Sample records for macdonald breithaupt stodel

  1. Macdonald processes

    CERN Document Server

    Borodin, Alexei


    Macdonald processes are probability measures on sequences of partitions defined in terms of nonnegative specializations of the Macdonald symmetric functions and two Macdonald parameters q,t in [0,1). We prove several results about these processes, which include the following. (1) We explicitly evaluate expectations of a rich family of observables for these processes. (2) In the case t=0, we find a Fredholm determinant formula for a q-Laplace transform of the distribution of the last part of the Macdonald-random partition. (3) We introduce Markov dynamics that preserve the class of Macdonald processes and lead to new "integrable" 2d and 1d interacting particle systems. (4) In a large time limit transition, and as q goes to 1, the particles of these systems crystallize on a lattice, and fluctuations around the lattice converge to O'Connell's Whittaker process that describe semi-discrete Brownian directed polymers. (5) This yields a Fredholm determinant for the Laplace transform of the polymer partition function...

  2. Ranald Macdonald and statistical inference. (United States)

    Smith, Philip T


    Ranald Roderick Macdonald (1945-2007) was an important contributor to mathematical psychology in the UK, as a referee and action editor for British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology and as a participant and organizer at the British Psychological Society's Mathematics, statistics and computing section meetings. This appreciation argues that his most important contribution was to the foundations of significance testing, where his concern about what information was relevant in interpreting the results of significance tests led him to be a persuasive advocate for the 'Weak Fisherian' form of hypothesis testing.

  3. Baxter operator formalism for Macdonald polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Gerasimov, Anton; Oblezin, Sergey


    We develop basic constructions of the Baxter operator formalism for the Macdonald polynomials. Precisely we construct a dual pair of mutually commuting Baxter operators such that the Macdonald polynomials are their common eigenfunctions. The dual pair of Baxter operators is closely related to the dual pair of recursive operators for Macdonald polynomials leading to various families of their integral representations. We also construct the Baxter operator formalism for the q-deformed Whittaker functions and the Jack polynomials obtained by degenerations of the Macdonald polynomials. This note provides a generalization of our previous results on the Baxter operator formalism for the Whittaker functions. It was demonstrated previously that Baxter operator formalism for the Whittaker functions has deep connections with representation theory. In particular the Baxter operators should be considered as elements of appropriate spherical Hecke algebras and their eigenvalues are identified with local Archimedean L-facto...

  4. Parabolic refined invariants and Macdonald polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Chuang, Wu-yen; Donagi, Ron; Pantev, Tony


    A string theoretic derivation is given for the conjecture of Hausel, Letellier, and Rodriguez-Villegas on the cohomology of character varieties with marked points. Their formula is identified with a refined BPS expansion in the stable pair theory of a local root stack, generalizing previous work of the first two authors in collaboration with G. Pan. Haiman's geometric construction for Macdonald polynomials is shown to emerge naturally in this context via geometric engineering. In particular this yields a new conjectural relation between Macdonald polynomials and refined local orbifold curve counting invariants. The string theoretic approach also leads to a new spectral cover construction for parabolic Higgs bundles in terms of holomorphic symplectic orbifolds.

  5. Quantum Hurwitz numbers and Macdonald polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Harnad, J


    Parametric families in the centre ${\\bf Z}({\\bf C}[S_n])$ of the group algebra of the symmetric group are obtained by identifying the indeterminates in the generating function for Macdonald polynomials as commuting Jucys-Murphy elements. Their eigenvalues provide coefficients in the double Schur function expansion of 2D Toda $\\tau$-functions of hypergeometric type. Expressing these in the basis of products of power sum symmetric functions, the coefficients may be interpreted geometrically as parametric families of quantum Hurwitz numbers, enumerating weighted branched coverings of the Riemann sphere. Combinatorially, they give quantum weighted sums over paths in the Cayley graph of $S_n$ generated by transpositions. Dual pairs of bases for the algebra of symmetric functions with respect to the scalar product in which the Macdonald polynomials are orthogonal provide both the geometrical and combinatorial significance of these quantum weighted enumerative invariants.

  6. Earth tides in MacDonald's model

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraz-Mello, S


    We expand the equations used in MacDonald's 1964 theory and Fourier analyze the tidal variations of the height at one point on the Earth surface, and also the tidal potential at such point. It is shown that no intrinsic law is relating the lag of the tide components to their frequencies. In other words, no simple rheology is being intrinsically fixed by MacDonald's equations. The same is true of the modification proposed by Singer(1968). At variance with these two cases, the modification proposed by Williams and Efroimsky (2012) fix the standard Darwin rheology in which the lags are proportional to the frequencies and their model is, in this sense, equivalent to Mignard's 1979 formulation of Darwin's theory.

  7. Macdonald formula for curves with planar singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Maulik, Davesh


    We generalize Macdonald's formula for the cohomology of Hilbert schemes of points on a curve from smooth curves to curves with planar singularities: we relate the cohomology of the Hilbert schemes to the cohomology of the compactified Jacobian of the curve. The new formula is a consequence of a stronger identity between certain perverse sheaves defined by a family of curves satisfying mild conditions, whose proof makes an essential use of Ng\\^o's support theorem for compactified Jacobians.

  8. Haglund's conjecture on 3-column Macdonald polynomials


    Blasiak, Jonah


    We prove a positive combinatorial formula for the Schur expansion of LLT polynomials indexed by a 3-tuple of skew shapes. This verifies a conjecture of Haglund. The proof requires expressing a noncommutative Schur function as a positive sum of monomials in Lam's algebra of ribbon Schur operators. Combining this result with the expression of Haglund, Haiman, and Loehr for transformed Macdonald polynomials in terms of LLT polynomials then yields a positive combinatorial rule for transformed Mac...

  9. A New Generalisation of Macdonald Polynomials (United States)

    Garbali, Alexandr; de Gier, Jan; Wheeler, Michael


    We introduce a new family of symmetric multivariate polynomials, whose coefficients are meromorphic functions of two parameters (q, t) and polynomial in a further two parameters (u, v). We evaluate these polynomials explicitly as a matrix product. At u = v = 0 they reduce to Macdonald polynomials, while at q = 0, u = v = s they recover a family of inhomogeneous symmetric functions originally introduced by Borodin.

  10. A Summation Formula for Macdonald Polynomials (United States)

    de Gier, Jan; Wheeler, Michael


    We derive an explicit sum formula for symmetric Macdonald polynomials. Our expression contains multiple sums over the symmetric group and uses the action of Hecke generators on the ring of polynomials. In the special cases {t = 1} and {q = 0}, we recover known expressions for the monomial symmetric and Hall-Littlewood polynomials, respectively. Other specializations of our formula give new expressions for the Jack and q-Whittaker polynomials.

  11. On form factors and Macdonald polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Lashkevich, Michael


    We are developing the algebraic construction for form factors of local operators in the sinh-Gordon theory proposed in [B.Feigin, M.Lashkeivch, 2008]. We show that the operators corresponding to the null vectors in this construction are given by the degenerate Macdonald polynomials with rectangular partitions and the parameters $t=-q$ on the unit circle. We obtain an integral representation for the null vectors and discuss its simple applications.

  12. On Factorization of Generalized Macdonald Polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Kononov, Ya


    A remarkable feature of Schur functions -- the common eigenfunctions of cut-and-join operators from $W_\\infty$ -- is that they factorize at the peculiar two-parametric topological locus in the space of time-variables, what is known as the hook formula for quantum dimensions of representations of $U_q(SL_N)$ and plays a big role in various applications. This factorization survives at the level of Macdonald polynomials. We look for its further generalization to generalized Macdonald polynomials (GMP), associated in the same way with the toroidal Ding-Iohara-Miki algebras, which play the central role in modern studies in Seiberg-Witten-Nekrasov theory. In the simplest case of the first-coproduct eigenfunctions, where GMP depend on just two sets of time-variables, we discover a weak factorization -- on a one- (rather than four-) parametric slice of the topological locus, what is already a very non-trivial property, calling for proof and better understanding.

  13. On factorization of generalized Macdonald polynomials (United States)

    Kononov, Ya.; Morozov, A.


    A remarkable feature of Schur functions—the common eigenfunctions of cut-and-join operators from W_∞ —is that they factorize at the peculiar two-parametric topological locus in the space of time variables, which is known as the hook formula for quantum dimensions of representations of U_q(SL_N) and which plays a big role in various applications. This factorization survives at the level of Macdonald polynomials. We look for its further generalization to generalized Macdonald polynomials (GMPs), associated in the same way with the toroidal Ding-Iohara-Miki algebras, which play the central role in modern studies in Seiberg-Witten-Nekrasov theory. In the simplest case of the first-coproduct eigenfunctions, where GMP depend on just two sets of time variables, we discover a weak factorization—on a one- (rather than four-) parametric slice of the topological locus, which is already a very non-trivial property, calling for proof and better understanding.

