear system, with two important limitations: the maximum rudder angle and rudder rate. Therefore, the commands from yaw and rudder-roll control systems are modified and the expected effect is not always the optimum one. It is important to know the influence of the steering machine, trying to avoid the limitations or to include them into the control law. The goal of this paper is to analyze the steering machine limitations and their influence over yaw and roll motions of the ship. Also, some expert rules are generated, which can be used to implement more efficient control laws.

  17. Shaper and Milling Machine Operation, Machine Shop Work 2: 9555.04.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The course outline has been prepared to assist the student in learning the basic skills and safety for shaper and milling operations. The course presents the various types of machines, work holding devices, cutting tools and feeds and speeds, and instruction designed to enable the student to obtain the manipulative skills and related knowledge…

  18. Makespan Minimization for The Identical Machine Parallel Shop with Sequence Dependent Setup Times Using a Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salazar-Hornig E.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A genetic algorithm for the parallel shop with identical machines scheduling problem with sequence dependent setup times and makespan (Cmáx minimization is presented. The genetic algorithm is compared with other heuristic methods using a randomly generated test problem set. A local improvement procedure in the evolutionary process of the genetic algorithm is introduced, which significantly improves its performance.

  19. Heuristic and Exact Algorithms for the Two-Machine Just in Time Job Shop Scheduling Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al-Salem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem addressed in this paper is the two-machine job shop scheduling problem when the objective is to minimize the total earliness and tardiness from a common due date (CDD for a set of jobs when their weights equal 1 (unweighted problem. This objective became very significant after the introduction of the Just in Time manufacturing approach. A procedure to determine whether the CDD is restricted or unrestricted is developed and a semirestricted CDD is defined. Algorithms are introduced to find the optimal solution when the CDD is unrestricted and semirestricted. When the CDD is restricted, which is a much harder problem, a heuristic algorithm is proposed to find approximate solutions. Through computational experiments, the heuristic algorithms’ performance is evaluated with problems up to 500 jobs.

  20. A bi-criteria M-machine SDST flow shop scheduling using modified ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    1*Department of Mechanical Engineering, University Institute of Engineering &Technology, ... Keywords: Flow shop scheduling, Modified Heuristic Genetic algorithm (MHGA), .... and Mirghorbani (2007) developed multi-objective particle swarm optimization for flow shop ..... Designing optimal parameters using design of ...

  1. Two-agent scheduling in open shops subject to machine availability and eligibility constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Huey Su

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aims of this article are to develop a new mathematical formulation and a new heuristic for the problem of preemptive two-agent scheduling in open shops subject to machine maintenance and eligibility constraints. Design/methodology: Using the ideas of minimum cost flow network and constraint programming, a heuristic and a network based linear programming are proposed to solve the problem. Findings: Computational experiments show that the heuristic generates a good quality schedule with a deviation of 0.25% on average from the optimum and the network based linear programming model can solve problems up to 110 jobs combined with 10 machines without considering the constraint that each operation can be processed on at most one machine at a time. In order to satisfy this constraint, a time consuming Constraint Programming is proposed. For n = 80 and m = 10, the average execution time for the combined models (linear programming model combined with Constraint programming exceeds two hours. Therefore, the heuristic algorithm we developed is very efficient and is in need. Practical implications: Its practical implication occurs in TFT-LCD and E-paper manufacturing wherein units go through a series of diagnostic tests that do not have to be performed in any specified order. Originality/value: The main contribution of the article is to split the time horizon into many time intervals and use the dispatching rule for each time interval in the heuristic algorithm, and also to combine the minimum cost flow network with the Constraint Programming to solve the problem optimally. 

  2. The Desktop Muon Detector: A simple, physics-motivated machine- and electronics-shop project for university students

    CERN Document Server

    Axani, Spencer N; Kirby, Conor

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes an undergraduate-level physics project that incorporates various aspects of machine- and electronics-shop technical development. The desktop muon detector is a self-contained apparatus that employs plastic scintillator as a detection medium and a silicon photomultiplier for light collection. These detectors can be used in conjunction with the provided software to make interesting physics measurements. The total cost of each counter is approximately $100.

  3. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE DYNAMICS OF CENTRIFUGAL CASTING MACHINES FOR PRODUCTION OF MILL ROLLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Anofriev

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The main purpose of experimental studies is to establish the adequacy of the developed mathematical models of machine fluctuations and the actual parameters of machine vibration. Almost all casting machines for the production of mill rolls have a unique design and performances. The additional aim of this work is to compare the vibration level of the casting machine with the requirements of the current vibration standards for new technological machines. Frequency analysis of the oscillations allows establishing defects in workmanship, errors of rotating parts installation and their influence on the dynamics of the machine. Methodology. Measurement of vibration parameters was performed on the moving parts of roller bearings of the machine. To measure the amplitudes of accelerations in three mutually perpendicular directions piezoelectric sensors with magnetic mount were used. Electrical signals from the sensors were recorded on magnetic tape. Further analysis of the oscillations was carried out and visualized using specialized frequency analyzer. The frequency analyzer implements the algorithm of fast Fourier transformation and/or integration of sensor input signal. After the first integration the data for plotting the vibration velocity spectrogram were obtained and as a result of the second integration there are the data of vibration displacements spectrogram of the machine supports. Findings. The results of experimental studies of centrifugal casting machine vibrations for the production of two-layer rolls were presented. There were obtained and analyzed the spectrograms of accelerations, velocities and displacements of moving parts of the upper and lower roller supports. The work of the machine is associated with the calculated values passing of critical frequencies and the short-term development of resonance oscillations of the rotor and roller bearings. Originality. For the first time the author obtained the frequency spectra of

  4. Reliability of the hospital nutrition environment scan for cafeterias, vending machines, and gift shops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Courtney P; Sallis, James F; Swartz, Michael D; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Peskin, Melissa F

    2013-08-01

    According to ecological models, the physical environment plays a major role in determining individual health behaviors. As such, researchers have started targeting the consumer nutrition environment of large-scale foodservice operations when implementing obesity-prevention programs. In 2010, the American Hospital Association released a call-to-action encouraging health care facilities to join in this movement and improve their facilities' consumer nutrition environments. The Hospital Nutrition Environment Scan (HNES) for Cafeterias, Vending Machines, and Gift Shops was developed in 2011, and the present study evaluated the inter-rater reliability of this instrument. Two trained raters visited 39 hospitals in southern California and completed the HNES. Percent agreement, kappa statistics, and intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated. Percent agreement between raters ranged from 74.4% to 100% and kappa statistics ranged from 0.458 to 1.0. The intraclass correlation coefficient for the overall nutrition composite scores was 0.961. Given these results, the HNES demonstrated acceptable reliability metrics and can now be disseminated to assess the current state of hospital consumer nutrition environments.

  5. Temperature and phase transformations fields during surfacing by welding of CCS machine roll

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Winczek

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In work have been presented models of temperature fields and kinetics of phase transformations in continuous casting steel machine roll surfacing spiral welding sequence with swinging motion of welding head. The temperature field was determined by analytical solution for massive body heated by moving voluminal heat source. The progress of diffusional phase transformations was described basing on equation of kinetics JMA-K and Koistinen-Marburger’s for martensitic transfomation. Deliberations were illustrated by computational example of surfaced roll made from steel 13CrMo4. The temperature field and structural components fraction was calcualated in section of regenerated area of material decline (along the roll axis. Considering critical temperatures, heat-affected zones have been determined: A1 and A3 – austenitic transformation, and solidus - fusion line. Accepted technological parameters of rebuilding gave results that reproduce geometry of padding weld heat-affected zones confirmed experimentally.

  6. Machining characteristics of complex prism pattern on electroplated roll by copper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tae-Jin JE; Sang-Cheon PARK; Kang-Won LEE; Yeong-Eun YOO; Doo-Sun CHOI; Kyung-Hyun WHANG; Myung-Chang KANG

    2009-01-01

    The BLU (back light unit)is the core component of the LCD for notebook, mobile-phone, navigation, as well as large sized TV, PID (public information display), etc. In order to enhance optical efficiency of LCD, optical films with the uniform prism patterns have been used for BLU by stacking two films up orthogonally. In this case, light interference-phenomenon occurred such as Morie, wet-out, u-turning, etc. It caused several problems such as low brightness, spots and stripes in LCD. Recently, the high-luminance micro complex prism patterns are actively studied to avoid the light interference-phenomenon and enhance the optical efficiency. In this study, the roll master to manufacture complex micro prism pattern film was machined by using the high precision lathe. The machined patterns on the roll master were 50, 45, 40, 35, 30, 25, 20, 15, 10 and 5μm in the pitch with 25.0, 22.5, 20.0, 17.5, 15.0, 12.5, 10.0, 7.5, 5.0 and 2.5 μm in the peak height, respectively. The roll was 2 000 mm in length and 320 mm in diameter. The electroplated roll by copper and the natural single crystal diamond tool was used for machining the patterns. The cutting force was measured and analyzed for each cutting condition by using the dynamometer. The chips and the surfaces after being machined were analyzed by SEM and microscope.

  7. Rolling optimization algorithm based on collision window for single machine scheduling problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Changjun; Xi Yugeng

    2005-01-01

    Focusing on the single machine scheduling problem which minimizes the total completion time in the presence of dynamic job arrivals, a rolling optimization scheduling algorithm is proposed based on the analysis of the character and structure of scheduling. An optimal scheduling strategy in collision window is presented. Performance evaluation of this algorithm is given. Simulation indicates that the proposed algorithm is better than other common heuristic algorithms on both the total performance and stability.

  8. A new encoding scheme-based hybrid algorithm for minimising two-machine flow-shop group scheduling problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Cheng-Dar; Hsieh, Yi-Chih; Chen, Yin-Yann

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the two-machine flow-shop group scheduling problem (GSP) with sequence-dependent setup and removal times, and job transportation times between machines. The objective is to minimise the total completion time. As known, this problem is an NP-hard problem and generalises the typical two-machine GSPs. In this article, a new encoding scheme based on permutation representation is proposed to transform a random job permutation to a feasible permutation for GSPs. The proposed encoding scheme simultaneously determines both the sequence of jobs in each group and the sequence of groups. By reasonably combining particle swarm optimisation (PSO) and genetic algorithm (GA), we develop a fast and easily implemented hybrid algorithm (HA) for solving the considered problems. The effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed HA are demonstrated and compared with those of standard PSO and GA by numerical results of various tested instances with group numbers up to 20. In addition, three different lower bounds are developed to evaluate the solution quality of the HA. Limited numerical results indicate that the proposed HA is a viable and effective approach for the studied two-machine flow-shop group scheduling problem.

  9. Optimization of man-machine roll allocation in automatic systems; Jidoka system ni okeru hito to kikai no yakuwari buntan no saitekika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamasaki, H. [Yokokawa Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Research and Development Lab.

    1996-08-10

    Bearing reliability and safety of automatic systems in mind, man-machine roll allocation in the operation of facilities is examined, and the optimal roll allocation is proposed. The outline of the method for man-machine roll allocation is given in process instrumentation system, robotized assembly plant, railroad operation control system, and passenger airplane operation control system. The types of man-machine roll allocation in automatic system is divided into normal and emergency cases. Improvement in the total reliability of man-machine system can be expected by man-machine mutual complementary roll allocation. The core of the intelligent support system for emergency is the growing knowledge base, and the system performs intelligent support automatically or with the support of human in an emergency. For smooth man-machine information interchange at man`s own will, logical difference between man and machine must be adjusted in the man-machine interface. 8 refs., 2 tabs.

  10. Development of a copy-peeling machine for machining the surface of hot rolled square billets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, R. E.; Fangmeier, R.; Seppelt, B.

    1986-01-01

    A copy-peeling system to replace the high-pressure grinding method, especially for stainless steel qualities, was developed. The copy-peeling process for square billets was accomplished on an existing planing machine with special test attachments as well as on a specially developed copy-peeling machine. The attainable material removals and the tool life reached during the tests with stainless steel are not sufficient to offer an economic and technically advanced alternative to high-pressure grinding. The advantages of copy peeling with respect to safety and health of the operational personnel are obvious. However, it cannot be expected that this process will be applied extensively.

  11. Effect of Stiffness of Rolling Joints on the Dynamic Characteristic of Ball Screw Feed Systems in a Milling Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dazhong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic characteristic of ball screw feed system in a milling machine is studied numerically in this work. In order to avoid the difficulty in determining the stiffness of rolling joints theoretically, a dynamic modeling method for analyzing the feed system is discussed, and a stiffness calculation method of the rolling joints is proposed based on the Hertz contact theory. Taking a 3-axis computer numerical control (CNC milling machine set ermined as a research object, the stiffness of its fixed joint between the column and the body together with the stiffness parameters of the rolling joints is evaluated according to the Takashi Yoshimura method. Then, a finite element (FE model is established for the machine tool. The correctness of the FE model and the stiffness calculation method of the rolling joints are validated by theoretical and experimental modal analysis results of the machine tool’s workbench. Under the two modeling methods of joints incorporating the stiffness parameters and rigid connection, a theoretical modal analysis is conducted for the CNC milling machine. The natural frequencies and modal shapes reveal that the joints’ dynamic characteristic has an important influence on the dynamic performance of a whole machine tool, especially for the case with natural frequency and higher modes.

  12. Wear resistance of machine tools' bionic linear rolling guides by laser cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiqiang; Liu, Botao; Guo, Zhengcai

    2017-06-01

    In order to improve the rolling wear resistance (RWR) of linear rolling guides (LRG) as well as prolong the life of machine tools, various shape samples with different units spaces ranged from 1 to 5 mm are designed through the observation of animals in the desert and manufactured by laser cladding. Wear resistance tests reproducing closely the real operational condition are conducted by using a homemade linear reciprocating wear test machine, and wear resistance is evaluated by means of weight loss measurement. Results indicate that the samples with bionic units have better RWR than the untreated one, of which the reticulate treated sample with unit space 3 mm present the best RWR. More specifically, among the punctuate treated samples, the mass loss increases with the increase of unit space; among the striate treated samples, the mass loss changes slightly with the increase of unit space, attaining a minimum at the unit space of 4 mm; among the reticulate treated samples, with the increase of unit space, the mass loss initially decreases, but turns to increase after reaching a minimum at the unit space of 3 mm. Additionally, the samples with striate shape perform better wear resistance than the other shape groups on the whole. From the ratio value of laser treated area to contacted area perspective, that the samples with ratio value between 0.15 and 0.3 possess better wear resistance is concluded.

  13. A decomposition heuristics based on multi-bottleneck machines for large-scale job shop scheduling problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingni Zhai

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: A decomposition heuristics based on multi-bottleneck machines for large-scale job shop scheduling problems (JSP is proposed.Design/methodology/approach: In the algorithm, a number of sub-problems are constructed by iteratively decomposing the large-scale JSP according to the process route of each job. And then the solution of the large-scale JSP can be obtained by iteratively solving the sub-problems. In order to improve the sub-problems' solving efficiency and the solution quality, a detection method for multi-bottleneck machines based on critical path is proposed. Therewith the unscheduled operations can be decomposed into bottleneck operations and non-bottleneck operations. According to the principle of “Bottleneck leads the performance of the whole manufacturing system” in TOC (Theory Of Constraints, the bottleneck operations are scheduled by genetic algorithm for high solution quality, and the non-bottleneck operations are scheduled by dispatching rules for the improvement of the solving efficiency.Findings: In the process of the sub-problems' construction, partial operations in the previous scheduled sub-problem are divided into the successive sub-problem for re-optimization. This strategy can improve the solution quality of the algorithm. In the process of solving the sub-problems, the strategy that evaluating the chromosome's fitness by predicting the global scheduling objective value can improve the solution quality.Research limitations/implications: In this research, there are some assumptions which reduce the complexity of the large-scale scheduling problem. They are as follows: The processing route of each job is predetermined, and the processing time of each operation is fixed. There is no machine breakdown, and no preemption of the operations is allowed. The assumptions should be considered if the algorithm is used in the actual job shop.Originality/value: The research provides an efficient scheduling method for the

  14. Expanding Options. A Model to Attract Secondary Students into Nontraditional Vocational Programs. For Emphasis in: Building Trades, Electronics, Health Services, Machine Shop, Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, James D.; DeVore, Mary Ann

    This model has been designed for use by Missouri secondary schools in attracting females and males into nontraditional occupational programs. The research-based strategies are intended for implementation in the following areas: attracting females into building trades, electronics, machine shop, and welding; and males into secondary health…

  15. How the Landscape of Random Job Shop Scheduling Instances Depends on the Ratio of Jobs to Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, S F; 10.1613/jair.2013

    2011-01-01

    We characterize the search landscape of random instances of the job shop scheduling problem (JSP). Specifically, we investigate how the expected values of (1) backbone size, (2) distance between near-optimal schedules, and (3) makespan of random schedules vary as a function of the job to machine ratio (N/M). For the limiting cases N/M approaches 0 and N/M approaches infinity we provide analytical results, while for intermediate values of N/M we perform experiments. We prove that as N/M approaches 0, backbone size approaches 100%, while as N/M approaches infinity the backbone vanishes. In the process we show that as N/M approaches 0 (resp. N/M approaches infinity), simple priority rules almost surely generate an optimal schedule, providing theoretical evidence of an "easy-hard-easy" pattern of typical-case instance difficulty in job shop scheduling. We also draw connections between our theoretical results and the "big valley" picture of JSP landscapes.

  16. DJL-100型温室大棚卷帘机设计%Design of Type DJL-100 Rolling Blinds Machine for Greenhouse Using

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高占文

    2015-01-01

    In order to increase the security of rolling blinds machine for greenhouse using, type DJL-100 rolling blinds machine is de-signed. The article introduces rolling blinds machine's structure and operating principle, discusses the determination method of main technical parameter and motor selecting for rolling blinds machine, verifies the machine's working load and its maximum limitation, de-termines logical design for the machine.%为提高卷帘机的安全性,设计DJL-100型温室大棚卷帘机。详细介绍卷帘机的结构及工作原理,探讨卷帘机主要技术参数的确定方法及电动机的选择,校核卷帘机的工作负荷和最大工作负荷,确定卷帘机设计合理。

  17. 滚动体加工工艺技术与装备发展方向%Machining Process Technology and Development Direction of Equipment for Rolling Elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永乾

    2015-01-01

    The machining process technology and equipment are introduced for rolling elements in China,and the cur-rent situation and existing main problems about machining process for rolling elements in China are analyzed.The de-velopment direction of machining process technology for rolling elements is discussed.%通过对国内滚动体加工工艺技术及装备的介绍,分析了我国滚动体加工工艺现状及存在的主要问题,探讨了滚动体加工工艺技术的发展方向。

  18. Machine Shop. Module 4: Power Saw and Drill Press Operation. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walden, Charles H.; Daniel, Bill

    This document consists of materials for a six-unit course on the following topics: (1) power saw safety and maintenance; (2) cutting stock to length; (3) band machining and contouring; (4) drill press types and safety; (5) drill press work-holding devices; and (6) tools and tool holders. The instructor's guide begins with a list of competencies…

  19. Optimization process planning using hybrid genetic algorithm and intelligent search for job shop machining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Mojtaba; Bahreininejad, Ardeshir

    2011-08-01

    Optimization of process planning is considered as the key technology for computer-aided process planning which is a rather complex and difficult procedure. A good process plan of a part is built up based on two elements: (1) the optimized sequence of the operations of the part; and (2) the optimized selection of the machine, cutting tool and Tool Access Direction (TAD) for each operation. In the present work, the process planning is divided into preliminary planning, and secondary/detailed planning. In the preliminary stage, based on the analysis of order and clustering constraints as a compulsive constraint aggregation in operation sequencing and using an intelligent searching strategy, the feasible sequences are generated. Then, in the detailed planning stage, using the genetic algorithm which prunes the initial feasible sequences, the optimized operation sequence and the optimized selection of the machine, cutting tool and TAD for each operation based on optimization constraints as an additive constraint aggregation are obtained. The main contribution of this work is the optimization of sequence of the operations of the part, and optimization of machine selection, cutting tool and TAD for each operation using the intelligent search and genetic algorithm simultaneously.

  20. Finger milling-cutter CNC generating hypoid pinion tooth surfaces based on modified-roll method and machining simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Genggeng; Deng, Xiaozhong; Wei, Bingyang; Lei, Baozhen

    2011-05-01

    The two coordinate systems of cradle-type hypoid generator and free-form CNC machine tool by application disc milling-cutter to generate hypoid pinion tooth surfaces based on the modified-roll method were set up, respectively, and transformation principle and method for machine-tool settings between the two coordinate systems was studied. It was presented that finger milling-cutter was mounted on imagined disc milling-cutter and its motion was controlled directly by CNC shafts to replace disc milling-cutter blades effective cutting motion. Finger milling-cutter generation accomplished by ordered circular interpolation was determined, and interpolation center, starting and ending were worked out. Finally, a hypoid pinion was virtually machined by using CNC machining simulation software VERICUT.

  1. Consumer Nutrition Environments of Hospitals: An Exploratory Analysis Using the Hospital Nutrition Environment Scan for Cafeterias, Vending Machines, and Gift Shops, 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Courtney P. Winston, DrPH, RD, LD, CDE; James F. Sallis, PhD; Michael D. Swartz, PhD; Deanna M. Hoelscher, PhD, RD; Melissa F. Peskin, PhD

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Hospitals are the primary worksite of over 5 million adults in the United States, and millions of meals are procured and consumed in this setting. Because many worksite nutrition initiatives use an ecological framework to improve the dietary habits of employees, the nutrition values of foods served in hospitals is receiving attention. Methods This study used the Hospital Nutrition Environment Scan for Cafeterias, Vending Machines, and Gift Shops to quantitatively describe the con...

  2. The Effect of the Rolling Direction, Temperature, and Etching Time on the Photochemical Machining of Monel 400 Microchannels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepakkumar H. Patil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes the effect of the rolling direction on the quality of microchannels manufactured using photochemical machining (PCM of Monel 400. Experiments were carried out to fabricate microchannels along and across the rolling direction to investigate the effect of the grain orientation on microchannel etching. The input parameters considered were channel width and rolling direction, whereas the depth of etch was the response parameters. Different channels of widths of 60, 100, 150, 200, and 250 μm were etched. The effects of the etching time and temperature of the etchant solution on the undercut and depth of the microchannels were studied. For good quality microchannels, the effects of spinning time, spinning speed, exposure time, and photoresist film strength were also taken into consideration. Optimized values of the above were used for the experimentation. The results show that the depth of etch of the microchannel increases more along the rolling direction than across the rolling direction. The channel width and depth are significantly affected by the etching time and temperature. The proposed study reports an improvement in the quality of microchannels produced using PCM.

  3. Rolling bearing fault detection and diagnosis based on composite multiscale fuzzy entropy and ensemble support vector machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jinde; Pan, Haiyang; Cheng, Junsheng

    2017-02-01

    To timely detect the incipient failure of rolling bearing and find out the accurate fault location, a novel rolling bearing fault diagnosis method is proposed based on the composite multiscale fuzzy entropy (CMFE) and ensemble support vector machines (ESVMs). Fuzzy entropy (FuzzyEn), as an improvement of sample entropy (SampEn), is a new nonlinear method for measuring the complexity of time series. Since FuzzyEn (or SampEn) in single scale can not reflect the complexity effectively, multiscale fuzzy entropy (MFE) is developed by defining the FuzzyEns of coarse-grained time series, which represents the system dynamics in different scales. However, the MFE values will be affected by the data length, especially when the data are not long enough. By combining information of multiple coarse-grained time series in the same scale, the CMFE algorithm is proposed in this paper to enhance MFE, as well as FuzzyEn. Compared with MFE, with the increasing of scale factor, CMFE obtains much more stable and consistent values for a short-term time series. In this paper CMFE is employed to measure the complexity of vibration signals of rolling bearings and is applied to extract the nonlinear features hidden in the vibration signals. Also the physically meanings of CMFE being suitable for rolling bearing fault diagnosis are explored. Based on these, to fulfill an automatic fault diagnosis, the ensemble SVMs based multi-classifier is constructed for the intelligent classification of fault features. Finally, the proposed fault diagnosis method of rolling bearing is applied to experimental data analysis and the results indicate that the proposed method could effectively distinguish different fault categories and severities of rolling bearings.

  4. REFINEMENT AND GRANULATING OF COHERENT-GRANULAR MATERIALS IN MACHINES OF ROLL TYPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. Lozhechnikov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The way of selective break of heterogeneous compositions, in particular slags of copper-smelting production and also granular metal-containing powder materials, is based and developed. Calibration of the rolls, providing contrilled granulating of metal-containing powders by rolling.

  5. AUTOMATION METHODS FOR FORMING AND RECTIFYING STIFFENED PARTS WITH ROLLING MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Ye. Pashkov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To improve the capabilities of forming and rectifying stiffened parts, rolling as one of the implemented methods of local plastic deformation has been examined. The tools for edge and sheet rolling have been described. The methods of process automation have been developed.

  6. Texture Analysis using The Neutron Diffraction Method on The Non Standardized Austenitic Steel Process by Machining,Annealing, and Rolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Hardi Priyanto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Austenitic steel is one type of stainless steel which is widely used in the industry. Many studies on  austenitic stainless steel have been performed to determine the physicalproperties using various types of equipment and methods. In this study, the neutron diffraction method is used to characterize the materials which have been made from  minerals extracted from the mines in Indonesia. The materials consist of a granular ferro-scrap, nickel, ferro-chrome, ferro-manganese, and ferro-silicon added with a little titanium. Characterization of the materials was carried out in threeprocesses, namely: machining, annealing, and rolling. Experimental results obtained from the machining process generally produces a texture in the 〈100〉direction. From the machining to annealing process, the texture index decreases from 3.0164 to 2.434.Texture strength in the machining process (BA2N sample is  8.13 mrd and it then decreases to 6.99 in the annealing process (A2DO sample. In the annealing process the three-component texture appears, cube-on-edge type texture{110}〈001〉, cube-type texture {001}〈100〉, and brass-type {110}〈112〉. The texture is very strong leading to the direction of orientation {100}〈001〉, while the {011}〈100〉is weaker than that of the {001}, and texture withorientation {110}〈112〉is weak. In the annealing process stress release occurred, and this was shown by more randomly pole compared to stress release by the machining process. In the rolling process a brass-type texture{110}〈112〉with a spread towards the goss-type texture {110}〈001〉 appeared,  and  the  brass  component  is markedly  reinforced  compared  to  the undeformed state (before rolling. Moreover, the presence of an additional {110} component was observed at the center of the (110 pole figure. The pole density of three components increases withthe increasing degree of thickness reduction. By increasing degrees

  7. A new Nawaz-Enscore-Ham-based heuristic for permutation flow-shop problems with bicriteria of makespan and machine idle time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weibo; Jin, Yan; Price, Mark

    2016-10-01

    A new heuristic based on the Nawaz-Enscore-Ham algorithm is proposed in this article for solving a permutation flow-shop scheduling problem. A new priority rule is proposed by accounting for the average, mean absolute deviation, skewness and kurtosis, in order to fully describe the distribution style of processing times. A new tie-breaking rule is also introduced for achieving effective job insertion with the objective of minimizing both makespan and machine idle time. Statistical tests illustrate better solution quality of the proposed algorithm compared to existing benchmark heuristics.

  8. INFLUENCE OF FEEDING ELECTRIC ENERGY QUALITY ON HEATING OF THE AUXILIARY MA-CHINES OF AC ELECTRIC ROLLING STOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. YU. Baliichuk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The article aims to study the problem of increase the reliability of auxiliary machines for AC electric trains during operation in real conditions. Methodology. The peculiarity of system construction of auxiliary machines for AC electric rolling stock is the use of asynchronous motors for general industrial purpose. An engineering method of influence determination on the feeding voltage asymmetry and its deviation from the nominal value on heating of auxiliary machines insulation was proposed. Findings. It is found out that in case when the auxiliary machines of AC electric trains work under asymmetry factor of the voltage 10% or more and feeding voltage deviation from the nominal order 0.6 relative unit then it is possible the overheat of their isolation, even if it has class H. Originality. For the first time the issue of the total insulation heating under such boundary parameters combinations of energy quality, when each of them contributes to the heating insulation increase as compared to the nominal regime of the "rotating phase splitter−auxiliary machinery" system was illuminated. Practical value. Conducted research allow us to establish the boundary parameter values of feeding energy quality (asymmetry factor, feeding voltage deviations from the nominal value, at which additional isolation overheating of this class under the effect of specified factors will not exceed the agreed value.

  9. Machine Shop Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Projects at IARC can benefit from Fermilab's experienced machinists, welders, and extensive on-site equipment. Equipment includes conventional and CNC mills, lathes,...

  10. Innovation prize for air-conditioned assembly shop - Constant temperature allows the assembly of high-precision machining centres; Innovationspreis fuer klimatisierte Montagehalle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, W.

    2002-07-01

    This article describes the clever combination of various techniques to achieve the goal of providing a stable ambient temperature with an accuracy of +/- 1 K in the assembly shop of a German manufacturer of precision machine tools. The requirements placed on the assembly and operation of machine tools operating to an accuracy of less that a hundredth of a millimetre are discussed. The award-winning heating and cooling system, which features the use of gravity cooling, geothermal energy (ground water for cooling) and the use of constructional elements (floor, facades, windows) for thermal buffering is described. The ingenious control system with 32 control zones and 64 sensors is described, which also provides the company's management with long-term documentation of temperature conditions for quality assurance purposes. Technical data on the installation is provided in table form.

  11. Regulation of unbalanced electromagnetic moment in mutual loading systems of electric machines of traction rolling stock and multiple unit of mainline and industrial transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Afanasov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The research data are aimed to identify the regulatory principles of unbalanced electromagnetic moment of mutually loaded electric machines of traction rolling stock and multiple unit of main and industrial transport. The purpose of this study is energy efficiency increase of the testing of traction electric machines of direct and pulse current using the improvement methods of their mutual loading, including the principles of automatic regulation of mutual loading system. Methodology. The general theoretical provisions and principles of system approach to the theoretical electric engineering, the theory of electric machines and theoretical mechanics are the methodological basis of this research. The known methods of analysis of electromagnetic and electromechanical processes in electrical machines of direct and pulse current are used in the study. Methods analysis of loading modes regulation of traction electric machines was conducted using the generalized scheme of mutual loading. It is universal for all known methods to cover the losses of idling using the electric power. Findings. The general management principles of mutual loading modes of the traction electric machines of direct and pulse current by regulating their unbalanced electric magnetic moment were developed. Regulatory options of unbalanced electromagnetic moment are examined by changing the difference of the magnetic fluxes of mutually loaded electric machines, the current difference of electric machines anchors, the difference of the angular velocities of electric machines shafts. Originality. It was obtained the scientific basis development to improve the energy efficiency test methods of traction electric machines of direct and pulse current. The management principles of mutual loading modes of traction electric machines were formulated. For the first time it is introduced the concept and developed the principles of regulation of unbalanced electromagnetic moment in

  12. Algoritmo genético aplicado a la programación en talleres de maquinado//Genetic algorithm applied to scheduling in machine shops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Márquez-Delgado

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se utiliza la metaheurística nombrada algoritmo genético, para dos variantes típicas de problemas de planificación presentes en un taller de maquinado de piezas: las variantes flujo general y flujo regular, y se ha seleccionado la minimización del tiempo de finalización de todos los trabajos ocamino máximo, como objetivo a optimizar en un plan de trabajo. Este problema es considerado de difícil solución y es típico de la optimización combinatoria. Los resultados demuestran la calidad de las soluciones encontradas en correspondencia con el tiempo de cómputo empleado, al ser comparados conproblemas clásicos reportados por otros autores. La representación propuesta de cada cromosoma genera el universo completo de soluciones factibles, donde es posible encontrar valores óptimos globales de solución y cumple con las restricciones del problema.Palabras claves: algoritmo genético, cromosomas, flujo general, flujo regular, planificación, camino máximo._____________________________________________________________________________AbstractIn this paper we use the metaheuristic named genetic algorithm, for two typical variants of problems of scheduling present in a in a machine shop parts: the variant job shop and flow shop, and the minimization of the time of finalization of all the works has been selected, good known as makespan, as objective tooptimize in a work schedule. This problem is considered to be a difficult solution and is typical in combinatory optimization. The results demonstrate the quality of the solutions found in correspondence with the time of used computation, when being compared with classic problems reported by other authors.The proposed representation of each chromosome generates the complete universe of feasible solutions, where it is possible to find global good values of solution and it fulfills the restrictions of the problem.Key words: genetic algorithm, chromosomes, flow shop, job shop

  13. Rolling forecasting model of PM2.5 concentration based on support vector machine and particle swarm optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chang-Jiang; Dai, Li-Jie; Ma, Lei-Ming

    2016-10-01

    The data of current PM2.5 model forecasting greatly deviate from the measured concentration. In order to solve this problem, Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) are combined to build a rolling forecasting model. The important parameters (C and γ) of SVM are optimized by PSO. The data (from February to July in 2015), consisting of measured PM2.5 concentration, PM2.5 model forecasting concentration and five main model forecasting meteorological factors, are provided by Shanghai Meteorological Bureau in Pudong New Area. The rolling model is used to forecast hourly PM2.5 concentration in 12 hours in advance and the nighttime average concentration (mean value from 9 pm to next day 8 am) during the upcoming day. The training data and the optimal parameters of SVM model are different in every forecasting, that is to say, different models (dynamic models) are built in every forecasting. SVM model is compared with Radical Basis Function Neural Network (RBFNN), Multi-variable Linear Regression (MLR) and WRF-CHEM. Experimental results show that the proposed model improves the forecasting accuracy of hourly PM2.5 concentration in 12 hours in advance and nighttime average concentration during the upcoming day. SVM model performs better than MLR, RBFNN and WRF-CHEM. SVM model greatly improves the forecasting accuracy of PM2.5 concentration one hour in advance, according with the result concluded from previous research. The rolling forecasting model can be applied to the field of PM2.5 concentration forecasting, and can offer help to meteorological administration in PM2.5 concentration monitoring and forecasting.

  14. Science Shops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1999-01-01

    The paper prsents the overall concept of science shops as practised in most of the European science shops and present the concept practised and some experience obtained at the Technical University of Denmark. An outline for the planning of new sceince shops is presented.......The paper prsents the overall concept of science shops as practised in most of the European science shops and present the concept practised and some experience obtained at the Technical University of Denmark. An outline for the planning of new sceince shops is presented....

  15. Science Shops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1999-01-01

    The paper prsents the overall concept of science shops as practised in most of the European science shops and present the concept practised and some experience obtained at the Technical University of Denmark. An outline for the planning of new sceince shops is presented.......The paper prsents the overall concept of science shops as practised in most of the European science shops and present the concept practised and some experience obtained at the Technical University of Denmark. An outline for the planning of new sceince shops is presented....

  16. A two-stage flexible flow-shop scheduling problem with m identical parallel machines on one stage and a batch processor on the other stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Long-min; SUN Shi-jie; CHENG Ming-bao

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers a hybrid two-stage flow-shop scheduling problem with m identical parallel machineson one stage and a batch processor on the other stage.The processing time of job Jj on any of m identical parallel machines is aj≡a(j∈N),and the processing time of job Jj is bj(j∈N)on a batch processor M.We take makespan(Cmax)as our minimization objective.In this paper,for the problem of FSMP-BI(m identical parallel machines on the first stage and a batch processor on the second stage),based on the algorithm given by Sung and Choung for the problem of l I rj,BI I Cmax under the constraint of the given processing sequence,we develop an optimal dynamic programming Algorithm H1 for it in max{O(nlogn),O(nB)} time.A max{O(nlogn),O(nB)} time symmetric Algorithm H2 is given then for the problem of BI-FSMP(a batch processor on the first stage and m identical parallel machines on the second stage).

  17. An economic lot and delivery scheduling problem with the fuzzy shelf life in a flexible job shop with unrelated parallel machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dousthaghi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers an economic lot and delivery scheduling problem (ELDSP in a fuzzy environment with the fuzzy shelf life for each product. This problem is formulated in a flexible job shop with unrelated parallel machines, when the planning horizon is finite and it determines lot sizing, scheduling and sequencing, simultaneously. The proposed model of this paper is based on the basic period (BP approach. In this paper, a mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP model is presented and then it is changed into two models in the fuzzy shelf life. The main model is dependent to the multiple basic periods and it is difficult to solve the resulted proposed model for large-scale problems in reasonable amount of time; thus, an efficient heuristic method is proposed to solve the problem. The performance of the proposed model is demonstrated using some numerical examples.

  18. HOW GOOD IS A DENSE SHOP SCHEDULE?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈礴; 俞文(鱼此)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we study a class of simple and easy-to-construct shop schedules, known as dense schedules. We present tight bounds on the maximum deviation in makespan of dense flow-shop and job-shop schedules from their optimal ones. For dense open-shop schedules, we do the same for the special case of four machines and thus add a stronger supporting case for proving a standing conjecture.

  19. ZJ17卷接机组的降噪研究%Research of noise control technology in ZJ17 cigarette rolling and connecting machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关存春

    2013-01-01

      为了降低卷烟企业生产车间的噪声污染,对 ZJ17卷接机组各生产工位的噪声进行了反复测试,并对噪声源进行了详细分析.提出了对 ZJ17卷接机组噪声治理的若干方法,治理后综合噪声降噪量达到了2.1 dB(A).%To decrease noise pollution problem emitted from ZJ17 Rolling and Connecting Machines mounted in the workshop of cigarette enterprises, by repeating noise measurements of specified working places of ZJ17 Rolling and Connecting Machine and detailed analysis of noise sources, several noise reduction solution methods for ZJ17 Rolling and Connecting Machine are presented. After acoustical treatments, total noise reduction reaches up to 2.1 dB(A).

  20. Classification of fault location and the degree of performance degradation of a rolling bearing based on an improved hyper-sphere-structured multi-class support vector machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yujing; Kang, Shouqiang; Jiang, Yicheng; Yang, Guangxue; Song, Lixin; Mikulovich, V. I.

    2012-05-01

    Effective classification of a rolling bearing fault location and especially its degree of performance degradation provides an important basis for appropriate fault judgment and processing. Two methods are introduced to extract features of the rolling bearing vibration signal—one combining empirical mode decomposition (EMD) with the autoregressive model, whose model parameters and variances of the remnant can be obtained using the Yule-Walker or Ulrych-Clayton method, and the other combining EMD with singular value decomposition. Feature vector matrices obtained are then regarded as the input of the improved hyper-sphere-structured multi-class support vector machine (HSSMC-SVM) for classification. Thereby, multi-status intelligent diagnosis of normal rolling bearings and faulty rolling bearings at different locations and the degrees of performance degradation of the faulty rolling bearings can be achieved simultaneously. Experimental results show that EMD combined with singular value decomposition and the improved HSSMC-SVM intelligent method requires less time and has a higher recognition rate.

  1. 回转体轧制导板机构的设计%The Design of Guide Board in Cross Wedge-rolling Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文慧; 邓子玉

    2011-01-01

    本文设计了SG70螺旋孔型微型斜轧机的导板机构.导板是轧制成形工艺中非常重要的一部分.它与轧辊孔型一起构成轧件的变形空间.导板的设计、加工、调整对轧件成形起着重要的作用.当对轧件尺寸精度要求较高时,对导板的要求就更高,导板的设计合理与否也是决定轧制成形成功与否的重要因素之一.该微型轧机原导板不能满足轧制连续成形的需要,为此,这里设计了循环链状导板,以满足轧制成形的需要.%The design of guide board in spiral groove rolling machine has been introduced in the text. Guide board is one of the most important parts in rolling forming process, which makes up the deformation space together with the semi-ellipse roller rolled-piece. The design, manufacture and adjustment of the guide board play an important role in forming of rolled-piece. The accuracy demands of the rolled piece size is higher, the requirement of the guide board is higher. The design of guide board is one crucial factor in the success rolling process. The original guide board can't satisfy the requirement of continuous rolling process, so the circular chain guide board has been designed to meet the requirement.

  2. Internet Shopping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪毓

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays you no longer need to walk round hundreds of shops looking for the items you need. You can shop for just about anything from your armchair. All you need is a computer and access(进入) to the Internet.

