Harrington, Douglas E.; Burley, Richard R.; Corban, Robert R.
1986-01-01
Wall Mach number distributions were determined over a range of test-section free-stream Mach numbers from 0.2 to 0.92. The test section was slotted and had a nominal porosity of 11 percent. Reentry flaps located at the test-section exit were varied from 0 (fully closed) to 9 (fully open) degrees. Flow was bled through the test-section slots by means of a plenum evacuation system (PES) and varied from 0 to 3 percent of tunnel flow. Variations in reentry flap angle or PES flow rate had little or no effect on the Mach number distributions in the first 70 percent of the test section. However, in the aft region of the test section, flap angle and PES flow rate had a major impact on the Mach number distributions. Optimum PES flow rates were nominally 2 to 2.5 percent wtih the flaps fully closed and less than 1 percent when the flaps were fully open. The standard deviation of the test-section wall Mach numbers at the optimum PES flow rates was 0.003 or less.
Improving Euler computations at low Mach numbers
Koren, B.; Leer, van B.; Deconinck, H.; Koren, B.
1997-01-01
The paper consists of two parts, both dealing with conditioning techniques for lowMach-number Euler-flow computations, in which a multigrid technique is applied. In the first part, for subsonic flows and upwind-discretized, linearized 1-D Euler equations, the smoothing behavior of
Improving Euler computations at low Mach numbers
Koren, B.
1996-01-01
This paper consists of two parts, both dealing with conditioning techniques for low-Mach-number Euler-flow computations, in which a multigrid technique is applied. In the first part, for subsonic flows and upwind-discretized linearized 1-D Euler equations, the smoothing behavior of
Aeroacoustic computation of low Mach number flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dahl, K.S.
1996-12-01
This thesis explores the possibilities of applying a recently developed numerical technique to predict aerodynamically generated sound from wind turbines. The technique is a perturbation technique that has the advantage that the underlying flow field and the sound field are computed separately. Solution of the incompressible, time dependent flow field yields a hydrodynamic density correction to the incompressible constant density. The sound field is calculated from a set of equations governing the inviscid perturbations about the corrected flow field. Here, the emphasis is placed on the computation of the sound field. The nonlinear partial differential equations governing the sound field are solved numerically using an explicit MacCormack scheme. Two types of non-reflecting boundary conditions are applied; one based on the asymptotic solution of the governing equations and the other based on a characteristic analysis of the governing equations. The former condition is easy to use and it performs slightly better than the characteristic based condition. The technique is applied to the problems of the sound generation of a pulsating sphere, which is a monopole; a co-rotating vortex pair, which is a quadrupole, and the viscous flow over a circular cylinder, which is a dipole. The governing equations are written and solved for spherical, Cartesian, and cylindrical coordinates, respectively, thus, representing three common orthogonal coordinate systems. Numerical results agree very well with the analytical solutions for the problems of the pulsating sphere and the co-rotating vortex pair. Numerical results for the viscous flow over a cylinder are presented and evaluated qualitatively. The technique has potential for applications to airfoil flows as they are on a wind turbine blade, as well as for other low Mach number flows. (au) 2 tabs., 33 ills., 48 refs.
Mathematical and numerical aspects of low mach number flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schochet, St.; Bresch, D.; Grenier, E.; Alazard, T.; Gordner, A.; Sankaran, V.; Massot, M.; Sery, R.; Pebay, P.; Lunch, O.; Mazhorova, O.; Turkel, O.E.; Faille, I.; Danchin, R.; Allain, O.; Birken, P.; Lafitte, O.; Kloczko, T.; Frick, W.; Bui, T.; Dellacherie, S.; Klein, R.; Roe, Ph.; Accary, G.; Braack, M.; Picano, F.; Cadiou, A.; Dinescu, C.; Lesage, A.C.; Wesseling, P.; Heuveline, V.; Jobelin, M.; Weisman, C.; Merkle, C.
2004-07-01
Low Mach number flows represent a significant part of the various flows encountered in geophysics, industry or every day life. Paradoxically, the mathematical analysis of the equations governing these flows is difficult and on the practical side, the research of numerical algorithms valid for all flow speeds is continuing to be a challenge. However, in the last decade, both from the theoretical and the numerical sides, significant progresses were made in the understanding and analysis of the equations governing these flows. This conference intends to provide an up-to-date inventory of recent mathematical and numerical results in the analysis of these flows by bringing together both mathematicians and numericists active in this area. In the framework of the conference, a numerical workshop is organized which proposes to compute several challenging low Mach number flows: liquid flow around non-cavitating and cavitating NACA0015 hydrofoil, natural convection with large temperature differences, free convection, free surface flow, vessel pressurization. This document brings together the descriptions of the test cases of the numerical workshop and the abstracts of the conference papers: A 3D high order finite volume method for the prediction of near-critical fluid flows (G. ACCARY, I. RASPO, P. BONTOUX, B. ZAPPOLI); low Mach number limit of the non-isentropic Navier-Stokes equations (T. ALAZARD); simulation of cavitation rolls past a forward step with a bubble model (O. ALLAIN, N. BLASKA, C. LECA); flux preconditioning methods and fire events (P. BIRKEN, A. MEISTER); an adaptive finite element solver for compressible flows: application to heat-driven cavity benchmarks in 2D and 3D (M. BRAACK); comparison of various implicit, explicit, centered and upwind schemes for the simulation of compressed flows on moving mesh (A. CADIOU, M. BUFFAT, L. Le PENVEN, C. Le RIBAULT); low Mach number limit for viscous compressible flows (R. DANCHIN); some Properties of the low Mach number
Physical and numerical modelling of low mach number compressible flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paillerre, H.; Clerc, S.; Dabbene, F.; Cueto, O.
1999-01-01
This article reviews various physical models that may be used to describe compressible flow at low Mach numbers, as well as the numerical methods developed at DRN to discretize the different systems of equations. A selection of thermal-hydraulic applications illustrate the need to take into account compressibility and multidimensional effects as well as variable flow properties. (authors)
Very high Mach number shocks - Theory. [in space plasmas
Quest, Kevin B.
1986-01-01
The theory and simulation of collisionless perpendicular supercritical shock structure is reviewed, with major emphasis on recent research results. The primary tool of investigation is the hybrid simulation method, in which the Newtonian orbits of a large number of ion macroparticles are followed numerically, and in which the electrons are treated as a charge neutralizing fluid. The principal results include the following: (1) electron resistivity is not required to explain the observed quasi-stationarity of the earth's bow shock, (2) the structure of the perpendicular shock at very high Mach numbers depends sensitively on the upstream value of beta (the ratio of the thermal to magnetic pressure) and electron resistivity, (3) two-dimensional turbulence will become increasingly important as the Mach number is increased, and (4) nonadiabatic bulk electron heating will result when a thermal electron cannot complete a gyrorbit while transiting the shock.
Low-Mach number simulations of transcritical flows
Lapenna, Pasquale E.
2018-01-08
A numerical framework for the direct simulation, in the low-Mach number limit, of reacting and non-reacting transcritical flows is presented. The key feature are an efficient and detailed representation of the real fluid properties and an high-order spatial discretization. The latter is of fundamental importance to correctly resolve the largely non-linear behavior of the fluid in the proximity of the pseudo-boiling. The validity of the low-Mach number assumptions is assessed for a previously developed non-reacting DNS database of transcritical and supercritical mixing. Fully resolved DNS data employing high-fidelity thermodynamical models are also used to investigate the spectral characteristic as well as the differences between transcritical and supercritical jets.
Low Mach number asymptotics for reacting compressible fluid flows
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Feireisl, Eduard; Petzeltová, Hana
2010-01-01
Roč. 26, č. 2 (2010), s. 455-480 ISSN 1078-0947 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/05/0164 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : low Mach number * Navier-Stokes-Fourier system * reacting fluids Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.986, year: 2010 http://www.aimsciences.org/journals/displayArticles.jsp?paperID=4660
Low Mach number limits of compressible rotating fluids
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Feireisl, Eduard
2012-01-01
Roč. 14, č. 1 (2012), s. 61-78 ISSN 1422-6928 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/08/0315 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : low Mach number limit * rotating fluid * compressible fluid Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.415, year: 2012 http://www.springerlink.com/content/635r1116j40t6428/
Background-oriented schlieren imaging of flow around a circular cylinder at low Mach numbers
Stadler, Hannes; Bauknecht, André; Siegrist, Silvan; Flesch, Robert; Wolf, C. Christian; van Hinsberg, Nils; Jacobs, Markus
2017-09-01
The background-oriented schlieren (BOS) imaging method has, for the first time, been applied in the investigation of the flow around a circular cylinder at low Mach numbers (Msuccessive imaging at incremental angular positions around the cylinder. This density distribution has been found to agree well with the pressure measurements and with potential theory where appropriate.
Numerical simulation of low Mach number reacting flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bell, J B; Aspden, A J; Day, M S; Lijewski, M J
2007-01-01
Using examples from active research areas in combustion and astrophysics, we demonstrate a computationally efficient numerical approach for simulating multiscale low Mach number reacting flows. The method enables simulations that incorporate an unprecedented range of temporal and spatial scales, while at the same time, allows an extremely high degree of reaction fidelity. Sample applications demonstrate the efficiency of the approach with respect to a traditional time-explicit integration method, and the utility of the methodology for studying the interaction of turbulence with terrestrial and astrophysical flame structures
Determining integral density distribution in the mach reflection of shock waves
Shevchenko, A. M.; Golubev, M. P.; Pavlov, A. A.; Pavlov, Al. A.; Khotyanovsky, D. V.; Shmakov, A. S.
2017-05-01
We present a method for and results of determination of the field of integral density in the structure of flow corresponding to the Mach interaction of shock waves at Mach number M = 3. The optical diagnostics of flow was performed using an interference technique based on self-adjusting Zernike filters (SA-AVT method). Numerical simulations were carried out using the CFS3D program package for solving the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations. Quantitative data on the distribution of integral density on the path of probing radiation in one direction of 3D flow transillumination in the region of Mach interaction of shock waves were obtained for the first time.
Mach Number effects on turbulent superstructures in wall bounded flows
Kaehler, Christian J.; Bross, Matthew; Scharnowski, Sven
2017-11-01
Planer and three-dimensional flow field measurements along a flat plat boundary layer in the Trisonic Wind Tunnel Munich (TWM) are examined with the aim to characterize the scaling, spatial organization, and topology of large scale turbulent superstructures in compressible flow. This facility is ideal for this investigation as the ratio of boundary layer thickness to test section spanwise extent ratio is around 1/25, ensuring minimal sidewall and corner effects on turbulent structures in the center of the test section. A major difficulty in the experimental investigation of large scale features is the mutual size of the superstructures which can extend over many boundary layer thicknesses. Using multiple PIV systems, it was possible to capture the full spatial extent of large-scale structures over a range of Mach numbers from Ma = 0.3 - 3. To calculate the average large-scale structure length and spacing, the acquired vector fields were analyzed by statistical multi-point methods that show large scale structures with a correlation length of around 10 boundary layer thicknesses over the range of Mach numbers investigated. Furthermore, the average spacing between high and low momentum structures is on the order of a boundary layer thicknesses. This work is supported by the Priority Programme SPP 1881 Turbulent Superstructures of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft.
The Variation of Slat Noise with Mach and Reynolds Numbers
Lockard, David P.; Choudhari, Meelan M.
2011-01-01
The slat noise from the 30P30N high-lift system has been computed using a computational fluid dynamics code in conjunction with a Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings solver. By varying the Mach number from 0.13 to 0.25, the noise was found to vary roughly with the 5th power of the speed. Slight changes in the behavior with directivity angle could easily account for the different speed dependencies reported in the literature. Varying the Reynolds number from 1.4 to 2.4 million resulted in almost no differences, and primarily served to demonstrate the repeatability of the results. However, changing the underlying hybrid Reynolds-averaged-Navier-Stokes/Large-Eddy-Simulation turbulence model significantly altered the mean flow because of changes in the flap separation. However, the general trends observed in both the acoustics and near-field fluctuations were similar for both models.
Angular dependence of high Mach number plasma interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thomas, V.A.; Brecht, S.H.
1987-01-01
In this paper a 2-1/2-dimensional hybrid code is used to examine the collisionless large spatial scale (kc/ω pi ∼ 1) low-frequency (ω ∼ ω ci ) interaction initiated by a plasma shell of finite width traveling at high Alfven Mach number relative to a uniform background plasma. Particular attention is given to the angle of the relative velocity relative to the ambient magnetic field for the range of angles O < θ < π/2. An attempt is made to parameterize some of the important physics including the Alfven ion cyclotron instability, the field-aligned electromagnetic ion counter streaming instability, mixing of the plasma shell with the background ions, and structuring of the interaction region. These results are applicable to various astrophysical interactions such as bow shocks and interplanetary shocks
Numerical solutions of unsteady flows with low inlet Mach numbers
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Punčochářová, Petra; Furst, Jiří; Horáček, Jaromír; Kozel, Karel
2010-01-01
Roč. 80, č. 8 (2010), s. 1795-1805 ISSN 0378-4754 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200760613 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : finite volume method * unsteady flow * low Mach number * viscous compressible fluid Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 0.812, year: 2010 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=MImg&_imagekey=B6V0T-4Y0D67D-1-R&_cdi=5655&_user=640952&_pii=S0378475409003607&_origin=search&_coverDate=04%2F30%2F2010&_sk=999199991&view=c&wchp=dGLbVlb-zSkzk&md5=ed6eaf0a050968ee978714fd54e7f131&ie=/sdarticle.pdf
Effects of Mach number on pitot-probe displacement in a turbulent boundary layer
Allen, J. M.
1974-01-01
Experimental pitot-probe-displacement data have been obtained in a turbulent boundary layer at a local free-stream Mach number of 4.63 and unit Reynolds number of 6.46 million meter. The results of this study were compared with lower Mach number results of previous studies. It was found that small probes showed displacement only, whereas the larger probes showed not only displacement but also distortion of the shape of the boundary-layer profile. The distortion pattern occurred lower in the boundary layer at the higher Mach number than at the the lower Mach number. The maximum distortion occurred when the center of the probe was about one probe diameter off the test surface. For probes in the wall contact position, the indicated Mach numbers were, for all probes tested, close to the true profile. Pitot-probe displacement was found to increase significantly with increasing Mach number.
High-Mach number, laser-driven magnetized collisionless shocks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schaeffer, Derek B.; Fox, W.; Haberberger, D.; Fiksel, G.; Bhattacharjee, A.
2017-01-01
Collisionless shocks are ubiquitous in space and astrophysical systems, and the class of supercritical shocks is of particular importance due to their role in accelerating particles to high energies. While these shocks have been traditionally studied by spacecraft and remote sensing observations, laboratory experiments can provide reproducible and multi-dimensional datasets that provide complementary understanding of the underlying microphysics. We present experiments undertaken on the OMEGA and OMEGA EP laser facilities that show the formation and evolution of high-Mach number collisionless shocks created through the interaction of a laser-driven magnetic piston and magnetized ambient plasma. Through time-resolved, 2-D imaging we observe large density and magnetic compressions that propagate at super-Alfvenic speeds and that occur over ion kinetic length scales. Electron density and temperature of the initial ambient plasma are characterized using optical Thomson scattering. Measurements of the piston laser-plasma are modeled with 2-D radiation-hydrodynamic simulations, which are used to initialize 2-D particle-in-cell simulations of the interaction between the piston and ambient plasmas. The numerical results show the formation of collisionless shocks, including the separate dynamics of the carbon and hydrogen ions that constitute the ambient plasma and their effect on the shock structure. Furthermore, the simulations also show the shock separating from the piston, which we observe in the data at late experimental times.
Role of Turbulent Prandtl Number on Heat Flux at Hypersonic Mach Numbers
Xiao, X.; Edwards, J. R.; Hassan, H. A.; Gaffney, R. L., Jr.
2007-01-01
A new turbulence model suited for calculating the turbulent Prandtl number as part of the solution is presented. The model is based on a set of two equations: one governing the variance of the enthalpy and the other governing its dissipation rate. These equations were derived from the exact energy equation and thus take into consideration compressibility and dissipation terms. The model is used to study two cases involving shock wave/boundary layer interaction at Mach 9.22 and Mach 5.0. In general, heat transfer prediction showed great improvement over traditional turbulence models where the turbulent Prandtl number is assumed constant. It is concluded that using a model that calculates the turbulent Prandtl number as part of the solution is the key to bridging the gap between theory and experiment for flows dominated by shock wave/boundary layer interactions.
Effects of rocket jet on stability and control at high Mach numbers
Fetterman, David E , Jr
1958-01-01
Paper presents the results of an investigation to determine the jet-interference effects which may occur at high jet static-pressure ratios and high Mach numbers. Tests were made in the Langley 11-inch hypersonic tunnel at a Mach number of 6.86.
Variation with Mach Number of Static and Total Pressures Through Various Screens
Adler, Alfred A
1946-01-01
Tests were conducted in the Langley 24-inch highspeed tunnel to ascertain the static-pressure and total-pressure losses through screens ranging in mesh from 3 to 12 wires per inch and in wire diameter from 0.023 to 0.041 inch. Data were obtained from a Mach number of approximately 0.20 up to the maximum (choking) Mach number obtainable for each screen. The results of this investigation indicate that the pressure losses increase with increasing Mach number until the choking Mach number, which can be computed, is reached. Since choking imposes a restriction on the mass rate of flow and maximum losses are incurred at this condition, great care must be taken in selecting the screen mesh and wire dimmeter for an installation so that the choking Mach number is
Mccain, W. E.
1984-01-01
The unsteady aerodynamic lifting surface theory, the Doublet Lattice method, with experimental steady and unsteady pressure measurements of a high aspect ratio supercritical wing model at a Mach number of 0.78 were compared. The steady pressure data comparisons were made for incremental changes in angle of attack and control surface deflection. The unsteady pressure data comparisons were made at set angle of attack positions with oscillating control surface deflections. Significant viscous and transonic effects in the experimental aerodynamics which cannot be predicted by the Doublet Lattice method are shown. This study should assist development of empirical correction methods that may be applied to improve Doublet Lattice calculations of lifting surface aerodynamics.
Dynamic pressure sensitivity determination with Mach number method
Sarraf, Christophe; Damion, Jean-Pierre
2018-05-01
Measurements of pressure in fast transient conditions are often performed even if the dynamic characteristic of the transducer are not traceable to international standards. Moreover, the question of a primary standard in dynamic pressure is still open, especially for gaseous applications. The question is to improve dynamic standards in order to respond to expressed industrial needs. In this paper, the method proposed in the EMRP IND09 ‘Dynamic’ project, which can be called the ‘ideal shock tube method’, is compared with the ‘collective standard method’ currently used in the Laboratoire de Métrologie Dynamique (LNE/ENSAM). The input is a step of pressure generated by a shock tube. The transducer is a piezoelectric pressure sensor. With the ‘ideal shock tube method’ the sensitivity of a pressure sensor is first determined dynamically. This method requires a shock tube implemented with piezoelectric shock wave detectors. The measurement of the Mach number in the tube allows an evaluation of the incident pressure amplitude of a step using a theoretical 1D model of the shock tube. Heat transfer, other actual effects and effects of the shock tube imperfections are not taken into account. The amplitude of the pressure step is then used to determine the sensitivity in dynamic conditions. The second method uses a frequency bandwidth comparison to determine pressure at frequencies from quasi-static conditions, traceable to static pressure standards, to higher frequencies (up to 10 kHz). The measurand is also a step of pressure generated by a supposed ideal shock tube or a fast-opening device. The results are provided as a transfer function with an uncertainty budget assigned to a frequency range, also deliverable frequency by frequency. The largest uncertainty in the bandwidth of comparison is used to trace the final pressure step level measured in dynamic conditions, owing that this pressure is not measurable in a steady state on a shock tube. A reference
Performance Limiting Flow Processes in High-State Loading High-Mach Number Compressors
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Tan, Choon S
2008-01-01
In high-stage loading high-Mach number (HLM) compressors, counter-rotating pairs of discrete vortices are shed at the trailing edge of the upstream blade row at a frequency corresponding to the downstream rotor blade passing frequency...
Derivation of the low Mach number diphasic system. Numerical simulation in mono-dimensional geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dellacherie, St.
2004-01-01
This work deals with the derivation of a diphasic low Mach number model obtained through a Mach number asymptotic expansion applied to the compressible diphasic Navier Stokes system, expansion which filters out the acoustic waves. This approach is inspired from the work of Andrew Majda giving the equations of low Mach number combustion for thin flame and for perfect gases. When the equations of state verify some thermodynamic hypothesis, we show that the low Mach number diphasic system predicts in a good way the dilatation or the compression of a bubble and has equilibrium convergence properties. Then, we propose an entropic and convergent Lagrangian scheme in mono-dimensional geometry when the fluids are perfect gases and we propose a first approach in Eulerian variables where the interface between the two fluids is captured with a level set technique. (author)
Role of Turbulent Prandtl Number on Heat Flux at Hypersonic Mach Number
Xiao, X.; Edwards, J. R.; Hassan, H. A.
2004-01-01
Present simulation of turbulent flows involving shock wave/boundary layer interaction invariably overestimates heat flux by almost a factor of two. One possible reason for such a performance is a result of the fact that the turbulence models employed make use of Morkovin's hypothesis. This hypothesis is valid for non-hypersonic Mach numbers and moderate rates of heat transfer. At hypersonic Mach numbers, high rates of heat transfer exist in regions where shock wave/boundary layer interactions are important. As a result, one should not expect traditional turbulence models to yield accurate results. The goal of this investigation is to explore the role of a variable Prandtl number formulation in predicting heat flux in flows dominated by strong shock wave/boundary layer interactions. The intended applications involve external flows in the absence of combustion such as those encountered in supersonic inlets. This can be achieved by adding equations for the temperature variance and its dissipation rate. Such equations can be derived from the exact Navier-Stokes equations. Traditionally, modeled equations are based on the low speed energy equation where the pressure gradient term and the term responsible for energy dissipation are ignored. It is clear that such assumptions are not valid for hypersonic flows. The approach used here is based on the procedure used in deriving the k-zeta model, in which the exact equations that governed k, the variance of velocity, and zeta, the variance of vorticity, were derived and modeled. For the variable turbulent Prandtl number, the exact equations that govern the temperature variance and its dissipation rate are derived and modeled term by term. The resulting set of equations are free of damping and wall functions and are coordinate-system independent. Moreover, modeled correlations are tensorially consistent and invariant under Galilean transformation. The final set of equations will be given in the paper.
Engineering method for aero-propulsive characteristics at hypersonic Mach numbers
Goradia, Suresh; Torres, Abel O.; Stack, Sharon H.; Everhart, Joel L.
1991-01-01
An engineering method has been developed for the rapid analysis of external aerodynamics and propulsive performance characteristics of airbreathing vehicles at hypersonic Mach numbers. This method, based on the theory of characteristics, has been developed to analyze fuselage-wing body combinations and body flaps with blunt or sharp leading/trailing edges. Arbitrary ratio of specific heat for the flowing medium can be specified in the program. Furthermore, the capability exists in the code to compute the inviscid inlet mass capture and momentum flux. The method is under development for computations of pressure distribution, and flow characteristics in the inlet, along with the effect of viscosity. Correlative studies have been performed for representative hypersonic configurations using the current method. The results of these correlations for various aerodynamics parameters are encouraging.
On the instabilities of supersonic mixing layers - A high-Mach-number asymptotic theory
Balsa, Thomas F.; Goldstein, M. E.
1990-01-01
The stability of a family of tanh mixing layers is studied at large Mach numbers using perturbation methods. It is found that the eigenfunction develops a multilayered structure, and the eigenvalue is obtained by solving a simplified version of the Rayleigh equation (with homogeneous boundary conditions) in one of these layers which lies in either of the external streams. This analysis leads to a simple hypersonic similarity law which explains how spatial and temporal phase speeds and growth rates scale with Mach number and temperature ratio. Comparisons are made with numerical results, and it is found that this similarity law provides a good qualitative guide for the behavior of the instability at high Mach numbers. In addition to this asymptotic theory, some fully numerical results are also presented (with no limitation on the Mach number) in order to explain the origin of the hypersonic modes (through mode splitting) and to discuss the role of oblique modes over a very wide range of Mach number and temperature ratio.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dellacherie, St
2004-07-01
This work deals with the derivation of a diphasic low Mach number model obtained through a Mach number asymptotic expansion applied to the compressible diphasic Navier Stokes system, expansion which filters out the acoustic waves. This approach is inspired from the work of Andrew Majda giving the equations of low Mach number combustion for thin flame and for perfect gases. When the equations of state verify some thermodynamic hypothesis, we show that the low Mach number diphasic system predicts in a good way the dilatation or the compression of a bubble and has equilibrium convergence properties. Then, we propose an entropic and convergent Lagrangian scheme in mono-dimensional geometry when the fluids are perfect gases and we propose a first approach in Eulerian variables where the interface between the two fluids is captured with a level set technique. (author)
A Parametric Study of a Constant-Mach-Number MHD Generator with Nuclear Ionization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Braun, J.
1965-03-01
The influence of electrical and gas dynamical parameters on the length, of a linear constant-Mach-number MHD duct has been investigated. The gas has been assumed to be ionized by neutron irradiation in the expansion nozzle preceding the MHD duct. Inside the duct the electron recombination is assumed to be governed, by volume recombination. It is found that there exists a distinct domain from which the parameters must be chosen, pressure and Mach number being the most critical ones. If power densities in the order of magnitude 100 MW/m 3 are desired, high magnetic fields and Mach numbers in the supersonic range are needed. The influence of the variation of critical parameters on the channel length is given as a product of simple functions, each containing one parameter
Applicability of higher-order TVD method to low mach number compressible flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akamatsu, Mikio
1995-01-01
Steep gradients of fluid density are the influential factor of spurious oscillation in numerical solutions of low Mach number (M<<1) compressible flows. The total variation diminishing (TVD) scheme is a promising remedy to overcome this problem and obtain accurate solutions. TVD schemes for high-speed flows are, however, not compatible with commonly used methods in low Mach number flows using pressure-based formulation. In the present study a higher-order TVD scheme is constructed on a modified form of each individual scalar equation of primitive variables. It is thus clarified that the concept of TVD is applicable to low Mach number flows within the framework of the existing numerical method. Results of test problems of the moving interface of two-component gases with the density ratio ≥ 4, demonstrate the accurate and robust (wiggle-free) profile of the scheme. (author)
A Parametric Study of a Constant-Mach-Number MHD Generator with Nuclear Ionization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Braun, J
1965-03-15
The influence of electrical and gas dynamical parameters on the length, of a linear constant-Mach-number MHD duct has been investigated. The gas has been assumed to be ionized by neutron irradiation in the expansion nozzle preceding the MHD duct. Inside the duct the electron recombination is assumed to be governed, by volume recombination. It is found that there exists a distinct domain from which the parameters must be chosen, pressure and Mach number being the most critical ones. If power densities in the order of magnitude 100 MW/m{sup 3} are desired, high magnetic fields and Mach numbers in the supersonic range are needed. The influence of the variation of critical parameters on the channel length is given as a product of simple functions, each containing one parameter.
Increased Mach Number Capability for the NASA Glenn 10x10 Supersonic Wind Tunnel
Slater, J. W.; Saunders, J. D.
2015-01-01
Computational simulations and wind tunnel testing were conducted to explore the operation of the Abe Silverstein Supersonic Wind Tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center at test section Mach numbers above the current limit of Mach 3.5. An increased Mach number would enhance the capability for testing of supersonic and hypersonic propulsion systems. The focus of the explorations was on understanding the flow within the second throat of the tunnel, which is downstream of the test section and is where the supersonic flow decelerates to subsonic flow. Methods of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) were applied to provide details of the shock boundary layer structure and to estimate losses in total pressure. The CFD simulations indicated that the tunnel could be operated up to Mach 4.0 if the minimum width of the second throat was made smaller than that used for previous operation of the tunnel. Wind tunnel testing was able to confirm such operation of the tunnel at Mach 3.6 and 3.7 before a hydraulic failure caused a stop to the testing. CFD simulations performed after the wind tunnel testing showed good agreement with test data consisting of static pressures along the ceiling of the second throat. The CFD analyses showed increased shockwave boundary layer interactions, which was also observed as increased unsteadiness of dynamic pressures collected in the wind tunnel testing.
Numerical simulation of unsteady compressible low Mach number flow in a channel
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Punčochářová-Pořízková, P.; Kozel, Karel; Horáček, Jaromír; Fürst, J.
2010-01-01
Roč. 17, č. 2 (2010), s. 83-97 ISSN 1802-1484 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC09019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : CFD * finite volume method * unsteady flow * low Mach number Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics
A two-dimensional, TVD numerical scheme for inviscid, high Mach number flows in chemical equilibrium
Eberhardt, S.; Palmer, G.
1986-01-01
A new algorithm has been developed for hypervelocity flows in chemical equilibrium. Solutions have been achieved for Mach numbers up to 15 with no adverse effect on convergence. Two methods of coupling an equilibrium chemistry package have been tested, with the simpler method proving to be more robust. Improvements in boundary conditions are still required for a production-quality code.
Risius, Steffen; Costantini, Marco; Koch, Stefan; Hein, Stefan; Klein, Christian
2018-05-01
The influence of unit Reynolds number (Re_1=17.5× 106-80× 106 {m}^{-1}), Mach number (M= 0.35-0.77) and incompressible shape factor (H_{12} = 2.50-2.66) on laminar-turbulent boundary layer transition was systematically investigated in the Cryogenic Ludwieg-Tube Göttingen (DNW-KRG). For this investigation the existing two-dimensional wind tunnel model, PaLASTra, which offers a quasi-uniform streamwise pressure gradient, was modified to reduce the size of the flow separation region at its trailing edge. The streamwise temperature distribution and the location of laminar-turbulent transition were measured by means of temperature-sensitive paint (TSP) with a higher accuracy than attained in earlier measurements. It was found that for the modified PaLASTra model the transition Reynolds number (Re_{ {tr}}) exhibits a linear dependence on the pressure gradient, characterized by H_{12}. Due to this linear relation it was possible to quantify the so-called `unit Reynolds number effect', which is an increase of Re_{ {tr}} with Re_1. By a systematic variation of M, Re_1 and H_{12} in combination with a spectral analysis of freestream disturbances, a stabilizing effect of compressibility on boundary layer transition, as predicted by linear stability theory, was detected (`Mach number effect'). Furthermore, two expressions were derived which can be used to calculate the transition Reynolds number as a function of the amplitude of total pressure fluctuations, Re_1 and H_{12}. To determine critical N-factors, the measured transition locations were correlated with amplification rates, calculated by incompressible and compressible linear stability theory. By taking into account the spectral level of total pressure fluctuations at the frequency of the most amplified Tollmien-Schlichting wave at transition location, the scatter in the determined critical N-factors was reduced. Furthermore, the receptivity coefficients dependence on incidence angle of acoustic waves was used to
Study and discretization of kinetic models and fluid models at low Mach number
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dellacherie, Stephane
2011-01-01
This thesis summarizes our work between 1995 and 2010. It concerns the analysis and the discretization of Fokker-Planck or semi-classical Boltzmann kinetic models and of Euler or Navier-Stokes fluid models at low Mach number. The studied Fokker-Planck equation models the collisions between ions and electrons in a hot plasma, and is here applied to the inertial confinement fusion. The studied semi-classical Boltzmann equations are of two types. The first one models the thermonuclear reaction between a deuterium ion and a tritium ion producing an α particle and a neutron particle, and is also in our case used to describe inertial confinement fusion. The second one (known as the Wang-Chang and Uhlenbeck equations) models the transitions between electronic quantified energy levels of uranium and iron atoms in the AVLIS isotopic separation process. The basic properties of these two Boltzmann equations are studied, and, for the Wang-Chang and Uhlenbeck equations, a kinetic-fluid coupling algorithm is proposed. This kinetic-fluid coupling algorithm incited us to study the relaxation concept for gas and immiscible fluids mixtures, and to underline connections with classical kinetic theory. Then, a diphasic low Mach number model without acoustic waves is proposed to model the deformation of the interface between two immiscible fluids induced by high heat transfers at low Mach number. In order to increase the accuracy of the results without increasing computational cost, an AMR algorithm is studied on a simplified interface deformation model. These low Mach number studies also incited us to analyse on cartesian meshes the inaccuracy at low Mach number of Godunov schemes. Finally, the LBM algorithm applied to the heat equation is justified
Turbulent mixing of a slightly supercritical van der Waals fluid at low-Mach number
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Battista, F.; Casciola, C. M.; Picano, F.
2014-01-01
Supercritical fluids near the critical point are characterized by liquid-like densities and gas-like transport properties. These features are purposely exploited in different contexts ranging from natural products extraction/fractionation to aerospace propulsion. Large part of studies concerns this last context, focusing on the dynamics of supercritical fluids at high Mach number where compressibility and thermodynamics strictly interact. Despite the widespread use also at low Mach number, the turbulent mixing properties of slightly supercritical fluids have still not investigated in detail in this regime. This topic is addressed here by dealing with Direct Numerical Simulations of a coaxial jet of a slightly supercritical van der Waals fluid. Since acoustic effects are irrelevant in the low Mach number conditions found in many industrial applications, the numerical model is based on a suitable low-Mach number expansion of the governing equation. According to experimental observations, the weakly supercritical regime is characterized by the formation of finger-like structures – the so-called ligaments – in the shear layers separating the two streams. The mechanism of ligament formation at vanishing Mach number is extracted from the simulations and a detailed statistical characterization is provided. Ligaments always form whenever a high density contrast occurs, independently of real or perfect gas behaviors. The difference between real and perfect gas conditions is found in the ligament small-scale structure. More intense density gradients and thinner interfaces characterize the near critical fluid in comparison with the smoother behavior of the perfect gas. A phenomenological interpretation is here provided on the basis of the real gas thermodynamics properties
Turbulent mixing of a slightly supercritical van der Waals fluid at low-Mach number
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Battista, F.; Casciola, C. M. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Sapienza University, via Eudossiana 18, 00184 Rome (Italy); Picano, F. [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Padova, via Venezia 1, 35131 Padova (Italy)
2014-05-15
Supercritical fluids near the critical point are characterized by liquid-like densities and gas-like transport properties. These features are purposely exploited in different contexts ranging from natural products extraction/fractionation to aerospace propulsion. Large part of studies concerns this last context, focusing on the dynamics of supercritical fluids at high Mach number where compressibility and thermodynamics strictly interact. Despite the widespread use also at low Mach number, the turbulent mixing properties of slightly supercritical fluids have still not investigated in detail in this regime. This topic is addressed here by dealing with Direct Numerical Simulations of a coaxial jet of a slightly supercritical van der Waals fluid. Since acoustic effects are irrelevant in the low Mach number conditions found in many industrial applications, the numerical model is based on a suitable low-Mach number expansion of the governing equation. According to experimental observations, the weakly supercritical regime is characterized by the formation of finger-like structures – the so-called ligaments – in the shear layers separating the two streams. The mechanism of ligament formation at vanishing Mach number is extracted from the simulations and a detailed statistical characterization is provided. Ligaments always form whenever a high density contrast occurs, independently of real or perfect gas behaviors. The difference between real and perfect gas conditions is found in the ligament small-scale structure. More intense density gradients and thinner interfaces characterize the near critical fluid in comparison with the smoother behavior of the perfect gas. A phenomenological interpretation is here provided on the basis of the real gas thermodynamics properties.
Measurement and analysis of the noise radiated by low Mach numbers centrifugal blowers
Yeager, D. M.; Lauchle, G. C.
1987-11-01
The broad band, aerodynamically generated noise in low tip-speed Mach number, centrifugal air moving devices is investigated. An interdisciplinary approach was taken which involved investigation of the aerodynamic and acoustic fields, and their mutual relationship. The noise generation process was studied using two experimental vehicles: (1) a scale model of a homologous family of centrifugal blowers typical of those used to cool computer and business equipment, and (2) a single blade from a centrifugal blower impeller which was placed in a known, controllable flow field. The radiation characteristics of the model blower were investigated by measuring the acoustic intensity distribution near the blower inlet and comparing it with the intensity near the inlet to an axial flow fan. Aerodynamic studies of the flow field in the inlet and at the discharge to the rotating impeller were used to assess the mean flow distribution through the impeller blade channels and to identify regions of excessive turbulence near the rotating blade row. New frequency-domain expressions for the correlation area and dipole source strength per unit area on a surface immersed in turbulence were developed which can be used to characterize the noise generation process over a rigid surface immersed in turbulence. An investigation of the noise radiated from the single, isolated airfoil (impeller blade) was performed using modern correlation and spectral analysis techniques.
Application of a transitional boundary-layer theory in the low hypersonic Mach number regime
Shamroth, S. J.; Mcdonald, H.
1975-01-01
An investigation is made to assess the capability of a finite-difference boundary-layer procedure to predict the mean profile development across a transition from laminar to turbulent flow in the low hypersonic Mach-number regime. The boundary-layer procedure uses an integral form of the turbulence kinetic-energy equation to govern the development of the Reynolds apparent shear stress. The present investigation shows the ability of this procedure to predict Stanton number, velocity profiles, and density profiles through the transition region and, in addition, to predict the effect of wall cooling and Mach number on transition Reynolds number. The contribution of the pressure-dilatation term to the energy balance is examined and it is suggested that transition can be initiated by the direct absorption of acoustic energy even if only a small amount (1 per cent) of the incident acoustic energy is absorbed.
Investigation of side wall effects on an inward scramjet inlet at Mach number 8.6
Rolim, Tiago Cavalcanti
Experimental and computational studies were conducted to evaluate the performance of a scramjet inlet as the side cowl length is changed. A slender inward turning inlet of a total length of 304.8 mm, a span of 50.8 mm with the compression at 11.54 deg and CR = 4.79 was used. The side cowl lengths were of 0, 50.8 and 76.2 mm. The UTA Hypersonic Shock Tunnel facility was used in the reflected mode. The model was instrumented with nine piezoelectric pressure transducers, for static and total pressure measurements. A wedge was mounted at the rear of the inlet in order to accommodate a Pitot pressure rake. The driven tube was instrumented with three pressure transducers. Two of them were used to measure the incident shock wave speed, and a third one was used for stagnation pressure measurements during a test. Furthermore, a Pitot probe was installed below the model in order to measure the impact pressure on each run, this reading along with the driven sensor readings, allowed us for the calculation of freestream properties. During the experiments, nominal stagnation enthalpy of 0.67 MJ/kg and stagnation pressure of 3.67 MPa were achieved. Freestream conditions were Mach number 8.6 and Reynolds number of 1.94 million per m. Test times were 300 - 500 microseconds. Numerical simulations using RANS with the Wilcox K-w turbulence model were performed using ANSYS Fluent. The results from the static pressure measurements presented a good agreement with CFD predictions. Moreover, the uniformity at the inlet exit was achieved within the experimental precision. The experiments showed that the cowl length has a pronounced effect in the pressure distribution on the inlet and a minor effect in the exit flow Mach number. The numerical results confirmed these trends and showed that a complex flow structure is formed in the cowl-ramp corners; a non-uniform transverse shock structure was found to be related to the cowl leading edge position. Cross flow due to the side expansion
Assessment of a transitional boundary layer theory at low hypersonic Mach numbers
Shamroth, S. J.; Mcdonald, H.
1972-01-01
An investigation was carried out to assess the accuracy of a transitional boundary layer theory in the low hypersonic Mach number regime. The theory is based upon the simultaneous numerical solution of the boundary layer partial differential equations for the mean motion and an integral form of the turbulence kinetic energy equation which controls the magnitude and development of the Reynolds stress. Comparisions with experimental data show the theory is capable of accurately predicting heat transfer and velocity profiles through the transitional regime and correctly predicts the effects of Mach number and wall cooling on transition Reynolds number. The procedure shows promise of predicting the initiation of transition for given free stream disturbance levels. The effects on transition predictions of the pressure dilitation term and of direct absorption of acoustic energy by the boundary layer were evaluated.
Low Mach-number collisionless electrostatic shocks and associated ion acceleration
Pusztai, I.; TenBarge, J. M.; Csapó, A. N.; Juno, J.; Hakim, A.; Yi, L.; Fülöp, T.
2018-03-01
The existence and properties of low Mach-number (M≳ 1) electrostatic collisionless shocks are investigated with a semi-analytical solution for the shock structure. We show that the properties of the shock obtained in the semi-analytical model can be well reproduced in fully kinetic Eulerian Vlasov-Poisson simulations, where the shock is generated by the decay of an initial density discontinuity. Using this semi-analytical model, we study the effect of the electron-to-ion temperature ratio and the presence of impurities on both the maximum shock potential and the Mach number. We find that even a small amount of impurities can influence the shock properties significantly, including the reflected light ion fraction, which can change several orders of magnitude. Electrostatic shocks in heavy ion plasmas reflect most of the hydrogen impurity ions.
Mach number scaling of helicopter rotor blade/vortex interaction noise
Leighton, Kenneth P.; Harris, Wesley L.
1985-01-01
A parametric study of model helicopter rotor blade slap due to blade vortex interaction (BVI) was conducted in a 5 by 7.5-foot anechoic wind tunnel using model helicopter rotors with two, three, and four blades. The results were compared with a previously developed Mach number scaling theory. Three- and four-bladed rotor configurations were found to show very good agreement with the Mach number to the sixth power law for all conditions tested. A reduction of conditions for which BVI blade slap is detected was observed for three-bladed rotors when compared to the two-bladed baseline. The advance ratio boundaries of the four-bladed rotor exhibited an angular dependence not present for the two-bladed configuration. The upper limits for the advance ratio boundaries of the four-bladed rotors increased with increasing rotational speed.
Axisymmetric vortex method for low-Mach number, diffusion-controlled combustion
Lakkis, I
2003-01-01
A grid-free, Lagrangian method for the accurate simulation of low-Mach number, variable-density, diffusion-controlled reacting flow is presented. A fast-chemistry model in which the conversion rate of reactants to products is limited by the local mixing rate is assumed in order to reduce the combustion problem to the solution of a convection-diffusion-generation equation with volumetric expansion and vorticity generation at the reaction fronts. The solutions of the continuity and vorticity equations, and the equations governing the transport of species and energy, are obtained using a formulation in which particles transport conserved quantities by convection and diffusion. The dynamic impact of exothermic combustion is captured through accurate integration of source terms in the vorticity transport equations at the location of the particles, and the extra velocity field associated with volumetric expansion at low Mach number computed to enforced mass conservation. The formulation is obtained for an axisymmet...
Low Mach and Peclet number limit for a model of stellar tachocline and upper radiative zones
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Donatella Donatelli
2016-09-01
Full Text Available We study a hydrodynamical model describing the motion of internal stellar layers based on compressible Navier-Stokes-Fourier-Poisson system. We suppose that the medium is electrically charged, we include energy exchanges through radiative transfer and we assume that the system is rotating. We analyze the singular limit of this system when the Mach number, the Alfven number, the Peclet number and the Froude number approache zero in a certain way and prove convergence to a 3D incompressible MHD system with a stationary linear transport equation for transport of radiation intensity. Finally, we show that the energy equation reduces to a steady equation for the temperature corrector.
Surfing and drift acceleration at high mach number quasi-perpendicular shocks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amano, T.
2008-01-01
Electron acceleration in high Mach number collisionless shocks relevant to supernova remnant is discussed. By performing one- and two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of quasi-perpendicular shocks, we find that energetic electrons are quickly generated in the shock transition region through shock surfing and drift acceleration. The electron energization is strong enough to account for the observed injection at supernova remnant shocks. (author)
The Dynamics of Very High Alfvén Mach Number Shocks in Space Plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sundberg, Torbjörn; Burgess, David [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Scholer, Manfred [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany); Masters, Adam [The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Sulaiman, Ali H., E-mail: torbjorn.sundberg@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States)
2017-02-10
Astrophysical shocks, such as planetary bow shocks or supernova remnant shocks, are often in the high or very-high Mach number regime, and the structure of such shocks is crucial for understanding particle acceleration and plasma heating, as well inherently interesting. Recent magnetic field observations at Saturn’s bow shock, for Alfvén Mach numbers greater than about 25, have provided evidence for periodic non-stationarity, although the details of the ion- and electron-scale processes remain unclear due to limited plasma data. High-resolution, multi-spacecraft data are available for the terrestrial bow shock, but here the very high Mach number regime is only attained on extremely rare occasions. Here we present magnetic field and particle data from three such quasi-perpendicular shock crossings observed by the four-spacecraft Cluster mission. Although both ion reflection and the shock profile are modulated at the upstream ion gyroperiod timescale, the dominant wave growth in the foot takes place at sub-proton length scales and is consistent with being driven by the ion Weibel instability. The observed large-scale behavior depends strongly on cross-scale coupling between ion and electron processes, with ion reflection never fully suppressed, and this suggests a model of the shock dynamics that is in conflict with previous models of non-stationarity. Thus, the observations offer insight into the conditions prevalent in many inaccessible astrophysical environments, and provide important constraints for acceleration processes at such shocks.
Lattice Boltzmann method and gas-kinetic BGK scheme in the low-Mach number viscous flow simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu Kun; He Xiaoyi
2003-01-01
Both lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) and the gas-kinetic BGK scheme are based on the numerical discretization of the Boltzmann equation with collisional models, such as, the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) model. LBM tracks limited number of particles and the viscous flow behavior emerges automatically from the intrinsic particle stream and collisions process. On the other hand, the gas-kinetic BGK scheme is a finite volume scheme, where the time-dependent gas distribution function with continuous particle velocity space is constructed and used in the evaluation of the numerical fluxes across cell interfaces. Currently, LBM is mainly used for low Mach number, nearly incompressible flow simulation. For the gas-kinetic scheme, the application is focusing on the high speed compressible flows. In this paper, we are going to compare both schemes in the isothermal low-Mach number flow simulations. The methodology for developing both schemes will be clarified through the introduction of operator splitting Boltzmann model and operator averaging Boltzmann model. From the operator splitting Boltzmann model, the error rooted in many kinetic schemes, which are based on the decoupling of particle transport and collision, can be easily understood. As to the test case, we choose to use the 2D cavity flow since it is one of the most extensively studied cases. Detailed simulation results with different Reynolds numbers, as well as the benchmark solutions, are presented
Generation of sub-Poissonian photon number distribution
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Grønbech-Jensen, N.; Ramanujam, P. S.
1990-01-01
An optimization of a nonlinear Mach-Zehnder interferometer to produce sub-Poissonian photon number distribution is proposed. We treat the system quantum mechanically and estimate the mirror parameters, the nonlinearity of the medium in the interferometer, and the input power to obtain minimal...... output uncertainty in the photon number. The power efficiency of the system is shown to be high....
Measurement and Analysis of the Noise Radiated by Low Mach Number Centrifugal Blowers.
Yeager, David Marvin
An investigation was performed of the broad band, aerodynamically generated noise in low tip-speed Mach number, centrifugal air moving devices. An interdisciplinary experimental approach was taken which involved investigation of the aerodynamic and acoustic fields, and their mutual relationship. The noise generation process was studied using two experimental vehicles: (1) a scale model of a homologous family of centrifugal blowers typical of those used to cool computer and business equipment, and (2) a single blade from a centrifugal blower impeller placed in a known, controllable flow field. The radiation characteristics of the model blower were investigated by measuring the acoustic intensity distribution near the blower inlet and comparing it with the intensity near the inlet to an axial flow fan. Results showed that the centrifugal blower is a distributed, random noise source, unlike an axial fan which exhibited the effects of a coherent, interacting source distribution. Aerodynamic studies of the flow field in the inlet and at the discharge to the rotating impeller were used to assess the mean flow distribution through the impeller blade channels and to identify regions of excessive turbulence near the rotating blade row. Both circumferential and spanwise mean flow nonuniformities were identified along with a region of increased turbulence just downstream of the scroll cutoff. The fluid incidence angle, normally taken as an indicator of blower performance, was estimated from mean flow data as deviating considerably from an ideal impeller design. An investigation of the noise radiated from the single, isolated airfoil was performed using modern correlation and spectral analysis techniques. Radiation from the single blade in flow was characterized using newly developed expressions for the correlation area and the dipole source strength per unit area, and from the relationship between the blade surface pressure and the incident turbulent flow field. Results
Acoustic-hydrodynamic-flame coupling—A new perspective for zero and low Mach number flows
Pulikkottil, V. V.; Sujith, R. I.
2017-04-01
A combustion chamber has a hydrodynamic field that convects the incoming fuel and oxidizer into the chamber, thereby causing the mixture to react and produce heat energy. This heat energy can, in turn, modify the hydrodynamic and acoustic fields by acting as a source and thereby, establish a positive feedback loop. Subsequent growth in the amplitude of the acoustic field variables and their eventual saturation to a limit cycle is generally known as thermo-acoustic instability. Mathematical representation of these phenomena, by a set of equations, is the subject of this paper. In contrast to the ad hoc models, an explanation of the flame-acoustic-hydrodynamic coupling, based on fundamental laws of conservation of mass, momentum, and energy, is presented in this paper. In this paper, we use a convection reaction diffusion equation, which, in turn, is derived from the fundamental laws of conservation to explain the flame-acoustic coupling. The advantage of this approach is that the physical variables such as hydrodynamic velocity and heat release rate are coupled based on the conservation of energy and not based on an ad hoc model. Our approach shows that the acoustic-hydrodynamic interaction arises from the convection of acoustic velocity fluctuations by the hydrodynamic field and vice versa. This is a linear mechanism, mathematically represented as a convection operator. This mechanism resembles the non-normal mechanism studied in hydrodynamic theory. We propose that this mechanism could relate the instability mechanisms of hydrodynamic and thermo-acoustic systems. Furthermore, the acoustic-hydrodynamic interaction is shown to be responsible for the convection of entropy disturbances from the inlet of the chamber. The theory proposed in this paper also unifies the observations in the fields of low Mach number flows and zero Mach number flows. In contrast to the previous findings, where compressibility is shown to be causing different physics for zero and low Mach
The Experimental Measurement of Aerodynamic Heating About Complex Shapes at Supersonic Mach Numbers
Neumann, Richard D.; Freeman, Delma C.
2011-01-01
In 2008 a wind tunnel test program was implemented to update the experimental data available for predicting protuberance heating at supersonic Mach numbers. For this test the Langley Unitary Wind Tunnel was also used. The significant differences for this current test were the advances in the state-of-the-art in model design, fabrication techniques, instrumentation and data acquisition capabilities. This current paper provides a focused discussion of the results of an in depth analysis of unique measurements of recovery temperature obtained during the test.
Chu, Julio; Luckring, James M.
1996-01-01
An experimental wind tunnel test of a 65 deg. delta wing model with interchangeable leading edges was conducted in the Langley National Transonic Facility (NTF). The objective was to investigate the effects of Reynolds and Mach numbers on slender-wing leading-edge vortex flows with four values of wing leading-edge bluntness. Experimentally obtained pressure data are presented without analysis in tabulated and graphical formats across a Reynolds number range of 6 x 10(exp 6) to 84 x 10(exp 6) at a Mach number of 0.85 and across a Mach number range of 0.4 to 0.9 at Reynolds numbers of 6 x 10(exp 6) and 60 x 10(exp 6). Normal-force and pitching-moment coefficient plots for these Reynolds number and Mach number ranges are also presented.
Needleman, Kathy E.; Mack, Robert J.
1990-01-01
This paper presents and discusses trends in nose shock overpressure generated by two conceptual Mach 2.0 configurations. One configuration was designed for high aerodynamic efficiency, while the other was designed to produce a low boom, shaped-overpressure signature. Aerodynamic lift, sonic boom minimization, and Mach-sliced/area-rule codes were used to analyze and compute the sonic boom characteristics of both configurations with respect to cruise Mach number, weight, and altitude. The influence of these parameters on the overpressure and the overpressure trends are discussed and conclusions are given.
Low Mach number analysis of idealized thermoacoustic engines with numerical solution.
Hireche, Omar; Weisman, Catherine; Baltean-Carlès, Diana; Le Quéré, Patrick; Bauwens, Luc
2010-12-01
A model of an idealized thermoacoustic engine is formulated, coupling nonlinear flow and heat exchange in the heat exchangers and stack with a simple linear acoustic model of the resonator and load. Correct coupling results in an asymptotically consistent global model, in the small Mach number approximation. A well-resolved numerical solution is obtained for two-dimensional heat exchangers and stack. The model assumes that the heat exchangers and stack are shorter than the overall length by a factor of the order of a representative Mach number. The model is well-suited for simulation of the entire startup process, whereby as a result of some excitation, an initially specified temperature profile in the stack evolves toward a near-steady profile, eventually reaching stationary operation. A validation analysis is presented, together with results showing the early amplitude growth and approach of a stationary regime. Two types of initial excitation are used: Random noise and a small periodic wave. The set of assumptions made leads to a heat-exchanger section that acts as a source of volume but is transparent to pressure and to a local heat-exchanger model characterized by a dynamically incompressible flow to which a locally spatially uniform acoustic pressure fluctuation is superimposed.
Thermodynamic analysis on optimum performance of scramjet engine at high Mach numbers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Duo; Yang, Shengbo; Zhang, Silong; Qin, Jiang; Bao, Wen
2015-01-01
In order to predict the maximum performance of scramjet engine at flight conditions with high freestream Mach numbers, a thermodynamic model of Brayton cycle was utilized to analyze the effects of inlet pressure ratio, fuel equivalence ratio and the upper limit of gas temperature to the specific thrust and the fuel impulse of the scramjet considering the characteristics of non-isentropic compression in the inlet. The results show that both the inlet efficiency and the temperature limit in the combustor have remarkable effects on the overall engine performances. Different with the ideal Brayton cycles assuming isentropic compression without upper limit of gas temperature, both the maximum specific thrust and the maximum fuel impulse of a scramjet present non-monotonic trends against the fuel equivalence ratio in this study. Considering the empirical design efficiencies of inlet, there is a wide range of fuel equivalence ratios in which the fuel impulses remain at high values. Moreover, the maximum specific thrust can also be achieved with a fuel equivalence ratio near this range. Therefore, it is possible to achieve an overall high performance in a scramjet at high Mach numbers. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic analysis with Brayton cycle on overall performances of scramjet. • The compression loss in the inlet was considered in predicting scram-mode operation. • Non-monotonic trends of engine performances against fuel equivalence ratio.
Influences of mach number and flow incidence on aerodynamic losses of steam turbine blade
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoo, Seok Jae; Ng, Wing Fai
2000-01-01
An experiment was conducted to investigate the aerodynamic losses of high pressure steam turbine nozzle (526A) subjected to a large range of incident angles (-34 .deg. to 26 .deg. ) and exit Mach numbers (0.6 and 1.15). Measurements included downstream pitot probe traverses, upstream total pressure, and endwall static pressures. Flow visualization techniques such as shadowgraph and color oil flow visualization were performed to complement the measured data. When the exit Mach number for nozzles increased from 0.9 to 1.1 the total pressure loss coefficient increased by a factor of 7 as compared to the total pressure losses measured at subsonic conditions (M 2 <0.9). For the range of incidence tested, the effect of flow incidence on the total pressure losses is less pronounced. Based on the shadowgraphs taken during the experiment, it's believed that the large increase in losses at transonic conditions is due to strong shock/ boundary layer interaction that may lead to flow separation on the blade suction surface
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Matsumoto, Yosuke [Department of Physics, Chiba University, Yayoi-cho 1-33, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Amano, Takanobu; Hoshino, Masahiro, E-mail: ymatumot@astro.s.chiba-u.ac.jp [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of Tokyo, Hongo 1-33, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)
2012-08-20
Electron accelerations at high Mach number collisionless shocks are investigated by means of two-dimensional electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulations with various Alfven Mach numbers, ion-to-electron mass ratios, and the upstream electron {beta}{sub e} (the ratio of the thermal pressure to the magnetic pressure). We find electrons are effectively accelerated at a super-high Mach number shock (M{sub A} {approx} 30) with a mass ratio of M/m = 100 and {beta}{sub e} = 0.5. The electron shock surfing acceleration is an effective mechanism for accelerating the particles toward the relativistic regime even in two dimensions with a large mass ratio. Buneman instability excited at the leading edge of the foot in the super-high Mach number shock results in a coherent electrostatic potential structure. While multi-dimensionality allows the electrons to escape from the trapping region, they can interact with the strong electrostatic field several times. Simulation runs in various parameter regimes indicate that the electron shock surfing acceleration is an effective mechanism for producing relativistic particles in extremely high Mach number shocks in supernova remnants, provided that the upstream electron temperature is reasonably low.
Tests of Full-Scale Helicopter Rotors at High Advancing Tip Mach Numbers and Advance Ratios
Biggers, James C.; McCloud, John L., III; Stroub, Robert H.
2015-01-01
As a continuation of the studies of reference 1, three full-scale helicopter rotors have been tested in the Ames Research Center 40- by SO-foot wind tunnel. All three of them were two-bladed, teetering rotors. One of the rotors incorporated the NACA 0012 airfoil section over the entire length of the blade. This rotor was tested at advance ratios up to 1.05. Both of the other rotors were tapered in thickness and incorporated leading-edge camber over the outer 20 percent of the blade radius. The larger of these rotors was tested at advancing tip Mach numbers up to 1.02. Data were obtained for a wide range of lift and propulsive force, and are presented without discussion.
Sensitivity of boundary-layer stability to base-state distortions at high Mach numbers
Park, Junho; Zaki, Tamer
2017-11-01
The stability diagram of high-speed boundary layers has been established by evaluating the linear instability modes of the similarity profile, over wide ranges of Reynolds and Mach numbers. In real flows, however, the base state can deviate from the similarity profile. Both the base velocity and temperature can be distorted, for example due to roughness and thermal wall treatments. We review the stability problem of high-speed boundary layer, and derive a new formulation of the sensitivity to base-state distortion using forward and adjoint parabolized stability equations. The new formulation provides qualitative and quantitative interpretations on change in growth rate due to modifications of mean-flow and mean-temperature in heated high-speed boundary layers, and establishes the foundation for future control strategies. This work has been funded by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) Grant: FA9550-16-1-0103.