  14. On factorization of generalized Macdonald polynomials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kononov, Ya. [Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation); HSE, Math Department, Moscow (Russian Federation); Morozov, A. [ITEP, Moscow (Russian Federation); Institute for Information Transmission Problems, Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    A remarkable feature of Schur functions - the common eigenfunctions of cut-and-join operators from W{sub ∞} - is that they factorize at the peculiar two-parametric topological locus in the space of time variables, which is known as the hook formula for quantum dimensions of representations of U{sub q}(SL{sub N}) and which plays a big role in various applications. This factorization survives at the level of Macdonald polynomials. We look for its further generalization to generalized Macdonald polynomials (GMPs), associated in the same way with the toroidal Ding-Iohara-Miki algebras, which play the central role in modern studies in Seiberg-Witten-Nekrasov theory. In the simplest case of the first-coproduct eigenfunctions, where GMP depend on just two sets of time variables, we discover a weak factorization - on a one- (rather than four-) parametric slice of the topological locus, which is already a very non-trivial property, calling for proof and better understanding. (orig.)

  15. Structure, Content, Delivery, Service, and Outcomes: Quality e-Learning in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colla J. MacDonald


    Full Text Available This paper addresses the need for quality e-Learning experiences. We used the Demand-Driven Learning Model (MacDonald, Stodel, Farres, Breithaupt, and Gabriel, 2001 to evaluate an online Masters in Education course. Multiple data collection methods were used to understand the experiences of stakeholders in this case study: the learners, design team, and facilitators. We found that all five dimensions of the model (structure, content, delivery, service, and outcomes must work in concert to implement a quality e-Learning course. Key themes include evolving learner needs, the search for connection, becoming an able e-participant, valued interactions, social construction of content, integration of delivery partners, and mindful weighing of benefits and trade-offs. By sharing insights into what is needed to design and deliver an e-Learning experience, our findings add to the growing knowledge of online learning. Using this model to evaluate perceptions of quality by key stakeholders has led to insights and recommendations on the Demand Driven Learning Model itself which may be useful for researchers in this area and strengthen the model. Quality has been defined in terms of the design of the e-Learning experience, the contextualized experience of learners, and evidence of learning outcomes (Carr and Carr, 2000; Jung 2000; Salmon, 2000. Quality and design of e-Learning courses, however, are sometimes compromised in an “ . . . effort to simply get something up and running��� in response to pressing consumer demands (Dick, 1996, p. 59. Educators and researchers have voiced concern over the lack of rigorous evaluation studies of e-Learning programs (e.g., Arbaugh, 2000; Howell, Saba, Lindsay, and Williams, 2004; Lockyer, Patterson, and Harper, 1999; Robinson, 2001. McGorry (2003 adds, “although the number of courses being delivered via the Internet is increasing rapidly, our knowledge of what makes these courses effective learning experiences

  16. Macdonald polynomials in superspace as eigenfunctions of commuting operators

    CERN Document Server

    Blondeau-Fournier, O; Lapointe, L; Mathieu, P


    A generalization of the Macdonald polynomials depending upon both commuting and anticommuting variables has been introduced recently. The construction relies on certain orthogonality and triangularity relations. Although many superpolynomials were constructed as solutions of highly over-determined system, the existence issue was left open. This is resolved here: we demonstrate that the underlying construction has a (unique) solution. The proof uses, as a starting point, the definition of the Macdonald superpolynomials in terms of the Macdonald non-symmetric polynomials via a non-standard (anti)symmetrization and a suitable dressing by anticommuting monomials. This relationship naturally suggests the form of two family of commuting operators that have the defined superpolynomials as their common eigenfunctions. These eigenfunctions are then shown to be triangular and orthogonal. Up to a normalization, these two conditions uniquely characterize these superpolynomials. Moreover, the Macdonald superpolynomials ar...

  17. Combinatorial theory of Macdonald polynomials I: Proof of Haglund's formula


    Haglund, J.; Haiman, M.; Loehr, N


    Haglund recently proposed a combinatorial interpretation of the modified Macdonald polynomials H̃μ. We give a combinatorial proof of this conjecture, which establishes the existence and integrality of H̃μ. As corollaries, we obtain the cocharge formula of Lascoux and Schützenberger for Hall–Littlewood polynomials, a formula of Sahi and Knop for Jack's symmetric functions, a generalization of this result to the integral Macdonald polynomials Jμ, a formula for H̃μ in terms of Lascoux–Leclerc–Th...

  18. Whittaker Vector of Deformed Virasoro Algebra and Macdonald Symmetric Functions (United States)

    Yanagida, Shintarou


    We give a proof of Awata and Yamada's conjecture for the explicit formula of Whittaker vector of the deformed Virasoro algebra realized in the Fock space. The formula is expressed as a summation over Macdonald symmetric functions with factored coefficients. In the proof, we fully use currents appearing in the Fock representation of Ding-Iohara-Miki quantum algebra.

  19. Whittaker vector of deformed Virasoro algebra and Macdonald symmetric functions

    CERN Document Server

    Yanagida, Shintarou


    We give a proof of Awata and Yamada's conjecture for the explicit formula of Whittaker vector of the deformed Virasoro algebra realized in the Fock space. The formula is expressed as a summation over Macdonald symmetric functions with factored coefficients. In the proof we fully use currents appearing in the Fock representation of Ding-Iohara-Miki quantum algebra. We also mention an interpretation of Whittaker vector in terms of the geometry of the Hilbert schemes of points on the affine plane.

  20. Baker-Akhiezer functions and generalised Macdonald-Mehta integrals (United States)

    Feigin, M. V.; Hallnäs, M. A.; Veselov, A. P.


    For the rational Baker-Akhiezer functions associated with special arrangements of hyperplanes with multiplicities we establish an integral identity, which may be viewed as a generalisation of the self-duality property of the usual Gaussian function with respect to the Fourier transformation. We show that the value of properly normalised Baker-Akhiezer function at the origin can be given by an integral of Macdonald-Mehta type and explicitly compute these integrals for all known Baker-Akhiezer arrangements. We use the Dotsenko-Fateev integrals to extend this calculation to all deformed root systems, related to the non-exceptional basic classical Lie superalgebras.

  1. [Tributes to Macdonald Critchley and his achievements in neurolinguistics]. (United States)

    Hung, Tsu-Pei


    Macdonald Critchley, a world renowned neurologist, is best remembered as the person who challenged to solve the mystery and enigma of higher cerebral functions. He was the author of over 200 published articles and 20 books on neurology including his pioneer work on developmental dyslexia, the parietal lobe, cerebral hemisphere dominance and aphasiology. He also published articles on migraine, epilepsy, dementia, visual perseveration, anterior cerebral artery syndromes, indifference to pain, sleep disorders, movement disorders, and myotonia. He was very erudite and talented in linguistics; his interests were broad and eclectic. He wrote extensively on non-medical topics, such as plays, horror stories, mythology, and biographies of distinguished neuroscientists, philosophers or artists. His articles were written in the elegant prose style with thorough reference citations and extensive reviews of the literature worldwide. He was born in Bristol in 1900. From an early age, he was fascinated with the functioning brain and retained a life-long interest in languages. He was appointed to the Consultant staff of the National Hospital, Queen Square, and to King's College Hospital at the age of 27, and was elected to become FRCP at 30. He was Dean of the Institute of Neurology from 1948 to 1953. When I was studying advanced neurology at Queen Square in 1960-1961, I was fascinated by his outstanding lectures on Huntington's Disease and Non-verbal Communication. Although he did not read the manuscripts and used only a few slides for illustrations in his lectures, he could describe the details of historical accounts and relevant figures. He was an altruistic, instructive teacher with keen attention to responses from the audience. His clinical demonstrations, teaching rounds and tutorials were hugely popular among postgraduate students from all over the world. He emphasized the importance of shrewd observation and careful history taking in neurological practice. Macdonald

  2. Rooted Deep: Discovering the Literary Identity of Mythopoeic Fantasist George Macdonald

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Johnson Kirstin


    Full Text Available This paper is a conversational reassessment of George MacDonald, the Victorian fantasist who so profoundly shaped such writers as C.S. Lewis and J.R.R. Tolkien. Primary research challenges the common portrayal of MacDonald as an accidental novelist, revealing instead his clear trajectory and vocation as a devoted literary scholar. Clarifying the definition of mythopoeic as applied by the Oxford Inklings to MacDonald draws attention to their conviction that attentive response to one’s literary roots is what engenders novel literature with transformative potential. Further research proves this to be in keeping with the work and legacy of MacDonald and his mentor A.J. Scott. An intentional participation in this relational nature of literary tradition is a crucial element of the work and legacy to which the Inklings and their successors are heirs.