  3. Doctor Shopping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Lori A.

    2012-01-01

    Doctor shopping is defined as seeing multiple treatment providers, either during a single illness episode or to procure prescription medications illicitly. According to the available literature, prevalence rates of doctor shopping vary widely, from 6.3 to 56 percent. However, this variability is partially attributable to research methodology, including the study definition of doctor shopping as well as the patient sample. The reasons for doctor shopping are varied. Some patient explanations for this phenomenon relate to clinician factors, such as inconvenient office hours or locations, long waiting times, personal characteristics or qualities of the provider, and/or insufficient communication time between the patient and clinician. Some patient explanations relate to personal factors and include both illness factors (e.g., symptom persistence, lack of understanding or nonacceptance of the diagnosis or treatment) as well as psychological factors (e.g., somatization, prescription drug-seeking). Importantly, not all doctor shopping is driven by suspect motivations. Being aware of these various patient justifications for doctor shopping is important in understanding and managing these challenging patients in the clinical setting, whether they emerge in psychiatric or primary care environments. PMID:23346518

  4. Computational and Experimental Study of the Transient Transport Phenomena in a Full-Scale Twin-Roll Continuous Casting Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mianguang; Li, Zhongyang; Wang, Zhaohui; Zhu, Miaoyong

    2017-02-01

    To gain a fundamental understanding of the transient fluid flow in twin-roll continuous casting, the current paper applies both large eddy simulation (LES) and full-scale water modeling experiments to investigate the characteristics of the top free surface, stirring effect of the roll rotation, boundary layer fluctuations, and backflow stability. The results show that, the characteristics of the top free surface and the flow field in the wedge-shaped pool region are quite different with/without the consideration of the roll rotation. The roll rotation decreases the instantaneous fluctuation range of the top free surface, but increases its horizontal velocity. The stirring effect of the roll rotating makes the flow field more homogenous and there exists clear shear flow on the rotating roll surface. The vortex shedding induced by the Kármán Vortex Street from the submerged entry nozzle (SEN) causes the "velocity magnitude wave" and strongly influences the boundary layer stability and the backflow stability. The boundary layer fluctuations or the "velocity magnitude wave" induced by the vortex shedding could give rise to the internal porosity. In strip continuous casting process, the vortex shedding phenomenon indicates that the laminar flow can give rise to instability and that it should be made important in the design of the feeding system and the setting of the operating parameters.

  5. Shopping Malls - ShoppingCenters

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Collected from a variety of sources both commercial and internal, this layer represents shopping center locations within Volusia County and is maintained by the...

  6. Shopping Malls - ShoppingCenters

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Collected from a variety of sources both commercial and internal, this layer represents shopping center locations within Volusia County and is maintained by the...

  7. Post-machining thermal treatment after surface finishing of hardened steels: Kinetics of XRD line width reduction and improvement in rolling contact lifetime under mixed friction conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gegner, Juergen [SKF GmbH, Department of Material Physics, Ernst-Sachs-Str. 5, D-97424 Schweinfurt (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Hard surface finishing represents the final manufacturing step for functional areas of machine elements in state-of-the-art production. Raceways of rolling bearing rings are ground and honed to the required low roughness. Plastic deformation is restricted to a narrow edge zone of the hardened steel. Reheating of the machined components below the martensite tempering or bainite transformation temperature results in a marked decrease of the XRD line width on the surface. The investigated samples are made of through-hardened standard bearing steel 100Cr6 (international denotation: SAE 52100). On the basis of a material model that explains the effect as a complex diffusion process of dislocational carbon segregation, i.e. static strain aging, the measured kinetics of the XRD line width reduction is simulated by an Arrhenius-type equation, which describes the rate-controlling reaction step of temper carbide dissolution. The formation of a small white-etching surface layer of around 1 um thickness by post-machining thermal treatment (PMTT) strongly supports this assumption. First rig tests suggest a considerable increase of the lifetime of Hertzian loaded elements that operate under heavy surface loading. PMTT performed in air leads to a beneficial nanoscaled oxide layer.

  8. 一种基于最小二乘支持向量机JSP调度算法%An Algorithm Based on Least Squares Support Vector Machine for Job-shop Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文超; 杨宏兵

    2011-01-01

    作为生产调度里面一类典型问题,Job-shop问题的求解是属于NP完全的,对于大规模Job-shop 问题的有效算法至今仍未找到.在有向图模型基础上,提出通过约束引导方式获取可行调度.提出使用最小二乘支持向量机对样本学习实现可互换工序对准确选取,以此提高调度方案质量.将求解过程中特殊算例补充到样本库进行后续训练以提高算法性能.数值仿真结果表明所提算法对于大规模Job-shop问题求解存在较好效果.%As a kind of typical problem in production scheduling, the solving of Job-shop problem belongs to NP complete and the valid algorithm hasn' t been found until now for large scale Job-shop problems. The feasible scheduling can be obtained by adding guided constraint on the basis of directed graph. A method based on least squares support vector machine is constructed to choose accurately the interchangeable operations by learning small samples to obtain the better scheduling. The performance of the algorithm presented can be improved by replenishing special problems during running as supplementary samples for the following training. The results of simulation show that the algorithm performed well for Job-shop problem.

  9. Job-shop Scheduling Model and Algorithm with Machine Deterioration%设备带有恶化特性的作业车间调度模型与算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄敏; 付亚平; 王洪峰; 朱兵虎; 王兴伟

    2015-01-01

    For the job-shop scheduling problem, a job-shop scheduling model with machine deterioration is built in order to minimize makespan, considering that the processing time of jobs is a linearly increasing function of the start time. Then a nested partition method is designed for solving it. In the sampling process, the partheno-genetic algorithm is embedded into the nested partition method in order to ensure the diversity of sampling and quality. Simulation experiments show that the proposed algorithm for solving job-shop scheduling problem with machine deterioration can get higher quality solutions and have a better robustness.%考虑到现实作业车间调度中设备具有恶化特性,针对作业的处理时间是开始时间的线性递增函数的作业车间调度问题,建立了以最小化最迟完成时间为目标的优化模型,进而设计了嵌套分割算法进行求解。该算法在抽样阶段嵌入单亲遗传算法以提高抽样的多样性和质量。实例结果表明,所提出的算法在解决该问题上可以获得较高质量的解,并且具有很好的鲁棒性。

  10. Window shopping

    OpenAIRE

    Shy, Oz

    2013-01-01

    The terms "window shopping" and "showrooming" refer to the activity in which potential buyers visit a brick-and-mortar store to examine a product but end up either not buying it or buying the product from an online retailer. This paper analyzes potential buyers who differ in their preference for after-sale service that is not offered by online retailers. For some buyers, making a trip to the brick-and-mortar store is costly; however, going to the store to examine the product has the advantage...

  11. Window shopping

    OpenAIRE

    SHY, Oz

    2013-01-01

    The terms "window shopping" and "showrooming" refer to the activity in which potential buyers visit a brick-and-mortar store to examine a product but end up either not buying it or buying the product from an online retailer. This paper analyzes potential buyers who differ in their preference for after-sale service that is not offered by online retailers. For some buyers, making a trip to the brick-and-mortar store is costly; however, going to the store to examine the product has the advantage...

  12. Rolling Force and Rolling Moment in Spline Cold Rolling Using Slip-line Field Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Dawei; LI Yongtang; FU Jianhua; ZHENG Quangang

    2009-01-01

    Rolling force and rolling moment are prime process parameter of external spline cold rolling. However, the precise theoretical formulae of rolling force and rolling moment are still very fewer, and the determination of them depends on experience. In the present study, the mathematical models of rolling force and rolling moment are established based on stress field theory of slip-line. And the isotropic hardening is used to improve the yield criterion. Based on MATLAB program language environment, calculation program is developed according to mathematical models established. The rolling force and rolling moment could be predicted quickly via the calculation program, and then the reliability of the models is validated by FEM. Within the range of module of spline m=0.5-1.5 mm, pressure angle of reference circle α=30.0°-45.0°, and number of spline teeth Z=19-54, the rolling force and rolling moment in rolling process (finishing rolling is excluded) are researched by means of virtualizing orthogonal experiment design. The results of the present study indicate that:the influences of module and number of spline teeth on the maximum rolling force and rolling moment in the process are remarkable;in the case of pressure angle of reference circle is little, module of spline is great, and number of spline teeth is little, the peak value of rolling force in rolling process may appear in the midst of the process;the peak value of rolling moment in rolling process appears in the midst of the process, and then oscillator weaken to a stable value. The results of the present study may provide guidelines for the determination of power of the motor and the design of hydraulic system of special machine, and provide basis for the farther researches on the precise forming process of external spline cold rolling.

  13. 机器柔性度对柔性车间调度影响的研究%Research on impact of flexible machine in Flexible Job-shop Scheduling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林仁; 周国华

    2015-01-01

    In view of the research shortage in the relationship between resource flexibility and scheduling effect, the repre-sentation method of resource flexibility distribution and the measure method of machine flexibility are proposed based on resource-ability matrix, then the model about Flexible Job-shop Scheduling Problem(FJSP)under machine flexible con-straints is established. Improved dual population ant colony algorithm is present to solve the model. Finally, the case proves the effect of flexible degree of machine resources on the scheduling result, and it provides guidance for the construction of flexible manufacturing system.%针对资源柔性与调度效果关系研究匮乏的问题,提出了采用资源-能力矩阵对资源柔性分布进行表示的方法和机器资源柔性程度的度量方法,建立了机器资源柔性约束下的作业车间调度问题模型,采用改进双种群蚁群算法进行求解。案例证明了机器资源柔性程度对调度效果的影响,为构建柔性制造系统提供了指导意见。

  14. Hinged Shields for Machine Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallande, J. B.; Poland, W. W.; Tull, S.

    1985-01-01

    Flaps guard against flying chips, but fold away for tool setup. Clear plastic shield in position to intercept flying chips from machine tool and retracted to give operator access to workpiece. Machine shops readily make such shields for own use.

  15. ELASTIC NONLINEAR DYNAMICS OF MOTION OF SLIDE OF VERTICAL TURNING MACHINE FOR WORKING OF SOLID-ROLLED RAILWAY WHEELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. P. Pogrebnyak

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The article is aimed to determine the conditions of a dynamic error formation of contour machine cutting of surface of the real railway wheel flange by the cup-tip tool and propose the ways of reducing the errors. Methodology. The problem was solved by the creation of dynamic nonlinear and elastic calculation model with further modeling of its loading by the external force factors. The values of forces were obtained by analytical and experimental methods. The calculation scheme of the equilibrium support is a nonlinear two-mass system, a dynamic model of slide - single-mass with one degree of freedom. The basis of the mathematical description of technological loads is the results of factory experiments, as well as analytical generalizations obtained as a result of the comparison of several schemes of the formation of the wheel flange. Analytical determination of the components of the cutting force takes into account the changes in the kinematic parameters of the cutting mode when the profiling is done using a shaped tool. Findings. During processing of the wheel flange the radial and axial components of the cutting forces that load slide and slide-block of machine are alternating. There are conditions in drive of slide and slide-block when the gaps appear, and it is possible at any profile geometry of the wheel. The peculiarities of loading of the slide and slide-block forming a flange (with biharmonic allowance cause the occurrence of the processing areas where the gaps increase many times in drives of mechanical transmissions and error of forms increases. The dynamic system of the drive is quite tough and high-frequency and it is sensitive to the presence of gaps. Originality. The author created elastic nonlinear dynamic models of support and slide. In accordance with the model it is written and solved equations of motion of the masses and loading of the connections. The conditions of the stable motion were found. Practical value. It

  16. Collection and Management of Shop-floor ControllerData

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes shop-floor data collection and management. An arc hitecture is presented for a shop-floor data collection and management system b a sed on the analysis of the features of these data. Two critical aspects of the s ystem are discussed in detail: the various communication protocols between compu ters and machines, and the real-time demands of the shop-floor controller.

  17. Calculation and Application of Pinch Rolls in Square and Round Billet Continuous Casting Machine of Pangang%攀钢方圆坯连铸机夹持段辊列优化计算与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙顺清; 刘伟忠

    2012-01-01

    论述并实践了攀钢3号方圆坯连铸机夹持段支撑辊列优化方案。此方案优化了夹持段辊列布置结构,减少了辊子装配数量,简化了夹持段结构。运用这种方案,可减少生产过程中的拉坯阻力,降低异常事故时滞坯的概率,且大大减少夹持段在线维护和离线检修的工作量和作业难度,降低备件消耗,从而提高连铸机的经济效益。%Optimization scheme is elaborated for supporting rolls of pinch roll segment in No. 3 square and round billet continuous casting machine of Pangang (hereinafter CCM). By means of optimizing the configuration of supporting rolls, the structure of pinch roll segments is simplified with fewer rolls. Hence, withdrawal resistance is reduced together with lowered odds of billet lagging during abnormal accidents, and both on-line maintenance and off-line repair are lessened and facilitated, which reduce the consumption of spare parts and guarantee the economic benefits of CCM.

  18. Job_Shop scheduling problem in parallel machine environment under the multi-target%并行机环境下的多目标Job—Shop调度问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘佳; 刘林

    2012-01-01

    In the circumstance of multi machine Job_Shop scheduling, restricting to order-dependent setup-time and taking an overall consideration of the two factors-completion time and earliness/tardiness penalties ,this research proposes a hybrid genetic al- gorithm based on sequential coding of jobs on machines and interleaved mode in genes and integrates variable neighborhood search (VNS)and cluster analysis ,making the Pareto solution set more effective in quality and distribution.%分析并讨论了带调整时间即换模具时间,综合考虑工件完工时间、不同交货期窗口下的提前/拖期惩罚、并行机环境下的多目标Job—Shop调度问题,提出了一种基于不同工件工序排序的染色体编码方式,利用稳步遗传算法求解,并融合变邻域搜索和依角度聚类的方法,使得求得的Pareto解集在质量和分布上均有较好的效果。仿真实验表明了此种算法的可行性和有效性。

  19. FLOW-SHOP SCHEDULING WITH MULTIPLE OPERATIONS AND TIME LAGS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    RIEZEBOS, J; GAALMAN, GJC; GUPTA, JND

    1995-01-01

    A scheduling system is proposed and developed for a special type of flow shop. Ln this flow shop there is one machine at each stage. A job may require multiple operations at each stage. The first operation of a job on stage j cannot start until the last operation of the job on stage j - 1 has finish

  20. FLOW-SHOP SCHEDULING WITH MULTIPLE OPERATIONS AND TIME LAGS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    RIEZEBOS, J; GAALMAN, GJC; GUPTA, JND

    A scheduling system is proposed and developed for a special type of flow shop. Ln this flow shop there is one machine at each stage. A job may require multiple operations at each stage. The first operation of a job on stage j cannot start until the last operation of the job on stage j - 1 has

  1. Dynamic Scheduling of Flexible Job Shops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAHID Ikramullah Butt; SUN Hou-fang

    2007-01-01

    Aim of this research is to minimize makespan in the flexible job shop environment by the use of genetic algorithms and scheduling rules.Software is developed using genetic algorithms and scheduling rules based on certain constraints such as non-preemption of jobs,recirculation,set up times,non-breakdown of machines etc.Purpose of the software is to develop a schedule for flexible job shop environment,which is a special case of job shop scheduling problem.Scheduling algorithm used in the software is verified and tested by using MT10 as benchmark problem,presented in the flexible job shop environment at the end.LEKIN(R) software results are also compared with results of the developed software by the use of MT10 benchmark problem to show that the latter is a practical software and can be used successfully at BIT Training Workshop.

  2. Research of Machine Tool for Planning off the Rolling Edge of Hinge Profile Steel%汽车门铰链型钢刨耳子专用机床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭好强; 孙爱军; 马会民

    2011-01-01

    门铰链型钢是专门为制造汽车门铰链轧制而成的型钢条料.在型钢轧制过程中,由于轧辊辊缝的存在而不可避免地出现耳子(即飞边).原来通过人工使用角磨机来打磨耳子,我们对原来的加工方法进行革新,而设计制造了一种汽车门铰链型钢刨耳子专用机床.文章重点对此机床的总体结构、导向传动结构、压紧结构、刀具结构进行了分析,相信文章对研制同类型的刨耳子专用机床具有一定的参考价值.%Hinge profile steel are used for making automobile door hinge. In the steel rolling process, due to the presence of the gap between rollers, rolling edge is inevitably produced. Orininally the rolling edge is removed by manual grinder, after innovating of the former processing methods, we designed and manufactured a special machine tool for planning off the rolling edge. This text is emphasized on the analysis of overall structure of this machine tool,the structure of transmission and compaction,cutter etc. The research of this paper makes contributions to the designing of familiar machine tool.

  3. NOISE REDUCTION SCHEDULING METHOD IN A SHOP FLOOR AND ITS CASE STUDY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Fei; Cao Huajun; Zhang Hua; Yuan Chuanping

    2003-01-01

    Noise reduction in a shop floor is one of the important parts of green manufacturing. In a shop floor, machine tools are the main noise sources in a shop floor. A new approach is discovered by investigation that the noise can be obviously reduced in a shop floor by optimizing the scheduling between work pieces and machine tools. Based on the discovery, a new method of noise reduction is proposed. A noise reduction scheduling model in a shop floor is established, and the application of the model is also discussed. A case is studied, which shows that the method and model are practical.

  4. 多次扰动下单机双目标的滚动部分重调度%Rolling Pstrial Rescheduling with Dual Objectives for Single Machine Subject to Disruptions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冰; 席裕庚

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the single-machine rescheduling problem with efficiency and stability as criteria, where more than one disruption arises in large-scale dynamic circumstances. Partial rescheduling (PR) strategy is adopted after each disruption and a rolling mechanism is driven by events in response to disruptions. Two kinds of objective functions are designed respectively for PR sub-problem involving in the interim and the terminal of unfinished jobs. The analytical result demonstrates that each local objective is consistent with the global one. Extensive computational experiment was performed and the computational results show that the rolling PR strategy with dual objectives can greatly improve schedule stability with little sacrifice in efficiency and provide a reasonable trade-off between solution quality and computational efforts.

  5. Forecasting of indirect consumables for a Job Shop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeel, M.; Khan, S.; Khan, W. A.

    2016-08-01

    A job shop has an arrangement where similar machines (Direct consumables) are grouped together and use indirect consumables to produce a product. The indirect consumables include hack saw blades, emery paper, painting brush etc. The job shop is serving various orders at a particular time for the optimal operation of job shop. Forecasting is required to predict the demand of direct and indirect consumables in a job shop. Forecasting is also needed to manage lead time, optimize inventory cost and stock outs. The objective of this research is to obtain the forecast for indirect consumables. The paper shows how job shop can manage their indirect consumables more accurately by establishing a new technique of forecasting. This results in profitable use of job shop by multiple users.

  6. Static simulation on rolling impact compaction machines%滚动冲击压实机静态仿真分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋智; 高有山; 王爱红; 靳泽昆

    2012-01-01

    通过仿真研究滚动冲击压实机变矩器的无因次特性、发动机变矩器的共同输入输出特性和牵引车的牵引特性.仿真结果表明:发动机转矩特性曲线和变矩器输入扭矩曲线的交点是发动机与变矩器共同工作的稳定点,其工作范围是变矩器输入扭矩曲线与发动机外特性曲线所围成的最大区域;1挡、2挡、倒挡最高车速分别为11.054,35.44,14.812km· h-1;最大有效牵引功率为54 kW;最大牵引效率为53%;额定滑转率为29%;变矩器最大输出功率对应的牵引力为61 kN;附着条件决定的最大牵引力为83kN.%Such properties as the dimensionless, common input and output between engine and torque converter, and traction of tractor are simulated on rolling impact compaction machines. From the simulation results, it is indicated that the intersect between torque property curve of engine and input torque curve of torque converter is a common stable working point, whereas the working scope is the maximum covering area of both curves. In addition, the maximum speeds of the first, the second and the reverse gears are 11.054, 35.44,14.812 km·h-1, respectively. In this case, the maximum effective traction power is 54 kW, the maximum traction efficiency is 53%, the rated slip-ratio is 29%, the traction force regarding the maximum output power of torque converter is 61 kN, the maximum traction force subject to additional conditions is 83 kN.

  7. Supporting shop floor intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Peter; Schmidt, Kjeld; Wiil, Uffe Kock

    1999-01-01

    Many manufacturing enterprises are now trying to introduce various forms of flexible work organizations on the shop floor. However, existing computer-based production planning and control systems pose severe obstacles for autonomous working groups and other kinds of shop floor control to become r......-to-day production planning by supporting intelligent and responsible workers in their situated coordination activities on the shop floor....

  8. Online Shopping Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Shahzad, Hashim

    2015-01-01

    Online shopping is a very much developed phenomena in Scandinavian countries. Different online factors impact online consumers’ behavior differently depending on the environment of different regions. Sweden is one of the developed and technologically advanced countries. To see the impact of different factors on consumers’ online shopping behavior, the purpose of this study is to analyse the factors that influence consumers’ online shopping behavior in Sweden’s context. One of the objectives o...

  9. Power Service Shops

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — TVA's Power Service Shops provides expert repair and maintenance of power system components and large industrial equipment. With world-class maintenance facilities...

  10. 滚扎甩碎组合式香蕉茎秆纤维提取机设计与试验%Design and experiment on rolling and crushing combined extracting machine for banana stem fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张喜瑞; 郑侃; 梁栋; 张劲; 薛忠

    2013-01-01

    Banana stalk is the main byproduct of bananas after post-harvest, and is mainly decayed naturally or discarded in the field, due to large stalk, high moisture content and other characteristics, resulting in a great waste of resources and an environmental pollution problem. Meanwhile, banana stalk contains high-quality plant fiber, which is lightweight, with strong permeability, also has high economic value, which is suitable for the production of medium and top-grade products, such as suits, shirts, ties, and various decorations, as well as fine paper. So far, the domestic and foreign research on fiber extraction and application mostly concentrates in rice straw, corn stalk, cotton stalk, biogases, or pineapple leaf, etc. Drawing on the previous studies, water immersion method, biochemical and mechanical extraction method and other methods are available, but just the immersion method and the biochemical method are mainly adopted by researchers. Domestic mechanical extraction of banana stalk fiber is still in its infancy, due to its regional characteristics, particularly for fiber extraction machinery, which is rarely reported both at home and abroad. Based on the above issues, a banana fiber extracting machine with a hybrid of rolling and smashing was put forward and designed in this paper, which was mainly composed of a conveying device, rolling device, rolling device Ⅱ, smashing device, machine cover, walking wheel, drainage pipe, motor, and machine chassis. During the working period, banana stalk was conveyed to a rolling deviceⅠvia conveyor belt, and crushed first through the relative rotation of the upper roller and lower roller (distance between two rollers of 5-10 cm). Then, it was conveyed to rolling deviceⅡ, and was crushed secondly through the relative rotation of the upper roller and lower roller (distance between two rollers of 2-5 cm). After the above two steps, more than 80% of water was extruded, and was discharged through the drainage device

  11. 约束满足混合算法求解并行机Job-Shop调度问题%Constraint satisfaction-based hybridalgorithm for Job-Shop scheduling problem with parallel machines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊芳; 李铁克; 屈国强

    2011-01-01

    分析并行机Job-Shop调度问题的特点并建立其约束满足优化模型,结合约束满足与变邻域搜索技术设计了一个求解该问题的混合优化算法.该算法采用变量排序方法和值排序方法选择变量并赋值,利用回溯和约束传播消解资源冲突,生成初始可行调度,然后应用局部搜索技术增强收敛性,并通过结合问题特点设计的邻域结构的多样性提高求解质量.数据实验表明,提出的算法与其他两种算法相比,具有一定的可行性和有效性.%Analyzed the Job-Shop scheduling problem with parallel machines and established its constraint satisfaction optimization model. Proposed a hybrid optimization algorithm combined with constraint satisfaction and variable neighborhood search technique. In the algorithm, chosen a variable and assigned by variable ordering and value ordering method. Resolved resource conflicts using backtracking and obtained constraint propagation technology until a feasible schedule. Then the feasible schedule acted as an initial solution of the variable neighborhood search algorithm. Enhanced the convergence through local search technology and improved the quality of solution through the diversity of the designed neighborhood structures according to the characteristics of the problem. The feasibility and validity of the proposed hybrid method is demonstrated by the data experiment compared with the other two algorithms.

  12. Eyes wide shopped: shopping situations trigger arousal in impulsive buyers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serfas, Benjamin G; Büttner, Oliver B; Florack, Arnd

    2014-01-01

    The present study proposes arousal as an important mechanism driving buying impulsiveness. We examined the effect of buying impulsiveness on arousal in non-shopping and shopping contexts. In an eye-tracking experiment, we measured pupil dilation while participants viewed and rated pictures of shopping scenes and non-shopping scenes. The results demonstrated that buying impulsiveness is closely associated with arousal as response to viewing pictures of shopping scenes. This pertained for hedonic shopping situations as well as for utilitarian shopping situations. Importantly, the effect did not emerge for non-shopping scenes. Furthermore, we demonstrated that arousal of impulsive buyers is independent from cognitive evaluation of scenes in the pictures.

  13. 双机成比例无等待流水线重调度干扰管理研究%Disruption Management for Production Rescheduling in Proportional Two-machine No-wait Flow Shop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薄洪光; 潘裕韬; 马晓燕

    2013-01-01

    针对由异速机构成的双机成比例无等待流水线的加工特点,研究了机器扰动工况下的生产重调度问题,提出了兼顾初始调度目标(最小化制造期)和扰动修复目标(最小化工件滞后时间和)的干扰管理方法。在最短加工时间优先( SPT)排序规则的最优解特性分析基础上,证明了右移初始加工时间表是事后干扰管理的最优调度方案,建立了基于SPT规则的事前干扰管理模型,设计了基于理想点趋近的多目标处理策略,提出了离散量子微粒群优化与局部搜索机制相结合的启发式模型求解算法。算例实验结果表明,本文提出的干扰管理模型和算法是有效的。%To solve the rescheduling problem for a random or an anticipated machine disruption in proportional two-machine no-wait flow shop , a disruption management method is proposed that considering both the original objective(min.makespan)and the disruption repairing objective (min.summation of delay time).Based on the shortest processing time ( SPT) rule optimal analyzing , it is proved that the right shift original schedule is optimal for the post-disruption management problem .And a predictive disruption management model is formulated based on SPT rule .By combining the ideal point-based multi-objective approaching policy with the discrete quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization and local search mechanism , a heuristic algorithm is proposed .The numeri-cal experiments show that the model and algorithm are effective .

  14. New Shopping Spree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING WENLEI

    2010-01-01

    @@ Tempting discounts are available within just one click. Zhao Lei, a software engineer in Beijing0 loves the one-hour lunch break at noon,as it is the best time for him to check "today'sspecial" at his favorite group buying web-sites. Sometimes he searches for great deals at directory sites devoted to the new shop-ping spree.

  15. Deregulating Sunday Shop Policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkgraaf, E.; Gradus, R.H.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Sunday shop opening is deregulated to the municipal level in the Netherlands. Despite positive effects on economic growth and employment, many municipalities restrict Sunday shop opening. Based on 2003 data we show that diverse local characteristics, like the size of municipalities and religious and

  16. Deregulating Sunday Shop Policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Dijkgraaf (Elbert); R.H.J.M. Gradus (Raymond)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractSunday shop opening is deregulated to the municipal level in the Netherlands. Despite positive effects on economic growth and employment, many municipalities restrict Sunday shop opening. Based on 2003 data we show that diverse local characteristics, like the size of municipalities and r

  17. Retail Shopping Lists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    The paper addresses consumers' shopping lists. The current study is based on a survey of 871 lists collected at retail grocery stores. Most items on shopping lists appear on the product category level rather than the brand level. The importance of the brand level varies considerably across product....... The paper ends with a discussion and with suggestions for future research....

  18. Three Algorithms for Flexible Flow-shop Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Hong

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Scheduling is an important process widely used in manufacturing, production, management, computer science, and so on. Appropriate scheduling can reduce material handling costs and time. Finding good schedules for given sets of jobs can thus help factory supervisors effectively control job flows and provide solutions for job sequencing. In simple flow shop problems, each machine operation center includes just one machine. If at least one machine center includes more than one machine, the scheduling problem becomes a flexible flow-shop problem. Flexible flow shops are thus generalization of simple flow shops. In this paper, we propose three algorithms to solve flexible flow-shop problems of more than two machine centers. The first one extends Sriskandarajah and Sethi’s method by combining both the LPT and the search-and-prune approaches to get a nearly optimal makespan. It is suitable for a medium-sized number of jobs. The second one is an optimal algorithm, entirely using the search-and-prune technique. It can work only when the job number is small. The third one is similar to the first one, except that it uses Petrov’s approach (PT to deal with job sequencing instead of search-and-prune. It can get a polynomial time complexity, thus being more suitable for real applications than the other two. Experiments are also made to compare the three proposed algorithms. A trade-off can thus be achieved between accuracy and time complexity.

  19. Mercury Shopping Cart Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Robin; McMahon, Joe

    2006-01-01

    Mercury Shopping Cart Interface (MSCI) is a reusable component of the Power User Interface 5.0 (PUI) program described in another article. MSCI is a means of encapsulating the logic and information needed to describe an orderable item consistent with Mercury Shopping Cart service protocol. Designed to be used with Web-browser software, MSCI generates Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) pages on which ordering information can be entered. MSCI comprises two types of Practical Extraction and Report Language (PERL) modules: template modules and shopping-cart logic modules. Template modules generate HTML pages for entering the required ordering details and enable submission of the order via a Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) post. Shopping cart modules encapsulate the logic and data needed to describe an individual orderable item to the Mercury Shopping Cart service. These modules evaluate information entered by the user to determine whether it is sufficient for the Shopping Cart service to process the order. Once an order has been passed from MSCI to a deployed Mercury Shopping Cart server, there is no further interaction with the user.

  20. Online shopping hesitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Chang-Hoan; Kang, Jaewon; Cheon, Hongsik John

    2006-06-01

    This study was designed to understand which factors influence consumer hesitation or delay in online product purchases. The study examined four groups of variables (i.e., consumer characteristics, contextual factors perceived uncertainty factors, and medium/channel innovation factors) that predict three types of online shopping hesitation (i.e., overall hesitation, shopping cart abandonment, and hesitation at the final payment stage). We found that different sets of delay factors are related to different aspects of online shopping hesitation. The study concludes with suggestion for various delay-reduction devices to help consumers close their online decision hesitation.

  1. Spatial competition between shopping centers

    OpenAIRE

    António Brandão; João Correia-da-Silva; Joana Pinho

    2010-01-01

    We study competition between two shopping centers (department stores or shopping malls) located at the extremes of a linear city. In contrast with the existing literature, we do not restrict consumers to make all their purchases at a single place. We obtain this condition as an equilibrium result. In the case of competition between a shopping mall and a department store, we find that the shops at the mall, taken together, obtain a lower profit than the department store. However, the shops at ...

  2. Remodeling A School Shop?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, G. E.

    1970-01-01

    Presents guidelines for remodeling a school shop combining major considerations of funds, program changes, class management, and flexibility, with the needs of wiring, painting, and placement of equipment. (Author)

  3. Study on Tooth Crown Wear Resistance of the Single-roll Crusher for 120m2 Sintering Machine%120烧结单辊破碎机齿冠抗磨研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢福利; 马敬勋; 许强

    2011-01-01

    The tooth crown of the single-roll crusher at the end of the sintering machine has a very short service life. It is one of the technical difficulties to restrict the sintering process. Owing to poor working conditions, the tooth crown has less than 5 months in average of service life. By analyzing the tooth crown load, failure effect and the factor affecting the wear resistance of high chromium cast iron, it puts forward the roll tooth structure optimization and tooth profile improvement to prolong the service life of the tooth crown.%烧结机尾部的单辊破碎机齿冠使用寿命过短是制约烧结工艺的技术难题之一。由于工作环境恶劣破碎机齿冠平均使用寿命不到5个月。通过分析齿冠受力情况、失效特征及影响高铬铸铁抗磨性能的各方面原因,提出了优化辊齿结构和改进齿形的方法,实施后提高了破碎机齿辊使用寿命。

  4. New Method for Evaluating Thermal Wear of Rolls in Rolling Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chang-sheng; LIU Xiang-hua; WANG Guo-dong

    2008-01-01

    A new method was developed by a thermal wear machine to evaluate the thermal wear of rolls in steel rolling process.The steel strip and rolls were simulated by upper and lower heating disks.The upper heating disk could be kept at a temperature of over 900℃ by induction heating.The pressure between the disks as high as 323.2 MPa could be achieved and the slipping rate could be 12.7%.The thermal wear of high speed steel(HSS)roll material,the wear rate of the HSS roll,and the SEM morphology of a worn HSS roll surface were investigated.This method was useful and could be employed to simulate friction and wear between strip and roll during the strip rolling process.

  5. 76 FR 30529 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-535 Series Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ...-39-AD; Amendment 39-16707; AD 2011-11-08] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR... plc asked us to use a different statement for Rolls-Royce contact information in paragraph (i) of the... commenters, FedEx, American Airlines, and Rolls-Royce plc asked us to change the definition of a shop...

  6. Scheduling job shop - A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abas, M.; Abbas, A.; Khan, W. A.

    2016-08-01

    The scheduling in job shop is important for efficient utilization of machines in the manufacturing industry. There are number of algorithms available for scheduling of jobs which depend on machines tools, indirect consumables and jobs which are to be processed. In this paper a case study is presented for scheduling of jobs when parts are treated on available machines. Through time and motion study setup time and operation time are measured as total processing time for variety of products having different manufacturing processes. Based on due dates different level of priority are assigned to the jobs and the jobs are scheduled on the basis of priority. In view of the measured processing time, the times for processing of some new jobs are estimated and for efficient utilization of the machines available an algorithm is proposed and validated.

  7. Implication of human handling on packaged sausage rolls during sale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coolborn AKHARAIYI FRED

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In other to identify the implication of human handling of packaged sausage rolls after production, a microbiological safety evaluation was carried out on sausage rolls sold on street and in shops. Among the sausage rolls, gala purchased from street vendors has the highest bacterial load of 2.82 × 104 CFU/g and 4.3 × 106 spore/g of fungal load, followed by meaty with bacterial load of 1.71 × 104 CFU/g and fungal load of 1.6 × 105 spore/g and was least in rite sausage roll with 1.46 × 104 CFU/g and 1 × 105 spore/g bacterial and fungal loads respectively. Seventeen bacteria species were isolated from both street vended and shop sold sausage rolls, the isolates identified including: Bacillus cereus, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Alcaligenes faecalis, Citrobacter freundii, Klebsiella ozaenae, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Aeromonas hydrophila, Plesiomonas shigelloides, Moraxella catarhalis, Bacillus substilis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Aeromonas anaerogenes, Aerococcus viridans and Azomonas agilis. Five fungi species were isolated from street vended sausage rolls only. The fungal species are Penicillium notatum, Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium italicum and Gliocephalis spp. From this study, street vended samples have higher microbial contamination than shop sold sausage rolls due to improper handling during sales.

  8. YJ17卷制成型机电控系统分析%Design and Research on the Electronic Control System for Roll-formed Machine YJ17

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵迎春

    2015-01-01

    YJ17卷制成型机引进德国先进的 PROTOS70技术,采用西门子 PLC S7-400控制系统,PLC 内部的启动程序、纸盘转换程序、张紧力控制程序等驱动外部的电气设备,实现主驱动装置控制、接纸控制、烟纸张紧力控制等功能。以封口器控制为例,阐述了启动程序的7步工作顺序由烟条时钟脉冲 RCP 和3个级联计数器 CTR 来延时,实现不同工作状态有顺序地稳步进行。实际运行证明:整个系统具有稳定性好、有效作业率高、剔除点准确等特点。%YJ17 Roll-Formed Machine is high-speed roll-formed device for the domestic mainstream production of cigarettes for introducing Germany advanced PROTOS70 technology.Siemens PLC S7-400 control system is adopted for YJ17 Roll-Formed Machine.Due to combining PLC’s Internal start-up program, paper-tray conversion program, tension control program etc with external electrical equipment, the system can realize main drive control, splicing control, cigarette papers’tension control etc.In the case of sealing device control, Seven-steps work order in start-up program is delayed by cigarette clock pulse RCP and three cascaded counters CTR, and it achieves that different working conditions are sequentially steady. Actually the whole system has good stability, high efficiency operation, accurate excluding points and so on.

  9. Minimizing makespan in a two-stage hybrid flow shop scheduling problem with open shop in one stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Jian-ming; HU Jue-liang; CHEN Yong

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers a scheduling problem in two-stage hybrid flow shop, where the first stage consists of two machines formed an open shop and the other stage has only one machine. The objective is to minimize the makespan, i.e., the maximum completion time of all jobs. We first show the problem is NP-hard in the strong sense, then we present two heuristics to solve the problem. Computational experiments show that the combined algorithm of the two heuristics performs well on randomly generated problem instances.

  10. Comparison Shopping Agents and Czech Online Customers’ Shopping Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Pilik Michal; Klimek Petr; Jurickova Eva; Palka Premysl

    2016-01-01

    The internet has changed the lifestyles and shopping behaviours of customers. Online purchasing enables people to obtain information about products and services provided more effectively and easily, with the result that home shopping has become ordinary and usual. This paper presents part of a research focusing on online shopping customers’ behaviour in the Czech Republic. The article pertains to comparison shopping agents (CPAs), a tool which provides information to customers and helps find ...

  11. Rolling Uphill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2017-01-01

    In a recent letter to this journal, Mungan noted that translational energy can be converted into gravitational potential energy when an object is projected vertically, but rotational energy is not usually converted in this manner. As an exception, he gave an example where "a ball initially rolling without slipping will travel higher up a…

  12. Hybrid genetic algorithm for minimizing non productive machining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    A Bi-criteria M-Machine SDST Flow Shop Scheduling using Modified Heuristic Genetic ... He has more than 35 research papers in international/national journals and ... supply chain management, inventory management, machine learning, etc.

  13. Modeling the Relationship between Vibration Features and Condition Parameters Using Relevance Vector Machines for Health Monitoring of Rolling Element Bearings under Varying Operation Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotational speed and load usually change when rotating machinery works. Both this kind of changing operational conditions and machine fault could make the mechanical vibration characteristics change. Therefore, effective health monitoring method for rotating machinery must be able to adjust during the change of operational conditions. This paper presents an adaptive threshold model for the health monitoring of bearings under changing operational conditions. Relevance vector machines (RVMs are used for regression of the relationships between the adaptive parameters of the threshold model and the statistical characteristics of vibration features. The adaptive threshold model is constructed based on these relationships. The health status of bearings can be indicated via detecting whether vibration features exceed the adaptive threshold. This method is validated on bearings running at changing speeds. The monitoring results show that this method is effective as long as the rotational speed is higher than a relative small value.

  14. Shopping in discount stores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zielke, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of price-related attributions, emotions and value perception on the intention to shop at grocery discounters in an integrated framework. Moderating effects of price consciousness are also analyzed. The results show that the proposed model explains almost three quart...... effect, followed by the efficiency of the business model attribution. The unfairness to stakeholders and the tricks in price communication attribution mostly influence the shopping intention for less price-conscious customers.......This paper analyzes the impact of price-related attributions, emotions and value perception on the intention to shop at grocery discounters in an integrated framework. Moderating effects of price consciousness are also analyzed. The results show that the proposed model explains almost three...

  15. Optimasi Multi-objective Menggunakan NSGA-II Dalam Penjadwalan Mesin Produksi Flow Shop

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Scheduling is an activity to allocate limited resources to finish the jobs. Scheduling process arise if there are limitations on available resources that requiring utilization the available resources efficiently. Generally, the purpose of production scheduling is to optimize specific dimensions or objects. Flow shop scheduling is a type of production scheduling where each job will go through each machine with an uniform sequence. Optimization of the flow shop production machine scheduling rel...

  16. Development of High-speed Machining Database with Case-based Reasoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Applying high-speed machining technology in shop floor has many benefits, such as manufacturing more accurate parts with better surface finishes. The selection of the appropriate machining parameters plays a very important role in the implementation of high-speed machining technology. The case-based reasoning is used in the developing of high-speed machining database to overcome the shortage of available high-speed cutting parameters in machining data handbooks and shop floors. The high-speed machining data...

  17. Rolling Bearing Fault Diagnosis Based on Support Vector Machine and BP Neural Network%基于SVM和BP神经网络的滚动轴承故障诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘然; 傅攀

    2014-01-01

    为更好地对滚动轴承进行状态监测和故障诊断,采集3种不同状态下的滚动轴承振动信号,根据振动信号特点提取其时域和频域的相关特征,然后分别利用SVM (支持向量机)和BP神经网络进行模式识别。不断减少每种状态下训练样本集的个数,利用2种不同的方法进行模式识别。当每种状态下的样本个数为3个时,支持向量机仍然能准确地将测试样本进行分类,而BP神经网络完全无法识别。实验结果表明,支持向量机比BP神经网络更适合于小样本的故障诊断。%In order to make rolling bearing condition monitoring and fault diagnosis better ,three kinds of different states vibration signals of rolling bearing were collected , the features of different states' vibration signals in time and frequency domain were extracted .The support vector machine(SVM) and BP neural network was used to conduct the pattern recognition .In the case of decreasing the number of training samples in each state ,two methods were applied to pattern recognition .When the number of samples in each state was 3 ,the SVM was still able to classify the test samples accurately ,but the BP neural network could’t identify completely .Experimental results show that SVM is more suitable for small samples in fault diagnosis than BP neural network .

  18. Demystifying vernacular shop houses and contemporary shop houses in Malaysia; a green-shop framework

    OpenAIRE

    Elnokaly, Amira; Wong, Jun Fui

    2015-01-01

    Vernacular shop houses in Malaysia have been thoroughly studied to understand their significance in environmental, cultural, economical and heritage values. UNESCO recognition in 2008 has further secured shop houses conservation works in Malaysia (UNESCO, 2008). However, contemporary shops in Malaysia do not share similar concerns of preservation and cultural significance. Popular view has perceived contemporary shop as lacking of both cultural and building performances standards. Thus, this ...

