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Sample records for machiavelli bodin hobbes

  1. Entre el Cielo y la Tierra. La Filosofía del Derecho de Jean Bodin y Thomas Hobbes

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    Misael Flores Vega

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Jean Bodin y Thomas Hobbes son dos filósofos de la política que preconizaron al Estado absolutista durante el siglo XVI, con ello sentaron los cimientos del moderno Estado europeo. Con el afán de edificar el Estado, su filosofía jurídica se enfocó a buscar el orden social mediante la instauración de un monarca absoluto que dictara leyes para encontrar obediencia. Bodin propone un monarca absoluto que se supeditara a Dios, mientras Hobbes plantea un monarca absoluto alejado del Poder divino. Las leyes que propone Bodin se originan de la voluntad de Dios, y en Hobbes las leyes provienen de la voluntad del Estado.

  2. Jean Bodin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2009-01-01

    Jean Bodin (1530 - 1596) skabte teorien om statens suverænitet. Staten er indplaceret på et niveau mellem lokale  domstole og pave/kejser. Grunden til at staten kan få en permanent status er, at den netop på Bodins tid udstyrerede sig som en etat med en hierarikisk opbygget centraladministration...

  3. Machiavelli's Kitchen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, R. ten

    2002-01-01

    Berlin's ideas about value pluralism are used in order to criticize business ethics. These ideas can be traced back to Machiavelli, a philosopher who has been remarkably popular among managers and business leaders. The first part of the article, therefore, enters into why Berlin thought Machiavelli

  4. A Memo from Machiavelli.

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    Julius, Daniel J.; Pfeffer, Jeffrey; Baldridge, J. Victor

    1999-01-01

    A fictitious memorandum from Niccolo Machiavelli, a 15th-century author, to college presidents, senior administrators, and faculty leaders seeking change in higher education offers suggestions for organizational development and governance in the form of ten rules and related change tactics. Topics addressed include integrity, team-building,…

  5. The questions for Machiavelli

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    Lakićević Dragan D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main intention of the work that deals with the Nicolo Machiavelli thought is to point out the obvious paradox between the high political goal and the legitimating of all possible means for its realization. Are evil deeds inevitable in the sphere of politics and under what circumstances the immorality contained in political acts could be transformed into common good? The text asks additional questions such as about the accomplishments of ambitious political projects, the relationship among the ideologist and the representative of political power, the transformations of the means into the ends, the use of violence and indoctrination in political acts, revolutionary and evolutionary political methods, etc. The author claims that political technologies recommended by Machiavelli basically haven't diminished, but have taken on more modern and more adequate forms.

  6. Jean Bodin, o Methodus e a Clio tucidideana: as figurações heroicizantes do historiador Jean Bodin, his ' Methodus' and Thucydides' Clio

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    Francisco Murari Pires

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Apreciando as representações figuradas na ideia de uma Clio Tucidideana por fins do século XVI, propõe-se refletir sobre a associação entre a concepção antiga de herói e a moderna de gênio como parâmetro epistemológico que catalisa a apreciação da excelência da práxis historiográfica. Aborda-se essa reflexão tomando em particular as proposições elaboradas sobre a escrita da História no Metodus de Jean Bodin que juntamente com La Popelinière e Thomas Hobbes configuram historiograficamente a ideia da Clio Tucidideana conceituada por Cesare Ripa.Considering the representations configured in the idea of a Thucydidean Clio in the end of the sixteenth century, the article proposes to think about the association between the ancient concept of the hero and the modern concept of the genius as a epistemological criterium that catalizes the appreciation of the excellence of historiographical praxis. The attention of the article is centered on the thesis proposed to the wrting of history in the Methodus of Jean Bodin, who configures, conjointly with La Popelinière and Thomas Hobbes, the historiographical formulation of the idea of a Thucydidean Clio cconceptualized by Cesare Ripa.

  7. Der moderne Staat : ein Glanzstück europäischer Form und occidentalen Rationalismus / Rüdiger Voigt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Voigt, Rüdiger

    2014-01-01

    Modernsest riigist, antiikse riigikunsti taassünnist, erinevatest riigiteooriatest (Machiavelli, Bodin, Hobbes, Locke, Montesquieu, Rousseau, Kant, Hegel, Marx, Jellinek, Weber, Habermas, Foucault, Agamben), globaliseerumise väljakutsetest, ohtudest, riigi tulevikust

  8. Der moderne Staat : ein Glanzstück europäischer Form und occidentalen Rationalismus / Rüdiger Voigt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Voigt, Rüdiger

    2014-01-01

    Modernsest riigist, antiikse riigikunsti taassünnist, erinevatest riigiteooriatest (Machiavelli, Bodin, Hobbes, Locke, Montesquieu, Rousseau, Kant, Hegel, Marx, Jellinek, Weber, Habermas, Foucault, Agamben), globaliseerumise väljakutsetest, ohtudest, riigi tulevikust

  9. Machiavelli: Ambition, Freedom and Justice

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    Alicia Villar Ezcurra

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article tackles the anthropological conception of Machiavelli, mainly taken from the Discourses on the First Decade of Titus Livius in which stands out the identity of human passions and the importance of its understanding to reach political knowledge. Machiavelli considers that the human being is malleable in such a way that a passion can be fought and compensated by another one. From this perspective, is analysed the role of ambition and freedom both as a source of confrontation and degeneration and as an incentive to achieve the most important goals.

  10. Direito natural e propriedade em Jean Bodin Natural right and property in Jean Bodin

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    Alberto Ribeiro G. de Barros

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo pretende discutir os conceitos de direito natural e propriedade no Iuri universi distributio (1578 e as suas conseqüências políticas no Methodus ad facilem historiarum cognitionem (1566 e no Les Six Livres de la République (1576, de Jean Bodin.This article aims to discuss the concepts of natural right and property in Bodin's Iuri distributio universi (1578 and the political consequences of these ideas in Methodus ad facilem historiarum cognitionem (1566 and Les Six Livres de la République (1576.

  11. Machiavelli's "Mandragola": Comedic Commentary on Renaissance Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiethoff, William E.

    This paper traces Machiavelli's debt to classical rhetoric while outlining the rhetorical tenor of his comedy, "Mandragola." The paper specifically analyzes Machiavelli's attention to the medieval transmission of Ciceronian rhetoric by Boethius, as interpreted from the setting, characterization, and dialogue of "Mandragola."…

  12. HOBBES AND SPINOZA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarvad, Ib Martin

    2006-01-01

    the main difference between Hobbes and Spinoza in spite of obvious similarities concerns absolutism. Hobbes believed in absolutism of some sort for man must realise that only some sovereign power could make and enforce laws that make social life possible. Spinoza had no need for the fictitious so...

  13. Machiavelli plautino. Qualche scheda teatrale

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    Maria Cristina Figorilli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available After describing the success that Plautus enjoyed in fifteenth - and sixteenth-century Florence, I will concentrate on the relationship between Machiavelli’s plays and Plautus’ works. On the one hand, I will focus on citations and echoes from Plautus in the Mandragola; on the other, I will suggest that in his Clizia Machiavelli reused other Plautus plays, particularly Asinaria and Mercator. Finally, I will focus my attention on the relationship between Clizia and Casina in order to show how Machiavelli’s rewriting has a moral connotation.

  14. HOBBES AND SPINOZA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarvad, Ib Martin

    2006-01-01

    the main difference between Hobbes and Spinoza in spite of obvious similarities concerns absolutism. Hobbes believed in absolutism of some sort for man must realise that only some sovereign power could make and enforce laws that make social life possible. Spinoza had no need for the fictitious...... social pact of submission and argued for the sociableness of man as a natural emotion with a rational basis. Both departed from the self love theory and both claimed their –opposite- results to follow from their axioms and definitions more geometrico; Hobbes that man’s fellow man must be his enemy...

  15. HOBBES E A PAZ

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    Paulo César Nodari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O intento do presente artigo é analisar o pensamento de Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679, tendo como textos-base de análise, “Do cidadão” e “Leviatã”, a fim de sistematizar a tese de que, em última análise, a filosofia de Hobbes é a ciência da paz. Trata-se de demonstrar tal propósito em dois momentos. No primeiro momento, mostram-se alguns argumentos de por que Hobbes pode ser considerado um dos autores que melhor concentra o projeto de fundação da política moderna. Por sua vez, no segundo momento, trata-se de sistematizar os argumentos que levam Hobbes a conceber como necessária a passagem do estado de natureza ao estado civil, considerando, por isso, a filosofia hobbesiana como a ciência da paz.

  16. Two questions from the time of king Bodin's rule

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    Živković Tibor

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we try to give reliable answer upon two major questions: did Bodin, king of Dioclea, capture Dyrrachion in 1085, as it is related in the Chronicle of the Priest of Dioclea, and when did he try to capture Dubrovnik (Ragusa. The capture of Dyrrachion is not mentioned at Ane Comnene's Alexias. Byzantine princess wrote that citizens of Dyrrachion surrender the town to her father, the Emperor Alexios, after the death of the Norman ruler Robert Guiscard in 1085. On the other hand, the Priest of Dioclea says that Bodin, after the death of Robert Guiscard captured Dyrrachion which he gave back to the Byzantines after he signed the peace treaty with the Emperor. Both statements are not clear enough, but detailed analysis of both writings shows that Bodin took northern part of the theme of Dyrrachion and most probably tried to negotiate surrender of town itself, but he failed. Bodin's military activities against the Byzantine possessions in the theme of Dyrrachion could be placed between 1085 and 1090 when he was captured, being forced to sign peace treaty. The charter of antipope Clement III issued in 1089 to the archbishop of Antibaris, contain list of bishops which served in Dioclea, and only one of them - the bishop of Dulcigno (Ulcinj, had been earlier under the archbishop of Dyrrachion. In other words, Bodin took a very small part of the theme of Dyrrachion and southern borders of Dioclea were approximately the same as in the time of his father Michael. The description of the siege of Dubrovnik is well preserved in Chronicle of the Priest of Dioclea as well by several other authors from Dubrovnik. The authors from Dubrovnik, which composed their Chronicles much later (from XIV to XVII century, made mistake in the chronology, assuming that the siege took place in 1104. Having at their disposal an old note, that Bodin's tower, which stood on the shores just opposite the wooden bridge which lead from Dubrovnik to the land, was captured on

  17. Thomas Hobbes' Leviathan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konijnenburg, Willem van

    1945-01-01

    De analyse van den Laviathan. Het probleem dat Hobbes probeerde op te lossen luidt: ,,waartoe" en ,,hoe" is er gezag. Het ,,waartoe" bleek schuil te gaan in de praemisse der bevordering en handhaving der vrede. Het ,,hoe" van het gezag gaf aanleiding tot de aanname van het sluiten van een maatschapp

  18. Thomas Hobbes' Leviathan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konijnenburg, Willem van

    1945-01-01

    De analyse van den Laviathan. Het probleem dat Hobbes probeerde op te lossen luidt: ,,waartoe" en ,,hoe" is er gezag. Het ,,waartoe" bleek schuil te gaan in de praemisse der bevordering en handhaving der vrede. Het ,,hoe" van het gezag gaf aanleiding tot de aanname van het sluiten van een

  19. Shakespeare and Hobbes

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    Nicholas Dungey

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Hobbes sought a reconstruction of philosophy, ethics, and politics that would end, once and for all, the bitter disputes that led to the English Civil War. This reconstruction begins with the first principles of matter and motion and extends to a unique account of moral consent and political obligation. However, the author contends that his materialist account of human nature gives rise to a set of perceptions, imaginings, and desires that contribute to the chaos of the state of nature. He argues that the sort of person that emerges from Hobbes’s materialist anthropology is unlikely to be able, or unwilling, to make the necessary agreements about common meaning and language that constitute the ground of the social contract. Following Hobbes’s materialist anthropology, Shakespeare’s Macbeth, and not the rational actor who consents to the social contract, is the more likely result. Performed approximately 25 years before Leviathan appeared, Macbeth provides a literary version of the state of nature, and expresses many of the themes that Hobbes later gave philosophical explanation to. The author suggests that we interpret Macbeth through Hobbes’s materialism. On this reading, the crisis of Macbeth is caused by the material motion of Macbeth’s senses, imagination, and desires. Macbeth provides graphic examples of the type of problems that the author suggests arise from Hobbes’s materialism, and it illuminates the political significance of Macbeth.

  20. Thomas Hobbes: Sobre el miedo

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    Carlos Bührle

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This work intend to draw some light upon the role of fear in Hobbes's political thought. It's known that this passion underlies the social contract, in the sense that it drives man to leave the state of nature in order to find security, and also to get rid of the menace of violent death. Taking into account that fear and death are inseparable in Hobbes's philosophy, a fundamental question arises: to what extent can we say that fear vanishes completely after social contract? In Hobbes, fear seems to be an intrinsical feature of men.

  1. The Martial "Virtue" of Rhetoric in Machiavelli's "Art of War."

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    Wiethoff, William E.

    1978-01-01

    Argues that Machiavelli's inherent interest in pragmatic, "virtuous" applications of humanistic arts mandated both rhetorical form and matter in his composition of the "Art of War." Proposes that the work reveals Machiavelli's debt to the classically humane ideal of the warrior-orator. (JMF)

  2. The Martial "Virtue" of Rhetoric in Machiavelli's "Art of War."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiethoff, William E.

    1978-01-01

    Argues that Machiavelli's inherent interest in pragmatic, "virtuous" applications of humanistic arts mandated both rhetorical form and matter in his composition of the "Art of War." Proposes that the work reveals Machiavelli's debt to the classically humane ideal of the warrior-orator. (JMF)

  3. De vuelta a Hobbes

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    Wilmar Martínez Márquez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo es mostrar que el Estado constituye la forma más idónea para resolver las amenazas de inseguridad y guerra que acosan las sociedades contemporáneas. Para sustentar este planteamiento, en el artículo se rescatan varios de los elementos centrales de la teoría política de Thomas Hobbes y se precisa cómo estos pueden servir, en primera instancia, de criterios de explicación y diagnóstico de dichas amenazas, y en un segundo momento, de pautas para enfrentarlas. Resalta especialmente el concepto de soberanía y los debates que han surgido recientemente alrededor de este autor. Finalmente, se concluye que el mantenimiento de esta figura -la soberanía- va a ser esencial para garantizar el orden en la época actual. El método de investigación es el análisis documental. A partir de la identificación de categorías políticas relevantes se pasa a dar cuenta del estado de cosas correspondiente.

  4. Argumentos para uma dissociação da filosofia política de Thomas Hobbes da tradição realista Arguments for a dissociation of Thomas Hobbes' political philosophy from the realist tradition

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    Iara Costa Leite

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O propósito deste artigo é desconsagrar o caráter heróico que a obra de Hobbes assumiu para os estudantes de relações internacionais ao ter sido enquadrada - assim como as de Tucídides, Maquiavel, Rousseau, Hegel etc. - no épico realista. Veremos que a subsunção do filósofo à "tradição realista" é raramente questionada, mesmo pelos críticos das concepções veiculadas por essa tradição. Assim, o nome de Hobbes permanece, em grande medida, associado à analogia entre anarquia internacional e estado de natureza. Em primeiro lugar, o artigo resgata o caráter hipotético do modelo de estado de natureza, dando ênfase especial ao reconhecimento de Hobbes à limitação de seu reducionismo motivacional para a descrição da realidade. Em segundo, partindo do pressuposto de que a dicotomia interno-externo era inexistente na época de Hobbes, explora, a partir de sua obra, o argumento de que a paz internacional estaria diretamente relacionada à resolução do problema da ordem nas sociedades domésticas.The purpose of this article is to deconsecrate the heroic status that international relations students have attached to Hobbes's texts - an attachment that results from their inclusion, together with texts by Thucydides, Machiavelli, Rousseau and Hegel, in the realist epic. We will see that the subsuming of the philosopher under the "realist tradition" is rarely questioned, even by the critics of the conceptions endorsed by it. Therefore, the name of Hobbes remains, in a large extent, associated to the analogy between international anarchy and the state of nature. In the first place, we'll bring to light the hypothetical status of the state of nature model, emphasizing the fact that Hobbes himself recognized the limitation of its motivational reductionism to the description of reality. Secondly, having taken as a premise the fact that the dichotomy inside/outside did not exist in Hobbes's time, we'll explore the argument that

  5. Teaching the "Leviathan": Thomas Hobbes on Education

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    Bejan, Teresa M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers Thomas Hobbes's educational thought both in its historical context and in the context of his political philosophy as a whole. It begins with Hobbes's diagnosis of the English Civil War as the product of the miseducation of the commonwealth and shows that education was a central and consistent concern of his political theory…

  6. Critical View on Machiavelli and His Political Theories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永莉

    2007-01-01

    Machiavelli was a controversial political thinker. His ideas of morality and politics created a new chapter of western ideal and also created a great stir in history. His Prince presented all his ideas and hopes, all had its present meaning in modern time.

  7. METUS REVEALED. HOBBES ON FEAR

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    RAFFAELLA SANTI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Fear is a universal emotion, experienced by everybody. When it becomes collective and social, it can enter into the processes of political imagination, being used for political purposes. This article is a brief examination of the meanings and functions of fear(s in Hobbes’s thought. Some of his views may be ‘historically’ related to his own time, the Seventeenth Century, and others may be linked and confined to his own theory. However, his reflections on the importance of the perturbatio animi of fear for human psychology, and its impact on human interactions and collective behaviour, are still interesting for us today. The various meanings of fear highlighted by Hobbes (especially in his political works: Elements of Law, De cive, and Leviathan are here synthetically reconstructed, with particular emphasis on fear as passion, expectation and will, and on fear in his various social aspects: mutual fear and fear of death, which give rise to the political community; fear of punishment and fear for the laws, which help to maintain the State and finally, fear of invisible power and timor Dei, from which religion originates, and the religious power that Hobbes wanted to be held by the State.

  8. Teaching the Process...with Calvin & Hobbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Big6 Newsletter, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the use of Calvin & Hobbes comic strips to point out steps in the Big6 information problem-solving process. Students can see what Calvin is doing wrong and then explain how to improve the process. (LRW)

  9. Peter V.Hobbs (1936-2005)

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    Wallace, John M.

    Peter Hobbs, a professor in the Department of Atmospheric Sciences at the University of Washington in Seattle, died of pancreatic cancer on 25 July 2005.Born in 1936, Hobbs experienced what he described as “a wild, adventurous youth on the streets of postwar London.” He engaged in competitive swimming and at age 13 held the title of Junior Boxing Champion of the County of Surrey.

  10. Il dono del libero arbitrio nella Terza Orazione inaugurale: analogie e differenze con Jean Bodin

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    Claudia Megale

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available [The “gift of free will” in the Third Inaugural Oratio: Similarities and Differences with Jean Bodin]. This paper intends to emphasize the position of Vico between knowledge and liberty with reference to modern concept of respublica literaria. We are still far from Voltaire’s Traité, but the political influences of the theory of religious tolerance had found full expression already at the end of the XVIth century, expecially by Jean Bodin, whose Colloquium Heptaplomeres (1593 is analyzed by the author and compared with Vico’s Oratio III.

  11. El contrato social en Hobbes: ¿absolutista o liberal? Hobbes' Social Contract: Absolutist or Liberal?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Francisco Cortés Rodas

    2010-01-01

    ... de legitimación del Estado, expuesto por Thomas Hobbes en el Leviatán. Se cuestiona la interpretación propuesta por Leo Strauss sobre la filosofía política de Hobbes, según la cual, el filósofo inglés...

  12. Americas Machiavelli Problem: Restoring Prudent Leadership in US Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-07

    used to dispatch irreconcilable enemies like Osama bin Laden as cheaply and efficiently as possible. This validation, though, was not the correct...reflexive confidence that moral superiority underwrites military superiority—the happy fallacy that right makes might.11 In denigrat- ing Machiavelli...little hope of happiness without virtuous statesmanship. This professional quality must look to immediate survival and, beyond, to the dignity of the

  13. Le ragioni della forzatura. L'altro Livio di Machiavelli

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    Rinaldo Rinaldi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to reflect upon the vexata quaestio of Machiavelli’s quotations from Livy in Discorsi sopra la prima Deca di Tito Livio. In particular, I shall focus on modifications and cuts of the original text. As I aim to prove, these adaptations are often due either to the political thesis that Machiavelli wants to demonstrate, or to a pedagogical simplification.

  14. Policy Advice from Seneca and Machiavelli on the Greek Crisis

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    Tom Lynch

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 2008 economic crisis has dominated global economic policy discussions, no more so than in Greece. In Greece, the imposition of austerity policies has caused immense social and political upheaval. I suggest that policy thinking about the current Greek debt crisis requires a broader engagement with global civic virtue. Specifically, I present a case for revisiting the political thought of Seneca and Machiavelli. Both discuss the virtue of mercy and its role in good governance policy. I argue that policy solutions for the economic crisis facing Greece and Europe need to be informed by their thinking.

  15. Sobre o desejo em Thomas Hobbes

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    Fernando Rodrigues Montes D'Oca

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é explicar o papel do desejo na filosofia política do filósofo inglês Thomas Hobbes. Para tanto, o presente estudo propõe-se apresentar: i. a razão por que Hobbes reivindica o desejo à política, i.a tratando da teoria da conservação do movimento, de Galileu Galilei, e i.b da felicidade como um sucesso contínuo na obtenção dos objetos de desejo; e ii. o papel do desejo no estado de natureza, já que este é determinante tanto para ii.a a entrada do homem no estado de guerra quanto ii.b para a saída deste estado.

  16. Modern Restlessness, from Hobbes to Augustine

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    Peter Busch

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Only with difficulty do modern readers grasp the full import of Augustine’s confession, “Restless is our heart, until it rests in you”, or seriously consider that it might be true. An unexpected remedy is to be found in reading Thomas Hobbes, who introduces and defends the view of happiness that is now commonly accepted without argument. According to Hobbes, human beings find their happiness not in a single, supreme good but in many objects, the securing of which requires a lifelong quest for power. But this teaching, influential and revealing though it is, fails to satisfy. Meditating on that dissatisfaction is a first step towards more serious engagement with Augustine.

  17. Logical consistence and operating base in Thomas Hobbes. [Spanish

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    Rusbel Martínez Rodríguez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to specify the operative elements included in the Thomas Hobbes philosophy substratum. I defend the idea that the logic in the Hobbes philosophy system depends on this substratum. In this paper I use the idea of «operative and thematic concepts» development by Eugen Fink. These concepts are used to show how all of the Hobbes philosophy system has explicit and implicit concepts. Another aim is to concede the importance of understanding the Hobbes philosophy as holistic.

  18. Hobbes, los juristas y el nuevo constitucionalismo

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    Raquel García Bouzas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El actual debate sobre la relación entre el derecho y la moral demuestra la complejidad del problema de encontrar las propiedades formales del derecho en la dimensión de los procedimientos jurídicos institucionalizados, intentando saber si estos procedimientos regulan discursos jurídicos que sean permeables a argumentaciones morales. Habermas ha propuesto la legitimación del derecho mediante la legalidad proveniente de los procedimientos de producción de las normas jurídicas, en tanto que sean racionales también en el sentido de la racionalidad procedimental moral-práctica. El debate continúa en otros autores.En la historia de las ideas jurídicas la importancia de este debate se revela en otros autores que, como Hobbes, también intentaron sustentar en valores morales un orden jurídico positivo, oscilando en ese esfuerzo entre las fronteras del positivismo jurídico y las del iusnaturalismo. Los argumentos morales de la teoría de Hobbes sobre el estado pasan a veces desapercibidos en el conjunto de la enorme producción de sus comentaristas actuales y pasados, quedando limitados al principio de obligatoriedad moral del cumplimiento de los contratos. Pero una lectura de la obra de Hobbes que tenga en cuenta la relación entre la moral y del derecho puede mostrar mucho más.

  19. Response to Bodin and Grote regarding postdoctoral recruitment in clinical neuropsychology.

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    Nelson, Aaron; Bilder, Robert M; O'Connor, Margaret; Brandt, Jason; Weintraub, Sandra; Bauer, Russell M

    2016-07-01

    Bodin and Grote convey their opinion that the field of clinical neuropsychology would be best served by a match system for recruitment into postdoctoral training. We critically review their arguments and offer an alternative point of view. Our view considers the current state of the match system in neuropsychology, incorporates comparisons with other disciplines that rely on a match system, and addresses the role of postdoctoral training and the specialization that takes shape at this level. We make recommendations aimed at promoting greater unity among postdoctoral training programs with the goal of focusing leadership efforts on advancing our shared mission of providing the highest quality training in clinical neuropsychology.

  20. The environmental education in the Italian Renaissance: the geoethical model of Machiavelli

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    Liserre, Battista; De Pascale, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    The importance of the environmental and geoethical education is also present in the thought of one of the greatest intellectuals of the Italian Renaissance: the philosopher Niccolò Machiavelli (1469-1527). In the "Discorsi" of Machiavelli, the natural character of the place where a city is built is a determining factor in the overall measure of the need on the character of the citizens; but the barren place, if can keep away the people from idleness, and thereby constitute an essential tool of virtuous civic life, prevents the development of the power which can be fostered only by the fertility of the site. It may give rise own laziness which hinders the development of virtue; and then, according to Machiavelli, laws must be to impose the need to produce good behavior through education. Already in the Renaissance, Machiavelli recognized the importance of establishing a harmonious relationship between man and environment and suggested that the institutions should give a virtuous model of environmental education. The physiognomy of the geographical and natural environment conditions in an essential way the exercise of civil life and the development of virtues. If the Rome's model imposes the primacy of fertile places, it happens, however, that, in his general conception of virtue and of historical dialectic, Machiavelli tended toward ultimately to increased functionality of the desolate places, which make difficult the life, and through the exercise of the need, make men more virtuous, keeping them away from the destructive threat of idleness. This aspect emerges from a different perspective, but convergent in "Asino" of Machiavelli (Chapter V). The link between the natural places and civic life that takes place isn't something absolutely default. Men's work, orders underpinning their collective life, laws that place the compulsion of necessity by the behavior of citizens, change the data of nature. Although the structure of a territory unequally, according to

  1. Thomas Hobbes y Sigmund Freud: pensadores del orden

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reano, Ariana

    2009-01-01

    .... Para ilustrar esto nos referiremos al modo en que Thomas Hobbes y Sigmund Freud indagan el caracter contingente de lo humano en las respectivas representaciones del estado de naturaleza y de la horda primitiva...

  2. Hobbes on natural philosophy as "True Physics" and mixed mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Marcus P

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, I offer an alternative account of the relationship of Hobbesian geometry to natural philosophy by arguing that mixed mathematics provided Hobbes with a model for thinking about it. In mixed mathematics, one may borrow causal principles from one science and use them in another science without there being a deductive relationship between those two sciences. Natural philosophy for Hobbes is mixed because an explanation may combine observations from experience (the 'that') with causal principles from geometry (the 'why'). My argument shows that Hobbesian natural philosophy relies upon suppositions that bodies plausibly behave according to these borrowed causal principles from geometry, acknowledging that bodies in the world may not actually behave this way. First, I consider Hobbes's relation to Aristotelian mixed mathematics and to Isaac Barrow's broadening of mixed mathematics in Mathematical Lectures (1683). I show that for Hobbes maker's knowledge from geometry provides the 'why' in mixed-mathematical explanations. Next, I examine two explanations from De corpore Part IV: (1) the explanation of sense in De corpore 25.1-2; and (2) the explanation of the swelling of parts of the body when they become warm in De corpore 27.3. In both explanations, I show Hobbes borrowing and citing geometrical principles and mixing these principles with appeals to experience.

  3. Amitié, harmonie et paix politique chez Aristote et Jean Bodin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Miglietti

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available La crise politique et religieuse de la seconde moitié du xvie siècle ouvre la voie en France à un débat enflammé concernant les limites du pouvoir souverain et le rôle du peuple au sein de l’État. Dans les Six livres de la République (1576, Jean Bodin développe un programme de réforme éthico-politique envisageant l’amitié entre les citoyens comme pierre angulaire de l’État. Bien que s’inspirant largement des réflexions d’Aristote sur le même sujet (Éthique à Nicomaque, Politique, il remplace toutefois la théorie aristotélicienne de l’amitié-égalité (laquelle entraîne chez le Stagirite une vision égalitariste de la société et un net refus de la monarchie par une nouvelle théorie de l’amitié-harmonie qui lui permet de justifier la nature hiérarchique et monarchique de sa « République bien ordonnée ».

  4. El contrato social en Hobbes: ¿absolutista o liberal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Cortés Rodas

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presentan los elementos centrales del modelo contractualista clásico de legitimación del Estado, expuesto por Thomas Hobbes en el Leviatán. Se cuestiona la interpretación propuesta por Leo Strauss sobre la filosofía política de Hobbes, según la cual, el filósofo inglés sería el fundador del liberalismo. Mediante una interpretación de la teoría de la representación política hobbesiana se intenta destacar su imagen como defensor del absolutismo político. El tipo de liberalismo a partir del cual es posible mostrar que la concepción de Hobbes resulta inaceptable es el liberalismo representado por autores como Benjamin Constant, Madame de Stäel y Alexis de Tocqueville.

  5. Auctoritas, non veritas Schmitt, Kelsen y Strauss, lectores de Hobbes

    OpenAIRE

    Mejía Pérez, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Este trabajo atiende a la radicalidad de una frase de Thomas Hobbes: “Es la autoridad y no la verdad la que hace la ley”. Además de identificar los tres diferentes estratos en el concepto de verdad que circulan en el Leviatán de Hobbes, incluyendo entre ellos una noción de “verdad” de corte pragmatista y retórico, se intenta definir el concepto hobbesiano de autoridad, mostrando que tanto el liberalismo como el absolutismo tienen, en tanto teorías políticas, un origen común: el nominalismo po...

  6. Nom comú i nom propi segons Thomas Hobbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Moran i Ocerinjauregui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679 tracta el llenguatge humà, i més concretament els noms, des d’un punt de vista filosòfic. Per a Hobbes, els noms són designadors de conceptes: els noms propis designen una sola cosa mentre que els noms comuns en designen diverses. Aquestes idees van ser objecte de reflexió filosòfica i van tenir gran influència en altres filòsofs, com John Stuart Mill.

  7. Leviatan o la vigència de Hobbes?

    OpenAIRE

    Bueno, Ester

    2011-01-01

    El gravat que apareix a la portada original de Leviatan o La matèria, forma i poder d’un estat eclesiàstic i civil de Thomas Hobbes és ple de detalls simbòlics que representen la doctrina de l’autor. L’anàlisi de la imatge ens aboca a la teoria de Hobbes, on l’Estat vindria a ser un contracte entre una multitud i una persona autoritzada per exercir el poder, que utilitzaria uns mitjans amb l’objectiu de garantir la defensa del territori i la pau.

  8. PASIÓN Y RAZÓN EN THOMAS HOBBES

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas,Jorge Alfonso; Espinoza Verdejo,Alex

    2008-01-01

    Se busca determinar la relación entre pasión y razón en Thomas Hobbes, pensador inglés considerado racionalista tanto como irracionalista. Para explicar esta aparente paradoja, se examinan las nociones de pasión y razón en el contexto de la filosofía materialista y fisicalista de Hobbes y asimismo, la conexión con el nominalismo y el sensualismo. Se demuestra, así, que las pasiones son el principio del movimiento en los hombres y que el pensamiento está a su servicio. Se describe el proceso r...

  9. Hobbes y los fundamentos del pensamiento internacional moderno

    OpenAIRE

    Armitage, David

    2006-01-01

    Este artículo indaga sobre cómo llegó a aceptarse a Hobbes como una figura fundacional en la historia del pensamiento internacional a causa de su afirmación de que el ámbito de las relaciones internacionales se asemeja a un estado de naturaleza habitado por agentes competitivos y atemorizados. El autor sostiene que las reflexiones de Hobbes sobre la dimensión externa del Estado son más amplias de lo que suele señalarse y realiza un estudio de la pervivencia de su pensamiento a partir del sigl...

  10. Machiavelli and His New Paradigm of Legitimate Order. A Voegelian Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion IUGA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Most often, Machiavelli is understood in the light of his realism and pragmatism. This paper aims to offer a more comprehensive interpretation of his political thinking. I will start from the common premise that Machiavelli is considered one of the first early modern authors. In this regard, his works like The Prince and Discourses on Livy should not be understood separately. It is the main point in the following paper that Machiavelli created in these works a new paradigm of legitimate order. In the second part of the article I shall engage Eric Voegelin’s argument for an insight into the issue of legitimacy. He starts from the breakup between the temporal and spiritual unity of Western society which creates premises for a new order in history. Finally, the idea of “the myth of order through intra-mundane power” which is advocated by Voegelin offers an interesting hermeneutics of legitimacy to the new political order in Machiavelli’s thinking.

  11. Historia del pensamiento político moderno (04 Hobbes)

    OpenAIRE

    Sanz Díaz, Benito, 1949-

    2010-01-01

    Tema 4. El triunfo del absolutismo en el siglo XVII 1. El triunfo del absolutismo en el siglo XVII. El absolutismo monárquico. Las revoluciones del siglo XVII en Inglaterra. 2. Thomas Hobbes. 1588 – 1679. Leviatán. 3. El pensamiento político durante el siglo XVII. “El estado soy yo”. Luís XIV.

  12. O Estado cristão em Thomas Hobbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Artur Emidio Branco

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem como finalidade a investigação do pensamento do filósofo inglês Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679, mais precisamente a relação entre Igreja e Estado, valendo-se de suas obras, em especial Leviatã (1651. Com o título O Estado Eclesiástico em Thomas Hobbes, o artigo busca mostrar como as conclusões de Hobbes acerca do papel da Igreja no Estado são relevantes para o século XXI. A concepção de Evangelho de Cristo como um reino de outro mundo, a natureza privada da fé, o pontificado do soberano como aquele que se posiciona está entre Deus e os homens, a união entre Lei Mosaica e Lei Natural e a união entre Igreja e Estado são os delimitadores do grande tema, que busca levar o leitor contemporâneo ao conhecimento das conclusões de Hobbes e, assim, considerar a aplicação das mesmas a sua geração.

  13. Historia del pensamiento político moderno (04 Hobbes)

    OpenAIRE

    Sanz Díaz, Benito, 1949-

    2010-01-01

    Tema 4. El triunfo del absolutismo en el siglo XVII 1. El triunfo del absolutismo en el siglo XVII. El absolutismo monárquico. Las revoluciones del siglo XVII en Inglaterra. 2. Thomas Hobbes. 1588 – 1679. Leviatán. 3. El pensamiento político durante el siglo XVII. “El estado soy yo”. Luís XIV.

  14. Comments on the paper of Bodin et al. (2010). Journal of African Earth Sciences, 58, pp. 489-506

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlig, Saïd

    2016-06-01

    Bodin et al. (2010) produced an important paper in the Journal of African Earth Sciences. The main goals of this paper were: (1) the petrological and sedimentological treatment of the upper Jurassic and Cretaceous series in southern Tunisia and northern Ghadames Basin including the Hamada El Hamra area and Nafussah Mountain of Libya; (2) the reconstruction of tectonic controls on deposition and basin-fill; (3) the correlation of poorly dated lithostratigraphic columns, poor in diagnostic fauna, from northwestern Libya to southern Tunisia; and (4) the comparison between the authors' findings and assignments of global eustatic and plate tectonic events.

  15. Building Models from the Bottom Up: The HOBBES Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medellin-Azuara, J.; Sandoval Solis, S.; Lund, J. R.; Chu, W.

    2013-12-01

    Water problems are often bigger than technical and data challenges associated in representing a water system using a model. Controversy and complexity is inherent when water is to be allocated among different uses making difficult to maintain coherent and productive discussions on addressing water problems. Quantification of a water supply system through models has proven to be helpful to improve understanding, explore and develop adaptable solutions to water problems. However, models often become too large and complex and become hostages of endless discussions of the assumptions, their algorithms and their limitations. Data management organization and documentation keep model flexible and useful over time. The UC Davis HOBBES project is a new approach, building models from the bottom up. Reversing the traditional model development, where data are arranged around a model algorithm, in Hobbes the data structure, organization and documentation are established first, followed by application of simulation or optimization modeling algorithms for a particular problem at hand. The HOBBES project establishes standards for storing, documenting and sharing datasets on California water system. This allows models to be developed and modified more easily and transparently, with greater comparability. Elements in the database have a spatial definition and can aggregate several infrastructural elements into detailed to coarse representations of the water system. Elements in the database represent reservoirs, groundwater basins, pumping stations, hydropower and water treatment facilities, demand areas and conveyance infrastructure statewide. These elements also host time series, economic and other information from hydrologic, economic, climate and other models. This presentation provides an overview of the project HOBBES project, its applications and prospects for California and elsewhere. The HOBBES Project

  16. Autocratic Bureacratism: Han Fei's Ancient Chinese Strategies of Governance as Contrasted with Machiavelli's Political Philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    This study is a comparative analysis of the political philosophies of the ancient Chinese thinker Han Fei (ca. 280-233 BC) and the Western Renaissance thinker Niccolò Machiavelli (AD 1469-1527). In the thought of these pioneers of strategic political thought – both notorious for their hardheaded and “realist” approach to political life – the special problems of power maintenance and political stability are focused. The strong focus on these issues in the two thinkers must be seen in the l...

  17. Conflict and Liberty in the Political Theory of Niccolò Machiavelli and John Stuart Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pollitzer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In conjunction with his concern for preserving liberties in Republics, Machiavelli is known as one of the first modern political thinkers to point out the benefits derived from social unrest and internal conflicts in any society that seeks the vivere libero. Three centuries later and in a context of very different concerns, Mill presented systematic antagonism as the main device by which stability and progress can be reconciled and freedom can be ensured within democratic societies. This article examines the way in which both thinkers theorized the nature of conflict, its limits as well as its effects, and finally, the areas in which they can or should be channeled.

  18. The concept of political representation from Hobbes to Marx

    OpenAIRE

    Daremas, Georgios

    2011-01-01

    The object of this thesis is the examination of the concept of political representation in the corpus of Hobbes, Locke, Hegel and Marx. Through the method of textualreconstruction I foreground the concept’s salience in their writings. Political representation constitutes a unitary political society as the basis of representative government by entrusting to a separate part of the political community the exercise of the legislative and executive functions on behalf of the political society. \\ud...

  19. Don Quixote, Machiavelli, and Robin Hood: public health practice, past and present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullan, F

    2000-05-01

    Since the mid-19th century, when the first formal health departments were established in the United States, commissioners, directors, and secretaries of public health have functioned as senior members of the staffs of public executives, mayors, governors, and presidents. They have provided important political, managerial, and scientific leadership to agencies of government that have played increasingly important roles in national life, from the sanitary revolution of the 19th century to the prevention of HIV/AIDS and the control of tobacco use today. Although public health officials come from a variety of backgrounds and oversee agencies of varied size and composition, there are philosophical themes that describe and define the commonality of their work. These themes are captured metaphorically by 3 celebrated figures: Don Quixote, Machiavelli, and Robin Hood. By turns, the public health official functions as a determined idealist (Don Quixote), a cunning political strategist (Machiavelli), and an agent who redistributes resources from the wealthier sectors of society to the less well off (Robin Hood.) All 3 personae are important, but, it is argued, Robin Hood is the most endangered.

  20. THE INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS IN THE THOUGHT OF THOMAS HOBBES AS RELAÇÕES INTERNACIONAIS NO PENSAMENTO DE THOMAS HOBBES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Ribeiro Barnabé

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We shall examine how Hobbes conceives the international relations as a scenario of permanent hostility, his contribution to the realist theory of international relations and the strategies for the attainment of peace or the maximization of benefits. We shall investigate the hobbesian equation between state of nature, international relations and state of war, the characteristics of the state of nature, the properties of foreign war and its causes, and the mechanism of balance of power. We shall also analyze the natural law, which is the law of nations, and the calculation to adhere to these laws. Finally, we shall do a general analysis of Hobbes's contribution to the theory of international relations.Examinaremos como Hobbes concebe as relações internacionais enquanto um cenário de permanente hostilidade, sua contribuição para a teoria realista das relações internacionais e as estratégias para a consecução da paz ou a maximização dos benefícios. Investigaremos a equação hobbesiana entre estado de natureza, relações internacionais e estado de guerra, as características do estado de guerra, as propriedades da guerra externa e suas causas e o mecanismo de balanço de poder. Analisaremos, também, a lei natural, que é a lei das nações, e o cálculo para aderir a essas leis. Por fim, faremos uma análise genérica da contribuição de Hobbes para a teoria das relações internacionais.

  1. Science and Rhetoric From Bacon to Hobbes; Responses to the Problem of Eloquence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappen, James P.

    Decisive changes in the history of rhetoric occurred with the publication of Francis Bacon's "Advancement of Learning" and "De augmentis scientiarum" and "Leviathan" by Thomas Hobbes. Bacon and Hobbes responded to the problem of eloquence common to scientists in the early seventeenth century, which centered on three…

  2. Arendt on Hobbes as the true philosopher of the bourgeoisie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Correia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In The Origins of Totalitarianism, when examine the elements and origins of total domination, Hannah Arendt devotes special attention to the political emancipation of the bourgeoisie. For Arendt imperialism is the truth of the bourgeois understanding of politics, according to which politics should not be more than a well-organized police force. The truth of bourgeois politics is the reduction of politics to mere force. Our purpose is to reconstruct this movement from the vantage point of arendtian appropriation of Hobbes, "the true philosopher of the bourgeoisie."

  3. THOMAS HOBBES: MODERNIDAD E HISTORIA DE LOS CONCEPTOS POLITICOS

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera García, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Una interpretación liberal del Leviatán. Thomas Hobbes ha sido objeto de muy variadas y contrapuestas interpretaciones1: para algunos, como Leo Strauss, Lacour-Gayet o Harold Laski, el gran publicista del siglo XVII es el campeón del absolutismo en su sentido más despótico; para otros, como Carl Schmitt o Eric Vögelin, se trata del jurista decisionista que ha descubierto el origen existencial de la política. Asimismo, ha sido considerado como un absolutista pre-liberal, es decir, como uno de ...

  4. Jusnaturalismo,Hobbes e dialética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Nicolau Heck - Sidney A. da Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Hobbes é um dos fundadores da moderna concepção de poder político.A instituição do Estado tem no pensador inglês,uma de suas vertentes racionais.O trabalho examina as raízes jusnaturalistas do teórico político ingles e assume a posição de que o legado hobbesiano não é dialetizável. 

  5. Green Leviathan? Thomas Hobbes, Joel Bakan and Arnold Schwarzenegger

    OpenAIRE

    Robert G. Evans

    2007-01-01

    Thomas Hobbes postulates that men are driven by “a perpetual and restless desire of power after power, that ceaseth only in death.” The miserable consequences of this drive for power and the competing “desire of ease and sensual delight” and “fear of death and wounds” lead them to establish and obey. Substituting “profit” for “power” yields a description of the modern corporation, but without the desires or fears of natural persons. Such “unnatural persons” lack the Hobbesian ground of obliga...

  6. Hobbes and Selfish Morality in the State of Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Martínez

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I explore the controversial claim that morality exists in the Hobbesian state of nature (represented in the rationality and prudence of natural laws, and how this moral is a necessary condition to achieve civil state. In order to accomplish this objective, I examine the work of G. Kavka on this topic, while analizing Hobbes's “reply to the fool”, using game theory. I propose, at the end of this paper, the necessity and justification of going from one state to another, emphasizing on the precariety of morality in the state of nature to guarantee the fulfilment of the natural laws.

  7. NICCOLO MACHIAVELLI, THE BARON DE MONTESQUIEU AND THE DESTABILIZING EFFECTS OF INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Barclay

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay demonstrates that, although modern liberals incessantly promote the EU as a living exemplar for the virtues of contemporary liberalism and basic, unrestrictive, migration policies, the experiences of innumerable contemporary EU states, such as France, contradict these spurious claims, since, instead of becoming enriched or improved, countless EU states have deteriorated and become fraught with social conflict, insecurity, and instability, as a result of their minimally restrictive, liberal, migration policies and consequent penetration with foreign, inherently contradictory ideology. Furthermore, this essay demonstrates that, despite the ignorant exclamations of modern liberals, the inviolable patriarch of liberalism, the Baron de Montesquieu, in addition to the pre-eminent, indispensable, paterfamilias of realism, Niccolo Machiavelli, explicitly confirm that, if any state fails to adequately restrict the migration of people and ideas across its borders, then that state will inevitably become penetrated by a foreign, inherently contradictory, ideology, and, consequently, eviscerated by an unrelenting insecurity.

  8. Thomas Hobbes: la resistencia política al Leviatán || Thomas Hobbes: Political Resistance To Leviathan

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Alejandro Fernández Peychaux

    2013-01-01

    RESUMEN En el presente artículo se presentan cuatro claves de lectura de la obra de Thomas Hobbes desde las que fundamentar una noción de resistencia. Este aporte busca, en otras palabras, crear las condiciones de posibilidad de un debate filosófico ofuscado por el mito recurrente sobre el supuesto monstruo de Malmesbury. Una vez hecho esto, se propone delinear las bases de un enfoque metodológico que parta de dicha noción de resistencia. De ese modo, se fundamentaría el primer paso hacia u...

  9. Thomas Hobbes: la resistencia política al Leviatán || Thomas Hobbes: Political Resistance To Leviathan

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Alejandro Fernández Peychaux

    2013-01-01

    RESUMEN En el presente artículo se presentan cuatro claves de lectura de la obra de Thomas Hobbes desde las que fundamentar una noción de resistencia. Este aporte busca, en otras palabras, crear las condiciones de posibilidad de un debate filosófico ofuscado por el mito recurrente sobre el supuesto monstruo de Malmesbury. Una vez hecho esto, se propone delinear las bases de un enfoque metodológico que parta de dicha noción de resistencia. De ese modo, se fundamentaría el primer paso hacia u...

  10. Thomas Hobbes: la resistencia política al Leviatán || Thomas Hobbes: Political Resistance To Leviathan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Alejandro Fernández Peychaux

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN En el presente artículo se presentan cuatro claves de lectura de la obra de Thomas Hobbes desde las que fundamentar una noción de resistencia. Este aporte busca, en otras palabras, crear las condiciones de posibilidad de un debate filosófico ofuscado por el mito recurrente sobre el supuesto monstruo de Malmesbury. Una vez hecho esto, se propone delinear las bases de un enfoque metodológico que parta de dicha noción de resistencia. De ese modo, se fundamentaría el primer paso hacia una apropiación ?o expropiación? contemporánea de la matriz hobbesiana de la relación obediencia-seguridad   ABSTRACT This article presents four key of readings about Thomas Hobbes's work, from which it supports a particular notion of resistance. In others words, this contribution searches to create the conditions of posibility for a philosophical debate obfuscated by the recurrent myth about the monster of Malmesbury. Once done that, I offer setting the bases of a metodological aproach which stars from this notion of resistance. Thus, I would back the first step towards a contemporary appropriation ?or expropriation? of the obedience-security relationship within the Hobbesian matrix.  