  3. Ross, macdonald, and a theory for the dynamics and control of mosquito-transmitted pathogens. (United States)

    Smith, David L; Battle, Katherine E; Hay, Simon I; Barker, Christopher M; Scott, Thomas W; McKenzie, F Ellis


    Ronald Ross and George Macdonald are credited with developing a mathematical model of mosquito-borne pathogen transmission. A systematic historical review suggests that several mathematicians and scientists contributed to development of the Ross-Macdonald model over a period of 70 years. Ross developed two different mathematical models, Macdonald a third, and various "Ross-Macdonald" mathematical models exist. Ross-Macdonald models are best defined by a consensus set of assumptions. The mathematical model is just one part of a theory for the dynamics and control of mosquito-transmitted pathogens that also includes epidemiological and entomological concepts and metrics for measuring transmission. All the basic elements of the theory had fallen into place by the end of the Global Malaria Eradication Programme (GMEP, 1955-1969) with the concept of vectorial capacity, methods for measuring key components of transmission by mosquitoes, and a quantitative theory of vector control. The Ross-Macdonald theory has since played a central role in development of research on mosquito-borne pathogen transmission and the development of strategies for mosquito-borne disease prevention.

  4. A double index transform with a product of Macdonald's functions revisited

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    Semyon B. Yakubovich


    Full Text Available We prove an inversion theorem for a double index transform, which is associated with the product of Macdonald's functions \\(K_{i \\tau}(\\sqrt{x^2+y^2}-y K_{i \\tau}(\\sqrt{x^2+y^2}+y\\, where \\((x, y \\in \\mathbb{R}_+ \\times \\mathbb{R}_+\\ and \\(i \\tau, \\tau \\in \\mathbb{R}_+\\ is a pure imaginary index. The results obtained in the sequel are applied to find particular solutions of integral equations involving the square and the cube of the Macdonald function \\(K_{i \\tau}(t\\ as a kernel.

  5. Argyres-Douglas Theories, the Macdonald Index, and an RG Inequality

    CERN Document Server

    Buican, Matthew


    We conjecture closed-form expressions for the Macdonald limits of the superconformal indices of the (A_1, A_{2n-3}) and (A_1, D_{2n}) Argyres-Douglas (AD) theories in terms of certain simple deformations of Macdonald polynomials. As checks of our conjectures, we demonstrate compatibility with two S-dualities, we show symmetry enhancement for special values of n, and we argue that our expressions encode a non-trivial set of renormalization group flows. Moreover, we demonstrate that, for certain values of n, our conjectures imply simple operator relations involving composites built out of the SU(2)_R currents and flavor symmetry moment maps, and we find a consistent picture in which these relations give rise to certain null states in the corresponding chiral algebras. In addition, we show that the Hall-Littlewood limits of our indices are equivalent to the corresponding Higgs branch Hilbert series. We explain this fact by considering the S^1 reductions of our theories and showing that the equivalence follows fr...

  6. Chiral expansion and Macdonald deformation of two-dimensional Yang-Mills theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kokenyesi, Zoltan; Szabo, Richard J


    We derive the analog of the large $N$ Gross-Taylor holomorphic string expansion for the refinement of $q$-deformed $U(N)$ Yang-Mills theory on a compact oriented Riemann surface. The derivation combines Schur-Weyl duality for quantum groups with the Etingof-Kirillov theory of generalized quantum characters which are related to Macdonald polynomials. In the unrefined limit we reproduce the chiral expansion of $q$-deformed Yang-Mills theory derived by de Haro, Ramgoolam and Torrielli. In the classical limit $q=1$, the expansion defines a new $\\beta$-deformation of Hurwitz theory wherein the refined partition function is a generating function for certain parameterized Euler characters, which reduce in the unrefined limit $\\beta=1$ to the orbifold Euler characteristics of Hurwitz spaces of holomorphic maps. We discuss the geometrical meaning of our expansions in relation to quantum spectral curves and $\\beta$-ensembles of matrix models arising in refined topological string theory.

  7. Separation of variables for A2 Ruijsenaars model and new integral representation for A2 Macdonald polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Kuznetsov, V B


    Using the Baker-Akhiezer function technique we construct a separation of variables for the classical trigonometric 3-particle Ruijsenaars model (relativistic generalization of Calogero-Moser-Suthe rland model). In the quantum case, an integral operator M is constructed from the Askey-Wilson contour integral. The operator M transforms the eigenfunctions of the commuting Hamiltonians (Macdonald polynomials for the root sytem A2) into the factorized form S(y1)S(y2) where S(y) is a Laurent polynomial of one variable expressed in terms of the 3phi2(y) basic hypergeometric series. The inversion of M produces a new integral representation for the A2 Macdonald polynomials. We also present some results and conjectures for general n-particle case.

  8. Chiral expansion and Macdonald deformation of two-dimensional Yang-Mills theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koekenyesi, Zoltan; Sinkovics, Annamaria [Institute of Theoretical Physics, MTA-ELTE Theoretical Research Group, Eoetvoes Lorand University, 1117, Budapest, Pazmany, s. 1/A (Hungary); Szabo, Richard J. [Heriot-Watt Univ., Edinburgh (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mathematics; Maxwell Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); The Higgs Centre for Theoretical Physics, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)


    We derive the analog of the large N Gross-Taylor holomorphic string expansion for the refinement of q-deformed U(N) Yang-Mills theory on a compact oriented Riemann surface. The derivation combines Schur-Weyl duality for quantum groups with the Etingof-Kirillov theory of generalized quantum characters which are related to Macdonald polynomials. In the unrefined limit we reproduce the chiral expansion of q-deformed Yang-Mills theory derived by de Haro, Ramgoolam and Torrielli. In the classical limit q = 1, the expansion defines a new β-deformation of Hurwitz theory wherein the refined partition function is a generating function for certain parameterized Euler characters, which reduce in the unrefined limit β = 1 to the orbifold Euler characteristics of Hurwitz spaces of holomorphic maps. We discuss the geometrical meaning of our expansions in relation to quantum spectral curves and β-ensembles of matrix models arising in refined topological string theory. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Interplay between MacDonald and Hall-Littlewood expansions of extended torus superpolynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Mironov, A; Shakirov, Sh; Sleptsov, A


    In arXiv:1106.4305 extended superpolynomials were introduced for the torus links T[m,mk+r], which are functions on the entire space of time variables and, at expense of reducing the topological invariance, possess additional algebraic properties, resembling those of the matrix model partition functions and the KP/Toda tau-functions. Not surprisingly, being a suitable extension it actually allows one to calculate the superpolynomials. These functions are defined as expansions into MacDonald polynomials, and their dependence on k is entirely captured by the action of the cut-and-join operator, like in the HOMFLY case. We suggest a simple description of the coefficients in these character expansions, by expanding the initial (at k=0) conditions for the k-evolution into the new auxiliary basis, this time provided by the Hall-Littlewood polynomials, which, hence, play a role in the description of the dual m-evolution. For illustration we list manifest expressions for a few first series, mk\\pm 1, mk\\pm 2, mk\\pm 3. ...

  10. Some Connections between the Spherical and Parabolic Bases on the Cone Expressed in terms of the Macdonald Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Shilin


    Full Text Available Computing the matrix elements of the linear operator, which transforms the spherical basis of SO(3,1-representation space into the hyperbolic basis, very recently, Shilin and Choi (2013 presented an integral formula involving the product of two Legendre functions of the first kind expressed in terms of  4F3-hypergeometric function and, using the general Mehler-Fock transform, another integral formula for the Legendre function of the first kind. In the sequel, we investigate the pairwise connections between the spherical, hyperbolic, and parabolic bases. Using the above connections, we give an interesting series involving the Gauss hypergeometric functions expressed in terms of the Macdonald function.

  11. Level-0 structure of level-1 U$_{q}$($\\widehat{s}\\widehat{l}_{2}$)-modules and MacDonald polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Jimbo, M; Konno, H; Miwa, T; Petersen, J U H


    The level-1 integrable highest weight modules of U_q(\\widehat{sl}_2) admit a level-0 action of the same algebra. This action is defined using the affine Hecke algebra and the basis of the level-1 module generated by components of vertex operators. Each level-1 module is a direct sum of finite-dimensional irreducible level-0 modules, whose highest weight vector is expressed in terms of Macdonald polynomials. This decomposition leads to the fermionic character formula for the level-1 modules.