Spectroscopic studies of a high Mach-number rotating plasma flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ando, Akira; Ashino, Masashi; Sagi, Yukiko; Inutake, Masaaki; Hattori, Kunihiko; Yoshinuma, Mikirou; Imasaki, Atsushi; Tobari, Hiroyuki; Yagai, Tsuyoshi
2001-01-01
Characteristics of an axially-magnetized rotating plasma are investigated by spectroscopy in the HITOP device of Tohoku University. A He plasma flows our axially and rotates azimuthally near the muzzle region of the MPD arcjet. Flow and rotational velocities and temperature of He ions and atoms are measured by Doppler shift and broadening of the HeII (γ=468.58 nm) and HeI (γ=587.56 nm) lines. Rotational velocity increases with the increase of axially-applied magnetic field strength and discharge current. As discharge current increases and mass flow rate decreases, the plasma flow velocity increases and T i increases. Ion acoustic Mach number of the plasma flow also increases, but tends to saturate at near 1. Radial profile of space potential is calculated from the obtained rotational velocity. The potential profile in the core region is parabolic corresponding to the observed rigid-body rotation of the core plasma. (author)
Spectroscopic studies of a high Mach-number rotating plasma flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ando, Akira; Ashino, Masashi; Sagi, Yukiko; Inutake, Masaaki; Hattori, Kunihiko; Yoshinuma, Mikirou; Imasaki, Atsushi; Tobari, Hiroyuki; Yagai, Tsuyoshi [Tohoku Univ., Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan)
2001-07-01
Characteristics of an axially-magnetized rotating plasma are investigated by spectroscopy in the HITOP device of Tohoku University. A He plasma flows our axially and rotates azimuthally near the muzzle region of the MPD arcjet. Flow and rotational velocities and temperature of He ions and atoms are measured by Doppler shift and broadening of the HeII ({gamma}=468.58 nm) and HeI ({gamma}=587.56 nm) lines. Rotational velocity increases with the increase of axially-applied magnetic field strength and discharge current. As discharge current increases and mass flow rate decreases, the plasma flow velocity increases and T{sub i} increases. Ion acoustic Mach number of the plasma flow also increases, but tends to saturate at near 1. Radial profile of space potential is calculated from the obtained rotational velocity. The potential profile in the core region is parabolic corresponding to the observed rigid-body rotation of the core plasma. (author)
Effect of Mach number on thermoelectric performance of SiC ceramics nose-tip for supersonic vehicles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Han, Xiao-Yi; Wang, Jun
2014-01-01
This paper focus on the effects of Mach number on thermoelectric energy conversion for the limitation of aero-heating and the feasibility of energy harvesting on supersonic vehicles. A model of nose-tip structure constructed with SiC ceramics is developed to numerically study the thermoelectric performance in a supersonic flow field by employing the computational fluid dynamics and the thermal conduction theory. Results are given in the cases of different Mach numbers. Moreover, the thermoelectric performance in each case is predicted with and without Thomson heat, respectively. Due to the increase of Mach number, both the temperature difference and the conductive heat flux between the hot side and the cold side of nose tip are increased. This results in the growth of the thermoelectric power generated and the energy conversion efficiency. With respect to the Thomson effect, over 50% of total power generated converts to Thomson heat, which greatly reduces the thermoelectric power and efficiency. However, whether the Thomson effect is considered or not, with the Mach number increasing from 2.5 to 4.5, the thermoelectric performance can be effectively improved. -- Highlights: • Thermoelectric SiC nose-tip structure for aerodynamic heat harvesting of high-speed vehicles is studied. • Thermoelectric performance is predicted based on numerical methods and experimental thermoelectric parameters. • The effects of Mach number on thermoelectric performance are studied in the present paper. • Results with respect to the Thomson effect are also explored. • Output power and energy efficiency of the thermoelectric nose-tip are increased with the increase of Mach number
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Correia, C.; De Medeiros, J. R. [Departamento de Física Teórica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970 (Brazil); Burkhart, B.; Lazarian, A. [Astronomy Department, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 475 North Charter Street, WI 53711 (United States); Ossenkopf, V.; Stutzki, J. [Physikalisches Institut der Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Strasse 77, D-50937 Köln (Germany); Kainulainen, J. [Max-Planck-Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Kowal, G., E-mail: caioftc@dfte.ufrn.br [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofísica e Ciências Atmosféricas, Universidade de São Paulo, 05508-090 (Brazil)
2014-04-10
We study how the estimation of the sonic Mach number (M{sub s} ) from {sup 13}CO linewidths relates to the actual three-dimensional sonic Mach number. For this purpose we analyze MHD simulations that include post-processing to take radiative transfer effects into account. As expected, we find very good agreement between the linewidth estimated sonic Mach number and the actual sonic Mach number of the simulations for optically thin tracers. However, we find that opacity broadening causes M{sub s} to be overestimated by a factor of ≈1.16-1.3 when calculated from optically thick {sup 13}CO lines. We also find that there is a dependence on the magnetic field: super-Alfvénic turbulence shows increased line broadening compared with sub-Alfvénic turbulence for all values of optical depth for supersonic turbulence. Our results have implications for the observationally derived sonic Mach number-density standard deviation (σ{sub ρ/(ρ)}) relationship, σ{sub ρ/〈ρ〉}{sup 2}=b{sup 2}M{sub s}{sup 2}, and the related column density standard deviation (σ {sub N/(N)}) sonic Mach number relationship. In particular, we find that the parameter b, as an indicator of solenoidal versus compressive driving, will be underestimated as a result of opacity broadening. We compare the σ {sub N/(N)}-M{sub s} relation derived from synthetic dust extinction maps and {sup 13}CO linewidths with recent observational studies and find that solenoidally driven MHD turbulence simulations have values of σ {sub N/(N)}which are lower than real molecular clouds. This may be due to the influence of self-gravity which should be included in simulations of molecular cloud dynamics.
Henneberry, Hugh M.; Snyder, Christopher A.
1993-01-01
An analysis of gas turbine engines using water and oxygen injection to enhance performance by increasing Mach number capability and by increasing thrust is described. The liquids are injected, either separately or together, into the subsonic diffuser ahead of the engine compressor. A turbojet engine and a mixed-flow turbofan engine (MFTF) are examined, and in pursuit of maximum thrust, both engines are fitted with afterburners. The results indicate that water injection alone can extend the performance envelope of both engine types by one and one-half Mach numbers at which point water-air ratios reach 17 or 18 percent and liquid specific impulse is reduced to some 390 to 470 seconds, a level about equal to the impulse of a high energy rocket engine. The envelope can be further extended, but only with increasing sacrifices in liquid specific impulse. Oxygen-airflow ratios as high as 15 percent were investigated for increasing thrust. Using 15 percent oxygen in combination with water injection at high supersonic Mach numbers resulted in thrust augmentation as high as 76 percent without any significant decrease in liquid specific impulse. The stoichiometric afterburner exit temperature increased with increasing oxygen flow, reaching 4822 deg R in the turbojet engine at a Mach number of 3.5. At the transonic Mach number of 0.95 where no water injection is needed, an oxygen-air ratio of 15 percent increased thrust by some 55 percent in both engines, along with a decrease in liquid specific impulse of 62 percent. Afterburner temperature was approximately 4700 deg R at this high thrust condition. Water and/or oxygen injection are simple and straightforward strategies to improve engine performance and they will add little to engine weight. However, if large Mach number and thrust increases are required, liquid flows become significant, so that operation at these conditions will necessarily be of short duration.
Study of Perturbations on High Mach Number Blast Waves in Various Gasses
Edens, A.; Adams, R.; Rambo, P.; Shores, J.; Smith, I.; Atherton, B.; Ditmire, T.
2006-10-01
We have performed a series of experiments examining the properties of high Mach number blast waves. Experiments were conducted on the Z-Beamlet^1 laser at Sandia National Laboratories. We created blast waves in the laboratory by using 10 J- 1000 J laser pulses to illuminate millimeter scale solid targets immersed in gas. Our experiments studied the validity of theories forwarded by Vishniac and Ryu^2-4 to explain the dynamics of perturbations on astrophysical blast waves. These experiments consisted of an examination of the evolution of perturbations of known primary mode number induced on the surface of blast waves by means of regularly spaced wire arrays. The temporal evolution of the amplitude of the induced perturbations relative to the mean radius of the blast wave was fit to a power law in time. Measurements were taken for a number of different mode numbers and background gasses and the results show qualitative agreement with previously published theories for the hydrodynamics of thin shell blast wave. The results for perturbations on nitrogen gas have been recently published^5. .^1 P. K. Rambo, I. C. Smith, J. L. Porter, et al., Applied Optics 44, 2421 (2005). ^2 D. Ryu and E. T. Vishniac, Astrophysical Journal 313, 820 (1987). ^3 D. Ryu and E. T. Vishniac, Astrophysical Journal 368, 411 (1991). ^4 E. T. Vishniac, Astrophysical Journal 274, 152 (1983). ^5 A. D. Edens, T. Ditmire, J. F. Hansen, et al., Physical Review Letters 95 (2005).
Analytic MHD Theory for Earth's Bow Shock at Low Mach Numbers
Grabbe, Crockett L.; Cairns, Iver H.
1995-01-01
A previous MHD theory for the density jump at the Earth's bow shock, which assumed the Alfven M(A) and sonic M(s) Mach numbers are both much greater than 1, is reanalyzed and generalized. It is shown that the MHD jump equation can be analytically solved much more directly using perturbation theory, with the ordering determined by M(A) and M(s), and that the first-order perturbation solution is identical to the solution found in the earlier theory. The second-order perturbation solution is calculated, whereas the earlier approach cannot be used to obtain it. The second-order terms generally are important over most of the range of M(A) and M(s) in the solar wind when the angle theta between the normal to the bow shock and magnetic field is not close to 0 deg or 180 deg (the solutions are symmetric about 90 deg). This new perturbation solution is generally accurate under most solar wind conditions at 1 AU, with the exception of low Mach numbers when theta is close to 90 deg. In this exceptional case the new solution does not improve on the first-order solutions obtained earlier, and the predicted density ratio can vary by 10-20% from the exact numerical MHD solutions. For theta approx. = 90 deg another perturbation solution is derived that predicts the density ratio much more accurately. This second solution is typically accurate for quasi-perpendicular conditions. Taken together, these two analytical solutions are generally accurate for the Earth's bow shock, except in the rare circumstance that M(A) is less than or = 2. MHD and gasdynamic simulations have produced empirical models in which the shock's standoff distance a(s) is linearly related to the density jump ratio X at the subsolar point. Using an empirical relationship between a(s) and X obtained from MHD simulations, a(s) values predicted using the MHD solutions for X are compared with the predictions of phenomenological models commonly used for modeling observational data, and with the predictions of a
Particle image velocimetry measurements of Mach 3 turbulent boundary layers at low Reynolds numbers
Brooks, J. M.; Gupta, A. K.; Smith, M. S.; Marineau, E. C.
2018-05-01
Particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements of Mach 3 turbulent boundary layers (TBL) have been performed under low Reynolds number conditions, Re_τ =200{-}1000, typical of direct numerical simulations (DNS). Three reservoir pressures and three measurement locations create an overlap in parameter space at one research facility. This allows us to assess the effects of Reynolds number, particle response and boundary layer thickness separate from facility specific experimental apparatus or methods. The Morkovin-scaled streamwise fluctuating velocity profiles agree well with published experimental and numerical data and show a small standard deviation among the nine test conditions. The wall-normal fluctuating velocity profiles show larger variations which appears to be due to particle lag. Prior to the current study, no detailed experimental study characterizing the effect of Stokes number on attenuating wall-normal fluctuating velocities has been performed. A linear variation is found between the Stokes number ( St) and the relative error in wall-normal fluctuating velocity magnitude (compared to hot wire anemometry data from Klebanoff, Characteristics of Turbulence in a Boundary Layer with Zero Pressure Gradient. Tech. Rep. NACA-TR-1247, National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, Springfield, Virginia, 1955). The relative error ranges from about 10% for St=0.26 to over 50% for St=1.06. Particle lag and spatial resolution are shown to act as low-pass filters on the fluctuating velocity power spectral densities which limit the measurable energy content. The wall-normal component appears more susceptible to these effects due to the flatter spectrum profile which indicates that there is additional energy at higher wave numbers not measured by PIV. The upstream inclination and spatial correlation extent of coherent turbulent structures agree well with published data including those using krypton tagging velocimetry (KTV) performed at the same facility.
Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Revised Target Drone Vehicle at Mach Numbers from 1.60 to 2.86
Blair, A. B., Jr.; Babb, C. Donald
1968-01-01
An investigation has been conducted in the Langley Unitary Plan wind tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of a revised target drone vehicle through a Mach number range from 1.60 to 2.86. The vehicle had canard surfaces and a swept clipped-delta wing with twin tip-mounted vertical tails.
Vink, J.; Yamazaki, R.
2014-01-01
It is shown that, under some generic assumptions, shocks cannot accelerate particles unless the overall shock Mach number exceeds a critical value M > √5. The reason is that for M ≤ √5 the work done to compress the flow in a particle precursor requires more enthalpy flux than the system can sustain.
Effects of Mach Numbers on Side Force, Yawing Moment and Surface Pressure
Sohail, Muhammad Amjad; Muhammad, Zaka; Husain, Mukkarum; Younis, Muhammad Yamin
2011-09-01
In this research, CFD simulations are performed for air vehicle configuration to compute the side force effect and yawing moment coefficients variations at high angle of attack and Mach numbers. As the angle of attack is increased then lift and drag are increased for cylinder body configurations. But when roll angle is given to body then side force component is also appeared on the body which causes lateral forces on the body and yawing moment is also produced. Now due to advancement of CFD methods we are able to calculate these forces and moment even at supersonic and hypersonic speed. In this study modern CFD techniques are used to simulate the hypersonic flow to calculate the side force effects and yawing moment coefficient. Static pressure variations along the circumferential and along the length of the body are also calculated. The pressure coefficient and center of pressure may be accurately predicted and calculated. When roll angle and yaw angle is given to body then these forces becomes very high and cause the instability of the missile body with fin configurations. So it is very demanding and serious problem to accurately predict and simulate these forces for the stability of supersonic vehicles.
Effect of finite cavity width on flow oscillation in a low-Mach-number cavity flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Ke; Naguib, Ahmed M. [Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States)
2011-11-15
The current study is focused on examining the effect of the cavity width and side walls on the self-sustained oscillation in a low Mach number cavity flow with a turbulent boundary layer at separation. An axisymmetric cavity geometry is employed in order to provide a reference condition that is free from any side-wall influence, which is not possible to obtain with a rectangular cavity. The cavity could then be partially filled to form finite-width geometry. The unsteady surface pressure is measured using microphone arrays that are deployed on the cavity floor along the streamwise direction and on the downstream wall along the azimuthal direction. In addition, velocity measurements using two-component Laser Doppler Anemometer are performed simultaneously with the array measurements in different azimuthal planes. The compiled data sets are used to investigate the evolution of the coherent structures generating the pressure oscillation in the cavity using linear stochastic estimation of the velocity field based on the wall-pressure signature on the cavity end wall. The results lead to the discovery of pronounced harmonic pressure oscillations near the cavity's side walls. These oscillations, which are absent in the axisymmetric cavity, are linked to the establishment of a secondary mean streamwise circulating flow pattern near the side walls and the interaction of this secondary flow with the shear layer above the cavity. (orig.)
Plasma wave profiles of Earth's bow shock at low Mach number: ISEE 3 observations on the far flank
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greenstadt, E.W.; Coroniti, F.V.; Moses, S.L.; Smith, E.J.
1992-01-01
The Earth's bow shock is weak along its distant flanks where the projected component of solar wind velocity normal to the hyperboloidal surface is only a fraction of the total free stream velocity, severely reducing the local Mach number. The authors present a survey of selected crossings far downstream from the subsolar shock, delineating the overall plasma wave (pw) behavior of a selected set of nearly perpendicular crossings and another set of limited Mach number but broad geometry; they include their immediate upstream regions. The result is a generalizable pw signature, or signatures, of low Mach number shocks and some likely implications of those signatures for the weak shock's plasma physical processes on the flank. They find the data consistent with the presence of ion beam interactions producing noise ahead of the shock in the ion acoustic frequency range. One subcritical case was found whose pw noise was presumably related to a reflected ion population just as in stronger events. The presence or absence, and the amplitudes, of pw activity are explainable by the presence or absence of a population of upstream ions controlled by the component of interplanetary magnetic field normal to the solar wind flow
Meerson, Baruch; Fouxon, Itzhak; Vilenkin, Arkady
2008-02-01
We employ hydrodynamic equations to investigate nonstationary channel flows of freely cooling dilute gases of hard and smooth spheres with nearly elastic particle collisions. This work focuses on the regime where the sound travel time through the channel is much shorter than the characteristic cooling time of the gas. As a result, the gas pressure rapidly becomes almost homogeneous, while the typical Mach number of the flow drops well below unity. Eliminating the acoustic modes and employing Lagrangian coordinates, we reduce the hydrodynamic equations to a single nonlinear and nonlocal equation of a reaction-diffusion type. This equation describes a broad class of channel flows and, in particular, can follow the development of the clustering instability from a weakly perturbed homogeneous cooling state to strongly nonlinear states. If the heat diffusion is neglected, the reduced equation becomes exactly soluble, and the solution develops a finite-time density blowup. The blowup has the same local features at singularity as those exhibited by the recently found family of exact solutions of the full set of ideal hydrodynamic equations [I. Fouxon, Phys. Rev. E 75, 050301(R) (2007); I. Fouxon,Phys. Fluids 19, 093303 (2007)]. The heat diffusion, however, always becomes important near the attempted singularity. It arrests the density blowup and brings about previously unknown inhomogeneous cooling states (ICSs) of the gas, where the pressure continues to decay with time, while the density profile becomes time-independent. The ICSs represent exact solutions of the full set of granular hydrodynamic equations. Both the density profile of an ICS and the characteristic relaxation time toward it are determined by a single dimensionless parameter L that describes the relative role of the inelastic energy loss and heat diffusion. At L>1 the intermediate cooling dynamics proceeds as a competition between "holes": low-density regions of the gas. This competition resembles Ostwald
Evaluation of Blended Wing-Body Combinations with Curved Plan Forms at Mach Numbers Up to 3.50
Holdaway, George H.; Mellenthin, Jack A.
1960-01-01
This investigation is a continuation of the experimental and theoretical evaluation of the effects of wing plan-form variations on the aerodynamic performance characteristics of blended wing-body combinations. The present report compares previously tested straight-edged delta and arrow models which have leading-edge sweeps of 59.04 and 70-82 deg., respectively, with related models which have plan forms with curved leading and trailing edges designed to result in the same average sweeps in each case. All the models were symmetrical, without camber, and were generally similar having the same span, length, and aspect ratios. The wing sections had an average value of maximum thickness ratio of about 4 percent of the local wing chords in a streamwise direction. The wing sections were computed by varying their shapes along with the body radii (blending process) to match the selected area distribution and the given plan form. The models were tested with transition fixed at Reynolds numbers of roughly 4,000,000 to 9,000,000, based on the mean aerodynamic chord of the wing. The characteristic effect of the wing curvature of the delta and arrow models was an increase at subsonic and transonic speeds in the lift-curve slopes which was partially reflected in increased maximum lift-drag ratios. Curved edges were not evaluated on a diamond plan form because a preliminary investigation indicated that the curvature considered would increase the supersonic zero-lift wave drag. However, after the test program was completed, a suitable modification for the diamond plan form was discovered. The analysis presented in the appendix indicates that large reductions in the zero-lift wave drag would be obtained at supersonic Mach numbers if the leading- and trailing-edge sweeps are made to differ by indenting the trailing edge and extending the root of the leading edge.
Hruschka, R.; Klatt, D.
2018-03-01
The transient shock dynamics and drag characteristics of a projectile flying through a pipe 3.55 times larger than its diameter at transonic speed are analyzed by means of time-of-flight and pipe wall pressure measurements as well as computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In addition, free-flight drag of the 4.5-mm-pellet-type projectile was also measured in a Mach number range between 0.5 and 1.5, providing a means for comparison against in-pipe data and CFD. The flow is categorized into five typical regimes the in-pipe projectile experiences. When projectile speed and hence compressibility effects are low, the presence of the pipe has little influence on the drag. Between Mach 0.5 and 0.8, there is a strong drag increase due to the presence of the pipe, however, up to a value of about two times the free-flight drag. This is exactly where the nose-to-base pressure ratio of the projectile becomes critical for locally sonic speed, allowing the drag to be estimated by equations describing choked flow through a converging-diverging nozzle. For even higher projectile Mach numbers, the drag coefficient decreases again, to a value slightly below the free-flight drag at Mach 1.5. This behavior is explained by a velocity-independent base pressure coefficient in the pipe, as opposed to base pressure decreasing with velocity in free flight. The drag calculated by CFD simulations agreed largely with the measurements within their experimental uncertainty, with some discrepancies remaining for free-flying projectiles at supersonic speed. Wall pressure measurements as well as measured speeds of both leading and trailing shocks caused by the projectile in the pipe also agreed well with CFD.
Hess, Robert V; Gardner, Clifford S
1947-01-01
By using the Prandtl-Glauert method that is valid for three-dimensional flow problems, the value of the maximum incremental velocity for compressible flow about thin ellipsoids at zero angle of attack is calculated as a function of the Mach number for various aspect ratios and thickness ratios. The critical Mach numbers of the various ellipsoids are also determined. The results indicate an increase in critical Mach number with decrease in aspect ratio which is large enough to explain experimental results on low-aspect-ratio wings at zero lift.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guo, Xinyi; Narayan, Ramesh [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Sironi, Lorenzo [NASA Einstein Postdoctoral Fellow. (United States)
2014-12-10
Electron acceleration to non-thermal energies is known to occur in low Mach number (M{sub s} ≲ 5) shocks in galaxy clusters and solar flares, but the electron acceleration mechanism remains poorly understood. Using two-dimensional (2D) particle-in-cell (PIC) plasma simulations, we showed in Paper I that electrons are efficiently accelerated in low Mach number (M{sub s} = 3) quasi-perpendicular shocks via a Fermi-like process. The electrons bounce between the upstream region and the shock front, with each reflection at the shock resulting in energy gain via shock drift acceleration. The upstream scattering is provided by oblique magnetic waves that are self-generated by the electrons escaping ahead of the shock. In the present work, we employ additional 2D PIC simulations to address the nature of the upstream oblique waves. We find that the waves are generated by the shock-reflected electrons via the firehose instability, which is driven by an anisotropy in the electron velocity distribution. We systematically explore how the efficiency of wave generation and of electron acceleration depend on the magnetic field obliquity, the flow magnetization (or equivalently, the plasma beta), and the upstream electron temperature. We find that the mechanism works for shocks with high plasma beta (≳ 20) at nearly all magnetic field obliquities, and for electron temperatures in the range relevant for galaxy clusters. Our findings offer a natural solution to the conflict between the bright radio synchrotron emission observed from the outskirts of galaxy clusters and the low electron acceleration efficiency usually expected in low Mach number shocks.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hou Bingxu; Yu Jiyang; Senechal, Dorothee; Mechitoua, Namane; Min Jiesheng; Chen Guofei
2015-01-01
During CFD simulations of the flows at low Mach number regime, the classical assumption which neglects the dilatable effect of gas is no longer applicable when the temperature variation or the concentration variation of the mixture's components is too large in the fluid domain. To be able to correctly predict the flow at such a regime, some authors have recourse to a Low Mach number algorithm. This algorithm is based on the well-known pressure-based algorithm or elliptic solver for incompressible flows, SIMPLE, with a modification for the treatment of the pressure which is split into two parts (the hydrodynamic pressure and the thermodynamic pressure) and a dilatable term added in the mass equation. This algorithm has been implemented in the CFD code, Code_—Saturne, developed by EDF R and D, and applied for the CFD simulations of the erosion phenomena of light gas stratification by air injection. This paper is devoted to the analytical work with the Low Mach number algorithm based on the ST1 series of the SETH-2 campaign provided by the OECD project on the PANDA test facility of PSI. The first part is focused on a mesh sensitivity analysis, which is a common procedure for CFD codes validation. The second part of the paper presents a comparison between the CFD results obtained with the standard algorithms used for incompressible flows and the Low Mach number algorithm. The third part is an analysis of the CFD results obtained on the reference mesh with both different Froude numbers corresponding to the tests ST1_—7 (Fr=6.04) and ST1_—10 (Fr=7.95) from the ST1 series. In the last part the authors perform the knowledge of the initial light gas distribution effect on the stratification erosion and the capability of the CFD codes to predict this phenomenon with an area governed by diffusion regime (at the top of the vessel) and another one by forced convection near the injection. (author)
Gaussian distribution of LMOV numbers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Mironov
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Recent advances in knot polynomial calculus allowed us to obtain a huge variety of LMOV integers counting degeneracy of the BPS spectrum of topological theories on the resolved conifold and appearing in the genus expansion of the plethystic logarithm of the Ooguri–Vafa partition functions. Already the very first look at this data reveals that the LMOV numbers are randomly distributed in genus (! and are very well parameterized by just three parameters depending on the representation, an integer and the knot. We present an accurate formulation and evidence in support of this new puzzling observation about the old puzzling quantities. It probably implies that the BPS states, counted by the LMOV numbers can actually be composites made from some still more elementary objects.
Effects of temperature distribution on boundary layer stability for a circular cone at Mach 10
Rigney, Jeffrey M.
A CFD analysis was conducted on a circular cone at 3 degrees angle of attack at Mach 10 using US3D and STABL 3D to determine the effect of wall temperature on the stability characteristics that lead to laminar-to-turbulent transition. Wall temperature distributions were manipulated while all other flow inputs and geometric qualities were held constant. Laminar-to-turbulent transition was analyzed for isothermal and adiabatic wall conditions, a simulated short-duration wind tunnel case, and several hot-nose temperature distributions. For this study, stability characteristics include maximum N-factor growth and the corresponding frequency range, disturbance spatial amplification rate and the corresponding modal frequency, and stability neutral point location. STABL 3D analysis indicates that temperature distributions typical of those in short-duration hypersonic wind tunnels do not result in any significant difference on the stability characteristics, as compared to an isothermal wall boundary condition. Hypothetical distributions of much greater temperatures at and past the nose tip do show a trend of dampening of second-mode disturbances, most notably on the leeward ray. The most pronounced differences existed between the isothermal and adiabatic cases.
LES of Supersonic Turbulent Channel Flow at Mach Numbers 1.5 and 3
Raghunath, Sriram; Brereton, Giles
2009-11-01
LES of compressible, turbulent, body-force driven, isothermal-wall channel flows at Reτ of 190 and 395 at moderate supersonic speeds (Mach 1.5 and 3) are presented. Simulations are fully resolved in the wall-normal direction without the need for wall-layer models. SGS models for incompressible flows, with appropriate extensions for compressibility, are tested a priori/ with DNS results and used in LES. Convergence of the simulations is found to be sensitive to the initial conditions and to the choice of model (wall-normal damping) in the laminar sublayer. The Nicoud--Ducros wall adapting SGS model, coupled with a standard SGS heat flux model, is found to yield results in good agreement with DNS.
Mack, Robert J.
1988-01-01
A wind-tunnel study was conducted to determine the capability of a method combining linear theory and shock-expansion theory to design optimum camber surfaces for wings that will fly at high-supersonic/low-hypersonic speeds. Three force models (a flat-plate reference wing and two cambered and twisted wings) were used to obtain aerodynamic lift, drag, and pitching-moment data. A fourth pressure-orifice model was used to obtain surface-pressure data. All four wing models had the same planform, airfoil section, and centerbody area distribution. The design Mach number was 4.5, but data were also obtained at Mach numbers of 3.5 and 4.0. Results of these tests indicated that the use of airfoil thickness as a theoretical optimum, camber-surface design constraint did not improve the aerodynamic efficiency or performance of a wing as compared with a wing that was designed with a zero-thickness airfoil (linear-theory) constraint.
Numerical resolution of the Navier-Stokes equations for a low Mach number by a spectral method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frohlich, Jochen
1990-01-01
The low Mach number approximation of the Navier-Stokes equations, also called isobar, is an approximation which is less restrictive than the one due to Boussinesq. It permits strong density variations while neglecting acoustic phenomena. We present a numerical method to solve these equations in the unsteady, two dimensional case with one direction of periodicity. The discretization uses a semi-implicit finite difference scheme in time and a Fourier-Chebycheff pseudo-spectral method in space. The solution of the equations of motion is based on an iterative algorithm of Uzawa type. In the Boussinesq limit we obtain a direct method. A first application is concerned with natural convection in the Rayleigh-Benard setting. We compare the results of the low Mach number equations with the ones in the Boussinesq case and consider the influence of variable fluid properties. A linear stability analysis based on a Chebychev-Tau method completes the study. The second application that we treat is a case of isobaric combustion in an open domain. We communicate results for the hydrodynamic Darrieus-Landau instability of a plane laminar flame front. [fr
Yang, Zhongwei; Lu, Quanming; Liu, Ying D.; Wang, Rui
2018-04-01
Electron dynamics at low-Mach-number collisionless shocks are investigated by using two-dimensional electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulations with various shock normal angles. We found: (1) The reflected ions and incident electrons at the shock front provide an effective mechanism for the quasi-electrostatic wave generation due to the charge-separation. A fraction of incident electrons can be effectively trapped and accelerated at the leading edge of the shock foot. (2) At quasi-perpendicular shocks, the electron trapping and reflection is nonuniform due to the shock rippling along the shock surface and is more likely to take place at some locations accompanied by intense reflected ion-beams. The electron trapping process has a periodical evolution over time due to the shock front self-reformation, which is controlled by ion dynamics. Thus, this is a cross-scale coupling phenomenon. (3) At quasi-parallel shocks, reflected ions can travel far back upstream. Consequently, quasi-electrostatic waves can be excited in the shock transition and the foreshock region. The electron trajectory analysis shows these waves can trap electrons at the foot region and reflect a fraction of them far back upstream. Simulation runs in this paper indicate that the micro-turbulence at the shock foot can provide a possible scenario for producing the reflected electron beam, which is a basic condition for the type II radio burst emission at low-Mach-number interplanetary shocks driven by Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hendijanifard, Mohammad; Willis, David A
2011-01-01
Laser-matter interactions are frequently studied by measuring the propagation of shock waves caused by the rapid laser-induced material removal. An improved method for calculating the thermo-fluid parameters behind shock waves is introduced in this work. Shock waves in ambient air, induced by pulsed Nd : YAG laser ablation of aluminium films, are measured using a shadowgraph apparatus. Normal shock solutions are applied to experimental data for shock wave positions and used to calculate pressure, temperature, and velocity behind the shock wave. Non-dimensionalizing the pressure and temperature with respect to the ambient values, the dimensionless pressure and temperature are estimated to be as high as 90 and 16, respectively, at a time of 10 ns after the ablation pulse for a laser fluence of F = 14.5 J cm -2 . The results of the normal shock solution and the Taylor-Sedov similarity solution are compared to show that the Taylor-Sedov solution under-predicts pressure when the Mach number of the shock wave is small. At a fluence of 3.1 J cm -2 , the shock wave Mach number is less than 3, and the Taylor-Sedov solution under-predicts the non-dimensional pressure by as much as 45%.
Dodd, Michael; Ferrante, Antonino
2017-11-01
Our objective is to perform DNS of finite-size droplets that are evaporating in isotropic turbulence. This requires fully resolving the process of momentum, heat, and mass transfer between the droplets and surrounding gas. We developed a combined volume-of-fluid (VOF) method and low-Mach-number approach to simulate this flow. The two main novelties of the method are: (i) the VOF algorithm captures the motion of the liquid gas interface in the presence of mass transfer due to evaporation and condensation without requiring a projection step for the liquid velocity, and (ii) the low-Mach-number approach allows for local volume changes caused by phase change while the total volume of the liquid-gas system is constant. The method is verified against an analytical solution for a Stefan flow problem, and the D2 law is verified for a single droplet in quiescent gas. We also demonstrate the schemes robustness when performing DNS of an evaporating droplet in forced isotropic turbulence.
Peng, Naifu; Yang, Yue
2018-01-01
We investigate the evolution of vortex-surface fields (VSFs) in compressible Taylor-Green flows at Mach numbers (Ma) ranging from 0.5 to 2.0 using direct numerical simulation. The formulation of VSFs in incompressible flows is extended to compressible flows, and a mass-based renormalization of VSFs is used to facilitate characterizing the evolution of a particular vortex surface. The effects of the Mach number on the VSF evolution are different in three stages. In the early stage, the jumps of the compressive velocity component near shocklets generate sinks to contract surrounding vortex surfaces, which shrink vortex volume and distort vortex surfaces. The subsequent reconnection of vortex surfaces, quantified by the minimal distance between approaching vortex surfaces and the exchange of vorticity fluxes, occurs earlier and has a higher reconnection degree for larger Ma owing to the dilatational dissipation and shocklet-induced reconnection of vortex lines. In the late stage, the positive dissipation rate and negative pressure work accelerate the loss of kinetic energy and suppress vortex twisting with increasing Ma.
Carlson, H. W.
1979-01-01
A new linearized-theory pressure-coefficient formulation was studied. The new formulation is intended to provide more accurate estimates of detailed pressure loadings for improved stability analysis and for analysis of critical structural design conditions. The approach is based on the use of oblique-shock and Prandtl-Meyer expansion relationships for accurate representation of the variation of pressures with surface slopes in two-dimensional flow and linearized-theory perturbation velocities for evaluation of local three-dimensional aerodynamic interference effects. The applicability and limitations of the modification to linearized theory are illustrated through comparisons with experimental pressure distributions for delta wings covering a Mach number range from 1.45 to 4.60 and angles of attack from 0 to 25 degrees.
Distribution theory of algebraic numbers
Yang, Chung-Chun
2008-01-01
The book timely surveys new research results and related developments in Diophantine approximation, a division of number theory which deals with the approximation of real numbers by rational numbers. The book is appended with a list of challenging open problems and a comprehensive list of references. From the contents: Field extensions Algebraic numbers Algebraic geometry Height functions The abc-conjecture Roth''s theorem Subspace theorems Vojta''s conjectures L-functions.
Rao, Pooja; She, Dan; Lim, Hyunkyung; Glimm, James
2015-11-01
The qualitative and quantitative effect of initial conditions (linear and non-linear) and high Mach number (1.3 and 1.45) is studied on the turbulent mixing induced by the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability in idealized ICF conditions. The Richtmyer-Meshkov instability seeds Rayleigh-taylor instabilities in ICF experiments and is one of the factors that contributes to reduced performance of ICF experiments. Its also found in collapsing cores of stars and supersonic combustion. We use the Stony Brook University code, FronTier, which is verified via a code comparison study against the AMR multiphysics code FLASH, and validated against vertical shock tube experiments done by the LANL Extreme Fluids Team. These simulations are designed as a step towards simulating more realistic ICF conditions and quantifying the detrimental effects of mixing on the yield.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barigozzi, Giovanna; Armellini, Alessandro; Mucignat, Claudio; Casarsa, Luca
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► Flow visualization and PIV documented the presence of large coherent structures. ► The presence of coherent structures is documented up to the vane trailing edge. ► Shape and direction of rotation of vortices change with injection conditions. ► Vortices morphology influences the film cooling effectiveness distributions. ► A Mach number increase moves vortices closer to the wall. - Abstract: The present paper shows the results of an experimental investigation into the unsteadiness of coolant ejection at the trailing edge of a highly loaded nozzle vane cascade. The trailing edge cooling scheme features a pressure side cutback with film cooling slots, stiffened by evenly spaced ribs in an inline configuration. Cooling air is also ejected through two rows of cylindrical holes placed upstream of the cutback. Tests were performed with a low inlet turbulence intensity level (Tu 1 = 1.6%), changing the cascade operating conditions from low speed (M 2is = 0.2) up to high subsonic regime (M 2is = 0.6), and with coolant to main stream mass flow ratio varied within the 0.5–2.0% range. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and flow visualizations were used to investigate the unsteady mixing process taking place between coolant and main flow downstream of the cutback, up to the trailing edge. For all the tested conditions, the results show the presence of large coherent structures, which presence is still evident up to the trailing edge. Their shape and direction of rotation change with injection conditions, as a function of coolant to mainstream velocity ratio, strongly influencing the thermal protection capability of the injected coolant flow. The Mach number increase is only responsible for a positioning of such vortical structures closer to the wall, while the Strouhal number almost remains unchanged.
Influence of Mach Number and Dynamic Pressure on Cavity Tones and Freedrop Trajectories
2014-03-27
18 LU-SGS Lower Upper-Symmetric Gauss Seidel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 SSOR Successive Symmetric Over...complexity, the number of iterations necessary to gain convergence causes the simulation to be too expensive. The modern CFD method of overset or...solvers are Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI) Beam-Warming, Steger- Warming, Lower Upper-Symmetric Gauss Seidel (LU-SGS), and Successive Symmetric
Practical computational aeroacoustics for compact surfaces in low mach number flows
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pradera-Mallabiabarrena, Ainara; Keith, Graeme; Jacobsen, Finn
2011-01-01
compared to the wavelength of interest. This makes it possible to focus on the surface source term of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation. In this paper, in order to illustrate the basic method for storing and utilizing data from the CFD analysis, the flow past a circular cylinder at a Reynolds number...
Fisher, D. F.; Saltzman, E. J.
1973-01-01
Boundary-layer and local friction data for Mach numbers up to 2.5 and Reynolds numbers up to 3.6 x 10 to the 8th power were obtained in flight at three locations on the XB-70-1 airplane: the lower forward fuselage centerline (nose), the upper rear fuselage centerline, and the upper surface of the right wing. Local skin friction coefficients were derived at each location by using (1) a skin friction force balance, (2) a Preston probe, and (3) an adaptation of Clauser's method which derives skin friction from the rake velocity profile. These three techniques provided consistent results that agreed well with the von Karman-Schoenherr relationship for flow conditions that are quasi-two-dimensional. At the lower angles of attack, the nose-boom and flow-direction vanes are believed to have caused the momentum thickness at the nose to be larger than at the higher angles of attack. The boundary-layer data and local skin friction coefficients are tabulated. The wind-tunnel-model surface-pressure distribution ahead of the three locations and the flight surface-pressure distribution ahead of the wing location are included.
MacArt, Jonathan F.; Mueller, Michael E.
2016-12-01
Two formally second-order accurate, semi-implicit, iterative methods for the solution of scalar transport-reaction equations are developed for Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of low Mach number turbulent reacting flows. The first is a monolithic scheme based on a linearly implicit midpoint method utilizing an approximately factorized exact Jacobian of the transport and reaction operators. The second is an operator splitting scheme based on the Strang splitting approach. The accuracy properties of these schemes, as well as their stability, cost, and the effect of chemical mechanism size on relative performance, are assessed in two one-dimensional test configurations comprising an unsteady premixed flame and an unsteady nonpremixed ignition, which have substantially different Damköhler numbers and relative stiffness of transport to chemistry. All schemes demonstrate their formal order of accuracy in the fully-coupled convergence tests. Compared to a (non-)factorized scheme with a diagonal approximation to the chemical Jacobian, the monolithic, factorized scheme using the exact chemical Jacobian is shown to be both more stable and more economical. This is due to an improved convergence rate of the iterative procedure, and the difference between the two schemes in convergence rate grows as the time step increases. The stability properties of the Strang splitting scheme are demonstrated to outpace those of Lie splitting and monolithic schemes in simulations at high Damköhler number; however, in this regime, the monolithic scheme using the approximately factorized exact Jacobian is found to be the most economical at practical CFL numbers. The performance of the schemes is further evaluated in a simulation of a three-dimensional, spatially evolving, turbulent nonpremixed planar jet flame.
Nonaka, Andrew; Day, Marcus S.; Bell, John B.
2018-01-01
We present a numerical approach for low Mach number combustion that conserves both mass and energy while remaining on the equation of state to a desired tolerance. We present both unconfined and confined cases, where in the latter the ambient pressure changes over time. Our overall scheme is a projection method for the velocity coupled to a multi-implicit spectral deferred corrections (SDC) approach to integrate the mass and energy equations. The iterative nature of SDC methods allows us to incorporate a series of pressure discrepancy corrections naturally that lead to additional mass and energy influx/outflux in each finite volume cell in order to satisfy the equation of state. The method is second order, and satisfies the equation of state to a desired tolerance with increasing iterations. Motivated by experimental results, we test our algorithm on hydrogen flames with detailed kinetics. We examine the morphology of thermodiffusively unstable cylindrical premixed flames in high-pressure environments for confined and unconfined cases. We also demonstrate that our algorithm maintains the equation of state for premixed methane flames and non-premixed dimethyl ether jet flames.
Distribution of squares modulo a composite number
Aryan, Farzad
2015-01-01
In this paper we study the distribution of squares modulo a square-free number $q$. We also look at inverse questions for the large sieve in the distribution aspect and we make improvements on existing results on the distribution of $s$-tuples of reduced residues.
Distribution function of faint galaxy numbers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fesenko, L.M.
1981-01-01
The Lick observatory counts of galaxies are considered. The distribution of number of galaxies in elementary regions (ER) of 1 degx1 deg is investigated. Each field of 6 degx6 deg was treated separately At b>40 deg the probab+lity to observe of n galaxies in ER is an exponential decreasing function of n, if unequality n> were fulfilled. The mean apparent multiplicity of a galaxy (2.8+-0.9) was derived. The galaxy number distribution was simple model for the number of various systems of galaxies. The supperclustering of galaxies was not introduced. Based on that model the approximate expression for galaxy number distribution was considered and was compared with observed distributions. The agreement between these distributions become better with reducing of the interstellar absorption of light
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matthias Bauer
2016-10-01
Full Text Available This paper discusses wind tunnel test results aimed at advancing active flow control technology to increase the aerodynamic efficiency of an aircraft during take-off. A model of the outer section of a representative civil airliner wing was equipped with two-stage fluidic actuators between the slat edge and wing tip, where mechanical high-lift devices fail to integrate. The experiments were conducted at a nominal take-off Mach number of M = 0.2. At this incidence velocity, separation on the wing section, accompanied by increased drag, is triggered by the strong slat edge vortex at high angles of attack. On the basis of global force measurements and local static pressure data, the effect of pulsed blowing on the complex flow is evaluated, considering various momentum coefficients and spanwise distributions of the actuation effort. It is shown that through local intensification of forcing, a momentum coefficient of less than c μ = 0.6 % suffices to offset the stall by 2.4°, increase the maximum lift by more than 10% and reduce the drag by 37% compared to the uncontrolled flow.
Asymptotic numbers, asymptotic functions and distributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Todorov, T.D.
1979-07-01
The asymptotic functions are a new type of generalized functions. But they are not functionals on some space of test-functions as the distributions of Schwartz. They are mappings of the set denoted by A into A, where A is the set of the asymptotic numbers introduced by Christov. On its part A is a totally-ordered set of generalized numbers including the system of real numbers R as well as infinitesimals and infinitely large numbers. Every two asymptotic functions can be multiplied. On the other hand, the distributions have realizations as asymptotic functions in a certain sense. (author)
Esenwein, Fred T; Schueller, Carl F
1952-01-01
An analysis of inlet-turbojet-engine matching for a range of Mach numbers up to 2.0 indicates large performance penalties when fixed-geometry inlets are used. Use of variable-geometry inlets, however, nearly eliminates th The analysis was confirmed experimentally by investigating at Mach numbers of 0, 0.63, and 1.5 to 2.0 two single oblique-shock-type inlets of different compression-ramp angles, which simulated a variable-geometry configuration. The experimental investigation indicated that total-pressure recoveries comparable withose attainable with well designed nose inlets were obtained with the side inlets when all the boundary layer ahead of the inlets was removed. Serious drag penalties resulted at a Mach number of 2.0 from the use of blunt-cowl leading edges. However, sharp-lip inlets produced large losses in thrust for the take-off condition. These thrust penalties which are associated with the the low-speed operation of the sharp-lip inlet designs can probably be avoided without impairing the supersonic performance of the inlet by the use of auxiliary inlets or blow-in doors.
Spearman, M. L.
1983-01-01
An investigation has been made to determine the effects of external stores on the stability and control characteristics of a delta wing fighter airplane model at Mach numbers from 0.60 to 2.01 for a Reynolds number of 3.0 X 1 million per foot. The angle-of-attack range was from about -4 degrees to 20 degrees at a sideslip angle of 0 degrees for the transonic tests, and from about -4 degrees to 10 degrees at sideslip angles of 0 degrees and 3 degrees for the supersonic tests. In general, the results of the tests indicated no seriously detrimental effects of the stores on the stability and control characteristics of the model but did show an increase in the minimum drag level throughout the Mach number range. However, the drag-due-to-lift was such that for subsonic/transonic speeds, the drag at higher lifts was essentially unaffected and the indications are that the maneuvering capability may not be impaired by the stores.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Samir, U.; Wildman, P.J.; Rich, F.; Brinton, H.C.; Sagalyn, R.C.
1981-01-01
Measurements of ion current, electron temperature, and density and values of satellite potential from the U.S. Air Force Satellite S3-2 together with ion composition measurements from the Atmosphere Explorer (AE-E) satellite were used to examine the variation of the ratio α = [I/sub +/(wake)]/[I/sub +/(ambient)] (where I/sub +/ is the ion current) with altitude and to examine the significance of the parametric interplay between ionic Mach number, normalized body size R/sub D/( = R0/lambda/sub D/, where R 0 is the satellite radius and lambda/sub D/ is the ambient debye length) and normalized body potenital phi/sub N/( = ephis/KT/sub e/, where phi/sub s/ is the satellite potential, T/sub e/ is the electron temperature, and e and K are constants). It was possible to separate between the influence of R/sub D/ and phi/sub N/ on α for a specific range parameters. Uncertainty, however, remains regarding the competiton between R/sub D/ and S(H + ) and S(O + ) are oxygen and hydrogen ionic Mach numbers, respectively) in determining the ion distribution in the nearest vicincity to the satellite surface. A brief discussion relevant to future experiments in the area of body plasma flow interactions to be conducted on board the Shuttle/Spacelab facility, is also included
Pittman, J. L.
1979-01-01
Aerodynamic predictions from supersonic linear theory and hypersonic impact theory were compared with experimental data for three hypersonic research airplane concepts over a Mach number range from 1.10 to 2.86. The linear theory gave good lift prediction and fair to good pitching-moment prediction over the Mach number (M) range. The tangent-cone theory predictions were good for lift and fair to good for pitching moment for M more than or equal to 2.0. The combined tangent-cone theory predictions were good for lift and fair to good for pitching moment for M more than or equal to 2.0. The combined tangent-cone/tangent-wedge method gave the least accurate prediction of lift and pitching moment. The zero-lift drag was overestimated, especially for M less than 2.0. The linear theory drag prediction was generally poor, with areas of good agreement only for M less than or equal to 1.2. For M more than or equal to 2.), the tangent-cone method predicted the zero-lift drag most accurately.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choi, Seung Min [GyeongBuk Technopark, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hui Bo; Kwon, Young Doo; Kwon, Soon Bum [Kyungpook Nat’l Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)
2016-12-15
In the present study, the effects of non-equilibrium condensation on the drag divergence Mach number with the angle of attack in a transonic 2D moist air flow of NACA0012 are investigated using the TVD finite difference scheme. For the same α, the maximum upstream Mach number of the shock wave, Mmax, and the size of supersonic bubble decrease with the increase in Φ{sub 0}. For the same M{sub ∞}, Φ{sub 0}, and T{sub 0}, the length of the non-equilibrium condensation zone Δ{sub z} decreases with increasing Φ{sub 0}. On the other hand, because of the attenuating effect of non-equilibrium condensation on wave drag, which is related to the interaction between the shock wave and the boundary layer, the drag coefficient C{sub D} decreases with an increase in Φ{sub 0} for the same M{sub ∞} and α. For the same α, M{sub D} increases with increasing Φ{sub 0}, while M{sub D} decreases with an increase in α.
Nason, Martin L.; Brown, Clarence A., Jr.; Rock, Rupert S.
1955-01-01
A linear stability analysis and flight-test investigation has been performed on a rolleron-type roll-rate stabilization system for a canard-type missile configuration through a Mach number range from 0.9 to 2.3. This type damper provides roll damping by the action of gyro-actuated uncoupled wing-tip ailerons. A dynamic roll instability predicted by the analysis was confirmed by flight testing and was subsequently eliminated by the introduction of control-surface damping about the rolleron hinge line. The control-surface damping was provided by an orifice-type damper contained within the control surface. Steady-state rolling velocities were at all times less than 1 radian per second between the Mach numbers of 0.9 to 2.3 on the configurations tested. No adverse longitudinal effects were experienced in flight because of the tendency of the free-floating rollerons to couple into the pitching motion at the low angles of attack and disturbance levels investigated herein after the introduction of control-surface damping.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Core, X.
2002-02-01
The isobar approximation for the system of the balance equations of mass, momentum, energy and chemical species is a suitable approximation to represent low Mach number reactive flows. In this approximation, which neglects acoustics phenomena, the mixture is hydrodynamically incompressible and the thermodynamic effects lead to an uniform compression of the system. We present a novel numerical scheme for this approximation. An incremental projection method, which uses the original form of mass balance equation, discretizes in time the Navier-Stokes equations. Spatial discretization is achieved through a finite volume approach on MAC-type staggered mesh. A higher order de-centered scheme is used to compute the convective fluxes. We associate to this discretization a local mesh refinement method, based on Flux Interface Correction technique. A first application concerns a forced flow with variable density which mimics a combustion problem. The second application is natural convection with first small temperature variations and then beyond the limit of validity of the Boussinesq approximation. Finally, we treat a third application which is a laminar diffusion flame. For each of these test problems, we demonstrate the robustness of the proposed numerical scheme, notably for the density spatial variations. We analyze the gain in accuracy obtained with the local mesh refinement method. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jacobs, A. M.; Zingale, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States); Nonaka, A.; Almgren, A. S.; Bell, J. B. [Center for Computational Sciences and Engineering, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)
2016-08-10
The dynamics of helium shell convection driven by nuclear burning establish the conditions for runaway in the sub-Chandrasekhar-mass, double-detonation model for SNe Ia, as well as for a variety of other explosive phenomena. We explore these convection dynamics for a range of white dwarf core and helium shell masses in three dimensions using the low Mach number hydrodynamics code MAESTRO. We present calculations of the bulk properties of this evolution, including time-series evolution of global diagnostics, lateral averages of the 3D state, and the global 3D state. We find a variety of outcomes, including quasi-equilibrium, localized runaway, and convective runaway. Our results suggest that the double-detonation progenitor model is promising and that 3D dynamic convection plays a key role.
Mason, M. L.; Putnam, L. E.
1979-01-01
The flow field behind a circular arc nozzle with exhaust jet was studied at subsonic free stream Mach numbers. A conical probe was used to measure the pitot pressure in the jet and free stream regions. Pressure data were recorded for two nozzle configurations at nozzle pressure ratios of 2.0, 2.9, and 5.0. At each set of test conditions, the probe was traversed from the jet center line into the free stream region at seven data acquisition stations. The survey began at the nozzle exit and extended downstream at intervals. The pitot pressure data may be applied to the evaluation of computational flow field models, as illustrated by a comparison of the flow field data with results of inviscid jet plume theory.
Pendergraft, O. C., Jr.; Bare, E. A.
1982-01-01
An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16 foot transonic tunnel to determine the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of twin two dimensional nozzles and twin baseline axisymmetric nozzles installed on a fully metric 0.047 scale model of the F-15 three surface configuration (canards, wing, horizontal tails). The effects on performance of two dimensional nozzle in flight thrust reversing, locations and orientation of the vertical tails, and deflections of the horizontal tails were also determined. Test data were obtained at static conditions and at Mach numbers from 0.60 to 1.20 over an angle of attack range from -2 deg to 15 deg. Nozzle pressure ratio was varied from jet off to about 6.5.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ansanay-Alex, G.
2009-01-01
The development of simulation codes aimed at a precise simulation of fires requires a precise approach of flame front phenomena by using very fine grids. The need to take different spatial scale into consideration leads to a local grid refinement and to a discretization with homogeneous grid for computing time and memory purposes. The author reports the approximation of the non-linear convection term, the scalar advection-diffusion in finite volumes, numerical simulations of a flow in a bent tube, of a three-dimensional laminar flame and of a low Mach number an-isotherm flow. Non conformal finite elements are also presented (Rannacher-Turek and Crouzeix-Raviart elements)
1944-11-01
SS SUBJECT HEADIN6S: Pressure distribution - Flow research - Methods (40950) Wings (74500); DMiion, Intolilfjonco Air Kkrtcricl Command AIQ TECHNICAL INDGK Wrl0ht- Patto *son Air Forco ( Dayton, Ohio ///¥
Loposer, J. Dan; Rumsey, Charles B.
1954-01-01
Measurement of average skin-friction coefficients have been made on six rocket-powered free-flight models by using the boundary-layer rake technique. The model configuration was the NACA RM-10, a 12.2-fineness-ratio parabolic body of revolution with a flat base. Measurements were made over a Mach number range from 1 to 3.7, a Reynolds number range 40 x 10(exp 6) to 170 x 10(exp 6) based on length to the measurement station, and with aerodynamic heating conditions varying from strong skin heating to strong skin cooling. The measurements show the same trends over the test ranges as Van Driest's theory for turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate. The measured values are approximately 7 percent higher than the values of the flat-plate theory. A comparison which takes into account the differences in Reynolds number is made between the present results and skin-friction measurements obtained on NACA RM-10 scale models in the Langley 4- by 4-foot supersonic pressure tunnel, the Lewis 8- by 6-foot supersonic tunnel, and the Langley 9-inch supersonic tunnel. Good agreement is shown at all but the lowest tunnel Reynolds number conditions. A simple empirical equation is developed which represents the measurements over the range of the tests.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zaytsev, S.G.; Lazareva, E.V.; Mikhailova, A.V.; Nikolaev-Kozlov, V.L.; Chebotareva, E.I.
1979-01-01
Propagation of intensive shock waves with a temperature of about 1 eV has been studied in a two-dimensional reflection nozzle mounted at the exit of a shock tube. The Toepler technique has been involved along with the interference scheme with a laser light source allowing the multiple-frame recording to be done. Density distribution in the nozzle as well as the wave pattern occurring at the shock propagation are presented. (author)
The prime numbers and their distribution
Tenenbaum, Gerald
2000-01-01
One notable new direction this century in the study of primes has been the influx of ideas from probability. The goal of this book is to provide insights into the prime numbers and to describe how a sequence so tautly determined can incorporate such a striking amount of randomness. The book opens with some classic topics of number theory. It ends with a discussion of some of the outstanding conjectures in number theory. In between are an excellent chapter on the stochastic properties of primes and a walk through an elementary proof of the Prime Number Theorem. This book is suitable for anyone who has had a little number theory and some advanced calculus involving estimates. Its engaging style and invigorating point of view will make refreshing reading for advanced undergraduates through research mathematicians.
Berry, S. A.
1986-01-01
An incompressible boundary-layer stability analysis of Laminar Flow Control (LFC) experimental data was completed and the results are presented. This analysis was undertaken for three reasons: to study laminar boundary-layer stability on a modern swept LFC airfoil; to calculate incompressible design limits of linear stability theory as applied to a modern airfoil at high subsonic speeds; and to verify the use of linear stability theory as a design tool. The experimental data were taken from the slotted LFC experiment recently completed in the NASA Langley 8-Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel. Linear stability theory was applied and the results were compared with transition data to arrive at correlated n-factors. Results of the analysis showed that for the configuration and cases studied, Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) amplification was the dominating disturbance influencing transition. For these cases, incompressible linear stability theory correlated with an n-factor for TS waves of approximately 10 at transition. The n-factor method correlated rather consistently to this value despite a number of non-ideal conditions which indicates the method is useful as a design tool for advanced laminar flow airfoils.
Driver, Cornelius
1956-01-01
Tests have been made in the Langley 4- by 4-foot supersonic pressure tunnel at Mach numbers of 1.41, 1.61, and 2.01 to determine the static longitudinal stability and control characteristics of various arrangements of the Grumman F11F-1 airplane. Tests were made of the complete model and various combinations of its component parts and, in addition, the effects of various body modifications, a revised vertical tail, and wing fences on the longitudinal characteristics were determined. The results indicate that for a horizontal-tail incidence of -10 deg the trim lift coefficient varied from 0.29 at a Mach number of 1.61 to 0.23 at a Mach number of 2.01 with a corresponding decrease in lift-drag trim from 3.72 to 3.15. Stick-position instability was indicated in the low-supersonic-speed range. A photographic-type nose modification resulted in slightly higher values of minimum drag coefficient but did not significantly affect the static stability or lift-curve slope. The minimum drag coefficient for the complete model with the production nose remained essentially constant at 0.047 throughout the Mach number range investigated.
Sinclair, Archibald R; Mace, William D
1956-01-01
A limited calibration of a combined pitot-static tube and vane-type flow-angularity indicator has been made in the Langley 4- by 4-foot supersonic pressure tunnel at Mach numbers of 1.61 and 2.01. The results indicated that the angle-of-yaw indications were affected by unsymmetric shock effects at low angles of attack.
Stack, John; Draley, Eugene C; Delano, James B; Feldman, Lewis
1950-01-01
As part of a general investigation of propellers at high forward speeds, tests of two 2-blade propellers having the NACA 4-(3)(8)-03 and NACA 4-(3)(8)-45 blade designs have been made in the Langley 8-foot high-speed tunnel through a range of blade angle from 20 degrees to 60 degrees for forward Mach numbers from 0.165 to 0.725 to establish in detail the changes in propeller characteristics due to compressibility effects. These propellers differed primarily only in blade solidity, one propeller having 50 percent and more solidity than the other. Serious losses in propeller efficiency were found as the propeller tip Mach number exceeded 0.91, irrespective of forward speed or blade angle. The magnitude of the efficiency losses varied from 9 percent to 22 percent per 0.1 increase in tip Mach number above the critical value. The range of advance ratio for peak efficiency decreased markedly with increase of forward speed. The general form of the changes in thrust and power coefficients was found to be similar to the changes in airfoil lift coefficient with changes in Mach number. Efficiency losses due to compressibility effects decreased with increase of blade width. The results indicated that the high level of propeller efficiency obtained at low speeds could be maintained to forward sea-level speeds exceeding 500 miles per hour.
Ferri, Antonio; Nucci, Louis M
1954-01-01
Contains theoretical and experimental analysis of circular inlets having a central body at Mach numbers of 3.30, 2.75, and 2.45. The inlets have been designed in order to have low drag and high pressure recovery. The pressure recoveries obtained are of the same order of magnitude as those previously obtained by inlets having very large external drag.
Forecasting distribution of numbers of large fires
Haiganoush K. Preisler; Jeff Eidenshink; Stephen Howard; Robert E. Burgan
2015-01-01
Systems to estimate forest fire potential commonly utilize one or more indexes that relate to expected fire behavior; however they indicate neither the chance that a large fire will occur, nor the expected number of large fires. That is, they do not quantify the probabilistic nature of fire danger. In this work we use large fire occurrence information from the...
Cassetti, Marlowe D.; Re, Richard J.; Igoe, William B.
1961-01-01
An investigation has been made of the effects of conical wing camber and body indentation according to the supersonic area rule on the aerodynamic wing loading characteristics of a wing-body-tail configuration at transonic speeds. The wing aspect ratio was 3, taper ratio was 0.1, and quarter-chord-line sweepback was 52.5 deg. with 3-percent-thick airfoil sections. The tests were conducted in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel at Mach numbers from 0.80 to 1.05 and at angles of attack from 0 deg. to 14 deg., with Reynolds numbers based on mean aerodynamic chord varying from 7 x 10(exp 6) to 8 x 10(exp 6). Conical camber delayed wing-tip stall and reduced the severity of the accompanying longitudinal instability but did not appreciably affect the spanwise load distribution at angles of attack below tip stall. Body indentation reduced the transonic chordwise center-of-pressure travel from about 8 percent to 5 percent of the mean aerodynamic chord.
Forecasting distribution of numbers of large fires
Eidenshink, Jeffery C.; Preisler, Haiganoush K.; Howard, Stephen; Burgan, Robert E.
2014-01-01
Systems to estimate forest fire potential commonly utilize one or more indexes that relate to expected fire behavior; however they indicate neither the chance that a large fire will occur, nor the expected number of large fires. That is, they do not quantify the probabilistic nature of fire danger. In this work we use large fire occurrence information from the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity project, and satellite and surface observations of fuel conditions in the form of the Fire Potential Index, to estimate two aspects of fire danger: 1) the probability that a 1 acre ignition will result in a 100+ acre fire, and 2) the probabilities of having at least 1, 2, 3, or 4 large fires within a Predictive Services Area in the forthcoming week. These statistical processes are the main thrust of the paper and are used to produce two daily national forecasts that are available from the U.S. Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation and Science Center and via the Wildland Fire Assessment System. A validation study of our forecasts for the 2013 fire season demonstrated good agreement between observed and forecasted values.