  11. Soberania e representação: Hobbes, parlamentaristas e levellers Sovereignty and representation: Hobbes, parliamentarians and levellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Ostrensky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo pretende mostrar que Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679 empregou o conceito de autorização política com o propósito de neutralizar discursos de dois grupos políticos adversários, os quais consideravam a representação um meio eficaz de responsabilizar atores políticos perante seus representados. Entre esses adversários, ocupam lugar de destaque os levellers, por terem proposto, em finais da década de 1640, uma saída constitucional inédita para o problema da ilegitimidade do Parlamento inglês: ampliação do sufrágio seguida da celebração do Acordo do Povo.The article intends to show that Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679 adopted the concept of political authorization as means to fight against the doctrine of the accountability of political actors ahead of the persons they represented. Among these opponents, the levellers have a prominent place, by proposing, in the late 1640s, an innovative solution for the constitutional problem of the illegitimacy of the English Parliament: extension of the franchise followed by a celebration of an Agreement of the People.

  12. HOBBES AND LOCKE REVISITED: ON UNDERSTANDING, NATURE AND THE SOVEREIGN IN THE 21st CENTURY

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    David Tneh Cheng Eng

    2015-01-01

      This paper would revisit Hobbes and Locke's work, namely Leviathan and The Essay Concerning Human Understanding so as to reconnect the work of the two philosophers to the present reading of politics and philosophy...

  13. Green leviathan? Thomas hobbes, joel bakan and Arnold schwarzenegger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Robert G

    2007-02-01

    Thomas Hobbes postulates that men are driven by "a perpetual and restless desire of power after power, that ceaseth only in death." The miserable consequences of this drive for power and the competing "desire of ease and sensual delight" and "fear of death and wounds" lead them to establish and obey. Substituting "profit" for "power" yields a description of the modern corporation, but without the desires or fears of natural persons. Such "unnatural persons" lack the Hobbesian ground of obligation, yet have appropriated the privileges and protections of natural persons. They challenge or undermine the sovereign wherever it limits their profits. Governor Schwarzenegger's re-election in California, however, on a strong anti-CO(2) program, suggests a willingness by threatened natural persons to re-empower Leviathan.

  14. El liberalismo autoritario hegeliano o Hegel entre Hobbes y Schmitt

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    Andrés Jiménez Colodrero

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available ¿Fue la filosofía política de Hegel propiamente "liberal"? Para Renato Cristi la respuesta es negativa. Sin ser un reaccionario, Hegel nunca desarrolló un "liberalismo progresista", como creen ciertas corrientes contemporáneas: más bien se trató de un "liberalismo autoritario" con más énfasis en la autoridad que en la libertad. Hegel construyó su teoría del Estado con un monarca de poder absoluto cuya tarea debería ser la de pacificar las tendencias conflictivas de la sociedad civil. En esta forma, el pensamiento hegeliano se aproximaría al de las clásicas formulaciones autoritarias de Thomas Hobbes y Carl Schmitt. Esta tesis de Cristi debe analizarse tanto histórica como conceptualmente, en especial con respecto a sus fuentes.Was Hegel's political philosophy, in a proper sense, "liberal"? For Renato Cristi the answer is a negative one. Without being a reactionary, Hegel never developed a "progressive liberalism", as many contemporary interpreters tend to think: instead it consisted in an "authoritarian liberalism" with a strong emphasis in authority than in freedom. Hegel built his theory of the state with an absolute power monarch whose task should be to pacify civil society's struggling tendencies. By this way, Hegel's thought will be close of the classical authoritarian formulations of Thomas Hobbes and Carl Schmitt. Cristi's thesis have to be analyzed both historical and conceptual, with special regard to his sources.

  15. Por que ler Hobbes como um teórico de segurança internacional? Why read Hobbes as a theorist of international security?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. J Walker

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Hobbes tornou-se uma figura canônica para teorias de segurança internacional, ainda que seus escritos digam relativamente pouco acerca do que chamaríamos hoje de um sistema internacional. Este artigo sugere que Hobbes permanece importante para a análise de segurança internacional, assim como para a teoria política de modo mais geral, não por desenvolver qualquer teoria coerente de Relações Internacionais, mas sim porque sua consideração sobre a soberania de Estados particulares exige uma análise sobre as condições de possibilidade externas de tais Estados. Uma política após Hobbes precisa tratar dos efeitos constitutivos de sua filosofia da história particular. Assim, este artigo propõe uma leitura política de Hobbes, a qual enfatiza sua importância para o pensamento da política moderna e de suas condições de possibilidade; de suas origens e limites, que são também nossas origens e limites enquanto sujeitos modernos.Thomas Hobbes has become a canonical figure for theories of international security even though his writings say relatively little about what we would now call an international system. This paper suggests that Hobbes remains important for the analysis of international security, as well as for political theory more generally, not because he advances any coherent theory of international relations but because his account of the sovereignty of particular states requires an account of the external conditions of possibility of such states. Politics after Hobbes needs to get to grips with the constitutive effects of his particular philosophy of history. Thus, this paper proposes a political reading of Hobbes that emphasizes his importance for thought about modern politics and its conditions of possibility; about its origins and limits that are also our origins and limits as modern subjects.

  16. The biggest enterprise a Christian prince ever had in his hands: to conquer and conserve territories in the Indian Ocean in the times of Machiavelli

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    Ângela Barreto Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Can we establish connections between the theoretical thinking of Machiavelli about the conquest and conservation of territories and the actions of Afonso de Albuquerque in the territories of the Indian Ocean (described in an intense correspondence between him and the king D. Manuel I of Portugal? In this essay, I try to answer this question by adopting a transnational perspective of the political and intellectual dynamics of the early-modern period. This approach enables me to identify the common cultural background among the political elites from Southern Europe in the 16th century, and helps to explain the existence of interesting continuities between Albuquerque and Machiavelli. Simultaneously, their different biographies and contexts of action - Machiavelli's were mainly Italian, while Albuquerque's were Portuguese, African and Asiatic - contribute to explain some of the differences in the political solutions proposed by them in their writings.

  17. El Leviatán de Hobbes. La destrucción del Estado, Cristo y el vientre del cocodrilo

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johan Tralau

    2013-01-01

    .... Constructing metaphors and similes likening Christianity to something that is swallowed, and the state to a crocodile, Hobbes esoterically expressed his disagreement with the Christian religion...

  18. «Tagliare a pezzi». Cesare Borgia tra rimandi biblici e fonte senofontea in Machiavelli

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    Scichilone Giorgio E.M.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Only in three parts of Machiavelli’s writings occurs a stark expression: «tagliare a pezzi». Two of them are in The Prince, the third one in Discorsi. Two of them concern ancient examples (Hiero and Clearchus, the other one a modern experience, the famous and violent episode in which Cesare Borgia executes his lieutenant Rimirro, a capital punishment that Machiavelli watched in Cesena. The essay tries to show how all of Machiavelli’s examples deal in a subtle way with a topical Machiavelli’s view – civil principality. From this discussion, a survey (or journey between Machiavelli’s text and historical context begins, where some other striking questions are approached, such as the absence of Cesare Borgia in Discorsi (so sensational as neglected, the relationship between Machiavelli and Michelangelo linked by a ‘republican’ David, or the figure of pope Leo X, that would be, according to this essay, that «certain prince of present times, whom it is best not to name», and not, according to the common opinion, Ferdinand the Catholic.

  19. Between Hobbes and Spinoza. Research on the Philosophical Matrix of Ferdinand Tönnies’ Sociological Categories

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    Furio Ferraresi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay reconstructs the main lines of Ferdinand Tönnies’ (1855-1936 critical approach to the thought of Hobbes and Spinoza. Specifically it shows the role played by the two philosophers in developing the categories of community (Spinoza and society (Hobbes. From the stand point of political thought, the essay reveals how Tönnies’ on going interpretation of Hobbes focuses more and more on the constitutive moment of the modern form of State. In this area it draws on Spinoza’s reflections on democracy as an absolutum omnino imperium. Tönnies is thus able to distinguish conceptually between the Hobbesian State, as a “society” that absorbs all natural law, and its natural law origin (the «original assembly», where we find a “common” element that can never be entirely neutralized by the State.

  20. Motor Assembly Plant Saves $85,000 with Compressed Air System Improvements (Bodine Electric's Chicago Facility): Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) BestPractices Technical Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wogsland, J.

    2001-06-18

    This case study is one in a series on industrial firms who are implementing energy efficient technologies and system improvements into their manufacturing processes. This case study documents the activities, savings, and lessons learned on the Bodine Electric motor assembly plant project.

  1. Hobbes Y Kant: De La Guerra Entre Los Individuos A La Guerra Entre Los Estados

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    Adelino Braz

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The article takes the Kantian criticism to the political thought of Hobbes. It explains in the first place the logic of the desire of power in Hobbes and how this conducts to a state of war, or state of nature, that only can be finish under the threat of a sovereign, that receives from all the members of a community the right to defend them from others. Subsequently it explains the critics done by Kant to the hobbesian formulation of the state of nature, where it is assumed that just the establishment of the civil state, is sufficient to end to the state of war.

  2. Leviathan and the air-pump Hobbes, Boyle, and the experimental life

    CERN Document Server

    Shapin, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Leviathan and the Air-Pump examines the conflicts over the value and propriety of experimental methods between two major seventeenth-century thinkers: Thomas Hobbes, author of the political treatise Leviathan and vehement critic of systematic experimentation in natural philosophy, and Robert Boyle, mechanical philosopher and owner of the newly invented air-pump. The issues at stake in their disputes ranged from the physical integrity of the air-pump to the intellectual integrity of the knowledge it might yield. Both Boyle and Hobbes were looking for ways of establishing knowledge tha

  3. Subjectivity and sovereignty: The Cartesian dimension of the position of the sovereign in Hobbes' "Leviathan"

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    Milidrag Predrag

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Hobbes' understanding of the sovereign's position in a state and Descartes' understanding of God arose completely independently from each other, there is a strong structural similarity between the two. After elaborating on this point, the author demonstrates the metaphysical foundation of Hobbes' conception of the sovereign. The main thesis of the paper is that the subjectivity of sovereign is not the so-called 'empirical' subjectivity of early modern philosophy, but that it is equivalent to God's subjectivity, as understood in Descartes as immense power.

  4. The fool and the franchiser: formal justice in the political theories of Hobbes and Rawls

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    Jan Niklas Rolf

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Hobbes and John Rawls are usually portrayed in antagonistic terms. While Hobbes, one of the first scholars to translate Thucydides, is often held to be an archetypal realist, Rawls, a self-proclaimed follower of Kant, is frequently said to argue from an explicit normative position. In this paper, I try to demonstrate that the two philosophers have more in common than is generally thought. Drawing on Hobbes's answer to the fool and Rawls's analogy of the franchiser, I suggest that there is a powerful link between the two philosophers that can tell us something valuable about their theories of formal justice. Against Brian Barry's characterization of Hobbes as an advocate of justice as mutual advantage and Rawls as a proponent of both justice as mutual advantage and justice as impartiality, I argue that the two philosophers adhere to one and the same tradition of justice, justice as reciprocity, which bases obligations of reciprocity not only on explicit express, but also on tacit acceptance of benefits.

  5. El contrato social en Hobbes: ¿absolutista o liberal? Hobbes’ Social Contract: Absolutist or Liberal?

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    Francisco Cortés Rodas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presentan los elementos centrales del modelo contractualista clásico de legitimación del Estado, expuesto por Thomas Hobbes en el Leviatán. Se cuestiona la interpretación propuesta por Leo Strauss sobre la filosofía política de Hobbes, según la cual, el filósofo inglés sería el fundador del liberalismo. Mediante una interpretación de la teoría de la representación política hobbesiana se intenta destacar su imagen como defensor del absolutismo político. El tipo de liberalismo a partir del cual es posible mostrar que la concepción de Hobbes resulta inaceptable es el liberalismo representado por autores como Benjamin Constant, Madame de Stäel y Alexis de Tocqueville.This article presents the central elements of the classic contractualist model of State legitimacy as displayed by Thomas Hobbes in Leviathan. It aims to question the proposal made by Leo Strauss on Hobbes’ political philosophy according to which Hobbes is the founder of liberalism. Through an interpretation of the Hobbesian theory of political representation, it intends to detach his image as a defender of political absolutism. The type of liberalism from which it is possible to show that Hobbes’ conception is unacceptable, is liberalism represented by authors such as Benjamin Constant, Madame de Stäel and Alexis de Tocqueville.

  6. O Historiador e o Teórico. A Historiografia de Hobbes na Teoria das Relações Internacionais

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Soraya Nour; Claus Zittel

    2003-01-01

    .... The second part shows how Hobbes is later rehabilitated by the revision of idealism as well as by the emergence of the doctrine known as realism, in both cases with the aim of criticising early idealism...

  7. Sobre el origen de la concepcion del lenguaje en Hobbes: la cultura literaria del humanismo renacentista en Inglaterra

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Orozco-Echeverri, Sergio H

    2012-01-01

    La educacion de Hobbes en la cultura literaria del humanismo renacentista en Inglaterra no ha sido considerada como una tradicion importante en la interpretacion de su posicion en la temprana filosofia moderna...

  8. Machiavelli’s Role and Importance in the History of Political Thought. Machiavelli – the Creator of a New Political Paradigm

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    Vasile BOARI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Machiavelli’s work has constituted the object of research and analysis from two relatively opposite perspectives: the historical one and the moral one. The former sees Machiavelli as “truly a man of his time” (A. Gramsci, excessively preoccupied by the problem of unifying Italy. The latter harshly judges him on the grounds that he is amoral and that he promotes cynicism and cruelty. Between the two, there is another perspective, the scientific one. In its view, Machiavelli has in mind the creation of a positive political science. Machiavelli was read and interpreted in different ways. Some saw The Prince as a code for tyranny and cynicism. Others, on the contrary, saw in it a scientific work of incontestable worth, even an expression of humanism. These two views constitute the extremes of the numerous interpretations available. According to the ethical and political aspect, Machiavellian thought is a polarised one, as Croce and Gramsci have pointed out. We subscribe to the view that considers as too simplistic the attempt to analyse Machiavelli’s work according to the triad: moral, immoral, amoral, because understanding it necessitates the use of nuances and subtleties.

  9. Hobbes y la moral egoísta en el estado de naturaleza

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    Maximiliano Martínez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo examino la afirmación controversial de que la moralidad existe en el estado de naturaleza de Hobbes (instanciada en la postulación racional/prudencial de las leyes naturales y cómo ésta resulta ser preámbulo necesario para el paso al estado de civilidad. Para ello retomo el trabajo de G. Kavka al respecto, a la vez que hago un detallado análisis de la respuesta que da Hobbes al argumento del necio, apoyándome en la teoría de juegos. Al final hago una propuesta sobre la necesidad y justificación del paso de un estado al otro, resaltando la precariedad de la moral presente en el estado de naturaleza para garantizar el cumplimiento de las leyes naturales.

  10. Teoria da motivação humana na filosofia natural de Hobbe

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    Cláudio Leivas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Compreender de forma clara e sucinta como a teoria da sensação de Hobbes articula e engendra sua teoria da motivação, essa constituída pelas afecções (paixões, deliberação, vontade e ação, é o que pretendemos com o presente estudo.

  11. Brazil when reading Machiavelli: notes on the first Brazilian edition of The prince, translated by Elias Davidovich

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    Sandra Bagno

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the Brazilian response to Machiavelli's books and ideas reveals that The prince was published for the first time only in the 1930s in the Portuguese-speaking countries. Nevertheless, since the 16th century in Europe, and despite the fact that it had been listed in 1559 in the Indexof prohibited books, the work was being published and circulated in several ways. Far from taking advantage of the possibility of doing justice, almost four centuries later, to the founder of the modern political science, the translation of 1933, published by the Calvino Filho publishing house, in Rio de Janeiro, is introduced by a preface written by Mauricio Medeiros. Although politically engaged in the fight for freedom and against the authoritarianism of Getúlio Vargas, his preface, if analyzed from a paratextual perspective, seems meant to reaffirm, in the 20th century, the traditional interpretation of the Machiavellian work done by the (not strictly libertarian Portuguese inquisitors at linguistic and lexicographic levels.

  12. Hobbes, la coopération et la théorie des jeux

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    Marc Parmentier

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available L'objectif de cet article est d'établir dans quelle mesure la théorie des jeux permet de formaliser et d'éclairer trois problématiques-clés de la philosophie politique de Hobbes : la guerre de tous contre tous dans l'état de nature ; le pacte instaurant un souverain absolu ; le mode d'action de ce dernier pour faire respecter les contrats au sein de l'état civil. L'analyse révèle qu'à certains égards le « problème de confiance » formulé par Amartya Sen apparaît plus pertinent que le célèbre « dilemme du prisonnier » évoqué par de nombreux commentateurs. Elle révèle également les ambiguïtés d'une œuvre susceptible de plusieurs modélisations et de plusieurs jugements possibles quant à la place de son auteur dans l'histoire du libéralisme.This article aims to establish whether the theory of games can formalise and explain three basic issues raised by Hobbes: the war of all against all in the state of nature; the social contract that establish absolute sovereignty; legitimate means at the sovereign’s disposal to impose people’s consent to abide by the rules of the social contract. It will be argued that the « assurance problem » formulated by Amartya Sen appears more relevant than the well-known « prisoner's dilemma » in some respects. Our analysis also reveals some ambiguities in Hobbes' political philosophy that may lead to diverse interpretations and judgments about his role in the history of liberalism.

  13. GUERRA E PAZ NA TEORIA POLÍTICA DE THOMAS HOBBES

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    Lígia Pavan Baptista

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem o objetivo de analisar em que medida a teoria política moderna, tal como apresentada por Thomas Hobbes, expondo um novo paradigma na análise de questões como a origem do Estado e do poder político, assim como, definindo, por meio de metodologia científica, conceitos tais como guerra, paz, soberania, justiça, igualdade e liberdade, podem estabelecer as raízes de questões das relações internacionais, apesar de não ser o principal objetivo do autor.

  14. Thomas Hobbes: la resistencia política al Leviatán

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Peychaux, Diego Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    En el presente artículo se presentan cuatro claves de lectura de la obra de Thomas Hobbes desde las que fundamentar una noción de resistencia. Este aporte busca, en otras palabras, crear las condiciones de posibilidad de un debate filosófico ofuscado por el mito recurrente sobre el supuesto monstruo de Malmesbury. Una vez hecho esto, se propone delinear las bases de un enfoque metodológico que parta de dicha noción de resistencia. De ese modo, se fundamentaría el primer paso hacia una apropia...

  15. The reception of Machiavelli and the neo-machiavellian in Political Science, with special reference to the Uruguayan case (1957-1985

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    José Miguel Busquets

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the reception of Machiavelli and the neo machiavellian (Pareto, Mosca, Michels, in the main Political Science paradigms, as well as in the teaching of this discipline at the University of the Republic, from 1957, when the first Political Science chair was created at the Law School, till 1985, when Uruguay returned to democracy, after a twelve-year period of civil-military dictatorship. For this purpose, first, this article will review the itinerary of international Political Science, presenting the different stages that this discipline has gone through. Then, it will make an approach to the reception of Machiavelli and the neo-machiavellian in three political scientists of great significance: Harold Laswell, Robert Dahl and Giovanni Sartori. Second, the paper will examine the reception of the works of the Florentine author and the elitist theorists in three Political Science chairs that were conducted during the indicated period by Alberto Ramón Real, Carlos Real de Azúa and Jacques Ginesta. Finally, there will be a reflection on the different emphases that were made in the teaching of Political Science at that time, particularly following the intervention of the University after the 1973 coup d’État.

  16. Razão, história e justificação da lei civil segundo Thomas Hobbes

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    Wladimir Barreto Lisboa

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O autor procura analisar a relação existenteentre lei natural e lei civil em Thomas Hobbes.Para isso analisa sua crítica à história e ao commonlaw enquanto incapazes de fundar a racionalidadedo poder civil. Mostra-se igualmente de que modoo poder soberano encontra seu fundamento nas leismorais. Por fim, indica-se como a igualdade de direitos,tal como pensada na modernidade, sobretudoem Hobbes, parece inviabilizar a idéia de direitoscujos titulares seriam grupos e não indivíduos.Abstract: The author analyzes the relationbetween natural law and civil law in ThomasHobbes, pointing out Hobbes’ argument thatneither history or common law are able to foundcivil’s power rationality. The article shows, aswell, how sovereign power is founded by themoral law and how the equality of rights inHobbes seems to undermine the idea that ispossible for groups to be subject of rights insteadindividuals.

  17. Comment Hobbes tente de rendre son matérialisme acceptable dans les appendices du Léviathan

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    Anne Staquet

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Le Léviathan de Hobbes [1651] a subi de nombreuses attaques, au point qu’il est jugé responsable de la grande peste de 1665 et de l’incendie de Londres l’année suivante et que le parlement ouvre une procédure contre l’ouvrage. Aussi, lorsqu’en 1666, Thomas Hobbes veut publier la traduction latine de ce livre, il y adjoint trois appendices. La version latine de l’œuvre est généralement jugée plus acceptable que le texte originaire anglais. En étudiant la manière dont Hobbes traite de son matérialisme dans ces appendices, je tente de montrer que les addenda latins ne constituent en aucune manière un retour en arrière du texte, mais que le philosophe enrobe simplement davantage des propos que, par ailleurs, il rend plus radicaux.Hobbes’s Leviathan [1651] has been critiqued so much that it was held responsible for the Great Plague of 1665 and the Fire of London during the following year, resulting in the Parliament instituting proceedings against the book. Therefore, when in 1666 Thomas Hobbes wanted to publish a Latin translation of this book, he added three appendices. Generally, the Latin version of the work is considered more acceptable than the English original text. By studying how Hobbes deals with his materialism in these appendices, I try to show that the Latin additions are in no way a reversal of the text, but that the philosopher simply veiled more propositions, while at the same time making them more radical.

  18. Competencia, desconfianza y la pérdida del disfrute. Un detalle del Leviathan de Hobbes

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    Mauro Basaure

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Competencia y desconfianza son consideradas por Hobbes fuentes básicas de la agresión. Se muestra que responden a lógicas diferentes: Mientras que la competencia conduce a la agresión concreta y motivada por el deseo sensible de objetos, la desconfianza supone un rendimiento cognitivo mayor; a saber, el considerar a cualquier otro como enemigo y a los objetos como medios de aseguramiento futuro, mediante la anticipación y la lucha por el poder. Al devenir esto último prototipo de la acción racional, el disfrute de objetos tiende a ser relegado a la irracionalidad. La novedad esta en evidenciar esta cuestión y algunas de sus consecuencias.

  19. Competion, Diffidence, and the Loss of Enjoyment. An Aspect of Hobbes' Leviathan

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    Mauro Basaure

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available According to Hobbes, competition and diffidence are basic sources of aggression. The paper argues that different logics are involved in these causes of quarrel. While competition leads to concrete aggression, motivated by a desire for objects based on the senses, diffidence requires a greater cognitive effort and leads to aggression against others considered as potential enemies. In the latter case, objects matter as a means to future safety, through the anticipation of and the struggle for power, deemed to be prototypes of rational action. In this respect, the enjoyment of objects tends to be relegated to the sphere of irrationality. The novelty of our approach lies in making evident the issue and some of its consequences.

  20. Hobbes y la teoría del Estado moderno. La lectura de Bobbio

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    Vitale, Ermanno

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This article gives an account of Thomas Hobbes’s two main legacies to the modern political thought, in the reading that Noberto Bobbio has given in many of his works. The first one is a methodological legacy, which consists in the priority of the demonstratio over any kind of interpretatio. The second is individualism, whose different dimensions are decisive to justify, to compare, and to judge the wide range of political formulae that the Leviathan, as nature of the modern State, can hold. The article ends with a third level of comparison of the opposite fortune of Hobbes’s and Bobbio’s works in their times and ours.

    Este trabajo está dedicado al análisis de dos legados fundamentales de Thomas Hobbes al pensamiento político moderno, en la lectura que de ello ha ofrecido Norberto Bobbio. El primero es un legado de carácter metodológico, que consiste en dar prioridad a la demostratio por encima de cualquier forma de interpretatio. El segundo es el individualismo, cuyas diferentes declinaciones son decisivas para fundar, medir y valorar las diversas fórmulas políticas que el Leviatán, en cuanto esencia del Estado moderno, puede albergar. El trabajo se cierra con un tercer nivel de comparación sobre la fortuna de Hobbes y de Bobbio entre sus contemporáneos y en nuestros días.

  1. O historiador e o teórico: a historiografia de Hobbes na teoria das relações internacionais The historian and the theoretician: Hobbes' historiography in the theory of international relations

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    Soraya Nour

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Uma dificuldade crucial no estudo das relações internacionais é unir investigação teórica com investigação histórica. O objetivo deste artigo é analisar como Hobbes enfrentou este problema, bem como em que medida a solução que apresentou influenciou a teoria das relações internacionais e permite ainda hoje resolver dificuldades desta disciplina. A primeira parte examina como Hobbes justifica seu método de pensar histórica e teoricamente ao mesmo tempo. A segunda parte mostra como Hobbes é recuperado no pós-Segunda Guerra tanto pela revisão do programa idealista como pelo emergente realismo, em ambos os casos a fim de criticar o idealismo do entreguerras. A terceira parte, tendo em vista o debate contemporâneo em relações internacionais, mostra como o neo-realismo, concentrando-se em tecnologias de poder, perde o interesse pela investigação histórica presente no realismo clássico; e o normativismo que se fortalece a partir dos anos 90, formulando uma justificada crítica à ausência de reflexão ética no neorealismo, recai muitas vezes em variantes do idealismo utópico. Em ambos há um déficit de investigação histórica, o que não permite analisar a contingência das relações sociais. Se o caráter predominantemente antropológico da historiografia de Hobbes, bem como o caráter predominantemente institucionalista de sua teoria do Estado e do Direito não podem mais ser aceitos, é seu modo de pensar ao mesmo tempo teórica e historicamente o legado e o desafio que nos deixa.A crucial issue in international relations is to associate theoretical with historical inquiry. This paper aims to analyse how Hobbes struggled with this problem, in which measure his answers have influenced the theory of international relations and to what extent they permit the solution of contemporary problems in this discipline. The first part analyses how Hobbes justifies his method of thinking both historically and theoretically. The

  2. «I speak generally of Law». Law, Laws and Courts in the Dialogue of Thomas Hobbes

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    Mario Piccinini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing the Dialogue between a Philosopher and a Student of the Common Laws of England by Thomas Hobbes, the essay traces the historical tradition and the reasons for its secular underestimation. The Hobbesian text is placed within the history of English law and the controversies that accompanied and followed the revolution of 1640. It is then compared with the political works of Hobbes, showing how the silence of the law is gradually replacing the state of nature as image of the death of the Commonwealth. The Dialogue proves to be a firm position in favor of an universal and equal capacity to understand what the law is. This latter is the product of the will of a sovereign, who however is the institutionalization of the authorization of the individuals who constitute it.

  3. Razón natural y racionalidad política en el Leviatan de Thomas Hobbes

    OpenAIRE

    Branda, Corina Inés

    2015-01-01

    The author analyses the political rationality that appears in Hobbes' Leviathan. For that purpose, she first studies the psychological elements, the passions and reason in a natural state. She then approaches the role that these elements play when time comes to build the artifice that the state is. Finally, she analyses the notion of political rationality that emerged with the state and its relationship with natural passions and reason. Analiza la autora la racionalidad política que aparec...

  4. Razón natural y racionalidad política en el Leviatan de Thomas Hobbes

    OpenAIRE

    Branda, Corina Inés

    2015-01-01

    The author analyses the political rationality that appears in Hobbes' Leviathan. For that purpose, she first studies the psychological elements, the passions and reason in a natural state. She then approaches the role that these elements play when time comes to build the artifice that the state is. Finally, she analyses the notion of political rationality that emerged with the state and its relationship with natural passions and reason. Analiza la autora la racionalidad política que aparec...

  5. Liberdade, lei natural e direito natural em Hobbes: limiar do direito e da política na modernidade Freedom, natural law and natural right in Hobbes: threshold of law and politics in modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Maruyama

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Liberdade e poder são dois temas que se correlacionam ao longo da história da filosofia política moderna. Nos textos de Hobbes, a ideia da liberdade como ausência de impedimentos às ações ajuda-nos a pensar o dever de obediência ao poder soberano e as relações entre política e direito. Uma situação de vácuo jurídico, em que tudo é permitido, faz-se, contudo, impossível, de modo que a solução de Hobbes consiste em sustentar a ideia do direito natural como direito originário individual vinculado à preservação da vida. Suas ideias do direito natural e da lei natural, que servem de fundamento ao dever de obediência ao soberano, amparam-se em princípios jurídicos, teológicos e biológicos. Tais princípios, entretanto, não dão conta da questão da extensão do poder soberano. Hobbes recorre à análise da linguagem. Sua teoria contratual afirma o princípio de preservação da vida na base da política e sustenta a ideia da criação e da manutenção do poder soberano no ato de linguagem implicado na estrutura representativa do pacto político.Liberty and power are two subjects correlated along the history of the political modern philosophy. In the texts of Hobbes, the idea of liberty as absence of impediments to the actions helps us to think the duty of obedience to the sovereign power and the relations between politics and right. A situation of legal vacuum, in which everything is allowed, is, nevertheless, impossible, so that the solution of Hobbes consists in supporting the idea of the natural right like original individual right linked to the preservation of the life. His ideas of the natural right and of the natural law, which serve of basis to the duty of obedience to a sovereign, lean on legal, theological and biological principles. In spite of that, such principles do not surround the question of the extension of the sovereign power. Hobbes resorts to the analysis of the language. His contractual theory affirms

  6. Las concepciones del "Ius naturale" o los fundamentos de la política en Grocio, Hobbes y Espinosa

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco Echauri, Jesús (Ed.)

    2003-01-01

    El estudio de los textos del jurista Huigh de Groot revela la gestación y puesta a punen de un formidable dispositivo jurídico que ha ejercido una notable influencia histórica sobre botos parte de los mayores filósofos políticos de su siglo. Tanto Hobbes como Espinosa reconducen a la unidad los dos facultades originales que, situadas sobre un mismo plano, Grocio se limitaba a concebir en términos de simple yuxtaposición, repensando la relación entre la propiedad (dominium) de la persona físic...

  7. A RAZÃO E SUA INFLUÊNCIA NA CONSTRUÇÃO POLÍTICA PARA HOBBES

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Cristina Longo Cardoso Dias

    2014-01-01

    Este trabalho tem como objetivo definir o significado de razão para Hobbes, com a finalidade de entender quais as consequências que a definição deste termo ocasiona para a teoria política do autor. Compreender a noção de razão e sua influência para a política significa depreender a noção de natureza humana posta pelo autor e sua necessária ligação com a construção de sua teoria política

  8. 马基雅维里视域中的政治合法性基础%Politics Validity Basis in the Perspective of Machiavelli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马俊峰

    2014-01-01

    马基雅维里通过赋予“美德”新的内涵,进一步修改了原有的道德原则,在政治领域悬置“善”,实现了欧洲伦理道德观的大革新;他重新设置了政治权力的合法性基础,主张政治德性能力是政治正当性基础,暴力手段则是构筑政治权力的例外决断行为,人民群众是政治统治和反对腐败的有生力量,这些观念对我们建立强有力的廉洁政府,实现中国特色的社会主义民主与法治道路具有重要借鉴意义。%Machiavelli further modified original moral principle by bestowing the virtue vocabulary with new connotation, used the virtue to dominate his policies in political field, realized great reform of ethic and moral outlook in Europe, reset the validity basis for political power, asserted that political moral capacity is the basis of political legitimation while violent methods are ex-ceptional resolution behavior to consolidate the political power and that the masses are effective force for political ruling and anti-corruption, whose ideas are of important reference significance to build a clean government with strong strength and to realize de-mocracy and legal management of the socialism with Chinese characteristics.

  9. SOBRE O ESTADO DE NATUREZA E O ESTADO CIVIL: UM DIÁLOGO ENTRE THOMAS HOBBES E IMMANUEL KANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreza Barreto Leitão

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, busca-se trazer à luz as relações entre Estado, Sociedade Civil e garantias de liberdade tendo em vista a evolução do pensamento político a esse respeito. Para tanto, tomou-se como parâmetro a passagem do estado de natureza ao estado civil segundo as concepções de Thomas Hobbes e de Immanuel Kant, levando-se em consideração as influências e os respectivos contextos históricos em que os arcabouços teóricos de cada autor foram erigidos. O primeiro deles veria tal passagem como fruto de um cálculo interessado, o segundo, como resultado de um dever-ser.

  10. [The controversy between Grotius, Hobbes and Spinoza on the jus circa sacra texts, pretexts, contexts and circomstances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lærke, Mogens

    2016-12-01

    In this contribution, I sketch out a methodological framework for the study of controversies in the history of philosophy. It is built around four basic components: texts, contexts, pretexts and circumstances. I show how, once these four elements have been identified and systematically distinguished and distributed, a controversy has been localized and circumscribed. I show, moreover, how controversies are formally linked to each other through the migration of texts from one context to another. Next, I take as an example the controversy on the jus circa sacra, or "right of holy matters," a key controversy in the political philosophy of the early modern period, focusing in particular on the work by Grotius, Hobbes and Spinoza.

  11. Hobbes, les pirates et les corsaires. Le « Léviathan échoué » selon Carl Schmitt

    OpenAIRE

    Dominique Weber

    2005-01-01

    Parmi les nombreux problèmes que pose l’ouvrage de Carl Schmitt Le Léviathan dans la doctrine de l’État de Thomas Hobbes, il en est un, majeur, qui concerne l’utilisation de la « mythologie politique » pour expliquer la réalité ou les doctrines politiques. Il y a là, à n’en pas douter, l’expression de l’un des versants de l’irrationalisme de Schmitt. La thèse de l’auteur est très claire : parce que Hobbes ne possédait aucun « sens mythologique », il s’est trompé de monstre biblique, appelant ...

  12. A posição original como mediação entre estado de natureza e imperativo categórico: Rawls entre Hobbes e Kant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delamar José Volpato Dutra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2014v13n1p112O texto apresenta o conceito de lei natural em Hobbes e contesta que o conteúdo da mesma seja exclusivamente um imperativo hipotético decorrente da racionalidade estratégica. Aproveita a interpretação de Rawls para conferir um estatuto moral ao conteúdo das leis naturais, tais quais elas foram propostas por Hobbes. Para tal intento, a posição original é lida como uma estratégia de contaminação do imperativo categórico por imperativos hipotéticos. Se Kant afirma que, com várias limitações, a regra de ouro pode ser derivada do imperativo categórico, então, deve haver algum elemento da regra de outro no imperativo categórico. O texto perscruta qual seria esse elemento. O presente artigo apresenta, portanto, uma leitura de Hobbes inspirada na posição original de Rawls, cuja finalidade será mostrar que as interpretações morais de Hobbes sustentadas, por exemplo, por Taylor, Warrender, Rawls e Habermas, são defensáveis, muito embora não pelas razões alegadas por alguns deles. Conclui-se estar em questão, destarte, não uma discordância quanto aos conteúdos do que se poderia chamar justiça ou regras de convivência, mas quanto às estratégias de fundamentação.

  13. Hobbes, les pirates et les corsaires. Le « Léviathan échoué » selon Carl Schmitt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Weber

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Parmi les nombreux problèmes que pose l’ouvrage de Carl Schmitt Le Léviathan dans la doctrine de l’État de Thomas Hobbes, il en est un, majeur, qui concerne l’utilisation de la « mythologie politique » pour expliquer la réalité ou les doctrines politiques. Il y a là, à n’en pas douter, l’expression de l’un des versants de l’irrationalisme de Schmitt. La thèse de l’auteur est très claire : parce que Hobbes ne possédait aucun « sens mythologique », il s’est trompé de monstre biblique, appelant Leviathan son traité consacré au pouvoir d’État, alors qu’il aurait dû l’appeler plus adéquatement Behemoth, manquant du coup la Meeresbild caractérisant l’Angleterre de son temps. La thèse peut paraître séduisante, elle s’appuie néanmoins sur un présupposé fort contestable, car Hobbes ne vise nullement à créer des mythes. Il s’agit donc d’interroger la théorisation hobbesienne de la piraterie, d’une part, et de la dissidence religieuse « sauvage », d’autre part, afin de montrer que le choix par Hobbes des monstres du Livre de Job est un choix rationnellement assumé.

  14. Potência de ação e ordem: o poder e a razão segundo Nicolau Maquiavel e Thomas Hobbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kersting, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O autor apresenta aborda, primeiramente, a relação entre poder e razão no pensamento político de Maquiavel. Num segundo momento, apresenta, no pensamento de Hobbes, a trajetória que se estende da razão impotente do estado de natureza até à razão poderosa do Estado, dispensador de segurança

  15. Classical Republicanism of Machiavelli from the Perspective of Political Thought%浅析古典共和主义视域下的马基雅维利政治思想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈芊羽

    2016-01-01

    马基雅维利在政治思想史中是一位颇具争议的思想家。马基雅维利由于从小受到传统的古典文化教育,他在政治思想上怀有浓厚的古典共和主义色彩,但是却并不是一个典型意义上的古典共和主义者。本文旨将马基雅维利放置于古典共和主义思想的视域之下,提出马基雅维利共和主义思想的独到之处。他继承了古典共和主义的混合均衡思想,但是却打破了古典共和主义的美德观,建立了人性恶的伦理观。%Machiavelli is a controversial thinker in political thought history.Due to his traditional classical cultural education since childhood,he has strong classical republicanism color,but is not a typical sense of classical republicans.This paper aimed to Machiavelli process under the vision of classical republicanism thought and put forward the unique feature of his repub-licanism thought.He inherited the classical republicanism mixed equilibrium,but broke the concept of the virtues of classical republicanism and established the evil human nature of ethics.

  16. 马基雅维利的转向--论敌友划分的限度%The Turn of Machiavelli---The Limit of Distinguishing Friends from Enemies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李世祥

    2015-01-01

    Machiavelli has two major types of works, those on politics ( The Prince, Discourses on Livy, and Florentine Histories) and military works ( The Art of War) . Reading The Art of War by comparing it to his other works helps us understand his political philosophy better. There is a long history in the West of differentiating friends from enemies, and the classic political philosophy has strictly stated the difference between political and military purposes. Machiavelli, however, breaks this restriction by combing the two purposes into one, thus erasing the dividing line between the inside and outside of political entities, and the border between war and peace. Consequently, politics becomes a much more cruel process, foreshadowing Thomas Hobbes‘political philosophy.%马基雅维利的主要著作可以分为两类,即政治著作(《君主论》、《论李维》和《佛罗伦萨史》)和军事著作(《战争的技艺》),将《战争的技艺》与其他著作对比阅读有助于我们更好地理解马基雅维利的政治哲学。敌友划分在西方历史悠久,古典政治哲学对敌友划分在军事和政治中的适用进行了严格区分。马基雅维利突破了这一限定,将二者合而为一,模糊了政治共同体的内与外、战争与和平的界限,其后果是使政治变得更加残酷焦灼,为后来霍布斯的政治哲学埋下了伏笔。

  17. Entre Carl Schmitt y Thomas Hobbes . Un es tudio del liberalismo moderno a partir del pensamiento de Leo Strauss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Daniel Parra Quintero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente ensayo es una lectura sobre el liberalismo moderno desde el pensamiento de Leo Strauss. A partir de su análisis del Concepto de lo político de Carl Schmitt y su crítica de la "despolitización y neutralización" liberal, Strauss responde con una afirmación del problema del derecho natural, para lo cual es fundamental como primer paso estudiar la filosofía política de Thomas Hobbes. Desde allí Strauss se plantea un punto de contraste hacia una consideración clásica del derecho natural que pueda hacer frente al nihilismo político o cosmopolitanismo apolítico en la modernidad tardía, resultado ambos tanto del histori-cismo radical como del positivismo metodológico. Strauss antepone a la afirmación de la voluntad del poder soberano la búsqueda del derecho natural como representación de la idea de la justicia.

  18. Poderes invisíveis versus poderes visíveis no Leviatã de Thomas Hobbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Hermílio Villas Bôas Castelo Branco

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available O conceito de secularização adotado pelas teorias do Estado moderno permitiu institucionalizar um Estado laico que alterou a concepção de legitimidade, solapando qualquer possibilidade de reivindicação do poder divino pelos governantes. Hoje, porém, depois do 11 de setembro de 2001, acentuou-se a necessidade de repensar o conceito de secularização, precisamente, à luz do papel que a religião desempenha na política interna e externa dos estados. Este artigo sugere que o conceito de secularização nem sempre foi pensado como separação entre o poder espiritual e o poder temporal. A investigação do Leviatã de Thomas Hobbes, obra apontada por muitos como precursora da teoria do Estado moderno, indica outro sentido para a compreensão do conceito de seculariação.

  19. Do poder à liberdade civil: elementos fundacionais do pensamento político de Thomas Hobbes no Leviatã

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Kritsch

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é introduzir os alunos no pensamento político de Thomas Hobbes, tomando como ponto de partida a teoria política por ele desenvolvida no Leviatã, provavelmente sua obra mais conhecida. Partindo-se da categoria mais elementar do pensamento hobbesiano, o poder, à qual se podem reduzir todas as demais relações humanas, aborda-se as noções de estado de natureza, competição, direito, lei, Estado e liberdade, procurando sintetizar ao leitor que se inicia nos clássicos do pensamento político os principais passos lógicos do autor para a construção de sua teoria do Estado bem como seus principais elementos.

  20. Le Léviathan dans la doctrine de l’État de Thomas Hobbes : sens et échec du décisionnisme politique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Tuchscherer

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Présenté en 1938, le Der Leviathan de Carl Schmitt clos un ensemble de réflexions que le juriste et politologue allemand a consacré au décisionnisme politique. Au long de son commentaire sur Hobbes, Schmitt aboutit toutefois à un résultat inattendu. Naguère loué comme « le cas classique de la pensée décisionniste », Hobbes s’est métamorphosé à son insu en « ancêtre spirituel » de l’État législateur et libéral-constitutionnel. Schmitt a trouvé chez son allié le plus précieux les germes d’une pensée qu’il n’a cessé d’éreinter sous toutes ses formes, qu’on la décline dans sa version techniciste, positiviste, constitutionnaliste bourgeoise et libérale, individualiste ou pluraliste. C’est en ce sens que le Der Leviathan résume à bien des égards le sens et l’échec du décisionnisme politique.

  1. El principio «exeundum esse e statu naturali». Su formulación en Hobbes y su desarrollo en la filosofía alemana clásica

    OpenAIRE

    Bergés, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    El principio «exeundum esse e statu naturali» lo desarrollan de forma consistente los filósofos que conciben el Derecho, en palabras de Hegel, como «existencia de la voluntad libre» (Dasein des freien Willens). Hobbes formula este principio como un i

  2. High temperature process steam application at the Southern Union Refining Company, Hobbs, New Mexico. Solar energy in the oil patch. Final report, Phase III: operation, maintenance, and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, L.E.; McGuire, D.R.

    1984-05-01

    This final report summarizes the technical reports for Phase III of this project. The third phase included the operation, maintenance, upgrade and performance reporting of a 10,080 square foot Solar Industrial Process Heat System installed at the Famariss Energy Refinery of Southern Union Refining Company near Hobbs, New Mexico. This report contains a description of the upgraded system, and a summary of the overall operation, maintenance and performance of the installed system. The results of the upgrade activities can be seen in the last two months of operational data. Steam production was significantly greater in peak flow and monthly total than at any previous time. Also monthly total cost savings was greatly improved even though natural gas costs remain much lower than originally anticipated.

  3. Hobbes en Sinaloa, o del corrido como resolución poética a un orden social marcado por la violencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa De la Garza Chávez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo muestra cómo una veta de la producción actual de corridos constituye una forma tan innovadora como radical de actuar frente a una realidad social que tiene mucho en común con el «estado de naturaleza» que Hobbes imaginó como causante del primer pacto político de la historia de la humanidad. En el México de hoy, en el que no se observa otra cosa que el fracaso de la política, la única opción para garantizar la conservación de sí parece radicar en la poética.

  4. Leerse a sí mismo: hermenéutica, política y retórica en Thomas Hobbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Rossi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available El reconocimiento del conflicto como realidad constitutiva de lo humano y la necesidad de un cierre que pasa por la fijación de la palabra justa encuentran en Hobbes su primera formulación. El pasaje de la instancia retórico-interpretativa a la axiomático-científica se da en Leviatan a través de tres momentos: introspectivo, contractual, estadual; su despliegue permite reconocer a la hermenéutica como resorte imprescindible para la implantación de un orden político fundado en la articulación entre ser (una antropología, decir (una retórica y actuar (una praxis. El intérprete resulta así un operador clave en el ajuste de las instancias natural y político-social

  5. Libertad negativa y libre desarrollo de la personalidad en la jurisprudencia constitucional colombiana: un análisis desde la perspectiva de John Stuart Mill y Thomas Hobbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Jaramillo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo pretende demostrar que la Corte Constitucional colombiana confunde la noción de libre desarrollo de la personalidad con la noción de libertad negativa, debido a que en el fondo de su argumentación subyace el pensamiento de Thomas Hobbes; situación distinta sería si la Corte fundamentara sus sentencias en el concepto de libertad, desarrollado por John Stuart Mill, quien estaría más acorde con la noción de libre desarrollo de la personalidad bajo los presupuestos de un Estado Social y Democrático de Derecho fundado en la dignidad humana.

  6. La teoría de la justicia en el estado natural y en el estado político, según Hobbes

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    Fernando Aranda Fraga

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available El contractualismo explica y justifica el fundamento y la posibilidad de la sociedad a partir de un pacto entre seres libres e iguales. Según Hobbes, los hombres, antes de pactar entre sí, vivían en un estado de guerra de todos contra todos, por tanto carente de justicia. Tampoco había leyes, ni propiedad, ni civilización alguna. En concreto, no existían los derechos, y por tanto era imprescindible buscar una solución eficaz. Deciden por mutuo acuerdo nombrar un garante de sus derechos y obligaciones; entonces nace el Estado y sólo a partir de ese momento queda instaurada la justicia.

  7. De la locura y la inseguridad del derecho a la racionalidad y el orden de la ley. Lectura dialéctica de Thomas Hobbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blasco Aznar, Pedro Luis

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available I take for granted as a starting-point the anthropological antinomy on the individual/social nature of man. This antinomy is constituted politically in Hobbes’ thought as the antinomy individual/society, whose legal expression gives rise to the antinomy right/law —in his iusnaturalist conception— which reflects as well the anthropological antinomy passion/reason. This dialectical conception is only implicit in his political and legal philosophy; however, it becomes obvious if the underlying anthropology is analysed. Therefore, the problems derived from this dialectics require a dialectical solution in accordance with the dialecticity of its anthropological foundation. That is why Hobbes’ legal and political philosophy was not and is not still adequate or effective, but in a partial or negative way.

    Asumo como punto de partida la antinomia antropológica de la naturaleza individual/ social del hombre, que se constituye en el pensamiento de Hobbes, políticamente, como la antinomia indviduo/sociedad, cuya expresión jurídica da lugar a la antinomia derecho/ ley, en su concepción iusnaturalista, que refleja asimismo la antinomia antropológica pasión/razón. Tal concepción dialéctica sólo está implícita en su Filosofía Política y Filosofía del Derecho, pero se hace bien patente si analizamos la antropología subyacente en ella. Por lo tanto, los problemas que esta dialéctica origina requieren una solución o salida dialéctica de acuerdo a la dialecticidad de su fundamento antropológico. Por eso la filosofía jurídica y política de Hobbes no pudo ni puede ser adecuada ni efectiva sino parcial o negativamente.

