WorldWideScience

Sample records for machiavelli bodin hobbes

  1. Jean Bodin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2009-01-01

    Jean Bodin (1530 - 1596) skabte teorien om statens suverænitet. Staten er indplaceret på et niveau mellem lokale  domstole og pave/kejser. Grunden til at staten kan få en permanent status er, at den netop på Bodins tid udstyrerede sig som en etat med en hierarikisk opbygget centraladministration...

  2. Machiavelli's Kitchen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, R. ten

    2002-01-01

    Berlin's ideas about value pluralism are used in order to criticize business ethics. These ideas can be traced back to Machiavelli, a philosopher who has been remarkably popular among managers and business leaders. The first part of the article, therefore, enters into why Berlin thought Machiavelli

  3. Jean Bodin, o Methodus e a Clio tucidideana: as figurações heroicizantes do historiador Jean Bodin, his ' Methodus' and Thucydides' Clio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Murari Pires

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Apreciando as representações figuradas na ideia de uma Clio Tucidideana por fins do século XVI, propõe-se refletir sobre a associação entre a concepção antiga de herói e a moderna de gênio como parâmetro epistemológico que catalisa a apreciação da excelência da práxis historiográfica. Aborda-se essa reflexão tomando em particular as proposições elaboradas sobre a escrita da História no Metodus de Jean Bodin que juntamente com La Popelinière e Thomas Hobbes configuram historiograficamente a ideia da Clio Tucidideana conceituada por Cesare Ripa.Considering the representations configured in the idea of a Thucydidean Clio in the end of the sixteenth century, the article proposes to think about the association between the ancient concept of the hero and the modern concept of the genius as a epistemological criterium that catalizes the appreciation of the excellence of historiographical praxis. The attention of the article is centered on the thesis proposed to the wrting of history in the Methodus of Jean Bodin, who configures, conjointly with La Popelinière and Thomas Hobbes, the historiographical formulation of the idea of a Thucydidean Clio cconceptualized by Cesare Ripa.

  4. Machiavelli’den Hobbes’a Rönesans Dönemi Siyaset Teorisinde İnsan Doğası ve Toplum Anlayışı / The Human Nature and the Notion of Society in Renaissance Political Theory: From Machiavelli to Hobbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olkan SENEMOĞLU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışma Machiavelli’den başlayıp Hobbes’a kadar uzanan süreçte insan doğası ve toplum anlayışının nasıl ele alındığına ve bu anlayışın düşünürlerin kendi sistemlerindeki yerine odaklanmaktadır. Fakat çalışmada Yunan düşünürler Platon ve Aristoteles›ten başlayıp, Doğu düşünürleri Farabi ve İbn-i Sina’ya kadar insan doğası ve toplum tartışmalarına da yer verilmiştir. Böylece ele alınan dönemle, öncesinin kısa bir karşılaştırması yapılırken bu dönemin ayırıcı özelliği de gösterilmeye çalışılmaktadır. İnsan doğası tartışması düşünürler için kendi sistemlerini oluşturmada kilit rol oynamaktadır. Bundan dolayı Machiavelli, insanın açgözlü, çıkarcı olduğunu düşündüğü için yöneticiye dikkatli olması gerektiğini söylediği gibi, Hobbes, insanın doğası gereği kendi çıkarını düşünmeye yöneldiğini ve insanın insanla süren sonsuz bir savaşım içinde olduğunu düşündüğü için bu savaş halini bir barış hali olarak tesis edecek bir egemenlik sistemi geliştirmektedir. Diğer taraftan, düşünürlerin insan doğası tartışmaları, insanın diğer varlıklardan hangi yönüyle farklılaştığına dikkat çekerken, toplumun oluşma nedeni de yine insanın doğası gereği duyduğu gereksinimler veya doğasındaki eksiklikler itibariyle var olabileceğine odaklanmıştır. / This study focuses on how the human nature and the the notion of society were evaluated during the period starting from Machiavelli to Hobbes and the position of such an understanding within the system of these philosophers. However, the article also considers the discussions on human nature and society including the Greek philosophers from Plato and Aristoteles to Eastern philosophers, such as Farabi and Avicenna. Thus, a comparison of the previous era and the subject matter has ben established. The discussions around the human nature have a principal

  5. Der moderne Staat : ein Glanzstück europäischer Form und occidentalen Rationalismus / Rüdiger Voigt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Voigt, Rüdiger

    2014-01-01

    Modernsest riigist, antiikse riigikunsti taassünnist, erinevatest riigiteooriatest (Machiavelli, Bodin, Hobbes, Locke, Montesquieu, Rousseau, Kant, Hegel, Marx, Jellinek, Weber, Habermas, Foucault, Agamben), globaliseerumise väljakutsetest, ohtudest, riigi tulevikust

  6. A Memo from Machiavelli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julius, Daniel J.; Pfeffer, Jeffrey; Baldridge, J. Victor

    1999-01-01

    A fictitious memorandum from Niccolo Machiavelli, a 15th-century author, to college presidents, senior administrators, and faculty leaders seeking change in higher education offers suggestions for organizational development and governance in the form of ten rules and related change tactics. Topics addressed include integrity, team-building,…

  7. Machiavelli's "The Prince." [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discovery Communications, Inc., Bethesda, MD.

    Based on Machiavelli's book "The Prince," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that Machiavelli's enumeration of leadership qualities for a prince has always been controversial; and that leaders and followers may differ in what they identify as the qualities of a good leader. The main activity of the lesson…

  8. HOBBES AND SPINOZA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarvad, Ib Martin

    2006-01-01

    social pact of submission and argued for the sociableness of man as a natural emotion with a rational basis. Both departed from the self love theory and both claimed their –opposite- results to follow from their axioms and definitions more geometrico; Hobbes that man’s fellow man must be his enemy......the main difference between Hobbes and Spinoza in spite of obvious similarities concerns absolutism. Hobbes believed in absolutism of some sort for man must realise that only some sovereign power could make and enforce laws that make social life possible. Spinoza had no need for the fictitious......, and Spinoza that man’s fellow man is the most useful for him....

  9. Play Therapy in Political Theory: Machiavelli's Mandragola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukes, Timothy J.

    1981-01-01

    Suggests that having political science college students perform in class Machiavelli's play "Mandragola" is an excellent way to expand student's appreciation of Machiavelli. Article provides a synopsis of the play, discusses Machiavelli's intent, examines the meaning of the play, and presents classroom logistics. (RM)

  10. Machiavelli, o Pensador Atual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Tavares Batista Amaral de Souza

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo busca apresentar a obra de Nicollo Machiavelli, contextualizando-a, e analisar as ideias centrais de “O Príncipe”, obra prima de Literatura, Humanismo e Ciência Política. Discute os conceitos de principado, como se classificam, como se dá sua conquista, analisando as Razões de Estado e orientando os governantes na permanência do poder. Situa-se no final do século XV e início do século XVI, quando se instalou na Itália a desordem e a instabilidade, dissensões internas e invasões da França e Espanha, poderosas nações vizinhas. O pensamento deste teórico torna-se clássico, pois sua temática revela-se necessariamente inserida no pensamento político contemporâneo.

  11. Thomas Hobbes' Leviathan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konijnenburg, Willem van

    1945-01-01

    De analyse van den Laviathan. Het probleem dat Hobbes probeerde op te lossen luidt: ,,waartoe" en ,,hoe" is er gezag. Het ,,waartoe" bleek schuil te gaan in de praemisse der bevordering en handhaving der vrede. Het ,,hoe" van het gezag gaf aanleiding tot de aanname van het sluiten van een

  12. Machiavelli and the Chief Resident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raviglione, Mario C.

    1990-01-01

    Precepts from Machiavelli's "The Prince" are used in giving advice to chief residents on how to balance their responsibilities in working for the welfare of both the housestaff and the institution. Subject discussions include the difficulties of introducing change, setting good examples, and supervising former colleagues and peers. (GLR)

  13. Hobbes, Liberalism, and Political Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquith, Stephen L.

    The connection between liberal political philosophy and political education is discussed with particular emphasis on the philosophy of Thomas Hobbes. The purpose of the essay is to explain how liberal citizens become committed to a distinctively liberal conception of the common good. Part 1 discusses Hobbes' theory that rationally determining…

  14. Shakespeare and Hobbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Dungey

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Hobbes sought a reconstruction of philosophy, ethics, and politics that would end, once and for all, the bitter disputes that led to the English Civil War. This reconstruction begins with the first principles of matter and motion and extends to a unique account of moral consent and political obligation. However, the author contends that his materialist account of human nature gives rise to a set of perceptions, imaginings, and desires that contribute to the chaos of the state of nature. He argues that the sort of person that emerges from Hobbes’s materialist anthropology is unlikely to be able, or unwilling, to make the necessary agreements about common meaning and language that constitute the ground of the social contract. Following Hobbes’s materialist anthropology, Shakespeare’s Macbeth, and not the rational actor who consents to the social contract, is the more likely result. Performed approximately 25 years before Leviathan appeared, Macbeth provides a literary version of the state of nature, and expresses many of the themes that Hobbes later gave philosophical explanation to. The author suggests that we interpret Macbeth through Hobbes’s materialism. On this reading, the crisis of Macbeth is caused by the material motion of Macbeth’s senses, imagination, and desires. Macbeth provides graphic examples of the type of problems that the author suggests arise from Hobbes’s materialism, and it illuminates the political significance of Macbeth.

  15. Machiavelli's "Mandragola": Comedic Commentary on Renaissance Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiethoff, William E.

    This paper traces Machiavelli's debt to classical rhetoric while outlining the rhetorical tenor of his comedy, "Mandragola." The paper specifically analyzes Machiavelli's attention to the medieval transmission of Ciceronian rhetoric by Boethius, as interpreted from the setting, characterization, and dialogue of "Mandragola."…

  16. Thomas Hobbes: Sobre el miedo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Bührle

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This work intend to draw some light upon the role of fear in Hobbes's political thought. It's known that this passion underlies the social contract, in the sense that it drives man to leave the state of nature in order to find security, and also to get rid of the menace of violent death. Taking into account that fear and death are inseparable in Hobbes's philosophy, a fundamental question arises: to what extent can we say that fear vanishes completely after social contract? In Hobbes, fear seems to be an intrinsical feature of men.

  17. Machiavelli plautino. Qualche scheda teatrale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Figorilli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available After describing the success that Plautus enjoyed in fifteenth - and sixteenth-century Florence, I will concentrate on the relationship between Machiavelli’s plays and Plautus’ works. On the one hand, I will focus on citations and echoes from Plautus in the Mandragola; on the other, I will suggest that in his Clizia Machiavelli reused other Plautus plays, particularly Asinaria and Mercator. Finally, I will focus my attention on the relationship between Clizia and Casina in order to show how Machiavelli’s rewriting has a moral connotation.

  18. De vuelta a Hobbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmar Martínez Márquez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo es mostrar que el Estado constituye la forma más idónea para resolver las amenazas de inseguridad y guerra que acosan las sociedades contemporáneas. Para sustentar este planteamiento, en el artículo se rescatan varios de los elementos centrales de la teoría política de Thomas Hobbes y se precisa cómo estos pueden servir, en primera instancia, de criterios de explicación y diagnóstico de dichas amenazas, y en un segundo momento, de pautas para enfrentarlas. Resalta especialmente el concepto de soberanía y los debates que han surgido recientemente alrededor de este autor. Finalmente, se concluye que el mantenimiento de esta figura -la soberanía- va a ser esencial para garantizar el orden en la época actual. El método de investigación es el análisis documental. A partir de la identificación de categorías políticas relevantes se pasa a dar cuenta del estado de cosas correspondiente.

  19. De vuelta a Hobbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmar Martínez Márquez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo es mostrar que el Estado constituye la forma más idónea para resolver las amenazas de inseguridad y guerra que acosan las sociedades contemporáneas. Para sustentar este planteamiento, en el artículo se rescatan varios de los elementos centrales de la teoría política de Thomas Hobbes y se precisa cómo estos pueden servir, en primera instancia, de criterios de explicación y diagnóstico de dichas amenazas, y en un segundo momento, de pautas para enfrentarlas. Resalta especialmente el concepto de soberanía y los debates que han surgido recientemente alrededor de este autor. Finalmente, se concluye que el mantenimiento de esta figura —la soberanía— va a ser esencial para garantizar el orden en la época actual. El método de investigación es el análisis documental. A partir de la identificación de categorías políticas relevantes se pasa a dar cuenta del estado de cosas correspondiente.

  20. Machiavelli and the liberalism of fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    This article revisits the long-standing question of the relations between ethics and politics in Machiavelli's work, assessing its relevance to the 'liberalism of fear' in particular in the work of Judith Shklar, Bernard Williams and also John Dunn. The article considers ways in which Machiavelli has been a 'negative' resource for liberalism - for instance, as a presumed proponent of tyranny; but also ways in which even for the liberalism of fear he might be considered a 'positive' resource, above all around the issues of political necessity and prudential judgement.

  1. Argumentos para uma dissociação da filosofia política de Thomas Hobbes da tradição realista Arguments for a dissociation of Thomas Hobbes' political philosophy from the realist tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iara Costa Leite

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O propósito deste artigo é desconsagrar o caráter heróico que a obra de Hobbes assumiu para os estudantes de relações internacionais ao ter sido enquadrada - assim como as de Tucídides, Maquiavel, Rousseau, Hegel etc. - no épico realista. Veremos que a subsunção do filósofo à "tradição realista" é raramente questionada, mesmo pelos críticos das concepções veiculadas por essa tradição. Assim, o nome de Hobbes permanece, em grande medida, associado à analogia entre anarquia internacional e estado de natureza. Em primeiro lugar, o artigo resgata o caráter hipotético do modelo de estado de natureza, dando ênfase especial ao reconhecimento de Hobbes à limitação de seu reducionismo motivacional para a descrição da realidade. Em segundo, partindo do pressuposto de que a dicotomia interno-externo era inexistente na época de Hobbes, explora, a partir de sua obra, o argumento de que a paz internacional estaria diretamente relacionada à resolução do problema da ordem nas sociedades domésticas.The purpose of this article is to deconsecrate the heroic status that international relations students have attached to Hobbes's texts - an attachment that results from their inclusion, together with texts by Thucydides, Machiavelli, Rousseau and Hegel, in the realist epic. We will see that the subsuming of the philosopher under the "realist tradition" is rarely questioned, even by the critics of the conceptions endorsed by it. Therefore, the name of Hobbes remains, in a large extent, associated to the analogy between international anarchy and the state of nature. In the first place, we'll bring to light the hypothetical status of the state of nature model, emphasizing the fact that Hobbes himself recognized the limitation of its motivational reductionism to the description of reality. Secondly, having taken as a premise the fact that the dichotomy inside/outside did not exist in Hobbes's time, we'll explore the argument that

  2. Teaching the "Leviathan": Thomas Hobbes on Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejan, Teresa M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers Thomas Hobbes's educational thought both in its historical context and in the context of his political philosophy as a whole. It begins with Hobbes's diagnosis of the English Civil War as the product of the miseducation of the commonwealth and shows that education was a central and consistent concern of his political theory…

  3. Sun Tzu and Machiavelli in Syria: Attacking Alliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    known book The Prince , but also his lesser read work The Art of War (not to be confused with Sun Tzu’s The Art of War). Machiavelli understood the...Tzu located in Yurihama, Japan. Public domain photo. Right: Statue of Italian philosopher and writer Niccolo Machiavelli located in Florence... Machiavelli , juxtaposed to the normative trend the West has followed ever so ineffectually since the conflict began in Syria. Let me be clear upfront; this

  4. Il dono del libero arbitrio nella Terza Orazione inaugurale: analogie e differenze con Jean Bodin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Megale

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available [The “gift of free will” in the Third Inaugural Oratio: Similarities and Differences with Jean Bodin]. This paper intends to emphasize the position of Vico between knowledge and liberty with reference to modern concept of respublica literaria. We are still far from Voltaire’s Traité, but the political influences of the theory of religious tolerance had found full expression already at the end of the XVIth century, expecially by Jean Bodin, whose Colloquium Heptaplomeres (1593 is analyzed by the author and compared with Vico’s Oratio III.

  5. The Martial "Virtue" of Rhetoric in Machiavelli's "Art of War."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiethoff, William E.

    1978-01-01

    Argues that Machiavelli's inherent interest in pragmatic, "virtuous" applications of humanistic arts mandated both rhetorical form and matter in his composition of the "Art of War." Proposes that the work reveals Machiavelli's debt to the classically humane ideal of the warrior-orator. (JMF)

  6. Machiavelli and the liberalism of fear

    OpenAIRE

    Osborne, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    This article revisits the long-standing question of the relations between ethics and politics in Machiavelli’s work, assessing its relevance to the ‘liberalism of fear’ in particular in the work of Judith Shklar, Bernard Williams and also John Dunn. The article considers ways in which Machiavelli has been a ‘negative’ resource for liberalism – for instance, as a presumed proponent of tyranny; but also ways in which even for the liberalism of fear he might be considered a ‘positive’ resource, ...

  7. Religious Conscience and Civic Conscience in Thomas Hobbes's Civic Philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepperell, Keith C.

    1989-01-01

    This article discusses Thomas Hobbes' concept of conscience, the historical context in which the concept was formulated, and Hobbes' conclusion that civil law takes precedence over religious conscience. Hobbes' views are related to the debate between Pratte and Losito over the interaction between religious and civic conscience. (IAH)

  8. Connections between political intelligence and power maintenance in Niccolo Machiavelli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Régio Bento

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Prince, written in 1513 and published in 1531, four years after Niccolo Machiavelli's death (1469-1527, continues to be permanently reproposed, after more than five centuries of its inception, throughout a wide range of translations, not always coherent with the 1513 manuscript. In fact, as noted by Marques (2006, p. 41, Prince's Machiavelli is still presented as a “teacher of evil”. On the contrary to what the common sense affirms, however, the Florentine secretary was not Machiavellian. In this paper, through a direct study of The Prince in the Italian manuscript of 1513 (Machiavelli, 1988, and with the aid of translation from Maria Lucia Cumo (Maquiavel 1996, we shall analyze the connections in The Prince between political intelligence and virtuous maintenance of power, by claiming that The Prince is not an amoral  neither immoral book, but of political morality of the intelligent maintenance of power according to what Machiavelli understands as political virtues.

  9. Sobre o desejo em Thomas Hobbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Rodrigues Montes D'Oca

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é explicar o papel do desejo na filosofia política do filósofo inglês Thomas Hobbes. Para tanto, o presente estudo propõe-se apresentar: i. a razão por que Hobbes reivindica o desejo à política, i.a tratando da teoria da conservação do movimento, de Galileu Galilei, e i.b da felicidade como um sucesso contínuo na obtenção dos objetos de desejo; e ii. o papel do desejo no estado de natureza, já que este é determinante tanto para ii.a a entrada do homem no estado de guerra quanto ii.b para a saída deste estado.

  10. Modern Restlessness, from Hobbes to Augustine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Busch

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Only with difficulty do modern readers grasp the full import of Augustine’s confession, “Restless is our heart, until it rests in you”, or seriously consider that it might be true. An unexpected remedy is to be found in reading Thomas Hobbes, who introduces and defends the view of happiness that is now commonly accepted without argument. According to Hobbes, human beings find their happiness not in a single, supreme good but in many objects, the securing of which requires a lifelong quest for power. But this teaching, influential and revealing though it is, fails to satisfy. Meditating on that dissatisfaction is a first step towards more serious engagement with Augustine.

  11. Logical consistence and operating base in Thomas Hobbes. [Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusbel Martínez Rodríguez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to specify the operative elements included in the Thomas Hobbes philosophy substratum. I defend the idea that the logic in the Hobbes philosophy system depends on this substratum. In this paper I use the idea of «operative and thematic concepts» development by Eugen Fink. These concepts are used to show how all of the Hobbes philosophy system has explicit and implicit concepts. Another aim is to concede the importance of understanding the Hobbes philosophy as holistic.

  12. Hobbes, los juristas y el nuevo constitucionalismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel García Bouzas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El actual debate sobre la relación entre el derecho y la moral demuestra la complejidad del problema de encontrar las propiedades formales del derecho en la dimensión de los procedimientos jurídicos institucionalizados, intentando saber si estos procedimientos regulan discursos jurídicos que sean permeables a argumentaciones morales. Habermas ha propuesto la legitimación del derecho mediante la legalidad proveniente de los procedimientos de producción de las normas jurídicas, en tanto que sean racionales también en el sentido de la racionalidad procedimental moral-práctica. El debate continúa en otros autores.En la historia de las ideas jurídicas la importancia de este debate se revela en otros autores que, como Hobbes, también intentaron sustentar en valores morales un orden jurídico positivo, oscilando en ese esfuerzo entre las fronteras del positivismo jurídico y las del iusnaturalismo. Los argumentos morales de la teoría de Hobbes sobre el estado pasan a veces desapercibidos en el conjunto de la enorme producción de sus comentaristas actuales y pasados, quedando limitados al principio de obligatoriedad moral del cumplimiento de los contratos. Pero una lectura de la obra de Hobbes que tenga en cuenta la relación entre la moral y del derecho puede mostrar mucho más.

  13. Da Livio a Machiavelli. Annibale e Scipione in "Principe", XVII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Jacques Marchand

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the classical tradition (and especially in Livy’s work, Hannibal and Scipio are described as two generals who have confronted each other in a titanic struggle with alternate fortunes for the control of the Mediterranean. Focusing on the superiority of cruelty over pity for the safety of the state, in the seventeenth chapter of Il Principe Machiavelli contrasts the greater efficiency of Hannibal’s cruelty with Scipio’s mildness. This article examines the techniques of shifting, coagulation, and relocation adopted by Machiavelli in his approach to three passages from the Livian text which constitute the source of the chapter.

  14. Response to Bodin and Grote regarding postdoctoral recruitment in clinical neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Aaron; Bilder, Robert M; O'Connor, Margaret; Brandt, Jason; Weintraub, Sandra; Bauer, Russell M

    2016-07-01

    Bodin and Grote convey their opinion that the field of clinical neuropsychology would be best served by a match system for recruitment into postdoctoral training. We critically review their arguments and offer an alternative point of view. Our view considers the current state of the match system in neuropsychology, incorporates comparisons with other disciplines that rely on a match system, and addresses the role of postdoctoral training and the specialization that takes shape at this level. We make recommendations aimed at promoting greater unity among postdoctoral training programs with the goal of focusing leadership efforts on advancing our shared mission of providing the highest quality training in clinical neuropsychology.

  15. Machiavelli Now and Here: An Essay for the First World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Robert M.

    1975-01-01

    Author reinterpreted Machiavelli's theme in the Prince by bringing his philosophy into practice in contemporary society and stressed the point that it is necessary to always operate on the ideal as well as the practical level when dealing with world affairs. (RK)

  16. Teaching Machiavelli, or How I Learned to Love "The Prince"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alan E.

    2010-01-01

    Written by a petty bureaucrat and diplomat for Lorenzo de Medici, a member of one of the ruling families of Europe, Niccolo Machiavelli's "The Prince" is a slim volume concerned primarily with advising Medici on how to acquire, maintain, and sustain power over a state. Its difficult and often archaic vocabulary aside, at first glance it…

  17. Morality and Politics in the Thought of Niccolo Machiavelli | Ojong ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The terms “Machiavellian” or Machiavellism find regular purchase among politician and philosophers concerned with a range of ethical, political, and psychological phenomena, even if Machiavelli did not invent “Machiavellism” and may not even have been a “Machiavellian” in the sense often ascribed to him. Moreover, in ...

  18. The Sovereign as Educator: Thomas Hobbes's National Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Geraint

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on Thomas Hobbes, an English political philosopher who argued that the solution to civil disorders lay in a sovereign authority backed with force. Argues that education should be seen at the center of Hobbes's project of rescuing society from the disorders threatening civilization throughout 17th-century Europe. (CMK)

  19. Americas Machiavelli Problem: Restoring Prudent Leadership in US Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    profound debate about what Machiavelli really meant in his primer for a new, distinctly modern brand of political leader. Two Contemporary Schools on...the gal- lery. Observers have the luxury and, in the United States, the freedom to chastise the executive for inaction in Syria, Afghanistan, Ukraine... Brands , What Good Is Grand Strategy? Power and Purpose in American Statecraft from Harry S. Truman to George W. Bush (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University

  20. Le ragioni della forzatura. L'altro Livio di Machiavelli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinaldo Rinaldi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to reflect upon the vexata quaestio of Machiavelli’s quotations from Livy in Discorsi sopra la prima Deca di Tito Livio. In particular, I shall focus on modifications and cuts of the original text. As I aim to prove, these adaptations are often due either to the political thesis that Machiavelli wants to demonstrate, or to a pedagogical simplification.

  1. La virtù del principe. Hegel lettore di Machiavelli

    OpenAIRE

    Sgarbi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The paper focuses on the reception of Machiavelli’s virtue of the prince in Hegel’s early political thought. The first part of the essay reconstructs the significance of Machiavelli’s conception of the virtue of the prince as absolute power for the foundation of a new kind of political philosophy. The second part contextualizes the reception of Machiavelli’s ideas in the Enlightenment, while the third part examines the centrality of Machiavelli in Hegel’s German Constitution. The last part of...

  2. Machiavelli's advice to the hospital chief executive officer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimos, Thomas J; Marco, Alan P

    2004-01-01

    Hospital chief executive oficers (CEOs) have demanding jobs in which they must, at tims, function as if they are potentates of small principalities. Their ability to elicit loyalty and allegiance, hand out discipline and praise, foster alliances with other organizations, and commit the occasional hostile yet (it is hoped) successful foray onto a competitor's turf are skills that must be mastered for success and longevity. We have taken the thoughts and strategies of the Renaissance political master, Niccolo Machiavelli, and applied them to the modern hospital CEO for whom we feel they still hold elements of wisdom and guidance.

  3. Policy Advice from Seneca and Machiavelli on the Greek Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Lynch

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 2008 economic crisis has dominated global economic policy discussions, no more so than in Greece. In Greece, the imposition of austerity policies has caused immense social and political upheaval. I suggest that policy thinking about the current Greek debt crisis requires a broader engagement with global civic virtue. Specifically, I present a case for revisiting the political thought of Seneca and Machiavelli. Both discuss the virtue of mercy and its role in good governance policy. I argue that policy solutions for the economic crisis facing Greece and Europe need to be informed by their thinking.

  4. Hobbes on natural philosophy as "True Physics" and mixed mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Marcus P

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, I offer an alternative account of the relationship of Hobbesian geometry to natural philosophy by arguing that mixed mathematics provided Hobbes with a model for thinking about it. In mixed mathematics, one may borrow causal principles from one science and use them in another science without there being a deductive relationship between those two sciences. Natural philosophy for Hobbes is mixed because an explanation may combine observations from experience (the 'that') with causal principles from geometry (the 'why'). My argument shows that Hobbesian natural philosophy relies upon suppositions that bodies plausibly behave according to these borrowed causal principles from geometry, acknowledging that bodies in the world may not actually behave this way. First, I consider Hobbes's relation to Aristotelian mixed mathematics and to Isaac Barrow's broadening of mixed mathematics in Mathematical Lectures (1683). I show that for Hobbes maker's knowledge from geometry provides the 'why' in mixed-mathematical explanations. Next, I examine two explanations from De corpore Part IV: (1) the explanation of sense in De corpore 25.1-2; and (2) the explanation of the swelling of parts of the body when they become warm in De corpore 27.3. In both explanations, I show Hobbes borrowing and citing geometrical principles and mixing these principles with appeals to experience. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Bioethics and deliberative democracy: five warnings from Hobbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Griffin

    2006-06-01

    Thomas Hobbes is one of the most ardent and thoroughgoing opponents of participatory democracy among Western political philosophers. Though Hobbes's alternative to participatory democracy-assent by subjects to rule by an absolute sovereign-no longer constitutes a viable political alternative for Westerners, his critique of participatory democracy is a potentially valuable source of insight about its liabilities. This essay elaborates five theses from Hobbes that stand as cogent warnings to those who embrace participatory democracy, especially those (such as most bioethicists) advocating for deliberative democracy based on a rational consensus model. In light of these warnings, the author suggests an alternative, modus vivendi approach to deliberative democracy that would radically alter the current practice of bioethics.

  6. El contrato social en Hobbes: ¿absolutista o liberal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Cortés Rodas

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presentan los elementos centrales del modelo contractualista clásico de legitimación del Estado, expuesto por Thomas Hobbes en el Leviatán. Se cuestiona la interpretación propuesta por Leo Strauss sobre la filosofía política de Hobbes, según la cual, el filósofo inglés sería el fundador del liberalismo. Mediante una interpretación de la teoría de la representación política hobbesiana se intenta destacar su imagen como defensor del absolutismo político. El tipo de liberalismo a partir del cual es posible mostrar que la concepción de Hobbes resulta inaceptable es el liberalismo representado por autores como Benjamin Constant, Madame de Stäel y Alexis de Tocqueville.

  7. El contrato social en Hobbes: ¿absolutista o liberal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Cortés Rodas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presentan los elementos centrales del modelo contractualista clásico de legitimación del Estado, expuesto por Thomas Hobbes en el Leviatán. Se cuestiona la interpretación propuesta por Leo Strauss sobre la filosofía política de Hobbes, según la cual, el filósofo inglés sería el fundador del liberalismo. Mediante una interpretación de la teoría de la representación política hobbesiana se intenta destacar su imagen como defensor del absolutismo político. El tipo de liberalismo a partir del cual es posible mostrar que la concepción de Hobbes resulta inaceptable es el liberalismo representado por autores como Benjamin Constant, Madame de Stäel y Alexis de Tocqueville.

  8. Nom comú i nom propi segons Thomas Hobbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Moran i Ocerinjauregui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679 tracta el llenguatge humà, i més concretament els noms, des d’un punt de vista filosòfic. Per a Hobbes, els noms són designadors de conceptes: els noms propis designen una sola cosa mentre que els noms comuns en designen diverses. Aquestes idees van ser objecte de reflexió filosòfica i van tenir gran influència en altres filòsofs, com John Stuart Mill.

  9. Die Machiavelli-Rezeption und -Interpretation im 19. Jahrhundert, besonders in Deutschland

    OpenAIRE

    Dierse, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    During the 19th century, there are some new interpretations of Machiavelli’s writings, namely a certain rehabilitation of the Principe, in various forms and degrees. The historicism tries to understand Machiavelli within the context of Renaissance culture. Others, like Hegel and Fichte, see that The Prince’s main object was to found a stable state, in order to avoid factions and civil wars. At the same time historians and others praise Machiavelli for having proclaimed the unification of Ital...

  10. O Estado cristão em Thomas Hobbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Artur Emidio Branco

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem como finalidade a investigação do pensamento do filósofo inglês Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679, mais precisamente a relação entre Igreja e Estado, valendo-se de suas obras, em especial Leviatã (1651. Com o título O Estado Eclesiástico em Thomas Hobbes, o artigo busca mostrar como as conclusões de Hobbes acerca do papel da Igreja no Estado são relevantes para o século XXI. A concepção de Evangelho de Cristo como um reino de outro mundo, a natureza privada da fé, o pontificado do soberano como aquele que se posiciona está entre Deus e os homens, a união entre Lei Mosaica e Lei Natural e a união entre Igreja e Estado são os delimitadores do grande tema, que busca levar o leitor contemporâneo ao conhecimento das conclusões de Hobbes e, assim, considerar a aplicação das mesmas a sua geração.

  11. Human Nature and Social Order: A Comparative Critique of Hobbes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Central to most intellectual debates on political organization is the issue of human nature, for one's understanding of it influences one's prescriptions on how best society can be governed. This paper examines the contractarian theories of Hobbes and Locke in their attempts to identify the conditions for social order.

  12. Motor Assembly Plant Saves$85,000 with Compressed Air System Improvements (Bodine Electric's Chicago Facility): Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) BestPractices Technical Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wogsland, J.

    2001-01-01

    This case study is one in a series on industrial firms who are implementing energy efficient technologies and system improvements into their manufacturing processes. This case study documents the activities, savings, and lessons learned on the Bodine Electric motor assembly plant project

  13. THE INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS IN THE THOUGHT OF THOMAS HOBBES AS RELAÇÕES INTERNACIONAIS NO PENSAMENTO DE THOMAS HOBBES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Ribeiro Barnabé

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We shall examine how Hobbes conceives the international relations as a scenario of permanent hostility, his contribution to the realist theory of international relations and the strategies for the attainment of peace or the maximization of benefits. We shall investigate the hobbesian equation between state of nature, international relations and state of war, the characteristics of the state of nature, the properties of foreign war and its causes, and the mechanism of balance of power. We shall also analyze the natural law, which is the law of nations, and the calculation to adhere to these laws. Finally, we shall do a general analysis of Hobbes's contribution to the theory of international relations.Examinaremos como Hobbes concebe as relações internacionais enquanto um cenário de permanente hostilidade, sua contribuição para a teoria realista das relações internacionais e as estratégias para a consecução da paz ou a maximização dos benefícios. Investigaremos a equação hobbesiana entre estado de natureza, relações internacionais e estado de guerra, as características do estado de guerra, as propriedades da guerra externa e suas causas e o mecanismo de balanço de poder. Analisaremos, também, a lei natural, que é a lei das nações, e o cálculo para aderir a essas leis. Por fim, faremos uma análise genérica da contribuição de Hobbes para a teoria das relações internacionais.

  14. Il Discorso o Dialogo di Machiavelli: Per l’“Evento” del Materialismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Brunello

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available L’autenticità del Discorso o dialogo intorno alla nostra lingua è stata più volte messa in discussione. A tutti gli effetti, l’immagine di Machiavelli che affiora dal Discorso o dialogo rientra in una discorsività incompatibile con il cinismo assolutista o con l’utopismo patriottico e populista associato per secoli al nome di Machiavelli. L’emergere del materialismo del Discorso o dialogo, come anche del Principe, è stato il più delle volte rimosso da un’esegesi interessata a reprimerne il messaggio sovversivo. Richiamando Spinoza, Gramsci e Badiou, il presente lavoro si propone di analizzare il materialismo di Machiavelli e la sua portata rivoluzionaria

  15. The environmental education in the Italian Renaissance: the geoethical model of Machiavelli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liserre, Battista; De Pascale, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    The importance of the environmental and geoethical education is also present in the thought of one of the greatest intellectuals of the Italian Renaissance: the philosopher Niccolò Machiavelli (1469-1527). In the "Discorsi" of Machiavelli, the natural character of the place where a city is built is a determining factor in the overall measure of the need on the character of the citizens; but the barren place, if can keep away the people from idleness, and thereby constitute an essential tool of virtuous civic life, prevents the development of the power which can be fostered only by the fertility of the site. It may give rise own laziness which hinders the development of virtue; and then, according to Machiavelli, laws must be to impose the need to produce good behavior through education. Already in the Renaissance, Machiavelli recognized the importance of establishing a harmonious relationship between man and environment and suggested that the institutions should give a virtuous model of environmental education. The physiognomy of the geographical and natural environment conditions in an essential way the exercise of civil life and the development of virtues. If the Rome's model imposes the primacy of fertile places, it happens, however, that, in his general conception of virtue and of historical dialectic, Machiavelli tended toward ultimately to increased functionality of the desolate places, which make difficult the life, and through the exercise of the need, make men more virtuous, keeping them away from the destructive threat of idleness. This aspect emerges from a different perspective, but convergent in "Asino" of Machiavelli (Chapter V). The link between the natural places and civic life that takes place isn't something absolutely default. Men's work, orders underpinning their collective life, laws that place the compulsion of necessity by the behavior of citizens, change the data of nature. Although the structure of a territory unequally, according to

  16. Science and Rhetoric From Bacon to Hobbes; Responses to the Problem of Eloquence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappen, James P.

    Decisive changes in the history of rhetoric occurred with the publication of Francis Bacon's "Advancement of Learning" and "De augmentis scientiarum" and "Leviathan" by Thomas Hobbes. Bacon and Hobbes responded to the problem of eloquence common to scientists in the early seventeenth century, which centered on three…

  17. Two Liberal Trajectories of Civic Education: The Political and Educational Thought of Hobbes and Winstanley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snauwaert, Dale T.; Theobald, Paul

    1994-01-01

    Compares the political and educational alternatives offered by Thomas Hobbes and Gerrard Winstanley. Sees Hobbes's educational approach, based on negative liberty and state sovereignty, in tension between demands of liberty and conformity. Considers Winstanley's educational approach devoted to independent civic judgment, premised upon positive…

  18. Jusnaturalismo,Hobbes e dialética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Nicolau Heck - Sidney A. da Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Hobbes é um dos fundadores da moderna concepção de poder político.A instituição do Estado tem no pensador inglês,uma de suas vertentes racionais.O trabalho examina as raízes jusnaturalistas do teórico político ingles e assume a posição de que o legado hobbesiano não é dialetizável. 

  19. Hobbes and Selfish Morality in the State of Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Martínez

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I explore the controversial claim that morality exists in the Hobbesian state of nature (represented in the rationality and prudence of natural laws, and how this moral is a necessary condition to achieve civil state. In order to accomplish this objective, I examine the work of G. Kavka on this topic, while analizing Hobbes's “reply to the fool”, using game theory. I propose, at the end of this paper, the necessity and justification of going from one state to another, emphasizing on the precariety of morality in the state of nature to guarantee the fulfilment of the natural laws.

  20. Arendt on Hobbes as the true philosopher of the bourgeoisie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Correia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In The Origins of Totalitarianism, when examine the elements and origins of total domination, Hannah Arendt devotes special attention to the political emancipation of the bourgeoisie. For Arendt imperialism is the truth of the bourgeois understanding of politics, according to which politics should not be more than a well-organized police force. The truth of bourgeois politics is the reduction of politics to mere force. Our purpose is to reconstruct this movement from the vantage point of arendtian appropriation of Hobbes, "the true philosopher of the bourgeoisie."

  1. The political philosophy of Hobbes and the absolutist state

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Sharon Cristine Ferreira de; Oliveira, Thiago Vieira Mathias de

    2009-01-01

    Desenvolve-se uma análise trazendo, principalmente, um apanhado histórico e uma descrição sistemática a respeito da vida e obra do contratualista Thomas Hobbes, bem como sua filosofia, suas influências, delineando o porquê das concepções e conceitos trazidos em seus escritos, seus objetivos e como o Absolutismo, na posteridade, desemboca no modelo de Estado Liberal, com a sede por direitos individuais observadas na crescente burguesia. The paper develops an analysis bringing primarily a hi...

  2. Machiavelli's Political Realism: Its Implications for Today's Superintendent-School Board Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Donald J.

    The relevance of Machiavellian theories of political leadership to school administration is examined in this paper, with a focus on the superintendent/school board relationship. As the first modern political theorist, Machiavelli used empirical observation and generalization to understand that perceptions are more real in their consequences than…

  3. Reading Strategies: Issues in the Computerization of Machiavelli's "Il demonio che prese moglie".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Leslie Zarker

    1994-01-01

    The ideal computer-based foreign language reading program must include cognitive background, a learning taxonomy, sound computer design, and knowledge of what is needed for the specific language. Machiavelli's "Il demonia che prese moglie" is chosen for study due to its historical interest. (63 references) (CK)

  4. Thomas Hobbes: la resistencia política al Leviatán || Thomas Hobbes: Political Resistance To Leviathan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Alejandro Fernández Peychaux

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN En el presente artículo se presentan cuatro claves de lectura de la obra de Thomas Hobbes desde las que fundamentar una noción de resistencia. Este aporte busca, en otras palabras, crear las condiciones de posibilidad de un debate filosófico ofuscado por el mito recurrente sobre el supuesto monstruo de Malmesbury. Una vez hecho esto, se propone delinear las bases de un enfoque metodológico que parta de dicha noción de resistencia. De ese modo, se fundamentaría el primer paso hacia una apropiación ?o expropiación? contemporánea de la matriz hobbesiana de la relación obediencia-seguridad   ABSTRACT This article presents four key of readings about Thomas Hobbes's work, from which it supports a particular notion of resistance. In others words, this contribution searches to create the conditions of posibility for a philosophical debate obfuscated by the recurrent myth about the monster of Malmesbury. Once done that, I offer setting the bases of a metodological aproach which stars from this notion of resistance. Thus, I would back the first step towards a contemporary appropriation ?or expropriation? of the obedience-security relationship within the Hobbesian matrix.

  5. Soberania e representação: Hobbes, parlamentaristas e levellers Sovereignty and representation: Hobbes, parliamentarians and levellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Ostrensky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo pretende mostrar que Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679 empregou o conceito de autorização política com o propósito de neutralizar discursos de dois grupos políticos adversários, os quais consideravam a representação um meio eficaz de responsabilizar atores políticos perante seus representados. Entre esses adversários, ocupam lugar de destaque os levellers, por terem proposto, em finais da década de 1640, uma saída constitucional inédita para o problema da ilegitimidade do Parlamento inglês: ampliação do sufrágio seguida da celebração do Acordo do Povo.The article intends to show that Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679 adopted the concept of political authorization as means to fight against the doctrine of the accountability of political actors ahead of the persons they represented. Among these opponents, the levellers have a prominent place, by proposing, in the late 1640s, an innovative solution for the constitutional problem of the illegitimacy of the English Parliament: extension of the franchise followed by a celebration of an Agreement of the People.

  6. Thomas Hobbes: la resistencia política al Leviatán || Thomas Hobbes: Political Resistance To Leviathan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Alejandro Fernández Peychaux

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN En el presente artículo se presentan cuatro claves de lectura de la obra de Thomas Hobbes desde las que fundamentar una noción de resistencia. Este aporte busca, en otras palabras, crear las condiciones de posibilidad de un debate filosófico ofuscado por el mito recurrente sobre el supuesto monstruo de Malmesbury. Una vez hecho esto, se propone delinear las bases de un enfoque metodológico que parta de dicha noción de resistencia. De ese modo, se fundamentaría el primer paso hacia una apropiación ?o expropiación? contemporánea de la matriz hobbesiana de la relación obediencia-seguridad   ABSTRACT This article presents four key of readings about Thomas Hobbes's work, from which it supports a particular notion of resistance. In others words, this contribution searches to create the conditions of posibility for a philosophical debate obfuscated by the recurrent myth about the monster of Malmesbury. Once done that, I offer setting the bases of a metodological aproach which stars from this notion of resistance. Thus, I would back the first step towards a contemporary appropriation ?or expropriation? of the obedience-security relationship within the Hobbesian matrix.  

  7. Green leviathan? Thomas hobbes, joel bakan and Arnold schwarzenegger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Robert G

    2007-02-01

    Thomas Hobbes postulates that men are driven by "a perpetual and restless desire of power after power, that ceaseth only in death." The miserable consequences of this drive for power and the competing "desire of ease and sensual delight" and "fear of death and wounds" lead them to establish and obey. Substituting "profit" for "power" yields a description of the modern corporation, but without the desires or fears of natural persons. Such "unnatural persons" lack the Hobbesian ground of obligation, yet have appropriated the privileges and protections of natural persons. They challenge or undermine the sovereign wherever it limits their profits. Governor Schwarzenegger's re-election in California, however, on a strong anti-CO(2) program, suggests a willingness by threatened natural persons to re-empower Leviathan.

  8. Materialismo percettivo. Da Democrito a Lenin, da Hobbes a Kim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Gardini

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper tries to outline something like a short “critique of pure materialism” in the domain of perception, a sketch showing – through a series of examples, picked out in an apparently heterogeneous fashion from the Western philosophical tradition – how this epistemological model each time, and in everyone of its forms, fails in giving account of the basic features of perceiving.  After giving a survey of authors like Democritus, Hobbes, De Sade, Lenin, the final appendix, devoted to the concept of “supervenience” and its treatment in Davidson and Kim, aims at summarizing the whole problem through the categories of the contemporary philosophy of mind. The conclusion is that a pure materialistic approach is incapable to give reason to some of the fundamental characteristics of perception, that make it one of the basic moods of “being-in-the-world”.

  9. Por que ler Hobbes como um teórico de segurança internacional? Why read Hobbes as a theorist of international security?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. J Walker

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Hobbes tornou-se uma figura canônica para teorias de segurança internacional, ainda que seus escritos digam relativamente pouco acerca do que chamaríamos hoje de um sistema internacional. Este artigo sugere que Hobbes permanece importante para a análise de segurança internacional, assim como para a teoria política de modo mais geral, não por desenvolver qualquer teoria coerente de Relações Internacionais, mas sim porque sua consideração sobre a soberania de Estados particulares exige uma análise sobre as condições de possibilidade externas de tais Estados. Uma política após Hobbes precisa tratar dos efeitos constitutivos de sua filosofia da história particular. Assim, este artigo propõe uma leitura política de Hobbes, a qual enfatiza sua importância para o pensamento da política moderna e de suas condições de possibilidade; de suas origens e limites, que são também nossas origens e limites enquanto sujeitos modernos.Thomas Hobbes has become a canonical figure for theories of international security even though his writings say relatively little about what we would now call an international system. This paper suggests that Hobbes remains important for the analysis of international security, as well as for political theory more generally, not because he advances any coherent theory of international relations but because his account of the sovereignty of particular states requires an account of the external conditions of possibility of such states. Politics after Hobbes needs to get to grips with the constitutive effects of his particular philosophy of history. Thus, this paper proposes a political reading of Hobbes that emphasizes his importance for thought about modern politics and its conditions of possibility; about its origins and limits that are also our origins and limits as modern subjects.

  10. Between Hobbes and Spinoza. Research on the Philosophical Matrix of Ferdinand Tönnies’ Sociological Categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furio Ferraresi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay reconstructs the main lines of Ferdinand Tönnies’ (1855-1936 critical approach to the thought of Hobbes and Spinoza. Specifically it shows the role played by the two philosophers in developing the categories of community (Spinoza and society (Hobbes. From the stand point of political thought, the essay reveals how Tönnies’ on going interpretation of Hobbes focuses more and more on the constitutive moment of the modern form of State. In this area it draws on Spinoza’s reflections on democracy as an absolutum omnino imperium. Tönnies is thus able to distinguish conceptually between the Hobbesian State, as a “society” that absorbs all natural law, and its natural law origin (the «original assembly», where we find a “common” element that can never be entirely neutralized by the State.

  11. Conflict and Liberty in the Political Theory of Niccolò Machiavelli and John Stuart Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pollitzer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In conjunction with his concern for preserving liberties in Republics, Machiavelli is known as one of the first modern political thinkers to point out the benefits derived from social unrest and internal conflicts in any society that seeks the vivere libero. Three centuries later and in a context of very different concerns, Mill presented systematic antagonism as the main device by which stability and progress can be reconciled and freedom can be ensured within democratic societies. This article examines the way in which both thinkers theorized the nature of conflict, its limits as well as its effects, and finally, the areas in which they can or should be channeled.

  12. Leviathan and the air-pump Hobbes, Boyle, and the experimental life

    CERN Document Server

    Shapin, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Leviathan and the Air-Pump examines the conflicts over the value and propriety of experimental methods between two major seventeenth-century thinkers: Thomas Hobbes, author of the political treatise Leviathan and vehement critic of systematic experimentation in natural philosophy, and Robert Boyle, mechanical philosopher and owner of the newly invented air-pump. The issues at stake in their disputes ranged from the physical integrity of the air-pump to the intellectual integrity of the knowledge it might yield. Both Boyle and Hobbes were looking for ways of establishing knowledge tha

  13. Hobbes Y Kant: De La Guerra Entre Los Individuos A La Guerra Entre Los Estados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelino Braz

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The article takes the Kantian criticism to the political thought of Hobbes. It explains in the first place the logic of the desire of power in Hobbes and how this conducts to a state of war, or state of nature, that only can be finish under the threat of a sovereign, that receives from all the members of a community the right to defend them from others. Subsequently it explains the critics done by Kant to the hobbesian formulation of the state of nature, where it is assumed that just the establishment of the civil state, is sufficient to end to the state of war.

  14. Don Quixote, Machiavelli, and Robin Hood: public health practice, past and present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullan, F

    2000-05-01

    Since the mid-19th century, when the first formal health departments were established in the United States, commissioners, directors, and secretaries of public health have functioned as senior members of the staffs of public executives, mayors, governors, and presidents. They have provided important political, managerial, and scientific leadership to agencies of government that have played increasingly important roles in national life, from the sanitary revolution of the 19th century to the prevention of HIV/AIDS and the control of tobacco use today. Although public health officials come from a variety of backgrounds and oversee agencies of varied size and composition, there are philosophical themes that describe and define the commonality of their work. These themes are captured metaphorically by 3 celebrated figures: Don Quixote, Machiavelli, and Robin Hood. By turns, the public health official functions as a determined idealist (Don Quixote), a cunning political strategist (Machiavelli), and an agent who redistributes resources from the wealthier sectors of society to the less well off (Robin Hood.) All 3 personae are important, but, it is argued, Robin Hood is the most endangered.

  15. The fool and the franchiser: formal justice in the political theories of Hobbes and Rawls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Niklas Rolf

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Hobbes and John Rawls are usually portrayed in antagonistic terms. While Hobbes, one of the first scholars to translate Thucydides, is often held to be an archetypal realist, Rawls, a self-proclaimed follower of Kant, is frequently said to argue from an explicit normative position. In this paper, I try to demonstrate that the two philosophers have more in common than is generally thought. Drawing on Hobbes's answer to the fool and Rawls's analogy of the franchiser, I suggest that there is a powerful link between the two philosophers that can tell us something valuable about their theories of formal justice. Against Brian Barry's characterization of Hobbes as an advocate of justice as mutual advantage and Rawls as a proponent of both justice as mutual advantage and justice as impartiality, I argue that the two philosophers adhere to one and the same tradition of justice, justice as reciprocity, which bases obligations of reciprocity not only on explicit express, but also on tacit acceptance of benefits.