  12. Walter Laing Macdonald Perry KT OBE, Barron Perry of Walton, 21 June 1921 - 17 July 2003. (United States)

    Kelly, John S; Horlock, John H


    Lord Perry of Walton died suddenly on 17 July 2003, at the age of 82 years. Walter Laing Macdonald Perry was a native of Dundee, educated at Morgan Academy Dundee, Ayr Academy, Dundee High School and St Andrews University (MB ChB, MD and DSc), winning the Rutherford Silver Medal for his MD thesis and the Sykes Gold Medal for his DSc thesis. After Casaulty Officer and House Surgeon posts in 1943-44, he served as a Medical Officer in the Colonial Medical Service in Nigeria in 1944-46, then briefly as a Medical Officer in the RAF, 1946-47, before embarking on a scientific career on the staff of the Medical Research COuncil at the National Institute for Medical Research from 1947 to 1958, serving as Director of the Department of Biological Standards from 1952 to 1958. Professionally, he achieved MRCP (ED) in 1963 and was elected FRCPE in 1967, FRCP in 1978, FRSE in 1960 and FRS in 1985. In 1958 he came to Edinburgh as Professor of Pharmacology, holding the Chair from 1958 to 1968. During this time he also served as Dean of the Faculty of Medicine (1965-67) and Vice-Principal of the University (1967-68) before leaving to become the inaugural Vice-Chancellor of the Open University in 1968, a post he held until 1980. During this period at the Open University he developed a second distinguish career as a university administrator and a promotor and facilitator of open and distance learning, in which fields he later performed extensive work on behalf of the United Nations. A third career, in politics and public life, began with his ennoblement to a life peerage in 1979, taking the title of Walton in the County of Buckinghamshire, the initial base of the Open University. Latterly Walter sat as a Liberal Democrat, having twice been Social Democratic Party deputy leader in the Lords in the 1980s. He took an active role in the Lords' Select Committee on Science and Technology and held interests in and spoke on many areas of public policy, including fisheries policy. Recognition

  13. Book review: How Labour governments fall: from Ramsay MacDonald to Gordon Brown, edited by Timothy Heppell and Kevin Theakston


    Goes, Eunice


    "How Labour Governments Fall: From Ramsay MacDonald to Gordon Brown." Timothy Heppell and Kevin Theakston. Palgrave Macmillan. August 2013. --- The previous Labour Government lost office after the party’s longest stint in Government, eventually losing power under Gordon Brown against a backdrop of intellectual fatigue and economic crisis. Eunice Goes reviews Timothy Heppell and Kevin Theakston’s impressive new book on the fall of Labour Governments, and finds recurring themes echoing down th...

  14. Form factors in sinh- and sine-Gordon models, deformed Virasoro algebra, Macdonald polynomials and resonance identities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lashkevich, Michael; Pugai, Yaroslav [Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, 142432 Chernogolovka, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 141707 Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)


    We continue the study of form factors of descendant operators in the sinh- and sine-Gordon models in the framework of the algebraic construction proposed in [1]. We find the algebraic construction to be related to a particular limit of the tensor product of the deformed Virasoro algebra and a suitably chosen Heisenberg algebra. To analyze the space of local operators in the framework of the form factor formalism we introduce screening operators and construct singular and cosingular vectors in the Fock spaces related to the free field realization of the obtained algebra. We show that the singular vectors are expressed in terms of the degenerate Macdonald polynomials with rectangular partitions. We study the matrix elements that contain a singular vector in one chirality and a cosingular vector in the other chirality and find them to lead to the resonance identities already known in the conformal perturbation theory. Besides, we give a new derivation of the equation of motion in the sinh-Gordon theory, and a new representation for conserved currents.

  15. Form factors in sinh- and sine-Gordon models, deformed Virasoro algebra, Macdonald polynomials and resonance identities

    CERN Document Server

    Lashkevich, Michael


    We continue the study of form factors of descendant operators in the sinh- and sine-Gordon models in the framework of the algebraic construction proposed in [arXiv:0812.4776]. We find the algebraic construction to be related to a particular limit of the tensor product of the deformed Virasoro algebra and a suitably chosen Heisenberg algebra. To analyze the space of local operators in the framework of the form factor formalism we introduce screening operators and construct singular and cosingular vectors in the Fock spaces related to the free field realization of the obtained algebra. We show that the singular vectors are expressed in terms of the degenerate Macdonald polynomials with rectangular partitions. We study the matrix elements that contain a singular vector in one chirality and a cosingular vector in the other chirality and find them to lead to the resonance identities already known in the conformal perturbation theory. Besides, we give a new derivation of the equation of motion in the sinh-Gordon th...

  16. Parasite sources and sinks in a patched Ross-Macdonald malaria model with human and mosquito movement: Implications for control. (United States)

    Ruktanonchai, Nick W; Smith, David L; De Leenheer, Patrick


    We consider the dynamics of a mosquito-transmitted pathogen in a multi-patch Ross-Macdonald malaria model with mobile human hosts, mobile vectors, and a heterogeneous environment. We show the existence of a globally stable steady state, and a threshold that determines whether a pathogen is either absent from all patches, or endemic and present at some level in all patches. Each patch is characterized by a local basic reproduction number, whose value predicts whether the disease is cleared or not when the patch is isolated: patches are known as "demographic sinks" if they have a local basic reproduction number less than one, and hence would clear the disease if isolated; patches with a basic reproduction number above one would sustain endemic infection in isolation, and become "demographic sources" of parasites when connected to other patches. Sources are also considered focal areas of transmission for the larger landscape, as they export excess parasites to other areas and can sustain parasite populations. We show how to determine the various basic reproduction numbers from steady state estimates in the patched network and knowledge of additional model parameters, hereby identifying parasite sources in the process. This is useful in the context of control of the infection on natural landscapes, because a commonly suggested strategy is to target focal areas, in order to make their corresponding basic reproduction numbers less than one, effectively turning them into sinks. We show that this is indeed a successful control strategy-albeit a conservative and possibly expensive one-in case either the human host, or the vector does not move. However, we also show that when both humans and vectors move, this strategy may fail, depending on the specific movement patterns exhibited by hosts and vectors.

  17. PULSAR: A High-Repetition-Rate, High-Power, CE Phase-Locked Laser for the J.R. Macdonald Laboratory at Kansas State University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Itzhak, Itzik (Itzhak) [J.R. Macdonald Laboratory, Physics Department, Kansas State University; Carnes, Kevin D. [J.R. Macdonald Laboratory, Physics Department, Kansas State University; Cocke, C. Lew [J.R. Macdonald Laboratory, Physics Department, Kansas State University; Fehrenbach, Charles W. [J.R. Macdonald Laboratory, Physics Department, Kansas State University; Kumarappan, Vinod [PULSAR: A High-Repetition-Rate, High-Power, CE Phase-Locked Laser for the J.R. Macdonald Laboratory at Kansas State University; Rudenko, Artem [J.R. Macdonald Laboratory, Physics Department, Kansas State University; Trallero, Carlos [J.R. Macdonald Laboratory, Physics Department, Kansas State University


    This instrumentation grant funded the development and installation of a state-of-the-art laser system to be used for the DOE funded research at the J.R. Macdonald Laboratory at Kansas State University. Specifically, we purchased a laser based on the KMLABs Red-Dragon design, which has a high repetition rate of 10-20 kHz crucial for multi-parameter coincidence measurements conducted in our lab. This laser system is carrier-envelope phase (CEP) locked and provides pulses as short as 21 fs directly from the amplifier (see details below). In addition, we have developed a pulse compression setup that provides sub 5 fs pulses and a CEP tagging capability that allows for long measurements of CEP dependent processes.

  18. On the orthogonality of the MacDonald s functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passian, Ali [ORNL; Simpson, Henry [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Koucheckian, Sherwin [University of South Florida, Tampa; Yakubovich, Semyon [University of Porto, Portugal


    A proof of an orthogonality relation for the MacDonald's functions with identical arguments but unequal complex lower indices is presented. The orthogonality is derived first via a heuristic approach based on the Mehler-Fock integral transform of the MacDonald's functions, and then proved rigorously using a polynomial approximation procedure.

  19. Managing Disruptive Physician Behavior: First Steps for Designing an Effective Online Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Puddester


    Full Text Available Interviews with physician leaders from hospitals in a mid-sized Ontario City were conducted to determine their needs with regard to managing disruptive physician behaviour. These findings were used to inform the design of a two-day skill-development workshop for physician leaders on disruptive behaviour. The workshop was evaluated using a modified version of the Learner Experience Feedback Form, which was built to align with W(eLearn, a framework developed to guide the design, delivery, development, and evaluation of online interprofessional courses and programs (MacDonald, Stodel, Thompson, & Casimiro, 2009. The surveys gathered information related to the content, media, service, structure, and outcomes of the workshop. The findings from the focus group interviews and workshop evaluation identify physician leaders’ needs with regard to disruptive behavior and were used to inform the design of the world’s first Online Physician Health and Wellness Resource an open access learning resources currently being used globally, in 91 countries. The resource was the recipient of the winner of the International Business/Professional 2010 International eLearning Award. The findings demonstrated the importance of conducting a needs analysis and using a framework to guide the design, delivery and evaluation of effective online healthcare education.

  20. Music in Phantastes and Lilith by George Macdonald: the Phenomenon of Intermediality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsonova A. I.