  8. 自由与权威的和解--认真对待霍布斯%Reconciliation between Liberty and Authority ---Taking Hobbes Serious

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高信奇

    2013-01-01

    在政治哲学史上,霍布斯是位颇具争议的政治思想家,其主权权威与公民自由的思想主张被认为是充满理论张力的,实际上,霍布斯主张主权权威和公民自由是相容的。霍布斯企图从基于人的自保本性和恐惧心理出发,设计出利维坦式的主权权威来赢得社会秩序,实现现代政治秩序的再生产;用全新的自由内涵置换古典共和主义的自由之义,迎来了近代自由主义自由的诞生;公民自由和政治秩序的融合与两者的兼得,是霍布斯设计利维坦式国家的真正鹄的,开启了近代政治哲学的新局面。%Hobbes is a debatable thinker in political philosophy history .There is theoretical tension be-tween sovereignty authority and civil liberty in his thought .In fact, his opinion of sovereignty authority and civil liberty is consistent and reconciled .Hobbes devises Leviathan ’ s sovereignty authority to gain social or-der, on the basis of human self -protection and fear in psychology .He replaces liberty connotation of classical republicanism by new liberal concept , and promotes the emerge of modern liberalism .The end of Hobbes’ Levia-than is to realize reconciliation of civil liberty and political order ,create a new age of modern political philosophy .

  9. Hobbs 3T MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    LVH  MPO  Myeloperoxidase   No independent association with ASHD.  Modest association with LV remodeling  PLGF  Placental growth factor (angiogenic...Placental Growth Factor (PLGF) Myeloperoxidase Pregnancy associated plasma protein alpha FSH Beta Crosslaps Lipoprotein subfractions (NMR) LH Insulin

  10. Hobbes antimaquiaveliano: la crítica al 'necio' en Leviatán como crítica a la concepción política de "El príncipe"

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, Luis Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Se examinan los argumentos expuestos por Thomas Hobbes contra el "necio" en su obra "Leviatán" relacionándolos con la dicotomía entre repúblicas por institución y repúblicas por adquisición establecida por este mismo autor. Sostenemos que la refutación del escéptico es una crítica a la concepción política desarrollada por Nicolás Maquiavelo en "El príncipe" e ilustrada por la noción de "virtù". Aquellos argumentos revelan los límites normativos que el propio Hobbes impone al realismo usualmen...

  11. Theologico-political Issues in Richard Hooker’s Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity and Thomas Hobbes’s Leviathan Le théologico-politique chez Richard Hooker (Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity et Thomas Hobbes (Leviathan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Lurbe

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Hooker et Hobbes ont tous deux été amenés à défendre la suprématie royale contre ses adversaires presbytériens. Une certaine ressemblance de formulation ne doit toutefois pas masquer de profondes divergences, portant à la fois sur l’ampleur de la prérogative royale en matière religieuse et sur la nature de la religion elle-même.

  12. Philosophia prima como repraesentatio na filosofia natural de Hobbes: exame de fundamentos metafísico-cognitivos como complementos teóricos de seu materialismo mecanicista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio R. C. Leivas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O ponto de partida da Philosophia prima de Hobbes tem como referência a Física e a Metafísica de Aristóteles. O desenvolvimento posterior de sua Philosophia prima, porém, põe em marcha uma crítica da metafísica aristotélica que conduzirá a um remanejamentoteórico de uma série de princípios e conceitos herdados da tradição. Considerada em seu conjunto, a filosofia primeira hobbesiana é constituída por uma definição ampla, isto é, a metafísica definida como ciência do ente enquanto ente (ao invés da clássica definição de ciência do ser enquanto ser, sobre a qual duas definições strictu sensu são erigidas: a metafísica como física geral - dizer o ente (ens é dizer o corpo (corpus - e a metafísica como representação. Este paper é um esforço no sentido de compreender essas e outras questões concernentes aos estudos hobbesianos sobre a forma como conhecemos o mundo, as coisas e nós mesmos.

  13. O mito das Olimpíadas: Hesíodo, Bacon, Hobbes e a infindável luta dos titãs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Santos da Silva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem por objetivo apresentar alguns dos aspectos mitológicos que fundamentam a realização das olimpíadas desde a antiguidade grega, particularmente a “corrida de tochas acessas” que atualmente inaugura a abertura dos jogos. Para tanto, buscamos apresentar alguns relatos que narram a realização dos jogos olímpicos como uma espécie memória aos mitos fundadores da cultura grega. Nesse registro, consideramos alguns aspectos das narrativas de Hesíodo sobre o mito de Prometeu, bem como algumas observações de filósofos modernos como Francis Bacon e Thomas Hobbes sobre como essa fábula narra a interpretação de uma condição humana fundada em uma competição análoga à uma interminável luta de titãs. Condição humana essa oriunda da desobediência às vontades dos deuses do Olimpo, cristalizada na expressão de uma cultura da competição que visa não apenas agradar a esses deuses, detentores do poder no Olimpo, mas também igualar certos homens a eles.

  14. La visión moderna del derecho y del Estado de Hobbes y Nietzsche ante el desafío de la globalización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Zavatta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available La teoría moderna del Estado se basa en la supervivencia como el objetivo principal del bien personal. Hobbes y Hume creen que la necesidad fundamental de “querer vivir” es la base de los conceptos sociales esenciales como el peligro y la salvación, el daño y el beneficio, la enfermedad y el cuidado. Hume confirma la tesis de que la naturaleza humana no podía escapar del peligro y la muerte sin la sociedad, que puede implementarse solo si todos respetan el imperio de la ley. Incluso Nietzsche cree que el terreno de toda la moralidad se puede preparar solo cuando un individuo mayor somete a los solteros, ordenándolos en una asociación. Todo el mundo puede vivir exclusivamente en una sociedad regida por la ley, tratando de salvarse delos peligros dela manipulación y cancelación, cada vez más graveen la era de la globalización.

  15. 从培根与霍布斯回顾荀子%Retrospecting Xunzi from Bacon and Hobbes (with special reference to two opposite styles of Chinese unification: Confucian and Legalist)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王煜

    2001-01-01

    洛克之前培根和霍布斯堪称英国经验主义双璧。培根的科学精神铸造了1662年奠基的皇家学会,缺陷在疏忽欧陆科学家的贡献,过分重视归纳而轻蔑演绎;又被控告纳贿而隐居著书,深信运气而非德行决定历史。他以记忆、想象、思考为人心三大功能。霍布斯曾做培根秘书五年,改造亚里士多德修辞学,兼顾演绎与归纳,努力震撼独断者的权威;却仰慕凯撒,融合理性与演说。先秦经验主义者荀况三度出任齐国稷下学宫祭酒,虽未如培根创作理想国"新阿兰特斯",但是似霍氏在异邦显赫且富于文学兴趣。荀子承接墨家注重逻辑和雄辩,对音乐的态度近培、霍而反墨家。%Before Locke, Becon and Hobbes are two supreme British empiricists. Becon's spirit inspired the founding of Royal Society in 1662.His shortcomings lay in igoring the contributions of Continental scientists, overvaluing induction and underestimating deduction. Under the accusation of accepting bribery, Becon retired to write books, owing to his deep belief that luck rather than virtue determine history. For Becon,memory, imagmation, and thingking are the three major functions of human mind. As former Secretary of Bacon for five years, Hobbes reformed Arestotles' Rhetoric, treasured deduction and induction simultaneously, and endeavoured to hurl down the dogmatist authority. But he adored Julius Caesar and combined reason and oration, except in natural sciences. Xunzi the Pre-chin empiricist assumed the leadership of Chi State's Central Academy thrice. Despite the lack of interest in creating a utopia like Bacon's New Atlantis, Xunzi resembled Hobbes in becoming prominent in a foreign country and having high interest in literature,Succeeding the Moist emphasis in logic and elocution, Xunzi affirmed the significance of music. This attitude is near those of Bacon and Hobbes but far from the Moist's.

  16. Republican Constitutionalism of the United States under the Vision of Machiavelli%马基雅维利视域下的美国共和宪政精神

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪晴

    2014-01-01

    尼科洛·马基雅维利是共和主义从古典到现代发展的关键人物。他提出的一系列重要的共和主义观点和思想,例如宪政的价值和可行性,自由对于共和国的重要性,执政者对国家权力的运用、公民品德的培养等等,都成为美国立国的思想基础。美国共和宪政的灵魂是自由精神,其伟大之处在于他不仅保护私人利益和个人自由,同时也在一定程度上试图促进积极的、具有公共精神的公民权和领导权,以便在政治自由和个人自由之间保持相对平衡;美国共和政体的构成要素是人性与美德,通过制度偏好,即三权分立和联邦制来控制公民美德的衰败,在激发公民美德生长的同时,从而更好地维持共和政体的稳定;美国联邦党人的共和思想有限地保留了古典共和概念中的积极公民和民主,但用代议民主取代直接民主,并将共和有效地纳入宪政框架。%Niccolo Machiavelli is the key figure in the development of republicanism from classics to modern world. He puts forward a series of important republicanism ideas and thoughts, such as the value and feasibility of constitutionalism, the importance of freedom to the republic, the use of the state power by the rulers, the cultivation of the citizen’s morality etc., which have become the basis of the foundation of the United States. The soul of the republican constitutionalism of the United States is freedom. It not only protects the private interests and individual freedom, but also to a certain extent tries to promote citizenship and leadership with positive and public spirit to keep the relative balance between political freedom and personal freedom. Humanity and virtue are the two key elements of the constitution of the United States. Through system preferences, namely, separation of powers and federalism, it controls the declination of civic virtue, as well as stimulates the growth of the

  17. Analysis on the Social Contract Methodology of Hobbes and Rousseau with the Game-Theory%霍布斯与卢梭社会契约思想的博弈论解析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗春霞; 罗兆天

    2011-01-01

    社会契约思想在关于国家构建的政治哲学思想中有着重要地位,其中以霍布斯及卢梭的社会契约论思想最为突出。霍布斯在其著作《利维坦》中系统地阐述了由人性到社会契约到国家诞生的推论过程,并自诩为政治科学;而卢梭在其代表作似会契约论》中则运用社会契约思想说明了构建主权国家的必要性以及如何构建等诸多问题。本文运用博弈论的方法分析霍布斯与卢梭社会契约思想的逻辑过程,推导其隐含的假设以及一些不足之处.最后得出也许更为合理的对国家构建诸多变量间关系的解释。%The social contract methodology is one of the most important branches of political philosophy with respect to state construction, especially the theory of Tomas Hobbes and Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Hobbes deduced the process of the generation of social contract and state construction from human nature in a systematic approach in his famous book Leviathan, and hence defined this approach as political science. While Rousseau applied the social contract methodology to illustrate the necessity for sovereignty and how should it be construct- ed. In this paper, we apply game theory to analyze the logical process of the social contract methodology of Hobbes and Rousseau, try to induce their implicit assumptions or some weak point, and hence generate maybe more plausible explanation for the relationship among different variables with respect to state construction.

  18. LGM-extent of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet offshore from the Hobbs Coast, based on paleo-ice stream bed observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klages, J.; Kuhn, G.; Hillenbrand, C.; Graham, A. G.; Smith, J.; Larter, R. D.; Gohl, K.

    2012-12-01

    Paleo-ice stream beds that are exposed today on the West Antarctic continental shelf provide unique archives of conditions at the base of the past ice sheet, that are difficult to assess beneath its modern, extant counterpart. During the last decade, several of these paleo-ice stream beds have been studied in detail to reconstruct the extent of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), the patterns of ice drainage, and the timing of grounding-line retreat during the last deglaciation. However, despite significant advances, such information still remains poorly constrained in numerous drainage sectors of the WAIS. In particular, the maximum extent of ice at the LGM remains ambiguous for key drainage basins of the ice sheet. Whether the WAIS extended to the shelf break around the continent, or advanced only partially across its sea bed, is a crucial piece of information required for reconstructing and modeling patterns of ice-sheet change from past to present. Here we present marine geological and geophysical data that we collected on R/V "Polarstern" expedition ANT-XXVI/3 in early 2010 to investigate the extent, flow, and retreat of the WAIS, from an especially poorly studied part of the West Antarctic shelf, offshore from the Hobbs Coast in the western Amundsen Sea. Here, a landward deepening paleo-ice stream trough is incised into the shelf. The seafloor within the western-central part of the trough is characterized by a large trough-wide grounding zone wedge, ~70 m thick and ~17 km long, which overlies a high of seaward dipping sedimentary strata. The back-slope of the GZW is characterized by highly elongate streamlined bedforms suggesting fast paleo-ice flow towards NW. The crest of the wedge has been cross-cutted by iceberg keels. In contrast, the outer shelf seafloor offshore the GZW is predominantly smooth and featureless, although there is some evidence locally for iceberg scouring. A radiocarbon age from calcareous microfossils

  19. 霍布斯、卢梭社会契约理论之比较分析%The comparative analysis of Hobbes and Rousseau’s social contract theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱慧嫣; 陈文华

    2014-01-01

    社会契约理论是近代西方思想家提出的关于国家起源及政府构建的系统理论阐述。在众多社会契约理论中,其中以霍布斯与卢梭之思想最为突出,霍布斯主张通过订立契约建立强大的君主集权制国家,其思想核心为“主权在君”;而卢梭则主张通过订立契约建立民主共和国,其核心思想为“主权在民”。通过将霍布斯、卢梭的社会契约理论放在历史长河中审视,并结合时代背景,比较契约订立原因、授权范围和主权行使方式,充分了解其优缺点,及其可行性,为现代政治生活提供借鉴和指导。%The social contract theory is put forward by the modern western thinkers about national origin theory and building the system of government. Hobbes argues that to enter into a contract to build a strong autocratic monarchy country, the core of his thought is "monarch has sovereignty";Rousseau argues that through the conclusion of the contract the establishment of a democratic republic, the core of his thought is"citizens have sovereignty". Look at Hobbes, Rousseau's social contract theory, combined with times background, reason, scope of authorization, and compare their contracts sovereignty, fully understand its advantages and disadvantages and feasibility, provide reference and guidance for the modern political life.

  20. METUS REVEALED. HOBBES ON FEAR

    OpenAIRE

    RAFFAELLA SANTI

    2011-01-01

    Fear is a universal emotion, experienced by everybody. When it becomes collective and social, it can enter into the processes of political imagination, being used for political purposes. This article is a brief examination of the meanings and functions of fear(s) in Hobbes’s thought. Some of his views may be ‘historically’ related to his own time, the Seventeenth Century, and others may be linked and confined to his own theory. However, his reflections on the importance of the perturbatio ani...

  1. Status of Personnel, Use of force, and International Law of Armed Conflict in the Context of New United Nations Peacekeeping Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-27

    equality of nations began as early as 1300, but was not thoroughly articulated until 300 years later by Jean Bodin , Thomas Hobbes, and Hugo Grotius...were similarly limited leading to the intervention of armed forces..." Pictet, Jean , ed. 1 Commentary on the Geneva Conventions 32 (1952). 184...regime remained a body of law applicable only in international warfare. Indeed, ICRC President Jean Pictet held that international humanitarian law

  2. The Difficulties in Justifying Equality-Based on Natural Rights Theory of Thomas Hobbes and John Lock%“人人生而平等”的论证困境∗--基于霍布斯、洛克的自然权利论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李石

    2015-01-01

    本文试图分析霍布斯和洛克的自然权利论为命题“人人生而平等”(这一命题在社会契约论中表述为“自然状态下人人平等”)所提供的三个论证并指出其中的不合理之处。这三个论证是:(1)人们在自然状态下能力大致相等;(2)所有人在自然状态下平等地拥有“自然权利”;(3)在自然状态下人们平等地拥有“生命、财产和自由”三项基本权利。其中,前两个论证是霍布斯和洛克都阐述过的,而第三个论证则是洛克自然权利论区别于霍布斯自然权利论的重要之点。%This article tries to analyze three arguments for the proposition that “everyone was born equally” ( which is also expressed as“everyone is equal in the state of nature” in social contact theory) raised by John Lock and Thomas Hobbes. These three arguments are:(1) All people are nearly equal in ability in the state of nature;( 2 ) All people equally own nature rights in the state of nature; ( 3 ) In the state of nature all people equally own three basic rights, which are “life, property and liberty”. Locke and Hobbes had both discussed first two arguments, while only Locke has discussed the third argument, which signals the important difference between Locke and Hobbes.

  3. 从“合理选择”走向“理性共识”:霍布斯契约论证中的内在逻辑%From “rational choice”to “reasonable consensus”:The inner logic of Hobbes's contract argument

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟锐峰

    2016-01-01

    Hobbes's political philosophy can be understood as a reflection on the question:how to reach a consensus and estab-lish a kind of social order of peace and cooperation in the pursuit of different preferences of individuals competing for interests. From the point of view of the whole argument,Hobbes obviously believes that a stable social order is not built on believing in a set of moral concepts from religious theology or metaphysical teleology,but on those with different kinds of“reasonable choice”through various levels of rational analysis and reasoning for a rational consensus.Hobbes is on a non-religious and theological road to seek the solution of political and social issues,while from the individual based on the self-interest of“rational choice”he demonstrates the possibility and condition for people's cooperation and “rational consensus”.%霍布斯的政治哲学可以理解为对这一问题的思考:追求不同偏好的个体在相互竞争的利益争夺中如何能够达成共识并建立一种和平合作的社会秩序。从整个论证来看,霍布斯显然认为一个稳定的社会合作秩序的建立不是依靠信奉一套来自宗教神学或形而上学目的论的道德观念,而是依靠那些拥有不同“合理选择”的人通过理性层层辨析和推理所达成的“理性共识”。霍布斯是以一种非宗教神学的方式来寻求对政治和社会问题的解决之道,从个体人基于私利的“合理选择”论证了人们走向“理性共识”并建立合作的可能和条件。

  4. Sun Tzu and Machiavelli in Syria: Attacking Alliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    their traditional irregular foe: the Kurdistan Workers’ Party ( PKK ). In fact, after a bombing in Turkey, the United States was given clearance to use...been more interested in targeted air strikes against the PKK than an effort to degrade ISIS.2 Likewise, as long as separate fundamentalist rebel...will continue to offer them support as long as the main stream Kurdish parties refrain from openly supporting the PKK and its ongoing conflict with

  5. Machiavelli in Brussels : The Art of Lobbying the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schendelen, van M.P.C.M.

    2008-01-01

    Countless interest groups representing governments and non-governmental bodies try to lobby the European Union effectively in pursuit of the desired legislation, subsidies and more. Many lobby groups simply do what they see fit. Others manage their affairs in the EU arena more professionally, and it

  6. "Veritas filia temporis". Machiavelli e le citazioni a chilometro zero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bausi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article suggests a potentially direct source of the quotation of Veritas filia Temporis in the third chapter of the Discorsi sopra la prima Deca di Tito Livio. Remarkably, it is not a classical source but a fifteenth-century Florentine text, Apologia contra vituperatores civitatis Florentiae (1496 by Bartolomeo Scala, a humanist and chancellor who had established a friendly relationship with Machiavelli’s father. This identification stimulates further reflections on the question of Machiavelli’s culture and his sources, that scholars should locate in his contemporary context rather than in ancient texts, the Secretary’s acquaintance with which cannot always be demonstrated.

  7. Analysis on a dilemma in Rousseau's social contract theory-- Based on comparison with Hobbes and Rock%简析卢梭社会契约论思想中的困境--基于与霍布斯与洛克的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏鹏

    2013-01-01

      卢梭虽然被许多人视为社会契约论的代表人物,但其相对于霍布斯与洛克等人的社会契约论思想而言,有着诸多困境。这些困境造成了许多矛盾甚至可能引起灾难性的后果,只有认识到这些困境,我们才能正确评价卢梭及其社会契约论思想。%Although Rousseau is the representative for the social contract theory, but its relative to Hobbes and Rock's social contract theory, there are many dilemmas. These dilemmas caused many contradictions and may even lead to disastrous consequences, only aware of these dilemmas, we can correctly evaluate Rousseau and his social contract theory.

  8. Hobbs 1:100000 Quad Hydrography DLGs

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Digital line graph (DLG) data are digital representations of cartographic information. DLG's of map features are converted to digital form from maps and related...

  9. Rebuttal to Nelson et al. 'Response to Bodin and Grote regarding postdoctoral recruitment in clinical neuropsychology'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodin, Doug; Grote, Christopher L

    2016-07-01

    Nelson et al. provided a response to our commentary on the postdoctoral match in clinical neuropsychology. In this brief rebuttal, we will focus on statements from Nelson et al. that we believe are factual inaccuracies or misunderstandings of some of the points we made in our commentary. In addition, we will comment briefly on the proposed guidelines offered in their response.

  10. 重建政治权威的两条路径——洛克与霍布斯政治思想的比较研究%Two Paths for the Reconstruction of the Political Authority Comparative Study of Locke and Hobbes' Political Thought

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康翟

    2015-01-01

    近代自然法传统的奠基人格劳休斯(Hugo Grotius),提出了两条本质上关乎自我保存与财产权的自然法原则,这两条原则后来在霍布斯(Thomas Hobbes)与洛克(John Locke)那里分别得到发挥.与格劳休斯不同,霍布斯和洛克的问题意识不再是克服怀疑主义,时代向他们提出的紧迫任务是回应英国内战时期政治权威衰落的问题,为了解决此一问题,他们从格劳休斯的自然法思想中借鉴了诸多有益的资源.他们的思考不再仅仅局限于英国的经验现实,而更应被看作是对于普遍的神权政治之衰落所作的回应,这一回应即展现为重建政治权威的两条路径.

  11. Teaching Autobiography with the Help of Hobbes, Locke, and Hume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Mark E.

    This paper describes the methods used to teach identity formation in a college course entitled "Identity and Society," through an exploration of the autobiographies of several prominant Americans. The three phases of an autobiographical approach to one's present identity are discussed as the search for facts according to criteria, illustrated by…

  12. Cadastral PLSS Standardized Data - PLSSIntersected (Hobbs) - Version 1.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This feature class is part of the Cadastral National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI) CADNSDI publication data set for rectangular and non-rectangular Public Land...

  13. Cadastral PLSS Standardized Data - PLSSPoints (Hobbs) - Version 1.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This feature class is part of the Cadastral National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI) CADNSDI publication data set for rectangular and non-rectangular Public Land...

  14. Retorno a Hobbes: Hacia una cultura del miedo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco A. Laca Arocena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir del incremento en exclusión social y pobreza en los países en vías de desarrollo durante las dos últimas décadas en que éstos adoptan políticas neoliberales, y al contemplar la retirada progresiva del estado del bienestar allí donde éste existe desde la posguerra mundial, así como su exclusión como alternativa de futuro posible para el resto de sociedades en esta globalización neoliberal, se discute la simultaneidad en el tiempo presente del crecimiento de la desprotección social y de la pobreza con el incremento del miedo. Se analiza, asimismo, el crecimiento exponencial del gasto en seguridad privada hasta el punto de que algunos autores hablan de la gestación de un nuevo capitalismo, un capitalismo del miedo (Duclos, 2005. Se cuestiona que la teoría económica neoclásica sea realista con su supuesto de los agentes económicos como quienes toman decisiones racionales y se pone en entredicho que dicha economía sea la única economía posible. Se discute el supuesto de Popper de que el futuro está abierto; por el contrario, se expone el riesgo de un futuro cerrado, aunque no inevitablemente cerrado, hacia un continuo aumento de la exclusión social bajo el fundamentalismo del mercado y, consiguientemente, un incremento de la desprotección social y el miedo.

  15. Niccolò Machiavelli, the Baron de Montesquieu and the destabilizing effects of international migration

    OpenAIRE

    William Barclay

    2017-01-01

    This essay demonstrates that, although modern liberals incessantly promote the EU as a living exemplar for the virtues of contemporary liberalism and basic, unrestrictive, migration policies, the experiences of innumerable contemporary EU states, such as France, contradict these spurious claims, since, instead of becoming enriched or improved, countless EU states have deteriorated and become fraught with social conflict, insecurity, and instability, as a result of their minimally restrictive,...

  16. NICCOLO MACHIAVELLI, THE BARON DE MONTESQUIEU AND THE DESTABILIZING EFFECTS OF INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    William Barclay

    2017-01-01

    .... Furthermore, this essay demonstrates that, despite the ignorant exclamations of modern liberals, the inviolable patriarch of liberalism, the Baron de Montesquieu, in addition to the pre-eminent...

  17. Dirty Hands or Political Virtue? Walzer's and MacIntyre's Answers to Machiavelli's Challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tholen, J.H.M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Can it be right to do wrong in order to do good? Can torture, for instance, be justified? This commentary argues that Michael Walzer's often-cited answer on these dirty hands issues is problematic, and that a properly elaborated virtue ethics is more convincing. The argument is of particular consequ

  18. Reflections on Machiavelli's influence in education and in the formation of the Modern State

    OpenAIRE

    Terezinha Oliveira; Sandra Regina Franchi Rubim

    2012-01-01

    Este texto tem como objetivo analisar algumas formulações de Nicolau Maquiavel sobre a teoria política, bem como refletir sobre a contribuição de suas ideias, expostas na obra O Príncipe, para a formação do Estado Moderno Absoluto. Essa obra foi resultado de suas reflexões sobre os problemas do seu tempo: séculos XV e XVI, na Itália. O Príncipe expressava o desenvolvimento dos Estados Nacionais, a dessacralização do político, a independência do poder temporal em relação ao poder religioso e a...

  19. DIREITO DE EXCEÇÃO: OS RISCOS DE UM MAL NECESSÁRIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Belchior Ribeiro Freire

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem como escopo analisar o estado de exceção no seu liame entre a manutenção do status quo ante e o salto para a revolução. Sob a óptica dos pensamentos de renomados filósofos (Jean Bodin, Thomas Hobbes, Rosseau, Hans Kelsen e Carl Schmitt, procuramos analisar os benefícios e os riscos da instituição do estado de exceção, tendo em vista que se pode considerar este um mal necessário. O estado de exceção é um avanço nas democracias contemporâneas, como observaremos a sua previsão importa uma segurança à sociedade de que é possível mudar preservando alguns direitos constitucionais.

  20. Relações internacionais na filosofia política moderna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agemir Bavaresco

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente dossiê apresenta algumas investigações no âmbito das teorias das relações internacionais, a partir da inspiração dos clássicos da filosofia política moderna. Textos mais representativos de Grotius, Bodin, Maquiavel, Hobbes, Bentham, Locke e Kant, vitais para a compreensão da formulação contemporânea das teorias das relações internacionais, foram lidos e analisados pelos professores Agemir Bavaresco e Marcelo Gross Villanova com estudantes pós-graduandos do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Filosofia da PUCRS, durante o 2º semestre de 2011.

  1. Schmitt e Maquiavel: da técnica ao conflito = Schmitt and Machiavelli: from technique to conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adverse, Helton Machado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available O primeiro objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar, em linhas gerais, a recepção de Maquiavel na obra de Carl Schmitt durante a década de 1920, concedendo especial atenção ao livro sobre a ditadura e àquele sobre o conceito do político, e destacando a significativa mudança na interpretação schmittiana a partir do momento em que está em jogo a busca pelo critério próprio do político. Em seguida, discutimos brevemente as razões que explicam esta mudança de apreciação. Por fim, examinamos por que, mesmo no momento em que se encontram mais próximos, resta entre esses autores uma irredutível exterioridade

  2. Traiano Boccalini: la ragion di stato tra satira e sinceritas. Quale accettabilità per Machiavelli ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Ciccarelli

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Les Advis de Parnasse (Venise 1612-1613 de Traiano Boccalini est une œuvre satirique dans laquelle l’auteur critique avec un langage allégorique les racines machiavéliques de l’impérialisme de Filippo II soutenues par la papauté de la Contre-réforme. Estimateur d’Érasme et de l’irénisme catholique né pendant la Réforme protestante, Boccalini met en scène, dans l’utopique ville-état fondée sur le Mont Parnasse, un dialogue intense entre les différentes âmes qui composaient la République littéraire pour revendiquer la reconstitution de la politique sur des bases éthique. Bien que les Advis s’inspirent à la satire de Lucien de Samosate pour traiter le problème actuel, les Observations sur différentes œuvres de Cornélius Tacite naissaient comme un traité politique traditionnel où analyser la meilleure forme de gouvernement. Pour Boccalini la République de Venise était le modèle parfait d’État, capable de s’insérer dans la tradition de l’antimachiavellisme vénitien. Son attention vers la dimension éthique de la politique fait de lui un des plus grand critique des lettrés qui écrivaient sur la raison d’état. Les codes de conduite énoncés dans leur travail sont révélés par la satire boccalinienne comme étant la cause des pratiques hypocrites des souverains, la dominante corruption morale de la société moderne et l’aveuglement du peuple, incapable de saisir les principes sur lesquels le mal a été créé pour obéir au pouvoir politique.The ‘News-sheets of Parnassus’ (Venice 1612-1613 by Traiano Boccalini are a political satire in which the author criticizes in allegorical language the Machievellian origins of the Imperialism of Philip II supported by the Counter Reformation papacy. As an admirer of Erasmus and the Catholic irenics born of the Protestant Reformation, Boccalini stages, in a Utopian city state founded on Mount Parnassus, an intense dialogue between the various souls who make up the literary Republic in order to redeem politics by putting it back on an ethical basis. While the ‘News-sheets’ are inspired by the satire of Lucian of Samosata in order to treat the problem of the state, the ‘Observations’ on various works by Cornelius Tacitus are a traditional political treatise which analyses the best form of government. Boccalini takes the Republic of Venice as the perfect model of the state within the tradition of Venetian anti-Machiavellianism. His focus on politics’ ethical dimension makes him one the foremost critics among scholars writing about ‘reasons of state.’ The codes of behavior stated in their works are laid bare by Boccalini’s satire as the reason for the hypocrisy practised by sovereigns, for the dominant moral corruption of modern society and for the blindness of peoples unable to grasp the wicked principles underlying obedience to political power.

  3. Jean Bodin's Demonstration of Legislative Sovereignty Theory and Its Significance%博丹立法主权理论的论证及其意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈颐

    2010-01-01

    @@ 国家治理模式从中世纪向近代的转变很大程度上可以视为中世纪式的被动的、运用司法权展开的治理开始转变为以立法权和执行权(或日行政权)为核心的更为积极主动的治理.其中,一方面国王垄断了立法权,并理所当然地被视为王国内惟一的立法者,国王借助于立法者的身份通过统一的立法整合国家,并进而借助于统一的立法推进社会变革,立法权成为国家权力的核心,立法权的运用成为国家治理的起点;另一方面国家治理的绝大部分职能由司法官吏转由新兴的行政官僚掌控,新兴的行政官僚被界定为立法的执行者.[1]或者按迈克尔·曼教授的说法,新型的统治有两个基本要素:(1)君主是人间惟一的法律来源;(2)君主凭借常设的、专业的、附属的官僚机构和军队进行统治.

  4. Pre-SPC Math for Foundry Workers. A Lesson Developed for Robinson Foundry and Bodine-Robinson as Part of a National Workplace Literacy Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Bonnie

    Developed as part of a National Workplace Literacy Program, this lesson focuses on terms and mathematical operations associated with Statistical Process Control (SPC) in the foundry industry. With appropriate assistance and preparatory work, workers testing between grades 4 and 9 on the Test of Adult Basic Education Locator should be able to use…

  5. Hobbs, NM 1:250,000 Quad USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This land cover data set was produced as part of a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)...

  6. Piquing Student Curiosity with Title Pages from Works by Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Lee Ann

    2013-01-01

    Long before public libraries, online bookstores that ship directly to our homes, technologies that enable the downloading of publications directly to mobile devices, and social networks supporting virtual book clubs, eighteenth-century book readers relied heavily on literary societies, subscription libraries, and the advice of and selections made…

  7. Hobbs, NM TX 1:250,000 Quad USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains boundaries for land use and land cover polygons in New Mexico at a scale of 1:250,000. It is in a vector digital data structure. The source...

  8. Hobbs, NM 1:250,000 Quad USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This land cover data set was produced as part of a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)...

  9. Pan-Baltic Linas Libikas - sometimes Hobbes, sometimes Calvin / Linas Libikas ; interv. Ingrid Nielsen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Libikas, Linas

    2004-01-01

    Coca-Cola HBC Eesti AS-i turundusjuht olukorrast Baltimaade reklaamiturul, turundusspetsialistide sagedase töökohavahetamise võimalikest põhjustest ning oma eesmärkidest ettevõtte eesotsas. Lisa: Linas Libikas

  10. Agressividade e violência em Hobbes e Rousseau : etologia, genes e ambiente.

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Hermano José Falcone de

    2010-01-01

    O estudo tem como objetivo definir agressividade e violência na espécie humana. Estudar a agressividade e a violência do ponto de vista filosófico é uma tarefa que requer a colaboração de várias disciplinas como a biologia, a sociologia e as neurociências, para alcançar a abrangência e a profundidade que o tema merece, porque são conceitos que transitam do biológico ao social. Ao falar de agressividade, entra-se numa dimensão biológica, corporal, genética e neurobiológica enqua...

  11. Pan-Baltic Linas Libikas - sometimes Hobbes, sometimes Calvin / Linas Libikas ; interv. Ingrid Nielsen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Libikas, Linas

    2004-01-01

    Coca-Cola HBC Eesti AS-i turundusjuht olukorrast Baltimaade reklaamiturul, turundusspetsialistide sagedase töökohavahetamise võimalikest põhjustest ning oma eesmärkidest ettevõtte eesotsas. Lisa: Linas Libikas

  12. 33 CFR 116.50 - Apportionment of costs under the Truman-Hobbs Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... traffic, and actual capital costs of the used service life. The United States will bear the balance of the... service life of old bridge ____ $____ Subtotal ____ $____ Share to be borne by the bridge owner ____ $____ Contingencies ____ $____ Total ____ $____ Share to be borne by the United States ____ $____...

  13. El Estado Moderno y la sociedad de intercambio en la obra de Thomas Hobbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Salazar Silva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El soberano, como manifestación de la organización social, mas allá de expresar de un modo inevitable la seguridad de los hombres ante el desorden del "Estado natural", establece el origen de la sociedad de intercambio y la propiedad. El desarrollo de este proceso histórico, lejos de ser un acto espontáneo de los hombres como efecto de su propensión natural al cambio, es posible a partir de las condiciones generadas por el Leviatán.

  14. THOMAS HOBBES Y LA CONJETURALIDAD DEL CONOCIMIENTO CIENTÍFICO NATURAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Rodriguez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir de este ensayo se realiza una caracterización de las ideas hobbesianas en torno a la ciencia natural, acentuando en ellas el papel de la subjetividad y del pensamiento hipotético en la construcción del saber científico. Si bien el texto admite los compromisos epistemológicos del autor en términos de materialismo y mecanicismo, no por ello deja de insistir en que tales compromisos no son incompatibles con la visión hipotética y probabilística que le asigna a la descripción del mundo físico.

  15. L’Axe Montaigne-Hobbes. Anthropologie et politique, dir. Emiliano Ferrari et Thierry Gontier

    OpenAIRE

    Cavallini, Concetta

    2016-01-01

    Ce volume rassemble les contributions présentées à l’occasion d’un colloque qui a eu lieu à l’Université de Lyon, Institut de recherches philosophiques, les 18 et 19 octobre 2012 et poursuit une ligne de recherche déjà très riche en résultats et en initiatives qui a été inaugurée par Thierry Gontier et son Séminaire Montaigne à l’Université de Lyon 3 Jean Moulin. Depuis plusieurs années en effet, en se servant de collaborations internationales (surtout avec le Royaume-Uni, les États-Unis et l...

  16. The marks of the public choice theory in the modern classical writingsKamu tercihi teorisinin modern klasiklerdeki izleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buğra Kalkan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Public choice, emerged as an economic theory with regard its methodology but focused on political decision making processes and political institutions, has increased its influence on political science in the last twenty years. It is claimed that public choice is a radical disengagement from conventional political studies due to its neo-classical tools applied to politics. But it could also be claimed that public choice has done nothing new but just revived the old topics with a new theoretical tool set, considering the subjects that were examined by the classical political theorists. In this paper, the roots of the subjects examined by public choice theory in the classical writings of the political philosophers are analysed,concerning the problem of social coordination role of the state. These classical thinkers are specified as Machiavelli, Hobbes, Locke and Hume.    Özet Yöntem bakımından ekonomi disiplininden çıkmış olmakla birlikte, konusu itibariyle politik karar süreçlerini ve politik kurumları inceleyen kamu tercihi teorisi, özellikle son yirmi yıldır politika bilimindeki etkinliğini artırmıştır. Kamu tercihinin, neo-klasik iktisadın pek çok aracını politikaya uyarladığı gerekçesi ile geleneksel politika araştırmalarından radikal bir kopuşu temsil ettiği ileri sürülür. Ancak modern politik teorinin bazı klasik filozoflarının ele aldıkları temel konular incelendiğinde, kamu tercihi teorisinin, bu geleneksel sorunsalları yeni teorik kavram setleri ile yeniden canlandırmaktan öte bir iş yapmadıkları da iddia edilebilir. Bu çalışmada devletin ortaya çıkışı ve devletin sosyal işbirliğini sağlamada oynadığı rol üzerinden kamu tercihinin ele aldığı konuların klasik politika yazarlarındaki kökleri incelenmektedir. Bu klasik yazarlar, Machiavelli, Hobbes, Locke ve Hume olarak belirlenmiştir.

  17. Review: Felix Heidenreich (2011: Theorien der Gerechtigkeit - Eine Einführung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kramer, Hans-Ulrich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Schon vor der griechischen Antike, nämlich bei den alten Ägyptern und im alten Israel ansetzend, werden unter dem Titel „Antike: Gegebene Gerechtigkeit“(Kapitel 2 anschließend die Theorien der griechischen Klassiker Platon und Aristoteles sowie des Römers Cicero behandelt. Weiter geht es in chronologischer, übersichtlicher Gliederung mit den zwei Gerechtigkeiten des Mittelalters (Kapitel 3, die auf der Zwei-Reiche-Lehre des Augustinus‘ aufbauen. Kapitel 4 steht unter dem Motto: „Neuzeit: Gerechtigkeit wird machbar“ undversammelt die Theorien von Machiavelli über Hobbes, Rousseau und Kant bis hin zu John Stuart Mill. In Kapitel 5 rekapituliertFelix Heidenreich dann Positionen in der aktuellen Debatte. Diese reichen unter anderem von dem sozialliberalen Denker John Rawls über die Kommunitaristen Alasdair MacIntyre und Michael Walzer bis hin zumdeutschen Philosophen und Diskursethiker Jürgen Habermas oder dem indischen Ökonomen Amartya Sen. In Kapitel 6 löst sich Felix Heidenreich schließlich von der personenbezogenen Auflistung und spricht von aktuellen Problemlagen der Gerechtigkeit, etwa der sozialen Gerechtigkeit, der Gerechtigkeit zwischen Frau und Mann oderauch der ökologischen und intergenerationellen Gerechtigkeit. Ein Ausblick zur Gerechtigkeitspolitik rundet den gut strukturierten,rund 250-seitigen Band ab.

  18. The creation repeated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Chodakowska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Szymon Wróbel’s considerations are situated at the intersection of philosophy, psychoanalysis and politics. The author uses the term “retroactivity” (nachträglich, known from the writings of Freud, to describe the way in which the individual transforms experiences from the past in their memory, reworks them, and gives them a new meaning, congruent with current needs and expectations. This also applies to reading, each of which fits in the project which the reader realises. Lektury retroaktywne (Retroactive readings is a constant and often surprising clash of many different - authors’ concepts, regardless of their origins: a game of questions and answers challenged immediately by new questions. This philosophy must be a dialogue – hence its dramatic nature. Wróbel recalls, confronts and deconstructs the texts of such thinkers as Thucydides, Machiavelli, Hobbes, Nietzsche, Foucault, Levi-Strauss, Chomsky and Piaget. He also acquaints the reader with significant diagnoses of philosophers associated with speculative realism.

  19. El príncipe, Niccolò Machiavelli: elogio del pasado, crítica del presente, proyecto del futuro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Àngels B. Miró

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available El príncipe es una obra fundamental dentro de la historia de la filosofía política. Mas no podemos entender la obra cumbre de Maquiavelo sin detenernos en la trayectoria personal y literaria del autor, así como en el entorno en que vivió. Full text (HTML | In Spanish El príncipe es una obra fundamental dentro de la historia de la filosofía política. Mas no podemos entender la obra cumbre de Maquiavelo sin detenernos en la trayectoria personal y literaria del autor, así como en el entorno en que vivió.

  20. El príncep, Niccolò Machiavelli: elogi del passat, crítica del present, projecte del futur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Àngels B. Miró

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available El príncep és una obra fonamental dins la història de la filosofia política. Però no podem entendre l'obra cabdal de Maquiavel sense detenir-nos en la trajectòria personal i literària de l'autor i en l'entorn en què va viure.

  1. The Political Content of Machiavelli's Comedy 'Mandala'%马基雅维里喜剧《曼陀罗》的政治意蕴

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢惠媛

    2008-01-01

    马基雅维里以喜剧表达了原创性的政治构想.一方面,他刻画了理想君主明智审慎、精通谋术与善用宗教等形象;另一方面,他颠覆了传统政治伦理体系,揭露教会腐败恶行,并在此基础上传授其新理念.

  2. On Hobbes' Ethical View on Utilitarianism%试述霍布斯的功利主义伦理观

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹国球; 刘光斌

    2004-01-01

    在恐惧的激情推动下,霍布斯致力于寻求和平的道德律,一是为苦难的人生,二是为年幼资本主义经济的发展,于是有了功利主义伦理观.其主要内容是:相对主义的善恶观、利己主义的人性观以及和平主义的自然律.文章对此做出了归结与评价.

  3. In the Lignt of Leviathant Hobbes' and Rawls' Theory of Justice%和的对比与启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒红跃

    2000-01-01

    霍布斯是资本主义市场经济形成时期重要的思想家, 罗尔斯的思想是对成熟的资本主义市场经济的反映, 比较二者理论出发点和最终结论的异同, 对建设成熟的有中国特色的社会主义市场经济具有很大的借鉴意义.

  4. Implied Rhetoric: Hobbes's Leviathan Idea%寓意性修辞:霍布斯的利维坦理想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱祥海

    2014-01-01

    启蒙时代阐扬的政治法律观念,对西方社会具有决定性的深远影响.以自由主义为核心的启蒙哲学,存在着诸多歧义的理解方式与实践形式.霍布斯从特定的人性论立场,对自由主义的成立前提即利维坦国家,做出了奠基性的解释.随着“权利时代”的来临,“利维坦”却被彻底遗忘了,但霍布斯的政治哲学依然具有极为重要的现代意义.

  5. Following Hegel’s Sovereign Beast: An Excursus on the Right of Heroes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Ben David Nichols

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In The Beast and the Sovereign, Derrida addresses an association that is as paradoxical as it is common. On the one hand, it seems as if the sovereign is, or at least should be, the furthest from the beast. And yet, as soon as we consult the various archives of political mythology––myth, theology, philosophy, art, etc.––we find them together, inseparable despite their distance. The seminar itself is a continuation of his previous explorations of the host concepts and figures that populate the political and philosophical history of sovereignty. The course takes him through a series of texts that stretches from Plato, Machiavelli, Hobbes and Rousseau, to Freud, Heidegger, Lacan and Schmitt, among others, but his engagement with Hegel is limited. The few times that Hegel’s name does appear, it is almost exclusively a reference or aside within other more substantial engagements (Lacan and Heidegger, in particular. This absence is at least somewhat curious given the extent of Derrida’s previous engagements with Hegel’s corpus. I am not suggesting that this absence constitutes some essential oversight; rather, it is an opportunity to set out on an excursion from the course of The Beast and the Sovereign without leaving its territory. After all, Hegel also has an account of the origins of law. He, too, has a character that is set apart by his (almost animal quality. This figure arrives on stage before history begins. His role––and indeed his “right”––is to found the most basic elements of the state. We are told that his “right” is absolute. He is no Lord. He is not driven by a desire for the recognition of the other. However, who confers this “absolute” right? If his actions are not bound by any measure or proportion, how do we distinguish between the hero and the criminal?

  6. El pensamiento político de la Contrarreforma y la razón de estado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Comparato, Vittor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reconstructs the history of political thought from the sixteenth to the first decades of seventeenth century: a period of strong conflicts between the religious sphere and the political changes of the states in their trajectory towards absolutism. The analysis of the polemic against Machiavelli, Bodin and the politiques shows how it was questioned at the conceptual and practical levels the autonomy of politics from religious morality and the tendency of the states to evade ecclesiastical control respectively. The schools of thought discussed here –from anti-Machiavellism to the encomiastic literature of the existent governments, from Tacitism to the reason State, to the critical writings of the society, mainly utopia- outline on the one hand, the effort to preserve an image of politics as just government, with a virtuous prince, but on the other, the inevitable commitment to the praxis of political realism, well represented by the developments of the concept of reason of State in Botero and other writers from the seventeenth century. It was only with the arrival of Modern natural law which brought to the fore the questions of the origin and purpose of civil society, that political thought partly detached from the eternal conflict between morals and political praxis opening the era of rational and scientific research and individual rights.Este artículo reconstruye la historia del pensamiento político de la segunda mitad del siglo XVI a las primeras décadas del siglo XVII: un período de fuertes conflictos entre la esfera religiosa y los cambios políticos de los estados más avanzados hacia el absolutismo. El análisis de la polémica contra Maquiavelo, Bodin, y los politiques muestra como fueron cuestionados en el plano conceptual la autonomía de la política de la moral religiosa y en el plano práctico la tendencia de los estados a sustraerse del control eclesiástico. Las corrientes de pensamiento que se analizan aquí

  7. 马基雅维利与尼采专制主义政治道德思想探析%On the Autocratic Political Morality of Machiavelli and Nietzsche

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玮

    2016-01-01

    马基雅维利与尼采都主张专制思想,试图通过不同的方式,为专制寻求道德上的支撑点.他们认为君主与超人是道德价值的自立者,凡人与末人是传统道德的束缚者.由于有相似的出身且所处的时代都面临资本主义经济的发展要求,他们力图创造出与以往不同的新的道德价值体系——"政治无道德"和"主人道德".从历史意义上看,马基雅维利与尼采大胆地撕去了罩在专制者面前的"善良道德"面纱,将专制者真实的道德状况赤裸裸地揭示在世人面前.从现实意义看,他们从被统治者的"被服从倾向"引出专制者存在的合理性,对现代民主思想具有一定的警示作用.

  8. Conflicto y libertad en la teoría política de Nicolás Maquiavelo y John Stuart Mill/Conflict and Liberty in the Political Theory of Niccolò Machiavelli and John Stuart Mill

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    María Pollitzer

    2015-01-01

    ... después, interpelado por un nuevo tipo de malestar, Mill reconoce en el antagonismo sistemático la principal herramienta para reconciliar estabilidad y progreso y garantizar el desarrollo de la libertad en el seno de las sociedades democráticas...