  19. No Talking Shops?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KATE WESTGARTH

    2010-01-01

    @@ Western commentators on China's National People's Congress(NPC) and Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference(CPPCC) are not always kind.Disparaging remarks about "rubber stamp organizations," "talking shops" and "showcases for photographs of ethnic minority costumes" tend to be the order of the day.

  20. One-stop shopping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, C

    1996-11-25

    The long-term-care industry's new mantras are "continuum of care" and "one-stop shopping." Companies are trying to please consumers who are clamoring for more senior-living options and managed-care organizations that want administratively simple contracting arrangements.

  1. Explaining Sunday shop policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Dijkgraaf (Elbert); R.H.J.M. Gradus (Raymond)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractDutch municipalities have the right to decide on Sunday shop opening hours. Despite positive effects on economic growth and employment, many municipalities restrict Sunday trading in one way or another. Based on 2003 data we show that especially religious and political affiliation, regio

  2. A Fast Method for Heuristics in Large-Scale Flow Shop Scheduling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Fast computation methods are needed for the heuristics of flow shop scheduling problems in practical manufacturing environments. This paper describes a generalized flow shop model, which is an extension of the classical model, in which not all machines are available at time zero. The general completion-time computing method is used to compute completion time of generalized flow shops. The transform classical flow shop to generalized shop (TCG) method is used to transform classical schedules into generalized schedules with less jobs. INSERT and SWAP, extended from job-insertion and pair-wise exchange which are fundamental procedures used in most heuristics for classical flow shops, reduce the CPU time by 1/2 and 1/3, respectively. The CPU time of 14 job-insertion and pair-wise exchange-based heuristics are analyzed with and without the TCG method. The results show that TCG considerably reduces the CPU time.

  3. Analysis of Shop Floor Performance through Discrete Event Simulation: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong Wei Ng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Shop floor performance management is a method to ensure the effective utilization of people, processes, and equipment. Changes in the shop floor might have a positive or negative effect on production performance. Therefore, optimal shop floor operation is required to enhance shop floor performance and to ensure the long-term efficiency of the production process. This work presents a case study of a semiconductor industry. The punching department is modeled to investigate the effect of changes in the shop floor on production performance through discrete event simulation. The effects on the throughput rate, machine utilization, and labor utilization are studied by adjusting the volume of parts, number of operators, and flow pattern of parts in a series of models. Simulation results are tested and analyzed by using analysis of variance (ANOVA. The best model under changes in the shop floor is identified during the exploration of alternative scenarios.

  4. Female Consumers Recreational Shopping Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarbjot Singh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the core meaning of intrinsic shopping to understand their experimental aspects of recreational and leisure shopping. The study focus only on female shoppers of age group ranging from 25-30, and understand their mall experiences because this segment is newly transform into self dependent segment which have less social and familial liabilities and have enough enthusiasm to explore the world or their boundaries. The Grounded theory use for identification of recreational shopping themes which are (a seeking experiences and (b experimental shopping and each have respective sub themes. The themes are connected to the key idea that shoppers are motivated by their expectations and desires. The study uses social constructivism to find and understand the shopper meanings in real terms rather than imposing and judgment on them. The findings described the way people do recreational shopping and how shopping malls use as leisure space and become facilitators of recreational shopping activities. Females use malls to fulfill their recreational and leisure shopping experiences as this is the great way of enjoying shopping for females of small towns. In malls females not only enjoy product experiences but services experiences also which makes their shopping interesting. The way the female of this age category use malls help the marketers and retailers to understand this segment shopping patterns.

  5. Rolling contact fatigue of ceramics

    OpenAIRE

    Hadfield, Mark

    1993-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. Ceramic/ceramic and ceramic/steel contacts under lubricated rolling conditions are studied. This work is of interest to ball bearing manufacturers as the use of ceramics in the design of these components has some advantages over traditional bearing-steel materials. Low density and increased stiffness are the mechanical properties which gas-turbine and machine tool manufacturers are most likel...

  6. Aesthetic quality inference for online fashion shopping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Allebach, Jan

    2014-03-01

    On-line fashion communities in which participants post photos of personal fashion items for viewing and possible purchase by others are becoming increasingly popular. Generally, these photos are taken by individuals who have no training in photography with low-cost mobile phone cameras. It is desired that photos of the products have high aesthetic quality to improve the users' online shopping experience. In this work, we design features for aesthetic quality inference in the context of online fashion shopping. Psychophysical experiments are conducted to construct a database of the photos' aesthetic evaluation, specifically for photos from an online fashion shopping website. We then extract both generic low-level features and high-level image attributes to represent the aesthetic quality. Using a support vector machine framework, we train a predictor of the aesthetic quality rating based on the feature vector. Experimental results validate the efficacy of our approach. Metadata such as the product type are also used to further improve the result.

  7. Comparison Shopping Agents and Czech Online Customers’ Shopping Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilik Michal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The internet has changed the lifestyles and shopping behaviours of customers. Online purchasing enables people to obtain information about products and services provided more effectively and easily, with the result that home shopping has become ordinary and usual. This paper presents part of a research focusing on online shopping customers’ behaviour in the Czech Republic. The article pertains to comparison shopping agents (CPAs, a tool which provides information to customers and helps find the best offer. The research was conducted on the basis of an online questionnaire available on an internet web page. The main results confirmed a dependency between online purchasing and the use of shopping agents, which are very popular in the Czech Republic. Almost two-thirds of online shoppers use CPAs when they engage in internet shopping. The final part of the paper addresses references and customers’ reviews as an important factor for the selection of online retailer.

  8. CERN Shop Christmas Sale

    CERN Multimedia

    Visits & Exhibition Service/ETT-VE

    2001-01-01

    11-13.12.2001 Looking for Christmas present ideas? Come to the Reception Shop Special Stand in Meyrin, Main Building, ground floor, from Tuesday 11 to Thursday 13 December from 10.30 to 16.00. CERN Calendar 10.- CERN Sweat-shirts(M, L, XL) 30.- CERN T-shirt (M, L, XL) 20.- New CERN silk tie (2 colours) 35.- Fancy silk tie (blue, bordeau) 25.- Silk scarf (light blue, red, yellow) 35.- Swiss army knife with CERN logo 25.- CERN watch 25.- CERN baseball cap 15.- CERN briefcase 15.- Book 'Antimatter' (English) 35.- Book 'How the web was born' (English) 25.- The Search for Infinity (French, Italian, English, German) 40.-   If you miss this special occasion, the articles are also available at the Reception Shop in Building 33 from Monday to Saturday between 08.30 and 17.30 hrs.

  9. CERN SHOP CHRISTMAS SALE

    CERN Multimedia

    Visits & Exhibition Service

    2000-01-01

    Looking for Christmas present ideas? Come to the Reception Shop Special Stand in Meyrin, Main Building, ground floor, from Tuesday 12 to Thursday 14 December from 10.00 to 16.00.   Sweat-shirt col zippé, grey, blue, black (M, L, XL) 30.- Sweat-shirt col polo, grey, collar blue (M, L, XL) 30.- T-shirt, black, (M, L, XL) 15.- WWW T-shirt, white, bordeau (M, L, XL) 15.- CERN silk tie (3 colours) 33.- Fancy silk tie (blue, bordeau 25.- Silk scarf (blue, red, yellow) 35.- Swiss army knife with CERN logo 25.- New model of CERN watch 25.- New CERN baseball cap 10.- Antimatter (English/anglais) 30.- The Search for Infinity (French, Italian, English,) 35.- Auf der Suche nach dem Unendlichen 45.- If you miss this special occasion, the articles are also available at the Reception Shop in Building 33 from Monday to Saturday between 08.30 and 17.30 hrs (Shop will be closed at 12.00 on 22.12.).

  10. Online Shopping: Advantages over the Offline Alternative

    OpenAIRE

    Dr Joshua Chang

    2003-01-01

    The advent of the Internet as a shopping medium has enabled shoppers to gain shopping benefits such as convenience and time-saving, better information, and price savings. This paper aims to provide a better understanding of the benefits of Internet shopping by identifying and discussing the advantages of Internet shopping over traditional storefront shopping.

  11. Online Shopping: Advantages over the Offline Alternative

    OpenAIRE

    Dr Joshua Chang

    2003-01-01

    The advent of the Internet as a shopping medium has enabled shoppers to gain shopping benefits such as convenience and time-saving, better information, and price savings. This paper aims to provide a better understanding of the benefits of Internet shopping by identifying and discussing the advantages of Internet shopping over traditional storefront shopping.

  12. Online Shopping In The UK

    OpenAIRE

    Ramachandran, K.K.; K. K. Karthick; M. Saravana Kumar

    2011-01-01

    This paper will contribute to current academic literature in the area of online retailing and consumer behaviour. Our research outlines a survey conducted with respondents from the UK to ascertain their attitudes to grocery shopping both off and online. The findings indicate that, whilst the vast majority of our sample has experience of online shopping, few actively engage in online grocery shopping. Some of the reasons for this are highlighted and the key issues relate to consumer trust and ...

  13. Machine Fault Signature Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratesh Jayaswal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present recent developments in the field of machine fault signature analysis with particular regard to vibration analysis. The different types of faults that can be identified from the vibration signature analysis are, for example, gear fault, rolling contact bearing fault, journal bearing fault, flexible coupling faults, and electrical machine fault. It is not the intention of the authors to attempt to provide a detailed coverage of all the faults while detailed consideration is given to the subject of the rolling element bearing fault signature analysis.

  14. Patterns of Individual Shopping Behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Krumme, Coco; Pentland, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Much of economic theory is built on observations of aggregate, rather than individual, behavior. Here, we present novel findings on human shopping patterns at the resolution of a single purchase. Our results suggest that much of our seemingly elective activity is actually driven by simple routines. While the interleaving of shopping events creates randomness at the small scale, on the whole consumer behavior is largely predictable. We also examine income-dependent differences in how people shop, and find that wealthy individuals are more likely to bundle shopping trips. These results validate previous work on mobility from cell phone data, while describing the unpredictability of behavior at higher resolution.

  15. Shopping in the Real World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Black, Darren; Clemmensen, Nils Jakob; Skov, Mikael B.

    2009-01-01

    Shopping in the real world is becoming an increasingly interactive experience as stores integrate various technologies to support shoppers. Based on an empirical study of supermarket shoppers, we designed a mobile context-aware system called the Context- Aware Shopping Trolley (CAST). The aim...... of the system is to support shopping in supermarkets through context-awareness and acquiring user attention. Thus, the interactive trolley guides and directs shoppers in the handling and finding of groceries. An empirical evaluation showed that shoppers using CAST adapted in different shopping behavior than...

  16. Ant Foraging Behavior for Job Shop Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahad Diyana Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ant Colony Optimization (ACO is a new algorithm approach, inspired by the foraging behavior of real ants. It has frequently been applied to many optimization problems and one such problem is in solving the job shop problem (JSP. The JSP is a finite set of jobs processed on a finite set of machine where once a job initiates processing on a given machine, it must complete processing and uninterrupted. In solving the Job Shop Scheduling problem, the process is measure by the amount of time required in completing a job known as a makespan and minimizing the makespan is the main objective of this study. In this paper, we developed an ACO algorithm to minimize the makespan. A real set of problems from a metal company in Johor bahru, producing 20 parts with jobs involving the process of clinching, tapping and power press respectively. The result from this study shows that the proposed ACO heuristics managed to produce a god result in a short time.

  17. Design and application of a new kind of rolling coupling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Hai-liang; HE Qing-hua

    2005-01-01

    Based on Hertz theory of elastic contact and the design theory of ball bearings, a new type of rolling coupling was designed. The two halves of the rolling coupling can be moved relatively by a small axial force when a great moment is exerted on it. The rolling coupling was used to connect the principal axis and the decelerator of continuous extrusion machine and it can greatly decrease the harmful axial forces on the continuous machine. The engineering formulas for the contact stress and distance of apporach of the rolling elements were deduced and the method for designing the rolling couplings was proposed. The formulas for the forces exerted on the rolling element were verified by the experiment.

  18. Cutting tool materials for high speed machining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhanqiang; AI Xing

    2005-01-01

    High speed machining (HSM) is one of the emerging cutting processes, which is machining at a speed significantlyhigher than the speed commonly in use on the shop floor. In the last twenty years, high speed machining has received great attentions as a technological solution for high productivity in manufacturing. This article reviews the developments of tool materials in high speed machining operations, and the properties, applications and prospective developments of tool materials in HSM are also presented.

  19. Reception Shop Special Stand

    CERN Multimedia

    Education and Technology Transfer Unit/ETT-EC

    2004-01-01

    Friday 15.10.2004 CERN 50th Anniversary articles will be sold in the Main Building, ground floor on Friday 15th October from 10h00 to 16h00. T-shirt, (S, M, L, XL) 20.- K-way (M, L, XL) 20.- Silk tie (2 models) 30.- Einstein tie 45.- Umbrella 20.- Caran d'Ache pen 5.- 50th Anniversary Pen 5.- Kit of Cartoon Album & Crayons 10.- All the articles are also available at the Reception Shop in Building 33 from Monday to Saturday between 08.30 and 17.00 hrs. Education and Technology Transfer Unit/ETT-EC

  20. Online Shopping Woes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou Weili

    2011-01-01

    AS a frequent online shopper,Zhou Fangjie,a 28-year-old white-collar worker,was annoyed when she could not open Hanyidushe,an online shop selling Korean-style clothing on Taobao Mall.Her experience resulted from the online protest initiated by small vendors on Taobao Mall,China's largest business to consumer online platform.Thousands of small vendors started the protest against larger established vendors by discrediting them through False orders,forming an anti-Taobao Union and setting up a chat room to devise ways to disrupt operations on Taobao Mall.

  1. Development of centrifugal casting high speed steel rolls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hanguang Fu; Aimin Zhao; Jiandong Xing

    2003-01-01

    The present study aims at developing the high speed steel (HSS) as roll materials to replace the traditional roll materials such as the alloy cast iron and powder metallurgical (PM) hard alloy. The HSS roll billet was formed by centrifugal casting, and the billet was rough machined after soften annealing heat treatment, then it was quenched and tempered to get suitable hardness and toughness. After that the HSS roll was finish machined to the final dimension of φ285 mm in the outer diameter, φ160 mm in the inner diameter and 120 mm in width and its surface hardness was tested. Finally the HSS roll was used in high speed wire rod mill. The test results show that a high and homogeneous hardness can obtain on the work surface of HSS rolls, the surface hardness is 63-65HRC and its variation is smaller than 2HRC. The impact toughness of this kind of HSS is about 16 J/cra2. The results of on-line service investigation in high speed wire rod mill indicate that the HSS rolls have excellent wear resistance, the steel rolling quantity per mm of HSS rolls is 3120 t, the service life-span of HSS rolls is 4 times longer than that of high chromium cast iron rolls and it is close to that of the PM hard alloy rolls. The manufacturing burden of HSS rolls is obviously lower than that of the PM hard alloy rolls, it is only 25% of that of the PM hard alloy rolls.

  2. Product Searching with Shopping Bots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Jennifer

    2000-01-01

    Using trial searches for three best-selling books, this study examined the search facilities offered by shopping bots, which support consumers with the product search and identification stage in e-shopping. Findings indicate that effectiveness of bots not only depends upon search facilities but also upon product coverage, and other added value…

  3. Lhokseumawe Shopping Center (Arsitektur Kontekstual)

    OpenAIRE

    Harahap, Cyntia Harmaytha

    2015-01-01

    Aceh, Lhokseumawe especially, has the potential to be developed as a locomotive for economic development are considered very promising in line with population growth and economic Lhokseumawe. However, the fastgrowing economy is inversely proportional to the shopping facilities available in Lhokseumawe. Behavior of society who increasingly developed and developing raises people's desire for a comprehensive shopping facilities, good, safe, and comfortable. Then the constructio...

  4. Price learning during grocery shopping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birger Boutrup

    of what consumers learn about prices during grocery shopping. Three measures of price knowledge corresponding to different levels of price information processing were applied. Results indicate that price learning does take place and that episodic price knowledge after store exit is far more widespread...... than expected. Consequently, a new view of how consumer price knowledge evolves during grocery shopping is presented....

  5. Product Searching with Shopping Bots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Jennifer

    2000-01-01

    Using trial searches for three best-selling books, this study examined the search facilities offered by shopping bots, which support consumers with the product search and identification stage in e-shopping. Findings indicate that effectiveness of bots not only depends upon search facilities but also upon product coverage, and other added value…

  6. Muenster Karstadt shopping center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-08-01

    Displaying its goods on an area of 16000 m/sup 2/ the five-story Karstadt shopping center is completed by a restaurant, an underground garage, administrative offices, personnel recreation rooms, and depot repair and treatment shops. Photographs showing the building, interior fittings, and supply systems, as well as plans and diagrams facilitate access to the building structure (ceilings, outer and inner walls) and building services systems. The figures and data presented refer to the structure and performance of heating systems (central units, district heating connections, pumped water heating systems), space heating (supply air-dependent control), decentralized ventilation systems (supply air/extracted air), large-scale refrigerating machinery (piston and turbo compressors), small-scale refrigerating machinery (cold storage rooms, refrigerators), sprinklers (3900 spray nozzles, water supply), sanitary systems (sewerage), power system (10 kV, transformers, 1.v. main distribution, emergency generating units, emergency lighting batteries), elevators (3 goods elevators, 2 passenger elevators), electric stairways (12 staggered escalators), and building services systems (telephone office, control center). (HWJ).

  7. Cross Shear Roll Bonding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Bjerregaard, Henrik; Petersen, Søren. B;

    1994-01-01

    The present paper describes an investigation of roll bonding an AlZn alloy to mild steel. Application of cross shear roll bonding, where the two equal sized rolls run with different peripheral speed, is shown to give better bond strength than conventional roll bonding. Improvements of up to 20......-23% in bond strength are found and full bond strength is obtained at a reduction of 50% whereas 65% is required in case of conventional roll bonding. Pseudo cross shear roll bonding, where the cross shear effect is obtained by running two equal sized rolls with different speed, gives the same results....

  8. ProteinShop: A tool for interactive protein manipulation and steering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crivelli, Silvia; Kreylos, Oliver; Max, Nelson; Hamann, Bernd; Bethel, Wes

    2004-05-25

    We describe ProteinShop, a new visualization tool that streamlines and simplifies the process of determining optimal protein folds. ProteinShop may be used at different stages of a protein structure prediction process. First, it can create protein configurations containing secondary structures specified by the user. Second, it can interactively manipulate protein fragments to achieve desired folds by adjusting the dihedral angles of selected coil regions using an Inverse Kinematics method. Last, it serves as a visual framework to monitor and steer a protein structure prediction process that may be running on a remote machine. ProteinShop was used to create initial configurations for a protein structure prediction method developed by a team that competed in CASP5. ProteinShop's use accelerated the process of generating initial configurations, reducing the time required from days to hours. This paper describes the structure of ProteinShop and discusses its main features.

  9. Active Shop Scheduling Of Production Process Based On RFID Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuihua Chao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In industry 4.0 environment, intelligent technology is almost applied to all parts of the manufacturing process, such as process design, job shop scheduling, etc.. This paper presents an efficient approach to job shop scheduling actively by using RFID to collect real-time manufacturing data. Identified the workpiece by RFID which needs to be machined, it can “ask for” the resource actively for the following process. With these active asking-for strategy, a double genetically encoded improved genetic algorithm is proposed for achieving active job shop scheduling solution during the actual manufacturing process. A case was used to evaluate its effectiveness. Meanwhile, , it can effectively and actively carry out job shop scheduling and has much better convergence effect comparing with basic genetic algorithm. And the job shop scheduler in management center can use the proposed algorithm to get the satisfied scheduling result timely by reducing waiting time and making begin time earlier during transmission between manufacturing process, which makes the scheduling result feasible and accurate.

  10. Shopping in the Real World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Black, Darren; Clemmensen, Nils Jakob; Skov, Mikael B.

    2009-01-01

    Shopping in the real world is becoming an increasingly interactive experience as stores integrate various technologies to support shoppers. Based on an empirical study of supermarket shoppers, we designed a mobile context-aware system called the Context- Aware Shopping Trolley (CAST). The aim...... of the system is to support shopping in supermarkets through context-awareness and acquiring user attention. Thus, the interactive trolley guides and directs shoppers in the handling and finding of groceries. An empirical evaluation showed that shoppers using CAST adapted in different shopping behavior than...... traditional trolley shoppers by exhibiting a more uniform behavior in terms of product sequence collection and ease of finding products and thus, CAST supported the shopping experience....

  11. Analysis of multi-stage open shop processing systems

    CERN Document Server

    Eggermont, Christian; Woeginger, Gerhard J

    2011-01-01

    We study algorithmic problems in multi-stage open shop processing systems that are centered around reachability and deadlock detection questions. We characterize safe and unsafe system states. We show that it is easy to recognize system states that can be reached from the initial state (where the system is empty), but that in general it is hard to decide whether one given system state is reachable from another given system state. We show that the problem of identifying reachable deadlock states is hard in general open shop systems, but is easy in the special case where no job needs processing on more than two machines (by linear programming and matching theory), and in the special case where all machines have capacity one (by graph-theoretic arguments).

  12. Optimal Results and Numerical Simulations for Flow Shop Scheduling Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Ren

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the m-machine flow shop problem with two objectives: makespan with release dates and total quadratic completion time, respectively. For Fm|rj|Cmax, we prove the asymptotic optimality for any dense scheduling when the problem scale is large enough. For Fm‖ΣCj2, improvement strategy with local search is presented to promote the performance of the classical SPT heuristic. At the end of the paper, simulations show the effectiveness of the improvement strategy.

  13. Buying cannabis in 'coffee shops'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monshouwer, Karin; Van Laar, Margriet; Vollebergh, Wilma A

    2011-03-01

    The key objective of Dutch cannabis policy is to prevent and limit the risks of cannabis consumption for users, their direct environment and society ('harm reduction'). This paper will focus on the tolerated sale of cannabis in 'coffee shops'. We give a brief overview of Dutch policy on coffee shops, its history and recent developments. Furthermore, we present epidemiological data that may be indicative of the effects of the coffee shop policy on cannabis and other drug use. Dutch coffee shop policy has become more restrictive in recent years and the number of coffee shops has decreased. Cannabis prevalence rates in the adult population are somewhat below the European average; the rate is relatively high among adolescents; and age of first use appears to be low. On a European level, the use of hard drugs in both the Dutch adult and adolescent population is average to low (except for ecstasy among adults). International comparisons do not suggest a strong, upward effect of the coffee shop system on levels of cannabis use, although prevalence rates among Dutch adolescents give rise to concern. Furthermore, the coffee shop system appears to be successful in separating the hard and soft drugs markets. Nevertheless, in recent years, issues concerning the involvement of organised crime and the public nuisance related to drug tourism have given rise to several restrictive measures on the local level and have sparked a political debate on the reform of Dutch drug policy. © 2011 Trimbos Institute.

  14. Turkish Coffee Shop

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    A black and white copy of an original photograph showing Turkish men sitting outside a Turkish coffee shop, Cyprus - Μαυρόασπρο αντίγραφο από μια φωτογραφία που δείχνει Τούρκους άντρες να κάθονται έξω από ένα τούρκικο καφενεία στην Λευκωσία.

  15. Gold-decorated shopping centre; Golddekoriertes Shopping Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altmannshofer, Robert

    2010-11-15

    In the autumn 2009, the German quality seal sustainable construction for commercial new buildings was introduced. Thus, owners and operators of retail real estate and shopping centres can make clear their commitment in the matter of sustainability. The Ernst-August-Galerie (Hanover, Federal Republic of Germany) developed and operated by ECE Projektmanagement GmbH and Co. KG (Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany) was a pilot project and also the first gold in one. With its around 150 shops, the Ernst-August-Galerie offers a supermarket, fashion outlets, a food court, service outlets and restaurants/cafes. The spacious and elegantly designed shopping mall with its piazzas and light-flooded rotundas exudes a Mediterranean air, making it a high-quality venue for shopping, strolling and leisure activities.

  16. OPTIMISATION OF JOB SHOP SCHEDULING USING SHIFTING BOTTLENECK TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katuru Phani Raja Kumar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In manufacturing system the problem of scheduling machines is a difficult task to reach the due date of the productivity. The Job Shop Scheduling have been solved by different algorithms and methods based on the sequence operation constraints and processing times for small size problems. The JSSP with m machines and n jobs is represented to determine an optimal solution by using the shortest processing time technique and Gantt chart is drawn to visually represent the total makespan. The shifting bottleneck method has been used to reduce the total flow time of the JSSP and arrive at an optimal solution.

  17. Optimizing combination of job shop scheduling and quadratic assignment problem through multi-objective decision making approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Kazemi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider job shop scheduling and machine location problem, simultaneously. Processing, transportation, and setup times are defined as deterministic parameters. The purpose of this paper is to determine machine location and job scheduling such that the make span and transportation cost is minimized. Therefore, the proposed model is a multi-objective problem one, where the first objective function minimizes make span and another minimizes the transportation cost. To solve the multi-objective problem, two methods are evaluated. Considering combination of job shop scheduling problem and machine location problem makes the proposed model more complex than job shop scheduling problem, which is an NP-hard problem. Therefore, to solve the proposed model, genetic algorithm as a meta-heuristic algorithm is implemented. To show the efficiency of the proposed genetic algorithm, 6×6 job shop scheduling problems are considered.

  18. NEW NONSTANDARD JOB SHOP SCHEDULING ALGORITHM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Zhiqiang; YE Guangjie; ZHANG Dali; TAN Guangyu

    2008-01-01

    Considering the complex constraint between operations in nonstandard job shop scheduling problem (NJSSP), critical path of job manufacturing tree is determined according to priority scheduling function constructed. Operations are divided into dependent operations and independent operations with the idea of subsection, and corresponding scheduling strategy is put forward according to operation characteristic in the segment and the complementarities of identical function machines. Forward greedy rule is adopted mainly for dependent operations to make operations arranged in the right position of machine selected, then each operation can be processed as early as possible, and the total processing time of job can be shortened as much as possible. For independent operations optimum scheduling rule is adopted mainly, the inserting position of operations will be determined according to the gap that the processing time of operations is subtracted from idle time of machine, and the operation will be inserted in the position with minimal gap. Experiments show, under the same conditions, the result that operations are scheduled according to the object function constructed, and the scheduling strategy adopted is better than the result that operations are scheduled according to efficiency scheduling algorithm.

  19. Analysis of CVC roll contour and determination of roll crown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang Xu; Xianjun Liu; Jiarong Zhao; Junwei Xiong

    2007-01-01

    Mathematical analysis of continuous variable crown (CVC) roll contour used in CSP production line was conducted and the roll contour function of CVC roll was obtained. The validation with actual CVC roll contour shows that the calculation values of the roll contour function and the actual roll contour parameters given by equipment provider are the same, which proves that the roll contour function of CVC rolls given in this article is correct. The nonlinear relationship between the roll crown of CVC rolls and roll shift amounts was deduced. The concept of crown extremum was given.

  20. Process Waste Assessment - Paint Shop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, N.M.

    1993-06-01

    This Process Waste Assessment was conducted to evaluate hazardous wastes generated in the Paint Shop, Building 913, Room 130. Special attention is given to waste streams generated by the spray painting process because it requires a number of steps for preparing, priming, and painting an object. Also, the spray paint booth covers the largest area in R-130. The largest and most costly waste stream to dispose of is {open_quote}Paint Shop waste{close_quotes} -- a combination of paint cans, rags, sticks, filters, and paper containers. These items are compacted in 55-gallon drums and disposed of as solid hazardous waste. Recommendations are made for minimizing waste in the Paint Shop. Paint Shop personnel are very aware of the need to minimize hazardous wastes and are continuously looking for opportunities to do so.

  1. The shop floor scheduling game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riezebos, Jan; Slomp, Jannes

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the shop floor scheduling game is getting participants acquainted with: - developing robust planning and scheduling procedures; - accepting orders under uncertainty and competition; - using information from cost accounting in scheduling; - creating an adequate communication structure

  2. Shopping for Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, James A.; Flores, Alfinio; Knaupp, Jonathan

    1997-01-01

    To avoid underuse, inaccessibility, and obsolescence when choosing, purchasing, and using technology, educators should maximize the number of students sharing machines, build technology into the curriculum, ensure continuous accessibility, network computers, and build physical plant considerations into their purchase plans. A single high-end…

  3. Roll-to-roll embossing of optical linear Fresnel lens polymer film for solar concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, XinQuan; Liu, Kui; Shan, Xuechuan; Liu, Yuchan

    2014-12-15

    Roll-to-roll manufacturing has been proven to be a high-throughput and low-cost technology for continuous fabrication of functional optical polymer films. In this paper, we have firstly studied a complete manufacturing cycle of linear Fresnel lens polymer film for solar concentration in the aspects of ultra-precision diamond machining of metal roller mold, roll-to-roll embossing, and measurement on film profile and functionality. A metal roller mold patterned with linear Fresnel lenses is obtained using single point diamond turning technique. The roller mold is installed onto a self-developed roll-to-roll UV embossing system to realize continuous manufacturing of linear Fresnel lens film. Profile measurement of the machined roller mold and the embossed polymer film, which is conducted using a stylus profilometer, shows good agreement between measured facet angles with designed ones. Functionality test is conducted on a solar simulation system with a reference solar cell, and results show that strong light concentration is realized.

  4. Aplicación de un Algoritmo Evolutivo en la Solución de Problemas Job Shop-Open Shop Application of an Evolutionary Algorithm to solve Job Shop-Open Shop Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar D Castrillón

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo que se presenta fue disminuir el tiempo de proceso y el tiempo muerto, y aumentar la utilización de las máquinas, en un ambiente Job Shop-Open Shop, usando una nueva metodología basada en un algoritmo evolutivo. El estudio se realizó en una empresa del sector metalmecánico. La metodología propuesta es fácil de replicar y los resultados obtenidos son altamente consistentes, como se demuestra con un análisis de varianza realizado. Con la metodología propuesta se logró reducir el tiempo total de proceso en un 33% y el tiempo muerto en un 51% con una aproximación del 99%, respecto a la solución óptima estimada.The aim of the work presented in this paper was to reduce makespan time and idle time, and to increase machine utilization, in Job Shop-Open Shop environment, using a new methodology based on evolutionary algorithms. The study was done in an enterprise of the metal-mechanics sector. The proposed methodology is easy to implement and apply and the results are highiy consistent, as shown by a variance analysis. The methodology allows reducing the total processing time by 33% and idle time by 51 % with 99% approximation with respect to the optimum solution.

  5. Scalable, ambient atmosphere roll-to-roll manufacture of encapsulated large area, flexible organic tandem solar cell modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Rieks; Dam, Henrik Friis; Hösel, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Inline printing and coating methods have been demonstrated to enable a high technical yield of fully roll-to-roll processed polymer tandem solar cell modules. We demonstrate generality by employing different material sets and also describe how the ink systems must be carefully co-developed in order...... to reach the ambitious objective of a fully printed and coated 14-layer flexible tandem solar cell stack. The roll-to-roll methodologies involved are flexographic printing, rotary screen printing, slot-die coating, X-ray scattering, electrical testing and UV-lamination. Their combination enables......-ray machine enabling in situ studies of wet ink deposition and drying mechanisms, ultimately elucidating how a robust inline processed recombination layer is key to a high technical yield. Finally, the transfer to full roll-to-roll processing is demonstrated....

  6. A Method of Flow-Shop Re-Scheduling Dealing with Variation of Productive Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenzo KURIHARA

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available We can make optimum scheduling results using various methods that are proposed by many researchers. However, it is very difficult to process the works on time without delaying the schedule. There are two major causes that disturb the planned optimum schedules; they are (1the variation of productive capacity, and (2the variation of products' quantities themselves. In this paper, we deal with the former variation, or productive capacities, at flow-shop works. When production machines in a shop go out of order at flow-shops, we cannot continue to operate the productions and we have to stop the production line. To the contrary, we can continue to operate the shops even if some workers absent themselves. Of course, in this case, the production capacities become lower, because workers need to move from a machine to another to overcome the shortage of workers and some shops cannot be operated because of the worker shortage. We developed a new re-scheduling method based on Branch-and Bound method. We proposed an equation for calculating the lower bound for our Branch-and Bound method in a practical time. Some evaluation experiments are done using practical data of real flow-shop works. We compared our results with those of another simple scheduling method, and we confirmed the total production time of our result is shorter than that of another method by 4%.

  7. The cool shopping centre of the Netherlands. The realization of four cooling units in Utrecht, Netherlands; Het koele winkelhart van Nederland. Realisatie vier koudecentrales in Utrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    A brief description is given of a project to install four cooling machines (absorption cooling, compression cooling, cooling towers, and water treatment units) in the office and shopping centre Hoog Catharijne in Utrecht, Netherlands. 3 ills., 1 tab.

  8. Retailing and Shopping on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Jennifer

    1996-01-01

    Internet advertising and commercial activity are increasing. This article examines challenges facing the retail industry on the Internet: location; comparison shopping; security, especially financial transactions; customer base and profile; nature of the shopping experience; and legal and marketplace controls. (PEN)

  9. Smart Shopping for Veggies and Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safety Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide 10 Tips: Smart Shopping for Veggies and Fruits You are here ... for Veggies and Fruits Print Share 10 Tips: Smart Shopping for Veggies and Fruits It is possible ...

  10. Apparel shopping orientation: Two decades of research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of. — Prof EM Visser. Department of Consumer Science: Food, Clothing, Housing ... Shopping orientations. Importance of store attributes. Patronage behaviour. Personal .... similar shopping orientation labels used by different researchers ...

  11. INFLUENCE OF SURFACE DEFECTS, INHERITED FROM ROLLED WIRE, ON QUALITY OF A COLD-DRAWN WIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Savenok

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Researches of the most often occurred surface defects of rolled wires, their modification at drawing and influence on technological process and quality of cold-drawn wire with regard to working conditions of hardware shops of OAO “BMZ” are  presented.

  12. INFLUENCE OF THE SURFACE DEFECTS INHERITED FROM ROLLED WIRE ON QUALITY OF COLD DRAWN WIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Savenok

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Researches of the most often occurred surface defects of rolled wires, their modification at drawing and influence on technological process and quality of cold-drawn wire with regard to working conditions of hardware shops of BMZ are presented.

  13. Price learning during grocery shopping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birger Boutrup

    Many attempts have been made to measure consumers' price knowledge for groceries. However, the results have varied considerably and conflict with results of reference price research. This is the first study to examine price knowledge before, during, and after store visit, thus enabling a study...... of what consumers learn about prices during grocery shopping. Three measures of price knowledge corresponding to different levels of price information processing were applied. Results indicate that price learning does take place and that episodic price knowledge after store exit is far more widespread...... than expected. Consequently, a new view of how consumer price knowledge evolves during grocery shopping is presented....

  14. Online shopping: some advantages and shortcomings

    OpenAIRE

    Sammer, Aleksandra; Malkova, Yana

    2016-01-01

    As we live in the century of rapid development of information technologies, it is very difficult to meet people who haven't heard of online shopping. Hundreds of thousands of Internet users daily resort to services of virtual shops. Internet trade gains steam both in Russia, and all around the world. This paper overviews some advantages and shortcomings of online shopping over shopping malls. Time and money saving possibilities, wide range of goods, convenient delivery and method of payment, ...

  15. Lufthansa Center Sets Standard for Shopping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    IN Beijing, foreign tourists often dine at the Fangshan Restaurant, stay in the Palace Hotel and shop at the Lufthansa Center. The Lufthansa Friendship Shopping City is a newly built, luxurious complex that attracts wealthy Beijingers, international residents and tourists. The Lufthansa Shopping City is located in northeast Beijing. It covers over 22,000 square meters with five floors of shops and an underground supermarket. When you walk into the Lufthansa Center, you

  16. MARKETING STRATEGY OF CHOSEN COFFEE SHOP

    OpenAIRE

    Wirthová, Dominika

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to make a marketing strategy of chosen coffee shop, which is situated in Slovakia. Therefore the analysis needed to achieve the given aim were analysis of macroenvironment in Slovakia, current trends in coffee drinking, coffee shop business (in Europe), competition in the town. Interviews with the owner of given coffee shop, owners of other successful coffee shops and the summarization of related theory, also contributed to the achievement of the aim. A partial aim wa...

  17. CERN Shop - Christmas Sale in Bldg. 33

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    Looking for Christmas present ideas? The CERN Shop will give the CERN card holders a special reduction of 10 % on all CERN Shop articles from Friday 11.12.2009 to Thursday 17.12.2009. Come to visit the CERN Shop at the Reception, Building 33. PH-EDU-PO

  18. Metric Conversion and the School Shop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Arthur A.

    1976-01-01

    Cost of metric conversion in school shops is examined, and the author categories all the shops in the school and gives useful information on which shops are the easiest to convert, which are most complicated, where resistance is most likely to be met, and where conversion is most urgent. The math department is seen as catalyst. (Editor/HD)

  19. CERN Shop - Christmas Sale in Bldg. 33

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2010-01-01

    Looking for Christmas present ideas? The CERN Shop will give CERN card holders a special reduction of 10 % on all CERN Shop articles from Monday 13.12.2010 to Saturday 18.12.2010. Come and visit the CERN Shop in the Reception Building 33.

  20. 30 CFR 75.343 - Underground shops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground shops. 75.343 Section 75.343... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.343 Underground shops. (a) Underground...-3 through § 75.1107-16, or be enclosed in a noncombustible structure or area. (b) Underground shops...

  1. Kinect sensing of shopping related actions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popa, M.; Koc, A.K.; Rothkrantz, L.J.M.; Shan, C.; Wiggers, P.

    2011-01-01

    Surveillance systems in shopping malls or supermarkets are usually used for detecting abnormal behavior. We used the distributed video cameras system to design digital shopping assistants which assess the behavior of customers while shopping, detect when they need assistance, and offer their support

  2. Kinect sensing of shopping related actions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popa, M.; Koc, A.K.; Rothkrantz, L.J.M.; Shan, C.; Wiggers, P.

    2011-01-01

    Surveillance systems in shopping malls or supermarkets are usually used for detecting abnormal behavior. We used the distributed video cameras system to design digital shopping assistants which assess the behavior of customers while shopping, detect when they need assistance, and offer their support

  3. SHOP2: An HTN Planning System

    CERN Document Server

    Au, T C; Kuter, U; Murdock, J W; Nau, D S; Wu, D; Yaman, F; 10.1613/jair.1141

    2011-01-01

    The SHOP2 planning system received one of the awards for distinguished performance in the 2002 International Planning Competition. This paper describes the features of SHOP2 which enabled it to excel in the competition, especially those aspects of SHOP2 that deal with temporal and metric planning domains.

  4. Innovativeness and Variety of Internet Shopping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Brian F.; Neuendorf, Kimberly A.; Valdiserri, Colin M.

    2003-01-01

    This survey of 208 Internet users examined the factors underlying Internet usage and shopping. Data were gathered on Information shopping (IS) innovativeness, overall IS frequency, visit variety, purchase variety, network prevalence, education, age, gender, employment, extensiveness of Internet use, and non-shopping Internet applications. (MES)

  5. Innovativeness and Variety of Internet Shopping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Brian F.; Neuendorf, Kimberly A.; Valdiserri, Colin M.

    2003-01-01

    This survey of 208 Internet users examined the factors underlying Internet usage and shopping. Data were gathered on Information shopping (IS) innovativeness, overall IS frequency, visit variety, purchase variety, network prevalence, education, age, gender, employment, extensiveness of Internet use, and non-shopping Internet applications. (MES)

  6. Customer experience with online shopping : what are the unique experiences customers seek from online shopping?

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Daoyan

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade, there has been a great change in consumers' shopping behavior along with technological change. Online shopping is the use of computer technology for better shopping performance. Retailers are busy in studying consumers' behavior to see their attitudes toward online shopping and to meet the demand of online shoppers. Due to my interest in online business, I have also decided to study about customers' attitudes toward online shopping and specifically regarding factors that...

  7. USSR Report, Machine Tools and Metalworking Equipment, No. 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    operators, forsee shortages of equipment for individual machine groups, or take into account wastage due to nonideal manufacturing condipions. Let us...manufacture, chemical and petroleum machine building, and machine building for light industry, the food industry, and household appliance manufacture...Building for Light and Food Industry and Household Appliances for a group of tool shops at machine-building plants in Kiev, Vinnintsa, and Poltava

  8. Tabu search algorithms for job-shop problems with a single transport robot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurink, Johann; Knust, Sigrid

    2005-01-01

    We consider a generalized job-shop problem where the jobs additionally have to be transported between the machines by a single transport robot. Besides transportation times for the jobs, empty moving times for the robot are taken into account. The objective is to determine a schedule with minimal ma

  9. Tabu search algorithms for job-shop problems with a single transport robot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurink, J.L.; Knust, S.