  16. L’icona del terrore e dell’ambiguità : Il legame mancante tra Hobbes ed il suo Leviatano

    OpenAIRE

    Tralau, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Hobbes named his work Leviathan for a Biblical monster, yet he mentioned it only three times in the book itself. Curiously, in those three passages Hobbes speaks of Leviathan in wildly divergent ways: as a machine, man, sovereign, state, and god. In this article, the author argues that we can make sense of this radical ambiguity from a perspective found in the late Antique work Peri hermeneias. Specifically, ambiguity is taken to be conducive to fear, and Hobbes thus employs it as an instrume...

  17. El contrato social en Hobbes: ¿absolutista o liberal? Hobbes’ Social Contract: Absolutist or Liberal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Cortés Rodas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presentan los elementos centrales del modelo contractualista clásico de legitimación del Estado, expuesto por Thomas Hobbes en el Leviatán. Se cuestiona la interpretación propuesta por Leo Strauss sobre la filosofía política de Hobbes, según la cual, el filósofo inglés sería el fundador del liberalismo. Mediante una interpretación de la teoría de la representación política hobbesiana se intenta destacar su imagen como defensor del absolutismo político. El tipo de liberalismo a partir del cual es posible mostrar que la concepción de Hobbes resulta inaceptable es el liberalismo representado por autores como Benjamin Constant, Madame de Stäel y Alexis de Tocqueville.This article presents the central elements of the classic contractualist model of State legitimacy as displayed by Thomas Hobbes in Leviathan. It aims to question the proposal made by Leo Strauss on Hobbes’ political philosophy according to which Hobbes is the founder of liberalism. Through an interpretation of the Hobbesian theory of political representation, it intends to detach his image as a defender of political absolutism. The type of liberalism from which it is possible to show that Hobbes’ conception is unacceptable, is liberalism represented by authors such as Benjamin Constant, Madame de Stäel and Alexis de Tocqueville.

  18. MACHIAVELLI DÜŞÜNCESİNDE CUMHURİYETÇİ ÖZGÜRLÜK VE KURUCU LİDER İMGESİ

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZTÜRK, Armağan

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the thoughts of Machiavelli on ethics and politics will be addressed in detail and the republican freedom and founder leader themes will be opened to discussion with regards to the mentioned thought. The main problematic on the base of the discussion is characterized by the issues that what Machiavelli expects from the prince who is the founder of the state; and in this respect whether there is a tension between the founder leader and republican sensibility. Of course, such a...

  19. NICCOLO MACHIAVELLI, THE BARON DE MONTESQUIEU AND THE DESTABILIZING EFFECTS OF INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Barclay

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay demonstrates that, although modern liberals incessantly promote the EU as a living exemplar for the virtues of contemporary liberalism and basic, unrestrictive, migration policies, the experiences of innumerable contemporary EU states, such as France, contradict these spurious claims, since, instead of becoming enriched or improved, countless EU states have deteriorated and become fraught with social conflict, insecurity, and instability, as a result of their minimally restrictive, liberal, migration policies and consequent penetration with foreign, inherently contradictory ideology. Furthermore, this essay demonstrates that, despite the ignorant exclamations of modern liberals, the inviolable patriarch of liberalism, the Baron de Montesquieu, in addition to the pre-eminent, indispensable, paterfamilias of realism, Niccolo Machiavelli, explicitly confirm that, if any state fails to adequately restrict the migration of people and ideas across its borders, then that state will inevitably become penetrated by a foreign, inherently contradictory, ideology, and, consequently, eviscerated by an unrelenting insecurity.

  20. Teoria da motivação humana na filosofia natural de Hobbe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Leivas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Compreender de forma clara e sucinta como a teoria da sensação de Hobbes articula e engendra sua teoria da motivação, essa constituída pelas afecções (paixões, deliberação, vontade e ação, é o que pretendemos com o presente estudo.

  1. The biggest enterprise a Christian prince ever had in his hands: to conquer and conserve territories in the Indian Ocean in the times of Machiavelli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Barreto Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Can we establish connections between the theoretical thinking of Machiavelli about the conquest and conservation of territories and the actions of Afonso de Albuquerque in the territories of the Indian Ocean (described in an intense correspondence between him and the king D. Manuel I of Portugal? In this essay, I try to answer this question by adopting a transnational perspective of the political and intellectual dynamics of the early-modern period. This approach enables me to identify the common cultural background among the political elites from Southern Europe in the 16th century, and helps to explain the existence of interesting continuities between Albuquerque and Machiavelli. Simultaneously, their different biographies and contexts of action - Machiavelli's were mainly Italian, while Albuquerque's were Portuguese, African and Asiatic - contribute to explain some of the differences in the political solutions proposed by them in their writings.

  2. L’analyse des passions dans la dissolution du corps politique : Spinoza et Hobbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Saada-Gendron

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Les théories contractualistes de l’âge classique se fondent sur la conception d’un état de nature qui devient, à cause de ses contradictions internes, un état de guerre auquel il faut remédier par un artifice rationnel, le pacte. Alors même que ces contradictions sont issues des passions humaines, celles-ci semblent impensables dans le cadre purement juridique de ces théories, où ne sont analysés ni les mécanismes passionnels d’adhésion au politique, ni la menace de dissolution de l’État. Nous nous attachons à comparer le rôle que Hobbes et Spinoza font jouer aux passions dans l’élaboration de leurs doctrines politiques : tandis que Hobbes témoigne d’un souci constant des passions, tout en les mettant à l’écart lorsqu’il s’agit de penser la construction et le fonctionnement de l’édifice politique, Spinoza permet de penser deux groupes de passions – celles qui résistent nécessairement au corps politique et celles qui lui font obstacle ponctuellement. Ces dernières constituent tout à la fois des facteurs de décomposition et de recomposition du corps collectif. Cette approche du politique à partir des causes de sa dissolution permet d’apporter un éclairage à la signification du droit naturel moderne tel qu’il se construit chez Hobbes et chez Spinoza.The contractualist theories of the Classical Age are grounded on the conception of a state of nature which becomes, because of its internal contradictions, a state of war to which the only remedy is a rational artifice : the pact. Although these contradictions arise from human passions, passions seem to be unthinkable in the strictly juridical frame of these theories, where neither the passional mechanisms of political adhesion, nor the menace of the dissolution of the State, are analysed. We will strive to compare the role that Hobbes and Spinoza attribute to passions in their respective political doctrines. Whereas Hobbes shows a constant

  3. Hobbes, la coopération et la théorie des jeux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Parmentier

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available L'objectif de cet article est d'établir dans quelle mesure la théorie des jeux permet de formaliser et d'éclairer trois problématiques-clés de la philosophie politique de Hobbes : la guerre de tous contre tous dans l'état de nature ; le pacte instaurant un souverain absolu ; le mode d'action de ce dernier pour faire respecter les contrats au sein de l'état civil. L'analyse révèle qu'à certains égards le « problème de confiance » formulé par Amartya Sen apparaît plus pertinent que le célèbre « dilemme du prisonnier » évoqué par de nombreux commentateurs. Elle révèle également les ambiguïtés d'une œuvre susceptible de plusieurs modélisations et de plusieurs jugements possibles quant à la place de son auteur dans l'histoire du libéralisme.This article aims to establish whether the theory of games can formalise and explain three basic issues raised by Hobbes: the war of all against all in the state of nature; the social contract that establish absolute sovereignty; legitimate means at the sovereign’s disposal to impose people’s consent to abide by the rules of the social contract. It will be argued that the « assurance problem » formulated by Amartya Sen appears more relevant than the well-known « prisoner's dilemma » in some respects. Our analysis also reveals some ambiguities in Hobbes' political philosophy that may lead to diverse interpretations and judgments about his role in the history of liberalism.

  4. GUERRA E PAZ NA TEORIA POLÍTICA DE THOMAS HOBBES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Pavan Baptista

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem o objetivo de analisar em que medida a teoria política moderna, tal como apresentada por Thomas Hobbes, expondo um novo paradigma na análise de questões como a origem do Estado e do poder político, assim como, definindo, por meio de metodologia científica, conceitos tais como guerra, paz, soberania, justiça, igualdade e liberdade, podem estabelecer as raízes de questões das relações internacionais, apesar de não ser o principal objetivo do autor.

  5. Religión y poder en Hobbes y Marsilio de Padua: similitudes y diferencias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Bayona Aznar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Marsilio de Padua desarrolló una teoría política muy diferente del pensamiento medieval tradicional e hizo un esfuerzo sin precedentes por dar fundamento racional al poder. Muchas ideas de la Reforma Anglicana están tomadas del Defensor pacis de Marsilio, una obra que a menudo ha sido interpretada como una original anticipación de la teoría moderna del Estado. El artículo presenta una investigación sobre las estrechas semejanzas entre Marsilio y Hobbes acerca del papel de la religión y del poder pontificio. Los dos autores se vieron marcados por la guerra civil, cuya causa atribuían al poder temporal del Papa y del clero. De ahí que defendieran suprimir todo poder de la Iglesia Católica en este mundo, a fin de evitar la coexistencia de gobiernos y jurisdicciones compitiendo entre sí, como una condición para el mantenimiento de la paz. Pero, aunque el número de argumentos parecidos en las teorías de Marsilio y de Hobbes indica gran continuidad entre sus discursos políticos, este ensayo analiza también las notables diferencias que hay entre sus respectivos pensamientos, construidos en épocas diferentes y con elementos filosóficos muy diversos.

  6. «Tagliare a pezzi». Cesare Borgia tra rimandi biblici e fonte senofontea in Machiavelli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scichilone Giorgio E.M.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Only in three parts of Machiavelli’s writings occurs a stark expression: «tagliare a pezzi». Two of them are in The Prince, the third one in Discorsi. Two of them concern ancient examples (Hiero and Clearchus, the other one a modern experience, the famous and violent episode in which Cesare Borgia executes his lieutenant Rimirro, a capital punishment that Machiavelli watched in Cesena. The essay tries to show how all of Machiavelli’s examples deal in a subtle way with a topical Machiavelli’s view – civil principality. From this discussion, a survey (or journey between Machiavelli’s text and historical context begins, where some other striking questions are approached, such as the absence of Cesare Borgia in Discorsi (so sensational as neglected, the relationship between Machiavelli and Michelangelo linked by a ‘republican’ David, or the figure of pope Leo X, that would be, according to this essay, that «certain prince of present times, whom it is best not to name», and not, according to the common opinion, Ferdinand the Catholic.

  7. Razão, história e justificação da lei civil segundo Thomas Hobbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladimir Barreto Lisboa

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O autor procura analisar a relação existenteentre lei natural e lei civil em Thomas Hobbes.Para isso analisa sua crítica à história e ao commonlaw enquanto incapazes de fundar a racionalidadedo poder civil. Mostra-se igualmente de que modoo poder soberano encontra seu fundamento nas leismorais. Por fim, indica-se como a igualdade de direitos,tal como pensada na modernidade, sobretudoem Hobbes, parece inviabilizar a idéia de direitoscujos titulares seriam grupos e não indivíduos.Abstract: The author analyzes the relationbetween natural law and civil law in ThomasHobbes, pointing out Hobbes’ argument thatneither history or common law are able to foundcivil’s power rationality. The article shows, aswell, how sovereign power is founded by themoral law and how the equality of rights inHobbes seems to undermine the idea that ispossible for groups to be subject of rights insteadindividuals.

  8. Continuity and Discontinuity, Change and Duration: Hobbes' Riddle of the Theseus and the Diversity of Historical Logics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Mark E.

    1996-01-01

    Reiterates the need for an understanding of the concepts of continuity and change, not simply in the representation of historical events, but in the writing and study of history. Uses Thomas Hobbes's riddle of Theseus to illustrate the need for multiple readings and critical analysis in history instruction. (MJP)

  9. Comment Hobbes tente de rendre son matérialisme acceptable dans les appendices du Léviathan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Staquet

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Le Léviathan de Hobbes [1651] a subi de nombreuses attaques, au point qu’il est jugé responsable de la grande peste de 1665 et de l’incendie de Londres l’année suivante et que le parlement ouvre une procédure contre l’ouvrage. Aussi, lorsqu’en 1666, Thomas Hobbes veut publier la traduction latine de ce livre, il y adjoint trois appendices. La version latine de l’œuvre est généralement jugée plus acceptable que le texte originaire anglais. En étudiant la manière dont Hobbes traite de son matérialisme dans ces appendices, je tente de montrer que les addenda latins ne constituent en aucune manière un retour en arrière du texte, mais que le philosophe enrobe simplement davantage des propos que, par ailleurs, il rend plus radicaux.Hobbes’s Leviathan [1651] has been critiqued so much that it was held responsible for the Great Plague of 1665 and the Fire of London during the following year, resulting in the Parliament instituting proceedings against the book. Therefore, when in 1666 Thomas Hobbes wanted to publish a Latin translation of this book, he added three appendices. Generally, the Latin version of the work is considered more acceptable than the English original text. By studying how Hobbes deals with his materialism in these appendices, I try to show that the Latin additions are in no way a reversal of the text, but that the philosopher simply veiled more propositions, while at the same time making them more radical.

  10. Sacralidade e crueldade no direito natural segundo Hobbes e Agamben = Sacredness and cruelty in natural right according to Hobbes and Agamben

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa, Gilcilene Dias da

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente texto visa discutir o sentido da sacralidade e da crueldade no direito natural e na cena política a partir de Hobbes e Agamben. Relaciona o conceito hobbesiano de estado de natureza às figuras do direito romano arcaico, homo lupus (homem lobo e homo sacer (homem sagrado em seu duplo processo de inclusão/exclusão da vida nua (zoé na vida política (bíos. Adentra nos limites da natureza e da condição humana, a fim de perceber as flutuações de sentido implicadas na situação de abandono que acerca um malfeitor ou bando junto à comunidade, com sua exposição à morte ou desaparecimento social sem as formas sancionadas pela lei. Reitera a permanente fronteira entre animal e humano, limite paradoxal e intransponível, situado entre polidez e nudez, crueldade e sacralidade, bem e mal

  11. Willie Hobbs Moore (1934-1994): The First Female African American Physicist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickens, Ronald

    2011-03-01

    We discuss the life and career of Willie Hobbs Moore, the first African American woman to receive a doctorate degree in physics. This achievement occurred in June 1972 at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI. Her dissertation, directed by the renowned spectroscopist Samuel Krimm, was on the subject of ``A Vibrational Analysis of Secondary Chlorides," and focused on a theoretical analysis of the secondary chlorides for polyvinal-chlorine polymers. From 1972--1977, she, Krimm, and collaborators published more than thirty papers on this and related research issues. In addition to an overview of her family background, her careers as a research physicist and scientist working in various industrial laboratories, we discuss the obstacles and successes she encountered at various stages of her life.

  12. Hobbes y la teoría del Estado moderno. La lectura de Bobbio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitale, Ermanno

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This article gives an account of Thomas Hobbes’s two main legacies to the modern political thought, in the reading that Noberto Bobbio has given in many of his works. The first one is a methodological legacy, which consists in the priority of the demonstratio over any kind of interpretatio. The second is individualism, whose different dimensions are decisive to justify, to compare, and to judge the wide range of political formulae that the Leviathan, as nature of the modern State, can hold. The article ends with a third level of comparison of the opposite fortune of Hobbes’s and Bobbio’s works in their times and ours.

    Este trabajo está dedicado al análisis de dos legados fundamentales de Thomas Hobbes al pensamiento político moderno, en la lectura que de ello ha ofrecido Norberto Bobbio. El primero es un legado de carácter metodológico, que consiste en dar prioridad a la demostratio por encima de cualquier forma de interpretatio. El segundo es el individualismo, cuyas diferentes declinaciones son decisivas para fundar, medir y valorar las diversas fórmulas políticas que el Leviatán, en cuanto esencia del Estado moderno, puede albergar. El trabajo se cierra con un tercer nivel de comparación sobre la fortuna de Hobbes y de Bobbio entre sus contemporáneos y en nuestros días.

  13. The Hobbs Oil and Water Experimental Facility of the Waste-Management Education and Research Consortium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, F.D.; Bretz, R.E.; Bowman, R.S.; Kieft, T.L.; Cadena, F.

    1992-01-01

    The Hobbs Oil and Water Experimental (HOWE) Facility came on-line as a research component of the Waste-Management Education and Research Consortium (WERC) when funding for the Consortium became official in late February 1990. As a support facility for WERC, which was established to expand the ability of this nation to manage hazardous, radioactive, and solid wastes through a multidisciplinary approach, HOWE can tap into the expertise that resides at three major New Mexico universities, on Native American community college, and two national laboratories. The intention of the HOWE is to provide education, as well as research and development programs, that reflect concerns of the petroleum industry in the United States. Personnel work to solve environmental problems and assess the impact to the industry of regulatory actions pertaining to those problems. Leadership for the program is provided from the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology at Socorro, NM, by Technical Leaders F.D. Martin, Director of the Petroleum Recovery Research Center, and Dr. R.E. Bretz of the petroleum engineering faculty. The HOWE site is administered by Mike DeMarco, Director of the Petroleum Technology Program at the New Mexico Junior College in Hobbs, NM. Currently, the HOWE laboratory is being provided with state-of-the-art equipment to support research projects or field demonstration activities. Programs include research pertaining to groundwater pollution transport processes, slurry-phase bioremediation of oilfield production pit sludges, and treatment of produced brines or contaminated waters. This paper introduces the HOWE and discusses the research programs relevant to the petroleum industry that are presently underway or planned. Future collaborative efforts with industry that are presently underway or planned. Future collaborative efforts with industry groups are being encouraged

  14. Libertad negativa como estrategia deconstructora de deseos y temores en el materialismo antropológico de Hobbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Higuero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Hobbes explica en Leviathan que el estado de naturaleza, privado de gobierno, de instituciones políticas o sociales, de leyes y hasta de contratos legalmente establecidos, otorga libertad absoluta a los individuos, al tiempo que los condena a una guerra perpetua entre ellos, que se ven obligados a vivir siempre con gran inseguridad y miedo a una muerte violenta. Dicho pensador enumera diversas razones por las que los seres humanos llegan a sentir enemistad entre sí en el estado de naturaleza, entre las que incluye los conflictos que proceden del apetito incontrolable por poseer los bienes que no pueden ser divididos o disfrutados de común acuerdo. Mediante el uso de la fuerza, se decide que tales bienes sean poseídos por los más fuertes. Ahora bien, la igualdad existente entre los hombres para matarse mutuamente provoca un sentimiento de miedo que llega a sustituir la inclinación dirigida a prevalecer, de un modo u otro. En tales circunstancias, Hobbes parece pronunciarse a favor de una libertad negativa que, de hecho, deconstruiría la dicotomía binaria formada por la pugna existente entre deseos y temores. In Leviathan, Thomas Hobbes implies that the state of nature, devoid of government, political or social institutions, laws, or legally enforceable agreements, allows absolute freedom to individuals at the same time that condemns them to perpetual war with each other, so that they were compelled to live all the time with insecurity and fear of a violent death. Hobbes enumerates a variety of reasons of why men are at enmity with each other in the state of nature, they include the conflicts that are the result from the appetite for the things that cannot be divided or enjoyed in common. By the use of force, it is decided that those goods go to the strongest one. Now then, the equality of men with respect to their ability to kill each other creates fear among them. In order to resolve the binary dichotomy expressed in the

  15. Maquiavel e a construção da política Machiavelli and the construction of politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Kritsch

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Lida a partir da missão prática que Maquiavel reserva ao Príncipe, de libertar e unificar a Itália, sua obra revela sua coerência, também no que se refere aos seus fundamentos teóricos. A concepção subjacente á construção maquiaveliana da política é que a ordem eqüivale à violência administrada.Read from the standpoint of the practical mission reserved to the Prince, of freeing and unifying Italy, Machiavelli's work reveals its coherence, also in what regards its theoretical foundations. The conception underlying the machiavellian construction of politics is that order is equal do administered violence.

  16. O historiador e o teórico: a historiografia de Hobbes na teoria das relações internacionais The historian and the theoretician: Hobbes' historiography in the theory of international relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Nour

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Uma dificuldade crucial no estudo das relações internacionais é unir investigação teórica com investigação histórica. O objetivo deste artigo é analisar como Hobbes enfrentou este problema, bem como em que medida a solução que apresentou influenciou a teoria das relações internacionais e permite ainda hoje resolver dificuldades desta disciplina. A primeira parte examina como Hobbes justifica seu método de pensar histórica e teoricamente ao mesmo tempo. A segunda parte mostra como Hobbes é recuperado no pós-Segunda Guerra tanto pela revisão do programa idealista como pelo emergente realismo, em ambos os casos a fim de criticar o idealismo do entreguerras. A terceira parte, tendo em vista o debate contemporâneo em relações internacionais, mostra como o neo-realismo, concentrando-se em tecnologias de poder, perde o interesse pela investigação histórica presente no realismo clássico; e o normativismo que se fortalece a partir dos anos 90, formulando uma justificada crítica à ausência de reflexão ética no neorealismo, recai muitas vezes em variantes do idealismo utópico. Em ambos há um déficit de investigação histórica, o que não permite analisar a contingência das relações sociais. Se o caráter predominantemente antropológico da historiografia de Hobbes, bem como o caráter predominantemente institucionalista de sua teoria do Estado e do Direito não podem mais ser aceitos, é seu modo de pensar ao mesmo tempo teórica e historicamente o legado e o desafio que nos deixa.A crucial issue in international relations is to associate theoretical with historical inquiry. This paper aims to analyse how Hobbes struggled with this problem, in which measure his answers have influenced the theory of international relations and to what extent they permit the solution of contemporary problems in this discipline. The first part analyses how Hobbes justifies his method of thinking both historically and theoretically. The

  17. «I speak generally of Law». Law, Laws and Courts in the Dialogue of Thomas Hobbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Piccinini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing the Dialogue between a Philosopher and a Student of the Common Laws of England by Thomas Hobbes, the essay traces the historical tradition and the reasons for its secular underestimation. The Hobbesian text is placed within the history of English law and the controversies that accompanied and followed the revolution of 1640. It is then compared with the political works of Hobbes, showing how the silence of the law is gradually replacing the state of nature as image of the death of the Commonwealth. The Dialogue proves to be a firm position in favor of an universal and equal capacity to understand what the law is. This latter is the product of the will of a sovereign, who however is the institutionalization of the authorization of the individuals who constitute it.

  18. O lugar da filosofia civil e a classificação das ciências segundo Hobbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delmo Mattos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A filosofia civil ocupa um lugar de destaque no sistema filosófico de Hobbes. Compreende a sua reflexáo das disposições e costumes dos homens, isto é, a ética, os deveres civis e a política. No entanto, a filosofia civil constitui apenas uma parte da elaboraçáo sistemática da filosofia hobbesiana, que contêm, além da sua reflexáo política, importantes apontamentos sobre a física e a geometria. Neste artigo, buscaremos examinar o modo como Hobbes posiciona as diferentes partes que compõem o seu sistema filosófico, a fim de tornarmos explícito o lugar que a filosofia civil ocupa no seu empreendimento filosófico.

  19. Towards a phenomenology of civil war: Hobbes meets Benjamin in Beirut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cauter, Lieven

    2011-01-01

    Based on interviews with Beirut intellectuals and architects, this essay endeavours to trace the contours for a phenomenology or anthropology of civil war. Thomas Hobbes serves as a guide, with his idea of civil war representing a relapse into the ‘state of nature’; as absence of sovereignty resulting in a ‘war of everybody against everybody’. The effects of ever-latent civil war in Beirut are far-reaching: the fragmentation of urban space and the disappearance of public space, the loss of memory and the fragmentation of time, even the reification of language. In the collective imagination and in the arts, Beirut appears as a ghost town, a spectral city with a spectral civility. What we discover is a city, its inhabitants, its social behaviour, but also its art and literature, in the grip of post-traumatic stress syndrome. From all this, we take home two things: first, any city can (at least in principle) relapse into a similar state of nature — Beirut can become a paradigm of latent civil war; and second, the traumatic modernity of Beirut mirrors the traumatic artistic expressions of modernism — the shock of modernity is also always a modernity of shock.

  20. Liberdade, lei natural e direito natural em Hobbes: limiar do direito e da política na modernidade Freedom, natural law and natural right in Hobbes: threshold of law and politics in modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Maruyama

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Liberdade e poder são dois temas que se correlacionam ao longo da história da filosofia política moderna. Nos textos de Hobbes, a ideia da liberdade como ausência de impedimentos às ações ajuda-nos a pensar o dever de obediência ao poder soberano e as relações entre política e direito. Uma situação de vácuo jurídico, em que tudo é permitido, faz-se, contudo, impossível, de modo que a solução de Hobbes consiste em sustentar a ideia do direito natural como direito originário individual vinculado à preservação da vida. Suas ideias do direito natural e da lei natural, que servem de fundamento ao dever de obediência ao soberano, amparam-se em princípios jurídicos, teológicos e biológicos. Tais princípios, entretanto, não dão conta da questão da extensão do poder soberano. Hobbes recorre à análise da linguagem. Sua teoria contratual afirma o princípio de preservação da vida na base da política e sustenta a ideia da criação e da manutenção do poder soberano no ato de linguagem implicado na estrutura representativa do pacto político.Liberty and power are two subjects correlated along the history of the political modern philosophy. In the texts of Hobbes, the idea of liberty as absence of impediments to the actions helps us to think the duty of obedience to the sovereign power and the relations between politics and right. A situation of legal vacuum, in which everything is allowed, is, nevertheless, impossible, so that the solution of Hobbes consists in supporting the idea of the natural right like original individual right linked to the preservation of the life. His ideas of the natural right and of the natural law, which serve of basis to the duty of obedience to a sovereign, lean on legal, theological and biological principles. In spite of that, such principles do not surround the question of the extension of the sovereign power. Hobbes resorts to the analysis of the language. His contractual theory affirms

  1. Brazil when reading Machiavelli: notes on the first Brazilian edition of The prince, translated by Elias Davidovich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Bagno

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the Brazilian response to Machiavelli's books and ideas reveals that The prince was published for the first time only in the 1930s in the Portuguese-speaking countries. Nevertheless, since the 16th century in Europe, and despite the fact that it had been listed in 1559 in the Indexof prohibited books, the work was being published and circulated in several ways. Far from taking advantage of the possibility of doing justice, almost four centuries later, to the founder of the modern political science, the translation of 1933, published by the Calvino Filho publishing house, in Rio de Janeiro, is introduced by a preface written by Mauricio Medeiros. Although politically engaged in the fight for freedom and against the authoritarianism of Getúlio Vargas, his preface, if analyzed from a paratextual perspective, seems meant to reaffirm, in the 20th century, the traditional interpretation of the Machiavellian work done by the (not strictly libertarian Portuguese inquisitors at linguistic and lexicographic levels.

  2. The reception of Machiavelli and the neo-machiavellian in Political Science, with special reference to the Uruguayan case (1957-1985

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Busquets

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the reception of Machiavelli and the neo machiavellian (Pareto, Mosca, Michels, in the main Political Science paradigms, as well as in the teaching of this discipline at the University of the Republic, from 1957, when the first Political Science chair was created at the Law School, till 1985, when Uruguay returned to democracy, after a twelve-year period of civil-military dictatorship. For this purpose, first, this article will review the itinerary of international Political Science, presenting the different stages that this discipline has gone through. Then, it will make an approach to the reception of Machiavelli and the neo-machiavellian in three political scientists of great significance: Harold Laswell, Robert Dahl and Giovanni Sartori. Second, the paper will examine the reception of the works of the Florentine author and the elitist theorists in three Political Science chairs that were conducted during the indicated period by Alberto Ramón Real, Carlos Real de Azúa and Jacques Ginesta. Finally, there will be a reflection on the different emphases that were made in the teaching of Political Science at that time, particularly following the intervention of the University after the 1973 coup d’État.

  3. SOBRE O ESTADO DE NATUREZA E O ESTADO CIVIL: UM DIÁLOGO ENTRE THOMAS HOBBES E IMMANUEL KANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreza Barreto Leitão

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, busca-se trazer à luz as relações entre Estado, Sociedade Civil e garantias de liberdade tendo em vista a evolução do pensamento político a esse respeito. Para tanto, tomou-se como parâmetro a passagem do estado de natureza ao estado civil segundo as concepções de Thomas Hobbes e de Immanuel Kant, levando-se em consideração as influências e os respectivos contextos históricos em que os arcabouços teóricos de cada autor foram erigidos. O primeiro deles veria tal passagem como fruto de um cálculo interessado, o segundo, como resultado de um dever-ser.

  4. Hobbes, les pirates et les corsaires. Le « Léviathan échoué » selon Carl Schmitt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Weber

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Parmi les nombreux problèmes que pose l’ouvrage de Carl Schmitt Le Léviathan dans la doctrine de l’État de Thomas Hobbes, il en est un, majeur, qui concerne l’utilisation de la « mythologie politique » pour expliquer la réalité ou les doctrines politiques. Il y a là, à n’en pas douter, l’expression de l’un des versants de l’irrationalisme de Schmitt. La thèse de l’auteur est très claire : parce que Hobbes ne possédait aucun « sens mythologique », il s’est trompé de monstre biblique, appelant Leviathan son traité consacré au pouvoir d’État, alors qu’il aurait dû l’appeler plus adéquatement Behemoth, manquant du coup la Meeresbild caractérisant l’Angleterre de son temps. La thèse peut paraître séduisante, elle s’appuie néanmoins sur un présupposé fort contestable, car Hobbes ne vise nullement à créer des mythes. Il s’agit donc d’interroger la théorisation hobbesienne de la piraterie, d’une part, et de la dissidence religieuse « sauvage », d’autre part, afin de montrer que le choix par Hobbes des monstres du Livre de Job est un choix rationnellement assumé.

  5. A posição original como mediação entre estado de natureza e imperativo categórico: Rawls entre Hobbes e Kant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delamar José Volpato Dutra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2014v13n1p112 O texto apresenta o conceito de lei natural em Hobbes e contesta que o conteúdo da mesma seja exclusivamente um imperativo hipotético decorrente da racionalidade estratégica. Aproveita a interpretação de Rawls para conferir um estatuto moral ao conteúdo das leis naturais, tais quais elas foram propostas por Hobbes. Para tal intento, a posição original é lida como uma estratégia de contaminação do imperativo categórico por imperativos hipotéticos. Se Kant afirma que, com várias limitações, a regra de ouro pode ser derivada do imperativo categórico, então, deve haver algum elemento da regra de outro no imperativo categórico. O texto perscruta qual seria esse elemento. O presente artigo apresenta, portanto, uma leitura de Hobbes inspirada na posição original de Rawls, cuja finalidade será mostrar que as interpretações morais de Hobbes sustentadas, por exemplo, por Taylor, Warrender, Rawls e Habermas, são defensáveis, muito embora não pelas razões alegadas por alguns deles. Conclui-se estar em questão, destarte, não uma discordância quanto aos conteúdos do que se poderia chamar justiça ou regras de convivência, mas quanto às estratégias de fundamentação.

  6. Potência de ação e ordem: o poder e a razão segundo Nicolau Maquiavel e Thomas Hobbes

    OpenAIRE

    Kersting, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    O autor apresenta aborda, primeiramente, a relação entre poder e razão no pensamento político de Maquiavel. Num segundo momento, apresenta, no pensamento de Hobbes, a trajetória que se estende da razão impotente do estado de natureza até à razão poderosa do Estado, dispensador de segurança

  7. Potência de ação e ordem: o poder e a razão segundo Nicolau Maquiavel e Thomas Hobbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kersting, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O autor apresenta aborda, primeiramente, a relação entre poder e razão no pensamento político de Maquiavel. Num segundo momento, apresenta, no pensamento de Hobbes, a trajetória que se estende da razão impotente do estado de natureza até à razão poderosa do Estado, dispensador de segurança

  8. Machiavelli Meets Michelangelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley C. Freeman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines newspaper coverage of the arts in Singapore to consider the role of the island state’s newspapers in the development and documentation of Singapore’s growing arts scene. Sampling two constructed weeks for each of 10 years, 1999 to 2008, content analysis is used to examine arts coverage in the Straits Times and Lianhe Zaobao. The study benefits from groundwork laid by Janssen’s 1999 study of arts coverage in Dutch newspapers, in which not only quantity of content was reported but also hierarchical attention was paid to art forms over decades. Singapore is of interest as it represents a country where neither the arts nor newspapers are declining, and both enjoy significant overseeing by the government.

  9. The Trainer As Machiavelli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Chip R.

    1976-01-01

    The article views power as a potential tool for human resource development (HRD) practitioners and focuses on personal power (the ability to influence others) rather than on role power (the right to influence others). Manipulation is discussed as a way to exercise personal power. (Author/BP)

  10. Machiavelli and Educational Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhor, Charles

    1982-01-01

    Discusses a stairway model of committee structures and effects as it relates to consensus and change. Proposes the model as a useful device for post-mortum analysis of committee behavior as well as a way to organize committees to achieve desired goals. (RL)

  11. Do poder à liberdade civil: elementos fundacionais do pensamento político de Thomas Hobbes no Leviatã

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Kritsch

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é introduzir os alunos no pensamento político de Thomas Hobbes, tomando como ponto de partida a teoria política por ele desenvolvida no Leviatã, provavelmente sua obra mais conhecida. Partindo-se da categoria mais elementar do pensamento hobbesiano, o poder, à qual se podem reduzir todas as demais relações humanas, aborda-se as noções de estado de natureza, competição, direito, lei, Estado e liberdade, procurando sintetizar ao leitor que se inicia nos clássicos do pensamento político os principais passos lógicos do autor para a construção de sua teoria do Estado bem como seus principais elementos.

  12. Entre Carl Schmitt y Thomas Hobbes . Un es tudio del liberalismo moderno a partir del pensamiento de Leo Strauss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Daniel Parra Quintero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente ensayo es una lectura sobre el liberalismo moderno desde el pensamiento de Leo Strauss. A partir de su análisis del Concepto de lo político de Carl Schmitt y su crítica de la "despolitización y neutralización" liberal, Strauss responde con una afirmación del problema del derecho natural, para lo cual es fundamental como primer paso estudiar la filosofía política de Thomas Hobbes. Desde allí Strauss se plantea un punto de contraste hacia una consideración clásica del derecho natural que pueda hacer frente al nihilismo político o cosmopolitanismo apolítico en la modernidad tardía, resultado ambos tanto del histori-cismo radical como del positivismo metodológico. Strauss antepone a la afirmación de la voluntad del poder soberano la búsqueda del derecho natural como representación de la idea de la justicia.

  13. Poderes invisíveis versus poderes visíveis no Leviatã de Thomas Hobbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Hermílio Villas Bôas Castelo Branco

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available O conceito de secularização adotado pelas teorias do Estado moderno permitiu institucionalizar um Estado laico que alterou a concepção de legitimidade, solapando qualquer possibilidade de reivindicação do poder divino pelos governantes. Hoje, porém, depois do 11 de setembro de 2001, acentuou-se a necessidade de repensar o conceito de secularização, precisamente, à luz do papel que a religião desempenha na política interna e externa dos estados. Este artigo sugere que o conceito de secularização nem sempre foi pensado como separação entre o poder espiritual e o poder temporal. A investigação do Leviatã de Thomas Hobbes, obra apontada por muitos como precursora da teoria do Estado moderno, indica outro sentido para a compreensão do conceito de seculariação.

  14. “Manda quem pode, obedece quem tem juízo”: ou sobre a (desobediência e a razão em Hobbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Helena Sousa Ferreira Gomes

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Partindo do dito popular “manda quem pode, obedece quem tem juízo” o presente artigo tem como objetivo defender a tese de que o Estado hobbesiano sustenta-se tanto pela força quanto pela razáo. Dentro desta perspectiva, será analisada a noçáo de desobediência e, ao final, mostrar-se-á que o adágio referido só pode ser tido como verdadeiro de acordo com a filosofia política de Thomas Hobbes após feitas certas ressalvas.

  15. O leviatã e as guerras religiosas do século XVII: uma analise do estado absolutista a partir de Thomas Hobbes

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Danilo Pereira; UNISINOS - Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos

    2015-01-01

    Currently recognized as one of the leading theorists of political philosophy of the seventeenth century, Hobbes had his thinking involved in major political and religious wars, which, at that time, threatened to dissolve the nascent British state organization. Thus, this study aims to analyze the major political, social and philosophical events that somehow ended up influencing the Hobbesian thinking about the formation of the absolutist state, since for him, where there were no common power ...

  16. Le Léviathan dans la doctrine de l’État de Thomas Hobbes : sens et échec du décisionnisme politique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Tuchscherer

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Présenté en 1938, le Der Leviathan de Carl Schmitt clos un ensemble de réflexions que le juriste et politologue allemand a consacré au décisionnisme politique. Au long de son commentaire sur Hobbes, Schmitt aboutit toutefois à un résultat inattendu. Naguère loué comme « le cas classique de la pensée décisionniste », Hobbes s’est métamorphosé à son insu en « ancêtre spirituel » de l’État législateur et libéral-constitutionnel. Schmitt a trouvé chez son allié le plus précieux les germes d’une pensée qu’il n’a cessé d’éreinter sous toutes ses formes, qu’on la décline dans sa version techniciste, positiviste, constitutionnaliste bourgeoise et libérale, individualiste ou pluraliste. C’est en ce sens que le Der Leviathan résume à bien des égards le sens et l’échec du décisionnisme politique.

  17. Gramsci between Machiavelli and Marx: from negative determination of human to ontonegative determination of politics Gramsci entre Maquiavel e Marx: da negatividade do homem a ontonegatividade da política

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudinei Cássio Rezende

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In one of his central categories, Gramsci establishes a connection between the Machiavellian and Marxian political conceptions, in a manner that each one writes to the revolutionary class of their time. Nevertheless, a more rigorous critic at Marx’s propositions unveils to us that the proletarian class isn’t just the progressist class of his time, in the same manner that the bourgeois was in the Iluminism, like Gramsci thinks, but it is, actually, the universal sphere and the only one qualifi ed to accomplish a human emancipation. Consequently, the connection between Machiavelli and Marx does not exist, once Marx conceives the ontological work as the central attribute of humanization, and conceives the politics as temporary; while Machiavelli conceives the politics as the founder act of all sociability. Keywords: Machiavelli. Marx. Gramsci. Ontonegative determination of politics. Human emancipation. Em uma de suas categorias centrais, Gramsci estabelece uma identidade direta entre as politicidades maquiaveliana e marxiana, de sorte que cada um escreve para a classe da vanguarda política de sua época. No entanto, uma crítica mais rigorosa aos escritos marxianos nos revela que o proletariado não é somente a classe progressista de sua época, da maneira que a burguesia fora no iluminismo, como quer Gramsci, mas é, em verdade, a esfera universal e a única capaz de levar a cabo uma emancipação humana total. Doravante, a identidade entre Marx e Maquiavel inexiste na medida em que o primeiro, de magnitude filosófica distinta, concebe o trabalho ontologicamente como atributo central da humanização, apreendendo a política como uma figura transitória superável, enquanto o segundo concebe a política como o ato fundador de toda sociabilidade. Palavras-chave: Maquiavel. Marx. Gramsci. Ontonegatividade da política. Emancipação humana.

  18. 马基雅维里视域中的政治合法性基础%Politics Validity Basis in the Perspective of Machiavelli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马俊峰

    2014-01-01

    马基雅维里通过赋予“美德”新的内涵,进一步修改了原有的道德原则,在政治领域悬置“善”,实现了欧洲伦理道德观的大革新;他重新设置了政治权力的合法性基础,主张政治德性能力是政治正当性基础,暴力手段则是构筑政治权力的例外决断行为,人民群众是政治统治和反对腐败的有生力量,这些观念对我们建立强有力的廉洁政府,实现中国特色的社会主义民主与法治道路具有重要借鉴意义。%Machiavelli further modified original moral principle by bestowing the virtue vocabulary with new connotation, used the virtue to dominate his policies in political field, realized great reform of ethic and moral outlook in Europe, reset the validity basis for political power, asserted that political moral capacity is the basis of political legitimation while violent methods are ex-ceptional resolution behavior to consolidate the political power and that the masses are effective force for political ruling and anti-corruption, whose ideas are of important reference significance to build a clean government with strong strength and to realize de-mocracy and legal management of the socialism with Chinese characteristics.

  19. Hobbes en Sinaloa, o del corrido como resolución poética a un orden social marcado por la violencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa De la Garza Chávez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo muestra cómo una veta de la producción actual de corridos constituye una forma tan innovadora como radical de actuar frente a una realidad social que tiene mucho en común con el «estado de naturaleza» que Hobbes imaginó como causante del primer pacto político de la historia de la humanidad. En el México de hoy, en el que no se observa otra cosa que el fracaso de la política, la única opción para garantizar la conservación de sí parece radicar en la poética.

  20. Leerse a sí mismo: hermenéutica, política y retórica en Thomas Hobbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Rossi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available El reconocimiento del conflicto como realidad constitutiva de lo humano y la necesidad de un cierre que pasa por la fijación de la palabra justa encuentran en Hobbes su primera formulación. El pasaje de la instancia retórico-interpretativa a la axiomático-científica se da en Leviatan a través de tres momentos: introspectivo, contractual, estadual; su despliegue permite reconocer a la hermenéutica como resorte imprescindible para la implantación de un orden político fundado en la articulación entre ser (una antropología, decir (una retórica y actuar (una praxis. El intérprete resulta así un operador clave en el ajuste de las instancias natural y político-social

  1. Libertad negativa y libre desarrollo de la personalidad en la jurisprudencia constitucional colombiana: un análisis desde la perspectiva de John Stuart Mill y Thomas Hobbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Jaramillo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo pretende demostrar que la Corte Constitucional colombiana confunde la noción de libre desarrollo de la personalidad con la noción de libertad negativa, debido a que en el fondo de su argumentación subyace el pensamiento de Thomas Hobbes; situación distinta sería si la Corte fundamentara sus sentencias en el concepto de libertad, desarrollado por John Stuart Mill, quien estaría más acorde con la noción de libre desarrollo de la personalidad bajo los presupuestos de un Estado Social y Democrático de Derecho fundado en la dignidad humana.

  2. La teoría de la justicia en el estado natural y en el estado político, según Hobbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Aranda Fraga

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available El contractualismo explica y justifica el fundamento y la posibilidad de la sociedad a partir de un pacto entre seres libres e iguales. Según Hobbes, los hombres, antes de pactar entre sí, vivían en un estado de guerra de todos contra todos, por tanto carente de justicia. Tampoco había leyes, ni propiedad, ni civilización alguna. En concreto, no existían los derechos, y por tanto era imprescindible buscar una solución eficaz. Deciden por mutuo acuerdo nombrar un garante de sus derechos y obligaciones; entonces nace el Estado y sólo a partir de ese momento queda instaurada la justicia.

  3. De la locura y la inseguridad del derecho a la racionalidad y el orden de la ley. Lectura dialéctica de Thomas Hobbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blasco Aznar, Pedro Luis

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available I take for granted as a starting-point the anthropological antinomy on the individual/social nature of man. This antinomy is constituted politically in Hobbes’ thought as the antinomy individual/society, whose legal expression gives rise to the antinomy right/law —in his iusnaturalist conception— which reflects as well the anthropological antinomy passion/reason. This dialectical conception is only implicit in his political and legal philosophy; however, it becomes obvious if the underlying anthropology is analysed. Therefore, the problems derived from this dialectics require a dialectical solution in accordance with the dialecticity of its anthropological foundation. That is why Hobbes’ legal and political philosophy was not and is not still adequate or effective, but in a partial or negative way.

    Asumo como punto de partida la antinomia antropológica de la naturaleza individual/ social del hombre, que se constituye en el pensamiento de Hobbes, políticamente, como la antinomia indviduo/sociedad, cuya expresión jurídica da lugar a la antinomia derecho/ ley, en su concepción iusnaturalista, que refleja asimismo la antinomia antropológica pasión/razón. Tal concepción dialéctica sólo está implícita en su Filosofía Política y Filosofía del Derecho, pero se hace bien patente si analizamos la antropología subyacente en ella. Por lo tanto, los problemas que esta dialéctica origina requieren una solución o salida dialéctica de acuerdo a la dialecticidad de su fundamento antropológico. Por eso la filosofía jurídica y política de Hobbes no pudo ni puede ser adecuada ni efectiva sino parcial o negativamente.

  4. La decisione Holt v. Hobbs: una svolta nelle politiche di religious accommodation con riguardo agli istituti di detenzione nell’ordinamento statunitense?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelaide Madera

    2016-11-01

    SOMMARIO: 1. La libertà religiosa negli istituti di detenzione negli U.S.A. e il caso Holt v. Hobbs – 2. Le esigenze di bilanciamento fra libertà religiosa ed esigenze di ordine e sicurezza nelle istituzioni penitenziarie – 3. La diluizione delle forme di tutela della libertà religiosa nel contesto degli istituti di detenzione – 4. L’impatto del R.F.R.A. sulla tutela della libertà religiosa negli istituti di detenzione – 5. L’adozione del R.L.U.I.P.A. – 6. Il riconoscimento di legittimità del R.L.U.I.P.A. alla luce dell’Establishment Clause – 7. I nodi irrisolti del caso Cutter v. Wilkinson – 8. Le interferenze del Prison Litigation Reform Actsulla tutela dell’esercizio della libertà religiosa dei detenuti – 9. La frammentazione dei parametri adoperati dai diversi circuiti d’appello – 10. La decisione Holt v. Hobbs – 11. Le motivazioni della Corte – 12. Il (parziale ridimensionamento del parametro della due deference – 13. La tutela estensiva della libertà religiosa promossa dalla Corte Roberts – 14. Holt e Hobby Lobby a confronto – 15. Il crescente rilievo assunto dall’elemento dei third-party burdens nella giurisprudenza della Corte – 16. Annotazioni conclusive.

  5. Theologico-political Issues in Richard Hooker’s Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity and Thomas Hobbes’s Leviathan Le théologico-politique chez Richard Hooker (Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity et Thomas Hobbes (Leviathan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Lurbe

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Hooker et Hobbes ont tous deux été amenés à défendre la suprématie royale contre ses adversaires presbytériens. Une certaine ressemblance de formulation ne doit toutefois pas masquer de profondes divergences, portant à la fois sur l’ampleur de la prérogative royale en matière religieuse et sur la nature de la religion elle-même.

  6. O mito das Olimpíadas: Hesíodo, Bacon, Hobbes e a infindável luta dos titãs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Santos da Silva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem por objetivo apresentar alguns dos aspectos mitológicos que fundamentam a realização das olimpíadas desde a antiguidade grega, particularmente a “corrida de tochas acessas” que atualmente inaugura a abertura dos jogos. Para tanto, buscamos apresentar alguns relatos que narram a realização dos jogos olímpicos como uma espécie memória aos mitos fundadores da cultura grega. Nesse registro, consideramos alguns aspectos das narrativas de Hesíodo sobre o mito de Prometeu, bem como algumas observações de filósofos modernos como Francis Bacon e Thomas Hobbes sobre como essa fábula narra a interpretação de uma condição humana fundada em uma competição análoga à uma interminável luta de titãs. Condição humana essa oriunda da desobediência às vontades dos deuses do Olimpo, cristalizada na expressão de uma cultura da competição que visa não apenas agradar a esses deuses, detentores do poder no Olimpo, mas também igualar certos homens a eles.

  7. Leviatán como pretexto: T Hobbes y la invención moderna de la Razón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS MOYA VALGAÑÓN

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available T. Hobbes inventó el concepto moderno de estado y el discurso político racional. En Leviatán se equipara razón con gobierno. Se examina la historia occidental que precedió la redacción de Leviatán, comenzando con la cristianización progresiva de los reinos bárbaros. Fue la noción secularizada de razón, en contraposición al reinado de Dios sobre el mundo, la que proporcionó a la burguesía el fundamento epistemológico necesario para su ascensión social. La monarquía absoluta se convirtió en la primera forma del estado moderno. El desarrollo de la imprenta fue el instrumento tecnológico-industrial de la moderna revolución burguesa en la cristiandad occidental. La Reforma Protestante surgió de la nueva libertad para leer libros otrora prohibidos, constituyendo el primer ímpetu para el crecimiento industrial y el desarrollo de la empresa. Así, las revelaciones de la Santa Escritura dieron paso a la investigación científica y a la ciencia moderna.

  8. Reflexões sobre a influência de Maquiavel na educação e na formação do Estado Moderno Reflections on Machiavelli's influence in education and in the formation of the Modern State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terezinha Oliveira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Este texto tem como objetivo analisar algumas formulações de Nicolau Maquiavel sobre a teoria política, bem como refletir sobre a contribuição de suas ideias, expostas na obra O Príncipe, para a formação do Estado Moderno Absoluto. Essa obra foi resultado de suas reflexões sobre os problemas do seu tempo: séculos XV e XVI, na Itália. O Príncipe expressava o desenvolvimento dos Estados Nacionais, a dessacralização do político, a independência do poder temporal em relação ao poder religioso e a primazia do Estado frente à religião. Consideramos que a obra de Maquiavel é de suma relevância para a história das ideias, principalmente, no campo da ciência política. Dessa forma, destacamos a importância do estudo de seu pensamento sob a perspectiva da Educação, o qual nos possibilita a compreensão dos fundamentos políticos da modernidade e, por conseguinte, o entendimento da formação do homem político-moderno.This work aims to analyze some of Nicolas Machiavelli's formulations on political theory, as well as to reflect on the contribution of his ideas to the formation of the Absolute Modern State, in his work The Prince. The Prince was the result of his reflections on the problems of his time: the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries in Italy. His work expressed the development of Nation States, the removal of the sacred dimension from the political one, the independence of temporal power from religious power and the primacy of the state over religion. Machiavelli's work is considered to be highly important for the history of ideas, especially in the field of political science. Therefore, the importance of studying his thinking within an educational perspective is highlighted, enabling us to understand these political principles, so formative of modern society, and hence, understand the formation of the modern political man.