  9. High-temperature process-steam application at the Southern Union Refining Company, Hobbs, New Mexico (solar energy in the oil patch). Phase I design. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-31

    Southern Union Refining Company's Famariss Energy Refinery has worked diligently with Monument Solar Corporation in the conceptual and detail design for this unique application of solar generated steam. An area closely adjacent to the refinery and fronting New Mexico State Highway No. 18 has been designated for the solar collector array. Space planned for the demonstration parabolic trough array is sufficiently large to handle an array of 25,200 square feet in size - an array more than twice the size of the 10,080 square feet proposed originally. The conceptual design, performance, safety, environmental impact, and economic analysis are described. Engineering drawings are included. (WHK)

  10. Pierre Dockès, Hobbes. Économie, terreur et politique, Paris, Economica, 2008, 282 pages, appendice, bibliographie, 29 €

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Weber

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Pierre Dockès, professeur à l’université Lumière Lyon 2, est un économiste renommé. Il a commencé par travailler sur l’espace dans la pensée économique à l’âge classique (L’Espace dans la pensée économique du xvie au xviiie siècle, Paris, Flammarion, 1969. Plus récemment, après avoir participé à la fondation en 1983 du Centre Auguste et Léon Walras, il a dirigé l’édition des Œuvres économiques complètes de ces deux auteurs (Paris, Economica, 1987-2005, 14 vol.. Au cours de ses recherches, l...

  11. 略论霍布斯建构"利维坦"的逻辑%On the Logic of Leviathan Established by Hobbes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王利

    2007-01-01

    本文将"人"和"国家"视为具有因果关系的两个名词,从人到国家的运动揭示了利维坦诞生的可能性和必要性.在分析霍布斯视野中人和国家的特点后,本文从可欲和可求两个角度阐述了霍布斯建构利维坦的逻辑.可欲着重于人的欲望和理性,但在霍布斯看来,欲望和理性还仅只表明创建国家的可能性;可求才真正使国家变为现实,那就是"权力",即将自然状态下个体自然权利集中统一成具有绝对力量的利维坦.

  12. Birth of Leviathan: Study on Hobbes' Political Thought%"利维坦"的诞生:霍布斯政治思想论析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄建洪

    2010-01-01

    在霍布斯的理论逻辑中,自然状态是残酷的战争状态,自然法是人类正确理性之指令,自然权利则意味着确保秩序的自由,因而进行权利完全让渡的"半契约"以形成拥有绝对主权国家"利维坦"是势之必然.霍布斯依据于人之需要而创建国家理论的理路,既为政治理论的"科学化"与政治实践的世俗化、理性化发展开辟了道路,同时又在探寻走出"丛林"而获致秩序与安全的过程中遗留下了其价值合理性与工具合理性的持续紧张,这既是其理论屡受谓之"专制主义"诟病的渊薮,又是近代以来"自由主义"发端的基础.

  13. U.S. Stabilization and Reconstruction Doctrine: A Failure to Address the Specifics of Authoritarian Regime Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-03

    but none so much as Hobbes , Locke, Rousseau, Voltaire and Montesquieu. In Leviathan , Thomas Hobbes asserted that life in the state of nature was...Lessons in Authority and Control. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2000. Hobbes , Thomas . Leviathan . 1660. Huntington, Samuel P...monopoly of the legitimate use of violence in the enforcement of its order.”98 Thomas Hobbes also supported a strong central government contending that

  14. Chrysosporium zonatum, a new Keratinophilic fungus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Musallam, A.; Tan, C.S.

    1989-01-01

    Chrysosporium zonatum, spec, nov., a keratinophilic and cellulolytic species, is described from horse dung in Kuwait. It was found in association with Microsporum gypseum (Bodin) Guiart & Grigorakis, both species colonizing horse hair.

  15. Development of a tailor-made bis(oxazolidine)pyridine-metal catalyst for the [3+2] cycloaddition of azomethine imines with propiolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Takayoshi; Ogino, Yuta; Sato, Toru

    2013-09-14

    A series of bis(oxazolidine)pyridine ligands (the PyBodines) were newly designed and synthesized for the development of a highly efficient, tailor-made catalyst for the [3+2] cycloaddition of azomethine imines with propiolates. The PyBodine(l-Ala)-Cu(OAc)2 catalyst was selected on the basis of solid-phase catalysis/CD-HTS and exhibited high efficiency, producing the (R)-adducts with excellent enantioselectivity.

  16. USCYBERCOM and Cyber Security: Is a Comprehensive Strategy Possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    command and control over its constituent units.26 Two recent articles by COL David Hollis in 2010 and one by Major M. Bodine Birdwell just recently...collection. Research also shows that there is an opposing viewpoint, which questions whether cyber is a true national strategic security risk. Jean ...12 April 2011). 25 Ibid., 2. 26 Keith B. Alexander, “United States Cyber Command,” in, Cyber Defense. 27 Bodine M. Birdwell and Robert

  17. Il Principe e seus contratempos: De Sanctis, Croce e Gramsci

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alvaro Bianchi; Daniela Mussi

    2013-01-01

    ... . The latter was part of the challenges of building a new political and social order that guided among other things, a return to the history of the Renaissance and to the gure of Niccol Machiavelli...

  18. Kas juhtimine on piljardimäng või tennis? / Kulno Türk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Türk, Kulno, 1954-

    2002-01-01

    Kaasaegse juhtimise märksõnadeks on föderalism, liidud, meeskonnad, töötajate võimustamine ja initsiatiiv; autor tutvustab vastukaaluks Alistair McAlpine raamatu "Uus Machiavelli" seisukohti ärimaailma kohta

  19. Kas rüütel kartis hobust? / Mariam Selge

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Selge, Mariam

    2014-01-01

    Itaalia mõtleja Niccolo Machiavelli ja ratsaõpetuse autori Frederico Crisone mõtteid, kuidas varasel uusajal kasutati uhkeid turviseid vaenlastele hirmu tekitamiseks ja suulisi ratsastuses oma hobuste hirmutamiseks ning sõnakuulelikuse tagamiseks

  20. Historical "Bad Guys": Biography as a Teaching Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Donald J.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a history course on the college level that uses biographies to help students connect important political leaders, such as Hitler and Machiavelli, to the time and place that shaped their actions. Reports on the effectiveness of the class. (RKM)

  1. Príncipes y tiranos, vicios y virtudes. Algunas consideraciones sobre el «De Principatu» de Mario Salamonio y «El Príncipe» de Nicolás Maquiavelo

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Castaño, David

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to compare the political thought of two major Italian philosophers of the sixteenth century: Mario Salamonio, and Niccolò Machiavelli. Actually, what we want to show is that, although the interpreters of their philosophies have always confronted them, there are more matches between Salamonio and Machiavelli than divergences: both consider the good prince has to be virtuous and transfer those virtues to the people, and both condemn the tyrant because of its danger to th...

  2. Philosophical Perspectives on the Social Contract Theory: Hobbes, Kant and Buchanan Revisited A Comparison of Historical thought Surrounding the Philosophical Consequences of the Social Contract and Modern Public Choice Theory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias ROYCE

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available To what extent is a prevalent social order that is constructed upon the freedom of the individual impacted by decisions taken in the domain of positive economics? How does the Hobbesian reductionist view of the state of nature correlate to the Kantian view of selfruled individualism expressed through rationality and autonomy? Applying Hobbesian thought in a democratic-economic context explains established and customary behaviour patterns of political economy in a reduced environmental setting. In precisely such setting individuals remain individuals on the basis of their ability to freely enter into contracts and any political means are attached to these individuals governed through an artificially constructed social contract. In thevalue-based and moral understanding of the social contract in its Kantian interpretation, the individual demands dignity and respect. This consequently justifies the individual as an end, rather than only a mean. How does Hobbesian and Kantian philosophy measure-up to Buchanan’s public choice theory and to what degree does the inclusion of morals in public choice lead to a normative diffusion of the social contract theory?

  3. 霍布斯和洛克自然状态思想比较研究%The Comparative Analysis about the Ideology of Natural State between Thomas Hobbes and John Locke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘秀华

    2006-01-01

    自然状态是一种前公民状态,是社会契约论说明政府权力合法性来源的逻辑起点.尽管霍布斯和洛克同为17世纪英国政治思想家,但他们的观点却有很大的不同.他们从不同的人性出发,所描写的自然状态及自然状态中要遵循的自然法、享有的自然权利及走出自然状态的方式也有很大的差异.

  4. 霍布斯、洛克、卢梭社会契约论思想比较%The Comparison of Thomas Hobbes,John Locks and Jean-Jacques Rousseau on Social Contract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段昭华

    2007-01-01

    霍布斯.洛克.卢梭三人作为十七十八世纪西方著名的哲学家,同时又是资产阶级的代表,他们都从理论上论述了资产阶级专政的必然性,都认为国家是人民订立契约的产物,国家权力来自于人民,以对抗封建王权的"君权神授"论.但对国家论述中,对自然状态描述,国家起因和本质,人民让出的权力,以及人民反抗意识方面,三人又各有不同.

  5. La ética de la autoconservación y la teoría de los deberes políticos en el Leviatán de Hobbes*

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Cortéz Rodas

    2002-01-01

    “The Ethics of Self-Preservation and the Theory of Political Duties in Hobbes’ Leviathan”. In order to present the political argument in Thomas Hobbes’ Leviathan, the author proposes an interpretation of his doctrine developed by Alfred Taylor, Howard Warrender and Michael Oakeshott. According to this interpretation, Hobbesian ethics, as developed in his theory of the laws of nature, once distinguished from his selfish psychology, shows itself as a strict deontological ethics, very close to K...

  6. La ética de la autoconservación y la teoría de los deberes políticos en el Leviatán de Hobbes*

    OpenAIRE

    Cortéz Rodas, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    “The Ethics of Self-Preservation and the Theory of Political Duties in Hobbes’ Leviathan”. In order to present the political argument in Thomas Hobbes’ Leviathan, the author proposes an interpretation of his doctrine developed by Alfred Taylor, Howard Warrender and Michael Oakeshott. According to this interpretation, Hobbesian ethics, as developed in his theory of the laws of nature, once distinguished from his selfish psychology, shows itself as a strict deontological ethics, very close to K...

  7. La ética de la autoconservación y la teoría de los deberes políticos en el Leviatán de Hobbes*

    OpenAIRE

    Cortéz Rodas, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    “The Ethics of Self-Preservation and the Theory of Political Duties in Hobbes’ Leviathan”. In order to present the political argument in Thomas Hobbes’ Leviathan, the author proposes an interpretation of his doctrine developed by Alfred Taylor, Howard Warrender and Michael Oakeshott. According to this interpretation, Hobbesian ethics, as developed in his theory of the laws of nature, once distinguished from his selfish psychology, shows itself as a strict deontological ethics, very close to K...

  8. 霍布斯的"问答逻辑":理解《利维坦》的一个视角%Hobbes's "Question Logic": Understanding "Leviathan" in a New Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄其松

    2011-01-01

    对于霍布斯的经典名作的研究源远流长且成果丰硕,不过国内学术界较少从霍布斯本人的心灵活动角度解读他和他的.本文试图通过分析霍布斯的生存处境以探寻他写作的主要目的,即的核心主旨.本文认为,身处内战的霍布斯希望找到内战的原因并提出解救之道,以期走出内战获得和平.这即为霍布斯的"问答逻辑".

  9. “利维坦”的命运——从霍布斯到施密特%The Destiny of Leviathan——from Hobbes to Schmidt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯小茫

    2011-01-01

    “利维坦”是理解霍布斯政治思想的重要概念.卡尔·施密特号称“20世纪的霍布斯”,其思想受霍布斯影响颇深,他本人甚至还有一本讨论“利维坦”的专著——《霍布斯国家学说中的利维坦》.本文通过分析施密特对霍布斯“利维坦”观念的研究和批判,以及他对罗马天主教会基本架构的深入探讨,试图勾勒出施密特本人对自由法治的宪政国家的独特思想,及其理论中关于国家主权的发端、形成、构架等基本观点.

  10. "利维坦"的理性构建——霍布斯国家学说评析%Leviathan's Rational construction-Hobbes's Theory of the State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高凤仪

    2015-01-01

    霍布斯是近代政治理论的开创者,他以一种理性主义的方法构建了自己的政治哲学.霍布斯构建了以正义为道德基础,本质在于维护和平与安全的国家——"利维坦".他的国家学说中包含了自然人向公民、自然状态向政治社会的转化,蕴含着国家主权、国家正义、国家与公民的关系等诸多问题,为现代国家理论的发展奠定了基础,具有深远的历史意义.

  11. Against Fear with Fear——Birth of the Hobbes' "Leviathan"%以恐惧对恐惧——霍布斯"利维坦"的诞生

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林壮青

    2010-01-01

    从古典政治哲学与现代政治哲学分野的角度看,霍布斯的国家概念是全新的.这一"全新"表现在霍布斯以"恐惧"这一"现代"激情为基点建立他的"利维坦":在自然状态下,身心平等的个人之间相互恐惧;由这一恐惧而推演出的最初两条自然律;进而订立契约及遵守契约的动机也必须依赖恐惧;国家的稳定也必须依赖个体对主权者的恐惧;以及两者之间战争的延续,也即恐惧的继续.

  12. La ética de la autoconservación y la teoría de los deberes políticos en el Leviatán de Hobbes*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Cortéz Rodas

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available “The Ethics of Self-Preservation and the Theory of Political Duties in Hobbes’ Leviathan”. In order to present the political argument in Thomas Hobbes’ Leviathan, the author proposes an interpretation of his doctrine developed by Alfred Taylor, Howard Warrender and Michael Oakeshott. According to this interpretation, Hobbesian ethics, as developed in his theory of the laws of nature, once distinguished from his selfish psychology, shows itself as a strict deontological ethics, very close to Kant’s. The second part of the paper attempts to show the problems with this interpretation of Leviathan.

  13. Postmodern Morals, Ends, and Means: Shifting Ideas About Why, How and for Whom Wars are Fought

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    Nashville, TN: B&H Publishing, 2010). 21 Thomas Hobbes , " Leviathan ," (1651), Chapter XI. Quoted from the Kindle Edition. 22 Hensel, "The Rejection of...M. Hensel, 5-27. Aldershot, England: Ashgate, 2008. Hobbes , Thomas . Leviathan . 1651. Huntington, Samuel P. "New Contingencies, Old Roles." Joint...Among the earliest was Thomas Hobbes , who believed that there is no ultimate good or greatest aim, but “the object of man’s desire, is not to enjoy

  14. Tactical Decision Making under Categorical Uncertainty with Applications to Modeling and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    naturally exists in any, and all, scientific and intellectual arguments. Moreover, Thomas Hobbes (1651) discussed this innate uncertainty through...the nature of man. In The Leviathan , the Englishman examined the relationship between knowledge, opinion, judgment, and faith. Hobbes writes, “no...struggle over policy. Westport, CT: Praeger. Hobbes , T. (1651). Leviathan . In M. L. Morgan (Ed.), Classics of moral and political theory (3rd ed., pp

  15. Is Major Conflict a Thing of the Past?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    19 This argument follows those articulated by the English Philosopher Thomas Hobbes in his work ― Leviathan ‖ where he states that ―every human being is...delicate balance of power between peoples, states and religions creates an enduring tension which Thomas Hobbes articulated concisely when he stated... Hobbes : Moral and Political Philosophy,‖ Leviathan , xiii. 1-2. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, http://www.iep.utm.edu/hobmoral/ (accessed

  16. Clam Shell Dredging in Lakes Pontchartrain and Maurepas, Louisiana. Volume 1. Final Environmental Impact Statement and Appendixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-01

    Mr.Gerry Bodin USFWS 27 Aug 86 Dr. Bruce Thompson LSU - CWR 28 Aug 86 Mr. Mike Schurtz DEQ 28 Aug 86 Mr. Dugan Sabins DEQ 28 Aug 86 Mr. John Tarver LDWF 29...Our Coast 15 Sep 86 Mr. Alfred Hitter, Jr. Save Our Coast 15 Sep 86 Mr. Pete Juneau LDWF 16 Sep 86 Mr. Gerry Bodin USFWS 16 Sep 86 Dr. Walter Sikora LSU...19 Sep 86 Dr. Jean Sikora LSU 19 Sep 86 Dr. Hinton Hoese USL 16 Oct 86 Dr. Daryl Felder USL 16 Oct 86 Mr. Michael Osborne Attorney 4 Dec 86 Mr

  17. Annual Report 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    372.0 - 148 0 23 Dardaneille LD 10 Arkansas [RD AR 64 338.0 - 486 0 24 Blue Mountain Petit Jean [RD AR 47 384.0 419.0 25 233 24 LD 9 Arkansas LRD AR 69...applications for hydraulics computations. Tasso Schmidgall, the chief of the new section introduced Ray Bodine and Dave Brown as the person- nel...efforts in Hydraulics Section were discussed. Ray Bodine described his one and two dimensional models and explained their potential uses. 5 Gist

  18. Machiavelli’s Fundamental Contribution to the National Security Concept as Revealed in The Prince

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florea SURDU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the contribution of Niccolò Machiavelli to the substantiation of the national security concept, ranks him among the major promoters of the war phenomenon and state, the policy stance by one of the pillars of its stability, namely national security. Today, more than ever, "The Prince" is increasingly present, this is determined by social, political and military instability, of the 21st century and that’s why this study is a research designed to range Machiavelli among the precursors of the phenomenon of war, along with Sun Tzu and von Clausewitz. At the same time, according to 21st century thinking, we have brought in actuality, the issue of power, as a political, social and military phenomenon, highlighting the American analyst Dick Morris’ position, expressed in the "New Prince. Machiavelli in the 21st Century".

  19. New Directions in Conflict Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Murshed (Syed)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractEven an idealist philosopher like Immanuel Kant (1795) considered war to be the natural state of man. In that respect, he shared the perspective of the English philosopher Thomas Hobbes (1651). According to Hobbes, the state of nature was characterised by anarchy akin to perpetual war ;

  20. New Directions in Conflict Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Murshed (Syed)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractEven an idealist philosopher like Immanuel Kant (1795) considered war to be the natural state of man. In that respect, he shared the perspective of the English philosopher Thomas Hobbes (1651). According to Hobbes, the state of nature was characterised by anarchy akin to perpetual war ;

  1. Prenatal phthalate exposures and anogenital distance in Swedish boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Carlstedt, Fredrik; Jönsson, Bo Ag

    2015-01-01

    genital birth defects in children and impaired reproductive function in adult males and the fact that human levels of DiNP are increasing globally. CITATION: Bornehag CG, Carlstedt F, Jönsson BA, Lindh CH, Jensen TK, Bodin A, Jonsson C, Janson S, Swan SH. 2015. Prenatal phthalate exposures and anogenital...

  2. Improving the Cybersecurity of U.S. Air Force Military Systems Throughout Their Life Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    James D. Powers, Elizabeth Bodine-Baron, Bernard Fox, Lauren Kendrick, Michael H. Powell Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704...rather than by an inherently secure design. 7 See also Baldwin , Dahmann, and Goodnight, 2011. 7...of more proximate objectives. A common pitfall of analysis is to adopt as goals the most clearly defined and easily measured phenomena. James Roche

  3. Applying Tabu Heuristic to Wind Influenced, Minimum Risk and Maximum Expected Coverage Routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-02-01

    31 111.3. GENERAL VEHICLE ROUTING PROBLEM .......................................................... 33...r. L3. Background The vehicle routing problem with maximum coverage is an extension of the classical general vehicle routing problem (GVRP). A general...review from the literature for the general vehicle routing problem includes Eilon et al. (1971) and Bodin (1983). Within a traditional deterministic

  4. Requirement for C-130 Aircraft in the Intratheater Korean Scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-03-12

    a graph. These arcs can be given direction, in which case the graph is called a di-graph. Figure II-1 does not show any directional arcs ( Bazaraa et... Bazaraa , Mokhtar S., John J. Jarvis, and Hanif D. Sherali. Linear Programming and Network Flows. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1990. Bodin, L., B

  5. Fungi isolated from house flies (Diptera: Muscidae) on penned cattle in South Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musca domestica L. were collected from cattle diagnosed with bovine ringworm to evaluate the potential of the house fly to disseminate Trichophyton verrucosum E. Bodin, a fungal dermatophyte that is the causative agent for ringworm in cattle. Fungal isolates were cultured from 45 individual flies on...

  6. SAS Radisson esitab Tallinnale väljakutse / Tõnis Arnover

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arnover, Tõnis, 1952-

    2000-01-01

    Tallinna Radisson SAS hotelli juht T. Bodin on kindel, et suudab pakkuda tipphotellile kohast teenindus. Vt. samas Mägus, Feliks. Hinnasõda hotellide vahel jääb ära. Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 1. nov. lk. 20-21

  7. Brief therapy: focused solution development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Shazer, S; Berg, I K; Lipchik, E; Nunnally, E; Molnar, A; Gingerich, W; Weiner-Davis, M

    1986-06-01

    This article describes the form of brief therapy developed at the Brief Family Therapy Center. We have chosen a title similar to Weakland, Fisch, Watzlawick, and Bodin's classic paper, "Brief Therapy: Focused Problem Resolution" (20) to emphasize our view that there is a conceptual relationship and a developmental connection between the points of view expressed in the two papers.

  8. Measures of Effectiveness for Rationalization, Standardization, and Interoperability

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    Viewpoint," Wehrtechnik (Jul 1979): pp. 28-33. Esteve, Jean -Rene. French Armaments and Communications Interoperability Within NATO. U.S. Naval Postgraduate...Mr. Dooley LTC Frilak Mr. Gargaro LTC Linthwaite Mr. Rada MAJ Bottom Mr. Thompson U.S. Army Logistics Center LTC Johnson Mr. Wilson Mr. Bodin Mr. Wund

  9. Afghan Peace Talks: A Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    learned much: Barbara K. Bodine , Hikmet Çetin, Steve Coll, Robert Finn, Jean -Marie Guéhenno, Igor Sergeyevich Ivanov, Walter Kolbow, Lawrence J...Korb, Sadako Ogata, Francesc Vendrell, and Wang Yingfan. We are grateful to four outside readers who gave the draft a close critical read: Jean -Marie

  10. Laser Velocimeter Measurements and Analysis in Turbulent Flows with Combustion. Part 3. A Correction Lens for Laser Doppler Measurements in a Cylindrical Tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    inlet flow conditions. Eaton, Johnston, and Jeans [18] commented on this discrepancy of reattachment length by suggesting that part of the variation... Bodine D.C. gearmotors with variable speed controls. Linear potentiometers (New England Instrument) are used to obtain a readout of the position of the

  11. JPRS Report, East Asia, Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-11

    How many subs do we need? Four to six submersibles is the tentative answer. A French naval officer, Lt-Com- mander Jean Petite, has said that four is...Vietnam, for example. I would like you to read the letter that King Rama 3 sent to Chao Phraya Bodin , the commander of the Thai forces in Cambodia

  12. Laser Velocimeter Measurements and Analysis in Turbulent Flows with Combustion. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-01

    milling machine table. Three Bodine DC gearmotors with variable speed control are used to drive the mill table. Linear potentiometers (New England Instru...Other Turbulence Parameters," AIAA Journal, Vol. 19, No. 7, pp. 933-935, 1972. (17] Eaton, J.K., Johnston, J.P., and Jeans , A.H.,kMeasure- ments in a

  13. Collisional Detachment of Anions using Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    fractional horsepower gearmotors ( Bodine Electric Company type NCI-13D3). There are additional specialized valves in the source gas manifolding, which...1-9 (February 1984). 37. Gauyacq, Jean Pierre. Dynamics of Negative Ions. Singapore: World Scientific, 1987. 38. Geltman, S. "Electron Detachment

  14. Legitimate Use of Military Force Against State-Sponsored International Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    means will always be judged honorable and praised by everyone.�58 Mikhail Bakunin , the Russian anarchist, called terrorism �the propaganda of the...Machiavelli quoted in ibid. 59. Mikhail Bakunin quoted in ibid. 60. Wilkinson, Terrorism and the Liberal State, 180-81. 61. Vice President, Report

  15. Nuclear Deterrence in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-25

    Freedman, Makers of Modern Strategy from Machiavelli to the Nuclear Age (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986), 735. 4 Carl von Clausewitz, On...26 Scott D. Sagan , "How to Keep the Bomb from Iran," Foreign Affairs 85, (September/October 2006): 45 27 Matthew Bunn, "Bombs We Can Stop

  16. The Faults of the Generals: How Great Britain Lost the War for America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    creation of the United States of America. 1 Niccolò Machiavelli, The Prince, trans. W.K. Marriot (New...Niccolò. The Prince. Translated by W.K. Marriot . New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1908. Mackesy, Piers. The War for America, 1775–1783. Lincoln, Nebraska

  17. Deconstructing Our Dark Age Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-16

    The Wardrobe (New York: Harper Collins , 2005). 18 Krasner, “Compromising Westphalia,” 118-119. 19 Ibid, 117. 20 Ibid, 147. It is not surprising that... treacherousness . See Niccolo Machiavelli, The Prince, trans. N.H. Thompson (New York: Courier Dove Publications, 1992), 31. 40 Ed O’Loughlin, “Sandline

  18. Crafting Strategic Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Education leaders know how to work hard, but how can they learn to work smarter and to lead better? There are bookshelves full of works on leadership based on the lives of luminaries ranging from Sun Tzu, a Chinese general who wrote "The Art of War," and General Patton to Machiavelli and Lincoln. Although they offer inspiration, such works do not…

  19. Machiavellian rather than Machiavellic: the Presence of The Prince, Discourses on Livy and Life of Castruccio Castracani in Gracián’s The Politician King Ferdinand the Catholic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Saralegui Benito

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common topics in Gracián’s bibliography is to study the influence of machiavellism in his works. It has been usual to stress Gracián’s machiavellism. In this large bibliography, more attention has been paid to describe Gracián as a machiavellian than to study how particular ideas and works of Machiavelli are present in his works. In this article, I want to describe how El político Don Fernando el Católico includes ideas from The prince, the Discourses and The life of Castruccio Castracani, a work neglected by Gracián’s scholars. Among others, the ideas that Gracián shares with Machiavelli are the following: the theory of occasion and riscontro, the division of the politician character between impulsive and prudent, the criterion to evaluate political succes and the method to write a political biography. The result of my research shows that Gracián, instead of being a purely machiavellian thinker, shares with Machiavelli a great number of ideas, many of which have nothing to do with the immoral Machiavelli.

  20. Gobierno subliminal : Lecciones secretas de la teoría hobbesiana de las imágenes, la representación y la política

    OpenAIRE

    Tralau, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Recent research on Hobbes has paid great attention to his use of images. Yet a serious possible objection remains: it could be argued that Hobbes relates his own production of imagery neither to politics nor to his theory of perception, and that we have hence no reason to believe that his images are an application of such a doctrine. The purpose of this paper is to show that Hobbes does indeed —in an implicit way— link his image-making and his psychological theory to political order. First, t...

  1. On the Origin of Hobbes’s Conception of Language: The Literary Culture of English Renaissance Humanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio H. Orozco-Echeverri

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Hobbes' education in the literary culture of English Renaissance humanism has been overlooked as an important tradition in understanding his position in Early Modern Philosophy. Against the traditional readings of Hobbes' conception of language as a sequel to Medieval nominalism, I will argue that Hobbes' education in the literary culture of Renaissance humanism and his subsequent developments in this tradition would have allowed him to consider philosophical problems raised by new science in an original way and, thus, to introduce his innovative conception of language as the core of his solution to the problem of social and natural orders.

  2. Valgustuse moraali- ja poliitikafilosoofid inimloomusest / Margit Sutrop

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sutrop, Margit, 1963-

    1999-01-01

    Briti valgustusfilosoofidest. Mandeville'i, Smith'i, Hobbes'i ja Rousseau kaastunde käsitlustest. Locke'i ja Rousseau' võrdlus. Ühiskondliku lepingu teooriast. Rousseau erinevusest briti filosoofidest

  3. 77 FR 34037 - Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina System of Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY...: Written comments may be submitted until the close of business June 19, 2012. ADDRESSES: Written comments.... Hobbs, III, Assistant Administrator for Finance and Marketing Division, Southeastern...

  4. Progress Report for "Developing a Proactive Framework for Adaptive Management of Chronic Wasting Disease on the National Elk Refuge"

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Hobbs, Monello, and Kauffman have been granted funds to develop a Bayesian state space model to support adaptive management of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) in the...

  5. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mixtures tested with antisera mixtures gave significantly (PSfJ.05) higher A405 .... Serology. The ELISA was used as described by Hobbs et al. . (1987) with slight modification as follows. .... 'One of the many' advantages of using antisera.

  6. 77 FR 12333 - Special Nuclear Material License Amendment From Louisiana Energy Services, LLC, for the National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Special Nuclear Material License Amendment From Louisiana Energy Services, LLC, for the National Enrichment Facility, Hobbs, NM AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Publication of...

  7. Synergist: Collaborative Analyst Assistant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    patterns for interrogative sentences and other frequent patterns around noun phrases. For example, the pattern that looks at the sequence of noun...2 corpus. 7 J. Hobbs. Resolving pronoun references, Lingua, 44:311-338, 1978. 8 S

  8. Poder e sociedade global

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luís Rodolfo Cruz e Creuz

    2014-01-01

    .... The focus of the bibliographies is centered in Niccolo Machiavel, Thomas Hobbes and Max Weber readings as classic line of authors, and also, revision of Norberto Bobbio, Arjun Appadurai and Jurgen Habermas texts...

  9. Automated Modeling of Physical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    programming [Hillier and Lieberman, 1980]. Unfortunately, integer programming is known to be intractable [ Karp , 1972], which leads to severe restrictions...Lieberman, Gerald J. 1980. In- troduction to Operations Reesearch. Holden-Day, Inc., third edition. 288 BIBLIOGRAPHY [Hobbs, 1985] Hobbs, Jerry R... Karp , 1972] Karp , Richard M. 1972. Reducibility among combinatorial problems. In Miller, R. E. and Thatcher, J. W., editors 1972, Complexity of

  10. From conditions of equality to demands of justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartz, Emily; Nielsen, Carsten Fogh

    2015-01-01

    Equal freedom is the common starting point for most contractual theories of justice from Hobbes and Rousseau to Rawls. But while equal freedom defines a common starting point for these theories, this does not result in a general consensus on the conception of justice. On the contrary, different...... of justice. In this paper we discuss how this transformation takes place in the theories of Hobbes, Rousseau and Rawls, with particular emphasis on the vexed relationship between motivation and justification....

  11. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 17. Number 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    Mercado for more than two decades. Recent ad- Tustin Institute of Technology " vances discussed in this chapter include Santa Barbara, CA development of...Syst., Meas. Control, Trans. ( Analisi IModale Sperimentale di UN Tronco ASME, JQ0 (4), pp 286-292 (Dec 1984), 12 di Fusoliera di UN Velivolo Turboprop...3 figs, 12 refs Screening G.K. Hobbs, R. Mercado KEY WORDS: Wave propagation, Pulse Hobbs Engrg. Corp., Lake Forest, CA excitation J. Environ. Sci

  12. En kritisk analyse af Leviathan & Samfundspagten

    OpenAIRE

    Bjelobrk, Aleksandar

    2006-01-01

    I denne rapport undersøges de politiske filosoffer Thomas Hobbes’ (1588-1679) og Jean-Jacques Rousseaus (1712-1778) udgaver af kontraktteorien. Med udgangspunkt i Leviathan del 1, Of Man og del 2, Of Common-Wealth af Thomas Hobbes (Hobbes 1991, oprindelig udgivet 1651) og Samfundspagten af Jean-Jacques Rousseau (Rousseau 1987, oprindelig udgivet 1762) klarlægges inkonsisten i deres teorier gennem to separate analyser. Med udgangspunkt i den fundne inkonsistens foretages en komparativ analyse,...

  13. Leviathan and the Air-Pump: Hobbes, Boyle and the Experiment Life——A Classic in Constructivist History of Science%《利维坦与空气泵:波义耳、霍布斯与实验生活》——一部经典的建构主义科学史

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王哲

    2008-01-01

    通过对波义耳和霍布斯关于实验科学何以可能成为知识的论战的分析研究,夏平和沙弗尔的展示了实验科学形成时期科学为自己争取合法地位所采用的种种社会和政治的手段,并在科学编史学的意义上提出了建构主义科学编史学的研究进路,为科学史的理论研究开拓了新的研究视角和研究理论.

  14. TEMPORALITY AND SPATIALITY: OBSERVATIONS ON IDENTITY CRISIS AN EXAMPLE FROM AN ENVIRONMENTAL STRUCTURE IN SOUTHERN ITALY

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Nowadays territory and climate are recognized as factors that unquestionably affect social relationships. Many scholars (Crespi, 1992, p. 196) such as Aristotle, Jean Bodin, Charles Tocqueville and the Baron of Montesquieu (1973, p. 97), just to mention a few, have been concerned with this kind of conditioning influence. In particular, Montesquieu claims that there is a straight connection between democratic, republican and despotic forms of government and the spatiality of ter...

  15. Förster Resonance Energy Transfer Switchable Self-Assembled Micellar Nanoprobe: Ratiometric Fluorescent Trapping of Endogenous H2S Generation via Fluvastatin-Stimulated Upregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chunchang; Zhang, Xiuli; Li, Kaibin; Zhu, Shaojia; Guo, Zhiqian; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Feiyi; Fei, Qiang; Luo, Sihang; Shi, Ping; Tian, He; Zhu, Wei-Hong

    2015-07-08

    H2S produced in small amounts by mammalian cells has been identified in mediating biological signaling functions. However, the in situ trapping of endogenous H2S generation is still handicapped by a lack of straightforward methods with high selectivity and fast response. Here, we encapsulate a semi-cyanine-BODIPY hybrid dye (BODInD-Cl) and its complementary energy donor (BODIPY1) into the hydrophobic interior of an amphiphilic copolymer (mPEG-DSPE), especially for building up a ratiometric fluorescent H2S nanoprobe with extraordinarily fast response. A remarkable red-shift in the absorption band with a gap of 200 nm in the H2S response can efficiently switch off the Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) from BODIPY1 to BODInD-Cl, subsequently recovering the donor fluorescence. Impressively, both the interior hydrophobicity of supramolecular micelles and electron-withdrawing nature of indolium unit in BODInD-Cl can sharply increase aromatic nucleophilic substitution with H2S. The ratiometric strategy based on the unique self-assembled micellar aggregate NanoBODIPY achieves an extremely fast response, enabling in situ imaging of endogenous H2S production and mapping its physiological and pathological consequences. Moreover, the amphiphilic copolymer renders the micellar assembly biocompatible and soluble in aqueous solution. The established FRET-switchable macromolecular envelope around BODInD-Cl and BODIPY1 enables cellular uptake, and makes a breakthrough in the trapping of endogenous H2S generation within raw264.7 macrophages upon stimulation with fluvastatin. This study manifests that cystathione γ-lyase (CSE) upregulation contributes to endogenous H2S generation in fluvastatin-stimulated macrophages, along with a correlation between CSE/H2S and activating Akt signaling pathway.

  16. Use of Commercial Satellite Imagery for Surveillance of the Canadian North by the Canadian Armed Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    by M. Dobson. New York: IEEE Press, 1988. 9. Bodin , P. and J-F. Reulet. "A New Channel for SPOT Satellite in the SWIR Band," Focal Plane Arra@s...TecholgqoandAic@igtns, edited by Jean -Pierre Chartard. Proc. SPIE 865, 142-1Li9 (1987). 10. Burrows, W.E. eep apck _Sacesionage_and National SecuritU. New

  17. Development of the Cancer Survivor Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-09

    that are administered orally or injected into the vein and which travel through the bloodstream (11). Systemic treatment can be administered prior...Greendale GA, Bodin-Dunn L, Ingles S, Haile R, Barrett-Connor E. 1996. Leisure , home, and occupational physical activity and cardiovascular risk factors in...underutilized: The critical role of leisure interventions in facilitating social support throughout breast cancer treatment and recovery. Social Work in

  18. DO IS IT NECESSARY TO RESIST TO THE EVIL BY FORCE? (ON THE FOUNDATION OF HUMANISTIC POLICY)

    OpenAIRE

    NIZHNIKOV S.A.

    2014-01-01

    In this research reveals possible variants of the correlation between violence and nonviolence in politics: especially Machiavelli's idea ( only the good political end justifies any means ), Machiavellianism ( the end justifies any means ), humanistic ( the good end can be achieved only by good methods ), and pacifist ( non-resistance to evil by force L. Tolstoy) concepts. The basic difference between the specified variants of understanding the correlation between morality and politics in hum...

  19. Il Canone Linguistico Boccacciano, Non Senza Dissenso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Casini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Author of prose’s greatest masterpiece of medieval literature in the vernacular, Giovanni Boccaccio was crucial to defining the Italian language canon, especially since Pietro Bembo proposed its coding in the sixteenth century. Not without controversy, however, since shortly after the publication of Prose Della Volgar Language, Bembo presents the first contrasting theories that support the linguistic model presented by Machiavelli

  20. The human concept in Nicolas Maquiavelo

    OpenAIRE

    Echandi Gurdián, Marcela

    2013-01-01

    This paper shows the elements underlying the Machiavellian discourse about human reality and behavior throughout ancient history that considers magistra vitae. Its explains why the author makes a deterministic interpretation of the nature of man, even though Machiavelli is recognized as a precursor of human psychology, showing us with countless examples, a naturalism that presupposes a content of the dualism of human nature: rational-instinctive, where the latter is dominant and immutable. ...

  1. Self-Defense of the Republic of Korea in the 1990’s

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-11

    1109. 11.Roy U.T. Kim, P.710. 12..bid , pp.708-722. 13. Robert R. Simmons. The Strained Alliance: Peking, Pyongyang, Moscow, and the Politics of the...Inc., 1957. Kiyosaki , Wayne S. North Korea’ sroreign Relations. New YorksPraeger Publishers, Inc., 197b. Machiavelli, Niccolo. The prince, trans. by...Korea), 1960. Schwarzenberger, George. Power Politics, 3rd ed. New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1961T. Simmons, Robert R. The Strained Alliance

  2. "Tetsugaku Manga". Filosofia occidentale a fumetti in Giappone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Marca, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyse some Japanese comics based on important works of Western philosophers. The focus is on the direct use of philosophical texts, by reference to the “Manga de Dokuha“ series published by East Press. Following a brief introduction of this series and its purposes, a more detailed analysis based on two well-known philosophical classics: Human, All Too Human, by Friederich Nietzsche, and The Prince, by Niccolò Machiavelli, is conducted.

  3. Calusewitz and German Idealism: The Influence of G. W. F. Hegel on ’On War’

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-03

    Clausewitz himself tells 10 us in a note written in 1818 that his original approach had been to imitate the method of Montesquieu in his l’Esprit des lois...term implications of much of the thought in the Age of Reason foreshadowed additional radical changes to come. Montesquieu , Locke and Rousseau were...that not only did Hegel and Clausewitz have common roots in Kant, Montesquieu and Machiavelli but Otheir minds seemed to share the same perspectives

  4. Fear and Attraction in Statecraft: Western Multilateralism’s Double-Edged Swords

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Machiavelli with Carl Schmitt on the other. In the 13th century, Thomas Aquinas, based on writings from Saint Augustine , articulated the view that...The Soviet Union clearly advertised its true colors and dominated Eastern Europe. The British and French 166 Ibid, 73–74.; Thierry Tardy, “The UN...Oxford University Press, 2005. Tardy, Thierry . “The UN and the Use of Force: A Marriage Against Nature.” Security Diologue 38, no. 1, (2007): 49–70

  5. The crisis of modernity as the crisis of the political: Towards a critique of the reason of the ethos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaković Simo D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The crisis of modernity as the crisis of the political is seen by the author primarily as a crisis of the "measure" of the criterion of political decision making and action. This crisis is understood in the first place as a crisis of self-awareness and practice of the ethos. Machiavelli was the first to attempt a solution to this problem by introducing the concept of virtus, which became the fundamental principle of modern political philosophy. However, many modern and contemporary interpreters of Machiavelli's thought often ignore the social and political context in which the political doctrine of the Florentine thinker arose. Namely, Machiavelli's effort to find an authentic form of the political act that would make possible a harmonization and stabilization of the dramatic political circumstances then prevailing in Italian cities required a reliable diagnosis and adequate means for a successful therapy of the sick organism of the community. The epochal novelty in Machiavelli's political theory was the shift from the ancient theorization of virtue to its modern operationalization. Nevertheless, this shift is often interpreted as a radical opposing of the Greek concept of arete to the Roman virtus, which is crudely and simplistically reduced to bravery and strength necessary for taking and keeping political power. Hegel in his political philosophy travels an important part of the road - unconsciously rather than consciously - along with Machiavelli and Shelling. This particularly holds for his understanding of the necessity of strength and bravery in the process of operationalizing the spirit of freedom in history through the mediation of "negation" as "the power of evil". The mediation of subjectivity and substantiality, according to Hegel, takes place in the state by the brutal bridling of the world spirit where not just individuals but whole peoples are sacrificed - toward freedom, i.e. its realization in the community of the ethos. The

  6. Education and the Child Labor Paradox Today. Essay Review of "Children on the Streets of the Americas" (Roslyn A. Mickelson, editor); "The Policy Analysis of Child Labor: A Comparative Study" (Christiaan Grootaert, Harry Anthony Patrinos); "What Works for Working Children?" (Jo Boyden, Birgitta Ling, William Myers); "Child Employment in Britain: A Social and Psychological Analysis" (Sandy Hobbs, Jim McKechnie); and "Bud, Not Buddy" (Christopher Paul Curtis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, David

    2001-01-01

    Reviews five books on child labor, published 1997-2000, with reference to the International Labour Organization's 1999 convention that retreats from its previous hard stance on child labor. Discusses street children; public policy on child labor, child welfare, and school attendance; types of children's work; and working children as agents…

  7. Education and the Child Labor Paradox Today. Essay Review of "Children on the Streets of the Americas" (Roslyn A. Mickelson, editor); "The Policy Analysis of Child Labor: A Comparative Study" (Christiaan Grootaert, Harry Anthony Patrinos); "What Works for Working Children?" (Jo Boyden, Birgitta Ling, William Myers); "Child Employment in Britain: A Social and Psychological Analysis" (Sandy Hobbs, Jim McKechnie); and "Bud, Not Buddy" (Christopher Paul Curtis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, David

    2001-01-01

    Reviews five books on child labor, published 1997-2000, with reference to the International Labour Organization's 1999 convention that retreats from its previous hard stance on child labor. Discusses street children; public policy on child labor, child welfare, and school attendance; types of children's work; and working children as agents…

  8. Historical Practice of Sociology of Scientific Knowledge-- A Review of Leviathan and the Air-Pump: Hobbes, Boyle, and the Experimental Life%科学知识社会学的史学实践--评夏平与沙弗尔的《利维坦与空气泵--霍布斯、波义耳与实验活动》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓

    2004-01-01

    @@ 科学社会学和科学史这两大学科有一个共同的基本问题,那就是如何看待科学与社会的关系.以默顿为代表的传统科学社会学,把科学作为一种社会体制,主张对科学体制进行社会学考察.科学史中则产生了旷日持久的思想史与社会史之争,主流观点认为思想史是主体,社会史是补充.两大学科的共同特点是,都把社会对科学的影响看作是一种弱影响,只分析社会如何为科学提供动力,没有对社会如何影响科学知识本身做出评价.而且,在已有的框架下,科学知识与科学体制、思想史与社会史之间,区别是显而易见的.

  9. Cumulative Timers for Microprocessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battle, John O.

    2007-01-01

    It has been proposed to equip future microprocessors with electronic cumulative timers, for essentially the same reasons for which land vehicles are equipped with odometers (total-distance-traveled meters) and aircraft are equipped with Hobbs meters (total-engine-operating time meters). Heretofore, there has been no way to determine the amount of use to which a microprocessor (or a product containing a microprocessor) has been subjected. The proposed timers would count all microprocessor clock cycles and could only be read by means of microprocessor instructions but, like odometers and Hobbs meters, could never be reset to zero without physically damaging the chip.

  10. Fluxon dynamics in three stacked Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorria, Carlos; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich

    2002-01-01

    /sub -/, the coupling between junctions leads to a repulsion of the fluxons with the same polarity. Above this critical velocity a fluxon will induce radiation in the neighboring junctions, leading to a bunching of the fluxons in the stacked junctions. Using the Sakai-Bodin-Pedersen model, three coupled perturbed sine......-Gordon equations are numerically studied for different values of coupling, damping, and bias parameters. In a narrow range of velocities bunching occurs. Outside this interval the fluxons split and new fluxons may be created. I-V characteristics are presented...

  11. Proceedings of the Pacific Conference on Operations Research, Held April 23-28, 1979, Seoul, Korea. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-04-01

    as having not occurred or occurred, respectively). The identification of groups of related items within the reduced set of 68 items was achieved by...against the actual observations. Billion KWH9.8_ -... / ! I! 9.3 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 7 73 4 75 76 YEAR Fig. 1. Plot of Korea Electric Power...Inductry," Bell journal of Economics, vol. 7, no. 1, Spring 1976. 9. Marcuse , W., Bodin, L., "A Dynamic Time Dependent Model for the Analysis of

  12. Discourses of Indiscipline: An Informal Hobbesian Riposte to Cate Watson

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Classroom battles are real and not a metaphor. Warfare is a historical and present fact of human life. Life really is a battle and conflict inevitable; injuries to the psyche are just as real as those to the body. Schools cannot step outside society. It is not Foucault but Thomas Hobbes who offers the most perceptive insight into human behaviour…

  13. The concept of pain in the 17th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procacci, P; Maresca, M

    1992-01-01

    The 17th century is very important in the history of sensation and pain. Philosophers, as Descartes, Hobbes, Spinoza, defined a new philosophy of science. Physicians of the iatro-chemical school introduced the first principles of biochemistry, tied to the sensations. Physicians of the iatro-mechanical school postulated a really modern concept: the importance of nerve juices in sensibility and pain.

  14. Burke, Nietzsche, Lacan: Three Perspectives on the Rhetoric of Order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Douglas

    1993-01-01

    Examines the complex relationship between rhetoric and order in the works of Kenneth Burke, Friedrich Nietzsche, and Jacques Lacan. Argues for three differing, yet complementary, views of rhetoric and order, each having a corresponding epistemology and axiology. Concludes with an analysis of the construction of order in Thomas Hobbe's…

  15. Nanoenergetics and High Hydrogen Content Materials for Space Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-28

    were performed using CHEETAH 4.0 [32] with the JCZS product library developed by Hobbs and Baer [33]. Chemical kinetic calculations were performed...2000 [32] L. E. Fried, K. R. Glaesemann, W. M. Howard, P. C. Souers, and P. A. Vitello, Cheetah , Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore

  16. Fragments of the organic metaphor in modern political thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. García López

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the survival of the organic metaphor in the beginning of Modernity, against the Bobbio’thesis: the organicism disappears with Modernity. From the thought of Hobbes, Rousseau, Beccaria and Sieyès, we show the connection between the old metaphor and the modern immune paradigm.