    Full Text Available Musical elements in the structure of G. MacDonald’s Phantastes and Lilith in the context of the theory of intermediality are studied. The following musical elements are analyzed: motif of fairy world’s music, images of music of nature, musical description of characters’ voices, insertions of songs, interpretation of music as an art. These musical elements act as a characterization of topoi, landscape, characters, technique of stylistic imitation and means of rhythmic organization of narration, expression of author’s point of view. The paper concludes that music in G. MacDonald’s fairy romances is represented by means of intermedial imitation and intermedial thematization used for creation of full of sound fairy world and expression of Romantic view on music essence.

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Kepler-80 transit timing observations (MacDonald+, 2016) (United States)

    MacDonald, M. G.; Ragozzine, D.; Fabrycky, D. C.; Ford, E. B.; Holman, M. J.; Isaacson, H. T.; Lissauer, J. J.; Lopez, E. D.; Mazeh, T.; Rogers, L.; Rowe, J. F.; Steffen, J. H.; Torres, G.


    Kepler-80 was observed photometrically by the Kepler Space Telescope. We had access to several sets of Transit Timing (TT) measurements, including the publicly available data from Rowe & Thompson (arXiv:1504.00707) and Mazeh et al. 2013 (Cat. J/ApJS/208/16). We also had the updated long-cadence TT estimates from the Mazeh group (Holczer et al. 2016, Cat. J/ApJS/225/9) and short-cadence TT data from both co-authors JR and DF. These were all measured using similar methods (see Mazeh et al. 2013, Cat. J/ApJS/208/16) and had no major differences. Spectra were taken of Kepler-80 by Keck and McDonald Observatories, and these spectra and preliminary interpretations are available on the Kepler Community Follow-up Observing Program (CFOP) website ( We acquired an 1800s high-resolution spectrum with the Keck I telescope and the High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer (HIRES) on 2011 July 20. The standard California Planet Search setup and data reduction of HIRES was used, resulting in a S/N of 35 at 5500Å. The C2 decker, with dimensions of 0.87''*14'', was used to allow a resolution of ~60000 and sky subtraction. (5 data files).

  2. Pobeda s pomoshtshju opija v Afganistane / Raymond Kendall, Norine MacDonald ; tõlk. Jevgenija Unanjants

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kendall, Raymond


    Autorid on seisukohal, et oopiumi hävitamine Afganistanis ei too probleemile lahendust. Oopiumi litsentseeritud tootmine ei võimaldaks lahendada mitte üksnes vaesuse ja nälja probleemi riigi lõunaosas, vaid ka stabiliseeriks kohalikke struktuure

  3. Pobeda s pomoshtshju opija v Afganistane / Raymond Kendall, Norine MacDonald ; tõlk. Jevgenija Unanjants

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kendall, Raymond


    Autorid on seisukohal, et oopiumi hävitamine Afganistanis ei too probleemile lahendust. Oopiumi litsentseeritud tootmine ei võimaldaks lahendada mitte üksnes vaesuse ja nälja probleemi riigi lõunaosas, vaid ka stabiliseeriks kohalikke struktuure


    During fighting, American lobsters urinate on each other with antennule flicking highest during this period. Blocking excretion of urine obliterates previously established dominance relationships, suggesting that individual recognition requires a urine signal (Breithaupt et al.,...

  5. Biomaterials Research in West Germany: An Assessment. (United States)


    Resorbierbar- Plenk, Jr., and G. Punzet, "Biokeram- en Trikalciumphosphat-Keramikgranula ische Endoprothesen," Med. Orthop. Durch die Verwendung Loslicher Uber ...liminary Clinical Experience With Ab- Rehm, H. Ecke, H.G. Schiefer, and H. sorbable Calcium Phosphate Granules Breithaupt, Untersuchungen uber die

  6. Review: Ina-Maria Greverus, Sharon MacDonald, Regina Romhild, Gisela Welz & Helena Wullf (Eds. (2002. Stability Upon Shifting Ground: Review Note of Shifting Grounds: Experiments in Doing Ethnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin M. Boylorn


    Full Text Available This review is written in response to "Shifting Grounds: Experiments in Doing Ethno­graphy," a volume of the Anthropological Journal on European Cultures. This review cites the history and implications of ethnography as a methodology within various academic disciplines while praising the authors within this text for their contributions to various ways of "doing ethnography." By investi­gating and considering the body as an ethno­graphic site where life and stories are performed and em­bodied, this article considers the varying ways the authors respond to experimental and performative ethnography while applying it to relevant and current issues within anthropology. By engaging both the anthropological and historical turn of ethnography, this book thematically discusses the mobility of fieldwork, time, space, multi-locality, tour­ism, and tradition/culture. Shifting Grounds does not only offer experiments in doing ethnography, it also offers alternatives for doing ethnography. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0503175

  7. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12350-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available EK355181 ) 1095468500447 Global-Ocean-Sampling_GS-31-01-01-1... 48 0.85 1 ( EG564866 ) 01010001086.F11_0104230987 MacDonald... peritubular ... 48 0.85 1 ( EG564695 ) 01050007086.F11_00102713XE MacDonald pachytene sp...

  8. Stress fractures: definition, diagnosis and treatment☆ (United States)

    Astur, Diego Costa; Zanatta, Fernando; Arliani, Gustavo Gonçalves; Moraes, Eduardo Ramalho; Pochini, Alberto de Castro; Ejnisman, Benno


    Stress fractures were first described in Prussian soldiers by Breithaupt in 1855. They occur as the result of repeatedly making the same movement in a specific region, which can lead to fatigue and imbalance between osteoblast and osteoclast activity, thus favoring bone breakage. In addition, when a particular region of the body is used in the wrong way, a stress fracture can occur even without the occurrence of an excessive number of functional cycles. The objective of this study was to review the most relevant literature of recent years in order to add key information regarding this pathological condition, as an updating article on this topic. PMID:26962487

  9. Symmetric functions and Hall polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    MacDonald, Ian Grant


    This reissued classic text is the acclaimed second edition of Professor Ian Macdonald's groundbreaking monograph on symmetric functions and Hall polynomials. The first edition was published in 1979, before being significantly expanded into the present edition in 1995. This text is widely regarded as the best source of information on Hall polynomials and what have come to be known as Macdonald polynomials, central to a number of key developments in mathematics and mathematical physics in the 21st century Macdonald polynomials gave rise to the subject of double affine Hecke algebras (or Cherednik algebras) important in representation theory. String theorists use Macdonald polynomials to attack the so-called AGT conjectures. Macdonald polynomials have been recently used to construct knot invariants. They are also a central tool for a theory of integrable stochastic models that have found a number of applications in probability, such as random matrices, directed polymers in random media, driven lattice gases, and...

  10. Arithmetic harmonic analysis on character and quiver varieties II

    CERN Document Server

    Hausel, Tamas; Rodriguez-Villegas, Fernando


    We study connections between the topology of generic character varieties of fundamental groups of punctured Riemann surfaces, Macdonald polynomials, quiver representations, Hilbert schemes on surfaces, modular forms and multiplicities in tensor products of irreducible characters of finite general linear groups.

  11. Prostate radiation - discharge (United States)

    ... Pat your skin dry. Ask your provider what soaps, lotions, or ointments are ok to use. DO ... TJ, MacDonald R, et al. Systematic review: comparative effectiveness and harms of treatments for clinically localized prostate ...

  12. Heartburn Drugs May Raise Risk of Stomach Infections (United States)

    ... Jan. 5 in the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology , aren't the first to raise such concerns. ... led by Dr. Thomas MacDonald, a professor of pharmacology at the University of Dundee in Scotland. They ...

  13. Raamatulett / Jaanus Tamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tamm, Jaanus


    Grazie, Marie Eugenie delle. Raamat armastusest; Macdonald, Finlay. Minu noorusmaa; Duckwell, Ernest Simon. Misery Halli saladus; Van Dine, S. S. Greene'i mõrvajuhtum; Van Dine, S. S. Kanaarilinnu mõrvajuhtum

  14. Vegetation habitats and small mammals in a plague endemic area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    13 small mammal species, potentially related to plague were trapped. Results show that ..... that forest species diversity is negatively affected by human encroachment (Macdonald et al., .... Sensitivity of climate to changes in NDVI. Journal of ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Because of the importance of ethanol fuel as alternative to petrol, this review presents discussions outlining the various .... promoting clean fuels” (Renewable Energy Report,. 2003). .... MacDonald, T. (2003): California Energy Commission.

  16. Raamatulett / Jaanus Tamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tamm, Jaanus


    Grazie, Marie Eugenie delle. Raamat armastusest; Macdonald, Finlay. Minu noorusmaa; Duckwell, Ernest Simon. Misery Halli saladus; Van Dine, S. S. Greene'i mõrvajuhtum; Van Dine, S. S. Kanaarilinnu mõrvajuhtum

  17. 'New Wars: Forgotten Warriors': Why Have Girl Fighters Been ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    May 12, 2009 ... Representations of Conflict in Sierra Leone? Alice Macdonald* ... continues to attract media attention, as has done the recent film Blood. Diamonds ... out 'there has been little or no emphasis on women as fighters and killers'.