    2001-01-01

    We consider a generalized job-shop problem where the jobs additionally have to be transported between the machines by a single transport robot. Besides transportation times for the jobs, empty moving times for the robot are taken into account. The objective is to determine a schedule with minimal ma

  10. Rolling Shutter Motion Deblurring

    KAUST Repository

    Su, Shuochen

    2015-06-07

    Although motion blur and rolling shutter deformations are closely coupled artifacts in images taken with CMOS image sensors, the two phenomena have so far mostly been treated separately, with deblurring algorithms being unable to handle rolling shutter wobble, and rolling shutter algorithms being incapable of dealing with motion blur. We propose an approach that delivers sharp and undis torted output given a single rolling shutter motion blurred image. The key to achieving this is a global modeling of the camera motion trajectory, which enables each scanline of the image to be deblurred with the corresponding motion segment. We show the results of the proposed framework through experiments on synthetic and real data.

  11. English in the Garment Shops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verplaetse, Lorrie

    This text for limited-English-speaking workers in the garment industry consits of illustrated vocabulary words, grammar lessons, narratives or brief readings, and exercises on employment-related topics. The first section focuses on shop talk, including job-specific vocabulary, simple expressions and explanations, social language, seeking and…

  12. 'Regime shopping' across (blurring) boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwerzijl, M.S.; Evju, Stein

    2014-01-01

    This book chapter identifies and explores the (blurring) boundaries between the legal regimes for labour mobility across the EU. In the context of - what is sometimes called - 'regime shopping' a close look is taken into the law on freedom of movement within the EU. Several categories of transnation

  13. 'Regime shopping' across (blurring) boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwerzijl, M.S.; Evju, Stein

    2014-01-01

    This book chapter identifies and explores the (blurring) boundaries between the legal regimes for labour mobility across the EU. In the context of - what is sometimes called - 'regime shopping' a close look is taken into the law on freedom of movement within the EU. Several categories of

  14. Branding on the Shop Floor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Jonas, Louise Rygaard

    2010-01-01

    , a Danish supermarket chain. During the implementation of the “Best Butcher in Town”-project, Kvickly’s shop floor becomes an engineered servicescape where the norms of good salesmanship must be performed. By documenting the disloyal behaviour of butchers, we demonstrate that the affective commitment...

  15. Pawn Shop,Cash Cow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    An expat in Beijing once wrote these words on his blog,"If you are anxious to exchange your valuables for cash,or want to collect some treasures in Beijing,you may visit Bao Rui Tong Pawn Shop which features agreeable environment,reliable credit,guaranteed quality and profes- sional service."That releases the com-

  16. JOB SHOP RE- SCHEDULING USING GENETIC ALGORITHM – A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.ChithtraiSelvam

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Scheduling concerns the allocation of limited resources overtime to perform tasks to fulfill certain criterion. One of the most popular models in scheduling theory is that of the job-shop scheduling, as it has earned a reputation for being notoriously difficult to solve. A job-shop scheduling problem comes under the category of combinatorial optimization problems and is very difficult to solve by conventional optimization techniques. Many scheduling problems from manufacturing industries are complex in nature and are to be best known about the difficult combinatorial optimization problems with a finite number of feasible solutions. A machine shop with four numbers of machines and five numbers of jobs and the following assumptions are taken into account and the machines are available at zero time and there are no breakdowns, machine processes one operation at a time and once an operation initiates processing on a given machine the machine stops only when the operation is over and the processing times are deterministic. In this present work, a rescheduling is done for the existing jobshop in a small scale industry and this problem is solved using the non-traditional optimization technique like Genetic Algorithms. Their performances are depicted graphically to exhibit how they have converged to the optimal solution.

  17. Simple roll coater with variable coating and temperature control for printed polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Henrik Friis; Krebs, Frederik C

    2012-01-01

    the instrument by reinvestigating the well known effect of solvent on performance. We obtained a maximum power conversion efficiency of 1.6% for the reference cells, which compares well with reported roll-to-roll coated cells according to ProcessOne, with a relative deviation caused by solvent type nearing 40......A simple and low cost thin film solution processing system comprising a single roll coating machine has been developed to allow direct investigation of variable parameter effects in roll-to-roll processing. We present roll coating of the active layers in polymer solar cells and validate......% on roll coated cells, confirming the solvent to have a significant influence on the performance of the finished cell. We further present a slot-die coating head with an ultra low dead volume allowing for the preparation of roll coated polymer solar cells on flexible substrates with nearly no loss...

  18. Towards Realizing High-Throughput, Roll-to-Roll Manufacturing of Flexible Electronic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Lin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available High-rate roll-to-roll (R2R tracker systems are utilized for large volume flexible electronic device manufacturing, and the current alignment mechanism between layers is mainly achieved by relying on passive techniques. In this paper, we present a machine vision based alignment strategy that is used to achieve precise registration for stacking multilayers. Based on this strategy, we demonstrate two-layer printing with alignment accuracy better than 100 μm in web moving direction and 200 μm in lateral direction at a web rate of 5 m/min.

  19. Diamond turning of high-precision roll-to-roll imprinting molds for fabricating subwavelength gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun-Wei; Yan, Jiwang; Lin, Shih-Chieh

    2016-06-01

    Diamond turning of high-precision molds is a vital process for the roll-to-roll-based ultraviolet resin imprinting process in fabricating subwavelength gratings. The effects of the grating shape and grating period on diffraction efficiencies and diffraction angles were simulated. Experiments were then conducted to examine the effects of shape design, grating period, and cutting speed on machinability of the mold. According to the optical measurement results, the performance of the subwavelength gratings matched the design well at various incident angles. The results confirm that diamond turning of high-precision molds is a feasible approach for ensuring the continual mass production of subwavelength gratings.

  20. EFFICIENT MULTI-OBJECTIVE EVOLUTIONARY ALGORITHM FOR JOB SHOP SCHEDULING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Deming; Wu Zhiming

    2005-01-01

    A new representation method is first presented based on priority rules. According to this method, each entry in the chromosome indicates that in the procedure of the Giffler and Thompson (GT) algorithm, the conflict occurring in the corresponding machine is resolved by the corresponding priority rule. Then crowding-measure multi-objective evolutionary algorithm (CMOEA) is designed,in which both archive maintenance and fitness assignment use crowding measure. Finally the comparisons between CMOEA and SPEA in solving 15 scheduling problems demonstrate that CMOEA is suitable to job shop scheduling.

  1. Access, Equity, and Opportunity. Women in Machining: A Model Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Heather

    The Women in Machining (WIM) program is a Machine Action Project (MAP) initiative that was developed in response to a local skilled metalworking labor shortage, despite a virtual absence of women and people of color from area shops. The project identified post-war stereotypes and other barriers that must be addressed if women are to have an equal…

  2. Shopping problems among high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Potenza, Marc N; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Cavallo, Dana A; Desai, Rani A

    2011-01-01

    Although shopping behavior among adolescents is normal, for some, the shopping becomes problematic. An assessment of adolescent shopping behavior along a continuum of severity and its relationship to other behaviors and health issues is incompletely understood. A large sample of high school students (n = 3999) was examined using a self-report survey with 153 questions concerning demographic characteristics, shopping behaviors, other health behaviors including substance use, and functioning variables such as grades and violent behavior. The overall prevalence of problem shopping was 3.5% (95% CI, 2.93-4.07). Regular smoking, marijuana and other drug use, sadness and hopelessness, and antisocial behaviors (e.g., fighting, carrying weapons) were associated with problem shopping behavior in both boys and girls. Heavy alcohol use was significantly associated with problem shopping only in girls. Problem shopping appears fairly common among high school students and is associated with symptoms of depression and a range of potentially addictive and antisocial behaviors. Significant distress and diminished behavioral control suggest that excessive shopping may often have significant associated morbidity. Additional research is needed to develop specific prevention and treatment strategies for adolescents who report problems with shopping. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Branding on the Shop Floor

    OpenAIRE

    Szilvia Gyimóthy; Louise Rygaard Jonas

    2010-01-01

    Service branding is a particular form of emotional management, where employees are regarded as adaptable media, who can be trained to convey corporate values while interacting with customers. This paper examines the identity work of butchers during the brand revitalisation campaign of Kvickly, a Danish supermarket chain. During the implementation of the “Best Butcher in Town”-project, Kvickly’s shop floor becomes an engineered servicescape where the norms of good salesmanship must be performe...

  4. Design of online shopping system

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yueyuan

    2011-01-01

    E-commerce is a kind of comprehensive activity of management automation, business information network and financial electronic technology. It is a kind of commercial activity accomplished through the information network in all kinds of business activities in the world. As a new marketing model, the emergence of online stores is an epoch-making revolution in the field of product circulation. The thesis focuses on a study of how to design a small online shopping system which is simple and f...

  5. CISM Course on Rolling Contact Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Kalker, Joost

    2000-01-01

    Preface.- Rolling Contact Phenomena - Linear Elasticity.- Finite Element Methods for Rolling Contact.- Plastic Deformation in Rolling Contact.- Non-Steady State Rolling Contact and Corrugations.- Modelling of Tyre Force and Moment Generation.- Rolling Noise.- Lubrication

  6. High-speed steel rolls used for cold rolling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Haixia; WU Qiong; SUN Dale

    2015-01-01

    During cold rolled production of steel,each change of rolls causes a halt in production and affects the roll’s grinding maintenance and consumption.Consequently,rolls are very critical to the costs of steel production. Besides the rolling accidents,surface quality problems,including inhomogeneous wear and a decrease of the surface roughness of the rolls are other main reasons for outage and a change of the rolls.Therefore,safe rolls,with superior wear resistance and roughness retentivity will be a future trend in the cold rolling steel industry.In this study,the property characteristics and in-service performance of high-speed steel(HSS)cold rolling work rolls at Baosteel are discussed.The results of this study indicate that in-service performance of HSS cold work rolls has an improvement over conventional rolls.Implementation of HSS work rolls will prolong the rolling campaign and improve the rolling stability,thus,the cost of cold rolling production can be better controlled.

  7. Upscaling of polymer solar cell fabrication using full roll-to-roll processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Tromholt, Thomas; Jørgensen, Mikkel

    2010-01-01

    Upscaling of the manufacture of polymer solar cells is detailed with emphasis on cost analysis and practical approach. The device modules were prepared using both slot-die coating and screen printing the active layers in the form of stripes that were serially connected. The stripe width was varied...... factors (excluding bus bars) of 50, 67 and 75% respectively. In addition modules with lengths of 6, 10, 20, 22.5 and 25 cm were explored. The devices were prepared by full roll-to-roll solution processing in a web width of 305 mm and roll lengths of up to 200 m. The devices were encapsulated...... and an IV-curve tracer. After characterisation the solar cell modules were cut into sheets using a sheeting machine and contacted using button contacts applied by crimping. Based on this a detailed cost analysis was made showing that it is possible to prepare complete and contacted polymer solar cell...

  8. Quantum dice rolling

    OpenAIRE

    Aharon, N.; Silman, J.

    2009-01-01

    A coin is just a two sided dice. Recently, Mochon proved that quantum weak coin flipping with an arbitrarily small bias is possible. However, the use of quantum resources to allow N remote distrustful parties to roll an N-sided dice has yet to be addressed. In this paper we show that contrary to the classical case, N-sided dice rolling with arbitrarily small bias is possible for any N. In addition, we present a six-round three-sided dice rolling protocol, achieving a bias of 0.181, which inco...

  9. Numerical And Experimental Study On Producing Aluminum Alloy 6061 Shafts By Cross Wedge Rolling Using A Universal Rolling Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tofil A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a selection of numerical and theoretical results of the cross wedge rolling process for producing stepped shafts made of aluminum alloy 6061. The numerical modeling was performed using the FEM-based Simufact Forming simulation software. In the simulations, we examined the kinematics of metal flow and determined the distribution patterns of effective strains, temperatures, axial stresses and the Cockroft-Latham damage criterion. Variations in the rolling forces were determined, too. The numerical results were verified experimentally using a universal rolling mill designed and constructed by the present authors. This machine can be used to perform such processes as cross wedge rolling, longitudinal rolling and round bar cropping. During the experiments, we examined process stability and finished product geometry and recorded the torques. The experimental results confirm that axisymmetric aluminum alloy shafts can be produced by cross wedge rolling with two rolls. Last but not least, the experiments served to evaluate the technological potential of the rolling mill used.

  10. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND ATTITUDE TOWARDS ONLINE SHOPPING

    OpenAIRE

    Nethra, S.; Dr. V. T. Dhanaraj

    2016-01-01

    The popularity of online shopping has caught the attention of many peoples. Many studies have been done in developed nations to know about the attitude and behaviour of consumers towards online shopping. The research is focused on consumer behaviour and attitude towards online shopping in Coimbatore district.  The study is based on primary data which has been collected by issuing questionnaire to 200 respondents residing in Coimbatore district by adopting convenient sampling method.  The stat...

  11. Measuring consumer perceptions of online shopping convenience

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Margarida Bernardo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this master thesis is to identify which dimensions of convenience affect consumers’ intention of using online shopping. Also it explores a conceptual model to measuring consumer perceptions of online shopping convenience. This paper contains prospects about online consumer behavior, and the results have important implications for retailers, managers and marketers, related to online shopping strategies. An empirical investigation was carried out to test the hypotheses. In order t...

  12. Determinants of Shopping Behavior of Urban Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Rajagopal, MR

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the influence of geo-demographic settings of commercial centers, customer attractions in shopping malls, and route to shopping of urban shoppers. The present research analyzes retailing patterns in urban areas in reference to customer orientation strategies, product search behavior and enhancing the customer value. Interrelationship among urban retailing, marketplace ambiance, conventional shopping wisdom of customers, long-term customer services, and technology led sellin...

  13. Passion and dependency in online shopping activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chih-Chien; Yang, Hui-Wen

    2007-04-01

    This study examines the influence of harmonious passion (HP) and obsessive passion (OP) to online shopping dependency. The results show that both HP and OP might lead to online shopping dependency and online shoppers with OP are more dependent on online shopping activities. In addition, this study also found out that HP and OP could be denoted as a sequence of different intensities of passion, where HP might be a necessity of OP.

  14. Rolled-Up Metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Schwaiger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we review metamaterials fabricated from self-rolling strained metal-semiconductor layer systems. These systems relax their strain upon release from the substrate by rolling up into microtubes with a cross-section similar to a rolled-up carpet. We show that the walls of these microtubes represent three-dimensional optical metamaterials which so far could be used, for example, for the realization of broadband hyperlenses, fishnet metamaterials, or optically active three-dimensional metamaterials utilizing the unique possibility to stack optically active semiconductor heterostructures and metallic nanostructures. Furthermore, we discuss THz metamaterials based on arrays of rolled-up metal semiconductor microtubes and helices.

  15. Rolling at small scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim L.; Niordson, Christian F.; Hutchinson, John W.

    2016-01-01

    The rolling process is widely used in the metal forming industry and has been so for many years. However, the process has attracted renewed interest as it recently has been adapted to very small scales where conventional plasticity theory cannot accurately predict the material response. It is well....... Metals are known to be stronger when large strain gradients appear over a few microns; hence, the forces involved in the rolling process are expected to increase relatively at these smaller scales. In the present numerical analysis, a steady-state modeling technique that enables convergence without...... dealing with the transient response period is employed. This allows for a comprehensive parameter study. Coulomb friction, including a stick-slip condition, is used as a first approximation. It is found that length scale effects increase both the forces applied to the roll, the roll torque, and thus...

  16. 滚割喂入式卧轴甩刀香蕉假茎粉碎还田机设计与试验%Design and experiment on cut roll feeding type horizontal shaft flail machine for banana pseudostem crushing and returning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张喜瑞; 甘声豹; 郑侃; 李粤; 梁栋

    2015-01-01

    horizontal-shaft returning chopped machine, which was suitable for the banana pseudo stem that was bulky, brittle and with high moisture content. This paper described the overall design of the machine, and determined the structure parameters and working parameters of main parts, such as pushing device, roll-cutter feeding device and chopped device. The movement and force analysis of chopped blade was also carried out. This machine composed mainly of down device, roll-cutter feeding device, chopped device, leveling device, suspension mechanism and hood. It will by overturn, cut broken feed, crushing returning and leveling four processes to deal directly with banana pseudo. Pushing device mounted on the front of the tractor. Roll-cutter feeding device, chopped device and leveling device connected together in order from front to back on the rear of the tractor. Chopped device located inside the hood, and constitute the grinding chamber with hood. In the course of their work, roll-cutter feeding device and chopped device driven by the power output shaft of the tractor rear, leveling device scrolling rely on friction of between leveling roller and the straw residue on the ground. And this machine can be adapted to different operating environments and operating requirements by adjusting the working height of the suspension mechanism. Field experiments indicated that the chopped percent of banana pseudo stem had reached 96.6% with the 21.4 L/hm2 oil consumption, and the 0.42-0.46 hm2/h efficiency of machine. When the tractor’s forward speed reached 2.16-3.60 km/h, the back power shaft output the speed of 720 r/min. The chopped stem’s average length of 57 mm had satisfied the agronomic requirements of returning straw. The machine has advantages of excellent performance, simple operation, safe and reliable work, and remarkable ecological and economic benefit, which has a broad prospect for the promotion in the banana planting areas of the south of China.

  17. When Machines Design Machines!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    Until recently we were the sole designers, alone in the driving seat making all the decisions. But, we have created a world of complexity way beyond human ability to understand, control, and govern. Machines now do more trades than humans on stock markets, they control our power, water, gas...... and food supplies, manage our elevators, microclimates, automobiles and transport systems, and manufacture almost everything. It should come as no surprise that machines are now designing machines. The chips that power our computers and mobile phones, the robots and commercial processing plants on which we...... depend, all are now largely designed by machines. So what of us - will be totally usurped, or are we looking at a new symbiosis with human and artificial intelligences combined to realise the best outcomes possible. In most respects we have no choice! Human abilities alone cannot solve any of the major...

  18. Rolling Regressions with Stata

    OpenAIRE

    Kit Baum

    2004-01-01

    This talk will describe some work underway to add a "rolling regression" capability to Stata's suite of time series features. Although commands such as "statsby" permit analysis of non-overlapping subsamples in the time domain, they are not suited to the analysis of overlapping (e.g. "moving window") samples. Both moving-window and widening-window techniques are often used to judge the stability of time series regression relationships. We will present an implementation of a rolling regression...

  19. Rolling resistance of tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junio, M.; Roesgen, A.; Corvasce, F. [Goodyear Technical Center Luxembourg, Colmar-Berg (Luxembourg)

    1999-07-01

    After a review of the contribution of tire rolling resistance to fuel economy, the tire rolling resistance is defined and measurement methods discussed. The significant effects of the 'external' factors such as load, inflation, temperature, speed, etc. that are not controlled by the tire developers, are reviewed. Tire construction changes that reduce deformations and compound changes reducing hysteresis are discussed and information is provided on what has been achieved so far and what might be done in the future. (orig.)

  20. Job shop scheduling problem with late work criterion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piroozfard, Hamed; Wong, Kuan Yew

    2015-05-01

    Scheduling is considered as a key task in many industries, such as project based scheduling, crew scheduling, flight scheduling, machine scheduling, etc. In the machine scheduling area, the job shop scheduling problems are considered to be important and highly complex, in which they are characterized as NP-hard. The job shop scheduling problems with late work criterion and non-preemptive jobs are addressed in this paper. Late work criterion is a fairly new objective function. It is a qualitative measure and concerns with late parts of the jobs, unlike classical objective functions that are quantitative measures. In this work, simulated annealing was presented to solve the scheduling problem. In addition, operation based representation was used to encode the solution, and a neighbourhood search structure was employed to search for the new solutions. The case studies are Lawrence instances that were taken from the Operations Research Library. Computational results of this probabilistic meta-heuristic algorithm were compared with a conventional genetic algorithm, and a conclusion was made based on the algorithm and problem.

  1. Fatigue Life Analysis of Rolling Bearings Based on Quasistatic Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Guo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rolling bearings are widely used in aeroengine, machine tool spindles, locomotive wheelset, and so forth. Rolling bearings are usually the weakest components that influence the remaining life of the whole machine. In this paper, a fatigue life prediction method is proposed based on quasistatic modeling of rolling bearings. With consideration of radial centrifugal expansion and thermal deformations on the geometric displacement in the bearings, the Jones’ bearing model is updated, which can predict the contact angle, deformation, and load between rolling elements and bearing raceways more accurately. Based on Hertz contact theory and contact mechanics, the contact stress field between rolling elements and raceways is calculated. A coupling model of fatigue life and damage for rolling bearings is given and verified through accelerated life test. Afterwards, the variation of bearing life is investigated under different working conditions, that is, axial load, radial load, and rotational speed. The results suggested that the working condition had a great influence on fatigue life of bearing parts and the order in which the damage appears on bearing parts.

  2. Avaliação de regras de sequenciamento da produção em ambientes Job shop e Flow shop por meio de simulação computacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Barbosa da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the computational simulation is employed to study the effects of production sequencing rules in the performance of Job shop and Flow shop manufacturing environments. Eight sequencing rules were considered: SIPT (Shortest Imminent Processing Time, EDD (Earliest Due Date, DLS (Dynamic Least Slack, LWQ (Least Work in next Queue, FIFO (First In First Out, LIFO (Last In Last Out, CR (Critical Ratio and LS (Least Slack. These different sequencing rules were evaluated in relation to the makespan, total tardiness and number of tardy jobs, considering an experimental scenario which includes two configurations with eight machines (processes and ten different types of orders. A simulation model was developed with Arena software, incorporating randomness of order arrivals and the production times in such environments. The results show that the EDD and SIPT rules presented the best performances in the Job shop and in the Flow shop environments, respectively.

  3. Mixed Self-adapting GA Optimal Scheduling Algorithm for a Multiple Resource Job-shop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    With an aim at the job-shop scheduling problem of multiple resource constraints, this paper presents mixed self-adapting Genetic Algorithm (GA), and establishes a job-shop optimal scheduling model of multiple resource constraints based on the effect of priority scheduling rules in the heuristic algorithm upon the scheduling target. New coding regulations or rules are designed. The sinusoidal function is adopted as the self-adapting factor, thus making cross probability and variable probability automatically change with group adaptability in such a way as to overcome the shortcoming in the heuristic algorithm and common GA, so that the operation efficiency is improved. The results from real example simulation and comparison with other algorithms indicate that the mixed self-adapting GA algorithm can well solve the job-shop optimal scheduling problem under the constraints of various kinds of production resources such as machine-tools and cutting tools.

  4. NUMERICAL EVALUATION OF TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION IN THE ROLLING MILL ROLLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Claudino de Lira Júnior

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In hot rolling processes occur changes in the profile of the rolling mill rolls (expansion and contraction and constant wear due to mechanical stress and continuous thermal cycles of heating/cooling caused by contact rolled material- working roll and the cooling system by water jets in their surface, decreasing their lifetime. This paper presents a computational model to simulate the thermal performance of rolling mill rolls. The model was developed using the finite volume method for a transient two-dimensional system and allows calculating the temperature distribution of the rolling mill rolls under various conditions of service. Here it is investigated the influence of flow rate and temperature of the cooling water on the temperature distribution. The results show that the water temperature has greater influence than the water flow to control the surface temperature of the cylinders.

  5. Experiment Research on Hot-Rolling Processing of Nonsmooth Pit Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yun-Qing; Fan, Tian-Xing; Mou, Jie-Gang; Yu, Wei-Bo; Zhao, Gang; Wang, Evan

    2016-01-01

    In order to achieve the nonsmooth surface drag reduction structure on the inner polymer coating of oil and gas pipelines and improve the efficiency of pipeline transport, a structural model of the machining robot on the pipe inner coating is established. Based on machining robot, an experimental technique is applied to research embossing and coating problems of rolling-head, and then the molding process rules under different conditions of rolling temperatures speeds and depth are analyzed. Also, an orthogonal experiment analysis method is employed to analyze the different effects of hot-rolling process apparatus on the embossed pits morphology and quality of rolling. The results also reveal that elevating the rolling temperature or decreasing the rolling speed can also improve the pit structure replication rates of the polymer coating surface, and the rolling feed has little effect on replication rates. After the rolling-head separates from the polymer coating, phenomenon of rebounding and refluxing of the polymer coating occurs, which is the reason of inability of the process. A continuous hot-rolling method for processing is used in the robot and the hot-rolling process of the processing apparatus is put in a dynamics analysis.

  6. Optimization of Realistic Multi-Stage Hybrid Flow Shop Scheduling Problems with Missing Operations Using Meta-Heuristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saravanan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A Hybrid flow shop scheduling is characterized ‘n’ jobs ‘m’ machines with ‘M’ stages by unidirectional flow of work with a variety of jobs being processed sequentially in a single-pass manner. The paper addresses the multi-stage hybrid flow shop scheduling problems with missing operations. It occurs in many practical situations such as stainless steel manufacturing company. The essential complexity of the problem necessitates the application of meta-heuristics to solve hybrid flow shop scheduling. The proposed Simulated Annealing algorithm (SA compared with Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO with the objective of minimization of makespan. It is show that the SA algorithm is efficient in finding out good quality solutions for the hybrid flow shop problems with missing operations.

  7. Strategy of image management in retail shops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Soče Kraljević

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A sound positioning in consumers’ mind, along with strong promotion support, brought many retail shops to the top. This is mostly thanks to the image created in the consumers’ mind. A retail shop’s image may but need not conform to reality. Image often looks like a cliché. It overstates certain elements of the shop while simply omitting others. That is exactly why image is of great importance and often crucial to consumer behavior. This paper aims at determining the impact of image on customer behavior in the course of decision making about shopping and choosing a particular retail shop. Image is a significant factor of success of every company, hence also of a retail shops. It is a relatively strong value and a component of creating competitive advantage. But if we do not pay sufficient attention to image, it can become counterproductive. Instead to, like an additional value helps creating and maintaining the advantage in competition and realization of business aims, transforms into a limiting factor. Therefore, it is imperative to identify the elements of image that are of greatest importance to customers. Research has shown that customers choose the retail shop first and after that products and brands within this shop. When it comes to the supermarket, as a kind of retail shop, research has shown that two out of three shopping decisions are made by the customer on the spot, that is, without previous planning. That practically means that we can influence customers with different sales techniques. The paper suggests different strategies of image management for supermarkets and conventional shops. For supermarkets it is the “widest assortment” strategy, while for conventional shops the strategy is that of a “selected group of products“. Improvements to research methods will enable getting more information about customer behavior, while pressures of increased competition in the business environment will force retailers to get

  8. RETAILERS PERCEPTION TOWARDS ONLINE SHOPPING

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. P. Jayalakshmi; Jolly John

    2017-01-01

    Few developments have altered India‘s lifestyle more quickly and more completely than the Internet. Online access has enabled people from all walks of life to bring entire libraries, entertainment venues, post offices and financial centers to a workplace, to a desktop or to a shirt pocket. The Internet‘s largest and most meaningful impact may very well be on the way consumers shop for everything from gifts, gadgets and groceries to clothing, cars, and cruises. The ease and selection that the ...

  9. Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavernia, E.J.; Delplanque, J-P; McHugh, K.M.

    2006-05-10

    Spray forming is a competitive low-cost alternative to ingot metallurgy for manufacturing ferrous and non-ferrous alloy shapes. It produces materials with a reduced number of processing steps, while maintaining materials properties, with the possibility of near-net-shape manufacturing. However, there are several hurdles to large-scale commercial adoption of spray forming: 1) ensuring strip is consistently flat, 2) eliminating porosity, particularly at the deposit/substrate interface, and 3) improving material yield. Through this program, a new strip/sheet casting process, termed spray rolling, has been developed, which is an innovative manufacturing technique to produce aluminum net-shape products. Spray rolling combines the benefits of twin-roll casting and conventional spray forming, showing a promising potential to overcome the above hurdles associated with spray forming. Spray rolling requires less energy and generates less scrap than conventional processes and, consequently, enables the development of materials with lower environmental impacts in both processing and final products. Spray Rolling was developed as a collaborative project between the University of California-Davis, the Colorado School of Mines, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, and an industry team. The following objectives of this project were achieved: (1) Demonstration of the feasibility of the spray rolling process at the bench-scale level and evaluation of the materials properties of spray rolled aluminum strip alloys; and (2) Demonstration of 2X scalability of the process and documentation of technical hurdles to further scale up and initiate technology transfer to industry for eventual commercialization of the process.

  10. Establishment of mathematical moment model in twin casting rolling rolls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙斌煜; 苑世剑; 张洪; 杜艳平; 张芳萍

    2002-01-01

    In continuous casting rolling process, the deformed body is different from the hot rolling strip. The metal in casting rolling zone is first assumed to be viscous fluid and the mathematical model of casting rolling force is established, then the calculating formula for casting rolling torque is derived. In addition, considering the effects of deforming cone and appendant torque of rotary junctions sealing ring, the calculating model which accords with casting rolling condition is found out. Theoretical formula is proved by experiment.

  11. 30 CFR 57.4761 - Underground shops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground shops. 57.4761 Section 57.4761... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Ventilation Control Measures § 57.4761 Underground shops. To confine or prevent the spread of...

  12. Shop Tools. FOS: Fundamentals of Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

    This shop tools manual is one of a series of power mechanics texts and visual aids on servicing of automotive and off-the-road equipment. Materials provide basic information and illustrations for use by vocational students and teachers as well as shop servicemen and laymen. Sections describe the use of the following tools: screwdrivers, hammers,…

  13. Designing electronic shops, persuading consumers to buy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dormann, Claire

    2000-01-01

    the product, or social cause. The importance of emotions in the on-line shopping context is highlighted. Mechanisms found in visual persuasion showing ways of capturing the audience's attention and emotions are discussed. To illustrate these mechanisms, examples drawn from electronic shopping are considered......The purpose of this article is to show how to design persuasive and successful Web shops. An approach to commercial site design that draws on theories of visual persuasion is proposed. We focus on the role of emotion. Images in an ad are typically meant to create some emotional disposition toward....... To strengthen the discussion, an evaluation of shop home pages, situated within the perspective of visual persuasion is presented. This study has given some indications that viewers form distinctive emotional impressions from shop designs. Thus, by building on visual persuasion theories, we can learn how...

  14. Potential of Natural Ventilation in Shopping Centres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Alice; Friis, Kristina; Brohus, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    The indoor environmental quality (IEQ) is a fundamental requirement for a well performing shopping centre. This paper contains a pilot study of the potential of using hybrid ventilation (a combination of automatically controlled natural and mechanical ventilation - respectively NV and MV) in shop......The indoor environmental quality (IEQ) is a fundamental requirement for a well performing shopping centre. This paper contains a pilot study of the potential of using hybrid ventilation (a combination of automatically controlled natural and mechanical ventilation - respectively NV and MV......) in shopping centres with focus on both the achieved IEQ and energy consumptions for air movement. By thermal building simulations it is found that there exists an interesting potential for hybrid ventilation of shopping centres, which can lead to great savings in the electrical energy consumptions...

  15. 41 CFR 50-204.5 - Machine guarding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Milling machines. Power saws. Jointers. Portable power tools. Forming rolls and calenders. (d) Revolving...) When the periphery of the blades of a fan is less than seven (7) feet above the floor or working...

  16. Mathematical Model and Hybrid Scatter Search for Cost Driven Job-shop Scheduling Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai Jie

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Job-shop scheduling problem (JSP is one of the most well-known machine scheduling problems and one of the strongly NP-hard combinatorial optimization problems. Cost optimization is an attractive and critical research and development area for both academic and industrial societies. This paper presents a cost driven model of the job-shop scheduling problem in which the solutions are driven by business inputs, such as the cost of the product transitions, revenue loss due to the machine idle time and earliness/tardiness penalty. And then, a new hybrid scatter search algorithm is proposed to solve the cost driven job-shop scheduling problem by introducing the simulated annealing (SA into the improvement method of scatter search (SS. In order to illustrate the effectiveness of the hybrid method, some test problems are generated, and the performance of the proposed method is compared with other evolutionary algorithms such as genetic algorithm and simulated annealing. The experimental simulation tests show that the hybrid method is quite effective at solving the cost driven job-shop scheduling problem.

  17. SHOPPING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安捷

    2008-01-01

    @@ 1.Can I help you?(What can I show you?)你要买点什么? 2.I'd like to see a pair of socks.给我一双袜子看看. 3.I should like some apples.我要买点苹果. 4.Mav I see that thermos bottle?我可以看看那个暖水瓶吗?

  18. Ship Roll Damping Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Tristan; Blanke, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    The technical feasibility of roll motion control devices has been amply demonstrated for over 100 years. Performance, however, can still fall short of expectations because of difficulties associated with control system designs, which have proven to be far from trivial due to fundamental performance...... limitations and large variations of the spectral characteristics of wave-induced roll motion. This tutorial paper presents an account of the development of various ship roll motion control systems together with the challenges associated with their design. It discusses the assessment of performance...... and the applicability of different mathematical models, and it surveys the control methods that have been implemented and validated with full scale experiments. The paper also presents an outlook on what are believed to be potential areas of research within this topic....

  19. Sliding and Rolling: The Physics of a Rolling Ball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hierrezuelo, J.; Carnero, C.

    1995-01-01

    Presents an approach that provides a simple and adequate procedure for introducing the concept of rolling friction. Discusses some aspects related to rolling motion that are the source of students' misconceptions. Presents several didactic suggestions. (JRH)

  20. Stochastic disks that roll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes-Cerfon, Miranda

    2016-11-01

    We study a model of rolling particles subject to stochastic fluctuations, which may be relevant in systems of nano- or microscale particles where rolling is an approximation for strong static friction. We consider the simplest possible nontrivial system: a linear polymer of three disks constrained to remain in contact and immersed in an equilibrium heat bath so the internal angle of the polymer changes due to stochastic fluctuations. We compare two cases: one where the disks can slide relative to each other and the other where they are constrained to roll, like gears. Starting from the Langevin equations with arbitrary linear velocity constraints, we use formal homogenization theory to derive the overdamped equations that describe the process in configuration space only. The resulting dynamics have the formal structure of a Brownian motion on a Riemannian or sub-Riemannian manifold, depending on if the velocity constraints are holonomic or nonholonomic. We use this to compute the trimer's equilibrium distribution with and without the rolling constraints. Surprisingly, the two distributions are different. We suggest two possible interpretations of this result: either (i) dry friction (or other dissipative, nonequilibrium forces) changes basic thermodynamic quantities like the free energy of a system, a statement that could be tested experimentally, or (ii) as a lesson in modeling rolling or friction more generally as a velocity constraint when stochastic fluctuations are present. In the latter case, we speculate there could be a "roughness" entropy whose inclusion as an effective force could compensate the constraint and preserve classical Boltzmann statistics. Regardless of the interpretation, our calculation shows the word "rolling" must be used with care when stochastic fluctuations are present.

  1. Determining the optimal number of sublots in a single-product, deterministic flow shop with overlapping operations

    OpenAIRE

    Van Nieuwenhuyse, Inneke; VANDAELE, Nico

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a model for minimizing total costs in a single-product, deterministic flow shop with overlapping operations in terms of the sublot size used. Three types of costs are considered: the inventory holding costs, the transportation costs and the so-called "gap costs" which may result from the intermittent idling of machines between consecutive Sublots.

  2. Ship Roll Motion Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Tristan; Blanke, Mogens

    2010-01-01

    The technical feasibility of roll motion control devices has been amply demonstrated for over 100 years. Performance, however, can still fall short of expectations because of deciencies in control system designs, which have proven to be far from trivial due to fundamental performance limitations....... This tutorial paper presents an account of the development of various ship roll motion control systems and the challenges associated with their design. The paper discusses how to assess performance, the applicability of dierent models, and control methods that have been applied in the past....

  3. METHOD OF ROLLING URANIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C.S.

    1959-08-01

    A method is described for rolling uranium metal at relatively low temperatures and under non-oxidizing conditions. The method involves the steps of heating the uranium to 200 deg C in an oil bath, withdrawing the uranium and permitting the oil to drain so that only a thin protective coating remains and rolling the oil coated uranium at a temperature of 200 deg C to give about a 15% reduction in thickness at each pass. The operation may be repeated to accomplish about a 90% reduction without edge cracking, checking or any appreciable increase in brittleness.

  4. Offensive Rolling in Sambo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Koepfer

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the Soviet born martial art of sambo has become increasingly well known in martial art circles. This is largely due to the success of sambo fighters in various mixed martial art venues. Offered here is a brief description of sambo’s development as well as a delineation of one of sambo’s hallmark strategies: offensive rolling. Examples of proper forward rolling and three related offensive techniques are presented. This paper provides a brief introduction to sambo’s history and one of its key tactical philosophies.

  5. Development and Experiments of 2BLZ-2 Ridge-Rolling Precise Sowing Machine%2BLZ-2型垄上镇压式精密播种机的研制与试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘庆福; 栾文辉; 田耘; 王景利; 袁月明; 侯季里

    2001-01-01

    2BLZ-2 suppressed precise sowing machine to be used on ridge of land equipped with combined profile modeling moving wheels merges with gaging function into an organic whole. It adopts precision maize seed metering device of step-inner-cell sowing device and can complete precise sowing. Two groups of springs are installed in it so as to insure the sowing in uniform and make the suppressing strength changeable. The field experiments and analyses of the technical function have proved that this sowing machine has high working quality and reliable technical function.%2BLZ-2型垄上镇压式精密播种机,设计安装了组合式仿形传动轮,集仿形传动作用为一体。采用了组合内窝孔式玉米排种器,实现精密播种。设置了两组弹簧,以保证播深一致及实现镇压力可调。通过田间作业试验和技术性能分析,证明该机具有良好的工作质量和可靠的技术性能。

  6. A Modified Biogeography-Based Optimization for the Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzhen Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The flexible job shop scheduling problem (FJSSP is a practical extension of classical job shop scheduling problem that is known to be NP-hard. In this paper, an effective modified biogeography-based optimization (MBBO algorithm with machine-based shifting is proposed to solve FJSSP with makespan minimization. The MBBO attaches great importance to the balance between exploration and exploitation. At the initialization stage, different strategies which correspond to two-vector representation are proposed to generate the initial habitats. At global phase, different migration and mutation operators are properly designed. At local phase, a machine-based shifting decoding strategy and a local search based on insertion to the habitat with best makespan are introduced to enhance the exploitation ability. A series of experiments on two well-known benchmark instances are performed. The comparisons between MBBO and other famous algorithms as well as BBO variants prove the effectiveness and efficiency of MBBO in solving FJSSP.

  7. Research on work roll thermal crown in cold rolling mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lei; Shen, Mingang; Chen, Xuebo; Wang, Junsheng

    2013-05-01

    The factors which have influence on the work roll thermal crown in cold strip rolling are discussed. The heat transferring in three directions (radial axis and circumference) were considered for calculating the work roll thermal deformation. Therefore, it is a three dimensions unstable system for the work roll temperature calculation. The plastic deformation work and friction heat are calculated by the divided element and digital integration method. The simplified calculation model is built for the heat transferring along work roll. There are four zones for work roll heat transferring: roll gap zone air cooling zone emulsion zone rolls contact zone. The heat transferring between the zones is decided by the temperature difference. The inter temperature field and thermal deformation of work roll can be calculated by two-dimension finite difference method. The work roll temperature and thermal crown of actual application cold rolling mill are analyzed by the model. By the comparison between calculated values and measured values, the work roll thermal calculation model can meet the accuracy requirement of on-line control.

  8. Heuristics methods for the flow shop scheduling problem with separated setup times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Seido Nagano

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the permutation flow shop scheduling problem with separated machine setup times. As a result of an investigation on the problem characteristics, four heuristics methods are proposed with procedures of the construction sequencing solution by an analogy with the asymmetric traveling salesman problem with the objective of minimizing makespan. Experimental results show that one of the new heuristics methods proposed provide high quality solutions in comparisons with the evaluated methods considered in the literature.

  9. Study on disruption management scheduling problem of flow shop under supply chain environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Hong Guang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a disruption scheduling model for an environment of proportional two-machine no-wait flow shop. To achieve the objects of minimization of weighted sum of makespan and minimization of weighted sum of tardiness, we introduce a revised PSO algorithm which is designed with a neighborhood search structure. According to the experiment, the effectivity of the method proposed is proven.

  10. Parallel patterns determination in solving cyclic flow shop problem with setups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożejko Wojciech

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this work is the new idea of blocks for the cyclic flow shop problem with setup times, using multiple patterns with different sizes determined for each machine constituting optimal schedule of cities for the traveling salesman problem (TSP. We propose to take advantage of the Intel Xeon Phi parallel computing environment during so-called ’blocks’ determination basing on patterns, in effect significantly improving the quality of obtained results.

  11. Branding on the Shop Floor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szilvia Gyimóthy

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Service branding is a particular form of emotional management, where employees are regarded as adaptable media, who can be trained to convey corporate values while interacting with customers. This paper examines the identity work of butchers during the brand revitalisation campaign of Kvickly, a Danish supermarket chain. During the implementation of the “Best Butcher in Town”-project, Kvickly’s shop floor becomes an engineered servicescape where the norms of good salesmanship must be performed. By documenting the disloyal behaviour of butchers, we demonstrate that the affective commitment towards corporate brand values is closely related with self-enactment opportunities of occupational communities. Total service-orientation threatens butchers’ perception of autonomy and may therefore result in the emergence of resistant sub-cultures.