Bond, Aleck C.; Swanson, Andrew G.
1953-01-01
A free-flight 0.12-scale rocket-boosted model of the North American MX-770 (X-10) missile has been tested in flight by the Pilotless Aircraft Research Division of the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory. Drag, longitudinal stability, and duct performance data were obtained at Mach numbers from 0.8 to 1.7 covering a Reynolds number range of about 9 x 10(exp 6) to 24 x 10(exp 6) based on wing mean aerodynamic chord. The lift-curve slope, static stability, and damping-in-pitch derivatives showed similar variations with Mach number, the parameters increasing from subsonic values in the transonic region and decreasing in the supersonic region. The variations were for the most part fairly smooth. The aerodynamic center of the configuration shifted rearward in the transonic region and moved forward gradually in the supersonic region. The pitching effectiveness of the canard control surfaces was maintained throughout the flight speed range, the supersonic values being somewhat greater than the subsonic. Trim values of angle of attack and lift coefficient changed abruptly in the transonic region, the change being associated with variations in the out-of-trim pitching moment, control effectiveness, and aerodynamic-center travel in this speed range. Duct total-pressure recovery decreased with increase in free-stream Mach number and the values were somewhat less than normal-shock recovery. Minimum drag data indicated a supersonic drag coefficient about twice the subsonic drag coefficient and a drag-rise Mach number of approximately 0.90. Base drag was small subsonically but was about 25 percent of the minimum drag of the configuration supersonically.
The distribution of prime numbers and associated problems in number theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nair, M.
1991-01-01
Some problems in number theory, namely the gaps between consecutive primes, the distribution of primes in arithmetic progressions, Brun-Titchmarsh theorem, Fermat's last theorem, The Thue equation, the gaps between square-free numbers are discussed
Montoya, L. C.; Economu, M. A.; Cissell, R. E.
1974-01-01
The use of a pitot-static probe to determine wing section drag at speeds from Mach 0.5 to approximately 1.0 was evaluated in flight. The probe unit is described and operational problems are discussed. Typical wake profiles and wing section drag coefficients are presented. The data indicate that the pitot-static probe gave reliable results up to speeds of approximately 1.0.
Deveikis, W. D.
1983-01-01
External and internal pressure and cold-wall heating-rate distributions were obtained in hypersonic flow on a full-scale heat-sink representation of the space shuttle orbiter wing-elevon-cove configuration in an effort to define effects of flow separation on cove aerothermal environment as a function of cove seal leak area, ramp angle, and free-stream unit Reynolds number. Average free-stream Mach number from all tests was 6.9; average total temperature from all tests was 3360 R; free-stream dynamic pressure ranged from about 2 to 9 psi; and wing angle of attack was 5 deg (flow compression). For transitional and turbulent flow separation, increasing cove leakage progressively increased heating rates in the cove. When ingested mass flow was sufficient to force large reductions in extent of separation, increasing cove leakage reduced heating rates in the cove to those for laminar attached flow. Cove heating-rate distributions calculated with a method that assumed laminar developing channel flow agreed with experimentally obtained distributions within root-mean-square differences that varied between 11 and 36 percent where cove walls were parallel for leak areas of 50 and 100 percent.
Roy, Anirban; Chakraborty, Arup Lal; Jha, Chandan Kumar
2017-04-20
This paper demonstrates a technique of high-resolution interrogation of two fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) with flat-topped reflection spectra centered on 1649.55 nm and 1530.182 nm with narrow line width tunable semiconductor lasers emitting at 1651.93 nm and 1531.52 nm, respectively. The spectral shift of the reflection spectrum in response to temperature and strain is accurately measured with a fiber-optic Mach-Zehnder interferometer that has a free spectral range of 0.0523 GHz and a broadband photodetector. Laser wavelength modulation and harmonic detection techniques are used to transform the gentle edges of the flat-topped FBG into prominent leading and trailing peaks that are up to five times narrower than the FBG spectrum. Either of these peaks can be used to accurately measure spectral shifts of the FBG reflection spectrum with a resolution down to a value of 0.47 pm. A digital signal processing board is used to measure the temperature-induced spectral shifts over the range of 30°C-80°C and strain-induced spectral shifts from 0 μϵ to 12,000 μϵ. The shift is linear in both cases with a temperature sensitivity of 12.8 pm/°C and strain sensitivity of 0.12 pm/μϵ. The distinctive feature of this technique is that it does not use an optical spectrum analyzer at any stage of its design or operation. It can be readily extended to all types of tunable diode lasers and is ideally suited for compact field instruments and for biomedical applications in stroke rehabilitation monitoring.
A Whitham-Theory Sonic-Boom Analysis of the TU-144 Aircraft at a Mach Number of 2.2
Mack, Robert J.
1999-01-01
. Therefore, an analysis of the Tu-144 was made to obtain predictions of pressure signature shape and shock strengths at cruise conditions so that the range and characteristics of the required pressure gages could be determined well in advance of the tests. Cancellation of the sonic-boom signature measurement part of the tests removed the need for these pressure gages. Since CFD methods would be used to analyze the aerodynamic performance of the Tu-144 and make similar pressure signature predictions, the relatively quick and simple Whitham-theory pressure signature predictions presented in this paper could be used for comparisons. Pressure signature predictions of sonic-boom disturbances from the Tu- 144 aircraft were obtained from geometry derived from a three-view description of the production aircraft. The geometry was used to calculate aerodynamic performance characteristics at supersonic-cruise conditions. These characteristics and Whitham/Walkden sonic-boom theory were employed to obtain F-functions and flow-field pressure signature predictions at a Mach number of 2.2, at a cruise altitude of 61000 feet, and at a cruise weight of 350000 pounds.
Schmeer, James W.; Cassetti, Marlowe D.
1960-01-01
An investigation of the performance, stability, and control characteristics of a variable-sweep arrow-wing model with the outer wing panels swept 75 deg. has been conducted in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel. Four outboard engines located above and below the wing provided propulsive thrust, and, by deflecting in the pitch direction and rotating in the lateral plane, also produced control forces. The engine nacelles incorporated swept lateral and vertical fins for aerodynamic stability and control. Jet-off data were obtained with flow-through nacelles, simulating inlet flow; jet thrust and hot-jet interference effects were obtained with faired-nose nacelles housing hydrogen peroxide gas generators. Six-component force and moment data were obtained at Mach numbers from 0.60 to 1.05 through a range of angles of attack and angles of side-slip. Control characteristics were obtained by deflecting the nacelle-fin combinations as elevators, rudders, and ailerons at several fixed angles for each control. The results indicate that the basic wing-body configuration becomes neutrally stable or unstable at a lift coefficient of 0.15; addition of nacelles with fins delayed instability to a lift coefficient of 0.30. Addition of nacelles to the wing-body configuration increased minimum drag from 0.0058 to 0.0100 at a Mach number of 0.60 and from 0.0080 to 0.0190 at a Mach number of 1.05 with corresponding reductions in maximum lift-drag ratio of 12 percent and 33 percent, respectively. The nacelle-fin combinations were ineffective as longitudinal controls but were adequate as directional and lateral controls. The model with nacelles and fins was directionally and laterally stable; the stability generally increased with increasing lift. Jet interference effects on stability and control characteristics were small but the adverse effects on drag were greater than would be expected for isolated nacelles.
Graves, E. B.; Fournier, R. H.
1979-01-01
The tests were performed at a Mach number of 2.50 and at angles of attack from about -4 deg to 32 deg. The results indicate that increasing nose bluntness increases zero lift drag and decreases both the maximum lift-drag ratio and the level of directional stability. The center of pressure generally moves forward with increasing nose size; however, small nose radii on the modified elliptical configurations move the center of pressure rearward. The circular bodied configurations exhibit the greatest longitudinal stability and the least directional stability. Concepts with the variable geometry afterbody contour display the most directional stability and the greatest zero lift drag.
Brown, Clarence A , Jr
1957-01-01
A full- scale rocket-powered model of a cruciform canard missile configuration with a low- aspect - ratio wing and blunt nose has been flight tested by the Langley Pilotless Aircraft Research Division. Static and dynamic longitudinal stability and control derivatives of this interdigitated canard-wing missile configuration were determined by using the pulsed- control technique at low angles of attack and for a Mach number range of 1.2 to 2.1. The lift - curve slope showed only small nonlinearities with changes in control deflection or angle of attack but indicated a difference in lift- .curve slope of approximately 7 percent for the two control deflections of delta = 3.0 deg and delta= -0.3 deg . The large tail length of the missile tested was effective in producing damping in pitch throughout the Mach number range tested. The aerodynamic- center location was nearly constant with Mach number for the two control deflections but was shown to be less stable with the larger control deflection. The increment of lift produced by the controls was small and positive throughout the Mach number range tested, whereas the pitching moment produced by the controls exhibited a normal trend of reduced effectiveness with increasing Mach number.The effectiveness of the controls in producing angle of attack, lift, and pitching moment was good at all Mach numbers tested.
Crabill, Norman L.
1956-01-01
The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics has conducted a flight test of a model approximating the McDonnell F3H-lN airplane configuration to determine its pitch-up and buffet boundaries, as well as the usual longitudinal stability derivatives obtainable from the pulsed- tail technique. The test was conducted by the freely flying rocket- boosted model technique developed at the Langley Laboratory; results were obtained at Mach numbers from 0.40 to 1.27 at corresponding Reynolds numbers of 2.6 x 10(exp 6) and 9.0 x 10(exp 6). The phenomena of pitch-up, buffet, and maximum lift were encountered at Mach numbers between 0.42 and 0.85. The lift-curve slope and wing-root bending-moment slope increased with increasing angle of attack, whereas the static stability decreased with angle of attack at subsonic speeds and increased at transonic speeds. There was little change in trim at low lift at transonic speeds.
Ernst Mach a deeper look : documents and new perspectives
1992-01-01
Ernst Mach -- A Deeper Look has been written to reveal to English-speaking readers the recent revival of interest in Ernst Mach in Europe and Japan. The book is a storehouse of new information on Mach as a philosopher, historian, scientist and person, containing a number of biographical and philosophical manuscripts publihsed for the first time, along with correspondence and other matters published for the first time in English. The book also provides English translations of Mach's controversies with leading physicists and psychologists, such as Max Planck and Carl Stumpf, and offers basic evidence for resolving Mach's position on atomism and Einstein's theory of relativity. Mach's scientific, philosophical and personal influence in a number of countries -- Austria, Germany, Bohemia and Yugoslavia among them -- has been carefully explored and many aspects detailed for the first time. All of the articles are eminently readable, especially those written by Mach's sister. They are deeply researched, new interpre...
[Frequency distribution of dibucaine numbers in 24,830 patients].
Pestel, G; Sprenger, H; Rothhammer, A
2003-06-01
Atypical cholinesterase prolongs the duration of neuromuscular blocking drugs such as succinylcholine and mivacurium. Measuring the dibucaine number identifies patients who are at risk. This study shows the frequency distribution of dibucaine numbers routinely measured and discusses avoidable clinical problems and economic implications. Dibucaine numbers were measured on a Hitachi 917-analyzer and all dibucaine numbers recorded over a period of 4 years were taken into consideration. Repeat observations were excluded. A total of 24,830 dibucaine numbers were analysed and numbers below 30 were found in 0.07% ( n=18) giving an incidence of 1:1,400. Dibucaine numbers from 30 to 70 were found in 1.23% ( n=306). On the basis of identification of the Dibucaine numbers we could avoid the administration of succinylcholine or mivacurium resulting in a cost reduction of 12,280 Euro offset against the total laboratory costs amounting to 10,470 Euro. An incidence of 1:1,400 of dibucaine numbers below 30 is higher than documented in the literature. Therefore, routine measurement of dibucaine number is a cost-effective method of identifying patients at increased risk of prolonged neuromuscular blockade due to atypical cholinesterase.
Igoe, William B.; Re, Richard J.; Cassetti, Marlowe
1961-01-01
An investigation has been made of the effects of conical wing camber and supersonic body indentation on the aerodynamic characteristics of a wing-body configuration at transonic speeds. Wing aspect ratio was 3.0, taper ratio was 0.1, and quarter-chord line sweepback was 52.5 deg with airfoil sections of 0.03 thickness ratio. The tests were conducted in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel at various Mach numbers from 0.80 to 1.05 at angles of attack from -4 deg to 14 deg. The cambered-wing configuration achieved higher lift-drag ratios than a similar plane-wing configuration. The camber also reduced the effects of wing-tip flow separation on the aerodynamic characteristics. In general, no stability or trim changes below wing-tip flow separation resulted from the use of camber. The use of supersonic body indentation improved the lift-drag ratios at Mach numbers from 0.96 to 1.05.
Interferometric control of the photon-number distribution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Esat Kondakci
2017-07-01
Full Text Available We demonstrate deterministic control over the photon-number distribution by interfering two coherent beams within a disordered photonic lattice. By sweeping a relative phase between two equal-amplitude coherent fields with Poissonian statistics that excite adjacent sites in a lattice endowed with disorder-immune chiral symmetry, we measure an output photon-number distribution that changes periodically between super-thermal and sub-thermal photon statistics upon ensemble averaging. Thus, the photon-bunching level is controlled interferometrically at a fixed mean photon-number by gradually activating the excitation symmetry of the chiral-mode pairs with structured coherent illumination and without modifying the disorder level of the random system itself.
Moes, Timothy R.; Whitmore, Stephen A.; Jordan, Frank L., Jr.
1993-01-01
A nonintrusive airdata-sensing system was calibrated in flight and wind-tunnel experiments to an angle of attack of 70 deg and to angles of sideslip of +/- 15 deg. Flight-calibration data have also been obtained to Mach 1.2. The sensor, known as the flush airdata sensor, was installed on the nosecap of an F-18 aircraft for flight tests and on a full-scale F-18 forebody for wind-tunnel tests. Flight tests occurred at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California, using the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle. Wind-tunnel tests were conducted in the 30- by 60-ft wind tunnel at the NASA LaRC, Hampton, Virginia. The sensor consisted of 23 flush-mounted pressure ports arranged in concentric circles and located within 1.75 in. of the tip of the nosecap. An overdetermined mathematical model was used to relate the pressure measurements to the local airdata quantities. The mathematical model was based on potential flow over a sphere and was empirically adjusted based on flight and wind-tunnel data. For quasi-steady maneuvering, the mathematical model worked well throughout the subsonic, transonic, and low supersonic flight regimes. The model also worked well throughout the angle-of-attack and sideslip regions studied.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ansanay-Alex, G.
2009-06-17
The development of simulation codes aimed at a precise simulation of fires requires a precise approach of flame front phenomena by using very fine grids. The need to take different spatial scale into consideration leads to a local grid refinement and to a discretization with homogeneous grid for computing time and memory purposes. The author reports the approximation of the non-linear convection term, the scalar advection-diffusion in finite volumes, numerical simulations of a flow in a bent tube, of a three-dimensional laminar flame and of a low Mach number an-isotherm flow. Non conformal finite elements are also presented (Rannacher-Turek and Crouzeix-Raviart elements)
Bailey, R. O.; Brownson, J. J.
1979-01-01
Tests were conducted in the Ames 6 by 6 foot wind tunnel to determine the interaction of reaction jets for roll control on the M2-F2 lifting-body entry vehicle. Moment interactions are presented for a Mach number range of 0.6 to 1.7, a Reynolds number range of 1.2 x 10 to the 6th power to 1.6 x 10 to the 6th power (based on model reference length), an angle-of-attack range of -9 deg to 20 deg, and an angle-of-sideslip range of -6 deg to 6 deg at an angle of attack of 6 deg. The reaction jets produce roll control with small adverse yawing moment, which can be offset by horizontal thrust component of canted jets.
Re, Richard J.
2005-01-01
Force balance and wing pressure data were obtained on a 0.017-Scale Model of a blended-wing-body configuration (without a simulated propulsion system installation) to validate the capability of computational fluid dynamic codes to predict the performance of such thick sectioned subsonic transport configurations. The tests were conducted in the National Transonic Facility of the Langley Research Center at Reynolds numbers from 3.5 to 25.0 million at Mach numbers from 0.25 to 0.86. Data were obtained in the pitch plane only at angles of attack from -1 to 8 deg at Mach numbers greater than 0.25. A configuration with winglets was tested at a Reynolds number of 25.0 million at Mach numbers from 0.83 to 0.86.
Distribution and Numbers of Pygmies in Central African Forests.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jesús Olivero
Full Text Available Pygmy populations occupy a vast territory extending west-to-east along the central African belt from the Congo Basin to Lake Victoria. However, their numbers and actual distribution is not known precisely. Here, we undertake this task by using locational data and population sizes for an unprecedented number of known Pygmy camps and settlements (n = 654 in five of the nine countries where currently distributed. With these data we develop spatial distribution models based on the favourability function, which distinguish areas with favourable environmental conditions from those less suitable for Pygmy presence. Highly favourable areas were significantly explained by presence of tropical forests, and by lower human pressure variables. For documented Pygmy settlements, we use the relationship between observed population sizes and predicted favourability values to estimate the total Pygmy population throughout Central Africa. We estimate that around 920,000 Pygmies (over 60% in DRC is possible within favourable forest areas in Central Africa. We argue that fragmentation of the existing Pygmy populations, alongside pressure from extractive industries and sometimes conflict with conservation areas, endanger their future. There is an urgent need to inform policies that can mitigate against future external threats to these indigenous peoples' culture and lifestyles.
Reclaimed mineland curve number response to temporal distribution of rainfall
Warner, R.C.; Agouridis, C.T.; Vingralek, P.T.; Fogle, A.W.
2010-01-01
The curve number (CN) method is a common technique to estimate runoff volume, and it is widely used in coal mining operations such as those in the Appalachian region of Kentucky. However, very little CN data are available for watersheds disturbed by surface mining and then reclaimed using traditional techniques. Furthermore, as the CN method does not readily account for variations in infiltration rates due to varying rainfall distributions, the selection of a single CN value to encompass all temporal rainfall distributions could lead engineers to substantially under- or over-size water detention structures used in mining operations or other land uses such as development. Using rainfall and runoff data from a surface coal mine located in the Cumberland Plateau of eastern Kentucky, CNs were computed for conventionally reclaimed lands. The effects of temporal rainfall distributions on CNs was also examined by classifying storms as intense, steady, multi-interval intense, or multi-interval steady. Results indicate that CNs for such reclaimed lands ranged from 62 to 94 with a mean value of 85. Temporal rainfall distributions were also shown to significantly affect CN values with intense storms having significantly higher CNs than multi-interval storms. These results indicate that a period of recovery is present between rainfall bursts of a multi-interval storm that allows depressional storage and infiltration rates to rebound. ?? 2010 American Water Resources Association.
Hollinger, James A.; Mitcham, Grady L.
1955-01-01
A flight test of a rocket-propelled model of the Convair XFY-1 airplane was conducted to determine the lateral stability and control characteristics, The 0.133-scale model had windmilling propellers for this test, which covered a Mach number range of O.70 to 1.12. The center of gravity was located at 13.9 percent of the mean aerodynamic chord. The methods of analysis included both a solution by vector diagrams and simple one- and two-degree-of-freedom methods. The model was both statically and dynamically stable throughout the speed range of the testa The roll damping was good, and the slope of the side-force curve varied little with speed. The rudder was effective throughout the test speed range, although it was reduced to about 43 percent of its subsonic value at supersonic speeds.
Putnam, L. E.; Mercer, C. E.
1986-01-01
An investigation has been conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to measure the flow field in and around the jet exhaust from a nonaxisymmetric nozzle configuration. The nozzle had a rectangular exit with a width-to-height ratio of 2.38. Pitot-pressure measurements were made at five longitudinal locations downstream of the nozzle exit. The maximum distance downstream of the exit was about 5 nozzle heights. These measurements were made at free-stream Mach numbers of 0.00, 0.60, and 1.20 with the nozzle operating at a ratio of nozzle total pressure to free-stream static pressure of 4.0. The jet exhaust was simulated with high-pressure air that had an exit total temperature essentially equal to the free-stream total temperature.
Tavelli, Maurizio; Dumbser, Michael
2017-07-01
We propose a new arbitrary high order accurate semi-implicit space-time discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method for the solution of the two and three dimensional compressible Euler and Navier-Stokes equations on staggered unstructured curved meshes. The method is pressure-based and semi-implicit and is able to deal with all Mach number flows. The new DG scheme extends the seminal ideas outlined in [1], where a second order semi-implicit finite volume method for the solution of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations with a general equation of state was introduced on staggered Cartesian grids. Regarding the high order extension we follow [2], where a staggered space-time DG scheme for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations was presented. In our scheme, the discrete pressure is defined on the primal grid, while the discrete velocity field and the density are defined on a face-based staggered dual grid. Then, the mass conservation equation, as well as the nonlinear convective terms in the momentum equation and the transport of kinetic energy in the energy equation are discretized explicitly, while the pressure terms appearing in the momentum and energy equation are discretized implicitly. Formal substitution of the discrete momentum equation into the total energy conservation equation yields a linear system for only one unknown, namely the scalar pressure. Here the equation of state is assumed linear with respect to the pressure. The enthalpy and the kinetic energy are taken explicitly and are then updated using a simple Picard procedure. Thanks to the use of a staggered grid, the final pressure system is a very sparse block five-point system for three dimensional problems and it is a block four-point system in the two dimensional case. Furthermore, for high order in space and piecewise constant polynomials in time, the system is observed to be symmetric and positive definite. This allows to use fast linear solvers such as the conjugate gradient (CG) method. In
Garland, Benjamine J.; Chauvin, Leo T.
1957-01-01
Measurements of aerodynamic heat transfer have been made along the hemisphere and cylinder of a hemisphere-cylinder rocket-propelled model in free flight up to a Mach number of 3.88. The test Reynolds number based on free-stream condition and diameter of model covered a range from 2.69 x l0(exp 6) to 11.70 x 10(exp 6). Laminar, transitional, and turbulent heat-transfer coefficients were obtained. The laminar data along the body agreed with laminar theory for blunt bodies whereas the turbulent data along the cylinder were consistently lower than that predicted by the turbulent theory for a flat plate. Measurements of heat transfer at the stagnation point were, in general, lower than the theory for stagnation-point heat transfer. When the Reynolds number to the junction of the hemisphere-cylinder was greater than 6 x l0(exp 6), the transitional Reynolds number varied from 0.8 x l0(exp 6) to 3.0 x 10(exp 6); however, than 6 x l(exp 6) when the Reynolds number to the junction was less, than the transitional Reynolds number varied from 7.0 x l0(exp 6) to 24.7 x 10(exp 6).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khoury, Justin; Parikh, Maulik
2009-01-01
Mach's principle is the proposition that inertial frames are determined by matter. We put forth and implement a precise correspondence between matter and geometry that realizes Mach's principle. Einstein's equations are not modified and no selection principle is applied to their solutions; Mach's principle is realized wholly within Einstein's general theory of relativity. The key insight is the observation that, in addition to bulk matter, one can also add boundary matter. Given a space-time, and thus the inertial frames, we can read off both boundary and bulk stress tensors, thereby relating matter and geometry. We consider some global conditions that are necessary for the space-time to be reconstructible, in principle, from bulk and boundary matter. Our framework is similar to that of the black hole membrane paradigm and, in asymptotically anti-de Sitter space-times, is consistent with holographic duality.
Collapse transition and cyclomatic number distribution of directed lattice animals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lam, P.M.; Duarte, J.A.M.S.
1987-01-01
The authors computed the specific heat of directed lattice animals using a Monte Carlo method for various animals sizes N, with N up to 100 on the square and N up to 125 on the simple cubic lattices. The specific heat as a function of the temperature for various animal sizes exhibits peaks which seem to approach a collapse transition temperature monotonically from below with increasing N. A least square fit together with finite-size scaling then gives both the transition temperature T/sub c/ and the specific heat exponent α for these lattices. The cyclomatic number distributions for the number of animals with fixed animal size N are also calculated and these seem to obey a scaling law for large N
Hastings, Earl C., Jr.; Dickens, Waldo L.
1957-01-01
A flight investigation was conducted to determine the effects of an inlet modification and rocket-rack extension on the longitudinal trim and low-lift drag of the Douglas F5D-1 airplane. The investigation was conducted with a 0.125-scale rocket-boosted model which was flight tested at the Langley Pilotless Aircraft Research Station at Wallops Island, Va. Results indicate that the combined effects of the modified inlet and fully extended rocket racks on the trim lift coefficient and trim angle of attack were small between Mach numbers of 0.94 and 1.57. Between Mach numbers of 1.10 and 1.57 there was an average increase in drag coefficient of about o,005 for the model with modified inlet and extended rocket racks. The change in drag coefficient due to the inlet modification alone is small between Mach numbers of 1.59 and 1.64
Hofstetter, William R.
1957-01-01
The static longitudinal and lateral stability charaetefistics of an 0 .065-scale model of the XRSSM-N-9a (REGULUS II) Missile at Mach number range of 1.6 to 2.0 at a Reynolds number per foot of 2.0(exp 8)
Hastings, Earl C., Jr.; Dickens, Waldo L.
1957-01-01
A flight investigation was conducted to determine the effects of inlet modification and rocket-rack extension on the longitudinal trim and low-lift drag of the Douglas F5D-1 airplane. The investigation was conducted with a 0.125-scale rocket-boosted model between Mach Numbers of 0.81 and 1.64. This paper presents the changes in trim angle of attack, trim lift coefficient, and low-lift drag caused by the modified inlets alone over a small part of the test Mach number range and by a combination of the modified inlets and extended rocket racks throughout the remainder of the test.
The number and distribution of computerised tomography scanners in Turkey
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Semin, S.; Amato, Z.
1999-01-01
The goal of this study was to investigate the number and distribution of CT scanners in Turkey. Our results show 173 CT scanners in Turkey in 1994, which equals 2.9 scanners per million people. All of the scanners are located in 45 cities, where 81 % of the population resides. The other 31 cities in Turkey have no scanners. Of the 173 scanners, 103 (59.6 %) are owned by the private sector and the other 70 are owned by the public sector. Of Turkey's CT scanners, 49.2 % are located in private health centres, 21.9 % in university hospitals, 16.7 % in Ministry of Health (MOH) hospitals, 10.4 % in private hospitals and 1.8 % in social security hospitals. (orig.)
Photodensitometric tracing of Mach bands and its significance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoo, Shi Joon; Cho, Kyung Sik; Kang, Heung Sik; Cho, Byung Jae
1984-01-01
Mach bands, a visual phenomenon resulting from lateral inhibitory impulses in the retina, are recognized as lucent or dense lines at the borders of different radiographic densities. A number of clinical situations have been described in which Mach bands may cause difficulty in radiographic diagnosis. Photodensitometric measurement of the film can differentiate the true change in film density from the Mach band which is an optical illusion. Authors present several examples of photodensitometric tracings of Mach bands, with the brief review of the mechanism of their production
Distribution pattern and number of ticks on lizards.
Dudek, Krzysztof; Skórka, Piotr; Sajkowska, Zofia Anna; Ekner-Grzyb, Anna; Dudek, Monika; Tryjanowski, Piotr
2016-02-01
The success of ectoparasites depends primarily on the site of attachment and body condition of their hosts. Ticks usually tend to aggregate on vertebrate hosts in specific areas, but the distribution pattern may depend on host body size and condition, sex, life stage or skin morphology. Here, we studied the distribution of ticks on lizards and tested the following hypothesis: occurrence or high abundance of ticks is confined with body parts with smaller scales and larger interscalar length because such sites should provide ticks with superior attachment conditions. This study was performed in field conditions in central Poland in 2008-2011. In total, 500 lizards (Lacerta agilis) were caught and 839 ticks (Ixodes ricinus, larvae and nymphs) were collected from them. Using generalised linear mixed models, we found that the ticks were most abundant on forelimbs and their axillae, with 90% of ticks attached there. This part of the lizard body and the region behind the hindlimb were covered by the smallest scales with relatively wide gaps between them. This does not fully support our hypothesis that ticks prefer locations with easy access to skin between scales, because it does not explain why so few ticks were in the hindlimb area. We found that the abundance of ticks was positively correlated with lizard body size index (snout-vent length). Tick abundance was also higher in male and mature lizards than in female and young individuals. Autotomy had no effect on tick abundance. We found no correlation between tick size and lizard morphology, sex, autotomy and body size index. The probability of occurrence of dead ticks was positively linked with the total number of ticks on the lizard but there was no relationship between dead tick presence and lizard size, sex or age. Thus lizard body size and sex are the major factors affecting the abundance of ticks, and these parasites are distributed nearly exclusively on the host's forelimbs and their axillae. Copyright © 2015
Stevens, Joseph E.
1955-01-01
Low-lift drag data are presented herein for one 1/7.5-scale rocket-boosted model and three 1/45.85-scale equivalent-body models of the Grumman F9F-9 airplane, The data were obtained over a Reynolds number range of about 5 x 10(exp 6) to 10 x 10(exp 6) based on wing mean aerodynamic chord for the rocket model and total body length for the equivalent-body models. The rocket-boosted model showed a drag rise of about 0,037 (based on included wing area) between the subsonic level and the peak supersonic drag coefficient at the maximum Mach number of this test. The base drag coefficient measured on this model varied from a value of -0,0015 in the subsonic range to a maximum of about 0.0020 at a Mach number of 1.28, Drag coefficients for the equivalent-body models varied from about 0.125 (based on body maximum area) in the subsonic range to about 0.300 at a Mach number of 1.25. Increasing the total fineness ratio by a small amount raised the drag-rise Mach number slightly.
Sogukpinar, Haci
2018-02-01
In this paper, some of the NACA 64A series airfoils data are estimated and aerodynamic properties are calculated to facilitate great understandings effect of relative thickness on the aerodynamic performance of the airfoil by using COMSOL software. 64A201-64A204 airfoils data are not available in literature therefore 64A210 data are used as reference data to estimate 64A201, 64A202, 64A203, 64A204 airfoil configurations. Numerical calculations are then conducted with the angle of attack from -12° to +16° by using k-w turbulence model based on the finite-volume approach. The lift and drag coefficient are one of the most important parameters in studying the airplane performance. Therefore lift, drag and pressure coefficient around selected airfoil are calculated and compared at the Reynolds numbers of 6 × 106 and also stalling characteristics of airfoil section are investigated and presented numerically.
Hastings, Earl E., Jr.; Mitcham, Grady L.
1954-01-01
A flight test has been conducted to determine the longitudinal stability and control,characteristics of a 0.133-scale model of the Consolidated Vultee XFY-1 airplane without propellers for the Mach number range between 0.73 and 1.19.
Baber, Hal T , Jr; Moul, Martin T
1955-01-01
Two full-scale models of an inline, cruciform, canard missile configuration having a low-aspect-ratio wing equipped with flap-type controls were flight tested in order to determine the missile's longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics. Stability derivatives and control and drag characteristics are presented for a range of Mach number from 0.7 to 1.8. Nonlinear lift and moment curves were noted for the angle - of-attack range of this test (0 deg to 8 deg). The aerodynamic-center location for angles of attack near 50 remained nearly constant for supersonic speeds at 13.5 percent of the mean aerodynamic chord; whereas for angles of attack near 0 deg, there was a rapid forward movement of the aerodynamic center as the Mach number increased. At a control deflection of 0 deg, the missile's response to the longitudinal control was in an essentially fixed space plane which was not coincident with the pitch plane as a result of the missile rolling. As a consequence, stability characteristics were determined from the resultant of pitch and yaw motions. The damping-in-pitch derivatives for the two angle -of-attack ranges of the test are in close agreement and varied only slightly with Mach number. The horn-balanced trailing-edge flap was effective in producing angle of attack over the Mach number range.
Baber, H. T., Jr.; Moul, M. T.
1955-01-01
Two full-scale models of an inline, cruciform, canard missile configuration having a low-aspect-ratio wing equipped with flap-type controls were flight tested in order to determine the missile's longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics. Stability derivatives and control and drag characteristics are presented for a range of Mach number from 0.7 to 1.8. Nonlinear lift and moment curves were noted for the angle-of-attack range of this test (0 deg to 8 deg ). The aerodynamic-center location for angles of attack near 5 deg remained nearly constant for supersonic speeds at 13.5 percent of the mean aerodynamic chord; whereas for angles of attack near O deg, there was a rapid forward movement of the aerodynamic center as the Mach number increased. At a control deflection of O deg, the missile's response to the longitudinal control was in an essentially fixed space plane which was not coincident with the pitch plane as a result of the missile rolling. As a consequence, stability characteristics were determined from the resultant of pitch and yaw motions. The damping-in-pitch derivatives for the two angle-of-attack ranges of the test are in close agreement and varied only slightly with Mach number. The horn-balanced trailing-edge flap was effective in producing angle of attack over the Mach number range.
Runckel, Jack F.; Schmeer, James W.; Cassetti, Marlowe D.
1960-01-01
An investigation of the performance, stability, and control characteristics of a variable-sweep arrow-wing model (the "Swallow") with the outer wing panels swept 25 deg has been conducted in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel. The wing was uncambered and untwisted and had RAE 102 airfoil sections with a thickness-to-chord ratio of 0.14 normal to the leading edge. Four outboard engines located above and below the wing provided propulsive thrust, and, by deflecting in the pitch direction and rotating in the lateral plane, also produced control forces. A pair of swept lateral fins and a single vertical fin were mounted on each engine nacelle to provide aerodynamic stability and control. Jets-off data were obtained with flow-through nacelles, stimulating the effects of inlet flow; jet thrust and hot-jet interference effects were obtained with faired-nose nacelles housing hydrogen peroxide gas generators. Six-component force and moment data were obtained through a Mach number range of 0.40 to 0.90 at angles of attack and angles of sideslip from 0 deg to 15 deg. Longitudinal, directional, and lateral control were obtained by deflecting the nacelle-fin combinations as elevators, rudders, and ailerons at several fixed angles for each control.
Aeroacoustic computation of low mach number flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Skriver Dahl, K. [Risoe National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark)
1997-12-31
The possibilities of applying a recently developed numerical technique to predict aerodynamically generated sound from wind turbines is explored. The technique is a perturbation technique that has the advantage that the underlying flow field and the sound field are computed separately. Solution of the incompressible, time dependent flow field yields a hydrodynamic density correction to the incompressible constant density. The sound field is calculated from a set of equations governing the inviscid perturbations about the corrected flow field. Here, the emphasis is placed on the computation of the sound field. The nonlinear partial differential equations governing the sound fields are solved numerically using an explicit MacCormack scheme. Two types of non-reflecting boundary conditions are applied; one based on the asymptotic solution of the governing equations and the other based on a characteristic analysis of the governing equations. The former condition is easy to use and it performs slightly better than the charcteristic based condition. The technique is applied to the problems of the sound generation of a co-rotating vortex pair, which is a quadrupole, and the viscous flow over a circular cylinder, which is a dipole. Numerical results agree very well with the analytical solution for the problem of the co-rotating vortex pair. Numerical results for the viscous flow over a cylinder are presented and evaluated qualitatively. (au)
Mach's principle and rotating universes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
King, D.H.
1990-01-01
It is shown that the Bianchi 9 model universe satisfies the Mach principle. These closed rotating universes were previously thought to be counter-examples to the principle. The Mach principle is satisfied because the angular momentum of the rotating matter is compensated by the effective angular momentum of gravitational waves. A new formulation of the Mach principle is given that is based on the field theory interpretation of general relativity. Every closed universe with 3-sphere topology is shown to satisfy this formulation of the Mach principle. It is shown that the total angular momentum of the matter and gravitational waves in a closed 3-sphere topology universe is zero
Graham, John B., Jr.
1958-01-01
Heat-transfer and pressure measurements were obtained from a flight test of a 1/18-scale model of the Titan intercontinental ballistic missile up to a Mach number of 3.86 and Reynolds number per foot of 23.5 x 10(exp 6) and are compared with the data of two previously tested 1/18-scale models. Boundary-layer transition was observed on the nose of the model. Van Driest's theory predicted heat-transfer coefficients reasonably well for the fully laminar flow but predictions made by Van Driest's theory for turbulent flow were considerably higher than the measurements when the skin was being heated. Comparison with the flight test of two similar models shows fair repeatability of the measurements for fully laminar or turbulent flow.
Emergent gravity of fractons: Mach's principle revisited
Pretko, Michael
2017-07-01
Recent work has established the existence of stable quantum phases of matter described by symmetric tensor gauge fields, which naturally couple to particles of restricted mobility, such as fractons. We focus on a minimal toy model of a rank 2 tensor gauge field, consisting of fractons coupled to an emergent graviton (massless spin-2 excitation). We show how to reconcile the immobility of fractons with the expected gravitational behavior of the model. First, we reformulate the fracton phenomenon in terms of an emergent center of mass quantum number, and we show how an effective attraction arises from the principles of locality and conservation of center of mass. This interaction between fractons is always attractive and can be recast in geometric language, with a geodesiclike formulation, thereby satisfying the expected properties of a gravitational force. This force will generically be short-ranged, but we discuss how the power-law behavior of Newtonian gravity can arise under certain conditions. We then show that, while an isolated fracton is immobile, fractons are endowed with finite inertia by the presence of a large-scale distribution of other fractons, in a concrete manifestation of Mach's principle. Our formalism provides suggestive hints that matter plays a fundamental role, not only in perturbing, but in creating the background space in which it propagates.
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O' Rourke, Patrick Francis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2016-10-27
The purpose of this report is to provide the reader with an understanding of how a Monte Carlo neutron transport code was written, developed, and evolved to calculate the probability distribution functions (PDFs) and their moments for the neutron number at a final time as well as the cumulative fission number, along with introducing several basic Monte Carlo concepts.
The thermal pressure distribution of a simulated cold neutral medium
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Gazol, Adriana, E-mail: a.gazol@crya.unam.mx [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, UNAM, A. P. 3-72, c.p. 58089 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico)
2014-07-01
We numerically study the thermal pressure distribution in a gas with thermal properties similar to those of the cold neutral interstellar gas by analyzing three-dimensional hydrodynamic models in boxes with sides of 100 pc with turbulent compressible forcing at 50 pc and different Mach numbers. We find that at high pressures and for large Mach numbers, both the volume-weighted and the density-weighted distributions can be appropriately described by a log-normal distribution, whereas for small Mach numbers they are better described by a power law. Thermal pressure distributions resulting from similar simulations but with self-gravity differ only for low Mach numbers; in this case, they develop a high pressure tail.
Mutant number distribution in an exponentially growing population
Keller, Peter; Antal, Tibor
2015-01-01
We present an explicit solution to a classic model of cell-population growth introduced by Luria and Delbrück (1943 Genetics 28 491-511) 70 years ago to study the emergence of mutations in bacterial populations. In this model a wild-type population is assumed to grow exponentially in a deterministic fashion. Proportional to the wild-type population size, mutants arrive randomly and initiate new sub-populations of mutants that grow stochastically according to a supercritical birth and death process. We give an exact expression for the generating function of the total number of mutants at a given wild-type population size. We present a simple expression for the probability of finding no mutants, and a recursion formula for the probability of finding a given number of mutants. In the ‘large population-small mutation’ limit we recover recent results of Kessler and Levine (2014 J. Stat. Phys. doi:10.1007/s10955-014-1143-3) for a fully stochastic version of the process.
Mutant number distribution in an exponentially growing population
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keller, Peter; Antal, Tibor
2015-01-01
We present an explicit solution to a classic model of cell-population growth introduced by Luria and Delbrück (1943 Genetics 28 491–511) 70 years ago to study the emergence of mutations in bacterial populations. In this model a wild-type population is assumed to grow exponentially in a deterministic fashion. Proportional to the wild-type population size, mutants arrive randomly and initiate new sub-populations of mutants that grow stochastically according to a supercritical birth and death process. We give an exact expression for the generating function of the total number of mutants at a given wild-type population size. We present a simple expression for the probability of finding no mutants, and a recursion formula for the probability of finding a given number of mutants. In the ‘large population-small mutation’ limit we recover recent results of Kessler and Levine (2014 J. Stat. Phys. doi:10.1007/s10955-014-1143-3) for a fully stochastic version of the process. (paper)
Lezberg, Erwin A.; Metzler, Allen J.; Pack, William D.
1993-01-01
Results of in-stream combustion measurements taken during Mach 5 to 7 true simulation testing of the Hypersonic Research Engine/Aerothermodynamic Integration Model (HRE/AIM) are presented. These results, the instrumentation techniques, and configuration changes to the engine installation that were required to test this model are described. In test runs at facility Mach numbers of 5 to 7, an exhaust instrumentation ring which formed an extension of the engine exhaust nozzle shroud provided diagnostic measurements at 10 circumferential locations in the HRE combustor exit plane. The measurements included static and pitot pressures using conventional conical probes, combustion gas temperatures from cooled-gas pyrometer probes, and species concentration from analysis of combustion gas samples. Results showed considerable circumferential variation, indicating that efficiency losses were due to nonuniform fuel distribution or incomplete mixing. Results using the Mach 7 facility nozzle but with Mach 6 temperature simulation, 1590 to 1670 K, showed indications of incomplete combustion. Nitric oxide measurements at the combustor exit peaked at 2000 ppmv for stoichiometric combustion at Mach 6.
Distributions of hit-numbers in single targets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fowler, J F [Postgraduate Medical School, Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom)
1966-07-01
Very general models can be proposed for relating the surviving proportion of an irradiated population of cells or bacteria to the absorbed dose, but if the number of free parameters is large the model can never be tested experimentally (Zimmer; Zirkie; Tobias). A relatively simple model is therefore proposed here, based on the physical facts of energy deposition in small volumes which are currently under active investigation (Rossi), and on cell-survival experiments over a wide range of LET (e.g. Barendsen et al.; Barendsen). It is not suggested that the model is correct or final, but only that its shortcomings should be demonstrated by comparison with experimental results before more complicated models are worth pursuing. It is basically a multihit model applied first to a single target volume, but also applicable to the situation where only one out of many potential target volumes has to be inactivated to kill the organism. It can be extended to two or more target volumes if necessary. Emphasis is placed upon the amount of energy locally deposited in certain sensitive volumes called 'target volumes'.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mir G. H. Talpur
2006-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we consider, how to find the marginal distributions of crossing time and renewal numbers related with two poisson processes by using probability arguments. The obtained results show that the one-dimension marginal distributions are N+1 order PH-distributions.
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Fortin, T
2006-05-15
This work deals with the discretization of Navier-Stokes equations using different finite element methods adapted to the problem of two-phase flows. These methods must be of high order to limit the presence of spurious flows (which contradict the establishment of a physical equilibrium) and to verify energy conservation properties. Several solutions are proposed which seem to fulfill these expectations. A reformulation of the six-equation system adapted to low Mach two-phase flows has been also proposed. These methods have been implemented into the Trio-U code of CEA Grenoble, but have been tested only on simple 'academic' configurations. (J.S.)
Gyro precession and Mach's principle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eby, P.
1979-01-01
The precession of a gyroscope is calculated in a nonrelativistic theory due to Barbour which satisfies Mach's principle. It is shown that the theory predicts both the geodetic and motional precession of general relativity to within factors of order 1. The significance of the gyro experiment is discussed from the point of view of metric theories of gravity and this is contrasted with its significance from the point of view of Mach's principle. (author)
Schmale, Julia; Henning, Silvia; Decesari, Stefano; Henzing, Bas; Keskinen, Helmi; Sellegri, Karine; Ovadnevaite, Jurgita; Pöhlker, Mira L.; Brito, Joel; Bougiatioti, Aikaterini; Kristensson, Adam; Kalivitis, Nikos; Stavroulas, Iasonas; Carbone, Samara; Jefferson, Anne; Park, Minsu; Schlag, Patrick; Iwamoto, Yoko; Aalto, Pasi; Äijälä, Mikko; Bukowiecki, Nicolas; Ehn, Mikael; Frank, Göran; Fröhlich, Roman; Frumau, Arnoud; Herrmann, Erik; Herrmann, Hartmut; Holzinger, Rupert; Kos, Gerard; Kulmala, Markku; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Nenes, Athanasios; O'Dowd, Colin; Petäjä, Tuukka; Picard, David; Pöhlker, Christopher; Pöschl, Ulrich; Poulain, Laurent; Prévôt, André Stephan Henry; Swietlicki, Erik; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Artaxo, Paulo; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Ogren, John; Matsuki, Atsushi; Yum, Seong Soo; Stratmann, Frank; Baltensperger, Urs; Gysel, Martin
2018-02-01
Aerosol-cloud interactions (ACI) constitute the single largest uncertainty in anthropogenic radiative forcing. To reduce the uncertainties and gain more confidence in the simulation of ACI, models need to be evaluated against observations, in particular against measurements of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Here we present a data set - ready to be used for model validation - of long-term observations of CCN number concentrations, particle number size distributions and chemical composition from 12 sites on 3 continents. Studied environments include coastal background, rural background, alpine sites, remote forests and an urban surrounding. Expectedly, CCN characteristics are highly variable across site categories. However, they also vary within them, most strongly in the coastal background group, where CCN number concentrations can vary by up to a factor of 30 within one season. In terms of particle activation behaviour, most continental stations exhibit very similar activation ratios (relative to particles > 20 nm) across the range of 0.1 to 1.0 % supersaturation. At the coastal sites the transition from particles being CCN inactive to becoming CCN active occurs over a wider range of the supersaturation spectrum. Several stations show strong seasonal cycles of CCN number concentrations and particle number size distributions, e.g. at Barrow (Arctic haze in spring), at the alpine stations (stronger influence of polluted boundary layer air masses in summer), the rain forest (wet and dry season) or Finokalia (wildfire influence in autumn). The rural background and urban sites exhibit relatively little variability throughout the year, while short-term variability can be high especially at the urban site. The average hygroscopicity parameter, κ, calculated from the chemical composition of submicron particles was highest at the coastal site of Mace Head (0.6) and lowest at the rain forest station ATTO (0.2-0.3). We performed closure studies based on κ-Köhler theory
Koyama, Kento; Hokunan, Hidekazu; Hasegawa, Mayumi; Kawamura, Shuso; Koseki, Shigenobu
2016-12-01
We investigated a bacterial sample preparation procedure for single-cell studies. In the present study, we examined whether single bacterial cells obtained via 10-fold dilution followed a theoretical Poisson distribution. Four serotypes of Salmonella enterica, three serotypes of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli and one serotype of Listeria monocytogenes were used as sample bacteria. An inoculum of each serotype was prepared via a 10-fold dilution series to obtain bacterial cell counts with mean values of one or two. To determine whether the experimentally obtained bacterial cell counts follow a theoretical Poisson distribution, a likelihood ratio test between the experimentally obtained cell counts and Poisson distribution which parameter estimated by maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) was conducted. The bacterial cell counts of each serotype sufficiently followed a Poisson distribution. Furthermore, to examine the validity of the parameters of Poisson distribution from experimentally obtained bacterial cell counts, we compared these with the parameters of a Poisson distribution that were estimated using random number generation via computer simulation. The Poisson distribution parameters experimentally obtained from bacterial cell counts were within the range of the parameters estimated using a computer simulation. These results demonstrate that the bacterial cell counts of each serotype obtained via 10-fold dilution followed a Poisson distribution. The fact that the frequency of bacterial cell counts follows a Poisson distribution at low number would be applied to some single-cell studies with a few bacterial cells. In particular, the procedure presented in this study enables us to develop an inactivation model at the single-cell level that can estimate the variability of survival bacterial numbers during the bacterial death process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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Kegalj, Martin
2013-11-01
In axial turbines tip leakage forms a large portion of the overall losses. Applying a shroud is very aerodynamically useful, but the higher mechanical loads of the revolving rotor blading exposed to a high thermal load and the higher costs suggest a shroudless configuration is better. The main parameter in the tip leakage loss is the tip gap height, which cannot be reduced arbitrarily as a running gap is necessary due to thermal expansion and vibration of the jet engine. The pressure ratio between pressure and suction of the rotor blade forces the fluid over the blade tip and leads to the formation of the tip leakage vortex. Reduced turning and losses caused by vortices and subsequent mixing are responsible for the reduced efficiency. Using a squealer cavity on the flat blade tip is a feasible way to reduce the aerodynamic losses. A portion of the kinetic energy of the tip leakage flow is dissipated while entering the cavity; the flow exiting the cavity enters the passage with reduced momentum and reduced tip gap mass flow. A 1(1)/(2) stage low mach number turbine was used to investigate the influence of tip geometry. Aerodynamic measurements, performed with five-hole probes, two-component hot-wire anemometer, unsteady wall pressure sensors, stereo and borescopic particle-image-velocimetry setups and oil and dye flow visualization, found small differences in the flow velocities and angles between the flat and squealer tip configuration in the measurement planes downstream of the rotor. The measurement uncertainty proves the difficulty of determining the influence of the squealer cavity on the blade row outflow with global measurement data. To gather information on the flow close to the casing inside the rotor passage is only possible with non-intrusive laser measurement techniques. Comparison of the different tip geometries is still difficult due to the small differences in the absolute flow data. The use of the {lambda}{sub 2} vortex criterion enables an objective
Lawnik, Marcin
2018-01-01
The scope of the paper is the presentation of a new method of generating numbers from a given distribution. The method uses the inverse cumulative distribution function and a method of flattening of probabilistic distributions. On the grounds of these methods, a new construction of chaotic maps was derived, which generates values from a given distribution. The analysis of the new method was conducted on the example of a newly constructed chaotic recurrences, based on the Box-Muller transformation and the quantile function of the exponential distribution. The obtained results certify that the proposed method may be successively applicable for the construction of generators of pseudo-random numbers.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaidash, A A; Egorov, V I; Gleim, A V
2016-01-01
Quantum cryptography allows distributing secure keys between two users so that any performed eavesdropping attempt would be immediately discovered. However, in practice an eavesdropper can obtain key information from multi-photon states when attenuated laser radiation is used as a source of quantum states. In order to prevent actions of an eavesdropper, it is generally suggested to implement special cryptographic protocols, like decoy states or SARG04. In this paper, we describe an alternative method based on monitoring photon number statistics after detection. We provide a useful rule of thumb to estimate approximate order of difference of expected distribution and distribution in case of attack. Formula for calculating a minimum value of total pulses or time-gaps to resolve attack is shown. Also formulas for actual fraction of raw key known to Eve were derived. This method can therefore be used with any system and even combining with mentioned special protocols. (paper)
Mach's predictions and relativistic cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heller, M.
1989-01-01
Deep methodological insight of Ernst Mach into the structure of the Newtonian mechanics allowed him to ask questions, the importance of which can be appreciated only today. Three such Mach's ''predictions'' are briefly presented, namely: the possibility of the existence of an allpervading medium which could serve as an universal frame of reference and which has actually been discovered in the form of the microwave background radiation, a certain ''smoothness'' of the Universe which is now recognized as the Robertson-Walker symmetries and the possibility of the experimental verification of the mass anisotropy. 11 refs. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Schmale
2018-02-01
Full Text Available Aerosol–cloud interactions (ACI constitute the single largest uncertainty in anthropogenic radiative forcing. To reduce the uncertainties and gain more confidence in the simulation of ACI, models need to be evaluated against observations, in particular against measurements of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN. Here we present a data set – ready to be used for model validation – of long-term observations of CCN number concentrations, particle number size distributions and chemical composition from 12 sites on 3 continents. Studied environments include coastal background, rural background, alpine sites, remote forests and an urban surrounding. Expectedly, CCN characteristics are highly variable across site categories. However, they also vary within them, most strongly in the coastal background group, where CCN number concentrations can vary by up to a factor of 30 within one season. In terms of particle activation behaviour, most continental stations exhibit very similar activation ratios (relative to particles > 20 nm across the range of 0.1 to 1.0 % supersaturation. At the coastal sites the transition from particles being CCN inactive to becoming CCN active occurs over a wider range of the supersaturation spectrum. Several stations show strong seasonal cycles of CCN number concentrations and particle number size distributions, e.g. at Barrow (Arctic haze in spring, at the alpine stations (stronger influence of polluted boundary layer air masses in summer, the rain forest (wet and dry season or Finokalia (wildfire influence in autumn. The rural background and urban sites exhibit relatively little variability throughout the year, while short-term variability can be high especially at the urban site. The average hygroscopicity parameter, κ, calculated from the chemical composition of submicron particles was highest at the coastal site of Mace Head (0.6 and lowest at the rain forest station ATTO (0.2–0.3. We performed closure
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Těšínská, Emilie; Landa, Ivan; Drahoš, Jiří
2016-01-01
Roč. 66, č. 3 (2016), s. 167-174 ISSN 0009-0700 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 ; RVO:68378114 ; RVO:67985858 Keywords : Ernst Mach * pedagogy * experiments * general education * ballistics * Doppler principle Subject RIV: AB - History; CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry (UCHP-M)
Pershin, I. M.; Pervukhin, D. A.; Ilyushin, Y. V.; Afanaseva, O. V.
2017-10-01
The article considers the important issue of designing the distributed systems of hydrolithospere processes management. Control effects on the hydrolithospere processes are implemented by a set of extractive wells. The article shows how to determine the optimal number of extractive wells that provide a distributed control impact on the management object.
Chen, Hua; Chen, Kun
2013-07-01
The distributions of coalescence times and ancestral lineage numbers play an essential role in coalescent modeling and ancestral inference. Both exact distributions of coalescence times and ancestral lineage numbers are expressed as the sum of alternating series, and the terms in the series become numerically intractable for large samples. More computationally attractive are their asymptotic distributions, which were derived in Griffiths (1984) for populations with constant size. In this article, we derive the asymptotic distributions of coalescence times and ancestral lineage numbers for populations with temporally varying size. For a sample of size n, denote by Tm the mth coalescent time, when m + 1 lineages coalesce into m lineages, and An(t) the number of ancestral lineages at time t back from the current generation. Similar to the results in Griffiths (1984), the number of ancestral lineages, An(t), and the coalescence times, Tm, are asymptotically normal, with the mean and variance of these distributions depending on the population size function, N(t). At the very early stage of the coalescent, when t → 0, the number of coalesced lineages n - An(t) follows a Poisson distribution, and as m → n, $$n\\left(n-1\\right){T}_{m}/2N\\left(0\\right)$$ follows a gamma distribution. We demonstrate the accuracy of the asymptotic approximations by comparing to both exact distributions and coalescent simulations. Several applications of the theoretical results are also shown: deriving statistics related to the properties of gene genealogies, such as the time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) and the total branch length (TBL) of the genealogy, and deriving the allele frequency spectrum for large genealogies. With the advent of genomic-level sequencing data for large samples, the asymptotic distributions are expected to have wide applications in theoretical and methodological development for population genetic inference.
A method for generating skewed random numbers using two overlapping uniform distributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ermak, D.L.; Nasstrom, J.S.
1995-02-01
The objective of this work was to implement and evaluate a method for generating skewed random numbers using a combination of uniform random numbers. The method provides a simple and accurate way of generating skewed random numbers from the specified first three moments without an a priori specification of the probability density function. We describe the procedure for generating skewed random numbers from unifon-n random numbers, and show that it accurately produces random numbers with the desired first three moments over a range of skewness values. We also show that in the limit of zero skewness, the distribution of random numbers is an accurate approximation to the Gaussian probability density function. Future work win use this method to provide skewed random numbers for a Langevin equation model for diffusion in skewed turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Viskari, T.
2012-07-01
Atmospheric aerosol particles have several important effects on the environment and human society. The exact impact of aerosol particles is largely determined by their particle size distributions. However, no single instrument is able to measure the whole range of the particle size distribution. Estimating a particle size distribution from multiple simultaneous measurements remains a challenge in aerosol physical research. Current methods to combine different measurements require assumptions concerning the overlapping measurement ranges and have difficulties in accounting for measurement uncertainties. In this thesis, Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is presented as a promising method to estimate particle number size distributions from multiple simultaneous measurements. The particle number size distribution estimated by EKF includes information from prior particle number size distributions as propagated by a dynamical model and is based on the reliabilities of the applied information sources. Known physical processes and dynamically evolving error covariances constrain the estimate both over time and particle size. The method was tested with measurements from Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (DMPS), Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS) and nephelometer. The particle number concentration was chosen as the state of interest. The initial EKF implementation presented here includes simplifications, yet the results are positive and the estimate successfully incorporated information from the chosen instruments. For particle sizes smaller than 4 micrometers, the estimate fits the available measurements and smooths the particle number size distribution over both time and particle diameter. The estimate has difficulties with particles larger than 4 micrometers due to issues with both measurements and the dynamical model in that particle size range. The EKF implementation appears to reduce the impact of measurement noise on the estimate, but has a delayed reaction to sudden
Elementary physical approach to Mach's principle and its observational basis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horak, Z.
1979-01-01
It is shown that Mach's principle and the general principle of relativity are logical consequences of a 'materialistic postulate' and that general relativity implies the validity of Mach's principle for a static (or quasistatic) homogeneous and isotropic universe, spatially self-enclosed. The finite velocity of propagation of gravitational field does not imply a retardation of inertial forces due to the distant masses and therefore does not exclude the validity of Mach's principle. Similarly, the experimentally verified isotropy of inertia is compatible with this principle. The recent observational evidence of very high isotropy of the actual universe proves that the 'anti-Machian' Godel world model must be rejected as a nonphysical one. This suggests the possibility of a renaissance of Einstein's first cosmological model by considering-in the spirit of an older idea of Herbert Dingle-a superlarge-scale quasistatic universe consisting of an unknown number of statistically oscillating regions similar to our own, momentarily expanding, metagalaxy. (author)
[Effects of sampling plot number on tree species distribution prediction under climate change].
Liang, Yu; He, Hong-Shi; Wu, Zhi-Wei; Li, Xiao-Na; Luo, Xu
2013-05-01
Based on the neutral landscapes under different degrees of landscape fragmentation, this paper studied the effects of sampling plot number on the prediction of tree species distribution at landscape scale under climate change. The tree species distribution was predicted by the coupled modeling approach which linked an ecosystem process model with a forest landscape model, and three contingent scenarios and one reference scenario of sampling plot numbers were assumed. The differences between the three scenarios and the reference scenario under different degrees of landscape fragmentation were tested. The results indicated that the effects of sampling plot number on the prediction of tree species distribution depended on the tree species life history attributes. For the generalist species, the prediction of their distribution at landscape scale needed more plots. Except for the extreme specialist, landscape fragmentation degree also affected the effects of sampling plot number on the prediction. With the increase of simulation period, the effects of sampling plot number on the prediction of tree species distribution at landscape scale could be changed. For generalist species, more plots are needed for the long-term simulation.
Effects of the distribution of female primates on the number of males.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Laurel Mariah Carnes
Full Text Available The spatiotemporal distribution of females is thought to drive variation in mating systems, and hence plays a central role in understanding animal behavior, ecology and evolution. Previous research has focused on investigating the links between female spatiotemporal distribution and the number of males in haplorhine primates. However, important questions remain concerning the importance of spatial cohesion, the generality of the pattern across haplorhine and strepsirrhine primates, and the consistency of previous findings given phylogenetic uncertainty. To address these issues, we examined how the spatiotemporal distribution of females influences the number of males in primate groups using an expanded comparative dataset and recent advances in bayesian phylogenetic and statistical methods. Specifically, we investigated the effect of female distributional factors (female number, spatial cohesion, estrous synchrony, breeding season duration and breeding seasonality on the number of males in primate groups. Using bayesian approaches to control for uncertainty in phylogeny and the model of trait evolution, we found that the number of females exerted a strong influence on the number of males in primate groups. In a multiple regression model that controlled for female number, we found support for temporal effects, particularly involving female estrous synchrony: the number of males increases when females are more synchronously receptive. Similarly, the number of males increases in species with shorter birth seasons, suggesting that greater breeding seasonality makes defense of females more difficult for male primates. When comparing primate suborders, we found only weak evidence for differences in traits between haplorhines and strepsirrhines, and including suborder in the statistical models did not affect our conclusions or give compelling evidence for different effects in haplorhines and strepsirrhines. Collectively, these results demonstrate that
Local flow measurements at the inlet spike tip of a Mach 3 supersonic cruise airplane
Johnson, H. J.; Montoya, E. J.