  17. Jumala poliitika / Mark Lilla ; tlk. Märt Väljataga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lilla, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Jumala olemasolust, kosmose ülesehitusest, hingest, asjade algusest ja lõpust poliitilises teoloogias. Inglise filosoofi Thomas Hobbes'i poliitilise teoloogia mõjudest lääne liberaal-demokraatlikule ühiskonnale. Peale Prantsuse revolutsiooni tekkinud Jean-Jacques Rousseau "liberaalsest teoloogiast" ja selle arengutest kuni tänapäevani. Poliitilise teoloogia ja liberaalse demokraatia vastuoludest

  18. Walter Warner (ca.1557-1643) and his notes on Animal Organisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, Johannes Lambertus Maria

    1992-01-01

    As opposed to most of his contemporaries, Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) assumed that all phenomena could be explained in terms of matter in motion. All the more intriguing is his suggestion that what he wrote came out of his own head. Yet, already during his lifetime he was accused of having taken his n

  19. Burke, Nietzsche, Lacan: Three Perspectives on the Rhetoric of Order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Douglas

    1993-01-01

    Examines the complex relationship between rhetoric and order in the works of Kenneth Burke, Friedrich Nietzsche, and Jacques Lacan. Argues for three differing, yet complementary, views of rhetoric and order, each having a corresponding epistemology and axiology. Concludes with an analysis of the construction of order in Thomas Hobbe's…

  20. With a Little Help from My Friends (and Mark Twain Too) Musings and Farewells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Over the years, the author has drawn on a variety of friends, both fictional and real, to help him make specific points when writing professional papers and books for teachers, administrators, and researchers. This included Snoopy and other Peanut characters to describe how struggling writers compose; Calvin and his imaginary tiger Hobbes to…

  1. Ignition, Combustion and Tuning of Nanocomposite Thermites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    oxygen and nitrogen, the thermal conductivity as a function of temperature is given in Incropera and DeWitt144 up to 3000 K, and we extrapolate it...Meeting, 1998; 1998. 143. M. L. Hobbs; M. R. Baer; B. C. McGee, Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics 1999, 24, (5), 269-279. 144. F. P. Incropera ; D

  2. Key Themes in Intercultural Communication Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodin, Jane

    2010-01-01

    The seminar, organised by Jane Woodin, Gibson Ferguson, Valerie Hobbs and Lesley Walker (School of Modern Languages & Linguistics and School of English, University of Sheffield), aimed to bring together those working in intercultural communication (IC) pedagogy largely--though not exclusively--in the higher education sector. It drew…

  3. The Concept of Design: Are We off Track?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    is a classic example of inductive reasoning by David Hume : 13 Ackoff, 13. 14 Nikolas Kompridis...pro-American states in the Arab world, and [in Iraq] eliminate 5 David E. Johnson, Peter A. Wilson...Hobbes, Tim. The Anatomy of Problem Solving. Colorado Springs, CO: Book Surge LLC, 2007. Johnson. David E., Peter A. Wilson, Richard E. Darilek

  4. A Confidence Paradigm for Classification Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    M.U. Thomas Date Dean, Graduate School of Engineering and Management Table of Contents Page List of Figures...Plato, Aristotle, Plotinus, St Augustine, St Aquinas , Machi- avelli, Descartes, Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, Kant, Marx, Mill, Confucius) discuss having...independence, and aggregation of confidence is a linear summation of individual confidence values. Thomas and Allcock [61] develop a statistical confidence

  5. The Unlikely Claimant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lev, Amnon

    2014-01-01

    The article offers a reconstruction of Hobbes' theory of commonwealth on the basis of which it considers the nexus of sovereignty and modern-day republicanism, as it is articulated in the work of Quentin Skinner and Philip Pettit. It argues that, on the terms of republican theory, the difference...

  6. Pathogenicity of diaporthe spp. isolates recovered from soybean (glycine max) seeds in Paraguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phomopsis seed decay (PSD) caused by Diaporthe longicolla (Hobbs) J.M. Santos, Vrandecic & A.J.L. Phillips has been documented as part of a soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] fungal disease complex that affects the quality of soybean seed. In 2006, 16 isolates of Diaporthe were recovered from soybean...

  7. Exploring Baseline Food-Media Literacy of Adult Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Tina L.

    2012-01-01

    Many media education researchers have identified the importance of adult media literacy but few have studied it. Such literacy is becoming increasingly important with regard to the growing category of food media--advertisements, television programs, and print media among them. Using two focus groups and guided by Primack and Hobbs' (2009) AA, RR,…

  8. Linking Learning: Connecting Traditional and Media Literacies in 21st Century Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Joslyn Sarles

    2012-01-01

    Media literacy, the abilities "to access, analyze, evaluate, and communicate information in a variety of forms" (NAMLE), is necessary to help people understand the information presented to them and make informed decisions. However, despite decades of work to include media literacy education in academic learning (Hobbs and Jensen 2009), American…

  9. The Labelling Approach to Deviance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rains, Prudence M.; Kitsuse, John L.; Duster, Troy; Freidson, Eliot

    2003-01-01

    This reprint of one chapter from the 1975 text, "Issues in the Classification of Children" by Nicholas Hobbs and others, addresses the theoretical, methodological, and empirical issues involved in the "labeling" approach to the sociology of deviance. It examines the social process of classification, the use of classification in social agencies,…

  10. Discourses of Indiscipline: An Informal Hobbesian Riposte to Cate Watson

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Classroom battles are real and not a metaphor. Warfare is a historical and present fact of human life. Life really is a battle and conflict inevitable; injuries to the psyche are just as real as those to the body. Schools cannot step outside society. It is not Foucault but Thomas Hobbes who offers the most perceptive insight into human behaviour…

  11. Walter Warner (ca.1557-1643) and his notes on Animal Organisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, Johannes Lambertus Maria

    1992-01-01

    As opposed to most of his contemporaries, Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) assumed that all phenomena could be explained in terms of matter in motion. All the more intriguing is his suggestion that what he wrote came out of his own head. Yet, already during his lifetime he was accused of having taken his n

  12. Digital and Media Literacy: Connecting Culture and Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Renee

    2011-01-01

    Today's students tweet, text, and navigate apps up to 12 hours each day, but they may not know how to effectively analyze a TV show or website. Award-winning author Renee Hobbs demonstrates how to incorporate media literacy into the secondary classroom, providing the tools teachers need to: (1) Effectively foster students' critical thinking,…

  13. Menneskerettigheder - det almenmenneskelige og det kulturelt bestemte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Med inddragelse af en skelnen mellem borgerrettigheder og menneskerettigheder søger kapitlet at afdække det værdisæt, der ligger bag tanken om universelle menneskerettigheder bl.a. med inddragelse af Thomas Hobbes og John Lockes naturretstænkning. Herefter gives et historisk vue over udviklingen af...

  14. 76 FR 56409 - Notice of Interim Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Virgil G. Hobbs III, Assistant Administrator, Finance and Marketing... allocated to power over a reasonable period of years.'' The Corps does not submit its budget to Southeastern... that have an allocation of capacity from Southeastern. Subsequently, Progress Energy provides...

  15. 33 CFR 116.45 - Submission of bids, approval of award, guaranty of cost, and partial payments for bridges...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... award, guaranty of cost, and partial payments for bridges eligible for funding under the Truman-Hobbs... SECURITY BRIDGES ALTERATION OF UNREASONABLY OBSTRUCTIVE BRIDGES § 116.45 Submission of bids, approval of award, guaranty of cost, and partial payments for bridges eligible for funding under the...

  16. Jumala poliitika / Mark Lilla ; tlk. Märt Väljataga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lilla, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Jumala olemasolust, kosmose ülesehitusest, hingest, asjade algusest ja lõpust poliitilises teoloogias. Inglise filosoofi Thomas Hobbes'i poliitilise teoloogia mõjudest lääne liberaal-demokraatlikule ühiskonnale. Peale Prantsuse revolutsiooni tekkinud Jean-Jacques Rousseau "liberaalsest teoloogiast" ja selle arengutest kuni tänapäevani. Poliitilise teoloogia ja liberaalse demokraatia vastuoludest

  17. Death of a Compatibilistic Intuition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Thomas Boysen

    2004-01-01

    The common key intuition that freedom is to do what you want to do is very attractive to compatibilistic accounts of freedom. And as a matter of fact this key intuition has been adopted by most compatibilists from Hobbes till now. Unfortunately, it suffers from serious problems. However, thanks t...

  18. Algunas Notas sobre Domingo de Soto y la Prehistoria del Estado de Naturaleza Hobbesiano || Some notes about Domingo de Soto and the prehistory of Hobbe’s state of nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jiménez Castaño

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El objetivo de este breve trabajo es mostrar algunas relaciones que pueden ser trazadas entre las teorías políticas del teólogo español Domingo de Soto y el filósofo inglés Thomas Hobbes. De hecho, lo que intentamos probar es que el concepto de dominio de Soto y sus opiniones sobre el estado del hombre después de la Caída tienen cierta presencia en el estado de naturaleza que Hobbes usa para demostrar la necesidad del Estado.ABSTRACT: The aim of this brief work is to show some relations that can be drawn between the political theories of the Spanish theologian Domingo de Soto and the English philosopher Thomas Hobbes. In fact, what we want to prove is that Soto’s concept of dominion and his opinions about the state of man after the fall have some presence in the state of nature that Hobbes uses to demonstrate the necessity of the State. 

  19. Laying aside the spear : Hobbesian warre and the Maussian gift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corbey, R.H.A.

    2006-01-01

    The pacification of a primordial, violent natural state of humankind by a social contract based on reciprocal exchange is a widespread preconception, from Thomas Hobbes and Enlightenment social thought to Marcel Mauss and Claude Lévi-Strauss. In this contribution, the structure, historical

  20. Comentario bibliográfico de Antihobbes. O sobre los límites del poder supremo y el derecho de coacción del ciudadano contra el soberano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Croxatto, Guido L.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Comentario bibliográfico sobre Feuerbach, Paul Johann Anselm Ritter von, Anti-Hobbes. O sobre los límites del poder supremo y el derecho de coacción del ciudadano contra el soberano, Buenos Aires, Ed. Hammurabi, 2010.

  1. Correlated and Zonal Errors of Global Astrometric Missions: A Spherical Harmonic Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Publ. Ser ., 45, 143 Hoyer, P., Hog, E., Poder , I., & Lindegren, L. 1981, A&A, 101, 228 Lammers, U., Lindegren, L., Bombrun, A., O’Mullane, W., & Hobbs...D. 2010, in ASP Conf. Ser . 434, Astronomical Data Analysis Software and Systems XIX, ed. Y. Mizumoto, K.-I. Morita, & M. Ohishi (San Francisco, CA

  2. Hart et le positivisme postmoderne en droit international

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. d' Aspremont

    2009-01-01

    This article argues that, in the context of international law, Hart can really be considered a post-modern positivist. Hart has not only refined the source thesis of Hobbes, Bentham and Austin by shedding the command-based understanding of law. Hart has also overcome the difficulties of Kelsen’s hyp

  3. Getting Personal: Personal Archives in Archival Programs and Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    In 2001, Catherine Hobbs referred to silences around personal archives, suggesting that these types of archives were not given as much attention as organizational archives in the development of archival theory and methodology. The aims of this article are twofold: 1) to investigate the extent to which such silences exist in archival education…

  4. Creating an Internal Content Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennema, Greg

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about an internal content management system that they have created at Calvin College. It is a hybrid of CMS and intranet that organizes Web site content and a variety of internal tools to help librarians complete their daily tasks. Hobbes is a Web-based tool that uses Common Gateway Interface (CGI) scripts written…

  5. Remembering Jerome Bruner

    OpenAIRE

    dos Santos, Andréia Mendes; Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul; Guilherme, Alexandre Anselmo

    2016-01-01

    This short memorial draws on reflections by Professor Howard Gardner, Hobbs Professor of Cognition and Education, Harvard Graduate School of Education, Harvard University. Howard Gardner is the author of the chapter on Bruner in the recently published Routledge Encyclopaedia of Educational Thinkers. . .

  6. Philosophy and Morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    Philosophical thinking which has stood the test of time is summarized in this document. The rationale is that all students benefit from studies of philosophical thinking emphasizing moral standards. Thinkers included are: Plato, Aristotle, Peter Abelard, Francis Bacon, Sir Thomas More, Thomas Campanella, Thomas Hobbes, Benedict Spinoza, John…

  7. A Novel Molecular Target for Breast Cancer Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    may function as 29. Huang, C., Ma, W. Y., Dawson, M. I., Rincon , M., Flavell, R. A., and Dong, Z. a bridging factor to mediate RAR/AP-1 interaction. In...Dawson, M. I:; Cavasotto, C. N.; Hobbs, P. D.; Jong, L.; Feng, Apoptosis induction and potent antiestrogen receptor-negative KY-C.; Lui , H

  8. Clinical Investigation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-01

    Psychiatric Opinion, pp 40-42, Nov 1978. DEPT OF PSYCHIATRY Treffene , R. J., Craven, C., Hobbs, K., and Wade, C.: Swimming Performance Control Using Plasma...Sullivan, D. E., 10 Thonas, HI. M., 19, 36, 56, 57 Treffene , R. J., 11 Uechi, M., 104 Van Sant, T. E., 105 Wade, C., 11, 13, 19, 25, 45 Washburn, M. E

  9. Platonic Dialogues as Political Science Texts: An Appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Richard G.

    1984-01-01

    How an introductory political science course called "The Elements of Political Theory" is taught using Plato's "Republic," Hobbes's "Leviathan," the "Declaration of Independence," and the "Communist Manifesto" is discussed. In the course, students contrast the way ancients and moderns differ in their approaches and solutions to political…

  10. Burke, Nietzsche, Lacan: Three Perspectives on the Rhetoric of Order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Douglas

    1993-01-01

    Examines the complex relationship between rhetoric and order in the works of Kenneth Burke, Friedrich Nietzsche, and Jacques Lacan. Argues for three differing, yet complementary, views of rhetoric and order, each having a corresponding epistemology and axiology. Concludes with an analysis of the construction of order in Thomas Hobbe's "Leviathan."…

  11. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (86th, Kansas City, Missouri, July 30-August 2, 2003). Miscellaneous Divisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003

    The Miscellaneous Divisions of the proceedings contains the following 17 papers: "Analyzing Sequential Art: Visual Narrative Techniques in 'Calvin and Hobbes'" (Sharron M. Hope); "A Critical Vision of Gender in 2002 Campaign Ads" (Janis Teruggi Page); "Personal Impact Assessment of Advertising Culture of 'Whiteness': Facial Skin Color Preferences…

  12. Making organization research matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    2006-01-01

    research or any of the social sciences. Second, we must address problems that matter to groups in the local, national, and global communities in which we live, and we must do it in ways that matter; we must focus on issues of context, values, and power, as advocated by great social scientists from...... Aristotle and Machiavelli to Max Weber and Pierre Bourdieu. Finally, we must effectively and dialogically communicate the results of our research to our fellow citizens and carefully listen to their feedback. If we do this – focus on specific values and interests in the context of particular power relations...

  13. Teorije o elitah:

    OpenAIRE

    Atanasovski, Gligor

    1997-01-01

    The classic elitist theory is renowned among Italian po1itical schools and it is the continuity of Machiavelli's tradition. Two of the most famous thinkers are Gaetano Mosca and Vilfredo Pareto. This text answers three questions: Who governs or rules in the political society, what are the characteristics of the elites, and how does one become a member of the elites? Elitist theory is not a mythical category. Klasične teorije o elitah so znane kot italijanska šola politične misli in kot tak...

  14. Hole of Government: Sealing the Gap in U.S. Stability Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Machiavelli, The Prince, ed. Planet eBook (1532), 99 http://www.planetebook.com/ ebooks /The-Prince.pdf (accessed 3/27/2010). 25 Chapter 2 STRATEGIC...The first century of the Army’s existence, with the exception of the war with Mexico in 1846, can be considered a largely ―domestic‖ era in terms of...38 The Domestic Era Activities during the 1820s to 1840s westward expansion, the 1846-1848 occupation of Mexico and the occupation of the

  15. Unas anotaciones a los Commentarii de César para la educación del príncipe Felipe, futuro Felipe III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genoveva García-Alegre Sánchez

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the manuscript annotations of the edition Commentarii of Caesar (1574 used by the prince, the future Philip HI, between the years 1590 and 1592. On the basis of these notes, it is shown the context of the way how the prince was educated in the XVI century, related to the following terms: the Middle Age theory (St. Thomas Aquinas, Giles of Rome and the Renaissance theory (Erasmus, Machiavelli of the education; the organisation of the instruction (the Ayo and the Maestro; and the figure of the latin teacher (Maestro de Pajes.

  16. Reading Claude Lefort: Following the Footprints of Leo Strauss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Hilb

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It might seem outlandish to examine the theoretical links between the work of Claude Lefort, a left-wing French student of democracy, and Leo Strauss, the radical critic of modern mass democracy, usually associated with conservativism in North American political thought. Nonetheless, every reader of Lefort is certainly aware of his respect for Strauss’s reading of Machiavelli and for the Straussian insights into modern political thought. This article tries to make sense of Lefort’s dialogue with Strauss, both in its explicit and implicit aspects, focusing on the fundamental points of agreement and on the most relevant differences between the two authors.

  17. CIUDADANÍA Y MILICIA EN EL REPUBLICANISMO FLORENTINO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Luis Castillo Vegas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The creation of a citizen militia is a characteristic pretension of the Renaissance republicanism. The republic cannot lack defense (already knows the outcome of the “unarmed prophets” nor defend themselves with mercenary armies. For Machiavelli, Guicciardini or Giannotti the citizen has a set of virtues, like austerity, discipline, patriotism or bravery, that make him the best soldier. Therefore, the Republican regime needs the citizens to be soldiers, because the military discipline itself is a means necessary to forge such civic virtues without which no republic can survive.

  18. CONFLICT AS A WAY OF BEING OF POLITICS. MACHIAVELLIAN CONTRIBUTION TO THINK THE POWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Luis Moretti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The conceptual challenge of thinking politics refers to the attempt - always, by definition, precarious, fragile and destined to failure- to grasp an intrinsically polysemic object and action defies straitjacket or limitation. This article will propose a deliberate code reading; a specific interpretive framework for thinking about politics; understanding the conflict as its hopelessly constitutive category. With this purpose, we will consider the work of Nicholas Machiavelli enjoying fertility to think this troubled specificity of the political.The methodological approach was purely theoretical, through an exercise of exegesis of texts Machiavellian and enhancement of its contemporary political thinking.

  19. The Prince or How to Make a “Prince”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip STANCIU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Prince (1513 is, in the opinion of Niccolò Machiavelli’s (1469-1527 exegetes, the “point of convergence of his historical and diplomatic work”, covering his reflections from three complementary books: The Art of War (1518,Discourses on the First Decade of Titus Livy (1517 and Florentine Stories (1525. In his major work, Machiavelli was opposing his contemporaries’ education and the education of the ancients. Moreover, beyond the late considerations about immorality in Machiavelli, it is obvious the meaning the Florentine author confers to an elaborate political behaviour. Morality has its place there where political order is already established, not when the prerequisites that ensure it are missing: that is security and stability. Justice is necessary to the completion of a city, not to its founding: given the human nature and the hostility of fate, the establishment of a political order cannot be done without violence. The Great Prince knows to use this violence in the most “economical” way, i.e. effective enough not to be compelled to have constantly recourse to it.

  20. From conditions of equality to demands of justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartz, Emily; Nielsen, Carsten Fogh

    2015-01-01

    Equal freedom is the common starting point for most contractual theories of justice from Hobbes and Rousseau to Rawls. But while equal freedom defines a common starting point for these theories, this does not result in a general consensus on the conception of justice. On the contrary, different...... ways of conceptualizing the contractual starting point leads to different conceptions of the demands of justice. To fully understand the relationship between equal freedom and justice we therefore first need to explicate how and why the initial condition of equality is transformed into demands...... of justice. In this paper we discuss how this transformation takes place in the theories of Hobbes, Rousseau and Rawls, with particular emphasis on the vexed relationship between motivation and justification....

  1. From conditions of equality to demands of justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartz, Emily; Nielsen, Carsten Fogh

    2015-01-01

    Equal freedom is the common starting point for most contractual theories of justice from Hobbes and Rousseau to Rawls. But while equal freedom defines a common starting point for these theories, this does not result in a general consensus on the conception of justice. On the contrary, different...... of justice. In this paper we discuss how this transformation takes place in the theories of Hobbes, Rousseau and Rawls, with particular emphasis on the vexed relationship between motivation and justification....... ways of conceptualizing the contractual starting point leads to different conceptions of the demands of justice. To fully understand the relationship between equal freedom and justice we therefore first need to explicate how and why the initial condition of equality is transformed into demands...

  2. The crisis of the contemporary state and the function of the regulation economical activity A crise do estado contemporâneo e o papel da regulação das atividades econômicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Bonomo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims at to demonstrate the formation of the State through a rationalistic theory, that it is the one of the social contract, considering Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau, the evolution in that way of State to the current model, justifying the crisis that is now then and which the paper of the regulation of the economical activity for the decrease of the effects of the same.O presente trabalho objetiva demonstrar a formação do Estado através de uma teoria racionalista, que é a do contrato social, considerando Hobbes, Locke e Rousseau, a evolução dessa forma de Estado até o modelo atual, justificando então a crise que se encontra atualmente e qual o papel da regulação da atividade econômica para a diminuição dos efeitos da mesma.

  3. O contrato social da imprensa: por um Leviatã do jornalismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeferson Bertolini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda o conceito de contrato social dos pensadores políticos Thomas Hobbes, John Locke e Jean Jacques Rousseau e o relaciona à imprensa. A ideia do contrato não é usada no âmbito político, entre governados e governantes. É empregada na esfera da comunicação social, entre público e imprensa. O manuscrito recorre ao modelo de Hobbes (o povo se submete à autoridade do Estado em troca de proteção para pensar um Leviatã do jornalismo (o público respeita a figura da imprensa em troca de conteúdo relevante e verdadeiro. O ensaio, baseado em levantamento bibliográfico, busca defender o modelo tradicional de imprensa e de jornalista frente ao conteúdo de fonte duvidosa e aos produtores independentes de conteúdo da era digital

  4. From conditions of equality to demands of justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartz, Emily; Nielsen, Carsten Fogh

    2015-01-01

    Equal freedom is the common starting point for most contractual theories of justice from Hobbes and Rousseau to Rawls. But while equal freedom defines a common starting point for these theories, this does not result in a general consensus on the conception of justice. On the contrary, different...... of justice. In this paper we discuss how this transformation takes place in the theories of Hobbes, Rousseau and Rawls, with particular emphasis on the vexed relationship between motivation and justification....... ways of conceptualizing the contractual starting point leads to different conceptions of the demands of justice. To fully understand the relationship between equal freedom and justice we therefore first need to explicate how and why the initial condition of equality is transformed into demands...

  5. Little Behemoth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Debüser

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The theory of Thomas Hobbes describes the opposition of human nature to society. A good example for this opposite is the inability of children or childish men to live in society on their own in accordance to reason. Hobbes solution to this inability is education and the rule of reason. The rule of reason, like the power of parents or the power of the state, needs the addition of the human emotion of fear. But this system is in danger disintegrating into powerless reason and unreasonable power. The theory of David Hume describes emotions without the rule of reason. He replaces reason with consciousness. But this system is also in danger of disintegrating into unconscious emotions and insensitive consciousness. The system theory understands man as an environment of society and reconstructs the opposition of human nature to society.

  6. Natureza e liberdade no “Leviathan”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delmo Mattos

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2012v11n1p59 Qualificar a teoria política de Hobbes como adversa ao exercício da liberdade é uma tendência comum em determinadas interpretações a respeito dele. Com o propósito fundamental de enfatizar a incoerência destas interpretações, o presente artigo visa examinar a natureza da liberdade humana em Hobbes, especificamente, no Leviathan. Para tanto, evidencia-se a aproximação teórica do filósofo aos princípios norteadores da filosofia natural demonstrando que o seu conceito de liberdade é uma aplicação particular do princípio da inércia.

  7. El triunfo del dios mortal. Una lectura hobbesiana de la secularización.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Garzón Vallejo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The article tracks the elements that in The Leviathan of Thomas Hobbes state the role of religion in the modern State. Two interpretations would come off Hobbes' work: the first one the State appears like a perfect machine that replaces the historical and cultural role of the Church, specifically its hegemony on the public stage and the exigency of loyalty to the individuals. In the second, State requires an absolute and unquestionable sovereignty over the religious stage, and to achieve this, it subordinates religion to civil power. Nevertheless, the two routes lead to the same destiny: the prevalence of political power over the ecclesiastical or religious sphere, in a complex relation that is sustained from modernity to our times.

  8. Mechanistic individualism versus organistic totalitarianism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Venter

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Mechanistic individualism versus organistic totalitarianismIn this article it is argued that the organistic world picture, when functioning as a world view, is associated with a totalitarian view of social relationships, usually promoting the interests o f the state or the ethnic group as the interests which should dominate. This is illustrated by referring to the social ideas of Hobbes, Rousseau, D.H. Lawrence and Mussolini. The mechanistic world picture, however, when functioning as a world view, is associated with individualism, according to which the individuals have a relatively independent existence; it suggests that justice and morality are the automatic products of the equilibrating process. Cases in point: Hobbes, Adam Smith, Kant, Darwin, New-Classical and Monetarist economics. Finally (in Neo-Calvinist vein it is argued that the application o f such worldviewish metaphors should be limited, so that justice can be done to both the differentiation of social relationships and their integration.

  9. The Oddity of Waging War on a Tactic: Reframing the Global War on Terror as a Global Counterinsurgency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Long War,” Parameters 38, no. 3 (Autumn 2008): 92-108. 8 Ibid. 7 Hitler‟s Mein Kampf ; in which he said what he meant to say and did what he said he...the military, political, legal and ideological 9 Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf (Boston: Mariner...in Africa. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000. Hitler, Adolph. Mein Kampf . Boston: Mariner Books, 1998. Hobbes, Thomas. Leviathan. 1660

  10. On Peace: Peace as a Means of Statecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    relationship between peace, man, and the state will be examined. Philosophers such as Hobbes, Locke, and Hegel share a common understanding of the natural...contract based on interdependence sustains it.22 In contrast to Kant, Hegel believed that “perpetual peace” is a chimera because relations between...20. Ibid., p. 212. 21. Allen W. Wood, ed., Basic Writings of Kant, New York: Modern Library, 2001, p. 441. 22. Ibid., p. 442. 23. G. W. F. Hegel

  11. On the Erdős-Gyárfás Conjecture in Claw-Free Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowbandegani Pouria Salehi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Erdős-Gyárfás conjecture states that every graph with minimum degree at least three has a cycle whose length is a power of 2. Since this conjecture has proven to be far from reach, Hobbs asked if the Erdős-Gyárfás conjecture holds in claw-free graphs. In this paper, we obtain some results on this question, in particular for cubic claw-free graphs

  12. Range Image Flow using High-Order Polynomial Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    give a special thanks to Dr. Steve Hobbs for his help with the high-order tensor calculations. MATLAB ® is a registered...that using multiple spatial scales and past information improve the final flow estimation, as we would expect. Also, we will port the MATLAB R...taken column- wise and diagonalized, and f is the range image data, taken column-wise. The values of these weights for a Velodyne R© and Odetic lidar

  13. Pulsar Timing with the Fermi LAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    F. Camilo , et al., ApJ (2010), in press, arXiv:1012.2862. 7. G. Hobbs, A. G. Lyne, M. Kramer, C. E. Martin, and C. Jordan, MNRAS 353, 1311–1344...2004). 8. J. P. Halpern, F. Camilo , and E. V. Gotthelf, ApJ 668, 1154–1157 (2007). 9. A. A. Abdo, et al., Science 325, 840 (2009), (16 Blind Search

  14. Autonomous Military Robotics: Risk, Ethics, and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-20

    Augustine) considered these issues, but the natural law tradition associated with Aquinas began the systematic consideration of the issue. Natural...MA: MIT Press. Brooks, Rodney (2002). Flesh and Machines. New York: Pantheon Books. Canning, John, Riggs, G.W., Holland, O. Thomas , Blakelock...71-87. Last accessed on September 15, 2008: http://www.defence.gov.au/publications/dfj/index.htm Hobbes, Thomas (1651). Leviathan (1982 edition

  15. Reassessing US Policy Toward Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Islamic-governed society will act. These are the sort of issues with which St. Augustine, St. Thomas of Aquinas , Hobbes, Locke, and others struggled...and Attitudes, Thomas L. Friedman identifies three American schools of thought regarding policy toward Iran; those who advocate rolling back the...issue. In his book, The Lexus and the Olive Tree, Thomas L. Friedman offers the following passage: “...my old two-dimensional view of the world was

  16. A Regime Legitimacy Explanation of African Peacekeeping

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Solutions are not Enough,” Ethics and International Affairs 22 (2008): 310; Jakkie Cilliers, “Peacekeeping, Africa and the Emerging Global Security...prominent political philosophers: Hobbes, Locke and Kant ; the Hobbesian culture is based on perpetual conflict, the Lockean on self-control and the...1998): 425– 439. Williams, Paul. “Keeping the Peace in Africa: Why ‘African’ Solutions are not Enough.” Ethics and International Affairs 22

  17. Design and Construction of Multi-Variable Vortex-Ring Bubble Generator for Use in Interactive Exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    ring bubble, vortex ring, Interactive Exhibit, STEM, diaphragm valve, toroidal ring 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 69 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY...solenoid-operated diaphragm valve. Of particular interest is the core/diaphragm sub-assembly containing pilot orifice, bleed hole, and core spring...encountered in previous thesis work by Hobbs in 2000 for the construction and quantification of a toroidal bubble apparatus. How do you protect the

  18. Factors Influencing Cognitive Functioning Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in OIF/OEF Burn Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology 19 (2004), 825–834. [5] H.G. Belanger, T. Kretzmer, R. Yoash-Gantz, T. Pickett and L.A. Tupler...Poppe, N. Davis, B. Schmaus and S.E. Hobbs, Cognitive functioning and postconcussive symptoms in trau- ma patients with and without mild TBI, Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology 21...Koffler, C.R. Reynolds and C.H. Silver, Neuropsychological evalua- tion in the diagnosis and management of sports-related con- cussion, Archives of

  19. An Evaluation of Organizational and Experience Factors Affecting the Perceived Transfer of U.S. Air Force Basic Combat Skills Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    survey generates consistent results ( Leedy & Ormrod , 2005). Consistent with the research performed by Hobbs (2005) and McCraine (2006), reliability...instrument looks like it’s measuring a particular characteristic” ( Leedy & Ormrod , 2005, p. 92). Items 1 and 2 addressed performing skills learned...New York: The Guilford Press. Leedy , P. D., & Ormrod , J. E. (2005). Practical Research: Planning and Design (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ

  20. En politisk forfatning for det pluralistiske verdenssamfunnet

    OpenAIRE

    Habermas, Jürgen

    2006-01-01

    This article is a translation of Eine politische Verfassung für die pluralistische Weltgesellschaf which is published in Zwischen Naturalismus und Religion: philosophische Aufsäze (2005). The article deals with the project of forming a cosmopolitan order and a harmonization of national policies by agreeing upon and implementing shared global politics which require an intergovernmental coordination. This project has its origin from Hobbes and Kant, and Habermas discuss Kant"s co...

  1. Advanced Methods of Approximate Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-11-30

    Kyburg, Maria Teresa Lamata, Abe Mamdani, Serafin Moral, Henri Prade. Alessandro Saffiot ti. Glen Shafer, Prakash Shenoy, Philippe Smetb,3 Marcus...Dubois, Francesc Esteva, Oscar Firchein, Marty Fischler, Pascal Fua, Maria Angeles Gil, Luis Godo, Andy Hanson, Jerry Hobbs, David Israel, Joan Jacas, Yvan...Inf. Control, 38:154-169, 1978. [18] L.I. Godo, R. L6pez de Mintaras, C. Sierra , A. Verdaguer. Maiaging linguistically expressed uncertainty in MILORD

  2. Force of No Choice: The Role of the Military in Interagency Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-19

    operatio/ (accessed August 26, 2007). Original phrase is attributable to Thomas Hobbes ’ Leviathan , 1651. It refers to the life of mankind when in its...sovereignty. This analysis finds common ground in academic writings. In his book The Lexus and the Olive Tree, Thomas Friedman defines globalization...21 Australian Army, Complex Warfighting: The Future Land Operational Concept, 2-3. 22 Thomas Friedman, The Lexus and the

  3. Theologico-political Issues in Richard Hooker’s Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity and Thomas Hobbes’s Leviathan

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre Lurbe

    2011-01-01

    Hooker et Hobbes ont tous deux été amenés à défendre la suprématie royale contre ses adversaires presbytériens. Une certaine ressemblance de formulation ne doit toutefois pas masquer de profondes divergences, portant à la fois sur l’ampleur de la prérogative royale en matière religieuse et sur la nature de la religion elle-même.

  4. How to Stop the Bear: Strategy of Small States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    H. G. (2009). Course of lectures on guerrilla warfare. DA Department, NPS. Martinich, A. P. (1992). The two Gods of Leviathan : Thomas Hobbes on... Thomas Ross in his book, Buffer States in World Politics (1986), emphasized the role of a buffer state as an independent player, pointing out that...counterbalance Soviet military power…. Finland ceased to be a buffer state and became a rimstate” (John Chay and Thomas Ross, 1988, pp. 4–5). The

  5. A Regional Real-time Forecast of Marine Boundary Layers During VOCALS-REx

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Condensation Nuclei) concentration pro- motes more precipitation, leading to the destruction and structural change of the clouds (e.g., Stevens et al...predicted using the single moment scheme of cloud microphysics formulated by Rutledge and Hobbs (1983). Recently, the four-stream radiation...development ( Stevens , 2007). The model prediction of θe has a similar feature for the “offshore” and “nearshore” lo- cations. Due to the higher values of

  6. West Europe Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-02

    22, 24, 26, 28 [Article by Herdis Tborgeirsdottir: "Geir Hallgrimsson, Plans After tbe Primary Elections"] [Text] The Philosopher Thomas Hobbes ...Styrmir Gunnarsson perversely tried to make me out to be in a article in MANNLIF last autumn." But was not the Styrmir Gunnarsson just mentioned...the reasons that could have motivated a different behavior . The greatest disappointment, our repeated inability to build a modern country that

  7. The British Experience in Iraq, 2007: A Perspective on the Utility of Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    influence behavior and achieve control. The ultimate expression of hard power, armed force can be used to deter, coerce or compel especially in an...rational observers had concluded that the war was lost. Such was the perversity of the regime that it revered war for its own sake rather than for its...recognised they were more secure when acting collectively. Hobbes , Locke and Rousseau imagined this as the Social Contract. Instead of living in an

  8. Inimkäsitlusi filosoofias / Peeter Pints

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pints, Peeter

    1997-01-01

    Käsitlemist leiavad Confucius, Sokrates, Augustinus, M. Luther, B. Pascal, N. Macchiavelli, Erasmus Rotterdamist, T. Hobbes, J. Locke, Ch.L. Montesqieu, J.J. Rousseau, Cl. Helvetius, I. Kant, J. Condorcet, F.W. Hegel, L. Feuerbach, K. Marx, H. Maine de Biran, F.W. Schelling, M. Stirner, A. Schopenhauer, L. Morgan, E. Taylor, L. Levy-Bruhl, W. McDougall, H. Spencer, O. Spengler, Cl. Levy-Strauss, S. Kierkegaard, M. Weber

  9. Inimkäsitlusi filosoofias / Peeter Pints

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pints, Peeter

    1997-01-01

    Käsitlemist leiavad Confucius, Sokrates, Augustinus, M. Luther, B. Pascal, N. Macchiavelli, Erasmus Rotterdamist, T. Hobbes, J. Locke, Ch.L. Montesqieu, J.J. Rousseau, Cl. Helvetius, I. Kant, J. Condorcet, F.W. Hegel, L. Feuerbach, K. Marx, H. Maine de Biran, F.W. Schelling, M. Stirner, A. Schopenhauer, L. Morgan, E. Taylor, L. Levy-Bruhl, W. McDougall, H. Spencer, O. Spengler, Cl. Levy-Strauss, S. Kierkegaard, M. Weber

  10. Third annual state of logistics survey for South Africa 2006: Implementing logistics strategies in a developing economy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ittmann, HW

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available in the global market place. In addition, those within the second economy who require focused assistance, specifically from a logistics and supply chain management point of view, cannot be ignored. The CSIR (Council for Scientific and Industrial Research..., and market and economic research. We would like to thank the following organisation for participating in the survey: And a special thanks to our sponsor ??? ?????? ??????? ??????? Report edited by Isabel Meyer, Ilse Hobbs and Mario...

  11. HOBBES’ POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MHAI NOVAC

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This is basically an attempt at an original conceptual reconstruction of Hobbes’ philosophy as set in Lehiathan, namely one in the view of which Hobbes was neither an atheist nor an absolutist, as the standard interpretation holds, but rather what we could call an agnostical pragmatist (fact which, quite surprisingly, places Hobbes in the company of Burke. More to the point, my basic claim within this paper is that Hobbes was not such an ‘enemy of individual freedom’ as we traditionally hold him to be and that his thought was just as attached to the notion of individual freedom as the later contractualist views. The difference however, arises from the fact that Hobbes, unlike Locke, Rousseau or Kant, was what we could call a voluntaristic determinist and consequently viewed human freedom not so much as ‘unhindered action derived from reflective choice’, but rather as what we could call ‘reasonable fulfillment of the basic human inclinations’ (self-interest. As such, I will analyze the three main focal points of Hobbes’ thought, namely (i human nature, (ii the principle of association and (iii the principle of authority. More specifically I will try to offer a perspective on the link between his voluntaristic determinism, his notion of legitimate absolute coercion (sovereignity and his political theology (the view that any form of political authority rests on a religious legitimacy in trying to demonstrate how all these were Hobbes’ specific way of seeking to find individual freedom a place under the sun.

  12. Annual Report (60th) of the Chief, National Guard Bureau for the Fiscal Year 1966

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-06-30

    Fleming (Acting) Maj. Gen. Raymond H. Fleming Maj. Gen. Earl T. Ricks (Acting) Maj. Gen. Edgar C. Erickson Maj. Gen. Winston P. Wilson (Acting...Connie M. Hobbs Colorado Lt. Col. Harold A Stahl Connecticut Col. Milton E. Kaplan Delaware Lt. Col. Geo. 1. Sylvester, Jr. District of Columbia...Shiflett, Milton N., Captain, USAF. Administrative Services Branch, Personnel Division Shimer, William H., Lt. Colonel, ANGUS, Maintenance and Opera

  13. Optimisation of protocol for Clostridium botulinum detection in mink feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grenda Tomasz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As the test material mink feed with natural microflora was used. The analyses were conducted using Wrzosek and TPGY broth media, and Willis–Hobbs and Zeissler differential agar media. Wrzosek, Willis–Hobbs, and Zeissler media are described in Polish Standards approved by the National Standards Body in Poland and routinely used in detection of anaerobic bacteria in Poland. Detection and identification of C. botulinum was performed with a previously validated real-time PCR method based on ntnh gene detection, which is common in all C. botulinum toxotypes. The use of Wrzosek broth and Zeissler agar in routine analyses for detection and identification of C. botulinum was ineffective and limited. The obtained results showed the highest culturing process effectiveness in TPGY broth with 72 h incubation at 30°C and isolation on Willis–Hobbs agar. The real-time PCR method based on ntnh gene detection used in this study could be utilised as a supplementary tool to the mouse lethality assay.

  14. La densité a-t-elle une influence sur les comportements sociaux ? Des échelles territoriales différentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Le Bras

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available L'idée de densité a sans doute précédé celle de population. Pour Jean Bodin dont on cite sans vergogne le célèbre "Il n'est de richesses que d'hommes", la densité indiquait à la fois la cause et le critère du fonctionnement de l'État. Pour Montesquieu elle épousait le régime politique : les Républiques étaient densément peuplées ; dans les Monarchies, la population se groupait au centre du pouvoir et à la frontière, laissant l'espace intermédiaire presque vide, et dans les tyrannies, la densi...

  15. Historiographyical outlines of the process of the sovereignty from the Middle Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannina Burlando

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to highlight two milestones of the complex progressive process within the sovereign power from the Christian Middle Ages: First, the beginning of the fourteenth century, where the prior clear signs of a split in sovereignty within the doctrine of sacerdotalism appear. The second one, at the end of the sixteenth century, where the legal factor is accentuated and it accelerates the process of secularization dividing the powers of Church and State to the point of accepting the doctrine of popular sovereignty. In my view, the process concerns the issue of relations between the sovereign power of the Church and the State, just before Jean Bodin and others formulate a theory of sovereign authority, that is, before the birth of the Modern State.

  16. Numerical study of fluxon dynamics in a system of two-stacked Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petraglia, Antonio; Ustinov, A. V.; Pedersen, Niels Falsig;

    1995-01-01

    The dynamics of magnetic fluxons in a system of two vertically stacked long Josephson junctions is investigated numerically. The model is based on the approach by S. Sakai, P. Bodin, and N. F. Pedersen [J. Appl. Phys. 73, 2411 (1993)] and is described by two strongly coupled sine-Gordon equations....... In agreement with recent experimental data, we confirm numerically the effect of splitting of the fluxon travelling mode into two separated modes with different characteristic velocities. The simulated current-voltage characteristics indicate stable phase-locked flux-flow resonances of two junctions....... These results support a possibility of application of the stacked long Josephson junctions as a system of coherent oscillators for millimeter and sub-millimeter wave bands. ©1995 American Institute of Physics....

  17. Aux origines théologiques de la souveraineté essai sur les sciences sociales et politiques

    CERN Document Server

    De Smet, François

    2015-01-01

    Nos sociétés politiques sont construites depuis plusieurs siècles sur le principe de la souveraineté de l'État. Cette invention du juriste français Jean Bodin, élaborée sur le terrain ravagé des guerres entre rois et papes caractéristiques des temps médiévaux, a nourri la pensée occidentale de l'autorité politique jusqu'à nos jours. Elle véhicule avec elle une vision de la division entre politique et religieux qui détermine, encore aujourd'hui, la division que nous estimons la majeure partie du temps évidente entre ces deux sphères. En effet, la souveraineté s'est bâtie comme identité de l'Ét

  18. La densité a-t-elle une influence sur les comportements sociaux ? Des échelles territoriales différentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Le Bras

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available L'idée de densité a sans doute précédé celle de population. Pour Jean Bodin dont on cite sans vergogne le célèbre "Il n'est de richesses que d'hommes", la densité indiquait à la fois la cause et le critère du fonctionnement de l'État. Pour Montesquieu elle épousait le régime politique : les Républiques étaient densément peuplées ; dans les Monarchies, la population se groupait au centre du pouvoir et à la frontière, laissant l'espace intermédiaire presque vide, et dans les tyrannies, la densi...

  19. La influencia de Maquiavelo en las «Empresas políticas» de Diego de Saavedra Fajardo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús VILLANUEVA LÓPEZ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: A partir de la localización de cerca de treinta lugares de la Idea de un príncipe político cristiano (1640 de Diego de Saavedra Fajardo que constituyen préstamos literales del Príncipe y los Discursos de Maquiavelo, con lo que se amplía un anterior tratamiento por K. H. Mulagk (1973, se analiza la «influencia» maquiaveliana en tres niveles: en el simple aprovechamiento de ejemplos o comentarios históricos aislados de las obras de Maquiavelo; en la elaboración de un ideal de príncipe como alternativa consciente al de Maquiavelo, especialmente en el capítulo 18 del Príncipe, aunque reteniendo muchos elementos de éste; y en la consideración de los problemas de cómo asentar un gobierno «nuevo» (o sea, tras una sucesión en una monarquía y de cómo convertir una tiranía en un gobierno legítimo y justo. Se concluye que pese a la diferencia entre las pretensiones de uno y otro autor, Saavedra ha asumido de buen grado la problemática propia del maquiavelismo, aunque busca la solución a través de una síntesis con el pensamiento ortodoxo.ABSTRACT: Resting on the identification of nearly thirty places in Diego de Saavedra Fajardo's Idea of a Politico-Christian Prince (1640 which happen to be literal borrowings from Machiavelli's Prince and Discourses, and so enlarging a previous treatment by ?. H. Mulakg (1973, the author proceeds to analyze the Machiavellian «influence» in three levels: in the simple recourse to isolated historical examples or commentaries from Machiavelli's works; in the composition of an ideal of the prince as a conscious alternative to that of Machiavelli's, displayed especially in the Prince chapter 18, though adopting many elements from the later; and in the reflexion about how to settle a «new» government (that is, after a succession in a monarchy and how to transform a tyranny into a legitimate and just government. It is concluded that, due weight being given to the difference between the

  20. La influencia de Maquiavelo en las «Empresas políticas» de Diego de Saavedra Fajardo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús VILLANUEVA LÓPEZ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: A partir de la localización de cerca de treinta lugares de la Idea de un príncipe político cristiano (1640 de Diego de Saavedra Fajardo que constituyen préstamos literales del Príncipe y los Discursos de Maquiavelo, con lo que se amplía un anterior tratamiento por K. H. Mulagk (1973, se analiza la «influencia» maquiaveliana en tres niveles: en el simple aprovechamiento de ejemplos o comentarios históricos aislados de las obras de Maquiavelo; en la elaboración de un ideal de príncipe como alternativa consciente al de Maquiavelo, especialmente en el capítulo 18 del Príncipe, aunque reteniendo muchos elementos de éste; y en la consideración de los problemas de cómo asentar un gobierno «nuevo» (o sea, tras una sucesión en una monarquía y de cómo convertir una tiranía en un gobierno legítimo y justo. Se concluye que pese a la diferencia entre las pretensiones de uno y otro autor, Saavedra ha asumido de buen grado la problemática propia del maquiavelismo, aunque busca la solución a través de una síntesis con el pensamiento ortodoxo.ABSTRACT: Resting on the identification of nearly thirty places in Diego de Saavedra Fajardo's Idea of a Politico-Christian Prince (1640 which happen to be literal borrowings from Machiavelli's Prince and Discourses, and so enlarging a previous treatment by ?. H. Mulakg (1973, the author proceeds to analyze the Machiavellian «influence» in three levels: in the simple recourse to isolated historical examples or commentaries from Machiavelli's works; in the composition of an ideal of the prince as a conscious alternative to that of Machiavelli's, displayed especially in the Prince chapter 18, though adopting many elements from the later; and in the reflexion about how to settle a «new» government (that is, after a succession in a monarchy and how to transform a tyranny into a legitimate and just government. It is concluded that, due weight being given to the difference between the

  1. Sovereignty and Democracy in Global Times: acutality of the Jean-Jacques Rousseau Political Philosophy and the limits of the social contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Baccega

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available SOBERANIA E DEMOCRACIA EM TEMPOS MUNDIALIZADOS: ATUALIDADE DA FILOSOFIA POLÍTICA DE JEAN-JACQUES ROUSSEAU E OS LIMITES DO CONTRATO SOCIAL Resumo: este artigo visa a problematizar os (descaminhos dos conceitos políticos e das práticas sociais e jurídicas em torno da soberania política do Estado Nacional e da democracia nos tempos de mundialização do Capital. Portanto, revisita e percorre uma breve arqueologia conceitual da Soberania, desde Isidoro de Sevilha até a clássica definição de Jean Bodin nos Seis Livros sobre a República (1576. O propósito é problematizar a filosofia política de Rousseau para, então, perceber e discutir seus limites suas virtualidades, bem como a atualidade de sua noção de Contrato Social e o papel da Filosofia Política na Era do Capital Global. Palavras-chave: Rousseau. Soberania. Mundialização do Capital. Abstract: this paper casts doubt on the ways and shunts of political concepts and social and legal practices concerning political sovereignty of the Nation State and democracy at the time of Capital’s globalization. It revisits a brief conceptual archeology of Sovereignty, since Isidore of Seville to the classical definition by Jean Bodin in The Six Books on the Republic (1576. The purpose is casting doubt on the political philosophy of Rousseau, in order to discuss its limits and virtualities, and the topicality of his notion of social contract and the role of Political Philosophy at the Age of Global Capital. Keywords: Rousseau. Sovereignty. Globalization of Capital.