  12. Dermatoses among floral shop workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiboutot, D M; Hamory, B H; Marks, J G

    1990-01-01

    Concern about the increasing incidence of hand dermatitis in floral shop workers in the United States and its possible association to the plant Alstroemeria, a flower that has become popular since its introduction in 1981, prompted investigation of the prevalence and cause of hand dermatitis in a sample of floral workers. Fifty-seven floral workers were surveyed, and 15 (26%) reported hand dermatitis within the previous 12 months. Sixteen floral workers (eight with dermatitis) volunteered to be patch tested to the North American Contact Dermatitis Group Standard and Perfume Trays, a series of eight pesticides and 20 plant allergens. Of four of seven floral designers and arrangers who reported hand dermatitis, three reacted positively to patch tests to tuliposide A, the allergen in Alstroemeria. Patch test readings for all other plant extracts were negative. A positive reading for a test to one pesticide, difolatan (Captafol), was noted, the relevance of which is unknown.

  13. Price knowledge during grocery shopping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birger Boutrup; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-01-01

    Past research on consumer price knowledge has varied considerably partly due to differences in how and when price knowledge is measured.This paper applies a multi-point, multi-measure approach to reconcile differences in past price knowledge research by examining systematicrelationships between...... accessible at the store exit. These findings enable the authors to reconcile diverging results from past research,showing how consumer price knowledge evolves and suggesting that the vast majority of consumers learn about prices, whether consciously orunconsciously, during grocery shopping. Thus, when...... applying a multi-point, multi-measure approach, consumers appear to know more aboutprices than suggested by past research. Determinants of price knowledge are also examined and the results indicate that price knowledge buildsup not only because of active search but also due to accidental exposure to prices...

  14. Rolling Cylinder Phase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margheritini, Lucia; Taraborrelli, Valeria Taraborrelli

    Margheritini and Valeria Taraborrelli(valeria.taraborrelli@hotmail.it) with a total of 3 day visit from the developers. Laboratory tests in irregular waves will be performed by Lucia Margheritini. The report is aimed at the first stage testing of the Rolling Cylinder wave energy device. This phase includes...

  15. Food shopping behaviours and exposure to discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenk, Shannon N; Schulz, Amy J; Israel, Barbara A; Mentz, Graciela; Miranda, Patricia Y; Opperman, Alisha; Odoms-Young, Angela M

    2014-05-01

    The present study examined food shopping behaviours, particularly distance to grocery shop, and exposure to discrimination. Cross-sectional observational study utilizing data from a community survey, neighbourhood food environment observations and the decennial census. Three communities in Detroit, Michigan, USA. Probability sample of 919 African-American, Latino and white adults in 146 census blocks and sixty-nine census block groups. On average, respondents shopped for groceries 3·1 miles (4·99 km) from home, with 30·9 % shopping within 1 mile (1·61 km) and 22·3 % shopping more than 5 miles (8·05 km) from home. Longer distance to shop was associated with being younger, African-American (compared with Latino), a woman, higher socio-economic status, lower satisfaction with the neighbourhood food environment, and living in a neighbourhood with higher poverty, without a large grocery store and further from the nearest supermarket. African-Americans and those with the lowest incomes were particularly likely to report unfair treatment at food outlets. Each mile (1·61 km) increase in distance to shop was associated with a 7 % increase in the odds of unfair treatment; this relationship did not differ by race/ethnicity. The study suggests that unfair treatment in retail interactions warrants investigation as a pathway by which restricted neighbourhood food environments and food shopping behaviours may adversely affect health and contribute to health disparities. Efforts to promote 'healthy' and equitable food environments should emphasize local availability and affordability of a range of healthy food products, as well as fair treatment while shopping regardless of race/ethnicity or socio-economic status.

  16. Dimensions of Consumer's Perceived Risk in Online Shopping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Naiyi

    2004-01-01

    Perceived risk is an important concept in consumer behavior in online shopping. It impedes the adopting online shopping. A structure model with seven factors of consumer's perceived risk in online shopping is developed in this paper. The results have the descriptive power about Chinese consumers' perceived risk in Internet shopping and provide framework for managerial use in China's e-commerce market environment.

  17. An Iterative Layered Tabu Search Algorithm for Complex Job Shop Scheduling Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUMin; DONGMingyu; WUCheng

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, aiming at the complex characteristics that there exist two interrelated decision processes: job-assignment decision and job-sequencing decision in the complex job shop scheduling problem with parallel machines and technical constraints, we propose an Iterative layered tabu search algorithm (ILTSA), which combines the iterative and layered mechanism with tabu search algorithm. In ILTSA, we define the notation of the optimization layer including the job-assignment optimization layer and the job-sequencing optimization layer which correspond to the above two interrelated decision processes respectively. On the basis, we use the corresponding tabu search algorithms in different optimization layers and switch iteratively the above two tabu search algorithms between the two optimization layers to improve the performance of the scheduling algorithm effectively. In the above two TS algorithms, the measuring functions are the objective of the whole scheduling problem. At last, we make numerical computations for different scale scheduling problems of minimizing the makespan and minimizing the total number of tardy jobs respectively, and numerical computational results show that ILTSA is very efficient and suitable for solving larger scale job shop scheduling problem with parallel machines and technical constraints. Also, we apply successfully ILTSA to a practical complex job shop scheduling problem with parallel machines and technical constraints in one of the largest cotton colored weaving enterprises in China.

  18. Solving Flexible Job-Shop Scheduling Problem Using Gravitational Search Algorithm and Colored Petri Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Barzegar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Scheduled production system leads to avoiding stock accumulations, losses reduction, decreasing or even eliminating idol machines, and effort to better benefitting from machines for on time responding customer orders and supplying requested materials in suitable time. In flexible job-shop scheduling production systems, we could reduce time and costs by transferring and delivering operations on existing machines, that is, among NP-hard problems. The scheduling objective minimizes the maximal completion time of all the operations, which is denoted by Makespan. Different methods and algorithms have been presented for solving this problem. Having a reasonable scheduled production system has significant influence on improving effectiveness and attaining to organization goals. In this paper, new algorithm were proposed for flexible job-shop scheduling problem systems (FJSSP-GSPN that is based on gravitational search algorithm (GSA. In the proposed method, the flexible job-shop scheduling problem systems was modeled by color Petri net and CPN tool and then a scheduled job was programmed by GSA algorithm. The experimental results showed that the proposed method has reasonable performance in comparison with other algorithms.

  19. Precision ring rolling technique and application in high-performance bearing manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High-performance bearing has significant application in many important industry fields, like automobile, precision machine tool, wind power, etc. Precision ring rolling is an advanced rotary forming technique to manufacture high-performance seamless bearing ring thus can improve the working life of bearing. In this paper, three kinds of precision ring rolling techniques adapt to different dimensional ranges of bearings are introduced, which are cold ring rolling for small-scale bearing, hot radial ring rolling for medium-scale bearing and hot radial-axial ring rolling for large-scale bearing. The forming principles, technological features and forming equipments for three kinds of precision ring rolling techniques are summarized, the technological development and industrial application in China are introduced, and the main technological development trend is described.

  20. High-speed roll-to-roll manufacturing of graphene using a concentric tube CVD reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polsen, Erik S.; McNerny, Daniel Q.; Viswanath, B.; Pattinson, Sebastian W.; John Hart, A.

    2015-01-01

    We present the design of a concentric tube (CT) reactor for roll-to-roll chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on flexible substrates, and its application to continuous production of graphene on copper foil. In the CTCVD reactor, the thin foil substrate is helically wrapped around the inner tube, and translates through the gap between the concentric tubes. We use a bench-scale prototype machine to synthesize graphene on copper substrates at translation speeds varying from 25 mm/min to 500 mm/min, and investigate the influence of process parameters on the uniformity and coverage of graphene on a continuously moving foil. At lower speeds, high-quality monolayer graphene is formed; at higher speeds, rapid nucleation of small graphene domains is observed, yet coalescence is prevented by the limited residence time in the CTCVD system. We show that a smooth isothermal transition between the reducing and carbon-containing atmospheres, enabled by injection of the carbon feedstock via radial holes in the inner tube, is essential to high-quality roll-to-roll graphene CVD. We discuss how the foil quality and microstructure limit the uniformity of graphene over macroscopic dimensions. We conclude by discussing means of scaling and reconfiguring the CTCVD design based on general requirements for 2-D materials manufacturing. PMID:25997124

  1. Optimum Thread Rolling Process That Improves SCC Resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.R. Kephart

    2001-10-29

    Accelerated testing in environments aggressive for the specific material have shown that fastener threads that are rolled after strengthening heat treatments have improved resistance to SCC initiation. For example, intergranular SCC was produced in one day when machined (cut) threads of high strength steel (ASTM A193 B-7 and A354 Grade 8) were exposed to an aggressive aqueous environment containing 8 weight % boiling ammonium nitrate and stressed to about 40% of the steel's yield strength (120 ksi, 827 MPa). In similar testing conditions, fasteners that had threads rolled before heat-treatment (quench and temper) had similar susceptibility to SCC. However, threads rolled after strengthening, exhibited no SCC after a week of exposure, even when stressed to 100% of the B-7 alloy yield strength. Similarly, intergranular SCC was produced in less than one day when machined (cut) threads of nickel-base alloys (X-750 and aged 625) were exposed to an aggressive 750 F doped steam environment (containing 100 ppm of chloride, fluoride, sulfate, nitrate and a controlled hydrogen overpressure) and stressed to about 80% of the alloy yield strength (117 ksi, 807 MPa). In similar testing conditions, threads rolled after strengthening exhibited no SCC after 50 days of exposure. This beneficial effect of the optimum thread rolling process (i.e., threads rolled after strengthening) is due to the retention of large residual compressive stresses in the thread roots (notches) which mitigate the applied notch tensile stresses resulting from joint design pre-loads. use of these material specific aggressive environments can provide an accelerated test to verify that threads were produced by the optimum thread rolling process. These tests could support fastener acceptance criteria or failure analysis of fasteners with unknown or uncertain manufacturing processes. The optimum process effects may not always be detected by more conventional methods (e.g., metallography or hardness testing).

  2. An improved Genetic Algorithm of Bi-level Coding for Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Li

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study presents an improved genetic algorithm(GA for the flexible job shop scheduling problem (FJSP. The coding is divided into working sequence level and machine level and two effective crossover operators and mutation operators are designed for the generation and reduce the disruptive effects of genetic operators. The algorithm is tested on instances of 10 working sequences and 10 machines. Computational results show that the proposed GA was successfully and efficiently applied to the FJSP. The results were compared with other approaches, such as traditional GA and GA with neural network. Compared to traditional genetic algorithm, the proposed approach yields significant improvement in solution quality.

  3. MODIFIED BOTTLENECK-BASED PROCEDURE FOR LARGE-SCALE FLOW-SHOP SCHEDULING PROBLEMS WITH BOTTLENECK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Yan; GU Hanyu; XI Yugeng

    2006-01-01

    A new bottleneck-based heuristic for large-scale flow-shop scheduling problems with a bottleneck is proposed, which is simpler but more tailored than the shifting bottleneck (SB)procedure. In this algorithm, a schedule for the bottleneck machine is first constructed optimally and then the non-bottleneck machines are scheduled around the bottleneck schedule by some effective dispatching rules. Computational results show that the modified bottleneck-based procedure can achieve a tradeoff between solution quality and computational time comparing with SB procedure for medium-size problems. Furthermore it can obtain a good solution in quite short time for large-scale scheduling problems.

  4. Consumers’ Attitude towards Online Shopping : Factors influencing Gotland consumers to shop online

    OpenAIRE

    Sultan, Muhammad Umar; Uddin, Md. Nasir

    2011-01-01

    In the era of globalization electronic marketing is a great revolution.  Over the last decade maximum business organizations are running with technological change.  Online shopping or marketing is the use of technology (i.e., computer) for better marketing performance. And retailers are devising strategies to meet the demand of online shoppers; they are busy in studying consumer behavior in the field of online shopping, to see the consumer attitudes towards online shopping. Therefore we have ...

  5. 基于经验模态分解和超球多类支持向量机的滚动轴承故障诊断方法%Rolling Bearing Fault Diagnosis Method Using Empirical Mode Decomposition and Hypersphere Multiclass Support Vector Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康守强; 王玉静; 杨广学; 宋立新; V.I.MIKULOVICH

    2011-01-01

    Rolling bearing fault location and especially the diagnosis of its performance degradation degree can be used for more effective equipment maintenance to reduce downtime rate. For nonstationary vibration signal, a new fault diagnosis method was presented to achieve feature extraction and intelligent classification of different fault positions and performance degradation degree of rolling bearing signal. By using empirical mode decomposition (EMD) method, the vibration signal of each status could be decomposed into a set of intrinsic mode function (IMF) components and a residual component. Empirical mode decomposition method has well adaptability and the result using empirical mode decomposition method is the unique one. Then autoregressive (AR) model could be established for each intrinsic mode function component, and model parameters and variances of remnant which were regarded as feature vectors could be obtained by using Yule-Walker method and Ulrych-Clayton method respectively, then feature vectors were regarded as the input of improved hypersphere multiclass support vector machine classifier for judging rolling bearing fault location and its performance degradation degree. Experiments results show that, by using the presented method, the intelligent diagnosis of rolling bearing fault position and performance degradation degree can be achieved together, and the recognition rate using empirical mode decomposition combined with Ulrych-Clayton parameter estimate method of autoregressive model for feature extraction is more higher.%滚动轴承故障定位,特别是对其性能退化程度的诊断可以更有效地进行设备维护以降低停机率.提出了对滚动轴承不同故障位置及性能退化程度的非平稳振动信号进行特征提取和智能分类的故障诊断方法.该方法对各状态振动信号进行经验模态分解,得到一系列固有模态函数和一个残余分量.经验模态分解方法具有分解自适应性和分解唯一

  6. Roll Eccentricity Control Using Identified Eccentricity of Top/Bottom Rolls by Roll Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanari, Hiroyuki; Koshinuma, Kazuyoshi

    Roll eccentricity is a periodic disturbance caused by a structure of back up rolls in rolling mills, and it affects product thickness accuracy. It cannot be measured directly by sensors, so it should be identified by measured thickness or measured roll force. When there is a large difference of diameters between top and bottom back up roll, the performance of roll eccentricity control using feedback signals of roll force or thickness has not been so good. Also it has been difficult for the control to be applied from the most head end because it is necessary to identify the roll eccentricity during rolling. A new roll eccentricity control has been developed to improve these disadvantages and to get better performance. The method identifies top and bottom roll eccentricity respectively from one signal of roll force and it can start the control from head end. In this paper the new control method is introduced and actual application results to a hot strip mill are shown.

  7. Handbook of machine soldering SMT and TH

    CERN Document Server

    Woodgate, Ralph W

    1996-01-01

    A shop-floor guide to the machine soldering of electronics Sound electrical connections are the operational backbone of every piece of electronic equipment-and the key to success in electronics manufacturing. The Handbook of Machine Soldering is dedicated to excellence in the machine soldering of electrical connections. Self-contained, comprehensive, and down-to-earth, it cuts through jargon, peels away outdated notions, and presents all the information needed to select, install, and operate machine soldering equipment. This fully updated and revised volume covers all of the new technologies and processes that have emerged in recent years, most notably the use of surface mount technology (SMT). Supplemented with 200 illustrations, this thoroughly accessible text Describes reflow and wave soldering in detail, including reflow soldering of SMT boards and the use of nitrogen blankets * Explains the setup, operation, and maintenance of a variety of soldering machines * Discusses theory, selection, and control met...

  8. The 3D virtual environment online for real shopping

    OpenAIRE

    Khalil, Nahla

    2015-01-01

    The development of information technology and Internet has led to rapidly progressed in e-commerce and online shopping, due to the convenience that they provide consumers. E-commerce and online shopping are still not able to fully replace onsite shopping. In contrast, conventional online shopping websites often cannot provide enough information about a product for the customer to make an informed decision before checkout. 3D virtual shopping environment show great potential for enhancing e-co...

  9. ShopComm: Community-Supported Online Shopping for Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorkovenko, Katerina; Tigwell, Garreth W; Norrie, Christopher S; Waite, Miriam; Herron, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The United Kingdom has an ageing population whose members experience significant life transitions as they grow older, for example, losing mobility due to deteriorating health. For these adults, digital technology has the potential to sustain their independence and improve their quality of life. However older adults can be reluctant to use digital solutions. In this paper, we review a local charity providing a grocery shopping service for older adults who are unable to go themselves. We explore how older adults perceive the benefits and drawbacks of both physical and digital shopping. Using these insights, we designed ShopComm to enable and support older adults with mobility impairments to shop online.

  10. Two Proposed Algorithms for Re-Entrant Flow Shop Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Kazumi; Ida, Kenichi

    In a re-entrant flow shop scheduling problem we proposed some algorithms to get a better TAT (turn around time) with a genetic search method. One is an operation which searches for a solution that shifts the start timing in limited areas of each lot. Another is an operation which searches for a solution that shifts left and chooses the machine which starts fastest. Some algorithms are effective on the benchmark including those proposed by Taji et al. In the first step, it is easiest to choose the probabilistic problem by local search. The second step is to search for the solution that shifts the start timing in limited areas of each lot, makes the Gantt chart, chooses the machine and gets the results. The third step is to search for the solution that again shifts left, makes the Gantt chart, chooses the machine and gets the results. The proposed algorithms are more valid than local search methods by Taji et al, such as swap, move, swap-2 neighborhood and FIFO (first in first out). The first algorithm has produced the best result in an experimental test when interval time was short. The second algorithm produced the best result of all solutions. The results have shown that the proposed algorithms are effective for interval time cut and get better TAT than previous methods.

  11. A Dynamic Job Shop Scheduling Method Based on Lagrangian Relaxation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Due to the complexity of dynamic job shop scheduling in flexible manufacturing s ystem(FMS), many heuristic rules are still used today. A dynamic scheduling appr oach based on Lagrangian relaxation is proposed to improve the quality and guara ntee the real-time capability of dynamic scheduling. The proposed method makes use of the dynamic predictive optimal theory combined with Lagrangian relaxation to obtain a good solution that can be evaluated quantitatively. The Lagrangian multipliers introduced here are capable of describing machine predictive states and system capacity constraints. This approach can evaluate the suboptimality of the scheduling systems. It can also quickly obtain high quality feasible schedu les, thus enabling Lagrangian relaxation to be better used in the dynamic schedu ling of manufacturing system. The efficiency and effectiveness of this method ar e verified by numerical experiments.

  12. Setup reduction approaches for machining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, L.K.

    1997-04-01

    Rapid setup is a common improvement approach in press working operations such as blanking and shearing. It has paid major dividends in the sheet metal industry. It also has been a major improvement thrust for high-production machining operations. However, the literature does not well cover all the setup operations and constraints for job shop work. This review provides some insight into the issues involved. It highlights the floor problems and provides insights for further improvement. The report is designed to provide a quick understanding of the issues.

  13. Food Shopping Behaviors and Exposure to Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenk, Shannon N.; Schulz, Amy J.; Israel, Barbara A.; Mentz, Graciela; Miranda, Patricia Y.; Opperman, Alisha; Odoms-Young, Angela M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study examined food shopping behaviors, particularly distance to grocery shop, and exposure to discrimination. Design Cross-sectional observational study utilizing data from a community survey, neighborhood food environment observations, and the decennial census. Setting Three communities in Detroit, Michigan, USA. Subjects Probability sample of 919 African-American, Latino, and White adults in 146 census blocks and 69 census block groups. Results On average, respondents shopped for groceries 3·1 miles from home, with 30·9% shopping within one mile and 22·3% more than five miles from home. Longer distance to shop was associated with being younger, African-American (compared to Latino), a woman, higher socioeconomic status, lower satisfaction with the neighborhood food environment, and living in a neighborhood with higher poverty, without a large grocery store, and farther from the nearest supermarket. African-Americans and those with the lowest incomes were particularly likely to report unfair treatment at food outlets. Each mile increase in distance to shop was associated with a 7% increase in the odds of unfair treatment; this relationship did not differ by race/ethnicity. Conclusions This study suggests that unfair treatment in retail interactions warrants investigation as a pathway by which restricted neighborhood food environments and food shopping behaviors may adversely affect health and contribute to health disparities. Efforts to promote “healthy” and equitable food environments should emphasize local availability and affordability of a range of healthy food products, as well as fair treatment while shopping regardless of race/ethnicity or socioeconomic status. PMID:23534814

  14. The Effects of Shopping Orientations, Consumer Innovativeness, Purchase Experience, and Gender on Intention to Shop for Fashion Products Online

    OpenAIRE

    Nirmala, Ratih Puspa; Dewi, Ike Janita

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, many fashion retailers or marketers use the power of internet to promote and sell their products. This research examines the effects of consumers’ shopping orientations (brand/fashion consciousness, shopping enjoyment, price consciousness, convenience/time consciousness, shopping confidence, in-home shopping tendency), consumer innovativeness, online purchase experience for fashion products, and gender on consumers’ intention to shop for fashion products online. Data were collected ...

  15. Why do you shop there? A mixed methods study mapping household food shopping patterns onto weekly routines of black women

    OpenAIRE

    DiSantis, Katherine Isselmann; Hillier, Amy; Holaday, Rio; Kumanyika, Shiriki

    2016-01-01

    Background The effectiveness of initiatives to increase healthy food access may be affected by where people decide to shop. People with poor neighborhood access to large grocery stores develop shopping patterns that require traveling to other areas, and some people who do have neighborhood access also travel elsewhere for food shopping. We sought to gain an understanding of household food shopping patterns in a sample of Black women in terms of where they shopped and why. Methods All food sho...

  16. Towards an understanding of Internet-based problem shopping behaviour: The concept of online shopping addiction and its proposed predictors

    OpenAIRE

    Rose, Susan; DHANDAYUDHAM, ARUN

    2014-01-01

    Background: Compulsive and addictive forms of consumption and buying behaviour have been researched in both business and medical literature. Shopping enabled via the Internet now introduces new features to the shopping experience that translate to positive benefits for the shopper. Evidence now suggests that this new shopping experience may lead to problematic online shopping behaviour. This paper provides a theoretical review of the literature relevant to online shopping addiction (OSA). Bas...

  17. Doctor shopping: a phenomenon of many themes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

    2012-11-01

    Doctor shopping is defined as seeing multiple treatment providers, either during a single illness episode or to procure prescription medications illicitly. According to the available literature, prevalence rates of doctor shopping vary widely, from 6.3 to 56 percent. However, this variability is partially attributable to research methodology, including the study definition of doctor shopping as well as the patient sample. The reasons for doctor shopping are varied. Some patient explanations for this phenomenon relate to clinician factors, such as inconvenient office hours or locations, long waiting times, personal characteristics or qualities of the provider, and/or insufficient communication time between the patient and clinician. Some patient explanations relate to personal factors and include both illness factors (e.g., symptom persistence, lack of understanding or nonacceptance of the diagnosis or treatment) as well as psychological factors (e.g., somatization, prescription drug-seeking). Importantly, not all doctor shopping is driven by suspect motivations. Being aware of these various patient justifications for doctor shopping is important in understanding and managing these challenging patients in the clinical setting, whether they emerge in psychiatric or primary care environments.

  18. Walk and roll robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Andrew (Inventor); Punnoose, Andrew (Inventor); Strausser, Katherine (Inventor); Parikh, Neil (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A mobile robotic unit features a main body, a plurality of legs for supporting the main body on and moving the main body in forward and reverse directions about a base surface, and a drive assembly. According to an exemplary embodiment each leg includes a respective pivotal hip joint, a pivotal knee joint, and a wheeled foot adapted to roll along the base surface. Also according to an exemplary embodiments the drive assembly includes a motor operatively associated with the hip and knee joints and the wheeled foot for independently driving pivotal movement of the hip joint and the knee joint and rolling motion of the wheeled foot. The hip joint may include a ball-and-socket-type joint interconnecting top portion of the leg to the main body, such that the hip joint is adapted to pivot said leg in a direction transverse to a forward-and-reverse direction.

  19. Rolling bearing analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, Tedric A

    2001-01-01

    One of the most well-known experts in the field brings cutting-edge research to practitioners in the new edition of this important reference. Covers the improved mathematical calculations for rolling bearing endurance developed by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and the Society of Lubrication and Tribology Engineers. Updated with new material on Condition-Based Maintenance, new testing methods, and new bearing materials.

  20. Roll of honour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moxon, Suzanne

    1999-07-01

    This article gives details of the design and construction of dams selected by members of the dam construction industry for praise as feats of construction. The dams covered in the roll of honour include the dam at the Guri hydroelectric power station in Venezuela on the Caroni river, the Contra dam on the Verzrasca river in Switzerland, and the double curvature arc Ertan dam on the Yalong river in China. (UK)

  1. Shear Roll Mill Reactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    accommodate a trial run of inert single base pellet feed for use in a twin screw extruder. 15. SUBJECT TERMS INIT248, Advanced Propellant Technology...Bldg. 4909-5 – Shear Roll Mill Pilot Plant at the Radford Army Ammunition Plant (RFAAP) in order to produce pellet feed for a twin screw extruder used...propellant to simulate feed for a twin screw extruder. Preventive maintenance procedures were in progress in final preparation for running with

  2. A bi-objective model for job-shop scheduling problem to minimize both energy consumption and makespan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Yan; LIU Fei; CAO Hua-jun; LI Cong-bo

    2005-01-01

    The issue of reducing energy consumption for the job-shop scheduling problem in machining systems is addressed, whose dual objectives are to minimize both the energy consumption and the makespan. First, the biobjective model for the job-shop scheduling problem is proposed. The objective function value of the model represents synthesized optimization of energy consumption and makespan. Then, a heuristic algorithm is developed to locate the optimal or near optimal solutions of the model based on the Tabu search mechanism. Finally, the experimental case is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model and the algorithm.

  3. Machine Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张严心

    2015-01-01

    As a kind of ancillary translation tool, Machine Translation has been paid increasing attention to and received different kinds of study by a great deal of researchers and scholars for a long time. To know the definition of Machine Translation and to analyse its benefits and problems are significant for translators in order to make good use of Machine Translation, and helpful to develop and consummate Machine Translation Systems in the future.

  4. Un algoritmo genético para el problema de Job Shop Flexible A genetic algorithm for the Flexible Job Shop problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Medina Durán

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se propone e implementa computacionalmente un algoritmo genético secuencial para resolver el problema del Job Shop Flexible (existente en la Gestión de Operaciones, el cual es parte de la familia de los problemas de programación de tareas o trabajos (Scheduling en un taller que funciona a pedido. Surge como una generalización del problema del Job Shop y permite optimizar el uso de los recursos (máquinas con mayor flexibilidad, ya que cada máquina puede realizar más de una operación. Este problema ha sido estudiado por numerosos autores, los que han propuesto diversos modelos matemáticos y enfoques heurísticos. Debido a la naturaleza combinatoria, los métodos exactos que resuelven modelos matemáticos encuentran soluciones sólo para instancias pequeñas o simples del problema mencionado. Los resultados muestran la efectividad del algoritmo propuesto para entregar buenas soluciones en tiempos computacionales razonables en más de 130 instancias encontradas en la literatura.This study proposes and computationally implements a sequential genetic algorithm to solve the Flexible Job Shop problem (found in Operations Management, which is part of the family of job or task scheduling problems in a shop that works on demand. It is a generalization of the Job Shop problem, and allows optimizing the use of resources (machines in the shop, with greater flexibility, since each machine can perform more than one operation. This problem has been studied by many authors, who have proposed various mathematical models and heuristic approaches. Due to the combinatorial nature of the problem, the exact methods that solve the mathematical models are often solutions for small and simple instances of the problem. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm to provide good solutions in reasonable computational times in over 130 instances found in the literatura.

  5. Sustainable machining

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an overview on current sustainable machining. Its chapters cover the concept in economic, social and environmental dimensions. It provides the reader with proper ways to handle several pollutants produced during the machining process. The book is useful on both undergraduate and postgraduate levels and it is of interest to all those working with manufacturing and machining technology.

  6. Shopping online and/or in-store? A structural equation model of the relationships between e-shopping and in-store shopping

    OpenAIRE

    Farag, Sendy; Schwanen, Tim; Dijst, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Searching product information or buying goods online is becoming increasingly popular and could affect shopping trips. However, the relationship between e-shopping and in-store shopping is currently unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate empirically how the frequencies of online searching, online buying, and non-daily shopping trips relate to each other, after controlling for sociodemographic, land use, behavioral, and attitudinal characteristics. Data were collected from 826 respon...

  7. Shopping online and/or in-store? A structural equation model of the relationships between e-shopping and in-store shopping

    OpenAIRE

    Farag, Sendy; Schwanen, Tim; Dijst, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Searching product information or buying goods online is becoming increasingly popular and could affect shopping trips. However, the relationship between e-shopping and in-store shopping is currently unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate empirically how the frequencies of online searching, online buying, and non-daily shopping trips relate to each other, after controlling for sociodemographic, land use, behavioral, and attitudinal characteristics. Data were collected from 826 respon...

  8. Roll-to-Roll production of carbon nanotubes based supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jingyi; Childress, Anthony; Karakaya, Mehmet; Roberts, Mark; Arcilla-Velez, Margarita; Podila, Ramakrishna; Rao, Apparao

    2014-03-01

    Carbon nanomaterials provide an excellent platform for electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLCs). However, current industrial methods for producing carbon nanotubes are expensive and thereby increase the costs of energy storage to more than 10 Wh/kg. In this regard, we developed a facile roll-to-roll production technology for scalable manufacturing of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) with variable density on run-of-the-mill kitchen Al foils. Our method produces MWNTs with diameter (heights) between 50-100 nm (10-100 μm), and a specific capacitance as high as ~ 100 F/g in non-aqueous electrolytes. In this talk, the fundamental challenges involved in EDLC-suitable MWNT growth, roll-to-roll production, and device manufacturing will be discussed along with electrochemical characteristics of roll-to-roll MWNTs. Research supported by NSF CMMI Grant1246800.

  9. Benefits of thread rolling process to the stress corrosion cracking and fatigue resistance of high strength fasteners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kephart, A.R.; Hayden, S.Z.

    1993-05-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of cut (machined) vice thread rolled Alloy X-750 and Alloy 625 fasteners in a simulated high temperature primary water environment has been evaluated. SCC testing at 360 and 338C included 157 small and 40 large 60{degree} Vee thread studs. Thread rolled fasteners had improved resistance relative to cut fasteners. Tests of fatigue resistance in air at room temperature and both air and primary water at 315C were conducted on smaller studs with both cut and rolled threads. Results showed rolled threads can have significantly improved fatigue lives over those of cut threads in both air and primary water. Fasteners produced by two different thread rolling methods, in-feed (radial) and through-feed (axial), revealed similar SCC initiation test results. Testing of thread rolled fasteners revealed no significant SCC or fatigue growth of rolling induced thread crest laps typical of the thread rolling process. While fatigue resistance differed between the two rolled thread supplier`s studs, neither of the suppliers studs showed SCC initiation at exposure times beyond that of cut threads with SCC. In contrast to rolling at room temperature, warm rolled (427C) threads showed no improvement over cut threads in terms of fatigue resistance. The observed improved SCC and fatigue performance of rolled threads is postulated to be due to interactive factors, including beneficial residual stresses in critically stressed thread root region, reduction of plastic strains during loading and formation of favorable microstructure.

  10. Shopping Context and Consumers' Mental Representation of Complex Shopping Trip Decision Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.G.C. Dellaert (Benedict); T.A. Arentze (Theo); H.J.P. Timmermans (Harry)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractDepending on the shopping context, consumers may develop different mental representations of complex shopping trip decision problems to help them interpret the decision situation that they face and evaluate alternative courses of action. To investigate these mental representations and h

  11. Shopping Context and Consumers' Mental Representation of Complex Shopping Trip Decision Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.G.C. Dellaert (Benedict); T.A. Arentze (Theo); H.J.P. Timmermans (Harry)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractDepending on the shopping context, consumers may develop different mental representations of complex shopping trip decision problems to help them interpret the decision situation that they face and evaluate alternative courses of action. To investigate these mental representations and

  12. Shopping Context and Consumers' Mental Representation of Complex Shopping Trip Decision Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.G.C. Dellaert (Benedict); T.A. Arentze (Theo); H.J.P. Timmermans (Harry)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractDepending on the shopping context, consumers may develop different mental representations of complex shopping trip decision problems to help them interpret the decision situation that they face and evaluate alternative courses of action. To investigate these mental representations and h

  13. Fuzzy-Neural Control of Hot-Rolling Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khearia Mohamad

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the application of Fuzzy-Neural Networks (FNNs in multi-machine system control applied on hot steel rolling. The electrical drives that used in rolling system are a set of three-phase induction motors (IM controlled by indirect field-oriented control (IFO. The fundamental goal of this type of control is to eliminate the coupling influence though the coordinate transformation in order to make the AC motor behaves like a separately excited DC motor. Then use Fuzzy-Neural Network in control the IM speed and the rolling plant. In this work MATLAB/SIMULINK models are proposed and implemented for the entire structures. Simulation results are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed control schemes. It is found that the proposed system is robust in that it eliminates the disturbances considerably.

  14. Grooved roll for a high speed twin roll caster

    OpenAIRE

    T. Haga; HIROOKA, K.; H. Watari; S. Kumai

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Purpose of this paper is investigation of the effect of roll-surface on the strip-surface. Improvement ofsmall cracks on the strip-surface was tried and effect of groove at the roll surface on the strip surface was shown.Design/methodology/approach: Method used in the present study was high speed twin roll caster withgrooved roll. Two kinds of grooves were used: one was parallel groove and the other was cross groove machinedby knurling and bite attached to a lathe.Findings: Findings ...

  15. A proposal simulated annealing algorithm for proportional parallel flow shops with separated setup times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio Yochihiro Fuchigami

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the problem of minimizing makespan on two parallel flow shops with proportional processing and setup times. The setup times are separated and sequence-independent. The parallel flow shop scheduling problem is a specific case of well-known hybrid flow shop, characterized by a multistage production system with more than one machine working in parallel at each stage. This situation is very common in various kinds of companies like chemical, electronics, automotive, pharmaceutical and food industries. This work aimed to propose six Simulated Annealing algorithms, their perturbation schemes and an algorithm for initial sequence generation. This study can be classified as “applied research” regarding the nature, “exploratory” about the objectives and “experimental” as to procedures, besides the “quantitative” approach. The proposed algorithms were effective regarding the solution and computationally efficient. Results of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA revealed no significant difference between the schemes in terms of makespan. It’s suggested the use of PS4 scheme, which moves a subsequence of jobs, for providing the best percentage of success. It was also found that there is a significant difference between the results of the algorithms for each value of the proportionality factor of the processing and setup times of flow shops.

  16. An Efficient Constructive Heuristic for Permutation Flow Shops to Minimize Total Flowtime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIXiaoping; WUCheng

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, FFC (Fast fiowtime-computing) is presented for fiowtime computing in flow shops. The CPU-time of an algorithm for flow shops can be reduced considerably by replacing classical flowtime computing with FFC based on the facts that FFC is faster than the classical one and that flowtime computing of schedules/partial schedules is the main computational burden of most algorithms for flow shops. This is illustrated by modifying RZ, one of the three best existing heuristics(FL, WY and RZ) for flowtime minimization, with FFC in which about half of the CPU-time is saved. An efficient constructive heuristic is proposed for permutation flow shops with flowtime minimization, of which the CPU-time is more than that of RZ but much less than those of FL and WY. Our proposal is compared with FL, WYand RZ in terms of ARPD (Average relative percentage deviation), STD (Standard deviation) and BEST (number of best solutions obtained for a given size of problems). Computational results show that the proposed heuristic outperforms WY and RZ, and also outperforms FL when job-machine ratio is small. However, as the ratio increases, the proposal will finally be outperformed by FL but needs far less CPU-time than FL does.

  17. Supporting the Supermarket Shopping Experience through a Context-Aware Shopping Trolley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Black, Darren; Clemmensen, Nils Jakob; Skov, Mikael B.

    2009-01-01

    Shopping in the real world is becoming an increasingly interactive experience as stores integrate various technologies to support shoppers. Based on an empirical study of supermarket shoppers, we designed a mobile context-aware system called the Context- Aware Shopping Trolley (CAST). The aim...... of the system is to support shopping in supermarkets through context-awareness and acquiring user attention. Thus, the interactive trolley guides and directs shoppers in the handling and finding of groceries. An empirical evaluation showed that shoppers using CAST adapted in different shopping behavior than...... traditional trolley shoppers by exhibiting a more uniform behavior in terms of product sequence collection and ease of finding products and thus, CAST supported the shopping experience....

  18. Supporting the Supermarket Shopping Experience through a Context-Aware Shopping Trolley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Black, Darren; Clemmensen, Nils Jakob; Skov, Mikael B.

    2009-01-01

    of the system is to support shopping in supermarkets through context-awareness and acquiring user attention. Thus, the interactive trolley guides and directs shoppers in the handling and finding of groceries. An empirical evaluation showed that shoppers using CAST adapted in different shopping behavior than...... traditional trolley shoppers by exhibiting a more uniform behavior in terms of product sequence collection and ease of finding products and thus, CAST supported the shopping experience.......Shopping in the real world is becoming an increasingly interactive experience as stores integrate various technologies to support shoppers. Based on an empirical study of supermarket shoppers, we designed a mobile context-aware system called the Context- Aware Shopping Trolley (CAST). The aim...

  19. Rolling motion in moving droplets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sumesh P Thampi; Rama Govindarajan

    2015-03-01

    Drops moving on a substrate under the action of gravity display both rolling and sliding motions. The two limits of a thin sheet-like drop in sliding motion on a surface, and a spherical drop in roll, have been extensively studied. We are interested in intermediate shapes. We quantify the contribution of rolling motion for any intermediate shape, and recently obtained a universal curve for the amount of roll as a function of a shape parameter using hybrid lattice Boltzmann simulations. In this paper, we discuss the linear relationship which is expected between the Capillary and Bond numbers, and provide detailed confirmation by simulations. We also show that the viscosity of the surrounding medium can qualitatively affect dynamics. Our results provide an answer to a natural question of whether drops roll or slide on a surface and carry implications for various applications where rolling motion may or may not be preferred.

  20. The impact of geographic context on e-shopping behavior

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have examined what factors affect the adoption of e-shopping (electronic shopping), why people adopt e-shopping, and what changes in activity – travel patterns will occur as a response to e-shopping. Very few studies to date, however, have investigated the impact of geographic context on people’s e-shopping behavior. This study reexamines the explanatory factors that are related to people’s e-shopping patterns through a study of the Columbus Metropolitan Area, OH. It focuses on...

  1. Upscaling of polymer solar cell fabrication using full roll-to-roll processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Tromholt, Thomas; Jørgensen, Mikkel

    2010-06-01

    Upscaling of the manufacture of polymer solar cells is detailed with emphasis on cost analysis and practical approach. The device modules were prepared using both slot-die coating and screen printing the active layers in the form of stripes that were serially connected. The stripe width was varied and the resultant performance analysed. Wider stripes give access to higher geometric fill factors and lower aperture loss while they also present larger sheet resistive losses. An optimum was found through preparation of serially connected stripes having widths of 9, 13 and 18 mm with nominal geometric fill factors (excluding bus bars) of 50, 67 and 75% respectively. In addition modules with lengths of 6, 10, 20, 22.5 and 25 cm were explored. The devices were prepared by full roll-to-roll solution processing in a web width of 305 mm and roll lengths of up to 200 m. The devices were encapsulated with a barrier material in a full roll-to-roll process using standard adhesives giving the devices excellent stability during storage and operation. The total area of processed polymer solar cell was around 60 m2 per run. The solar cells were characterised using a roll-to-roll system comprising a solar simulator and an IV-curve tracer. After characterisation the solar cell modules were cut into sheets using a sheeting machine and contacted using button contacts applied by crimping. Based on this a detailed cost analysis was made showing that it is possible to prepare complete and contacted polymer solar cell modules on this scale at an area cost of 89 euro m(-2) and an electricity cost of 8.1 euro Wp(-1). The cost analysis was separated into the manufacturing cost, materials cost and also the capital investment required for setting up a complete production plant on this scale. Even though the cost in euro Wp(-1) is comparable to the cost for electricity using existing technologies the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) is expected to be significantly higher than the existing

  2. MULTICRITERIA HYBRID FLOW SHOP SCHEDULING PROBLEM: LITERATURE REVIEW, ANALYSIS, AND FUTURE RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia de Fatima Morais

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on the Hybrid Flow Shop production scheduling problem, which is one of the most difficult problems to solve. The literature points to several studies that focus the Hybrid Flow Shop scheduling problem with monocriteria functions. Despite of the fact that, many real world problems involve several objective functions, they can often compete and conflict, leading researchers to concentrate direct their efforts on the development of methods that take consider this variant into consideration. The goal of the study is to review and analyze the methods in order to solve the Hybrid Flow Shop production scheduling problem with multicriteria functions in the literature. The analyses were performed using several papers that have been published over the years, also the parallel machines types, the approach used to develop solution methods, the type of method develop, the objective function, the performance criterion adopted, and the additional constraints considered. The results of the reviewing and analysis of 46 papers showed opportunities for future research on this topic, including the following: (i use uniform and dedicated parallel machines, (ii use exact and metaheuristics approaches, (iv develop lower and uppers bounds, relations of dominance and different search strategies to improve the computational time of the exact methods,  (v develop  other types of metaheuristic, (vi work with anticipatory setups, and (vii add constraints faced by the production systems itself.