1973-01-01
The flow field at the left inlet spike tip of a YF-12A airplane was examined using at 26 deg included angle conical flow sensor to obtain measurements at free-stream Mach numbers from 1.6 to 3.0. Local flow angularity, Mach number, impact pressure, and mass flow were determined and compared with free-stream values. Local flow changes occurred at the same time as free-stream changes. The local flow usually approached the spike centerline from the upper outboard side because of spike cant and toe-in. Free-stream Mach number influenced the local flow angularity; as Mach number increased above 2.2, local angle of attack increased and local sideslip angle decreased. Local Mach number was generally 3 percent less than free-stream Mach number. Impact-pressure ratio and mass flow ratio increased as free-stream Mach number increased above 2.2, indicating a beneficial forebody compression effect. No degradation of the spike tip instrumentation was observed after more than 40 flights in the high-speed thermal environment encountered by the airplane. The sensor is rugged, simple, and sensitive to small flow changes. It can provide accurate imputs necessary to control an inlet.
Time series behaviour of the number of Air Asia passengers: A distributional approach
Asrah, Norhaidah Mohd; Djauhari, Maman Abdurachman
2013-09-01
The common practice to time series analysis is by fitting a model and then further analysis is conducted on the residuals. However, if we know the distributional behavior of time series, the analyses in model identification, parameter estimation, and model checking are more straightforward. In this paper, we show that the number of Air Asia passengers can be represented as a geometric Brownian motion process. Therefore, instead of using the standard approach in model fitting, we use an appropriate transformation to come up with a stationary, normally distributed and even independent time series. An example in forecasting the number of Air Asia passengers will be given to illustrate the advantages of the method.
An efficient algorithm for generating random number pairs drawn from a bivariate normal distribution
Campbell, C. W.
1983-01-01
An efficient algorithm for generating random number pairs from a bivariate normal distribution was developed. Any desired value of the two means, two standard deviations, and correlation coefficient can be selected. Theoretically the technique is exact and in practice its accuracy is limited only by the quality of the uniform distribution random number generator, inaccuracies in computer function evaluation, and arithmetic. A FORTRAN routine was written to check the algorithm and good accuracy was obtained. Some small errors in the correlation coefficient were observed to vary in a surprisingly regular manner. A simple model was developed which explained the qualities aspects of the errors.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Flambaum, V.V.; Izrailev, F.M.
1997-01-01
A method is developed for calculation of single-particle occupation numbers in finite Fermi systems of interacting particles. It is more accurate than the canonical distribution method and gives the Fermi-Dirac distribution in the limit of large number of particles. It is shown that statistical effects of the interaction are absorbed by an increase of the effective temperature. Criteria for quantum chaos and statistical equilibrium are considered. All results are confirmed by numerical experiments in the two-body random interaction model. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Diffusive wave in the low Mach limit for non-viscous and heat-conductive gas
Liu, Yechi
2018-06-01
The low Mach number limit for one-dimensional non-isentropic compressible Navier-Stokes system without viscosity is investigated, where the density and temperature have different asymptotic states at far fields. It is proved that the solution of the system converges to a nonlinear diffusion wave globally in time as Mach number goes to zero. It is remarked that the velocity of diffusion wave is proportional with the variation of temperature. Furthermore, it is shown that the solution of compressible Navier-Stokes system also has the same phenomenon when Mach number is suitably small.
The distribution of the number of node neighbors in random hypergraphs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
López, Eduardo
2013-01-01
Hypergraphs, the generalization of graphs in which edges become conglomerates of r nodes called hyperedges of rank r ⩾ 2, are excellent models to study systems with interactions that are beyond the pairwise level. For hypergraphs, the node degree ℓ (number of hyperedges connected to a node) and the number of neighbors k of a node differ from each other in contrast to the case of graphs, where counting the number of edges is equivalent to counting the number of neighbors. In this paper, I calculate the distribution of the number of node neighbors in random hypergraphs in which hyperedges of uniform rank r have a homogeneous (equal for all hyperedges) probability p to appear. This distribution is equivalent to the degree distribution of ensembles of graphs created as projections of hypergraph or bipartite network ensembles, where the projection connects any two nodes in the projected graph when they are also connected in the hypergraph or bipartite network. The calculation is non-trivial due to the possibility that neighbor nodes belong simultaneously to multiple hyperedges (node overlaps). From the exact results, the traditional asymptotic approximation to the distribution in the sparse regime (small p) where overlaps are ignored is rederived and improved; the approximation exhibits Poisson-like behavior accompanied by strong fluctuations modulated by power-law decays in the system size N with decay exponents equal to the minimum number of overlapping nodes possible for a given number of neighbors. It is shown that the dense limit cannot be explained if overlaps are ignored, and the correct asymptotic distribution is provided. The neighbor distribution requires the calculation of a new combinatorial coefficient Q r−1 (k, ℓ), which counts the number of distinct labeled hypergraphs of k nodes, ℓ hyperedges of rank r − 1, and where every node is connected to at least one hyperedge. Some identities of Q r−1 (k, ℓ) are derived and applied to the
Volkov, AE; de Korte, J.
The ivory gull Pagophila eburnea has a semi-circumpolar distribution with breeding sites in the High Arctic. Data about ivory gulls in the Severnaja Zemlja Archipelago (Siberia) were collected from 1991 to 1995. The numbers of breeding ivory gulls and their egg-laying period are correlated with the
Robert Musil versus Ernst Mach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jalón, Mauricio
2010-06-01
Full Text Available On Mach’s Theories (DT of R. Musil rejects that the scientific representation tends to build a clear and complete inventory of facts. Mach finds himself obliged to presuppose constant relationships in nature; but this regularity of phenomena implies that the law is something more than a «table», that its mere dependencies are pushed into the background, and that a theoretical relationship in Physics is much more than an order relationship. His conception of scientific economy as a «natural adaptation» implies a biological monism opposed to the characteristic dualities of an empiricist.
Sobre las teorías de Mach (TD de R. Musil rebate que la representación científica tienda a construir un claro y completo inventario de hechos. Pues Mach se ve obligado a presuponer relaciones constantes en la naturaleza; pero esta regularidad de los fenómenos implica que la ley es algo más que cierto «cuadro», que las meras dependencias que defiende están en un segundo plano y que una relación teórica en física es mucho más que una relación de orden. Su concepción de la economía científica como «adaptación natural» significa un monismo biológico opuesto a las dualidades propias de un empirista.
Generating log-normally distributed random numbers by using the Ziggurat algorithm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choi, Jong Soo
2016-01-01
Uncertainty analyses are usually based on the Monte Carlo method. Using an efficient random number generator(RNG) is a key element in success of Monte Carlo simulations. Log-normal distributed variates are very typical in NPP PSAs. This paper proposes an approach to generate log normally distributed variates based on the Ziggurat algorithm and evaluates the efficiency of the proposed Ziggurat RNG. The proposed RNG can be helpful to improve the uncertainty analysis of NPP PSAs. This paper focuses on evaluating the efficiency of the Ziggurat algorithm from a NPP PSA point of view. From this study, we can draw the following conclusions. - The Ziggurat algorithm is one of perfect random number generators to product normal distributed variates. - The Ziggurat algorithm is computationally much faster than the most commonly used method, Marsaglia polar method
Rotating detectors and Mach's principle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paola, R.D.M. de; Svaiter, N.F.
2000-08-01
In this work we consider a quantum version of Newton s bucket experiment in a fl;at spacetime: we take an Unruh-DeWitt detector in interaction with a real massless scalar field. We calculate the detector's excitation rate when it is uniformly rotating around some fixed point and the field is prepared in the Minkowski vacuum and also when the detector is inertial and the field is in the Trocheries-Takeno vacuum state. These results are compared and the relations with Mach's principle are discussed. (author)
On the total number of genes and their length distribution in complete microbial genomes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Skovgaard, M; Jensen, L J; Brunak, S
2001-01-01
In sequenced microbial genomes, some of the annotated genes are actually not protein-coding genes, but rather open reading frames that occur by chance. Therefore, the number of annotated genes is higher than the actual number of genes for most of these microbes. Comparison of the length distribut......In sequenced microbial genomes, some of the annotated genes are actually not protein-coding genes, but rather open reading frames that occur by chance. Therefore, the number of annotated genes is higher than the actual number of genes for most of these microbes. Comparison of the length...... distribution of the annotated genes with the length distribution of those matching a known protein reveals that too many short genes are annotated in many genomes. Here we estimate the true number of protein-coding genes for sequenced genomes. Although it is often claimed that Escherichia coli has about 4300...... genes, we show that it probably has only approximately 3800 genes, and that a similar discrepancy exists for almost all published genomes....
On the total number of genes and their length distribution in complete microbial genomes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Skovgaard, Marie; Jensen, L.J.; Brunak, Søren
2001-01-01
In sequenced microbial genomes, some of the annotated genes are actually not protein-coding genes, but rather open reading frames that occur by chance. Therefore, the number of annotated genes is higher than the actual number of genes for most of these microbes. Comparison of the length...... distribution of the annotated genes with the length distribution of those matching a known protein reveals that too many short genes are annotated in many genomes. Here we estimate the true number of protein-coding genes for sequenced genomes. Although it is often claimed that Escherichia coli has about 4300...... genes, we show that it probably has only similar to 3800 genes, and that a similar discrepancy exists for almost all published genomes....
Recovery Temperature, Transition, and Heat Transfer Measurements at Mach 5
Brinich, Paul F.
1961-01-01
Schlieren, recovery temperature, and heat-transfer measurements were made on a hollow cylinder and a cone with axes alined parallel to the stream. Both the cone and cylinder were equipped with various bluntnesses, and the tests covered a Reynolds number range up to 20 x 10(exp 6) at a free-stream Mach number of 4.95 and wall to free-stream temperature ratios from 1.8 to 5.2 (adiabatic). A substantial transition delay due to bluntness was found for both the cylinder and the cone. For the present tests (Mach 4.95), transition was delayed by a factor of 3 on the cylinder and about 2 on the cone, these delays being somewhat larger than those observed in earlier tests at Mach 3.1. Heat-transfer tests on the cylinder showed only slight effects of wall temperature level on transition location; this is to be contrasted to the large transition delays observed on conical-type bodies at low surface temperatures at Mach 3.1. The schlieren and the peak-recovery-temperature methods of detecting transition were compared with the heat-transfer results. The comparison showed that the first two methods identified a transition point which occurred just beyond the end of the laminar run as seen in the heat-transfer data.
Asymptotic Poisson distribution for the number of system failures of a monotone system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aven, Terje; Haukis, Harald
1997-01-01
It is well known that for highly available monotone systems, the time to the first system failure is approximately exponentially distributed. Various normalising factors can be used as the parameter of the exponential distribution to ensure the asymptotic exponentiality. More generally, it can be shown that the number of system failures is asymptotic Poisson distributed. In this paper we study the performance of some of the normalising factors by using Monte Carlo simulation. The results show that the exponential/Poisson distribution gives in general very good approximations for highly available components. The asymptotic failure rate of the system gives best results when the process is in steady state, whereas other normalising factors seem preferable when the process is not in steady state. From a computational point of view the asymptotic system failure rate is most attractive
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, L.; Tang, X. [Univ. of Central Lancashire. Engineering and Physical Sciences, Preston (United Kingdom); Liu, X. [Univ. of Cumbria. Sustainable Engineering, Workington (United Kingdom)
2012-07-01
The aerodynamic performance of a wind turbine depends very much on its blade geometric design, typically based on the blade element momentum (BEM) theory, which divides the blade into several blade elements. In current blade design practices based on Schmitz rotor design theory, the blade geometric parameters including chord and twist angle distributions are determined based on airfoil aerodynamic data at a specific Reynolds number. However, rotating wind turbine blade elements operate at different Reynolds numbers due to variable wind speed and different blade span locations. Therefore, the blade design through Schmitz rotor theory at a specific Reynolds number does not necessarily provide the best power performance under operational conditions. This paper aims to provide an optimal blade design strategy for horizontal-axis wind turbines operating at different Reynolds numbers. A fixed-pitch variable-speed (FPVS) wind turbine with S809 airfoil is chosen as a case study and a Matlab program which considers Reynolds number effects is developed to determine the optimized chord and twist angle distributions of the blade. The performance of the optimized blade is compared with that of the preliminary blade which is designed based on Schmitz rotor design theory at a specific Reynolds number. The results demonstrate that the proposed blade design optimization strategy can improve the power performance of the wind turbine. This approach can be further developed for any practice of horizontal axis wind turbine blade design. (Author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rader, D.J.; Benson, D.A.
1995-05-01
This report presents the results of an experimental study of the aerosol produced by the combustion of high-velocity molten-uranium droplets produced by the simultaneous heating and electromagnetic launch of uranium wires. These tests are intended to simulate the reduction of high-velocity fragments into aerosol in high-explosive detonations or reactor accidents involving nuclear materials. As reported earlier, the resulting aerosol consists mainly of web-like chain agglomerates. A condensation nucleus counter was used to investigate the decay of the total particle concentration due to coagulation and losses. Number size distributions based on mobility equivalent diameter obtained soon after launch with a Differential Mobility Particle Sizer showed lognormal distributions with an initial count median diameter (CMD) of 0.3 {mu}m and a geometric standard deviation, {sigma}{sub g} of about 2; the CMD was found to increase and {sigma}{sub g} decrease with time due to coagulation. Mass size distributions based on aerodynamic diameter were obtained for the first time with a Microorifice Uniform Deposit Impactor, which showed lognormal distributions with mass median aerodynamic diameters of about 0.5 {mu}m and an aerodynamic geometric standard deviation of about 2. Approximate methods for converting between number and mass distributions and between mobility and aerodynamic equivalent diameters are presented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rader, D.J.; Benson, D.A.
1995-05-01
This report presents the results of an experimental study of the aerosol produced by the combustion of high-velocity molten-uranium droplets produced by the simultaneous heating and electromagnetic launch of uranium wires. These tests are intended to simulate the reduction of high-velocity fragments into aerosol in high-explosive detonations or reactor accidents involving nuclear materials. As reported earlier, the resulting aerosol consists mainly of web-like chain agglomerates. A condensation nucleus counter was used to investigate the decay of the total particle concentration due to coagulation and losses. Number size distributions based on mobility equivalent diameter obtained soon after launch with a Differential Mobility Particle Sizer showed lognormal distributions with an initial count median diameter (CMD) of 0.3 μm and a geometric standard deviation, σ g of about 2; the CMD was found to increase and σ g decrease with time due to coagulation. Mass size distributions based on aerodynamic diameter were obtained for the first time with a Microorifice Uniform Deposit Impactor, which showed lognormal distributions with mass median aerodynamic diameters of about 0.5 μm and an aerodynamic geometric standard deviation of about 2. Approximate methods for converting between number and mass distributions and between mobility and aerodynamic equivalent diameters are presented
Number and distribution of gay bathhouses in the United States and Canada.
Woods, William J; Tracy, Daniel; Binson, Diane
2003-01-01
Although gay bathhouses have been the subject of debate and some public health policy for decades, the relative number and geographic distribution of these establishments has not been described. As a result, it is easy to miss or ignore them in making public policy in response to discase prevention. No straightforward methodology for such a description is available, so we used a series of gay travel books, first published in 1965 by the Damron Company, to estimate this distribution in the United States and Canada. Each of the annual guides published from 1968 to 1999 were reviewed for listings of bathhouses and sex clubs. The results suggest that bathhouses and other similar establishments exist in most states and provinces and in most large and many moderate-sized cities. Furthermore, the largest numbers of listings for bathhouses were in the same six cities across the decades, three in the U.S. and three in Canada. The greatest change in the number of listings was seen in the three U.S. cities where a public policy of closure was attempted. Nevertheless, the numbers of venues in these three cities have been increasing again since the early 1990s, although nothing near the numbers of listings in the late 1970s and early 1980s.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amir Hossein Mirzabe
2018-06-01
Full Text Available Sunflower petal is one of the parts of the sunflower which has drawn attention and has several applications these days. These applications justify getting information about physical properties, mechanical properties, drying trends, etc. in order to design new machines and use new methods to harvest or dry the sunflower petals. For three varieties of sunflower, picking force of petals was measured; number of petals of each head was counted; unit mass and 1000-unit mass of fresh petals were measured and length, width, and projected area of fresh petals were calculated based on image processing technique; frequency distributions of these parameters were modeled using statistical distribution models namely Gamma, Generalized Extreme Value (G. E. V, Lognormal, and Weibull. Results of picking force showed that with increasing number of days after appearing the first petal on each head from 5 to 14 and decreasing loading rate from 150 g min−1 to 50 g min−1 values of picking force were decreased for three varieties, but diameter of sunflower head had different effects on picking force for each variety. Length, width, and number of petals of Dorsefid variety ranged from 38.52 to 95.44 mm, 3.80 to 9.28 mm and 29 to 89, respectively. The corresponding values ranged from 34.19 to 88.18 mm, 4.28 to 10.60 mm and 21 to 89, respectively for Shamshiri variety and ranged from 44.47 to 114.63 mm, 7.03 to 20.31 mm and 29 to 89 for Sirena variety. Results of frequency distribution modeling indicated that in most cases, G. E. V and Weibull distributions had better performance than other distributions. Keywords: Sunflower (Helianthus annus L. petal, Picking force, Image processing, Fibonacci sequence, Lucas sequence
Distributed Pseudo-Random Number Generation and Its Application to Cloud Database
Chen, Jiageng; Miyaji, Atsuko; Su, Chunhua
2014-01-01
Cloud database is now a rapidly growing trend in cloud computing market recently. It enables the clients run their computation on out-sourcing databases or access to some distributed database service on the cloud. At the same time, the security and privacy concerns is major challenge for cloud database to continue growing. To enhance the security and privacy of the cloud database technology, the pseudo-random number generation (PRNG) plays an important roles in data encryptions and privacy-pr...
2016-03-24
multiple Damkohler or Karlovitz numbers to account for auto - ignition and other types of chemistry, (d)… For example, residence time is important since...First, the rapid compression of reactants within a shock tube or an HCCI engine is known to rapidly elevate the temperature of the reactants above...the ignition temperature, causing reactions to become distributed in space [4]. Alden et al. reported broad CH zones within an HCCI engine experiment
Lu, Ye-qiang; Chen, Qiu-fang; Sun, Zai; Cai, Zhi-liang; Yang, Wen-jun
2014-09-01
Ultrafine particle (UFP) number concentrations obtained from three different vehicles were measured using fast mobility particle sizer (FMPS) and automobile exhaust gas analyzer. UFP number concentration and size distribution were studied at different idle driving speeds. The results showed that at a low idle speed of 800 rmin-1 , the emission particle number concentration was the lowest and showed a increasing trend with the increase of idle speed. The majority of exhaust particles were in Nuclear mode and Aitken mode. The peak sizes were dominated by 10 nm and 50 nm. Particle number concentration showed a significantly sharp increase during the vehicle acceleration process, and was then kept stable when the speed was stable. In the range of 0. 4 m axial distance from the end of the exhaust pipe, the particle number concentration decayed rapidly after dilution, but it was not obvious in the range of 0. 4-1 m. The number concentration was larger than the background concentration. Concentration of exhaust emissions such as CO, HC and NO showed a reducing trend with the increase of idle speed,which was in contrast to the emission trend of particle number concentration.
Ran, L.; Deng, Z.
2013-12-01
The vertical distribution of aerosols is of great importance to our understanding in the impacts of aerosols on radiation balance and climate, as well as air quality and public health. To better understand and estimate the effects of atmospheric components including trace gases and aerosols on atmospheric environment and climate, an intensive field campaign, Vertical Observations of trace Gases and Aerosols in the North China Plain (VOGA-NCP), was carried out from late July to early August 2013 over a rural site in the polluted NCP. During the campaign, vertical profiles of black carbon (BC) concentration and particle number size distribution were measured respectively by a micro-Aethalometer and an optical particle counter attached to a tethered balloon within 1000 m height. Meteorological parameters, including temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and wind direction, were measured simultaneously by a radiosonde also attached to the tethered balloon. Preliminary results showed distinct diurnal variations of the vertical distribution of aerosol total number concentration and BC concentration, following the development of the mixing layer. Generally, there was a well mixing of aerosols within the mixing layer and a sharp decrease above the mixing layer. Particularly, a small peak of BC concentrations was observed around 400-500 m height for several profiles. Further analysis would be needed to explain such phenomenon. It was also found that measured vertical profiles of BC using the filter-based method might be affected by the vertical distribution of relative humidity.
SULT1A1 copy number variation: ethnic distribution analysis in an Indian population.
Almal, Suhani; Padh, Harish
2017-11-01
Cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs) are phase II detoxification enzymes involved in metabolism of numerous xenobiotics, drugs and endogenous compounds. Interindividual variation in sulfonation capacity is important for determining an individual's response to xenobiotics. SNPs in SULTs, mainly SULT1A1 have been associated with cancer risk and also with response to therapeutic agents. Copy number variation (CNVs) in SULT1A1 is found to be correlated with altered enzyme activity. This short report primarily focuses on CNV in SULT1A1 and its distribution among different ethnic populations around the globe. Frequency distribution of SULT1A1 copy number (CN) in 157 healthy Indian individuals was assessed using florescent-based quantitative PCR assay. A range of 1 to >4 copies, with a frequency of SULT1A1 CN =2 (64.9%) the highest, was observed in our (Indian) population. Upon comparative analysis of frequency distribution of SULT1A1 CN among diverse population groups, a statistically significant difference was observed between Indians (our data) and African-American (AA) (p = 0.0001) and South African (Tswana) (p populations. Distribution of CNV in the Indian population was found to be similar to that in European-derived populations of American and Japanese. CNV of SULT1A1 varies significantly among world populations and may be one of the determinants of health and diseases.
The optimal number, type and location of devices in automation of electrical distribution networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Popović Željko N.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the mixed integer linear programming based model for determining optimal number, type and location of remotely controlled and supervised devices in distribution networks in the presence of distributed generators. The proposed model takes into consideration a number of different devices simultaneously (remotely controlled circuit breakers/reclosers, sectionalizing switches, remotely supervised and local fault passage indicators along with the following: expected outage cost to consumers and producers due to momentary and long-term interruptions, automated device expenses (capital investment, installation, and annual operation and maintenance costs, number and expenses of crews involved in the isolation and restoration process. Furthermore, the other possible benefits of each of automated device are also taken into account (e.g., benefits due to decreasing the cost of switching operations in normal conditions. The obtained numerical results emphasize the importance of consideration of different types of automation devices simultaneously. They also show that the proposed approach have a potential to improve the process of determining of the best automation strategy in real life distribution networks.
Does the chromatic Mach bands effect exist?
Tsofe, Avital; Spitzer, Hedva; Einav, Shmuel
2009-06-30
The achromatic Mach bands effect is a well-known visual illusion, discovered over a hundred years ago. This effect has been investigated thoroughly, mainly for its brightness aspect. The existence of Chromatic Mach bands, however, has been disputed. In recent years it has been reported that Chromatic Mach bands are not perceived under controlled iso-luminance conditions. However, here we show that a variety of Chromatic Mach bands, consisting of chromatic and achromatic regions, separated by a saturation ramp, can be clearly perceived under iso-luminance and iso-brightness conditions. In this study, observers' eye movements were recorded under iso-brightness conditions. Several observers were tested for their ability to perceive the Chromatic Mach bands effect and its magnitude, across different cardinal and non-cardinal Chromatic Mach bands stimuli. A computational model of color adaptation, which predicted color induction and color constancy, successfully predicts this variation of Chromatic Mach bands. This has been tested by measuring the distance of the data points from the "achromatic point" and by calculating the shift of the data points from predicted complementary lines. The results suggest that the Chromatic Mach bands effect is a specific chromatic induction effect.
Cui, Peng; Xu, WanWu; Li, Qinglian
2018-01-01
Currently, the upper operating limit of the turbine engine is Mach 2+, and the lower limit of the dual-mode scramjet is Mach 4. Therefore no single power systems can operate within the range between Mach 2 + and Mach 4. By using ejector rockets, Rocket-based-combined-cycle can work well in the above scope. As the key component of Rocket-based-combined-cycle, the ejector rocket has significant influence on Rocket-based-combined-cycle performance. Research on the influence of rocket parameters on Rocket-based-combined-cycle in the speed range of Mach 2 + to Mach 4 is scarce. In the present study, influences of Mach number and total pressure of the ejector rocket on Rocket-based-combined-cycle were analyzed numerically. Due to the significant effects of the flight conditions and the Rocket-based-combined-cycle configuration on Rocket-based-combined-cycle performances, flight altitude, flight Mach number, and divergence ratio were also considered. The simulation results indicate that matching lower altitude with higher flight Mach numbers can increase Rocket-based-combined-cycle thrust. For another thing, with an increase of the divergent ratio, the effect of the divergent configuration will strengthen and there is a limit on the divergent ratio. When the divergent ratio is greater than the limit, the effect of divergent configuration will gradually exceed that of combustion on supersonic flows. Further increases in the divergent ratio will decrease Rocket-based-combined-cycle thrust.
Dark matter versus Mach's principle.
von Borzeszkowski, H.-H.; Treder, H.-J.
1998-02-01
Empirical and theoretical evidence show that the astrophysical problem of dark matter might be solved by a theory of Einstein-Mayer type. In this theory up to global Lorentz rotations the reference system is determined by the motion of cosmic matter. Thus one is led to a "Riemannian space with teleparallelism" realizing a geometric version of the Mach-Einstein doctrine. The field equations of this gravitational theory contain hidden matter terms where the existence of hidden matter is inferred safely from its gravitational effects. It is argued that in the nonrelativistic mechanical approximation they provide an inertia-free mechanics where the inertial mass of a body is induced by the gravitational action of the comic masses. Interpreted form the Newtonian point of view this mechanics shows that the effective gravitational mass of astrophysical objects depends on r such that one expects the existence of dark matter.
THE STELLAR NUMBER DENSITY DISTRIBUTION IN THE LOCAL SOLAR NEIGHBORHOOD IS NORTH-SOUTH ASYMMETRIC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yanny, Brian [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Gardner, Susan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0055 (United States)
2013-11-10
We study the number density distribution of a sample of K and M dwarf stars, matched north and south of the Galactic plane within a distance of 2 kpc from the Sun, using observations from the Ninth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We determine distances using the photometric parallax method, and in this context systematic effects exist which could potentially impact the determination of the number density profile with height from the Galactic plane—and ultimately affect a number density north-south asymmetry. They include: (1) the calibration of the various photometric parallax relations, (2) the ability to separate dwarfs from giants in our sample, (3) the role of stellar population differences such as age and metallicity, (4) the ability to determine the offset of the Sun from the Galactic plane, and (5) the correction for reddening from dust in the Galactic plane, though our stars are at high Galactic latitudes. We find the various analyzed systematic effects to have a negligible impact on our observed asymmetry, and using a new and larger sample of stars we confirm and refine the earlier discovery of Widrow et al. of a significant Galactic north-south asymmetry in the stellar number density distribution.
THE STELLAR NUMBER DENSITY DISTRIBUTION IN THE LOCAL SOLAR NEIGHBORHOOD IS NORTH-SOUTH ASYMMETRIC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yanny, Brian; Gardner, Susan
2013-10-17
We study the number density distribution of a sample of K and M dwarf stars, matched North and South of the Galactic plane within a distance of 2 kpc from the sun, using observations from the Ninth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We determine distances using the photometric parallax method, and in this context systematic effects exist which could potentially impact the determination of the number density profile with height from the Galactic plane --- and ultimately affect a number density North-South asymmetry. They include: (i) the calibration of the various photometric parallax relations, (ii) the ability to separate dwarfs from giants in our sample, (iii) the role of stellar population differences such as age and metallicity, (iv) the ability to determine the offset of the sun from the Galactic plane, and (v) the correction for reddening from dust in the Galactic plane, though our stars are at high Galactic latitudes. We find the various analyzed systematic effects to have a negligible impact on our observed asymmetry, and using a new and larger sample of stars we confirm and refine the earlier discovery of Widrow et al. of a significant Galactic North-South asymmetry in the stellar number density distribution.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Babu, S. Suresh; Kompalli, Sobhan Kumar; Moorthy, K. Krishna
2016-01-01
Number-size distribution is one of the important microphysical properties of atmospheric aerosols that influence aerosol life cycle, aerosol-radiation interaction as well as aerosol-cloud interactions. Making use of one-yearlong measurements of aerosol particle number-size distributions (PNSD) over a broad size spectrum (~ 15–15,000 nm) from a tropical coastal semi-urban location-Trivandrum (Thiruvananthapuram), the size characteristics, their seasonality and response to mesoscale and synoptic scale meteorology are examined. While the accumulation mode contributed mostly to the annual mean concentration, ultrafine particles (having diameter < 100 nm) contributed as much as 45% to the total concentration, and thus constitute a strong reservoir, that would add to the larger particles through size transformation. The size distributions were, in general, bimodal with well-defined modes in the accumulation and coarse regimes, with mode diameters lying in the range 141 to 167 nm and 1150 to 1760 nm respectively, in different seasons. Despite the contribution of the coarse sized particles to the total number concentration being meager, they contributed significantly to the surface area and volume, especially during transport of marine air mass highlighting the role of synoptic air mass changes. Significant diurnal variation occurred in the number concentrations, geometric mean diameters, which is mostly attributed to the dynamics of the local coastal atmospheric boundary layer and the effect of mesoscale land/sea breeze circulation. Bursts of ultrafine particles (UFP) occurred quite frequently, apparently during periods of land-sea breeze transitions, caused by the strong mixing of precursor-rich urban air mass with the cleaner marine air mass; the resulting turbulence along with boundary layer dynamics aiding the nucleation. These ex-situ particles were observed at the surface due to the transport associated with boundary layer dynamics. The particle growth rates from
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Babu, S. Suresh, E-mail: s_sureshbabu@vssc.gov.in [Space Physics Laboratory, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Thiruvananthapuram 695022 (India); Kompalli, Sobhan Kumar [Space Physics Laboratory, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Thiruvananthapuram 695022 (India); Moorthy, K. Krishna [Centre for Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India)
2016-09-01
Number-size distribution is one of the important microphysical properties of atmospheric aerosols that influence aerosol life cycle, aerosol-radiation interaction as well as aerosol-cloud interactions. Making use of one-yearlong measurements of aerosol particle number-size distributions (PNSD) over a broad size spectrum (~ 15–15,000 nm) from a tropical coastal semi-urban location-Trivandrum (Thiruvananthapuram), the size characteristics, their seasonality and response to mesoscale and synoptic scale meteorology are examined. While the accumulation mode contributed mostly to the annual mean concentration, ultrafine particles (having diameter < 100 nm) contributed as much as 45% to the total concentration, and thus constitute a strong reservoir, that would add to the larger particles through size transformation. The size distributions were, in general, bimodal with well-defined modes in the accumulation and coarse regimes, with mode diameters lying in the range 141 to 167 nm and 1150 to 1760 nm respectively, in different seasons. Despite the contribution of the coarse sized particles to the total number concentration being meager, they contributed significantly to the surface area and volume, especially during transport of marine air mass highlighting the role of synoptic air mass changes. Significant diurnal variation occurred in the number concentrations, geometric mean diameters, which is mostly attributed to the dynamics of the local coastal atmospheric boundary layer and the effect of mesoscale land/sea breeze circulation. Bursts of ultrafine particles (UFP) occurred quite frequently, apparently during periods of land-sea breeze transitions, caused by the strong mixing of precursor-rich urban air mass with the cleaner marine air mass; the resulting turbulence along with boundary layer dynamics aiding the nucleation. These ex-situ particles were observed at the surface due to the transport associated with boundary layer dynamics. The particle growth rates from
ACORN—A new method for generating sequences of uniformly distributed Pseudo-random Numbers
Wikramaratna, R. S.
1989-07-01
A new family of pseudo-random number generators, the ACORN ( additive congruential random number) generators, is proposed. The resulting numbers are distributed uniformly in the interval [0, 1). The ACORN generators are defined recursively, and the ( k + 1)th order generator is easily derived from the kth order generator. Some theorems concerning the period length are presented and compared with existing results for linear congruential generators. A range of statistical tests are applied to the ACORN generators, and their performance is compared with that of the linear congruential generators and the Chebyshev generators. The tests show the ACORN generators to be statistically superior to the Chebyshev generators, while being statistically similar to the linear congruential generators. However, the ACORN generators execute faster than linear congruential generators for the same statistical faithfulness. The main advantages of the ACORN generator are speed of execution, long period length, and simplicity of coding.
Seasonal cycle and modal structure of particle number size distribution at Dome C, Antarctica
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. Järvinen
2013-08-01
Full Text Available We studied new particle formation and modal behavior of ultrafine aerosol particles on the high East Antarctic plateau at the Concordia station, Dome C (75°06' S, 123°23' E. Aerosol particle number size distributions were measured in the size range 10–600 nm from 14 December 2007 to 7 November 2009. We used an automatic algorithm for fitting up to three modes to the size distribution data. The total particle number concentration was low with the median of 109 cm−3. There was a clear seasonal cycle in the total particle number and the volume concentrations. The concentrations were at their highest during the austral summer with the median values of 260 cm−3 and 0.086 μm3 cm−3, and at their lowest during the austral winter with corresponding values of 15 cm−3 and 0.009 μm3 cm−3. New particle formation events were determined from the size distribution data. During the measurement period, natural new particle formation was observed on 60 days and for 15 of these days the particle growth rates from 10 to 25 nm in size could be determined. The median particle growth rate during all these events was 2.5 nm h−1 and the median formation rate of 10 nm particles was 0.023 cm−3 s−1. Most of the events were similar to those observed at other continental locations, yet also some variability in event types was observed. Exceptional features in Dome C were the winter events that occurred during dark periods, as well as the events for which the growth could be followed during several consecutive days. We called these latter events slowly growing events. This paper is the first one to analyze long-term size distribution data from Dome C, and also the first paper to show that new particle formation events occur in central Antarctica.
Pan-Arctic aerosol number size distributions: seasonality and transport patterns
Freud, Eyal; Krejci, Radovan; Tunved, Peter; Leaitch, Richard; Nguyen, Quynh T.; Massling, Andreas; Skov, Henrik; Barrie, Leonard
2017-07-01
The Arctic environment has an amplified response to global climatic change. It is sensitive to human activities that mostly take place elsewhere. For this study, a multi-year set of observed aerosol number size distributions in the diameter range of 10 to 500 nm from five sites around the Arctic Ocean (Alert, Villum Research Station - Station Nord, Zeppelin, Tiksi and Barrow) was assembled and analysed.A cluster analysis of the aerosol number size distributions revealed four distinct distributions. Together with Lagrangian air parcel back-trajectories, they were used to link the observed aerosol number size distributions with a variety of transport regimes. This analysis yields insight into aerosol dynamics, transport and removal processes, on both an intra- and an inter-monthly scale. For instance, the relative occurrence of aerosol number size distributions that indicate new particle formation (NPF) event is near zero during the dark months, increases gradually to ˜ 40 % from spring to summer, and then collapses in autumn. Also, the likelihood of Arctic haze aerosols is minimal in summer and peaks in April at all sites.The residence time of accumulation-mode particles in the Arctic troposphere is typically long enough to allow tracking them back to their source regions. Air flow that passes at low altitude over central Siberia and western Russia is associated with relatively high concentrations of accumulation-mode particles (Nacc) at all five sites - often above 150 cm-3. There are also indications of air descending into the Arctic boundary layer after transport from lower latitudes.The analysis of the back-trajectories together with the meteorological fields along them indicates that the main driver of the Arctic annual cycle of Nacc, on the larger scale, is when atmospheric transport covers the source regions for these particles in the 10-day period preceding the observations in the Arctic. The scavenging of these particles by precipitation is shown to be
Sub-micron particle number size distribution characteristics at two urban locations in Leicester
Hama, Sarkawt M. L.; Cordell, Rebecca L.; Kos, Gerard P. A.; Weijers, E. P.; Monks, Paul S.
2017-09-01
The particle number size distribution (PNSD) of atmospheric particles not only provides information about sources and atmospheric processing of particles, but also plays an important role in determining regional lung dose. Owing to the importance of PNSD in understanding particulate pollution two short-term campaigns (March-June 2014) measurements of sub-micron PNSD were conducted at two urban background locations in Leicester, UK. At the first site, Leicester Automatic Urban Rural Network (AURN), the mean number concentrations of nucleation, Aitken, accumulation modes, the total particles, equivalent black carbon (eBC) mass concentrations were 2002, 3258, 1576, 6837 # cm-3, 1.7 μg m-3, respectively, and at the second site, Brookfield (BF), were 1455, 2407, 874, 4737 # cm-3, 0.77 μg m-3, respectively. The total particle number was dominated by the nucleation and Aitken modes, with both consisting of 77%, and 81% of total number concentrations at AURN and BF sites, respectively. This behaviour could be attributed to primary emissions (traffic) of ultrafine particles and the temporal evolution of mixing layer. The size distribution at the AURN site shows bimodal distribution at 22 nm with a minor peak at 70 nm. The size distribution at BF site, however, exhibits unimodal distribution at 35 nm. This study has for the first time investigated the effect of Easter holiday on PNSD in UK. The temporal variation of PNSD demonstrated a good degree of correlation with traffic-related pollutants (NOX, and eBC at both sites). The meteorological conditions, also had an impact on the PNSD and eBC at both sites. During the measurement period, the frequency of NPF events was calculated to be 13.3%, and 22.2% at AURN and BF sites, respectively. The average value of formation and growth rates of nucleation mode particles were 1.3, and 1.17 cm-3 s-1 and 7.42, and 5.3 nm h-1 at AURN, and BF sites, respectively. It can suggested that aerosol particles in Leicester originate mainly
Particle number size distributions in urban air before and after volatilisation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
W. Birmili
2010-05-01
Full Text Available Aerosol particle number size distributions (size range 0.003–10 μm in the urban atmosphere of Augsburg (Germany were examined with respect to the governing anthropogenic sources and meteorological factors. The two-year average particle number concentration between November 2004 and November 2006 was 12 200 cm^{−3}, i.e. similar to previous observations in other European cities. A seasonal analysis yielded twice the total particle number concentrations in winter as compared to summer as consequence of more frequent inversion situations and enhanced particulate emissions. The diurnal variations of particle number were shaped by a remarkable maximum in the morning during the peak traffic hours. After a mid-day decrease along with the onset of vertical mixing, an evening concentration maximum could frequently be observed, suggesting a re-stratification of the urban atmosphere. Overall, the mixed layer height turned out to be the most influential meteorological parameter on the particle size distribution. Its influence was even greater than that of the geographical origin of the prevailing synoptic-scale air mass.
Size distributions below 0.8 μm were also measured downstream of a thermodenuder (temperature: 300 °C, allowing to retrieve the volume concentration of non-volatile compounds. The balance of particle number upstream and downstream of the thermodenuder suggests that practically all particles >12 nm contain a non-volatile core while additional nucleation of particles smaller than 6 nm could be observed after the thermodenuder as an interfering artifact of the method. The good correlation between the non-volatile volume concentration and an independent measurement of the aerosol absorption coefficient (R^{2}=0.9 suggests a close correspondence of the refractory and light-absorbing particle fractions. Using the "summation method", an average diameter ratio of particles before and after volatilisation could
Steenhuis, T. S.; Mendoza, G.; Lyon, S. W.; Gerard Marchant, P.; Walter, M. T.; Schneiderman, E.
2003-04-01
Because the traditional Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN) approach continues to be ubiquitously used in GIS-BASED water quality models, new application methods are needed that are consistent with variable source area (VSA) hydrological processes in the landscape. We developed within an integrated GIS modeling environment a distributed approach for applying the traditional SCS-CN equation to watersheds where VSA hydrology is a dominant process. Spatial representation of hydrologic processes is important for watershed planning because restricting potentially polluting activities from runoff source areas is fundamental to controlling non-point source pollution. The methodology presented here uses the traditional SCS-CN method to predict runoff volume and spatial extent of saturated areas and uses a topographic index to distribute runoff source areas through watersheds. The resulting distributed CN-VSA method was incorporated in an existing GWLF water quality model and applied to sub-watersheds of the Delaware basin in the Catskill Mountains region of New York State. We found that the distributed CN-VSA approach provided a physically-based method that gives realistic results for watersheds with VSA hydrology.
Number distribution of emitted electrons by MeV H+ impact on carbon
Ogawa, H.; Koyanagi, Y.; Hongo, N.; Ishii, K.; Kaneko, T.
2017-09-01
The statistical distributions of the number of the forward- and backward-emitted secondary electrons (SE's) from a thin carbon foil have been measured in coincidence with foil-transmitted H+ ions of 0.5-3.0 MeV in every 0.5 MeV step. The measured SE energy spectra were fitted by assuming a Pólya distribution for the simultaneous n-SE emission probabilities. For our previous data with a couple of the carbon foils with different thicknesses, a similar analysis has been carried out. As a result, it was found that the measured spectra could be reproduced as well as by an analysis without placing any restriction on the emission probabilities both for the forward and backward SE emission. The obtained b-parameter of the Pólya distribution, which is a measure of the deviation from a Poisson distribution due to the cascade multiplication by high energy internal SE's, increases monotonically with the incident energy of proton beams. On the other hand, a clear foil-thickness dependence is not observed for the b-parameter. A theoretical model which could reproduced the magnitude of the b-parameter for the SE energy spectra obtained with thick Au, Cu and Al targets is found to overestimates our values for thin carbon foils significantly. Another model calculation is found to reproduce our b-values very well.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bergenholtz, Henning; Pedersen, Heidi Agerbo
2015-01-01
This contribution will not describe the structure in existing dictionaries. Instead, it will focus on the decisions that lexicographers make when they draw up the concept for and carry out the production of one or more new dictionaries, or when they consider making changes in the data presentation...... in an existing dictionary. This part of the lexicographical work is what we call structuring, which encompasses a number of various lexicographical decisions. One of these is choosing the fields that a database should contain. Typically, for some of these field types, it will be easy to distribute data......, but for other fields it will require long considerations as there are several distribution options with different outcomes of varying usefulness. A second type of lexicographical decision to be made by the lexicographer is the predefined searching, which involves in what order searches are to be made...
Cugerone, Katia; De Michele, Carlo; Ghezzi, Antonio; Gianelle, Vorne; Gilardoni, Stefania
2018-04-01
Particle number size distributions (PNSDs) have been collected periodically in the urban area of Milan, Italy, during 2011 and 2012 in winter and summer months. Moreover, comparable PNSD measurements were carried out in the rural mountain site of Oga-San Colombano (2250 m a.s.l.), Italy, during February 2005 and August 2011. The aerosol data have been measured through the use of optical particle counters in the size range 0.3-25 µm, with a time resolution of 1 min. The comparison of the PNSDs collected in the two sites has been done in terms of total number concentration, showing higher numbers in Milan (often exceeding 103 cm-3 in winter season) compared to Oga-San Colombano (not greater than 2×102 cm-3), as expected. The skewness-kurtosis plane has been used in order to provide a synoptic view, and select the best distribution family describing the empirical PNSD pattern. The four-parameter Johnson system-bounded distribution (called Johnson SB or JSB) has been tested for this aim, due to its great flexibility and ability to assume different shapes. The PNSD pattern has been found to be generally invariant under site and season changes. Nevertheless, several PNSDs belonging to the Milan winter season (generally more than 30 %) clearly deviate from the standard empirical pattern. The seasonal increase in the concentration of primary aerosols due to combustion processes in winter and the influence of weather variables throughout the year, such as precipitation and wind speed, could be considered plausible explanations of PNSD dynamics.
Thompson, J. R.; Taylor, M. S.
1982-01-01
Let X be a K-dimensional random variable serving as input for a system with output Y (not necessarily of dimension k). given X, an outcome Y or a distribution of outcomes G(Y/X) may be obtained either explicitly or implicity. The situation is considered in which there is a real world data set X sub j sub = 1 (n) and a means of simulating an outcome Y. A method for empirical random number generation based on the sample of observations of the random variable X without estimating the underlying density is discussed.
Anomalous dissipation and kinetic-energy distribution in pipes at very high Reynolds numbers.
Chen, Xi; Wei, Bo-Bo; Hussain, Fazle; She, Zhen-Su
2016-01-01
A symmetry-based theory is developed for the description of (streamwise) kinetic energy K in turbulent pipes at extremely high Reynolds numbers (Re's). The theory assumes a mesolayer with continual deformation of wall-attached eddies which introduce an anomalous dissipation, breaking the exact balance between production and dissipation. An outer peak of K is predicted above a critical Re of 10^{4}, in good agreement with experimental data. The theory offers an alternative explanation for the recently discovered logarithmic distribution of K. The concept of anomalous dissipation is further supported by a significant modification of the k-ω equation, yielding an accurate prediction of the entire K profile.
Teleportation of displaced Fock states: Fidelity and their teleported photon number distributions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Quintero, William; Ladera, Celso L, E-mail: clladera@usb.ve [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Simon BolIvar, Apdo. 89000, Caracas 1086 (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)
2011-01-01
We consider the teleportation of displaced Fock states which are highly non-classical states of the quantized electromagnetic field which have a set of remarkable quantum properties that include the peculiar oscillations of their photon number distributions. We use the transfer operator formalism to show that the quantum teleportation of a DFS renders a finite superposition of orthonormal DFS's and find its explicit mathematical expression in terms of the compression parameter of the correlated EPR states of the quantum channel. The expression for a teleported Fock state is also derived as a particular case of DFS's teleportation. We finally apply these results to study the fidelity of the teleportation of DFS's and the teleportation of their photon number statistics.
Teleportation of displaced Fock states: Fidelity and their teleported photon number distributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quintero, William; Ladera, Celso L
2011-01-01
We consider the teleportation of displaced Fock states which are highly non-classical states of the quantized electromagnetic field which have a set of remarkable quantum properties that include the peculiar oscillations of their photon number distributions. We use the transfer operator formalism to show that the quantum teleportation of a DFS renders a finite superposition of orthonormal DFS's and find its explicit mathematical expression in terms of the compression parameter of the correlated EPR states of the quantum channel. The expression for a teleported Fock state is also derived as a particular case of DFS's teleportation. We finally apply these results to study the fidelity of the teleportation of DFS's and the teleportation of their photon number statistics.
Wang, Xuemei; Chen, Jianmin; Cheng, Tiantao; Zhang, Renyi; Wang, Xinming
2014-09-01
The aerosol number concentration and size distribution as well as size-resolved particle chemical composition were measured during haze and photochemical smog episodes in Shanghai in 2009. The number of haze days accounted for 43%, of which 30% was severe (visibilitysmog episodes, about 5.89 times and 4.29 times those of clean days. The particle volume concentration and surface concentration in haze, photochemical smog and clean days were 102, 49, 15μm(3)/cm(3) and 949, 649, 206μm(2)/cm(3), respectively. As haze events got more severe, the number concentration of particles smaller than 50nm decreased, but the particles of 50-200nm and 0.5-1μm increased. The diurnal variation of particle number concentration showed a bimodal pattern in haze days. All soluble ions were increased during haze events, of which NH4(+), SO4(2-) and NO3(-) increased greatly, followed by Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+) and Cl(-). These ions were very different in size-resolved particles during haze and photochemical smog episodes. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Interplay between Mach cone and radial expansion in jet events
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tachibana, Y., E-mail: tachibana@nt.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Theoretical Research Division, Nishina Center, RIKEN, Wako 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Engineering, Nishinippon Institute of Technology, Fukuoka 800-0344 (Japan); Department of Physics, Sophia University, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan); Hirano, T., E-mail: hirano@sophia.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Sophia University, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan)
2016-12-15
We study the hydrodynamic response to jet propagation in the expanding QGP and investigate how the particle spectra after the hydrodynamic evolution of the QGP reflect it. We perform simulations of the space-time evolution of the QGP in gamma-jet events by solving (3+1)-dimensional ideal hydrodynamic equations with source terms. Mach cone is induced by the jet energy deposition and pushes back the radial flow of the expanding background. Especially in the case when the jet passage is off-central one, the number of particles emitted in the direction of the push back decreases. This is the signal including the information about the formation of the Mach cone and the jet passage in the QGP fluid.
Interplay between Mach cone and radial expansion in jet events
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tachibana, Y.; Hirano, T.
2016-01-01
We study the hydrodynamic response to jet propagation in the expanding QGP and investigate how the particle spectra after the hydrodynamic evolution of the QGP reflect it. We perform simulations of the space-time evolution of the QGP in gamma-jet events by solving (3+1)-dimensional ideal hydrodynamic equations with source terms. Mach cone is induced by the jet energy deposition and pushes back the radial flow of the expanding background. Especially in the case when the jet passage is off-central one, the number of particles emitted in the direction of the push back decreases. This is the signal including the information about the formation of the Mach cone and the jet passage in the QGP fluid.
Attacks exploiting deviation of mean photon number in quantum key distribution and coin tossing
Sajeed, Shihan; Radchenko, Igor; Kaiser, Sarah; Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe; Pappa, Anna; Monat, Laurent; Legré, Matthieu; Makarov, Vadim
2015-03-01
The security of quantum communication using a weak coherent source requires an accurate knowledge of the source's mean photon number. Finite calibration precision or an active manipulation by an attacker may cause the actual emitted photon number to deviate from the known value. We model effects of this deviation on the security of three quantum communication protocols: the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol without decoy states, Scarani-Acín-Ribordy-Gisin 2004 (SARG04) QKD protocol, and a coin-tossing protocol. For QKD we model both a strong attack using technology possible in principle and a realistic attack bounded by today's technology. To maintain the mean photon number in two-way systems, such as plug-and-play and relativistic quantum cryptography schemes, bright pulse energy incoming from the communication channel must be monitored. Implementation of a monitoring detector has largely been ignored so far, except for ID Quantique's commercial QKD system Clavis2. We scrutinize this implementation for security problems and show that designing a hack-proof pulse-energy-measuring detector is far from trivial. Indeed, the first implementation has three serious flaws confirmed experimentally, each of which may be exploited in a cleverly constructed Trojan-horse attack. We discuss requirements for a loophole-free implementation of the monitoring detector.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marc O Delchini; Jean E. Ragusa; Ray A. Berry
2015-07-01
We present a new version of the entropy viscosity method, a viscous regularization technique for hyperbolic conservation laws, that is well-suited for low-Mach flows. By means of a low-Mach asymptotic study, new expressions for the entropy viscosity coefficients are derived. These definitions are valid for a wide range of Mach numbers, from subsonic flows (with very low Mach numbers) to supersonic flows, and no longer depend on an analytical expression for the entropy function. In addition, the entropy viscosity method is extended to Euler equations with variable area for nozzle flow problems. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated using various 1-D and 2-D benchmark tests: flow in a converging–diverging nozzle; Leblanc shock tube; slow moving shock; strong shock for liquid phase; low-Mach flows around a cylinder and over a circular hump; and supersonic flow in a compression corner. Convergence studies are performed for smooth solutions and solutions with shocks present.
Mach cones in space and laboratory dusty magnetoplasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mamun, A.A.; Shukla, P.K
2004-07-01
We present a rigorous theoretical investigation on the possibility for the formation of Mach cones in both space and laboratory dusty magnetoplasmas. We find the parametric regimes for which different types of Mach cones, such as dust acoustic Mach cones, dust magneto-acoustic Mach cones, oscillonic Mach cones, etc. are formed in space and laboratory dusty magnetoplasmas. We also identify the basic features of such different classes of Mach cones (viz. dust- acoustic, dust magneto-acoustic, oscillonic Mach cones, etc.), and clearly explain how they are relevant to space and laboratory dusty manetoplasmas. (author)
Pulsed laser deposition of lysozyme: the dependence on shot numbers and the angular distribution
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Constantinescu, C.; Matei, A.; Schou, Jørgen
2013-01-01
The ejection of molecules from a pressed solid target of lysozyme induced by laser ablation in the UV-regime at a wavelength of 355 nm was investigated. The ablation studies were carried out in vacuum at a laser fluence of 2 J/cm2 for which a significant fraction of proteins remains intact....... This was verified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) spectrometry of thin films deposited on silicon substrates. The deposition rate of lysozyme was found to decrease with the number of shots and was correlated with increasing thermal damage of the lysozyme. This was monitored by measurements...... of the optical reflectivity of dry lysozyme. The angular distribution of the mass deposition can be fitted well by Anisimov’s hydrodynamic model. The total deposited yield over the entire hemisphere from direct laser ablation of lysozyme was estimated from this model and found to be three orders of magnitude...
Pantazopoulos, Harry; Murray, Elisabeth A.; Berretta, Sabina
2009-01-01
Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are a key structural component of the brain extracellular matrix. They are involved in critical neurodevelopmental functions and are one of the main components of pericellular aggregates known as perineuronal nets. As a step toward investigating their functional and pathophysiological roles in the human amygdala, we assessed the pattern of CSPG expression in the normal human amygdala using wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA) lectin-histochemistry. Total numbers of WFA-labeled elements were measured in the lateral (LN), basal (BN), accessory basal (ABN) and cortical (CO) nuclei of the amygdala from 15 normal adult human subjects. For interspecies qualitative comparison, we also investigated the pattern of WFA labeling in the amygdala of naïve rats (n=32) and rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta; n=6). In human amygdala, WFA lectin-histochemistry resulted in labeling of perineuronal nets and cells with clear glial morphology, while neurons did not show WFA-labeling. Total numbers of WFA-labeled glial cells showed high interindividual variability. These cells aggregated in clusters with a consistent between-subjects spatial distribution. In a subset of human subjects (n=5), dual color fluorescence using an antibody raised against glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and WFA showed that the majority (93.7%) of WFA-labeled glial cells correspond to astrocytes. In rat and monkey amygdala, WFA histochemistry labeled perineuronal nets, but not glial cells. These results suggest that astrocytes are the main cell type expressing CSPGs in the adult human amygdala. Their highly segregated distribution pattern suggests that these cells serve specialized functions within human amygdalar nuclei. PMID:18374308
Czernik, Pawel
2013-10-01
The hardware random number generator based on the 74121 monostable multivibrators for applications in cryptographically secure distributed measurement and control systems with asymmetric resources was presented. This device was implemented on the basis of the physical electronic vibration generator in which the circuit is composed of two "loop" 74121 monostable multivibrators, D flip-flop and external clock signal source. The clock signal, witch control D flip-flop was generated by a computer on one of the parallel port pins. There was presented programmed the author's acquisition process of random data from the measuring system to a computer. The presented system was designed, builded and thoroughly tested in the term of cryptographic security in our laboratory, what there is the most important part of this publication. Real cryptographic security was tested based on the author's software and the software environment called RDieHarder. The obtained results was here presented and analyzed in detail with particular reference to the specificity of distributed measurement and control systems with asymmetric resources.
Low Mach number limit for a model of accretion disk
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Donatelli, D.; Ducomet, B.; Nečasová, Šárka
2018-01-01
Roč. 38, č. 7 (2018), s. 3239-3268 ISSN 1078-0947 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-00522S; GA ČR GA16-03230S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Navier-Stokes-Fourier-Poisson system * magnetohydrodynamics * radiating transfer Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 1.099, year: 2016 http://aimsciences.org/article/doi/10.3934/dcds.2018141
Low Mach number limit for a model of accretion disk
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Donatelli, D.; Ducomet, B.; Nečasová, Šárka
2018-01-01
Roč. 38, č. 7 (2018), s. 3239-3268 ISSN 1078-0947 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-00522S; GA ČR GA16-03230S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Navier-Stokes-Fourier-Poisson system * magnetohydrodynamics * radiating transfer Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 1.099, year: 2016 http://aimsciences.org/ article /doi/10.3934/dcds.2018141
Miscellaneous: Various Low-Mach-Number Fluid Problems and Motions
Zeytounian, Radyadour Kh.
In this last chapter, we consider, first, in Sect. 7.1, mainly the asymptotic derivation of the KZK equation of nonlinear acoustics, which generalizes the well-known Burgers' unsteady one-dimensional dissipative model equation (Burgers 1948) to an equation with a diffraction and parabolic effect.
Modelling of high-enthalpy, high-Mach number flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Degrez, G; Lani, A; Panesi, M; Chazot, O; Deconinck, H
2009-01-01
A review is made of the computational models of high-enthalpy flows developed over the past few years at the von Karman Institute and Universite Libre de Bruxelles, for the modelling of high-enthalpy hypersonic (re-)entry flows. Both flows in local thermo-chemical equilibrium (LTE) and flows in thermo-chemical non-equilibrium (TCNEQ) are considered. First, the physico-chemical models are described, i.e. the set of conservation laws, the thermodynamics, transport phenomena and chemical kinetics models. Particular attention is given to the correct modelling of elemental (LTE flows) and species (chemical non-equilibrium-CNEQ-flows) transport. The numerical algorithm, based on a state-of-the-art finite volume discretization, is then briefly described. Finally, selected examples are included to illustrate the capabilities of the developed solver. (review article)
The distribution and numbers of cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) in southern Africa.
Weise, Florian J; Vijay, Varsha; Jacobson, Andrew P; Schoonover, Rebecca F; Groom, Rosemary J; Horgan, Jane; Keeping, Derek; Klein, Rebecca; Marnewick, Kelly; Maude, Glyn; Melzheimer, Jörg; Mills, Gus; van der Merwe, Vincent; van der Meer, Esther; van Vuuren, Rudie J; Wachter, Bettina; Pimm, Stuart L
2017-01-01
Assessing the numbers and distribution of threatened species is a central challenge in conservation, often made difficult because the species of concern are rare and elusive. For some predators, this may be compounded by their being sparsely distributed over large areas. Such is the case with the cheetah Acinonyx jubatus. The IUCN Red List process solicits comments, is democratic, transparent, widely-used, and has recently assessed the species. Here, we present additional methods to that process and provide quantitative approaches that may afford greater detail and a benchmark against which to compare future assessments. The cheetah poses challenges, but also affords unique opportunities. It is photogenic, allowing the compilation of thousands of crowd-sourced data. It is also persecuted for killing livestock, enabling estimation of local population densities from the numbers persecuted. Documented instances of persecution in areas with known human and livestock density mean that these data can provide an estimate of where the species may or may not occur in areas without observational data. Compilations of extensive telemetry data coupled with nearly 20,000 additional observations from 39 sources show that free-ranging cheetahs were present across approximately 789,700 km 2 of Namibia, Botswana, South Africa, and Zimbabwe (56%, 22%, 12% and 10% respectively) from 2010 to 2016, with an estimated adult population of 3,577 animals. We identified a further 742,800 km 2 of potential cheetah habitat within the study region with low human and livestock densities, where another ∼3,250 cheetahs may occur. Unlike many previous estimates, we make the data available and provide explicit information on exactly where cheetahs occur, or are unlikely to occur. We stress the value of gathering data from public sources though these data were mostly from well-visited protected areas. There is a contiguous, transboundary population of cheetah in southern Africa, known to be the
The distribution and numbers of cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus in southern Africa
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Florian J. Weise
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Assessing the numbers and distribution of threatened species is a central challenge in conservation, often made difficult because the species of concern are rare and elusive. For some predators, this may be compounded by their being sparsely distributed over large areas. Such is the case with the cheetah Acinonyx jubatus. The IUCN Red List process solicits comments, is democratic, transparent, widely-used, and has recently assessed the species. Here, we present additional methods to that process and provide quantitative approaches that may afford greater detail and a benchmark against which to compare future assessments. The cheetah poses challenges, but also affords unique opportunities. It is photogenic, allowing the compilation of thousands of crowd-sourced data. It is also persecuted for killing livestock, enabling estimation of local population densities from the numbers persecuted. Documented instances of persecution in areas with known human and livestock density mean that these data can provide an estimate of where the species may or may not occur in areas without observational data. Compilations of extensive telemetry data coupled with nearly 20,000 additional observations from 39 sources show that free-ranging cheetahs were present across approximately 789,700 km2 of Namibia, Botswana, South Africa, and Zimbabwe (56%, 22%, 12% and 10% respectively from 2010 to 2016, with an estimated adult population of 3,577 animals. We identified a further 742,800 km2 of potential cheetah habitat within the study region with low human and livestock densities, where another ∼3,250 cheetahs may occur. Unlike many previous estimates, we make the data available and provide explicit information on exactly where cheetahs occur, or are unlikely to occur. We stress the value of gathering data from public sources though these data were mostly from well-visited protected areas. There is a contiguous, transboundary population of cheetah in southern Africa
Acoustic Radiation From a Mach 14 Turbulent Boundary Layer
Zhang, Chao; Duan, Lian; Choudhari, Meelan M.