  18. 77 FR 3287 - Proposed Information Collection of the Tax Performance System Handbook ETA 407; Extension Without... (United States)


    ... address below on or before March 23, 2012. ADDRESSES: Send comments to Eve MacDonald, Office of..., electronic, mechanical, or other technological collection techniques or other forms of information...

  19. State Terrorism and the Death Squad: A Study of Phenomenon (United States)


    their actions. The beginning of the twentieth century, Albert Camus suggested that our lifetime is the century of fear. He wrote: ... who can deny...eds. (Pietermaritzberg, 1950). 7.Walter, op. cit, 132. 8.Walter, op. cit., 157. 9. Albert Camus , "Combat," trans. by Dwight MacDonald, Liberation... Camus , Albert . "Combat." Liberation. Dwight MacDonald, trans. (Feb, 1960). Carter, Michael P. "The French Revolution: ’Jacobin Terror’," In The



    Bento, Carlos Henrique


    Este texto analisa o livro Goodnight Desdemona (Good Morning Juliet), da escritora Ann-Marie MacDonald, lendo-o como uma revisão de duas obras shakespereanas: Romeu e Julieta e Otelo. Abstract: This text analyses the plot of Goodnight Desdemona (Good Morning Juliet), by Ann-Marie MacDonald, reading it as a review of two Shakespearean works: Romeo and Juliet and Othelo.

  1. Nextgen Navy eLearning Tracking (United States)


    those same SCORM data elements then be transferred into a LMS? HTML5 provides some powerful new features such as local (offline) device storage, and...geographical location of the device, and native (no plug-in) support for audio, video, interaction, and drawing (MacDonald, 2011). Can HTML5 , along...with-legacy-systems.ashx MacDonald, M. (2011). HTML5 : The missing manual. Sebastopol : O’Reilly Media, Inc. Mobify. (2012, October 25). Working

  2. Mirror Neurons and Literature: Empathy and the Sympathetic Imagination in the Fiction of J.M. Coetzee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilmar Heister


    Full Text Available In the two essays “The Philosophers and the Animals” and “The Poets and the Animals” (in The Lives of Animals, 1999 J.M. Coetzee lets Elizabeth Costello urge us to use our sympathetic imagination in order to access the experience of others—in particular, animals—and engage with them empathetically. Coetzee’s fiction illustrates how the use of the sympathetic imagination might evoke empathy in the reader. Narrative structure and the character’s mode of introspection engage the reader’s empathy through an ambivalent process of distancing and approximation, as Fritz Breithaupt puts forward in his narrative theory of empathy (Kulturen der Empathie, 2009. The sympathetic imagination and the complementary notion of embodiment feature prominently in Coetzee’s fictional discourse and resonate with neuroscience’s research on mirror neurons and their relation to empathy.

  3. Early Pseudoprogression following Chemoradiotherapy in Glioblastoma Patients: The Value of RANO Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Linhares


    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of pseudoprogression in a cohort of glioblastoma (GBM patients following radiotherapy/temozolomide (RT/TMZ by comparing Macdonald criterial to Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO criteria. The impact on prognosis and survival analysis was also studied. Materials and Methods. All patients receiving RT/TMZ for newly diagnosed GBM from January 2005 to December 2009 were retrospectively evaluated, and demographic, clinical, radiographic, treatment, and survival data were reviewed. Updated RANO criteria were used for the evaluation of the pre-RT and post-RT MRI and compared to classic Macdonald criteria. Survival data was evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier and log-rank analysis. Results and Discussion. 70 patients were available for full radiological response assessment. Early progression was confirmed in 42 patients (60% according to Macdonald criteria and 15 patients (21% according to RANO criteria. Pseudoprogression was identified in 10 (23.8% or 2 (13.3% patients in Macdonald and RANO groups, respectively. Cumulative survival of pseudoprogression group was higher than that of true progression group and not statistically different from the non-progressive disease group. Conclusion. In this cohort, the frequency of pseudoprogression varied between 13% and 24%, being overdiagnosed by older Macdonald criteria, which emphasizes the importance of RANO criteria and new radiological biomarkers for correct response evaluation.

  4. Small Satellites and RPAs in Global-Change Research (United States)


    Cornwall F. Dyson N. Fortson R. Garwin S. Koonin C. Max G. MacDonald S. Ride M. Ruderman S. Treiman J. Vesecky R. Westervelt F. Zachariasen Global-Change Research1 6. AUTHOR(S) PR - 8503A P. Banks, J. Cornwall , F. Dyson, N. Fortson, F. Garwin, S. Koonin, C. Max, G. MacDonald, S. Ride, 2. Charlson, R., J. Lovelock, M. Andreae , and S. Warren (1987) Oceanic phytoplankton, atmospheric sulfur, cloud albedo and climate. Nature 326

  5. The Antiaircraft Journal. Volume 92, Number 4, July-August 1949 (United States)


    picket ships at a radius of about 70 miles. Day fighters were landed at dusk and night fighters were " scrambled " and "pancaked" at odd intervals all... recip - ient and on the deliverer, and have analyzed the major mili- tary and political considerations which govern its use. From this scrutiny we must...Schlesinger) ..••........... 5.00 Civilization an Trial (Toynbee) •..•.....•... 3.50 Company Commander (MacDonald) 3.00 The Egg and I (MacDonald) 2.75

  6. Bodily tides near the 1:1 spin-orbit resonance. Correction to Goldreich's dynamical model

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, James G


    Spin-orbit coupling is often described in the "MacDonald torque" approach which has become the textbook standard. Within this method, a concise expression for the additional tidal potential, derived by MacDonald (1964; Rev. Geophys. 2, 467), is combined with an assumption that the Q factor is frequency-independent (i.e., that the geometric lag angle is constant in time). This makes the approach unphysical because MacDonald's derivation of the said formula was implicitly based on keeping the time lag frequency-independent, which is equivalent to setting Q to scale as the inverse tidal frequency. The contradiction requires the MacDonald treatment of both non-resonant and resonant rotation to be rewritten. The non-resonant case was reconsidered by Efroimsky & Williams (2009; CMDA 104, 257), in application to spin modes distant from the major commensurabilities. We continue this work by introducing the necessary alterations into the MacDonald-torque-based model of falling into a 1:1 resonance. (For the origin...

  7. Disease: H00804 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available adfield-Jones SE, Hardwick N, Highet AS, Keefe M, MacDonald-Hull SP, Potts ED, Crone M, Wilkinson S, Camacho...-Martinez F, Jablonska S, Ratnavel R, MacDonald A, Mann RJ, Grice K, Guillet G, L

  8. Next Generation Tanker: Optimizing Air Refueling Capabilities in 2030 with a Divested KC-10 Fleet (United States)



  9. Juggling Popularity and Quality: Literary Excellence vs. Popular Culture. (United States)

    Genco, Barbara A.; And Others


    Three librarians--Barbara A. Genco from Brooklyn, New York; Eleanor K. MacDonald from Beverly Hills, California; and Betsy Hearne from Chicago, Illinois--share their perspectives on where popular literature should fit into library material selection and children's reading diets. Popular literature is defined as primarily that which has first…

  10. Disease: H00396 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available am Pract 55:500-2 (2006) PMID:21120728 MacDonald N, Hatchette T, Elkout L, Sarwal S Mumps is back: why is mumps eradication not Adv Exp Med Biol 697:197-220 (2011) PMID:19815120 (d

  11. Survival after adjuvant chemoradiotherapy or surgery alone in resectable adenocarcinoma at the gastro-esophageal junction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Steen Christian; Muhic, A; Jensen, Lene Bæksgaard;


    Longterm survival after curative resection for adenocarcinoma at the gastro-esophageal junction (GEJ) range between 18% and 50%. In the pivotal Intergroup-0116 Phase III trial by Macdonald et all, adjuvant chemoradiotherapy improved both disease-free and overall survival in curatively resected...

  12. Immunotherapeutic Vaccine as an Alternative Treatment to Overcome Drug-Resistant Ovarian Cancer (United States)


    cells by polyvalent Listeria monocytogenes-based vaccines. J Immunother 32:856-69. 6. Karkada M, Weir, G.M., Quinton,T., Sammatur, L., MacDonald, L.D...polyva- lent Listeria monocytogenes-based vaccines. J Immunother 2009; 32:856–69. 6 Karkada M, Weir GM, Quinton T et al. A novel breast/ovarian cancer

  13. Cine club

    CERN Document Server

    Cine club


    Wednesday 29 June 2016 at 20:00 CERN Council Chamber Touching the Void   Directed by Kevin Macdonald UK / USA, 2003, 106 minutes The true story of two climbers and their perilous journey up the west face of Siula Grande in the Peruvian Andes in 1985. Original version English; English subtitles.