  3. Multiagent scheduling method with earliness and tardiness objectives in flexible job shops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zuobao; Weng, Michael X

    2005-04-01

    Flexible job-shop scheduling problems are an important extension of the classical job-shop scheduling problems and present additional complexity. Such problems are mainly due to the existence of a considerable amount of overlapping capacities with modern machines. Classical scheduling methods are generally incapable of addressing such capacity overlapping. We propose a multiagent scheduling method with job earliness and tardiness objectives in a flexible job-shop environment. The earliness and tardiness objectives are consistent with the just-in-time production philosophy which has attracted significant attention in both industry and academic community. A new job-routing and sequencing mechanism is proposed. In this mechanism, two kinds of jobs are defined to distinguish jobs with one operation left from jobs with more than one operation left. Different criteria are proposed to route these two kinds of jobs. Job sequencing enables to hold a job that may be completed too early. Two heuristic algorithms for job sequencing are developed to deal with these two kinds of jobs. The computational experiments show that the proposed multiagent scheduling method significantly outperforms the existing scheduling methods in the literature. In addition, the proposed method is quite fast. In fact, the simulation time to find a complete schedule with over 2000 jobs on ten machines is less than 1.5 min.

  4. A hybrid algorithm for flexible job-shop scheduling problem with setup times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameni Azzouz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Job-shop scheduling problem is one of the most important fields in manufacturing optimization where a set of n jobs must be processed on a set of m specified machines. Each job consists of a specific set of operations, which have to be processed according to a given order. The Flexible Job Shop problem (FJSP is a generalization of the above-mentioned problem, where each operation can be processed by a set of resources and has a processing time depending on the resource used. The FJSP problems cover two difficulties, namely, machine assignment problem and operation sequencing problem. This paper addresses the flexible job-shop scheduling problem with sequence-dependent setup times to minimize two kinds of objectives function: makespan and bi-criteria objective function. For that, we propose a hybrid algorithm based on genetic algorithm (GA and variable neighbourhood search (VNS to solve this problem. To evaluate the performance of our algorithm, we compare our results with other methods existing in literature. All the results show the superiority of our algorithm against the available ones in terms of solution quality.

  5. Magnetically Aligned HI Fibers and the Rolling Hough Transform

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, S E; Peek, J. E. G.; Putman, M. E.

    2013-01-01

    We present observations of a new group of structures in the diffuse Galactic ISM: slender, linear HI features we dub "fibers" that extend for many degrees at high Galactic latitude. To characterize and measure the extent and strength of these fibers, we present the Rolling Hough Transform (RHT), a new machine vision method for parameterizing the coherent linearity of structures in the image plane. With this powerful new tool we show the fibers are oriented along the interstellar magnetic fiel...

  6. Effect of intermediate annealing on the microstructure and mechanical property of ZK60 magnesium alloy produced by twin roll casting and hot rolling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hongmei, E-mail: hmchen@just.edu.cn [Provincial Key Lab of Advanced Welding Technology, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang 212003 (China); Zang, Qianhao [Provincial Key Lab of Advanced Welding Technology, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang 212003 (China); Yu, Hui [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300132 (China); Zhang, Jing [School of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhang Jiagang 215600 (China); Jin, Yunxue [Provincial Key Lab of Advanced Welding Technology, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang 212003 (China)

    2015-08-15

    Twin roll cast (designated as TRC in short) ZK60 magnesium alloy strip with 3.5 mm thickness was used in this paper. The TRC ZK60 strip was multi-pass rolled at different temperatures, intermediate annealing heat treatment was performed when the thickness of the strip changed from 3.5 mm to 1 mm, and then continued to be rolled until the thickness reached to 0.5 mm. The effect of intermediate annealing during rolling process on microstructure, texture and room temperature mechanical properties of TRC ZK60 strip was studied by using OM, TEM, XRD and electronic universal testing machine. The introduction of intermediate annealing can contribute to recrystallization in the ZK60 sheet which was greatly deformed, and help to reduce the stress concentration generated in the rolling process. Microstructure uniformity and mechanical properties of the ZK60 alloy sheet were also improved; in particular, the room temperature elongation was greatly improved. When the TRC ZK60 strip was rolled at 300 °C and 350 °C, the room temperature elongation of the rolled sheet with 0.5 mm thickness which was intermediate annealed during the rolling process was increased by 95% and 72% than that of no intermediate annealing, respectively. - Highlights: • Intermediate annealing was introduced during hot rolling process of twin roll cast ZK60 alloy. • Intermediate annealing can contribute to recrystallization and reduce the stress concentration in the deformed ZK60 sheet. • Microstructure uniformity and mechanical properties of the ZK60 sheet were improved, in particular, the room temperature elongation. • The elongation of the rolled ZK60 sheet after intermediate annealed was increased by 95% and 72% than that of no intermediate annealing.

  7. Roll-to-roll UV imprint lithography for flexible electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maury, P.; Turkenburg, D.H.; Stroeks, N.; Giesen, P.; Barbu, I.; Meinders, E.R.; Bremen, A. van; Iosad, N.; Werf, R. van der; Onvlee, H.

    2011-01-01

    We propose a roll-to-roll UV imprint lithography tool as a way to pattern flexible PET foil with µm-resolution. As a way to overcome dimensional instability of the foil and its effect on overlay, a self-align approach was investigated, that permits to make several layers in a single lithography step

  8. Rolling Mill Work Roll Stress Analysis and Strain Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. K. Jones

    1999-03-01

    This study of a rolling mill work roll failure consisted of (a) a review of related published materials, (b) measuring strain on the spindles with strain gages, (c) performing finite element analyses (FEA) modeling of the work roll thrust groove section (using the measured spindle loading), (d) fabricating and testing an physical model of the work roll, using the good end of a broken work roll, (e) recording motor voltage and current, and (f) processing, analyzing, and comparing the results. A methodical approach was taken to determine the causes of the failures. The actual loading to which the work rolls were subjected was determined, then these loads were used in a FEA of the thrust groove sections of three work roll designs: failed, current, and proposed. To verify the FEA results, a physical model was fabricated, built, and subjected to instrumented tests. The study offered the following recommendations: remove the undercut groove in the thrust groove section on future procurements; investigate possible methods of removing the transverse keyway; forego the larger drive train upgrades proposed by the mill manufacturer; continue frequent thrust groove inspections; require chemical and mechanical property certifications on all future procurements; and immediately scrap any work rolls that exhibit surface cracking.

  9. The Virtual Shopping Experience: using virtual presence to motivate online shopping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Chin

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Online shopping has thus far tended to be a niche business – highly successful in selling digital products such as shares, software and, increasingly, music and films, it has been less successful in persuading the purchasers of ‘traditional’ goods such as cars, clothes, toiletries, or household appliances to forsake their physical retailers and move into cyberspace. In this wide-ranging review paper we investigate the issue of the virtual experience – endeavouring to understand what is needed for a successful ‘shopping experience’ online and what the possible obstacles or pitfalls along the way might be. We initially introduce the concepts of virtual presence (the sense of ‘being there’ and virtual reality, discussing the possible roles both can play in providing a solution to the problem of effective online shopping. We then consider the Experience Economy, a concept which encapsulates many of the issues related to the problem of online shopping and which suggests ways in which online retailers can enhance the effectiveness of their sites by means of a virtual ‘experience’. Having set the scene for online shopping, we discuss eTailing today in terms of direct product experience and the opportunities which cyber-shopping offers to replicate this process. Finally, we identify some of the possibilities and problems of online shopping today, illustrating the current status of virtual presence in retailing with two micro-cases of success and failure.

  10. Matching Danish Shop Stewards' Service Demands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navrbjerg, Steen Erik; Larsen, Trine Pernille

    for more flexibility in work organization at company level in order to meet the challenges of globalization. The level of negotiations moved from national and sector levels to work place level at the same time as the scope of issues to discuss has broadened, including local negotiations on issues like...... policies atypical work, special schemes for older workers, local wage systems etc. This development has increased the work load on Danish shop stewards; they are not only to guard the wages and working conditions stipulated in the sector agreements; shop stewards are also expected to negotiate...... these matters locally and on top of this negotiate all kinds of employment policies, work organisation, working hours etc. Based on two extensive shop stewards surveys undertaken in 1998 and 2010 respectively, the paper examines whether there exist a contradiction between a) the on-going decentralisation...

  11. Women who doctor shop for prescription drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Julie; Thomas, Sandra P

    2014-04-01

    Doctor shopping is a term used to describe a form of diversion of prescription drugs when patients visit numerous prescribers to obtain controlled drugs for illicit use. Gender differences exist in regard to prescription drug abuse and methods of diversion. The purpose of this phenomenological study guided by the existential philosophy of Merleau-Ponty was to understand the lived experience of female doctor shoppers. Interviews were conducted with 14 women, which were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed. Included in the findings are figural aspects of the participants' experience of doctor shopping related to the existential grounds of world, time, body, and others. Four themes emerged from the data: (a) feeding the addiction, (b) networking with addicts, (c) playing the system, and (d) baiting the doctors. The findings suggest several measures that nurses can take to reduce the incidence of doctor shopping and to provide better care for female doctor shoppers.

  12. Attitudinal Explanation on Virtual Shopping Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritzky Karina M.R. Brahmana

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Virtual stores provide great efficiency in the retail value chain, and their existence has tremendously paved the way for electronic commerce. Understanding the intention of consumers to shop online in attitudinal perspective will provide important contribution to the area of e-commerce. This research proposes Task Technology Fit, Perceived Ease of Use (PEoU, and Perceived Usefulness (PU as the factors that drive consumers’ intention. The results from our survey study of 310 online consumers in Indonesia indicate that TTF affects PEoU and PU significantly. Our hierarchical model also reports that PEoU is the mediating effect on the relationship between TTF and Intention. The resulting model explains a large portion of the factors that lead a user’s behavioural intention to use a virtual shop. Keywords : Attitudinal, Task Technology Fit, Perceived Ease of Use, Perceived Usefulness, Retail, Virtual Shopping Intention

  13. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR DURING ONLINE GROCERY SHOPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Hanus

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Today consumers can buy almost any product using the Internet. Online nutritional and grocery shopping is becoming increasingly popular. The aim of this paper is to present the conditions of online grocery shopping and consumers’ attitude towards buying food via the Internet based. The assessment is based on secondary information sources. With online grocery supermarkets there are no limitations connected with localization and opening hours, and consumers have access to a large range of stores and products online across the world. The most important advantages of online shopping are convenience and time saving, while the most significant disadvantages for consumers involve the risk of incorrectly valuating some products and apprehension about the selection and handling of perishables, such as vegetables, eggs, and meat products.

  14. English Shop Signs and Brand Names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemaseh Bagheri Sanjareh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The present study tries to investigate the people’s attitude to the use of English words in TV commercials, brand-naming and shop signs in Iran and specifically in Tehran where due to the fact that it is the capital, more English might be used for the sake of foreigners. The widespread use of English shop signs and English brand names for recently produced goodsdrove the researchers to investigate peoples’ attitude as consumers from two aspects of age and education. To reach the research goal, a questionnaire was devised and distributed to 100 people at random selection probing their attitudes while considering two factors of age and education. The result of the research will mostly benefit sociolinguists and business marketers.

    Keywords: age, education, advertising, brand-naming, shop signs, globalization

  15. THE THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS OF VIBRATION DAMPERS BY ROLLING FRICTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Bondarenko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. There are some unresolved issues in vibration damping – the lack of engineering calculations for the vibration dampers by rolling friction; the absence of evidence of their application appropriateness. Considering this fact, the authors suggest to prove that the dampers based on rolling friction, are similar in rate of oscillation damping by hydraulic shock absorbers. At the same time, they are easier for the hydraulic design, and easily amenable to manual adjustment, both in automatic and manual mode. Methodology. Fixed techniques of practice in order to determine amplitudes of the oscillations of a shock absorber led to a predetermined result and will apply this theory in the calculation of other vibration dampers. Findings. Analysis of the formulas and graphs leads to the following conclusions and recommendations: 1 the nature of the oscillation damping at vibration dampers by rolling friction is close to their decay in the viscous resistance; 2 when conducting the necessary experiments the shock absorber rolling can be recommended as alternatives to hydraulic ones. The research results of this task will help implement the new trend in reduction of dynamic loads in vehicles. Originality. With the help of theoretical curves to determine the coefficients of rolling friction the dependences for determining the amplitudes of the oscillations in the vertical movement of cargo were obtained. At the same time, the previously proposed analytical dependence for determining the coefficient of rolling friction contains only conventional mechanical constants of the contacting bodies and there geometrical dimensions. Practical value. Due to the existing well-known disadvantages of hydraulic shock absorbers it would be logical to apply shock absorbers that are technologically convenient in manufacturing and easy to adjust the damping rate. The proposed theory can be used in the design of shock absorbers rolling as an alternative to the hydraulic

  16. Consultation behaviour of doctor-shopping patients and factors that reduce shopping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohira, Yoshiyuki; Ikusaka, Masatomi; Noda, Kazutaka; Tsukamoto, Tomoko; Takada, Toshihiko; Miyahara, Masahito; Funakoshi, Hiraku; Basugi, Ayako; Keira, Katsunori; Uehara, Takanori

    2012-04-01

    To investigate the subsequent behaviour of doctor-shopping patients (defined as those attending multiple hospitals for the same complaint) who consulted our department and factors related to cessation of doctor shopping. Patients who presented without referral to the Department of General Medicine at Chiba University Hospital in Japan (our department) completed a questionnaire at their first visit. A follow-up questionnaire was also sent to them in order to assess doctor shopping after 3 months. Then items in the questionnaires were investigated for significant differences between patients who continued or stopped doctor shopping. Logistic regression analysis was performed with items showing a significant difference between patients who stopped doctor shopping and those who continued it, in order to identify independent determinants of the cessation of shopping. A total of 978 patients who presented spontaneously to our department consented to this study, and 929 patients (95.0%) completed questionnaires correctly. Among them, 203 patients (21.9%) were identified as doctor shoppers. The follow-up survey was completed correctly by 138 patients (68.0%). Among them, 25 patients (18.1%) were found to have continued doctor shopping, which was a significantly lower rate than before (P shopping: 'confirmation of the diagnosis' (odds ratio: 8.12, 95% confidence interval: 1.46-45.26), and 'satisfaction with consultation' (odds ratio: 2.07, 95% confidence interval: 1.42-3.01). Doctor shopping decreased significantly after patients consulted our department, with 'confirmation of the diagnosis' and 'satisfaction with consultation' being identified as contributing factors. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. The impact of science shops on university research and education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hende, Merete; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    through the SCIPAS questionnaire sent out to science shops and through follow-up interviews with employees from nine different university-based science shops and one university researcher. Not all the cases call themselves science shops, but in the report the term 'science shop' will be used most...... of the time, when the cases are referred to in general. When the single case study is discussed the precise name is used. The interviews have in most cases been supplemented with written material about the science shops. The chosen science shops had indicated in the questionnaire that the science shop in one...... way or the other has had impact on university curricula and/or research. The analysis and the case studies have theoretically been based on literature on universities and education and research as institutions and a few articles about the impact of science shops on education and research. The analysis...

  18. The impact of science shops on university research and education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hende, Merete; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    This report discusses the impact from university-based science shops on curricula and research. Experience from science shops show that besides assisting citizen groups, science shops can also contribute to the development of university curricula and research. This impact has been investigated...... through the SCIPAS questionnaire sent out to science shops and through follow-up interviews with employees from nine different university-based science shops and one university researcher. Not all the cases call themselves science shops, but in the report the term 'science shop' will be used most...... way or the other has had impact on university curricula and/or research. The analysis and the case studies have theoretically been based on literature on universities and education and research as institutions and a few articles about the impact of science shops on education and research. The analysis...

  19. Reducing Carbon Emissions from Shopping Trips: Evidence from China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jing Li; Pingyu Zhang; Kevin Lo; Meng Guo; Mark Wang

    2015-01-01

      With rising income and the emergence of modern shopping centers in urban China, shopping trips by private car becomes more and more common, leading to higher carbon emissions in the transport sector...

  20. Doctor and pharmacy shopping for controlled substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peirce, Gretchen L; Smith, Michael J; Abate, Marie A; Halverson, Joel

    2012-06-01

    Prescription drug abuse is a major health concern nationwide, with West Virginia having one of the highest prescription drug death rates in the United States. Studies are lacking that compare living subjects with persons who died from drug overdose for evidence of doctor and pharmacy shopping for controlled substances. The study objectives were to compare deceased and living subjects in West Virginia for evidence of prior doctor and pharmacy shopping for controlled substances and to identify factors associated with drug-related death. A secondary data study was conducted using controlled substance, Schedule II-IV, prescription data from the West Virginia Controlled Substance Monitoring Program and drug-related death data compiled by the Forensic Drug Database between July 2005 and December 2007. A case-control design compared deceased subjects 18 years and older whose death was drug related with living subjects for prior doctor and pharmacy shopping. Logistic regression identified factors related to the odds of drug-related death. A significantly greater proportion of deceased subjects were doctor shoppers (25.21% vs. 3.58%) and pharmacy shoppers (17.48% vs. 1.30%) than living subjects. Approximately 20.23% of doctor shoppers were also pharmacy shoppers, and 55.60% of pharmacy shoppers were doctor shoppers. Younger age, greater number of prescriptions dispensed, exposure to opioids and benzodiazepines, and doctor and pharmacy shopping were factors with greater odds of drug-related death. Doctor and pharmacy shopping involving controlled substances were identified, and shopping behavior was associated with drug-related death. Prescription monitoring programs may be useful in identifying potential shoppers at the point of care.

  1. Simple machines

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Just how simple are simple machines? With our ready-to-use resource, they are simple to teach and easy to learn! Chocked full of information and activities, we begin with a look at force, motion and work, and examples of simple machines in daily life are given. With this background, we move on to different kinds of simple machines including: Levers, Inclined Planes, Wedges, Screws, Pulleys, and Wheels and Axles. An exploration of some compound machines follows, such as the can opener. Our resource is a real time-saver as all the reading passages, student activities are provided. Presented in s

  2. Consumer Motivation On Internet Shopping An Exploratory Study on Consumer Motivation of Online Shopping in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Ghogar, Vandhana

    2010-01-01

    The growth of B2C shopping has soared massively over the last few years in Thailand. Although B2C has created an immense amount of new opportunities for Thai companies and businesses, questions still arise about why consumers are motivated to use the Internet as a medium to shop over conventional shopping. Due to the rapid increase in online stores, competition has also risen remarkably. Therefore it is imperative for all online businesses in Thailand to have an understanding of consumer moti...

  3. Rolling up a Graphene Sheet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calvaresi, Matteo; Quintana, Mildred; Rudolf, Petra; Zerbetto, Francesco; Prato, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    Carbon Nanotubes, CNTs, have been described as rolled-up graphene layers. Matching this concept to experiments has been a great experimental challenge for it requires a method to exfoliate graphite, generate ordered and stable dangling carbon bonds, and roll up the layer without affecting the

  4. LEDs are on a roll

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, P.W.M.; Mol, A.M.B. van

    2011-01-01

    Light-emitting diodes are more efficient than conventional lighting, but high production costs limit their uptake. Organic versions that can be produced using a cheap newspaper-style 'roll-to-roll' printing process are likely to revolutionize our lighting and signage, say Paul Blom and Ton van Mol.

  5. Rudder roll stabilization for ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amerongen, van J.; Klugt, van der P.G.M.; Nauta Lemke, van H.R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the design of an autopilot for rudder roll stabilization for ships. This autopilot uses the rudder not only for course keeping but also for reduction of the roll. The system has a series of properties which make the controller design far from straightforward: the process has onl

  6. Consumer Buying Behavior Towards Online Shopping Stores in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrdad Salehi

    2011-01-01

    The Internet as a global medium is quickly gaining interest and attractiveness as the most revolutionary marketing tool. The global nature of communication and shopping has as well redefined, seeing that it is the perfect vehicle for online shopping stores. Online convenient shop is mostly reflected in shorter time and less energy spent, including shipping cost reduction, less crowd and queues than real markets, unlimited time and space, which all increase convenience of shopping. Internet sh...

  7. Location and function of hypermarkets and shopping centres in Zagreb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Lukić

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Paper deals with the spatial distribution, commercial structure and functions of newly built shopping centers and hypermarkets in Zagreb. Research has included mapping of all newly built shopping centers and hypermarkets, classification of their commercial and other functions according to numbers of business premises in them, and questionnaire survey conducted in three shopping centers on different locations in Zagreb. Questionnaire survey has been done in order to understand how visitors perceive shopping centers concerning their functions and urban location.

  8. Computational design of rolling bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen-Schäfer, Hung

    2016-01-01

    This book comprehensively presents the computational design of rolling bearings dealing with many interdisciplinary difficult working fields. They encompass elastohydrodynamics (EHD), Hertzian contact theory, oil-film thickness in elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL), bearing dynamics, tribology of surface textures, fatigue failure mechanisms, fatigue lifetimes of rolling bearings and lubricating greases, Weibull distribution, rotor balancing, and airborne noises (NVH) in the rolling bearings. Furthermore, the readers are provided with hands-on essential formulas based on the up-to-date DIN ISO norms and helpful examples for computational design of rolling bearings. The topics are intended for undergraduate and graduate students in mechanical and material engineering, research scientists, and practicing engineers who want to understand the interactions between these working fields and to know how to design the rolling bearings for automotive industry and many other industries.

  9. Internet Shopping Behavior of College of Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyici, Mubin

    2012-01-01

    Internet is an important facilitator for human and humans use this medium almost every phase. As a shopping medium, internet attract human so attract researcher. Younger people can adapt newer technologies so they can adapt internet as shopping tool. In this research it is tried to define college of education students' online shopping behavior and…

  10. Sticking to core values : The case of the Body Shop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, van de B.; Nijhof, A.H.J.; Jeurissen, R.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter, the authors detail the development of The Body Shop and the importance to it of the social projects it has undertaken. They then discuss the implications of The Body Shop's reorganization, brand repositioning and the L'Oréal takeover, and what the future might hold for The Body Shop

  11. Turning shopping habits of young consumers into green

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialkova, Svetlana; Bialkova, Svetlana; van 't Erve, Sanne; van Hoof, Joris Jasper; Pruyn, Adriaan T.H.; Bigné, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Consumers have strong shopping habits, and although being aware of sustainable issues, they hardly do green shopping. Therefore, a challenging question is: how to break the old shopping habits and turn those into green? The current study addresses this question looking at barriers and potential

  12. What drives people? Analyzing leisure-shopping trip decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Ceunynck, T.; Kusumastuti, D.; Hannes, E.; Janssens, D.; Wets, G.

    2011-01-01

    Because of the strong increase in the number of leisure-shopping trips, a shift towards more sustainable leisure-shopping behaviour is desirable. This can be attained by having a better insight into people’s reasoning in choosing a transport mode and shopping location for this type of activities. Th

  13. What drives people? Analyzing leisure-shopping trip decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ceunynck, T.; Kusumastuti, Diana; Hannes, E.; Janssens, D.; Wets, G.

    2011-01-01

    Because of the strong increase in the number of leisure-shopping trips, a shift towards more sustainable leisure-shopping behaviour is desirable. This can be attained by having a better insight into people’s reasoning in choosing a transport mode and shopping location for this type of activities. Th

  14. Online versus Conventional Shopping: Consumers' Risk Perception and Regulatory Focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noort, Guda; Kerkhof, Peter; Fennis, B.M.

    2007-01-01

    In two experiments, the impact of shopping context on consumers' risk perceptions and regulatory focus was examined. We predicted that individuals perceive an online (vs. conventional) shopping environment as more risky and that an online shopping environment, by its risky nature, primes a

  15. Turning shopping habits of young consumers into green

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialkova, Svetlana; Erve, van 't Sanne; Hoof, van Joris; Pruyn, Ad; Bigné, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Consumers have strong shopping habits, and although being aware of sustainable issues, they hardly do green shopping. Therefore, a challenging question is: how to break the old shopping habits and turn those into green? The current study addresses this question looking at barriers and potential stim

  16. Online versus Conventional Shopping: Consumers' Risk Perception and Regulatory Focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, van Guda; Kerkhof, Peter; Fennis, Bob M.

    2007-01-01

    In two experiments, the impact of shopping context on consumers' risk perceptions and regulatory focus was examined. We predicted that individuals perceive an online (vs. conventional) shopping environment as more risky and that an online shopping environment, by its risky nature, primes a preventio

  17. Online versus Conventional Shopping: Consumers' Risk Perception and Regulatory Focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noort, Guda; Kerkhof, Peter; Fennis, B.M.

    2007-01-01

    In two experiments, the impact of shopping context on consumers' risk perceptions and regulatory focus was examined. We predicted that individuals perceive an online (vs. conventional) shopping environment as more risky and that an online shopping environment, by its risky nature, primes a preventio

  18. Science Shops - a concept for community based learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Hende, Merete

    2001-01-01

    in other ways besides the direct work with science shop projects. The following ways have been identified: - Science shop staff develop theoretical and methodological courses, where students can learn the competence that can be developed through science shop projects like science communication, academia...

  19. Numerical analysis of cross shear plate rolling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wenqi; Bay, Niels

    1997-01-01

    The rolling process is widely applied for industrial production of metal plates. In conventional plate rolling the two work rolls are rotating at the same peripheral speed. By introducing a specific difference in the speed of the two work rolls, cross shear rolling is introduced forming a central...... are in the roll gap, the position and the size of the shear zone and the rolling load are calculated. Experimental results are presented verifying the calculations. The numerical analysis facilitates a better understanding of the mechanics in cross shear plate rolling....

  20. The effect of roll gap geometry on microstructure in cold-rolled aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishin, Oleg; Bay, B.; Winther, G.

    2004-01-01

    Microstructure and texture are analyzed through the thickness of two aluminum plates cold-rolled 40% with different roll gap geometries. It is found that both texture and microstructure are strongly affected by the rolling geometry. After rolling with intermediate-size draughts a rolling-type tex......Microstructure and texture are analyzed through the thickness of two aluminum plates cold-rolled 40% with different roll gap geometries. It is found that both texture and microstructure are strongly affected by the rolling geometry. After rolling with intermediate-size draughts a rolling...

  1. Avoiding the parametric roll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acomi, Nicoleta; Ancuţa, Cristian; Andrei, Cristian; Boştinǎ, Alina; Boştinǎ, Aurel

    2016-12-01

    Ships are mainly built to sail and transport cargo at sea. Environmental conditions and state of the sea are communicated to vessels through periodic weather forecasts. Despite officers being aware of the sea state, their sea time experience is a decisive factor when the vessel encounters severe environmental conditions. Another important factor is the loading condition of the vessel, which triggers different behaviour in similar marine environmental conditions. This paper aims to analyse the behaviour of a port container vessel in severe environmental conditions and to estimate the potential conditions of parametric roll resonance. Octopus software simulation is employed to simulate vessel motions under certain conditions of the sea, with possibility to analyse the behaviour of ships and the impact of high waves on ships due to specific wave encounter situations. The study should be regarded as a supporting tool during the decision making process.

  2. Electric machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi [Niskayuna, NY; Reddy, Patel Bhageerath [Madison, WI

    2012-07-17

    An interior permanent magnet electric machine is disclosed. The interior permanent magnet electric machine comprises a rotor comprising a plurality of radially placed magnets each having a proximal end and a distal end, wherein each magnet comprises a plurality of magnetic segments and at least one magnetic segment towards the distal end comprises a high resistivity magnetic material.

  3. Analysis and design of rolling-contact joints for evaluating bone plate performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocum, Alexander H; Cervantes, Thomas M; Seldin, Edward B; Varanasi, Kripa K

    2012-09-01

    An apparatus for testing maxillofacial bone plates has been designed using a rolling contact joint. First, a free-body representation of the fracture fixation techniques utilizing bone plates is used to illustrate how rolling contact joints accurately simulate in vivo biomechanics. Next, a deterministic description of machine functional requirements is given, and is then used to drive the subsequent selection and design of machine elements. Hertz contact stress and fatigue analysis for two elements are used to ensure that the machine will both withstand loads required to deform different plates, and maintain a high cycle lifetime for testing large numbers of plates. Additionally, clinically relevant deformations are presented to illustrate how stiffness is affected after a deformation is applied, and to highlight improvements made by the machine over current testing standards, which do not adequately re-create in vivo loading conditions. The machine performed as expected and allowed for analysis of bone plates in both deformed and un-deformed configurations to be conducted. Data for deformation experiments is presented to show that the rolling-contact testing machine leads to improved loading configurations, and thus a more accurate description of plate performance. A machine for evaluation of maxillofacial bone plates has been designed, manufactured, and used to accurately simulate in vivo loading conditions to more effectively evaluate the performance of both new and existing bone plates.

  4. 77 FR 56552 - Holiday Mobile Shopping Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ... Promotion AGENCY: Postal Service \\TM\\. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Postal Service will revise the... new temporary promotion during November of 2012 for Presorted and automation First-Class Mail[supreg... Holiday Mobile Shopping Promotion (``Promotion''), which will take place between November 7, 2012...

  5. Secret Shopping as User Experience Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Crystal M.

    2015-01-01

    Secret shopping is a form of unobtrusive evaluation that can be accomplished with minimal effort, but still produce rich results. With as few as 11 shoppers, the author was able to identify trends in user satisfaction with services provided across two entry-level desks at Illinois Wesleyan University's The Ames Library. The focus of this secret…

  6. Where Students Shop for Nutrition Facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teaching PreK-8, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Describes a school tour launched by a supermarket to familiarize children with basic facts about nutrition and healthful eating. Discusses visits to a perishable foods department, a shopping activity, a recipe preparation activity, and Food Pyramid activity. Suggests making enquiries about such tours with local supermarket chains and bringing it…

  7. CONSUMIDOR ADOLESCENTE EM AMBIENTE DE SHOPPING CENTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lunie Imamura Lima

    2009-07-01

    shopping center da cidade de Fortaleza (CE e objetivou conhecer as características bio-demográficas, os hábitos de utilização do shopping e os principais elementos influenciadores do processo de decisão de compra deste segmento. De natureza descritiva, quantitativa, com corte transversal; a pesquisa utilizou um questionário estruturado aplicado a uma amostra não-probabilística por conveniência, com maioria do sexo masculino, faixa etária entre 13 e 15 anos, provenientes de famílias de classe alta e renda familiar mensal superior a R$ 2700,00. Os resultados demonstraram que a maioria dos respondentes recebe mesada no valor menor que R$ 80,00; vai ao shopping de carro com pais ou parentes; gasta de R$ 10,00 a R$ 30,00; freqüenta o local 3 vezes na semana; permanece de 4 a 6 horas e é acompanhado pelos amigos. Ainda mostrou que pais ou familiares são os principais elementos influenciadores do processo de decisão de compra, enquanto os amigos os principais meios de informações sobre novos produtos. O estudo pretende contribuir com a literatura científica nas áreas de Marketing e Comportamento do consumidor e servir de instrumento gerencial aos dirigentes de shopping centers.

  8. Secret Shopping as User Experience Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Crystal M.

    2015-01-01

    Secret shopping is a form of unobtrusive evaluation that can be accomplished with minimal effort, but still produce rich results. With as few as 11 shoppers, the author was able to identify trends in user satisfaction with services provided across two entry-level desks at Illinois Wesleyan University's The Ames Library. The focus of this secret…

  9. Designing a Shopping System for Senior Citizens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    It is all about serving the customer. That is how capitalism plays out. It finds a market need and then creates a product or service to address that need. The Baby Boomer generation, all 76 million, will be retiring soon. Eventually, some may find it very hard to move about and do their routine food shopping. In this article, the author's…

  10. THE METHOD OF ROLL SURFACE QUALITY MEASUREMENT FOR CONTINUOUS HOT DIP ZINC COATED STEEL SHEET PRODUCTION LINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Yong Choi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes a developed analyzing system of roll surface during the process of continuous hot dip zinc coated steel sheet production line, in particular, adhering problem by transferred inclusions from roll to steel sheet surface during annealing process so called the pickup. The simulated test machine for coated roll surface in processing line has been designed and performed. The system makes it possible to analyze roll surface condition according to pickup phenomena from various roll coatings concerning operating conditions of hearth rolls in annealing furnace. The algorithm of fast pickup detection on surface is developed on the base of processing of several optical images of surface. The parameters for quality estimation of surface with pickups were developed. The optical system for images registration and image processing electronics may be used in real time and embed in processing line.

  11. Rolling bearing fault detection using an adaptive lifting multiwavelet packet with a {1\\frac{1}{2}} dimension spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongkai; Xia, Yong; Wang, Xiaodong

    2013-12-01

    Defect faults on the surface of rolling bearing elements are the most frequent cause of malfunctions and breakages of electrical machines. Due to increasing demands for quality and reliability, extracting fault features in vibration signals is an important topic for fault detection in rolling bearings. In this paper, a novel adaptive lifting multiwavelet packet with {1\\frac{1}{2}} dimension spectrum to detect defects in rolling bearing elements is developed. The adaptive lifting multiwavelet packet is constructed to match vibration signal properties based on the minimum singular value decomposition (SVD) entropy using a genetic algorithm. A {1\\frac{1}{2}} dimension spectrum is further employed to extract rolling bearing fault characteristic frequencies from background noise. The proposed method is applied to analyze the vibration signal collected from electric locomotive rolling bearings with outer raceway and inner raceway defects. The experimental investigation shows that the method is accurate and robust in rolling bearing fault detection.

  12. Rolling of microalloyed magnesium sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotirov, N.; Riemelmoser, F.O.; Kuhlein, M.; Kettner, M. [ARC Leichmetallkompetenzzentrum GmbH, Ranshofen (Austria); Uggowitzer, P.J. [ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland). Dept. of Materials, Laboratory of Metal Physics and Technology; Spencer, K. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Materials Technology Lab

    2007-07-01

    This paper described a rolling process for a micro-alloyed zinc-manganese (Zn-Ca-Ag-Mn) magnesium alloy. The micro-alloyed magnesium alloy L1 was investigated in order to achieve a finer grain structure and to avoid normal grain growth during rolling. Rolling parameters included billet temperature; rolls temperature and rolls radius; rolling speed; and lubrication. Standard tensile tests were conducted with the rolled alloy L1 flat specimens at room temperature with a test length of 50 mm and a test width of 12.5 mm. Specimens heat treated at 100 degrees C and 200 degrees C showed good balance of strength and elongation. Elongation increased with increasing heat treatment times. Results of the tests demonstrated that the Zn-Ca-Ag-Mn alloy L1 showed exceptionally high elongations to fracture at room temperatures. A pronounced work hardening regime was also observed. It was concluded that the grain structure of the L1 alloy was not influenced after heat treatments until temperatures reached 350 degrees C for 20 minutes. Significant grain coarsening occurred after preliminary heat treatments of 400 degrees C. 7 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  13. Online versus conventional shopping: consumers' risk perception and regulatory focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Noort, Guda; Kerkhof, Peter; Fennis, Bob M

    2007-10-01

    In two experiments, the impact of shopping context on consumers' risk perceptions and regulatory focus was examined. We predicted that individuals perceive an online (vs. conventional) shopping environment as more risky and that an online shopping environment, by its risky nature, primes a prevention focus. The findings in Study 1 demonstrate these effects by using self-report measures for risk perception and prevention focus. In Study 2, we replicated these findings and demonstrated that the effect of an online shopping environment carries over to behavior in a domain unrelated to shopping.

  14. Shop stewards' learning and union strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warring, Niels

    2007-01-01

    In Denmark the trade unions have well established educational systems providing the shop stewards with a variety of competencies. Union courses have been analysed focusing on shop stewards' satisfaction with the content and the practical impact of the courses. However, little attention has been...... different theoretical traditions: Shop steward's learning is situational, relational and cross-contextual. Shop stewards' learning is lifelong and life wide. And shop stewards' learning is closely connected to the development of the labour market and not least the unions' priorities, interpretation...

  15. Shop stewards' learning and union strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warring, Niels

    2007-01-01

    In Denmark the trade unions have well established educational systems providing the shop stewards with a variety of competencies. Union courses have been analysed focusing on shop stewards' satisfaction with the content and the practical impact of the courses. However, little attention has been...... different theoretical traditions: Shop steward's learning is situational, relational and cross-contextual. Shop stewards' learning is lifelong and life wide. And shop stewards' learning is closely connected to the development of the labour market and not least the unions' priorities, interpretation...... perspectives as well as socio-cultural and political theories....

  16. Hybrid Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization for Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Kamble

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid algorithm based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO and Simulated annealing (SA is proposed, to solve Flexible Job Shop Scheduling with five objectives to be minimized simultaneously: makespan, maximal machine workload, total workload, machine idle time & total tardiness. Rescheduling strategy used to shuffle workload once the machine breakdown takes place in proposed algorithm. The hybrid algorithm combines the high global search efficiency of PSO with the powerful ability to avoid being trapped in local minimum of SA. A hybrid multi-objective PSO (MPSO and SA algorithm is proposed to identify an approximation of the pareto front for Flexible job shop scheduling (FJSSP. Pareto front and crowding distance is used for identify the fitness of particle. MPSO is significant to global search and SA used to local search. The proposed MPSO algorithm is experimentally applied on two benchmark data set. The result shows that the proposed algorithm is better in term quality of non-dominated solution compared to the other algorithms in the literature.

  17. Possible Opioid Shopping and Its Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Alexander M; Weatherby, Lisa B; Cepeda, M Soledad; Bradford, Daniel; Yuan, Yingli

    2017-01-31

    We created an operational definition of possible opioid shopping in US commercial health insurance data and examined its correlates. The population consisted of 264,204 treatment courses in persons with a fill for an opioid or diuretic prescription in 2012 and a second within 18 months. We examined counts of prescribers and pharmacies and the numbers of fills and overlaps for ability to discriminate courses of opioids from diuretics, which were a negative control. The most discriminatory measure, indicating possible shopping behavior, was cross-tabulated against other prescriptions filled and diagnoses as found in insurance claims. The associations between claims characteristics and shopping behavior were assessed in a logistic regression. A definition that classified possible "moderate" or "extensive" shopping when a person obtained drug through at least three practices and at least three pharmacies over 18 months was highly discriminatory between opioid and diuretic treatment. Overlaps between fills and number of fills did not improve the discrimination. Data from insurance claims strongly predicted moderate-to-extensive levels of possible shopping (c=0.82). Prominent among 20 significant predictors were: state of residence; amount of opioid dispensed; self-payment; use of non-specialist prescribers; high use of anxiolytics, hypnotics, psychostimulants and antipsychotics; use of both immediate release (IR) and extended-release or long-acting (ER/LA) opioids. The use of three or more prescribing practices and three or more dispensing pharmacies over 18 months sharply discriminated courses of opioid treatment from courses of diuretics. This pattern of fills was additionally associated with the numbers of non-specialist and self-paid fills, the total MEQ dispensed and heavier use of drugs for anxiety, sleep, attention and psychosis.

  18. Urban food environments and residents' shopping behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannuscio, Carolyn C; Tappe, Karyn; Hillier, Amy; Buttenheim, Alison; Karpyn, Allison; Glanz, Karen

    2013-11-01

    Food environments may promote or undermine healthy behaviors, but questions remain regarding how individuals interact with their local food environments. This study incorporated an urban food environment audit as well as an examination of residents' food shopping behaviors within that context. In 2010, the research team audited the variety and healthfulness of foods available in 373 Philadelphia stores, using the validated Nutrition Environment Measures Survey in Stores (NEMS-S); higher scores indicate more diverse and healthful food inventories. The team also surveyed urban residents (n=514) regarding their food shopping. Descriptive and multivariate analyses (conducted in 2012) assessed variation in retail food environments and in shoppers' store choices. Corner and convenience stores were common (78.6% of food retail outlets) and had the lowest mean NEMS-S scores of any store type. Most participants (94.5%) did their primary food shopping at higher-scoring chain supermarkets, and the majority of participants did not shop at the supermarket closest to home. Supermarket offerings varied, with significantly fewer healthful foods at supermarkets closest to the homes of disadvantaged residents. In multivariate analyses, participants were significantly more likely to shop at supermarkets closest to home if those supermarkets had higher NEMS-S scores. These data suggest that, when possible, shoppers chose supermarkets that offered more variety and more healthful foods. Findings from this study also reinforce concern regarding unhealthy immediate food environments for disadvantaged residents, who disproportionately relied on nearby stores with more limited food items. Interventions to improve nutrition and health should address not only food store proximity but also diversity of healthful foods available. © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

  19. Mechanism study of sticking occurring during hot rolling of ferritic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Dae Jin; Sung, Hyo Kyung; Lee, Sung Hak [Pohang University of Science and Technoogy, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Seog; Lee, Yong Deuk [Pohang Iron and Steel Co., Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-11-15

    Mechanisms of sticking phenomena occurring during hot rolling of a modified STS 430J1L ferritic stainless steel have been investigated in this study by using a pilot-plant-scale rolling machine. As the rolling pass proceeds, the Fe-Cr oxide layer formed in a reheating furnace is destroyed, and the destroyed oxides penetrate into the rolled steel to form a thin oxide layer on the surface region. The sticking does not occur on the surface region containing oxides, whereas it occurs on the surface region without oxides by the separation of the rolled steel at high temperatures. This indicates that the resistance to sticking increases by the increase in the surface hardness when a considerable amount of oxides are formed on the surface region, and that the sticking can be evaluated by the volume fraction and distribution of oxides formed on the surface region. The lubrication and the increase of the rolling speed and rolling temperature beneficially affect to the resistance to sticking because they accelerate the formation of oxides on the steel surface region. In order to prevent or minimize the sticking, thus, it is suggested to increase the thickness of the oxide layer formed in the reheating furnace and to homogeneously distribute oxides along the surface region by controlling the hot-rolling process.