  9. Émile Durkheim a tzv. Hobbesův problém řádu: Co se skrývá na dně 'prvního ze sociologických mýtů'?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maršálek, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 30, 3-4 (2008), s. 161-184 ISSN 1210-0250 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z9009908 Keywords : Durkheim * Hobbes * Spencer * political philosophy * general sociology * individualism * theory of the state Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  10. Los orígenes filosóficos de la noción de soberanía nacional en el contractualismo político de Thomas Hobbes, John Locke y Jean-Jacques Rousseau

    OpenAIRE

    Vichinkeski Teixeira,Anderson

    2014-01-01

    El artículo examina cómo las proposiciones teóricas de Thomas Hobbes, John Locke y Jean-Jacques Rousseau sobre la función del contrato social han tenido una profunda conexión con la noción de soberanía nacional, desde su fundamentación filosófica hasta sus límites. Para eso, se estudia en los tres filósofos el estado de naturaleza y la concepción de hombre, el proceso de formación del contrato social y la condición del hombre en el Estado, según las formas de Estado y de Gobierno preferidas d...

  11. Stretching and Exploiting Thresholds for High-Order War: How Russia, China, and Iran are Eroding American Influence Using Time-Tested Measures Short of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    core of realist treatises on international relations, including those of Thucydides, Thomas Hobbes, Niccolò Machiavelli , and, more recently, Hans...in Chinese History, Princeton, N.J.: Prince - ton University Press, 1995a; Dingding Chen, Xiaoyu Pu, and Alastair Iain Johnston, “Correspondence

  12. Individual Factors Motivating People to Join Organized Violent Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    origin of conflict. Classic books by authors such as Thucydides, Sun Tzu , Machiavelli, and Hobbes are still important to recall. Each of these timeless...92 BIBLIOGRAPHY ...6 Ribetti, 700. 7 Selbin, 5. 94 BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Aguilar Camín, Héctor, and Raúl Trejo Delarbre, eds. Chiapas: La Guerra de Las Ideas

  13. Rationality in Machiavelli and in Kant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Chaly

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains interpretation and comparative analysis of Machiavelli’s and Kant’s conceptions on rationality as two prime examples of “realist” and “idealist” modes of agency. Kantian model of rationality is viewed as an augmentation of the Machiavellian one, not an opposition to it. To elaborate the point, Robert Aumann’s model of act-rationality and rulerationality is applied to the two philosophical models. Kantian practical reason is interpreted as an addition to Aumann’s instrumental rationality, providing rules for rules, or “rule-rule-rationality”.

  14. Deimus y Phobus: la reposición moderna de la mitología y la oportunidad de destinarse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto I. Vargas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores an understanding of the Postmodern crisis through Greek mythology and philosophy of history. A revival of the interior fear as a colective phenomenon of contemporary society that characterize our cultural situation and that appeared with the modernity origin specially from Hobbes, Luther and Machiavelli influence. Finally, a overcoming alternative is proposed from an oppeness to God through Anthropology as a method.

  15. Hobbs 1:100000 Quad Hydrography DLGs

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Digital line graph (DLG) data are digital representations of cartographic information. DLG's of map features are converted to digital form from maps and related...

  16. Elementos de la soberanía y del tribunal penal internacional

    OpenAIRE

    Scalquette, Rodrigo Arnoni

    2007-01-01

    Com o título de Elementos da Soberania e do Tribunal Penal Internacional procuramos demonstrar a ligação e pontos conflitantes entre o poder soberano e a Corte Internacional Criminal. No capítulo I, abordamos o conceito de soberania e seu enfoque de concepção política, realizado por Jean Bodin. Vimos o Estado-Leviatã de Thomas Hobbes e a soberania inalienável e indivisível de Jean-Jacques Rousseau. A relação entre Umberto Campagnolo e seu professor, Hans Kelsen, também foi abordada, nota...

  17. The Necessary Predication between State and Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Nunes Pereira

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to demonstrate that the central idea of "rule of law" is per se redundant since there is a necessary and reciprocal predication between terms. It is based on the "State-Law" historical and philosophically founded (Westphalia, Bodin and Hobbes, phenomenologically (Schmitt’s Political Theology and normatively (Hans Kelsen’s Legal Positivism based. The rationale on the Sstate leading role suggests that State power must be complete to achieve its goals, which is given by normativity. It is clear that both, State and Law, have the same substance, "Sovereignty", whose implementation coincides with the human agency of cognitive reconfiguration of Politics by religious thought.

  18. Rebuttal to Nelson et al. 'Response to Bodin and Grote regarding postdoctoral recruitment in clinical neuropsychology'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodin, Doug; Grote, Christopher L

    2016-07-01

    Nelson et al. provided a response to our commentary on the postdoctoral match in clinical neuropsychology. In this brief rebuttal, we will focus on statements from Nelson et al. that we believe are factual inaccuracies or misunderstandings of some of the points we made in our commentary. In addition, we will comment briefly on the proposed guidelines offered in their response.

  19. The Principal and "The Prince": Machiavelli and School Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Fenwick W.

    1992-01-01

    Because most people will resist law and reason (government), power must be rendered in someone else's name to make ruling palatable. Executives, including principals, represent the law. To enforce a given law, executives must often exceed their base of authority to act decisively--despite recent rhetoric about staff empowerment and site-based…

  20. From Machiavelli to Martians: The Challenge of Department Chairmanship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Lorene H.

    1968-01-01

    The duties, problems, compensation, and selection procedures of department chairmen in secondary schools need to be clarified. Present duties of an English department chairman include developing an educational philosophy and curriculum for the department; suggesting materials and teaching methods; protecting teacher welfare; working with all…

  1. Niccolo Machiavelli: moralista ou intelectual orgânico?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vívian Matias dos Santos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to understand the core of Machiavelli’s political thought: political action. He inaugurates in his era a revolutionary form of thinking about politics, attacking the nucleus of Christian morality, and returning to the ethics of ancient peoples. Accepting ancient values means promoting political action guided by public and collective interests. His work defends a brand of political action capable of constructing a new Italy, unified and sovereign. Arguing against the hegemony of the church, he defended the construction of a new historical bloc, which classified him as an organic intellectual of his time.

  2. Fall and Redemption: the Romantic alternative to liberal pessimism

    OpenAIRE

    Pabst, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    From Machiavelli via Hobbes, Locke and Grotius to J.S. Mill and John Rawls, the liberal (and republican) tradition pivots about the primacy of the individual over all forms of human association and allied to this primacy is the replacing of notions of substan¬tive goodness or truth with the ultimate foundation of society upon subjective rights secured by the power of the central state. Those rights are grounded in the human will and the artifice of the social contract that has supplanted olde...

  3. "The Leviathan" as automaton: method and politics in Thomas Hobbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Fernández Peychaux

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article points out the tension between the normative purpose of Thomas Hobbes’s political texts, and the identification of the resolutive-compositive method of science as it is applied in those texts. In order to solve this difficulty one should appeal to Hobbes’s epistemological texts to read the example of the clock from a new perspective. Thus, if the Hobbesian method responds to the need for normative innovation, it not only denies an apologetic intentionality for a completely ignored historical reality, but also makes it possible to describe the relationship between the individual and the State in a manner different from traditional understandings. According to these conclusions, man ceases to be simply a mechanical part but rather becomes a cause, and therefore, a measure of the effectiveness and functionality of a State. Man’s savage individualism while in the state of nature is not the model, but the cause that justifies a Leviathan capable of turning the homo homini lupus into homo homini deus.

  4. Life history and ecology of Cambarus halli (Hobbs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennard, S.; Peterson, J.T.; Hawthorne, E.S.

    2009-01-01

    The life history of Cambarus halli, a crayfish endemic to the Tallapoosa River Basin, GA, was studied at four sites within the Tallapoosa River. Two sites had allopatric populations of C. halli, and two sites had populations of C. halli sympatric with C. englishi. Three age classes existed across sites. For Cambarus halli, total number of pleopodal eggs was positively related to carapace length, but egg size was only weakly positively related to carapace length. Cambarus halli were smaller across age classes at sympatric sites, but had greater growth rates than at allopatric sites. Cambarus halli density estimates were lower at sympatric sites, while proportions of reproductively active age-1 and age-2 individuals were higher at allopatric sites (63% vs. 33%).

  5. Cadastral PLSS Standardized Data - PLSSIntersected (Hobbs) - Version 1.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This feature class is part of the Cadastral National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI) CADNSDI publication data set for rectangular and non-rectangular Public Land...

  6. Teaching Autobiography with the Help of Hobbes, Locke, and Hume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Mark E.

    This paper describes the methods used to teach identity formation in a college course entitled "Identity and Society," through an exploration of the autobiographies of several prominant Americans. The three phases of an autobiographical approach to one's present identity are discussed as the search for facts according to criteria, illustrated by…

  7. Relações internacionais na filosofia política moderna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agemir Bavaresco

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente dossiê apresenta algumas investigações no âmbito das teorias das relações internacionais, a partir da inspiração dos clássicos da filosofia política moderna. Textos mais representativos de Grotius, Bodin, Maquiavel, Hobbes, Bentham, Locke e Kant, vitais para a compreensão da formulação contemporânea das teorias das relações internacionais, foram lidos e analisados pelos professores Agemir Bavaresco e Marcelo Gross Villanova com estudantes pós-graduandos do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Filosofia da PUCRS, durante o 2º semestre de 2011.

  8. DIREITO DE EXCEÇÃO: OS RISCOS DE UM MAL NECESSÁRIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Belchior Ribeiro Freire

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem como escopo analisar o estado de exceção no seu liame entre a manutenção do status quo ante e o salto para a revolução. Sob a óptica dos pensamentos de renomados filósofos (Jean Bodin, Thomas Hobbes, Rosseau, Hans Kelsen e Carl Schmitt, procuramos analisar os benefícios e os riscos da instituição do estado de exceção, tendo em vista que se pode considerar este um mal necessário. O estado de exceção é um avanço nas democracias contemporâneas, como observaremos a sua previsão importa uma segurança à sociedade de que é possível mudar preservando alguns direitos constitucionais.

  9. Os pressupostos filosóficos do maquiavelismo e o surgimento da via moderna em política = The philosophical assumptions of the machiavellianism and the emergence of the modern via in politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacarandá, Rodolfo de Freitas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available No cenário intelectual do renascimento italiano o pensamento político de Nicolau Maquiavel antecedeu e influenciou grandes inovações que fundaram a modernidade. Um movimento geral de ideias definido no século XVI e XVII pelo conceito de maquiavelismo engendrou mudanças profundas na arquitetura conceitual dos pensadores e articulistas dos assuntos públicos, afetando a obra de grandes filósofos, de Bodin e Lipsius até Hobbes. A partir de pesquisas desenvolvidas no programa de doutorado em filosofia da Unicamp pretendo demonstrar neste trabalho quais foram os pressupostos filosóficos centrais dessa ruptura e como Maquiavel reconstruiu em suas principais obras, O Príncipe e Os discursos sobre a primeira década de Tito Lívio, uma série de conceitos antigos para dar-lhes um sentido completamente novo e radical

  10. I.G. Tyulin Scientific Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina V. Reshetnikova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific Library MGIMO opened to readers in 1944 became the basis for her book fund of the Faculty of International Relations, Moscow State University on the basis of which was created by an independent institution - Institute of International Relations (MGIMO in the future. In 1954, when the composition of the MGIMO was included from the Moscow Institute of Oriental Studies, the merger of the two libraries. This has considerably enriched the book collection, as the Institute of Oriental led his chronicle of the Lazarev School of Oriental Languages, founded in 1815 and features a wonderful book collection. In 1958, the merger with the Institute of Moscow State Institute of Foreign Trade funds replenished special economic literature. Thus was formed the basis of the library's collection of MGIMO, which develops in accordance with the curriculum and subjects research university. Pride Library -176 manuscripts and more than 21 thousands of rare and valuable editions of XIII -the beginning of XX century. Among them - the first and the lifetime editions of works by prominent scholars, writers and public figures (N.M. Karamzin, V.O. Kliuchevskoi, N. Kostomarov S.M. Solovyev, J. Bodin, Hobbes, A.F. Koni, Martens et al., autographed books, N.M. Przewalski, A.N. Kuropatkin, A.E. Crimean and other famous people. The collection of rare books and manuscripts research library also includes: - life time edition of the French writer and politician Jean Bodin "Six Books of the Republic" (1577; - the second edition of the famous treatise of the English philosopher and writer Thomas Hobbes "On Citizenship" (1647; - english (1669 and german (1696 edition of the book Adam Oleary "Descriptions Travel to Muscovy and Persia through Muscovy and back".

  11. Marbles and Machiavelli: The Role of Game Play in Children's Social Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancy, David F.; Grove, M. Annette

    2011-01-01

    The authors review several case studies of children engaged in rule-governed play and conclude that the process of learning rules--and of breaking them and making new ones--promotes what they call gamesmanship. They link the development of gamesmanship to the theory of Machiavellian intelligence, which considers social interaction primary in the…

  12. From Machiavelli to Ms: differences in male-female power styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wagner, K; Swanson, C

    1979-01-01

    While the concept of power has always been a concern to students of political science and public administration, it has been examined only peripherally in the last few years. Recent work by McClelland has indicated that power may be a very important variable in explaining managerial behavior and organizational effectiveness. Starting with a definition of power provided by McClelland, this paper develops a conceptual framework for analyzing power-related behavior in an organizational setting. The framework is then applied to a problem area of particular interest to the authors--the question of whether or not women managers can be expected to behave differently than their male counterparts because of possible differences in their orientations toward power. We conclude that differences in power needs will not impede the effectiveness of female managers, but women may be at a disadvantage in the work environment due to possible differences in the way they express these needs.

  13. Would Machiavelli now be a better guide for doctors than Hippocrates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J

    1993-01-01

    The stagnation of socioeconomic development and the multiplying population mandate that health officials face some very difficult issues. In its report from Alma-Ata to the year 2000, WHO acknowledged for the first time the risk that humanity could destroy its ecological support system. About the same time Maurice King, a British teacher of medicine in developing countries, asks whether there are some programs that should not be carried out because they would increase the population. The French theologian France Quere says that the coherence of moral action disintegrates under conflicting pressures in relation to the fact that the saving of lives in immunization campaigns can be an indirect cause of famine, the destruction of forests, and the consequent disappearance of animal and vegetable species. The care given to an individual sometimes is detrimental to the health of the public in general. Available resources are always limited. This problem has largely been hidden in the rich countries, where the ideological conception was to give the whole population access to all types of diagnosis and treatment. During the Nobel Conference on Medical Ethics at Stockholm in 1989, the epidemiologist John Last suggested that the survival of human communities should be given higher priority than the survival of the individual, when such a choice has to be made. This calls into question the categorical assertion in the Helsinki Declaration that the interests of society should never prevail over the well-being of the citizen, which is regarded as a basic principle of medical ethics. There is no formula for timely, intelligent, and firm management of the resources and population of the planet. Initiatives such as the Accra Forum of December 1991 or the Rio Conference on Environment and Development of 1992 may produce some results, but a wider transformation in the attitudes and habits of individuals and nations seems indispensable.

  14. Trainee perspectives on postdoctoral recruitment in clinical neuropsychology: reflections on commentaries by Bodin and Grote (2016) and Nelson et al. (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towns, S J; Hahn-Ketter, A E; Halpern, J; Block, C K

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the current invited paper is to provide the trainees' perspective on recent commentaries on recruitment for postdoctoral fellowship in clinical neuropsychology. The current system of recruitment includes both a match and non-match process and has been problematic for trainees and training programs alike. The author team completed a non-systematic review of previously published commentaries on the current state of postdoctoral fellowship recruitment, which are briefly summarized in the current paper. The trainee perspective is addressed using both survey data and anecdotal experiences of the authors. Trainees report high levels of dissatisfaction with the current dual recruitment system; however, there is no clear preference from trainees for either a match or non-match system. Trainees from both recruitment systems report high levels of satisfaction with their training experience. It seems that either a match or non-match approach, if it led to a unified system, would improve trainee satisfaction.

  15. Hobbes y el Congo: marcos, violencia local e intervención internacional | Hobbes and the Congo: Frames,Local Violence, and International Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séverine AUTESSERRE

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available ¿Por qué los constructores internacionales de la paz no toman en consideración las causas locales de los procesos de paz que fallan? A través del presente artículo demuestro cómo las agendas locales jugaron entonces un rol decisivo en fomentar la violencia a nivel local, regional y nacional. Sin embargo, la existencia de un marco de construcción de la paz posbélica configuraba la visión internacional de la violencia y de la intervención de tal manera que la resolución del conflicto local era considerada como irrelevante e ilegitima. Este marco incluyó enseguida cuatro elementos fundamentales: los actores internacionales etiquetaron la situación en Congo de “postconflicto”; estos mismos actores creyeron que la violencia constituía un componente innato en la sociedad congolesa y, por lo tanto, aceptable incluso en tiempos de paz; conceptualizaron la intervención internacional como un asunto exclusivo de la esferas nacional e internacional; y consideraron la celebración de elecciones, en lugar de la resolución del conflicto local, como una herramienta viable, apropiada y efectiva para la construcción del estado y de la paz. Este marco, al autorizar y justificar prácticas y políticas específicas mientras impedía otras, en particular la resolución de conflictos locales, acabó condenando en última instancia los esfuerzos para la construcción de la paz. Para concluir, sostengo que el análisis de los marcos discursivos es un enfoque fructífero para intentar resolver los puzles de los fracasos internacionales en la construcción de la paz que se dan, también, más allá de las fronteras del Congo.Why do international peacebuilders fail to address the local causes of peace process failures? In this article,I demonstrate that local agendas played a decisive role in sustaining local, national, and regional violence. However, a postcon?ict peacebuilding frame shaped the international understanding of violence and intervention in such a way that local con?ict resolution appeared irrelevant and illegitimate. This frame included four key elements: international actors labeled the Congo a “postcon?ict” situation; they believed that violence there was innate and therefore acceptable even in peacetime; they conceptualized international intervention as exclusively concerned with the national and international realms; and they saw holding elections, as opposed to local con?ict resolution, as a workable, appropriate, and effective tool for state- and peacebuilding. This frame authorized and justi?ed speci?c practices and policies while precluding others, notably local con?ict resolution, ultimately dooming the peacebuilding efforts. In conclusion, I contend that analyzing discursive frames is a fruitful approach to the puzzle of international peacebuilding failures beyond the Congo.

  16. Hobbs, NM 1:250,000 Quad USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This land cover data set was produced as part of a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)...

  17. Cadastral PLSS Standardized Data - PLSSSecond Division (Hobbs) - Version 1.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This feature class is part of the Cadastral National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI) CADNSDI publication data set for rectangular and non-rectangular Public Land...

  18. THOMAS HOBBES Y LA CONJETURALIDAD DEL CONOCIMIENTO CIENTÍFICO NATURAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Rodriguez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir de este ensayo se realiza una caracterización de las ideas hobbesianas en torno a la ciencia natural, acentuando en ellas el papel de la subjetividad y del pensamiento hipotético en la construcción del saber científico. Si bien el texto admite los compromisos epistemológicos del autor en términos de materialismo y mecanicismo, no por ello deja de insistir en que tales compromisos no son incompatibles con la visión hipotética y probabilística que le asigna a la descripción del mundo físico.

  19. Pan-Baltic Linas Libikas - sometimes Hobbes, sometimes Calvin / Linas Libikas ; interv. Ingrid Nielsen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Libikas, Linas

    2004-01-01

    Coca-Cola HBC Eesti AS-i turundusjuht olukorrast Baltimaade reklaamiturul, turundusspetsialistide sagedase töökohavahetamise võimalikest põhjustest ning oma eesmärkidest ettevõtte eesotsas. Lisa: Linas Libikas

  20. Republicanism, apsolutism, and liberalism: Hobbes and Kant on state of war and peace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sládeček Michal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This text reflects on the book written by Milorad Stupar, Political Philosophy. Based on the perspectives given in Stupar’s book, the author’s intention is to illustrate the problems regarding certain topics such as: citizenship, the dispute about the nature of Hobbes’s philosophy, as well as social, political and historical background of Kant’s political philosophy. The article points at dilemmas related to the meaning of citizenship in modern states, to the compatibility between absolutism and certain elements of liberalism in Hobbes’s work, and to the possible reconstruction of the context within which Kant produced his last works.

  1. The Legacy of Hobbs and Gray: Research on the Development and Prevention of Conduct Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Kenneth A.

    1996-01-01

    Describes research on the development of chronic conduct problems in childhood and adolescence, examining a multiple risk-factor model that includes biological predispositions, ecological context, family processes, peer influences, academic performance, and social information processing as factors leading to conduct problems. The paper describes a…

  2. Piquing Student Curiosity with Title Pages from Works by Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Lee Ann

    2013-01-01

    Long before public libraries, online bookstores that ship directly to our homes, technologies that enable the downloading of publications directly to mobile devices, and social networks supporting virtual book clubs, eighteenth-century book readers relied heavily on literary societies, subscription libraries, and the advice of and selections made…

  3. Kairos. Træk af humanisme og posthumanisme i italiensk kultur (Politik, ret & samfund)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Gert

    Humanisme, Posthumanisme, Italiensk kultur, Kairos, Dante, Machiavelli, Perniola (Mario), Agamben (Giorgio), Dobbeltstat......Humanisme, Posthumanisme, Italiensk kultur, Kairos, Dante, Machiavelli, Perniola (Mario), Agamben (Giorgio), Dobbeltstat...

  4. Traiano Boccalini: la ragion di stato tra satira e sinceritas. Quale accettabilità per Machiavelli ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Ciccarelli

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Les Advis de Parnasse (Venise 1612-1613 de Traiano Boccalini est une œuvre satirique dans laquelle l’auteur critique avec un langage allégorique les racines machiavéliques de l’impérialisme de Filippo II soutenues par la papauté de la Contre-réforme. Estimateur d’Érasme et de l’irénisme catholique né pendant la Réforme protestante, Boccalini met en scène, dans l’utopique ville-état fondée sur le Mont Parnasse, un dialogue intense entre les différentes âmes qui composaient la République littéraire pour revendiquer la reconstitution de la politique sur des bases éthique. Bien que les Advis s’inspirent à la satire de Lucien de Samosate pour traiter le problème actuel, les Observations sur différentes œuvres de Cornélius Tacite naissaient comme un traité politique traditionnel où analyser la meilleure forme de gouvernement. Pour Boccalini la République de Venise était le modèle parfait d’État, capable de s’insérer dans la tradition de l’antimachiavellisme vénitien. Son attention vers la dimension éthique de la politique fait de lui un des plus grand critique des lettrés qui écrivaient sur la raison d’état. Les codes de conduite énoncés dans leur travail sont révélés par la satire boccalinienne comme étant la cause des pratiques hypocrites des souverains, la dominante corruption morale de la société moderne et l’aveuglement du peuple, incapable de saisir les principes sur lesquels le mal a été créé pour obéir au pouvoir politique.The ‘News-sheets of Parnassus’ (Venice 1612-1613 by Traiano Boccalini are a political satire in which the author criticizes in allegorical language the Machievellian origins of the Imperialism of Philip II supported by the Counter Reformation papacy. As an admirer of Erasmus and the Catholic irenics born of the Protestant Reformation, Boccalini stages, in a Utopian city state founded on Mount Parnassus, an intense dialogue between the various souls who make up the literary Republic in order to redeem politics by putting it back on an ethical basis. While the ‘News-sheets’ are inspired by the satire of Lucian of Samosata in order to treat the problem of the state, the ‘Observations’ on various works by Cornelius Tacitus are a traditional political treatise which analyses the best form of government. Boccalini takes the Republic of Venice as the perfect model of the state within the tradition of Venetian anti-Machiavellianism. His focus on politics’ ethical dimension makes him one the foremost critics among scholars writing about ‘reasons of state.’ The codes of behavior stated in their works are laid bare by Boccalini’s satire as the reason for the hypocrisy practised by sovereigns, for the dominant moral corruption of modern society and for the blindness of peoples unable to grasp the wicked principles underlying obedience to political power.

  5. Schmitt e Maquiavel: da técnica ao conflito = Schmitt and Machiavelli: from technique to conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adverse, Helton Machado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available O primeiro objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar, em linhas gerais, a recepção de Maquiavel na obra de Carl Schmitt durante a década de 1920, concedendo especial atenção ao livro sobre a ditadura e àquele sobre o conceito do político, e destacando a significativa mudança na interpretação schmittiana a partir do momento em que está em jogo a busca pelo critério próprio do político. Em seguida, discutimos brevemente as razões que explicam esta mudança de apreciação. Por fim, examinamos por que, mesmo no momento em que se encontram mais próximos, resta entre esses autores uma irredutível exterioridade

  6. La Soberanía del Estado en su contexto histórico. Notas sobre Hobbes, Locke y Rousseau / State Sovereignty in a historical context. Notes on Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez, Ana Maria Jara

    2015-01-01

    Trabalho enviado em 15 de setembro de 2014. Aceito em 11 de fevereiro de 2015.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12957/rqi.2015.15359Resumen Resulta fundamental la idea de que existe una necesidad de contextualización histórica de los conceptos jurídico-políticos, que, por mucho que cambien y se modulen en el tiempo, siempre son, en mayor o menor medida, deudores del momento histórico de su génesis. Este estudio pretende poner de relieve algunos de los antecedentes históricos más importantes a la hor...

  7. On Hobbes' Ethical View on Utilitarianism%试述霍布斯的功利主义伦理观

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹国球; 刘光斌

    2004-01-01

    在恐惧的激情推动下,霍布斯致力于寻求和平的道德律,一是为苦难的人生,二是为年幼资本主义经济的发展,于是有了功利主义伦理观.其主要内容是:相对主义的善恶观、利己主义的人性观以及和平主义的自然律.文章对此做出了归结与评价.

  8. Powtórne stworzenie świata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Chodakowska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Szymon Wróbel’s considerations are situated at the intersection of philosophy, psychoanalysis and politics. The author uses the term “retroactivity” (nachträglich, known from the writings of Freud, to describe the way in which the individual transforms experiences from the past in their memory, reworks them, and gives them a new meaning, congruent with current needs and expectations. This also applies to reading, each of which fits in the project which the reader realises. Lektury retroaktywne (Retroactive readings is a constant and often surprising clash of many different - authors’ concepts, regardless of their origins: a game of questions and answers challenged immediately by new questions. This philosophy must be a dialogue – hence its dramatic nature. Wróbel recalls, confronts and deconstructs the texts of such thinkers as Thucydides, Machiavelli, Hobbes, Nietzsche, Foucault, Levi-Strauss, Chomsky and Piaget. He also acquaints the reader with significant diagnoses of philosophers associated with speculative realism.

  9. The enigma of candiduria: evolution of bladder irrigation with amphotericin B for management--from Anecdote to Dogma and a lesson from Machiavelli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, J P

    1993-01-01

    Candiduria has emerged as a common, vexing diagnostic and therapeutic problem over the past 40 years. Treatment by means of bladder irrigation with a solution of amphotericin B has become widely used in clinical practice. However, the specifics of the procedure--concentration of amphotericin B, use of continuous washing vs. instillation with cross-clamping to allow "dwell-times," and duration of treatment--are based entirely on anecdotal experiences. The published reports and evolution of recommendations are reviewed. A prospective randomized double-blind study is needed to provide answers. In the meantime, administration of 200-300 mL of amphotericin B solution by triple-lumen urethral catheter with cross-clamping for 60-90 minutes seems most appropriate. Irrigation for no longer than 2 days should suffice if the procedure is to be effective. The optimal concentration of amphotericin B has not been defined; however, 5-10 mg/L appears adequate.

  10. El príncep, Niccolò Machiavelli: elogi del passat, crítica del present, projecte del futur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Àngels B. Miró

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available El príncep és una obra fonamental dins la història de la filosofia política. Però no podem entendre l'obra cabdal de Maquiavel sense detenir-nos en la trajectòria personal i literària de l'autor i en l'entorn en què va viure.

  11. El pensamiento político de la Contrarreforma y la razón de estado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Comparato, Vittor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reconstructs the history of political thought from the sixteenth to the first decades of seventeenth century: a period of strong conflicts between the religious sphere and the political changes of the states in their trajectory towards absolutism. The analysis of the polemic against Machiavelli, Bodin and the politiques shows how it was questioned at the conceptual and practical levels the autonomy of politics from religious morality and the tendency of the states to evade ecclesiastical control respectively. The schools of thought discussed here –from anti-Machiavellism to the encomiastic literature of the existent governments, from Tacitism to the reason State, to the critical writings of the society, mainly utopia- outline on the one hand, the effort to preserve an image of politics as just government, with a virtuous prince, but on the other, the inevitable commitment to the praxis of political realism, well represented by the developments of the concept of reason of State in Botero and other writers from the seventeenth century. It was only with the arrival of Modern natural law which brought to the fore the questions of the origin and purpose of civil society, that political thought partly detached from the eternal conflict between morals and political praxis opening the era of rational and scientific research and individual rights.Este artículo reconstruye la historia del pensamiento político de la segunda mitad del siglo XVI a las primeras décadas del siglo XVII: un período de fuertes conflictos entre la esfera religiosa y los cambios políticos de los estados más avanzados hacia el absolutismo. El análisis de la polémica contra Maquiavelo, Bodin, y los politiques muestra como fueron cuestionados en el plano conceptual la autonomía de la política de la moral religiosa y en el plano práctico la tendencia de los estados a sustraerse del control eclesiástico. Las corrientes de pensamiento que se analizan aquí

  12. Following Hegel’s Sovereign Beast: An Excursus on the Right of Heroes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Ben David Nichols

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In The Beast and the Sovereign, Derrida addresses an association that is as paradoxical as it is common. On the one hand, it seems as if the sovereign is, or at least should be, the furthest from the beast. And yet, as soon as we consult the various archives of political mythology––myth, theology, philosophy, art, etc.––we find them together, inseparable despite their distance. The seminar itself is a continuation of his previous explorations of the host concepts and figures that populate the political and philosophical history of sovereignty. The course takes him through a series of texts that stretches from Plato, Machiavelli, Hobbes and Rousseau, to Freud, Heidegger, Lacan and Schmitt, among others, but his engagement with Hegel is limited. The few times that Hegel’s name does appear, it is almost exclusively a reference or aside within other more substantial engagements (Lacan and Heidegger, in particular. This absence is at least somewhat curious given the extent of Derrida’s previous engagements with Hegel’s corpus. I am not suggesting that this absence constitutes some essential oversight; rather, it is an opportunity to set out on an excursion from the course of The Beast and the Sovereign without leaving its territory. After all, Hegel also has an account of the origins of law. He, too, has a character that is set apart by his (almost animal quality. This figure arrives on stage before history begins. His role––and indeed his “right”––is to found the most basic elements of the state. We are told that his “right” is absolute. He is no Lord. He is not driven by a desire for the recognition of the other. However, who confers this “absolute” right? If his actions are not bound by any measure or proportion, how do we distinguish between the hero and the criminal?

  13. High-temperature process-steam application at the Southern Union Refining Company, Hobbs, New Mexico (solar energy in the oil patch). Phase I design. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-31

    Southern Union Refining Company's Famariss Energy Refinery has worked diligently with Monument Solar Corporation in the conceptual and detail design for this unique application of solar generated steam. An area closely adjacent to the refinery and fronting New Mexico State Highway No. 18 has been designated for the solar collector array. Space planned for the demonstration parabolic trough array is sufficiently large to handle an array of 25,200 square feet in size - an array more than twice the size of the 10,080 square feet proposed originally. The conceptual design, performance, safety, environmental impact, and economic analysis are described. Engineering drawings are included. (WHK)

  14. Uranium Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance data release for the New Mexico portions of the Hobbs and Brownfield NTMS quadrangles, New Mexico/Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, R.G.; Nunes, H.P.

    1978-06-01

    U concentrations in waters approximate a lognormal distribution with a mean of 4.73 parts per billion (ppB) for the combined water samples from the western halves of both quadrangles. The highest U concentration found in a water sample is 139.7 ppb. About 93% of these samples were collected from 1008 wells. Of the remainder, 1 sample was collected from a spring and 75 samples were collected from combined surface water sources of artificial and natural ponds. The mean U content of the samples from surface water sources (7.63 ppB) is higher than that of the samples from wells (4.50 ppB). The water samples having the highest U content are from wells and ponds in the western, and especially the northwestern, portion of the Brownfield quadrangle. Most waters containing less than 20 ppB U were collected from areas in which the Dockum group underlies a thin veneer of surficial deposits, near the edge of the caprock, or from saline ponds. The U concentrations in sediments approximate a normal distribution with a mean of 2.18 ppM for the 914 sediment samples collected from the western halves of both quadrangles. The highest U value found in a sediment sample is 19.3 ppM. Sediments were collected from 154 dry streams, 522 dry natural ponds, 166 dry artificial ponds, and a total of 72 wet natural ponds, wet artificial ponds, and springs. The mean U content for sediments derived from the wet sources (2.77 ppM) is noticeably higher than that from dry sources (2.11 ppM).The highest U contents within the report area generally are associated with sediments collected from locations in which the Dockum group underlies a thin cover of surficial deposits. A cluster of seven sediments containing more than 3.0 ppM U is centered at 33 0 34'N, 103 0 53'W, where a U occurrence is reported at the Hoffacker test hole in the middle Dockum group

  15. 77 FR 2096 - Notice of Availability of Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed International...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ... Center, 5101 Lovington Highway in Hobbs, New Mexico. For 1 hour prior to the public meeting, the NRC..., 5101 Lovington Highway in Hobbs, New Mexico. Informal Open House Session: 4:30-5:30 p.m. Draft EIS...

  16. Airpower in Hybrid War: Ethical Implications for the Joint Force Commander

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-15

    as Machiavelli wrote in The Prince , is “just” when it is “necessary.” 38 Confederate General William Sherman, in a letter to the mayor of Atlanta...Comprehensive Guide to the Peloponnesian War, ed. Robert B. Strassler (New York: Free Press, 1996), Chapter 17. 38 Niccolo Machiavelli , The Prince , 2 nd ed...Journal of Military Ethics 3 no. 3 (2004): 239. Machiavelli , Niccolo. Ed. and trans. by Harvey Claflin Mansfield. The prince . 2nd ed. Chicago, IL

  17. Strategic Forum. Number 285, January 2014. The Flawed Strategic Debate on Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    that the Syrian regime of 2015 and beyond will not count us among its benefactors. Niccolò Machiavelli wrote, “A prince must imitate the fox and...who_is_in_charge_of_us_syria_policy>. 60 Niccolò Machiavelli , The Prince , trans. Harvey Mansfield (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998), 69...very real possibility that Syria will not fulfill its chemi- cal weapons obligations under the agreement reached in late 2013. For as Machiavelli

  18. Friction in the U.S. Army During Irregular Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    PowerPlus Books, 2002), 86–97. 29Niccolo Machiavelli and Harvey C Mansfield, The Prince (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1985), 21–25...Gilbert, eds., Makers of Modern Strategy: From Machiavelli to the Nuclear Age (Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press, 1986), 155. 5... Machiavelli , influenced by Greek and Roman writings, provided the basic underpinning for acquisition of land and wealth.29 Of particular importance was the

  19. Proxy Forces, the Future of the Land Component in Coalition Operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    available to study in the context of this monograph’s specific question.32 29Niccolo Machiavelli , The Prince , Book III (London: Penguin Books, 1981...New York: Anchor Books, 1991. Machiavelli , Niccoli. The Prince . London: Penguin Books, 1981. Moore, Robin. The Hunt for Bin Laden--Task Force...long history. Academic study of the subject however has been limited. The great theorists of strategy, Niccolo Machiavelli and Carl von Clausewitz

  20. Alliances and Legitimacy: Walking the Operational Tightrope

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    Machiavelli , Niccolò. The Prince . 2nd ed. Chicago: University Of Chicago Press, 1998. Matlary, Janne Haaland. “The Legitimacy of Military Intervention...reflects the realist notions first enunciated by Niccolò Machiavelli in the early sixteenth century and more recently championed by IR theorists and

  1. La ética de la autoconservación y la teoría de los deberes políticos en el Leviatán de Hobbes*

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Cortéz Rodas

    2002-01-01

    “The Ethics of Self-Preservation and the Theory of Political Duties in Hobbes’ Leviathan”. In order to present the political argument in Thomas Hobbes’ Leviathan, the author proposes an interpretation of his doctrine developed by Alfred Taylor, Howard Warrender and Michael Oakeshott. According to this interpretation, Hobbesian ethics, as developed in his theory of the laws of nature, once distinguished from his selfish psychology, shows itself as a strict deontological ethics, very close to K...

  2. Hopes against Hobbes: On Authoritarianism, Regime Legitimation and Soft Power with a Review of Richard C. Bush’s Hong Kong in the Shadow of China: Living with the Leviathan (2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emile Kok-Kheng Yeoh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Richard C. Bush’s Hong Kong in the shadow of China: Living with the Leviathan (2016 represents an important study on post-“Handover” Hong Kong focusing on the making of the 2014 Occupy Campaign and Umbrella Movement and the impact on the coming development in politics, governance and economy of Hong Kong, taking into consideration China’s Hong Kong policy and the response of the Hong Kong people as well as the perspectives of Taiwan and the United States. This article, while reviewing the book, also provides a detailed analysis of the wider implications of the issues the author of the book has raised as regards Hong Kong – as China’s policy approach towards Hong Kong and by extension Taiwan and the struggle of the Hong Kong people, as well as the Taiwan people, to protect the political freedom and democratic rights they aspire to maintain (in the case of Hong Kong and that they have fought hard to secure (in Taiwan have impacts that reach far beyond Hong Kong and Taiwan in the light of the PRC’s current relentless global projection, riding on the wave of her economic miracle, of her hard and so-called “soft” power in a through an intricate nexus of her domestic and foreign policies that not only serves to strengthen domestic governance and enhance international influence but also involves extraterritorial actions to maintain CCP’s one-party authoritarianism.

  3. Drawing Out Theory: Art and the Teaching of Political Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Char R.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how to use art in introductory political theory courses. Provides examples of incorporating art to teach political theory, such as examining Machiavelli's "The Prince" and Michelangelo's "David" to understand Florentine (Florence, Italy) political theory. (CMK)

  4. The Professional Prince.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenstein, Erwin H.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    In a somewhat "tongue-in-cheek" style, 10 rules are outlined to serve as a guide for college professors to follow to become successful academic "princes." The rules are based on Machiavelli's "The Prince." (MD)

  5. The Educational Administrator as "The Prince".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Sarah

    1979-01-01

    Quoting from Machiavelli's "Il Principe", the author demonstrates by explication and example that what was true for fifteenth century Italy is true today and maintains that principles for successful administration are universal and timeless. (JC)

  6. Kas rüütel kartis hobust? / Mariam Selge

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Selge, Mariam

    2014-01-01

    Itaalia mõtleja Niccolo Machiavelli ja ratsaõpetuse autori Frederico Crisone mõtteid, kuidas varasel uusajal kasutati uhkeid turviseid vaenlastele hirmu tekitamiseks ja suulisi ratsastuses oma hobuste hirmutamiseks ning sõnakuulelikuse tagamiseks

  7. Kas juhtimine on piljardimäng või tennis? / Kulno Türk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Türk, Kulno, 1954-

    2002-01-01

    Kaasaegse juhtimise märksõnadeks on föderalism, liidud, meeskonnad, töötajate võimustamine ja initsiatiiv; autor tutvustab vastukaaluks Alistair McAlpine raamatu "Uus Machiavelli" seisukohti ärimaailma kohta

  8. Reason of State: The Absolute Power of Ivan Terrible and Stalin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Laird, Zachary

    2002-01-01

    In From Politics to Reason of State, Maurizio Viroli identifies Machiavelli as the chief mastermind of the transition from the end of politics as the art of establishing a good community to the aim...

  9. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-11-10

    Nov 10, 2017 ... Malaysia. 3Faculty of Civil Engineering, UniversitiTeknologi MARA, .... pottery, concrete, paints and the food industry where it is sometimes used (in conjunction with .... [4] Machiavelli N. The Columbia electronic encyclopedia.

  10. Nice Work if You Can Get Them To Do It.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Stanley

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the value for administrators of guidance offered by (1) the tenets of poststructuralism; (2) the book "An Uncertain Glory: Letters of Cautious but Sound Advice to Stanley, a Dean-in-Waiting"; and (3) Machiavelli's "Il Principe." (NH)

  11. Historical "Bad Guys": Biography as a Teaching Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Donald J.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a history course on the college level that uses biographies to help students connect important political leaders, such as Hitler and Machiavelli, to the time and place that shaped their actions. Reports on the effectiveness of the class. (RKM)

  12. The Political Economy of the United States Military Market: 1963-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    motivation 34 of individuals to behave morally. Rawls (1971) depicts a similar process, but in the opposite direction; where the moral (or cooperative...develop or maintain optimal levels of commitment. Machiavelli ([1513] 1995) argued that although a military leader should try to avoid being hated, it is...very necessary that he does not worry about a reputation for cruelty ( Machiavelli , p. 94)". On the other hand, Rousseau ([1762] 1951) argues that

  13. The Nature and Evaluation of Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    The Right to Life may not be overridden ............................................... 216 3. Reflective equilibrium: The views of John Rawls ...might happen to them. Machiavelli Introduction What is it about the activities of the Irgun and the IRA that makes it correct to say that they engaged in... Machiavelli have made his empirical claims about the effects of lying in The P -’nce nor could any progress have been made in illuminating the relevant

  14. Tacitus in historiographical and political literature of Humanism and the Renaissance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Capuder

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon called tacitism estab­ lished Tacitus' authority in the realm of politics strongly influenced by The Prince of Machiavelli. Because of the common caracteristics between the two protago­ nists (Cesare Borgia and Tiberius the Counter-Reformation, having a particu­ lar dislike for Machiavelli, substituted him with Tacitus when developing its concept of the Reason of State.

  15. 33 CFR 116.45 - Submission of bids, approval of award, guaranty of cost, and partial payments for bridges...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... award, guaranty of cost, and partial payments for bridges eligible for funding under the Truman-Hobbs... SECURITY BRIDGES ALTERATION OF UNREASONABLY OBSTRUCTIVE BRIDGES § 116.45 Submission of bids, approval of award, guaranty of cost, and partial payments for bridges eligible for funding under the Truman-Hobbs...

  16. An examination of the nexus between Thomas Hobbes‟ concept of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to remedy the above personality and drive of human beings, Hobbes found it imperative to propound a theory of the state, where all will be saved through a social contract. This paper is an attempt to establish a link between Hobbes' concept of human nature and his theory of the state. We articulate that it was the ...

  17. VENDED UM-JINGIR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Nazik E. M. Mustafa

    2011-09-05

    Sep 5, 2011 ... 2. Khartoum State Ministry of Health, P.O. Box 303 Khartoum, Sudan ... Um-Jingir is a fermented indigenous Sudanese food product made mainly from ... street vended Um-Jingir might have negative effects on public health. Therefore ..... McLauchlin J, Little C and BC Hobbs Hobbs' food poisoning and food.

  18. A Technology Analysis to Support Acquisition of UAVs for Gulf Coalition Forces Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    stamina .  UAV detection range is a sensor related factor that defines the maximum distance at which the sensor can detect targets.  Time between...columns; then, we divide each entry cell in the matrix by its column sum value (Bodin & Gass 2003). The average value in each row of the normalized

  19. On the Origin of Hobbes’s Conception of Language: The Literary Culture of English Renaissance Humanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio H. Orozco-Echeverri

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Hobbes' education in the literary culture of English Renaissance humanism has been overlooked as an important tradition in understanding his position in Early Modern Philosophy. Against the traditional readings of Hobbes' conception of language as a sequel to Medieval nominalism, I will argue that Hobbes' education in the literary culture of Renaissance humanism and his subsequent developments in this tradition would have allowed him to consider philosophical problems raised by new science in an original way and, thus, to introduce his innovative conception of language as the core of his solution to the problem of social and natural orders.

  20. Poder, autoridade e tradição

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José N. Heck

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The article starts focusing on Hobbes' absolutism under the scope of the traditional doctrine of natural right. Then exposes the complex relation between Hobbes and democracy and his notion of political representation. After reconstructing some of Hobbes' basic objections to classical political thought, the text tries to show that the English philosopher works, with respect to Aristotle, with a relatively unaltered concept of nature. The major objective of the paper is to configure the State as a genuine product of the intellectual performance of the English political theoretician.

  1. PATTERNS OF SEVEN AND COMPLICATED MALARIA IN CHILDREN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    Microbiological Safety of Street Vended Foods in Jigjiga City,. Eastern Ethiopia. Tesfaye Wolde ..... Management lay down the microbial quality of the foods that containing <4 log ..... Beer M, Letlape A, Hobbs C, & Swanepoel F. The. Greater.

  2. Valgustuse moraali- ja poliitikafilosoofid inimloomusest / Margit Sutrop

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sutrop, Margit, 1963-

    1999-01-01

    Briti valgustusfilosoofidest. Mandeville'i, Smith'i, Hobbes'i ja Rousseau kaastunde käsitlustest. Locke'i ja Rousseau' võrdlus. Ühiskondliku lepingu teooriast. Rousseau erinevusest briti filosoofidest

  3. 77 FR 55817 - Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... applicable to Southeastern power sold to existing preference customers in Mississippi, Alabama, Florida... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Virgil Hobbs, Assistant Administrator, Finance and Marketing, Southeastern...: Southeastern believes that each customer should look at their respective situations. Southeastern is not in a...

  4. Preparing Capable Decision Makers for an Uncertain Future within Underdeveloped, Degraded and Denied Operational Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    later in life’ (post primary education ) development effort, but also one which should – nea must – be initiated quite early. This might actually be...and thinker, Thomas Hobbes. (Interestingly, Hobbes apparently was the source for the tiger’s name within the comic strip ‘Calvin and Hobbes’; while...BROAD-BASED EDUCATION – T. HOBBES’ PHILOSOPHIES SCIENCE, that is, Kno wledg e of Con se- qu en ces ; which is called also PHILO- SOPHY Con seq uences

  5. An Approach to Machiavelli’s Conception of History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Samamé

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper sets forth the fundamental aspects of the conception of history supported by Machiavelli in the context of his political thought. It attempts to identify the assumptions in which it is grounded, and, at the same time, to extract its consequences. At this point, it becomes manifest a contradiction in the theoretical postulates adopted by Machiavelli, that makes possible two opposing interpretations about history. In the light of this antinomy, the article provides sufficient but not conclusive reasons for take side for one of the alternatives.

  6. TEMPORALITY AND SPATIALITY: OBSERVATIONS ON IDENTITY CRISIS AN EXAMPLE FROM AN ENVIRONMENTAL STRUCTURE IN SOUTHERN ITALY

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Nowadays territory and climate are recognized as factors that unquestionably affect social relationships. Many scholars (Crespi, 1992, p. 196) such as Aristotle, Jean Bodin, Charles Tocqueville and the Baron of Montesquieu (1973, p. 97), just to mention a few, have been concerned with this kind of conditioning influence. In particular, Montesquieu claims that there is a straight connection between democratic, republican and despotic forms of government and the spatiality of ter...

  7. Examining ISIS Support and Opposition Networks on Twitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Examining ISIS Support and Opposition Networks on Twitter Elizabeth Bodine-Baron, Todd C. Helmus, Madeline Magnuson, Zev Winkelman C O R P O R A T...Syria (ISIS), like no other terrorist organization before, has used Twitter and other social media channels to broadcast its message, inspire followers...and recruit new fighters. Though much less heralded, ISIS opponents have also taken to Twitter to cas- tigate the ISIS message. This report draws on

  8. Crafting Strategic Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Education leaders know how to work hard, but how can they learn to work smarter and to lead better? There are bookshelves full of works on leadership based on the lives of luminaries ranging from Sun Tzu, a Chinese general who wrote "The Art of War," and General Patton to Machiavelli and Lincoln. Although they offer inspiration, such works do not…

  9. Merleau-Ponty entre Machiavel et Marx: vers une nouvelle analogie du corps politique

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gléonec, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 1 (2015), s. 70-96 ISSN 2226-5260 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Merleau-Ponty * flesh * life * politics * passivity * Marx * Machiavelli Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion http://horizon.spb.ru/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=460&Itemid=152&lang=ru

  10. Ledelsesfilosofi og Praksis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Frederik; Fast, Michael

    2015-01-01

    , som f.eks. Machiavellis ”Fyrsten”, Platons ”Statsmanden”, Taylors ”The Principles of Scientific Management” og Fayols ”General and Industrial Management”, har ledelse og ledelsesforskningen således koncentreret sig om ledelsestyper, god/rigtig ledelse, management/organisering og arbejdsdeling...

  11. X-Article: Iran Operational Design, Clausewitz, and American Diplomacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    the development of a U.S. strategy centered on revitalizing the Green Movement for peaceful regime transformation in 2013. Niccolo Machiavelli...Resolution on Syria,” July 19, 2012, linked from The United Nations Home Page at “UN News Centre,” http://www.un.org/ apps /news/story.asp?NewsID

  12. Kautilya, Sisyphus and development studies : on policy, administration and well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. Björkman (James Warner)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractTwenty-three centuries ago, over five times the span of years since Niccolo Machiavelli wrote The Prince and The Discourses, an Indian Brahmin composed a political treatise on government called theArthasastra. That treatise byKautilya - or Chanakya, as he is sometimes known - synthesized

  13. Machiavellian rather than Machiavellic: the Presence of The Prince, Discourses on Livy and Life of Castruccio Castracani in Gracián’s The Politician King Ferdinand the Catholic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Saralegui Benito

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common topics in Gracián’s bibliography is to study the influence of machiavellism in his works. It has been usual to stress Gracián’s machiavellism. In this large bibliography, more attention has been paid to describe Gracián as a machiavellian than to study how particular ideas and works of Machiavelli are present in his works. In this article, I want to describe how El político Don Fernando el Católico includes ideas from The prince, the Discourses and The life of Castruccio Castracani, a work neglected by Gracián’s scholars. Among others, the ideas that Gracián shares with Machiavelli are the following: the theory of occasion and riscontro, the division of the politician character between impulsive and prudent, the criterion to evaluate political succes and the method to write a political biography. The result of my research shows that Gracián, instead of being a purely machiavellian thinker, shares with Machiavelli a great number of ideas, many of which have nothing to do with the immoral Machiavelli.