  14. Relationship of Life Satisfaction and Job Satisfaction among Pakistani Army Soldiers


    Summaira Naz


    The present study had two main objectives; first, to discover the relationships between job satisfaction and life satisfaction in Pakistani army soldiers, second, to find out the age, salary, marital status, and education differences on job satisfaction and life satisfaction in Pakistani army soldiers. In the present study two questionnaires; Job Satisfaction Scale JSS (Macdonald & Maclntyre, 1997) and Satisfaction With Life Scale (Diener, ...

  15. Attention and Facilitation: Converging Information Versus Inadvertent Reading in Stroop Task Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, A.P.A.


    Disagreement exists about whether color-word Stroop facilitation is caused by converging information (e.g.. Cohen et al.. 1990: Roelofs, 2003) or inadvertent reading (MacLeod & MacDonald, 2000). Four experiments tested between these hypotheses by examining Stroop effects oil response time (RT) both

  16. Symmetric functions and the Yangian decomposition of the Fock and Basic modules of the affine Lie algebra $\\overline{sl(N)}$

    CERN Document Server

    Uglov, D B


    The decompositions of the Fock and Basic modules of the affine Lie algebra constructed. Each of the irreducible submodules admits the unique up to normalization eigenbasis of the maximal commutative subalgebra of the Yangian. The elements of this eigenbasis are identified with specializations of Macdonald symmetric functions where both parameters of these functions approach an N-th primitive root of unity.

  17. On an integral transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Naylor


    Full Text Available This paper establishes properties of a convolution type integral transform whose kernel is a Macdonald type Bessel function of zero order. An inversion formula is developed and the transform is applied to obtain the solution of some related integral equations.

  18. A Quadrotor Sensor Platform (United States)


    17] Paul Pounds, Robert Mahoney, Joel Gresham, Peter Corke , and Jonathan Roberts. “Towards Dynamically-Favourable Quad-Rotor Aerial Robots”. In Nick...Paul Pounds, Robert Mahoney, and Peter Corke . “Modelling and Control of a Quad-Rotor Robot”. In Bruce MacDonald, editor, Proceedings of the Australasian

  19. Canny CERT Gets Respect, Money, Problems. (United States)

    O'Gara, Geoffrey


    The article describes the five-year history of the Council of Energy Resource Tribes (CERT); its leader Peter MacDonald; its problems (growth, leadership, youth involvement, culture conflicts); and its advantages to Indians, government, and business. It also notes the major events of the CERT board meetings recently held in Phoenix, AZ.(SB)

  20. Attention and Facilitation: Converging Information Versus Inadvertent Reading in Stroop Task Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, A.P.A.


    Disagreement exists about whether color-word Stroop facilitation is caused by converging information (e.g.. Cohen et al.. 1990: Roelofs, 2003) or inadvertent reading (MacLeod & MacDonald, 2000). Four experiments tested between these hypotheses by examining Stroop effects oil response time (RT) both

  1. Pikantsed pajatused / Aita Kivi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivi, Aita, 1954-


    Sisu : Louis Paul Boon. Menuett; Herbjırg Wassmo. Õnne poeg; Jean Stone. Sünnipäevatüdrukud; Jo︠l Schmidt. Constantinus Suure mälestused; Mari Vallisoo. Ainsuse olevik; Catherine Coulter. Märklaud; Ross Macdonald. Mees mulla all

  2. A Psychoanalysis of Fast Foods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ The Macdonald' s has over 28,000 chain restaurants in 119 countries of the world, receiving 43 million customers each day. The chain operation practice, together with the above three figures, has made the huge golden logo of "M" the common odium of Green Organizations, anarchists and the Europeans who despise American culture.

  3. The U.S. Army Research Laboratory’s Auditory Research for the Dismounted Soldier: Present (2009-2011) and Future (United States)


    National Standards Institute, International Standards Organization, and International Electrotechnical Committee working groups, seeking to provide...and paper summaries published in a wide range of journals. Some of the journals reporting ART’s research studies include Human Factors, Applied... Paper presented at the New Directions for Improving Audio Effectiveness, Neuilly-sur-Seine, France, 2005. MacDonald, J. A. A Localization Algorithm

  4. Proceedings of the American Council on Consumer Interests Annual Conference (36th, New Orleans, Louisiana, March 28-31, 1990). (United States)

    Carsky, Mary L., Ed.

    Among these education-related papers in this collection are "Consumer Issues and the Elderly" (Moon); "The Relationship between Perceived Life Satisfaction and Measures of Economic Well-Being" (Douthitt, MacDonald, Mullis); "Research Data Priorities as Assessed by Users" (Chern, Hushak, Tweeten); "New Directions in Data, Information Systems and…

  5. Visual Clarity with a Black-and-White Scene (United States)


    another on the basis that it somehow better revealed the detail. as seen by the subject. For "near" observations, a stool was provided near the...259- 261, 1969. 2. R. G. Hopkinson and J. B, Collins, The Ergonomics of Lighting (MacDonald, London, 1970). 𔃽. William A. Thornton and E. Chen

  6. Perception of the Auditory-Visual Illusion in Speech Perception by Children with Phonological Disorders (United States)

    Dodd, Barbara; McIntosh, Beth; Erdener, Dogu; Burnham, Denis


    An example of the auditory-visual illusion in speech perception, first described by McGurk and MacDonald, is the perception of [ta] when listeners hear [pa] in synchrony with the lip movements for [ka]. One account of the illusion is that lip-read and heard speech are combined in an articulatory code since people who mispronounce words respond…

  7. Pikantsed pajatused / Aita Kivi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivi, Aita, 1954-


    Sisu : Louis Paul Boon. Menuett; Herbjırg Wassmo. Õnne poeg; Jean Stone. Sünnipäevatüdrukud; Jo︠l Schmidt. Constantinus Suure mälestused; Mari Vallisoo. Ainsuse olevik; Catherine Coulter. Märklaud; Ross Macdonald. Mees mulla all

  8. Musical Imagination: Perception and Production, Beauty and Creativity (United States)

    Hargreaves, David J.


    In our recently-published book "Musical Imaginations" (Hargreaves, Miell, & MacDonald, 2012), I suggest that the creative aspects of music "listening" have been neglected, and that putting these at the centre of musical creativity (which is usually seen as being manifested in the activities of composition, improvisation and performance) can lead…

  9. Musical Imagination: Perception and Production, Beauty and Creativity (United States)

    Hargreaves, David J.


    In our recently-published book "Musical Imaginations" (Hargreaves, Miell, & MacDonald, 2012), I suggest that the creative aspects of music "listening" have been neglected, and that putting these at the centre of musical creativity (which is usually seen as being manifested in the activities of composition, improvisation and performance) can lead…

  10. Generalized Weyl modules for twisted current algebras (United States)

    Makedonskyi, I. A.; Feigin, E. B.


    We introduce the notion of generalized Weyl modules for twisted current algebras. We study their representation-theoretic and combinatorial properties and also their connection with nonsymmetric Macdonald polynomials. As an application, we compute the dimension of the classical Weyl modules in the remaining unknown case.

  11. Does Everyone Have a Musical Identity?: Reflections on "Musical Identities" (United States)

    Gracyk, Theodore


    The book, "Musical Identities" (Raymond MacDonald, David Hargreaves, Dorothy Miell, eds.; Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2002) consists of 11 essays on the psychology of music. The editors divided the essays into two groups: those on developing musical identities ("identities in music" involving recognizable social and cultural…

  12. 76 FR 32088 - Cotton Board Rules and Regulations: Adjusting Supplemental Assessment on Imports (United States)


    ... Supply and Demand: Issues and Impact on the World Market, CWS-071-01, November 2007, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, . MacDonald, Stephen and Sarah Whitley. Fiber Use for Textiles and China's Cotton Textile Exports,...

  13. 76 FR 54078 - Cotton Board Rules and Regulations: Adjusting Supplemental Assessment on Imports (United States)


    ... Demand: Issues and Impact on the World Market, CWS-071-01, November 2007, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, . MacDonald, Stephen and Sarah Whitley. Fiber Use for Textiles and China's Cotton Textile Exports, CWS-08i-01,...