2016-01-01
Direct numerical simulations (DNS) are used to examine the turbulence statistics and the radiation field generated by a high-speed turbulent boundary layer with a nominal freestream Mach number of 14 and wall temperature of 0:18 times the recovery temperature. The flow conditions fall within the range of nozzle exit conditions of the Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) Hypervelocity Tunnel No. 9 facility. The streamwise domain size is approximately 200 times the boundary-layer thickness at the inlet, with a useful range of Reynolds number corresponding to Re 450 ?? 650. Consistent with previous studies of turbulent boundary layer at high Mach numbers, the weak compressibility hypothesis for turbulent boundary layers remains applicable under this flow condition and the computational results confirm the validity of both the van Driest transformation and Morkovin's scaling. The Reynolds analogy is valid at the surface; the RMS of fluctuations in the surface pressure, wall shear stress, and heat flux is 24%, 53%, and 67% of the surface mean, respectively. The magnitude and dominant frequency of pressure fluctuations are found to vary dramatically within the inner layer (z/delta 0.< or approx. 0.08 or z+ < or approx. 50). The peak of the pre-multiplied frequency spectrum of the pressure fluctuation is f(delta)/U(sub infinity) approx. 2.1 at the surface and shifts to a lower frequency of f(delta)/U(sub infinity) approx. 0.7 in the free stream where the pressure signal is predominantly acoustic. The dominant frequency of the pressure spectrum shows a significant dependence on the freestream Mach number both at the wall and in the free stream.
Quantum Flows for Secret Key Distribution in the Presence of the Photon Number Splitting Attack
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Luis A. Lizama-Pérez
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Physical implementations of quantum key distribution (QKD protocols, like the Bennett-Brassard (BB84, are forced to use attenuated coherent quantum states, because the sources of single photon states are not functional yet for QKD applications. However, when using attenuated coherent states, the relatively high rate of multi-photonic pulses introduces vulnerabilities that can be exploited by the photon number splitting (PNS attack to brake the quantum key. Some QKD protocols have been developed to be resistant to the PNS attack, like the decoy method, but those define a single photonic gain in the quantum channel. To overcome this limitation, we have developed a new QKD protocol, called ack-QKD, which is resistant to the PNS attack. Even more, it uses attenuated quantum states, but defines two interleaved photonic quantum flows to detect the eavesdropper activity by means of the quantum photonic error gain (QPEG or the quantum bit error rate (QBER. The physical implementation of the ack-QKD is similar to the well-known BB84 protocol.
Mach's principle and space-time structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raine, D.J.
1981-01-01
Mach's principle, that inertial forces should be generated by the motion of a body relative to the bulk of matter in the universe, is shown to be related to the structure imposed on space-time by dynamical theories. General relativity theory and Mach's principle are both shown to be well supported by observations. Since Mach's principle is not contained in general relativity this leads to a discussion of attempts to derive Machian theories. The most promising of these appears to be a selection rule for solutions of the general relativistic field equations, in which the space-time metric structure is generated by the matter content of the universe only in a well-defined way. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Belyakov A. V.
2010-07-01
Full Text Available Frequent distributions of the databases of the numerical values obtained by resolving algorithms, which describe physical and other processes, give a possibility for bonding the probability of that results the algorithms get. In the frequent distribution of the fractions of integers (rational numbers, local maxima which meet the ratios of masses of the elementary particles have been found.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Belyakov A. V.
2010-04-01
Full Text Available Frequent distributions of the databases of the numerical values obtained by resolving algorithms, which describe physical and other processes, give a possibility for bonding the probability of that results the algorithms get. In the frequent distribution of the fractions of integers (rational numbers, local maxima which meet the ratios of masses of the elementary particles have been found.
THE DENSITY DISTRIBUTION IN TURBULENT BISTABLE FLOWS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gazol, Adriana; Kim, Jongsoo
2013-01-01
We numerically study the volume density probability distribution function (n-PDF) and the column density probability distribution function (Σ-PDF) resulting from thermally bistable turbulent flows. We analyze three-dimensional hydrodynamic models in periodic boxes of 100 pc by side, where turbulence is driven in the Fourier space at a wavenumber corresponding to 50 pc. At low densities (n ∼ –3 ), the n-PDF is well described by a lognormal distribution for an average local Mach number ranging from ∼0.2 to ∼5.5. As a consequence of the nonlinear development of thermal instability (TI), the logarithmic variance of the distribution of the diffuse gas increases with M faster than in the well-known isothermal case. The average local Mach number for the dense gas (n ∼> 7.1 cm –3 ) goes from ∼1.1 to ∼16.9 and the shape of the high-density zone of the n-PDF changes from a power law at low Mach numbers to a lognormal at high M values. In the latter case, the width of the distribution is smaller than in the isothermal case and grows slower with M. At high column densities, the Σ-PDF is well described by a lognormal for all of the Mach numbers we consider and, due to the presence of TI, the width of the distribution is systematically larger than in the isothermal case but follows a qualitatively similar behavior as M increases. Although a relationship between the width of the distribution and M can be found for each one of the cases mentioned above, these relations are different from those of the isothermal case.
Mach's principle in spatially homogeneous spacetimes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tipler, F.J.
1978-01-01
On the basis of Mach's Principle it is concluded that the only singularity-free solution to the empty space Einstein equations is flat space. It is shown that the only singularity-free solution to the empty space Einstein equations which is spatially homogeneous and globally hyperbolic is in fact suitably identified Minkowski space. (Auth.)
Francisco, E.; Pendás, A. Martín; Blanco, M. A.
2008-04-01
Given an N-electron molecule and an exhaustive partition of the real space ( R) into m arbitrary regions Ω,Ω,…,Ω ( ⋃i=1mΩ=R), the edf program computes all the probabilities P(n,n,…,n) of having exactly n electrons in Ω, n electrons in Ω,…, and n electrons ( n+n+⋯+n=N) in Ω. Each Ω may correspond to a single basin (atomic domain) or several such basins (functional group). In the later case, each atomic domain must belong to a single Ω. The program can manage both single- and multi-determinant wave functions which are read in from an aimpac-like wave function description ( .wfn) file (T.A. Keith et al., The AIMPAC95 programs, http://www.chemistry.mcmaster.ca/aimpac, 1995). For multi-determinantal wave functions a generalization of the original .wfn file has been introduced. The new format is completely backwards compatible, adding to the previous structure a description of the configuration interaction (CI) coefficients and the determinants of correlated wave functions. Besides the .wfn file, edf only needs the overlap integrals over all the atomic domains between the molecular orbitals (MO). After the P(n,n,…,n) probabilities are computed, edf obtains from them several magnitudes relevant to chemical bonding theory, such as average electronic populations and localization/delocalization indices. Regarding spin, edf may be used in two ways: with or without a splitting of the P(n,n,…,n) probabilities into α and β spin components. Program summaryProgram title: edf Catalogue identifier: AEAJ_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEAJ_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 5387 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 52 381 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 77 Computer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wolf-Dieter Richter
2017-07-01
Full Text Available For evaluating the probabilities of arbitrary random events with respect to a given multivariate probability distribution, specific techniques are of great interest. An important two-dimensional high risk limit law is the Gauss-exponential distribution whose probabilities can be dealt with based on the Gauss–Laplace law. The latter will be considered here as an element of the newly-introduced family of ( p , q -spherical distributions. Based on a suitably-defined non-Euclidean arc-length measure on ( p , q -circles, we prove geometric and stochastic representations of these distributions and correspondingly distributed random vectors, respectively. These representations allow dealing with the new probability measures similarly to with elliptically-contoured distributions and more general homogeneous star-shaped ones. This is demonstrated by the generalization of the Box–Muller simulation method. In passing, we prove an extension of the sector and circle number functions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Humbert, Ph.
2005-01-01
In this paper we consider the probability distribution of neutrons in a multiplying assembly. The problem is studied using a space independent one group neutron point reactor model without delayed neutrons. We recall the generating function methodology and analytical results obtained by G.I. Bell when the c 2 approximation is used and we present numerical solutions in the general case, without this approximation. The neutron source induced distribution is calculated using the single initial neutron distribution which satisfies a master (Kolmogorov backward) equation. This equation is solved using the generating function method. The generating function satisfies a differential equation and the probability distribution is derived by inversion of the generating function. Numerical results are obtained using the same methodology where the generating function is the Fourier transform of the probability distribution. Discrete Fourier transforms are used to calculate the discrete time dependent distributions and continuous Fourier transforms are used to calculate the asymptotic continuous probability distributions. Numerical applications are presented to illustrate the method. (author)
A measure of mutual divergence among a number of probability distributions
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J. N. Kapur
1987-01-01
major inequalities due to Shannon, Renyi and Holder. The inequalities are then used to obtain some useful results in information theory. In particular measures are obtained to measure the mutual divergence among two or more probability distributions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhixiang, Z.
1983-01-01
The least squares fit has been performed using chi-squared distribution function for all available evaluated data for s-wave reduced neutron width of several nuclei. The number of degrees of freedom and average value have been obtained. The missing levels of weak s-wave resonances and extra p-wave levels have been taken into account, if any. For 75 As and 103 Rh, s-wave population has been separated by Bayes' theorem before making fit. The results thus obtained are consistent with Porter-Thomas distribution, i.e., chi-squared distribution with γ=1, as one would expect. It has not been found in this work that the number of degrees of freedom for the distribution of s-wave reduced neutron width might be greater than one as reported by H.C.Sharma et al. (1976) at the international conference on interactions of neutrons with nuclei. (Auth.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael Cusack
2013-02-01
Full Text Available This study focuses on the daily and seasonal variability of particle number size distributions and concentrations, performed at the Montseny (MSY regional background station in the western Mediterranean from October 2010 to June 2011. Particle number concentrations at MSY were shown to be within range of various other sites across Europe reported in literature, but the seasonality of the particle number size distributions revealed significant differences. The Aitken mode is the dominant particle mode at MSY, with arithmetic mean concentrations of 1698 cm3, followed by the accumulation mode (877 cm−3 and the nucleation mode (246 cm−3. Concentrations showed a strong seasonal variability with large increases in particle number concentrations observed from the colder to warmer months. The modality of median size distributions was typically bimodal, except under polluted conditions when the size distribution was unimodal. During the colder months, the daily variation of particle number size distributions are strongly influenced by a diurnal breeze system, whereby the Aitken and accumulation modes vary similarly to PM1 and BC mass concentrations, with nocturnal minima and sharp day-time increases owing to the development of a diurnal mountain breeze. Under clean air conditions, high levels of nucleation and lower Aitken mode concentrations were measured, highlighting the importance of new particle formation as a source of particles in the absence of a significant condensation sink. During the warmer months, nucleation mode concentrations were observed to be relatively elevated both under polluted and clean conditions due to increased photochemical reactions, with enhanced subsequent growth owing to elevated concentrations of condensable organic vapours produced from biogenic volatile organic compounds, indicating that nucleation at MSY does not exclusively occur under clean air conditions. Finally, mixing of air masses between polluted and non
Qian, Kuangnan; Edwards, Kathleen E; Dechert, Gary J; Jaffe, Stephen B; Green, Larry A; Olmstead, William N
2008-02-01
We report a new method for rapid measurement of total acid number (TAN) and TAN boiling point (BP) distribution for petroleum crude and products. The technology is based on negative ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) for selective ionization of petroleum acid and quantification of acid structures and molecular weight distributions. A chip-based nanoelectrospray system enables microscale (boiling point distributions of TAN values can be calculated from the composition. The rapid measurement of TAN BP distributions by ESI is demonstrated for a series of high-TAN crudes and distillation cuts. TAN values determined by the technique agree well with those by the titration method. The distributed properties compare favorably with those measured by distillation and measurement of TAN of corresponding cuts.
All-optical negabinary adders using Mach-Zehnder interferometer
Cherri, A. K.
2011-02-01
In contrast to optoelectronics, all-optical adders are proposed where all-optical signals are used to represent the input numbers and the control signals. In addition, the all-optical adders use the negabinary modified signed-digit number representation (an extension of the negabinary number system) to represent the input digits. Further, the ultra-speed of the designed circuits is achieved due to the use of ultra-fast all-optical switching property of the semiconductor optical amplifier and Mach-Zehnder interferometer (SOA-MZI). Furthermore, two-bit per digit binary encoding scheme is employed to represent the trinary values of the negabinary modified signed-digits.
Fractal-like Distributions over the Rational Numbers in High-throughput Biological and Clinical Data
Trifonov, Vladimir; Pasqualucci, Laura; Dalla-Favera, Riccardo; Rabadan, Raul
2011-12-01
Recent developments in extracting and processing biological and clinical data are allowing quantitative approaches to studying living systems. High-throughput sequencing (HTS), expression profiles, proteomics, and electronic health records (EHR) are some examples of such technologies. Extracting meaningful information from those technologies requires careful analysis of the large volumes of data they produce. In this note, we present a set of fractal-like distributions that commonly appear in the analysis of such data. The first set of examples are drawn from a HTS experiment. Here, the distributions appear as part of the evaluation of the error rate of the sequencing and the identification of tumorogenic genomic alterations. The other examples are obtained from risk factor evaluation and analysis of relative disease prevalence and co-mordbidity as these appear in EHR. The distributions are also relevant to identification of subclonal populations in tumors and the study of quasi-species and intrahost diversity of viral populations.
Schneider, Wilfried; Bortfeld, Thomas; Schlegel, Wolfgang
2000-02-01
We describe a new method to convert CT numbers into mass density and elemental weights of tissues required as input for dose calculations with Monte Carlo codes such as EGS4. As a first step, we calculate the CT numbers for 71 human tissues. To reduce the effort for the necessary fits of the CT numbers to mass density and elemental weights, we establish four sections on the CT number scale, each confined by selected tissues. Within each section, the mass density and elemental weights of the selected tissues are interpolated. For this purpose, functional relationships between the CT number and each of the tissue parameters, valid for media which are composed of only two components in varying proportions, are derived. Compared with conventional data fits, no loss of accuracy is accepted when using the interpolation functions. Assuming plausible values for the deviations of calculated and measured CT numbers, the mass density can be determined with an accuracy better than 0.04 g cm-3 . The weights of phosphorus and calcium can be determined with maximum uncertainties of 1 or 2.3 percentage points (pp) respectively. Similar values can be achieved for hydrogen (0.8 pp) and nitrogen (3 pp). For carbon and oxygen weights, errors up to 14 pp can occur. The influence of the elemental weights on the results of Monte Carlo dose calculations is investigated and discussed.
Estimating alarm thresholds and the number of components in mixture distributions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burr, Tom, E-mail: tburr@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mail Stop F600, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Hamada, Michael S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mail Stop F600, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)
2012-09-01
Mixtures of probability distributions arise in many nuclear assay and forensic applications, including nuclear weapon detection, neutron multiplicity counting, and in solution monitoring (SM) for nuclear safeguards. SM data is increasingly used to enhance nuclear safeguards in aqueous reprocessing facilities having plutonium in solution form in many tanks. This paper provides background for mixture probability distributions and then focuses on mixtures arising in SM data. SM data can be analyzed by evaluating transfer-mode residuals defined as tank-to-tank transfer differences, and wait-mode residuals defined as changes during non-transfer modes. A previous paper investigated impacts on transfer-mode and wait-mode residuals of event marking errors which arise when the estimated start and/or stop times of tank events such as transfers are somewhat different from the true start and/or stop times. Event marking errors contribute to non-Gaussian behavior and larger variation than predicted on the basis of individual tank calibration studies. This paper illustrates evidence for mixture probability distributions arising from such event marking errors and from effects such as condensation or evaporation during non-transfer modes, and pump carryover during transfer modes. A quantitative assessment of the sample size required to adequately characterize a mixture probability distribution arising in any context is included.
Lane, David M.; Sandor, Aniko
2009-01-01
Statistical graphs are commonly used in scientific publications. Unfortunately, graphs in psychology journals rarely portray distributional information beyond central tendency, and few graphs portray inferential statistics. Moreover, those that do portray inferential information generally do not portray it in a way that is useful for interpreting…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arvieu, R.
The assumptions and principles of the spectral distribution method are reviewed. The object of the method is to deduce information on the nuclear spectra by constructing a frequency function which has the same first few moments, as the exact frequency function, these moments being then exactly calculated. The method is applied to subspaces containing a large number of quasi particles [fr
An implicit turbulence model for low-Mach Roe scheme using truncated Navier-Stokes equations
Li, Chung-Gang; Tsubokura, Makoto
2017-09-01
The original Roe scheme is well-known to be unsuitable in simulations of turbulence because the dissipation that develops is unsatisfactory. Simulations of turbulent channel flow for Reτ = 180 show that, with the 'low-Mach-fix for Roe' (LMRoe) proposed by Rieper [J. Comput. Phys. 230 (2011) 5263-5287], the Roe dissipation term potentially equates the simulation to an implicit large eddy simulation (ILES) at low Mach number. Thus inspired, a new implicit turbulence model for low Mach numbers is proposed that controls the Roe dissipation term appropriately. Referred to as the automatic dissipation adjustment (ADA) model, the method of solution follows procedures developed previously for the truncated Navier-Stokes (TNS) equations and, without tuning of parameters, uses the energy ratio as a criterion to automatically adjust the upwind dissipation. Turbulent channel flow at two different Reynold numbers and the Taylor-Green vortex were performed to validate the ADA model. In simulations of turbulent channel flow for Reτ = 180 at Mach number of 0.05 using the ADA model, the mean velocity and turbulence intensities are in excellent agreement with DNS results. With Reτ = 950 at Mach number of 0.1, the result is also consistent with DNS results, indicating that the ADA model is also reliable at higher Reynolds numbers. In simulations of the Taylor-Green vortex at Re = 3000, the kinetic energy is consistent with the power law of decaying turbulence with -1.2 exponents for both LMRoe with and without the ADA model. However, with the ADA model, the dissipation rate can be significantly improved near the dissipation peak region and the peak duration can be also more accurately captured. With a firm basis in TNS theory, applicability at higher Reynolds number, and ease in implementation as no extra terms are needed, the ADA model offers to become a promising tool for turbulence modeling.
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M Sedaghati
2015-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a new model has been presented to determine the number of spare transformers and their locations for distribution stations. The number of spare transformers must be so that they need minimum investment. Furthermore, they must be sufficient for replacing with transformers that have been damaged. For this reason, in this paper a new purpose function has been presented to maximize profit in distribution company’s budgeting and planning. For determining the number of spares that must be available in a stock room, this paper considers the number of spares and transformer’s fault at the same time. The number of spare transformers is determined so that at least one spare transformer will be available for replacing with the failed transformers. This paper considers time required for purchasing or repairing a failed transformer to determine the number of required spare transformers. Furthermore, whatever the number of spare equipment are increased, cost of maintenance will be increased, so an economic comparison must be done between reduced costs from reducing of outage time and increased costs from spare transformers existence.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiao-biao ZHU
2008-12-01
Full Text Available Distributions of pubescences on leaf blade and hull in japonica rice were observed under an optical microscope. Numbers of leaf and hull pubescences in P1, P2, F1, B1, B2 and F2 generations were investigated in three combinations of japonica rice (Sidao 10A/Wuyujing 3R, Wuyujing 3A/Sidao 10R and Liuyan 189A/HR-122, and genetic analysis for these two traits were conducted by using the joint analysis method of P1, P2, F1, B1, B2 and F2 generations with the mixed major gene plus polygene inheritance models. Leaf pubescences characterized by swollen base and fine tip distributed regularly on the boundary between dark green stripe and light green stripe of leaf blade. Hull pubescences with various lengths distributed irregularly on the whole hull. Numbers of leaf pubescences in the reciprocal combinations of Sidao 10A/Wuyujing 3R and Wuyujing 3A/Sidao 10R and numbers of hull pubescences in all the three combinations were controlled by one pair of additive major genes plus additive-dominant polygenes. In the combination of Liuyan 189A/HR-122, number of leaf pubescences was controlled by one pair of additive-dominant major genes plus additive-dominant polygenes. Both numbers of leaf and hull pubescences were mainly governed by major genes.
Wu, Yunna; Chen, Kaifeng; Xu, Hu; Xu, Chuanbo; Zhang, Haobo; Yang, Meng
2017-12-01
There is insufficient research relating to offshore wind farm site selection in China. The current methods for site selection have some defects. First, information loss is caused by two aspects: the implicit assumption that the probability distribution on the interval number is uniform; and ignoring the value of decision makers' (DMs') common opinion on the criteria information evaluation. Secondly, the difference in DMs' utility function has failed to receive attention. An innovative method is proposed in this article to solve these drawbacks. First, a new form of interval number and its weighted operator are proposed to reflect the uncertainty and reduce information loss. Secondly, a new stochastic dominance degree is proposed to quantify the interval number with a probability distribution. Thirdly, a two-stage method integrating the weighted operator with stochastic dominance degree is proposed to evaluate the alternatives. Finally, a case from China proves the effectiveness of this method.
Distribution and functional impact of DNA copy number variation in the rat.
Guryev, V.; Saar, K.; Adamovic, T.; Verheul, M.; van Heesch, S.; Cook, S.; Pravenec, M.; Aitman, T.; Jacob, H.; Shull, J.D.; Hubner, N.; Cuppen, E.
2008-01-01
The abundance and dynamics of copy number variants (CNVs) in mammalian genomes poses new challenges in the identification of their impact on natural and disease phenotypes. We used computational and experimental methods to catalog CNVs in rat and found that they share important functional
Pescosolido, Matthew F.; Gamsiz, Ece D.; Nagpal, Shailender; Morrow, Eric M.
2013-01-01
Objective: The purpose of the present study was to discover the extent to which distinct "DSM" disorders share large, highly recurrent copy number variants (CNVs) as susceptibility factors. We also sought to identify gene mechanisms common to groups of diagnoses and/or specific to a given diagnosis based on associations with CNVs. Method:…
Bird numbers and distributions in the Horns Rev offshore wind farm area. Annual status report 2004
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krag Petersen, I.
2005-07-01
This report presents data from four aerial surveys of birds in the Horns Rev wind farm area in 2004. Three surveys from the winter and spring of 2004 are thoroughly reported here. The fourth survey of 9 September 2004 is reported in general terms, but not included in presentations of distribution and effect analyses of the wind farm. Data from this survey will be thoroughly dealt with in a future report. Including the four surveys of 2004, a total of 29 surveys have been performed in that area since August 1999. (au)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uchino, Akira; Nishitani, Hiromu; Onitsuka, Hideo; Baba, Hiromi; Kawahira, Kozaburo
1981-01-01
Based on the attenuation numbers in computed tomography of the chest, histograms for 5 patients with hypersensitivity pneumonitis were analysed. For analysis of histograms, we established 3 parameters: A, tan theta, and M. Of histograms in normal subjects, maximum inspiration scan was more stable than maximum expiration scan, and parameter A was most stable. In patients with hypersensitivity pneumonitis, histograms shifted to the range of higher attenuation numbers than normal subjects. Follow up studies showed decrease in the shift, but parameter A and M of maximum inspiration scan never reached to normal ranges. This suggested that organic parenchymal changes never disappeared completely, even in clinical remission stage. Therefore, parameter A or M of maximum inspiration scan was adequate for analysis, and histographic analysis of chest CT scan was considered to be useful also for early detections and follow-up studies of all diffuse pulmonary disorders. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hongyang Wang
Full Text Available Copy number variations (CNVs refer to large insertions, deletions and duplications in the genomic structure ranging from one thousand to several million bases in size. Since the development of next generation sequencing technology, several methods have been well built for detection of copy number variations with high credibility and accuracy. Evidence has shown that CNV occurring in gene region could lead to phenotypic changes due to the alteration in gene structure and dosage. However, it still remains unexplored whether CNVs underlie the phenotypic differences between Chinese and Western domestic pigs. Based on the read-depth methods, we investigated copy number variations using 49 individuals derived from both Chinese and Western pig breeds. A total of 3,131 copy number variation regions (CNVRs were identified with an average size of 13.4 Kb in all individuals during domestication, harboring 1,363 genes. Among them, 129 and 147 CNVRs were Chinese and Western pig specific, respectively. Gene functional enrichments revealed that these CNVRs contribute to strong disease resistance and high prolificacy in Chinese domestic pigs, but strong muscle tissue development in Western domestic pigs. This finding is strongly consistent with the morphologic characteristics of Chinese and Western pigs, indicating that these group-specific CNVRs might have been preserved by artificial selection for the favored phenotypes during independent domestication of Chinese and Western pigs. In this study, we built high-resolution CNV maps in several domestic pig breeds and discovered the group specific CNVs by comparing Chinese and Western pigs, which could provide new insight into genomic variations during pigs' independent domestication, and facilitate further functional studies of CNV-associated genes.
Hiramatsu, Ayako; Shono, Yuji; Oiso, Hiroaki; Komoda, Norihisa
2005-01-01
In this paper, a subscriber number forecasting tool that evaluates quiz game mobile content improvement strategies is developed. Unsubscription rates depend on such subscriber attributes such as consecutive months, stages, rankings, and so on. In addition, content providers can anticipate change in unsubscription rates for each content improvement strategy. However, subscriber attributes change dynamically. Therefore, a method that deals with dynamic subscriber attribute changes is proposed. ...
Number Size Distributions and Seasonality of Submicron Particles in Europe 2008–2009
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Asmi, A.; Wiedensohler, A.; Laj, P.; Fjaeraa, A.-M.; Sellegri, K.; Birmili, W.; Weingartner, E.; Baltensperger, U.; Ždímal, Vladimír; Zíková, Naděžda; Putaud, J.-P.; Marioni, A.; Tunved, P.; Hansson, H.-C.; Fiebig, M.; Kivekäs, N.; Lihavainen, H.; Asmi, E.; Ulevicius, V.; Aalto, P.P.; Swietlicki, E.; Kristensson, E.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Kalivitis, N.; Kalapov, I.; Kiss, G.; de Leeuw, G.; Henzig, B.; Harrison, R. M.; Beddows, D.; O´Dowd, C.; Jennings, S.G.; Flentje, H.; Weinhold, K.; Meinhardt, F.; Ries, L.; Kulmala, M.
2011-01-01
Roč. 11, - (2011), s. 5505-5538 ISSN 1680-7316 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) RII3-CT-2006-026140; European Commission(XE) 36833; European Commission(IT) Ev-K2-CNR Grant - others:AFCE(FI) 1118615 Program:FP6 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : aerosol particle number * aerosol concentrations * european submicron Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 5.520, year: 2011
Pyke, Kevin
2011-01-01
Methods are described which allow one to observe chloroplasts in mesophyll cells from leaves of Arabidopsis, determine their number per cell, measure their area, and determine a value for chloroplast coverage inside mesophyll cells. Non-green plastids can also be imaged either by using staining, or by exploiting fluorescent proteins targeted to the plastid in non-green parts of the plant, such as the roots, in transgenic Arabidopsis.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Viviana G. Solís Neffa
2004-01-01
Full Text Available In the context of the evolutionary studies that are being carried out in Turners sidoides autopolyploid complex (x= 7, a systematic survey was made in the northwestern area (Bolivia of its distribution. Six populations with salmon flowers and thirty five with yellow ones of the subsp. pinnatifida were found. The distribution of these populations is associated with climatic and spatial variables. The populations with salmon flowers live in the dry forests (Chaco Boreal Biogeographical Province, while yellow flowered populations occur in the inter-andean valleys (Boliviano-Tucumana Biogeographical Province. All the population studied are diploid. The results obtained support the allopatric diversification model of populations with yellow and salmon flowers at the diploid level, probably favoured by the orographic barriers and climatic changes that have arisen during the Andes development and Quaternary glaciations. Moreover, our analysis evidences that the north western area of T. sidoides constitutes an important centre of variation of the subsp. pinnatifida and the major centre of diploids hitherto detected
Irie, T.; Yasunobu, T.; Kashimura, H.; Setoguchi, T.
2003-05-01
When the high-pressure gas is exhausted to the vacuum chamber from the nozzle, the underexpanded supersonic jet contained with the Mach disk is generally formed. The eventual purpose of this study is to clarify the unsteady phenomenon of the underexpanded free jet when the back pressure continuously changes with time. The characteristic of the Mach disk has been clarified in consideration of the diameter and position of it by the numerical analysis in this paper. The sonic jet of the exit Mach number Me=1 is assumed and the axisymmetric conservational equation is solved by the TVD method in the numerical calculation. The diameter and position of the Mach disk differs with the results of a steady jet and the influence on the continuously changing of the back pressure is evidenced from the comparison with the case of steady supersonic jet.
Lin, Chi-Chi; Huang, Hsiao-Lin; Hsiao, Wen-Yuan
2016-01-01
Past studies indicated particulates generated by waste incineration contain various hazardous compounds. The aerosol characteristics are very important for particulate hazard control and workers' protection. This study explores the detailed characteristics of emitted particulates from each important operation unit in a rotary kiln-based hazardous industrial waste incineration plant. A dust size analyzer (Grimm 1.109) and a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) were used to measure the aerosol mass concentration, mass size distribution, and number size distribution at five operation units (S1-S5) during periods of normal operation, furnace shutdown, and annual maintenance. The place with the highest measured PM10 concentration was located at the area of fly ash discharge from air pollution control equipment (S5) during the period of normal operation. Fine particles (PM2.5) constituted the majority of the emitted particles from the incineration plant. The mass size distributions (elucidated) made it clear that the size of aerosols caused by the increased particulate mass, resulting from work activities, were mostly greater than 1.5 μm. Whereas the number size distributions showed that the major diameters of particulates that caused the increase of particulate number concentrations, from work activities, were distributed in the sub micrometer range. The process of discharging fly ash from air pollution control equipment can significantly increase the emission of nanoparticles. The mass concentrations and size distributions of emitted particulates were different at each operation unit. This information is valuable for managers to take appropriate strategy to reduce the particulate emission and associated worker exposure.
Supersonic and transonic Mach probe for calibration control in the Trisonic Wind Tunnel
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexandru Marius PANAIT
2017-12-01
Full Text Available A supersonic and high speed transonic Pitot Prandtl is described as it can be implemented in the Trisonic Wind Tunnel for calibration and verification of Mach number precision. A new calculation method for arbitrary precision Mach numbers is proposed and explained. The probe is specially designed for the Trisonic wind tunnel and would greatly simplify obtaining a precise Mach calibration in the critical high transonic and low supersonic regimes, where typically wind tunnels exhibit poor performance. The supersonic Pitot Prandtl combined probe is well known in the aerospace industry, however the proposed probe is a derivative of the standard configuration, combining a stout cone-cylinder probe with a supersonic Pitot static port which allows this configuration to validate the Mach number by three methods: conical flow method – using the pressure ports on a cone generatrix, the Schlieren-optical method of shock wave angle photogrammetry and the Rayleigh supersonic Pitot equation, while having an aerodynamic blockage similar to that of a scaled rocket model commonly used in testing. The proposed probe uses an existing cone-cylinder probe forebody and support, adding only an afterbody with a support for a static port.
Combustion-Powered Actuation for Dynamic Stall Suppression - Simulations and Low-Mach Experiments
Matalanis, Claude G.; Min, Byung-Young; Bowles, Patrick O.; Jee, Solkeun; Wake, Brian E.; Crittenden, Tom; Woo, George; Glezer, Ari
2014-01-01
An investigation on dynamic-stall suppression capabilities of combustion-powered actuation (COMPACT) applied to a tabbed VR-12 airfoil is presented. In the first section, results from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations carried out at Mach numbers from 0.3 to 0.5 are presented. Several geometric parameters are varied including the slot chordwise location and angle. Actuation pulse amplitude, frequency, and timing are also varied. The simulations suggest that cycle-averaged lift increases of approximately 4% and 8% with respect to the baseline airfoil are possible at Mach numbers of 0.4 and 0.3 for deep and near-deep dynamic-stall conditions. In the second section, static-stall results from low-speed wind-tunnel experiments are presented. Low-speed experiments and high-speed CFD suggest that slots oriented tangential to the airfoil surface produce stronger benefits than slots oriented normal to the chordline. Low-speed experiments confirm that chordwise slot locations suitable for Mach 0.3-0.4 stall suppression (based on CFD) will also be effective at lower Mach numbers.
Pressure Distribution and Performance Impacts of Aerospike Nozzles on Rotating Detonation Engines
2017-06-01
Nozzle Exit Plane at Various Pressure Ratios for the Quiescent Air Hydrogen Fuel Case, PRdesign = 10:1...81 Figure 55. Mach Number Distribution along the Nozzle Exit Plane at Various Pressure Ratios for the Supersonic...budget constraints, have spurred engineers to focus on improving the specific fuel consumption of these engines. One technology that promises
Stumpel, Anton H.P.
1987-01-01
A distribution survey of Hyla arborea has been carried out in the western part of Zealand Flanders over a period of six years. Additional data on the eastern part and the neighbouring Belgian area have been collected. The relationship between the maximum number of males calling on one evening/night and the estimate of their population size is a suitable basis to predict the total number of males in other pools during a season. Methodological aspects of the fieldwork are discussed. Great fluct...
Grabner, Peter
2017-01-01
This volume is dedicated to Robert F. Tichy on the occasion of his 60th birthday. Presenting 22 research and survey papers written by leading experts in their respective fields, it focuses on areas that align with Tichy’s research interests and which he significantly shaped, including Diophantine problems, asymptotic counting, uniform distribution and discrepancy of sequences (in theory and application), dynamical systems, prime numbers, and actuarial mathematics. Offering valuable insights into recent developments in these areas, the book will be of interest to researchers and graduate students engaged in number theory and its applications.
Number size distribution of fine and ultrafine fume particles from various welding processes.
Brand, Peter; Lenz, Klaus; Reisgen, Uwe; Kraus, Thomas
2013-04-01
Studies in the field of environmental epidemiology indicate that for the adverse effect of inhaled particles not only particle mass is crucial but also particle size is. Ultrafine particles with diameters below 100 nm are of special interest since these particles have high surface area to mass ratio and have properties which differ from those of larger particles. In this paper, particle size distributions of various welding and joining techniques were measured close to the welding process using a fast mobility particle sizer (FMPS). It turned out that welding processes with high mass emission rates (manual metal arc welding, metal active gas welding, metal inert gas welding, metal inert gas soldering, and laser welding) show mainly agglomerated particles with diameters above 100 nm and only few particles in the size range below 50 nm (10 to 15%). Welding processes with low mass emission rates (tungsten inert gas welding and resistance spot welding) emit predominantly ultrafine particles with diameters well below 100 nm. This finding can be explained by considerably faster agglomeration processes in welding processes with high mass emission rates. Although mass emission is low for tungsten inert gas welding and resistance spot welding, due to the low particle size of the fume, these processes cannot be labeled as toxicologically irrelevant and should be further investigated.
Bird numbers and distribution in the Horns Rev offshore wind farm area. Annual status report 2003
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2003-07-01
This report presents data from six aerial surveys of birds in the Horns Rev wind farm area in 2003. Including 16 surveys conducted before construction of the wind farm started and three during the construction phase, a total of 25 surveys have been performed in the area since August 1999. Up until August 2002 the study area was surveyed from 26 north-south oriented, parallel transect lines. After that time four short transects were added eastwards from the previously easternmost transect. From August 2002 slight adjustments to the transect lines in the wind farm area had to be made in order to avoid collision, as survey altitude was 76 m and wind turbines are 110 m to highest wing tip. The six surveys in 2003 were performed on 13 February, 16 March, 23 April, 5 September, 4 and 30 December. The operational phase of the wind farm commenced in 2002. Hence the six surveys from 2003 are all considered post-construction data sets. A preliminary evaluation of the potential impact of the wind turbines on bird distributions has been carried out by comparison of these data to those from the 16 pre-construction surveys. (au)
Hydropower developments in Canada: number, size and jurisdictional and ecological distribution
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Peter G.; Hanneman, Matt; Cheng, Ryan [Global Forest Watch Canada (Canada)
2011-08-15
For over 200 years, energy production and consumption, along with all human activities, have been contributing to global warming. This report is part of a project that examines 10 major energy sectors to provide information on Canada's energy options in the face of climate change; this present study gives information on hydropower reservoirs and associated dams in Canada. The mapping, jurisdictional and ecological distribution of reservoirs and dams across Canada is provided herein. Canada's hydropower installations are composed of 271 large hydropower facilities covering 58,015 km2 with a capacity of 71,857 MW, accounting for 44% of Canada's total technical hydroelectric capacity. Quebec, Ontario and British Columbia are the provinces with the most large hydropower dams; 19% of the watersheds are occupied in part by hydropower reservoirs and the taiga shield, boreal shield and montane cordillera ecozones contain most of the reservoir areas. The majority of future developments are expected to be built within 5km of intact forest landscapes.
Bizzarri, A.; Dunham, Eric M.; Spudich, P.
2010-01-01
We study how heterogeneous rupture propagation affects the coherence of shear and Rayleigh Mach wavefronts radiated by supershear earthquakes. We address this question using numerical simulations of ruptures on a planar, vertical strike-slip fault embedded in a three-dimensional, homogeneous, linear elastic half-space. Ruptures propagate spontaneously in accordance with a linear slip-weakening friction law through both homogeneous and heterogeneous initial shear stress fields. In the 3-D homogeneous case, rupture fronts are curved owing to interactions with the free surface and the finite fault width; however, this curvature does not greatly diminish the coherence of Mach fronts relative to cases in which the rupture front is constrained to be straight, as studied by Dunham and Bhat (2008a). Introducing heterogeneity in the initial shear stress distribution causes ruptures to propagate at speeds that locally fluctuate above and below the shear wave speed. Calculations of the Fourier amplitude spectra (FAS) of ground velocity time histories corroborate the kinematic results of Bizzarri and Spudich (2008a): (1) The ground motion of a supershear rupture is richer in high frequency with respect to a subshear one. (2) When a Mach pulse is present, its high frequency content overwhelms that arising from stress heterogeneity. Present numerical experiments indicate that a Mach pulse causes approximately an ω−1.7 high frequency falloff in the FAS of ground displacement. Moreover, within the context of the employed representation of heterogeneities and over the range of parameter space that is accessible with current computational resources, our simulations suggest that while heterogeneities reduce peak ground velocity and diminish the coherence of the Mach fronts, ground motion at stations experiencing Mach pulses should be richer in high frequencies compared to stations without Mach pulses. In contrast to the foregoing theoretical results, we find no average elevation
Baris, Engin
Distributed electric propulsion systems benefit from the inherent scale independence of electric propulsion. This property allows the designer to place multiple small electric motors along the wing of an aircraft instead of using a single or several internal combustion motors with gear boxes or other power train components. Aircraft operating at low Reynolds numbers are ideal candidates for benefiting from increased local flow velocities as provided by distributed propulsion systems. In this study, a distributed electric propulsion system made up of eight motor/propellers was integrated into the leading edge of a small fixed wing-body model to investigate the expected improvements on the aerodynamics available to small UAVs operating at low Reynolds numbers. Wind tunnel tests featuring a Design of Experiments (DOE) methodology were used for aerodynamic characterization. Experiments were performed in four modes: all-propellers-on, wing-tip-propellers-alone-on, wing-alone mode, and two-inboard-propellers-on-alone mode. In addition, the all-propeller-on, wing-alone, and a single-tractor configuration were analyzed using VSPAERO, a vortex lattice code, to make comparisons between these different configurations. Results show that the distributed propulsion system has higher normal force, endurance, and range features, despite a potential weight penalty.
Distribution and numbers of the wild boar population in south eastern Poland
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fonseca, C.
2002-12-01
Full Text Available By using both plot sampling and line intercept snow track index, the population density and numbers of wild boar in Bieszczady Mountains and Bieszczady Foothills was estimated during February 2000. The total number of wild boar inhabiting the study area (140.4 thousands ha of forest was equal to 655 animals with an average population density of 4.66 wild boar per 1000 ha, ranging from 0.0 (Forest Districts of Cisna and Wetlina to 23.21 individuals/1000 ha (Krasiczyn Forest District. The low density of wild boar in Bieszczady Mountains is caused by the high wolf prédation and overharvest rate. The recomendation is to stop wild boar hunting in Bieszczady Mountains during the next 4 hunting seasons, and to use the harvest rate equal to 30% of the population size in February.
[fr]
En février 2000, nous avons estimé la densité de population et le nombre de sangliers sauvages dans les montagnes Bieszczady et les collines Bieszczady. Pour cela, un index des empreintes sur la neige interceptant une ligne ainsi que des parcelles d'échantillonage ont été utilisées. Le nombre total de sangliers habitant dans la zone d'étude -140.400 ha de forêts- s'élevait à 655 animais; la densité moyenne de population était de 4,66 sangliers sauvages par 1000 ha, chiffre oscillant entre 0,0 (Districts Forestiers de Cisna et Wetlina et 23,21 individus par 1000 ha (District de Krasiczyn. La très basse densité de sangliers sauvages dans les Montagnes Bieszczady est sans doute la conséquence de la forte prédation par le loup et de la chasse importante. Les auteurs proposent d'arrêter la chasse dans les Montagnes Bieszczady durant les 4 saisons suivantes et de limiter le taux d'extraction à 30% du niveau de la population en février.
[es]
Durante febrero de 2000, en las montañas Bieszczady y sus estribaciones, se estimó la densidad poblacional y número de jabalíes por medio del índice de intercepción lineal de huellas en nieve
Chan, David T.; Balakrishna, Sundareswara; Walker, Eric L.; Goodliff, Scott L.
2015-01-01
Recent data quality improvements at the National Transonic Facility have an intended goal of reducing the Mach number variation in a data point to within plus or minus 0.0005, with the ultimate goal of reducing the data repeatability of the drag coefficient for full-span subsonic transport models at transonic speeds to within half a drag count. This paper will discuss the Mach stability improvements achieved through the use of an existing second throat capability at the NTF to create a minimum area at the end of the test section. These improvements were demonstrated using both the NASA Common Research Model and the NTF Pathfinder-I model in recent experiments. Sonic conditions at the throat were verified using sidewall static pressure data. The Mach variation levels from both experiments in the baseline tunnel configuration and the choked tunnel configuration will be presented and the correlation between Mach number and drag will also be examined. Finally, a brief discussion is given on the consequences of using the second throat in its location at the end of the test section.
Warin, Pongsakorn; Rungsiyakull, Pimduen; Rungsiyakull, Chaiy; Khongkhunthian, Pathawee
2018-01-01
To investigate the strains around mini-dental implants (MDIs) and retromolar edentulous areas when using different numbers of MDIs in order to retain mandibular overdentures. Four different prosthetic situations were fabricated on an edentulous mandibular model including a complete denture (CD), and three overdentures, retained by four, three or two MDIs in the interforaminal region with retentive attachments. A static load of 200N was applied on the posterior teeth of the dentures under bilateral or unilateral loading conditions. The strains at the mesial and distal of the MDIs and the retromolar edentulous ridges were measured using twelve strain gauges. Comparisons of the mean microstrains among all strain gauges in all situations were analyzed. The strain distribution determined during bilateral loading experienced a symmetrical distribution; while during unilateral loading, the recorded strains tended to change from compressive strains on the loaded side to tensile strains. Overall, the number of MDIs was found to be passively correlated to the generated compressive strain. The highest strains were recorded in the four MDIs followed by three, two MDIs retained overdenture and CD situations, respectively. The highest strain was found around the terminal MDI. The use of a low number of MDIs tends to produce low strain values in the retromolar denture-bearing area and around the terminal MDIs during posterior loadings. However, when using a high number of MDIs, the overdenture tends to have more stability during function. Copyright © 2017 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Scramjet Combustor Characteristics at Hypervelocity Condition over Mach 10 Flight
Takahashi, M.; Komuro, T.; Sato, K.; Kodera, M.; Tanno, H.; Itoh, K.
2009-01-01
To investigate possibility of reduction of a scramjet combustor size without thrust performance loss, a two-dimensional constant-area combustor of a previous engine model was replaced with the one with 23% lower-height. With the application of the lower-height combustor, the pressure in the combustor becomes 50% higher and the combustor length for the optimal performance becomes 43% shorter than the original combustor. The combustion tests of the modified engine model were conducted using a large free-piston driven shock tunnel at flow conditions corresponding to the flight Mach number from 9 to 14. CFD was also applied to the engine internal flows. The results showed that the mixing and combustion heat release progress faster to the distance and the combustor performance similar to that of the previous engine was obtained with the modified engine. The reduction of the combustor size without the thrust performance loss is successfully achieved by applying the lower-height combustor.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schnyder, G.; Mauchle, P.
2003-07-01
This is the third part of a ten-part final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) on a project that looked into potential problems relating to the Swiss electricity distribution grid with respect to the increasing number of distributed power generation facilities being put into service. The identification of special conditions for the grid's operation and future development that take increasing decentralised power production into account are discussed. The results of the project activities encompass the analysis and evaluation of various problem areas associated with planning and management of the grid during normal operation and periods of malfunction, as well as required modifications to safety systems and grid configurations. The first part of this second appendix to the main report examines the electrical conditions and requirements that have to be met by distributed production facilities. These include limits for voltage and frequency, synchronisation aspects, protection, reactive power questions and islanding. Also, recommendations are made on the assessment of grid reactions and on the avoidance of non-permissible effects on the grid's audio-frequency remote control apparatus. A second part examines the situation concerning the connection of distributed power units to the grid and grid topologies. The last chapter lists relevant standards and guidelines.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gottsponer, O.; Mauchle, P.
2003-07-01
This is the tenth and last part of a final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) on a project that looked into potential problems relating to the Swiss electricity distribution grid with respect to the increasing number of distributed power generation facilities being put into service. The identification of special conditions for the grid's operation and future development that take increasing decentralised power production into account are discussed. The results of the project activities encompass the analysis and evaluation of various problem areas associated with planning and management of the grid during normal operation and periods of malfunction, as well as required modifications to safety systems and grid configurations. This ninth appendix to the main report presents an overview and details of the literature and internet sources used in the project. Also, similar projects that discuss the problem area dealt with are briefly described. These include the Dispower, EDIson, DEMS, AMOEVES and ELSAD projects.
Lyon, Steve W.; Walter, M. Todd; Gérard-Marchant, Pierre; Steenhuis, Tammo S.
2004-10-01
Because the traditional Soil Conservation Service curve-number (SCS-CN) approach continues to be used ubiquitously in water quality models, new application methods are needed that are consistent with variable source area (VSA) hydrological processes in the landscape. We developed and tested a distributed approach for applying the traditional SCS-CN equation to watersheds where VSA hydrology is a dominant process. Predicting the location of source areas is important for watershed planning because restricting potentially polluting activities from runoff source areas is fundamental to controlling non-point-source pollution. The method presented here used the traditional SCS-CN approach to predict runoff volume and spatial extent of saturated areas and a topographic index, like that used in TOPMODEL, to distribute runoff source areas through watersheds. The resulting distributed CN-VSA method was applied to two subwatersheds of the Delaware basin in the Catskill Mountains region of New York State and one watershed in south-eastern Australia to produce runoff-probability maps. Observed saturated area locations in the watersheds agreed with the distributed CN-VSA method. Results showed good agreement with those obtained from the previously validated soil moisture routing (SMR) model. When compared with the traditional SCS-CN method, the distributed CN-VSA method predicted a similar total volume of runoff, but vastly different locations of runoff generation. Thus, the distributed CN-VSA approach provides a physically based method that is simple enough to be incorporated into water quality models, and other tools that currently use the traditional SCS-CN method, while still adhering to the principles of VSA hydrology.
Liu, Y J; Tran, T; Postma, G; Buydens, L M C; Jansen, J
2018-08-22
Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is widely used in analytical chemistry, to reduce the dimensionality of a multivariate data set in a few Principal Components (PCs) that summarize the predominant patterns in the data. An accurate estimate of the number of PCs is indispensable to provide meaningful interpretations and extract useful information. We show how existing estimates for the number of PCs may fall short for datasets with considerable coherence, noise or outlier presence. We present here how Angle Distribution of the Loading Subspaces (ADLS) can be used to estimate the number of PCs based on the variability of loading subspace across bootstrap resamples. Based on comprehensive comparisons with other well-known methods applied on simulated dataset, we show that ADLS (1) may quantify the stability of a PCA model with several numbers of PCs simultaneously; (2) better estimate the appropriate number of PCs when compared with the cross-validation and scree plot methods, specifically for coherent data, and (3) facilitate integrated outlier detection, which we introduce in this manuscript. We, in addition, demonstrate how the analysis of different types of real-life spectroscopic datasets may benefit from these advantages of ADLS. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
TOO MANY, TOO FEW, OR JUST RIGHT? THE PREDICTED NUMBER AND DISTRIBUTION OF MILKY WAY DWARF GALAXIES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hargis, Jonathan R.; Willman, Beth; Peter, Annika H. G.
2014-01-01
We predict the spatial distribution and number of Milky Way dwarf galaxies to be discovered in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) surveys, by completeness correcting the observed Sloan Digital Sky Survey dwarf population. We apply most massive in the past, earliest forming, and earliest infall toy models to a set of dark matter-only simulated Milky Way/M31 halo pairs from the Exploring the Local Volume In Simulations project. Inclusive of all toy models and simulations, at 90% confidence we predict a total of 37-114 L ≳ 10 3 L ☉ dwarfs and 131-782 L ≲ 10 3 L ☉ dwarfs within 300 kpc. These numbers of L ≳ 10 3 L ☉ dwarfs are dramatically lower than previous predictions, owing primarily to our use of updated detection limits and the decreasing number of SDSS dwarfs discovered per sky area. For an effective r limit of 25.8 mag, we predict 3-13 L ≳ 10 3 L ☉ and 9-99 L ≲ 10 3 L ☉ dwarfs for DES, and 18-53 L ≳ 10 3 L ☉ and 53-307 L ≲ 10 3 L ☉ dwarfs for LSST. We also show that the observed spatial distribution of Milky Way dwarfs in the LSST-era will discriminate between the earliest infall and other simplified models for how dwarf galaxies populate dark matter subhalos
The Red Rectangle: An Astronomical Example of Mach Bands?
Brecher, K.
2005-12-01
Recently, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) produced spectacular images of the "Red Rectangle". This appears to be a binary star system undergoing recurrent mass loss episodes. The image-processed HST photographs display distinctive diagonal lightness enhancements. Some of the visual appearance undoubtedly arises from actual variations in the luminosity distribution of the light of the nebula itself, i.e., due to limb brightening. Psychophysical enhancement similar to the Vasarely or pyramid effect also seems to be involved in the visual impression conveyed by the HST images. This effect is related to Mach bands (as well as to the Chevreul and Craik-O'Brien-Cornsweet effects). The effect can be produced by stacking concentric squares (or other geometrical figures such as rectangles or hexagons) of linearly increasing or decreasing size and lightness, one on top of another. We have constructed controllable Flash applets of this effect as part of the NSF supported "Project LITE: Light Inquiry Through Experiments". They can be found in the vision section of the LITE web site at http://lite.bu.edu. Mach band effects have previously been seen in medical x-ray images. Here we report for the first time the possibility that such effects play a role in the interpretation of astronomical images. Specifically, we examine to what extent the visual impressions of the Red Rectangle and other extended astronomical objects are purely physical (photometric) in origin and to what degree they are enhanced by psychophysical processes. To help assess the relative physical and psychophysical contributions to the perceived lightness effects, we have made use of a center-surround (Difference of Gaussians) filter we developed for MatLab. We conclude that local (lateral inhibition) and longer range human visual perception effects probably do contribute to the lightness features seen in astronomical objects like the Red Rectangle. Project LITE is supported by NSF Grant # DUE-0125992.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoshida, Zensho; Yamada, Hiroshi.
1988-07-01
The Bohm equation of electrostatic potential distributions in one-dimensional plasmas has been studied for various Mach numbers and plasma potentials. Solvability and structural stability have been discussed using the Sagdeev potential. Implications of the structural stability for the L/H transitions in tokamak plasmas has been also discussed. (author)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HAN Li-Bo; GONG Xiao-Long; CAO Li; WU Da-Jin
2007-01-01
An approximate Fokker-P1anck equation for the logistic growth model which is driven by coloured correlated noises is derived by applying the Novikov theorem and the Fox approximation. The steady-state probability distribution (SPD) and the mean of the tumour cell number are analysed. It is found that the SPD is the single extremum configuration when the degree of correlation between the multiplicative and additive noises, λ, is in -1＜λ ≤ 0 and can be the double extrema in 0＜λ＜1. A configuration transition occurs because of the variation of noise parameters. A minimum appears in the curve of the mean of the steady-state tumour cell number, 〈x〉, versus λ. The position and the value of the minimum are controlled by the noise-correlated times.
Zhang, Kun; Wang, Dongfang; Bian, Qinggen; Duan, Yusen; Zhao, Mengfei; Fei, Dongnian; Xiu, Guangli; Fu, Qingyan
2017-04-01
A tethered balloon-based measurement campaign of particle number concentration (PNC) and particle number size distribution (PNSD) in the size range of 15.7-661.2 nm was conducted within the lower troposphere of 1000 m in Shanghai, a Chinese megacity, during December of 2015. The meteorological conditions, PNC, and PNSD were synchronously measured at the ground-based station as well as by the tethered balloon. On ground level, the 88.2 nm particles were found to have the highest PNC. The Pearson correlation analysis based on the ground level data showed NO2 had a strong correlation with PNC. The synchronous measurement of PNC and PNSD at the ground station and on the tethered balloon showed that the 15.7-200 nm particles had higher PNC on ground level, but the PNC of 200-661.2 nm particles was higher at 400 m. One haze event (Dec 22nd-Dec 23rd) was selected for detailed discussion on the variation of vertical profiles of PNSD and PNC. The vertical distribution of characteristics of PNC and PNSD were observed and compared. Results indicated that the highest MaxDm (the diameter with the highest PNC) during those three launches all appeared at a high altitude, usually above 300 m. Compared to the clean days, the relatively bigger MaxDm at each height in the haze days also indicated regional transport of pollutants might contribute to more to that haze event.
Yavari, Somayeh; Valadan Zoej, Mohammad Javad; Salehi, Bahram
2018-05-01
The procedure of selecting an optimum number and best distribution of ground control information is important in order to reach accurate and robust registration results. This paper proposes a new general procedure based on Genetic Algorithm (GA) which is applicable for all kinds of features (point, line, and areal features). However, linear features due to their unique characteristics are of interest in this investigation. This method is called Optimum number of Well-Distributed ground control Information Selection (OWDIS) procedure. Using this method, a population of binary chromosomes is randomly initialized. The ones indicate the presence of a pair of conjugate lines as a GCL and zeros specify the absence. The chromosome length is considered equal to the number of all conjugate lines. For each chromosome, the unknown parameters of a proper mathematical model can be calculated using the selected GCLs (ones in each chromosome). Then, a limited number of Check Points (CPs) are used to evaluate the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of each chromosome as its fitness value. The procedure continues until reaching a stopping criterion. The number and position of ones in the best chromosome indicate the selected GCLs among all conjugate lines. To evaluate the proposed method, a GeoEye and an Ikonos Images are used over different areas of Iran. Comparing the obtained results by the proposed method in a traditional RFM with conventional methods that use all conjugate lines as GCLs shows five times the accuracy improvement (pixel level accuracy) as well as the strength of the proposed method. To prevent an over-parametrization error in a traditional RFM due to the selection of a high number of improper correlated terms, an optimized line-based RFM is also proposed. The results show the superiority of the combination of the proposed OWDIS method with an optimized line-based RFM in terms of increasing the accuracy to better than 0.7 pixel, reliability, and reducing systematic
Dekkers, Petrus J; Friedlander, Sheldon K
2002-04-15
Gas-phase synthesis of fine solid particles leads to fractal-like structures whose transport and light scattering properties differ from those of their spherical counterparts. Self-preserving size distribution theory provides a useful methodology for analyzing the asymptotic behavior of such systems. Apparent inconsistencies in previous treatments of the self-preserving size distributions in the free molecule regime are resolved. Integro-differential equations for fractal-like particles in the continuum and near continuum regimes are derived and used to calculate the self-preserving and quasi-self-preserving size distributions for agglomerates formed by Brownian coagulation. The results for the limiting case (the continuum regime) were compared with the results of other authors. For these cases the finite difference method was in good in agreement with previous calculations in the continuum regime. A new analysis of aerosol agglomeration for the entire Knudsen number range was developed and compared with a monodisperse model; Higher agglomeration rates were found for lower fractal dimensions, as expected from previous studies. Effects of fractal dimension, pressure, volume loading and temperature on agglomerate growth were investigated. The agglomeration rate can be reduced by decreasing volumetric loading or by increasing the pressure. In laminar flow, an increase in pressure can be used to control particle growth and polydispersity. For D(f)=2, an increase in pressure from 1 to 4 bar reduces the collision radius by about 30%. Varying the temperature has a much smaller effect on agglomerate coagulation.
TOO MANY, TOO FEW, OR JUST RIGHT? THE PREDICTED NUMBER AND DISTRIBUTION OF MILKY WAY DWARF GALAXIES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hargis, Jonathan R.; Willman, Beth [Department of Astronomy, Haverford College, 370 Lancaster Avenue, Haverford, PA 19041 (United States); Peter, Annika H. G., E-mail: jhargis@haverford.edu [CCAPP and Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, 191 West Woodruff Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)
2014-11-01
We predict the spatial distribution and number of Milky Way dwarf galaxies to be discovered in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) surveys, by completeness correcting the observed Sloan Digital Sky Survey dwarf population. We apply most massive in the past, earliest forming, and earliest infall toy models to a set of dark matter-only simulated Milky Way/M31 halo pairs from the Exploring the Local Volume In Simulations project. Inclusive of all toy models and simulations, at 90% confidence we predict a total of 37-114 L ≳ 10{sup 3} L {sub ☉} dwarfs and 131-782 L ≲ 10{sup 3} L {sub ☉} dwarfs within 300 kpc. These numbers of L ≳ 10{sup 3} L {sub ☉} dwarfs are dramatically lower than previous predictions, owing primarily to our use of updated detection limits and the decreasing number of SDSS dwarfs discovered per sky area. For an effective r {sub limit} of 25.8 mag, we predict 3-13 L ≳ 10{sup 3} L {sub ☉} and 9-99 L ≲ 10{sup 3} L {sub ☉} dwarfs for DES, and 18-53 L ≳ 10{sup 3} L {sub ☉} and 53-307 L ≲ 10{sup 3} L {sub ☉} dwarfs for LSST. We also show that the observed spatial distribution of Milky Way dwarfs in the LSST-era will discriminate between the earliest infall and other simplified models for how dwarf galaxies populate dark matter subhalos.