  14. The Interim Years of Cyberspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    of things. — Machiavelli Cyber power will be as revolutionary to warfare as airpower, but the current vectoring of the domain will determine which na...Carl von Clausewitz, On War, ed. and trans. Michael Howard and Peter Paret ( Princ - eton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1976), 101. 31. “Cyber Command

  15. The Glass Ceiling for Remotely Piloted Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    who by valorous ways become princes , like these men, acquire a prin- cipality with difficulty, but they keep it with ease. —Niccolò Machiavelli , 1513...Though written 500 years ago, Machiavelli’s The Prince remains a seminal treatise on the art of acquiring and maintaining politi-cal power. The book

  16. Machiavellian Precepts in Shakespeare's Plays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Ann

    In "The Prince" Machiavelli offers a cool, practical and unsentimental look at what man is. He offers hands-on instruction for achieving stability and a well-run principality. Whether or not Shakespeare read "The Prince," which was not translated until years after the playwright's death, the book's principles were generally in…

  17. Is Military Science Scientific?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    the Battlefields of Modernity (New York: Columbia University Press, 2009). 4 John Shy, “Jomini,” in Makers of Modern Strategy: From Machiavelli to...War, ed. and trans. Michael Howard and Peter Paret ( Princ - eton: Princeton University Press, 1984), 117. 21 Hayek, “Pretense of Knowledge.” 22 Van

  18. In Defense of the Defense: The Continuing Political Value of Denial of Enemy Aims

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Propositions, 8–19, 28–40. 4. Carl von Clausewitz, On War, ed. and trans. Michael Howard and Peter Paret ( Prince - ton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1976), 81...From Machiavelli to the Nuclear Age (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1986), 148, 154–55, 159, 161, 168–70, 174–75. 40. Clausewitz, On War

  19. Nuclear Deterrence in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-25

    Freedman, Makers of Modern Strategy from Machiavelli to the Nuclear Age (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986), 735. 4 Carl von Clausewitz, On...26 Scott D. Sagan , "How to Keep the Bomb from Iran," Foreign Affairs 85, (September/October 2006): 45 27 Matthew Bunn, "Bombs We Can Stop

  20. Military Professional Ethics, Code of Conduct, and Military Academies’ Honor Codes,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-01

    Vietnam. Wall Street Journal 32:4, 16 April 1982. _ Machiavelli , management, and moral leadership. U.S. Air Force Academy Journal of Professional Military...August 19-9. Rawls , Wendell, Jr. A marine court finds Garwood helped foe as a Vietnam P.O.W1. New York Times 1:1+, 6 February 1981. Raymond, Richard. They

  1. Soldier Capability - Army Combat Effectiveness (SCACE). Volume 2. Selected Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-01

    and Horowitz, Dan. The Israeli Army. London: Allen Lane, 1975. 346. Machiavelli , Niccolo. The Discourses. In The Prince and the Dis- courses. New York...5. 1967. Fort Worth, TX: Institute of Behavioral Research, Texas Christian University, July 1958. 46 AL - - ---- ISE 490. Sells, S. B., and Rawls , J

  2. Surrender - A Soldier’s Legal, Ethical, and Moral Obligations; with Philippine Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-02

    69 - this view. Contemporary philosophers John Rawles , Alan Gerwirth, and Henry Shue, among others, express the conviction that each person can claim a...34 Machiavelli , Management, and Moral Leadership," in Military Ethics, edited by Wakin, Wenker, and Kempf, p.38. 48 Ibid., pp. 41 and 44. 49 Morris Janowitz

  3. The Antiaircraft Journal. Volume 92, Number 5, September-October 1949

    Science.gov (United States)

    1949-10-01

    philosophical reflections on the subject of po’werand those to whom it should be entrusted. Recall the words of much-studied Machiavelli , than whom...Leavenworth. Kan. Rauch. A. R, Comm. of Basic Phys. Sc.• Res. & Dev. Board, Pentagon. \\Vash. 25. D. C. Rawls . J. W., Jr.. AFF Liaison Off.. Boeing Aircraft

  4. Making organization research matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    2006-01-01

    Aristotle and Machiavelli to Max Weber and Pierre Bourdieu. Finally, we must effectively and dialogically communicate the results of our research to our fellow citizens and carefully listen to their feedback. If we do this – focus on specific values and interests in the context of particular power relations...

  5. Command and Control: US Army Staffs and the Operations Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    Architecture , 2nd ed. (New York: Elsevier, 2006). 2...Mainly technical experts in logistics and engineering, these proto-staff officers enabled both the Egyptian and Assyrian empires to conquer many of...Platform for Designing Business Architecture . New York: Elsevier, 2006, 2d edition. Gilbert, Felix. “Machiavelli: The Renaissance of the Art of War.” In

  6. A Natureza Humana segundo Maquiavel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvino José Assmann

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available MACHIAVELLI, Niccolò. Istorie Fiorentine. Libro III, par. 13. In: Tutte le Opere. Organizado por M. Martelli. Firenze, Sansoni, 1971, pp. 700-702 Tradução para Língua Portuguesa por Selvino Assmann

  7. A Good Suit Beats a Good Idea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machiavelli, Nick

    1992-01-01

    Inspired by Niccolo Machiavelli, this column offers beleaguered school executives advice on looking good, dressing well, losing weight, beating the proper enemy, and saying nothing. Administrators who follow these simple rules should have an easier life, jealous colleagues, well-tended gardens, and respectful board members. (MLH)

  8. Berlusconi og den moderne fyrste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Gert

    voksende forbrugermentalitets gennembrud. Tredje del sætter ind over for Berlusconis frontale angreb på de demokratiske principper og samler op omkring Italiens dybe krise. Den gennemgående analytiske figur er hentet fra Machiavellis Fyrsten om magtens mål og med. Dele af bogen er blevet til i samarbejde...

  9. The History Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Matt; Brady, Ann

    2005-01-01

    Matt Estes, a social studies teacher, mentions the main instructional goals for his students like understanding the importance of proper citation and attribution presenting the Machiavelli project that deals with the skills he wants his students to develop and the course material that must be covered. In addition, Ann Brady, a library media…

  10. Force and Accommodation in World Politics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spangler, Stanley

    1991-01-01

    ..." and "carrots" to achieve political objectives. Clearly the subject-the use of force and accommodation to achieve political ends-is a topic that has been analyzed over the years by a host of observers, ranging from Niccol Machiavelli to John F. Kennedy...

  11. School Discipline: Better to Be Loved or Feared?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Michael R.

    1986-01-01

    Asks whether Machiavelli or St. Benedict of Nursia provides the better model for school administration and student discipline. Finds Benedict's teachings, which stress love, prudence, and the avoidance of extremes, better suited to the traditions and spirituality of Catholic education. (DMM)

  12. Home Is Where the Job Is.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machiavelli, Nick

    1993-01-01

    Niccolo Machiavelli's buddy Louis made a big mistake in his unsuccessful takeover of a neighboring kingdom: not living there. It is better for school executives to live in community where they work than to live somewhere else. Community members have to feel school leaders share their values, traffic problems, and water. Ways to bypass these…

  13. Education and the Child Labor Paradox Today. Essay Review of "Children on the Streets of the Americas" (Roslyn A. Mickelson, editor); "The Policy Analysis of Child Labor: A Comparative Study" (Christiaan Grootaert, Harry Anthony Patrinos); "What Works for Working Children?" (Jo Boyden, Birgitta Ling, William Myers); "Child Employment in Britain: A Social and Psychological Analysis" (Sandy Hobbs, Jim McKechnie); and "Bud, Not Buddy" (Christopher Paul Curtis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, David

    2001-01-01

    Reviews five books on child labor, published 1997-2000, with reference to the International Labour Organization's 1999 convention that retreats from its previous hard stance on child labor. Discusses street children; public policy on child labor, child welfare, and school attendance; types of children's work; and working children as agents…

  14. Acoustic radiation force on an air bubble and soft fluid spheres in ideal liquids: example of a high-order Bessel beam of quasi-standing waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, F G

    2009-04-01

    The partial wave series for the scattering of a high-order Bessel beam (HOBB) of acoustic quasi-standing waves by an air bubble and fluid spheres immersed in water and centered on the axis of the beam is applied to the calculation of the acoustic radiation force. A HOBB refers to a type of beam having an axial amplitude null and an azimuthal phase gradient. Radiation force examples obtained through numerical evaluation of the radiation force function are computed for an air bubble, a hexane, a red blood and mercury fluid spheres in water. The examples were selected to illustrate conditions having progressive, standing and quasi-standing waves with appropriate selection of the waves' amplitude ratio. An especially noteworthy result is the lack of a specific vibrational mode contribution to the radiation force determined by appropriate selection of the HOBB parameters.

  15. Divide and rule. The economic and legal implications of the proposed ownership unbundling of distribution and supply companies in the Dutch electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baarsma, B.; Nooij, M. de

    2007-01-01

    In Machiavelli's theory of power, the concept of 'divide and rule' forms the main theme: the ruler has absolute power and to maintain and increase such power all means are justified. When viewed against the background of this theory, the current debate in the Netherlands on the unbundling of energy (electricity, gas) companies can be observed as an example of 'divide and rule', in which the Dutch Minister of Economic Affairs plays a central role. Yet, contrary to Machiavelli in his time, the Dutch government does, in fact, aim principally at the greater welfare of the Dutch people. It is therefore noteworthy that, while important steps in the decision to unbundled have been taken, there is no evidence that the Dutch people will indeed benefit from the envisaged unbundling. (author)

  16. Divide and rule. The economic and legal implications of the proposed ownership unbundling of distribution and supply companies in the Dutch electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baarsma, Barbara; Nooij, Michiel de; Koster, Weero; Weijden, Cecilia van der

    2007-01-01

    In Machiavelli's theory of power, the concept of 'divide and rule' forms the main theme: the ruler has absolute power and to maintain and increase such power all means are justified. When viewed against the background of this theory, the current debate in the Netherlands on the unbundling of energy (electricity, gas) companies can be observed as an example of 'divide and rule', in which the Dutch Minister of Economic Affairs plays a central role. Yet, contrary to Machiavelli in his time, the Dutch government does, in fact, aim principally at the greater welfare of the Dutch people. It is therefore noteworthy that, while important steps in the decision to unbundled have been taken, there is no evidence that the Dutch people will indeed benefit from the envisaged unbundling

  17. Divide and rule. The economic and legal implications of the proposed ownership unbundling of distribution and supply companies in the Dutch electricity sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baarsma, B.; Nooij, M. de [University of Amsterdam (Netherlands). SEO Economic Research; Koster, W.; Weijden, C. van der [Norton Rose Advocaten and Solicitors, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2007-03-15

    In Machiavelli's theory of power, the concept of 'divide and rule' forms the main theme: the ruler has absolute power and to maintain and increase such power all means are justified. When viewed against the background of this theory, the current debate in the Netherlands on the unbundling of energy (electricity, gas) companies can be observed as an example of 'divide and rule', in which the Dutch Minister of Economic Affairs plays a central role. Yet, contrary to Machiavelli in his time, the Dutch government does, in fact, aim principally at the greater welfare of the Dutch people. It is therefore noteworthy that, while important steps in the decision to unbundled have been taken, there is no evidence that the Dutch people will indeed benefit from the envisaged unbundling. (author)

  18. Erasmo, Maquiavel e Moro e a Modernidade: Estilos e Projetos Sociais na Filosofia Política Renascentista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Ferreira da Cunha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The centenaries and other similar celebrations have the “gift” of not letting erase the memory of important facts, personalities and works that the present times consider relevant. But obviously they have a great ideological footprint and promote not a little deal of trivialization, raising celebrity to the "worst of misunderstandings" as Jorge Luis Borges observed. On the contrary, in a critical perspective, we point out three giants of the political philosophy of modernity: Erasmus, Machiavelli and More, authors of three fundamental works for the "styles" of thinking politics, law and power in future times. This article also emphasizes, in its dialogue the dimensions of the social project, be it a social criticism (mainly Erasmus, be it a political treaty (specially Machiavelli, or a utopia and similar (namely More.

  19. Kautilya, Sisyphus and development studies : on policy, administration and well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Björkman, James Warner

    1991-01-01

    textabstractTwenty-three centuries ago, over five times the span of years since Niccolo Machiavelli wrote The Prince and The Discourses, an Indian Brahmin composed a political treatise on government called theArthasastra. That treatise byKautilya - or Chanakya, as he is sometimes known - synthesized behavioural principles and propositions which have remarkable relevance to development studies. As I searched for a cornerstone on which to base myinaugural lecture here at the ISS, I recalled my ...

  20. The Impacts of Corruption on Economic Development in Afghanistan: A Study of the Effects of Nepotism and Bribery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    corruption as it changes over time. He references philosophers such as Plato , Aristotle and Machiavelli.2 Plato introduces the initial analyses of...corruption as human flaw introduced into governments that distorts and perverts them. Aristotle takes Plato further by identifying the transformation...reemphasizes that while corrupt practices are condoned and rationalized , more damaging forms of corruption will become acceptable. Corruption can co-exist with

  1. Brazils Rise to Global Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    International Relations ISI Import Substitution Industrialization LATAM Latin America MERCOSUR South American Common Market NAFTA North American Free...numerous occasions that they view BRIC as an emerging trade bloc that will eventually constitute an alternative to the Western-dominated system led by...capabilities.208 As an offensive realist, Niccolo Machiavelli argues that the ends justify the means.209 Therefore, what constitutes ‘the right’ must

  2. "Tetsugaku Manga". Filosofia occidentale a fumetti in Giappone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Marca, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyse some Japanese comics based on important works of Western philosophers. The focus is on the direct use of philosophical texts, by reference to the “Manga de Dokuha“ series published by East Press. Following a brief introduction of this series and its purposes, a more detailed analysis based on two well-known philosophical classics: Human, All Too Human, by Friederich Nietzsche, and The Prince, by Niccolò Machiavelli, is conducted.

  3. Il Sapore della storia. Maquiavelo y los clásicos en “El príncipe” y en los “Discursos sobre la década de Tito Livio”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge del PALACIO

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo analiza el papel de los clásicos en las dos principales obrasde pensamiento político de Nicolás Maquiavelo: El Príncipe y los Discursossobre la primera década de Tito Livio. En este artículo se va a sostener que elvalor que Maquiavelo otorga a los clásicos en su obra está vinculado a la ideade experiencia como fuente principal del conocimiento político. Para ello elartículo se dividirá en tres partes. En primer lugar se presentará la importanciade los clásicos en la composición de El Príncipe y los Discursos. En segundolugar se analizará la idea de la política sobre la que descansa la importanciaque Maquiavelo concede a los clásicos. En tercer y último lugar se analizará larelevancia del estudio de los clásicos en la formación humanística deMaquiavelo.The present work analyzes the role played by classical thinkers in the two chiefpolitical works of Nicholas Machiavelli: The Prince and the Discourses on Livy. Ishall maintain that the value which Machiavelli awards classical thinkers in hiswork is related to the idea that experience is the most important source ofpolitical knowledge. To this end, the essay shall be divided into three parts. Tobegin with, I shall explain the importance of classical thought in the compositionof the Prince and the Discourses. Secondly, I shall elucidate the idea of politicson the basis of which rests the importance of the classics for Machiavelli. Andfinally, I shall explain the way in which the study of the classics was essential toMachiavelli's humanistic education.

  4. The Importance of Ethics in Counterinsurgency Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-25

    4 Niccolo Machiavelli , “The Prince”, in Steven M. Cahn, Classics of Political and Moral Philosophy, (New York: Oxford University Press 2002) 339 5...favored form of government within Western Society is that broadly 9 16 John Rawls , “The Law of Peoples” (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2003) 138...Western Society generally follows what John Rawls would call “a well ordered constitutional democracy”16. America is an excellent example of a

  5. Just Democracy. A Radical Assessment.

    OpenAIRE

    Jacquemain, Marc

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a tentative assessment of the Rawls-Machiavelli program by Philippe Van Paris, who proposes that justice is the main goal of political action (in a Rawlsian perspective) and democracy is only instrumental (the Machiavellian part of the program). The paper adresses three questions to the proposal of Philippe Van Paris : 1) Can democracy be properly defined without a condition of public debate ? 2) Don't "realistic politics" underestimate the margin of possibility we have to chang...

  6. A Search for Warriors: The Effects of Technology on the Air Force Ethos

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-04-01

    quoted by Oberstleutnant Peter F. Hauser, and Lt Col John Rawls , C., and Maj. John C. Ornduff, “Lessons from the Kriegsakademie: A Reflection of the...Engagement: A Vision for the 21st Century Air Force. Washington DC: Headquarters USAF, November 1996. Hauser, Oberstleutnant Peter F., and Rawls , Lt Col...Modern Strategy from Machiavelli to the Nuclear Age. Princeton, NJ.: Princeton University Press, 1986. “Recent Space Issues and Development.” Air Force

  7. Ethics and the Military Profession War and Morality,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-04-01

    Press, 1974. 25-45. Borrowing terminology ("rule-utilitarian- ism of the ’contractual’ variety") from John Rawls ’ A Theory of Justice, Brandt tries...and philosophical smorgasbord offering a variety of tidbits concerned with man and the thoughts on warfare. Ruskin, W. James, Orwell, Machiavelli , G. B...1958. See particularly the lucid article by Brandt, "Blameworthiness and Obligations," pp. 82-107. -22- Rawls , John. A Theory of Justice. Cambridge

  8. Confederate Staff Work At Chickamauga: An Analysis of the Staff of the Army of Tennessee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-05

    Strategy: from Machiavelli to the Nuclear Age, Peter Paret, ed., (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986), 143-185, presents an excellent summary...Lieut. P. B. Spence Asst. Inspector General Lieut. John Rawle Acting Chief of Ordnance Capt Felix H. Robertson Acting Chief of Artillery Maj. J. J...F. Sevier Asst. Inspector General Lieut. P. B. Spence Asst. Inspector General Lieut. John Rawle Acting Chief of Ordnance Lt. Col. Marshall T. Polk

  9. Statens diagram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Når vi skal følge statens legender, må vi træffe et valg. Hvilket ord skal vi bruge, og var der stater før ordet "stat" kom til verden? Ordet blev brugt i 1500-tallet hos Machiavelli og før det hos Thomas Aquinas, hvor status ikke blot betød "stand", men også et samfunds "tilstand" eller forfatning...

  10. Il canone linguistico boccacciano, non senza dissenso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Casini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Author of prose’s greatest masterpiece of medieval literature in the vernacular, Giovanni Boccaccio was crucial to defining the Italian language canon, especially since Pietro Bembo proposed its coding in the sixteenth century. Not without controversy, however, since shortly after the publication of Prose Della Volgar Language, Bembo presents the first contrasting theories that support the linguistic model presented by Machiavelli

  11. Inspirace současného managementu strategickými prvky používanými ve vojenství

    OpenAIRE

    Schubert, Petr

    2008-01-01

    In today's globalised hypercompetition dominated world, companies are often fighting for survival. This theses tries to verify, if a way out could be found in the usage of strategic elements used in military approaches. Inspiration is sought in Sunzi ("The Art of War"), Carl von Clausewitz ("On War") and Nicollo Machiavelli ("The Prince"). The company's goal is to generate profit and managers should aim to achieve this goal by using every available information and opportunity, preferably with...

  12. Philosophy and Morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    Philosophical thinking which has stood the test of time is summarized in this document. The rationale is that all students benefit from studies of philosophical thinking emphasizing moral standards. Thinkers included are: Plato, Aristotle, Peter Abelard, Francis Bacon, Sir Thomas More, Thomas Campanella, Thomas Hobbes, Benedict Spinoza, John…

  13. Identity Dilemmas: The Consequence of Identity in Protracted Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    prescribe method, or promote thought, the contributions of Thucydides, Plato , Aristotle, Hobbes, Locke, Kant and others offer penetrating insight into...Lebow, A Cultural Theory, 180. 28 Ibid., 180. For an exceptional examination of ontological security-seeking behavior and how rational security

  14. 78 FR 42764 - Cumberland System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Virgil G. Hobbs III, Assistant Administrator, Finance and Marketing, Southeastern Power... responsible for marketing may exceed market rates. Southeastern will work with the U.S. Army Corps of... rates for power will be the lowest possible rates consistent with sound business principles. Response 4...

  15. Exploring Baseline Food-Media Literacy of Adult Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Tina L.

    2012-01-01

    Many media education researchers have identified the importance of adult media literacy but few have studied it. Such literacy is becoming increasingly important with regard to the growing category of food media--advertisements, television programs, and print media among them. Using two focus groups and guided by Primack and Hobbs' (2009) AA, RR,…

  16. The Role of Education in Upholding the Development of Human Rights Regimes: The Case of the Palestinian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuibat, Mohammad; Abu Samra, Mahmoud; Shuibat, Nida

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a historical background of the Palestinian education. It outlines a theoretical basis for the development of Human Rights Regimes. The paper tackles the views of some philosophers like Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau and Kant who laid down the foundations for the development of Human Rights Regimes. The paper illustrates that Human…

  17. Laying aside the spear : Hobbesian warre and the Maussian gift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corbey, R.H.A.

    2006-01-01

    The pacification of a primordial, violent natural state of humankind by a social contract based on reciprocal exchange is a widespread preconception, from Thomas Hobbes and Enlightenment social thought to Marcel Mauss and Claude Lévi-Strauss. In this contribution, the structure, historical

  18. Menneskerettigheder - det almenmenneskelige og det kulturelt bestemte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Med inddragelse af en skelnen mellem borgerrettigheder og menneskerettigheder søger kapitlet at afdække det værdisæt, der ligger bag tanken om universelle menneskerettigheder bl.a. med inddragelse af Thomas Hobbes og John Lockes naturretstænkning. Herefter gives et historisk vue over udviklingen af...

  19. Jumala poliitika / Mark Lilla ; tlk. Märt Väljataga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lilla, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Jumala olemasolust, kosmose ülesehitusest, hingest, asjade algusest ja lõpust poliitilises teoloogias. Inglise filosoofi Thomas Hobbes'i poliitilise teoloogia mõjudest lääne liberaal-demokraatlikule ühiskonnale. Peale Prantsuse revolutsiooni tekkinud Jean-Jacques Rousseau "liberaalsest teoloogiast" ja selle arengutest kuni tänapäevani. Poliitilise teoloogia ja liberaalse demokraatia vastuoludest

  20. Conscience and Politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Richard G.

    1984-01-01

    The meaning and understanding of conscience in political thought are examined. The problem of distinguishing apparent and real conscience and private and public judgment is illustrated by contrasting the acts of conscience of Socrates and Thomas More with the rejection of private judgment against the state in Hobbes and Locke. (RM)

  1. Burke, Nietzsche, Lacan: Three Perspectives on the Rhetoric of Order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Douglas

    1993-01-01

    Examines the complex relationship between rhetoric and order in the works of Kenneth Burke, Friedrich Nietzsche, and Jacques Lacan. Argues for three differing, yet complementary, views of rhetoric and order, each having a corresponding epistemology and axiology. Concludes with an analysis of the construction of order in Thomas Hobbe's…

  2. Allan Bloom, America, and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Refutes the claims of Allan Bloom that the source of the problem with today's universities is modern philosophy, that the writings and ideas of Hobbes and Locke planted the seeds of relativism in American culture, and that the cure is Great Books education. Suggests instead that America's founding principles are the only solution to the failure of…

  3. Democratic Miseducation: Preparing Students for Democracies That Do Not Exist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Geoffrey M.

    The political educator takes the perspective that, in Thomas Hobbes's phrase, "man is not born fit for society." To make him so fit, contemporary political educators seek to develop individual autonomy and democratic affect, which would have the added task of reforming all of society in the future. The current consensus holds that the…

  4. Extraction Methodological Contributions Toward Ultra-Performance Liquid ChromatographyTime-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry: Quantification of Free GB from Various Food Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    J.R.; Stubbs, S.J.; Read, R.W.; Evans, R.A.; Thomas , J.D.; Blake, T.A.; Johnson, R.C. Simultaneous Measurement of Tabun, Sarin, Soman, Cyclosarin, VR...Pesticide Residues in Food? J. Chromatogr. A 2000, 868, 51–61. 19. Schenck, F.J.; Podhorniak, L.V.; Hobbs , J.; Casanova, J.; Donoghue, D. Liquid

  5. Walter Warner (ca.1557-1643) and his notes on Animal Organisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, Johannes Lambertus Maria

    1992-01-01

    As opposed to most of his contemporaries, Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) assumed that all phenomena could be explained in terms of matter in motion. All the more intriguing is his suggestion that what he wrote came out of his own head. Yet, already during his lifetime he was accused of having taken

  6. Ethical Implications of Thomas Reid's Philosophy of Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skopec, Eric Wm.

    Eighteenth century Scottish philosopher Thomas Reid's emphasis on first principles of knowledge is fundamental to his ethics of rhetoric. Reid found the reduction of mental activities to material phenomena by Hobbes and others to be particularly odious and destructive of common sense. Turning to the analysis of human nature, he developed a radical…

  7. Contratarianismo hobbesiano?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Kuhn de Oliveira

    2016-09-01

    Thomas Scanlon buscou desenvolver uma abordagem contratualista da moralidade partindo de argumentos fundados apenas em princípios que ninguém poderia razoavelmente rejeitar. Ele acreditava que a maior parte das teorias contratualistas era fundamentada apenas em acordos realizados por agentes autointeressados e queria apresentar uma versão diferente de contrato social. Ele decidiu, então, chamar contratualismo sua teoria e outras fundamentadas na razoabilidade e contratarianismo aquelas fundadas na racionalidade entendida como busca pelo autointeresse. Essa se tornou uma distinção usual e Hobbes tem sido classificado como contratarianista. A posição ocupada por Hobbes deveria, entretanto, ser examinada em detalhe. A compreensão de Hobbes da racionalidade é diferente do autointeresse. Além disso, ele liga a descoberta das leis de natureza, que comandam a reciprocidade, à razão. No entanto, o interesse na preservação da própria vida é um fim importante na teoria dele. O objetivo do presente artigo é mostrar que a teoria de Hobbes é mais interessante e complexa do que a definição do contratarianismo.

  8. Algunas Notas sobre Domingo de Soto y la Prehistoria del Estado de Naturaleza Hobbesiano || Some notes about Domingo de Soto and the prehistory of Hobbe’s state of nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jiménez Castaño

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El objetivo de este breve trabajo es mostrar algunas relaciones que pueden ser trazadas entre las teorías políticas del teólogo español Domingo de Soto y el filósofo inglés Thomas Hobbes. De hecho, lo que intentamos probar es que el concepto de dominio de Soto y sus opiniones sobre el estado del hombre después de la Caída tienen cierta presencia en el estado de naturaleza que Hobbes usa para demostrar la necesidad del Estado. ABSTRACT: The aim of this brief work is to show some relations that can be drawn between the political theories of the Spanish theologian Domingo de Soto and the English philosopher Thomas Hobbes. In fact, what we want to prove is that Soto’s concept of dominion and his opinions about the state of man after the fall have some presence in the state of nature that Hobbes uses to demonstrate the necessity of the State.

  9. Final Evaluation of Assignment: Media Literacy. A Report to the Discovery Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubey, Robert; Serafin, Gina Marcello

    The Assignment: Media Literacy curriculum is a 6-module media literacy curriculum developed by Renee Hobbs of Babson College and her staff in collaboration with the Discovery Channel. There are three versions of Assignment: Media Literacy, one for elementary school students, one for middle school students, and one for high school students. Close…

  10. 5. Faye.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    5 sept. 2007 ... sexuels. Il définit les valeurs et attitudes qu'une communauté ou une société ..... Hobbes estime qu'à l'état de nature, les femmes sont égales aux ..... qu'est richesse ce qui satisfait un besoin, cette fonction de satisfaction défi-.

  11. Discourses of Indiscipline: An Informal Hobbesian Riposte to Cate Watson

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Classroom battles are real and not a metaphor. Warfare is a historical and present fact of human life. Life really is a battle and conflict inevitable; injuries to the psyche are just as real as those to the body. Schools cannot step outside society. It is not Foucault but Thomas Hobbes who offers the most perceptive insight into human behaviour…

  12. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (86th, Kansas City, Missouri, July 30-August 2, 2003). Miscellaneous Divisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003

    The Miscellaneous Divisions of the proceedings contains the following 17 papers: "Analyzing Sequential Art: Visual Narrative Techniques in 'Calvin and Hobbes'" (Sharron M. Hope); "A Critical Vision of Gender in 2002 Campaign Ads" (Janis Teruggi Page); "Personal Impact Assessment of Advertising Culture of 'Whiteness':…

  13. The (social) construction of the world – at the crossroads of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In early modern philosophy the motive of logical creation emerged in reaction to the Greek-Medieval legacy of a realistic metaphysics. The dominant nominalistic trends of thought since Thomas Hobbes and Immanuel Kant explored its rationalistic implications. The latter drew the radical (humanistic) conclusion that the laws ...

  14. Epistemological Syncretism in a Biology Classroom: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, William D.; Park, Soonhye

    2011-01-01

    In teaching science, the beliefs of teachers may come into conflict and inhibit the implementation of reformed teaching practice. An experienced biology teacher, Mr. Hobbs, was found to have two different sets of epistemological beliefs while his classroom practice was predominantly teacher-centered. A case study was then performed in order to…

  15. Collage with Photoshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparkman, Russell

    The creative processes of 14 computer graphic artists are recorded in this book. Artists represented include: Joseph Kelter; Glenn Mitsui; Diane Fenster; Steve Lyons; Jeff Brice; Thirst; Pamela Hobbs; Lance Hidy; SKOLOS/WEDELL; Marcolina Design/Dan Marcolina; John Hersey; David Carson; Bert Monroy; and Jack Davis. The narrative provides insight…

  16. LEIBNIZ AND RALPH CUDWORTH ON FRBE:DOM. NECESSITY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    as simply a man chosen by God to provide prophecies to. · the world .... in reaction to Hobbes' A Treatise CJD LtDerty and Necemity which was ... if all human actions were necessary, men would .... and nothing moving itself, the action of every.

  17. Laureates

    Science.gov (United States)

    BAUTISTA JEFF BROUGHTON DOUG BURKHARDT TINA DECLERCK STEPHANIE COLLINS THOMAS DAVIS BRENT DRANEY KATHY EIDSON STEVE FILIPPOFF JEFF GROUNDS JIM HASLAM JACK HEFFERNAN SCOTT HOBBS LISA HUNT ERNIE JEW KATHERINE JOHNSON GLENN KERIN MIKE KINCAID TODD LABERGE KEITH LAFORGA MIKE LEE MIKE MAGUIRE JIM MURPHY DENNIS

  18. African Journal of Range and Forage Science - Vol 20, No 2 (2003)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Session A6 Rangelands as dynamic systems — Fragmentation of rangelands: ecological and economic implications. A tribute to Jim Ellis · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. TN Thompson Hobbs, Kathleen Galvin, 113-116. http://dx.doi.org/10.2989/ ...

  19. Death of a Compatibilistic Intuition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Thomas Boysen

    2004-01-01

    The common key intuition that freedom is to do what you want to do is very attractive to compatibilistic accounts of freedom. And as a matter of fact this key intuition has been adopted by most compatibilists from Hobbes till now. Unfortunately, it suffers from serious problems. However, thanks t...

  20. Hart et le positivisme postmoderne en droit international

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    d' Aspremont, J.

    2009-01-01

    This article argues that, in the context of international law, Hart can really be considered a post-modern positivist. Hart has not only refined the source thesis of Hobbes, Bentham and Austin by shedding the command-based understanding of law. Hart has also overcome the difficulties of Kelsen’s

  1. Hobbesova literární technologie závaznosti rozumu

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maršálek, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 1 (2017), s. 7-29 ISSN 1210-0250 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Hobbes * Leviathan * Literary technology * Shapin * Schaffer * Skinner Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion OBOR OECD: Philosophy, History and Philosophy of science and technology

  2. Film Review Jerusalema (2008) | Hees | Journal of the Musical Arts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Original Music: Alan Ari Lazar. Cast: Rapulana Seiphemo, Ronnie Nyakale, Jeffrey Zekele, Kenneth Nkosi, helley Meskin, Robert Hobbs, Eugene Khumbanyiwa, Jafta Mamabolo, Motlatsi Mahloko. Approx 120 min. Distributor: Next Video, Fountain Grove, 5 Second Street, Hyde Park. . Journal of the Musical Arts in Africa ...

  3. Transportation Systems Center Bibliography of Technical Reports, July 1970 - December 1976,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-04-01

    Systems Center. AD-733-763 Judith Gertler, Herbert Glynn, Vivian Hobbs, Frederick Interim Report. June 1971. 16p. Woolfall. AD-733-764 Air Traffic Control...of Deployment Cost Analysis .. .......... FAA-76-20 Airspace Control Environmnent Simulator - Final Report.... ............ .. TSC-131.3 *All- Wether

  4. The Development of Drury University's Undergraduate Global Awareness Curriculum: An Appreciative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Suzanne K.

    2013-01-01

    The United States is becoming more culturally diverse. One hundred years ago, "1 out of 8 Americans was of a race other than White; at the end of the century, the ratio was 1 out of 4" (Hobbs & Stoops, 2002, p. 71). With this changing ratio, communities and school populations have dramatically diversified; however, the methods for…

  5. Teaching and Learning in a Post-Truth World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Renee

    2017-01-01

    Renee Hobbs, director of the Media Education Lab at the Harrington School of Communication and Media at the University of Rhode Island, cautions us to stop using the term "fake news" with students and be more precise about the types of disinformation prevalent in content today, from hoaxes and satire to clickbait. In this article, she…

  6. Digital and Media Literacy: Connecting Culture and Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Renee

    2011-01-01

    Today's students tweet, text, and navigate apps up to 12 hours each day, but they may not know how to effectively analyze a TV show or website. Award-winning author Renee Hobbs demonstrates how to incorporate media literacy into the secondary classroom, providing the tools teachers need to: (1) Effectively foster students' critical thinking,…

  7. Persons In Contact: A General Introduction. | Olowu | IFE PsychologIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The English philosopher, Thomas Hobbes had once said man and fear are twins and in craving for security man would kill in a war of all against all if there was no powerful sovereign to assure him of his safety. In other words fear is innate in man. IFE Psychologia – Special Issue: Xenophobia Vol. 16 (2) 2008: pp. 1-22.

  8. 76 FR 75898 - Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... following formats: One hard copy with original signature, and one electronic copy via email (acceptable file format: Adobe Acrobat PDF, WordPerfect, MS Word, MS PowerPoint, or Rich Text files in IBM-PC/Windows 98/2000/XP format). Please submit your statement to Douglas Hobbs, Council Coordinator (see FOR FURTHER...

  9. Meaning in Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Dahl, Veronica

    2005-01-01

    with a "flat" semantic representation as first proposed by Hobbs (1985), consisting basically of a conjunction of atomic predications in which all variables are existentially quantified with the widest possible scope; in our framework, this provides very concise semantic terms as compared with other...

  10. Public and Private Responsibility for Mental Health: Mental Health's Fourth Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokecki, Paul R.

    Three revolutions in the history of mental health were identified by Nicholas Hobbs: the humane revolution, the scientific and therapeutic revolution, and the public health revolution. The shift of responsibilities for mental health and substance abuse services from the public to the private sector may constitute a fourth mental health revolution.…

  11. Sovereignty and Liberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lev, Amnon

    , including Marsilius of Padua, Hobbes, Hegel, Kelsen, and Schmitt, it identifies the conceptual operations that created sovereignty and shows how subjection to an absolute and undivided power came to be a source of meaning. At the heart of the analysis is the idea that sovereignty made reference...

  12. Development of SSR markers for genetic diversity and phylogenetic studies of Phomopsis longicolla causing Phomopsis seed decay in soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phomopsis longicolla T. W. Hobbs (syn. Diaporthe longicolla) is the primary cause of Phomopsis seed decay (PSD) in soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill. The genome of P. longicolla type strain TWH P74 represents one of the important fungal pathogens in the Diaporthe-Phomopsis complex. In this study, th...

  13. Factors affecting reservoir and stream-water quality in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area and implications for source-water protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Marcus C.; Bent, Gardner C.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts, Water Department, to assess reservoir and tributary-stream quality in the Cambridge drinking-water source area, and to use the information gained to help guide the design of a comprehensive water-quality monitoring program for the source area. Assessments of the quality and trophic state of the three primary storage reservoirs, Hobbs Brook Reservoir, Stony Brook Reservoir, and Fresh Pond, were conducted (September 1997-November 1998) to provide baseline information on the state of these resources and to determine the vulnerability of the reservoirs to increased loads of nutrients and other contaminants. The effects of land use, land cover, and other drainage-basin characteristics on sources, transport, and fate of fecal-indicator bacteria, highway deicing chemicals, nutrients, selected metals, and naturally occurring organic compounds in 11 subbasins that contribute water to the reservoirs also was investigated, and the data used to select sampling stations for incorporation into a water-quality monitoring network for the source area. All three reservoirs exhibited thermal and chemical stratification, despite artificial mixing by air hoses in Stony Brook Reservoir and Fresh Pond. The stratification produced anoxic or hypoxic conditions in the deepest parts of the reservoirs and these conditions resulted in the release of ammonia nitrogen orthophosphate phosphorus, and dissolved iron and manganese from the reservoir bed sediments. Concentrations of sodium and chloride in the reservoirs usually were higher than the amounts recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection agency for drinking-water sources (20 milligrams per liter for sodium and 250 milligrams per liter for chloride). Maximum measured sodium concentrations were highest in Hobbs Brook Reservoir (113 milligrams per liter), intermediate in Stony Brook Reservoir (62

  14. O contrato social da imprensa: por um Leviatã do jornalismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeferson Bertolini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda o conceito de contrato social dos pensadores políticos Thomas Hobbes, John Locke e Jean Jacques Rousseau e o relaciona à imprensa. A ideia do contrato não é usada no âmbito político, entre governados e governantes. É empregada na esfera da comunicação social, entre público e imprensa. O manuscrito recorre ao modelo de Hobbes (o povo se submete à autoridade do Estado em troca de proteção para pensar um Leviatã do jornalismo (o público respeita a figura da imprensa em troca de conteúdo relevante e verdadeiro. O ensaio, baseado em levantamento bibliográfico, busca defender o modelo tradicional de imprensa e de jornalista frente ao conteúdo de fonte duvidosa e aos produtores independentes de conteúdo da era digital

  15. The Revelation of God, East and West: Contrasting Special Revelation in Western Modernity with the Ancient Christian East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobs Nathan A.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The questions of whether God reveals himself; if so, how we can know a purported revelation is authentic; and how such revelations relate to the insights of reason are discussed by John Locke, Thomas Hobbes, René Descartes, G. W. Leibniz, and Immanuel Kant, to name a few. Yet, what these philosophers say with such consistency about revelation stands in stark contrast with the claims of the Christian East, which are equally consistent from the second century through the fourteenth century. In this essay, I will compare the modern discussion of special revelation from Thomas Hobbes through Johann Fichte with the Eastern Christian discussion from Irenaeus through Gregory Palamas. As we will see, there are noteworthy differences between the two trajectories, differences I will suggest merit careful consideration from philosophers of religion.

  16. Medicolegal investigation of political killings in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, J L; Gruschow, J; Stover, E

    1989-06-17

    An axiom of Thomas Hobbes states that "people are never more helpless than when the force meant to protect their rights turns against them." Hobbes' axiom holds true today, with Amnesty International reporting that hundreds of thousands have been murdered by their governments. This article examines the medicolegal aspects of an investigation into the deaths of two Salvadoran peasants who were reportedly tortured and executed by soldiers in February 1988. One of the authors, Thomsen, participated in the investigation as a court-ordered expert, and as a representative of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and of a Salvadoran legal aid organization. His necropsy findings are reported with observations and comments. The article concludes with suggestions for initiatives that might be undertaken by individual physicians and institutions to improve the quality and impartiality of medicolegal investigations into political killings.

  17. From conditions of equality to demands of justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartz, Emily; Nielsen, Carsten Fogh

    2015-01-01

    Equal freedom is the common starting point for most contractual theories of justice from Hobbes and Rousseau to Rawls. But while equal freedom defines a common starting point for these theories, this does not result in a general consensus on the conception of justice. On the contrary, different...... ways of conceptualizing the contractual starting point leads to different conceptions of the demands of justice. To fully understand the relationship between equal freedom and justice we therefore first need to explicate how and why the initial condition of equality is transformed into demands...... of justice. In this paper we discuss how this transformation takes place in the theories of Hobbes, Rousseau and Rawls, with particular emphasis on the vexed relationship between motivation and justification....

  18. Little Behemoth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Debüser

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The theory of Thomas Hobbes describes the opposition of human nature to society. A good example for this opposite is the inability of children or childish men to live in society on their own in accordance to reason. Hobbes solution to this inability is education and the rule of reason. The rule of reason, like the power of parents or the power of the state, needs the addition of the human emotion of fear. But this system is in danger disintegrating into powerless reason and unreasonable power. The theory of David Hume describes emotions without the rule of reason. He replaces reason with consciousness. But this system is also in danger of disintegrating into unconscious emotions and insensitive consciousness. The system theory understands man as an environment of society and reconstructs the opposition of human nature to society.

  19. Computations for Truck Sliding with TRUCK 3.1 Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    16 REFERENCES 1. L u. \\Villiam N.. Hobbs. Norman P. and Atkinson, Michael. TRUCK 3.1-An Improrcd Digital (’oiputtr Program for Calculating the Response...for Operations and Plans ATIN: Technical Libary Director of Chemical & Nuear Operations Dpartnt of the AIW Waskbington, DC 20310 1 Cocaeder US Ay...Lawrenoe Livermore Lab. ATIN: Code 2124, Tedhnical ATTN: Tech Info Dept L-3 Reports Libary P.O. Be 808 Monterey, CA 93940 Livermore, CA 94550 AFSC

  20. HOBBES’ POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MHAI NOVAC

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This is basically an attempt at an original conceptual reconstruction of Hobbes’ philosophy as set in Lehiathan, namely one in the view of which Hobbes was neither an atheist nor an absolutist, as the standard interpretation holds, but rather what we could call an agnostical pragmatist (fact which, quite surprisingly, places Hobbes in the company of Burke. More to the point, my basic claim within this paper is that Hobbes was not such an ‘enemy of individual freedom’ as we traditionally hold him to be and that his thought was just as attached to the notion of individual freedom as the later contractualist views. The difference however, arises from the fact that Hobbes, unlike Locke, Rousseau or Kant, was what we could call a voluntaristic determinist and consequently viewed human freedom not so much as ‘unhindered action derived from reflective choice’, but rather as what we could call ‘reasonable fulfillment of the basic human inclinations’ (self-interest. As such, I will analyze the three main focal points of Hobbes’ thought, namely (i human nature, (ii the principle of association and (iii the principle of authority. More specifically I will try to offer a perspective on the link between his voluntaristic determinism, his notion of legitimate absolute coercion (sovereignity and his political theology (the view that any form of political authority rests on a religious legitimacy in trying to demonstrate how all these were Hobbes’ specific way of seeking to find individual freedom a place under the sun.

  1. Corporations as social contractors : a study on corporate social responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Kalstad, Marius Aas

    2007-01-01

    This thesis takes up the issue of the role of business in today s society, in the form of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). The research question is: Do corporations/does business have responsibilities beyond maximising profit for owners? Social contract theory, as presented by Hobbes and Locke, is used to morally justify a corporate responsibility that goes beyond the traditional business responsibility of maximising profit for stolckholders. Further, the stakeholder model is proscribed...

  2. Visual Form Detection in 3-Dimensional Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    34 ahead of "intellectualism" and "experimentation" was waning. Both Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) and Rene Descartes (1596-1650), enlightened by advances in...from this time -- the seventeenth century - more than any other. Despite the residual theology in Descartes ’ concept of mind, his theories are...essentially naturalistic and biological. Thev invoke supernatural entities only in passing. Though a mind- body dlualist, Descartes (lid accept the notion

  3. Introducing a moisture scheme to a nonhydrostatic sigma coordinate model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bopape, Mary-Jane M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available parameterisations which are grouped into bulk and bin approaches (Stensrud, 2007). Bulk approaches use a specified function for the particle size distributions and generally predict the particle mixing ratio (Rutledge and Hobbs, 1983). The particle size... distribution is usually approximated by the inverse exponential distribution, in this study we follow the same approach. A bin approach does not use a specified function for the particles distribution. It divides the particle distribution into a number...

  4. The Risk of Autonomy. The ideal of self-legislation beyond the fear of civil war and its institutional containment

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Schmidt

    2009-01-01

    The modern understanding of autonomy (at least in its strong version) often includes the idea of selflegislation. As was paradigmatically the case for the French Revolution, self-legislation was considered as ideally neither bound by tradition nor by existing institutions. But some contemporary political theorists of the bourgeois revolutions (including Hobbes and Burke) felt uneasy about the loss of order and therefore tried to dispense with the concept of autonomy altogether. This article r...

  5. The Unlikely Claimant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lev, Amnon

    2014-01-01

    The article offers a reconstruction of Hobbes' theory of commonwealth on the basis of which it considers the nexus of sovereignty and modern-day republicanism, as it is articulated in the work of Quentin Skinner and Philip Pettit. It argues that, on the terms of republican theory, the difference ...... between the liberty that republican theorists claim as man's due and the liberty that subjection to sovereign power affords is indeterminable. In conclusion, it queries the political intuition that animates republican theory....

  6. Inimkäsitlusi filosoofias / Peeter Pints

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pints, Peeter

    1997-01-01

    Käsitlemist leiavad Confucius, Sokrates, Augustinus, M. Luther, B. Pascal, N. Macchiavelli, Erasmus Rotterdamist, T. Hobbes, J. Locke, Ch.L. Montesqieu, J.J. Rousseau, Cl. Helvetius, I. Kant, J. Condorcet, F.W. Hegel, L. Feuerbach, K. Marx, H. Maine de Biran, F.W. Schelling, M. Stirner, A. Schopenhauer, L. Morgan, E. Taylor, L. Levy-Bruhl, W. McDougall, H. Spencer, O. Spengler, Cl. Levy-Strauss, S. Kierkegaard, M. Weber

  7. AFOSR (Air Force Office of Scientific Research) Chemical & Atmospheric Sciences Program Review (27th).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    2BT UK 19 -P Studies of Extratropical Cyclonic Peter V. Hobbs Storms ; The CYCLES Project Department of Atmospheric AFOSR-ISSA-83-00018 Sciences...and has been a key focus area for several years. With the planning for, and advent of, the National " STORM " Program (outlined recently by a UCAR...United States, Europe and Japan has established that direct fluorination is the most generally applicable technique for the synthesis of novel fluorine

  8. Incorporating stakeholder preferences in the selection of technologies for using invasive alien plants as a bio-energy feedstock: applying the analytical hierarchy process

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Lange, Willem J

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available (priorities, 132 values and objectives) in the context of the problem; the outputs can guide decision-makers to 133 identify a preferred course of action (Mamphweli and Meyer, 2009, Strager and Rosenberger, 134 2006, Hobbs et al., 1992, Belton and Stewart..., A. (1993) People?s self development: Perspectives on participatory action research., London, UK., 604 Zed Publications. 605 RENN, O. (2006) Participatory processes for designing environmental policies. Land Use Policy, 23, 34-43. 606 RENN, O...

  9. Landscape fragmentation in South Coast Renosterveld, South Africa, in relation to rainfall and topography

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kemper, J

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available be identified on the basis of irreplaceability (presence of unique attributes; contribution to achiev- ing a reservation goal) and on actual and potential threats (Pressey et al. 1996). ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We thank William Bond, Steven Higgins, Richard Hobbs, John... Ludwig and Chris Margules for com- menting on earlier versions of this manuscript. CSIR, South Africa and the Pew Charitable Trust are thanked for funding this project. REFERENCES Computer Centre for Water Research (1996) Computer Centre for Water...

  10. Policy and Culture: From Machiavelli’s Political Philosophy to Kipling’s Political Prophecies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin M. Dolgov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with interrelationship of policy and culture, in particular N.Machiavelli's political philosophy and its reflection in some short stories by R.Kipling, one of the most recognized representatives of the British imperial thought. Policy and culture have traditionally been considered almost incompatible spheres of human activity as policy tended to become more and more severe, cynical, "dirty", while culture aspired to develop supreme values and perfect ideals. Sometimes the direct confrontation between policy and religion, policy and morals, policy and law, policy and literature, policy and art in the broad sense of the word could occur. The greatest Renaissance masters - Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Rafael etc. - actively opposed any evil manifestations: evil ideas, evil words, evil doings, expressing in their masterpieces the highest ideals and values. However, these ideals and values drastically diverged from the reality, political and public relations of the time, the "dirty" policy conducted by the rulers of numerous Italian principalities. It is no coincidence that N.Machiavelli develops his new political philosophy aiming not only to create the strong unitary state, but also to overcome this "dirty" policy at least to a certain extent. Therefore, describing the mechanism of the "dirty" policy that opposes high culture, N.Machiavelli introduces a new political philosophy which should be based on the highest ideals and values. As far as literary art is concerned, one can easily see that such world famous novelists as Kipling, Chekhov, Maupassant and many others reflected in their short stories that very longing for highest values and ideals which are almost absent in political doctrines and political practice. The true policy is necessarily based on the true culture and its values and ideals, whereas the true culture is indispensably connected with the true policy.