  2. Brigadas do antifanatismo: a invenção da tolerância religiosa Antifanaticism brigades: the invention of the religious tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antônio Lopes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Focando a produção de obras ficcionais e textos filosóficos em perspectiva histórica, o artigo aborda uma série de aspectos relacionados ao complexo universo temático das disputas intelectuais contra o fanatismo religioso na Europa Moderna. O texto analisa o advento e evolução de um tema que - já bastante recorrente na obra de autores modernos como Montaigne e Jean Bodin -, eleva-se à categoria de eixo temático em muitas das reflexões de autores dos séculos XVII e XVIII. Acerca da verdadeira cruzada das ideias, que foi a luta contra o fanatismo religioso durante a Idade Clássica e o Século das Luzes, são examinadas algumas das ideias críticas de escritores como Swift, Montesquieu, Voltaire, Diderot e David Hume.Focusing the production of fictional works and philosophical texts in historical perspective, the article approaches a series of aspects related to a complexed thematic universe of the intellectual disputes against the religious fanaticisn in Modern Europe. The text analyzes the advent and evolution of a topic which - is quite well-known in the work of modern writers like Montaigne and Jean Bodin - goes to the category of thematic axis in plenty of reflections of writers from the 17th and 18th centuries. About the real crusade of ideas which was the struggle against the religious fanaticism during the Classical Age and the Enlightenment, some of the critical ideas of writers like Swift, Montesquieu, Voltaire, Diderot and David Hume.

  3. Florence, 1300-1301. Compagni, Villani (and their readers in Santa Trìnita and «cacciare con molta offensione» (If 6, 66

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Brilli

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The essay examines the accounts about the “white biennium” 1300-1301 provided by Dino Compagni and Giovanni Villani, as well as by their readers and modern interpreters (Leonardo Bruni, Niccolò Machiavelli and Scipione Ammirato up to Isidoro Del Lungo and Robert Davidsohn. The scrutiny and the comparison with other minor chronicles of the 14th century (see «Reti Medievali - Rivista», 17 [2016], 2, 113-151 leads to a new interpretation of these witnesses, which explains the evasiveness in the account by Dino Compagni and provides not only a new reading of the overall sense of this historical phase but also of the specific sense of Dante’s reference to these facts in the canto VI of the Inferno.

  4. Gandhi, politics and Sat Yagraha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario López Martínez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mohandas K. Gandhi was the father of modern nonviolence. He called the forms of struggle without use of firearms as satyagraha. Gandhi distinguished between passive resistance and satyagraha. The basic postulate of satyagraha rested on the belief in the inherent goodness of man, moral power and the capacity to suffer for the opponent. He tried, in difficult times, offering an alternative to war and social policy. On the roots of forms of struggle and popular peasant ancestral (disobedience, non-cooperation, insubordination, he developed the ethical and political union, beyond N. Machiavelli and M. Weber. But his ethical-political struggle could not be understood without other elements of his “constructive program” such as ahimsa (not kill, Sarvodaya (welfare of all, swaraj (self-determination and self-government and swadeshi (self-sufficiency.

  5. Bringing Power to Planning Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    This article provides an answer to what has been called the biggest problem in theorizing and understanding planning, namely the ambivalence about power found among planning researchers, theorists, and students. The author narrates how he came to work with issues of power. He then gives an example...... of how the methodology he developed for power studies, called "phronetic planning research," may be employed in practice. Phronetic planning research follows the tradition of power studies running from Machiavelli and Nietzsche to Michel Foucault and Pierre Bourdieu. It focuses on four value......-rational questions: (1) Where are we going with planning? (2) Who gains and who loses, and by which mechanisms of power? (3) Is this development desirable? (4) What should be done? These questions are exemplified for a specific instance of Scandinavian urban planning. The author finds that the questions...

  6. Bringing Power to Planning Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    2002-01-01

    This article provides an answer to what has been called the biggest problem in theorizing and understanding planning, namely the ambivalence about power found among planning researchers, theorists, and students. The author narrates how he came to work with issues of power. He then gives an example...... of how the methodology he developed for power studies, called "phronetic planning research," may be employed in practice. Phronetic planning research follows the tradition of power studies running from Machiavelli and Nietzsche to Michel Foucault and Pierre Bourdieu. It focuses on four value......-rational questions: (1) Where are we going with planning? (2) Who gains and who loses, and by which mechanisms of power? (3) Is this development desirable? (4) What should be done? These questions are exemplified for a specific instance of Scandinavian urban planning. The author finds that the questions...

  7. La differenza italiana. Comunità ed Esilio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remo Bodei

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Italian thought is a philosophy of impure reason, which takes into account the conditions, imperfections and possibilities of the world. The core of his tradition consists in a civil vocation, choosing as objects of investigation life, history and politics, in search of “the effective truth of things” (Machiavelli. The audience of the italian philosophers are not the specialists, but all their compatriots, as well as everyone else. That also because they are often exiles, from Giordano Bruno to Antonio Gramsci, with a cosmopolitian vocation. Thus the question of the “common”, thematized by the contemporary italian philosophy, reverse itself in that of the “goodbye to community”, and to the irreversible past

  8. Hamlet: homem de virtú Hamlet: virtù man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Del Roio

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo traz algumas relações/semelhanças entre Hamlet, de Shakespeare, e O Príncipe de Maquiavel. Portanto, pela “perspectiva” da Razão de Estado e não pela versão reducionista do “maquiavelismo” (maniqueísmo político, também podemos observar uma teoria política em Shakespeare. Palavras-chave: Maquiavel. Príncipe. Virtù. Hamlet. Astúcia. The article reports some relations/similarities between Shakespeare’s Hamlet and Machiavelli’s Prince. Therefore, by the State Reasoning “perspective” and not by the reductionism version of “machiavellism” (political maniqueism, we can also observe a political theory in Shakespeare. Keywords:Machiavelli. Prince. Virtù. Hamlet. Cunning.

  9. Bringing Power to Planning Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    2002-01-01

    This article provides an answer to what has been called the biggest problem in theorizing and understanding planning, namely the ambivalence about power found among planning researchers, theorists, and students. The author narrates how he came to work with issues of power. He then gives an example...... of how the methodology he developed for power studies, called "phronetic planning research," may be employed in practice. Phronetic planning research follows the tradition of power studies running from Machiavelli and Nietzsche to Michel Foucault and Pierre Bourdieu. It focuses on four value......-rational questions: (1) Where are we going with planning? (2) Who gains and who loses, and by which mechanisms of power? (3) Is this development desirable? (4) What should be done? These questions are exemplified for a specific instance of Scandinavian urban planning. The author finds that the questions...

  10. Historical antecedents to the philosophy of Paul Feyerabend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munévar, Gonzalo

    2016-06-01

    Paul Feyerabend has been considered a very radical philosopher of science for proposing that we may advance hypotheses contrary to well-confirmed experimental results, that observations make theoretical assumptions, that all methodological rules have exceptions, that ordinary citizens may challenge the judgment of experts, and that human happiness should be a key value for science. As radical as these theses may sound, they all have historical antecedents. In defending the Copernican view, Galileo exemplified the first two; Mill, Aristotle and Machiavelli all argued for pluralism; Aristotle gave commonsense reasons for why ordinary citizens may be able to judge the work of experts; and a combination of Plato's and Aristotle's views can offer strong support for the connection between science and happiness.

  11. Giorgio Vasari and Niccolò Machiavelli’s Medicean Appetite for Peace and Glory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Cheney

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the literary and visual connections between war and peace as a cultural diplomacy made by both Niccolò Machiavelli (1469-1527 and Giorgio Vasari (1511-1574. The approach here is iconographical, focusing on three points. First, Machiavelli’s notions of condottiere, virtù, and war and peace in The Art of War (1521 are discussed in relation to Renaissance imagery, particularly in that produced as a result of Medicean patronage. Second, Vasari’s battle cycle in the Salone dei Cinquecento of the Palazzo Vecchio (1555-60 in Florence is examined within the context of peace as revealed in Renaissance art and emblems. Finally, Vasari’s assimilation of Machiavelli’s notions of the art of war are interpreted in relation to the painting cycle, which visually embodies the paradox of war and peace discussed in Machiavelli’s writing.

  12. Redención de la virtud : la primera traducción castellana de "Arte della Guerra" de Maquiavelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Botella Ordinas

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available La primera traducción al castellano del Arte della guerra de Maquiavelo, publicada en 1536, nunca fue prohibida por la inquisición. En este artículo se argumenta que la razón es que Diego de Salazar con su traducción realizó una conversión del lenguaje político del humanismo cívico al de derechos de matriz teológica.The first castillian translation of Machiavelli's Arte della guerra, published in 1536, was never prohibited by the inquisition. It will be shown along this paper how Diego de Salazar, the translator, made this possible by doing a transformation of the original civic humanism political language into a theological-based rights one.

  13. Tessere virgiliane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Ferroni

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Even if Virgil was not one of the key authors in his library, Machiavelli was undoubtedly very familiar with the Roman poet’s output, as the (admittedly limited quotations examined in this article demonstrate. The most striking example is his textual borrowing from Aeneis, I, 563-564, with the image of Dido as a “new prince” appearing in the seventh chapter of Il Principe, and two quotations in the Discorsi sopra la prima Deca di Tito Livio, I, 21 and I, 54. In addition to some secondary cases, this article focuses on the starting point that Francesco Vettori’s quotation of a well-known passage from the second ecloga offers to the well-known Machiavellian letter of 31 January 1515, as well as on a final Virgilian fragment in a letter of 1526.

  14. Bringing Power to Planning Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    of how the methodology he developed for power studies, called "phronetic planning research," may be employed in practice. Phronetic planning research follows the tradition of power studies running from Machiavelli and Nietzsche to Michel Foucault and Pierre Bourdieu. It focuses on four value......This article provides an answer to what has been called the biggest problem in theorizing and understanding planning, namely the ambivalence about power found among planning researchers, theorists, and students. The author narrates how he came to work with issues of power. He then gives an example......-rational questions: (1) Where are we going with planning? (2) Who gains and who loses, and by which mechanisms of power? (3) Is this development desirable? (4) What should be done? These questions are exemplified for a specific instance of Scandinavian urban planning. The author finds that the questions...

  15. John Milton: Puritan Tradition and Political Languages in XVIIth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura MITAROTONDO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is not simple to place John Milton in a specific political current of the English historical context of 17th century. In detail, we want to study Milton’s prose works to extract the topics of the English civic and political tradition in the First Revolution age. In these terms, we’ll analyze the Commonplace Book, a collection of commentaries about texts and authors, and about various subjects: the interpretations of Machiavelli in the Old English tradition of the Modern age, the idea of man’s freedom and his relationship with natural law and political authority, according to the general perspective of the Puritan religion, which characterizes Milton’s political language.

  16. El poder de la 'virtù' en 'El Principe' de Maquiavelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Hermosa Andújar

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This article tries to show that the power of princely virtù as conceived by Machiavelli turns its possessor into a demi-god in the human world. Indeed, he who has virtù is not only able to restore and preserve the public order but, as he does so, also unifies the political problems of acquiring and maintaining power, turning the human world into an artifice within the natural world and humanising history. In other words: he completely defeats the power of fortuna. However, this omnipotence is not total: in the natural world, it has only very mitigated effects; and, within the human sphere, virtù declares itself impotent in the face of liberty: once freedom has been tasted, not even the most skilful of princes or the greatest promises of wellbeing can persuade citizens voluntarily to part with it.

  17. PRINCIPLE OF RATIONAL EGOISM AS AN IDEOLOGICAL CONCEPTION OF MAN FOUNDATION UNDER THE CONTEXT OF ECONOMIC RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Petinowa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The modern global context of humanity’s existence is greatly mediated by economic relations. The solution of typical social issues is closely related to the economic sphere, economic activity, and market mechanisms. The subject of all co-operations is the specific character of his economic, natural and behavioral displays, presented in the model of homo economicus. The article considers the historical part of ideological reconstructions of economic theories where certain conceptions of man, one or another understanding of his essence and destiny as an expression of the spirit of time are shown (A. Smith, L. Valla, N. Machiavelli, T. Gobbs, F. Bacon, B. Mandeville, J.J. Rousseau, D. Didro, C. Helvétius, P. Holbach and others.

  18. THE CONCEPT OF JUSTICE (‘DIKE’ AND ‘THEMIS’ AS IT IS REVEALED BY THE TEACHINGS OF NEAGOE BASARAB TO HIS SON THEODOSIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLORENTINA GRIGORE

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an inquiry into the problems concerning the construction of the legal system: the theme represented by human quality called to building and completing the legal system. The human being is ontologically placed between Dike / Legal Justice and Themis / Transcendent Justice. The person called to judge is the link between two different ontological orders: the order of the Absolute, of Themis, and the order of the Relative, of Dike. This person is the one who guides Themis to perform Dike, in order to do Justice in coincidence with Legal Justice. The Teachings of Neagoe Basarab to his Son Theodosie was written at almost the same time as The Prince by Machiavelli. If we look at Machiavelli’s work and that of Neagoe Basarab, we are able to see two distinct ways to build and give legitimacy to the legal system. The Teachings do not approach a sophisticated architecture of the legal system, with hierarchies and complex abilities. The discourse about justice especially implies the moral valuation of the people summoned to judge and to do what is right. This work is about the foundation of the legal system regardless of its structure. And the foundation of the system is the person called to judge in such a way that Δίκη should coincide with Θέμις. From Machiavelli we have a different vision about Justice and the Legal system: he focuses on the system and not on the person who performs those functions within the system.

  19. El problema de la generación del Estado en Spinoza (contractualismo y naturalismo en la teoría política de la modernidad temprana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cortés Cuadra, Juan Vicente

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the determination of the spinozistic model on the generation of the State described in the Political Treatise. To achieve this purpose we must separate the Spinoza’s model from the contractualistic one, for the former is usually conceived by means of the latter (even when commentators conceive it as a naturalistic model. In the first part, we will identify the “presence’s field” on which both Hobbes and Spinoza are thinking. This field, which entails a fundamental ambiguity, will be characterized as the “political aristotelianism”. Then, we will proceed to a detail examination of the model by which Spinoza built an answer to this problematic ambiguity.El presente artículo busca determinar un modelo propiamente spinociano para pensar la generación del Estado descrita en el Tratado Político. Para ello se intenta desvincular el modelo utilizado por Spinoza del modelo contractualista (estado de naturaleza/pacto social/estado de civilidad, bajo el cual ha sido habitualmente pensado (incluso cuando se sostiene que es un modelo naturalista. Comenzaremos por identificar el “campo de presencia” sobre el cual tanto Hobbes como Spinoza se sitúan. Este será caracterizado bajo el rótulo general de “aristotelismo político”, intentando mostrar su ambigüedad fundamental, constitutiva del problema que tanto Hobbes como Spinoza buscan resolver. Luego, haremos un examen detallado del modelo por el cual Spinoza responde a dicho problema.

  20. Acoustic radiation force of high-order Bessel beam standing wave tweezers on a rigid sphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, F G

    2009-12-01

    Particle manipulation using the acoustic radiation force of Bessel beams is an active field of research. In a previous investigation, [F.G. Mitri, Acoustic radiation force on a sphere in standing and quasi-standing zero-order Bessel beam tweezers, Annals of Physics 323 (2008) 1604-1620] an expression for the radiation force of a zero-order Bessel beam standing wave experienced by a sphere was derived. The present work extends the analysis of the radiation force to the case of a high-order Bessel beam (HOBB) of positive order m having an angular dependence on the phase phi. The derivation for the general expression of the force is based on the formulation for the total acoustic scattering field of a HOBB by a sphere [F.G. Mitri, Acoustic scattering of a high-order Bessel beam by an elastic sphere, Annals of Physics 323 (2008) 2840-2850; F.G. Mitri, Equivalence of expressions for the acoustic scattering of a progressive high order Bessel beam by an elastic sphere, IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control 56 (2009) 1100-1103] to derive the general expression for the radiation force function YJm,st(ka,beta,m)Bessel beam standing wave incident upon a rigid sphere immersed in non-viscous water are computed. The rigid sphere calculations for YJm,st(ka,beta,m)Bessel beam standing wave (m=0). The proposed theory is of particular interest essentially due to its inherent value as a canonical problem in particle manipulation using the acoustic radiation force of a HOBB standing wave on a sphere. It may also serve as the benchmark for comparison to other solutions obtained by strictly numerical or asymptotic approaches.

  1. Building electro-optical systems making it all work

    CERN Document Server

    Hobbs, Philip C D

    2009-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition ""Now a new laboratory bible for optics researchers has joined the list: it is Phil Hobbs's Building Electro-Optical Systems: Making It All Work.""-Tony Siegman, Optics & Photonics News Building a modern electro-optical instrument may be the most interdisciplinary job in all of engineering. Be it a DVD player or a laboratory one-off, it involves physics, electrical engineering, optical engineering, and computer science interacting in complex ways. This book will help all kinds of technical people sort through the complexit

  2. Contamination of honey produced in the Republic of Kazakhstan with Clostridium botulinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafina Raikhan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the first results of a study on the contamination of honey produced in the Republic of Kazakhstan with C. botulinum spores known to pose a potential infection threat to infants. During microbiological analysis, culturing methods with TPGY, Willis-Hobbs agar, FAA agar connected with PCR, sequencing, and a mouse bioassay were used. The C. botulinum contamination rate of honey was relatively low as determined, at 0.91%. Nonetheless, the potential danger of the bacteria to childrens’ health should not be neglected

  3. Poder soberano y poder disciplinario. La codificación desde una visión foucaultiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norberto Hernández Jiménez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay presents the context of codification that occurred after the French Revolution, questioning the traditional idea of it as an emanation of sovereign power, following the guidelines of disciplinary society developed by Foucault. For this purpose, it analyzes the debate regarding the completeness of the legal order, and based on the study of the foundational category of non-imputability - pertaining to criminal law dogma- it seeks to demonstrate the lack of autonomy and coherence of codified law for solving categories of disciplinary power, in contradiction with the sovereign theory of Hobbes.

  4. Arguments for the Normative Validity of Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Esther Oluffa

    2016-01-01

    The paper highlights clashes between different conceptions of right, law and justice crystalizing in the French Declaration of Human and Civic Rights from 1789 and the criticisms it aroused. Hobbes’ Leviathan (1651) and Rousseau’s Social Contract (1762) are discussed as important predecessors....... The philosophical conceptions of law, justice and right stated by Hobbes and Rousseau and in the Declaration will be discussed in connection with two seminal criticisms. By excluding women from politics, Olympe de Gouge objected, the Declaration contradicted the universal understanding of human rights. Jeremy...

  5. Entre autoridade e lei: considerações sobre o realismo político de Carl Schmitt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rone Eleandro Santos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Partindo da análise de Thomas Hobbes sobre o poder de decisão e a autoridade atribuída ao soberano para resolver questões que colocam o Estado em perigo, o presente artigo visa expor alguns conceitos importantes da filosofia política de Carl Schmitt como: o duplo amigo-inimigo, a questão do Liberalismo como inimigo político schmittiano, o decisionismo e o estado de exceção.

  6. Upheaval buckling of heated pipelines: a comparative study of three analytical methods; Flambagem vertical de dutos aquecidos: um estudo comparativo de tres metodos analiticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Divino J.S.; Benjamin, Adilson C. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    2005-07-01

    Three analytical methods frequently used for analyzing upheaval buckling are presented and compared in this work: the Hobbs' method which is applied to straight pipelines, the Pedersen-Jensen's method and the JIP-Shell's method, both applied to pipelines containing initial imperfections. The basic equations of the three methods are outlined and its differences are appointed. Also it is studied the sensitivity of the response of the last two methods to the cover of soil and to the amplitude of the initial imperfection. (author)

  7. The Status of Rotational Nonequilibrium in HF Chemical Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    later study from the same laboratory, Copeland et al. 5 3 used a NdYAG dye laser to pump HF into v = 2, j, and an HF pulsed laser to probe various P 2(J... Weston , Jr., J. Chem. Phys. 77, 4776 (1982). 51. J. J. Hinchen and R. H. Hobbs, Appl. Phys. 50, 628 (1979). 52. j. K. Lambert, G. M. Jursich, and F. F...Crim, Chem. Phys. Lett. 71, 258 (1980). 53. R. A. Copeland , D. J. Pearson, and F. F. Crim, Chem. Phys. Lett. 81, 541 (1981). 54. T. J. Foster and F. F

  8. Sovereignty and Liberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lev, Amnon

    , including Marsilius of Padua, Hobbes, Hegel, Kelsen, and Schmitt, it identifies the conceptual operations that created sovereignty and shows how subjection to an absolute and undivided power came to be a source of meaning. At the heart of the analysis is the idea that sovereignty made reference...... to and relied upon a form of faith which aligned man’s political existence on law. Offering new and often controversial insights into the grounds of our attachment to sovereign power and into the crisis that is currently affecting its institutions, this book will appeal to students and scholars of law, politics...

  9. Multifunction peripherals for PCs technology, troubleshooting and repair

    CERN Document Server

    Hobbs, Marvin

    2000-01-01

    Multifunction devices combine the essentials of a fax machine, printer, scanner, and copier into one peripheral for small and home offices. As the market for this equipment grows, the need for skilled repair and maintenance increases. Unfortunately the service documentation supplied by the manufacturers is completely inadequate making the repair jobs even harder and more expensive. Marvin Hobbs teaches you how multifunction peripherals work in theory and in practice with lots of hands-on examples and important troubleshooting and repair tips you don't want to miss.This book fills a gap

  10. Apontamentos sobre ética e individualidade a partir da Mínima Moralia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia Ari Fernando

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo reflete sobre os conceitos de ética e de individualidade a partir da Mínima Moralia de T. W. Adorno para pensar as dimensões ética e normativa da Psicologia. Para isso recupera alguns elementos históricos do conceito de ética segundo Aristóteles, Hobbes, Rousseau e Kant para esclarecer a reflexão adorniana. A partir desta faz-se uma crítica as noções de individualidade e de autonomia no âmbito da Psicologia.

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 315 glitches in the rotation of 102 pulsars (Espinoza+, 2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, C. M.; Lyne, A. G.; Stappers, B. W.; Kramer, M.

    2012-02-01

    The Jodrell Bank timing data base comprises observations of more than 700 pulsars, carried out at Jodrell Bank Observatory (JBO) since 1978. Observation procedures are described by Hobbs et al. (2004, Cat. J/MNRAS/353/1311). In summary, these have mostly been performed with the 76-m Lovell telescope, with some complementary observations made using the 30-m MkII and 42-ft telescopes. Every pulsar is observed at typical intervals of 2-10 d in a 64-MHz band centred on 1404-MHz, using an analogue filter bank. Occasionally, observations were also carried out in a band centred at 610-MHz. (3 data files).

  12. Pasiones, Libertad y Estado en Spinoza

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Benavides, Iván Ramón

    2016-01-01

    En esta investigación estudiamos el pensamiento político de Spinoza, bajo la hipótesis de que, si bien parte de los mismos referentes y categorías políticas que seguían los filósofos de su época, como Hobbes o Maquiavelo, las consecuencias de su reflexión son originales. Además, se muestra, que la novedad del pensamiento de Spinoza no se restringe a su época, sino que su pensamiento aporta categorías pertinentes para algunas discusiones actuales en Política. Hemos consultado, fundamentalm...

  13. Pasiones, Libertad y Estado en Spinoza

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Benavides, Iván Ramón

    2016-01-01

    [spa] En esta investigación estudiamos el pensamiento político de Spinoza, bajo la hipótesis de que, si bien parte de los mismos referentes y categorías políticas que seguían los filósofos de su época, como Hobbes o Maquiavelo, las consecuencias de su reflexión son originales. Además, se muestra, que la novedad del pensamiento de Spinoza no se restringe a su época, sino que su pensamiento aporta categorías pertinentes para algunas discusiones actuales en Política. Hemos consultado, fundame...

  14. Maldito Spinoza: el ataque de Carl Schmitt al "Tratado teológico-político" de Baruch de Spinoza

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Flórez, Lucía

    2010-01-01

    Se exponen los motivos ideológicos del ataque de carl schmitt contra la filosofía política moderna, particularmente contra baruch de spinoza, a partir de la respuesta que éste elaboró frente a thomas hobbes en el siglo xvii. El objetivo del trabajo consiste en restaurar la potencia liberal-democrática del pensamiento de Spinoza y de la filosofía política moderna, frente a las pretensiones de la teología política. The ideological reasons carl schmitt exhibited for his attack against baruch ...

  15. Entre el egoísmo y la solidaridad Antagonismo y Formación social en la Filosofía del Derecho de Hegel

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas Castillo, John Larry

    2014-01-01

    Este trabajo recorre la presentación hegeliana de la sociedad civil en los Fundamentos de la 112 Filosofía del Derecho, mostrando cómo la formación de la libertad se define en el antagonismo entre el egoísmo y la solidaridad. Así, para comprender la libertad como principio de la vida moral, social y política Hegel no apela a los principios de derecho natural a partir de los cuales es razonable justificar la necesidad de la comunidad política (como Hobbes, Rousseau o Locke, entre otros), ni a ...

  16. O discurso de legitimação racional do poder moralizador e repressivo

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Rogerio Dultra dos

    2000-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências Jurídicas. Análise do processo de constituição discursiva do [sistema político] que compõe o [Estado moderno] . Identifica, no conjunto teórico-político do filósofo inglês [Thomas Hobbes] (1588-1679), a fonte da legitimação [racional] do [poder] [repressivo] e [moralizador] do [Estado] a partir de um núcleo discursivo centrado na finalidade de pacificação e [segurança] derivado da institucio...

  17. Estimating the Robustness of Composite CBA and MCDA Assessments by Variation of Criteria Importance Order

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Vestergaard; Barfod, Michael Bruhn; Leleur, Steen

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This paper discusses the concept of using rank variation concerning the stakeholder prioritising of importance criteria for exploring the sensitivity of criteria weights in multi-criteria analysis (MCA). Thereby the robustness of the MCA-based decision support can be tested. The analysis....... Furthermore, the relative weights can make a large difference in the resulting assessment of alternatives (Hobbs and Meier 2000). Therefore it is highly relevant to introduce a procedure for estimating the importance of criteria weights. This paper proposes a methodology for estimating the robustness...

  18. MX Siting Investigation Geotechnical Evaluation Conterminous United States. Volume II. Intermediate Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-12-21

    North G-21 20 20 60 Shallow Carolina Plain po the west North F-17A 20 25 45 10 Economic Dakota tion cen ed, irre than 10% ( cultura shallow tural) e Ohio...facilities for support in the Candidate I Siting Province are: I o Cannon Air Force Base, Clovis , New Mexico; o Vance Air Force Base, Enid, Oklahoma...with a population of 25,000 people or greater, adjacent to suitable area, are Hobbs, Roswell and Clovis , New Mexico, and Amarillo, Lubbock and

  19. Guerra en el paraíso de Carlos Montemayor: representación del monstruoso Estado mexicano

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Anzaldo, Guadalupe

    2016-01-01

    La novela de Carlos Montemayor, Guerra en el paraíso, es analizada a partir de la simbología que en ella persiste en relación a la monstruosidad del Estado mexicano. De acuerdo con la conceptualización hecha por Tomás Hobbes, el Estado es como un Leviatán o monstruo gigante a quien los ciudadanos le confieren el poder absoluto buscando ser protegidos de las agresiones de los demás. En la emisión representacional de la novela de Montemayor, el Estado mexicano es un engendro capaz de cometer sa...

  20. El concepto de "sociedad civil": breve historia de su elaboración teórica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pavón Cuéllar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Por más que se le conjure y se le invoque en la actualidad, el concepto de "sociedad civil" suele permanecer bastante oscuro en lo que designa, significa e implica. Para disipar tal oscuridad, es preciso esclarecer la teoría que lo ha impregnado en su origen y a lo largo de su desarrollo. Con este objeto, se ofrece una breve historia de su elaboración teórica. Tras el naturalismo de Aristóteles, se revisa el convencionalismo liberal de Hobbes, Locke y Ferguson, para terminar con las teorías alternativas de Kant, Fichte, Hegel, Marx y Gramsci.

  1. The Role of Meteorological Satellites in Tactical Battlefield Weather Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-17

    munition. However, the job is greatly complicated by the actions of the enemy, by the perversity and limitations of one’s own equipment, and, frequently...evolving in a particular manner. However, that behavior and evolution is precisely the concern of a major portion of a nowcast. Understanding what the...34:, Hobbs Axial symmetry particularly kce Pase Three.Dimensiona Models ilU. Wsc./3D 48 km x 48 km x Severe -storm Liquid bulk water 14 km microphysicsCSU/3D

  2. Hypothetical Politics. The Representation of Reality between Utopia and Leviathan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Rodeschini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Utopia and political science are not sharply antithetical models of approach to politics. As Hans Blumenberg points out, they were born at the same time as alternatives to the model of the Platonic philosophical inquiry, and have continued to develop in parallel. Their diversity will be illustrated by examining the role of fiction in Thomas Hobbes's Leviathan and James Harrington's Commonwealth of Oceana. Describing the different role it plays in these works, the essay shows how they both use this concept to solve the problem of the uncertainty of knowledge and the intransparency of the world.

  3. From conditions of equality to demands of justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartz, Emily; Nielsen, Carsten Fogh

    2015-01-01

    Equal freedom is the common starting point for most contractual theories of justice from Hobbes and Rousseau to Rawls. But while equal freedom defines a common starting point for these theories, this does not result in a general consensus on the conception of justice. On the contrary, different...... ways of conceptualizing the contractual starting point leads to different conceptions of the demands of justice. To fully understand the relationship between equal freedom and justice we therefore first need to explicate how and why the initial condition of equality is transformed into demands...

  4. La teoría del conflicto en la sociedad contemporánea

    OpenAIRE

    Asael Mercado Maldonado; Guillermo González Velásquez

    2008-01-01

    La teoría del conflicto surgió en las regiones de China, Grecia y la India. Importantes autores como Sun Zu, Heráclito, Ibn Khaldun, Miyamoto, Maquiavelo, Bodino, sentaron las bases teóricas de esta importante perspectiva social. Para su estudio, la hemos dividido en cuatro partes: primero, las raíces de la teoría del conflicto. Segundo, las posturas clásicas: Kaldún, Nicolás Maquiavelo, Karl Marx, Karl Von Clawsewitz, Thomas Hobbes, Georges Simmel, Lewis Coser y Henry Ki...

  5. Annual Tropical Cyclone Report 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    old global band prognos- TROPICAL CYCLONE HAVEN STUDIES tic fields because the tau zero analysis is not available until several hours past warn...fore- In addition, COMSECONDFLT and CINCLANTFLT casts are now being recomputed with tau zero have requested 22 ports and harbors in the analyses...34 PCh 5 T2.".2.5 .𔃿B.S,24HRS HOBB6 KJl1 lB 171539 17.eH 67.2E PEN 6 HOARS KGUW II 188418 I8.SN 67.5E PEN 6 TI.5/2.5 AII./24HRS HORAS KGLC 12 .81516 18

  6. Neutral atomic absorption lines and far-UV extinction: Possible implications for depletions and grain parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, Daniel E.

    1990-01-01

    Researchers examine nine lines of sight within the Galaxy and one in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) for which data on both neutral atomic absorption lines (Snow 1984; White 1986; Welty, Hobbs, and York 1989) and far UV extinction (Bless and Savage 1972; Jenkins, Savage, and Spitzer 1986) are available, in order to test the assumption that variations in gamma/alpha will cancel in taking ratios of the ionization balance equation, and to try to determine to what extent that assumption has affected the aforementioned studies of depletions and grain properties.

  7. Teorias da lei natural: Pufendorf e Rousseau Natural law theories: Pufendorf and Rousseau

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    Luiz Felipe Netto de Andrade e Silva Sahd

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem como objetivo reconstruir argumentos centrais desenvolvidos por Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Contra Samuel Pufendorf, Rousseau defende que a justiça não é natural. Ele recusa todo compromisso com a lei natural tradicional para voltar à posição de Thomas Hobbes. Ora, no estado originário de natureza, os princípios racionais da lei natural que expõe Pufendorf não podem ser conhecidos, e, por conseguinte, quando puderem ser conhecidos, não serão aplicados por natureza.The present article aims at reconstructing Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s central arguments. Against Samuel Pufendorf, Rousseau maintains that justice is not natural, thereby rejecting the compromise with traditional natural law and wholly returning to the position of Thomas Hobbes. Now, in the original state of nature, Pufendorf’s rational principles of natural law cannot be known; later, when they may be known, they are not by nature enforced.

  8. Estado de Exceção

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    Angelita Matos Souza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Abordaremos duas obras de Giorgio Agamben - Homo Sacer (2002 e Estado de Exceção (2004. Nas duas obras a noção-chave é a de exceção, definida em relação à vida “política” dos indivíduos, mas na primeira (2002 interessa a exceção identificada à vida nua dos “súditos”, enquanto a segunda (2004 volta-se mais ao Estado, em sua dimensão biopolítica e (ahistórica. Recorreremos a Thomas Hobbes e Carl Schmitt a fim de melhor compreender o autor, indicando que, além da dívida para com Hobbes, sua idéia de exceção e a crítica ao estado de direito deve muito a Carl Schmitt.

  9. Crítica a las tesis naturalistas de la vida humana. Un diálogo con Hannah Arendt

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    Bartolomé Ruiz, Castor M. M.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available From Hobbes to the new neuroscience there is a continuity which tends to naturalize politics by their reducing it to the governance of human nature, converting it to biopolitics. In this context, violence becomes an unavoidable natural instinct that must be managed politically. Countering the naturalism of violence, and following some critical clues opened by Hannah Arendt, we can distinguish between aggressiveness and violence. Aggressiveness is natural but violence is intentional (symbolic. It exists as an ethical negation of otherness and not as decisive impulse of nature. Thus memory transcends mere natural functionality to be instituted as a neutralizing power of violence.

    Desde Hobbes hasta las neurociencias hay una cierta línea de continuidad que tiende a naturalizar la política reduciéndola al gobierno útil de la vida humana, por lo que se transforma en biopolítica. En este marco, la violencia aparece como un instinto natural insoslayable que debe ser administrado políticamente. Contrarrestando el naturalismo de la violencia, y siguiendo algunas pistas críticas abiertas por Hannah Arendt, cabe distinguir entre agresividad y violencia. La agresividad es natural pero la violencia es intencional (simbólica. Ella existe como negación ética de la alteridad y no como pulsión determinante de la naturaleza. Por ello la memoria transciende el ámbito de la mera funcionalidad natural para instituirse como potencia neutralizante de la violencia.

  10. An audience with … the public, the representative, the sovereign

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    Milanese Niccolo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The right of audience, in common law, is the right of a lawyer to represent a client in a court. Royalty, the Pope and some Presidents grant audiences. What does the power to grant an audience consist in? And what does it mean to demand an audience (with? Through a reading of the way in which the vocabulary of theatre, acting and audience is involved in the generation of a theory of state by Hobbes and Rousseau, this paper looks to reopen these questions as a political resource for us to re-imagine and refigure our ways of being together. Through readings of Hobbes and Rousseau, it looks at the ways in which the performance of politics creates the public, the representative and the sovereign and the ways these figures interact. It proposes an alternative role for theatre as places of affective learning and a civic ethics of playfulness, in which the auto-institution of the state as an imagined collectivity is fully assumed.

  11. Assessing the Impact of Sustainability Improvement Options on the Agri-food Supply Chain Governance Structures: Development of an Evaluation Tool

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    Cosimo Rota

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The competitiveness of a supply chain is driven by the ability of supply chain governance structures to adapt to the chains’ continuously changing technical and organizational characteristics. The present study addresses the adoption of sustainability improvement options in the area of organization and management in the agri-food sector; within this framework the study proposes a tool for assessing the impact of sustainability oriented processes on the supply chain governance structures, in turn influencing the competitiveness of the supply chain. Two different approaches, proposed by (Gereffi et al., 2005 and (Hobbs and Young, 2000 have been linked to provide a theoretical framework for the tool development. The proposed new conceptual framework links the dimensions defining five different governance structures complexity of transaction, ability to codify and capabilities in the supply-base (Gereffi et al., to the product characteristics, regulatory and technology aspects defined by Hobbs and Young as drivers influencing the vertical coordination of supply chains. The method suggested for measuring the relations between improvement options and the chain governance structure is the adoption of experts’ evaluations. This method improves the tool capacity to provide a context-related supply chain governance structure assessment and management.

  12. Justice et tolérance. La question du hobbisme du jeune Locke

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    Gabriela Ratulea

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article treats about the influence of Hobbes on the early writings of John Locke, Two Tracts on Government (1660 and 1662. These Tracts don’t have a particular importance in understanding Locke’s work, but they are important for understanding the spirit of the time and the intellectual development of the author of the Second Treatise (1690. In the Two Tracts, Locke defends a conservative position in the matter of government’s role in regulating the religious policy. Locke was a puritan, but he was part of that direction of Puritanism which remained attached to the Church of England and, therefore, he was critique of the anarchical spirit of radical and sectarian Protestants. Therefore, he defended the thesis that religious feelings should be subordinated to the reasons of State, as defined by the political authority. For a better understanding of the issues of the Two Tracts, we first analyze the political context in which they were written, and the main theories of that time in matter of politics and religion, especially Hobbes’s. Then, we show that the main argument of Locke in Two Tracts could be considered as hobbist, the “hobbism” being, in that time, the use of a Hobbesian view even in the refutation of Hobbes.

  13. The Centrality of Philosophical Anthropology to (a Future) Environmental Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gare, Arran

    2016-01-01

    While environmental ethics has successfully established itself in philosophy, as presently conceived it is still largely irrelevant to grappling the global ecological crisis because, as Alasdair MacIntyre has argued, ethical philosophy itself is in grave disorder. MacIntyre's historically oriented recovery of virtue ethics is defended, but it is argued that even MacIntyre was too constrained by received assumptions to overcome this disorder. As he himself realized, his ideas need to be integrated and defended through philosophical anthropology. However, it is suggested that current defenders of philosophical anthropology have not done it justice. To appreciate its importance it is necessary accept that we are cultural beings in which the core of culture is the conception of what are humans. This is presupposed not only in thought but in social practices and forms of life. This was understood by Aristotle, but modernity has been straightjacketed by the Seventeenth Century scientific revolution and Hobbes' philosophical anthropology, identifying knowledge and with techno-science and eliminating any place for questioning this conception of humans. The only conception of humanity that could successfully challenge and replace Hobbes' philosophical anthropology, it is argued, is Hegel's philosophical anthropology reformulated and developed on naturalistic foundations. This involves subordinating science to a reconceived humanities with a fundamentally different role accorded to ethics, placing it at the center of social life, politics and economics and at the centre of the struggle to transform culture and society to create an ecologically sustainable civilization.

  14. Rethinking the creative power of God

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    Jan Muis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Because the notion of ‘power’, and of ‘absolute power’ in particular, is associated with coercion, violence and oppression, it is problematic to attribute power to God. Jürgen Moltmann and Eberhard Jüngel reject a ‘theistic’, ‘metaphysical’ concept of God’s ‘absolute power’ and highlight the powerlessness of the suffering and dying God on the cross. In their view, limitation of power is also central to God’s creative power. In this article, this kenotic view on God’s creative power is examined. Firstly, the political philosophy of Thomas Hobbes is explored as an important and still influential source of the modern view on absolute power as dominion. Next, it is discussed whether the innovative view on divine, creative power of Sören Kierkegaard can be seen as kenotic. Because both Hobbes and Kierkegaard refer indirectly to the classical distinction between potentia absoluta and potentia ordinata, this distinction, and its rejection by Schleiermacher, is investigated. The article concludes by proposing ‘empowering power’ as a non-oppressive and non-kenotic view on God’s creative power.

  15. Zaman ve Mekân Bağlamında Karşılaştırmalı Bir Çalışma: Makyavel’in ‘Prens’i ve Kınalızade’nin ‘Ahlâk-ı Âlâî’si A Comparative Study in Terms of Time and Space: Machiavelli’s ‘The Prince’ and Kınalızade’s ‘Ahlâk-ı Âlâî’

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    Ramazan ÖZDEMİR

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Kınalızâde Ali Efendi (died in 1572 and Nicolo Machiavelli (died in1527, who lived in almost the same period, occupied important placeswith regards to the civilizations to which they belonged. WhileKınalızâde represents an Ottoman State that was at the zenith of itspower at the end of the 16th century, Machiavelli represents Italy thatwas at the time an unstable and divided political structure. These twoscholars who lived roughly around the same time in quite differentgeographies, naturally, sought to remedy the problems of their owncountries. Nonetheless, they both had the same target in mind; carryingtheir homelands to greater heights. Both being the children of theirtime, they were involved in ways of thinking in line with thecircumstances of their societies. As a natural consequence of therealities they were in, the prescriptions they were to present to therulers of their homelands would vary to a great extent given thatKınalızâde was living in Ottoman soil where the prevailing atmospherewas that of order and stability, while Machiavelli was living in an Italyriddled with chaos and political immorality. Kınalızâde was able tosearch for virtues by capitalizing on the fact that his country hadalready established a well working order. However, according toMachiavelli, it would be a mere waste of time to speak of virtues in aplace with no established order. A parallel comparison of the moralsentiments of these philosophers would make the period moreunderstandable. The comparison between “Ahlâk-ı Âlâî” of Kınalızâdeand “The Prince” of Machiavelli will be a comparison of civilizationsbecause Kınalızâde was a representative of the ancient that made nodistinction between politics and ethics and he sought answers to theproblems of the Ottoman Empire into which he was born and whichhad the claim of establishing a world order; whereas Machiavelli soughtanswers to the problems of his homeland Italy, which was made up

  16. Electromagnetically driven westward drift and inner-core superrotation in Earth’s core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livermore, Philip W.; Hollerbach, Rainer; Jackson, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    A 3D numerical model of the earth’s core with a viscosity two orders of magnitude lower than the state of the art suggests a link between the observed westward drift of the magnetic field and superrotation of the inner core. In our model, the axial electromagnetic torque has a dominant influence only at the surface and in the deepest reaches of the core, where it respectively drives a broad westward flow rising to an axisymmetric equatorial jet and imparts an eastward-directed torque on the solid inner core. Subtle changes in the structure of the internal magnetic field may alter not just the magnitude but the direction of these torques. This not only suggests that the quasi-oscillatory nature of inner-core superrotation [Tkalčić H, Young M, Bodin T, Ngo S, Sambridge M (2013) The shuffling rotation of the earth’s inner core revealed by earthquake doublets. Nat Geosci 6:497–502.] may be driven by decadal changes in the magnetic field, but further that historical periods in which the field exhibited eastward drift were contemporaneous with a westward inner-core rotation. The model further indicates a strong internal shear layer on the tangent cylinder that may be a source of torsional waves inside the core. PMID:24043841

  17. Identification of Upper Crustal Structures Beneath Central Java, Indonesia from of Surface Wave Dispersion Inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulhan, Zulfakriza; Saygin, Erdinc; Cummins, Phil; Widiyantoro, Sri; Nugraha, Andri Dian; Luehr, Birger-G.; Bodin, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Our previous study on MERAMEX data (Zulfakriza et al., 2014) obtained features of the tomographic images which correlate well with the surface geology of central Java in periods between 1 to 12 sec. Kendeng Basin and active volcanoes in the central part of this region are clearly imaged with low group velocities with values around 0.8 km/sec, while the carbonate structures in the southern part of the region correspond to higher group velocities in the range of 1.8 to 2.0 km/sec. In this current study, we invert dispersion curves obtained from seismic noise tomography to estimate shear wave-depth profiles of the region. The results are used to discuss the spatial variation of shear wave velocities for a depth range down from the surface to upper crust. Most of the shear wave velocity anomalies, including the upper crustal areas of the Kendeng basin and active volcanoes, are consistent with our previous study of Rayleigh wave group velocities and fit to the regional geology. Keywords: Dispersion Inversion; shear wave velocity; Central Java, Indonesia. Reference: Zulfakriza, Z., Saygin, E., Cummins, P., Widiyantoro, S., Nugraha, A., Luehr, B.-G., Bodin, T., 2014. Upper crustal structure of central Java, Indonesia, from transdimensional seismic ambient noise tomography. Geophys. J. Int. 197.

  18. Electromagnetically driven westward drift and inner-core superrotation in Earth's core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livermore, Philip W; Hollerbach, Rainer; Jackson, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    A 3D numerical model of the earth's core with a viscosity two orders of magnitude lower than the state of the art suggests a link between the observed westward drift of the magnetic field and superrotation of the inner core. In our model, the axial electromagnetic torque has a dominant influence only at the surface and in the deepest reaches of the core, where it respectively drives a broad westward flow rising to an axisymmetric equatorial jet and imparts an eastward-directed torque on the solid inner core. Subtle changes in the structure of the internal magnetic field may alter not just the magnitude but the direction of these torques. This not only suggests that the quasi-oscillatory nature of inner-core superrotation [Tkalčić H, Young M, Bodin T, Ngo S, Sambridge M (2013) The shuffling rotation of the earth's inner core revealed by earthquake doublets. Nat Geosci 6:497-502.] may be driven by decadal changes in the magnetic field, but further that historical periods in which the field exhibited eastward drift were contemporaneous with a westward inner-core rotation. The model further indicates a strong internal shear layer on the tangent cylinder that may be a source of torsional waves inside the core.

  19. Editorial

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    Bodin Loys

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA was honoured to welcome scientists from all over the world who attended the International Workshop on major Genes and QTL in Sheep and Goats. Approximately 100 participants from 16 countries were registered, contributing 52 oral or poster presentations. A first session was dedicated to the tools available for identifying and localising major genes or QTL in these two species. Molecular techniques, marker panels, radiation hybrids, genome physical maps, and BAC libraries were presented along with genetic, comparative and cytogenetic maps. A second and largest session concerned different traits for which major genes or QTL have been found, i.e., ovulation and other reproduction traits, milk and meat characters, and resistance to disease and wool production. For each group, a guest's paper focused on one sub-trait gave the state of the art: the history, identification and localisation of sources of monogenic and oligogenic variability, genetic determinism (dominance, imprinting, ..., effects on the phenotype, physiological mechanisms implied, use in populations, etc. The third session was devoted to the strategies for the use of major genes and QTL in populations, while the last session covered future prospects. A CD (available on request to bodin@toulouse.inra.fr of the full proceedings was available, and participants invited to give a main paper also had the opportunity to submit it for publication in this special issue of GSE. Nine articles were jointly selected by the Editorial Board of the journal and by the Guest Editor.