  20. Selection and Assignment of Machines: a Parallel Aproach

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Ribeiro, José

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a two-phase method is presented for selection of machines to be kept on the shop floor and assignment of parts to be manufactured to these machines. In the first phase, dynamic programming or a heuristic procedure identifies a set of feasible solutions to a knapsack problem. In the second phase, implicit enumeration technique or a greedy algorithm solves an assignment problem. The proposed method is written in language C and runs on a parallel virtual machine called PVM-W95. Th...

  1. Roll bonding of strained aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staun, Jakob M.

    2003-01-01

    This report investigates roll bonding of pre-strained (å ~ 4) aluminium sheets to produce high strain material from high purity aluminium (99.996%) and commercial pure aluminium (99.6%). The degree of bonding is investigated by optical microscopy and ultrasonic scanning. Under the right...... of the cross rolled volume fraction is found. To further asses this effect, and the anisotropy, it is necessary to acquire knowledge about both texture and microstructure, e.g. by TEM. Roll bonding of pre-strained aluminium is found to be a possible alternative to ARB in the quest for ultra-fine grained...

  2. Roll bonding of strained aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staun, Jakob M.

    2003-01-01

    This report investigates roll bonding of pre-strained (å ~ 4) aluminium sheets to produce high strain material from high purity aluminium (99.996%) and commercial pure aluminium (99.6%). The degree of bonding is investigated by optical microscopy and ultrasonic scanning. Under the right...... of the cross rolled volume fraction is found. To further asses this effect, and the anisotropy, it is necessary to acquire knowledge about both texture and microstructure, e.g. by TEM. Roll bonding of pre-strained aluminium is found to be a possible alternative to ARB in the quest for ultra-fine grained...

  3. Roll Control in Fruit Flies

    CERN Document Server

    Beatus, Tsevi; Cohen, Itai

    2014-01-01

    Due to aerodynamic instabilities, stabilizing flapping flight requires ever-present fast corrective actions. Here we investigate how flies control body roll angle, their most susceptible degree of freedom. We glue a magnet to each fly, apply a short magnetic pulse that rolls it in mid-air, and film the corrective maneuver. Flies correct perturbations of up to $100^{\\circ}$ within $30\\pm7\\mathrm{ms}$ by applying a stroke-amplitude asymmetry that is well described by a linear PI controller. The response latency is $\\sim5\\mathrm{ms}$, making the roll correction reflex one of the fastest in the animal kingdom.

  4. The Machine within the Machine

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Although Virtual Machines are widespread across CERN, you probably won't have heard of them unless you work for an experiment. Virtual machines - known as VMs - allow you to create a separate machine within your own, allowing you to run Linux on your Mac, or Windows on your Linux - whatever combination you need.   Using a CERN Virtual Machine, a Linux analysis software runs on a Macbook. When it comes to LHC data, one of the primary issues collaborations face is the diversity of computing environments among collaborators spread across the world. What if an institute cannot run the analysis software because they use different operating systems? "That's where the CernVM project comes in," says Gerardo Ganis, PH-SFT staff member and leader of the CernVM project. "We were able to respond to experimentalists' concerns by providing a virtual machine package that could be used to run experiment software. This way, no matter what hardware they have ...

  5. Breaking Out of the Local: International dimensions of science shops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caspar DeBok

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article we want to give an overview of the international dimension and the interest of the European Union (EU in the concept of Science Shops. The European Commission (EC manages the day-to-day business by initiating and implementing EU policies and spending EU funds. The EC support for Science Shops has been an important factor for the international interest and progress of the Science Shop movement. This article will not give detailed information about daily routines of a Science Shop. Detailed information about the Science Shop concept can be found at the Living Knowledge website (www.livingknowledge.org. Living Knowledge represents the international Science Shop Network. In this article international developments of the Science Shop Network, like the project TRAMS, and Science Shop backgrounds will be linked with past and new EU policies like the EU 7th Framework Programme for Research. It shows how community-based research does not only have a local dimension. The international Science Shop activities show the strengths of international cooperation to break out of the local and to bring local issues on the international agenda. Detailed information about the Science Shop concept and daily routines of a Science Shop can be found at the Living Knowledge website (www.livingknowledge.org, e.g. at the FAQ section and in the toolbox.

  6. An Exploratory Analysis of Online Shopping Behavior in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Veysel Ertemel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Alongside the technologic developments, transformation in user behavior and business models has been observed. New areas and models are emerged in a lot of grounds like the communication of people or daily activities. So a new face put for shopping behavior by the e-commerce, which is one of the novelties. This study tries to research online shopping behavior in Turkey. With a quantitative research, device usage, the reasons behind to shop or not to shop online, online shopping category and e-commerce site preferences, payment methods, international e-commerce and online marketplace usage is investigated. As implications of the research, “saving time“ is found to be the foremost reason for shopping online in Turkey and “travel and bookings” category is found as the most shopped category among the results of the survey.

  7. Virtual Shopping and Impulse Purchasing Strengths and Weaknesses in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Hussain

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzed the perceptive of consumers doing online shopping and impulse purchasing. This study examined the behavior of thirty consumers who were asked to fill the questionnaire based on some close ended questions. The focus of this investigation was to discuss the strengths and Weaknesses of online shopping and impulse purchasing in developing country like Pakistan. Today consumers choose and buy things while sitting at home through internet and buy things impulsively. Do consumer in Pakistan are using Internet for shopping online? Do they make more impulse purchase on the Internet? Does online shopping save time? Do online shopping is more attractive or consumer feels lack of trust? Impacts of advertising are also discussed. We covered the virtual shopping weakness and strengths in our VSIPSWP (Virtual Shopping and Impulse Purchasing Strengths and Weaknesses in Pakistan Models.

  8. DECREASE OF BREAKAGE OF HIGH-STRENGTH WIRE AT METAL CORD TWIST ON MACHINES OF DOUBLE TORSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Biryukov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Researches of the most often occurred surface defects of rolled wires, their modification at drawing and influence on technological process and quality of cold-drawn wire with regard to working conditions of hardware shops of BMZ are presented

  9. Manufacturing Demonstration Facility: Roll-to-Roll Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datskos, Panos G [ORNL; Joshi, Pooran C [ORNL; List III, Frederick Alyious [ORNL; Duty, Chad E [ORNL; Armstrong, Beth L [ORNL; Ivanov, Ilia N [ORNL; Jacobs, Christopher B [ORNL; Graham, David E [ORNL; Moon, Ji Won [ORNL

    2015-08-01

    This Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF)e roll-to-roll processing effort described in this report provided an excellent opportunity to investigate a number of advanced manufacturing approaches to achieve a path for low cost devices and sensors. Critical to this effort is the ability to deposit thin films at low temperatures using nanomaterials derived from nanofermentation. The overarching goal of this project was to develop roll-to-roll manufacturing processes of thin film deposition on low-cost flexible substrates for electronics and sensor applications. This project utilized ORNL s unique Pulse Thermal Processing (PTP) technologies coupled with non-vacuum low temperature deposition techniques, ORNL s clean room facility, slot dye coating, drop casting, spin coating, screen printing and several other equipment including a Dimatix ink jet printer and a large-scale Kyocera ink jet printer. The roll-to-roll processing project had three main tasks: 1) develop and demonstrate zinc-Zn based opto-electronic sensors using low cost nanoparticulate structures manufactured in a related MDF Project using nanofermentation techniques, 2) evaluate the use of silver based conductive inks developed by project partner NovaCentrix for electronic device fabrication, and 3) demonstrate a suite of low cost printed sensors developed using non-vacuum deposition techniques which involved the integration of metal and semiconductor layers to establish a diverse sensor platform technology.

  10. MODELING OF THE TRACK AND ROLLING STOCK INTERACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Khalipova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Interaction of system’s elements of "carriage–track" modelling requires consideration of various criteria, it also requires analysis of many uncertainty and randomness factors’ influence on the basic parameters to ensure optimal or rational parameters of the system. The researching of interactions’ process requires new theoretical approaches to formulation of objectives, based on a generalization of existing modeling approaches. The purpose of this work is development of interaction models between track and rolling stock based on multiple structures of objects. Methodology. Dedicated and formed the main evaluation criteria of dynamic interaction between track and rolling stock optimization - quality assurance and safety of transportation process, improving of their efficiency and reducing of prime cost’s. Based on vector optimization methods, proposed model of rolling stock and track’s elements interaction. For the synthesis of the model used mathematical machine of multiple objects structures. Findings. Generalized approaches to modeling in the interaction of rolling stock and track for different structural elements of the system under different exploitation conditions. This theoretical approach demonstrated on the examples of modeling of passenger and freight cars with track under different exploitation conditions. Originality. Proposed theoretical approach to the problem of track and rolling stock interaction, based on a synthesis of existing models by using of multiple objects structures. Practical value. Using of proposed model allows to structure key data and rational parameters of rolling stock and track interaction’s modeling and to formulate optimal and rational parameters of the system, to determine the effective exploitation parameters and measurement system for rational use of infrastructure.

  11. Rolling Process Modeling Report: Finite-Element Prediction of Roll Separating Force and Rolling Defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soulami, Ayoub [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lavender, Curt A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Paxton, Dean M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Burkes, Douglas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-04-23

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been investigating manufacturing processes for the uranium-10% molybdenum (U-10Mo) alloy plate-type fuel for the U.S. high-performance research reactors. This work supports the Convert Program of the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) Global Threat Reduction Initiative. This report documents modeling results of PNNL’s efforts to perform finite-element simulations to predict roll separating forces and rolling defects. Simulations were performed using a finite-element model developed using the commercial code LS-Dyna. Simulations of the hot rolling of U-10Mo coupons encapsulated in low-carbon steel have been conducted following two different schedules. Model predictions of the roll-separation force and roll-pack thicknesses at different stages of the rolling process were compared with experimental measurements. This report discusses various attributes of the rolled coupons revealed by the model (e.g., dog-boning and thickness non-uniformity).

  12. Parallel Branch-and-Bound Methods for the Job Shop Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jens; Perregaard, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Job-shop scheduling (JSS) problems are among the more difficult to solve in the class of NP-complete problems. The only successful approach has been branch-and-bound based algorithms, but such algorithms depend heavily on good bound functions. Much work has been done to identify such functions...... for the JSS problem, but with limited success. Even with recent methods, it is still not possible to solve problems substantially larger than 10 machines and 10 jobs. In the current study, we focus on parallel methods for solving JSS problems. We implement two different parallel branch-and-bound algorithms...

  13. Optimal Research and Numerical Simulation for Scheduling No-Wait Flow Shop in Steel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huawei Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the m-machine flow shop scheduling problem with the no-wait constraint to minimize total completion time which is the typical model in steel production. First, the asymptotic optimality of the Shortest Processing Time (SPT first rule is proven for this problem. To further evaluate the performance of the algorithm, a new lower bound with performance guarantee is designed. At the end of the paper, numerical simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm and lower bound.

  14. FORMATION OF SHAFT SPLINES USING ROLLING METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sidorenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes design of rolling heads used for cold rolling of straight-sided splines on shafts and presents theoretical principles of this process. These principles make it possible to calculate an effort which is required for pushing billet through rolling-on rolls with due account of metal hardening during deformation.

  15. Rolling Resistance Measurement and Model Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lasse Grinderslev; Larsen, Jesper; Fraser, Elsje Sophia;

    2015-01-01

    There is an increased focus worldwide on understanding and modeling rolling resistance because reducing the rolling resistance by just a few percent will lead to substantial energy savings. This paper reviews the state of the art of rolling resistance research, focusing on measuring techniques, s......, surface and texture modeling, contact models, tire models, and macro-modeling of rolling resistance...

  16. FEM Analysis of Rolling Pressure Along Strip Width in Cold Rolling Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiang-hua; SHI Xu; LI Shan-qing; XU Jian-yong; WANG Guo-dong

    2007-01-01

    Using 3-D elastic-plastic FEM, the cold strip rolling process in a 4-high mill was simulated. The elastic deformation of rolls, the plastic deformation of the strip, and the pressure between the work roll and the backup roll were taken into account. The distribution of rolling pressure along the strip width was obtained. Based on the simulation results, the peak value of rolling pressure and the location of the peak were analyzed under different rolling conditions. The effects of the roll bending force and the strip width on the distribution of rolling pressure along the width direction were determined.

  17. Machine Learning

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Machine learning, which builds on ideas in computer science, statistics, and optimization, focuses on developing algorithms to identify patterns and regularities in data, and using these learned patterns to make predictions on new observations. Boosted by its industrial and commercial applications, the field of machine learning is quickly evolving and expanding. Recent advances have seen great success in the realms of computer vision, natural language processing, and broadly in data science. Many of these techniques have already been applied in particle physics, for instance for particle identification, detector monitoring, and the optimization of computer resources. Modern machine learning approaches, such as deep learning, are only just beginning to be applied to the analysis of High Energy Physics data to approach more and more complex problems. These classes will review the framework behind machine learning and discuss recent developments in the field.

  18. Numerical analysis of cross shear plate rolling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wenqi; Bay, Niels

    1997-01-01

    The rolling process is widely applied for industrial production of metal plates. In conventional plate rolling the two work rolls are rotating at the same peripheral speed. By introducing a specific difference in the speed of the two work rolls, cross shear rolling is introduced forming a central...... shear zone between the forward and backward slip zones in the deformation zone thus lowering the rolling load. A numerical analysis of the cross shear rolling process is carried out based on the slab method adopting Wanheim and Bay's general friction model. The pressure distribution along the contact...

  19. Analysis of Roll Gap Pressure in Sendzimir Mill by FEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Hai-liang; LIU Xiang-hua; WANG Chao; Park Hae-doo

    2008-01-01

    The acting force on the roll system of Sendzimir mill was analyzed using 3D FEM. The roll gap pressure distribution and the acting force between rolls S and O, rolls O and I, rolls O and J, rolls I and A, rolls I and B, as well as rolls J and B were analyzed. The results showed that the roll gap pressure mainly affected the roll surface layer, 50 mm for backup roll; the roll gap pressure distribution is of double peaks among the work roll, the 1st intermediate roll (IMR), and the 2nd IMR; the maximum value of the roll gap pressure between the backup roll and the second IMR appears on the edge of the barrel of rolls; the component force presents the in-para-curve distribution. These are important for reducing the wear of rolls and the break of the backup roll and guiding for production.

  20. Grease lubrication in rolling bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Lugt, Piet M

    2012-01-01

    The definitive book on the science of grease lubrication for roller and needle bearings in industrial and vehicle engineering. Grease Lubrication in Rolling Bearings provides an overview of the existing knowledge on the various aspects of grease lubrication (including lubrication systems) and the state of the art models that exist today. The book reviews the physical and chemical aspects of grease lubrication, primarily directed towards lubrication of rolling bearings. The first part of the book covers grease composition, properties and rheology, including thermal

  1. Rolling contact fatigue testing of peek based composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrogalli C.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Rolling contact fatigue phenomenon was investigated on unfilled PEEK and on three different PEEK composites: 10% carbon micro-fiber, graphite and PTFE filled matrix, 30% carbon micro-fiber filled matrix, 30% glass micro-fiber filled matrix. For this aim, roller-shaped specimens were machined from extruded bars of these materials and subjected to rolling contact tests at different contact pressure levels by means of a four roller machine. Contact pressure-life diagrams and wear rates were so obtained and compared, highlighting a relationship with monotonic and hardness materials properties. Microscopic observations of contact surfaces and transversal section of the specimens also allowed observing the damage mechanisms occurred in the materials tested and the effects of the filler. In particular way, deep radial cracks appeared on unfilled PEEK, while spalling and delamination phenomena where found on composites. Diffuse microcracks were found at the filler-matrix interface of the composites specimens, confirming that the fatigue life of these materials is essentially determined by the crack propagation phase, also under rolling contact loading.

  2. Hybridization of Genetic Algorithm with Parallel Implementation of Simulated Annealing for Job Shop Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamilselvan Rakkiannan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The Job Shop Scheduling Problem (JSSP is observed as one of the most difficult NP-hard, combinatorial problem. The problem consists of determining the most efficient schedule for jobs that are processed on several machines. Approach: In this study Genetic Algorithm (GA is integrated with the parallel version of Simulated Annealing Algorithm (SA is applied to the job shop scheduling problem. The proposed algorithm is implemented in a distributed environment using Remote Method Invocation concept. The new genetic operator and a parallel simulated annealing algorithm are developed for solving job shop scheduling. Results: The implementation is done successfully to examine the convergence and effectiveness of the proposed hybrid algorithm. The JSS problems tested with very well-known benchmark problems, which are considered to measure the quality of proposed system. Conclusion/Recommendations: The empirical results show that the proposed genetic algorithm with simulated annealing is quite successful to achieve better solution than the individual genetic or simulated annealing algorithm."

  3. [Art nouveau: pharmacy shops in Nancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Florence; Labrude, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century, an important artistic activity develops in Nancy. The "Ecole de Nancy" transforms a provincial city into one of the metropolis of "Art Nouveau". The pharmacists participate at the activity of their town and eight of them choose the new style for their pharmacy. In 1902, Rosfelder is the first to modify his shop, and later, Jacques, Delidon, Mouzin, Godfrin brothers, Monal and Fandre, before, during and after the First World War, have a same step. For the ornament, the artists use plants derived from local medicinal flora. "Art Nouveau", adept of curves, appears to be ideal to symbolize vegetable kingdom. In these pharmacy shops, fine arts join materia medica.

  4. RFID Data Cleaning for Shop Floor Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziekow, Holger; Ivantysynova, Lenka; Günter, Oliver

    In several case studies we found that shop-floor applications in manufacturing pose special challenges to cleaning RFID data. The underlying problem in many scenarios is the uncertainty about the exact location of observed RFID tags. Simple filter s provided in common middleware solutions do not cope well with these challenges. Therefore we have developed an approach based on maximum-likelihood estimation to infer a tag's location within the reader range. This enables improved RFID data cleaning in a number of application scenarios. We stress the benefits of our approach along exemplary application scenarios that we found in manufacturing. In simulations and experiments with real world data we show that our approach outperforms existing solutions. Our approach can extend RFID middleware or reader firmware, to improve the use of RFID in a range of shop-floor applications.

  5. Trustworthy Online Shopping with Price Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musial Jedrzej

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Internet shopping is one of the main pillars of electronic commerce.According to the literature, the Internet Shopping Optimization Problem (ISOPhas been defined in order to optimize the global cost of online purchase, taking into account both the cost of products and shipping. In this study, it was decided to propose and analyze a very interesting, and really substantial, extension of the ISOP.Namely, trust factors were subjected to careful analysis from the customer point of view. The analysis is based on a specially prepared questionnaire, supplemented by the information from the literature and our own observations. Thus, it was possible to propose a definition of a new mathematical model of the problem, and to prove its affiliation to the class of strongly NP-hard problems. In addition, the heuristic algorithm is proposed, which can be used to solve the problem.

  6. GENDER AND SHOPPING BEHAVIOR OUTCOMES IN THE CONTEXT OF SHOPPING CENTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Nicoleta ABRUDAN

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding consumer behavior can be divided into three parts: before visiting the stores or shopping centers, during the visit, and after. From the point of view of the final result intended by retailers, satisfying customers in terms of profitability, all three components are equally important. A relevant segmentation criterion for most products and stores is gender. Previous research suggests that gender influences shopping motivations, the way people shop and shopping behavior outcomes. The purpose of this article is to investigate if there are, indeed, differences between shopping behavior outputs of women and men (affective loyalty (satisfaction and conative loyalty, as found by certain researchers, and also in terms of the factors that influence the formation of conative loyalty. The results confirm that there are few significant differences in the satisfaction level, although for women all values are slightly higher, and none in the repurchase and recommendation intentions between the two genders. Conative loyalty formation (defined as intent to repurchase and recommend takes place differently between the two genders.

  7. Building a Successful Machine Safeguarding Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, S

    2003-03-06

    Safeguarding hazards associated with machines is a goal common to all health and safety professionals. Whether the individual is new to the safety field or has held associated responsibilities for a period of time, safeguarding personnel who work with or around machine tools and equipment should be considered an important aspect of the job. Although significant progress has been made in terms of safeguarding machines since the era prior to the organized safety movement, companies continue to be cited by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and workers continue to be injured, even killed by machine tools and equipment. In the early 1900s, it was common practice to operate transmission machinery (gears, belts, pulleys, shafting, etc.) completely unguarded. At that time, the countersunk set screw used on shafting had not been invented and projecting set screws were involved in many horrific accidents. Manufacturers built machines with little regard for worker safety. Workers were killed or seriously injured before definitive actions were taken to improve safety in the workplace. Many states adopted legislation aimed at requiring machine guarding and improved injury reduction. The first patent for a machine safeguard was issued in 1868 for a mechanical interlock. Other patents followed. As methods for safeguarding machinery and tools were developed, standards were written and programs were set up to monitor factories for compliance. Many of those standards continue to govern how we protect workers today. It is common to see machine tools built in the forties, fifties and sixties being used in machine shops today. In terms of safeguarding, these machines may be considered poorly designed, improperly safeguarded or simply unguarded. In addition to the potential threat of an OSHA citation, these conditions expose the operator to serious hazards that must be addressed. The safety professional can help line management determine workable solutions for

  8. Environmental preferences for leisure in shopping malls

    OpenAIRE

    Çalgüner, Ece

    1999-01-01

    Ankara : Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design and the Institute of Economics and Social Sciences of Bilkent Univ., 1999. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1999. Includes bibliographical references leaves 101-108 In this study, the concept of leisure is studied examining its commercialization through history, discussing its contemporary meanings and place in public life. Shopping mall is presented as a synthesis of leisure and commerce, representing the ...

  9. Rostocker Hof shopping mall; Galerie Rostocker Hof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1998-06-01

    The Rostocker Hof shopping mall comprises a 151-room hotel, a shopping mall of 45 shops, 22230m{sup 2} of office floor, and an underground garage with 308 parking lots. The following systems are described: Heating systems, air conditioning systems, refrigeration systems, ventilation systems, fire protection systems and electrical installation. Heat is supplied by the district heating grids. Circuit diagrams and flow charts are presented for the heat exchangers and heat supply system, the air conditioning system, the sanitary and sprinkler systems, and the single-room control systems for heat and fresh air supply. (MSK) [Deutsch] Der Rostocker Hof umfasst ein Hotel mit 151 Zimmern, eine Einzelhandelspassage mit 45 Laeden sowie 2230qm Bueronutzungsflaeche und eine Tiefgarage mit 308 Stellplaetzen. Die Haustechnik wird in folgenden Punkten erlaeutert: Heizungtechnik, Klimatechnik, Kaeltetechnik, Lueftungstechnik, Brandschutzanlage sowie Elektroinstallation. Die Waermerversorgung erfolgt durch Fernwaerme. Schaltplaene bzw. Funktionsablaeufe sind fuer die Waermeuebergabestation, die Waermeaufbereitung, die Luftaufbereitungsanlage, die Sanitaer- und Sprinkleranlage sowie fuer die Waerme- und Raumluftregelung der Einzelraeume enthalten. (MSK)

  10. Flow shop rescheduling problem under rush orders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In the environment of customization, disturbances such as rush orders and material shortages often occur in the manufacturing system, so rescheduling is necessary for the manufacturing system. The rescheduling methodology should be able to dispose of the disturbance efficiently so as to keep production going smoothly. This aims researching flow shop rescheduling problem (FSRP) necessitated by rush orders. Disjunctive graph is employed to demonstrate the FSRP. For a flow shop processing n jobs, after the original schedule has been made, and z out of n jobs have been processed in the flow shop, x rush orders come, so the original n jobs together with x rush orders should be rescheduled immediately so that the rush orders would be processed in the shortest time and the original jobs could be processed subject to some optimized criteria. The weighted mean flow time of both original jobs and rush orders is used as objective function. The weight for rush orders is much bigger than that of the original jobs,so the rush orders should be processed early in the new schedule. The ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm used to solve the rescheduling problem has a weakness in that the search may fall into a local optimum. Mutation operation is employed to enhance the ACO performance. Numerical experiments demonstrated that the proposed algorithm has high computation repeatability and efficiency.

  11. Effect of Rolling Parameters on Plate Curvature during Snake Rolling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Yao; XIE Shuisheng; XIONG Baiqing; HUANG Guojie; CHENG Lei

    2012-01-01

    In order to predict the plate curvature during snake rolling,FE model was constructed based on plane strain assumption.The accuracy of the FE model was verified by the comparison between the plate curvature conducted by FE model and experiment respectively.By using FE model,the effect of offset distance,speed ratio,reduction,roll radius and initial plate thickness on the plate curvature during snake rolling was investigated.The experimental results show that,a proper offsetting distance can efficiently decrease plate curvature,however an excessive offsetting distance will increase plate curvature.A larger speed ratio,reduction will cause a large plate curvature,however a larger roll radius has effect to reduce plate curvature.Plate which undergoes a larger reduction and plate with a larger initial thickness always need a larger offset distance to keep the plate the minimum plate curvature,but for a larger roll radius a smaller offset distance is needed.

  12. A Decomposition and Coordination Scheduling Method for Flow-shop Problem Based on TOC%基于约束理论的Flow-shop分解协调算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏远; 席裕庚; 谷寒雨

    2005-01-01

    There are many flow shop problems of throughput (denoted by FSPT) with constraints of due date in real production planning and scheduling. In this paper, a decomposition and coordination algorithm is proposed based on the analysis of FSPT and under the support of TOC (theory of constraint). A flow shop is at first decomposed into two subsystems named PULL and PUSH by means of bottleneck. Then the subsystem is decomposed into single machine scheduling problems,so the original NP-HARD problem can be transferred into a serial of single machine optimization problems finally. This method reduces the computational complexity, and has been used in a real project successfully.

  13. A Hybrid Approach for Fault Diagnosis of Railway Rolling Bearings Using STWD-EMD-GA-LSSVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dechen Yao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibration signals resulting from railway rolling bearings are nonstationary by nature; this paper proposes a hybrid approach for the fault diagnosis of railway rolling bearings using segment threshold wavelet denoising (STWD, empirical mode decomposition (EMD, genetic algorithm (GA, and least squares support vector machine (LSSVM. The original signal is first denoised using STWD as a prefilter, which improves the subsequent decomposition into a number of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs using EMD. Secondly, the IMF energy-torques are extracted as feature parameters. Concurrently, a GA is employed to optimize the LSSVM to improve the classification accuracy. Finally, the extracted features are used as inputs for classification by the GA-LSSVM. Actual railway rolling bearing vibration signals are used to experimentally verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. The results show that the novel method is effective and accurate for fault diagnosis of railway rolling bearings.

  14. Flexible Job-Shop Scheduling with Dual-Resource Constraints to Minimize Tardiness Using Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paksi, A. B. N.; Ma'ruf, A.

    2016-02-01

    In general, both machines and human resources are needed for processing a job on production floor. However, most classical scheduling problems have ignored the possible constraint caused by availability of workers and have considered only machines as a limited resource. In addition, along with production technology development, routing flexibility appears as a consequence of high product variety and medium demand for each product. Routing flexibility is caused by capability of machines that offers more than one machining process. This paper presents a method to address scheduling problem constrained by both machines and workers, considering routing flexibility. Scheduling in a Dual-Resource Constrained shop is categorized as NP-hard problem that needs long computational time. Meta-heuristic approach, based on Genetic Algorithm, is used due to its practical implementation in industry. Developed Genetic Algorithm uses indirect chromosome representative and procedure to transform chromosome into Gantt chart. Genetic operators, namely selection, elitism, crossover, and mutation are developed to search the best fitness value until steady state condition is achieved. A case study in a manufacturing SME is used to minimize tardiness as objective function. The algorithm has shown 25.6% reduction of tardiness, equal to 43.5 hours.

  15. Performance comparison of plastic shopping bags in modern and traditional retail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radini, F. A.; Wulandari, R.; Nasiri, S. J. A.; Winarto, D. A.

    2017-07-01

    Followed by implementation of paid plastic bag policy in Indonesia’s modern and traditional retail, community question related to plastic shopping bag performance arise. But, there is limited information about it. Therefore, the assessment of the performance to compare between plastic shopping bags in modern retail and traditional retail should be interesting. The observation performance of plastic shopping bag were weight holding capacity, tear resistant and elongation. This performance were tested using Universal Testing Machine. Physical and physico-chemical properties also identified to determine factor affecting the performance of plastic shopping bag. The physical properties were analysed using visual and thickness gauge to see the colour and measure the thickness. The analysis of physico-chemical properties were carried out using DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry), TGA (Thermal Gravimetry Analysis), Furnace and FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy) to identify the materials, also its melting and decomposition temperature. The result showed that the performance difference between modern retail plastic bag with traditional retail plastic bag appears only in the performance of elongation. The elongation of modern retail plastic bag is 121 - 413%, while traditional has 170 - 609%. According to physico-chemical test result, modern retail and traditional retail plastic bag contain polyethylene as main material and has melting temperature in the range of High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) melting temperature. However, modern retail plastic bag has 18.31 - 33.87% of inorganic filler percentage, whereas the traditional retail plastic bag has 0.35 - 9.85%. This inorganic filler percentage probably a contributing factor in the elongation performance difference between modern retail plastic bag with traditional retail plastic bag.

  16. Determinants of Customer Continuance Intention of Online Shopping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-maghrabi, T.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to clarify theory and identify factors that could explain the level of continuance intention of e-shopping. A revised technology acceptance model integrates expectation confirmation theory and investigates effects of age differences. An online survey of internet shoppers in Saudi Arabia. Structural equation modelling and invariance analysis confirm model fit. The findings confirm that perceived usefulness, enjoyment and social pressure are determinants of e-shopping continuance. The structural weights are mostly equivalent between young and old but the regression path from perceived usefulness to social pressure is stronger for younger respondents. This research moves beyond e-shopping intentions to factors affecting e-shopping continuance, explaining 55% of intention to continue shopping online. Online strategies cannot ignore direct and indirect effects on continuance intentions. The findings contribute to literature on internet shopping and continuance intentions in the context of Saudi Arabia.

  17. A MODIFIED INVASIVE WEED OPTIMIZATION ALGORITHM FOR MULTIOBJECTIVE FLEXIBLE JOB SHOP SCHEDULING PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souad Mekni

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a modified invasive weed optimization (IWO algorithm is presented for optimization of multiobjective flexible job shop scheduling problems (FJSSPs with the criteria to minimize the maximum completion time (makespan, the total workload of machines and the workload of the critical machine. IWO is a bio-inspired metaheuristic that mimics the ecological behaviour of weeds in colonizing and finding suitable place for growth and reproduction. IWO is developed to solve continuous optimization problems that’s why the heuristic rule the Smallest Position Value (SPV is used to convert the continuous position values to the discrete job sequences. The computational experiments show that the proposed algorithm is highly competitive to the state-of-the-art methods in the literature since it is able to find the optimal and best-known solutions on the instances studied.

  18. Machine Learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikkagoudar, Satish; Chatterjee, Samrat; Thomas, Dennis G.; Carroll, Thomas E.; Muller, George

    2017-04-21

    The absence of a robust and unified theory of cyber dynamics presents challenges and opportunities for using machine learning based data-driven approaches to further the understanding of the behavior of such complex systems. Analysts can also use machine learning approaches to gain operational insights. In order to be operationally beneficial, cybersecurity machine learning based models need to have the ability to: (1) represent a real-world system, (2) infer system properties, and (3) learn and adapt based on expert knowledge and observations. Probabilistic models and Probabilistic graphical models provide these necessary properties and are further explored in this chapter. Bayesian Networks and Hidden Markov Models are introduced as an example of a widely used data driven classification/modeling strategy.

  19. Ambient roll-to-roll fabrication of flexible solar cells based on small molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Yuze; Dam, Henrik Friis; Andersen, Thomas Rieks

    2013-01-01

    All solution-processed roll-to-roll flexible solar cells based on a starshaped small molecule donor and PCBMacceptor were fabricated by slot-die coating, as the first successful example reported for small molecule roll-to-roll flexible solar cells.......All solution-processed roll-to-roll flexible solar cells based on a starshaped small molecule donor and PCBMacceptor were fabricated by slot-die coating, as the first successful example reported for small molecule roll-to-roll flexible solar cells....

  20. Social image of students who shop and don't shop online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, H Bruce; Curren, Mary T; Cours, Deborah; Lammers, Marilyn L

    2003-06-01

    A descriptive survey of a stratified random sample of 326 undergraduates from a large, diverse university in Los Angeles was conducted to assess whether resistance to online shopping might be, in part, related to negative social perceptions of those who shop online. Indirect questioning showed that students perceived online student shoppers as more lazy and less likely to fear for the safety and security of others but also as more trustworthy, attractive, successful, and smart. Differences in social perceptions were not related to these students' own online spending.

  1. Genetic Algorithm Combined with Gradient Information for Flexible Job-shop Scheduling Problem with Different Varieties and Small Batches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ming

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To solve the Flexible Job-shop Scheduling Problem (FJSP with different varieties and small batches, a modified meta-heuristic algorithm based on Genetic Algorithm (GA is proposed in which gene encoding is divided into process encoding and machine encoding, and according to the encoding mode, the machine gene fragment is connected with the process gene fragment and can be changed with the alteration of process genes. In order to get the global optimal solutions, the crossover and mutation operation of the process gene fragment and machine gene fragment are carried out respectively. In the initialization operation, the machines with shorter manufacturing time are more likely to be chosen to accelerate the convergence speed and then the tournament selection strategy is applied due to the minimum optimization objective. Meanwhile, a judgment condition of the crossover point quantity is introduced to speed up the population evolution and as an important interaction bridge between the current machine and alternative machines in the incidence matrix, a novel mutation operation of machine genes is proposed to achieve the replacement of manufacturing machines. The benchmark test shows the correctness of proposed algorithm and the case simulation proves the proposed algorithm has better performance compared with existing algorithms.

  2. HESITANCY TOWARDS ONLINE SHOPPING, A STUDY OF PAKISTANI CONSUMERS

    OpenAIRE

    Usman YOUSAF; Mohsin ALTAF; Noman SARWAR; Syed Ali Hassan SHAH

    2012-01-01

    To study the influence of Perceived cost, risk, convenience and enjoyment on online consumer purchases. Being more convenient online shopping seems painless compared to in store shopping, why consumers are still reluctant to shop online?.A sample of 220 questionnaires was filled from different departments at University of Sargodha. Respondents were asked to fill the questionnaire based on four factors (Perceived cost, Perceived risk, Perceived convenience, Perceived enjoyment), there were 2 g...

  3. Influence of visualization on consumption during on-line shopping

    OpenAIRE

    Hictaler, Urška

    2013-01-01

    This diploma work studies the influence of visualization on consumption during on-line shopping. The first part of the thesis starts with key areas of visualization, consumption and on-line shopping. Visualization, areas of use, human perception and ways of product presentation in on-line shops are defined discussed first. Next, consumption, consumers and factors that influence their decisions and satisfaction are defined. The last topic in the first part of the thesis discusses on-line shopp...

  4. Mystery Shopping: In-depth measurement of customer satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Hesselink, M.; Wiele, Ton

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis paper will discuss the phenomenon Mystery Shopping in the field of customer satisfaction measurement techniques. By using the literature about Mystery Shopping definitions and restrictions of this instrument will be presented. Also, possible ways to present and use the gathered data will be shown. After the literature part of the paper some practical research will be presented. A Dutch Flexcompany introduced the instrument Mystery Shopping in addition to the already used meas...

  5. Specific energy use in Swedish and Norwegian shopping malls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stensson, Sofia; Axell, Monica (SP Energy Technology, Boraas (Sweden)); Smaage, Kjell Petter (Evotek AS (Norway)); Fahlen, Per (Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Building Services Engineering, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2009-07-01

    The prevalence of shopping malls is growing worldwide. Internationally, there are differences in energy use and system solutions due to local outdoor climate, available energy resources, prices, national building regulations, traditions etc. On the other hand, tenants are usually international chains and they often have the same demands regarding indoor climate, system solutions etc. irrespective of the national differences. Shopping malls overall tends to have large lighting loads, high population density and, hence, a large air conditioning demand. There is also an apparent trend towards increasing glass surfaces and such design feature affects the energy balance of the building. For those interested in the energy efficiency of the building and its installations, it is interesting to know how different system solutions affect the energy use. Benchmarking between buildings gives valuable insight to energy efficient design and operation. However, available information on energy use for such benchmarking in shopping malls is still rather limited. This study investigates shopping malls in Sweden and Norway. Available national statistical data on retail and shopping malls are reviewed. Further building statistical data were collected from building owners and managers, covering energy use in 41 shopping malls. Additional energy use data for 115 shops, within three of these shopping malls were also collected. The building statistical data shows that the average energy use in Norwegian and Swedish shopping malls are approximately 291 and 279 kWh/m2/year respectively. The highest energy use exceeds the lowest figure by approximately 50 percent, indicating a significant potential for improvement. Results also show a wide deviation in energy use of the different shops in a shopping mall. The paper further provides a discussion concerning alternative benchmarking methods and necessary improvements to make valid conclusions regarding energy use in shopping malls.

  6. Priorities of Smartphone Online Shopping Applications for Young People

    OpenAIRE

    Okamoto, Takashi; Yatsuhashi, Jiro; Mizutani, Naoki

    2017-01-01

    With widespread use of smartphones, many people use smartphone online shopping applications to enjoy online purchasing. However, Japanese young people’s behavior and perceptions with regard to smartphone online shopping applications are unclear. To reveal these perceptions and priorities, this study examined Japanese respondents’ adoption of online shopping applications on smartphones by applying a choice-based conjoint analysis. This study revealed that our respondents place the highest prio...

  7. A Large-Scale Study of Online Shopping Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Nalchigar, Soroosh; Weber, Ingmar

    2012-01-01

    The continuous growth of electronic commerce has stimulated great interest in studying online consumer behavior. Given the significant growth in online shopping, better understanding of customers allows better marketing strategies to be designed. While studies of online shopping attitude are widespread in the literature, studies of browsing habits differences in relation to online shopping are scarce. This research performs a large scale study of the relationship between Internet browsing hab...

  8. Customer Buying Behavior : - Online shopping towards electronic product

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Dan; Yang, Liuzi

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Online shopping in EU has been shown to a good potential market. The electronic equipment takes a high percent of the individuals shopping. Compared with other goods, online shopping of electronic goods adds great convenience to the life of the people. Buying electronic gadgets online gives customers an opportunity to find a great variety of product online, and customers can review a wide selection of products and find special offers and discount with the best deals online. In the co...

  9. Location and function of hypermarkets and shopping centers in Zagreb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Jakovčić

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper deals with the spatial distribution,commercial structure and functions of newly built shopping centers andhypermarkets in Zagreb. Research has included mapping of all newly builtshopping centers and hypermarkets, classification of their commercial andother functions according to numbers of business premises in them, andquestionnaire survey conducted in three shopping centers on differentlocations in Zagreb. Questionnaire survey has been done in order tounderstand how visitors perceive shopping centers concerning theirfunctions and urban location.

  10. Hot rolling of thick uranium molybdenum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMint, Amy L.; Gooch, Jack G.

    2015-11-17

    Disclosed herein are processes for hot rolling billets of uranium that have been alloyed with about ten weight percent molybdenum to produce cold-rollable sheets that are about one hundred mils thick. In certain embodiments, the billets have a thickness of about 7/8 inch or greater. Disclosed processes typically involve a rolling schedule that includes a light rolling pass and at least one medium rolling pass. Processes may also include reheating the rolling stock and using one or more heavy rolling passes, and may include an annealing step.

  11. Lubrication in strip cold rolling process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianlin Sun; Yonglin Kang; Tianguo Xiao; Jianze Wang

    2004-01-01

    A lubrication model was developed for explaining how to form an oil film in the deformation zone, predicting the film thickness and determining the characteristics of lubrication in the strip rolling process, combined with the knowledge of hydrodythicknesses in the strip cold rolling. Results from the experiment and calculation show that the oil film forming in hydrodynamic lubrication is up to the bit angle and a higher rolling speed or a higher rolling oil viscosity. The mechanism of mechanical entrainment always affects the film thickness that increases with the rolling oil viscosity increasing or the reduction rate decreasing in rolling.