Mach-Like Structure in a Patronic-Hadronic Transport Model at RHIC Energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma, Y.G.; Ma, G.L.; Zhang, S.
2008-01-01
Recent RHIC experimental results indicated an exotic partonic matter may be created in central Au + Au collisions at dollars sqrt (s ( NN))dollars =200 GeV. When a parton with high transverse momentum (jet) passes through the new matter, jet will quench. The lost energy will be redistributed into the medium. Experimentally the soft scattered particles which carry the lost energy have been reconstructed via di-hadron angular correlations of charged particles and a hump structure on away side in di-hadron $ Delta phi$ correlation has been observed in central Au + Au collisions [1,2]. Some interpretations, such as Mach-cone shock wave and gluon Cherenkov-like radiation mechanism etc, have been proposed to explain the splitting behavior of the away side peaks. However, quantitative understanding of the experimental observation has yet to be established. In this work, we use a multi-phase transport (AMPT) model to make a detailed simulation for di-hadron or tri-hadron azimuthal correlation for central Au + Au collisions at dollars sqrt(s ( NN)) dollars =200 GeV. The hump structure on away side (we called Mach-like structure later) in the di-hadron and tri-hadron azimuthal correlations has been observed [3,4,5]. Furthermore, the time evolution of Mach-like structure is presented [6]. With the increasing of the lifetime of partonic matter, Mach-like structure develops by strong parton cascade process. Not only the splitting parameter but also the number of associated hadrons (dollarsN ( h) (assoc)dollars) increases with the lifetime of partonic matter and partonic interaction cross section. Both the explosion of dollarsN ( h) (assoc)dollars following the formation of Mach-like structure and the corresponding results of three-particle correlation support that a partonic Mach-like behavior can be produced by a collective coupling of partons because of the strong parton cascade mechanism. Therefore, the studies about Mach-like structure may give us some critical information
Kim, Seonghoon
2013-01-01
With known item response theory (IRT) item parameters, Lord and Wingersky provided a recursive algorithm for computing the conditional frequency distribution of number-correct test scores, given proficiency. This article presents a generalized algorithm for computing the conditional distribution of summed test scores involving real-number item…
C. H. Flather; M. S Knowles; C. H. Sieg
2011-01-01
This indicator provides information on the number and distribution of forest-associated species at risk of losing genetic variation across their geographic range. Comparing a species' current geographic distribution with its historic distribution is the basis for identifying those species whose range has contracted significantly. Human activities are accelerating...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luechinger, P.
2003-07-01
This is the fifth part of a ten-part final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) on a project that looked into potential problems relating to the Swiss electricity distribution grid with respect to the increasing number of distributed power generation facilities being put into service. The identification of special conditions for the grid's operation and future development that take increasing decentralised power production into account are discussed. The results of the project activities encompass the analysis and evaluation of various problem areas associated with planning and management of the grid during normal operation and periods of malfunction, as well as required modifications to safety systems and grid configurations. This fourth appendix to the main report describes six ways of storing electricity, including accumulators, super caps, super-conducting magnetic and flywheel energy storage units. The accumulator technologies discussed include lead-acid, nickel-cadmium and sodium-sulphur batteries. Each of these types of power storage technologies is briefly described. The characteristics of these various types of storage are compared.
Garnica-Garza, H M
2014-12-01
With the advent of compact laser-based electron accelerators, there has been some renewed interest on the use of such charged particles for radiotherapy purposes. Traditionally, electrons have been used for the treatment of fairly superficial lesions located at depths of no more than 4cm inside the patient, but lately it has been proposed that by using very high energy electrons, i.e. those with an energy in the order of 200-250MeV it should be possible to safely reach deeper targets. In this paper, we used a realistic patient model coupled with detailed Monte Carlo simulations of the electron transport in such a patient model to examine the characteristics of the resultant absorbed dose distributions as a function of both the electron beam energy as well as the number of beams for a particular type of treatment, namely, a prostate radiotherapy treatment. Each treatment is modeled as consisting of nine, five or three beam ports isocentrically distributed around the patient. An optimization algorithm is then applied to obtain the beam weights in each treatment plan. It is shown that for this particularly challenging case, both excellent target coverage and critical structure sparing can be obtained for energies in the order of 150MeV and for as few as three treatment ports, while significantly reducing the total energy absorbed by the patient with respect to a conventional megavoltage x-ray treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Imhof
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Measurements of aerosol particle number size distributions (18–700 nm, mass concentrations (PM2.5 and PM10 and NOx were performed in the Plabutsch tunnel, Austria, and in the Kingsway tunnel, United Kingdom. These two tunnels show different characteristics regarding the roadway gradient, the composition of the vehicle fleet and the traffic frequency. The submicron particle size distributions contained a soot mode in the diameter range D=80–100 nm and a nucleation mode in the range of D=20–40 nm. In the Kingsway tunnel with a significantly lower particle number and volume concentration level than in the Plabutsch tunnel, a clear diurnal variation of nucleation and soot mode particles correlated to the traffic density was observed. In the Plabutsch tunnel, soot mode particles also revealed a diurnal variation, whereas no substantial variation was found for the nucleation mode particles. During the night a higher number concentration of nucleation mode particles were measured than soot mode particles and vice versa during the day. In this tunnel with very high soot emissions during daytime due to the heavy-duty vehicle (HDV share of 18% and another 40% of diesel driven light-duty vehicles (LDV semivolatile species condense on the pre-existing soot surface area rather than forming new particles by homogeneous nucleation. With the low concentration of soot mode particles in the Kingsway tunnel, also the nucleation mode particles exhibit a diurnal variation. From the measured parameters real-world traffic emission factors were estimated for the whole vehicle fleet as well as differentiated into the two categories LDV and HDV. In the particle size range D=18–700 nm, each vehicle of the mixed fleet emits (1.50±0.08×1014 particles km-1 (Plabutsch and (1.26±0.10×1014 particles km-1 (Kingsway, while particle volume emission factors of 0.209±0.008 cm3 km-1 and 0.036±0.004 cm3 km-1, respectively, were obtained. PM1 emission factors of 104±4 mg
A fast spatial scanning combination emissive and mach probe for edge plasma diagnosis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lehmer, R.D.; LaBombard, B.; Conn, R.W.
1989-04-01
A fast spatially scanning emissive and mach probe has been developed for the measurement of plasma profiles in the PISCES facility at UCLA. A pneumatic cylinder is used to drive a multiple tip probe along a 15cm stroke in less than 400msec, giving single shot profiles while limiting power deposition to the probe. A differentially pumped sliding O-ring seal allows the probe to be moved between shots to infer two and three dimensional profiles. The probe system has been used to investigate the plasma potential, density, and parallel mach number profiles of the presheath induced by a wall surface and scrape-off-layer profile modifications in biased limiter simulation experiments. Details of the hardware, data acquisition electronics, and tests of probe reliability are discussed. 30 refs., 24 figs
Krypton tagging velocimetry in a turbulent Mach 2.7 boundary layer
Zahradka, D.; Parziale, N. J.; Smith, M. S.; Marineau, E. C.
2016-05-01
The krypton tagging velocimetry (KTV) technique is applied to the turbulent boundary layer on the wall of the "Mach 3 Calibration Tunnel" at Arnold Engineering Development Complex (AEDC) White Oak. Profiles of velocity were measured with KTV and Pitot-pressure probes in the Mach 2.7 turbulent boundary layer comprised of 99 % {N}2/1 % Kr at momentum-thickness Reynolds numbers of {Re}_{\\varTheta }= 800, 1400, and 2400. Agreement between the KTV- and Pitot-derived velocity profiles is excellent. The KTV and Pitot velocity data follow the law of the wall in the logarithmic region with application of the Van Driest I transformation. The velocity data are analyzed in the outer region of the boundary layer with the law of the wake and a velocity-defect law. KTV-derived streamwise velocity fluctuation measurements are reported and are consistent with data from the literature. To enable near-wall measurement with KTV (y/δ ≈ 0.1-0.2), an 800-nm longpass filter was used to block the 760.2-nm read-laser pulse. With the longpass filter, the 819.0-nm emission from the re-excited Kr can be imaged to track the displacement of the metastable tracer without imaging the reflection and scatter from the read-laser off of solid surfaces. To operate the Mach 3 AEDC Calibration Tunnel at several discrete unit Reynolds numbers, a modification was required and is described herein.
Leoni, Cecilia; Pokorná, Petra; Hovorka, Jan; Masiol, Mauro; Topinka, Jan; Zhao, Yongjing; Křůmal, Kamil; Cliff, Steven; Mikuška, Pavel; Hopke, Philip K
2018-03-01
Ostrava in the Moravian-Silesian region (Czech Republic) is a European air pollution hot spot for airborne particulate matter (PM), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and ultrafine particles (UFPs). Air pollution source apportionment is essential for implementation of successful abatement strategies. UFPs or nanoparticles of diameter hot-spot including nanoparticles, Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) was applied to highly time resolved particle number size distributions (NSD, 14 nm-10 μm) and PM 0.09-1.15 chemical composition. Diurnal patterns, meteorological variables, gaseous pollutants, organic markers, and associations between the NSD factors and chemical composition factors were used to identify the pollution sources. The PMF on the NSD reveals two factors in the ultrafine size range: industrial UFPs (28%, number mode diameter - NMD 45 nm), industrial/fresh road traffic nanoparticles (26%, NMD 26 nm); three factors in the accumulation size range: urban background (24%, NMD 93 nm), coal burning (14%, volume mode diameter - VMD 0.5 μm), regional pollution (3%, VMD 0.8 μm) and one factor in the coarse size range: industrial coarse particles/road dust (2%, VMD 5 μm). The PMF analysis of PM 0.09-1.15 revealed four factors: SIA/CC/BB (52%), road dust (18%), sinter/steel (16%), iron production (16%). The factors in the ultrafine size range resolved with NSD have a positive correlation with sinter/steel production and iron production factors resolved with chemical composition. Coal combustion factor resolved with NSD has moderate correlation with SIA/CC/BB factor. The organic markers homohopanes correlate with coal combustion and the levoglucosan correlates with urban background. The PMF applications to NSD and chemical composition datasets are complementary. PAHs in PM 1 were found to be associated with coal combustion factor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kalayeh, H. M.; Landgrebe, D. A.
1983-01-01
A criterion which measures the quality of the estimate of the covariance matrix of a multivariate normal distribution is developed. Based on this criterion, the necessary number of training samples is predicted. Experimental results which are used as a guide for determining the number of training samples are included. Previously announced in STAR as N82-28109
The intellectual quadrangle: Mach-Boltzmann-Planck-Einstein
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Broda, E.
1981-01-01
These four men were influential in the transition from classical to modern physics. They interacted as scientists, often antagonistically. Thus Boltzmann was the greatest champion of the atom, while Mach remained unconvinced all his life. As a aphysicist, Einstein was greatly influenced by both Mach and Boltzmann, although Mach in the end rejected relativity as well. Because of his work on statistical mechanics, fluctuations, and quantum theory, Einstein has been called the natural successor to Boltzmann. Planck also was influenced by Mach at first. Hence he and Boltzmann were adversaries antil Planck converted to atomistics in 1900 and used the statistical interpretation of entropy to establish his radiation law. Planck accepted relativity early, but in quantum theory he was for a long time partly opposed to Einstein, and vice versa - Einstein considered Planck's derivation of his radiation law as unsound, while Planck could not accept the light quantum. In the case of all four physicists, science was interwoven with philosophy. Boltzmann consistently fought Mach's positivism, while Planck and Einstein moved from positivism to realism. All were also, though in very different ways, actively interested in public affairs. (orig.)
Prasetya, A.; Mawadati, A.; Putri, A. M. R.; Petrus, H. T. B. M.
2018-01-01
Comminution is one of crucial steps in gold ore processing used to liberate the valuable minerals from gaunge mineral. This research is done to find the particle size distribution of gold ore after it has been treated through the comminution process in a rod mill with various number of rod and rotational speed that will results in one optimum milling condition. For the initial step, Sumbawa gold ore was crushed and then sieved to pass the 2.5 mesh and retained on the 5 mesh (this condition was taken to mimic real application in artisanal gold mining). Inserting the prepared sample into the rod mill, the observation on effect of rod-number and rotational speed was then conducted by variating the rod number of 7 and 10 while the rotational speed was varied from 60, 85, and 110 rpm. In order to be able to provide estimation on particle distribution of every condition, the comminution kinetic was applied by taking sample at 15, 30, 60, and 120 minutes for size distribution analysis. The change of particle distribution of top and bottom product as time series was then treated using Rosin-Rammler distribution equation. The result shows that the homogenity of particle size and particle size distribution is affected by rod-number and rotational speed. The particle size distribution is more homogeneous by increasing of milling time, regardless of rod-number and rotational speed. Mean size of particles do not change significantly after 60 minutes milling time. Experimental results showed that the optimum condition was achieved at rotational speed of 85 rpm, using rod-number of 7.
Heat transfer to surface and gaps of RSI tile arrays in turbulent flow at Mach 10.3
Throckmorton, D. A.
1974-01-01
Heat transfer to gap walls and surface of a simulated reusable surface insulation (RSI) tile array are presented. The data were obtained in the thick, turbulent tunnel wall boundary layer of the Langley Continuous Flow Hypersonic Tunnel at a freestream Mach number of 10.3 and a freestream unit Reynolds number of one million. Pertinent test variables were: (1) tile array orientation (staggered and in-line), (2) gap width, (3) flow angularity, and (4) tile mismatch.
Computation of Mach reflection from rigid and yielding surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buckingham, A.C.; Wilson, S.S.
1976-01-01
The present discussion centers on a theoretical description of one aspect of the irregular or Mach reflection from solid surfaces. The discussion is restricted to analytical considerations and some preliminary results using model approximations to the surface interaction phenomena. Currently, full numerical simulations of the irregular reflection surface interaction dynamics have not been obtained since the method is still under development. Discussion of the numerical method is, therefore, restricted to some special procedures for the gas-solid surface boundary dynamics. The discussion is divided into an introductory section briefly describing a particular Mach reflection process. Subsequently, some of the considerations on boundary conditions are submitted for numerical treatment of the gas-solid interface. Analysis and discussion of a yielding solid surface subjected to impulsive loading from an intense gas shock wave follows. This is used as a guide for the development of the numerical procedure. Mach reflection processes are then briefly reviewed with special attention for similitude and singular perturbation features
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marchesi Julian R
2007-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The question of how a circle or line segment becomes covered when random arcs are marked off has arisen repeatedly in bioinformatics. The number of uncovered gaps is of particular interest. Approximate distributions for the number of gaps have been given in the literature, one motivation being ease of computation. Error bounds for these approximate distributions have not been given. Results We give bounds on the probability distribution of the number of gaps when a circle is covered by fragments of fixed size. The absolute error in the approximation is typically on the order of 0.1% at 10× coverage depth. The method can be applied to coverage problems on the interval, including edge effects, and applications are given to metagenomic libraries and shotgun sequencing.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Viskari
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Extended Kalman Filter (EKF is used to estimate particle size distributions from observations. The focus here is on the practical application of EKF to simultaneously merge information from different types of experimental instruments. Every 10 min, the prior state estimate is updated with size-segregating measurements from Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (DMPS and Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS as well as integrating measurements from a nephelometer. Error covariances are approximate in our EKF implementation. The observation operator assumes a constant particle density and refractive index. The state estimates are compared to particle size distributions that are a composite of DMPS and APS measurements. The impact of each instrument on the size distribution estimate is studied. Kalman Filtering of DMPS and APS yielded a temporally consistent state estimate. This state estimate is continuous over the overlapping size range of DMPS and APS. Inclusion of the integrating measurements further reduces the effect of measurement noise. Even with the present approximations, EKF is shown to be a very promising method to estimate particle size distribution with observations from different types of instruments.
Dunning, J. W., Jr.; Lancashire, R. B.; Manista, E. J.
1976-01-01
Measurements have been conducted of the effect of the convection of ions and electrons on the discharge characteristics in a large scale laser. The results are presented for one particular distribution of ballast resistance. Values of electric field, current density, input power density, ratio of electric field to neutral gas density (E/N), and electron number density were calculated on the basis of measurements of the discharge properties. In a number of graphs, the E/N ratio, current density, power density, and electron density are plotted as a function of row number (downstream position) with total discharge current and gas velocity as parameters. From the dependence of the current distribution on the total current, it appears that the electron production in the first two rows significantly affects the current flowing in the succeeding rows.
MACH MIT: Deutsches Wochenende am Karlsfluss (MACH MIT: a German Week-End on the Charles River).
Reizes, Sonia; Kramsch, Claire J.
1980-01-01
Describes a joint high school/college pilot program planned by Massachusetts foreign language teachers and hosted by M.I.T. The success of the program dubbed "MACH MIT Total Immersion German Weekend" is attributed to the concept of active involvement, which was implemented through games, seminars, shows, cooking and other activities.…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov; Ditlevsen, Ove
2005-01-01
The object of study is a stationary Gaussian white noise excited plane multistory shear frame with a large number of rigid traverses. All the traverse-connecting columns have finite symmetrical yield limits except the columns in one or more of the bottom floors. The columns behave linearly elasti...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Przemyslaw JANIK; Grzegorz KOSOBUDZKI; Harald SCHWARZ
2017-01-01
This paper presents the selected power quality (PQ) indicia of a wind generator and a photovoltaic installation considered to be the representative of medium voltage and low voltage distribution grids.The analysis of measured values suggests that the decrease in PQ is a case of specific combination of distributed generation,grid parameters and load behaviour.Modem generators have a limited impact on PQ.On the other hand,fluctuations in power generation are regarded as an emerging PQ indicator.The growing number of distributed renewable installations causes stochastic,variable,and hardly predictable power flows in the distribution grid.The nature of fluctuations in wind and solar generation is different.In both cases,new indexes for the quantification of fluctuations are needed and are yet not standardised.Proper assessment of these fluctuations enables definition of useful fluctuation limits and rules for optimal storage system integration.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohamed I. El-Anwar
2017-03-01
CONCLUSION: Caps deformation and stresses are negligible in cases of using locator attachment in comparison to ball attachments. This may indicate longer lifetime and less repair/maintenance operations in implant overdentures retained by locator attachments. Although the study revealed that bone was insensitive to a number of implants or attachment type, it may be recommended to use two implants in the canine region than using four, where the locator attachments were found to be better.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yashiro, H.; Kakehata, M.
2013-01-01
We proposed and experimentally demonstrated a novel method of evaluating the number density of droplets in an aerosol by laser-induced breakdown. The number density of droplets is evaluated from the volume in which the laser intensity exceeds the breakdown threshold intensity for droplets, and the number of droplets in this volume, which is evaluated by the experimentally observed breakdown probability. This measurement method requires a large number of laser shots for not only precise measurement but also highly temporally and spatially resolved density distribution in aerosol. Laser ablation plumes ejected from liquid droplets generated by breakdown disturb the density around the measurement points. Therefore, the recovery time of the density determines the maximum repetition rate of the probe laser irradiating a fixed point. The expansion range of the ablation plume determines the minimum distance at which the measurement points are unaffected by a neighboring breakdown when multiple laser beams are simultaneously irradiated. These laser irradiation procedures enable the measurement of the number density distribution of droplets in an aerosol at a large number of points within a short measurement time.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yashiro, H.; Kakehata, M. [Electronics and Photonics Research Institute (ESPRIT), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)
2013-05-07
We proposed and experimentally demonstrated a novel method of evaluating the number density of droplets in an aerosol by laser-induced breakdown. The number density of droplets is evaluated from the volume in which the laser intensity exceeds the breakdown threshold intensity for droplets, and the number of droplets in this volume, which is evaluated by the experimentally observed breakdown probability. This measurement method requires a large number of laser shots for not only precise measurement but also highly temporally and spatially resolved density distribution in aerosol. Laser ablation plumes ejected from liquid droplets generated by breakdown disturb the density around the measurement points. Therefore, the recovery time of the density determines the maximum repetition rate of the probe laser irradiating a fixed point. The expansion range of the ablation plume determines the minimum distance at which the measurement points are unaffected by a neighboring breakdown when multiple laser beams are simultaneously irradiated. These laser irradiation procedures enable the measurement of the number density distribution of droplets in an aerosol at a large number of points within a short measurement time.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Birmili, W.; Schwirn, K.; Nowak, A.; Rose, D.; Wiedensohler, A. (Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research, Leipzig (Germany)); Petaejae, T.; Haemeri, K.; Aalto, P.; Kulmala, M.; Boy, M. (Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)); Joutsensaari, J. (Univ. of Kuopio, Dept. of Physics (Finland))
2009-07-01
Dry and humidified size distributions of atmospheric particles were characterised at the atmospheric research station SMEAR 2, Finland between May and July 2004. Particles were classified in a size range between 3 and 800 nm at controlled relative humidities up to 90% by two instruments complementary in size range (HDMPS; Nano-HDMPS). Using the summation method, descriptive hygroscopic growth factors (DHGF) were derived for particle diameters between 70 and 300 nm by comparing dry and humidified size distributions. At 90% relative humidity, DHGF showed mean values between 1.25 and 1.45 in the accumulation mode, between 1.20 and 1.25 in the Aitken mode, and between 1.15 and 1.20 in the nucleation mode. Due to the high size resolution of the method, the transition in DHGF between the Aitken and accumulation modes, which reflects differences in the soluble fraction, could be pinpointed efficiently. For the accumulation mode, experimental DHGFs were compared to those calculated from a simplistic growth model initialised by in-situ chemical composition measurements, and yielded maximum deviations around 0.1. The variation in DHGF could only imperfectly be linked to meteorological factors. A pragmatic parameterisation of DHGF as a function of particle diameter and relative humidity was derived, and subsequently used to study the sensitivity of the condensational sink parameter (CS) as a function of height in a well-mixed boundary layer. (orig.)
Measurements of flows in the DIII-D divertor by Mach probes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boedo, J.A.; Lehmer, R.; Moyer, R.A.; Watkins, J.G.; Porter, G.D.; Evans, T.E.; Leonard, A.W.; Schaffer, M.J.
1998-06-01
First measurements of Mach number of background plasma in the DIII-D divertor are presented in conjunction with temperature T e and density n e using a fast scanning probe array. To validate the probe measurements, the authors compared the T e , n e and J sat data to Thomson scattering data and find good overall agreement in attached discharges and some discrepancy for T e and n e in detached discharges. The discrepancy is mostly due to the effect of large fluctuations present during detached plasmas on the probe characteristic; the particle flux is accurately measured in every case. A composite 2-D map of measured flows is presented for an ELMing H-mode discharge and they focus on some of the details. They have also documented the temperature, density and Mach number in the private flux region of the divertor and the vicinity of the X-point, which are important transition regions that have been little studied or modeled. Background parallel plasma flows and electric fields in the divertor region show a complex structure
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov; Ditlevsen, Ove
2005-01-01
The object of study is a stationary Gaussian white noise excited plane multistory shear frame with a large number of rigid traverses. All the traverse-connecting columns have finite symmetrical yield limits except the columns in one or more of the bottom floors. The columns behave linearly elastic...... within the yield limits and ideally plastic outside these without accumulating eigenstresses. Within the elastic domain the frame is modeled as a linearly damped oscillator. The white noise excitation acts on the mass of the first floor making the movement of the elastic bottom floors simulate a ground...
Blunt body near wake flow field at Mach 6
Horvath, Thomas J.; McGinley, Catherine B.; Hannemann, Klaus
1996-01-01
Tests were conducted in a Mach 6 flow to examine the reattachment process of an axisymmetric free shear layer associated with the near wake of a 70 deg. half angle, spherically blunted cone with a cylindrical after body. Model angle of incidence was fixed at 0 deg. and free-stream Reynolds numbers based on body diameter ranged from 0.5 x 10(exp 6) to 4 x 10(exp 6). The sensitivity of wake shear layer transition on reattachment heating was investigated. The present perfect gas study was designed to compliment results obtained previously in facilities capable of producing real gas effects. The instrumented blunted cone model was designed primarily for testing in high enthalpy hypervelocity shock tunnels in both this country and abroad but was amenable for testing in conventional hypersonic blowdown wind tunnels as well. Surface heating rates were inferred from temperature - time histories from coaxial surface thermocouples on the model forebody and thin film resistance gages along the model base and cylindrical after body. General flow feature (bow shock, wake shear layer, and recompression shock) locations were visually identified by schlieren photography. Mean shear layer position and growth were determined from intrusive pitot pressure surveys. In addition, wake surveys with a constant temperature hot-wire anemometer were utilized to qualitatively characterize the state of the shear layer prior to reattachment. Experimental results were compared to laminar perfect gas predictions provided by a 3-D Navier Stokes code (NSHYP). Shear layer impingement on the instrumented cylindrical after body resulted in a localized heating maximum that was 21 to 29 percent of the forebody stagnation point heating. Peak heating resulting from the reattaching shear layer was found to be a factor of 2 higher than laminar predictions, which suggested a transitional shear layer. Schlieren flow visualization and fluctuating voltage time histories and spectra from the hot wire surveys
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horikiri, Tomoyuki; Sasaki, Hideki; Wang, Haibo; Kobayashi, Takayoshi
2005-01-01
We propose a high security quantum key distribution (QKD) scheme utilizing one mode of spontaneous parametric downconversion gated by a photon number resolving detector. This photon number measurement is possible by using single-photon detectors operating at room temperature and optical fibers. By post selection, the multiphoton probability in this scheme can be reduced to lower than that of a scheme using an attenuated coherent light resulting in improvement of security. Furthermore, if distillation protocol (error correction and privacy amplification) is performed, the gain will be increased. Hence a QKD system with higher security and bit rate than the laser-based QKD system can be attained using present available technologies
Quantitative Global Heat Transfer in a Mach-6 Quiet Tunnel
Sullivan, John P.; Schneider, Steven P.; Liu, Tianshu; Rubal, Justin; Ward, Chris; Dussling, Joseph; Rice, Cody; Foley, Ryan; Cai, Zeimin; Wang, Bo;
2012-01-01
This project developed quantitative methods for obtaining heat transfer from temperature sensitive paint (TSP) measurements in the Mach-6 quiet tunnel at Purdue, which is a Ludwieg tube with a downstream valve, moderately-short flow duration and low levels of heat transfer. Previous difficulties with inferring heat transfer from TSP in the Mach-6 quiet tunnel were traced to (1) the large transient heat transfer that occurs during the unusually long tunnel startup and shutdown, (2) the non-uniform thickness of the insulating coating, (3) inconsistencies and imperfections in the painting process and (4) the low levels of heat transfer observed on slender models at typical stagnation temperatures near 430K. Repeated measurements were conducted on 7 degree-half-angle sharp circular cones at zero angle of attack in order to evaluate the techniques, isolate the problems and identify solutions. An attempt at developing a two-color TSP method is also summarized.
Quantum Hash function and its application to privacy amplification in quantum key distribution, pseudo-random number generation and image encryption
Yang, Yu-Guang; Xu, Peng; Yang, Rui; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Shi, Wei-Min
2016-01-01
Quantum information and quantum computation have achieved a huge success during the last years. In this paper, we investigate the capability of quantum Hash function, which can be constructed by subtly modifying quantum walks, a famous quantum computation model. It is found that quantum Hash function can act as a hash function for the privacy amplification process of quantum key distribution systems with higher security. As a byproduct, quantum Hash function can also be used for pseudo-random number generation due to its inherent chaotic dynamics. Further we discuss the application of quantum Hash function to image encryption and propose a novel image encryption algorithm. Numerical simulations and performance comparisons show that quantum Hash function is eligible for privacy amplification in quantum key distribution, pseudo-random number generation and image encryption in terms of various hash tests and randomness tests. It extends the scope of application of quantum computation and quantum information.
Yang, Yu-Guang; Xu, Peng; Yang, Rui; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Shi, Wei-Min
2016-01-01
Quantum information and quantum computation have achieved a huge success during the last years. In this paper, we investigate the capability of quantum Hash function, which can be constructed by subtly modifying quantum walks, a famous quantum computation model. It is found that quantum Hash function can act as a hash function for the privacy amplification process of quantum key distribution systems with higher security. As a byproduct, quantum Hash function can also be used for pseudo-random number generation due to its inherent chaotic dynamics. Further we discuss the application of quantum Hash function to image encryption and propose a novel image encryption algorithm. Numerical simulations and performance comparisons show that quantum Hash function is eligible for privacy amplification in quantum key distribution, pseudo-random number generation and image encryption in terms of various hash tests and randomness tests. It extends the scope of application of quantum computation and quantum information. PMID:26823196
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Wiedensohler
2012-03-01
Full Text Available Mobility particle size spectrometers often referred to as DMPS (Differential Mobility Particle Sizers or SMPS (Scanning Mobility Particle Sizers have found a wide range of applications in atmospheric aerosol research. However, comparability of measurements conducted world-wide is hampered by lack of generally accepted technical standards and guidelines with respect to the instrumental set-up, measurement mode, data evaluation as well as quality control. Technical standards were developed for a minimum requirement of mobility size spectrometry to perform long-term atmospheric aerosol measurements. Technical recommendations include continuous monitoring of flow rates, temperature, pressure, and relative humidity for the sheath and sample air in the differential mobility analyzer.
We compared commercial and custom-made inversion routines to calculate the particle number size distributions from the measured electrical mobility distribution. All inversion routines are comparable within few per cent uncertainty for a given set of raw data.
Furthermore, this work summarizes the results from several instrument intercomparison workshops conducted within the European infrastructure project EUSAAR (European Supersites for Atmospheric Aerosol Research and ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure Network to determine present uncertainties especially of custom-built mobility particle size spectrometers. Under controlled laboratory conditions, the particle number size distributions from 20 to 200 nm determined by mobility particle size spectrometers of different design are within an uncertainty range of around ±10% after correcting internal particle losses, while below and above this size range the discrepancies increased. For particles larger than 200 nm, the uncertainty range increased to 30%, which could not be explained. The network reference mobility spectrometers with identical design agreed within ±4% in the
Laser produced plasma density measurement by Mach-Zehnder interferometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vaziri, A.; Kohanzadeh, Y.; Mosavi, R.K.
1976-06-01
This report describes an optical interferometric method of measuring the refractive index of the laser-produced plasma, giving estimates of its electron density. The plasma is produced by the interaction of a high power pulsed CO 2 laser beam with a solid target in the vacuum. The time varying plasma has a transient electron density. This transient electron density gives rise to a changing plasma refractive index. A Mach-Zehnder ruby laser interferometer is used to measure this refractive index change
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sučević Nikola
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper the influence of a large number of small hydro power plants on the short-circuit currents is analysed, as well as the operation of the relay protection system within the real distribution network in Serbia. The necessary modification of the existing protection functions, as well as the implementation of the new proposed protection functions, are presented and discussed. Network modeling and analysis are performed using the program tool DIgSILENT PowerFactory.
Optimization of OT-MACH Filter Generation for Target Recognition
Johnson, Oliver C.; Edens, Weston; Lu, Thomas T.; Chao, Tien-Hsin
2009-01-01
An automatic Optimum Trade-off Maximum Average Correlation Height (OT-MACH) filter generator for use in a gray-scale optical correlator (GOC) has been developed for improved target detection at JPL. While the OT-MACH filter has been shown to be an optimal filter for target detection, actually solving for the optimum is too computationally intensive for multiple targets. Instead, an adaptive step gradient descent method was tested to iteratively optimize the three OT-MACH parameters, alpha, beta, and gamma. The feedback for the gradient descent method was a composite of the performance measures, correlation peak height and peak to side lobe ratio. The automated method generated and tested multiple filters in order to approach the optimal filter quicker and more reliably than the current manual method. Initial usage and testing has shown preliminary success at finding an approximation of the optimal filter, in terms of alpha, beta, gamma values. This corresponded to a substantial improvement in detection performance where the true positive rate increased for the same average false positives per image.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marie eKim
2014-11-01
Full Text Available The spleen is a highly compartmentalized lymphoid organ that allows for efficient antigen presentation and activation of immune responses. Additionally, the spleen itself functions to remove senescent red blood cells, filter bacteria, and sequester platelets. Splenectomy, commonly performed after blunt force trauma or splenomegaly, has been shown to increase risk of certain bacterial and parasitic infections years after removal of the spleen. Although previous studies report defects in memory B cells and IgM titers in splenectomized patients, the effect of splenectomy on CD8 T cell responses and memory CD8 T cell function remains ill defined. Using TCR-transgenic P14 cells, we demonstrate that homeostatic proliferation and representation of pathogen-specific memory CD8 T cells in the blood are enhanced in splenectomized compared to sham surgery mice. Surprisingly, despite the enhanced turnover, splenectomized mice displayed no changes in total memory CD8 T cell numbers nor impaired protection against lethal dose challenge with Listeria monocytogenes. Thus, our data suggest that memory CD8 T cell maintenance and function remain intact in the absence of the spleen.
Stable and efficient retrospective 4D-MRI using non-uniformly distributed quasi-random numbers
Breuer, Kathrin; Meyer, Cord B.; Breuer, Felix A.; Richter, Anne; Exner, Florian; Weng, Andreas M.; Ströhle, Serge; Polat, Bülent; Jakob, Peter M.; Sauer, Otto A.; Flentje, Michael; Weick, Stefan
2018-04-01
The purpose of this work is the development of a robust and reliable three-dimensional (3D) Cartesian imaging technique for fast and flexible retrospective 4D abdominal MRI during free breathing. To this end, a non-uniform quasi random (NU-QR) reordering of the phase encoding (k y –k z ) lines was incorporated into 3D Cartesian acquisition. The proposed sampling scheme allocates more phase encoding points near the k-space origin while reducing the sampling density in the outer part of the k-space. Respiratory self-gating in combination with SPIRiT-reconstruction is used for the reconstruction of abdominal data sets in different respiratory phases (4D-MRI). Six volunteers and three patients were examined at 1.5 T during free breathing. Additionally, data sets with conventional two-dimensional (2D) linear and 2D quasi random phase encoding order were acquired for the volunteers for comparison. A quantitative evaluation of image quality versus scan times (from 70 s to 626 s) for the given sampling schemes was obtained by calculating the normalized mutual information (NMI) for all volunteers. Motion estimation was accomplished by calculating the maximum derivative of a signal intensity profile of a transition (e.g. tumor or diaphragm). The 2D non-uniform quasi-random distribution of phase encoding lines in Cartesian 3D MRI yields more efficient undersampling patterns for parallel imaging compared to conventional uniform quasi-random and linear sampling. Median NMI values of NU-QR sampling are the highest for all scan times. Therefore, within the same scan time 4D imaging could be performed with improved image quality. The proposed method allows for the reconstruction of motion artifact reduced 4D data sets with isotropic spatial resolution of 2.1 × 2.1 × 2.1 mm3 in a short scan time, e.g. 10 respiratory phases in only 3 min. Cranio-caudal tumor displacements between 23 and 46 mm could be observed. NU-QR sampling enables for stable 4D
The role of IGF-1 and the distribution of body fat in decreasing the number of prostate rebiopsies.
Morán, E; Martínez, M; Budía, A; Broseta, E; Cámara, R; Boronat, F
2017-03-01
To assess the usefulness of IGF-1 and internal organ fat measured by bioelectrical impedance audiometry to avoid rebiopsies in patients with persistently high prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. A prospective study was conducted with 92 patients who underwent prostate rebiopsy due to high PSA levels with negative results in the rectal examination and a lack of preneoplastic lesions. The patients previously had their IGF-1 levels measured and had undergone an impedance audiometry test using the abdominal Fat Analyser AB-140 TANITA system. We calculated the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for the PSA levels, %PSA, internal organ fat and IGF-1 and PSA density. Twenty-five patients were diagnosed with prostate cancer. These patients had significantly higher PSA, PSAd and IGF-1 values and a tendency towards higher internal organ fat levels and lower %PSA readings (p=.001, p=.003, p=.001, p=.24 and P=0.28, respectively). The ROC curve showed an area under the curve for IGF-1 and PSA of .82 and .81, respectively. Using the cutoff points for 95% sensitivity and using the 3 criteria as an indication of rebiopsy, 74% of the biopsies would have been spared, leaving undiagnosed only 1 patient with clinically significant cancer -Gleason score>7 (4+3)-. The positive and negative predictive values for the set of variables were higher than for each one separately (PPV: 66/NPV: 63). The cost of both determinations was 82 euros. Our results suggest that measuring IGF-1 could significantly decrease the number of unnecessary rebiopsies in an inexpensive and safe manner. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bluszcz, Andrzej; Adamiec, Grzegorz; Heer, Aleksandra J.
2015-01-01
The current work focuses on the estimation of equivalent dose and its uncertainty using the single aliquot regenerative protocol in optically stimulated luminescence measurements. The authors show that the count numbers recorded with the use of photomultiplier tubes are well described by negative binomial distributions, different ones for background counts and photon induced counts. This fact is then exploited in pseudo-random count number generation and simulations of D e determination assuming a saturating exponential growth. A least squares fitting procedure is applied using different types of weights to determine whether the obtained D e 's and their error estimates are unbiased and accurate. A weighting procedure is suggested that leads to almost unbiased D e estimates. It is also shown that the assumption of Poisson distribution in D e estimation may lead to severe underestimation of the D e error. - Highlights: • Detailed analysis of statistics of count numbers in luminescence readers. • Generation of realistically scattered pseudo-random numbers of counts in luminescence measurements. • A practical guide for stringent analysis of D e values and errors assessment.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benajes, Jesús; García, Antonio; Monsalve-Serrano, Javier; Boronat, Vicente
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Optimized dual-mode dual-fuel strategy to cover the whole engine map. • High coherence between smoke and total particles number for diffusive dual-fuel mode. • Fully premixed RCCI regime dominated by small particles of 30 nm diameter peak. • Highly premixed RCCI mode has a transitional behavior with two particle diameter peaks. - Abstract: Literature demonstrates that, for premixed low temperature combustion concepts, particulate matter cannot be directly extrapolated from soot emissions measurements, as typically done for conventional diesel combustion. This is because the particulate matter from low temperature combustion has low fraction of carbonaceous compounds and great amount of soluble organic fraction, which is not captured by the smoke measurement techniques such as the optical reflectometry. By this reason, the study of the particulate matter characteristics from this combustion techniques requires using specific equipment. The aim of the current work is to gain understanding on the particulate matter characteristics from the dual-mode dual-fuel combustion, which is an optimized combustion strategy that combines fully and highly premixed RCCI regimes at low and medium loads, and switches to dual-fuel diffusion combustion at full load. The study was performed over the whole engine map, using a 15.3:1 compression ratio medium-duty EURO VI diesel engine. In particular, the particulate number and size distributions were sampled using a scanning mobility particle sizer and a condensation particle counter, which allow measuring the size distribution and total number of particles from 5 to 250 nm. Results demonstrate that the fully premixed RCCI combustion is dominated by small particles (less than 30 nm in mobility diameter), the dual-fuel diffusion mode is dominated by larger particles (around 100 nm in mobility diameter) showing more diesel-like particle size distributions, and the highly premixed reactivity controlled compression
John R. Jones
1985-01-01
Quaking aspen is the most widely distributed native North American tree species (Little 1971, Sargent 1890). It grows in a great diversity of regions, environments, and communities (Harshberger 1911). Only one deciduous tree species in the world, the closely related Eurasian aspen (Populus tremula), has a wider range (Weigle and Frothingham 1911)....
Calderón-Garcidueñas, Ana Laura; Piña-Osuna, Karina; Leal-Moreno, Ana María; López-Cárdenas, Adriana; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M
2004-01-01
1. To describe clinical and pathologic characteristics of patients with coccidioidomycosis (CM) who died from 1983-2000 at a hospital in northeastern Mexico, and 2, to know distribution of number of deaths due to CM per year and month. From 4598 autopsies, 31 cases of CM were selected. Clinical chart and autopsy protocols were examined. Distribution of cases was analyzed by contingence table and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests. There were 10 women and 21 men (aged 4 months to 60 years). In women, pregnancy was present in 40% of cases. In men, chronic renal failure (CRF) (38%) and AIDS (19%) were the pathologic conditions most frequently observed. Variation in distribution of cases throughout 18 years was not observed (p > 0.05). Mortality due to CM was 0.67% and variation in number of deaths was not found. In this endemic area, CM must be included in differential diagnosis of patients with risk factors such as pregnancy, CRF, and AIDS, especially if associated with pneumonia with miliary pattern or septicemia with splenomegaly.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Young, Li-Hao; Liou, Yi-Jyun; Cheng, Man-Ting; Lu, Jau-Huai; Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Tsai, Ying I.; Wang, Lin-Chi; Chen, Chung-Bang; Lai, Jim-Shoung
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► The effects of waste cooking oil biodiesel, engine load and DOC + DPF on nonvolatile particle size distributions in HDDE exhaust. ► Increasing biodiesel blends cause slight decreases in the total particle number concentrations and negligible changes in size distributions. ► Increasing load results in modest increases in both the total particle number concentrations and sizes. ► The effects of semivolatile materials are strongest at idle, during which nonvolatile cores TOT ) decrease slightly, while the mode diameters show negligible changes with increasing biodiesel blends. For a given biodiesel blend, both the N TOT and mode diameters increase modestly with increasing load of above 25%. The N TOT at idle are highest and their size distributions are strongly affected by condensation and possible nucleation of semivolatile materials. Nonvolatile cores of diameters less than 16 nm are only observed at idle mode. The DOC + DPF shows remarkable filtration efficiency for both the core and soot particles, irrespective of the biodiesel blend and engine load under study. The N TOT post the DOC + DPF are comparable to typical ambient levels of ∼10 4 cm −3 . This implies that, without concurrent reductions of semivolatile materials, the formation of semivolatile nucleation mode particles post the aftertreatment is highly favored.
Liu, Jia; Ge, Yunshan; Wang, Xin; Hao, Lijun; Tan, Jianwei; Peng, Zihang; Zhang, Chuanzhen; Gong, Huiming; Huang, Ying
2017-07-01
In this study, the particle size-resolved distribution from a China-3 certificated light-duty diesel vehicle was measured by using a portable emission measurement system (PEMS). In order to examine the influences of vehicle specific power (VSP) and high-altitude operation, measurements were conducted at 8 constant speeds, which ranged from 10 to 80km/hr at 10km/hr intervals, and two different high altitudes, namely 2200 and 3200m. The results demonstrated that the numbers of particles in all size ranges decreased significantly as VSP increased when the test vehicle was running at lower speeds (vehicle resulted in increased particle number emissions at low and high driving speeds; however, particle numbers obtained at moderate speeds decreased as altitude rose. When the test vehicle was running at moderate speeds, particle numbers measured at the two altitudes were very close, except for comparatively higher number concentrations of nanoparticles measured at 2200m. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Clarke, Richard W; Monnier, Nilah; Li, Haitao; Zhou, Dejian; Browne, Helena; Klenerman, David
2007-08-15
We present a single virion method to determine absolute distributions of copy number in the protein composition of viruses and apply it to herpes simplex virus type 1. Using two-color coincidence fluorescence spectroscopy, we determine the virion-to-virion variability in copy numbers of fluorescently labeled tegument and envelope proteins relative to a capsid protein by analyzing fluorescence intensity ratios for ensembles of individual dual-labeled virions and fitting the resulting histogram of ratios. Using EYFP-tagged capsid protein VP26 as a reference for fluorescence intensity, we are able to calculate the mean and also, for the first time to our knowledge, the variation in numbers of gD, VP16, and VP22 tegument. The measurement of the number of glycoprotein D molecules was in good agreement with independent measurements of average numbers of these glycoproteins in bulk virus preparations, validating the method. The accuracy, straightforward data processing, and high throughput of this technique make it widely applicable to the analysis of the molecular composition of large complexes in general, and it is particularly suited to providing insights into virus structure, assembly, and infectivity.
Qu, Long; Nettleton, Dan; Dekkers, Jack C M
2012-12-01
Given a large number of t-statistics, we consider the problem of approximating the distribution of noncentrality parameters (NCPs) by a continuous density. This problem is closely related to the control of false discovery rates (FDR) in massive hypothesis testing applications, e.g., microarray gene expression analysis. Our methodology is similar to, but improves upon, the existing approach by Ruppert, Nettleton, and Hwang (2007, Biometrics, 63, 483-495). We provide parametric, nonparametric, and semiparametric estimators for the distribution of NCPs, as well as estimates of the FDR and local FDR. In the parametric situation, we assume that the NCPs follow a distribution that leads to an analytically available marginal distribution for the test statistics. In the nonparametric situation, we use convex combinations of basis density functions to estimate the density of the NCPs. A sequential quadratic programming procedure is developed to maximize the penalized likelihood. The smoothing parameter is selected with the approximate network information criterion. A semiparametric estimator is also developed to combine both parametric and nonparametric fits. Simulations show that, under a variety of situations, our density estimates are closer to the underlying truth and our FDR estimates are improved compared with alternative methods. Data-based simulations and the analyses of two microarray datasets are used to evaluate the performance in realistic situations. © 2012, The International Biometric Society.
Hoy, W E; Hughson, M D; Zimanyi, M; Samuel, T; Douglas-Denton, R; Holden, L; Mott, S; Bertram, J F
2010-11-01
Glomerular hypertrophy occurs in a number of normal and pathological states. Glomerular volume in kidneys at autopsy is usually indirectly derived from estimates of total glomerular mass and nephron number, and provides only a single value per kidney, with no indication of the range of volumes of glomeruli within the kidney of any given subject. We review findings of the distribution of volumes of different glomeruli within subjects without kidney disease, and their correlations with age, nephron number, birth weight and body mass index (BMI). The study describes findings from autopsy kidneys of selected adult white males from the Southeast USA who had unexpected deaths, and who did not have renal scarring or renal disease. Total glomerular (nephron) number and total glomerular volume were estimated using the disector/fractionator combination, and mean glomerular volume (Vglom) was derived. The volumes of 30 individual glomeruli (IGV) in each subject were determined using the disector/Cavalieri method. IGV values were compared by categories of age, nephron number, birth weight and BMI. There was substantial variation in IGV within subjects. Older age, lower nephron number, lower birth weight and gross obesity were associated with higher mean IGV and with greater IGV heterogeneity. High Vglom and high IGVs were associated with more glomerulosclerosis. However, amongst the generally modest numbers of sclerosed glomeruli, the pattern was uniformly of ischemic collapse of the glomerular tuft. There was no detectable focal segmental glomerular tuft injury. In this series of people without overt renal disease, greater age, nephron deficit, lower birth weight and obesity were marked by glomerular enlargement and greater glomerular volume heterogeneity within individuals.
Lee, Jae-In; Lee, Yoon; Kim, Yu-Lee; Cho, Hye-Won
2016-02-01
The 4-, 3- or even 2-implant-supported partial fixed dental prosthesis (PFDP) designs have been used to rehabilitate the anterior edentulous maxilla. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the stress distribution in the supporting tissues surrounding implants placed in the anterior maxilla with 5 PFDP designs. A photoelastic model of the human maxilla with an anterior edentulous region was made with photoelastic resin (PL-2; Vishay Micro-Measurements), and 6 straight implants (OsseoSpeed; Astra Tech AB) were placed in the 6 anterior tooth positions. The 5 design concepts based on implant location were as follows: model 6I: 6 implants; model 2C2CI: 4 implants (2 canines and 2 central incisors); model 2C2LI: 4 implants (2 canines and 2 lateral incisors); model 2C1CI: 3 implants (2 canines and 1 central incisor); and model 2C: 2 canines. A load of 127.4 N was applied on the cingulum of 3 teeth at a 30-degree angle to the long axis of the implant. Stresses that developed in the supporting structure were recorded photographically. The 6-implant-supported PFDP exhibited the most even and lowest distribution of stresses in all loading conditions. When the canine was loaded, the 2- or 3-implant-supported PFDP showed higher stresses around the implant at the canine position than did the 4- or 6-implant-supported PFDP. When the central incisor or lateral incisor was loaded, the two 4-implant-supported PFDPs exhibited similar levels of stresses around the implants and showed lower stresses than did the 2- or 3-implant-supported PFDP. Implant number and distribution influenced stress distribution around the implants in the anterior maxilla. With a decrease in implant number, the stresses around the implants increased. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
High Mach Number Scramjet Test Flows in the X3 Expansion Tube
Gildfind, D. E.; Sancho, J.; Morgan, R. G.
The University of Queensland (UQ) has two free-piston driven expansion tube facilities; X2 has a total length of 23 m and was originally commissioned in 1995 [1]; X3 is much longer at 62 m, and was commissioned in 2001 [2].
ASYMPTOTIC STEADY-STATE SOLUTION TO A BOW SHOCK WITH AN INFINITE MACH NUMBER
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yalinewich, Almog; Sari, Re’em [Racah Institute of Physics, the Hebrew University, 91904, Jerusalem (Israel)
2016-08-01
The problem of a cold gas flowing past a stationary obstacle is considered. We study the bow shock that forms around the obstacle and show that at large distances from the obstacle the shock front forms a parabolic solid of revolution. The profiles of the hydrodynamic variables in the interior of the shock are obtained by solution of the hydrodynamic equations in parabolic coordinates. The results are verified with a hydrodynamic simulation. The drag force on the obstacle is also calculated. Finally, we use these results to model the bow shock around an isolated neutron star.
Stability with respect to domain of the low Mach number limit of compressible viscous fluids
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Feireisl, Eduard; Karper, T.; Kreml, Ondřej; Stebel, Jan
2013-01-01
Roč. 23, č. 13 (2013), s. 2465-2493 ISSN 0218-2025 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/0917 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : incompressible limit * domain dependence * Navier-Stokes system Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.351, year: 2013 http://www.worldscientific.com/doi/abs/10.1142/S0218202513500371
On the low Mach number limit of compressible flows in exterior moving domains
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Feireisl, Eduard; Kreml, Ondřej; Mácha, Václav; Nečasová, Šárka
2016-01-01
Roč. 16, č. 3 (2016), s. 705-722 ISSN 1424-3199 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-00522S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : compressible Navier-Stokes system * incompressible limit * moving domain Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.038, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00028-016-0338-2
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pradera-Mallabiabarrena, Ainara; Jacobsen, Finn; Svendsen, Christian
2013-01-01
-compact surfaces are involved. Here the generation of noise is dominated by the interaction of the flow with a surface whose maximum dimension is shorter than the wavelength of interest. The analysis is based on the surface-source term of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation. The acoustic source data of the flow...
Investigation of Shock Diffusers at Mach Number 1.85. 1 - Projecting Single Shock Cones
1947-06-17
cylindrical simulated combustion chamber was used to vary the outlet area of the flow through the diffuser. The pitot -static rake, located as shown in the...and II. Proc. Roy. Soc. (London), ser. A, vol. 139, no 838, Feb. 1, 1933, pp. 278-311. 5. Wyatt, DeMarquis D., and Hunczak, Henry R.: An...Simulated combustion u chamber A 90° W •—Conical damper S Static-pressure orifice ps pitot -static ""rake’ NATIONAL ADVISORY
Measurement and Analysis of the Noise Radiated by Low Mach Numbers Centrifugal Blowers
1987-11-01
Lang, V Manager of the IBM Poughkeepsie Acoustics Laboratory, for his understanding and support. I would also like to express my gratitude to the IBM...ficl.l. Knowlede p of these quantities provides important information on the relative strength of thL :cro- a dynamic noise sources on the blade... manageability . The model blower design was thus determined by scaling all of the linear dimensions of the reference device by 2.0 and by maintaining • all of
High Angle of Attack Missile Aerodynamics at Mach Numbers 0.30 to 1.5
1980-11-01
I AFWAL-TR-80-3070 I 45~//1° 4. N3B2 Cn 3d . 35 10 -2 36 30 37 50 2- S Cy ’ -1I __- 40 0 45 CAh ------ 50 -555 70- * 6C 50 504 40 ZS 8 9 LO R*N a 4. 5...Continued) 36. Drescher, H., "Messung Der Auf Querange-Sti"mte Zylinder Ausgeubten Zeitlich Verabderten Druck ," Z.F. Flugwss, Vol. 4, No. 1/2, 1956
Low Mach and Peclet number limit for a model of stellar tachocline and upper radiative zones
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Donatelli, D.; Ducomet, B.; Kobera, M.; Nečasová, Šárka
2016-01-01
Roč. 2016, Č. 245 (2016), s. 1-31 ISSN 1072-6691 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-03230S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Navier-Stokes-Fourier-Poisson system * radiation transfer * compressible magnetohydrodynamics Subject RIV: BA - General Math ematics Impact factor: 0.954, year: 2016 http://ejde. math .txstate.edu/Volumes/2016/245/abstr.html
Turbulent boundary layer noise : direct radiation at Mach number 0.5
Gloerfelt , Xavier; Berland , Julien
2013-01-01
International audience; Boundary layers constitute a fundamental source of aerodynamic noise. A turbulent boundary layer over a plane wall can provide an indirect contribution to the noise by exciting the structure, and a direct noise contribution. The latter part can play a significant role even if its intensity is very low, explaining why it is hardly measured unambiguously. In the present study, the aerodynamic noise generated by a spatially developing turbulent boundary layer is computed ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoeckel, M.; Luechinger, P.
2003-07-01
This is the seventh part of a ten-part final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) on a project that looked into potential problems relating to the Swiss electricity distribution grid with respect to the increasing number of distributed power generation facilities being put into service. The identification of special conditions for the grid's operation and future development that take increasing decentralised power production into account are discussed. The results of the project activities encompass the analysis and evaluation of various problem areas associated with planning and management of the grid during normal operation and periods of malfunction, as well as required modifications to safety systems and grid configurations. This sixth appendix to the main report presents and discusses the results of simulations made on the basis of the real-life 16 kV medium-voltage distribution network operated by the Aargovian electricity utility AEW. This appendix describes the simulation methods used and the basic characteristics of medium-voltage networks and distributed generation facilities. Different types of load profiles, including domestic and industrial loads, are discussed. The results of the simulations are presented in graphical form and provide profiles of voltage and current, active and reactive power and further mains characteristics for varying load conditions. Also, daily profiles for situations with and without distributed generation are presented and short-circuit simulations and grid dynamics are discussed.
Rotating detectors and Mach's principle
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Paola, R.D.M. de; Svaiter, N.F
2000-08-01
In this work we consider a quantum version of Newton{sup s} bucket experiment in a fl;at spacetime: we take an Unruh-DeWitt detector in interaction with a real massless scalar field. We calculate the detector's excitation rate when it is uniformly rotating around some fixed point and the field is prepared in the Minkowski vacuum and also when the detector is inertial and the field is in the Trocheries-Takeno vacuum state. These results are compared and the relations with Mach's principle are discussed. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Young, Li-Hao, E-mail: lhy@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Department of Occupational Safety and Health, China Medical University, 91, Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Liou, Yi-Jyun [Department of Occupational Safety and Health, China Medical University, 91, Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Man-Ting [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 250, Kuo-Kuang Road, Taichung 40254, Taiwan (China); Lu, Jau-Huai [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 250, Kuo-Kuang Road, Taichung 40254, Taiwan (China); Yang, Hsi-Hsien [Department of Environmental Engineering and Management, Chaoyang University of Technology, 168, Jifeng E. Road, Taichung 41349, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Ying I. [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, 60, Sec. 1, Erh-Jen Road, Tainan 71710, Taiwan (China); Wang, Lin-Chi [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Cheng Shiu University, 840, Chengcing Road, Kaohsiung 83347, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chung-Bang [Fuel Quality and Engine Performance Research, Refining and Manufacturing Research Institute, Chinese Petroleum Corporation, 217, Minsheng S. Road, Chiayi 60036, Taiwan (China); Lai, Jim-Shoung [Department of Occupational Safety and Health, China Medical University, 91, Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China)
2012-01-15
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of waste cooking oil biodiesel, engine load and DOC + DPF on nonvolatile particle size distributions in HDDE exhaust. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increasing biodiesel blends cause slight decreases in the total particle number concentrations and negligible changes in size distributions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increasing load results in modest increases in both the total particle number concentrations and sizes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of semivolatile materials are strongest at idle, during which nonvolatile cores <16 nm were observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The DOC + DPF shows remarkable filtration efficiency for both the core and soot particles, irrespective of biodiesel blend and load. - Abstract: Diesel engine exhaust contains large numbers of submicrometer particles that degrade air quality and human health. This study examines the number emission characteristics of 10-1000 nm nonvolatile particles from a heavy-duty diesel engine, operating with various waste cooking oil biodiesel blends (B2, B10 and B20), engine loads (0%, 25%, 50% and 75%) and a diesel oxidation catalyst plus diesel particulate filter (DOC + DPF) under steady modes. For a given load, the total particle number concentrations (N{sub TOT}) decrease slightly, while the mode diameters show negligible changes with increasing biodiesel blends. For a given biodiesel blend, both the N{sub TOT} and mode diameters increase modestly with increasing load of above 25%. The N{sub TOT} at idle are highest and their size distributions are strongly affected by condensation and possible nucleation of semivolatile materials. Nonvolatile cores of diameters less than 16 nm are only observed at idle mode. The DOC + DPF shows remarkable filtration efficiency for both the core and soot particles, irrespective of the biodiesel blend and engine load under study. The N{sub TOT} post the DOC + DPF are comparable to typical ambient levels of
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Staudhammer, Karl P.
2004-01-01
The Mach stem region in an axial symmetric shock implosion has generally been avoided in the dynamic consolidation of powders for a number of reasons. The prime reason being that the convergence of the shock waves in the cylindrical axis produce enormous pressures and concomitant temperatures that have melted tungsten. This shock wave convergence consequently results in a discontinuity in the hydro-code calculations. Dynamic deformation experiments on gold plated 304L stainless steel powders were undertaken. These experiments utilized pressures of 0.08 to 1.0 Mbar and contained a symmetric radial melt region along the central axis of the sample holder. To understand the role of deformation in a porous material, the pressure, and temperature as well as the deformation heat and associated defects must be accounted for. When the added heat of consolidation deformation exceeds the melt temperature of the 304 powders, a melt zone results that can consume large regions of the compact while still under the high-pressure pulse. As the shock wave traverses the sample and is removed in a momentum trap, its pressure/temperature are quenched. It is within this region that very high diffusion/alloying occurs and has been observed in the gold plated powders. Anomalous increases of gold diffusion into 304 stainless steel have been observed via optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and EDAX measurements. Values exceeding 1200 m/sec have been measured and correlated to the powder sizes, size distribution and packing density, concomitant with sample container strains ranging from 2.0% to 26%.
Reflected rarefactions, double regular reflection, and mach waves in aluminum and beryllium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neal, T.
1975-01-01
A number of shock techniques which can be used to obtain high-pressure equation-of-state information between the principal Hugoniot and the principal adiabat are illustrated. A rarefaction wave in aluminum shocked to 27.7 GPa [277 kbar] is examined with radiographic techniques and the bulk sound speed is determined. The two stage compression which occurs in a double shock may be attained by colliding two shocks and observing regular reflection. A radiographic method which uses this phenomenon to measure a three-stage compression of aluminum to a density of 4.7 Mg/m 3 and beryllium to a density of 3.1 Mg/m 3 is presented. The results of a Mach reflection experiment in aluminum are found to disagree substantially with the simple three-shock model. A modified model, consistent with observations, is discussed. In all cases the Gruneisen parameter is determined. (U.S.)
Calibration of the 7—Equation Transition Model for High Reynolds Flows at Low Mach
Colonia, S.; Leble, V.; Steijl, R.; Barakos, G.