  20. The dilemma of science and morals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stent, G S

    1974-09-01

    The conflicts between science and morals which still continue to arise despite the apparent hegemony of atheistic scientism over traditional Judeo-Christianity in the twentieth century reflect a basic contradiction in the metaphysical foundation of Western lives. As was set forth by Machiavelli, the contradiction inherent in Western ethics is that it is based on the simultaneous belief in both objectively valid moral truths and purely relative values of communal purpose. The achievements of twentieth century science have intensified these contradictions. Modern physics has put in question the validity of its own metaphysical basis, namely the belief in Natural Law, and modern biology has been unable to come to terms with the Cartesian dualism of body and soul. By contrast, Chinese lives are comparatively free of these contradictions, being founded on the philosophies of Confucianism and Taoism, to which the concepts of objectively valid truth or Natural Law are foreign. Recent developments in Western attitudes regarding science and morals can be interpreted as a movement away from the traditional belief in absolute truths towards a Chinese relativism.

  1. Understanding the supply chain

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    Aćimović Slobodan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain management represents new business philosophy and includes strategically positioned and much wider scope of activity in comparison with its "older brother" - management of logistics. Philosophy of the concept of supply chain is directed to more coordination of key business functions of every link in distribution chain in the process of organization of the flow of both goods and information, while logistic managing instruments are focused on internal optimum of flows of goods and information within one company. Applying the concept of integrated supply chain among several companies makes the importance of operative logistics activity even greater on the level of one company, thus advancing processes of optimum and coordination within and between different companies and confirms the importance of logistics performances for the company’s profitability. Besides the fact that the borders between companies are being deleted, this concept of supply chain in one distribution channel influences increasing of importance of functional, i.e. traditional business managing approaches but instead it points out the importance of process managing approaches. Although the author is aware that "there is nothing harder, more dangerous and with uncertain success, but to find a way for introducing some novelties (Machiavelli, it would be even his additional stimulation for trying to bring closer the concept and goals of supply chain implementation that are identified in key, relevant, modern, theoretical and consulting approaches in order to achieve better understanding of the subject and faster implementation of the concept of supply chain management by domestic companies.

  2. The Machiavellian Legacy in Merleau-Ponty: a Reading About the Conflictive Constitution of the Political

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    Catalina Barrio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to restore, from the political thought of Merleau-Ponty, the rightful place of conflict. To achieve this hypothetical premise it is necessary to consider some issues that are woven into possible readings of the origin or foundation of politics. First, tracing back to the original cartesian proposition that the body is related with extensive substance invalid when detecting who we are. Then, considering the reading Merleau-Ponty makes of Machiavelli considering the notion of riot or mass under a conflicting structure of politics in relation to the subject. In this regard, it is noted from this reading, the conditions proposed by Merleau-Ponty to highlight the importance of the singular in a politically shared space. And finally, to understand these problem areas of the history of philosophy as their own "world of life" where the contingent has a particular sense understood as the ontological place of the practical subject. Thus, in this context, it is possible to reconcile from Merleau-Ponty in the area of the contingent, body and language; what is felt and thought; perceived and settled. To understand the features of sedimentation helps to the formation of the localized subject; that is, it habituated or instituted.

  3. The Dilemma of Science and Morals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stent, Gunther S.

    1974-01-01

    The conflicts between science and morals which still continue to arise despite the apparent hegemony of atheistic scientism over traditional Judeo-Christianity in the twentieth century reflect a basic contradiction in the metaphysical foundation of Western lives. As was set forth by Machiavelli, the contradiction inherent in Western ethics is that it is based on the simultaneous belief in both objectively valid moral truths and purely relative values of communal purpose. The achievements of twentieth century science have intensified these contradictions. Modern physics has put in question the validity of its own metaphysical basis, namely the belief in Natural Law, and modern biology has been unable to come to terms with the Cartesian dualism of body and soul. By contrast, Chinese lives are comparatively free of these contradictions, being founded on the philosophies of Confucianism and Taoism, to which the concepts of objectively valid truth or Natural Law are foreign. Recent developments in Western attitudes regarding science and morals can be interpreted as a movement away from the traditional belief in absolute truths towards a Chinese relativism. PMID:4531410

  4. Il Dialogo della Rettorica di Sperone Speroni e la sua traduzione in portoghese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza Leite Bado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present to the Brazilian public, interested in the history of the Italian language, a text unpublished in Portuguese written by one of the intellectuals who took part in the “questione della lingua” between the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries in Italy. This is the Dialogo della Retorica by Sperone Speroni. It seems important to emphasize that, although much quoted and studied, the “questione” still is addressed by referring only to some of its protagonists, namely Pietro Bembo, Gian Giorgio Trissino, Baldassare Castiglione and Machiavelli, forgetting that it involved all the leading intellectuals of the time (and not just them, when we think that many intellectuals until Gramsci wrote about the “questione”, and that resulted in a number of interesting texts of excellent linguistic, historical and literary quality. For this reason, and in the hope of resolving this gap, we present here the text translated into Portuguese by inserting it into the wider debate about the language.

  5. DWORKIN ALÉM DA METAFÍSICA E DO CETICISMO / DWORKIN BEYOND THE METAPHYSICS AND SCEPTICISM

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    João Paulo Mansur

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article starts in the existence or not of justice in personal preferences and in the content of the rules of law. It examines the response of legal idealistic philosophies, specifically, the philosophy of Plato, according to which, there is a metaphysically correct answer for each legal issue. It analyzes the response of skeptical philosophies, specifically the skeptical point of Erasmus of Rotterdam in “Praise of Folly”, according to which, naturalistic responses are results of arbitrary actions that not even the philosopher escapes. It also identifies the influences of skepticism in the political and legal philosophies, as the political realism by Machiavelli and the Legal Positivism. Our research notes the paradox that both platonism and skepticism start from the same conception of truth that is used to criticize human conduct and the contents in the rules of law. It exposes the legal theory of Ronald Dworkin, for which there is rationality and criteria to criticize besides metaphysical entities. This article begins in the comparison of philosophical ideas to achieve the objective of demonstrating the relevance of political tradition in Dworkin.

  6. Religião e política no pensamento de Maquiavel

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    José Luiz Ames

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Para Maquiavel, o que confere valor a uma religião não é a importância de seu fundador, o conteúdo dos ensinamentos, a verdade dos dogmas ou a significação dos mistérios e ritos. Importa não a essência da religião e sim sua função e importância para a vida coletiva. A religião ensina a reconhecer e a respeitar as regras políticas a partir do mandamento religioso. Essa norma coletiva pode assumir tanto o aspecto coercivo exterior da disciplina militar ou da autoridade política quanto o caráter persuasivo interior da educação moral e cívica para a produção do consenso coletivo.For Machiavelli, religion is valued not by the importance of its founder, the content of its teachings, the truth of its dogmas or the significance of its rites. It is not the essence of what really matters but its function and importance for collective life. Religion teaches to recognize and respect political rules through the religious commandments. This collective norm could assume the outer coercive aspect of the military discipline as well as the inner persuasive character of civic and moral education for the production of collective consensus.

  7. The Florentine Archives in Transition: Government, Warfare and Communication (1289-1530 ca.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidi, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    A turning point in European administrative and documentary practices was traditionally associated, most famously by Robert-Henri Bautier, with the monarchies of the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. By summarizing previous research in this field, as well as by using both published and unpublished sources, this article intends to underline an earlier process of transition connected to the development of significant new techniques for the production and preservation of documents in Renaissance Italian city-states. Focusing on the important case of Florence, the administrative uses of records connected to government, diplomacy and military needs will be discussed, and evidence will be provided that such documentary practices accelerated significantly during the so-called Italian Wars (from 1494 onwards). A particular reason of interest for Florence at this time is that a major role in the production and storage of a large quantity of state papers was played by Niccolò Machiavelli, one of the outstanding political thinkers of the age. This was especially true in connection to the new militia which he himself created in 1506. By stressing the role of information management and the importance of correspondence networks at a time of war and crisis, this article also contributes to recent scholarship which has focused on the growth of public records relating to diplomacy in Italy during the second half of the fifteenth century, as well as to a recent field of historiography which has lately gained importance: namely the 'documentary history of institutions'.

  8. The Florentine Archives in Transition: Government, Warfare and Communication (1289–1530 ca.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    A turning point in European administrative and documentary practices was traditionally associated, most famously by Robert-Henri Bautier, with the monarchies of the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. By summarizing previous research in this field, as well as by using both published and unpublished sources, this article intends to underline an earlier process of transition connected to the development of significant new techniques for the production and preservation of documents in Renaissance Italian city-states. Focusing on the important case of Florence, the administrative uses of records connected to government, diplomacy and military needs will be discussed, and evidence will be provided that such documentary practices accelerated significantly during the so-called Italian Wars (from 1494 onwards). A particular reason of interest for Florence at this time is that a major role in the production and storage of a large quantity of state papers was played by Niccolò Machiavelli, one of the outstanding political thinkers of the age. This was especially true in connection to the new militia which he himself created in 1506. By stressing the role of information management and the importance of correspondence networks at a time of war and crisis, this article also contributes to recent scholarship which has focused on the growth of public records relating to diplomacy in Italy during the second half of the fifteenth century, as well as to a recent field of historiography which has lately gained importance: namely the ‘documentary history of institutions’. PMID:27478290

  9. Continental Arc Magmatism and its Abrupt Termination by Ridge Subduction or Ridge Jump Along the Proto-Pacific Margin of Gondwana, Marie Byrd Land, Antarctica: A Zircon U-Pb Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukasa, S. B.

    2003-12-01

    The Paleozoic and Mesozoic development and subsequent fragmentation of Gondwanaland's Pacific margin is recorded in igneous and metamorphic rocks cropping out in the Marie Byrd Land (MBL) continental block of West Antarctica, recognized on geologic and paleomagnetic grounds to comprise a distinct microplate. Widespread occurrence of metaluminous granitoids dated by the zircon U-Pb method as mid- to late Paleozoic shows that convergence-related magmatism dominated the early evolution of this margin. Dates for granodiorites, monzogranites and granites from the Ruppert and Hobbs Coasts of western MBL reveal a prolonged period of subduction-related calc-alkaline magmatism between at least 320 ñ 3 Ma (age of the oldest granodiorite dated) and 110 ñ1 Ma (the age of the Mt. Prince granite). The latter is intruded by swarms of mafic and intermediate dikes believed to record the onset of rifting that led to separation of the New Zealand microcontinent from MBL. The dikes have been dated by zircon U-Pb at 101 ñ 1 Ma. Thus, the regime along the Ruppert and Hobbs Coasts had shifted from subduction-related to rift-related magmatism within a mere ~9-m.y. period. In the Kohler Range and the Pine Island Bay areas of eastern MBL, the calc-alkaline magmatism did not terminate until 96 ñ 1 Ma, based on U-Pb dating of zircons from one granitoid sample, or 94 ñ 3 Ma based on zircons from another. No continental separation occurred to the east of MBL. The margins of the Thurston Island and Antarctic Peninsula blocks went directly from convergent to inactive. With their zircon U-Pb ages clustering around 100 ñ 2 Ma, dike-free "anorogenic" syenites and quartz syenites along the Ruppert and Hobbs Coasts show that the transition to extensional magmatism was rapid in the west. This is also reflected by the fact that from the onset of rifting at 101 ñ 1 Ma to formation of oceanic crust between MBL and Greater New Zealand (Campbell Plateau, Chatham Rise, North Island and South Island

  10. SoVEREIGNTY oR THE SoVEREIGN---on the political intention of "Leviathan"%主权抑或主权者--论“利维坦”的政治意旨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晋振华

    2014-01-01

    长期以来,人们对《利维坦》这部经典名作的误解远远大于对其的理解。以致于《利维坦》被看做是在为绝对君主制辩护,霍布斯被称作是“独裁的卫道士”。通过辨识国家、主权及主权者之间的关系,分析了霍布斯著述《利维坦》的真正用意。认为霍布斯所描述的利维坦是一个现代法人形象,而不是一个无所不能的主权者。主权是一种人格,只是这种人格要由主权者这种自然人承担而已。通过摆正主权与主权者在利维坦之中的应有位置,霍布斯为后人创建了一个现代国家的原始模型。%For a long time,people’s misunderstanding of Leviathan,a classic masterpiece,is far greater than their understanding,to such an extent as to regard it as defending absolute monarch,referring to Hobbes as an authoritarian moralist. Only by differentiating the relationships among state,sovereignty and the sovereign can the real intention of Hobbes’works Leviathan be figured out. The paper believes that Leviathan described by Hobbes is a modern corporate image,rather than an omnipotent sovereign. Sovereignty is a type of personali-ty,but such personality should be borne by this natural person of the sovereign. By putting sovereignty and the sovereign in the rightful position among Leviathan,Hobbes created the original model of a modern country for future generations.

  11. Romanticizing the Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Christian Garmann

    2016-01-01

    This paper shows how Hobbes’ and Rousseau's contrasting mythologies of social organization translate into two fundamentally different conceptions of management. Hobbes offers the myth of the uncivilized human in the dystopian state of nature who needs governance in order to counter his or her own...... self-destructive tendencies. This myth informs the classic management theories of Taylor and Mayo. Rousseau proposes a counter-myth that envisions the noble savage in the utopian state of nature, who becomes morally corrupted by being socialized into the institutions of modern society. This myth...... is echoed in post-bureaucratic management literature. Comparing Rousseau's romanticization of nature with what I call the romanticization of markets, I show how the post-bureaucratic management literature employs the logic of market rationalism to generate a managerial pedagogy that installs the market...

  12. Antecedentes griegos y medievales del cálculo lógico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Beuchot P.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Aristotle's sylogistics shows some precedents of the logical formalism as a deductive-axiomatic system that employs the notions of implication and validity, besides using variables for the terms. Megaric-Stoic philosophers studied material and formal or strict implication, whereas Scholastic philosophers came to ideas on a purified language for logic. Besides Lulio's, Descartes', Leibniz's or Hobbes' ideas, the combinatory studies of Albert the Great, Roger Bacon's insistence on the importance of mathematics as the paradigm of demonstration in science and logic, and the formal insights of John Buridan and Walter Burleigh on pure logic as a sintactic-semantic study of the schemata of inference and first principles which command how logic operates, are some of the precedents of the logical calculus that came first with George Boole in the nineteenth century.

  13. 言语幽默的语言学研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘苹

    2005-01-01

    @@ 引言 西方的幽默理论研究始于柏拉图时代,"幽默源于人们对于他人的优越感,是对他人的缺陷和错误的嘲笑"这种说法继承自柏拉图和亚里士多德,由霍布斯(Hobbes)发扬光大.另一些人如锡德尼(Sir Philip Sidney)、帕斯卡(Blaise Pascal)、康德(Kant)和叔本华(Schopenhauer)认为幽默的产生是由于人们出乎意料地发现所期待的结果与所看到或听到的不一致.

  14. Infinitesimal how a dangerous mathematical theory shaped the modern world

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Amir

    2014-01-01

    On August 10, 1632, five leading Jesuits convened in a sombre Roman palazzo to pass judgment on a simple idea: that a continuous line is composed of distinct and limitlessly tiny parts. The doctrine would become the foundation of calculus, but on that fateful day the judges ruled that it was forbidden. With the stroke of a pen they set off a war for the soul of the modern world. Amir Alexander takes us from the bloody religious strife of the sixteenth century to the battlefields of the English civil war and the fierce confrontations between leading thinkers like Galileo and Hobbes. The legitimacy of popes and kings, as well as our modern beliefs in human liberty and progressive science, hung in the balance; the answer hinged on the infinitesimal. Pulsing with drama and excitement, Infinitesimal will forever change the way you look at a simple line.

  15. Dichotomy of the "state – society" and economic liberalism myth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orekhovsky Petr, A.,

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available After the collapse of the Soviet Union, most economists and sociologists have concluded that humanity finally found the optimum, the highest form of political and economic structure. Francis Fukuyama was proclaimed "the end of history". Such representation is directly related to the entered Hobbes dichotomy of "state" and "society", which also marked the beginning of the New Age. B. Latour argues that this dichotomy lies at the basis of the division of science into "natural" and "social" and is wrong. M. Gefter distinguishes models "Homo mythicus" and "Homo historicus". The model of "Homo oeconomicus" is a kind of myth and used to transform the axial time scale of classification societies in size wealth. Liberalism rejects the notion of a political, not a basis for the positive content of the concept of the state. Use of liberalism as an ideology, paradoxically, may lead to a growth rather than decline conflict and increase the danger of war.

  16. Two Pole-Vaulters of Their Times: The Poetry of John Wilmot, Earl of Rochester, and Irving Layton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Hernández Elena

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article compares the poetic output of the Anglo-Canadian writer Irving Layton with that of the famous Restoration rake and court poet John Wilmot, Earl of Rochester. Layton himself provided the connection in his wholehearted vindication of the seventeenth century as a time of “intellectual ferment”, “criticism and impatience for change”. Layton’s debt to Nietzsche and Rochester’s to his contemporary philosopher Hobbes, respectively, provide the thread through which a striking similarity of values and thematic concerns, of the quality of the amatory experience described; of their criticism of mankind, its institutions and even of themselves, on the one hand, and, on the other, of shared poetic formulas, sources of inspiration (classical, Elizabethan, satiric and idiom string together in creative work that displays quite striking affinities, the product of similar vital stances.

  17. Hope for health and health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stempsey, William E

    2015-02-01

    Virtually all activities of health care are motivated at some level by hope. Patients hope for a cure; for relief from pain; for a return home. Physicians hope to prevent illness in their patients; to make the correct diagnosis when illness presents itself; that their prescribed treatments will be effective. Researchers hope to learn more about the causes of illness; to discover new and more effective treatments; to understand how treatments work. Ultimately, all who work in health care hope to offer their patients hope. In this paper, I offer a brief analysis of hope, considering the definitions of Hobbes, Locke, Hume and Thomas Aquinas. I then differentiate shallow and deep hope and show how hope in health care can remain shallow. Next, I explore what a philosophy of deep hope in health care might look like, drawing important points from Ernst Bloch and Gabriel Marcel. Finally, I suggest some implications of this philosophy of hope for patients, physicians, and researchers.

  18. Final Report: Enabling Exascale Hardware and Software Design through Scalable System Virtualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridges, Patrick G.

    2015-02-01

    In this grant, we enhanced the Palacios virtual machine monitor to increase its scalability and suitability for addressing exascale system software design issues. This included a wide range of research on core Palacios features, large-scale system emulation, fault injection, perfomrance monitoring, and VMM extensibility. This research resulted in large number of high-impact publications in well-known venues, the support of a number of students, and the graduation of two Ph.D. students and one M.S. student. In addition, our enhanced version of the Palacios virtual machine monitor has been adopted as a core element of the Hobbes operating system under active DOE-funded research and development.

  19. How 'Big data' will drive future innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2016-03-01

    Giving the opening keynote speech at last year's Healthcare Estates conference, Mike Hobbs, managing director of Carillion Health, drew on his 25 years' experience to discuss how innovation can help drive the greater efficiency and productivity that the NHS is charged with delivering, in the process cutting costs at a time when the service faces the tightest economic pressures in its history. He argued that as we enter a new world of 'Big data', the availability of accurate, comprehensive data on which to base key decisions will be the major enabler for the design and construction of high quality healthcare facilities in the future. It will equally be key, he said, to their efficient, low-cost, and optimal utilisation to provide the higher 'productivity' the Government says is essential.

  20. Le « commerce d’amour-propre » selon Pierre Nicole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Weber

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available La notion de « commerce d’amour-propre » telle qu’elle a été élaborée par Pierre Nicole constitue-t-elle une sorte de préfiguration de l’utilitarisme moderne ? Il est commun de le penser. Mais c’est peut-être là faire trop peu de cas du soubassement théologique augustinien de la doctrine de Nicole. Pour analyser le problème, il convient de confronter la pensée de Nicole à celles de Pascal, de Hobbes et de saint Augustin lui-même.

  1. El mundo interno, el imaginario y la política - The Internal World, Imaginaries and Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobo Saibacam

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the concomitant relationship between the notions of imaginary in Cornelius Castoriadis and of internal world in Hannah Arendt. These two theoretical constructs have extended the sphere of politics, providing a deeper knowledge of the citizen’s self. these authors, who were contemporaries of each other, diagnose in their works a hypertrophy of the identity logic due to fear of losing control and to anguish in the face of contingency, resulting in the idolatrous solution of omnipotence in the political sphere. Castoriadis and Arendt discover instead a richer understanding of liberty through the recognition of democracy in the inner forum. their political theories echo the mediterranean rhetorical tradition and shine light on some of the most prominent deformations of Western thought, evident in thinkers such as Thomas Hobbes.

  2. A history of erotic philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soble, Alan

    2009-01-01

    This essay historically explores philosophical views about the nature and significance of human sexuality, starting with the Ancient Greeks and ending with late 20th-century Western philosophy. Important figures from the history of philosophy (and theology) discussed include Sappho, Plato, Aristotle, St. Augustine, St. Jerome, the Pelagians, St. Thomas Aquinas, Michel de Montaigne, Rene Descartes, Thomas Hobbes, David Hume, Immanuel Kant, Søren Kierkegaard, Arthur Schopenhauer, Jeremy Bentham, John Stuart Mill, Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Sigmund Freud, Jean-Paul Sartre, Simone de Beauvoir, Wilhelm Reich, and Herbert Marcuse. Contemporary philosophers whose recent work is discussed include Michel Foucault, Thomas Nagel, Roger Scruton, Karol Wojtyla (Pope John Paul II), Catharine MacKinnon, Richard Posner, and John Finnis. To show the unity of the humanities, the writings of various literary figures are incorporated into this history, including Mark Twain, Arthur Miller, James Thurber, E. B. White, Iris Murdoch, and Philip Roth.

  3. Il Rousseau di Antoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Mattei

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Carlo Antoni belongs to the crowded and well-known rank of Croce’s followers. While continuing to be grateful to Croce, he starts distancing himself from him in his Commentary to Croce (1955. He thus engages himself in the neo-Natural Law path and forges his own liberal-democratic conception of the society and of the State. Making the curtain between ethics and politics permeable, he tries to draw together, in a dialectical way, these two moments. In this light he reads Rousseau and his concept of “General Will”. The Geneva philosopher seems to him a strong link in the theoretical chain of “Ethical state”, starting from Hobbes and, through Fichte and Hegel, progressing to Gentile. Antoni’s position was not deemed noteworthy by the majority of post-gentilian disciples, but also by the large crowd of the intellectuals once faithful to Actualism and, later on, enthousiast Marxist converts.

  4. La genealogía del liberalismo: una lectura económica del “Segundo Tratado sobre el Gobierno Civil” de John Locke

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Este artículo presenta una interpretación de la teoría de la sociedad política de John Locke. Después de señalar las diferencias entre las ideas de Locke y de Hobbes con respecto al individuo, el Estado y la importancia de una discusión razonada de la construcción de la sociedad política, el artículo se centra en explorar el papel de la libertad individual y el consentimiento como bases para la comprensión de la situación del hombre en un estado político. El análisis del contrato social de Lo...

  5. The Philosophical Background and Scientific Legacy of E. B. Titchener's Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beenfeldt, Christian

    This volume offers a new understanding of Titchener’s influential system of psychology popularly known as introspectionism, structuralism and as classical introspective psychology. Adopting a new perspective on introspectionism and seeking to assess the reasons behind its famous implosion......, this book reopens and rewrites the chapter in the history of early scientific psychology pertaining to the nature of E. B. Titchener’s psychological system. Arguing against the view that Titchener’s system was undone by an overreliance on introspection, the author explains how this idea was first introduced...... in defiance of introspection, not because of introspection. The book is divided into three parts. In Part I, British associationism is examined thoroughly. The author here discusses the psychology of influential empiricist philosophers such as Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, David Hume, David Hartley, James Mill...

  6. SOVEREIGNTY, DIPLOMACY AND DEMOCRACY: THE CHANGING CHARACTER OF “INTERNATIONAL REPRESENTATION” — FROM STATE TO SELF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan K. Henrikson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Addressing (the question of a new diplomacy for the 21st century, Alan Henrikson reflects philosophically and historically upon a shift that may be occurring from the sovereign State, with ambassadors serving as formal representatives of entire nations, to the autonomous Self, with individual persons, employing social media, being able to represent themselves, and their group concerns, to the world. Will the Leviathan of Thomas Hobbes be replaced by the Facebook social graph as the pattern for the next world order? The traditional institutions of diplomacy—and professional diplomats—are being challenged, are now adapting, and are still vital to the making and carrying out of the international agreements needed if global issues are to be resolved.

  7. William Ospina y la búsqueda de la franja amarilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Valero Bernal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es el de analizar el ensayo «Lo que le falta a Colombia» del escritor William Ospina. En este ensayo Ospina profundiza en los principales problemas sociales y políticos que Colombia atravesaba a finales del s. XX así como en las posibles soluciones que podrían adoptarse. Los planteamientos que emplea el escritor colombiano pueden relacionarse con una gran variedad de conceptos propios del ámbito de la política y la sociología. A lo largo de este trabajo mostraremos las analogías existentes entre el análisis de William Ospina y las ideas de pensadores tan alejados en el tiempo como Thomas Hobbes, Rousseau, John Rawls o Charles Tilly.

  8. Re-reading the “Classics”: Thucydides and Political Realism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Alekseeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The theme of the article – a widely spread appealing to Thucydides and his famous “History of the Peloponnesian War” as some sort of the “sanctions” for scientific respectability of the theoretical studies of international relations. Such an attitude was formed under the influence of Thomas Hobbes and later supported by “political realism” as one of the most popular paradigms in the theory of international relations. The “interpretation of the interpretations” demonstrates, that the texts of Thucydides are often badly read and not always rightly understood, his conclusions are eradicated out of context, and they got too extended interpretation. The result many of his ideas are oversimplified or even misrepresented or distorted. From our point of view, the “classics” deserve a more cautious attitude, and the quoting of their works ought to be more weighted and thought of, at the very least nor to be automatic. 

  9. Phomopsis longicolla RNA virus 1 - Novel virus at the edge of myco- and plant viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrabáková, Lenka; Koloniuk, Igor; Petrzik, Karel

    2017-06-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of a new RNA mycovirus in the KY isolate of Phomopsis longicolla Hobbs 1985 and its protoplasts subcultures p5, p9, and ME711 was discovered. The virus, provisionally named Phomopsis longicolla RNA virus 1 (PlRV1), was localized in mitochondria and was determined to have a genome 2822 nucleotides long. A single open reading frame could be translated in silico by both standard and mitochondrial genetic codes into a product featuring conservative domains for an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). The RdRp of PlRV1 has no counterpart among mycoviruses, but it is about 30% identical with the RdRp of plant ourmiaviruses. Recently, new mycoviruses related to plant ourmiaviruses and forming one clade with PlRV1 have been discovered. This separate clade could represent the crucial link between plant and fungal viruses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Categorías de la filosofía política contemporánea: Gubernamentalidad y soberanía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo José Manuel Castro

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the categories used by M. Foucault in his analyses of power in modern societies: repression ("Reich hypothesis", sovereignty ("Hobbes hypothesis ", fight, war, dominance ("Nietzsche hypothesis" and "governmentality". Foucaultïs lastest category describes normalizated societies and bio-politics. This category substitutes methodologically the "Nietzsche hypothesis" of "Il faut défendre la société". At this point, Foucaultïs work is linked with that of G. Agamben, specially to the concepts of "naked life" ("nuda vita" and that of "state of exception". From the point of view of Agamben works, this article approaches an area in shadows in Foucault writtings: that of "sovereignty" and "life" relationship.

  11. A new genus and species of entocytherid ostracod (Ostracoda: Entocytheridae) from the John Day River Basin of Oregon, U.S.A., with a key to genera of the subfamily Entocytherinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Patricia G; Williams, Bronwyn W

    2017-06-07

    Targeted sampling efforts by the authors for the signal crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus, from its native range in the John Day River Basin, Oregon, U.S.A. yielded entocytherid ostracods with a male copulatory complex so clearly different from other entocytherines that a new genus, Aurumcythere gen. nov. is proposed to receive them. This newly proposed, apparently nonsclerotized, genus with hook and spur-like prominences of the posteroventral end of the peniferum is the first new genus of the subfamily Entocytherinae named since Hobbs & Peters described Aphelocythere (= Waltoncythere) in 1977. Aurumcythere gen. nov. represents only the second genus of entocytherid known from the Pacific Northwest. Lack of sclerotization in Aurumcythere gen. nov. provides new insight into poorly understood mating behaviors of entocytherid ostracods.

  12. Politics of Durkheim. Society, Humanity, State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Karsenti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The essay moves from the tension between society and humanity, between nationalism and cosmopolitism, in order to discuss the sociological concept of the State according to Emile Durkheim. The author criticizes Pierre Bourdieu who maintains that the Durkheimian State was only the expression of the French republican society at the end of the 19th century. The State should be instead for Durkheim the organized expression of the authority existing in every society. Unlike what happens in modern political theory, in particular in Hobbes and Rousseau, the sociological State is not the sum of the forces, but rather the result of a mental process that links individuals to their state organization. Precisely for this reason the state is «the organ of social thought», which allows subsequent deliberations through the mediation between rulers and ruled, without presupposing individuals but producing continuously the environment of their action.

  13. New Methods, Current Trends and Software Infrastructure for NLP

    CERN Document Server

    Cunningham, H; Gaizauskas, R J; Cunningham, Hamish; Wilks, Yorick; Gaizauskas, Robert J.

    1996-01-01

    The increasing use of `new methods' in NLP, which the NeMLaP conference series exemplifies, occurs in the context of a wider shift in the nature and concerns of the discipline. This paper begins with a short review of this context and significant trends in the field. The review motivates and leads to a set of requirements for support software of general utility for NLP research and development workers. A freely-available system designed to meet these requirements is described (called GATE - a General Architecture for Text Engineering). Information Extraction (IE), in the sense defined by the Message Understanding Conferences (ARPA \\cite{Arp95}), is an NLP application in which many of the new methods have found a home (Hobbs \\cite{Hob93}; Jacobs ed. purposes, and this is described. Lastly we review related work.

  14. Seria o Sujeito uma Criação Medieval? Temas de Arqueologia Filosófica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juvenal Savian Filho

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available O artigo visa analisar, em linhas gerais, a arqueologia do sujeito operada por Alain de Libera, o que será feito pela concentração no estudo de duas teses fundamentais: (a Descartes chegou ao sujeito menos por reflexão e mais por refração, em seu debate com Hobbes e Regius, ao tentar escapar da redução do indivíduo à vida corporal e, portanto, à passividade; (b Tomás de Aquino e Pedro de João Olivi teriam sido os responsáveis por dar certo acabamento a uma temática elaborada desde a Patrística, eminentemente por Agostinho de Hipona, que teria formulado um esquema compreensivo do eu como suporte e como agente.

  15. A questão do sentido e do sagrado na modernidade = The question of meaning and sacred in modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perine, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O texto parte de uma compreensão da modernidade nos termos de uma virada antropológica, que caracteriza a cultura ocidental a partir do século XVII. As figuras de Descartes e de Hobbes assinalam, respectivamente, a descoberta da subjetividade e do indivíduo. Em seguida, reflete sobre o problema de Deus no discurso filosófico: a atitude da fé é tematizada na compreensão do homem como imagem de Deus e do mundo como estrutura racional teleologicamente ordenada para Deus. Finalmente, o texto propõe a compreensão da experiência religiosa e da contingência nos termos de uma experiência do sentido, pela qual o ser humano pode abrir-se para a atitude da fé radical como reconhecimento do que dá sentido à existência de cada um

  16. The problem of egoism in Rousseau’s practical philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadžakov Slobodan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the aspects of Rousseau’s understandimg of egoism, primarily those related to his highlighting of historical dimension of the problem, including the economical reasons for establishing this practical principle as an important part of the civil reproduction of life. Among other things, it analyses the contextual connection of egoism with relevant definitions in Rousseau’s work such as human nature, natural law, general will etc. and the difference of Rousseau’s overview of this problem from other important philosophers, for example Hobbes. This paper underlines how the French philosopher, on the basis of key assumptions of his practical philosophy, points at the historical dependence and the possibility of overcoming the egoistic actions, and endeavors to pave the way to a multilateral practical unlocking of the potentials of freedom in its political, moral and legal sense.

  17. Um Breve Panorama das Relações entre Política e Religião no Contexto do Estado Moderno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Lagreca Casamasso

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo objetiva proporcionar, a partir da perspectiva do pensamento político moderno, um breve panorama do modelo de relação que se estabelece entre a política e a religião no contexto do Estado Moderno. Destaca-se a hegemonia do poder estatal no âmbito da sociedade política e, em particular, sua supremacia em face da religião e dos atores religiosos. Apresenta-se um relato sucinto da problemática político-religiosa no pensamento de Maquiavel, Hobbes, Spinoza, Locke, Montesquieu e Rousseau.

  18. Friedrich Nietzsche y Bernard Lahire: un cruce entra la filosofía y la sociología para pensar el individuo

    OpenAIRE

    Chuca, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    La sociología desde su fundación se estableció como una ciencia crítica de la noción de subjetividad propia de la filosofía moderna que inauguró Descartes. Desde sus comienzos la sociología dio cuenta de que el sujeto está influenciado y/o determinado por fuerzas que exceden su control y conciencia. A diferencia del modo en que tanto Descartes (el cogito) como la economía política de Smith o Ricardo (la robinsonadas, como diría Marx) o la filosofía política de Hobbes (la idea del contrato soc...

  19. Democracia y universidad: patologías de un desgobierno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso-Rocafort, Víctor

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Diverse contemporary theories of democracy have put the emphasis on the tensions that arise for citizens who live in a democratic community and yet spend most of their lives in non-democratic spaces. This work examines the persistent democratic deficit that in Spain weighs down a special public institution, the university. According to Thomas Hobbes, competition, diffidence, and glory give rise to wars between citizens; today, its dominant presence in the university is assumed naturally. Here I analyze diverse political pathologies product of the misrule that results from this misunderstanding of the last sense of the institution. These include envy, calumny, destructive ambition and narcissism. Finally, I will study the establishment of groups that function as brotherhoods.Diversas teorías contemporáneas de la democracia han puesto el acento en las tensiones que produce al ciudadano vivir en una comunidad política democrática y, sin embargo, pasar la mayor parte de su vida en espacios no democráticos. En este trabajo se analiza el persistente déficit democrático que en España arrastra una institución pública especial, la universidad. Según Thomas Hobbes la competencia, la desconfianza y el deseo de gloria originan las guerras entre ciudadanos; hoy se asume de manera natural su presencia dominante en la universidad. Se procederá así al estudio de diversas patologías políticas producto del desgobierno originado, precisamente, al confundir de esta manera el sentido último de la institución. Se trataría de la envidia, la calumnia, la ambición destructiva y el narcisismo. Por último se estudiará la conformación de grupos como hermandades.

  20. La interpretación del derecho en el positivismo ético contemporáneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivas, Pedro

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In the never-ending discussion about the nature of legal positivism it has been proposed to return to their Anglo-Saxon origins, namely, Hobbes, Bentham and Austin. Positivistic thesis do not intend to be conceptual nor descriptive, but normative or prescriptive, since they state how ought to be legal systems. This prescriptive feature is not based on the advantages for legal science or on a better description of Law, but on moral and political reasons. Thus the label of ‘ethical positivism’. The paper deals with the theory of interpretation of ethical (prescriptive, normative positivism proposed by Tom Campbell, who is the most outstanding scholar upholding the return to this kind of legal positivism.

    En el inacabable debate sobre el positivismo jurídico, hay quien ha propuesto un retorno a los orígenes del positivismo anglosajón, es decir, a Hobbes, Bentham y Austin. Para quienes defienden esto, las tesis positivistas no pretenden ser conceptuales ni descriptivas sino normativas o prescriptivas, es decir que formulan cómo deberían ser los sistemas jurídicos. Tal carácter prescriptivo no se fundamenta en los beneficios que dicho modelo produce a la ciencia jurídica o en que se logre una descripción mejor de la realidad jurídica, sino en razones morales y políticas. De ahí la denominación de ‘positivismo ético’. Se expone la teoría de la interpretación del positivismo ético (prescriptivo o normativo, desde la obra del iusfilósofo australiano Tom Campbell, quien ha defendido con más empeño la vuelta a un positivismo de este género.

  1. 自然法的自我消解--以霍布斯的自然法思想为视角%Self-effacing of Natural Law:From the Perspective of Hobbes’ Natural Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何俊毅

    2016-01-01

    The theory of natural law has suffered a serious inner crisis before the attack from legal positivism .It lays the foundation for the rise of legal positivism .This paper attempts to explore the inner logic of the theory of natural law with an analysis of the “nature” and“reason” of Hobbes ’ ideology from the perspective of evolution of ideas on nature from the ancient Greek to modern times .It also analyzes the argument of religion in Leviathan, revealing the disruptive strike against the basis of traditional theory of natural law .Accordingly it establishes Hobbes ’ status as the theory pioneer of legal positivism .%自然法理论在应对法律实证主义的挑战之前,就已经不可避免地遭遇了一场深重的内在危机,并且为法律实证主义的兴起奠定了基础。在古希腊至近代自然观衍变的视域下,通过对霍布斯思想体系中“自然”和“理性”两个核心概念的深入分析,以及对《利维坦》中宗教论证部分的重新梳理,揭示了霍布斯对传统自然法理论基石的颠覆性打击,从而清晰地展现了自然法自我消解的内在理路。以此为据,进而确立了霍布斯作为法律实证主义思潮之理论先驱的地位。

  2. Aspectos do contratualismo clássico na formulação do ideário do Estado Moderno: subsídios para análise do pensamento político contemporâneo (Classic Contractual Aspects in the Formulation of Modern State...Doi: 10.5212/Emancipacao.v.13iEspecial.0009

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    Silmara Carneiro e Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Parte-se, neste artigo, do suposto de que a análise de aspectos do contratualismo clássico auxilia na compreensão do ideário sob o qual se funda o Estado Moderno. A partir do jusnaturalismo, Hobbes, Locke e Rousseau formulam teorias que apresentam diferentes interpretações sobre conceitos que estruturam o pensamento político na modernidade. Suas concepções fornecem elementos teóricos que podem subsidiar a análise das relações entre o Estado e a sociedade civil em meio ao jogo ideopolítico no qual se estruturam, na contemporaneidade. A partir desse suposto, objetiva-se, neste artigo, trazer à tona aspectos fundamentais do contratualismo clássico e apontar de que forma eles auxiliam na análise do pensamento político contemporâneo.  Abstract: This paper is based on the assumption that the analysis of the aspects of classical contractualism helps the understanding of the ideals upon which modern state is founded. Based on natural law, Hobbes, Rousseau and Locke formulate theories that have different interpretations of concepts that structure modern political thought. Their conceptions provide theoretical elements that support the analysis of the relations between the state and civil society in face of the ideological/ political game in which they are structured nowadays. Based on this analysis, this papers aims to discuss the fundamental aspects of classical contratualism and demonstrate how they aid the analysis of contemporary political thought. Keywords: Natural Law. Contractualism. Political Thought. Modern State

  3. The origin of ethics and social order in a society without state power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, K

    1999-06-01

    How ethics and social order in a society without state power had originated and developed is one of enigmas which human beings have tried to solve for a long time. Several theories on the origin of social order have been proposed since the "Social Contract" theory of Thomas Hobbes. According to Hobbes, as a society without state power is in a condition called war, a social contract among men is the origin of social order in a society where every man is against every man. Rousseau says that when human beings reach the stage in which they live in a permanent neighborhood, a property system is introduced. Then, too much ambition and avarice of man who has possessions compel him to propose the formation of a political institution, providing social order which enables him to keep his possessions. According to Nietzsche, the principle of equilibrium, that is, an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth is an important concept for the oldest theory of low and morality as well as the basis of justice. The sense of superiority and nobility which a strong man brave enough to take revenge feels is the origin of the antithesis "good" and "bad". Girard says that the sacred violence wielded by the community to sacrifice a surrogate victim brings about social order in a society without state power. All the aforementioned theories seem to have failed to find out that a society without state power has its own ethics that had spontaneously developed on the pagan culture. Previously, I indicated that a society without state power or a society where state power cannot function well, such as the tribal society in northern Albania, has ethics which is based on the ancient concepts of "Guest-god", "food (commensality)" and "blood". In the present paper, I propose a new theory on the origin of ethics and social order, using the model of ethics of the Kanun.

  4. La renuncia existencialista al sueño romántico de infinitud en el estado de naturaleza hobbesiano

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    Clara Ríos Álvarez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo de la devastadora antropología que puede derivarse del pensamiento de Hobbes, la dicotomía vanidad-miedo a la muerte nos permite arrojar una luz diferente a la filosofía del malmesburiense valiéndonos de la dialéctica hegeliana como clave hermenéutica, lo que nos proporciona cierto prisma metafísico-existencialista para reinterpretar la filosofía política hobbesiana como un humanismo casi filantrópico. Desde esta nueva perspectiva, las relaciones de poder que se desarrollan en un contexto pre-civil acaban erigiéndose, en consecuencia, como una lucha inevitable del sujeto consigo mismo que se prefigura como tránsito imprescindible de la naturaleza a la cultura. El espacio político deja de ser, así, una mera satisfacción pragmática del instinto de supervivencia para convertirse en ineludible condición de posibilidad de una auténtica humanidad, un verdadero triunfo de la cordura sobre el ansia pasional de infinitud. Este artículo pretende sugerir una vía interpretativa alternativa del contractualismo de Thomas Hobbes en consonancia con la rigurosidad aplastante de su pensamiento, dignificando a un tiempo la imagen histórica que hemos generado de un autor cuyas influencias pueden ser rastreadas en las figuras más importantes de la historia moderna y contemporánea.

  5. The Christopher Columbus Project: An Enterprise of Modernity El proyecto de Cristóbal Colón: Una empresa de la modernidad

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    Carlos Augusto Rojas Arias

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The project of discovering America by Christopher Columbus is an enterprise of Modernity, understood as the modern mentality displayed in the capitalist system. Even though Columbus lived during the Renaissance period, the mentality carried in his project is closer to some modern philosophers such as Descartes and Hobbes, who from rationality and individualism constitute a change of time. The hypothesis that Columbus is a modern person is sustained with evidence in the reasons he explained to defend his project from the Spanish court and especially the final agreement, "the capitulation", in which rationality and individualism took precedence over divine or medieval considerations. The rationalist mentality of Columbus prefigures that from modern businessman who does not stitch without thimble.El descubrimiento de América, impulsado por Cristóbal Colón, es una empresa  de la Modernidad, entendida esta como la mentalidad moderna desplegada en el sistema capitalista. Si bien es cierto que Colón, por la época en que vivió, se ubica  dentro del Renacimiento, la mentalidad con que fue llevada a cabo su iniciativa está más cerca de modernos como Descartes y Hobbes, quienes, a partir de la racionalidad y el individualismo, configuran un cambio de época. La hipótesis de que Colón es un moderno se sustenta con muchas evidencias en las razones que construyó para defender su proyecto ante la corte española y especialmente en el acuerdo final, “la capitulación”, en donde la racionalidad y el individualismo priman sobre consideraciones divinas o medievales. La mentalidad racionalista de Colón prefigura la del empresario moderno que no da puntada sin dedal.  

  6. Modelos normativos de sociedad y migraciones

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    Vitale, Ermanno

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the essay is to outline the possible relations between, on one hand, the main normative models of society in Western political thought and on the other hand the ways migration has been addressed in theoretical terms. First, we look at the complex and contradictory connections between migration and models of society in Plato and Aristotle. Secondly, we examine how the relationship between citizenship and migration has been understood within the framework of individualism and contract theory (foremost in Hobbes, Locke and Kant. In section three, the theme is illustrated from the perspective of some of today’s normative political theories (neo-utilitarism, communitarism, neo-republicanism, constitutionalism centred on fundamental rights. Here some critical arguments in favour of residence-based citizenship entitlement and the right to migrate are discussed.

    Este ensayo se propone delinear las relaciones que pueden darse entre algunos de los principales modelos normativos de sociedad que es posible encontrar en el pensamiento político occidental y las distintas maneras en que son afrontados, en perspectiva teórica, los fenómenos migratorios. En la primera parte, el ensayo se detiene sobre las complejas y contradictorias relaciones que existen entre modelos de sociedad y migraciones en Platón y Aristóteles, mientras que en la parte central, la atención se centra en el planteamiento individualista y contractualista de la relación entre ciudadanía y migraciones (Hobbes, Locke y Kant, en par ticular. Finalmente, se toma en consideración la perspectiva que aportan algunas teorías normativas contemporáneas (neo-utilitarismo, comunitarismo, neo-republicanismo y constitucionalismo de los derechos fundamentales y se presentan, de forma crítica, algunos argumentos a favor de la ciudadanía por residencia y del derecho a migrar.

  7. Una versión del estado de naturaleza en la España del siglo XVIII: el texto de Joaquín Marín y Mendoza

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    Salvador RUS RUFINO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Joaquín Marín y Mendoza, abogado de la corte en la década de los setenta, historiador de Derecho Natural y académico de la Real Academia de la Historia, escribió la disertación De statu hominum naturali, de la que se ofrece aquí el original latino y la traducción al castellano, bajo el título El estado natural del hombre, cuyo objeto de estudio es el ‘estado de naturaleza’. Se acompaña al texto de una introducción biográfica, así como de un estudio general del presente discurso sobre el Estado Natural, en el que se analizan las fuentes modernas del texto: Hobbes, R. Cumberland, Juan Francisco Finetti o Samuel Pufendorf. J. Marín se adscribió a la tendencia iusnaturalista teonómica moderada, intentó seguir los principios de la filosofía cristiana y enriquecerla con las aportaciones de la filosofía moderna.ABSTRACT: Joaquín Marín y Mendoza, a court attorney in the 1770s, historian of Natural Law and member of the Royal Academy of History, was the author of the dissertation on the «state of nature», De statu hominum naturali, which is offered here in the original Latin and in a Spanish translation entitled El estado natural del hombre. The text is accompanied by a biographical introduction, as well as a general study of the present discourse on the State of Nature, in which the modern sources of the text are analysed: Hobbes, R. Cumberland, Juan Francisco Finetti or Samuel Pufendorf. J. Marín subscribed to the moderate iusnaturalist theonomic trend and tried to follow the principles of Christian phibosophy and to enrich it with the contributions of modern philosophy.

  8. Foucault and the Critique of the Liberal Theory of Sovereignty

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    Bilba Corneliu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I attempt to analyze Foucault’s critique of Hobbes’ theory of sovereignty as articulated in his lectures at the College de France. In these lectures Foucault aims to show that the liberal theories of sovereignty are “economical,” in that they discuss the problem of the establishment of political power on the model of “free exchanges.” According to Foucault, this would presuppose the existence of a substance, or essence of power, which clearly contradicts the notion that the origin of the “strategic” and the “relational” interpretation of power must be sought in Hobbes. In order to deny Hobbes’ the paternity of the idea that “politics means continuing war by other means,” Foucault shows that it is compatible with neither Boulainvilliers’ interpretation of history as a “war of the races” nor Nietzsche’s belief in the agnostic nature of knowledge. As a matter of fact, Hobbes’ interest was to pacify history, which requires freezing over all relations based on force. Foucault’s evidence is that Hobbes reduces the notion of sovereignty by acquisition to the notion of sovereignty by contract. I try to show that the opposite interpretation is equally valid, namely that, given that the sovereign would still be left in the “state of nature,” contractual sovereignty can be regarded as the sovereign’s “acquisition” of his subjects. The exercise of sovereignty in its traditional sense would thus assume the shape of a constant struggle against human nature, which can be disciplined but never improved upon. Paradoxically, this interpretation is even more “Foucauldian” than Foucault’s, but the problems it uncovers are of Foucault’s own making.