  11. Staat als Begriff und Vorstellung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günter Frankenberg

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reconstructs the visual representations of the state beginning with the frontispiece of Thomas Hobbes' Leviathan and its variations in »The Elements of Law«. While Hobbes' visual strategy is informed by a distrust of language, Michel Foucault departs from both this distrust as well as the fixation on sovereignty. His deconstruction of the representation paves the way for a democratic aesthetics. The need for symbols of political domination in the post-monarchic era is illustrated by three examples: the symbolizations of national unity, the parliamentary seating arrangements and the domed Berlin Reichstag as the architectural embodiment of the republican promise of transparency. After this visit to the museum of modernity’s pictures the text reintroduces the concept of the modern state. Hobbes' composite structure of the Leviathan reappears under the guise of a farewell to pre-constitutional composite concepts, such as a state under the rule of law, federal state or constitutional state.

  12. Analysis of radiation pressure force exerted on a biological cell induced by high-order Bessel beams using Debye series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Renxian; Ren, Kuan Fang; Han, Xiang'e; Wu, Zhensen; Guo, Lixin; Gong, Shuxi

    2013-01-01

    Debye series expansion (DSE) is employed to the analysis of radiation pressure force (RPF) exerted on biological cells induced by high-order Bessel beams (BB). The beam shape coefficients (BSCs) for high-order Bessel beams are calculated using analytical expressions obtained by the integral localized approximation (ILA). Different types of cells, including a real Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell and a lymphocyte which are respectively modeled by a coated and five-layered sphere, are considered. The RPF induced by high-order Bessel beams is compared with that by Gaussian beams and zeroth-order Bessel beams, and the effect of different scattering processes on RPF is studied. Numerical calculations show that high-order Bessel beams with zero central intensity can also transversely trap particle in the beam center, and some scattering processes can provide longitudinal pulling force. -- Highlights: ► BSCs for high-order Bessel beam (HOBB) is derived using ILA. ► DSE is employed to study the RPF induced by HOBB exerted on multilayered cells. ► RPF is decided by radius relative to the interval of peaks in intensity profile. ► HOBB can also transversely trap high-index particle in the vicinity of beam axis. ► RPF for some scattering processes can longitudinally pull particles back

  13. The dog mite, Demodex canis: prevalence, fungal co-infection, reactions to light, and hair follicle apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yu-Jen; Chung, Wen-Cheng; Wang, Lian-Chen; Ju, Yu-Ten; Hong, Chin-Lin; Tsai, Yu-Yang; Li, Yi-Hung; Wu, Ying-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Infection rate, reaction to light, and hair follicle apoptosis are examined in the dogmite, Demodex canis Leydig (Prostigmata: Demodicidae), in dogs from the northern area of Taiwan. An analysis of relevant samples revealed 7.2% (73/1013) prevalence of D. canis infection. Infection during the investigation peaked each winter, with an average prevalence of 12.5% (32/255). The infection rates significantly varied in accordance with month, sex, age, and breed (p canis Bodin (Onygenales: Arthrodermataceae) and Trichophyton mentagrophyte Robin (Blanchard) on the D. canis infected dogs revealed prevalence rates of 4.4% (2/45) and 2.2% (1/45), respectively. Observations demonstrated that D. canis slowly moved from a light area to a dark area. Skin samples were examined for cellular apoptosis by activated caspase3 immunohistochemical staining. Cells that surrounded the infected hair follicles were activated caspase3-positive, revealing cell apoptosis in infected follicles via the activation of caspase3.

  14. La densité a-t-elle une influence sur les comportements sociaux ? Des échelles territoriales différentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Le Bras

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available L'idée de densité a sans doute précédé celle de population. Pour Jean Bodin dont on cite sans vergogne le célèbre "Il n'est de richesses que d'hommes", la densité indiquait à la fois la cause et le critère du fonctionnement de l'État. Pour Montesquieu elle épousait le régime politique : les Républiques étaient densément peuplées ; dans les Monarchies, la population se groupait au centre du pouvoir et à la frontière, laissant l'espace intermédiaire presque vide, et dans les tyrannies, la densi...

  15. The effect of scintillation in valve auto-oscillators (1961)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaquiere, A.

    1961-01-01

    In a previous article was analysed the possible sources of fluctuations in a valve auto-oscillator having an oscillating circuit connected to the grid. In particular the shot-noise of the valve has been introduced into the theory by including in the grid circuit an imaginary resistance R L as shown in diagram I. We propose to use this model here for studying the effect of the abnormal background noise of the valve in the low frequency domain (scintillation effect) on the normal working of the auto-oscillator. We will thus bridge the gap between the phenomenological theory of M. Buyle-Bodin, which is only valid for the slow constituents of the scintillation noise, and our previous general theory. A delicate point will thus be resolved, in a region of the spectrum having a great importance in hertzian spectrometry. (author) [fr

  16. Aux origines théologiques de la souveraineté essai sur les sciences sociales et politiques

    CERN Document Server

    De Smet, François

    2015-01-01

    Nos sociétés politiques sont construites depuis plusieurs siècles sur le principe de la souveraineté de l'État. Cette invention du juriste français Jean Bodin, élaborée sur le terrain ravagé des guerres entre rois et papes caractéristiques des temps médiévaux, a nourri la pensée occidentale de l'autorité politique jusqu'à nos jours. Elle véhicule avec elle une vision de la division entre politique et religieux qui détermine, encore aujourd'hui, la division que nous estimons la majeure partie du temps évidente entre ces deux sphères. En effet, la souveraineté s'est bâtie comme identité de l'Ét

  17. Q&A. Does Machiavelli’s The Prince Have Relevant Lessons for Modern High-Tech Managers and Leaders?

    OpenAIRE

    Clovia Hamilton

    2017-01-01

    Can a 16th-century political treatise provide any guidance on today’s competitive environment? There are two camps among scholars regarding the relevancy of Niccolò Machiavelli’s book The Prince (Machiavelli,1992) to modern day management and leadership. Some scholars argue that the book has never been or is no longer relevant to business management and leadership (Agbude, 2014; Fournel, 2014; Jackson, 2013; Tillyris, 2015). Some contend that it is indeed relevant (Konno, 2014; O’Sullivan, 20...

  18. Unas anotaciones a los Commentarii de César para la educación del príncipe Felipe, futuro Felipe III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genoveva García-Alegre Sánchez

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the manuscript annotations of the edition Commentarii of Caesar (1574 used by the prince, the future Philip HI, between the years 1590 and 1592. On the basis of these notes, it is shown the context of the way how the prince was educated in the XVI century, related to the following terms: the Middle Age theory (St. Thomas Aquinas, Giles of Rome and the Renaissance theory (Erasmus, Machiavelli of the education; the organisation of the instruction (the Ayo and the Maestro; and the figure of the latin teacher (Maestro de Pajes.

  19. Air Base Defense in the Republic of Vietnam, 1961-1973,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    that trying year at best the The same conditions prevailed at Pleiku. Maj. Perry J. Rawls , Chief of RVNAF responsible for external de- Security Police...which depend on yourself alone and your own ability. Niccolo Machiavelli , 1513. The local ground defense of Forces Vietnam, Seventh Air Force, USAF...in 23. EOTR, Maj Perry J. Rawls , Ch/ Vietnam, Part H: May-December 1965 SP, Pleiku AB, 30 May 69. (Hist Div, USMC, 1970), p 6:18; lItr, 24. Ltr, Ch/SP

  20. CIUDADANÍA Y MILICIA EN EL REPUBLICANISMO FLORENTINO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Luis Castillo Vegas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The creation of a citizen militia is a characteristic pretension of the Renaissance republicanism. The republic cannot lack defense (already knows the outcome of the “unarmed prophets” nor defend themselves with mercenary armies. For Machiavelli, Guicciardini or Giannotti the citizen has a set of virtues, like austerity, discipline, patriotism or bravery, that make him the best soldier. Therefore, the Republican regime needs the citizens to be soldiers, because the military discipline itself is a means necessary to forge such civic virtues without which no republic can survive.

  1. CONFLICT AS A WAY OF BEING OF POLITICS. MACHIAVELLIAN CONTRIBUTION TO THINK THE POWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Luis Moretti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The conceptual challenge of thinking politics refers to the attempt - always, by definition, precarious, fragile and destined to failure- to grasp an intrinsically polysemic object and action defies straitjacket or limitation. This article will propose a deliberate code reading; a specific interpretive framework for thinking about politics; understanding the conflict as its hopelessly constitutive category. With this purpose, we will consider the work of Nicholas Machiavelli enjoying fertility to think this troubled specificity of the political.The methodological approach was purely theoretical, through an exercise of exegesis of texts Machiavellian and enhancement of its contemporary political thinking.

  2. Postille

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Cabrini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available - Raffaele Ruggiero, Machiavelli e la crisi dell’analogia, Bologna, il Mulino (Collana: Studi e ricerche, 2015, pp. 188; - Luigi Marfè, «In English Clothes». La novella italiana in Inghilterra: politica e poetica della traduzione, Torino, Accademia University Press, 2015, pp. X-166; - Riccardo II dal testo alla scena, a cura di Mariangela Tempera, Bologna, Emil di Odoya, 2015, pp. 186; - Franco Marucci, Storia della letteratura inglese. Dalle origini al 1625, Firenze, Le Lettere, 2015, vol. 1 (due tomi, pp. 585+288.

  3. Le pouvoir 'civil' chez Machiavel, entre Tite-Live et le droit roman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Descendre

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Rather than for quotations proper, Machiavelli opts for rewritings which frequently obscure his sources. This practice has often made them unrecognisable, especially in the case of materials which cannot be related to traditional interpretations of his thought. This is the case of Roman Law, the legal field from which the Machiavellian use of such an important adjective as civile originates. This article aims to stress the juridical component of the different forms of civilpower in Machiavelli’s work, which frequently transcend the polarity republic-principality and concern the entire problem of the relationship between power and law.

  4. Diana og Kirke. Den klassiske mytes metamorfose i italienske Renæssance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cecchini, Leonardo

    Den klassiske myte har en særlig stilling i det, Aleida Assmann har kaldt kulturelle Gedächtnis. Takket være dens store udbredelse i den vestlige kultur (både i litteratur, kunst og i andre områder), har den en tendens til at virke, snarere end som konkret ”tekst”, som et udbredt kulturel registe...... renæssancekulturen omarbejder den klassiske myte. Som case-stories vil jeg anvende Kirke-myten og ”den mytiske jagt” (Diana og Aktæon) og vise, hvordan de bliver genanvendt, tilpasset og fortolket i tekster af Petrarca, Boccaccio, Machiavelli og Gelli....

  5. The effect of scintillation in valve auto-oscillators (1961); L'effet de scintillation dans les autooscillateurs a lampes (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaquiere, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    In a previous article was analysed the possible sources of fluctuations in a valve auto-oscillator having an oscillating circuit connected to the grid. In particular the shot-noise of the valve has been introduced into the theory by including in the grid circuit an imaginary resistance R{sub L} as shown in diagram I. We propose to use this model here for studying the effect of the abnormal background noise of the valve in the low frequency domain (scintillation effect) on the normal working of the auto-oscillator. We will thus bridge the gap between the phenomenological theory of M. Buyle-Bodin, which is only valid for the slow constituents of the scintillation noise, and our previous general theory. A delicate point will thus be resolved, in a region of the spectrum having a great importance in hertzian spectrometry. (author) [French] Dans un travail anterieur, nous avons analyse les sources de fluctuations qui interviennent dans un autooscillateur a lampe a circuit oscillant branche sur la grille. Notamment le bruit de grenaille de la lampe a ete introduit dans la theorie en placant dans le circuit de grille une resistance fictive R{sub L} conformement au schema I. Nous nous proposons d'utiliser, ici, ce modele pour etudier l'effet du bruit de fond anormal de la lampe dans le domaine des basses frequences (effet de scintillation) sur le regime de l'auto-oscillateur. Nous jetterons ainsi un pont entre la theorie phenomenologique de M. Buyle-Bodin, qui n'est valable que pour les composantes lentes du bruit de scintillation, et notre theorie generale anterieure. Ainsi, se trouvera precise un point delicat, dans une region du spectre qui est tres importante pour la spectrometrie hertzienne. (auteur)

  6. Brigadas do antifanatismo: a invenção da tolerância religiosa Antifanaticism brigades: the invention of the religious tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antônio Lopes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Focando a produção de obras ficcionais e textos filosóficos em perspectiva histórica, o artigo aborda uma série de aspectos relacionados ao complexo universo temático das disputas intelectuais contra o fanatismo religioso na Europa Moderna. O texto analisa o advento e evolução de um tema que - já bastante recorrente na obra de autores modernos como Montaigne e Jean Bodin -, eleva-se à categoria de eixo temático em muitas das reflexões de autores dos séculos XVII e XVIII. Acerca da verdadeira cruzada das ideias, que foi a luta contra o fanatismo religioso durante a Idade Clássica e o Século das Luzes, são examinadas algumas das ideias críticas de escritores como Swift, Montesquieu, Voltaire, Diderot e David Hume.Focusing the production of fictional works and philosophical texts in historical perspective, the article approaches a series of aspects related to a complexed thematic universe of the intellectual disputes against the religious fanaticisn in Modern Europe. The text analyzes the advent and evolution of a topic which - is quite well-known in the work of modern writers like Montaigne and Jean Bodin - goes to the category of thematic axis in plenty of reflections of writers from the 17th and 18th centuries. About the real crusade of ideas which was the struggle against the religious fanaticism during the Classical Age and the Enlightenment, some of the critical ideas of writers like Swift, Montesquieu, Voltaire, Diderot and David Hume.

  7. Sovereignty and Democracy in Global Times: acutality of the Jean-Jacques Rousseau Political Philosophy and the limits of the social contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Baccega

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available SOBERANIA E DEMOCRACIA EM TEMPOS MUNDIALIZADOS: ATUALIDADE DA FILOSOFIA POLÍTICA DE JEAN-JACQUES ROUSSEAU E OS LIMITES DO CONTRATO SOCIAL Resumo: este artigo visa a problematizar os (descaminhos dos conceitos políticos e das práticas sociais e jurídicas em torno da soberania política do Estado Nacional e da democracia nos tempos de mundialização do Capital. Portanto, revisita e percorre uma breve arqueologia conceitual da Soberania, desde Isidoro de Sevilha até a clássica definição de Jean Bodin nos Seis Livros sobre a República (1576. O propósito é problematizar a filosofia política de Rousseau para, então, perceber e discutir seus limites suas virtualidades, bem como a atualidade de sua noção de Contrato Social e o papel da Filosofia Política na Era do Capital Global. Palavras-chave: Rousseau. Soberania. Mundialização do Capital. Abstract: this paper casts doubt on the ways and shunts of political concepts and social and legal practices concerning political sovereignty of the Nation State and democracy at the time of Capital’s globalization. It revisits a brief conceptual archeology of Sovereignty, since Isidore of Seville to the classical definition by Jean Bodin in The Six Books on the Republic (1576. The purpose is casting doubt on the political philosophy of Rousseau, in order to discuss its limits and virtualities, and the topicality of his notion of social contract and the role of Political Philosophy at the Age of Global Capital. Keywords: Rousseau. Sovereignty. Globalization of Capital.

  8. Machiavellianisms and governments in Portuguese America: two analyses of ideas and political practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Bentes Monteiro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes two studies regarding political practices and ideas that are relevant to the context of Portuguese America and its possible relations with the opuscule The Prince, by Niccolò Machiavelli. In the general government of the Count of Óbidos (1663-1667, some similarities with the advisement written by the Florentine secretary can be observed. However, during the administration of the famous Count of Assumar, in the captaincy of São Paulo and Minas do Ouro (1717-1721, a document was produced, and its ideas of power are strongly associated with the classic culture. However, this was not a reason for its coauthor to be distant from the condemned renaissance author. Both cases indicate the pertinence of analyzing the ideas by Machiavelli in the scope of Portuguese monarchy and its literate culture, be it by the approximation between types of government or be it because of a strategy that probably aimed at dissimulating its inspiration.

  9. The academic prince.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Maurice

    2002-12-01

    The author presents advice to deans and chairs of academia by imagining what Machiavelli might recommend were he to write a modern version of The Prince for academics. "Machiavelli" cautions that since modern academic "princes" have little power (except, perhaps, over teaching and laboratory space), the success of their rule depends upon respect. Regarding the choice of an academic prince, find someone who can be a good role model, set standards, and reward academic excellence, and who will, above all, be respected. Avoid choosing a prince who is a nice, nonthreatening candidate with "good human relations" and "good executive skills." Choose candidates who are already successful and fulfilled and who will see the new post not as a promotion or a balm for their insecurity, but as an intrusion into their academic lives. Fill empty positions as quickly as possible-better a weak prince than no prince at all. Seek short terms for princes, both because respected academics will want to return to their normal lives as soon as possible, and because with short mandates, greater chances can be taken with young, unproved, but promising candidates. At the same time, the appointment of aging administrators who have lost their academic skills is to be avoided. Above all, respect the throne-i.e., the position of chair or dean-even if the person holding the position may not deserve the respect, since when the prince retires with honor, the position becomes more attractive to future good candidates.

  10. Connect, then lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddy, Amy J C; Kohut, Matthew; Neffinger, John

    2013-01-01

    In puzzling over whether it's better to be feared or loved as a leader, Machiavelli famously said that, because it's nigh impossible to do both, leaders should opt for fear. Research from Harvard Business School's Amy Cuddy and consultants Matthew Kohut and John Neffinger refutes that theory, arguing that leaders would do much better to begin with "love"--that is, to establish trust through warmth and understanding. Most leaders today approach their jobs by emphasizing competence, strength, and credentials. But without first building a foundation of trust, they run the risk of eliciting fear, resentment, or envy. Beginning with warmth allows trust to develop, facilitating both the exchange and the acceptance of ideas--people really hear your message and become open to it. Cultivating warmth and trust also boosts the quantity and quality of novel ideas that are produced. The best way to gain influence is to combine warmth and strength--as difficult as Machiavelli says that may be to do. In this article, the authors look at research from behavioral economics, social psychology, and other disciplines and offer practical tactics for leaders hoping to project a healthy amount of both qualities.

  11. El problema de la generación del Estado en Spinoza (contractualismo y naturalismo en la teoría política de la modernidad temprana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cortés Cuadra, Juan Vicente

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the determination of the spinozistic model on the generation of the State described in the Political Treatise. To achieve this purpose we must separate the Spinoza’s model from the contractualistic one, for the former is usually conceived by means of the latter (even when commentators conceive it as a naturalistic model. In the first part, we will identify the “presence’s field” on which both Hobbes and Spinoza are thinking. This field, which entails a fundamental ambiguity, will be characterized as the “political aristotelianism”. Then, we will proceed to a detail examination of the model by which Spinoza built an answer to this problematic ambiguity.El presente artículo busca determinar un modelo propiamente spinociano para pensar la generación del Estado descrita en el Tratado Político. Para ello se intenta desvincular el modelo utilizado por Spinoza del modelo contractualista (estado de naturaleza/pacto social/estado de civilidad, bajo el cual ha sido habitualmente pensado (incluso cuando se sostiene que es un modelo naturalista. Comenzaremos por identificar el “campo de presencia” sobre el cual tanto Hobbes como Spinoza se sitúan. Este será caracterizado bajo el rótulo general de “aristotelismo político”, intentando mostrar su ambigüedad fundamental, constitutiva del problema que tanto Hobbes como Spinoza buscan resolver. Luego, haremos un examen detallado del modelo por el cual Spinoza responde a dicho problema.

  12. An artificial intelligence tool for complex age-depth models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, E.; Anderson, K. A.; de Vesine, L. R.; Lai, V.; Thomas, M.; Nelson, T. H.; Weiss, I.; White, J. W. C.

    2017-12-01

    CSciBox is an integrated software system for age modeling of paleoenvironmental records. It incorporates an array of data-processing and visualization facilities, ranging from 14C calibrations to sophisticated interpolation tools. Using CSciBox's GUI, a scientist can build custom analysis pipelines by composing these built-in components or adding new ones. Alternatively, she can employ CSciBox's automated reasoning engine, Hobbes, which uses AI techniques to perform an in-depth, autonomous exploration of the space of possible age-depth models and presents the results—both the models and the reasoning that was used in constructing and evaluating them—to the user for her inspection. Hobbes accomplishes this using a rulebase that captures the knowledge of expert geoscientists, which was collected over the course of more than 100 hours of interviews. It works by using these rules to generate arguments for and against different age-depth model choices for a given core. Given a marine-sediment record containing uncalibrated 14C dates, for instance, Hobbes tries CALIB-style calibrations using a choice of IntCal curves, with reservoir age correction values chosen from the 14CHRONO database using the lat/long information provided with the core, and finally composes the resulting age points into a full age model using different interpolation methods. It evaluates each model—e.g., looking for outliers or reversals—and uses that information to guide the next steps of its exploration, and presents the results to the user in human-readable form. The most powerful of CSciBox's built-in interpolation methods is BACON, a Bayesian sedimentation-rate algorithm—a powerful but complex tool that can be difficult to use. Hobbes adjusts BACON's many parameters autonomously to match the age model to the expectations of expert geoscientists, as captured in its rulebase. It then checks the model against the data and iteratively re-calculates until it is a good fit to the data.

  13. Upheaval buckling of heated pipelines: a comparative study of three analytical methods; Flambagem vertical de dutos aquecidos: um estudo comparativo de tres metodos analiticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Divino J.S.; Benjamin, Adilson C. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    2005-07-01

    Three analytical methods frequently used for analyzing upheaval buckling are presented and compared in this work: the Hobbs' method which is applied to straight pipelines, the Pedersen-Jensen's method and the JIP-Shell's method, both applied to pipelines containing initial imperfections. The basic equations of the three methods are outlined and its differences are appointed. Also it is studied the sensitivity of the response of the last two methods to the cover of soil and to the amplitude of the initial imperfection. (author)

  14. Contamination of honey produced in the Republic of Kazakhstan with Clostridium botulinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafina Raikhan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the first results of a study on the contamination of honey produced in the Republic of Kazakhstan with C. botulinum spores known to pose a potential infection threat to infants. During microbiological analysis, culturing methods with TPGY, Willis-Hobbs agar, FAA agar connected with PCR, sequencing, and a mouse bioassay were used. The C. botulinum contamination rate of honey was relatively low as determined, at 0.91%. Nonetheless, the potential danger of the bacteria to childrens’ health should not be neglected

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 315 glitches in the rotation of 102 pulsars (Espinoza+, 2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, C. M.; Lyne, A. G.; Stappers, B. W.; Kramer, M.

    2012-02-01

    The Jodrell Bank timing data base comprises observations of more than 700 pulsars, carried out at Jodrell Bank Observatory (JBO) since 1978. Observation procedures are described by Hobbs et al. (2004, Cat. J/MNRAS/353/1311). In summary, these have mostly been performed with the 76-m Lovell telescope, with some complementary observations made using the 30-m MkII and 42-ft telescopes. Every pulsar is observed at typical intervals of 2-10 d in a 64-MHz band centred on 1404-MHz, using an analogue filter bank. Occasionally, observations were also carried out in a band centred at 610-MHz. (3 data files).

  16. Hypothetical Politics. The Representation of Reality between Utopia and Leviathan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Rodeschini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Utopia and political science are not sharply antithetical models of approach to politics. As Hans Blumenberg points out, they were born at the same time as alternatives to the model of the Platonic philosophical inquiry, and have continued to develop in parallel. Their diversity will be illustrated by examining the role of fiction in Thomas Hobbes's Leviathan and James Harrington's Commonwealth of Oceana. Describing the different role it plays in these works, the essay shows how they both use this concept to solve the problem of the uncertainty of knowledge and the intransparency of the world.

  17. Statens livsnødvendige cirkulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hein Jessen, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    The article analyzes the role of trade in the constitution of the modern state in 17th century England. The article focuses on the metaphor of the body politic and especially the ideas on circulation from William Harvey and how these can be used to analyze Thomas Hobbes’ ideas on trade...... and circulation in Leviathan and the economic thought of William Petty. Harvey’s thoughts on circulation were revolutionary and highly influential on the political and economic thoughts of the time. Even though Hobbes is mainly focused on law and sovereignty, he still characterizes circulation and trade...

  18. An Integral Method and Its Application to Some Three-Dimensional Boundary-Layer Flows,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-07-18

    M. Scala Dr. H. Lew Mr. J. W. Faust A . Martellucci W. Daskin J. D. Cresswell J. B. Arnaiz L. A . Marshall J. Cassanto R. Hobbs C. Harris F. George P.O...RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT 18 JULY 1979 Approved for public release, distribution unlimited DTICEILECTE1 APR 2 5 1930,, A NAVAL SURFACE WEAPONS...TITLE (end Subtlle) S. TYPE OF REPORT A PERIOD COVERED I INVTEGRAL M.ETHOD AND ITS 4PPLICATION TO SSOME THREE-DIMENSIONAL BOUNDARY-LAYER FLOWS 6

  19. Predictions of Aerodynamic Heating on Tactical Missile Domes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-04-25

    A . Martellucci W. Daskin J. D. Cresswell J. B. Arnaiz L. A . Marshall J. Cassanto R. Hobbs C. Harris F. George P.O. Box 8555 Philadelphia, PA J9101... A LEVELs NSWC TR 79-21 i PREDICTIONS OF AERODYNAMIC HEATING ON TACTICAL MISSILE DOMES A wo BY T. F. ZIEN W. C. RAGSDALE RESEARCH TECHNOLOGY...DOMES SAUTHOR( a ) 8. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER() T. F. ZiendW.C jRagsale 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT, PROJECT. TASK

  20. Monolithic Hierarchical Fractal Assemblies of Silica Nanoparticles Cross-Linked with Polynorbornene via ROMP: A Structure-Property Correlation from Molecular to Bulk through Nano

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    285. (4) (a) Leventis, N.; Vassilaras, P.; Fabrizio, E. F.; Dass , A. J. Mater. Chem. 2007, 17, 1502−1508. (b) Leventis, N.; Sotiriou-Leventis, C.; Mulik...S.; Dass , A.; Schnobrich, J.; Hobbs, A.; Fabrizio, E. F.; Luo, H.; Churu, G.; Zhang, Y.; Lu, H. J. Mater. Chem. 2008, 18, 2475−2482. (c) Leventis, N...V.; Coder, D.; Loy, D. A. Chem. Mater. 2008, 20, 2845−2847. (12) Zhang, G.; Dass , A.; Rawashdeh, A-M. M.; Thomas, J.; Counsil, J. A.; Sotiriou

  1. Arguments for the Normative Validity of Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Esther Oluffa

    2016-01-01

    . The philosophical conceptions of law, justice and right stated by Hobbes and Rousseau and in the Declaration will be discussed in connection with two seminal criticisms. By excluding women from politics, Olympe de Gouge objected, the Declaration contradicted the universal understanding of human rights. Jeremy......The paper highlights clashes between different conceptions of right, law and justice crystalizing in the French Declaration of Human and Civic Rights from 1789 and the criticisms it aroused. Hobbes’ Leviathan (1651) and Rousseau’s Social Contract (1762) are discussed as important predecessors...... Bentham protested against the Declaration’s core idea of inalienable human rights....

  2. Sovereignty and Liberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lev, Amnon

    , including Marsilius of Padua, Hobbes, Hegel, Kelsen, and Schmitt, it identifies the conceptual operations that created sovereignty and shows how subjection to an absolute and undivided power came to be a source of meaning. At the heart of the analysis is the idea that sovereignty made reference...... to and relied upon a form of faith which aligned man’s political existence on law. Offering new and often controversial insights into the grounds of our attachment to sovereign power and into the crisis that is currently affecting its institutions, this book will appeal to students and scholars of law, politics...

  3. Building electro-optical systems making it all work

    CERN Document Server

    Hobbs, Philip C D

    2009-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition ""Now a new laboratory bible for optics researchers has joined the list: it is Phil Hobbs's Building Electro-Optical Systems: Making It All Work.""-Tony Siegman, Optics & Photonics News Building a modern electro-optical instrument may be the most interdisciplinary job in all of engineering. Be it a DVD player or a laboratory one-off, it involves physics, electrical engineering, optical engineering, and computer science interacting in complex ways. This book will help all kinds of technical people sort through the complexit

  4. Arguments for the Normative Validity of Human Rights. Philosophical Predecessors and Contemporary Criticisms of the 1789 French Declaration of Human and Civic Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Oluffa Pedersen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper highlights clashes between different conceptions of right, law and justice crystalizing in the French Declaration of Human and Civic Rights from 1789 and the criticisms it aroused. Hobbes’ Leviathan (1651 and Rousseau’s Social Contract (1762 are discussed as important predecessors. The philosophical conceptions of law, justice and right stated by Hobbes and Rousseau and in the Declaration will be discussed in connection with two seminal criticisms. By excluding women from politics, Olympe de Gouge objected, the Declaration contradicted the universal understanding of human rights. Jeremy Bentham protested against the Declaration’s core idea of inalienable human rights.

  5. Rinesi, Eduardo. Muñecas rusas. Tres lecciones sobre la república, el pueblo y la necesaria falla de todas las cosas : Bs. As., 2013, Las Cuarenta

    OpenAIRE

    Garbarino, Maximiliano A.

    2014-01-01

    Hace unos años Rinesi contribuyó con su Política y tragedia. Hamlet entre Maquiavelo y Hobbes a la estela de la filosofía política que considera el conflicto como centro constitutivo de la política (aunque esta no se reduzca al conflicto). Propuso iluminar esta concepción a través de una erudita y profunda lectura de la tragedia shakesperiana a la vez que reformuló convincentemente un canon de lecturas de y sobre los fundadores modernos de la filosofía política. Este nuevo libro continúa esas...

  6. Trascendencia e inmanencia del Estado moderno: entre la soberanía y las prácticas disciplinarias

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Fernando Silva Prada

    2005-01-01

    Este artículo pretende mostrar la necesidad de redefinir el concepto de Estado. Para esto se reconstruyen las teorías de Thomas Hobbes y de Max Weber con el fin de ampliar las definiciones clásicas del Estado por medio de la descripción de las mecánicas positivas del poder político. La funciones desempeñadas por la burocracia moderna representarán la bisagra que nos permitirá desplegar el análisis de Michel Foucault como un instrumento de análisis para las formas en que el p...

  7. Hydrogeological assessment of Acid mine Drainage impacts in the West Rand Basin, Gauteng Province

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hobbs, PJ

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available HYDROGEOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE IMPACTS IN THE WEST RAND BASIN, GAUTENG PROVINCE Principal Author PJ Hobbs (Pr.Sci.Nat.) Co-author JE Cobbing (Pr.Sci.Nat.) August 2007 Report prepared for CSIR / THRIP Document... it is published. A Hydrogeological Assessment of Acid Mine Drainage Report No. Impacts in the West Rand Basin, Gauteng Province CSIR/NRE/WR/ER/2007/0097/C CSIR Natural Resources and the Environment (i) The “Lodge” spring rising...

  8. La herencia escotista en la Filosofía política moderna*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Miralbell

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Se busca mostrar la fuerte herencia voluntarista tardo-medieval de origen escotista en la filosofía política moderna, sobre todo en Bodino, Maquiavelo y Hobbes, pero también en Locke, Rousseau y Kant. Se examina la concepción escotista del poder y su fundamentación filosófico-teológica, así como algunos tópicos de su "nueva" metafísica y antropología para desglosar sus consecuencias directas o indirectas en la filosofía política moderna.

  9. Dual-artery stenting of a type III single coronary artery from right aortic sinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivanad Patil

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A single coronary artery presenting with stenosis in two of the three vessels arising from a common ostium is a rare anomaly Lipton et al. proposed a classification, which was modified by Yamanaka and Hobbs. In our case, a single coronary artery was giving rise to the LAD, left circumflex (LCx, and the right coronary artery (RCA. There was 80% stenosis in the ostium of the LCx. The RCA in the mid and distal segment had stenosis of 80% and 70%, respectively. We were able to successfully stent the three stenotic segments.

  10. Neutral atomic absorption lines and far-UV extinction: Possible implications for depletions and grain parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, Daniel E.

    1990-01-01

    Researchers examine nine lines of sight within the Galaxy and one in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) for which data on both neutral atomic absorption lines (Snow 1984; White 1986; Welty, Hobbs, and York 1989) and far UV extinction (Bless and Savage 1972; Jenkins, Savage, and Spitzer 1986) are available, in order to test the assumption that variations in gamma/alpha will cancel in taking ratios of the ionization balance equation, and to try to determine to what extent that assumption has affected the aforementioned studies of depletions and grain properties.

  11. Estudios biológicos sobre procambarus clarkii girard (decapoda cambaridae) en las marismas del bajo Guadalquivir

    OpenAIRE

    Cano Sánchez, Esperanza

    1994-01-01

    Procambarus clarkii Girard, es un cangrejo de agua dulce, vulgarmente conocido como cangrejo americano o rojo, originario de Estados Unidos (zona Sur central) y México (zona Noreste) (HOBBS, 1972 a). Fue introducido en Las Marismas del Bajo Guadalquivir en 1974 y debido a que presenta una alta tasa de reproducción, actividad excavadora y buena adaptación a zonas con drásticas fluctuaciones temporales en el nivel del agua (HUNER & BARR, 1984 a), en poco tiempo se extendió por toda la marisma. ...

  12. Goal-Setting Theory: Motivating Students Through the Use of Dharma Dolls

    OpenAIRE

    L'Shawn, Howard

    2012-01-01

    The question of what motivates students has been explored by many researchers and teachers over the years( Marandos and Randall, 2012; Irie, 2003; Lee, 2012). Goal-setting theory is one concept that many English language educators have applied to their classroom practices and have found effective (Rivers, 2012; Chang, 2012; Zhao et al., 2012; Koda-Dallow and Hobbs, 2005).This paper will report the results of action research done in Spring 2012 during the months of May to August. The study rev...

  13. Vliv psa na zdraví dítěte

    OpenAIRE

    Opatrná, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    Vliv psa na zdraví dítěte Lucie Opatrná Abstrakt v AJ This work describes influence of pet dog on child's overall health. Further there is discussed choice of a proper family dog, prevention against injuries caused by the dog and prevention of diseases the pet can transmit. The goal of this work is to determine from a questionnaire, whether a dog has positive impact on child health and what is the awareness of children in the area of communication with a dog. Next, there is proposal of a hobb...

  14. La influencia de Maquiavelo en las «Empresas políticas» de Diego de Saavedra Fajardo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús VILLANUEVA LÓPEZ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: A partir de la localización de cerca de treinta lugares de la Idea de un príncipe político cristiano (1640 de Diego de Saavedra Fajardo que constituyen préstamos literales del Príncipe y los Discursos de Maquiavelo, con lo que se amplía un anterior tratamiento por K. H. Mulagk (1973, se analiza la «influencia» maquiaveliana en tres niveles: en el simple aprovechamiento de ejemplos o comentarios históricos aislados de las obras de Maquiavelo; en la elaboración de un ideal de príncipe como alternativa consciente al de Maquiavelo, especialmente en el capítulo 18 del Príncipe, aunque reteniendo muchos elementos de éste; y en la consideración de los problemas de cómo asentar un gobierno «nuevo» (o sea, tras una sucesión en una monarquía y de cómo convertir una tiranía en un gobierno legítimo y justo. Se concluye que pese a la diferencia entre las pretensiones de uno y otro autor, Saavedra ha asumido de buen grado la problemática propia del maquiavelismo, aunque busca la solución a través de una síntesis con el pensamiento ortodoxo.ABSTRACT: Resting on the identification of nearly thirty places in Diego de Saavedra Fajardo's Idea of a Politico-Christian Prince (1640 which happen to be literal borrowings from Machiavelli's Prince and Discourses, and so enlarging a previous treatment by ?. H. Mulakg (1973, the author proceeds to analyze the Machiavellian «influence» in three levels: in the simple recourse to isolated historical examples or commentaries from Machiavelli's works; in the composition of an ideal of the prince as a conscious alternative to that of Machiavelli's, displayed especially in the Prince chapter 18, though adopting many elements from the later; and in the reflexion about how to settle a «new» government (that is, after a succession in a monarchy and how to transform a tyranny into a legitimate and just government. It is concluded that, due weight being given to the difference between the

  15. John Milton: Puritan Tradition and Political Languages in XVIIth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura MITAROTONDO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is not simple to place John Milton in a specific political current of the English historical context of 17th century. In detail, we want to study Milton’s prose works to extract the topics of the English civic and political tradition in the First Revolution age. In these terms, we’ll analyze the Commonplace Book, a collection of commentaries about texts and authors, and about various subjects: the interpretations of Machiavelli in the Old English tradition of the Modern age, the idea of man’s freedom and his relationship with natural law and political authority, according to the general perspective of the Puritan religion, which characterizes Milton’s political language.

  16. Glosa about political ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćorić Dragana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Debates about political ethics aren't new. They have been present since ancient Greek philosophers. Machiavelli set some new principles, regarding amoral behavior of the prince, which could be quite legitimate and legal. He didn't invented anything new, he just admitted that, that was the reality. Some modern authors think that ethics and politics should be departed always, some other think that they should cooperate. In the end of the day, the voters are those who must face with amoral behavior of politicians, because it seems that politicians don't recognize ethics at all? Or is it just look like? In this paper, we will try in short to tell something about origins of political ethics, its burning issues, and about possible ways of implementation of political ethics and its development.

  17. Historical antecedents to the philosophy of Paul Feyerabend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munévar, Gonzalo

    2016-06-01

    Paul Feyerabend has been considered a very radical philosopher of science for proposing that we may advance hypotheses contrary to well-confirmed experimental results, that observations make theoretical assumptions, that all methodological rules have exceptions, that ordinary citizens may challenge the judgment of experts, and that human happiness should be a key value for science. As radical as these theses may sound, they all have historical antecedents. In defending the Copernican view, Galileo exemplified the first two; Mill, Aristotle and Machiavelli all argued for pluralism; Aristotle gave commonsense reasons for why ordinary citizens may be able to judge the work of experts; and a combination of Plato's and Aristotle's views can offer strong support for the connection between science and happiness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Tessere virgiliane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Ferroni

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Even if Virgil was not one of the key authors in his library, Machiavelli was undoubtedly very familiar with the Roman poet’s output, as the (admittedly limited quotations examined in this article demonstrate. The most striking example is his textual borrowing from Aeneis, I, 563-564, with the image of Dido as a “new prince” appearing in the seventh chapter of Il Principe, and two quotations in the Discorsi sopra la prima Deca di Tito Livio, I, 21 and I, 54. In addition to some secondary cases, this article focuses on the starting point that Francesco Vettori’s quotation of a well-known passage from the second ecloga offers to the well-known Machiavellian letter of 31 January 1515, as well as on a final Virgilian fragment in a letter of 1526.

  19. Hamlet: homem de virtú Hamlet: virtù man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Del Roio

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo traz algumas relações/semelhanças entre Hamlet, de Shakespeare, e O Príncipe de Maquiavel. Portanto, pela “perspectiva” da Razão de Estado e não pela versão reducionista do “maquiavelismo” (maniqueísmo político, também podemos observar uma teoria política em Shakespeare. Palavras-chave: Maquiavel. Príncipe. Virtù. Hamlet. Astúcia. The article reports some relations/similarities between Shakespeare’s Hamlet and Machiavelli’s Prince. Therefore, by the State Reasoning “perspective” and not by the reductionism version of “machiavellism” (political maniqueism, we can also observe a political theory in Shakespeare. Keywords:Machiavelli. Prince. Virtù. Hamlet. Cunning.

  20. Podem as serpentes conviver com as pombas?Uma reflexão filosófica sobre a ética na política

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinara Nahra

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to discuss the relationship between ethics and politics taking as the starting point the differences between Kant´s and Machiavelli´s views. I will also discuss here the role of the contemporary State, as well as I will put forward what I call the “6c model” namely the immoral practices which are largely used in Brazilian politics, especially at the time of elections, i.e., exchange of favours, corporative vote ,authoritarianism, control and manipulation of information, fantasy and corruption. Finally, I intend to show the necessity of adopting a model inspired by Kant that subordinates politics to a rational morality.

  1. Redención de la virtud : la primera traducción castellana de "Arte della Guerra" de Maquiavelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Botella Ordinas

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available La primera traducción al castellano del Arte della guerra de Maquiavelo, publicada en 1536, nunca fue prohibida por la inquisición. En este artículo se argumenta que la razón es que Diego de Salazar con su traducción realizó una conversión del lenguaje político del humanismo cívico al de derechos de matriz teológica.The first castillian translation of Machiavelli's Arte della guerra, published in 1536, was never prohibited by the inquisition. It will be shown along this paper how Diego de Salazar, the translator, made this possible by doing a transformation of the original civic humanism political language into a theological-based rights one.

  2. PRINCIPLE OF RATIONAL EGOISM AS AN IDEOLOGICAL CONCEPTION OF MAN FOUNDATION UNDER THE CONTEXT OF ECONOMIC RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Petinowa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The modern global context of humanity’s existence is greatly mediated by economic relations. The solution of typical social issues is closely related to the economic sphere, economic activity, and market mechanisms. The subject of all co-operations is the specific character of his economic, natural and behavioral displays, presented in the model of homo economicus. The article considers the historical part of ideological reconstructions of economic theories where certain conceptions of man, one or another understanding of his essence and destiny as an expression of the spirit of time are shown (A. Smith, L. Valla, N. Machiavelli, T. Gobbs, F. Bacon, B. Mandeville, J.J. Rousseau, D. Didro, C. Helvétius, P. Holbach and others.

  3. Gandhi, politics and Sat Yagraha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario López Martínez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mohandas K. Gandhi was the father of modern nonviolence. He called the forms of struggle without use of firearms as satyagraha. Gandhi distinguished between passive resistance and satyagraha. The basic postulate of satyagraha rested on the belief in the inherent goodness of man, moral power and the capacity to suffer for the opponent. He tried, in difficult times, offering an alternative to war and social policy. On the roots of forms of struggle and popular peasant ancestral (disobedience, non-cooperation, insubordination, he developed the ethical and political union, beyond N. Machiavelli and M. Weber. But his ethical-political struggle could not be understood without other elements of his “constructive program” such as ahimsa (not kill, Sarvodaya (welfare of all, swaraj (self-determination and self-government and swadeshi (self-sufficiency.

  4. Giorgio Vasari and Niccolò Machiavelli’s Medicean Appetite for Peace and Glory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Cheney

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the literary and visual connections between war and peace as a cultural diplomacy made by both Niccolò Machiavelli (1469-1527 and Giorgio Vasari (1511-1574. The approach here is iconographical, focusing on three points. First, Machiavelli’s notions of condottiere, virtù, and war and peace in The Art of War (1521 are discussed in relation to Renaissance imagery, particularly in that produced as a result of Medicean patronage. Second, Vasari’s battle cycle in the Salone dei Cinquecento of the Palazzo Vecchio (1555-60 in Florence is examined within the context of peace as revealed in Renaissance art and emblems. Finally, Vasari’s assimilation of Machiavelli’s notions of the art of war are interpreted in relation to the painting cycle, which visually embodies the paradox of war and peace discussed in Machiavelli’s writing.

  5. Experimental study of ΔI=1 bands in 111In

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, P.; Pradhan, M. K.; Ganguly, S.; Sharma, H. P.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R. P.; Bhowmik, R. K.

    2011-01-01

    The two ΔI=1 bands in 111 In, built upon the 3461.0 and 4931.8 keV states, have been studied. The bands were populated in the reaction 100 Mo( 19 F, α4nγ) at a beam energy of 105 MeV. Mean lifetimes of nine states, four in the first and five in the second band, have been determined for the first time from Doppler shift attenuation data. The deduced B(M1) rates and their behavior as a function of level spin support the interpretation of these bands within the framework of the shears mechanism. The geometrical model of Machiavelli et al. has been used to derive the effective gyromagnetic ratios for the two bands.

  6. On Crimes and Punishments in the Utopias of Sixteenth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Oliveira de Almeida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to analyse the crimes and punishments in the utopian literature of the sixteenth century. Initialy, it is necessary to desconstruct the idea that utopia is a platonizing archaism. As the political writings of Machiavelli, the utopian literature is an attempt to intervene in legal and social issues of their time. It must also refute the argument that utopia is a disciplinary society, an ancestor of modern totalitarian regimes. Authors such as Morus and Rabelais have become seasoned defenders of the freedoms of civil society against arbitrary interference of State power. But it is also necessary to question the myth that utopia would be a model of stateless community. Morus, Campanella and Shakespeare recognize the importance of criminal sanctions for the preservation of political order.

  7. El poder de la 'virtù' en 'El Principe' de Maquiavelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Hermosa Andújar

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This article tries to show that the power of princely virtù as conceived by Machiavelli turns its possessor into a demi-god in the human world. Indeed, he who has virtù is not only able to restore and preserve the public order but, as he does so, also unifies the political problems of acquiring and maintaining power, turning the human world into an artifice within the natural world and humanising history. In other words: he completely defeats the power of fortuna. However, this omnipotence is not total: in the natural world, it has only very mitigated effects; and, within the human sphere, virtù declares itself impotent in the face of liberty: once freedom has been tasted, not even the most skilful of princes or the greatest promises of wellbeing can persuade citizens voluntarily to part with it.

  8. [What is Machiavellian intelligence? Views on a little appreciated side of the psyche].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knecht, T

    2004-01-01

    Ethological and evolutionary psychological research has produced evidence that intelligence is not a monolithic functional entity but includes a number of specialized mental abilities to cope with life which even stem from diverse evolutionary origins. One of these subforms of intelligence is called "Machiavellian intelligence," named after the 15/16th century Italian politician and author, Niccolo Machiavelli. It provides individuals or groups with a means of social manipulation in order to attain particular goals. Thus, it builds the psychological basis for the display of power in social groups. Machiavellian intelligence can be observed and evaluated in bands of primates as well as in humans, and there are even tools for measurement in the latter.

  9. State, federalism and educational policies: implications in brazilian education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Cristina Silva Sousa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the relationship between state and federalism as a political and administrative organizational form of the state and its implications in Brazilian educational policy. For that, we follow the analysis of the concepts of State, federalism, and educational policies from the classics of Machiavelli (2001, Locke (1998, Rousseau (1999, Hamilton, Jay and Madison (2003, Abrucio Arretche (1996, among others. Therefore, we see that the new Brazilian federalism based on the model proposed by the American Constitution brings the local powers – the municipalities – as new agents within the educational policy and the collaboration regime as a means of effecting cooperative federalism in Brazil. We conclude that the federalism, in Brazilian model, presents itself as demos constraining the national sub-governments.

  10. Om Fortuna - metafysikk i pedagogikken?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knut Ove Æsøy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay is an attempt to participate in a discussion about metaphysics today. I claim that metaphysic now seems silenced or taken for granted. Machiavelli’s idea of fortuna or fate (Norwegian: lagnad represents question and perception that cannot be recognized empirically. My aim is to place Machiavelli into an ongoing discussion about the distinction between nature and culture and perception of reality (Norwegian: røyndom as organic or harmonic. As part of this, I will discuss fortuna’s place in modern research based teacher education, which places our fate in the hand of science, the institutionalization of learning and the lack of virtue (Norwegian: dygd. In conclusion, I wish to express some critical remarks on this development, not taking into account the metaphysical speculation.

  11. Experimental study of ΔI=1 bands in In111

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, P.; Ganguly, S.; Pradhan, M. K.; Sharma, H. P.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R. P.; Bhowmik, R. K.

    2011-02-01

    The two ΔI=1 bands in In111, built upon the 3461.0 and 4931.8 keV states, have been studied. The bands were populated in the reaction Mo100(F19,α4nγ) at a beam energy of 105 MeV. Mean lifetimes of nine states, four in the first and five in the second band, have been determined for the first time from Doppler shift attenuation data. The deduced B(M1) rates and their behavior as a function of level spin support the interpretation of these bands within the framework of the shears mechanism. The geometrical model of Machiavelli has been used to derive the effective gyromagnetic ratios for the two bands.

  12. Florence, 1300-1301. Compagni, Villani (and their readers in Santa Trìnita and «cacciare con molta offensione» (If 6, 66

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Brilli

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The essay examines the accounts about the “white biennium” 1300-1301 provided by Dino Compagni and Giovanni Villani, as well as by their readers and modern interpreters (Leonardo Bruni, Niccolò Machiavelli and Scipione Ammirato up to Isidoro Del Lungo and Robert Davidsohn. The scrutiny and the comparison with other minor chronicles of the 14th century (see «Reti Medievali - Rivista», 17 [2016], 2, 113-151 leads to a new interpretation of these witnesses, which explains the evasiveness in the account by Dino Compagni and provides not only a new reading of the overall sense of this historical phase but also of the specific sense of Dante’s reference to these facts in the canto VI of the Inferno.