2016-09-01
The numerical simulation of flows over large-scale wind turbine blades without considering the transition from laminar to fully turbulent flow may result in incorrect estimates of the blade loads and performance. Thanks to its relative simplicity and promising results, the Local-Correlation based Transition Modelling concept represents a valid way to include transitional effects into practical CFD simulations. However, the model involves coefficients that need tuning. In this paper, the γ—equation transition model is assessed and calibrated, for a wide range of Reynolds numbers at low Mach, as needed for wind turbine applications. An aerofoil is used to evaluate the original model and calibrate it; while a large scale wind turbine blade is employed to show that the calibrated model can lead to reliable solutions for complex three-dimensional flows. The calibrated model shows promising results for both two-dimensional and three-dimensional flows, even if cross-flow instabilities are neglected.
Du, Wei; Zhao, Jian; Wang, Yuying; Zhang, Yingjie; Wang, Qingqing; Xu, Weiqi; Chen, Chen; Han, Tingting; Zhang, Fang; Li, Zhanqing; Fu, Pingqing; Li, Jie; Wang, Zifa; Sun, Yele
2017-06-01
Despite extensive studies into the characterization of particle number size distributions at ground level, real-time measurements above the urban canopy in the megacity of Beijing have never been performed to date. Here we conducted the first simultaneous measurements of size-resolved particle number concentrations at ground level and 260 m in urban Beijing from 22 August to 30 September. Our results showed overall similar temporal variations in number size distributions between ground level and 260 m, yet periods with significant differences were also observed. Particularly, accumulation-mode particles were highly correlated (r2 = 0. 85) at the two heights, while Aitken-mode particles presented more differences. Detailed analysis suggests that the vertical differences in number concentrations strongly depended on particle size, and particles with a mobility diameter between 100 and 200 nm generally showed higher concentrations at higher altitudes. Particle growth rates and condensation sinks were also calculated, which were 3.2 and 3.6 nm h-1, and 2.8 × 10-2 and 2.9 × 10-2 s-1, at ground level and 260 m, respectively. By linking particle growth with aerosol composition, we found that organics appeared to play an important role in the early stage of the growth (09:00-12:00 LT) while sulfate was also important during the later period. Positive matrix factorization of size-resolved number concentrations identified three common sources at ground level and 260 m, including a factor associated with new particle formation and growth events (NPEs), and two secondary factors that represent photochemical processing and regional transport. Cooking emission was found to have a large contribution to small particles and showed much higher concentration at ground level than 260 m in the evening. These results imply that investigation of NPEs at ground level in megacities needs to consider the influences of local cooking emissions. The impacts of regional emission controls on
Iodine Tagging Velocimetry in a Mach 10 Wake
Balla, Robert Jeffrey
2013-01-01
A variation on molecular tagging velocimetry (MTV) [1] designated iodine tagging velocimetry (ITV) is demonstrated. Molecular iodine is tagged by two-photon absorption using an Argon Fluoride (ArF) excimer laser. A single camera measures fluid displacement using atomic iodine emission at 206 nm. Two examples ofMTVfor cold-flowmeasurements areN2OMTV [2] and Femtosecond Laser Electronic Excitation Tagging [3]. These, like most MTV methods, are designed for atmospheric pressure applications. Neither can be implemented at the low pressures (0.1- 1 Torr) in typical hypersonic wakes. Of all the single-laser/singlecamera MTV approaches, only Nitric-Oxide Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence-based MTV [4] has been successfully demonstrated in a Mach 10 wake. Oxygen quenching limits transit times to 500 ns and accuracy to typically 30%. The present note describes the photophysics of the ITV method. Off-body velocimetry along a line is demonstrated in the aerothermodynamically important and experimentally challenging region of a hypersonic low-pressure near-wake in a Mach 10 air wind tunnel. Transit times up to 10 µs are demonstrated with conservative errors of 10%.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Krzysztof Klejnowski
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This work presents results from the long-term measurements of particle number carried out at an urban background station in Zabrze, Poland. Ambient particles with aerodynamic diameters of between 28 nm and 10 μm were investigated by means of a DEKATI thirteen-stage electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI. The particle number-size distribution was bimodal, whilst its density function had the local maxima in the aerodynamic diameter intervals 0.056–0.095 μm and 0.157–0.263 μm. The average particle number in winter was nearly twice as high as in summer. The greatest number concentrations in winter were those of the particles with diameters of between 0.617 and 2.41 μm, that is, the anthropogenic particles from fossil fuel combustion. Approximately 99% of the particles observed in Zabrze had aerodynamic diameters ≤1 μm—they may have originated from the combustion of biomass, liquid, and gaseous fuels in domestic stoves or in car engines. The daily variation of particle number was similar for both seasons—the highest values were observed in the morning (traffic rush hour and in the afternoon/late evening (traffic and house heating emissions. An additional maximum (0.028–0.056 μm observed in the early afternoon in summer was due to the intensive formation of new PM particles from gas precursors.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoeckel, M.; Luechinger, P.
2003-07-01
This is the sixth part of a ten-part final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) on a project that looked into potential problems relating to the Swiss electricity distribution grid with respect to the increasing number of distributed power generation facilities being put into service. The identification of special conditions for the grid's operation and future development that take increasing decentralised power production into account are discussed. The results of the project activities encompass the analysis and evaluation of various problem areas associated with planning and management of the grid during normal operation and periods of malfunction, as well as required modifications to safety systems and grid configurations. This fifth appendix to the main report presents and discusses the results of simulations made on the basis of the real-life 400 V low-voltage distribution network operated by the public utilities of the City of Zurich, Switzerland. This comprehensive appendix describes the simulation methods used and the basic characteristics of low-voltage networks and distributed generation facilities. The 6 simulation variants used are also described. The results of the simulations are presented in graphical form and provide profiles of voltage and current, active and reactive power and further mains characteristics for varying load conditions. Also, short-circuit simulations and harmonics analysis are discussed.
Influence of loading distribution on the performance of high pressure turbine blades
Corriveau, Daniel
Midspan measurements were made in a transonic wind tunnel for three High Pressure (HP) turbine blade cascades at both design and off-design incidences. Comparisons with two-dimensional numerical simulations of the cascade flow were also made. The baseline profile is the midspan section of a HP turbine blade of fairly recent design. It is considered mid-loaded. To gain a better understanding of blade loading limits and the influence of loading distributions, the profile of the baseline airfoil was modified to create two new airfoils having aft-loaded and front-loaded pressure distributions. Tests were performed for exit Mach numbers between 0.6 and 1.2. In addition, measurements were made for an extended range of Reynolds numbers for constant Mach numbers of 0.6, 0.85, 0.95 and 1.05. At the design exit Mach number of 1.05 and at design incidence, the aft-loaded airfoil showed a reduction of almost 20% in the total pressure losses compared with the baseline airfoil. Based on the analysis of wake traverse data and base pressure measurements combined with numerical results, it was found that the poorer loss performance of the baseline mid-loaded profile compared to the aft-loaded blade could be attributed to the former's higher rear suction side curvature, which resulted in higher flow velocity in that region, which, in turn, contributed to reducing the base pressure. The lower base pressure at the trailing edge resulted in a stronger trailing edge shock system for the mid-loaded blade. This shock system increased the losses for the mid-loaded baseline profile when compared to the aft-loaded profile. On the negative side, it was also found that as Mach numbers were increased beyond the design value the performance of the aft-loaded blade deteriorated rapidly. Under such conditions, the front-loaded airfoil showed generally inferior performance compared with the baseline airfoil. At off-design incidence, the aft-loaded blade maintained a superior loss performance over a
Vue, Tou Yia; Kim, Euiseok J.; Parras, Carlos M.; Guillemot, Francois; Johnson, Jane E.
2014-01-01
Glia constitute the majority of cells in the mammalian central nervous system and are crucial for neurological function. However, there is an incomplete understanding of the molecular control of glial cell development. We find that the transcription factor Ascl1 (Mash1), which is best known for its role in neurogenesis, also functions in both astrocyte and oligodendrocyte lineages arising in the mouse spinal cord at late embryonic stages. Clonal fate mapping in vivo reveals heterogeneity in Ascl1-expressing glial progenitors and shows that Ascl1 defines cells that are restricted to either gray matter (GM) or white matter (WM) as astrocytes or oligodendrocytes. Conditional deletion of Ascl1 post-neurogenesis shows that Ascl1 is required during oligodendrogenesis for generating the correct numbers of WM but not GM oligodendrocyte precursor cells, whereas during astrocytogenesis Ascl1 functions in balancing the number of dorsal GM protoplasmic astrocytes with dorsal WM fibrous astrocytes. Thus, in addition to its function in neurogenesis, Ascl1 marks glial progenitors and controls the number and distribution of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes in the GM and WM of the spinal cord. PMID:25249462
Young, Li-Hao; Liou, Yi-Jyun; Cheng, Man-Ting; Lu, Jau-Huai; Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Tsai, Ying I; Wang, Lin-Chi; Chen, Chung-Bang; Lai, Jim-Shoung
2012-01-15
Diesel engine exhaust contains large numbers of submicrometer particles that degrade air quality and human health. This study examines the number emission characteristics of 10-1000 nm nonvolatile particles from a heavy-duty diesel engine, operating with various waste cooking oil biodiesel blends (B2, B10 and B20), engine loads (0%, 25%, 50% and 75%) and a diesel oxidation catalyst plus diesel particulate filter (DOC+DPF) under steady modes. For a given load, the total particle number concentrations (N(TOT)) decrease slightly, while the mode diameters show negligible changes with increasing biodiesel blends. For a given biodiesel blend, both the N(TOT) and mode diameters increase modestly with increasing load of above 25%. The N(TOT) at idle are highest and their size distributions are strongly affected by condensation and possible nucleation of semivolatile materials. Nonvolatile cores of diameters less than 16 nm are only observed at idle mode. The DOC+DPF shows remarkable filtration efficiency for both the core and soot particles, irrespective of the biodiesel blend and engine load under study. The N(TOT) post the DOC+DPF are comparable to typical ambient levels of ≈ 10(4)cm(-3). This implies that, without concurrent reductions of semivolatile materials, the formation of semivolatile nucleation mode particles post the after treatment is highly favored. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Yue, D. L.; Hu, M.; Wu, Z. J.; Guo, S.; Wen, M. T.; Nowak, A.; Wehner, B.; Wiedensohler, A.; Takegawa, N.; Kondo, Y.; Wang, X. S.; Li, Y. P.; Zeng, L. M.; Zhang, Y. H.
2010-10-01
In order to characterize the features of particulate pollution in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) in the summer, continuous measurements of particle number size distributions and chemical compositions were simultaneously performed at Guangzhou urban site (GZ) and Back-garden downwind regional site (BG) in July 2006. Particle number concentration from 20 nm to 10 μm at BG was (1.7±0.8)×104 cm-3, about 40% lower than that at GZ, (2.9±1.1)×104 cm-3. The total particle volume concentration at BG was 94±34 μm3 cm-3, similar to that at GZ, 96±43 μm3 cm-3. More 20-100 nm particles, significantly affected by the traffic emissions, were observed at GZ, while 100-660 nm particle number concentrations were similar at both sites as they are more regional. PM2.5 values were similar at GZ (69±43 μg m-3) and BG (69±58 μg m-3) with R2 of 0.71 for the daily average PM2.5 at these two sites, indicating the fine particulate pollution in the PRD region to be regional. Two kinds of pollution episodes, the accumulation pollution episode and the regional transport pollution episode, were observed. Fine particles over 100 nm dominated both number and volume concentrations of total particles during the late periods of these pollution episodes. Accumulation and secondary transformation are the main reasons for the nighttime accumulation pollution episode. SO42-, NO3- accounted for about 60% in 100-660 nm particle mass and PM2.5 increase. When south or southeast wind prevailed in the PRD region, regional transport of pollutants took place. Regional transport contributed about 30% to fine particulate pollution at BG during a regional transport case. Secondary transformation played an important role during regional transport, causing higher increase rates of secondary ions in PM1.0 than other species and shifting the peaks of sulfate and ammonium mass size distributions to larger sizes. SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+ accounted for about 70% and 40% of PM1.0 and PM2.5, respectively.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roy, Arup Singha; Raman, Anand; Chaudhury, Probal; Thomas, Renju G.
2018-01-01
A quantitative knowledge about the neutron multiplying character of a neutron multiplying medium such as High enriched Uranium (HEU), Weapon Graded plutonium (WGPu) and similar special nuclear materials is essential for improving the probability of detection of these materials to check against illicit trafficking. The objective of this study is to gain a deeper insight in to the neutron and gamma multiplication behaviour of these materials. The leakage number distribution of neutron and gamma initiated by a source emission event (Spontaneous Fission) as well as single neutron emission event has been obtained in the course of this study. The computations for this study were carried out through GEANT4 simulation and also with the help of FREYA incorporated into it. This helped to carry out a detailed analysis of each history more realistically and obtain more reliable results
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
X. J. Shen
2011-02-01
Full Text Available Atmospheric particle number size distributions (size range 0.003–10 μm were measured between March 2008 and August 2009 at Shangdianzi (SDZ, a rural research station in the North China Plain. These measurements were made in an attempt to better characterize the tropospheric background aerosol in Northern China. The mean particle number concentrations of the total particle, as well as the nucleation, Aitken, accumulation and coarse mode were determined to be 1.2 ± 0.9 × 10^{4}, 3.6 ± 7.9 × 10^{3}, 4.4 ± 3.4 × 10^{3}, 3.5 ± 2.8 × 10^{3} and 2 ± 3 cm^{−3}, respectively. A general finding was that the particle number concentration was higher during spring compared to the other seasons. The air mass origin had an important effect on the particle number concentration and new particle formation events. Air masses from northwest (i.e. inner Asia favored the new particle formation events, while air masses from southeast showed the highest particle mass concentration. Significant diurnal variations in particle number were observed, which could be linked to new particle formation events, i.e. gas-to-particle conversion. During particle formation events, the number concentration of the nucleation mode rose up to maximum value of 10^{4} cm^{−3}. New particle formation events were observed on 36% of the effective measurement days. The formation rate ranged from 0.7 to 72.7 cm^{−3} s^{−1}, with a mean value of 8.0 cm^{−3} s^{−1}. The value of the nucleation mode growth rate was in the range of 0.3–14.5 nm h^{−1}, with a mean value of 4.3 nm h^{−1}. It was an essential observation that on many occasions the nucleation mode was able to grow into the size of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN within a matter of several hours. Furthermore, the new particle formation was regularly followed by a measurable increase in particle mass
Quantum Anatomy of the Classical Interference of n-Photon States in a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramírez-Cruz, N; Velázquez, V; Bastarrachea-Magnani, M A
2016-01-01
In this work we present the theory for the quantum interference of states with an arbitrary number of photons in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. We express the mathematical description of the interference in an algebraic way. We show the interference pattern of an average of a n photons input state corresponds to the classical interference pattern, which tells us the last comes from a quantum interference statistical average. Then, we propose to use this scheme to study the statistical transition from quantum to classical interference. (paper)
Ernst Mach, George Sarton and the Empiry of Teaching Science Part I
Siemsen, Hayo
2012-01-01
George Sarton had a strong influence on modern history of science. The method he pursued throughout his life was the method he had discovered in Ernst Mach's "Mechanics" when he was a student in Ghent. Sarton was in fact throughout his life implementing a research program inspired by the epistemology of Mach. Sarton in turn inspired many…
3-D Wizardry: Design in Papier-Mache, Plaster, and Foam.
Wolfe, George
Papier-mache, plaster, and foam are inexpensive and versatile media for 3-dimensional classroom and studio art experiences. They can be used equally well by elementary, high school, or college students. Each medium has its own characteristic. Papier-mache is pliable but dries into a hard, firm surface that can be waterproofed. Plaster can be…
Germanium on silicon mid-infrared waveguides and Mach-Zehnder interferometers
Malik, A.; Muneeb, M.; Shimura, Y.; Campenhout, van J.; Loo, van de R.; Roelkens, G.C.
2013-01-01
In this paper we describe Ge-on-Si waveguides and Mach-Zehnder interferometers operating in the 5.2 - 5.4 µm wavelength range. 3dB/cm waveguide losses and Mach-Zehnder interferometers with 20dB extinction ratio are presented.
Sub-shot-noise phase sensitivity with a Bose-Einstein condensate Mach-Zehnder interferometer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pezze, L.; Smerzi, A.; Collins, L.A.; Berman, G.P.; Bishop, A.R.
2005-01-01
Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC), with their coherence properties, have attracted wide interest for their possible application to ultraprecise interferometry and ultraweak force sensors. Since condensates, unlike photons, are interacting, they may permit the realization of specific quantum states needed as input of an interferometer to approach the Heisenberg limit, the supposed lower bound to precision phase measurements. To this end, we study the sensitivity to external weak perturbations of a representative matter-wave Mach-Zehnder interferometer whose input are two Bose-Einstein condensates created by splitting a single condensate in two parts. The interferometric phase sensitivity depends on the specific quantum state created with the two condensates, and, therefore, on the time scale of the splitting process. We identify three different regimes, characterized by a phase sensitivity Δθ scaling with the total number of condensate particles N as (i) the standard quantum limit Δθ∼1/N 1/2 (ii) the sub shot-noise Δθ∼1/N 3/4 , and the (iii) the Heisenberg limit Δθ∼1/N. However, in a realistic dynamical BEC splitting, the 1/N limit requires a long adiabaticity time scale, which is hardly reachable experimentally. On the other hand, the sub-shot-noise sensitivity Δθ∼1/N 3/4 can be reached in a realistic experimental setting. We also show that the 1/N 3/4 scaling is a rigorous upper bound in the limit N→∞, while keeping constant all different parameters of the bosonic Mach-Zehnder interferometer
Damghani, Sahar; Masri, Radi; Driscoll, Carl F; Romberg, Elaine
2012-06-01
There is little information as to how the number and distribution of implants affect the amount of load transmitted to the palate in implant-retained maxillary overdentures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the number and distribution of dental implants on the load transmitted to the palate. Eight implant analogues were placed in a replica of an average sized edentulous maxilla corresponding to the position of canines, first and second premolars, and first molars. The anteroposterior distance between the centers of implants in each quadrant was 8 mm. Fifteen denture bases were fabricated to fit the edentulous maxilla analogue. The denture bases were attached to the oral analogue using 6 different configurations of attachments (6 groups): Either no Locator attachments were used (control group), or the 2 most anterior attachments were attached, or 4 implants were engaged with a distance of 8, 16, or 24 mm between the centers of implants on left and right side, and finally, when all 8 attachments were activated. A force-measuring sensor was used to measure the force transmitted to the palate when a static force of 245 N was applied on the occlusal rims of the denture bases. Data (Newtons) were analyzed using 1-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test α=.05). The mean (SD) amount of force measured on the palate when the overdentures were supported by 4 Locator attachments; [49.84 (26.52) at 8 mm spacing], [24.42 (15.05) at 16 mm spacing], [35.66 (22.94) at 24 mm spacing] was significantly lower than when no attachments [90.98 (20.20), control], or when 2 Locator attachments were used [76.07 (27.63)] (Poverdentures were supported by 8 Locator attachments, the force measured on the palate [20.67(16.06) N] was significantly lower than that for the control group (Poverdentures supported by 2 Locator attachments (Poverdentures supported by 4 Locator attachments when the distance between the anterior and posterior implants was 8 mm P=.006). The distribution of
Density Measurement of Compact Toroid with Mach-Zehnder Interferometer
Laufman-Wollitzer, Lauren; Endrizzi, Doug; Brookhart, Matt; Flanagan, Ken; Forest, Cary
2016-10-01
Utilizing a magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG) built by Tri Alpha Energy, a dense compact toroid (CT) is created and injected at high speed into the Wisconsin Plasma Astrophysics Laboratory (WiPAL) vessel. A modified Mach-Zehnder interferometer from the Line-Tied Reconnection Experiment (LTRX) provides an absolute measurement of electron density. The interferometer is located such that the beam intersects the plasma across the diameter of the MCPG drift region before the CT enters the vessel. This placement ensures that the measurement is taken before the CT expand. Results presented will be used to further analyze characteristics of the CT. Funding provided by DoE, NSF, and WISE Summer Research.
Mach's principle and the rest mass of the graviton
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Woodward, J.F.; Crowley, R.J.; Yourgrau, W.
1975-01-01
The question of the graviton rest mass is briefly discussed and then it is shown that the Sciama-Dicke formulation of Mach's principle admits, in the linear approximation, the calculation of the graviton rest mass. One finds that the value of the graviton rest mass depends on the cosmological model adopted, the mean matter density in the universe, the speed of light, and the constant of gravitation. The value obtained for an infinite, stationary universe is 7.6 times 10 -67 g. The value for evolutionary cosmological models is found to depend critically on the mass and ''radius'' of the universe, both null and non-null values occurring only for certain values of these parameters. Problems that arise as a consequence of the linear approximation are pointed out
On-chip Mach-Zehnder interferometer for OCT systems
van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Akca, Imran B.; Angelou, Nikolaos; Weiss, Nicolas; Hoekman, Marcel; Leinse, Arne; Heideman, Rene G.
2018-04-01
By using integrated optics, it is possible to reduce the size and cost of a bulky optical coherence tomography (OCT) system. One of the OCT components that can be implemented on-chip is the interferometer. In this work, we present the design and characterization of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer consisting of the wavelength-independent splitters and an on-chip reference arm. The Si3N4 was chosen as the material platform as it can provide low losses while keeping the device size small. The device was characterized by using a home-built swept source OCT system. A sensitivity value of 83 dB, an axial resolution of 15.2 μm (in air) and a depth range of 2.5 mm (in air) were all obtained.
Boocock, James; Chagné, David; Merriman, Tony R; Black, Michael A
2015-10-23
Copy number variation (CNV) is a common feature of eukaryotic genomes, and a growing body of evidence suggests that genes affected by CNV are enriched in processes that are associated with environmental responses. Here we use next generation sequence (NGS) data to detect copy-number variable regions (CNVRs) within the Malus x domestica genome, as well as to examine their distribution and impact. CNVRs were detected using NGS data derived from 30 accessions of M. x domestica analyzed using the read-depth method, as implemented in the CNVrd2 software. To improve the reliability of our results, we developed a quality control and analysis procedure that involved checking for organelle DNA, not repeat masking, and the determination of CNVR identity using a permutation testing procedure. Overall, we identified 876 CNVRs, which spanned 3.5 % of the apple genome. To verify that detected CNVRs were not artifacts, we analyzed the B- allele-frequencies (BAF) within a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array dataset derived from a screening of 185 individual apple accessions and found the CNVRs were enriched for SNPs having aberrant BAFs (P apple scab. We present the first analysis and catalogue of CNVRs in the M. x domestica genome. The enrichment of the CNVRs with R gene models and their overlap with gene loci of agricultural significance draw attention to a form of unexplored genetic variation in apple. This research will underpin further investigation of the role that CNV plays within the apple genome.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maleewong, Montri; Asavanant, Jack [Chulalongkorn University, Department of Mathematics and Advanced Virtual Intelligence Computing Center, Bangkok (Thailand); Grimshaw, Roger [Loughborough University, Department of Mathematical Sciences, Loughborough (United Kingdom)
2005-08-01
We consider steady free surface two-dimensional flow due to a localized applied pressure distribution under the effects of both gravity and surface tension in water of constant depth, and in the presence of a uniform stream. The fluid is assumed to be inviscid and incompressible, and the flow is irrotational. The behavior of the forced nonlinear waves is characterized by three parameters: the Froude number, F, the Bond number, {tau}>1/3, and the magnitude and sign of the pressure forcing parameter {epsilon}. The fully nonlinear wave problem is solved numerically by using a boundary integral method. For small amplitude waves and F<1 but not too close to 1, linear theory gives a good prediction for the numerical solution of the nonlinear problem in the case of bifurcation from the uniform flow. As F approaches 1, the nonlinear terms need to be taken account of. In this case the forced Korteweg-de Vries equation is found to be an appropriate model to describe bifurcations from an unforced solitary wave. In general, it is found that for given values of F<1 and {tau}>1/3, there exists both elevation and depression waves. In some cases, a limiting configuration in the form of a trapped bubble occurs in the depression wave solutions. (orig.)
How the mach phenomenon and shape affect the radiographic appearance of skeletal structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Papageorges, M.
1991-01-01
The shape of skeletal structures and their position relative to the x-ray beam have a considerable effect on their radiographic appearance. Depending on the thickness of the cortical or subchondral bone, skeletal structures display the characteristics of either homogeneous or compound lamellar structures. Convex homogeneous structures are associated with a negative Mach line, and concave homogeneous structures are associated with a positive Mach line. Convex compound lamellar structures are associated with a negative Mach band and visualization of the lamina (subchondral or cortical bone) is reduced. Concave compound lamellar structures are associated with a positive Mach band and visualization of the lamina is enhanced. The combined effect of Mach phenomenon, shape, and thickness enhances visualization of some skeletal surfaces and make others imperceptible. These principles are very useful to correctly identify complex skeletal structures and avoid misinterpretations
[Thought Experiments of Economic Surplus: Science and Economy in Ernst Mach's Epistemology].
Wulz, Monika
2015-03-01
Thought Experiments of Economic Surplus: Science and Economy in Ernst Mach's Epistemology. Thought experiments are an important element in Ernst Mach's epistemology: They facilitate amplifying our knowledge by experimenting with thoughts; they thus exceed the empirical experience and suspend the quest for immediate utility. In an economical perspective, Mach suggested that thought experiments depended on the production of an economic surplus based on the division of labor relieving the struggle for survival of the individual. Thus, as frequently emphasized, in Mach's epistemology, not only the 'economy of thought' is an important feature; instead, also the socioeconomic conditions of science play a decisive role. The paper discusses the mental and social economic aspects of experimental thinking in Mach's epistemology and examines those within the contemporary evolutionary, physiological, and economic contexts. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Kecorius, Simonas; Madueño, Leizel; Vallar, Edgar; Alas, Honey; Betito, Grace; Birmili, Wolfram; Cambaliza, Maria Obiminda; Catipay, Grethyl; Gonzaga-Cayetano, Mylene; Galvez, Maria Cecilia; Lorenzo, Genie; Müller, Thomas; Simpas, James B.; Tamayo, Everlyn Gayle; Wiedensohler, Alfred
2017-12-01
Ultrafine soot particles (black carbon, BC) in urban environments are related to adverse respiratory and cardiovascular effects, increased cases of asthma and premature deaths. These problems are especially pronounced in developing megacities in South-East Asia, Latin America, and Africa, where unsustainable urbanization ant outdated environmental protection legislation resulted in severe degradation of urban air quality in terms of black carbon emission. Since ultrafine soot particles do often not lead to enhanced PM10 and PM2.5 mass concentration, the risks related to ultrafine particle pollution may therefore be significantly underestimated compared to the contribution of secondary aerosol constituents. To increase the awareness of the potential toxicological relevant problems of ultrafine black carbon particles, we conducted a case study in Metro Manila, the capital of the Philippines. Here, we present a part of the results from a detailed field campaign, called Manila Aerosol Characterization Experiment (MACE, 2015). Measurements took place from May to June 2015 with the focus on the state of mixing of aerosol particles. The results were alarming, showing the abundance of externally mixed refractory particles (soot proxy) at street site with a maximum daily number concentration of approximately 15000 #/cm3. That is up to 10 times higher than in cities of Western countries. We also found that the soot particle mass contributed from 55 to 75% of total street site PM2.5. The retrieved refractory particle number size distribution appeared to be a superposition of 2 ultrafine modes at 20 and 80 nm with a corresponding contribution to the total refractory particle number of 45 and 55%, respectively. The particles in the 20 nm mode were most likely ash from metallic additives in lubricating oil, tiny carbonaceous particles and/or nucleated and oxidized organic polymers, while bigger ones (80 nm) were soot agglomerates. To the best of the authors' knowledge, no other
Modeling Turbulent Combustion for Variable Prandtl and Schmidt Number
Hassan, H. A.
2004-01-01
This report consists of two abstracts submitted for possible presentation at the AIAA Aerospace Science Meeting to be held in January 2005. Since the submittal of these abstracts we are continuing refinement of the model coefficients derived for the case of a variable Turbulent Prandtl number. The test cases being investigated are a Mach 9.2 flow over a degree ramp and a Mach 8.2 3-D calculation of crossing shocks. We have developed an axisymmetric code for treating axisymmetric flows. In addition the variable Schmidt number formulation was incorporated in the code and we are in the process of determining the model constants.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kolosov, G L; Kosinov, A D
2016-01-01
Experimental data on the linear and nonlinear wave train development in 3D supersonic boundary layer over a 45° swept-wing at Mach number 2.5 are presented. Travelling artificial disturbances were introduced in the boundary layer by periodical glow discharge at frequencies 10 and 20 kHz. The spatial-temporal and spectral-wave characteristics of the wave train of unstable disturbances in the linear region are obtained. It is shown that the additional peaks in β '-spectra arise for both subharmonic and fundamental frequencies. The experiments indicate the presence of subharmonic resonance mechanism in 3D boundary layer at Mach number 2.5. (paper)
Laser-driven Mach waves for gigabar-range shock experiments
Swift, Damian; Lazicki, Amy; Coppari, Federica; Saunders, Alison; Nilsen, Joseph
2017-10-01
Mach reflection offers possibilities for generating planar, supported shocks at higher pressures than are practical even with laser ablation. We have studied the formation of Mach waves by algebraic solution and hydrocode simulation for drive pressures at much than reported previously, and for realistic equations of state. We predict that Mach reflection continues to occur as the drive pressure increases, and the pressure enhancement increases monotonically with drive pressure even though the ``enhancement spike'' characteristic of low-pressure Mach waves disappears. The growth angle also increases monotonically with pressure, so a higher drive pressure seems always to be an advantage. However, there are conditions where the Mach wave is perturbed by reflections. We have performed trial experiments at the Omega facility, using a laser-heated halfraum to induce a Mach wave in a polystyrene cone. Pulse length and energy limitations meant that the drive was not maintained long enough to fully support the shock, but the results indicated a Mach wave of 25-30 TPa from a drive pressure of 5-6 TPa, consistent with simulations. A similar configuration should be tested at the NIF, and a Z-pinch driven configuration may be possible. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Working with Instruments: Ernst Mach as Material Epistemologist, a Short Introduction.
Hoffmann, Christoph; Métraux, Alexandre
2016-12-01
With the death of Ernst Mach on February 19, 1916, one day after his seventy-eighth birthday, a question finally became explicit that had been looming for some time. It was as simple as it was fundamental: who, in the end, was this man, a scientist or a philosopher? The importance of this question for contemporaries can easily be gleaned from the obituaries that appeared in the weeks following Mach's death: one in the Physikalische Zeitschrift, written by Albert Einstein, and another in the Archiv für die Geschichte der Philosophie, written by Mach's former student Heinrich Gomperz. They both addressed this critical issue in plain words. Einstein stressed that Mach "was not a philosopher who chose the natural sciences as the object of his speculation, but a many-sided, interested, diligent scientist who also took visible pleasure in detailed questions outside the burning issues of general interest" (Einstein 1916, 104; translation cited in Blackmore 1992, 158). Gomperz in turn first emphasized the great loss science had experienced with Mach's death, asking subsequently whether "the suffering science is physics or philosophy?" (Gomperz 1916, 321). His answer broadly followed Einstein's conclusion; relying on Mach's own words, he reminded his readers that Mach never claimed to be a philosopher, but merely was looking for a viewpoint that transcended the disciplinary constraints of particular scientific activities.
Kirkwood, M Kelsey; Bruinooge, Suanna S; Goldstein, Michael A; Bajorin, Dean F; Kosty, Michael P
2014-01-01
The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) 2007 workforce report projected US oncologist shortages by 2020. Intervening years have witnessed shifting trends in both supply and demand, demonstrating the need to capture data in a dynamic manner. The ASCO Workforce Information System (WIS) provides an infrastructure to update annually emerging characteristics of US oncologists (medical oncologists, hematologist/oncologists, and hematologists). Several possible data sources exist to capture the number of oncologists in the United States. The WIS primarily uses the American Medical Association Physician Masterfile database because it provides detailed demographics. This analysis also compares total counts of oncologists from American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) certification reports, the National Provider Identifier (NPI) database, and Medicare Physician Compare data. The analysis also examines geographic distribution of oncologists by age and US population data. For each of the data sources, we pulled 2013 data. The Masterfile identified 13,409 oncologists. ABIM reported 13,757 oncologists. NPI listed 11,664 oncologists. Physician Compare identified 11,343 oncologists. Mapping of these data identifies distinct areas (primarily in central United States, Alaska, and Hawaii) that seem to lack ready access to oncologists. Efforts to survey oncologists about practice patterns will help determine if productivity and service delivery will change significantly. ASCO is committed to tracking oncologist supply and demand, as well as to providing timely analysis of strategies that will help address any shortages that may occur in specific regions or practice settings.
Boundary-Layer Instability Measurements in a Mach-6 Quiet Tunnel
Berridge, Dennis C.; Ward, Christopher, A. C.; Luersen, Ryan P. K.; Chou, Amanda; Abney, Andrew D.; Schneider, Steven P.
2012-01-01
Several experiments have been performed in the Boeing/AFOSR Mach-6 Quiet Tunnel at Purdue University. A 7 degree half angle cone at 6 degree angle of attack with temperature-sensitive paint (TSP) and PCB pressure transducers was tested under quiet flow. The stationary crossflow vortices appear to break down to turbulence near the lee ray for sufficiently high Reynolds numbers. Attempts to use roughness elements to control the spacing of hot streaks on a flared cone in quiet flow did not succeed. Roughness was observed to damp the second-mode waves in areas influenced by the roughness, and wide roughness spacing allowed hot streaks to form between the roughness elements. A forward-facing cavity was used for proof-of-concept studies for a laser perturber. The lowest density at which the freestream laser perturbations could be detected was 1.07 x 10(exp -2) kilograms per cubic meter. Experiments were conducted to determine the transition characteristics of a streamwise corner flow at hypersonic velocities. Quiet flow resulted in a delayed onset of hot streak spreading. Under low Reynolds number flow hot streak spreading did not occur along the model. A new shock tube has been built at Purdue. The shock tube is designed to create weak shocks suitable for calibrating sensors, particularly PCB-132 sensors. PCB-132 measurements in another shock tube show the shock response and a linear calibration over a moderate pressure range.
Experiments on a smooth wall hypersonic boundary layer at Mach 6
Neeb, Dominik; Saile, Dominik; Gülhan, Ali
2018-04-01
The turbulent boundary layer along the surface of high-speed vehicles drives shear stress and heat flux. Although essential to the vehicle design, the understanding of compressible turbulent boundary layers at high Mach numbers is limited due to the lack of available data. This is particularly true if the surface is rough, which is typically the case for all technical surfaces. To validate a methodological approach, as initial step, smooth wall experiments were performed. A hypersonic turbulent boundary layer at Ma = 6 (Ma_e=5.4) along a 7{}° sharp cone model at low Reynolds numbers Re_{θ } ≈ 3000 was characterized. The mean velocities in the boundary layer were acquired by means of Pitot pressure and particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements. Furthermore, the PIV data were used to extract turbulent intensities along the profile. The mean velocities in the boundary layer agree with numerical data, independent of the measurement technique. Based on the profile data, three different approaches to extract the skin friction velocity were applied and show favorable comparison to literature and numerical data. The extracted values were used for inner and outer scaling of the van Driest transformed velocity profiles which are in good agreement to incompressible theoretical data. Morkovin scaled turbulent intensities show ambiguous results compared to literature data which may be influenced by inflow turbulence level, particle lag and other measurement uncertainties.
Receptivity of Boundary Layer over a Blunt Wedge due to Freestream Pulse Disturbances at Mach 6
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jianqiang Shi
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Direct numerical simulation (DNS of a hypersonic compressible flow over a blunt wedge with fast acoustic disturbances in freestream is performed. The receptivity characteristics of boundary layer to freestream pulse acoustic disturbances are numerically investigated at Mach 6, and the frequency effects of freestream pulse wave on boundary layer receptivity are discussed. Results show that there are several main disturbance mode clusters in boundary layer under acoustic pulse wave, and the number of main disturbance clusters decreases along the streamwise. As disturbance wave propagates from upstream to downstream direction, the component of the modes below fundamental frequency decreases, and the component of the modes above second harmonic components increases quickly in general. There are competition and disturbance energy transfer between different boundary layer modes. The nose boundary layer is dominated by the nearby mode of fundamental frequency. The number of the main disturbance mode clusters decreases as the freestream disturbance frequency increases. The frequency range with larger growth narrows along the streamwise. In general, the amplitudes of both fundamental mode and harmonics become larger with the decreasing of freestream disturbance frequency. High frequency freestream disturbance accelerates the decay of disturbance wave in downstream boundary layer.
Ultra-Abrupt Tapered Fiber Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Sensors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lanying Zhou
2011-05-01
Full Text Available A fiber inline Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI consisting of ultra-abrupt fiber tapers was fabricated through a new fusion-splicing method. By fusion-splicing, the taper diameter-length ratio is around 1:1, which is much greater than those (1:10 made by stretching. The proposed fabrication method is very low cost, 1/20–1/50 of those of LPFG pair MZI sensors. The fabricated MZIs are applied to measure refractive index, temperature and rotation angle changes. The temperature sensitivity of the MZI at a length of 30 mm is 0.061 nm/°C from 30–350 °C. The proposed MZI is also used to measure rotation angles ranging from 0° to 0.55°; the sensitivity is 54.98 nm/°. The refractive index sensitivity is improved by 3–5 fold by fabricating an inline micro–trench on the fiber cladding using a femtosecond laser. Acetone vapor of 50 ppm in N2 is tested by the MZI sensor coated with MFI–type zeolite thin film. The proposed MZI sensors are capable of in situ detection in many areas of interest such as environmental management, industrial process control, and public health.
Highly stable polarization independent Mach-Zehnder interferometer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mičuda, Michal, E-mail: micuda@optics.upol.cz; Doláková, Ester; Straka, Ivo; Miková, Martina; Dušek, Miloslav; Fiurášek, Jaromír; Ježek, Miroslav, E-mail: jezek@optics.upol.cz [Department of Optics, Faculty of Science, Palacký University, 17. listopadu 1192/12, 77146 Olomouc (Czech Republic)
2014-08-15
We experimentally demonstrate optical Mach-Zehnder interferometer utilizing displaced Sagnac configuration to enhance its phase stability. The interferometer with footprint of 27×40 cm offers individually accessible paths and shows phase deviation less than 0.4° during a 250 s long measurement. The phase drift, evaluated by means of Allan deviation, stays below 3° or 7 nm for 1.5 h without any active stabilization. The polarization insensitive design is verified by measuring interference visibility as a function of input polarization. For both interferometer's output ports and all tested polarization states the visibility stays above 93%. The discrepancy in visibility for horizontal and vertical polarization about 3.5% is caused mainly by undesired polarization dependence of splitting ratio of the beam splitter used. The presented interferometer device is suitable for quantum-information and other sensitive applications where active stabilization is complicated and common-mode interferometer is not an option as both the interferometer arms have to be accessible individually.
Mach-Zehnder atom interferometer inside an optical fiber
Xin, Mingjie; Leong, Wuiseng; Chen, Zilong; Lan, Shau-Yu
2017-04-01
Precision measurement with light-pulse grating atom interferometry in free space have been used in the study of fundamental physics and applications in inertial sensing. Recent development of photonic band-gap fibers allows light for traveling in hollow region while preserving its fundamental Gaussian mode. The fibers could provide a very promising platform to transfer cold atoms. Optically guided matter waves inside a hollow-core photonic band-gap fiber can mitigate diffraction limit problem and has the potential to bring research in the field of atomic sensing and precision measurement to the next level of compactness and accuracy. Here, we will show our experimental progress towards an atom interferometer in optical fibers. We designed an atom trapping scheme inside a hollow-core photonic band-gap fiber to create an optical guided matter waves system, and studied the coherence properties of Rubidium atoms in this optical guided system. We also demonstrate a Mach-Zehnder atom interferometer in the optical waveguide. This interferometer is promising for precision measurements and designs of mobile atomic sensors.
Mach-Zehnder interferometry with interacting Bose-Einstein condensates in a double-well potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berrada, T.
2014-01-01
Mach-Zehnder interferometry with interacting Bose-Einstein condensates in a double-well potential Particle-wave duality has enabled the construction of interferometers for massive particles such as electrons, neutrons, atoms or molecules. Implementing atom interferometry has required the development of analogues to the optical beam-splitters, phase shifters or recombiners to enable the coherent, i.e. phase-preserving manipulation of quantum superpositions. While initially demonstrating the wave nature of particles, atom interferometers have evolved into some of the most advanced devices for precision measurement, both for technological applications and tests of the fundamental laws of nature. Bose- Einstein condensates (BEC) of ultracold atoms are particular matter waves: they exhibit a collective many-body wave function and macroscopic coherence properties. As such, they have often been considered as an analogue to optical laser elds and it is natural to wonder whether BECs can provide to atom interferometry a similar boost as the laser brought to optical interferometry. One fundamental dierence between atomic BECs and lasers elds is the presence of atomic interactions, yielding an intrinsic non-linearity. On one hand, interactions can lead to eects destroying the phase coherence and limiting the interrogation time of trapped BEC interferometers. On the other hand, they can be used to generate nonclassical (e.g. squeezed) states to improve the sensitivity of interferometric measurements beyond the standard quantum limit (SQL). In this thesis, we present the realization of a full Mach-Zehnder interferometric sequence with trapped, interacting BECs con ned on an atom chip. Our interferometer relies on the coherent manipulation of a BEC in a magnetic double-well potential. For this purpose, we developed a novel type of matter-wave recombiner, an element which so far was missing in BEC atom optics. We have been able to exploit interactions to generate a squeezed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feldman, M.; Mockler, D.J.; English, R.E. Jr.; Byrd, J.L.; Salmon, J.T.
1991-01-01
We are incorporating a novel self-referencing Mach-Zehnder interferometer into a large scale laser system as a real time, interactive diagnostic tool for wavefront measurement. The instrument is capable of absolute wavefront measurements accurate to better than λ/10 pv over a wavelength range > 300 nm without readjustment of the optical components. This performance is achieved through the design of both refractive optics and catadioptric collimator to achromatize the Mach-Zehnder reference arm. Other features include polarization insensitivity through the use of low angles of incidence on all beamsplitters as well as an equal path length configuration that allows measurement of either broad-band or closely spaced laser-line sources. Instrument accuracy is periodically monitored in place by means of a thermally and mechanically stable wavefront reference source that is calibrated off-line with a phase conjugate interferometer. Video interferograms are analyzed using Fourier transform techniques on a computer that includes dedicated array processor. Computer and video networks maintain distributed interferometers under the control of a single analysis computer with multiple user access. 7 refs., 11 figs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arnold, Kodie [Electricore, Inc., Santa Clarita, CA (United States)
2014-12-29
The Southwest United States of America – Distributed Technology Training Consortia (SWUSA-DTTC) leveraged the highest concentration of renewable resources in the U.S. as well as operation of the leading independent microgrid installations and other distributed technologies to collect and analyze real-time data streams, advance power system simulations and analysis, identify educational and training gaps and develop solutions-focused curricula. The SWUSA-DTTC consortium posed a unique collaboration between universities and utilities to ensure that classes were focused on subjects and topics of interest to the utilities and ones that had practical benefit related to the preparedness for accommodating high penetration of solar and other distributed energy technologies. This approach to have a close collaboration and shared effort to develop the course content and curriculum is unique and a significant departure from conventional course development. This coursework and training was intended to endure over a long time horizon (10-20 year time frame), and include professionals over the entire Southwest region and the rest of the US, and even outreach into foreign countries. Project Objectives In order to support the increase in power systems research, development, and analytical capacity, the SWUSA-DTTC brought together respected professors in Power Systems education, student/professor research and development, and valuable industry and utility experience. Through this program, the partnered universities created and/or modified existing curricula available to students and professionals in the form of university courses, short courses, videos, consortia-led training, and online materials. During this time, the supporting vendors and utilities provided the SWUSA-DTTC with technical advisory roles as well as providing input and feedback in terms of utility and related energy industry needs. The goals were to create power and energy systems training, curricula, and
Liu, Shang; Hu, Min; Wu, Zhijun; Wehner, Birgit; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Cheng, Yafang
Continuous measurements of aerosol number size distribution in the range of 3 nm-10 μm were performed in Pearl River Delta (PRD), China. These measurements were made during the period of 3 October to 5 November in 2004 at rural/coastal site, Xinken (22°37'N, 113°35'E, 6 m above sea level), in the south suburb of Guangzhou City (22°37'N, 113°35'E, 6 m above sea level), using a Twin Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (TDMPS) combined with an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS). The aerosol particles at Xinken were divided into four groups according to the observation results: nucleation mode particles (3-30 nm), Aitken mode particles (30-130 nm), accumulation mode particles (130-1000 nm) and coarse mode particles (1-10 μm). Concentrations of nucleation mode, Aitken mode and accumulation mode particles were observed in the same order of magnitude (about 10,000 cm -3), among which the concentration of Aitken mode particle was the highest. The Aitken mode particles usually had two peaks: the morning peak may be caused by the land-sea circulation, which is proven to be important for transporting aged aerosols back to the sampling site, while the noon peak was ascribed to the condensational growth of new particles. New particle formation events were found on 7 days of 27 days, the new particle growth rates ranged from 2.2 to 19.8 nm h -1 and the formation rates ranged from 0.5 to 5.2 cm -3 s -1, both of them were in the range of typical observed formation rates (0.01-10 cm -3 s -1) and typical particle growth rates (1-20 nm h -1). The sustained growth of the new particles for several hours under steady northeast wind indicated that the new particle formation events may occur in a large homogeneous air mass.
Hadron Azimuthal Correlations and Mach-like Structures in a Partonic/Hadronic Transport Model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma, G.L.; Zhang, S.; Ma, Y.G.; Cai, X.Z.; Chen, J.H.; He, Z.J.; Huang, H.Z.; Long, J.L.; Shen, W.Q.; Shi, X.H.; Zhong, C.; Zuo, J.X.
2007-01-01
With a multi-phase transport model (AMPT) with both partonic and hadronic interactions, two- and three-particle azimuthal correlations in Au + Au collisions at s NN =200 GeV have been studied by the mixing-event technique. A Mach-like structure has been observed in two- and three-particle correlations in central collisions. It has been found that both partonic and hadronic dynamical mechanisms contribute to the Mach-like structure. However, only hadronic rescattering is unable to reproduce experimental amplitude of Mach-like structure, and parton cascade process is indispensable. The results of three-particle correlation indicate a partonic Mach-like shock wave can be produced by strong parton cascade in central Au+Au collisions
Hypervelocity Wind Tunnel No. 9 Mach 7 Thermal Structural Facility Verification and Calibration
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Lafferty, John
1996-01-01
This report summarizes the verification and calibration of the new Mach 7 Thermal Structural Facility located at the White Oak, Maryland, site of the Dahlgren Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center...
Electrical crosstalk in integrated Mach-Zehnder modulators caused by a shared ground path
Yao, W.; Gilardi, G.; Smit, M.K.; Wale, M.J.
2015-01-01
We show that the majority of electrical crosstalk between integrated Mach-Zehnder modulators can be caused by a shared ground path and demonstrate that in its absence crosstalk and related transmission penalty is greatly reduced.
Batterton, P. G.; Arpasi, D. J.; Baumbick, R. J.
1974-01-01
A digitally implemented integrated inlet-engine control system was designed and tested on a mixed-compression, axisymmetric, Mach 2.5, supersonic inlet with 45 percent internal supersonic area contraction and a TF30-P-3 augmented turbofan engine. The control matched engine airflow to available inlet airflow. By monitoring inlet terminal shock position and over-board bypass door command, the control adjusted engine speed so that in steady state, the shock would be at the desired location and the overboard bypass doors would be closed. During engine-induced transients, such as augmentor light-off and cutoff, the inlet operating point was momentarily changed to a more supercritical point to minimize unstarts. The digital control also provided automatic inlet restart. A variable inlet throat bleed control, based on throat Mach number, provided additional inlet stability margin.
Multi-band microwave photonic satellite repeater scheme employing intensity Mach-Zehnder modulators
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yin Jie; Dong Tao; Zhang Bin; Hao Yan; Cao Guixing; Cheng Zijing; Xu Kun; Zhou Yue; Dai Jian
2017-01-01
To solve the satellite repeater's flexible and wideband frequency conversion problem,we propose a novel microwave photonic repeater system,which can convert the upload signal's carrier to six different frequencies.The scheme employs one 20 GHz bandwidth dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) and two 10 GHz bandwidth MZMs.The basic principle of this scheme is filtering out two optical sidebands after the optical carrier suppression (OCS) modulation and combining two sidebands modulated by the input radio frequency (RF) signal.This structure can realize simultaneous multi-band frequency conversion with only one frequency-fixed microwave source and prevent generating harmful interference sidebands by using two corresponding optical filters after optical modulation.In the simulation,one C-band signal of 6 GHz carrier can be successfully converted to 12 GHz (Ku-band),28 GHz,34 GHz,40 GHz,46 GHz (Ka-band) and 52 GHz (V-band),which can be an attractive method to realize multi-band microwave photonic satellite repeater.Alternatively,the scheme can be configured to generate multi-band local oscillators (LOs) for widely satellite onboard clock distribution when the input RF signal is replaced by the internal clock source.
A supersonic fan equipped variable cycle engine for a Mach 2.7 supersonic transport
Tavares, T. S.
1985-01-01
The concept of a variable cycle turbofan engine with an axially supersonic fan stage as powerplant for a Mach 2.7 supersonic transport was evaluated. Quantitative cycle analysis was used to assess the effects of the fan inlet and blading efficiencies on engine performance. Thrust levels predicted by cycle analysis are shown to match the thrust requirements of a representative aircraft. Fan inlet geometry is discussed and it is shown that a fixed geometry conical spike will provide sufficient airflow throughout the operating regime. The supersonic fan considered consists of a single stage comprising a rotor and stator. The concept is similar in principle to a supersonic compressor, but differs by having a stator which removes swirl from the flow without producing a net rise in static pressure. Operating conditions peculiar to the axially supersonic fan are discussed. Geometry of rotor and stator cascades are presented which utilize a supersonic vortex flow distribution. Results of a 2-D CFD flow analysis of these cascades are presented. A simple estimate of passage losses was made using empirical methods.
Near-Field Antenna Measurements Using Photonic Sensor of Mach-Zehnder Interferometer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Masanobu Hirose
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We have been developing a photonic sensor system to measure the electric near-field distribution at a distance shorter than one wavelength from the aperture of an antenna. The photonic sensor is a type of Mach-Zehnder interferometer and consists of an array antenna of 2.4 mm height and 2 mm width on a LiNbO3 substrate (0.5 mm thickness, 8 mm length, and 3 mm width supported by a glass pipe. The photonic sensor can be considered to be a receiving infinitesimal dipole antenna that is a tiny metallic part printed on a small dielectric plate at microwave frequency. Those physical and electrical features make the photonic sensor attractive when used as a probe for near-field antenna measurements. We have demonstrated that the system can be applied to planar, spherical, and cylindrical near-field antenna measurements without any probe compensation approximately below 10 GHz. We show the theories and the measurements using the photonic sensor in the three near-field antenna measurement methods.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou, X.; Zeng, R.; Zhuang, C.; Chen, S.
2015-01-01
Leader discharge is one of the main phases in long air gap breakdown, which is characterized by high temperature and high conductivity. It is of great importance to determine thermal characteristics of leader discharges. In this paper, a long-optical-path Mach-Zehnder interferometer was set up to measure the thermal parameters (thermal diameter, gas density, and gas temperature) of positive leader discharges in atmospheric air. IEC standard positive switching impulse voltages were applied to a near-one-meter point-plane air gap. Filamentary channels with high gas temperature and low density corresponding to leader discharges were observed as significant distortions in the interference fringe images. Typical diameters of the entire heated channel range from 1.5 mm to 3.5 mm with an average expansion velocity of 6.7 m/s. In contrast, typical diameters of the intensely heated region with a sharp gas density reduction range from 0.4 mm to 1.1 mm, about one third of the entire heated channel. The radial distribution of the gas density is calculated from the fringe displacements by performing an Abel inverse transform. The typical calculated gas density reduction in the center of a propagating leader channel is 80% to 90%, corresponding to a gas temperature of 1500 K to 3000 K based on the ideal gas law. Leaders tend to terminate if the central temperature is below 1500 K
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhou, X., E-mail: zhouxuan12@mails.thu.edu.cn; Zeng, R.; Zhuang, C.; Chen, S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)
2015-06-15
Leader discharge is one of the main phases in long air gap breakdown, which is characterized by high temperature and high conductivity. It is of great importance to determine thermal characteristics of leader discharges. In this paper, a long-optical-path Mach-Zehnder interferometer was set up to measure the thermal parameters (thermal diameter, gas density, and gas temperature) of positive leader discharges in atmospheric air. IEC standard positive switching impulse voltages were applied to a near-one-meter point-plane air gap. Filamentary channels with high gas temperature and low density corresponding to leader discharges were observed as significant distortions in the interference fringe images. Typical diameters of the entire heated channel range from 1.5 mm to 3.5 mm with an average expansion velocity of 6.7 m/s. In contrast, typical diameters of the intensely heated region with a sharp gas density reduction range from 0.4 mm to 1.1 mm, about one third of the entire heated channel. The radial distribution of the gas density is calculated from the fringe displacements by performing an Abel inverse transform. The typical calculated gas density reduction in the center of a propagating leader channel is 80% to 90%, corresponding to a gas temperature of 1500 K to 3000 K based on the ideal gas law. Leaders tend to terminate if the central temperature is below 1500 K.
Jet propagation and Mach-cone formation in (3+1)-dimensional ideal hydrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Betz, Barbara
2009-01-01
This thesis investigates the jet-medium interactions in a Quark-Gluon Plasma using a hydrodynamical model. Such a Quark-Gluon Plasma represents a very early stage of our universe and is assumed to be created in heavy-ion collisions. Its properties are subject of current research. Since the comparison of measured data to model calculations suggests that the Quark-Gluon Plasma behaves like a nearly perfect liquid, the medium created in a heavy-ion collision can be described applying hydrodynamical simulations. One of the crucial questions in this context is if highly energetic particles (so-called jets), which are produced at the beginning of the collision and traverse the formed medium, may lead to the creation of a Mach cone. Such a Mach cone is always expected to develop if a jet moves with a velocity larger than the speed of sound relative to the medium. In that case, the measured angular particle distributions are supposed to exhibit a characteristic structure allowing for direct conclusions about the Equation of State and in particular about the speed of sound of the medium. Several different scenarios of jet energy loss are examined (the exact form of which is not known from first principles) and different mechanisms of energy and momentum loss are analyzed, ranging from weak interactions (based on calculations from perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics, pQCD) to strong interactions (formulated using the Anti-de-Sitter/Conformal Field Theory Correspondence, AdS/CFT). Though they result in different angular particle correlations which could in principle allow to distinguish the underlying processes (if it becomes possible to analyze single-jet events), it is shown that the characteristic structure observed in experimental data can be obtained due to the different contributions of several possible jet trajectories through an expanding medium. Such a structure cannot directly be connected to the Equation of State. In this context, the impact of a strong flow
[Investigation of Empiricism. On Ernst Mach's Conception of the Thought Experiment].
Krauthausen, Karin
2015-03-01
Investigation of Empiricism. On Ernst Mach's Conception of the Thought Experiment. The paper argues that Ernst Mach's conception of the thought experiment from 1897/1905 holds a singular position in the lively discussions and repeated theorizations that have continued up to the present in relation to this procedure. Mach derives the thought experiment from scientific practice, and does not oppose it to the physical experiment, but, on the contrary, endows it with a robust relation to the facts. For Mach, the thought experiment is a reliable means of determining empiricism, and at the same time a real, because open and unbiased, experimenting. To shed light on this approach, the paper carries out a close reading of the relevant texts in Mach's body of writings (in their different stages of revision) and proceeds in three steps: first, Mach's processual understanding of science will be presented, which also characterizes his research and publication practice (I. 'Aperçu' and 'Sketch'. Science as Process and Projection); then in a second step the physiological and biological justification and valorization of memory and association will be examined with which Mach limits the relevance of categories such as consciousness and will (II. The Biology of Consciousness. Or The Polyp Colony); against this background, thirdly, the specific empiricism can be revealed that Mach inscribes into the thought experiment by on the one hand founding it in the memory and association, and on the other by tracing it back to geometry, which he deploys as an experimenting oriented to experience (III. Thinking and Experience. The Thought Experiment). © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Revisiting Einstein's Happiest Thought: On Ernst Mach and the Early History of Relativity
Staley, Richard
2016-03-01
This paper argues we should distinguish three phases in the formation of relativity. The first involved relational approaches to perception, and physiological and geometrical space and time in the 1860s and 70s. The second concerned electrodynamics and mechanics (special relativity). The third concerned mechanics, gravitation, and physical and geometrical space and time. Mach's early work on the Doppler effect, together with studies of visual and motor perception linked physiology, physics and psychology, and offered new approaches to physiological space and time. These informed the critical conceptual attacks on Newtonian absolutes that Mach famously outlined in The Science of Mechanics. Subsequently Mach identified a growing group of ``relativists,'' and his critiques helped form a foundation for later work in electrodynamics (in which he did not participate). Revisiting Mach's early work will suggest he was still more important to the development of new approaches to inertia and gravitation than has been commonly appreciated. In addition to what Einstein later called ``Mach's principle,'' I will argue that a thought experiment on falling bodies in Mach's Science of Mechanics also provided a point of inspiration for the happy thought that led Einstein to the equivalence principle.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Mogo
2012-07-01
observed for smaller α_{s}. The submicrometer, micrometer and total concentrations of the particles presented hourly mean values of 1277 cm^{−3} (StD = 1563 cm^{−3}, 1 cm^{−3} (StD = 1 cm^{−3} and 2463 cm^{−3} (StD = 4251 cm^{−3}, respectively, and the modal correlations were also investigated. The optical and microphysical parameters, as well as their relationship with each other, are reported. σ_{s} correlated strongly with the number concentration of accumulation mode particles and more strongly with the micrometer fraction of particles, but weak correlations were observed for the Aitken and nucleation modes. The origins and pathways of the air masses were examined, and based on sector classification, a relationship between the air mass origin, the optical parameters and the size distributions was established.
The low values of the optical and microphysical parameters indicate that the predominant regional aerosol is mostly clean and the shape of the size distribution is characterized by bimodal median size distributions. However, the relationships between the air mass origins and the parameters studied allow us to describe two characteristic situations: the one of the northern and western air masses, which were predominantly composed of marine aerosols and presented the lowest optical and microphysical values observed, indicating predominantly non-absorbent and coarser particles; and the one of the eastern and southern air masses, in which continental aerosols were predominant and exhibited higher values for all parameters, indicating the presence of smaller absorbent particles. The north-northeastern air masses presented the strongest Aitken mode, indicating more recently formed particles, and the southeastern air masses presented the strongest accumulation mode (however, the southeastern air masses were the least common, accounting for only 3% of occurrences.
Ion acoustic solitons in a plasma with two-temperature kappa-distributed electrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baluku, T. K.; Hellberg, M. A.