  9. Quelle analyse pour les pronoms clitiques du cadien ?

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    Girard Francine

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Depuis les travaux de Perlmutter (1971, Kayne (1975 et Zwicky (1977, les pronoms clitiques des langues romanes en général et du français en particulier ont fait l’objet d’une recherche intense. Ces travaux, en ce qui concerne le français, se sont d’abord concentrés sur le français standard ou de référence (FR avant de se tourner dans les années 1990 vers des variétés de français parlés informels (FPI tels que celui de l’Hexagone (Zribi-Hertz, 1994, du Québec (Roberge,1990 et Auger,1995 ou encore du français pied-noir (Roberge, 1990, l’accent étant mis le plus souvent sur les pronoms sujets. Deux approches principales se dégagent de ces recherches sur le français, l’une traitant les pronoms clitiques comme des arguments et l’autre, commes des affixes flexionnels du verbe. Nous présenterons ici les pronoms clitiques sujets et objets du français cadien, une variété de français parlée dans le sud-ouest de la Louisiane, sur un territoire dénommé Acadiana, un triangle ayant pour base la côte du Golfe du Mexique et pour sommet, la paroisse d’Avoyelles. Les pronoms clitiques de cette variété de français essentiellement orale, dérivée de dialectes du Grand- Ouest, Poitou principalement (Bodin, 1987, arborent un certain nombre de particularismes qui en font un terrain d’étude intéressant de la variation dans ce domaine en français. Nous verrons que l’examen des données cadiennes révèle que les deux approches principales mentionnées ci-dessus pour le français s’avèrent inadéquates pour rendre compte des pronoms clitiques de cette variété dont le comportement se distingue à la fois de ceux du FR et des FPI même s’il partage plus de traits communs avec ces derniers. Nous montrerons pour conclure que, si les pronoms clitiques cadiens semblent bien impliqués dans un processus de grammaticalisation en direction du statut d’affixes marqueurs d’accord, ils présentent plusieurs traits dont

  10. Constructing a starting 3D shear velocity model with sharp interfaces for SEM-based upper mantle tomography in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calo, M.; Bodin, T.; Yuan, H.; Romanowicz, B. A.; Larmat, C. S.; Maceira, M.

    2013-12-01

    this work we propose instead to directly tackle the non-linearity of the inverse problem by using stochastic methods to construct a 3D starting model with a good estimate of the depths of the main layering interfaces. We present preliminary results of the construction of such a starting 3D model based on: (1) Regionalizing the study area to define provinces within which lateral variations are smooth; (2) Applying trans-dimensional stochastic inversion (Bodin et al., 2012) to obtain accurate 1D models in each province as well as the corresponding error distribution, constrained by receiver function and surface wave dispersion data as well as the previously constructed 3D model (name), and (3) connecting these models laterally using data-driven smoothing operators to obtain a starting 3D model with errors. References Bodin, T.,et al. 2012, Transdimensional inversion of receiver functions and surface wave dispersion, J. Geophys. Res., 117, B02301, doi:10.1029/2011JB008560. Yuan and Romanowicz, 2013, in revison. Yuan, H., et al. 2011, 3-D shear wave radially and azimuthally anisotropic velocity model of the North American upper mantle. Geophysical Journal International, 184: 1237-1260. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2010.04901.x Yuan, H. & Romanowicz, B., 2010. Lithospheric layering in the North American Craton, Nature, 466, 1063-1068.

  11. “The dangerous classes”: Hugo Grotius and seventeenth-century piracy as a primitive anti-systemic movement

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    Eric Wilson

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay discusses the historical and textual representations of piracy in the writings of Hugo Grotius, primarily De Indis/De iure praedae(1603-1608 and the Commentarius in Theses XI (c. 1600. Contrary to popular belief, Grotius, in stark contrast to Jean Bodin, was not an advocate of the constitutionally homogenous Nation-State. Rather, his central concept of divisible sovereignty, the lynchpin of the constitutional theory of his early writings, unambiguously presents us with the object of the heterogeneousState. In Grotian theory, the State may be “read” as a composite construction, with a residual degree of inalienable sovereignty accruing at each unit-level. Even if only unconsciously, Grotius describes a concurrent para-political sub-division of the state between institutional Government (the “magistrates”and civil society, one that constitutes an operational system of governance within the Nation-State. Like his contemporary Johannes Althusius, Grotius’theory allows for the emergence of a wholly “private,” albeit lawful, mode of authority. This is most apparent in Grotius’ treatment of the mercantile trading Company and its Privateering operations. The corporatist theory of sovereignty permits the Company’s private agents of violence, the legally ambivalent Privateer/Pirate, to be invested with a requisite degree of sovereignty. The Grotian theory of divisible sovereignty, investing the seventeenth-century Pirate band with legal personality, serves as a vital historical precursor to the quasi-statist (trans- national criminal cartels of the twenty-first century. The Grotian Pirate/Privateer/Just Avenger, therefore, is a “nomad”: a liminal entity that simultaneously transverses both geographical and juro-political spaces, rendering him or herselfin-determinable.

  12. LA INFLUENCIA POSITIVA DE LA MEDIACIÓN ESCOLAR EN LA MEJORA DE LA CALIDAD DOCENTE E INSTITUCIONAL: PERCEPCIONES DEL PROFESOR MEDIADOR

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    Sara Ibarrola-García

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La mediación escolar se muestra como una estrategia educativa que interviene en el conflicto al mismo tiempo que lo previene, forma en cualidades personales e interpersonales y mejora el entorno. En el marco teórico de la mediación se recogen indicios que reflejan las virtualidades de la mediación escolar (Alzate, 2007; Binaburo, 2007: Boqué, 2002; Bell et al. 2002; Bodine y Crawford, 1998; Cavas, 2009; Casella, 2000; Cohen, 2005; De Diego y Guillén, 2008; Farell, Myer, y White, 2001; Farré, 2006; Galán, Ruiz y Tórrego, 2008; Harris, 2005; Jones, 2004; Johnson et al. 1996; Otero, 2007; Revell y Arthur, 2007; Selfridge, 2004; Smith, Daunic, Millar y Robinson, 2002; Turnuklu, et al. 2010 y en este sentido analizamos las percepciones de una muestra de profesorado mediador (n=50 mediante un cuestionario elaborado ad hoc (autoras, 2012 que valora diversos aspectos referidos al aprendizaje emocional, sociocognitivo y moral producidos en el proceso de mediación escolar así como los efectos percibidos en la mejora de la convivencia del centro educativo. En cuanto a los resultados, por un lado, el profesorado percibe mejoras personales sobre todo en el pensamiento reflexivo y la empatía. Por otro lado, en el centro educativo el profesorado destaca la labor preventiva de la mediación no sólo al contrarrestar educativamente dinámicas de conflicto sino al facilitarle recursos y habilidades concretas para afrontar situaciones diarias en el aula y mejorar la convivencia.

  13. Treatment of fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome (FXTAS and related neurological problems

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    Randi J Hagerman

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Randi J Hagerman1,2, Deborah A Hall3, Sarah Coffey1,2, Maureen Leehey3, James Bourgeois4, John Gould5, Lin Zhang6, Andreea Seritan4, Elizabeth Berry-Kravis7–9, John Olichney6, Joshua W Miller10, Amy L Fong11, Randall Carpenter12, Cathy Bodine13, Louise W Gane1,2, Edgar Rainin1, Hillary Hagerman1, Paul J Hagerman141M.I.N.D. Institute, 2Department of Pediatrics, 4Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, 5Department of Urology, 6Department of Neurology, 10Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, 14Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, University of California, Davis, School of Medicine, Sacramento, CA, USA; 3Department of Neurology, University of Colorado, Denver, CO, USA; 7Department of Pediatrics, Neurology, and Biochemistry, 8Department of Neurological Sciences, 9Department of Biochemistry, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA; 11Physical Edge, Inc., Davis, CA, USA; 12Seaside Therapeutics, Cambridge, MA, USA; 13Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO, USAAbstract: Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS is a progressive neurological disorder that affects older adult carriers, predominantly males, of premutation alleles (55 to 200 CGG repeats of the fragile X (FMR1 gene. Principal features of FXTAS are intention tremor, ataxia, parkinsonism, cognitive decline, and peripheral neuropathy; ancillary features include, autonomic dysfunction, and psychiatric symptoms of anxiety, depression, and disinhibition. Although controlled trials have not been carried out in individuals with FXTAS, there is a significant amount of anecdotal information regarding various treatment modalities. Moreover, there exists a great deal of evidence regarding the efficacy of various medications for treatment of other disorders (eg, Alzheimer disease that have substantial phenotypic overlap with FXTAS. The current review summarizes what is currently

  14. Thinking about ... leadership. Warts and all.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellerman, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    Does using Tyco's funds to purchase a $6,000 shower curtain and a $15,000 dog-shaped umbrella stand make Dennis Kozlowski a bad leader? Is Martha Stewart's career any less instructive because she may have sold some shares on the basis of a tip-off? Is leadership synonymous with moral leadership? Before 1970, the answer from most leadership theorists would certainly have been no. Look at Hitler, Stalin, Pol Pot, Mao Tsetung--great leaders all, but hardly good men. In fact, capricious, murderous, high-handed, corrupt, and evil leaders are effective and commonplace. Machiavelli celebrated them; the U.S. constitution built in safeguards against them. Everywhere, power goes hand in hand with corruption--everywhere, that is, except in the literature of business leadership. To read Tom Peters, Jay Conger, John Kotter, and most of their colleagues, leaders are, as Warren Bennis puts it, individuals who create shared meaning, have a distinctive voice, have the capacity to adapt, and have integrity. According to today's business literature, to be a leader is, by definition, to be benevolent. But leadership is not a moral concept, and it is high time we acknowledge that fact. We have as much to learn from those we would regard as bad examples as we do from the far fewer good examples we're presented with these days. Leaders are like the rest of us: trustworthy and deceitful, cowardly and brave, greedy and generous. To assume that all good leaders are good people is to be willfully blind to the reality of the human condition, and it severely limits our ability to become better leaders. Worse, it may cause senior executives to think that, because they are leaders, they are never deceitful, cowardly, or greedy. That way lies disaster.

  15. PODER Y DEMOCRACIA EN CLAUDE LEFORT Power and Democracy in Claude Lefort

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    FERNANDO GUTIÉRREZ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En breve introducción indico los términos del pensamiento de Lefort sobre el poder y la democracia, así como el propósito del presente ensayo. En la primera parte abordo el concepto de poder mediante el enfoque simbólico que le es propio, siguiendo especialmente su lectura de Maquiavelo. En la segunda, expongo su concepción de la democracia en la perspectiva de su reflexión acerca de las investigaciones de Tocqueville, que le indican la mutación esencial que significó el nacimiento de la democracia moderna y sus características fundamentales; al término de esta parte vemos la fusión de ambas nociones. Finalmente, planteo algunas conclusiones críticas y aspectos pendientes a desarrollar de su pensamiento.In a brief introduction, I indicate the terms of Lefort's thought on power and democracy, as well as the purpose of this essay. In the first part, I tackle the concept of power through his own symbolic approach following his thoughts on Machiavelli. In the second part, I expose his conception of democracy in the perspective of his reflection on the research of Tocqueville, which indicates to him the essential mutation that meant the birth ofmodern democracy and its fundamental characteristics; at the end of this part, we see thefusion of both notions. Finally, I expose some critical conclusions and future aspects to develop of his thought.

  16. “La fortuna favorece a los audaces”: Maquiavelo y la subversión de un lugar común

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    Duhamel, Jérémie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores a very precise question: what does Machiavelli mean when he writes, in the chapter XXV of The Prince, that it is preferable to behave impetuously rather than cautiously? Through an in-depth analysis of this chapter, the author questions the validity of the prevailing interpretation, which holds that a virtuous individual can subjugate “fortuna” through an impetuous action. Machiavelli’s assertion should be construed as a bet on the creative potentialities of action in a context of corruption in which fatalism and the desire to be dominated tend to prevail. In this sense, the priority given to impetuosity is the cornerstone of a provisional morality required for adverse times.Este artículo explora una pregunta muy precisa: ¿qué significa la propuesta, expuesta por Maquiavelo en el penúltimo capítulo de El Príncipe, según la cual es preferible ser impetuoso que respetuoso? A partir de un análisis riguroso de este capítulo, el autor cuestiona la validez de la interpretación dominante según la cual mediante una acción impetuosa, un individuo virtuoso puede someter a la fortuna. La propuesta de Maquiavelo se debe interpretar más bien como una apuesta hacia las virtualidades creativas de la acción ante una situación de corrupción en la que el fatalismo y el deseo de ser dominado tienden a prevalecer. En este sentido, la primacía dada a la impetuosidad constituye la piedra angular de una moral de carácter provisional requerida en “tiempos adversos”.

  17. Two Disputes Of Methods, Three Constructivisms, And Three Liberalisms. Part I

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    Vladimir Maksovich Yefimov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes to reconsider the methodology and history of economics radically, whether present day mainstream or heterodox versions of it. The profession of economists must definitely abandon Cartesian dualism and adopt Vygotskian constructivism. In fact constructivist economics already existed in the past and was cognitively very successful and socially very useful. It was the economics of Gustav Schmoller’s historico-ethical school and the institutionalist economics of John R. Commons, traditions of which are totally ignored by the contemporary community of economists. The former tradition was based on Dilthey’s hermeneutics and the latter on Peirce’s pragmatism. It is worth to underline that hermeneutics and pragmatism are both predecessors of Vygotskian constructivism. During the last two decades a lot was written by economists on pragmatist, constructivist and discursive approaches to the methodology and history of economics, but those who wrote on these topics viewed them from the dualistic point of view. My paper is an appeal to economists to reconsider Methodenstreit. The dispute of methods between Schmoller and Menger can be considered as a repetition of a similar dispute taking place more than two hundred years earlier between Robert Boyle and Thomas Hobbes. Schmoller-Menger dispute started soon after the beginning of the institutionalisation of experimentally-oriented economics which happened with the creation in 1873 of the Vereinfür Sozialpolitik. Boyle-Hobbes dispute started in 1660, when the Royal Society of London had been founded, the cradle of the institution of science. Schmoller was one of the creators of the Verein, and Boyle was one of the founders of the Royal Society. The activities of both societies were similar in several respects: they represented efforts to collect data, working out of detailed reports and collective evaluation of obtained results. For Hobbes, as for Menger, the model of ‘science’ was

  18. 试论政治道歉对中日关系的良性建构%Analysis on the Significance of Political Apology to the Benign Construction of Sino-Japan Relationship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱陆民; 刘燕

    2015-01-01

    Because of the question of Diaoyu Islands,the Sino-Japan relations have been stressed in recent years.It is becoming clear that Hobbes culture in Sino-Japan relations is dominant.The situation and pros-pects of Sino-Japan relations are to be worried.In this situation,it is up to Japan to make a serious political apology to China for the invasive behavior in the history in order that the Sino-Japan relations get away from security dilemma of hostility in Hobbes culture and go back to normal competition in Locke culture and even to Security community of friend relationship in Kant culture.To make a good contribution to the construc-tion of peaceful and friendly Sino-Japan relations,Japan needs to change its identity and interest as an in-flictor,increase benign intention and decrease threat perception to improve the national image of Japan.%自2012年日本购岛闹剧以来,钓鱼岛争端等问题导致中日关系持续紧张,霍布斯文化在中日关系结构中占主导地位的趋势日益明显。在此形势下,中日要摆脱目前日益明显的霍布斯文化安全困境的敌对关系,回归洛克文化的正常竞争关系甚至向康德文化安全共同体的朋友关系转变,就有赖于日本对历史上侵略中国的错误行径郑重向中国做出政治道歉,转变自身施害者的身份和利益,增强中国对其温和意图的认知,降低威胁认知,改善日本的国家形象,从而实现两国和平友好的良性关系的建构。

  19. Análise dos modelos de tomada decisão sob o enfoque cognitivo ANALYSIS OF MODELS OF DECISION MAKING IN THE COGNITIVE APPROACH

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    Eugênio de Oliveira Simonetto

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The rationality has been defined from the Greeks as one of the main characteristic that distinguishes man from the other animals. The Greeks ‘influence like Plato and Aristotle and the philosophers empiricist /rationalist,as Descartes and Thomas Hobbes, were remarkable for the formation of models of decision making in organizations proposed by Simon, Allison and Lindblon. This study aims to identify the mainly decision making models and check how the cognitive aspects can affect the behavior of the agents involved in the process. The results show that there is no way to overlook the subjective factors, the different cognitive styles in the decision, there is a system of relations between the elements of nature objective and subjective elements,whichever is the predominant influence of the values of decision makers involved, which is seen as a motivator for the decision.A racionalidade vem sendo definida a partir dos gregos como uma das principais características que distingue o homem dos outros animais. A influência dos gregos, como Platão e Aristóteles, e dos filósofos empiristas/racionalistas, como Descartes e Thomas Hobbes, foram marcantes para a formação dos modelos de tomadas de decisão nas organizações propostas por Simon, Allison e Lindblon. Assim, este trabalho tem o objetivo de identificar os principais modelos de tomada de decisão e verificar como os aspectos cognitivos podem afetar o comportamento dos agentes envolvidos no processo. Os resultados demonstram que não há como negligenciar os fatores subjetivos e os diferentes estilos cognitivos na decisão, pois há um sistema de relações entre os elementos de natureza objetiva e os elementos de natureza subjetiva, prevalecendo o predomínio da influência dos valores dos decisores envolvidos, o que é visto como elemento motivador da decisão.

  20. Tiempo de excepción: El extraño retorno de la religión en política

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    Guardiola-Rivera, Óscar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the controversial German theorist Carl Schmitt understood the position of the Sovereign in theologico-political terms: as similar to that of the medieval Prince, charged with the task of preventing and deferring the end of days. An exploration of the links between Schmitt and his acknowledged intellectual mentor Thomas Hobbes reveals that, ultimately, what is at stake in such understandings of the sovereign’s position is the management and control of the risk associated with the possible occurrence of catastrophic events in the future. It is argued here that such a conception of our relationship with time and infinitude has come to dominate the political, economic and even aesthetic landscape of our times. That conception is apocalyptic, authority- based, and catastrophic; it amounts to an unexpected return of religion at the very heart of modernity, on the back of seemingly secular appeals to choice and necessity, following the introduction of war at the centre of the promise of progress.

    Bien se sabe que el alemán Carl Schmitt interpretó la posición del soberano en términos teológico-políticos: como el príncipe medieval cristiano cuya función consistía en prevenir y deferir el fin. Apuntalando las cercanías entre Schmitt y su mentor intelectual Thomas Hobbes, puede verse que en últimas la posición del decisor soberano es aquí la de quien intenta administrar o controlar el riesgo de la ocurrencia de eventos catastróficos en el futuro. Se argumenta en este ensayo que dicha forma de relacionarse con la temporalidad y el infinito —apocalíptica, autoritativa, y catastrofista— caracteriza tanto a la estética como a la economía y la política de autoridad que predominan en nuestra época. Se trata de un inesperado retorno de lo religioso en el corazón mismo de la modernidad, que anima la radicalización decisionista de los discursos político y económico, y sus presentaciones en la cultura popular

  1. THE CENTRALITY OF PHILOSOPHICAL ANTHROPOLOGY TO (A FUTURE ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS

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    ARRAN GARE

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mientras que la ética ambiental ha consolidado su presencia en la filosofía, tal como está concebida todavía es en gran medida irrelevante para lidiar la crisis ecológica global, porque, como argumentó Alasdair MacIntyre, la ética en sí está en grave desorden. Se defiende la recuperación de orientación histórica de MacIntyre de ética de la virtud, pero al mismo tiempo se argumenta que incluso MacIntyre fue demasiado limitado para conjeturar de superar este trastorno. Como él mismo cuenta, sus ideas deben ser integradas y defendidas a través de la antropología filosófica. Sin embargo, se sostiene que los defensores actuales de la antropología filosófica no le han todavía hecho justicia. Para apreciar su importancia, es necesario aceptar que somos seres culturales, y el núcleo de la cultura es la concepción que tenemos de la humanidad. Esto se presupone no sólo en el pensamiento, sino también en las prácticas sociales y en las formas de vida. Esto fue entendido por Aristóteles, pero la modernidad ha sido “encarcelada” por la revolución científica del siglo XVII y por la antropología filosófica de Hobbes, por la identificación del conocimiento con la tecnociencia y por la eliminación de cualquier lugar para cuestionar esta concepción de ser humano. Se sostiene que la única concepción de humanidad que podría desafiar y reemplazar la antropología filosófica de Hobbes con éxito es la antropología filosófica de Hegel, reformulada y desarrollada sobre bases naturalistas. Esto implica subordinar la ciencia a una nueva concepción de las humanidades, con un papel fundamentalmente diferente otorgado a la ética, colocándola en el centro de la vida social, política y económica y en el centro de la lucha por transformar la cultura y la sociedad, con el fin de crear una civilización ecológicamente sostenible.

  2. Small and Large Molecules in the Diffuse Interstellar Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Takeshi; Huang, Jane

    2014-06-01

    Although molecules with a wide range of sizes exist in dense clouds (e.g. H(C≡C)_nC≡N with n = 0 - 5), molecules identified in diffuse clouds are all small ones. Since the initial discovery of CH, CN, and CH^+, all molecules detected in the optical region are diatomics except for H_3^+ in the infrared and C_3 in the visible. Radio observations have been limited up to triatomic molecules except for H_2CO and the ubiquitous C_3H_2. The column densities of all molecules are less than 1014 cm-2 with the two exceptions of CO and H_3^+ as well as CH and C_2 in a few special sightlines. Larger molecules with many carbon atoms have been searched for but have not been detected. On the other hand, the observations of a great many diffuse interstellar bands (380 toward HD 204827 and 414 toward HD 183143) with equivalent widths from 1 to 5700 m Å indicate high column densities of many heavy molecules. If an electronic transition dipole moment of 1 Debye is assumed, the observed equivalent widths translate to column densities from 5 × 1011 cm-2 to 3 × 1015 cm-2. It seems impossible that these large molecules are formed from chemical reactions in space from small molecules. It is more likely that they are fragments of aggregates, perhaps mixed aromatic/aliphatic organic nanoparticles (MAONS). MAONS and their large fragment molecules are stable against photodissociation in the diffuse ISM because the energy of absorbed photons is divided into statistical distributions of vibrational energy and emitted in the infrared rather than breaking a chemical bond. We use a simple Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus theory to estimate the molecular size required for the stabilization. Snow, T. P. & McCall, B. J. 2006, ARA&A, 44 367 Hobbs, L. M., York, D. G., Snow, T. P., Oka, T., Thorburn, J. A., et al. 2008, ApJ, 680 1256 Hobbs, L. M., York, D. G., Thorburn, J. A., Snow, T. P., Bishof, M., et al. 2009, ApJ, 705 32 Kwok, S. & Zhang, S. 2013, ApJ, 771 5 Freed, K. F., Oka, T., & Suzuki, H

  3. Unfinished “ Natural Sociability ”:Human Nature and Normativity of the Modern Society%未完成的“自然社会”:现代社会的人性基础与规范构成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李猛

    2016-01-01

    Natural Society intends to investigate the doctrine of human nature and normativity articulated by Thomas Hobbes and other members of the modern natural law school concerning the constitution of modern moral world . The state of Nature ,natural rights or natural law ,and social contract are three decisive moments of modern moral order .The theory of natural state advanced by Hobbes and Grotius , synthesized the apparent opposite self‐love and sociability and thus provided a starting point for modern moral philosophy .The state of nature ,as moral space ,should not be understood a normative order with the natural or objective measure beyond subjective natural rights .In the modern world , normativity is made simultaneously with the social contract which constitutes the Leviathan .%对于《自然社会》关注的现代社会的规范性秩序问题,自然状态、自然法与建国契约是三个主要环节。对该书的批评也集中在这三个方面:自然状态与人性论,自然状态的道德性质,以及政治社会与规范秩序的奠基关系。自然状态学说通过自爱与社会性建立的自然社会性是理解现代社会道德关系的出发点。在考虑现代社会丰富和充实这一道德关系的努力之前,应当先理解人是如何成为一个孤独的陌生人的。从这一自爱的社会性出发,《自然社会》将霍布斯笔下的自然状态理解为道德空间乃至法权状态,但并不同意这一空间是具有内在道德尺度或客观道德科学基础的规范性秩序。作为现代国家规范性基础的道德尺度是与政治社会同步奠立的。

  4. AS CONTRIBUIÇÕES DE ROBERT BOYLE À QUÍMICA FACE A UMA VISÃO INTERDISCIPLINAR COM A GEOGRAFIA

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    L. I. Medeiros

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available No século XVII, o físico e químico irlandês, Robert Boyle, merece um papel de destaque na química pois ele auxiliou no desenvolvimento teórico desta ciência. Em 1660, ao publicar sua primeira obra científica não-aristotélica sobre a pressão atmosférica e o vácuo, baseado nos trabalhos de Galileu, Pascal e Torricelli, Boyle travou um conflito de idéias com o aristotélico Thomas Hobbes. Em 1662, em resposta aos ataques de Hobbes, Boyle publica um livro onde consta a lei da relação entre a pressão e o volume dos gases. Em 1670, através de uma experiência feita com um tubo de vidro em forma de J, ele concluiu a lei dos gases, cuja declara que em uma temperatura constante, o volume e a pressão de um gás são inversamente proporcionais. Objetiva-se com esta pesquisa promover a interdisciplinaridade entre as disciplinas da química e da ciência geográfica, através de um resgate histórico sobre a lei dos gases, gerando uma discussão acerca da aplicabilidade, exploração, perfuração, processamento e produção do gás na atualidade. O trabalho foi desenvolvido a partir de uma pesquisa bibliográfica e na internet acerca do tema. Tomando por base os estudos de Robert Boyle, pode-se promover uma interdisciplinaridade entre as disciplinas da química e da geografia, analisando quimicamente a lei dos gases e promovendo uma discussão geográfica acerca da exploração, perfuração de poços, o processamento do gás, aplicabilidade do gás na indústria, em veículos, domicílios e como uma das principais fontes alternativas da atualidade para a ampliação da matriz energética brasileira. Palavras-chave: lei dos gases; energia alternativa e interdisciplinaridade.

  5. DEMONS AND PRANKS IN THE KINGDOM OF THE LEVIATHAN DEMÔNIOS E DIABRURAS NO REINO DO LEVIATÃ

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    Wilson Alves de Paiva

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper – resulting from an academic speech at UFG (Universidade Federal de Goiás -is to outline the importance of Thomas Hobbes’ most known political work: Leviathan. Taking the figure of a big marine monster, quite in the same sense of the biblical metaphor used in the dialogue between God and Job to introduce the danger or the benefit of a big power controlled by men, Hobbes’s arguments terrorized the Church but helped in creating new ways of thinking so to conceive the modern state. In the same movement, many other “demons” emerged to fight against religious power and also other forms of totalitarianism. Nevertheless, even shocking our conventional assumptions, Hobbes’ political work may be considered – among other liberal thinkers – a defense of individualism and many other aspects of civil order, which make him one of the most important contributor to modernity and also an essential source to think about our reality.O presente texto procura ressaltar a importância da obra Leviatã, de Thomas Hobbes. A figura mitológica do grande monstro marinho é evidenciada como uma metáfora para introduzir a idéia de um poder estranho ao domínio teológico, que poderia ser explorado para o benefício ou malefício do homem. Bem utilizada por Hobbes em suas reflexões sobre a criação do Estado, a metáfora aterroriza a Igreja e abre caminhos para outras figuras inquietas da história do pensamento ocidental, cujas idéias foram tidas como heréticas e demoníacas. À parte a repercussão que teve o Leviatã, no fundo não é uma obra de cunho totalitário, mas faz coro aos escritos de outros “demônios” que ajudaram a configurar o mundo moderno, dentro de uma perspectiva liberal. Assim sendo, a obra serve de referência para repensarmos a realidade atual, sobretudo a brasileira, quando os desmandos da política colocam em risco de vida nosso Leviatã.

  6. El poder y el Papa. Aproximación a la filosofía política de Marsilio de Padua

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    Bayona, Bernardo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains the meaning of Marsilius of Padua’s work, the first medieval non-clerical theory of the State. Marsilius intends to fight the pontifical doctrine called plenitudo potestatis, which he says to be the cause of the civil war in Italy in the beginning of the 14th century. Then his thought is based on the unity of the sovereignty, in opposition to dualism, characteristic of other authors who defend the secular power, as John of Paris, Ockham or Dante. Marsilius states that there are no spiritual grounds to maintain a temporal power different from the power of the human legislator and that is why the only supreme power or plenitudo potestatis does not belong to the Pope, but to the secular ruler. From that follows the complete absorption of Church by the State and the secular ruler’s authority on the whole ecclesiastical organization. The Marsilius’s thought represents an effort with no precedents to base the power on rational grounds, but it is far from the modern idea of sovereignty, as well as from liberalism and from Rousseau’s general will. Even though it was not successful in his time, it had a great influence on Anglican Reformation and «English erastianism», specially on Hobbes.

    El trabajo expone el significado de la obra de Marsilio de Padua, la primera teoría medieval no clerical del Estado. Marsilio se propone combatir la doctrina de la plenitudo potestatis papal, porque la considera causa de la guerra civil en Italia a principios del siglo XIV. Se basa para ello en la unidad de la soberanía, frente al dualismo que caracteriza a otros defensores del poder secular, como Juan de Paris, Ockham o Dante. Sostiene que no existe fundamento espiritual para un poder diferente del poder del legislador humano y que el único poder supremo o plenitudo potestatis no corresponde al Papa sino al gobernante secular. De lo cual se sigue la completa absorción de la Iglesia por el Estado y la

  7. Hegel e a crítica ao estado de natureza do Jusnaturalismo moderno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Augusto Ramos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho pretende desenvolver as seguintes proposições: 1 Nos escritos juvenis, a questão da exterioridade da natureza foi já pensada, por Hegel, como um atributo daquilo que é natural, e que será desenvolvido de forma mais consistente nas obras posteriores, sobretudo, na Enciclopédia com a formulação do conceito de natureza como a "ideia na forma do seroutro (Andersseins". 2 Este modo de entender a natureza - segundo o ponto de vista de uma "outridade" - servirá de referência às relações de dominação no campo político, nas quais os traços de naturalidade permanecem segundo o paradigma da dialética do senhor e do escravo, e que caracteriza as concepções de estado de natureza da doutrina do Direito Natural - como a de Hobbes. 3 A coação como violência ou subjugação legítima praticada contra aquilo que contém o elemento da exterioridade da natureza é compatível com a determinação essencial da natureza, e designa a condição inicial do homem como ser natural (Naturwesen, o qual pode ser coagido.This paper aims to develop the following propositions: 1 In the youthful writings, the issue of exteriority of nature has been already thought by Hegel as an attribute of what is natural, and will be developed more consistently in the later works, especially in the Encyclopedia with the formulation of the concept of nature as the "idea in the form of otherness (Andersseins. 2 This way of understanding nature - according to the point of view of "otherness" -will serve as a reference to the relations of domination in the political field, in which traces of naturalness remain under the paradigm of the dialectic of master and slave of nature, typical trait of Natural Law doctrine - like that of Hobbes. 3 The coercion as violence or the legitimate subjugation put into practice against what contains the element of externality of nature is compatible with the essential determination of the nature, and indicates the initial

  8. The Undecidable Sovereign Decision:A Rereading on Carl Schmitt's Political Theology%悬而未决的主权决断:重读卡尔·施米特的《政治神学》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王钦

    2014-01-01

    Carl Schmitt's Political Theology is generally regarded as a defense and development of the modern concept of sover-eignty originated in Jean Bodin.Schmitt's emphatic arguments on the“decision” of the sovereign also polemically oppose a per-sonalistic position to the impersonal position taken by legal positivism.However, this paper argues that Schmitt's strong argu-ment inheres within itself an undecidable decision:to confront positivism with“decision” is symptomatic of the impossibility of the traditional political-value judgments, on modern political conditions, mediated by the Catholic Church.The very association between political theology and the sovereignty of nation-state is not a resolution of modern political dilemma, but its sharpest representation.%卡尔·施米特的《政治神学》通常被认为是对于让·博丹以来的现代主权概念的捍卫和延伸,施米特对主权者的“决断”的强调也在论辩的意义上与实证法学的非人格化立场截然对立。事实上,在这部著作中,施米特的强论辩内部蕴含的恰恰是一种悬而未决的决断:以“决断”来对抗实证主义,作为症候意味着现代政治条件下传统的以天主教会为中介的政治-价值判断已经变得不可能了。政治神学和民族国家政治主权的结合不是对于现代政治困境的解决,而是其最尖锐的表征。

  9. Antisocial process screening device: validation on a Russian sample of juvenile delinquents with the emphasis on the role of personality and parental rearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väfors Fritz, Marie; Ruchkin, Vladislav; Koposov, Roman; Af Klinteberg, Britt

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were 1) to validate the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) in a sample of Russian juvenile delinquents; 2) to examine subgroups of delinquents with higher versus lower levels of childhood problem behaviors with respect to the APSD subscales, personality traits, and parental rearing; and 3) to attempt to replicate the previous finding that the APSD subscale measuring callous/unemotional traits can differentiate subgroups of delinquents with different precursors for problem behaviors (predominantly biological versus predominantly social). A group of 250 Russian juvenile inmates (mean age=16.4) was examined by means of the APSD completed by the staff at the correctional institution. The inmates completed several self-reports assessing their current and childhood behavior problems, personality traits and experienced parental rearing practices. A factor structure of the APSD was obtained that is similar, albeit not identical, to that from the original studies by Frick and colleagues [Frick, P.J., O'Brien, B.S., Wootton, J.M., McBurnett, K., (1994). Psychopathy and conduct problems in children. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103, 700-707]; [Frick, P.J., Barry, C.T., Bodin, S.D., (1999). Applying the concept of psychopathy to children: Implications for the Assessment of antisocial youth. In Gacono, C.B. (Ed), The clinical and forensic assessment of psychopathy: A practitioners guide. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum]; [Frick, P.J., Lilienfeld, S.O., Ellis, M., Loney, B., Silverthorn, P., (1999). The association between anxiety and psychopathy dimensions in children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 27, 383-392]; callous unemotional traits in the present sample were expressed in manipulative behavior. Results further disclosed higher levels of antisocial and aggressive activities, higher levels of personality attributes such as narcissism and novelty seeking, as well as lower cooperativeness, and negatively perceived parental rearing

  10. The Slumgullion Natural Laboratory for Observing Slip Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, J. S.; Schulz, W. H.; Bodin, P.; Kean, J. W.; Wang, G.; Coe, J. A.; MacQueen, P.; Foster, K.; Creager, K.

    2009-12-01

    -component seismographs [see Bodin et al., companion abstract]. Although we have only begun examining the data thus far, the seismic data contain an abundance of network-wide coherent signals with an amazing variety of characteristics. Significant unsteady movement in the displacement field is evident in the geodetic data, as well as fluctuations in the pore-pressures and relevant environmental parameters. Schulz et al. (companion abstract) presents initial landslide observations. We will form and present implications for understanding the likely mechanisms of failure and slip within natural systems.

  11. Anisotropic Lithospheric layering in the North American craton, revealed by Bayesian inversion of short and long period data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Corinna; Calo, Marco; Bodin, Thomas; Romanowicz, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    incompatible interpretations of models provided by only one data set. The resulting 1D profiles include both isotropic and anisotropic discontinuities in the upper mantle (above 350 km depth). The huge advantage of our procedure is the avoidance of any intermediate processing steps such as numerical deconvolution or the calculation of splitting parameters, which can be very sensitive to noise. Additionally, the number of layers, as well as the data noise and the presence of anisotropy are treated as unknowns in the transdimensional Monte Carlo Markov chain algorithm. We recently demonstrated the power of this approach in the case of two stations located in different tectonic settings (Bodin et al., 2015, submitted). Here we extend this approach to a broader range of settings within the north American continent.

  12. Atti del convegno "Questioni di storia inglese tra Cinque e Seicento: cultura, politica e religione", (Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa, 11-12 aprile 2002, a cura di Stefano Villani, Stefania Tutino, Chiara Franceschini.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Villani

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Mario Rosa, Introduzione. Paolo Cristofolini, Ricordo di un amico. Daniela Bianchi, L'intero libro di Dio, chiamato Bibbia. Alle origini dell'identità puritana. Ginevra Crosignani, Thomas Wright, i suoi scritti ritrovati e il dibattito con Robert Parsons, S. J., sulla partecipazione al servizio e al sermone anglicano. Stefania Tutino, Thomas Pounde, Andrew Willet e la questione cattolica all'inizio del regno di Giacomo I. Chiara Franceschini, Nostalgie di un esule. Note su Giacomo Castelvetro (1546-1616. Eleonora Belligni, Marcantonio De Dominis tra l'Inquisizione romana e Giacomo I: nuove prospettive storiografiche dopo Cantimori. Mauro Simonazzi, La melanconia nell'Inghilterra moderna: Edward Jorden, Timothie Bright e Thomas Adams. Mario Caricchio, Giles Calvert, un "editore d'area" nella rivoluzione inglese. Stefano Villani, "Una piccola epitome di Inghilterra". La comunità inglese di Livorno negli anni di Ferdinando II: questioni religiose e politiche. Luisa Simonutti, William Popple e William Penn. Dalla libertà di coscienza alle libertà civili. Giovanni Tarantino, Libertà di coscienza, 'aritmetica politica' e interesse nazionale: le ragioni economiche della tolleranza nel regno di Giacomo II Stuart. Guglielmo Sanna, Contrattualismo e obbedienza politica nella cultura anglicana degli inizi del Settecento. Dario Pfanner, Charles Blount (1654-1693: la voce di un libero pensatore nella Londra di fine Seicento. Tomaso Cavallo, Aggressore dell'umanità e apologeta della tirannide? L'Hobbes degli enciclopedisti.

  13. Market and currency in the Franciscan construction of political identity. The Catalan-Aragonese case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Evangelisti

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The Franciscan textuality of Catalan-Aragonese area is an important source of the political discourse and of the construction of community identities. Among the most significant aspects emerge the discourse about the value and function of money. Since Arnau de Vilanova the currency expresses and conveys the strength and identity of a political community: through it is to define the role of economic, civil and political agents in community areas. It also puts into question an historiographical assumption: «the constellation of concepts of political modernity erupts from the denial of what had preceded itì». If this argument asserts that the lemma and the concept of «contract», defined since Hobbes, is "the genetic location" of modernity, remains untraceable the break with the "not modern ".  In the relationship that connects fides, money and identity in medieval Franciscan texts that design communities of cives-fideles, the community space becomes public and legal arena, institutionalized. And in the space of the market, constituitive of the space of the community, different wills converge negotiating areas and limits of economic and financial sovereignties, but equally conscious political ones.

  14. Temperature sensitivity of soil microbial communities: An application of macromolecular rate theory to microbial respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alster, Charlotte J.; Koyama, Akihiro; Johnson, Nels G.; Wallenstein, Matthew D.; Fischer, Joseph C.

    2016-06-01

    There is compelling evidence that microbial communities vary widely in their temperature sensitivity and may adapt to warming through time. To date, this sensitivity has been largely characterized using a range of models relying on versions of the Arrhenius equation, which predicts an exponential increase in reaction rate with temperature. However, there is growing evidence from laboratory and field studies that observe nonmonotonic responses of reaction rates to variation in temperature, indicating that Arrhenius is not an appropriate model for quantitatively characterizing temperature sensitivity. Recently, Hobbs et al. (2013) developed macromolecular rate theory (MMRT), which incorporates thermodynamic temperature optima as arising from heat capacity differences between isoenzymes. We applied MMRT to measurements of respiration from soils incubated at different temperatures. These soils were collected from three grassland sites across the U.S. Great Plains and reciprocally transplanted, allowing us to isolate the effects of microbial community type from edaphic factors. We found that microbial community type explained roughly 30% of the variation in the CO2 production rate from the labile C pool but that temperature and soil type were most important in explaining variation in labile and recalcitrant C pool size. For six out of the nine soil × inoculum combinations, MMRT was superior to Arrhenius. The MMRT analysis revealed that microbial communities have distinct heat capacity values and temperature sensitivities sometimes independent of soil type. These results challenge the current paradigm for modeling temperature sensitivity of soil C pools and understanding of microbial enzyme dynamics.

  15. Uncertainty in volcanic ash particle size distribution and implications for infrared remote sensing and airspace management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western, L.; Watson, M.; Francis, P. N.

    2014-12-01

    Volcanic ash particle size distributions are critical in determining the fate of airborne ash in drifting clouds. A significant amount of global airspace is managed using dispersion models that rely on a single ash particle size distribution, derived from a single source - Hobbs et al., 1991. This is clearly wholly inadequate given the range of magmatic compositions and eruptive styles that volcanoes present. Available measurements of airborne ash lognormal particle size distributions show geometric standard deviation values that range from 1.0 - 2.5, with others showing mainly polymodal distributions. This paucity of data pertaining to airborne sampling of volcanic ash results in large uncertainties both when using an assumed distribution to retrieve mass loadings from satellite observations and when prescribing particle size distributions of ash in dispersion models. Uncertainty in the particle size distribution can yield order of magnitude differences to mass loading retrievals of an ash cloud from satellite observations, a result that can easily reclassify zones of airspace closure. The uncertainty arises from the assumptions made when defining both the geometric particle size and particle single scattering properties in terms of an effective radius. This has significant implications for airspace management and emphasises the need for an improved quantification of airborne volcanic ash particle size distributions.

  16. Healthcare access as a right, not a privilege: a construct of Western thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimos, Thomas J

    2007-03-28

    Over 45 million Americans are uninsured or underinsured. Those living in poverty exhibit the worst health status. Employment, education, income, and race are important factors in a person's ability to acquire healthcare access. Having established that there are people lacking healthcare access due to multi-factorial etiologies, the question arises as to whether the intervention necessary to assist them in obtaining such access should be considered a privilege, or a right. The right to healthcare access is examined from the perspective of Western thought. Specifically through the works of Aristotle, Immanuel Kant, Thomas Hobbes, Thomas Paine, Hannah Arendt, James Rawls, and Norman Daniels, which are accompanied by a contemporary example of intervention on behalf of the medically needy by the The Johns Hopkins Urban Health Institute. As human beings we are all valuable social entities whereby, through the force of morality, through implicitly forged covenants among us as individuals and between us and our governments, and through the natural rights we maintain as individuals and those we collectively surrender to the common good, it has been determined by nature, natural laws, and natural rights that human beings have the right, not the privilege, to healthcare access.

  17. Spatial and temporal variations in interstellar absorption towards HD 72127AB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, Daniel E.; Simon, Thuso; Hobbs, L. M.

    2008-07-01

    New optical spectra of CaII and NaI towards HD 72127AB provide additional evidence for both spatial and temporal variations in the complex interstellar absorption along the two sightlines; archival ultraviolet spectra yield information on the abundances, depletions and physical conditions in the gas towards HD 72127A. Similarities in the strengths of various tracers of interstellar material in the two lines of sight suggest that the total hydrogen column densities (N ~ 2.5 × 1020cm-2) and the depletions and ionization in the main components at low local standard of rest (LSR) velocities also are similar. Towards HD 72127A, the main components are relatively cool (T ~ 5000 K) may be largely responsible for the enhanced abundances of those trace neutral species towards HD 72127B. If the main components towards HD 72127AB are associated with material in the Vela supernova remnant, the differences in abundances and physical conditions occur on scales of about 1100 au. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile, under programme 72.C-0682, and on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. Visiting observer, European Southern Observatory. ‡ E-mail: welty@oddjob.uchicago.edu (DEW); thuso@unm.edu (TS); hobbs@yerkes.uchicago.edu (LMH)

  18. De la independencia a la natural barbarie americana. Una lectura del Facundo de Domingo F. Sarmiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Brighenti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una lectura del "Facundo" de Domingo F. Sarmiento y, en particular, de su más general visión de la historia y de la realidad argentina y latinoamericana a partir del esquema dicotómico de civilización y barbarie que tendrá mucha suerte en las narraciones de los procesos del modernización latinoamericanos por lo menos hasta la segunda mitad del siglo XX. A través del análisis de algunos entre los múltiples niveles narrativos del "Facundo" se quiere mostrar como tal imagen dicotómica se va cristalizando en el texto. Partiendo del espacio infinito y vacío de la pampa y pasando por una antropología del gaucho - de su manera de vivir y de conducir la guerra - Sarmiento conduce el lector hasta la forma típicamente americana de despotismo, el caudillismo, llegado en Argentina a su epopeya final con el régimen de Juan M. de Rosas. En la última parte se intenta injertar el esquema dicotómico del Facundo al interior de la más general reflexión del Occidente sobre la modernidad y sus alteridades, a través por un lado del prisma orientalista y por el otro de las mismas fuentes del pensamiento moderno europeo y en particular de Locke y Hobbes.

  19. LOS PRINCIPIOS DEL CONSERVADURISMO POLÍTICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modesto M. Gómez Alonso

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Las pretensiones del autor son: (i Mostrar cómo el conservadurismo político se sostiene en una concepción de la naturaleza humana de corte racionalista, que, oponiéndose al modelo antropológico de Hobbes, reconoce tanto el poder de la razón sobre los afectos como una debilidad intrínseca en el hombre que no ha de confundirse con inclinación natural al mal. En este sentido, la política moderada del conservadurismo resulta de su pesimismo mitigado. (ii Señalar cómo de acuerdo con este paradigma político los criterios de legitimidad política son la protección de las minorías, la preservación de la igualdad de derechos y el mantenimiento de una libertad racional de la que participan por igual todos los miembros del cuerpo político; es decir, cómo la medida de la legitimidad es el imperio de la ley. (iii Finalmente, subrayar que porque para que exista Estado de derecho la ley no puede estar sujeta a voluntad particular alguna, sea de un individuo o de una mayoría, el conservadurismo es baluarte de una democracia constitucionalista que es condición natural de la naturaleza humana.

  20. Influence of salinity and prey presence on the survival of aquatic macroinvertebrates of a freshwater marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sung-Ryong; King, Sammy L.

    2012-01-01

    Salinization of coastal freshwater environments is a global issue. Increased salinity from sea level rise, storm surges, or other mechanisms is common in coastal freshwater marshes of Louisiana, USA. The effects of salinity increases on aquatic macroinvertebrates in these systems have received little attention, despite the importance of aquatic macroinvertebrates for nutrient cycling, biodiversity, and as a food source for vertebrate species. We used microcosm experiments to evaluate the effects of salinity, duration of exposure, and prey availability on the relative survival of dominant aquatic macroinvertebrates (i.e., Procambarus clarkii Girard, Cambarellus puer Hobbs, Libellulidae, Dytiscidae cybister) in a freshwater marsh of southwestern Louisiana. We hypothesized that increased salinity, absence of prey, and increased duration of exposure would decrease survival of aquatic macroinvertebrates and that crustaceans would have higher survival than aquatic insect taxon. Our first hypothesis was only partially supported as only salinity increases combined with prolonged exposure duration affected aquatic macroinvertebrate survival. Furthermore, crustaceans had higher survival than aquatic insects. Salinity stress may cause mortality when acting together with other stressful conditions.