  12. Job shop scheduling problem based on DNA computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Zhixiang; Cui Jianzhong; Yang Yan; Ma Ying

    2006-01-01

    To solve job shop scheduling problem, a new approach-DNA computing is used in solving job shop scheduling problem. The approach using DNA computing to solve job shop scheduling is divided into three stands. Finally, optimum solutions are obtained by sequencing. A small job shop scheduling problem is solved in DNA computing, and the "operations" of the computation were performed with standard protocols, as ligation, synthesis, electrophoresis etc. This work represents further evidence for the ability of DNA computing to solve NP-complete search problems.

  13. Consumers preferences of shopping centers in Bratislava (Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristína Bilková

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available There have been changes in the shopping behavior and preferences of consumers in the post-communist countries caused by political changes after 1989. Slovakia is not an exception, and it has been observed a change not only at the consumers’ level but also in retail stores. A notable bearer of such changes was the construction of big shopping centers that were a new phenomenon in shopping. They quickly became popular and changed spatial and shopping patterns of consumers. The main aim of this study is to analyze and evaluate the shopping preferences of consumers based on the example of the capital city – Bratislava (at the level of urban districts. The database consists of results of a questionnaire survey carried out in 2011. Respondents were interviewed inside the shopping center. The partial aims focus on the analysis of consumers’ perceptions, the frequency of their shopping and the mode of transport used for shopping. One of the goals of this study is also to evaluate the perception of consumers in terms of the catchment areas of the chosen shopping center, as well as the perceptional classification of retail in the given area and the accessibility of stores.

  14. HESITANCY TOWARDS ONLINE SHOPPING, A STUDY OF PAKISTANI CONSUMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman YOUSAF

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the influence of Perceived cost, risk, convenience and enjoyment on online consumer purchases. Being more convenient online shopping seems painless compared to in store shopping, why consumers are still reluctant to shop online?.A sample of 220 questionnaires was filled from different departments at University of Sargodha. Respondents were asked to fill the questionnaire based on four factors (Perceived cost, Perceived risk, Perceived convenience, Perceived enjoyment, there were 2 general questions. Out of 220, 207 questionnaires were returned. One sample test is applied in this study to check the reliability of independent variables. Analysis was also done on basis of gender and their ages. The most important factor out of four, which can persuade the customer's online buying decision, is delivery cost for purchased items and it has negative relationship with dependent variable, moreover perceived risk has also negative relationship with dependent one. Perceived convenience and Perceived enjoyment has positive relationship with online shopping preference. As online shopping is easier to do but due to extra delivery cost and risk factors consumers do not adopt online shopping and these factors should be minimized to promote online shopping. Online shopping should be promoted and to gain the consumer confidence, delivery cost and risk factor should be minimized. As online shopping is easier to do as compared to offline shopping but people still reluctant to use internet for online shopping, so to promote online shopping delivery cost and risk factor should be minimized to gain consumers attraction and confidence. People want to experience online shopping but it won’t be promoted until delivery cost and perceived risk factors be reduced. A little work has been done on exploring the factors that influence the online buying decision. These factors are called situational factors and include delivery charges, risk factors, convenience

  15. Study on multi-objective flexible job-shop scheduling problem considering energy consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengqiang Jiang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Build a multi-objective Flexible Job-shop Scheduling Problem(FJSP optimization model, in which the makespan, processing cost, energy consumption and cost-weighted processing quality are considered, then Design a Modified Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II based on blood variation for above scheduling model.Design/methodology/approach: A multi-objective optimization theory based on Pareto optimal method is used in carrying out the optimization model. NSGA-II is used to solve the model.Findings: By analyzing the research status and insufficiency of multi-objective FJSP, Find that the difference in scheduling will also have an effect on energy consumption in machining process and environmental emissions. Therefore, job-shop scheduling requires not only guaranteeing the processing quality, time and cost, but also optimizing operation plan of machines and minimizing energy consumption.Originality/value: A multi-objective FJSP optimization model is put forward, in which the makespan, processing cost, energy consumption and cost-weighted processing quality are considered. According to above model, Blood-Variation-based NSGA-II (BVNSGA-II is designed. In which, the chromosome mutation rate is determined after calculating the blood relationship between two cross chromosomes, crossover and mutation strategy of NSGA-II is optimized and the prematurity of population is overcome. Finally, the performance of the proposed model and algorithm is evaluated through a case study, and the results proved the efficiency and feasibility of the proposed model and algorithm.

  16. Solving the flexible job shop problem by hybrid metaheuristics-based multiagent model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Houssem Eddine; Belkahla Driss, Olfa; Ghédira, Khaled

    2017-05-01

    The flexible job shop scheduling problem (FJSP) is a generalization of the classical job shop scheduling problem that allows to process operations on one machine out of a set of alternative machines. The FJSP is an NP-hard problem consisting of two sub-problems, which are the assignment and the scheduling problems. In this paper, we propose how to solve the FJSP by hybrid metaheuristics-based clustered holonic multiagent model. First, a neighborhood-based genetic algorithm (NGA) is applied by a scheduler agent for a global exploration of the search space. Second, a local search technique is used by a set of cluster agents to guide the research in promising regions of the search space and to improve the quality of the NGA final population. The efficiency of our approach is explained by the flexible selection of the promising parts of the search space by the clustering operator after the genetic algorithm process, and by applying the intensification technique of the tabu search allowing to restart the search from a set of elite solutions to attain new dominant scheduling solutions. Computational results are presented using four sets of well-known benchmark literature instances. New upper bounds are found, showing the effectiveness of the presented approach.

  17. A Bee Evolutionary Guiding Nondominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II for Multiobjective Flexible Job-Shop Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianwang Deng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Flexible job-shop scheduling problem (FJSP is an NP-hard puzzle which inherits the job-shop scheduling problem (JSP characteristics. This paper presents a bee evolutionary guiding nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II (BEG-NSGA-II for multiobjective FJSP (MO-FJSP with the objectives to minimize the maximal completion time, the workload of the most loaded machine, and the total workload of all machines. It adopts a two-stage optimization mechanism during the optimizing process. In the first stage, the NSGA-II algorithm with T iteration times is first used to obtain the initial population N, in which a bee evolutionary guiding scheme is presented to exploit the solution space extensively. In the second stage, the NSGA-II algorithm with GEN iteration times is used again to obtain the Pareto-optimal solutions. In order to enhance the searching ability and avoid the premature convergence, an updating mechanism is employed in this stage. More specifically, its population consists of three parts, and each of them changes with the iteration times. What is more, numerical simulations are carried out which are based on some published benchmark instances. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed BEG-NSGA-II algorithm is shown by comparing the experimental results and the results of some well-known algorithms already existed.

  18. A Bee Evolutionary Guiding Nondominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II for Multiobjective Flexible Job-Shop Scheduling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Qianwang; Gong, Guiliang; Gong, Xuran; Zhang, Like; Liu, Wei; Ren, Qinghua

    2017-01-01

    Flexible job-shop scheduling problem (FJSP) is an NP-hard puzzle which inherits the job-shop scheduling problem (JSP) characteristics. This paper presents a bee evolutionary guiding nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II (BEG-NSGA-II) for multiobjective FJSP (MO-FJSP) with the objectives to minimize the maximal completion time, the workload of the most loaded machine, and the total workload of all machines. It adopts a two-stage optimization mechanism during the optimizing process. In the first stage, the NSGA-II algorithm with T iteration times is first used to obtain the initial population N, in which a bee evolutionary guiding scheme is presented to exploit the solution space extensively. In the second stage, the NSGA-II algorithm with GEN iteration times is used again to obtain the Pareto-optimal solutions. In order to enhance the searching ability and avoid the premature convergence, an updating mechanism is employed in this stage. More specifically, its population consists of three parts, and each of them changes with the iteration times. What is more, numerical simulations are carried out which are based on some published benchmark instances. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed BEG-NSGA-II algorithm is shown by comparing the experimental results and the results of some well-known algorithms already existed.

  19. A Genetic Algorithm Approach for Solving a Flexible Job ShopScheduling Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayedmohammadreza Vaghefinezhad

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Flexible job shop scheduling has been noticed as an effective manufacturing system to cope with rapid development in todays competitive environment. Flexible job shop scheduling problem (FJSSP is known as a NP-hard in the field of the optimization problem. Assuming the dynamic state of the real world, make these problems more and more complicated. Most studies in the field of FJSSP have only focused on minimizing the total makespan. In this paper, a mathematical model for FJSSP has been developed. The objective function is maximizing the total profit while meeting some constraints. Considering time-varying raw material and selling price and dissimilar demand for each period, are attempts that have been done to decrease gaps between reality and the model. A manufacturer that produces various parts of gas valves has been used as a case study. The scheduling problem for multi part, multi period, and multi operation with parallel machines has been solved by genetic algorithm (GA. The best obtained answer determines the economic amount of production by different machines that belong to predefined operations for each part to satisfy customer demand in each period.

  20. Overlay welding for corrugating roll

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The effects of chemical compositions and microstructures on wearability properties of overlaid corrugating roll were studied, and the factors governing the hardness and the wearability of overlaid layer were explored.The results show that the hardness and wearability of the overlaid layer significantly rise with the increase of the mass fraction of various types of eutectic, but the crack-resistance falls. The chief factor governing the hardness of overlaid layer is the matrix microstructure, especially the amount of austenite; and the second is the amount of carbide. The principal factor governing the wearability of overlaid layer is the amount of special carbide, particularly the amount of eutectic; and the second is the hardness of overlaid layer. Meanwhile, high alloying electrodes may cause the gear-surface hardness of corrugating roll to be higher than 63HRc, and may enhance the wearability of the gear-surface of corrugating roll by a factor of 5.63 and 9.08.

  1. Improvement of rolling 6 mm thin plates in plate rolling mill PT. Krakatau Posco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujiyanto, Hamdani

    2017-01-01

    A 6-mm thin plate is difficult to produce especially if the product requires wide size and high strength. Flatness is the main quality issue in rolling 6-mm plate using a 4-high reversing mill which use ±1100-mm work roll. Thus some methods are applied to overcome such issue in order to comply to customer quality requirement. Pre-rolling, rolling, and post-rolling conditions have to be considered comprehensively. Roll unit management will be the key factor before rolling condition. The roll unit itself has a significant impact on work roll crown wearness in relation with work roll intial crown and thermal crown. Work roll crown along with the modification of hydraulic gap control (HGC) could directly alter the flatness of the plate.

  2. Machine testning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This document is used in connection with a laboratory exercise of 3 hours duration as a part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The exercise includes a series of tests carried out by the student on a conventional and a numerically controled lathe, respectively. This document...

  3. Representational Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Dag; Dahlgren, Anna; Vestberg, Nina Lager

    to the enterprises of the medium. This is the subject of Representational Machines: How photography enlists the workings of institutional technologies in search of establishing new iconic and social spaces. Together, the contributions to this edited volume span historical epochs, social environments, technological...

  4. DEFECTS SIMULATION OF ROLLING STRIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Mišičko

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The defects in the continuous casting slabs can be developed or kept down in principle by rolling technology, especially depend to sort, size and distribution of primary defects, as well as used of rolling parameters. Scope of the article is on observation behavior artificial surface and undersurface defects (scores without filler (surface defects and filling by oxides and casting powder (subsurface defects. First phase of hot rolling process have been done by software simulation DEFORM 3D setting to the limited condition for samples with surface defects. Samples of material with low-carbon steel of sizes h x b x l have been chosen and the surface defects shape „U” and „V” of scores have been injected artificially by software. The process of rolling have been simulated on the deformation temperatures 1200°C and 900°C, whereas on the both of this deformation temperatures have been applied amount of deformation 10 and 50 %. With respect to the process of computer simulation, it is not possible to truthful real oxidation condition (physical – chemical process during heat of metal, in the second phase of our investigation have been observed influence of oxides and casting powders inside the scores for a defect behavior in plastic deformation process (hot and cold rolling process in laboratory condition. The basic material was STN steel class 11 375, cladding material was steel on the bases C-Mn-Nb-V. Scores have been filled by scales to get from the heating temperatures (1100°C a 1250°C, varied types of casting powders, if you like mixture of scale and casting powders in the rate 1:4. The joint of the basic and cladding material have been done by peripheral welded joint. Experiment results from both phases are pointed on the evolution of original typology defects in rolling process.

  5. Annotation of Shop Drawing in International Port Engineering Project%海外项目shop drawing的理解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨艺冠; 潘晓军

    2012-01-01

      通过对海外项目shop drawing (细化图)的理解,阐述了shop drawing的定义以及绘制shop drawing过程中需要注意的问题。通过实例分析,为同类型国际港口工程中细化设计提供参考和借鉴。

  6. The effect of roll with passive segment on the planetary rolling process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Ling Zeng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In three-roll planetary rolling process, there is secondary torsion phenomenon that may lead to rolling instability. This article proposed a new idea to alleviate the secondary torsion phenomenon by dividing the secondary torsion segment out of the roll as an independent and passive one. To study the performance of the roll with passive segment, the three-dimensional finite element models of planetary rolling process using actual roll or new roll with passive segment involving elastic–plastic and thermal–mechanical coupling were established by the software ABAQUS/Explicit, and a series of analysis had been done successfully. The rolling temperature and rolling force of planetary mill were in good agreement with the measured results, which indicated that the finite element method would supply important reference merit for three-dimensional thermo-mechanical simulation of the three-roll planetary rolling process. Comparing the simulation results of the two models, the results indicated that the change in the roll structure had just a little influence on the metal deformation, temperature, and rolling force, but it lessened the secondary torsion deformation effectively and improved the outside roundness of the rolled tube slightly. The research provided a new idea for the roll design of three-roll planetary mill (PSW.

  7. Modeling the Hybrid Flow Shop Scheduling Problem Followed by an Assembly Stage Considering Aging Effects and Preventive Maintenance Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Mohammad Hassan Hosseini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Scheduling problem for the hybrid flow shop scheduling problem (HFSP followed by an assembly stage considering aging effects additional preventive and maintenance activities is studied in this paper. In this production system, a number of products of different kinds are produced. Each product is assembled with a set of several parts. The first stage is a hybrid flow shop to produce parts. All machines can process all kinds of parts in this stage but each machine can process only one part at the same time. The second stage is a single assembly machine or a single assembly team of workers. The aim is to schedule the parts on the machines and assembly sequence and also determine when the preventive maintenance activities get done in order to minimize the completion time of all products (makespan. A mathematical modeling is presented and its validation is shown by solving an example in small scale. Since this problem has been proved strongly NP-hard, in order to solve the problem in medium and large scale, four heuristic algorithms is proposed based on the Johnson’s algorithm. The numerical experiments are used to run the mathematical model and evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithms.

  8. Heuristics for batching and sequencing in batch processing machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuda Basnet

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss the “batch processing” problem, where there are multiple jobs to be processed in flow shops. These jobs can however be formed into batches and the number of jobs in a batch is limited by the capacity of the processing machines to accommodate the jobs. The processing time required by a batch in a machine is determined by the greatest processing time of the jobs included in the batch. Thus, the batch processing problem is a mix of batching and sequencing – the jobs need to be grouped into distinct batches, the batches then need to be sequenced through the flow shop. We apply certain newly developed heuristics to the problem and present computational results. The contributions of this paper are deriving a lower bound, and the heuristics developed and tested in this paper.

  9. Rolling element bearing diagnostics—A tutorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Robert B.; Antoni, Jérôme

    2011-02-01

    This tutorial is intended to guide the reader in the diagnostic analysis of acceleration signals from rolling element bearings, in particular in the presence of strong masking signals from other machine components such as gears. Rather than being a review of all the current literature on bearing diagnostics, its purpose is to explain the background for a very powerful procedure which is successful in the majority of cases. The latter contention is illustrated by the application to a number of very different case histories, from very low speed to very high speed machines. The specific characteristics of rolling element bearing signals are explained in great detail, in particular the fact that they are not periodic, but stochastic, a fact which allows them to be separated from deterministic signals such as from gears. They can be modelled as cyclostationary for some purposes, but are in fact not strictly cyclostationary (at least for localised defects) so the term pseudo-cyclostationary has been coined. An appendix on cyclostationarity is included. A number of techniques are described for the separation, of which the discrete/random separation (DRS) method is usually most efficient. This sometimes requires the effects of small speed fluctuations to be removed in advance, which can be achieved by order tracking, and so this topic is also amplified in an appendix. Signals from localised faults in bearings are impulsive, at least at the source, so techniques are described to identify the frequency bands in which this impulsivity is most marked, using spectral kurtosis. For very high speed bearings, the impulse responses elicited by the sharp impacts in the bearings may have a comparable length to their separation, and the minimum entropy deconvolution technique may be found useful to remove the smearing effects of the (unknown) transmission path. The final diagnosis is based on "envelope analysis" of the optimally filtered signal, but despite the fact that this

  10. Dynamic Correction Algorithm of Rolling Force in Plate Rolling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Hong-lei; WANG Jun; HU Xian-lei; WANG Zhao-dong; WANG Guo-dong

    2005-01-01

    Based on the Shougang plat mill project, an on-line dynamic correction algorithm was analyzed. This algorithm can adjust model coefficients better because the reasonable correction is based on the measured and calculated rolling force. The results of application on site show that this on-line dynamic correction algorithm is effective.

  11. Semantic Assessment of Shopping Behavior Using Trajectories, Shopping Related Actions, and Context Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popa, M.C.; Rothkrantz, L.J.M.; Shan, C.; Gritti, T.; Wiggers, P.

    2012-01-01

    The possibility of automatic understanding of customers' shopping behavior and acting according to their needs is relevant in the marketing domain, attracting a lot of attention lately. In this work, we focus on the task of automatic assessment of customers' shoppingbehavior, by proposing a multi- l

  12. E-shopping and its interactions with in-store shopping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farag, Sendy

    2006-01-01

    Nowadays, the Internet permeates society: for many people, life without the Internet is hard to imagine. E-shopping (searching and/or buying products online) has rapidly gained popularity in the past few years, and could affect consumers’ visits to stores. The goal of this research is to show which

  13. Semantic Assessment of Shopping Behavior Using Trajectories, Shopping Related Actions, and Context Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popa, M.C.; Rothkrantz, L.J.M.; Shan, C.; Gritti, T.; Wiggers, P.

    2012-01-01

    The possibility of automatic understanding of customers' shopping behavior and acting according to their needs is relevant in the marketing domain, attracting a lot of attention lately. In this work, we focus on the task of automatic assessment of customers' shoppingbehavior, by proposing a multi-

  14. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR IN ONLINE SHOPPING: A STUDY ON ONE HUNDRED CONSUMERS IN NADIA DISTRICT, WEST BENGAL

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Suhas; Roy, Swapan Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Online shopping has been becoming increasingly popular.  The economics behind online shopping is almost similar to the traditional offline shopping. However, the risks involved in it vary to some extent. The marketing communication and the shopping environment present in online shopping are different. These differences brought in some changes in the attitudes of the traders involved both in online and offline shopping spaces. The objective of the present paper is to primarily review the way i...

  15. A Study on Factors Affecting the Behavioral Intention to use Mobile Shopping Fashion Apps in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Miladinovic, Jelena; Hong, Xiang,

    2016-01-01

    Mobile shopping is gaining increased attention in the mobile commerce research area. Trends show an increase in the development and usage of online shopping. Existing research has focused on mobile commerce and studied mobile shopping in general. This study addresses the present gap in the literature regarding the acceptance of mobile shopping applications for fashion goods (m-shopping fashion apps), by investigating the factors that affect users’ behavioral intention to use m-shopping fashio...

  16. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR IN ONLINE SHOPPING: A STUDY ON ONE HUNDRED CONSUMERS IN NADIA DISTRICT, WEST BENGAL

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Suhas; Roy, Swapan Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Online shopping has been becoming increasingly popular.  The economics behind online shopping is almost similar to the traditional offline shopping. However, the risks involved in it vary to some extent. The marketing communication and the shopping environment present in online shopping are different. These differences brought in some changes in the attitudes of the traders involved both in online and offline shopping spaces. The objective of the present paper is to primarily review the way i...

  17. A New Look for the Shopping Mall

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    STRUCTO-FAB, a product of Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corporation, is a lightweight but extremely durable tent-like material made of Fiberglas coated with Teflon. It transmits daylight with a reduced need for artificial lighting. It is an outgrowth of a material formulated by NASA in 1967 as a new space suit fabric. Owens-Corning and DuPont provided the original material, which was the basis for Structo-Fab, a permanent architectural fabric used for shopping malls, sports stadiums, etc.

  18. Marketing Strategy for The Body Shop

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The project revolves around marketing strategies of The Body Shop regarding the male consumers in Denmark. Theories used in this project consist of the 7Ps of marketing, a SWOT analysis, and The Service Triangle. They would be used to build up the analysis for this project, which consists of three parts as explained accordingly hereafter. The 7Ps of marketing would be used to analyze The Body Shop’s current marketing strategies, while The Service Triangle is utilized to analyze the company’s...

  19. “Window Shopping, Granada, 1930s”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mae Claxton

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available “Window Shopping, Granada, 1930s,” Photographs, p. 16, with the gracious permission of the Eudora Welty FoundationAn African American woman, dressed in her Saturday go-to-town-best, stands outside a store window, chin in hand, contemplating the contents in the window. The image is reflective and thoughtful. What is she thinking? And what lies beyond the frame of this photograph? In Mississippi in the 1930s, could she walk into this store, perhaps try on clothes or hats, and make a purchase? I...

  20. Verification Tools Secure Online Shopping, Banking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Just like rover or rocket technology sent into space, the software that controls these technologies must be extensively tested to ensure reliability and effectiveness. Ames Research Center invented the open-source Java Pathfinder (JPF) toolset for the deep testing of Java-based programs. Fujitsu Labs of America Inc., based in Sunnyvale, California, improved the capabilities of the JPF Symbolic Pathfinder tool, establishing the tool as a means of thoroughly testing the functionality and security of Web-based Java applications such as those used for Internet shopping and banking.

  1. A New Look for the Shopping Mall

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    STRUCTO-FAB, a product of Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corporation, is a lightweight but extremely durable tent-like material made of Fiberglas coated with Teflon. It transmits daylight with a reduced need for artificial lighting. It is an outgrowth of a material formulated by NASA in 1967 as a new space suit fabric. Owens-Corning and DuPont provided the original material, which was the basis for Structo-Fab, a permanent architectural fabric used for shopping malls, sports stadiums, etc.

  2. Marketing Strategy for The Body Shop

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Ngoc Do Quyen; Jakobsen, Elizabeth Roshni K.

    2015-01-01

    The project revolves around marketing strategies of The Body Shop regarding the male consumers in Denmark. Theories used in this project consist of the 7Ps of marketing, a SWOT analysis, and The Service Triangle. They would be used to build up the analysis for this project, which consists of three parts as explained accordingly hereafter. The 7Ps of marketing would be used to analyze The Body Shop’s current marketing strategies, while The Service Triangle is utilized to analyze the company’s...

  3. Adding machine and calculating machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In 1642 the French mathematician Blaise Pascal(1623-1662) invented a machine;.that could add and subtract. It had.wheels that each had: 1 to 10 marked off along its circumference. When the wheel at the right, representing units, made one complete circle, it engaged the wheel to its left, represents tens, and moved it forward one notch.

  4. Thermovision systems used to improve a technological process for hot-rolled copper and brass strips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Rdzawski

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper contains description made on thermovision testing with the use of Inframetrics 760B system. Measurements were executed on the surface of a heat furnace and also on the surface of material heated before and hot-rolled. The results of the investigations in a form of thermograpic pictures were taken down in working environment.Design/methodology/approach: The purpose of this research was to evaluate technological process of heating cooper and brass cakes, and hot-rolled strip in special passes assessment of the temperature modification. For basic criterion estimation of these processes, the maintenance at the demanded final rolling temperature in order to keep up adequate structure and narrow range of mechanical properties variation was accepted.Findings: The process of heating charge material is carried through in order to facilitate its machining in a rolling process. When the material does not obtain the adequate temperature or does not become uniformly heated, internal stresses which cause appearance of the rims of fracture and occurrence of other defects in structure appear in cold rolling, as the next. Because of this there is a need of temperature controlling. Research limitations/implications: If a temperature profile on heated to a hot-rolled cakes is not uniform and does not reach a given level, this can mean forming some defects, which can be revealed during a hot-rolled process, relatively during following technological operations leading to a quality decrease and in a consequence to product disqualificationOriginality/value: The use of thermovision system in processes of heating cakes evolution and also hot-rolling. These research enable a condition control of thermal furnace and hot-roll processes.

  5. High performance rolling element bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursey, Jr., Roger W. (Inventor); Olinger, Jr., John B. (Inventor); Owen, Samuel S. (Inventor); Poole, William E. (Inventor); Haluck, David A. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A high performance rolling element bearing (5) which is particularly suitable for use in a cryogenically cooled environment, comprises a composite cage (45) formed from glass fibers disposed in a solid lubricant matrix of a fluorocarbon polymer. The cage includes inserts (50) formed from a mixture of a soft metal and a solid lubricant such as a fluorocarbon polymer.

  6. Rolling Cylinder Phase 1bis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margheritini, Lucia

    Cylinder Phase 1: proof of concept and first optimization”, DCE report 115, ISSN 1901-726X, and it is recommended that the two are consulted together as they were firstly agreed to be in one document. The present report aims at estimate the efficiency of the Rolling Cylinder long model (previously...

  7. Rolling and Forming of Thorium Metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calabra, A. E.

    1961-05-02

    One vacuum induction melted and cast nuclear grade thorium ingot was satisfactorily rolled and formed into a hemispherical shape. Attempts to roll and form two vacuum induction melted and cast alloy grade thorium ingots were not successful. Rolling and forming procedures are described and metallurgical evaluation is reported.

  8. Influence of Roll Elastic Deformation on Gaugemeter Equation for Plate Rolling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xian-lei; WANG Jun; WANG Zhao-dong; LIU Xiang-hua; WANG Guo-dong

    2004-01-01

    The error of gaugemeter equation decreases the gap setting precision. The precision of gaugemeter equation is strongly influenced by plate width, work roll radius, backup roll radius, work roll crown, backup roll crown and rolling force. And these influences are hard to measure. All these factors are converted to roll deflection deformation and roll flattening deformation for calculation. In order to calculate the deformation, the theory of influence function method was adopted. By using simulation program, the influence of these factors on deformation was obtained. Then a simple model can be built. With this model, it is convenient to analyze the influence of different factors on gaugemeter equation.

  9. Genesis machines

    CERN Document Server

    Amos, Martyn

    2014-01-01

    Silicon chips are out. Today's scientists are using real, wet, squishy, living biology to build the next generation of computers. Cells, gels and DNA strands are the 'wetware' of the twenty-first century. Much smaller and more intelligent, these organic computers open up revolutionary possibilities. Tracing the history of computing and revealing a brave new world to come, Genesis Machines describes how this new technology will change the way we think not just about computers - but about life itself.

  10. Modified bottleneck-based heuristic for large-scale job-shop scheduling problems with a single bottleneck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A modified bottleneck-based (MB) heuristic for large-scale job-shop scheduling problems with a welldefined bottleneck is suggested,which is simpler but more tailored than the shifting bottleneck (SB) procedure.In this algorithm,the bottleneck is first scheduled optimally while the non-bottleneck machines are subordinated around the solutions of the bottleneck schedule by some effective dispatching rules.Computational results indicate that the MB heuristic can achieve a better tradeoff between solution quality and computational time compared to SB procedure for medium-size problems.Furthermore,it can obtain a good solution in a short time for large-scale job-shop scheduling problems.

  11. The Impact of Price Disclosure on Dynamic Shopping Decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.G.C. Dellaert (Benedict); V.Y. Golounov (Vladislav); J. Prabhu (Jaideep)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractA potentially powerful way to assist consumers in making dynamic shopping decisions is to disclose price information to them before they shop, for example by posting prices on the Internet. This paper addresses the differential impact of disclosing either only current, or both current

  12. The architectural foundations for agent-based shop floor control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Gilad; Bilberg, Arne

    1998-01-01

    simulation and cell controlenabling technologies. In order to continuethis research effortnew concepts and theories for shop floor control are investigated.This paper reviews the multi-agent concept aimed at investigatingits potential use in shop floor control systems. The paper willalso include a survey...

  13. Workload control in job shops, grasping the tap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Land, Martin Jaap

    2004-01-01

    The term job shops is used to indicate companies that produce customer-specific components in small batches. Jobs (production orders) in a job shop are characterised by a large variety of routings and operation processing times. This variety, combined with irregular order arrivals, generally leads t

  14. Improving Interaction between NGO's, Science Shops and Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    2005-01-01

    An overview of the results from the INTERACTS research project: Improving Interaction between NGOs, Universities and Science Shops: Experiences and Expectations, running 2002-2004......An overview of the results from the INTERACTS research project: Improving Interaction between NGOs, Universities and Science Shops: Experiences and Expectations, running 2002-2004...

  15. THE LIFE CYCLE OF SHOPPING CENTERS AND POSSIBLE REVITALIZATION STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dabija Dan Cristian

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the concept of shopping center life cycle. The concept is considered a possible explanation for the death of certain types of shopping centers and birth of others. Of course that there are also other theories that explains this evolut

  16. Smart Shopping Carts: How Real-Time Feedback Influences Spending

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ittersum, van K.; Wansink, B.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Sheehan, D.

    2013-01-01

    Although interest in smart shopping carts is increasing, both retailers and consumer groups have concerns about how real-time spending feedback will influence shopping behavior. Building on budgeting and spending theories, the authors conduct three lab and grocery store experiments that robustly sho

  17. E-shopping in the Netherlands: does geography matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farag, Sendy; Weltevreden, J.W.J.; Rietbergen, T. van; Dijst, M.J.; Oort, F.G. van

    2006-01-01

    Why consumers shop via the Internet, is a frequently asked question. As yet, the impact of spatial variables on e-shopping has received little attention. In this paper we report our investigation of the spatial distribution of Internet users and online buyers in the Netherlands for the time period 1

  18. The Impact of Price Disclosure on Dynamic Shopping Decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.G.C. Dellaert (Benedict); V.Y. Golounov (Vladislav); J. Prabhu (Jaideep)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractA potentially powerful way to assist consumers in making dynamic shopping decisions is to disclose price information to them before they shop, for example by posting prices on the Internet. This paper addresses the differential impact of disclosing either only current, or both current an

  19. Personal characteristics, cooking at home and shopping frequency influence consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustat, Jeanette; Lee, Yu-Sheng; O'Malley, Keelia; Luckett, Brian; Myers, Leann; Terrell, Leonetta; Amoss, Lisa; Fitzgerald, Erin; Stevenson, Peter T; Johnson, Carolyn C

    2017-06-01

    This study examines how the consumption of fruits and vegetables is affected by home cooking habits and shopping patterns, including distance to patronized stores and frequency of shopping, in two low-income predominantly African American urban neighborhoods in New Orleans, Louisiana. In-person interviews were conducted in 2013 with 901 adult residents who identified themselves as the primary household shopper. Respondents were asked where and how often they shopped and answered a food frequency questionnaire. Addresses were geocoded and distances to the stores where respondents shopped were calculated. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between food consumption and personal factors, neighborhood factors and shopping habits. Consumption of daily servings of fresh produce increased by 3% for each additional trip to a grocery store, by 76% for shopping at a farmer's market, and by 38% for preparing food at home. Each additional trip to a convenience store increased the frequency of consumption of chips, candy and pastries by 3%. The distance from residence to the type of store patronized was not associated with consumption of produce or chips, candy or pastries. Shopping at full-service grocery stores, farmer's markets and cooking at home were positively associated with the consumption of fresh produce while shopping at convenience stores was associated with increased consumption of chips, candy and pastries. These findings are useful for designing programmatic interventions to increase fresh fruit and vegetable consumption among residents in low-income urban communities.

  20. An Integrated Model For Online shopping, Using Selective Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Rabiei Dastjerdi

    Full Text Available As in traditional shopping, customer acquisition and retention are critical issues in the success of an online store. Many factors impact how, and if, customers accept online shopping. Models presented in recent years, only focus on behavioral or technolo ...

  1. E-shopping in the Netherlands: does geography matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farag, Sendy; Weltevreden, J.W.J.; Rietbergen, T. van; Dijst, M.J.; Oort, F.G. van

    2006-01-01

    Why consumers shop via the Internet, is a frequently asked question. As yet, the impact of spatial variables on e-shopping has received little attention. In this paper we report our investigation of the spatial distribution of Internet users and online buyers in the Netherlands for the time period

  2. Attitude theory applied to in-store and online shopping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijst, M.J.; Farag, S.; Schwanen, T.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we investigated whether our understanding of adoption of e-shopping and instore shopping could be advanced through the application of attitude theory. A shortcoming of the analytical frameworks and models featured in attitude theory is that they do not address the issue of what

  3. Smart shopping carts : How real-time feedback influences spending

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ittersum, Koert; Wansink, B.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Sheehan, D.

    2013-01-01

    Although interest in smart shopping carts is increasing, both retailers and consumer groups have concerns about how real-time spending feedback will influence shopping behavior. Building on budgeting and spending theories, the authors conduct three lab and grocery store experiments that robustly sho

  4. Smart Shopping Carts: How Real-Time Feedback Influences Spending

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ittersum, van K.; Wansink, B.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Sheehan, D.

    2013-01-01

    Although interest in smart shopping carts is increasing, both retailers and consumer groups have concerns about how real-time spending feedback will influence shopping behavior. Building on budgeting and spending theories, the authors conduct three lab and grocery store experiments that robustly sho

  5. Mystery Shopping: In-depth measurement of customer satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Hesselink; A. van der Wiele (Ton)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis paper will discuss the phenomenon Mystery Shopping in the field of customer satisfaction measurement techniques. By using the literature about Mystery Shopping definitions and restrictions of this instrument will be presented. Also, possible ways to present and use the gathered data

  6. The determinants of shopping duration on workdays in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwanen, T.

    2004-01-01

    While many studies of the duration of shopping episodes have considered the impact of sociodemographic variables, such as gender or income, few if any have considered spatial variation in the duration of shopping activities. This paper reports a study seeking to establish how the duration of shoppin

  7. Attitude theory applied to in-store and online shopping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijst, M.J.; Farag, S.; Schwanen, T.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we investigated whether our understanding of adoption of e-shopping and instore shopping could be advanced through the application of attitude theory. A shortcoming of the analytical frameworks and models featured in attitude theory is that they do not address the issue of what causes

  8. Intention to shop online: A study of Malaysian baby boomers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yet Mee Lim; Ching Seng Yap; Teck Heang Lee

    2011-01-01

    ... control, and intention to shop online. Based on a sample of 146 baby boomers who are Internet users but not online shoppers, the study found that two of the three determinants--attitude towards online shopping and subjective norm--were...

  9. Smart shopping carts : How real-time feedback influences spending

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ittersum, Koert; Wansink, B.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Sheehan, D.

    2013-01-01

    Although interest in smart shopping carts is increasing, both retailers and consumer groups have concerns about how real-time spending feedback will influence shopping behavior. Building on budgeting and spending theories, the authors conduct three lab and grocery store experiments that robustly sho

  10. Attitude theory applied to in-store and online shopping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijst, M.J.; Farag, S.; Schwanen, T.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we investigated whether our understanding of adoption of e-shopping and instore shopping could be advanced through the application of attitude theory. A shortcoming of the analytical frameworks and models featured in attitude theory is that they do not address the issue of what causes

  11. Print and Internet Catalog Shopping: Assessing Attitudes and Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayasarathy, Leo R.; Jones, Joseph M.

    2000-01-01

    Findings of an empirical study that compared individuals' attitudes and intentions to shop using print and Internet catalogs suggest that individuals perceived differences between the two catalog media on the shopping factors of reliability, tangibility, and consumer risk. Product value, pre-order information, post-selection information, shopping…

  12. Mystery Shopping: In-depth measurement of customer satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Hesselink; A. van der Wiele (Ton)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis paper will discuss the phenomenon Mystery Shopping in the field of customer satisfaction measurement techniques. By using the literature about Mystery Shopping definitions and restrictions of this instrument will be presented. Also, possible ways to present and use the gathered data

  13. E-shopping in the Netherlands: does geography matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farag, Sendy; Weltevreden, J.W.J.; Rietbergen, T. van; Dijst, M.J.; Oort, F.G. van

    2006-01-01

    Why consumers shop via the Internet, is a frequently asked question. As yet, the impact of spatial variables on e-shopping has received little attention. In this paper we report our investigation of the spatial distribution of Internet users and online buyers in the Netherlands for the time period 1

  14. Authorizer Shopping: Lessons from Experience and Ideas for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boast, Lyria; Ellison, Shonaka; Hassel, Bryan C.; Conlan, Sean; Rausch, M. Karega

    2016-01-01

    As charter school authorizers and states have increased performance expectations and grown less hesitant to close failing schools, "authorizer shopping" has emerged as a growing threat to overall charter school quality. Authorizer shopping happens when a charter school chooses or changes its authorizer specifically to avoid…

  15. The determinants of shopping duration on workdays in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwanen, T.

    2004-01-01

    While many studies of the duration of shopping episodes have considered the impact of sociodemographic variables, such as gender or income, few if any have considered spatial variation in the duration of shopping activities. This paper reports a study seeking to establish how the duration of

  16. Smart shopping carts : How real-time feedback influences spending

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ittersum, Koert; Wansink, B.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Sheehan, D.

    2013-01-01

    Although interest in smart shopping carts is increasing, both retailers and consumer groups have concerns about how real-time spending feedback will influence shopping behavior. Building on budgeting and spending theories, the authors conduct three lab and grocery store experiments that robustly

  17. Smart Shopping Carts: How Real-Time Feedback Influences Spending

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ittersum, van K.; Wansink, B.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Sheehan, D.

    2013-01-01

    Although interest in smart shopping carts is increasing, both retailers and consumer groups have concerns about how real-time spending feedback will influence shopping behavior. Building on budgeting and spending theories, the authors conduct three lab and grocery store experiments that robustly

  18. 48 CFR 1952.227-77 - Rights in shop drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Rights in shop drawings. 1952.227-77 Section 1952.227-77 Federal Acquisition Regulations System BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS... Rights in shop drawings. As prescribed in 1927.405(h), insert the following clause: Rights in...

  19. Typically Female Features in Hungarian Shopping Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Michalkó

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Although shopping has been long acknowledged as a major tourist activity, the extent and characteristics of shopping tourism have only recently become the subject of academic research and discussion. As a contribution to this field of knowledge, the paper presents the characteristics of shopping tourism in Hungary, and discusses the typically female features of outbound Hungarian shopping tourism. The research is based on a survey of 2473 Hungarian tourists carried out in 2005. As the findings of the study indicate, while female respondents were altogether more likely to be involved in tourist shopping than male travellers, no significant difference was experienced between the genders concerning the share of shopping expenses compared to their total travel budget. In their shopping behaviour, women were typically affected by price levels, and they proved to be both more selfish and more altruistic than men by purchasing more products for themselves and for their family members. The most significant differences between men and women were found in their product preferences as female tourists were more likely to purchase typically feminine goods such as clothes, shoes, bags and accessories, in the timing of shopping activities while abroad, and in the information sources used by tourists, since interpersonal influences such as friends’, guides’ and fellow travellers’ recommendations played a higher role in female travellers’ decisions.

  20. A new method for measuring the rotational accuracy of rolling element bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ye; Zhao, Xiangsong; Gao, Weiguo; Hu, Gaofeng; Zhang, Shizhen; Zhang, Dawei

    2016-12-01

    The rotational accuracy of a machine tool spindle has critical influence upon the geometric shape and surface roughness of finished workpiece. The rotational performance of the rolling element bearings is a main factor which affects the spindle accuracy, especially in the ultra-precision machining. In this paper, a new method is developed to measure the rotational accuracy of rolling element bearings of machine tool spindles. Variable and measurable axial preload is applied to seat the rolling elements in the bearing races, which is used to simulate the operating conditions. A high-precision (radial error is less than 300 nm) and high-stiffness (radial stiffness is 600 N/μm) hydrostatic reference spindle is adopted to rotate the inner race of the test bearing. To prevent the outer race from rotating, a 2-degrees of freedom flexure hinge mechanism (2-DOF FHM) is designed. Correction factors by using stiffness analysis are adopted to eliminate the influences of 2-DOF FHM in the radial direction. Two capacitive displacement sensors with nano-resolution (the highest resolution is 9 nm) are used to measure the radial error motion of the rolling element bearing, without separating the profile error as the traditional rotational accuracy metrology of the spindle. Finally, experimental measurements are performed at different spindle speeds (100-4000 rpm) and axial preloads (75-780 N). Synchronous and asynchronous error motion values are evaluated to demonstrate the feasibility and repeatability of the developed method and instrument.