2012-01-01
Existence domains and characteristics of ion acoustic solitons are studied in a two-temperature electron plasma with both electron components being kappa-distributed, as found in Saturn's magnetosphere. As is the case for double-Boltzmann electrons, solitons of both polarities can exist over restricted ranges of fractional hot electron density ratio for this plasma model. Low κ values, which indicate increased suprathermal particles in the tail of the distribution, yield a smaller domain in the parameter space of hot density fraction and normalized soliton velocity (f, M), over which both soliton polarities are supported for a given plasma composition (the coexistence region). For some density ratios that support coexistence, solitons occur even at the lowest (critical) Mach number (i.e., at the acoustic speed), as found recently for a number of other plasma models. Like Maxwellians, low-κ distributions also support positive potential double layers over a narrow range of low fractional cool electron density (<10%).
Astronomical random numbers for quantum foundations experiments
Leung, Calvin; Brown, Amy; Nguyen, Hien; Friedman, Andrew S.; Kaiser, David I.; Gallicchio, Jason
2018-04-01
Photons from distant astronomical sources can be used as a classical source of randomness to improve fundamental tests of quantum nonlocality, wave-particle duality, and local realism through Bell's inequality and delayed-choice quantum eraser tests inspired by Wheeler's cosmic-scale Mach-Zehnder interferometer gedanken experiment. Such sources of random numbers may also be useful for information-theoretic applications such as key distribution for quantum cryptography. Building on the design of an astronomical random number generator developed for the recent cosmic Bell experiment [Handsteiner et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 060401 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.060401], in this paper we report on the design and characterization of a device that, with 20-nanosecond latency, outputs a bit based on whether the wavelength of an incoming photon is greater than or less than ≈700 nm. Using the one-meter telescope at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Table Mountain Observatory, we generated random bits from astronomical photons in both color channels from 50 stars of varying color and magnitude, and from 12 quasars with redshifts up to z =3.9 . With stars, we achieved bit rates of ˜1 ×106Hz/m 2 , limited by saturation of our single-photon detectors, and with quasars of magnitudes between 12.9 and 16, we achieved rates between ˜102 and 2 ×103Hz /m2 . For bright quasars, the resulting bitstreams exhibit sufficiently low amounts of statistical predictability as quantified by the mutual information. In addition, a sufficiently high fraction of bits generated are of true astronomical origin in order to address both the locality and freedom-of-choice loopholes when used to set the measurement settings in a test of the Bell-CHSH inequality.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Najafian Ashrafi Zabihollah
2016-01-01
Full Text Available An experimental study was conducted to investigate the influence of Reynolds number and equivalence ratio on flame temperature field and thermal flame height of laminar premixed LFG fuel. Mach-Zehnder interferometry technique is used to obtain an insight to the overall temperature field. The slot burner with large aspect ratio (L/W, length of L=60 mm and width of W=6 mm was used to eliminate the three- dimensional effect of temperature field. Two kinds of mixed fuels, LFG70 (70%CH4- 30%CO2 on volume basis and LFG50 (50%CH4- 50%CO2 were used to investigate flame characteristics under the test conditions of 100 ≤ Re ≤ 600 and 0.7 ≤ φ ≤ 1.3. The present measurement reveals that the variation of maximum flame temperature with increment of Reynolds number is mainly due to heat transfer effects and is negligible. On the other hand, the equivalence ratio and fuel composition have a noticeable effect on flame temperature. In addition, the results show that the LFG flames compared to the CH4 ones have a lower flame temperature. With increment of CO2 volume fraction at lean combustion, thermal flame height is augmented while at stoichiometric and rich combustion, its value reduced. Thermal flame height augments linearly by Reynolds number increase, while its increment at rich mixture is higher and the effect of Reynolds number at lean mixtures is insignificant. For validation of experimental results from Mach-Zehnder Interferometry, K-type thermocouples are used at peripherally low and moderate isotherm lines.
Experimental investigation of liquid jet injection into Mach 6 hypersonic crossflow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beloki Perurena, J. [von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Rhode-Saint-Genese (Belgium)]|[RWTH Aachen University, Shock Wave Laboratory, Aachen (Germany); Asma, C.O. [von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Rhode-Saint-Genese (Belgium)]|[Ghent University, Department of Flow, Heat and Combustion Mechanics, Ghent (Belgium); Theunissen, R. [von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Rhode-Saint-Genese (Belgium)]|[Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Delft (Netherlands); Chazot, O. [von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Rhode-Saint-Genese (Belgium)
2009-03-15
The injection of a liquid jet into a crossing Mach 6 air flow is investigated. Experiments were conducted on a sharp leading edge flat plate with flush mounted injectors. Water jets were introduced through different nozzle shapes at relevant jet-to-air momentum-flux ratios. Sufficient temporal resolution to capture small scale effects was obtained by high-speed recording, while directional illumination allowed variation in field of view. Shock pattern and flow topology were visualized by Schlieren-technique. Correlations are proposed on relating water jet penetration height and lateral extension with the injection ratio and orifice diameter for circular injector jets. Penetration height and lateral extension are compared for different injector shapes at relevant jet-to-air momentum-flux ratios showing that penetration height and lateral extension decrease and increase, respectively, with injector's aspect ratio. Probability density function analysis has shown that the mixing of the jet with the crossflow is completed at a distance of x/d{sub j}{proportional_to} 40, independent of the momentum-flux ratio. Mean velocity profiles related with the liquid jet have been extracted by means of an ensemble correlation PIV algorithm. Finally, frequency analyses of the jet breakup and fluctuating shock pattern are performed using a fast Fourier algorithm and characteristic Strouhal numbers of St=0.18 for the liquid jet breakup and of St=0.011 for the separation shock fluctuation are obtained. (orig.)
Patterned Roughness for Cross-flow Transition Control at Mach 6
Arndt, Alexander; Matlis, Eric; Semper, Michael; Corke, Thomas
2017-11-01
Experiments are performed to investigate patterned discrete roughness for transition control on a sharp right-circular cone at an angle of attack at Mach 6.0. The approach to transition control is based on exciting less-amplified (subcritical) stationary cross-flow (CF) modes that suppress the growth of the more-amplified (critical) CF modes, and thereby delay transition. The experiments were performed in the Air Force Academy Ludwieg Tube which is a conventional (noisy) design. The cone model is equipped with a motorized 3-D traversing mechanism that mounts on the support sting. The traversing mechanism held a closely-spaced pair of fast-response total pressure Pitot probes. The model utilized a removable tip to exchange between different tip-roughness conditions. Mean flow distortion x-development indicated that the transition Reynolds number increased by 25% with the addition of the subcritical roughness. The energy in traveling disturbances was centered in the band of most amplified traveling CF modes predicted by linear theory. The spatial pattern in the amplitude of the traveling CF modes indicated a nonlinear (sum and difference) interaction between the stationary and traveling CF modes that might explain differences in Retrans between noisy and quiet environments. Air Force Grant FA9550-15-1-0278.
Canagasabey, Albert; Michie, Andrew; Canning, John; Holdsworth, John; Fleming, Simon; Wang, Hsiao-Chuan; Aslund, Mattias L
2011-01-01
Linewidth measurements of a distributed feedback (DFB) fibre laser are made using delayed self heterodyne interferometry (DHSI) with both Mach-Zehnder and Michelson interferometer configurations. Voigt fitting is used to extract and compare the Lorentzian and Gaussian linewidths and associated sources of noise. The respective measurements are w(L) (MZI) = (1.6 ± 0.2) kHz and w(L) (MI) = (1.4 ± 0.1) kHz. The Michelson with Faraday rotator mirrors gives a slightly narrower linewidth with significantly reduced error. This is explained by the unscrambling of polarisation drift using the Faraday rotator mirrors, confirmed by comparing with non-rotating standard gold coated fibre end mirrors.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Simon Fleming
2011-09-01
Full Text Available Linewidth measurements of a distributed feedback (DFB fibre laser are made using delayed self heterodyne interferometry (DHSI with both Mach-Zehnder and Michelson interferometer configurations. Voigt fitting is used to extract and compare the Lorentzian and Gaussian linewidths and associated sources of noise. The respective measurements are wL (MZI = (1.6 ± 0.2 kHz and wL (MI = (1.4 ± 0.1 kHz. The Michelson with Faraday rotator mirrors gives a slightly narrower linewidth with significantly reduced error. This is explained by the unscrambling of polarisation drift using the Faraday rotator mirrors, confirmed by comparing with non-rotating standard gold coated fibre end mirrors.
Rubio, María E; Matsui, Ko; Fukazawa, Yugo; Kamasawa, Naomi; Harada, Harumi; Itakura, Makoto; Molnár, Elek; Abe, Manabu; Sakimura, Kenji; Shigemoto, Ryuichi
2017-11-01
The neurotransmitter receptor subtype, number, density, and distribution relative to the location of transmitter release sites are key determinants of signal transmission. AMPA-type ionotropic glutamate receptors (AMPARs) containing GluA3 and GluA4 subunits are prominently expressed in subsets of neurons capable of firing action potentials at high frequencies, such as auditory relay neurons. The auditory nerve (AN) forms glutamatergic synapses on two types of relay neurons, bushy cells (BCs) and fusiform cells (FCs) of the cochlear nucleus. AN-BC and AN-FC synapses have distinct kinetics; thus, we investigated whether the number, density, and localization of GluA3 and GluA4 subunits in these synapses are differentially organized using quantitative freeze-fracture replica immunogold labeling. We identify a positive correlation between the number of AMPARs and the size of AN-BC and AN-FC synapses. Both types of AN synapses have similar numbers of AMPARs; however, the AN-BC have a higher density of AMPARs than AN-FC synapses, because the AN-BC synapses are smaller. A higher number and density of GluA3 subunits are observed at AN-BC synapses, whereas a higher number and density of GluA4 subunits are observed at AN-FC synapses. The intrasynaptic distribution of immunogold labeling revealed that AMPAR subunits, particularly GluA3, are concentrated at the center of the AN-BC synapses. The central distribution of AMPARs is absent in GluA3-knockout mice, and gold particles are evenly distributed along the postsynaptic density. GluA4 gold labeling was homogenously distributed along both synapse types. Thus, GluA3 and GluA4 subunits are distributed at AN synapses in a target-cell-dependent manner.
Mach's Principle to Hubble's Law and Light Relativity
Zhang, Tianxi
2018-01-01
Discovery of the redshift-distance relation to be linear (i.e. Hubble's law) for galaxies in the end of 1920s instigated us to widely accept expansion of the universe, originated from a big bang around 14 billion years ago. Finding of the redshift-distance relation to be weaker than linear for distant type Ia supernovae nearly two decades ago further precipitated us to largely agree with recent acceleration of the universe, driven by the mysterious dark energy. The time dilation measured for supernovae has been claimed as a direct evidence for the expansion of the universe, but scientists could not explain why quasars and gamma-ray bursts had not similar time dilations. Recently, an anomaly was found in the standard template for the width of supernova light curves to be proportional to the wavelength, which exactly removed the time dilation of supernovae and hence was strongly inconsistent with the conventional redshift mechanism. In this study, we have derived a new redshift-distance relation from Mach's principle with light relativity that describes the effect of light on spacetime as well as the influence of disturbed spacetime on the light inertia or frequency. A moving object or photon, because of its continuously keeping on displacement, disturbs the rest of the entire universe or distorts/curves the spacetime. The distorted or curved spacetime then generates an effective gravitational force to act back on the moving object or photon, so that reduces the object inertia or photon frequency. Considering the disturbance of spacetime by a photon is extremely weak, we have modelled the effective gravitational force to be Newtonian and derived the new redshift-distance relation that can not only perfectly explain the redshift-distance measurement of distant type Ia supernovae but also inherently obtain Hubble's law as an approximate at small redshift. Therefore, the result obtained from this study does neither support the acceleration of the universe nor the
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Image of Hyper-X Research Vehicle at Mach 7 with Engine Operating
1997-01-01
This computational fluid dynamics (CFD) image shows the Hyper-X vehicle at a Mach 7 test condition with the engine operating. The solution includes both internal (scramjet engine) and external flow fields, including the interaction between the engine exhaust and vehicle aerodynamics. The image illustrates surface heat transfer on the vehicle surface (red is highest heating) and flowfield contours at local Mach number. The last contour illustrates the engine exhaust plume shape. This solution approach is one method of predicting the vehicle performance, and the best method for determination of vehicle structural, pressure and thermal design loads. The Hyper-X program is an ambitious series of experimental flights to expand the boundaries of high-speed aeronautics and develop new technologies for space access. When the first of three aircraft flies, it will be the first time a non-rocket engine has powered a vehicle in flight at hypersonic speeds--speeds above Mach 5, equivalent to about one mile per second or approximately 3,600 miles per hour at sea level. Hyper-X, the flight vehicle for which is designated as X-43A, is an experimental flight-research program seeking to demonstrate airframe-integrated, 'air-breathing' engine technologies that promise to increase payload capacity for future vehicles, including hypersonic aircraft (faster than Mach 5) and reusable space launchers. This multiyear program is currently underway at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Hyper-X schedule calls for its first flight later this year (2000). Hyper-X is a joint program, with Dryden sharing responsibility with NASA's Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. Dryden's primary role is to fly three unpiloted X-43A research vehicles to validate engine technologies and hypersonic design tools as well as the hypersonic test facility at Langley. Langley manages the program and leads the technology development effort. The Hyper-X Program seeks to significantly
Hansen, John P
2003-01-01
Healthcare quality improvement professionals need to understand and use inferential statistics to interpret sample data from their organizations. In quality improvement and healthcare research studies all the data from a population often are not available, so investigators take samples and make inferences about the population by using inferential statistics. This three-part series will give readers an understanding of the concepts of inferential statistics as well as the specific tools for calculating confidence intervals for samples of data. This article, Part 2, describes probability, populations, and samples. The uses of descriptive and inferential statistics are outlined. The article also discusses the properties and probability of normal distributions, including the standard normal distribution.
Earthquake number forecasts testing
Kagan, Yan Y.
2017-10-01
We study the distributions of earthquake numbers in two global earthquake catalogues: Global Centroid-Moment Tensor and Preliminary Determinations of Epicenters. The properties of these distributions are especially required to develop the number test for our forecasts of future seismic activity rate, tested by the Collaboratory for Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP). A common assumption, as used in the CSEP tests, is that the numbers are described by the Poisson distribution. It is clear, however, that the Poisson assumption for the earthquake number distribution is incorrect, especially for the catalogues with a lower magnitude threshold. In contrast to the one-parameter Poisson distribution so widely used to describe earthquake occurrences, the negative-binomial distribution (NBD) has two parameters. The second parameter can be used to characterize the clustering or overdispersion of a process. We also introduce and study a more complex three-parameter beta negative-binomial distribution. We investigate the dependence of parameters for both Poisson and NBD distributions on the catalogue magnitude threshold and on temporal subdivision of catalogue duration. First, we study whether the Poisson law can be statistically rejected for various catalogue subdivisions. We find that for most cases of interest, the Poisson distribution can be shown to be rejected statistically at a high significance level in favour of the NBD. Thereafter, we investigate whether these distributions fit the observed distributions of seismicity. For this purpose, we study upper statistical moments of earthquake numbers (skewness and kurtosis) and compare them to the theoretical values for both distributions. Empirical values for the skewness and the kurtosis increase for the smaller magnitude threshold and increase with even greater intensity for small temporal subdivision of catalogues. The Poisson distribution for large rate values approaches the Gaussian law, therefore its skewness
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset includes all data used to generate figures in the manuscript and supporting information for the publication entitled "Emission factors, number size...
Rayleigh Scattering Density Measurements, Cluster Theory, and Nucleation Calculations at Mach 10
Balla, R. Jeffrey; Everhart, Joel L.
2012-01-01
In an exploratory investigation, quantitative unclustered laser Rayleigh scattering measurements of density were performed in the air in the NASA Langley Research Center's 31 in. Mach 10 wind tunnel. A review of 20 previous years of data in supersonic and Mach 6 hypersonic flows is presented where clustered signals typically overwhelmed molecular signals. A review of nucleation theory and accompanying nucleation calculations are also provided to interpret the current observed lack of clustering. Data were acquired at a fixed stagnation temperature near 990Kat five stagnation pressures spanning 2.41 to 10.0 MPa (350 to 1454 psi) using a pulsed argon fluoride excimer laser and double-intensified charge-coupled device camera. Data averaged over 371 images and 210 pixels along a 36.7mmline measured freestream densities that agree with computed isentropic-expansion densities to less than 2% and less than 6% at the highest and lowest densities, respectively. Cluster-free Mach 10 results are compared with previous clustered Mach 6 and condensation-free Mach 14 results. Evidence is presented indicating vibrationally excited oxygen and nitrogen molecules are absorbed as the clusters form, release their excess energy, and inhibit or possibly reverse the clustering process. Implications for delaying clustering and condensation onset in hypersonic and hypervelocity facilities are discussed.
Human vision model in relation to characteristics of shapes for the Mach band effect.
Wu, Bo-Wen; Fang, Yi-Chin
2015-10-01
For human vision to recognize the contours of objects means that, as the contrast variation at the object's edges increases, so will the Mach band effect of human vision. This paper more deeply investigates the relationship between changes in the contours of an object and the Mach band effect of human vision. Based on lateral inhibition and the Mach band effect, we studied subjects' eyes as they watched images of different shapes under a fixed brightness at 34 cd/m2, with changes of contrast and spatial frequency. Three types of display were used: a television, a computer monitor, and a projector. For each display used, we conducted a separate experiment for each shape. Although the maximum values for the contrast sensitivity function curves of the displays were different, their variations were minimal. As the spatial frequency changed, the diminishing effect of the different lines also was minimal. However, as the shapes at the contour intersections were modified by the Mach band effect, a greater degree of variation occurred. In addition, as the spatial frequency at a contour intersection increased, the Mach band effect became lower, along with changes in the corresponding contrast sensitivity function curve. Our experimental results on the characteristics of human vision have led to what we believe is a new vision model based on tests with different shapes. This new model may be used for future development and implementation of an artificial vision system.
High Mach flow associated with plasma detachment in JT-60U
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hatayama, A.; Hoshino, K.; Miyamoto, K.
2003-01-01
Recent new results of the high Mach flows associated with plasma detachment are presented on the basis of numerical simulations by a 2-D edge simulation code (the B2-Eirene code) and their comparisons with experiments in JT-60U W-shaped divertor plasma. High Mach flows appear near the ionization front away from the target plate. The plasma static pressure rapidly drops, while the total pressure is kept almost constant near the ionization front, because the ionization front near the X-point is clearly separated from the momentum loss region near the target plate. Redistribution from static to dynamic pressure without a large momentum loss is confirmed to be a possible mechanism of the high Mach flows. It has been also shown that the radial structure of the high Mach flow near the X point away from the target plate has a strong correlation with the DOD (Degree of Detachment) at the target plate. Also, we have made systematic analyses on the high Mach flows for both the 'Open' geometry and the 'W-shaped' geometry of JT-60U in order to clarify the geometric effects on the flows. (author)
Guzzardi, Luca
2014-06-01
This paper discusses Ernst Mach's interpretation of the principle of energy conservation (EC) in the context of the development of energy concepts and ideas about causality in nineteenth-century physics and theory of science. In doing this, it focuses on the close relationship between causality, energy conservation and space in Mach's antireductionist view of science. Mach expounds his thesis about EC in his first historical-epistemological essay, Die Geschichte und die Wurzel des Satzes von der Erhaltung der Arbeit (1872): far from being a new principle, it is used from the early beginnings of mechanics independently from other principles; in fact, EC is a pre-mechanical principle which is generally applied in investigating nature: it is, indeed, nothing but a form of the principle of causality. The paper focuses on the scientific-historical premises and philosophical underpinnings of Mach's thesis, beginning with the classic debate on the validity and limits of the notion of cause by Hume, Kant, and Helmholtz. Such reference also implies a discussion of the relationship between causality on the one hand and space and time on the other. This connection plays a major role for Mach, and in the final paragraphs its importance is argued in order to understand his antireductionist perspective, i.e. the rejection of any attempt to give an ultimate explanation of the world via reduction of nature to one fundamental set of phenomena.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tiago Cavalcanti Rolim
2011-05-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a research in the development of the 14-X hypersonic airspace vehicle at Institute for Advanced Studies (IEAv from Department of Science and Aerospace Technology (DCTA of the Brazilian Air Force (FAB. The 14-X project objective is to develop a higher efficient satellite launch alternative, using a Supersonic Combustion Ramjet (SCRAMJET engine and waverider aerodynamics. For this development, the waverider technology is under investigation in Prof. Henry T. Nagamatsu Aerothermodynamics and Hypersonics Laboratory (LHTN, in IEAv/DCTA. The investigation has been conducted through ground test campaigns in Hypersonic Shock Tunnel T3. The 14-X Waverider Vehicle characteristic was verified in shock tunnel T3 where surface static pressures and pitot pressure for Mach number 10 were measured and, using Schlieren photographs Diagnostic Method, it was possible to identify a leading-edge attached shock wave in 14-X lower surface.
MHz-rate nitric oxide planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging in a Mach 10 hypersonic wind tunnel.
Jiang, Naibo; Webster, Matthew; Lempert, Walter R; Miller, Joseph D; Meyer, Terrence R; Ivey, Christopher B; Danehy, Paul M
2011-02-01
Nitric oxide planar laser-induced fluorescence (NO PLIF) imaging at repetition rates as high as 1 MHz is demonstrated in the NASA Langley 31 in. Mach 10 hypersonic wind tunnel. Approximately 200 time-correlated image sequences of between 10 and 20 individual frames were obtained over eight days of wind tunnel testing spanning two entries in March and September of 2009. The image sequences presented were obtained from the boundary layer of a 20° flat plate model, in which transition was induced using a variety of different shaped protuberances, including a cylinder and a triangle. The high-speed image sequences captured a variety of laminar and transitional flow phenomena, ranging from mostly laminar flow, typically at a lower Reynolds number and/or in the near wall region of the model, to highly transitional flow in which the temporal evolution and progression of characteristic streak instabilities and/or corkscrew-shaped vortices could be clearly identified.
Bennett, Ruth, Ed.; And Others
An introduction to the Hupa number system is provided in this workbook, one in a series of numerous materials developed to promote the use of the Hupa language. The book is written in English with Hupa terms used only for the names of numbers. The opening pages present the numbers from 1-10, giving the numeral, the Hupa word, the English word, and…
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Admin
Triangular number, figurate num- ber, rangoli, Brahmagupta–Pell equation, Jacobi triple product identity. Figure 1. The first four triangular numbers. Left: Anuradha S Garge completed her PhD from. Pune University in 2008 under the supervision of Prof. S A Katre. Her research interests include K-theory and number theory.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Schwarzweller Christoph
2015-02-01
Full Text Available In this article we introduce Proth numbers and prove two theorems on such numbers being prime [3]. We also give revised versions of Pocklington’s theorem and of the Legendre symbol. Finally, we prove Pepin’s theorem and that the fifth Fermat number is not prime.
Cost-effective evolution of research prototypes into end-user tools: The MACH case study
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Störrle, Harald
2017-01-01
's claim by fellow scientists, and (3) demonstrate the utility and value of the research contribution to any interested parties. However, turning an exploratory prototype into a “proper” tool for end-users often entails great effort. Heavyweight mainstream frameworks such as Eclipse do not address...... this issue; their steep learning curves constitute substantial entry barriers to such ecosystems. In this paper, we present the Model Analyzer/Checker (MACH), a stand-alone tool with a command-line interpreter. MACH integrates a set of research prototypes for analyzing UML models. By choosing a simple...... command line interpreter rather than (costly) graphical user interface, we achieved the core goal of quickly deploying research results to a broader audience while keeping the required effort to an absolute minimum. We analyze MACH as a case study of how requirements and constraints in an academic...
Hyper-X Mach 7 Scramjet Design, Ground Test and Flight Results
Ferlemann, Shelly M.; McClinton, Charles R.; Rock, Ken E.; Voland, Randy T.
2005-01-01
The successful Mach 7 flight test of the Hyper-X (X-43) research vehicle has provided the major, essential demonstration of the capability of the airframe integrated scramjet engine. This flight was a crucial first step toward realizing the potential for airbreathing hypersonic propulsion for application to space launch vehicles. However, it is not sufficient to have just achieved a successful flight. The more useful knowledge gained from the flight is how well the prediction methods matched the actual test results in order to have confidence that these methods can be applied to the design of other scramjet engines and powered vehicles. The propulsion predictions for the Mach 7 flight test were calculated using the computer code, SRGULL, with input from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and wind tunnel tests. This paper will discuss the evolution of the Mach 7 Hyper-X engine, ground wind tunnel experiments, propulsion prediction methodology, flight results and validation of design methods.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Erinc Erdem
2014-12-01
Full Text Available An experimental investigation of sonic air, CO2 and Helium transverse jets in Mach 5 cross flow was carried out over a flat plate. The jet to freestream momentum flux ratio, J, was kept the same for all gases. The unsteady flow topology was examined using high speed schlieren visualisation and PIV. Schlieren visualisation provided information regarding oscillating jet shear layer structures and bow shock, Mach disc and barrel shocks. Two-component PIV measurements at the centreline, provided information regarding jet penetration trajectories. Barrel shocks and Mach disc forming the jet boundary were visualised/quantified also jet penetration boundaries were determined. Even though J is kept the same for all gases, the penetration patterns were found to be remarkably different both at the nearfield and the farfield. Air and CO2 jet resulted similar nearfield and farfield penetration pattern whereas Helium jet spread minimal in the nearfield.
Mendonça, J. Ricardo G.
2012-01-01
We define a new class of numbers based on the first occurrence of certain patterns of zeros and ones in the expansion of irracional numbers in a given basis and call them Sagan numbers, since they were first mentioned, in a special case, by the North-american astronomer Carl E. Sagan in his science-fiction novel "Contact." Sagan numbers hold connections with a wealth of mathematical ideas. We describe some properties of the newly defined numbers and indicate directions for further amusement.
M. Schaap (Michiel); R.J.L.F. Lemmers (Richard); R. Maassen (Roel); P.J. van der Vliet (Patrick); L.F. Hoogerheide (Lennart); H.K. van Dijk (Herman); N. Basturk (Nalan); P. de Knijff (Peter); S.M. van der Maarel (Silvère)
2013-01-01
textabstractBackground: Macrosatellite repeats (MSRs), usually spanning hundreds of kilobases of genomic DNA, comprise a significant proportion of the human genome. Because of their highly polymorphic nature, MSRs represent an extreme example of copy number variation, but their structure and
Schaap, M.; Lemmers, R.J.L.F.; Maassen, R.; van der Vliet, P.J.; Hoogerheide, L.F.; van Dijk, H.K.; Basturk, N.; de Knijff, P.; van der Maarel, S.M.
2013-01-01
Background: Macrosatellite repeats (MSRs), usually spanning hundreds of kilobases of genomic DNA, comprise a significant proportion of the human genome. Because of their highly polymorphic nature, MSRs represent an extreme example of copy number variation, but their structure and function is largely
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
AnilKumar, N.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; Josanto, V.
of Richardsons number (log R sub(L)) shows high variation at river mouth section of the estuary (section-1) and at about 10 km upstream (section-2) during the postmonsoon period. During the premonsoon period there was no noticeable variation in log R sub...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gajos, Katarzyna; Angelopoulou, Michailia; Petrou, Panagiota; Awsiuk, Kamil; Kakabakos, Sotirios; Haasnoot, Willem; Bernasik, Andrzej; Rysz, Jakub; Marzec, Mateusz M.; Misiakos, Konstantinos; Raptis, Ioannis; Budkowski, Andrzej
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Optimization of probe immobilization with robotic spotter printing overlapping spots. • In-situ inspection of microstructured surfaces of biosensors integrated on silicon. • Imaging and chemical analysis of immobilization, surface blocking and immunoreaction. • Insight with molecular discrimination into step-by-step sensor surface modifications. • Optimized biofunctionalization improves sensor sensitivity and response repeatability. - Abstract: Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (imaging, micro-analysis) has been employed to evaluate biofunctionalization of the sensing arm areas of Mach-Zehnder interferometers monolithically integrated on silicon chips for the immunochemical (competitive) detection of bovine κ-casein in goat milk. Biosensor surfaces are examined after: modification with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane, application of multiple overlapping spots of κ-casein solutions, blocking with 100-times diluted goat milk, and reaction with monoclonal mouse anti-κ-casein antibodies in blocking solution. The areas spotted with κ-casein solutions of different concentrations are examined and optimum concentration providing homogeneous coverage is determined. Coverage of biosensor surfaces with biomolecules after each of the sequential steps employed in immunodetection is also evaluated with TOF-SIMS, supplemented by Atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Uniform molecular distributions are observed on the sensing arm areas after spotting with optimum κ-casein concentration, blocking and immunoreaction. The corresponding biomolecular compositions are determined with a Principal Component Analysis that distinguished between protein amino acids and milk glycerides, as well as between amino acids characteristic for Mabs and κ-casein, respectively. Use of the optimum conditions (κ-casein concentration) for functionalization of chips with arrays of ten Mach-Zehnder interferometers provided on-chips assays
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gajos, Katarzyna, E-mail: kasia.fornal@uj.edu.pl [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Angelopoulou, Michailia; Petrou, Panagiota [Institute of Nuclear & Radiological Sciences & Technology, Energy & Safety, NCSR Demokritos, P. Grigoriou & Neapoleos St, Aghia Paraksevi 15310, Athens (Greece); Awsiuk, Kamil [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Kakabakos, Sotirios [Institute of Nuclear & Radiological Sciences & Technology, Energy & Safety, NCSR Demokritos, P. Grigoriou & Neapoleos St, Aghia Paraksevi 15310, Athens (Greece); Haasnoot, Willem [RIKILT Wageningen UR, Akkermaalsbos 2, 6708 WB Wageningen (Netherlands); Bernasik, Andrzej [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Academic Centre for Materials and Nanotechnology, AGH University of Science and Technology, Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Rysz, Jakub [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Marzec, Mateusz M. [Academic Centre for Materials and Nanotechnology, AGH University of Science and Technology, Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Misiakos, Konstantinos; Raptis, Ioannis [Department of Microelectronics, Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, NCSR Demokritos, P. Grigoriou & Neapoleos St, Aghia Paraksevi 15310, Athens (Greece); Budkowski, Andrzej [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland)
2016-11-01
Highlights: • Optimization of probe immobilization with robotic spotter printing overlapping spots. • In-situ inspection of microstructured surfaces of biosensors integrated on silicon. • Imaging and chemical analysis of immobilization, surface blocking and immunoreaction. • Insight with molecular discrimination into step-by-step sensor surface modifications. • Optimized biofunctionalization improves sensor sensitivity and response repeatability. - Abstract: Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (imaging, micro-analysis) has been employed to evaluate biofunctionalization of the sensing arm areas of Mach-Zehnder interferometers monolithically integrated on silicon chips for the immunochemical (competitive) detection of bovine κ-casein in goat milk. Biosensor surfaces are examined after: modification with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane, application of multiple overlapping spots of κ-casein solutions, blocking with 100-times diluted goat milk, and reaction with monoclonal mouse anti-κ-casein antibodies in blocking solution. The areas spotted with κ-casein solutions of different concentrations are examined and optimum concentration providing homogeneous coverage is determined. Coverage of biosensor surfaces with biomolecules after each of the sequential steps employed in immunodetection is also evaluated with TOF-SIMS, supplemented by Atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Uniform molecular distributions are observed on the sensing arm areas after spotting with optimum κ-casein concentration, blocking and immunoreaction. The corresponding biomolecular compositions are determined with a Principal Component Analysis that distinguished between protein amino acids and milk glycerides, as well as between amino acids characteristic for Mabs and κ-casein, respectively. Use of the optimum conditions (κ-casein concentration) for functionalization of chips with arrays of ten Mach-Zehnder interferometers provided on-chips assays
On integral formulation of the Mach principle in a conformally flat space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mal'tsev, V.K.
1976-01-01
The integral formulation of the Mach principle represents a rather complicated mathematical formalism in which many aspects of the physical content of theory are not clear. Below an attempt is made to consider the integral representation for the most simple case of conformally flat spaces. The fact that this formalism there is only one scalar function makes it possible to analyse in more detail many physical peculiarities of this representation of the Mach principle: the absence of asymptotically flat spaces, problems of inertia and gravity, constraints on state equations, etc
MACHe3: A new generation detector for non-baryonic dark matter direct detection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Santos, D.; Mayet, F.; Perrin, G.; Moulin, E.; Bunkov, Yu. M.; Godfrin, H.; Krusius, M.
2002-01-01
MACHe3 (MAtrix of Cells of superfluid 3 H e) is a project of a new detector for direct Dark Matter (DM) search, using superfluid 3 He as a sensitive medium. An experiment on a prototype cell has been performed and the st results reported here are encouraging to develop of a multicell prototype. In order to investigate the discovery potential of MACHe3, and its complementarity with other DM detectors, a phenomenological study done with the DarkSUSY code is shown. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bradley, D.A.
1988-01-01
A variant of the multisection filter and annular target geometry, with a designed angular acceptance of +-0.5 0 , has been utilised in measuring accurate, O(5%), absolute total differential scattering cross sections of 60 KeV photons for H 2 O, methyl methacrylate (C 5 H 8 O 2 ) n and nylon-6 (C 12 H 22 O 3 N 2 ) n in the angular scattering range of 2 0 -10 0 . The effects of molecular correlations manifest, to varying degree, in strong forward peaking of the scattered photon distribution. Comparison is made with available experiment and theory [pt
Petersen, T Kyle
2015-01-01
This text presents the Eulerian numbers in the context of modern enumerative, algebraic, and geometric combinatorics. The book first studies Eulerian numbers from a purely combinatorial point of view, then embarks on a tour of how these numbers arise in the study of hyperplane arrangements, polytopes, and simplicial complexes. Some topics include a thorough discussion of gamma-nonnegativity and real-rootedness for Eulerian polynomials, as well as the weak order and the shard intersection order of the symmetric group. The book also includes a parallel story of Catalan combinatorics, wherein the Eulerian numbers are replaced with Narayana numbers. Again there is a progression from combinatorics to geometry, including discussion of the associahedron and the lattice of noncrossing partitions. The final chapters discuss how both the Eulerian and Narayana numbers have analogues in any finite Coxeter group, with many of the same enumerative and geometric properties. There are four supplemental chapters throughout, ...
Siemsen, Hayo
2013-01-01
George Sarton had a strong influence on modern history of science. The method he pursued throughout his life was the method he had discovered in Ernst Mach's "Mechanics" when he was a student in Ghent. Sarton was in fact throughout his life implementing a research program inspired by the epistemology of Mach. Sarton in turn inspired many…
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Transfinite Numbers. What is Infinity? S M Srivastava. In a series of revolutionary articles written during the last quarter of the nineteenth century, the great Ger- man mathematician Georg Cantor removed the age-old mistrust of infinity and created an exceptionally beau- tiful and useful theory of transfinite numbers. This is.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Allehyani, Ahmed [University of Southern California, Department of Electrical Engineering; Beshir, Mohammed [University of Southern California, Department of Electrical Engineering
2015-02-01
Voltage regulators help maintain an acceptable voltage profile for the system. This paper discusses the effect of installing voltage regulators to the system to fix the voltage drop resulting from the electrical vehicles loading increase when they are being charged. The effect will be studied in the afternoon, when the peak load occurs, using the IEEE 34 bus test feeder. First, only one spot node is used to charge the electric vehicles while a voltage regulator is present. Second, five spot nodes are loaded at the same time to charge the electric vehicles while voltage regulators are installed at each node. After that, the impact of electric vehicles on distribution feeders that do not have voltage regulators will appear.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strohmeier, H.
1988-01-01
The study described here provided evidence to prove that considerable quantities of ethylene oxide, ethylene chlorhydrin and ethylene glycol are retained, when a drug is fumigated with ethylene oxide under standard fumigation conditions in order to reduce the germ number. Ethylene oxide bound by adsorption may be eliminated from the drug by repeated aeration. If an aqueous-ethanolic percolate is prepared from a drug showing very high levels of ethylene chlorhydrin and then carefully distilled at 40 C using only little pressure, a dry extract can be obtained that contains no such residue. (orig.) [de
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Wåhlin, Peter; Raaschou-Nielsen, O
2008-01-01
(15 May 2001 to 31 December 2004) and hospital admissions due to cardiovascular (CVD) and respiratory disease (RD) in the elderly (age >or=65 years), and due to asthma in children (age 5-18 years). We examined these associations in the presence of PM(10), PM(2.5) (particulate matter ... that particle volume/mass from long-range transported air pollution is relevant for CVD and RD admissions in the elderly, and possibly particle numbers from traffic sources for paediatric asthma....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Melo, Silvio B.; Simoes, Francisco P.M.; Oliveira, Eric F. de; Santos, Maria das Gracas dos; Dantas, Carlos C.
2007-01-01
In the FCC - Fluid Catalytic Cracking process the Riser is an opaque cylinder, so that, in order to investigate the catalyst concentration inside, a gamma- ray based tomography is employed. Each section is submitted to a parallel beam and by means of the Beer-Lambert transmission is calculated. This tomography session is repeated from different angles, in manual tomographic experiments where the source/detector pair is rotated, producing in each direction what we called a transversal projection. In order to reconstruct the concentration of the present catalyst in a given moment some methods use successfully the inverse Radon transform through the filtered back-projection algorithm. The results are fully satisfactory for a large number of projections, widely seen as better than those produced by the algebraic methods. For a low number of projections, however, the algebraic methods become more competitive. In practice, simple experimental set-ups work with less than 10 projections, due to the time taken by the whole process. In this work, we present an investigation of polynomial reconstructions by using Bezier surfaces of arbitrary degree, adjusted to the experimental data through a least squares method. A computational algorithm was developed to implement the mathematical reconstruction for the 3D graphics presentation. (author)
Ji, Caleb; Khovanova, Tanya; Park, Robin; Song, Angela
2015-01-01
In this paper, we consider a game played on a rectangular $m \\times n$ gridded chocolate bar. Each move, a player breaks the bar along a grid line. Each move after that consists of taking any piece of chocolate and breaking it again along existing grid lines, until just $mn$ individual squares remain. This paper enumerates the number of ways to break an $m \\times n$ bar, which we call chocolate numbers, and introduces four new sequences related to these numbers. Using various techniques, we p...
Andrews, George E
1994-01-01
Although mathematics majors are usually conversant with number theory by the time they have completed a course in abstract algebra, other undergraduates, especially those in education and the liberal arts, often need a more basic introduction to the topic.In this book the author solves the problem of maintaining the interest of students at both levels by offering a combinatorial approach to elementary number theory. In studying number theory from such a perspective, mathematics majors are spared repetition and provided with new insights, while other students benefit from the consequent simpl
On the Use of a Virtual Mach-Zehnder Interferometer in the Teaching of Quantum Mechanics
Pereira, Alexsandro; Ostermann, Fernanda; Cavalcanti, Claudio
2009-01-01
For many students, the conceptual learning of quantum mechanics can be rather painful owing to the counter-intuitive nature of quantum phenomena. In order to enhance students' understanding of the odd behaviour of photons and electrons, we introduce a computational simulation of the Mach-Zehnder interferometer, developed by our research group. An…
All-silicon thermal independent Mach-Zehnder interferometer with multimode waveguides
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Guan, Xiaowei; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn
2016-01-01
A novel all-silicon thermal independent Mach-Zehnder interferometer consisting of two multimode waveguide arms having equal lengths and widths but transmitting different modes is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The interferometer has a temperature sensitivity smaller than 8pm/°C in a wa...
A versatile all-optical modulator based on nonlinear Mach-Zehnder interferometers
Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Villeneuve, A.; Stegeman, G.I.; Lambeck, Paul; Hoekstra, Hugo
1994-01-01
A device based on a Nonlinear Mach-Zehnder interferometer (NMI) which exploits cross-phase modulation of two co-propagating modes in bimodal branches has been described in this paper. The advantage of this device is that it becomes polarisation independent while keeping phase insensitive by using
Experiments on a hot plume base flow interaction at Mach 2
Blinde, P.L.; Schrijer, F.F.J.; Powell, S.J.; Werner, R.M.; Van Oudheusden, B.W.
2015-01-01
A wind tunnel model containing a solid rocket motor was tested at Mach 2 to assess the feasibility of investigating the interaction between a hot plume and a high-speed outer stream. In addition to Schlieren visualisation, the feasibility of applying PIV was explored. Recorded particle images
Mach probe interpretation in the presence of supra-thermal electrons
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Fuchs, Vladimír; Gunn, J. P.
2007-01-01
Roč. 14, č. 3 (2007), 032501-1 ISSN 1070-664X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/04/0360 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Mach probes * supra -thermal electrons * quasi-neutral PIC codes Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.325, year: 2007
Quantum nonlocality of photon pairs in interference in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Trojek, P.; Peřina ml., Jan
2003-01-01
Roč. 53, č. 4 (2003), s. 335-349 ISSN 0011-4626 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010921 Keywords : entangled photon pairs * nonlocal interference * Mach-Zehender interferometer Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.263, year: 2003
The realization of an integrated Mach-Zehnder waveguide immunosensor in silicon technology
Schipper, E.F.; Schipper, E.F.; Brugman, A.M.; Lechuga, L.M.; Lechuga, L.M.; Kooyman, R.P.H.; Greve, Jan; Dominguez, C.
1997-01-01
We describe the realization of a symmetric integrated channel waveguide Mach-Zehnder sensor which uses the evanescent field to detect small refractive-index changes (¿nmin ¿ 1 × 10¿4) near the guiding-layer surface. This guiding layer consists of ridge structures with a height of 3 nm and a width of
Design of an Optical OR Gate using Mach-Zehnder Interferometers
Choudhary, Kuldeep; Kumar, Santosh
2018-04-01
The optical switching phenomenon enhances the speed of optical communication systems. It is widely used in the wavelength division multiplexing (WDM). In this work, an optical OR gate is proposed using the Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) structure. The detailed derivation of mathematical expression have been shown. The analysis is carried out by simulating the proposed device with MATLAB and Beam propagation method.
Consistency of the Mach principle and the gravitational-to-inertial mass equivalence principle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Granada, Kh.K.; Chubykalo, A.E.
1990-01-01
Kinematics of the system, composed of two bodies, interacting with each other according to inverse-square law, was investigated. It is shown that the Mach principle, earlier rejected by the general relativity theory, can be used as an alternative for the absolute space concept, if it is proposed, that distant star background dictates both inertial and gravitational mass of a body
Barnes, John
2016-01-01
In this intriguing book, John Barnes takes us on a journey through aspects of numbers much as he took us on a geometrical journey in Gems of Geometry. Similarly originating from a series of lectures for adult students at Reading and Oxford University, this book touches a variety of amusing and fascinating topics regarding numbers and their uses both ancient and modern. The author intrigues and challenges his audience with both fundamental number topics such as prime numbers and cryptography, and themes of daily needs and pleasures such as counting one's assets, keeping track of time, and enjoying music. Puzzles and exercises at the end of each lecture offer additional inspiration, and numerous illustrations accompany the reader. Furthermore, a number of appendices provides in-depth insights into diverse topics such as Pascal’s triangle, the Rubik cube, Mersenne’s curious keyboards, and many others. A theme running through is the thought of what is our favourite number. Written in an engaging and witty sty...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elena eGarcia-Calero
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Striatal projecting neurons, known as medium spiny neurons (MSNs, segregate into two compartments called matrix and striosome in the mammalian striatum. The matrix domain is characterized by the presence of calbindin immunopositive (CB+ MSNs, not observed in the striosome subdivision. The existence of a similar CB+ MSN population has recently been described in two striatal structures in male zebra finch (a vocal learner bird: the striatal capsule and the Area X, a nucleus implicated in song learning. Female zebra finches show a similar pattern of CB+ MSNs than males in the developing striatum but loose these cells in juveniles and adult stages. In the present work we analyzed the existence and allocation of CB+MSNs in the striatal domain of the vocal learner bird budgerigar (representative of psittaciformes order and the non-vocal learner bird quail (representative of galliformes order. We studied the co-localization of CB protein with FoxP1, a transcription factor expressed in vertebrate striatal MSNs. We observed CB+ MSNs in the medial striatal domain of adult male and female budgerigars, although this cell type was missing in the potentially homologous nucleus for Area X in budgerigar. In quail, we observed CB+ cells in the striatal domain at developmental and adult stages but they did not co-localize with the MSN marker FoxP1. We also described the existence of the CB+ striatal capsule in budgerigar and quail and compared these results with the CB+ striatal capsule observed in juvenile zebra finches. Together, these results point out important differences in CB+MSN distribution between two representative species of vocal learner and non-vocal learner avian orders (respectively the budgerigar and the quail, but also between close vocal learner bird families.
Measurements in a Transitioning Cone Boundary Layer at Freestream Mach 3.5
King, Rudolph A.; Chou, Amanda; Balakumar, Ponnampalam; Owens, Lewis R.; Kegerise, Michael A.
2016-01-01
An experimental study was conducted in the Supersonic Low-Disturbance Tunnel to investigate naturally-occurring instabilities in a supersonic boundary layer on a 7 deg half- angle cone. All tests were conducted with a nominal freestream Mach number of M(sub infinity) = 3:5, total temperature of T(sub 0) = 299:8 K, and unit Reynolds numbers of Re(sub infinity) x 10(exp -6) = 9:89, 13.85, 21.77, and 25.73 m(exp -1). Instability measurements were acquired under noisy- ow and quiet- ow conditions. Measurements were made to document the freestream and the boundary-layer edge environment, to document the cone baseline flow, and to establish the stability characteristics of the transitioning flow. Pitot pressure and hot-wire boundary- layer measurements were obtained using a model-integrated traverse system. All hot- wire results were single-point measurements and were acquired with a sensor calibrated to mass ux. For the noisy-flow conditions, excellent agreement for the growth rates and mode shapes was achieved between the measured results and linear stability theory (LST). The corresponding N factor at transition from LST is N 3:9. The stability measurements for the quiet-flow conditions were limited to the aft end of the cone. The most unstable first-mode instabilities as predicted by LST were successfully measured, but this unstable first mode was not the dominant instability measured in the boundary layer. Instead, the dominant instabilities were found to be the less-amplified, low-frequency disturbances predicted by linear stability theory, and these instabilities grew according to linear theory. These low-frequency unstable disturbances were initiated by freestream acoustic disturbances through a receptivity process that is believed to occur near the branch I locations of the cone. Under quiet-flow conditions, the boundary layer remained laminar up to the last measurement station for the largest Re1, implying a transition N factor of N greater than 8:5.
Number names and number understanding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Misfeldt, Morten
2014-01-01
This paper concerns the results from the first year of a three-year research project involving the relationship between Danish number names and their corresponding digits in the canonical base 10 system. The project aims to develop a system to help the students’ understanding of the base 10 syste...... the Danish number names are more complicated than in other languages. Keywords: A research project in grade 0 and 1th in a Danish school, Base-10 system, two-digit number names, semiotic, cognitive perspectives....
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Feireisl, Eduard; Medviďová-Lukáčová, M.; Nečasová, Šárka; Novotný, A.; She, Bangwei
2018-01-01
Roč. 16, č. 1 (2018), s. 150-183 ISSN 1540-3459 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-03230S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 320078 - MATHEF Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Navier-Stokes system * finite element numerical method * finite volume numerical method * asymptotic preserving schemes Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 1.865, year: 2016 http://epubs.siam.org/doi/10.1137/16M1094233
Olsen, W. A.; Krejsa, E. A.; Coats, J. W.
1972-01-01
Noise attenuation was measured for several types of cylindrical suppressors that use a duct lining composed of honeycomb cells covered with a perforated plate. The experimental technique used gave attenuation data that were repeatable and free of noise floors and other sources of error. The suppressor length, the effective acoustic diameter, suppressor shape and flow velocity were varied. The agreement among the attenuation data and two widely used analytical models was generally satisfactory. Changes were also made in the construction of the acoustic lining to measure their effect on attenuation. One of these produced a very broadband muffler.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Theodore M. Porter
2012-12-01
Full Text Available The struggle over cure rate measures in nineteenth-century asylums provides an exemplary instance of how, when used for official assessments of institutions, these numbers become sites of contestation. The evasion of goals and corruption of measures tends to make these numbers “funny” in the sense of becoming dis-honest, while the mismatch between boring, technical appearances and cunning backstage manipulations supplies dark humor. The dangers are evident in recent efforts to decentralize the functions of governments and corporations using incen-tives based on quantified targets.
Murty, M Ram
2014-01-01
This book provides an introduction to the topic of transcendental numbers for upper-level undergraduate and graduate students. The text is constructed to support a full course on the subject, including descriptions of both relevant theorems and their applications. While the first part of the book focuses on introducing key concepts, the second part presents more complex material, including applications of Baker’s theorem, Schanuel’s conjecture, and Schneider’s theorem. These later chapters may be of interest to researchers interested in examining the relationship between transcendence and L-functions. Readers of this text should possess basic knowledge of complex analysis and elementary algebraic number theory.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Todorov, T.D.
1980-01-01
The set of asymptotic numbers A as a system of generalized numbers including the system of real numbers R, as well as infinitely small (infinitesimals) and infinitely large numbers, is introduced. The detailed algebraic properties of A, which are unusual as compared with the known algebraic structures, are studied. It is proved that the set of asymptotic numbers A cannot be isomorphically embedded as a subspace in any group, ring or field, but some particular subsets of asymptotic numbers are shown to be groups, rings, and fields. The algebraic operation, additive and multiplicative forms, and the algebraic properties are constructed in an appropriate way. It is shown that the asymptotic numbers give rise to a new type of generalized functions quite analogous to the distributions of Schwartz allowing, however, the operation multiplication. A possible application of these functions to quantum theory is discussed
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
this is a characteristic difference between finite and infinite sets and created an immensely useful branch of mathematics based on this idea which had a great impact on the whole of mathe- matics. For example, the question of what is a number (finite or infinite) is almost a philosophical one. However Cantor's work turned it ...
Ernst Mach, George Sarton and the Empiry of Teaching Science Part I
Siemsen, Hayo
2012-04-01
George Sarton had a strong influence on modern history of science. The method he pursued throughout his life was the method he had discovered in Ernst Mach's Mechanics when he was a student in Ghent. Sarton was in fact throughout his life implementing a research program inspired by the epistemology of Mach. Sarton in turn inspired many others (James Conant, Thomas Kuhn, Gerald Holton, etc.). What were the origins of these ideas in Mach and what can this origin tell us about the history of science and science education nowadays? Which ideas proved to be successful and which ones need to be improved upon? The following article will elaborate the epistemological questions, which Darwin's "Origin" raised concerning human knowledge and scientific knowledge and which led Mach to adapt the concept of what is "empirical" in contrast to metaphysical a priori assumptions a second time after Galileo. On this basis Sarton proposed "genesis and development" as the major goal of Isis. Mach had elaborated this epistemology in La Connaissance et l'Erreur ( Knowledge and Error), which Sarton read in 1913 (Hiebert 1905/1976; de Mey 1984). Accordingly for Sarton, history becomes not only a subject of science, but a method of science education. Culture—and science as part of culture—is a result of a genetic process. History of science shapes and is shaped by science and science education in a reciprocal process. Its epistemology needs to be adapted to scientific facts and the philosophy of science. Sarton was well aware of the need to develop the history of science and the philosophy of science along the lines of this reciprocal process. It was a very fruitful basis, but a specific part of it, Sarton did not elaborate further, namely the psychology of science education. This proved to be a crucial missing element for all of science education in Sarton's succession, especially in the US. Looking again at the origins of the central questions in the thinking of Mach, which provided
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tiessen Axel
2012-02-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The sizes of proteins are relevant to their biochemical structure and for their biological function. The statistical distribution of protein lengths across a diverse set of taxa can provide hints about the evolution of proteomes. Results Using the full genomic sequences of over 1,302 prokaryotic and 140 eukaryotic species two datasets containing 1.2 and 6.1 million proteins were generated and analyzed statistically. The lengthwise distribution of proteins can be roughly described with a gamma type or log-normal model, depending on the species. However the shape parameter of the gamma model has not a fixed value of 2, as previously suggested, but varies between 1.5 and 3 in different species. A gamma model with unrestricted shape parameter described best the distributions in ~48% of the species, whereas the log-normal distribution described better the observed protein sizes in 42% of the species. The gamma restricted function and the sum of exponentials distribution had a better fitting in only ~5% of the species. Eukaryotic proteins have an average size of 472 aa, whereas bacterial (320 aa and archaeal (283 aa proteins are significantly smaller (33-40% on average. Average protein sizes in different phylogenetic groups were: Alveolata (628 aa, Amoebozoa (533 aa, Fornicata (543 aa, Placozoa (453 aa, Eumetazoa (486 aa, Fungi (487 aa, Stramenopila (486 aa, Viridiplantae (392 aa. Amino acid composition is biased according to protein size. Protein length correlated negatively with %C, %M, %K, %F, %R, %W, %Y and positively with %D, %E, %Q, %S and %T. Prokaryotic proteins had a different protein size bias for %E, %G, %K and %M as compared to eukaryotes. Conclusions Mathematical modeling of protein length empirical distributions can be used to asses the quality of small ORFs annotation in genomic releases (detection of too many false positive small ORFs. There is a negative correlation between average protein size and total number of
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Girardin, Mathieu
2014-01-01
Two-phase flows in Pressurized Water Reactors belong to a wide range of Mach number flows. Computing accurate approximate solutions of those flows may be challenging from a numerical point of view as classical finite volume methods are too diffusive in the low Mach regime. In this thesis, we are interested in designing and studying some robust numerical schemes that are stable for large time steps and accurate even on coarse meshes for a wide range of flow regimes. An important feature is the strategy to construct those schemes. We use a mixed implicit-explicit strategy based on an operator splitting to solve fast and slow phenomena separately. Then, we introduce a modification of a Suliciu type relaxation scheme to improve the accuracy of the numerical scheme in some regime of interest. Two approaches have been used to assess the ability of our numerical schemes to deal with a wide range of flow regimes. The first approach, based on the asymptotic preserving property, has been used for the gas dynamics equations with stiff source terms. The second approach, based on the all-regime property, has been used for the gas dynamics equations and the homogeneous two-phase flows models HRM and HEM in the low Mach regime. We obtained some robustness and stability properties for our numerical schemes. In particular, some discrete entropy inequalities are shown. Numerical evidences, in 1D and in 2D on unstructured meshes, assess the gain in term of accuracy and CPU time of those asymptotic preserving and all-regime numerical schemes in comparison with classical finite volume methods. (author) [fr
Visualization of mole fraction distribution of slow jet forming stably stratified field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fumizawa, Motoo; Hishida, Makoto
1990-01-01
An experimental study has been performed to investigate the behavior of flow and mass transfer in gaseous slow jet in which buoyancy force opposed the flow forming stably stratified field. The study has been performed to understand the basic features of air ingress phenomena at pipe rupture accident of the high temperature gas-cooled reactor. A displacement fringe technique was adopted in Mach-Zehnder interferometer to visualize the mole fraction distribution. As the result, the followings were obtained: (1) The stably stratified fields were formed in the vicinity of the outlet of the slow jet. The penetration distance of the stably stratified fields increased with Froude number. (2) Mass fraction distributions in the stably stratified fields were well correlated with the present model using the ramp mole velocity profile. (author)
Fishelson, Lev; Golani, Daniel; Diamant, Ariel
2014-04-01
The present study compares dental morphology and taste bud distribution in the oral cavity of four species of the teleost family Kyphosidae, five species of Girellidae and one species of Sparidae. Some of these species are predominantly herbivorous, while others are omnivorous with a high portion of invertebrates in their diets. All the kyphosids feature one row of frontal cusped teeth on their jaws and areas of miniature teeth on the tongue and palate; the girellid species feature 2-5 rows of denticulate teeth, and no teeth inside the oral cavity. The total number of taste buds in the oral cavity is higher in Girella spp. than in the kyphosids, and their number is species-specific, not correlated with fish size. For example, Kyphosus bigibbus of 500mm standard length bears 1780 taste buds, while the kyphosid Neoscorpis lithophilus of 80mm bears 3460. The maximum number of taste buds, 7900, is found in Girella punctata of 60mm standard length, and the minimum number, 1320, in Kyphosus vaigiensis of 175mm. The higher number of taste buds appears to characterize species that possess a more diversified diet. The present study contributes to our understanding of the differences between the two families Kyphosidae and Girellidae. In particular, it relates the eco-morphological adaptations to the type of diet consumed by the various species. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH.
Li, Q; He, Y L; Wang, Y; Tao, W Q
2007-11-01
A coupled double-distribution-function lattice Boltzmann method is developed for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Different from existing thermal lattice Boltzmann methods, this method can recover the compressible Navier-Stokes equations with a flexible specific-heat ratio and Prandtl number. In the method, a density distribution function based on a multispeed lattice is used to recover the compressible continuity and momentum equations, while the compressible energy equation is recovered by an energy distribution function. The energy distribution function is then coupled to the density distribution function via the thermal equation of state. In order to obtain an adjustable specific-heat ratio, a constant related to the specific-heat ratio is introduced into the equilibrium energy distribution function. Two different coupled double-distribution-function lattice Boltzmann models are also proposed in the paper. Numerical simulations are performed for the Riemann problem, the double-Mach-reflection problem, and the Couette flow with a range of specific-heat ratios and Prandtl numbers. The numerical results are found to be in excellent agreement with analytical and/or other solutions.
Saxena, Anand
The focus of this research was to demonstrate a four blade rotor trim in forward flight using integrated trailing edge flaps instead of using a swashplate controls. A compact brushless DC motor was evaluated as an on-blade actuator, with the possibility of achieving large trailing edge flap amplitudes. A control strategy to actuate the trailing edge flap at desired frequency and amplitude was developed and large trailing edge flap amplitudes from the motor (instead of rotational motion) were obtained. Once the actuator was tested on the bench-top, a lightweight mechanism was designed to incorporate the motor in the blade and actuate the trailing edge flaps. A six feet diameter, four bladed composite rotor with motor-flap system integrated into the NACA 0012 airfoil section was fabricated. Systematic testing was carried out for a range of load conditions, first in the vacuum chamber followed by hover tests. Large trailing edge flap deflections were observed during the hover testing, and a peak to peak trailing edge flap amplitude of 18 degree was achieved at 2000 rotor RPM with hover tip Mach number of 0.628. A closed loop controller was designed to demonstrate trailing edge flap mean position and the peak to peak amplitude control. Further, a soft pitch link was designed and fabricated, to replace the stiff pitch link and thereby reduce the torsional stiffness of the blade to 2/rev. This soft pitch link allowed for blade root pitch motion in response to the trailing edge flap inputs. Blade pitch response due to both steady as well as sinusoidal flap deflections were demonstrated. Finally, tests were performed in Glenn L. Martin wind tunnel using a model rotor rig to assess the performance of motor-flap system in forward flight. A swashplateless trim using brushless DC motor actuated trailing edge flaps was achieved for a rotor operating at 1200 RPM and an advance ratio of 0.28. Also, preliminary exploration was carried out to test the scalability of the motor
Mach-Zehnder interferometer implementation for thermo-optical and Kerr effect study
Bundulis, Arturs; Nitiss, Edgars; Busenbergs, Janis; Rutkis, Martins
2018-04-01
In this paper, we propose the Mach-Zehnder interferometric method for third-order nonlinear optical and thermo-optical studies. Both effects manifest themselves as refractive index dependence on the incident light intensity and are widely employed for multiple opto-optical and thermo-optical applications. With the implemented method, we have measured the Kerr and thermo-optical coefficients of chloroform under CW, ns and ps laser irradiance. The application of lasers with different light wavelengths, pulse duration and energy allowed us to distinguish the processes responsible for refractive index changes in the investigated solution. Presented setup was also used for demonstration of opto-optical switching. Results from Mach-Zehnder experiment were compared to Z-scan data obtained in our previous studies. Based on this, a quality comparison of both methods was assessed and advantages and disadvantages of each method were analyzed.