  13. La differenza italiana. Comunità ed Esilio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remo Bodei

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Italian thought is a philosophy of impure reason, which takes into account the conditions, imperfections and possibilities of the world. The core of his tradition consists in a civil vocation, choosing as objects of investigation life, history and politics, in search of “the effective truth of things” (Machiavelli. The audience of the italian philosophers are not the specialists, but all their compatriots, as well as everyone else. That also because they are often exiles, from Giordano Bruno to Antonio Gramsci, with a cosmopolitian vocation. Thus the question of the “common”, thematized by the contemporary italian philosophy, reverse itself in that of the “goodbye to community”, and to the irreversible past

  14. THE CONCEPT OF JUSTICE (‘DIKE’ AND ‘THEMIS’ AS IT IS REVEALED BY THE TEACHINGS OF NEAGOE BASARAB TO HIS SON THEODOSIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLORENTINA GRIGORE

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an inquiry into the problems concerning the construction of the legal system: the theme represented by human quality called to building and completing the legal system. The human being is ontologically placed between Dike / Legal Justice and Themis / Transcendent Justice. The person called to judge is the link between two different ontological orders: the order of the Absolute, of Themis, and the order of the Relative, of Dike. This person is the one who guides Themis to perform Dike, in order to do Justice in coincidence with Legal Justice. The Teachings of Neagoe Basarab to his Son Theodosie was written at almost the same time as The Prince by Machiavelli. If we look at Machiavelli’s work and that of Neagoe Basarab, we are able to see two distinct ways to build and give legitimacy to the legal system. The Teachings do not approach a sophisticated architecture of the legal system, with hierarchies and complex abilities. The discourse about justice especially implies the moral valuation of the people summoned to judge and to do what is right. This work is about the foundation of the legal system regardless of its structure. And the foundation of the system is the person called to judge in such a way that Δίκη should coincide with Θέμις. From Machiavelli we have a different vision about Justice and the Legal system: he focuses on the system and not on the person who performs those functions within the system.

  15. Critiquing Humanism: Introductory Conversations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arka Chattopadhyay

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The word “humanism” is associated with the revival of classical antiquity in 13th -15thC Italy. “It involves,” as Nicholas Mann writes, “the rediscovery and study of ancient Greek and Roman texts, the restoration and interpretation of them and the assimilation of the ideas and values that they contain” (2. The assimilation was based on archaeological and philological attention to the details of all manner of written records - from inscriptions to epic poems – and pervaded all areas of post-medieval culture, including theology, philosophy, political thought, jurisprudence, medicine, mathematics, and the creative arts. Such a practice allowed humanist scholars to explore the meaning of local or foreign texts, use them for religious, socio-political or economic reasons, and form an international community of texts and discourses. Since the revival of classical learning was related with the popular rise of liberal education, especially literature, philosophy, and the arts, which had an important role in political propaganda, military discourse, and public morality, humanism also had a political role. But, the humanist political thinkers were not political in its ideological sense. As James Hankins tells us, the Italian humanists, because of the central role, the Church played in public and professional life, were seldom critical of establishment politics and spoke mainly about both the positive and negative sides in rhetorical manner, choosing to take the role of a pragmatist (Hankins 120. It was with the rise of Ottoman empire and fall and degradation of humanist learning that new humanist thinking came to take the central stage – mainly by Niccolò Machiavelli and Thomas More with shifting ideals on virtue (which for Machiavelli stood for ability, power, and prowess and a specific focus on justice, equality and democracy (for More.

  16. Maquiavel, a república e o desejo de liberdade Maquiavel, the republic and the desire of freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helton Adverse

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do artigo é compreender alguns aspectos do republicanismo de Maquiavel concedendo atenção à sua teoria dos humores. Mais especificamente, trata-se de entender qual a natureza do desejo do povo e seu papel na vida política. A principal hipótese deste trabalho é a de que a função que Maquiavel atribui ao povo, o guardião da liberdade, exige, para seu cumprimento, a participação ativa do cidadão nos afazeres cívicos, isto é, sua inscrição no espaço público como agente político. Essa inscrição não pode ser inteiramente compreendida se o desejo que caracteriza o povo carecer de qualquer determinação, isto é, se for tomado somente em uma perspectiva negativa.The aim of the article is to understand some aspects of the Machiavelli's republicanism granting attention to his theory of the umori. More specifically, my purpose can be summarized as understanding the nature of the "desire of the people" and its role in the political life. The main hypothesis of this work is that the function that Machiavelli attributes to the people, the guardian of the freedom, demands, for its execution, the active participation of the citizen in the civic tasks, that is, his inscription in the public space as a political agent. That inscription cannot be understood entirely if the desire that characterizes the people lacks of any determination, that is, if it be only taken in a negative perspective.

  17. Estado de Exceção

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelita Matos Souza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Abordaremos duas obras de Giorgio Agamben - Homo Sacer (2002 e Estado de Exceção (2004. Nas duas obras a noção-chave é a de exceção, definida em relação à vida “política” dos indivíduos, mas na primeira (2002 interessa a exceção identificada à vida nua dos “súditos”, enquanto a segunda (2004 volta-se mais ao Estado, em sua dimensão biopolítica e (ahistórica. Recorreremos a Thomas Hobbes e Carl Schmitt a fim de melhor compreender o autor, indicando que, além da dívida para com Hobbes, sua idéia de exceção e a crítica ao estado de direito deve muito a Carl Schmitt.

  18. WHY DO THE BRAKING INDICES OF PULSARS SPAN A RANGE OF MORE THAN 100 MILLIONS?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shuangnan; Xie Yi

    2012-01-01

    Here we report that the observed braking indices of the 366 pulsars in the sample of Hobbs et al. range from about –10 8 to about +10 8 and are significantly correlated with their characteristic ages. Using the model of magnetic field evolution we developed previously based on the same data, we derive an analytical expression for the braking index which agrees with all the observed statistical properties of the braking indices of the pulsars in the sample of Hobbs et al. Our model is, however, incompatible with the previous interpretation that magnetic field growth is responsible for the small values of braking indices ( 3 yr. We find that the ''instantaneous'' braking index of a pulsar may be different from the ''averaged'' braking index obtained from fitting the data over a certain time span. The close match between our model-predicted ''instantaneous'' braking indices and the observed ''averaged'' braking indices suggests that the time spans used previously are usually smaller than or comparable to their magnetic field oscillation periods. Our model can be tested with the existing data by calculating the braking index as a function of the time span for each pulsar. In doing so, one can obtain for each pulsar all the parameters in our magnetic field evolution model, and may be able to improve the sensitivity of using pulsars to detect gravitational waves.

  19. The Centrality of Philosophical Anthropology to (a Future) Environmental Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gare, Arran

    2016-01-01

    While environmental ethics has successfully established itself in philosophy, as presently conceived it is still largely irrelevant to grappling the global ecological crisis because, as Alasdair MacIntyre has argued, ethical philosophy itself is in grave disorder. MacIntyre's historically oriented recovery of virtue ethics is defended, but it is argued that even MacIntyre was too constrained by received assumptions to overcome this disorder. As he himself realized, his ideas need to be integrated and defended through philosophical anthropology. However, it is suggested that current defenders of philosophical anthropology have not done it justice. To appreciate its importance it is necessary accept that we are cultural beings in which the core of culture is the conception of what are humans. This is presupposed not only in thought but in social practices and forms of life. This was understood by Aristotle, but modernity has been straightjacketed by the Seventeenth Century scientific revolution and Hobbes' philosophical anthropology, identifying knowledge and with techno-science and eliminating any place for questioning this conception of humans. The only conception of humanity that could successfully challenge and replace Hobbes' philosophical anthropology, it is argued, is Hegel's philosophical anthropology reformulated and developed on naturalistic foundations. This involves subordinating science to a reconceived humanities with a fundamentally different role accorded to ethics, placing it at the center of social life, politics and economics and at the centre of the struggle to transform culture and society to create an ecologically sustainable civilization.

  20. Analisis Tekuk Lateral Pipa Gas Bawah Laut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitrotul Laeli Hidayaturrohmah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To prevent solidification on the pipeline, hydrocarbon is transferred in high temperature and high pressure. High presure and temperature lead to axial tension appearence along the pipeline. Interaction between soil and the surface of pipeline trigering frictional resistance which holding axial force on the pipeline and could cause the occurence of global buckling. According to DNV RP F110, global buckling may occur in several directions which one of them is in the lateral direction. Lateral buckling usually occurs only in the exposed pipe which occurs when the compressive force on the pipe imperfection released at one point so that the excess force in the slip zone turn into buckling. According to DNV RP F 110, there are three methods of analysis that can be used to perform the analysis of lateral buckling the pipe. Those are methods of Hobbs, Van GAF, and Spinazle. In this paper, lateral buckling analysis performed on a 7.67 km subsea gas pipeline by using Hobbs method which concluded that the pipeline has the potential to lateral buckling. Analysis by using software ABAQUS was also carried out to determine the location of the lateral buckling which is the location where overstressed occur.

  1. Teorias da lei natural: Pufendorf e Rousseau Natural law theories: Pufendorf and Rousseau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe Netto de Andrade e Silva Sahd

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem como objetivo reconstruir argumentos centrais desenvolvidos por Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Contra Samuel Pufendorf, Rousseau defende que a justiça não é natural. Ele recusa todo compromisso com a lei natural tradicional para voltar à posição de Thomas Hobbes. Ora, no estado originário de natureza, os princípios racionais da lei natural que expõe Pufendorf não podem ser conhecidos, e, por conseguinte, quando puderem ser conhecidos, não serão aplicados por natureza.The present article aims at reconstructing Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s central arguments. Against Samuel Pufendorf, Rousseau maintains that justice is not natural, thereby rejecting the compromise with traditional natural law and wholly returning to the position of Thomas Hobbes. Now, in the original state of nature, Pufendorf’s rational principles of natural law cannot be known; later, when they may be known, they are not by nature enforced.

  2. Assessing the Impact of Sustainability Improvement Options on the Agri-food Supply Chain Governance Structures: Development of an Evaluation Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosimo Rota

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The competitiveness of a supply chain is driven by the ability of supply chain governance structures to adapt to the chains’ continuously changing technical and organizational characteristics. The present study addresses the adoption of sustainability improvement options in the area of organization and management in the agri-food sector; within this framework the study proposes a tool for assessing the impact of sustainability oriented processes on the supply chain governance structures, in turn influencing the competitiveness of the supply chain. Two different approaches, proposed by (Gereffi et al., 2005 and (Hobbs and Young, 2000 have been linked to provide a theoretical framework for the tool development. The proposed new conceptual framework links the dimensions defining five different governance structures complexity of transaction, ability to codify and capabilities in the supply-base (Gereffi et al., to the product characteristics, regulatory and technology aspects defined by Hobbs and Young as drivers influencing the vertical coordination of supply chains. The method suggested for measuring the relations between improvement options and the chain governance structure is the adoption of experts’ evaluations. This method improves the tool capacity to provide a context-related supply chain governance structure assessment and management.

  3. Rethinking the creative power of God

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Muis

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Because the notion of ‘power’, and of ‘absolute power’ in particular, is associated with coercion, violence and oppression, it is problematic to attribute power to God. Jürgen Moltmann and Eberhard Jüngel reject a ‘theistic’, ‘metaphysical’ concept of God’s ‘absolute power’ and highlight the powerlessness of the suffering and dying God on the cross. In their view, limitation of power is also central to God’s creative power. In this article, this kenotic view on God’s creative power is examined. Firstly, the political philosophy of Thomas Hobbes is explored as an important and still influential source of the modern view on absolute power as dominion. Next, it is discussed whether the innovative view on divine, creative power of Sören Kierkegaard can be seen as kenotic. Because both Hobbes and Kierkegaard refer indirectly to the classical distinction between potentia absoluta and potentia ordinata, this distinction, and its rejection by Schleiermacher, is investigated. The article concludes by proposing ‘empowering power’ as a non-oppressive and non-kenotic view on God’s creative power.

  4. Crítica a las tesis naturalistas de la vida humana. Un diálogo con Hannah Arendt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartolomé Ruiz, Castor M. M.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available From Hobbes to the new neuroscience there is a continuity which tends to naturalize politics by their reducing it to the governance of human nature, converting it to biopolitics. In this context, violence becomes an unavoidable natural instinct that must be managed politically. Countering the naturalism of violence, and following some critical clues opened by Hannah Arendt, we can distinguish between aggressiveness and violence. Aggressiveness is natural but violence is intentional (symbolic. It exists as an ethical negation of otherness and not as decisive impulse of nature. Thus memory transcends mere natural functionality to be instituted as a neutralizing power of violence.

    Desde Hobbes hasta las neurociencias hay una cierta línea de continuidad que tiende a naturalizar la política reduciéndola al gobierno útil de la vida humana, por lo que se transforma en biopolítica. En este marco, la violencia aparece como un instinto natural insoslayable que debe ser administrado políticamente. Contrarrestando el naturalismo de la violencia, y siguiendo algunas pistas críticas abiertas por Hannah Arendt, cabe distinguir entre agresividad y violencia. La agresividad es natural pero la violencia es intencional (simbólica. Ella existe como negación ética de la alteridad y no como pulsión determinante de la naturaleza. Por ello la memoria transciende el ámbito de la mera funcionalidad natural para instituirse como potencia neutralizante de la violencia.

  5. Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodin Loys

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA was honoured to welcome scientists from all over the world who attended the International Workshop on major Genes and QTL in Sheep and Goats. Approximately 100 participants from 16 countries were registered, contributing 52 oral or poster presentations. A first session was dedicated to the tools available for identifying and localising major genes or QTL in these two species. Molecular techniques, marker panels, radiation hybrids, genome physical maps, and BAC libraries were presented along with genetic, comparative and cytogenetic maps. A second and largest session concerned different traits for which major genes or QTL have been found, i.e., ovulation and other reproduction traits, milk and meat characters, and resistance to disease and wool production. For each group, a guest's paper focused on one sub-trait gave the state of the art: the history, identification and localisation of sources of monogenic and oligogenic variability, genetic determinism (dominance, imprinting, ..., effects on the phenotype, physiological mechanisms implied, use in populations, etc. The third session was devoted to the strategies for the use of major genes and QTL in populations, while the last session covered future prospects. A CD (available on request to bodin@toulouse.inra.fr of the full proceedings was available, and participants invited to give a main paper also had the opportunity to submit it for publication in this special issue of GSE. Nine articles were jointly selected by the Editorial Board of the journal and by the Guest Editor.

  6. Electromagnetically driven westward drift and inner-core superrotation in Earth's core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livermore, Philip W; Hollerbach, Rainer; Jackson, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    A 3D numerical model of the earth's core with a viscosity two orders of magnitude lower than the state of the art suggests a link between the observed westward drift of the magnetic field and superrotation of the inner core. In our model, the axial electromagnetic torque has a dominant influence only at the surface and in the deepest reaches of the core, where it respectively drives a broad westward flow rising to an axisymmetric equatorial jet and imparts an eastward-directed torque on the solid inner core. Subtle changes in the structure of the internal magnetic field may alter not just the magnitude but the direction of these torques. This not only suggests that the quasi-oscillatory nature of inner-core superrotation [Tkalčić H, Young M, Bodin T, Ngo S, Sambridge M (2013) The shuffling rotation of the earth's inner core revealed by earthquake doublets. Nat Geosci 6:497-502.] may be driven by decadal changes in the magnetic field, but further that historical periods in which the field exhibited eastward drift were contemporaneous with a westward inner-core rotation. The model further indicates a strong internal shear layer on the tangent cylinder that may be a source of torsional waves inside the core.

  7. Electromagnetically driven westward drift and inner-core superrotation in Earth’s core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livermore, Philip W.; Hollerbach, Rainer; Jackson, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    A 3D numerical model of the earth’s core with a viscosity two orders of magnitude lower than the state of the art suggests a link between the observed westward drift of the magnetic field and superrotation of the inner core. In our model, the axial electromagnetic torque has a dominant influence only at the surface and in the deepest reaches of the core, where it respectively drives a broad westward flow rising to an axisymmetric equatorial jet and imparts an eastward-directed torque on the solid inner core. Subtle changes in the structure of the internal magnetic field may alter not just the magnitude but the direction of these torques. This not only suggests that the quasi-oscillatory nature of inner-core superrotation [Tkalčić H, Young M, Bodin T, Ngo S, Sambridge M (2013) The shuffling rotation of the earth’s inner core revealed by earthquake doublets. Nat Geosci 6:497–502.] may be driven by decadal changes in the magnetic field, but further that historical periods in which the field exhibited eastward drift were contemporaneous with a westward inner-core rotation. The model further indicates a strong internal shear layer on the tangent cylinder that may be a source of torsional waves inside the core. PMID:24043841

  8. “Robots in Space” Multiagent Problem: Complexity, Information and Cryptographic Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Bernstein

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a multiagent algorithmic problem that we call Robot in Space (RinS: There are n ≥ 2 autonomous robots, that need to agree without outside interference on distribution of shelters, so that straight pathes to the shelters will not intersect. The problem is closely related to the assignment problem in Graph Theory, to the convex hull problem in Combinatorial Geometry, or to the path-planning problem in Artificial Intelligence. Our algorithm grew up from a local search solution of the problem suggested by E.W. Dijkstra. We present a multiagent anonymous and scalable algorithm (protocol solving the problem, give an upper bound for the algorithm, prove (manually its correctness, and examine two communication aspects of the RinS problem — the informational and cryptographic. We proved that (1 there is no protocol that solves the RinS, which transfers a bounded number of bits, and (2 suggested the protocol that allows robots to check whether their paths intersect, without revealing additional information about their relative positions (with respect to shelters. The present paper continues the research presented in Mars Robot Puzzle (a Multiagent Approach to the Dijkstra Problem (by E.V. Bodin, N.O. Garanina, and N.V. Shilov, published in Modeling and analysis of information systems, 18(2, 2011.

  9. Oligopolistic competition in wholesale electricity markets: Large-scale simulation and policy analysis using complementarity models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helman, E. Udi

    This dissertation conducts research into the large-scale simulation of oligopolistic competition in wholesale electricity markets. The dissertation has two parts. Part I is an examination of the structure and properties of several spatial, or network, equilibrium models of oligopolistic electricity markets formulated as mixed linear complementarity problems (LCP). Part II is a large-scale application of such models to the electricity system that encompasses most of the United States east of the Rocky Mountains, the Eastern Interconnection. Part I consists of Chapters 1 to 6. The models developed in this part continue research into mixed LCP models of oligopolistic electricity markets initiated by Hobbs [67] and subsequently developed by Metzler [87] and Metzler, Hobbs and Pang [88]. Hobbs' central contribution is a network market model with Cournot competition in generation and a price-taking spatial arbitrage firm that eliminates spatial price discrimination by the Cournot firms. In one variant, the solution to this model is shown to be equivalent to the "no arbitrage" condition in a "pool" market, in which a Regional Transmission Operator optimizes spot sales such that the congestion price between two locations is exactly equivalent to the difference in the energy prices at those locations (commonly known as locational marginal pricing). Extensions to this model are presented in Chapters 5 and 6. One of these is a market model with a profit-maximizing arbitrage firm. This model is structured as a mathematical program with equilibrium constraints (MPEC), but due to the linearity of its constraints, can be solved as a mixed LCP. Part II consists of Chapters 7 to 12. The core of these chapters is a large-scale simulation of the U.S. Eastern Interconnection applying one of the Cournot competition with arbitrage models. This is the first oligopolistic equilibrium market model to encompass the full Eastern Interconnection with a realistic network representation (using

  10. State vs. God: On an Atheistic Implication of European Statism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Tarasiewicz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article consistst of four parts. First, it gives an example of statism present in contemporary Europe which consists in giving a priority of loyalty to the state at the expense of loyalty to God. Secondly, it traces the idea of European statism in the thought of Hobbes and Hegel to show how the state was to replace or equal God’s authority. Thirdly, it considers whether democracy can efficiently protect against statism. Finally, it explores the words of Jesus Christ—“Render unto Caesar the things that are Caesar’s, and unto God the things that are God’s”—to formulate an argument against trading Christian faith for the philosophy of statism.

  11. Final Report: Enabling Exascale Hardware and Software Design through Scalable System Virtualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridges, Patrick G.

    2015-02-01

    In this grant, we enhanced the Palacios virtual machine monitor to increase its scalability and suitability for addressing exascale system software design issues. This included a wide range of research on core Palacios features, large-scale system emulation, fault injection, perfomrance monitoring, and VMM extensibility. This research resulted in large number of high-impact publications in well-known venues, the support of a number of students, and the graduation of two Ph.D. students and one M.S. student. In addition, our enhanced version of the Palacios virtual machine monitor has been adopted as a core element of the Hobbes operating system under active DOE-funded research and development.

  12. The Philosophical Background and Scientific Legacy of E. B. Titchener's Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beenfeldt, Christian

    , this book reopens and rewrites the chapter in the history of early scientific psychology pertaining to the nature of E. B. Titchener’s psychological system. Arguing against the view that Titchener’s system was undone by an overreliance on introspection, the author explains how this idea was first introduced......This volume offers a new understanding of Titchener’s influential system of psychology popularly known as introspectionism, structuralism and as classical introspective psychology. Adopting a new perspective on introspectionism and seeking to assess the reasons behind its famous implosion...... in defiance of introspection, not because of introspection. The book is divided into three parts. In Part I, British associationism is examined thoroughly. The author here discusses the psychology of influential empiricist philosophers such as Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, David Hume, David Hartley, James Mill...

  13. Influence of soil properties on the behavior of heated on bottom pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallai, Julian [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Offshore pipelines have increasingly been operating at high temperatures and high pressures. Compression due to these loads can lead to global buckling, either laterally and/or vertically, depending on the burial depth and soil properties. The amount of embedment of pipelines directly laid on the seabed depends on the soil properties and influences the behavior of pipelines in operation. This work investigates the interaction between the vertical and lateral buckling modes, based on the analytical approach proposed for pipeline global buckling analysis by Hobbs. Furthermore, it presents a sensitivity study characterizing the impact of the determination of accurate soil properties. Finally, a conceptual design procedure, which takes into account the particular case of short pipelines, is provided. The method is presented by means of an example case. (author)

  14. Re-reading the “Classics”: Thucydides and Political Realism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Alekseeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The theme of the article – a widely spread appealing to Thucydides and his famous “History of the Peloponnesian War” as some sort of the “sanctions” for scientific respectability of the theoretical studies of international relations. Such an attitude was formed under the influence of Thomas Hobbes and later supported by “political realism” as one of the most popular paradigms in the theory of international relations. The “interpretation of the interpretations” demonstrates, that the texts of Thucydides are often badly read and not always rightly understood, his conclusions are eradicated out of context, and they got too extended interpretation. The result many of his ideas are oversimplified or even misrepresented or distorted. From our point of view, the “classics” deserve a more cautious attitude, and the quoting of their works ought to be more weighted and thought of, at the very least nor to be automatic. 

  15. William Ospina y la búsqueda de la franja amarilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Valero Bernal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es el de analizar el ensayo «Lo que le falta a Colombia» del escritor William Ospina. En este ensayo Ospina profundiza en los principales problemas sociales y políticos que Colombia atravesaba a finales del s. XX así como en las posibles soluciones que podrían adoptarse. Los planteamientos que emplea el escritor colombiano pueden relacionarse con una gran variedad de conceptos propios del ámbito de la política y la sociología. A lo largo de este trabajo mostraremos las analogías existentes entre el análisis de William Ospina y las ideas de pensadores tan alejados en el tiempo como Thomas Hobbes, Rousseau, John Rawls o Charles Tilly.

  16. Um Breve Panorama das Relações entre Política e Religião no Contexto do Estado Moderno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Lagreca Casamasso

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo objetiva proporcionar, a partir da perspectiva do pensamento político moderno, um breve panorama do modelo de relação que se estabelece entre a política e a religião no contexto do Estado Moderno. Destaca-se a hegemonia do poder estatal no âmbito da sociedade política e, em particular, sua supremacia em face da religião e dos atores religiosos. Apresenta-se um relato sucinto da problemática político-religiosa no pensamento de Maquiavel, Hobbes, Spinoza, Locke, Montesquieu e Rousseau.

  17. Le « commerce d’amour-propre » selon Pierre Nicole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Weber

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available La notion de « commerce d’amour-propre » telle qu’elle a été élaborée par Pierre Nicole constitue-t-elle une sorte de préfiguration de l’utilitarisme moderne ? Il est commun de le penser. Mais c’est peut-être là faire trop peu de cas du soubassement théologique augustinien de la doctrine de Nicole. Pour analyser le problème, il convient de confronter la pensée de Nicole à celles de Pascal, de Hobbes et de saint Augustin lui-même.

  18. History of Economic Rationalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book concentrates upon how economic rationalities have been embedded into particular historical practices, cultures, and moral systems. Through multiple case-studies, situated in different historical contexts of the modern West, the book shows that the development of economic rationalities...... takes place in the meeting with other regimes of thought, values, and moral discourses. The book offers new and refreshing insights, ranging from the development of early economic thinking to economic aspects and concepts in the works of classical thinkers such as Thomas Hobbes, John Locke and Karl Marx......, to the role of economic reasoning in contemporary policies of art and health care. With economic rationalities as the read thread, the reader is offered a unique chance of historical self-awareness and recollection of how economic rationality became the powerful ideological and moral force that it is today....

  19. SOVEREIGNTY, DIPLOMACY AND DEMOCRACY: THE CHANGING CHARACTER OF “INTERNATIONAL REPRESENTATION” — FROM STATE TO SELF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan K. Henrikson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Addressing (the question of a new diplomacy for the 21st century, Alan Henrikson reflects philosophically and historically upon a shift that may be occurring from the sovereign State, with ambassadors serving as formal representatives of entire nations, to the autonomous Self, with individual persons, employing social media, being able to represent themselves, and their group concerns, to the world. Will the Leviathan of Thomas Hobbes be replaced by the Facebook social graph as the pattern for the next world order? The traditional institutions of diplomacy—and professional diplomats—are being challenged, are now adapting, and are still vital to the making and carrying out of the international agreements needed if global issues are to be resolved.

  20. Infinitesimal how a dangerous mathematical theory shaped the modern world

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Amir

    2014-01-01

    On August 10, 1632, five leading Jesuits convened in a sombre Roman palazzo to pass judgment on a simple idea: that a continuous line is composed of distinct and limitlessly tiny parts. The doctrine would become the foundation of calculus, but on that fateful day the judges ruled that it was forbidden. With the stroke of a pen they set off a war for the soul of the modern world. Amir Alexander takes us from the bloody religious strife of the sixteenth century to the battlefields of the English civil war and the fierce confrontations between leading thinkers like Galileo and Hobbes. The legitimacy of popes and kings, as well as our modern beliefs in human liberty and progressive science, hung in the balance; the answer hinged on the infinitesimal. Pulsing with drama and excitement, Infinitesimal will forever change the way you look at a simple line.

  1. The Chimes of Freedom: Bob Dylan, Epigrammatic Validity, and Alternative Facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, John

    2018-01-01

    This essay brings together work I have done over the past 10 years: on the nature of ethics, on the purpose of ethics, and on its foundations in a way that, I hope, as E.M. Forster put it, connects "the prose and the passion." I deploy lessons learned in this process to identify and face what I believe to be crucial challenges to science and to freedom (as defended by, among others, Cicero, Pete Seeger, Bob Dylan, Thomas Hobbes, John Stuart Mill, and Bertrand Russell). Finally I consider threats to freedom of a different sort, posed by the creation and dissemination of "alternative facts" and by what is sometimes called "super" or "full" artificial intelligence (AI).

  2. A history of erotic philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soble, Alan

    2009-01-01

    This essay historically explores philosophical views about the nature and significance of human sexuality, starting with the Ancient Greeks and ending with late 20th-century Western philosophy. Important figures from the history of philosophy (and theology) discussed include Sappho, Plato, Aristotle, St. Augustine, St. Jerome, the Pelagians, St. Thomas Aquinas, Michel de Montaigne, Rene Descartes, Thomas Hobbes, David Hume, Immanuel Kant, Søren Kierkegaard, Arthur Schopenhauer, Jeremy Bentham, John Stuart Mill, Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Sigmund Freud, Jean-Paul Sartre, Simone de Beauvoir, Wilhelm Reich, and Herbert Marcuse. Contemporary philosophers whose recent work is discussed include Michel Foucault, Thomas Nagel, Roger Scruton, Karol Wojtyla (Pope John Paul II), Catharine MacKinnon, Richard Posner, and John Finnis. To show the unity of the humanities, the writings of various literary figures are incorporated into this history, including Mark Twain, Arthur Miller, James Thurber, E. B. White, Iris Murdoch, and Philip Roth.

  3. The pseudo-scientific psychologyof the economic neo-liberalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alečković-Nikolić Mila S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to call attention to logical, axiological, psychological and historical foundations of the problem of economic neo-liberalism. The question is how to achieve psychological comprehension of the historical developpement of the idea of scientific reductionism, the idea of 'common law' and rational utilitarism (Hobbes, Locke, Smith, Bentham, of rationalism (Kant and socialism (Rousseau. In the second part of this analysis the aim is to show that the theory of mechanical simplification in the comprehension of human society is logically wrong theory and that this logically wrong theory is the premise of the social totalitarianism. Finally, the goal of our analysis (specially relevant for the Serbian society trapped today is to show that the world of actual financial reductionism and economic neo-liberalism does not understand at all the real human nature.

  4. "You must not rely upon the words that very kind and beautiful girls utter, because in that regard, no offence, they all - lie":venereal diseases as a motive of Fran Gundrum's (1856-1919) work on sexual hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhar, Martin; Fatović-Ferenčić, Stella

    2013-01-01

    Until the works of Fran Gundrum, there was no comprehensive analysis of sexuality in Croatia. In this article, we investigate the background of Gundrum's book Sexual Health Care, the first book on sexual hygiene in Croatia. We analyzed the motivational effect venereal diseases had on writing the book, as well as the metaphoric language he used to conceptualize them. Venereal diseases are presented in his work as a consequence of irresponsible sexual behavior, and are interpreted using the analogy of natural state of English political philosopher Thomas Hobbes. All aspects of his suggestions for suppression of venereal diseases were colored by giving priority to social over individual well-being. Tradition and modernity intermix in his work, shaping him as the pioneer of sexual hygiene on our territory in the times when questions about heredity and survival of the nation started to forcefully shape public health policies.

  5. Estimating the Robustness of Composite CBA and MCDA Assessments by Variation of Criteria Importance Order

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Vestergaard; Barfod, Michael Bruhn; Leleur, Steen

    2011-01-01

    described is based on the fact that when using MCA as a decision-support tool, questions often arise about the weighting (or prioritising) of the included criteria. This part of the MCA is seen as the most subjective part and could give reasons for discussion among the decision makers or stakeholders......Abstract This paper discusses the concept of using rank variation concerning the stakeholder prioritising of importance criteria for exploring the sensitivity of criteria weights in multi-criteria analysis (MCA). Thereby the robustness of the MCA-based decision support can be tested. The analysis....... Furthermore, the relative weights can make a large difference in the resulting assessment of alternatives (Hobbs and Meier 2000). Therefore it is highly relevant to introduce a procedure for estimating the importance of criteria weights. This paper proposes a methodology for estimating the robustness...

  6. A new genus and species of entocytherid ostracod (Ostracoda: Entocytheridae) from the John Day River Basin of Oregon, U.S.A., with a key to genera of the subfamily Entocytherinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Patricia G; Williams, Bronwyn W

    2017-06-07

    Targeted sampling efforts by the authors for the signal crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus, from its native range in the John Day River Basin, Oregon, U.S.A. yielded entocytherid ostracods with a male copulatory complex so clearly different from other entocytherines that a new genus, Aurumcythere gen. nov. is proposed to receive them. This newly proposed, apparently nonsclerotized, genus with hook and spur-like prominences of the posteroventral end of the peniferum is the first new genus of the subfamily Entocytherinae named since Hobbs & Peters described Aphelocythere (= Waltoncythere) in 1977. Aurumcythere gen. nov. represents only the second genus of entocytherid known from the Pacific Northwest. Lack of sclerotization in Aurumcythere gen. nov. provides new insight into poorly understood mating behaviors of entocytherid ostracods.

  7. Philosophical Anthropology, Ethics and Political Philosophy in an Age of Impending Catastrophe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arran Gare

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available  In this paper it is argued that philosophical anthropology is central to ethics and politics. The denial of this has facilitated the triumph of debased notions of humans developed by Hobbes which has facilitated the enslavement of people to the logic of the global market, a logic which is now destroying the ecological conditions for civilization and most life on Earth. Reviving the classical understanding of the central place of philosophical anthropology to ethics and politics, the early work of Hegel and Marx is explicated, defended and further developed by interpreting this through developments in post-mechanistic science. Overcoming the opposition between the sciences and the humanities, it is suggested that the conception of humans developed in this way can orient people in their struggle for the liberty to avert a global ecological catastrophe.

  8. The Risk of Autonomy. The ideal of self-legislation beyond the fear of civil war and its institutional containment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Schmidt

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The modern understanding of autonomy (at least in its strong version often includes the idea of selflegislation. As was paradigmatically the case for the French Revolution, self-legislation was considered as ideally neither bound by tradition nor by existing institutions. But some contemporary political theorists of the bourgeois revolutions (including Hobbes and Burke felt uneasy about the loss of order and therefore tried to dispense with the concept of autonomy altogether. This article reconstructs this unease and its relation to Habermas′ proposal of staging the desire for autonomy within an institutional setting. Habermas′ suggestion privileges the existing institutional order over the desire for autonomy. Against Habermas I stress the importance of the desire for autonomy with its consequences for threatening the authority of law. Against this threat, I advocate that we recognize an existing institutional order actively and explicitly.

  9. Carlo Ginzburg, Peur, révérence, terreur. Quatre essais d’iconographie politique

    OpenAIRE

    Font-Réaulx, Dominique de

    2015-01-01

    Les quatre essais réunis ici ont été publiés, séparément, entre 2000 et 2009, par Carlo Ginzburg. Leur rassemblement n’a pas été guidé par leur thème – fort différent, du Leviathan de Thomas Hobbes au Guernica de Pablo Picasso en passant par La Mort de Marat de Jacques-Louis David et au Your country needs you ! de lord Kitchener –, ni par la chronologie des événements. Le philosophe cherche à montrer ici la pertinence de sa méthode d’analyse des images. Il la place, de manière originale et sé...

  10. Hope for health and health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stempsey, William E

    2015-02-01

    Virtually all activities of health care are motivated at some level by hope. Patients hope for a cure; for relief from pain; for a return home. Physicians hope to prevent illness in their patients; to make the correct diagnosis when illness presents itself; that their prescribed treatments will be effective. Researchers hope to learn more about the causes of illness; to discover new and more effective treatments; to understand how treatments work. Ultimately, all who work in health care hope to offer their patients hope. In this paper, I offer a brief analysis of hope, considering the definitions of Hobbes, Locke, Hume and Thomas Aquinas. I then differentiate shallow and deep hope and show how hope in health care can remain shallow. Next, I explore what a philosophy of deep hope in health care might look like, drawing important points from Ernst Bloch and Gabriel Marcel. Finally, I suggest some implications of this philosophy of hope for patients, physicians, and researchers.

  11. The problem of egoism in Rousseau’s practical philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadžakov Slobodan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the aspects of Rousseau’s understandimg of egoism, primarily those related to his highlighting of historical dimension of the problem, including the economical reasons for establishing this practical principle as an important part of the civil reproduction of life. Among other things, it analyses the contextual connection of egoism with relevant definitions in Rousseau’s work such as human nature, natural law, general will etc. and the difference of Rousseau’s overview of this problem from other important philosophers, for example Hobbes. This paper underlines how the French philosopher, on the basis of key assumptions of his practical philosophy, points at the historical dependence and the possibility of overcoming the egoistic actions, and endeavors to pave the way to a multilateral practical unlocking of the potentials of freedom in its political, moral and legal sense.

  12. Dichotomy of the "state – society" and economic liberalism myth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orekhovsky Petr, A.,

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available After the collapse of the Soviet Union, most economists and sociologists have concluded that humanity finally found the optimum, the highest form of political and economic structure. Francis Fukuyama was proclaimed "the end of history". Such representation is directly related to the entered Hobbes dichotomy of "state" and "society", which also marked the beginning of the New Age. B. Latour argues that this dichotomy lies at the basis of the division of science into "natural" and "social" and is wrong. M. Gefter distinguishes models "Homo mythicus" and "Homo historicus". The model of "Homo oeconomicus" is a kind of myth and used to transform the axial time scale of classification societies in size wealth. Liberalism rejects the notion of a political, not a basis for the positive content of the concept of the state. Use of liberalism as an ideology, paradoxically, may lead to a growth rather than decline conflict and increase the danger of war.

  13. A questão do sentido e do sagrado na modernidade = The question of meaning and sacred in modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perine, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O texto parte de uma compreensão da modernidade nos termos de uma virada antropológica, que caracteriza a cultura ocidental a partir do século XVII. As figuras de Descartes e de Hobbes assinalam, respectivamente, a descoberta da subjetividade e do indivíduo. Em seguida, reflete sobre o problema de Deus no discurso filosófico: a atitude da fé é tematizada na compreensão do homem como imagem de Deus e do mundo como estrutura racional teleologicamente ordenada para Deus. Finalmente, o texto propõe a compreensão da experiência religiosa e da contingência nos termos de uma experiência do sentido, pela qual o ser humano pode abrir-se para a atitude da fé radical como reconhecimento do que dá sentido à existência de cada um

  14. Soil bioremediation at CFB Trenton: evaluation of bioremediation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouellette, L.; Cathum, S.; Avotins, J.; Kokars, V.; Cooper, D.

    1996-01-01

    Bioremediation processes and their application in the cleanup of contaminated soil, were discussed. The petroleum contaminated soil at CFB Trenton, was evaluated to determine which bioremediation process or combination of processes would be most effective. The following processes were considered: (1) white hot fungus, (2) Daramend proprietary process, (3) composting, (4) bioquest proprietary bioremediation processes, (5) Hobbs and Millar proprietary bioremediation process, and (6) farming. A brief summary of each of these options was included. The project was also used as an opportunity to train Latvian and Ukrainian specialists in Canadian field techniques and laboratory analyses. Preliminary data indicated that bioremediation is a viable method for treatment of contaminated soil. 18 refs., 3 figs

  15. El mundo interno, el imaginario y la política - The Internal World, Imaginaries and Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobo Saibacam

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the concomitant relationship between the notions of imaginary in Cornelius Castoriadis and of internal world in Hannah Arendt. These two theoretical constructs have extended the sphere of politics, providing a deeper knowledge of the citizen’s self. these authors, who were contemporaries of each other, diagnose in their works a hypertrophy of the identity logic due to fear of losing control and to anguish in the face of contingency, resulting in the idolatrous solution of omnipotence in the political sphere. Castoriadis and Arendt discover instead a richer understanding of liberty through the recognition of democracy in the inner forum. their political theories echo the mediterranean rhetorical tradition and shine light on some of the most prominent deformations of Western thought, evident in thinkers such as Thomas Hobbes.

  16. O conceito de Estado para os estudos realistas das relações internacionais: uma análise sobre a obra A política entre as nações de Hans Morgenthau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Berringer

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa o conceito de Estado utilizado pela corrente realista dos estudos de relações internacionais, abordagem considerada hegemônica nessa área de estudos das ciências sociais, em geral, e da ciência política, em particular. Analisamos como essa categoria foi tratada por Hans Morgenthau, um dos principais autores dessa corrente, na sua obra A política entre as nações. Verificamos uma forte influência do pensamento de Weber, Maquiavel e Hobbes, mas inferimos que Morgenthau não se preocupou em definir claramente o conceito de Estado-nação, e que utilizou concepções divergentes na ciência política — pluralistas e elitistas —, o que leva a uma inconsistência teórica.

  17. Phomopsis longicolla RNA virus 1 - Novel virus at the edge of myco- and plant viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrabáková, Lenka; Koloniuk, Igor; Petrzik, Karel

    2017-06-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of a new RNA mycovirus in the KY isolate of Phomopsis longicolla Hobbs 1985 and its protoplasts subcultures p5, p9, and ME711 was discovered. The virus, provisionally named Phomopsis longicolla RNA virus 1 (PlRV1), was localized in mitochondria and was determined to have a genome 2822 nucleotides long. A single open reading frame could be translated in silico by both standard and mitochondrial genetic codes into a product featuring conservative domains for an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). The RdRp of PlRV1 has no counterpart among mycoviruses, but it is about 30% identical with the RdRp of plant ourmiaviruses. Recently, new mycoviruses related to plant ourmiaviruses and forming one clade with PlRV1 have been discovered. This separate clade could represent the crucial link between plant and fungal viruses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. La renuncia existencialista al sueño romántico de infinitud en el estado de naturaleza hobbesiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Ríos Álvarez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo de la devastadora antropología que puede derivarse del pensamiento de Hobbes, la dicotomía vanidad-miedo a la muerte nos permite arrojar una luz diferente a la filosofía del malmesburiense valiéndonos de la dialéctica hegeliana como clave hermenéutica, lo que nos proporciona cierto prisma metafísico-existencialista para reinterpretar la filosofía política hobbesiana como un humanismo casi filantrópico. Desde esta nueva perspectiva, las relaciones de poder que se desarrollan en un contexto pre-civil acaban erigiéndose, en consecuencia, como una lucha inevitable del sujeto consigo mismo que se prefigura como tránsito imprescindible de la naturaleza a la cultura. El espacio político deja de ser, así, una mera satisfacción pragmática del instinto de supervivencia para convertirse en ineludible condición de posibilidad de una auténtica humanidad, un verdadero triunfo de la cordura sobre el ansia pasional de infinitud. Este artículo pretende sugerir una vía interpretativa alternativa del contractualismo de Thomas Hobbes en consonancia con la rigurosidad aplastante de su pensamiento, dignificando a un tiempo la imagen histórica que hemos generado de un autor cuyas influencias pueden ser rastreadas en las figuras más importantes de la historia moderna y contemporánea.

  19. Democracia y universidad: patologías de un desgobierno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso-Rocafort, Víctor

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Diverse contemporary theories of democracy have put the emphasis on the tensions that arise for citizens who live in a democratic community and yet spend most of their lives in non-democratic spaces. This work examines the persistent democratic deficit that in Spain weighs down a special public institution, the university. According to Thomas Hobbes, competition, diffidence, and glory give rise to wars between citizens; today, its dominant presence in the university is assumed naturally. Here I analyze diverse political pathologies product of the misrule that results from this misunderstanding of the last sense of the institution. These include envy, calumny, destructive ambition and narcissism. Finally, I will study the establishment of groups that function as brotherhoods.Diversas teorías contemporáneas de la democracia han puesto el acento en las tensiones que produce al ciudadano vivir en una comunidad política democrática y, sin embargo, pasar la mayor parte de su vida en espacios no democráticos. En este trabajo se analiza el persistente déficit democrático que en España arrastra una institución pública especial, la universidad. Según Thomas Hobbes la competencia, la desconfianza y el deseo de gloria originan las guerras entre ciudadanos; hoy se asume de manera natural su presencia dominante en la universidad. Se procederá así al estudio de diversas patologías políticas producto del desgobierno originado, precisamente, al confundir de esta manera el sentido último de la institución. Se trataría de la envidia, la calumnia, la ambición destructiva y el narcisismo. Por último se estudiará la conformación de grupos como hermandades.

  20. The origin of ethics and social order in a society without state power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, K

    1999-06-01

    How ethics and social order in a society without state power had originated and developed is one of enigmas which human beings have tried to solve for a long time. Several theories on the origin of social order have been proposed since the "Social Contract" theory of Thomas Hobbes. According to Hobbes, as a society without state power is in a condition called war, a social contract among men is the origin of social order in a society where every man is against every man. Rousseau says that when human beings reach the stage in which they live in a permanent neighborhood, a property system is introduced. Then, too much ambition and avarice of man who has possessions compel him to propose the formation of a political institution, providing social order which enables him to keep his possessions. According to Nietzsche, the principle of equilibrium, that is, an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth is an important concept for the oldest theory of low and morality as well as the basis of justice. The sense of superiority and nobility which a strong man brave enough to take revenge feels is the origin of the antithesis "good" and "bad". Girard says that the sacred violence wielded by the community to sacrifice a surrogate victim brings about social order in a society without state power. All the aforementioned theories seem to have failed to find out that a society without state power has its own ethics that had spontaneously developed on the pagan culture. Previously, I indicated that a society without state power or a society where state power cannot function well, such as the tribal society in northern Albania, has ethics which is based on the ancient concepts of "Guest-god", "food (commensality)" and "blood". In the present paper, I propose a new theory on the origin of ethics and social order, using the model of ethics of the Kanun.

  1. Una versión del estado de naturaleza en la España del siglo XVIII: el texto de Joaquín Marín y Mendoza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador RUS RUFINO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Joaquín Marín y Mendoza, abogado de la corte en la década de los setenta, historiador de Derecho Natural y académico de la Real Academia de la Historia, escribió la disertación De statu hominum naturali, de la que se ofrece aquí el original latino y la traducción al castellano, bajo el título El estado natural del hombre, cuyo objeto de estudio es el ‘estado de naturaleza’. Se acompaña al texto de una introducción biográfica, así como de un estudio general del presente discurso sobre el Estado Natural, en el que se analizan las fuentes modernas del texto: Hobbes, R. Cumberland, Juan Francisco Finetti o Samuel Pufendorf. J. Marín se adscribió a la tendencia iusnaturalista teonómica moderada, intentó seguir los principios de la filosofía cristiana y enriquecerla con las aportaciones de la filosofía moderna.ABSTRACT: Joaquín Marín y Mendoza, a court attorney in the 1770s, historian of Natural Law and member of the Royal Academy of History, was the author of the dissertation on the «state of nature», De statu hominum naturali, which is offered here in the original Latin and in a Spanish translation entitled El estado natural del hombre. The text is accompanied by a biographical introduction, as well as a general study of the present discourse on the State of Nature, in which the modern sources of the text are analysed: Hobbes, R. Cumberland, Juan Francisco Finetti or Samuel Pufendorf. J. Marín subscribed to the moderate iusnaturalist theonomic trend and tried to follow the principles of Christian phibosophy and to enrich it with the contributions of modern philosophy.

  2. Zaman ve Mekân Bağlamında Karşılaştırmalı Bir Çalışma: Makyavel’in ‘Prens’i ve Kınalızade’nin ‘Ahlâk-ı Âlâî’si A Comparative Study in Terms of Time and Space: Machiavelli’s ‘The Prince’ and Kınalızade’s ‘Ahlâk-ı Âlâî’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan ÖZDEMİR

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Kınalızâde Ali Efendi (died in 1572 and Nicolo Machiavelli (died in1527, who lived in almost the same period, occupied important placeswith regards to the civilizations to which they belonged. WhileKınalızâde represents an Ottoman State that was at the zenith of itspower at the end of the 16th century, Machiavelli represents Italy thatwas at the time an unstable and divided political structure. These twoscholars who lived roughly around the same time in quite differentgeographies, naturally, sought to remedy the problems of their owncountries. Nonetheless, they both had the same target in mind; carryingtheir homelands to greater heights. Both being the children of theirtime, they were involved in ways of thinking in line with thecircumstances of their societies. As a natural consequence of therealities they were in, the prescriptions they were to present to therulers of their homelands would vary to a great extent given thatKınalızâde was living in Ottoman soil where the prevailing atmospherewas that of order and stability, while Machiavelli was living in an Italyriddled with chaos and political immorality. Kınalızâde was able tosearch for virtues by capitalizing on the fact that his country hadalready established a well working order. However, according toMachiavelli, it would be a mere waste of time to speak of virtues in aplace with no established order. A parallel comparison of the moralsentiments of these philosophers would make the period moreunderstandable. The comparison between “Ahlâk-ı Âlâî” of Kınalızâdeand “The Prince” of Machiavelli will be a comparison of civilizationsbecause Kınalızâde was a representative of the ancient that made nodistinction between politics and ethics and he sought answers to theproblems of the Ottoman Empire into which he was born and whichhad the claim of establishing a world order; whereas Machiavelli soughtanswers to the problems of his homeland Italy, which was made up

  3. Early Cretaceous climate change (Hauterivian - Early Aptian): Learning from the past to prevent modern reefs decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godet, Alexis; Bodin, Stéphane; Adatte, Thierry; Föllmi, Karl B.

    2010-05-01

    In the last decades, the anthropogenic increase pCO2atm has been considered as one of the main contributors for the decline of modern coral reefs, and nearly 60% of these marine ecosystems are presently threatened (Bryant et al., 1998). Interactions between anthropogenic change and reef growth can, however, not be reduced to a single factor, and it is essential to look at the Earth's history to understand and counterbalance. During the Early Cretaceous, enhanced pCO2atm may have been responsible, at least in part, for the demise of the carbonate platform along the northern margin of the Tethys through climatic feedback mechanisms. From the Hauterivian to the Early Aptian, increased rainfalls are documented from the clay-mineral association, by a change from a smectite-dominated (most of the Hauterivian), to a kaolinite-dominated assemblage (latest Hauterivian up to the early Late Barremian). This switch is dated to the Pseudothurmannia ohmi ammonozone in the Vocontian Trough of southeastern France (Angles section, Godet et al., 2008). It is immediately followed in time by major nutrient input, as is illustrated by the substantial increase in phosphorus accumulation rates (PAR), not only in this section, but also in the Ultrahelvetic area of Switzerland and in the Umbria-Marche basin of Italy (Bodin et al., 2006). On the other hand, the remainder of the Hauterivian is characterized by PAR mean values characteristic of mesotrophic conditions, whereas the Late Barremian witnesses the return to oligotrophic environments (lower PAR values). Synchronously, these perturbations are mirrored on the platform by changes in the type of carbonate ecosystems. Indeed, a stronger continental runoff, and a subsequent input in the oceanic domain of nutrients (e.g., phosphorus) and clastic material modified marine palaeoenvironmental conditions and triggered changes in ecosystems. A unique archive of the Early Cretaceous carbonate platform is preserved in the Helvetic Alps, where the

  4. O CONFLITO COMO PROMOTOR DA LIBERDADE NA REPÚBLICA MAQUIAVELIANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando de Carvalho Sousa

    2016-12-01

    The Machiavellian thinking is cause of disputes and controversies between several researchers. These conflicts usually revolve around the interpretation of political positions and implications of concepts used by the author. This article seeks to understand the issue of conflict in the Machiavellian republic and its actors, aiming to identify the role of the people in the conflict and the role that Machiavelli attributes to it as one of the key players in maintaining in promoting freedom within the republican regime proposed by the philosopher. This element appears as one of the key players in the maintenance and promotion of democracy. In this sense, become key elements to understand the political disputes in the republic. Through a bibliographical research the article sought to understand this conflicting relationship that takes place within the republican environment and concluded that although there are divergences around the dispositions within the republic the role of resolving them always rests with the institutions. Keywords: Machiavelli; Conflict; Freedom; Republic; People. EL CONFLICTO COMO UN PROMOTOR DE LA LIBERTAD EN LA REPÚBLICA MAQUIAVÉLIANA RESUMEN El pensamiento maquiavélico es causa de conflictos y controversias entre varios investigadores. Estos conflictos por lo general giran en torno a la interpretación de las posiciones políticas e implicaciones de los conceptos utilizados por el autor. En este artículo se busca entender el tema del conflicto en la república maquiavélica y sus actores, con el objetivo de identificar el papel del pueblo en los conflictos y el papel que Maquiavelo atribuye a él como uno de los jugadores clave en el mantenimiento en la promoción de la libertad dentro del régimen republicano propuesto por el filósofo. Este elemento aparece como uno de los jugadores clave en el mantenimiento y promoción de la democracia. En este sentido, se convierten en elementos clave para entender los conflictos políticos en la rep

  5. Treatment of fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome (FXTAS and related neurological problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randi J Hagerman

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Randi J Hagerman1,2, Deborah A Hall3, Sarah Coffey1,2, Maureen Leehey3, James Bourgeois4, John Gould5, Lin Zhang6, Andreea Seritan4, Elizabeth Berry-Kravis7–9, John Olichney6, Joshua W Miller10, Amy L Fong11, Randall Carpenter12, Cathy Bodine13, Louise W Gane1,2, Edgar Rainin1, Hillary Hagerman1, Paul J Hagerman141M.I.N.D. Institute, 2Department of Pediatrics, 4Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, 5Department of Urology, 6Department of Neurology, 10Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, 14Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, University of California, Davis, School of Medicine, Sacramento, CA, USA; 3Department of Neurology, University of Colorado, Denver, CO, USA; 7Department of Pediatrics, Neurology, and Biochemistry, 8Department of Neurological Sciences, 9Department of Biochemistry, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA; 11Physical Edge, Inc., Davis, CA, USA; 12Seaside Therapeutics, Cambridge, MA, USA; 13Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO, USAAbstract: Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS is a progressive neurological disorder that affects older adult carriers, predominantly males, of premutation alleles (55 to 200 CGG repeats of the fragile X (FMR1 gene. Principal features of FXTAS are intention tremor, ataxia, parkinsonism, cognitive decline, and peripheral neuropathy; ancillary features include, autonomic dysfunction, and psychiatric symptoms of anxiety, depression, and disinhibition. Although controlled trials have not been carried out in individuals with FXTAS, there is a significant amount of anecdotal information regarding various treatment modalities. Moreover, there exists a great deal of evidence regarding the efficacy of various medications for treatment of other disorders (eg, Alzheimer disease that have substantial phenotypic overlap with FXTAS. The current review summarizes what is currently

  6. LA INFLUENCIA POSITIVA DE LA MEDIACIÓN ESCOLAR EN LA MEJORA DE LA CALIDAD DOCENTE E INSTITUCIONAL: PERCEPCIONES DEL PROFESOR MEDIADOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Ibarrola-García

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La mediación escolar se muestra como una estrategia educativa que interviene en el conflicto al mismo tiempo que lo previene, forma en cualidades personales e interpersonales y mejora el entorno. En el marco teórico de la mediación se recogen indicios que reflejan las virtualidades de la mediación escolar (Alzate, 2007; Binaburo, 2007: Boqué, 2002; Bell et al. 2002; Bodine y Crawford, 1998; Cavas, 2009; Casella, 2000; Cohen, 2005; De Diego y Guillén, 2008; Farell, Myer, y White, 2001; Farré, 2006; Galán, Ruiz y Tórrego, 2008; Harris, 2005; Jones, 2004; Johnson et al. 1996; Otero, 2007; Revell y Arthur, 2007; Selfridge, 2004; Smith, Daunic, Millar y Robinson, 2002; Turnuklu, et al. 2010 y en este sentido analizamos las percepciones de una muestra de profesorado mediador (n=50 mediante un cuestionario elaborado ad hoc (autoras, 2012 que valora diversos aspectos referidos al aprendizaje emocional, sociocognitivo y moral producidos en el proceso de mediación escolar así como los efectos percibidos en la mejora de la convivencia del centro educativo. En cuanto a los resultados, por un lado, el profesorado percibe mejoras personales sobre todo en el pensamiento reflexivo y la empatía. Por otro lado, en el centro educativo el profesorado destaca la labor preventiva de la mediación no sólo al contrarrestar educativamente dinámicas de conflicto sino al facilitarle recursos y habilidades concretas para afrontar situaciones diarias en el aula y mejorar la convivencia.

  7. Prenatal Phthalate Exposures and Anogenital Distance in Swedish Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlstedt, Fredrik; Jönsson, Bo AG.; Lindh, Christian H.; Jensen, Tina K.; Bodin, Anna; Jonsson, Carin; Janson, Staffan; Swan, Shanna H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Phthalates are used as plasticizers in soft polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and in a large number of consumer products. Because of reported health risks, diisononyl phthalate (DiNP) has been introduced as a replacement for di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in soft PVC. This raises concerns because animal data suggest that DiNP may have antiandrogenic properties similar to those of DEHP. The anogenital distance (AGD)—the distance from the anus to the genitals—has been used to assess reproductive toxicity. Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the associations between prenatal phthalate exposure and AGD in Swedish infants. Methods: AGD was measured in 196 boys at 21 months of age, and first-trimester urine was analyzed for 10 phthalate metabolites of DEP (diethyl phthalate), DBP (dibutyl phthalate), DEHP, BBzP (benzylbutyl phthalate), as well as DiNP and creatinine. Data on covariates were collected by questionnaires. Results: The most significant associations were found between the shorter of two AGD measures (anoscrotal distance; AGDas) and DiNP metabolites and strongest for oh-MMeOP [mono-(4-methyl-7-hydroxyloctyl) phthalate] and oxo-MMeOP [mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate]. However, the AGDas reduction was small (4%) in relation to more than an interquartile range increase in DiNP exposure. Conclusions: These findings call into question the safety of substituting DiNP for DEHP in soft PVC, particularly because a shorter male AGD has been shown to relate to male genital birth defects in children and impaired reproductive function in adult males and the fact that human levels of DiNP are increasing globally. Citation: Bornehag CG, Carlstedt F, Jönsson BA, Lindh CH, Jensen TK, Bodin A, Jonsson C, Janson S, Swan SH. 2015. Prenatal phthalate exposures and anogenital distance in Swedish boys. Environ Health Perspect 123:101–107; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408163 PMID:25353625

  8. Lithospheric Structure of the Yamato Basin Inferred from Trans-dimensional Inversion of Receiver Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuhara, T.; Nakahigashi, K.; Shinohara, M.; Yamada, T.; Yamashita, Y.; Shiobara, H.; Mochizuki, K.

    2017-12-01

    The Yamato Basin, located at the southeast of the Japan Sea, has been formed by the back-arc opening of the Japan Sea. Wide-angle reflection surveys have revealed that the basin has anomalously thickened crust compared with a normal oceanic crust [e.g., Nakahigashi et al., 2013] while deeper lithospheric structure has not known so far. Revealing the lithospheric structure of the Yamato Basin will lead to better understanding of the formation process of the Japan Sea and thus the Japanese island. In this study, as a first step toward understanding the lithospheric structure, we aim to detect the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) using receiver functions (RFs). We use teleseismic P waveforms recorded by broad-band ocean-bottom seismometers (BBOBS) deployed at the Yamato Basin. We calculated radial-component RFs using the data with the removal of water reverberations from the vertical-component records [Akuhara et al., 2016]. The resultant RFs are more complicated than those calculated at an on-land station, most likely due to sediment-related reverberations. This complexity does not allow either direct detection of a Ps conversion from the LAB or forward modeling by a simple structure composed of a handful number of layers. To overcome this difficulty, we conducted trans-dimensional Markov Chain Monte Carlo inversion of RFs, where we do not need to assume the number of layers in advance [e.g., Bodin et al., 2012; Sambridge et al., 2014]. Our preliminary results show abrupt velocity reduction at 70 km depth, far greater depth than the expected LAB depth from the age of the lithosphere ( 20 Ma, although still debated). If this low-velocity jump truly reflects the LAB, the anomalously thickened lithosphere will provide a new constraint on the complex formation history of the Japan Sea. Further study, however, is required to deny the possibility that the obtained velocity jump is an artificial brought by the overfitting of noisy data.

  9. Understanding the supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aćimović Slobodan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain management represents new business philosophy and includes strategically positioned and much wider scope of activity in comparison with its "older brother" - management of logistics. Philosophy of the concept of supply chain is directed to more coordination of key business functions of every link in distribution chain in the process of organization of the flow of both goods and information, while logistic managing instruments are focused on internal optimum of flows of goods and information within one company. Applying the concept of integrated supply chain among several companies makes the importance of operative logistics activity even greater on the level of one company, thus advancing processes of optimum and coordination within and between different companies and confirms the importance of logistics performances for the company’s profitability. Besides the fact that the borders between companies are being deleted, this concept of supply chain in one distribution channel influences increasing of importance of functional, i.e. traditional business managing approaches but instead it points out the importance of process managing approaches. Although the author is aware that "there is nothing harder, more dangerous and with uncertain success, but to find a way for introducing some novelties (Machiavelli, it would be even his additional stimulation for trying to bring closer the concept and goals of supply chain implementation that are identified in key, relevant, modern, theoretical and consulting approaches in order to achieve better understanding of the subject and faster implementation of the concept of supply chain management by domestic companies.

  10. The Florentine Archives in Transition: Government, Warfare and Communication (1289–1530 ca.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    A turning point in European administrative and documentary practices was traditionally associated, most famously by Robert-Henri Bautier, with the monarchies of the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. By summarizing previous research in this field, as well as by using both published and unpublished sources, this article intends to underline an earlier process of transition connected to the development of significant new techniques for the production and preservation of documents in Renaissance Italian city-states. Focusing on the important case of Florence, the administrative uses of records connected to government, diplomacy and military needs will be discussed, and evidence will be provided that such documentary practices accelerated significantly during the so-called Italian Wars (from 1494 onwards). A particular reason of interest for Florence at this time is that a major role in the production and storage of a large quantity of state papers was played by Niccolò Machiavelli, one of the outstanding political thinkers of the age. This was especially true in connection to the new militia which he himself created in 1506. By stressing the role of information management and the importance of correspondence networks at a time of war and crisis, this article also contributes to recent scholarship which has focused on the growth of public records relating to diplomacy in Italy during the second half of the fifteenth century, as well as to a recent field of historiography which has lately gained importance: namely the ‘documentary history of institutions’. PMID:27478290

  11. The Florentine Archives in Transition: Government, Warfare and Communication (1289-1530 ca.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidi, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    A turning point in European administrative and documentary practices was traditionally associated, most famously by Robert-Henri Bautier, with the monarchies of the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. By summarizing previous research in this field, as well as by using both published and unpublished sources, this article intends to underline an earlier process of transition connected to the development of significant new techniques for the production and preservation of documents in Renaissance Italian city-states. Focusing on the important case of Florence, the administrative uses of records connected to government, diplomacy and military needs will be discussed, and evidence will be provided that such documentary practices accelerated significantly during the so-called Italian Wars (from 1494 onwards). A particular reason of interest for Florence at this time is that a major role in the production and storage of a large quantity of state papers was played by Niccolò Machiavelli, one of the outstanding political thinkers of the age. This was especially true in connection to the new militia which he himself created in 1506. By stressing the role of information management and the importance of correspondence networks at a time of war and crisis, this article also contributes to recent scholarship which has focused on the growth of public records relating to diplomacy in Italy during the second half of the fifteenth century, as well as to a recent field of historiography which has lately gained importance: namely the 'documentary history of institutions'.

  12. Comment on `Banana-doughnut kernels and mantle tomography' by van der Hilst and de Hoop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montelli, R.; Nolet, G.; Dahlen, F. A.

    2006-12-01

    E debbasi considerare come non è cosa più difficile a trattare, né più dubbia a riuscire, nè più pericolosa a maneggiare, che farsi capo ad introdurre nuovi ordini. Perché lo introduttore ha per nimici tutti quelli che delli ordini vecchi fanno bene, et ha tepidi defensori tutti quelli che delli ordini nuovi farebbono bene.† Machiavelli, Il Principe The claim by van der Hilst and de Hoop that finite-frequency (FF) inversion of seismic traveltimes does not result in measurable improvements in tomographic images is misguided, and based upon a biased selection of images in the upper mantle, where wave front healing effects are indeed small, and where our models are generally poorly resolved because we primarily used teleseismic waves that travel steeply in the upper mantle; and upon an improper application of statistics to the better-resolved anomalies in the lower mantle. If station corrections for long-period P waves are computed using ray theory, as we do, unmodelled FF effects may be responsible for slow anomalies of up to 0.3 per cent beneath very small island stations, but these effects are negligible for larger islands such as Reunion and Kerguelen. The presence of a plume beneath these islands is the most probable explanation for the observed low velocities.

  13. Religião e política no pensamento de Maquiavel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Ames

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Para Maquiavel, o que confere valor a uma religião não é a importância de seu fundador, o conteúdo dos ensinamentos, a verdade dos dogmas ou a significação dos mistérios e ritos. Importa não a essência da religião e sim sua função e importância para a vida coletiva. A religião ensina a reconhecer e a respeitar as regras políticas a partir do mandamento religioso. Essa norma coletiva pode assumir tanto o aspecto coercivo exterior da disciplina militar ou da autoridade política quanto o caráter persuasivo interior da educação moral e cívica para a produção do consenso coletivo.For Machiavelli, religion is valued not by the importance of its founder, the content of its teachings, the truth of its dogmas or the significance of its rites. It is not the essence of what really matters but its function and importance for collective life. Religion teaches to recognize and respect political rules through the religious commandments. This collective norm could assume the outer coercive aspect of the military discipline as well as the inner persuasive character of civic and moral education for the production of collective consensus.

  14. 5. Doctor of Rivers. On the Remedies for Facing the Fortune in the Italian Renaissance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Mammola

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Renaissance medicine had the peculiar capacity to integrate in an organic and functional weave even historical and antiquarian competencies next to those properly naturalistic and biological. This is mirrored by the widespread use of medical metaphors in the context of moral and political, civil and technical reflexions. Such is the case also for the management of waters and rivers. So while Agostino Bacci compares floods to a disease and the idraulic engineer to a physician who, unable to alter upstream the course of things, prepares valid defensive strategies, Machiavelli gives literary dignity to the description of fortune like a river in flood that threatens to overwhelm and destroy everything. Their common recognition of a connection between the works of hydraulic engineering and the complex relationship between power and human freedom, on the one hand, and, on the other hand, luck or necessity, can be set, as we shall show, in the perspective of a new ideal of science, for which the profile of Bacci’s “doctor of the river” partly overlaps with Machiavelli’s virtuoso — a science that places in the middle of its investigation a critical survey of experience, and that is partly inspired by a certain way of doing medicine, partly by a certain way to read the history, and that focuses on the complexity of a world, natural as social, which rebels against too rigid schematizations.

  15. The Machiavellian Legacy in Merleau-Ponty: a Reading About the Conflictive Constitution of the Political

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Barrio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to restore, from the political thought of Merleau-Ponty, the rightful place of conflict. To achieve this hypothetical premise it is necessary to consider some issues that are woven into possible readings of the origin or foundation of politics. First, tracing back to the original cartesian proposition that the body is related with extensive substance invalid when detecting who we are. Then, considering the reading Merleau-Ponty makes of Machiavelli considering the notion of riot or mass under a conflicting structure of politics in relation to the subject. In this regard, it is noted from this reading, the conditions proposed by Merleau-Ponty to highlight the importance of the singular in a politically shared space. And finally, to understand these problem areas of the history of philosophy as their own "world of life" where the contingent has a particular sense understood as the ontological place of the practical subject. Thus, in this context, it is possible to reconcile from Merleau-Ponty in the area of the contingent, body and language; what is felt and thought; perceived and settled. To understand the features of sedimentation helps to the formation of the localized subject; that is, it habituated or instituted.

  16. Bios Politikos’tan Homo Economicus’a: Karşılaştırmalı Bir Perspektifle Antik ve Modern Dönemde İnsan, Ekonomi ve Siyaset İlişkisi / From Bios Politikos to Homo Economicus: The Relationship Between Human, Economy and Politics in the Ancient and Modern Periods with a Comparative Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem ÇELİK

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmanın amacı, Antik ve modern düşünürlerin siyaseti nasıl tanımladıklarını ortaya koyarak, tanımlar arasındaki farkların nedenini tartışmaktır. Antik dönemde, insanın doğası gereği politik bir varlık olarak tanımlanması, siyasetin bütün insani etkinlikler içerisinde en yücesi olarak görülmesine neden olmuştur. Antik düşünürler için siyaset, müşterek meselelerin eşitlerin gözü önünde tartışıldığı ve eşitsizliği dışlayan bir çoğulluk alanı olarak kavramıştır. Antik düşünür Aristoteles siyasetin amacının “iyi yaşam” olduğunu ifade etmektedir. Buna karşın Machiavelli ile başlayan modern siyasal düşünce, siyaseti, güç, iktidar ve şiddet kavramlarıyla tanımlamıştır. Machiavelli ve ardılları için siyaset, fiziksel şiddetin meşru örgütlenmesi, güç, değer ve kaynakların otorite eliyle dağıtılması şeklinde tanımlanmıştır. Antik Yunanda kamusal-siyasal alandan dışlanan şiddet, modern dünyada politik toplumu tanımlayan merkezi kavramlardan birisi haline gelmiştir. Antik dönemde siyasal varlık (zoon politikon olarak tanımlanan insan, modern dönemde ekonomik varlık (homo economicus olarak tanımlanmıştır. Antikler için yaşanmaya değer yaşam siyasete adanmış yaşam iken (bios politikos, modernler için ekonomik etkinlikle ilişkili hale gelmiştir. Çalışma, Antik ve modernlerin siyasal tanımları arasındaki farkın insan ve insan yaşamının amacı konusundaki farklılıklardan kaynaklandığını savunmaktadır. / The purpose of this study is to present how ancient and modern thinkers describe politics and to discuss reasons for differences seen in these definitions. In the ancient period, the identification of human being as a political entity by nature caused politics to be seen as the most supreme of all human activities. For the ancient thinkers, politics is conceptualized as a pluralist area in which the common

  17. Podziemny nurt materializmu spotkania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Althusser

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available W prezentowanym poniżej fragmencie Podziemnego nurtu materializmu spotkania Louis Althusser kreśli zarysy filozoficznej trajektorii określanej mianem „materializmu spotkania”. Charakterystyczną cechą proponowanego tutaj ujęcia jest nacisk na przygodność konstelacji organizującej warunki możliwości wydarzenia i jego trwania. Tekst stawia sobie za cel krytykę tradycji filozoficznej ujmującej materializm jako negatyw idealizmu, powielający jego strukturę i logikę myślenia; zaczyna się od analizy filozoficznych implikacji epikurejskiego atomizmu, by następnie przejść do omówienia motywu próżni i przygodności powtarzającego się u autorów takich jak Machiavelli, Spinoza, Rousseau, Marks czy Heidegger. Podziemny nurt materializmu spotkania został opublikowany pośmiertnie, w oparciu o materiały mające stać się podstawą nieukończonej książki. Tłumaczenie ukazało się dzięki uprzejmości l'Institut Mémoires de l'édition contemporaine (IMEC.

  18. In search of the functional neuroanatomy of sociality: MRI subdivisions of orbital frontal cortex and social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestor, Paul G; Nakamura, Motoaki; Niznikiewicz, Margaret; Thompson, Elizabeth; Levitt, James J; Choate, Victoria; Shenton, Martha E; McCarley, Robert W

    2013-04-01

    We examined social cognition in a sample of healthy participants who had prior magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) gray matter volume studies of the orbital frontal cortex (OFC) that was parcellated into three regions: gyrus rectus, middle orbital gyrus and lateral orbital gyrus. These subjects also completed a self-report measure of Machiavelli personality traits, along with psychometric tests of social comprehension and declarative episodic memory, all of which we used as proxy measures to examine various features of social cognition. The data pointed to distinct functional-anatomical relationships highlighted by strong correlations of left lateral orbital gyrus and Machiavellian scores and right middle orbital gyrus with social comprehension and declarative episodic memory. In addition, hierarchical regression analyses revealed statistical evidence of a double dissociation between Machiavellian scores and left lateral orbital gyrus on one hand, and social comprehension with right middle orbital gyrus, on the other hand. To our knowledge, these findings are the first to show evidence linking normal variation in OFC subregions and different aspects of social cognition.

  19. The gas industry and the race for the future; Die Gaswirtschaft im Wettlauf um die Zukunft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, B. [Ruhrgas AG, Essen (Germany)

    1996-06-01

    To quote Machiavelli `Only change is constant`. For the gas industry, too, change is not a new phenomenon. Present-day changers, however, tend to be of a different quality, and uncertainties are greater. These facts constitute both challenges and opportunities to all participants. The following article firstly describes the challenges faced by the German gas industry. The tasks and concepts involved in shaping the future of the German gas industry, and the gas transmission industry in particular, are then examined; the position of Ruhrgas AG against this background is then discussed. (orig.) [Deutsch] `Bestaendig ist nur der Wandel`, sagte schon Macchiavelli. Auch fuer die Gaswirtschaft ist Wandel keine neue Erfahrung. Dennoch, die Veraenderungen sind heute von anderer Qualitaet und die Unsicherheiten groesser. Das ist fuer jeden Mitspieler gleichermassen Herausforderung und Chance. Im folgenden werden zunaechst die Herausforderungen beschrieben, denen sich die deutsche Gaswirtschaft gegenuebersieht. Dann werden Aufgaben und Konzepte fuer die Zukunftsgestaltung der deutschen Gaswirtschaft, im speziellen der Ferngaswirtschaft, angesprochen, und schliesslich wird die Positionierung der Ruhrgas AG in diesem Umfeld aufgezeigt. (orig.)

  20. Conexões entre inteligência política e manutenção do poder em Nicolau Maquiavel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Régio Bento

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOO Príncipe, escrito em 1513 e publicado em 1531, quatro anos depois da morte de Nicolau Maquiavel (1469-1527, após mais de cinco séculos de sua redação continua sendo reproposto permanentemente por meio de várias traduções, nem sempre coerentes com o texto de 1513. De fato, como constatou Marques (2006, p.41, o Maquiavel de O Príncipe ainda continua sendo apresentado como “um professor do mal”. Ao contrário, porém, do que afirma o senso comum, o secretário florentino não foi maquiavélico.Neste artigo, por meio do estudo direto de O Príncipe com o texto em italiano de 1513 (MACHIAVELLI, 1988, e com o auxílio da tradução de Maria Lucia Cumo (MAQUIAVEL, 1996, analisaremos as conexões em O Príncipe entre inteligência política e manutenção virtuosa do poder, sustentando que O Príncipe não é um livro amoral, nem imoral, mas de moral política da manutenção inteligente do poder segundo o que Maquiavel compreende por virtudes políticas.

  1. DWORKIN ALÉM DA METAFÍSICA E DO CETICISMO / DWORKIN BEYOND THE METAPHYSICS AND SCEPTICISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Mansur

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article starts in the existence or not of justice in personal preferences and in the content of the rules of law. It examines the response of legal idealistic philosophies, specifically, the philosophy of Plato, according to which, there is a metaphysically correct answer for each legal issue. It analyzes the response of skeptical philosophies, specifically the skeptical point of Erasmus of Rotterdam in “Praise of Folly”, according to which, naturalistic responses are results of arbitrary actions that not even the philosopher escapes. It also identifies the influences of skepticism in the political and legal philosophies, as the political realism by Machiavelli and the Legal Positivism. Our research notes the paradox that both platonism and skepticism start from the same conception of truth that is used to criticize human conduct and the contents in the rules of law. It exposes the legal theory of Ronald Dworkin, for which there is rationality and criteria to criticize besides metaphysical entities. This article begins in the comparison of philosophical ideas to achieve the objective of demonstrating the relevance of political tradition in Dworkin.

  2. The Dilemma of Science and Morals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stent, Gunther S.

    1974-01-01

    The conflicts between science and morals which still continue to arise despite the apparent hegemony of atheistic scientism over traditional Judeo-Christianity in the twentieth century reflect a basic contradiction in the metaphysical foundation of Western lives. As was set forth by Machiavelli, the contradiction inherent in Western ethics is that it is based on the simultaneous belief in both objectively valid moral truths and purely relative values of communal purpose. The achievements of twentieth century science have intensified these contradictions. Modern physics has put in question the validity of its own metaphysical basis, namely the belief in Natural Law, and modern biology has been unable to come to terms with the Cartesian dualism of body and soul. By contrast, Chinese lives are comparatively free of these contradictions, being founded on the philosophies of Confucianism and Taoism, to which the concepts of objectively valid truth or Natural Law are foreign. Recent developments in Western attitudes regarding science and morals can be interpreted as a movement away from the traditional belief in absolute truths towards a Chinese relativism. PMID:4531410

  3. Two Disputes Of Methods, Three Constructivisms, And Three Liberalisms. Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Maksovich Yefimov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes to reconsider the methodology and history of economics radically, whether present day mainstream or heterodox versions of it. The profession of economists must definitely abandon Cartesian dualism and adopt Vygotskian constructivism. In fact constructivist economics already existed in the past and was cognitively very successful and socially very useful. It was the economics of Gustav Schmoller’s historico-ethical school and the institutionalist economics of John R. Commons, traditions of which are totally ignored by the contemporary community of economists. The former tradition was based on Dilthey’s hermeneutics and the latter on Peirce’s pragmatism. It is worth to underline that hermeneutics and pragmatism are both predecessors of Vygotskian constructivism. During the last two decades a lot was written by economists on pragmatist, constructivist and discursive approaches to the methodology and history of economics, but those who wrote on these topics viewed them from the dualistic point of view. My paper is an appeal to economists to reconsider Methodenstreit. The dispute of methods between Schmoller and Menger can be considered as a repetition of a similar dispute taking place more than two hundred years earlier between Robert Boyle and Thomas Hobbes. Schmoller-Menger dispute started soon after the beginning of the institutionalisation of experimentally-oriented economics which happened with the creation in 1873 of the Vereinfür Sozialpolitik. Boyle-Hobbes dispute started in 1660, when the Royal Society of London had been founded, the cradle of the institution of science. Schmoller was one of the creators of the Verein, and Boyle was one of the founders of the Royal Society. The activities of both societies were similar in several respects: they represented efforts to collect data, working out of detailed reports and collective evaluation of obtained results. For Hobbes, as for Menger, the model of ‘science’ was

  4. El poder y el Papa. Aproximación a la filosofía política de Marsilio de Padua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayona, Bernardo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains the meaning of Marsilius of Padua’s work, the first medieval non-clerical theory of the State. Marsilius intends to fight the pontifical doctrine called plenitudo potestatis, which he says to be the cause of the civil war in Italy in the beginning of the 14th century. Then his thought is based on the unity of the sovereignty, in opposition to dualism, characteristic of other authors who defend the secular power, as John of Paris, Ockham or Dante. Marsilius states that there are no spiritual grounds to maintain a temporal power different from the power of the human legislator and that is why the only supreme power or plenitudo potestatis does not belong to the Pope, but to the secular ruler. From that follows the complete absorption of Church by the State and the secular ruler’s authority on the whole ecclesiastical organization. The Marsilius’s thought represents an effort with no precedents to base the power on rational grounds, but it is far from the modern idea of sovereignty, as well as from liberalism and from Rousseau’s general will. Even though it was not successful in his time, it had a great influence on Anglican Reformation and «English erastianism», specially on Hobbes.

    El trabajo expone el significado de la obra de Marsilio de Padua, la primera teoría medieval no clerical del Estado. Marsilio se propone combatir la doctrina de la plenitudo potestatis papal, porque la considera causa de la guerra civil en Italia a principios del siglo XIV. Se basa para ello en la unidad de la soberanía, frente al dualismo que caracteriza a otros defensores del poder secular, como Juan de Paris, Ockham o Dante. Sostiene que no existe fundamento espiritual para un poder diferente del poder del legislador humano y que el único poder supremo o plenitudo potestatis no corresponde al Papa sino al gobernante secular. De lo cual se sigue la completa absorción de la Iglesia por el Estado y la

  5. AS CONTRIBUIÇÕES DE ROBERT BOYLE À QUÍMICA FACE A UMA VISÃO INTERDISCIPLINAR COM A GEOGRAFIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Medeiros

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available No século XVII, o físico e químico irlandês, Robert Boyle, merece um papel de destaque na química pois ele auxiliou no desenvolvimento teórico desta ciência. Em 1660, ao publicar sua primeira obra científica não-aristotélica sobre a pressão atmosférica e o vácuo, baseado nos trabalhos de Galileu, Pascal e Torricelli, Boyle travou um conflito de idéias com o aristotélico Thomas Hobbes. Em 1662, em resposta aos ataques de Hobbes, Boyle publica um livro onde consta a lei da relação entre a pressão e o volume dos gases. Em 1670, através de uma experiência feita com um tubo de vidro em forma de J, ele concluiu a lei dos gases, cuja declara que em uma temperatura constante, o volume e a pressão de um gás são inversamente proporcionais. Objetiva-se com esta pesquisa promover a interdisciplinaridade entre as disciplinas da química e da ciência geográfica, através de um resgate histórico sobre a lei dos gases, gerando uma discussão acerca da aplicabilidade, exploração, perfuração, processamento e produção do gás na atualidade. O trabalho foi desenvolvido a partir de uma pesquisa bibliográfica e na internet acerca do tema. Tomando por base os estudos de Robert Boyle, pode-se promover uma interdisciplinaridade entre as disciplinas da química e da geografia, analisando quimicamente a lei dos gases e promovendo uma discussão geográfica acerca da exploração, perfuração de poços, o processamento do gás, aplicabilidade do gás na indústria, em veículos, domicílios e como uma das principais fontes alternativas da atualidade para a ampliação da matriz energética brasileira. Palavras-chave: lei dos gases; energia alternativa e interdisciplinaridade.

  6. DEMONS AND PRANKS IN THE KINGDOM OF THE LEVIATHAN DEMÔNIOS E DIABRURAS NO REINO DO LEVIATÃ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Alves de Paiva

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper – resulting from an academic speech at UFG (Universidade Federal de Goiás -is to outline the importance of Thomas Hobbes’ most known political work: Leviathan. Taking the figure of a big marine monster, quite in the same sense of the biblical metaphor used in the dialogue between God and Job to introduce the danger or the benefit of a big power controlled by men, Hobbes’s arguments terrorized the Church but helped in creating new ways of thinking so to conceive the modern state. In the same movement, many other “demons” emerged to fight against religious power and also other forms of totalitarianism. Nevertheless, even shocking our conventional assumptions, Hobbes’ political work may be considered – among other liberal thinkers – a defense of individualism and many other aspects of civil order, which make him one of the most important contributor to modernity and also an essential source to think about our reality.O presente texto procura ressaltar a importância da obra Leviatã, de Thomas Hobbes. A figura mitológica do grande monstro marinho é evidenciada como uma metáfora para introduzir a idéia de um poder estranho ao domínio teológico, que poderia ser explorado para o benefício ou malefício do homem. Bem utilizada por Hobbes em suas reflexões sobre a criação do Estado, a metáfora aterroriza a Igreja e abre caminhos para outras figuras inquietas da história do pensamento ocidental, cujas idéias foram tidas como heréticas e demoníacas. À parte a repercussão que teve o Leviatã, no fundo não é uma obra de cunho totalitário, mas faz coro aos escritos de outros “demônios” que ajudaram a configurar o mundo moderno, dentro de uma perspectiva liberal. Assim sendo, a obra serve de referência para repensarmos a realidade atual, sobretudo a brasileira, quando os desmandos da política colocam em risco de vida nosso Leviatã.

  7. Monogenean anchor morphometry: systematic value, phylogenetic signal, and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, Oi Yoon Michelle; Tan, Wooi Boon; Lim, Lee Hong Susan

    2016-01-01

    Background. Anchors are one of the important attachment appendages for monogenean parasites. Common descent and evolutionary processes have left their mark on anchor morphometry, in the form of patterns of shape and size variation useful for systematic and evolutionary studies. When combined with morphological and molecular data, analysis of anchor morphometry can potentially answer a wide range of biological questions. Materials and Methods. We used data from anchor morphometry, body size and morphology of 13 Ligophorus (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalidae) species infecting two marine mugilid (Teleostei: Mugilidae) fish hosts: Moolgarda buchanani (Bleeker) and Liza subviridis (Valenciennes) from Malaysia. Anchor shape and size data (n = 530) were generated using methods of geometric morphometrics. We used 28S rRNA, 18S rRNA, and ITS1 sequence data to infer a maximum likelihood phylogeny. We discriminated species using principal component and cluster analysis of shape data. Adams’s Kmult was used to detect phylogenetic signal in anchor shape. Phylogeny-correlated size and shape changes were investigated using continuous character mapping and directional statistics, respectively. We assessed morphological constraints in anchor morphometry using phylogenetic regression of anchor shape against body size and anchor size. Anchor morphological integration was studied using partial least squares method. The association between copulatory organ morphology and anchor shape and size in phylomorphospace was used to test the Rohde-Hobbs hypothesis. We created monogeneaGM, a new R package that integrates analyses of monogenean anchor geometric morphometric data with morphological and phylogenetic data. Results. We discriminated 12 of the 13 Ligophorus species using anchor shape data. Significant phylogenetic signal was detected in anchor shape. Thus, we discovered new morphological characters based on anchor shaft shape, the length between the inner root point and the outer root

  8. Análise dos modelos de tomada decisão sob o enfoque cognitivo ANALYSIS OF MODELS OF DECISION MAKING IN THE COGNITIVE APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênio de Oliveira Simonetto

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The rationality has been defined from the Greeks as one of the main characteristic that distinguishes man from the other animals. The Greeks ‘influence like Plato and Aristotle and the philosophers empiricist /rationalist,as Descartes and Thomas Hobbes, were remarkable for the formation of models of decision making in organizations proposed by Simon, Allison and Lindblon. This study aims to identify the mainly decision making models and check how the cognitive aspects can affect the behavior of the agents involved in the process. The results show that there is no way to overlook the subjective factors, the different cognitive styles in the decision, there is a system of relations between the elements of nature objective and subjective elements,whichever is the predominant influence of the values of decision makers involved, which is seen as a motivator for the decision.A racionalidade vem sendo definida a partir dos gregos como uma das principais características que distingue o homem dos outros animais. A influência dos gregos, como Platão e Aristóteles, e dos filósofos empiristas/racionalistas, como Descartes e Thomas Hobbes, foram marcantes para a formação dos modelos de tomadas de decisão nas organizações propostas por Simon, Allison e Lindblon. Assim, este trabalho tem o objetivo de identificar os principais modelos de tomada de decisão e verificar como os aspectos cognitivos podem afetar o comportamento dos agentes envolvidos no processo. Os resultados demonstram que não há como negligenciar os fatores subjetivos e os diferentes estilos cognitivos na decisão, pois há um sistema de relações entre os elementos de natureza objetiva e os elementos de natureza subjetiva, prevalecendo o predomínio da influência dos valores dos decisores envolvidos, o que é visto como elemento motivador da decisão.

  9. Thinking about ... leadership. Warts and all.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellerman, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    Does using Tyco's funds to purchase a $6,000 shower curtain and a $15,000 dog-shaped umbrella stand make Dennis Kozlowski a bad leader? Is Martha Stewart's career any less instructive because she may have sold some shares on the basis of a tip-off? Is leadership synonymous with moral leadership? Before 1970, the answer from most leadership theorists would certainly have been no. Look at Hitler, Stalin, Pol Pot, Mao Tsetung--great leaders all, but hardly good men. In fact, capricious, murderous, high-handed, corrupt, and evil leaders are effective and commonplace. Machiavelli celebrated them; the U.S. constitution built in safeguards against them. Everywhere, power goes hand in hand with corruption--everywhere, that is, except in the literature of business leadership. To read Tom Peters, Jay Conger, John Kotter, and most of their colleagues, leaders are, as Warren Bennis puts it, individuals who create shared meaning, have a distinctive voice, have the capacity to adapt, and have integrity. According to today's business literature, to be a leader is, by definition, to be benevolent. But leadership is not a moral concept, and it is high time we acknowledge that fact. We have as much to learn from those we would regard as bad examples as we do from the far fewer good examples we're presented with these days. Leaders are like the rest of us: trustworthy and deceitful, cowardly and brave, greedy and generous. To assume that all good leaders are good people is to be willfully blind to the reality of the human condition, and it severely limits our ability to become better leaders. Worse, it may cause senior executives to think that, because they are leaders, they are never deceitful, cowardly, or greedy. That way lies disaster.

  10. “La fortuna favorece a los audaces”: Maquiavelo y la subversión de un lugar común

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duhamel, Jérémie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores a very precise question: what does Machiavelli mean when he writes, in the chapter XXV of The Prince, that it is preferable to behave impetuously rather than cautiously? Through an in-depth analysis of this chapter, the author questions the validity of the prevailing interpretation, which holds that a virtuous individual can subjugate “fortuna” through an impetuous action. Machiavelli’s assertion should be construed as a bet on the creative potentialities of action in a context of corruption in which fatalism and the desire to be dominated tend to prevail. In this sense, the priority given to impetuosity is the cornerstone of a provisional morality required for adverse times.Este artículo explora una pregunta muy precisa: ¿qué significa la propuesta, expuesta por Maquiavelo en el penúltimo capítulo de El Príncipe, según la cual es preferible ser impetuoso que respetuoso? A partir de un análisis riguroso de este capítulo, el autor cuestiona la validez de la interpretación dominante según la cual mediante una acción impetuosa, un individuo virtuoso puede someter a la fortuna. La propuesta de Maquiavelo se debe interpretar más bien como una apuesta hacia las virtualidades creativas de la acción ante una situación de corrupción en la que el fatalismo y el deseo de ser dominado tienden a prevalecer. En este sentido, la primacía dada a la impetuosidad constituye la piedra angular de una moral de carácter provisional requerida en “tiempos adversos”.

  11. Social praxis, party, and class relations today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egni Malo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Today’s political sociologists are once again interested in the study of the crisis of mass-based parties, anti-politics and anti-parliamentarism, crisis in the authority of the political class, prevailing corporate interests within republican institutions, and populism. Political sociology however, takes the party, as a construct of political sociology alone, without consideration upon its militancy and action, as the party, which objectifies the foundation of a State, and as a result the party becomes, simply an historical category. We approach the problem of the modern state from many angles; analysing the nature of a political party as such; the ideological dangers of determinism and spontaneism which a party necessarily must struggle with; the type of non-administrative internal regime which is necessary for a party to be effective and so on. The problem we seek to elaborate is the specific character of the collective action that makes possible the passage from a sectored, corporate and subordinate role of purely negative opposition, to a leading role of conscious action towards not merely a partial adjustment within the system, but posing the issue of the State in its entirety. In developing this theme – as a study of the real relations between the political party, the classes and the State – a two-fold consideration is devoted to the study of Machiavelli and Marx: first from the angle of the real relations between the two, as thinkers of revolutionary politics, of action; and secondly from a perspective which would derive from the Marxist doctrines an articulated system of contemporary politics, as found in The Prince.

  12. «To change the world»: justice or utopia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eduardo Douglas Price

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The essay plays, in an  ironic way, similarly to Jorge Luis Borges’ style, with the idea that the expression to change the world: justice or utopia, which is not found in Quixote, could undoubtedly have been excluded of it, or invented by an anonymous author, a habitual resource in the Middle Ages. It points out that we are in the presence of works that somehow mark the beginning of the concept of “author” and, paradoxically, question it, as Cervantes does deliberately, or as portrayed in the difficulties to establish the verisimilitude of the authorship of the works by the English bard. And this is done  in order to work not only with the coincidence of the dates of their deaths (which grants space for another Borges-like game, but also with their contribution to the formation of the Western cultural universe, which made Bloom exaggerate in the attribution to Shakespeare of “inventing the human”, but to formulate the opposition of two ethics between two emblematic characters, such as Quixote and Lady Macbeth: ethics, which we shall call “of duty”, from which the concept of utopia is built, present in Erasmus Of Rotterdam’s work (of great influence in the Spain of Cervantes and of Thomas Morus; And the ethics that we will call pragmatic, the ethics of Lady Macbeth, who prescribes to her husband the advice of Nicholas Machiavelli. In short, this paper concludes that Cervantes and Shakespeare inaugurated modernity, and the ideas found in their works, which were present in the production of sense of their time, in turn altered it (given the performative effect of literature; And that their remarkable personalities, united by the invisible thread of “madness”, allowed us to see the two faces of the human, as the Sileni of Alcibiades.

  13. 3D view to tumor suppression: Lkb1, polarity and the arrest of oncogenic c-Myc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, Johanna I; Nieminen, Anni I; Klefstrom, Juha

    2009-03-01

    Machiavelli wrote, in his famous political treatise Il Principe, about disrupting organization by planting seeds of dissension or by eliminating necessary support elements. Tumor cells do exactly that by disrupting the organized architecture of epithelial cell layers during progression from contained benign tumor to full-blown invasive cancer. However, it is still unclear whether tumor cells primarily break free by activating oncogenes powerful enough to cause chaos or by eliminating tumor suppressor genes guarding the order of the epithelial organization. Studies in Drosophila have exposed genes that encode key regulators of the epithelial apicobasal polarity and which, upon inactivation, cause disorganization of the epithelial layers and promote unscheduled cell proliferation. These polarity regulator/tumor suppressor proteins, which include products of neoplastic tumor suppressor genes (nTSGs), are carefully positioned in polarized epithelial cells to maintain the order of epithelial structures and to impose a restraint on cell proliferation. In this review, we have explored the presence and prevalence of somatic mutations in the human counterparts of Drosophila polarity regulator/tumor suppressor genes across the human cancers. The screen points out LKB1, which is a causal genetic lesion in Peutz-Jeghers cancer syndrome, a gene mutated in certain sporadic cancers and a human homologue of the fly polarity gene par-4. We review the evidence linking Lkb1 protein to polarity regulation in the scope of our recent results suggesting a coupled role for Lkb1 as an architect of organized acinar structures and a suppressor of oncogenic c-Myc. We finally present models to explain how Lkb1-dependent formation of epithelial architecture is coupled to suppression of normal and oncogene-induced proliferation.

  14. ВЛИЯНИЕ ВОЗЗРЕНИЙ НИККОЛО МAКИАВЕЛЛИ О ПРИРОДЕ ЧЕЛОВЕКА НА ТЕОРИЮ И МЕТОДОЛОГИЮ ИЗУЧЕНИЯ ЛИЧНОСТИ В ПСИХОЛОГИИ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila ANŢIBOR

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available В статье обосновывается соотношение содержания учения Никколо Макиавелли и «макиавеллизма» как объекта психологической науки. Выявлено влияние идей Макиавелли на теорию и методологию изучения лич­но­сти в психологии. Показано, что идеи Макиавелли о природе человека получили дальнейшее развитие в культурно-исторической концепции Л.С. Выготского о развитии высших психический функций человека и субъективно-деятельностном подходе, обосновывающем способность человека к самодетерминации (С.Л. Рубинштейн, А.Н. Леонтьев, А.В. Брушлинский. Установлено, что изучение макиавеллизма в психологии основывается на поло­жении о деятельности как процессе внутреннего противоречия и об относительной самостоятельности единиц деятельности: действия, операции (предметной деятельности, мотивы, цели, условия (внутренней деятельности.IMPACTUL IDEILOR LUI NICCOLO MACHIAVELLI DESPRE NATURA UMANĂ ASUPRA TEORIEI ŞI METODOLOGIEI STUDIERII PERSONALITĂŢII ÎN PSIHOLOGIEÎn articol este fundamentat raportul dintre învăţătura lui Niccolo Machiavelli şi „machiavelismul” ca obiect al ştiinţei psihologice. Se dezvăluie influenţa ideilor lui Machiavelli asupra teoriei şi metodologiei studierii personalităţii în psiho­logie. Se arătă că ideile lui Machiavelli despre

  15. A UTOPIA O MUNDO RESPLANDECENTE: UM MUNDUS INTELLECTUALIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milene Cristina da Silva Baldo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A utopia A Descrição de um Novo Mundo, chamado O Mundo Resplandecente, de 1666, é de autoria da filósofa natural e Duquesa de Newcastle Margaret Lucas Cavendish. Tal obra é considerada a primeira no gênero literário utópico escrita por uma mulher e apresenta a história do descobrimento de um novo mundo por um estrangeiro que, após atravessar os mares, ali desembarca. O Mundo Resplandecente possui uma organização das leis, do estado, da religião etc. que permite uma vida em perfeita harmonia. A intenção principal desse artigo é apresentar algumas observações sobre a estrutura utópica do texto, como o fato de que, diferentemente da estrutura paradigmática do texto de Thomas More, após sua chegada, o estrangeiro passa a interferir nesse mundo provocando-lhe mudanças substanciais. Também procuro apontar algumas das relações presentes entre a obra e outros textos contemporâneos, como os de Thomas Hobbes e de Francis Bacon, referências influentes para a construção do pensamento de Cavendish.

  16. WIPP and the local communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krenz, D.L.; Sankey, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is located 26 miles southeast of Carlsbad, New Mexico in southeastern New Mexico. Other neighboring communities include Lovington, Hobbs and Loving, New Mexico. In March 1983, the Site and Preliminary Design Validation (SPDV) phase of the project was completed. Full scale facility construction began in July of that year. Overall site construction is scheduled to be complete in December 1986. Construction completion will be followed by pre-operational and safety check-out in 1987, prior to receiving the first nuclear waste which is targeted for receipt on or after October 1988. WIPP has had a significant impact on the local communities. Many local people have been hired by the Department of Energy (DOE), Westinghouse Electric, and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers contractors, as well as associated sub-contractors. As of December 31, 1985, 64% of the 643 people working at WIPP were hired from an 80-mile or less radius of the WIPP site. The majority of local residents support WIPP. As declining potash and mining industries negatively impacted the economic condition of Southeastern New Mexico, WIPP brought jobs and new business opportunities to the area

  17. LA COOPERACIÓN: ESTRATEGIA PARA LA SOSTENIBILIDAD DE LOS RECURSOS // COOPERATION: STRATEGY FOR SUSTAINABILITY OF RESOURCES // COOPERAÇÃO: ESTRATÉGIA PARA A SUSTENTABILIDADE DOS RECURSOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemencia Martínez Aldana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Surge una gran inquietud en relación a cuál debe ser el principio de la estructuración de una organización, sino existe una base que subyace los cimientos de la estructura cuyo objetivo sea la sostenibilidad de los recursos. La idea no es simplemente definir la estructura corporativa, sino también buscar beneficios mutuos de forma colectiva que facilite la sostenibilidad y la optimización de los recursos de la organización, a partir de estrategias coherentes, pertinentes, viables y rigurosas. Para ello se plantean los postulados de críticos como Robert Axelrod, Thomas Hobbes, Michael Taylor, Thomas Schelling, Roy Behr y Elinor Ostrom, Garret Hardin, que sirvieron de base para la formulación teórica de la evolución en los sistemas de cooperación relacionados con los recursos. Se exponen y analizan los principios de: definición de límites, reglas y sanciones para los apropiadores de los recursos, arreglos de elección colectiva, y supervisión. Producto de los planteamientos expuestos, se infiere que para obtener beneficios relevantes, se hace necesario desarrollar modelos de autoadministración y autogestión colectiva.

  18. Influence of salinity and prey presence on the survival of aquatic macroinvertebrates of a freshwater marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sung-Ryong; King, Sammy L.

    2012-01-01

    Salinization of coastal freshwater environments is a global issue. Increased salinity from sea level rise, storm surges, or other mechanisms is common in coastal freshwater marshes of Louisiana, USA. The effects of salinity increases on aquatic macroinvertebrates in these systems have received little attention, despite the importance of aquatic macroinvertebrates for nutrient cycling, biodiversity, and as a food source for vertebrate species. We used microcosm experiments to evaluate the effects of salinity, duration of exposure, and prey availability on the relative survival of dominant aquatic macroinvertebrates (i.e., Procambarus clarkii Girard, Cambarellus puer Hobbs, Libellulidae, Dytiscidae cybister) in a freshwater marsh of southwestern Louisiana. We hypothesized that increased salinity, absence of prey, and increased duration of exposure would decrease survival of aquatic macroinvertebrates and that crustaceans would have higher survival than aquatic insect taxon. Our first hypothesis was only partially supported as only salinity increases combined with prolonged exposure duration affected aquatic macroinvertebrate survival. Furthermore, crustaceans had higher survival than aquatic insects. Salinity stress may cause mortality when acting together with other stressful conditions.

  19. Is the Link Between the Observed Velocities of Neutron Stars and their Progenitors a Simple Mass Relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, J. C.

    2017-11-01

    While the imparting of velocity `kicks' to compact remnants from supernovae is widely accepted, the relationship of the `kick' to the progenitor is not. We propose the `kick' is predominantly a result of conservation of momentum between the ejected and compact remnant masses. We propose the `kick' velocity is given by v kick = α(M ejecta/M remnant)+β, where α and β are constants we wish to determine. To test this we use the BPASS v2 (Binary Population and Spectral Synthesis) code to create stellar populations from both single star and binary star evolutionary pathways. We then use our Remnant Ejecta and Progenitor Explosion Relationship (REAPER) code to apply `kicks' to neutron stars from supernovae in these models using a grid of α and β values, (from 0 to 200 km s-1 in steps of 10 km s-1), in three different `kick' orientations, (isotropic, spin-axis aligned and orthogonal to spin-axis) and weighted by three different Salpeter initial mass functions (IMF's), with slopes of -2.0, -2.35 and -2.70. We compare our synthetic 2D and 3D velocity probability distributions to the distributions provided by Hobbs et al. (1995).

  20. Igualdad en Rebaja. Reflexiones críticas en torno a la filosofía política de Ronald Dworkin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Arosemena

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available El artículo presenta una crítica a la filosofía política igualitaria de Ronald Dworkin a la luz de concepciones alternativas de la igualdad. Primero, a la luz de una igualdad política basada en el pensamiento de Thomas Hobbes. Luego, a la luz de una igualdad “mística” basada en la obra de autores como Elizabeth Anscombe y Bernard Williams. Se sostiene que estas dos concepciones alternativas de la igualdad son más fuertes que la presentada por Dworkin y que juntas dejan poca cabida para la especie de igualdad liberal preferida por este autor. Al final, el artículo presenta reflexiones acerca de la importancia de concederle a la ética un rol más fuerte que el avizorado por Dworkin en la fundamentación te teorías normativas. Dworkin busca crear una relación de reenvío y mutua acomodación entre ética y moral. En realidad, la ética tiene primacía y lo que debe buscarse no es acomodar estas dos ideas, sino derivar completamente la moral de la ética.

  1. Nature, civility and eschatology: Thomas Hobbes’s progress in three acts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simendić Marko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that Thomas Hobbes’s theory contains an account of progressive defragmentation and unification of power, accompanied by the progression in human reasoning capacities. If the consequence of human nature is abandonment of natural condition and subjection to a sovereign, then similar principles should apply to the sovereigns themselves, since Hobbes sees them as continuing to exist in the state of nature. In turn, the relations between sovereigns must also lead to defragmentation of political authority, either by conquest or through peaceful submission. Total defragmentation of power might also have eschatological consequences, as the unified power of one human being over the whole world would remove “external violence” as a cause of “the dissolution of a commonwealth” while the perfection of reason would progressively remove the “internal” causes. This is a hypothetical situation that could relate Hobbes’s description of the Kingdom of God from Leviathan to his wider political theory by marking the single sovereign representative of now immortal all-encompassing Leviathan as the Antichrist and thus announcing the second coming of Christ.

  2. Ethics, a neglected dimension of power relationships of physician leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervenak, Frank A; McCullough, Laurence B; Baril, Thomas E

    2006-09-01

    Physician leaders in obstetrics and gynecology find themselves in complex power relationships with administrative subordinates, administrative peers, and administrative superiors. The ethical dimensions of these power relationships have not been examined previously. The authors draw on the work of 3 major historic figures (John Gregory, Thomas Hobbes, and Friedrich Hoffmann) to identify for the first time 3 major types of power relationships and organizational cultures. Gregorian power relationships and organizational cultures are characterized by shared fiduciary responsibility that advances the core mission of a health care organization. Hobbesian power relationships and organizational cultures are characterized by relentless self-interest in a zero-sum game. Hoffmannian power relationships and organizational cultures are characterized by enlightened self-interest in a win-win game. The authors analyze the ethical dimensions of power relationships of physician leaders with subordinates, peers, and superiors and of organizational cultures. The authors support transformational leadership toward Gregorian power relationships and organizational cultures, using, when necessary, Hoffmannian power relationships and organizational cultures as a way station.

  3. O letrado e o guerreiro: ou dois ensaios sobre o âmago terrível da linguagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Janine Ribeiro

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available No seu conto “Famigerado”, Guimarães Rosa faz um guerreiro procurar um letrado, a fim de resolver questão de vida ou morte: foilhe dirigida uma ofensa, que deve vingar, ou um elogio, que pode aceitar? Como o guerreiro vem das montanhas do São Ão, podemos sugerir que provenha da intensificação de nossa língua portuguesa, língua do não, como disse Mário de Andrade, contrastando-a com as línguas do oil, do oc e do si. Podemos também, comparando essa passagem com o capítulo do Leviatã (1651 em que Thomas Hobbes define a linguagem, apontar um âmago terrível desta última, no qual ela é guerra – e só é pacificada ao tornar-se literatura, mas enquanto jogo, enquanto extirpação de seus poderes específicos e assustadores.

  4. [Jonathan Swift's asylum in Dublin--Ireland's introduction to institutional psychiatry 250 years ago].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuber, M

    1995-09-01

    250 years ago, the satirical writer and clergyman Jonathan Swift from Dublin (1667-1745) founded the first Irish lunatic asylum. Rejecting the theories put forward by the English philosopher Thomas Hobbes and the doctor Thomas Willis, he was influenced by the ideas of the Scottish doctor and the "enlightened" thinker John Locke. Swift's St. Patrick's Hospital did not, however, realise a new philosophical concept: architecture and therapeutic approach of the new institution were clearly modelled on the much older Hospital of St. Mary of Bethlehem ( = Bedlam). Despite its conservative conceptual basis, the first institution dedicated to the mentally ill and intellectually subnormal in Ireland became a starting point for the apparantly unstoppable expansion of the, at one time, most comprehensive asylum system in the world. After Swift's Hospital had been enlarged twice at the tax-payers' expense (1778, 1793), the administration decided to relieve the institution by erecting the Richmond Asylum (1810), the first public asylum in Ireland. When this establishment also became overcrowded, in 1817, legislation was passed which led to the establishment of the oldest system of public asylums in Europe.

  5. The outbreak of cooperation among success-driven individuals under noisy conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbing, Dirk; Yu, Wenjian

    2009-03-10

    According to Thomas Hobbes' Leviathan [1651; 2008 (Touchstone, New York), English Ed], "the life of man [is] solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short," and it would need powerful social institutions to establish social order. In reality, however, social cooperation can also arise spontaneously, based on local interactions rather than centralized control. The self-organization of cooperative behavior is particularly puzzling for social dilemmas related to sharing natural resources or creating common goods. Such situations are often described by the prisoner's dilemma. Here, we report the sudden outbreak of predominant cooperation in a noisy world dominated by selfishness and defection, when individuals imitate superior strategies and show success-driven migration. In our model, individuals are unrelated, and do not inherit behavioral traits. They defect or cooperate selfishly when the opportunity arises, and they do not know how often they will interact or have interacted with someone else. Moreover, our individuals have no reputation mechanism to form friendship networks, nor do they have the option of voluntary interaction or costly punishment. Therefore, the outbreak of prevailing cooperation, when directed motion is integrated in a game-theoretical model, is remarkable, particularly when random strategy mutations and random relocations challenge the formation and survival of cooperative clusters. Our results suggest that mobility is significant for the evolution of social order, and essential for its stabilization and maintenance.

  6. Publicidade política e estratégias de representação: a visibilidade pública como «armadilha»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRIOR, Hélder Rocha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the changes in the media and political sphere have redefined, substantially, the processes of political communication; specifically with regard to the forms of revelation or presentation to the public. Nowadays, political communication is manufactured to influence the media system and ensure the visibility and public recognition in order that theatrical logic of the political arena works. From Thomas Hobbes, through Elias Canetti, the concept of actor was transferred from theatrical language into political language to refer to those who represent words and pretend actions in political campaigns. Through this way of thinking, politics and theater become two concepts that come together. The political action is brought on the scene as if it were a scenic art, and the media offer a privileged public recognition and consent to the characters of the theatrum politicum. Therefore, the political action is mediated by a theatrical rhetoric that has a privileged arena within the media system. However, the “lights” used by the media coverage bring with them new risks and may even have perverse effects. Indeed, this is where the manufacture of political advertising turns against the system that it serves. This is when public visibility becomes a trap.

  7. Measurement of sulfur dioxide oxidation rates in wintertime orographic clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snider, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    SO2-reaction studies in the clouds are examined and summarized to experimentally confirm model predictions and previous field studies regarding dominant SO2-reaction pathways. Controlled amounts of SO2 were released into nonprecipitating orographic clouds, and sulfate yields are compared to oxidant depletions. The sulfate yields were taken from cloud-water samples and liquid-water-concentration measurements, and oxidant-depletion data were generated from continuous gas-phase measurements. Comparisons of Y sub SO4 and D sub H2O2 suggest that H2O2 is the dominant oxidant, and the in-cloud reaction between H2O2 and the bisulfite ion can be expressed by a simple rate that agrees with predictions and laboratory results. The rate measurements are found to be inconsistent with the rate law proposed by Hegg and Hobbs (1982) and with some observational data. The present conclusions are of interest to evaluating the effects of sulfur dioxide emissions on sulfuric acid deposition. 30 refs

  8. The urban archetypes project - Community case study: the municipality of Clarington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-05-15

    A comparative analysis of the energy consumption of typical households in two neighbourhoods, Hobbs Drive and Newcastle Village, in the municipality of Clarington in Durham Region, is presented. Representative household annual energy inputs and services are summarized in Sankey-style graphics. Depending on consumption in common house types within the study areas in Clarington, energy costs ranged from $2,185 to $3,655 per year for the combined use of natural gas and electricity. Associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions ranged from 8.9 to 15.7 tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent (Co2e) per year. In addition to this, average annual household Vehicle Kilometers Travelled ranged from 33 500 to 41 100 km. In 2007, the average study-area household consumed between 4 571 and 5 759 liters of gasoline at a cost of between $4,416 and $5,563 and produced GHG emissions of between 11.0 and 13.8 tonnes of Co2e.

  9. A NeoPresocratic Manifesto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Baird Callicott

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Ancient Greek philosophy begins with natural philosophy (the Milesians, Heraclitus, Empedocles, Anaxagoras, followed after about a century by a focus on moral philosophy (Socrates and the sophists. The pattern is repeated in the Modern period: first natural philosophy re-emerged after the Dark and Middle Ages (Copernicus, Galileo, Descartes, Newton followed by a correlative revolution in moral philosophy (Hobbes, Hume, Kant. In particular, moral ontology (externally related individuals reflected the ontology of physics (externally related atoms. Individuals are, in effect, social atoms. Curiously, 20th-century philosophy has largely turned a blind eye and deaf ear to the vast philosophical implications of the second scientific revolution in 20th-century science, among them a correlative moral ontology of internal relations and social wholes. The environmental turn in the humanities, grounded in ecology and evolutionary biology, is a harbinger of the re-orientation of philosophy to the revolutionary ideas in the sciences and foreshadows an emerging NeoPresocratic revival in 21st-century philosophy.

  10. De la independencia a la natural barbarie americana. Una lectura del Facundo de Domingo F. Sarmiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Brighenti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una lectura del "Facundo" de Domingo F. Sarmiento y, en particular, de su más general visión de la historia y de la realidad argentina y latinoamericana a partir del esquema dicotómico de civilización y barbarie que tendrá mucha suerte en las narraciones de los procesos del modernización latinoamericanos por lo menos hasta la segunda mitad del siglo XX. A través del análisis de algunos entre los múltiples niveles narrativos del "Facundo" se quiere mostrar como tal imagen dicotómica se va cristalizando en el texto. Partiendo del espacio infinito y vacío de la pampa y pasando por una antropología del gaucho - de su manera de vivir y de conducir la guerra - Sarmiento conduce el lector hasta la forma típicamente americana de despotismo, el caudillismo, llegado en Argentina a su epopeya final con el régimen de Juan M. de Rosas. En la última parte se intenta injertar el esquema dicotómico del Facundo al interior de la más general reflexión del Occidente sobre la modernidad y sus alteridades, a través por un lado del prisma orientalista y por el otro de las mismas fuentes del pensamiento moderno europeo y en particular de Locke y Hobbes.

  11. Richard's back: death, scoliosis and myth making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Mary Ann

    2015-12-01

    The body of a mediaeval monarch was always under scrutiny, and Richard III's was no exception. In death, however, his body became subject to new forms of examination and interpretation: stripped naked after the battle of Bosworth, his corpse was carried to Leicester and exhibited before being buried. In 2012, it was rediscovered. The revelation that Richard suffered from scoliosis prompts this article to re-evaluate the historical sources about Richard's physique and his posthumous reputation. This article argues that Richard's death and his myth as 'crookback' are inextricably linked and traces attitudes to spinal curvature in the early modern period. It also considers how Shakespeare represented Richard as deformed, and aspects of performance history which suggest physical vulnerability. It then considers Richard's scoliosis from the perspective of medical history, reviewing classical accounts of scoliosis and arguing that Richard was probably treated with a mixture of axial traction and pressure. It demonstrates from the evidence of Richard's medical household that he was well placed to receive hands-on therapies and considers in particular the role of his physician and surgeon, William Hobbes. Finally, it shows how the case of Richard III demonstrates the close relationship between politics and medicine in the period and the contorted process of historical myth making. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Torsional tapping atomic force microscopy for molecular resolution imaging of soft matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Jamie; Mullin, Nic

    2012-02-01

    Despite considerable advances in image resolution on challenging, soft systems, a method for obtaining molecular resolution on `real' samples with significant surface roughness has remained elusive. Here we will show that a relatively new technique, torsional tapping AFM (TTAFM), is capable of imaging with resolution down to 3.7 Angrstrom on the surface of `bulk' polymer films [1]. In TTAFM T-shaped cantilevers are driven into torsional oscillation. As the tip is offset from the rotation axis this provides a tapping motion. Due to the high frequency and Q of the oscillation and relatively small increase in spring constant, improved cantilever dynamics and force sensitivity are obtained. As the tip offset from the torsional axis is relatively small (typically 25 microns), the optical lever sensitivity is considerably improved compared to flexural oscillation. Combined these give a reduction in noise floor by a factor of 12 just by changing the cantilever geometry. The ensuing low noise allows the use of ultra-sharp `whisker' tips with minimal blunting. As the cantilevers remain soft in the flexural axis, the force when imaging with error is also reduced, further protecting the tip. We will show that this combination allows routine imaging of the molecular structure of semicrystalline polymer films, including chain folds, loose loops and tie-chains in polyethylene, and the helical conformation of polypropylene within the crystal, using a standard, commercial AFM. [4pt] [1] N Mullin, JK Hobbs, PRL 107, 197801 (2011)

  13. A theory of international bioethics: the negotiable and the non-negotiable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Robert

    1998-09-01

    The preceding article in this issue of the Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal presents the argument that "moral fundamentalism," the position that international bioethics rests on "basic" or "fundamental" moral prinicples that are universally accepted in all eras and cultures, collapses under a variety of multicultural and postmodern critiques. The present article looks to the contractarian tradition of Hobbes and Locke -- as reinterpreted by David Gauthier, Robert Nozick, and John Rawls -- for an alternative justification for international bioethics. Drawing on the central themes of this tradition, it is argued that international bioethics can be rationally reconstructed as a negotiated moral order that respects culturally and individually defined areas of nonnegotiability. Further, the theory of a negotiated moral order is consistent with traditional ideals about human rights, is flexible enough to absorb the genuine insights of multiculturalism and postmodernism, and yet is strong enough to justify transcultural and transtemporal moral judgments, including the condemnation of the Nazi doctors at Nuremberg. This theory also is consistent with the history of the ethics of human subjects experimentation and offers insights into current controversies such as the controversy over changing the consent rule for experiments in emergency medicine and the controversy over exempting certain clinical trials of inexpensive treatments for preventing the perinatal transmission of AIDS from the ethical standards of the sponsoring country.

  14. Plant community establishment on the volcanic deposits following the 2006 nuées ardentes (pyroclastic flows of Mount Merapi: diversity and floristic variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUTOMO

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Sutomo, Hobbs R, Cramer V (2011 Plant community establishment on the volcanic deposits following the 2006 nuées ardentes (pyroclastic flows of Mount Merapi: diversity and floristic variation. Biodiversitas 12: 86-91. Species establishment and composition changes in a substrate with little or no biological legacy is known as primary succession, and volcanoes, erosion, landslides, floodplains and glaciers are some type of disturbances that can create this kind of environment. Mount Merapi with its Merapi-type nuées ardentes or pyroclastic flows provides excellent opportunities to study primary succession. Using chronosequence approach, plant establishment and succession was studied, and thus five areas that were affected by nuées ardentes deposits between 1994 and 2006 were chosen as study sites. Results showed that there was a rapid colonization by vascular plants in primary succession as the sites aged. Imperata cylindrica, Eupatorium riparium, Anaphalis javanica, Athyrium macrocarpum, Brachiaria paspaloides, Dichantium caricosum, Selaginella doederleinii, Eleusine indica, Cyperus flavidus, Calliandra callothyrsus and Acacia decurrens were the species mainly responsible in explaining the differences between sites. Furthermore, the species richness and diversity reach their peak 14 years after disturbance.

  15. Investigation of the fluid flow dynamic parameters for Newtonian and non-Newtonian materials: an approach to understanding the fluid flow-like structures within fault zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, H.; Shiomi, Y.; Ma, K.-F.

    2017-11-01

    To understand the fault zone fluid flow-like structure, namely the ductile deformation structure, often observed in the geological field (e.g., Ramsay and Huber The techniques of modern structure geology, vol. 1: strain analysis, Academia Press, London, 1983; Hobbs and Ord Structure geology: the mechanics of deforming metamorphic rocks, Vol. I: principles, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2015), we applied a theoretical approach to estimate the rate of deformation, the shear stress and the time to form a streak-line pattern in the boundary layer of viscous fluids. We model the dynamics of streak lines in laminar boundary layers for Newtonian and pseudoplastic fluids and compare the results to those obtained via laboratory experiments. The structure of deformed streak lines obtained using our model is consistent with experimental observations, indicating that our model is appropriate for understanding the shear rate, flow time and shear stress based on the profile of deformed streak lines in the boundary layer in Newtonian and pseudoplastic viscous materials. This study improves our understanding of the transportation processes in fluids and of the transformation processes in fluid-like materials. Further application of this model could facilitate understanding the shear stress and time history of the fluid flow-like structure of fault zones observed in the field.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  16. Governance in Blockchain Technologies & Social Contract Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessel Reijers

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is placed in the context of a growing number of social and political critiques of blockchain technologies. We focus on the supposed potential of blockchain technologies to transform political institutions that are central to contemporary human societies, such as money, property rights regimes, and systems of democratic governance. Our aim is to examine the way blockchain technologies canbring about - and justify - new models of governance. To do so, we draw on the philosophical works of Hobbes, Rousseau, and Rawls, analyzing blockchain governance in terms of contrasting social contract theories. We begin by comparing the justifications of blockchain governance offered by members of the blockchain developers’ community with the justifications of governance presented within social contract theories. We then examine the extent to which the model of governance offered by blockchain technologies reflects key governance themes and assumptions located within social contract theories, focusing on the notions of sovereignty, the initial situation, decentralization and distributive justice.

  17. The Vertigo of Secularization: the innovative Notion of Political Authority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pía Lara Zavala

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo aborda la relación entre religión y política, centrándose en el problema de la autoridad política. La expresión “vértigo de la secularización” se emplea aquí para describir los temores que experimentamos al afrontar el problema de pensar nuestras propias normas políticas. La autora examina tres modelos distintos de autoridad política: el que representa la tradición religiosa cívica (Maquiavelo, Hobbes y Rousseau; el modelo puramente secular (Weber y un modelo muy original e innovador (Hannah Arendt. A continuación, muestra cómo al traducir los contenidos de la religión al ámbito político, empleándolos también para configurar nuevos espacios políticos, nos encontramos con una idea innovadora de autoridad. En su opinión, la ejemplar noción de autoridad política de Hannah Arendt es la que se adapta mejor a la que la autora denomina idea innovadora de autoridad.

  18. Healthcare access as a right, not a privilege: a construct of Western thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papadimos Thomas J

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Over 45 million Americans are uninsured or underinsured. Those living in poverty exhibit the worst health status. Employment, education, income, and race are important factors in a person's ability to acquire healthcare access. Having established that there are people lacking healthcare access due to multi-factorial etiologies, the question arises as to whether the intervention necessary to assist them in obtaining such access should be considered a privilege, or a right. The right to healthcare access is examined from the perspective of Western thought. Specifically through the works of Aristotle, Immanuel Kant, Thomas Hobbes, Thomas Paine, Hannah Arendt, James Rawls, and Norman Daniels, which are accompanied by a contemporary example of intervention on behalf of the medically needy by the The Johns Hopkins Urban Health Institute. As human beings we are all valuable social entities whereby, through the force of morality, through implicitly forged covenants among us as individuals and between us and our governments, and through the natural rights we maintain as individuals and those we collectively surrender to the common good, it has been determined by nature, natural laws, and natural rights that human beings have the right, not the privilege, to healthcare access.

  19. Healthcare access as a right, not a privilege: a construct of Western thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimos, Thomas J

    2007-03-28

    Over 45 million Americans are uninsured or underinsured. Those living in poverty exhibit the worst health status. Employment, education, income, and race are important factors in a person's ability to acquire healthcare access. Having established that there are people lacking healthcare access due to multi-factorial etiologies, the question arises as to whether the intervention necessary to assist them in obtaining such access should be considered a privilege, or a right. The right to healthcare access is examined from the perspective of Western thought. Specifically through the works of Aristotle, Immanuel Kant, Thomas Hobbes, Thomas Paine, Hannah Arendt, James Rawls, and Norman Daniels, which are accompanied by a contemporary example of intervention on behalf of the medically needy by the The Johns Hopkins Urban Health Institute. As human beings we are all valuable social entities whereby, through the force of morality, through implicitly forged covenants among us as individuals and between us and our governments, and through the natural rights we maintain as individuals and those we collectively surrender to the common good, it has been determined by nature, natural laws, and natural rights that human beings have the right, not the privilege, to healthcare access.

  20. Access to essential medicines: a Hobbesian social contract approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashcroft, Richard E

    2005-05-01

    Medicines that are vital for the saving and preserving of life in conditions of public health emergency or endemic serious disease are known as essential medicines. In many developing world settings such medicines may be unavailable, or unaffordably expensive for the majority of those in need of them. Furthermore, for many serious diseases (such as HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis) these essential medicines are protected by patents that permit the patent-holder to operate a monopoly on their manufacture and supply, and to price these medicines well above marginal cost. Recent international legal doctrine has placed great stress on the need to globalise intellectual property rights protections, and on the rights of intellectual property rights holders to have their property rights enforced. Although international intellectual property rights law does permit compulsory licensing of protected inventions in the interests of public health, the use of this right by sovereign states has proved highly controversial. In this paper I give an argument in support of states' sovereign right to expropriate private intellectual property in conditions of public health emergency. This argument turns on a social contract argument for the legitimacy of states. The argument shows, further, that under some circumstances states are not merely permitted compulsory to license inventions, but are actually obliged to do so, on pain of failure of their legitimacy as sovereign states. The argument draws freely on a loose interpretation of Thomas Hobbes's arguments in his Leviathan, and on an analogy between his state of War and the situation of public health disasters.

  1. Continuity and the persistence of objects: when the whole is greater than the sum of the parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, D G

    1998-10-01

    In three experiments, a total of 480 participants heard a version of the story of the ship of Theseus (Hobbes, 1672/1913), in which a novel object, labeled with a possessive noun phrase, underwent a transformation in which its parts were replaced one at a time. Participants then had to decide which of two objects carried the same possessive noun phrase as the original: the one made entirely of new parts (that could be inferred to be continuous with the original) or one reassembled from the original parts (that could not be inferred to be continuous with the original). Participants often selected the object made of new parts, despite the radical transformation. However, the tendency to do so was significantly stronger (1) if the object was described as an animal than if it was described as an artifact, (2) if the animal's transformation lacked a human cause than if it possessed one, and (3) if the selection was made by adults or 7-year-olds than if it was made by 5-year-olds. The findings suggest that knowledge about specific kinds of objects and their canonical transformations exerts an increasingly powerful effect, over the course of development, upon people's tendency to rely on continuity as a criterion for attributing persistence to objects that undergo change. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  2. A paisagem urbana como produto do poder Urban landscape as a product of power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Henrique Bonametti

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A investigação histórica proposta neste trabalho é a relação entre poder e paisagem urbana, a partir daabordagem histórico-conceitual sobre estes temas. Conceituou-se poder e paisagem e suas ações na sociedade,caracterizando as relações políticas. Buscou-se a compreensão de poder formulada por MichaelFoucault e Hobbes como o receptáculo de acontecimentos, em que a soberania controla para exercero poder. Abordam-se questões da relação paisagem urbana e poder, enquanto estruturadores do espaçoda cidade e os significados e contribuições da arquitetura e urbanismo neste processo de produção dapaisagem urbana como produto do poder. A interpelação de soberania com o espaço e sua atuação napaisagem urbana no decorrer da história da humanidade estabeleceu com o entorno um elo de sobrevivência,contemplação da natureza e vida em sociedade.

  3. Proving communal warfare among hunter-gatherers: The Quasi-Rousseauan error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gat, Azar

    2015-01-01

    Was human fighting always there, as old as our species? Or is it a late cultural invention, emerging after the transition to agriculture and the rise of the state, which began, respectively, only around ten thousand and five thousand years ago? Viewed against the life span of our species, Homo sapiens, stretching back 150,000-200,000 years, let alone the roughly two million years of our genus Homo, this is the tip of the iceberg. We now have a temporal frame and plenty of empirical evidence for the "state of nature" that Thomas Hobbes and Jean-Jacque Rousseau discussed in the abstract and described in diametrically opposed terms. All human populations during the Pleistocene, until about 12,000 years ago, were hunter-gatherers, or foragers, of the simple, mobile sort that lacked accumulated resources. Studying such human populations that survived until recently or still survive in remote corners of the world, anthropology should have been uniquely positioned to answer the question of aboriginal human fighting or lack thereof. Yet access to, and the interpretation of, that information has been intrinsically problematic. The main problem has been the "contact paradox." Prestate societies have no written records of their own. Therefore, documenting them requires contact with literate state societies that necessarily affects the former and potentially changes their behavior, including fighting. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Der gute Hirte als Verfassungsbild

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Wenger

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Ever since Hobbes, the modern state figures as a complex artistic product, which establishes exterior safety and welfare in perpetuity and leaves its citizens alone as representing the inside, in an impartial and thus incontestably rational way. But precisely the latter is not the case. As soon as »the distinction between the inside and the outside is generally acknowledged, the superiority of the inside over the outside, and thus the superiority of the private over the public, is decided« (Carl Schmitt. The state can only succeed in regaining broad »legitimacy« by a convincing display of its competence in all spheres. The metaphor of the »good herdsman« therefore seems very helpful. As a result of its rather neutral image, it is bound to present things in a »biopolitical« optic. It tries desperately to integrate materially what ideally is doomed to failure. This ideal picture of the »good herdsman« destroys the chances of each of its profane worldly images.

  5. Oroclines - a century of discourse about curved mountain belts (Petrus Peregrinus Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Voo, Rob

    2014-05-01

    Exactly a century ago, in early 2014, a discussion appeared in the Journal of Geology by William H. Hobbs entitled "Mechanics of formation of arcuate mountains". In it, he notes how the concept of nappes "has now overcome all opposition in Switzerland" and, presumably in other countries just as much. With horizontal transport so central to the nappe concept, this must have paved the way for the idea that emplacement of trust sheets may have involved rotations. Where such rotations form a coherent regional pattern, a curved mountain belt may be the result. While the paper by Hobbs does not mention the word orocline, and while the dynamics of the situation is not yet illuminated, one must give credit to him for his foresights. The term "orocline" was introduced by S. Warren Carey of Tasmania in 1955, as part of a kinematic analysis of rhomb- and triangle-shaped basins and curved mountain belts. When the displacements involved in the analysis are undone, as he did, for instance, in the western Mediterranean, a grand scheme of simple convergent and divergent patterns emerges. Noteworthy is, of course, the fact that this mobilistic analysis preceded plate tectonics by more than a decade. From Carey (although not exactly in his words) we have inherited the definition of orocline, as "a thrust belt or orogen that is curved in map-view due to it having been bent or buckled about a vertical axis of rotation". Because oroclinal bending involves rotations, the declinations of paleomagnetic studies can be utilized to support and quantify them, and early efforts were already made in the 1960's and early 1970's to do so (e.g., Krs in the Carpathians; Ries & Shackleton in Cantabria; Roy, Opdyke & Irving in the Central Appalachians; Packer & Stone in Alaska). Curved mountain belts everywhere were subsequently investigated, and typically shown by paleomagnetists to be of the oroclinal variety. Few curved belts turned out to be curved from the start. Because these studies were

  6. La parábola del rey filósofo y el pragmatista. Dos relatos sobre el fin de la filosofía, la democracia y la universidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brioso, Jorge

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Does democracy, understood as the moral horizon of western culture, require the end of philosophy as the ultimate foundational knowledge? Do all the narratives of the end of philosophy include the defeat of truth in favor of opinion, a transformation and subordination of the philosophical discourse itself to the form of coexistence that is considered most just, most open, most inclusive? In other words, must the question about what type of philosophical vocabulary and approach best serves human freedom be the most fundamental philosophical question? We then should have to ask philosophy the same terrifying questions Lenin put to freedom: philosophy yes, but for whom? To do what? In this essay all these questions are investigated through two narratives that theorize the end of philosophy with more that four hundred years of difference: Thomas Hobbes in The Leviathan and Gianni Vattimo and Richard Rorty. The game of mirrors that is established in this text tries to be a reflection about the nature of the philosophical discourse and its implementation in the university system inside the context of democracy in the twenty-first century.La democracia, entendida como el horizonte moral de la sociedad occidental, ¿necesita la terminación de la filosofía como saber fundante último? ¿Conllevan todos los relatos del fin de la filosofía una derrota de la verdad en favor de la opinión, una transformación y subordinación del propio discurso filosófico a la forma de convivencia que se considera más justa, más abierta, más inclusiva? Dicho de otra manera, ¿la pregunta sobre qué tipo de vocabulario y de acercamiento filosófico puede servir mejor a la libertad humana tiene que ser la pregunta filosófica fundamental? ¿Habría que hacerle entonces a la filosofía las mismas terroríficas preguntas que Lenin le hizo a la libertad: filosofía sí, pero, ¿para quién, para hacer qué? A lo largo de este ensayo, se abordan estas cuestiones de la

  7. Comparative study on diagonal equivalent methods of masonry infill panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amalia, Aniendhita Rizki; Iranata, Data

    2017-06-01

    Infrastructure construction in earthquake prone area needs good design process, including modeling a structure in a correct way to reduce damages caused by an earthquake. Earthquakes cause many damages e.g. collapsed buildings that are dangerous. An incorrect modeling in design process certainly affects the structure's ability in responding to load, i.e. an earthquake load, and it needs to be paid attention to in order to reduce damages and fatalities. A correct modeling considers every aspect that affects the strength of a building, including stiffness of resisting lateral loads caused by an earthquake. Most of structural analyses still use open frame method that does not consider the effect of stiffness of masonry panel to the stiffness and strength of the whole structure. Effect of masonry panel is usually not included in design process, but the presence of this panel greatly affects behavior of the building in responding to an earthquake. In worst case scenario, it can even cause the building to collapse as what has been reported after great earthquakes worldwide. Modeling a structure with masonry panel as consideration can be performed by designing the panel as compression brace or shell element. In designing masonry panel as a compression brace, there are fourteen methods popular to be used by structure designers formulated by Saneinejad-Hobbs, Holmes, Stafford-Smith, Mainstones, Mainstones-Weeks, Bazan-Meli, Liauw Kwan, Paulay and Priestley, FEMA 356, Durani Luo, Hendry, Al-Chaar, Papia and Chen-Iranata. Every method has its own equation and parameters to use, therefore the model of every method was compared to results of experimental test to see which one gives closer values. Moreover, those methods also need to be compared to the open frame to see if they can result values within limits. Experimental test that was used in comparing all methods was taken from Mehrabi's research (Fig. 1), which was a prototype of a frame in a structure with 0.5 scale and the

  8. Rousseau y la superación del dilema iusnaturalismo-convencionalismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubio Carracedo, José

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Is Rousseau a representative of the law of nature tradition or a conventionalist? The debate is old enough, but R. Derathé's authority, adscribing Rousseau to the former tradition, seems to have prevailed, even over Vaughan's interpretation, that considers him a conventionalist. Indeed, we can find texts or paragraphs of both tendencies. Hence a genealogical study becomes necessary, as the one presented here. Hesitations appear as early as in the Discourse on inequality and are clear in the Geneva Manuscript, but Rousseau finally elaborates his own methodology based on the dialectics conscience-reason. I have proposed to call this methodology constructivist. It neatly appears in the Social Contract and in Emile. However, there are still paragraphs mixing the above cited traditions, and there are quite a few examples of the former one. The law of nature tradition provided the dominant political language of the age, thanks mainly to the iurisconsulti. Rousseau criticizes them, but he does the same with Hobbes.This paper aims to contribute to clarifying definitely this issue, thats heds light on the real meaning Rousseau had given to the social contract and to his democratic model.

    ¿Es Rousseau iusnaturalista o convencionalista? La polémica ha sido larga pero parece haberse impuesto la autoridad de R. Derathé adscribiéndole al iusnaturalismo, pese a que Vaughan le había adscrito antes al convencionalismo. En realidad es posible encontrar textos o párrafos de ambos enfoques. Por eso se hace preciso un estudio genealógico como el que presentamos. Las vacilaciones aparecen ya en el Discurso sobre la desigualdad, y son claras y se hacen más patentes en el Manuscrito de Ginebra, pero Rousseau encuentra finalmente su propia metodología basada en la dialéctica conciencia-razón. He propuesto denominar constructivista esta nueva metodología, que aparece ya netamente en el Contrato social y

  9. Analysis of the genome sequence of Phomopsis longicolla: a fungal pathogen causing Phomopsis seed decay in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuxian; Darwish, Omar; Alkharouf, Nadim W; Musungu, Bryan; Matthews, Benjamin F

    2017-09-05

    Phomopsis longicolla T. W. Hobbs (syn. Diaporthe longicolla) is a seed-borne fungus causing Phomopsis seed decay in soybean. This disease is one of the most devastating diseases reducing soybean seed quality worldwide. To facilitate investigation of the genomic basis of pathogenicity and to understand the mechanism of the disease development, the genome of an isolate, MSPL10-6, from Mississippi, USA was sequenced, de novo assembled, and analyzed. The genome of MSPL 10-6 was estimated to be approximately 62 Mb in size with an overall G + C content of 48.6%. Of 16,597 predicted genes, 9866 genes (59.45%) had significant matches to genes in the NCBI nr database, while 18.01% of them did not link to any gene ontology classification, and 9.64% of genes did not significantly match any known genes. Analysis of the 1221 putative genes that encoded carbohydrate-activated enzymes (CAZys) indicated that 715 genes belong to three classes of CAZy that have a direct role in degrading plant cell walls. A novel fungal ulvan lyase (PL24; EC 4.2.2.-) was identified. Approximately 12.7% of the P. longicolla genome consists of repetitive elements. A total of 510 potentially horizontally transferred genes were identified. They appeared to originate from 22 other fungi, 26 eubacteria and 5 archaebacteria. The genome of the P. longicolla isolate MSPL10-6 represented the first reported genome sequence in the fungal Diaporthe-Phomopsis complex causing soybean diseases. The genome contained a number of Pfams not described previously. Information obtained from this study enhances our knowledge about this seed-borne pathogen and will facilitate further research on the genomic basis and pathogenicity mechanism of P. longicolla and aids in development of improved strategies for efficient management of Phomopsis seed decay in soybean.

  10. [250 years of English psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, H

    1996-08-01

    The history of British psychiatry is considered from five main viewpoints: clinical practice, the institutional basis, the legislative basis, lay perspectives of-mental disorder, and European influences. Its philosophical basis can be traced back to the work of the seventeenth-century philosophers. Thomas Hobbes and John Locke. In Scotland, both 'philosophy of mind' and new clinical methods flourished during its Enlightenment; the concept of 'neurosis' was developed by William Cullen. Around 1800, James Prichard's concept of 'moral insanity' became the foundation of modern work on personality disorder and psychopathy. The psychotic illness of King George III, beginning in 1788, led to greater public sympathy for the mentally ill. Attitudes since then have varied, with 'antipsychiatry' becoming very influential in the 1960s. By the mid-eighteenth century, specialised institutions for the mentally ill existed in a number of cities, there were also units attached to charitable general hospitals, but none of these continued after about 1830. The neglect of patients in private madhouses, prisons, and poorhouses led to increasing concern by Parliament, which resulted in the development of public asylums throughout the country. Severe legal restrictions on their activities were modified in 1930 and completely reformed in 1959. From the mid-nineteenth century, French and German influences became increasingly strong, but British universities played no active part in psychiatry until the 1950s. Psycho-analysis did not develop strongly in Britain, where the main contribution was through translation and biography, but some leading analysts came as refugees in the 1930s-as did other psychiatrists from central Europe. Another important influence was that of Adolf Meyer at the Institute of Psychiatry, London, particularly through Sir Aubrey Lewis; physical treatment methods also came to Britain from Europe. In the second half of this century, the most important British

  11. XII International Conference on Beauty, Charm, and Hyperons in Hadronic Interactions (BEACH 2016)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This volume contains the contributed papers presented at the 12 th International Conference on Hyperons, Charm and Beauty Hadrons , currently known as the BEACH Conferences. The BEACH conferences cover a broad range of physics topics in the field of Hyperon and heavy- flavor physics. This conference continues the BEACH series, which began with a meeting in Strasbourg in 1995 and since then offers a biennial opportunity for both theorists and experimentalists from the high-energy physics community to discuss all aspects of flavour physics. The 12 th Conference took place in the Research Hall Room 163 of the Geoege Mason University in Fairfax, Virginia from June 12 th to June 18 th and was attended by 65 participants. All of the sessions were plenary sessions accommodating review talks and shorter contributions discussing both theory and recent experiments. At the end of the conference Alan Schwarz summarized and put in context all the presentations of the conference giving a very interesting Summary talk. I want to thank here the Local Organizing Committee that organized the Conference. Many from the University Staff have contributed to the smooth running of the conference. I would like also to thank the Local Scientific Secretariat for their invaluable help in making the conference a truly enjoyable event; a special thanks goes to Maria Hobbs, our local secretary, who worked tirelessly in the organization of every detail. Finally we would like thank the European Organization for Nuclear Research and the George Mason University for their generous support. The next BEACH Conference will be held at Peniche, north of Lisbon, Portugal at the beginning of summer 2018 and I hope that we will all meet again there. (paper)

  12. TESTING MODELS OF MAGNETIC FIELD EVOLUTION OF NEUTRON STARS WITH THE STATISTICAL PROPERTIES OF THEIR SPIN EVOLUTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shuangnan; Xie Yi

    2012-01-01

    We test models for the evolution of neutron star (NS) magnetic fields (B). Our model for the evolution of the NS spin is taken from an analysis of pulsar timing noise presented by Hobbs et al.. We first test the standard model of a pulsar's magnetosphere in which B does not change with time and magnetic dipole radiation is assumed to dominate the pulsar's spin-down. We find that this model fails to predict both the magnitudes and signs of the second derivatives of the spin frequencies (ν-double dot). We then construct a phenomenological model of the evolution of B, which contains a long-term decay (LTD) modulated by short-term oscillations; a pulsar's spin is thus modified by its B-evolution. We find that an exponential LTD is not favored by the observed statistical properties of ν-double dot for young pulsars and fails to explain the fact that ν-double dot is negative for roughly half of the old pulsars. A simple power-law LTD can explain all the observed statistical properties of ν-double dot. Finally, we discuss some physical implications of our results to models of the B-decay of NSs and suggest reliable determination of the true ages of many young NSs is needed, in order to constrain further the physical mechanisms of their B-decay. Our model can be further tested with the measured evolutions of ν-dot and ν-double dot for an individual pulsar; the decay index, oscillation amplitude, and period can also be determined this way for the pulsar.

  13. Taxonomic, Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Bleaching in Anemones Inhabited by Anemonefishes

    KAUST Repository

    Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.; Frisch, Ashley J.; Ford, Benjamin M.; Thums, Michele; Saenz Agudelo, Pablo; Furby, Kathryn A.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    anemones to cope with rising sea temperatures associated with climate change. © 2013 Hobbs et al.

  14. Cognitive Onomastics: A Look from Europe. Review of the book: Brendler, S. (Ed.. (2016. Cognitive Onomastics: A Reader. Hamburg: Baar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia V. Vasilyeva

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The review provides a critical survey of the book which is the first anthology on cognitive onomastics. The book comprises articles by ten onomasticians from Austria, Hungary, Germany, Poland, and Finland for the period 2004–2014, selected by the editor Silvio Brendler as those most clearly expressing ideas and the diversity of the given research field. The book also includes the work Of Names (1655 by the English philosopher Thomas Hobbes, as the forerunner of the cognitive approach to language and to proper names. The articles are grouped into sections: Onomastics and Cognitive Science (1 article; Nature of Names (3 articles; Grammatical Description of Names (1 article; Meaning of Names (3 articles; Names in Literature (2 articles. Each article is analyzed in detail by the reviewer. The productivity of cognitive linguistics’ tools for onomastic research (such as Construction Grammar, the theory of prototypes, conceptual metaphor, axiological profiling, etc. is noted. A particular attention is drawn to the fact that onomastics not only borrows ideas and tools from «wider» cognitive linguistics, but also generates its own cognitive theories, such as Ernst Hansack’s theory of name and Silvio Brendler’s nomematics. In conclusion, the reviewer emphasizes the didactic and awarenessraising value of this anthology, as well as the relevance of the genre for this new and largely controversial research area: it provides the interested readers with an opportunity to make their own judgment in regards to cognitive onomastics, drawing information from primary sources. In general, getting acquainted with this book is very useful as it raises the concern of what cognitive onomastics is in our country and whether a similar book based on domestic material would help answer this question.

  15. La opción de-colonial: desprendimiento y apertura. Un manifiesto y un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter D. Mignolo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La opción descolonial, en política y epistemología, fue la consecuencia immediata de la invasión imperial/colonial, primero en Aanahuac y Ttawantinsuyu y, a partir de mediados del siglo XVIII, en los distintos espacios del mundo Iislámico (e.g, la Iindia Hindu-Musulmana, por obra de los ingleses; el norte de Aafrica por obra de los Franceses. El África sub-Sahariana fue colonizada también en el siglo XIX, pero fue saqueada por la captura y trata de esclavos para las minas y plantaciones en América, desde el siglo XVI. Llas comunidades Africanas en Aamérica no fueron colonizadas como las comunidades Indígenas; fueron propiamente esclavizadas. Muchos indígenas y africanos en América no quisieron ser gobernados ni por la corona ni por los dueños de las plantaciones. La disidencia se manifestó en distintos lugares de distintas maneras, algunas anti-imperiales/coloniales, otras de-coloniales. Waman Puma de Ayala, en los Andes, y Ottobah Cugoano, esclavizado y llevado al Caribe, luego liberto en Londres, escribieron sendos tratados políticos descoloniales, que fueron reconocidos como tales por la teoría y el pensamiento político Eurocentrado (Aristóteles, Platón, Saint Thomas Aquina, Machiavelo, Hobbes, Llocke, Rousseau, Montesquieu, etc.. Aambos ilustran la importancia de la geopolítica del conocimiento para proyectos futuros que no sigan atados y dependientes de los decires y teorías basadas en las experiencias de la historia Europea misma. Es decir, no en la historia del mundo escrita por europeos, las cuales responden a la sensibilida y experiencia y no a la sensibilidad y experiencias de todo el mundo.

  16. A MULTIDÃO ENQUANTO POSSÍVEL APROPRIAÇÃO DO VÍNCULO ENTRE CONATUS E O ESTADO DE NATUREZA NA FILOSOFIA DE SPINOZA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola da Silva Caldas

    2016-07-01

      RÉSUMÉ La recherche théorique vise à expliquer l'appropriation contemporaine que Negri et Hardt font par rapport à la foule de concept dans la foule de travail, la guerre et la démocratie à l'ère de l'empire. On suppose que ce concept est présent dans la philosophie formulée par Benedictus de Spinoza (1632 à 1677, en particulier la relation entre le concept de conatus présenté dans la partie III de l'éthique a démontré la manière des géomètres et de la nature de l'idée de l'Etat comme il elle a été exposée dans son Traité politique. Par conséquent, nous avons cherché à comprendre la fonction de conatus dans la théorie politique de Spinoza. Puis il a essayé d'expliquer la critique faite par la tradition Spinoza sur les effets sur la politique, et d'identifier leur importance pour le développement de sa théorie politique de la mise en place de la société civile. Sur ce point, nous avons essayé de clarifier la position de Spinoza en cequi concerne la théorie politique de Thomas Hobbes. Enfin, il a présenté la conception de Negri et Hardt foule à la lumière de Spinoza. Mots clés: Le Conatus; L'état de la Nature; Le Foule.

  17. Sobre el concepto de representación política: lineamientos para un estudio de las transformaciones de la democracia representativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Criado de Diego

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El presenta artículo analiza la progresiva pérdida de significado de la expresión “democracia representativa” en los Estados europeos contemporáneos, a través del estudio de las transformaciones que se han producido en las funciones de la representación política desde su inicial formulación en Thomas Hobbes hasta las actuales democracias pluralistas. El artículo plantea dos grandes líneas de trabajo para el análisis constitucional de la representación política. Por una parte, que la representación sería eficaz a la hora de expresar intereses generales y de dar una impresión de consenso, pero ineficaz en la medicación e integración de los concretos intereses empíricos, lo que provocaría una descomposición del nexo entre sociedad y Estado que se intenta recomponer a través de procedimientos fragmentarios de concertación y participación. Por otra parte, que ya no es posible interpretar la representación política desde el arsenal teórico de la soberanía del Estado que entiende la representación como “representación en el Estado”, sino desde el entendimiento democrático de la soberanía en las democracias pluralistas que aboga por una “representación frente al Estado”.

  18. Taxonomic, Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Bleaching in Anemones Inhabited by Anemonefishes

    KAUST Repository

    Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.

    2013-08-08

    anemones to cope with rising sea temperatures associated with climate change. © 2013 Hobbs et al.

  19. TO ACT OR NOT TO ACT: HOW COLERIDGE CHANGED THE WAY WE SEE "HAMLET"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetozar Poštić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Exactly 200 years ago, from 1811 to 1819, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, one of the most famous English Romantic poets, held a series of influential lectures about William Shakespeare and his plays. His presentation of "Hamlet", a play hitherto not only negatively appraised, but even viewed quite negatively by the leading critics, most notably Samuel Johnson, was especially significant. His insightful analysis helped to change the general opinion about the play, and pointed to the qualities of "Hamlet" that made it into perhaps the best known and most frequently played drama in the next 200 years. In this paper, I examine the way Coleridge was able to recognize the neglected features of Shakespeare’s profound tragedy up to that point. First of all, he identified with the main protagonist of the play, the Prince of Denmark, and described the unbridgeable gap between ambitions and power of imagination on the one hand, and inability to act on the other. Like Hamlet, Coleridge had "great, enormous, intellectual activity, and a consequent proportionate aversion to real action" (Coleridge 2014: 345. Aware of this shortcoming, but unable to correct it, the extremely talented and educated Coleridge presented it in fascinating detail. Secondly, he used his knowledge of the most influential contemporary philosophers, especially Kant, Locke and Hobbes, and the increasingly popular psychological approach to character analysis in order to paint an internal portrait of leading characters of the play. Due to the increasingly popular trend in recent literary theory and analysis focusing on the political and material context of an art work, the universal qualities of Coleridge's intepretation of "Hamlet" that contributed to the lasting influence of his critique have been largely neglected. This article intends, therefore, to re-establish the significance of Coleridge's "Hamlet" lectures.

  20. Microbial biomass and biological activity of soils and soil-like bodies in coastal oases of Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, D. A.; Marfenina, O. E.; Kudinova, A. G.; Lysak, L. V.; Mergelov, N. S.; Dolgikh, A. V.; Lupachev, A. V.

    2017-09-01

    The method of luminescent microscopy has been applied to study the structure of the microbial biomass of soils and soil-like bodies in East (the Thala Hills and Larsemann Hills oases) and West (Cape Burks, Hobbs coast) Antarctica. According to Soil Taxonomy, the studied soils mainly belong to the subgroups of Aquic Haploturbels, Typic Haploturbels, Typic Haplorthels, and Lithic Haplorthels. The major contribution to their microbial biomass belongs to fungi. The highest fungal biomass (up to 790 μg C/g soil) has been found in the soils with surface organic horizons in the form of thin moss/lichen litters, in which the development of fungal mycelium is most active. A larger part of fungal biomass (70-98%) is represented by spores. For the soils without vegetation cover, the accumulation of bacterial and fungal biomass takes place in the horizons under surface desert pavements. In the upper parts of the soils without vegetation cover and in the organic soil horizons, the major part (>60%) of fungal mycelium contains protective melanin pigments. Among bacteria, the high portion (up to 50%) of small filtering forms is observed. A considerable increase (up to 290.2 ± 27 μg C/g soil) in the fungal biomass owing to the development of yeasts has been shown for gley soils (gleyzems) developing from sapropel sediments under subaquatic conditions and for the algal-bacterial mat on the bottom of the lake (920.7 ± 46 μg C/g soil). The production of carbon dioxide by the soils varies from 0.47 to 2.34 μg C-CO2/(g day). The intensity of nitrogen fixation in the studied samples is generally low: from 0.08 to 55.85 ng C2H4/(g day). The intensity of denitrification varies from 0.09 to 19.28 μg N-N2O/(g day).