  14. Gender, the City and the Politics of Schooling: Towards a Collective Biography of Women "Doing Good" as Public Moralists in Victorian London (United States)

    Martin, Jane


    This article tells the stories of four middle class, white, English women whose participation in educational policy making is little known: Annie Leigh Browne (1851-1936), Margaret MacDonald (1870-1911), Hilda Miall-Smith (born 1861) and Honnor Morten (1861-1913). In doing so, it provides a perspective on the circumstances that enabled or…

  15. Becoming a Scientific Observer (United States)

    MacDonald, Greg


    Greg MacDonald leaves no stone unturned as he places the complexity of second-plane observation into one coherent vision that includes the fundamentals of self-construction, the essential field of observation (freedom of work within the prepared environment), the role of the human tendencies, the construction of developmental facets, and the…

  16. Relationship of Life Satisfaction and Job Satisfaction among Pakistani Army Soldiers


    Summaira Naz


    The present study had two main objectives; first, to discover the relationships between job satisfaction and life satisfaction in Pakistani army soldiers, second, to find out the age, salary, marital status, and education differences on job satisfaction and life satisfaction in Pakistani army soldiers. In the present study two questionnaires; Job Satisfaction Scale JSS (Macdonald & Maclntyre, 1997) and Satisfaction With Life Scale (Diener, ...

  17. The efficacy of endogenous gibberellic acid for parthenocarpy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jul 11, 2011 ... fruit productivity and quality in eggplants grown under greenhouse ... other chromatographic methods (MacDonald et al., 1981;. Martin et al., 1981; ... The other six genotypes ... using authentic standards (Sigma Chemical, St. Louis, MO, USA). ... reported an increase in endogenous gibberellin levels in.

  18. 75 FR 77638 - Granting of Request for Early Termination of the Waiting Period Under the Premerger Notification... (United States)


    ... Companies, Inc. G Cabot Oil & Gas Corporation. G Cabot Oil & Gas Corporation. 01-DEC-10 20110189 G Amazon..., LLC. 20110169 G IESI-BFC Ltd. G Fred Weber, Inc. G Weber Gas Energy, LLC. G Crown Excel Disposal, LLC..., Dettwiler and Limited (UK). G MacDonald, Dettwiler and Limited (Ireland). G Marshall & SwiftfBoeckh...

  19. Alienation, Mass Society and Mass Culture. (United States)

    Dam, Hari N.

    This monograph examines the nature of alienation in mass society and mass culture. Conceptually based on the "Gemeinschaft-Gesellschaft" paradigm of sociologist Ferdinand Tonnies, discussion traces the concept of alienation as it appears in the philosophies of Hegel, Marx, Kierkegaard, Sartre, and others. Dwight Macdonald's "A Theory of Mass…

  20. A Near-Surface Burst EMP Driver Package for Prompt Gamma-Induced Sources (United States)



  1. Relational Framing Theory and Coming-Out Narratives: A Data Analysis Activity (United States)

    Helens-Hart, Rose


    Coming-out scenarios have been described as potentially traumatic events that change the parent-child relationship (MacDonald, 1983). Little research in the field of communication studies has been conducted on how the process of coming out unfolds within families (Valentine, Skelton, & Butler, 2003). The exercise described in this article…

  2. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Production and breeding performance of South African dairy herds ... Most sires used were local (49% of Holstein sires and 68% of ..... MacDonald, K.A., McNaughton, L.R., Verkerk, G.A., Penno, J.W., Burton, L.J., Berry, D.P., Gore, P.J.S.,.

  3. Prevalence of leptospirosis and toxoplasmosis: A study of rodents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leptospira and Toxoplasma infections in rodents and shrews in Mikese area of Morogoro ... Human and other animals such as rodents excluding cats are intermediate hosts of ..... Berdoy, M., Webster, J.P. & Macdonald, D.W. (2000) Fatal attraction in rats ... Rats, Mice and People: Rodent Biology and Management, 543-547.

  4. Irreducible Modular Representations of the Reflection Group G(m,1,n

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José O. Araujo


    Full Text Available In an article published in 1980, Farahat and Peel realized the irreducible modular representations of the symmetric group. One year later, Al-Aamily, Morris, and Peel constructed the irreducible modular representations for a Weyl group of type Bn. In both cases, combinatorial methods were used. Almost twenty years later, using a geometric construction based on the ideas of Macdonald, first Aguado and Araujo and then Araujo, Bigeón, and Gamondi also realized the irreducible modular representations for the Weyl groups of types An and Bn. In this paper, we extend the geometric construction based on the ideas of Macdonald to realize the irreducible modular representations of the complex reflection group of type G(m,1,n.

  5. Decomposing Nekrasov Decomposition

    CERN Document Server

    Morozov, A


    AGT relations imply that the four-point conformal block admits a decomposition into a sum over pairs of Young diagrams of essentially rational Nekrasov functions - this is immediately seen when conformal block is represented in the form of a matrix model. However, the q-deformation of the same block has a deeper decomposition - into a sum over a quadruple of Young diagrams of a product of four topological vertices. We analyze the interplay between these two decompositions, their properties and their generalization to multi-point conformal blocks. In the latter case we explain how Dotsenko-Fateev all-with-all (star) pair "interaction" is reduced to the quiver model nearest-neighbor (chain) one. We give new identities for q-Selberg averages of pairs of generalized Macdonald polynomials. We also translate the slicing invariance of refined topological strings into the language of conformal blocks and interpret it as abelianization of generalized Macdonald polynomials.

  6. Decomposing Nekrasov decomposition (United States)

    Morozov, A.; Zenkevich, Y.


    AGT relations imply that the four-point conformal block admits a decomposition into a sum over pairs of Young diagrams of essentially rational Nekrasov functions — this is immediately seen when conformal block is represented in the form of a matrix model. However, the q-deformation of the same block has a deeper decomposition — into a sum over a quadruple of Young diagrams of a product of four topological vertices. We analyze the interplay between these two decompositions, their properties and their generalization to multi-point conformal blocks. In the latter case we explain how Dotsenko-Fateev all-with-all (star) pair "interaction" is reduced to the quiver model nearest-neighbor (chain) one. We give new identities for q-Selberg averages of pairs of generalized Macdonald polynomials. We also translate the slicing invariance of refined topological strings into the language of conformal blocks and interpret it as abelianization of generalized Macdonald polynomials.

  7. Proving AGT conjecture as HS duality: extension to five dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Mironov, A; Shakirov, Sh; Smirnov, A


    We extend the proof from arXiv:1012.3137, which interprets the AGT relation as the Hubbard-Stratonovich duality relation to the case of 5d gauge theories. This involves an additional q-deformation. Not surprisingly, the extension turns out to be trivial: it is enough to substitute all relevant numbers by q-numbers in all the formulas, Dotsenko-Fateev integrals by the Jackson sums and the Jack polynomials by the MacDonald ones. The problem with extra poles in individual Nekrasov functions continues to exist, therefore, such a proof works only for \\beta = 1, i.e. for q=t in MacDonald's notation. For \\beta\

  8. Is Behavior in a Commons Dilemma Game Related to Real World Behavior (United States)


    negative results In Uajio and Wrightsman , 1967) Rehfisch Rigidity Scale BerkowiU’s Social Responsibility Scale ■ijiltp i^nwuMmw1«. iw" ■ Other...sequential choice Prisoner’s Dilemma game; Wrightsman , 1966.) Theoretical Values as measured by the Allport-Vernon-Lindzey study of values...Deutsch’s findings ( Wrightsman , 1966; MacDonald, et al.. 1972). Using a regular Prisoner’s Dilemma paradigm, three unpublished studies

  9. A Model for Joint Software Reviews (United States)


    Votta , 1993; Sauer et al., 1996; Macdonald et al., 1995]. Other differences in the inspection process occur due to the method used to detect defects...positives 3 rather than defects e.g. [ Votta , 1993; Sauer et al., 1996].) Completeness 1. Are all sources of input identified? 2. What is the total...defects, but which should not have been identified as defects [Porter et al., 1995b; Sauer et al., 1996; Votta , 1993]. This assessment is not performed

  10. Nebraska Prostate Cancer Research Program (United States)


    MacDonald, Richard G; Mehta, Parmender P; Mott, Justin L; Naslavsky, Naava; Palanimuthu Ponnusamy, Moorthy; Ramaley, Robert F; Sorgen, Paul L; regulation of PI3K and androgen receptor signaling in PTEN-deficient prostate cancer, Cancer Cell 19 (2011) 575–586. [29] B.J. Feldman , D... Feldman , The development of androgen-independent prostate cancer, Nat. Rev. Cancer 1 (2001) 34–45. [30] J.D. Debes, D.J. Tindall, Mechanisms of androgen

  11. Linkage between speciation of Cd in mangrove sediment and its bioaccumulation in total soft tissue of oyster from the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, P.; Ramteke, D.; Gadi, S.D.; Bardhan, P.

    .) depends not on the total Cd concentration but on the speciation of Cd in the bottom sediments. 2    1. Introduction The potential adverse effects of sediment-associated toxic metals is generally assessed by determining their total concentration... directly from sediments, organisms on sites, or determined from bioassays of exposed animals (MacDonald et al., 2000; Long et al. 1995; Long and Morgan 1990). However, these determinations are not good indicators of effects in all cases (Chen et al. 2008...

  12. Personal, social, health and economic (PSHE) education: A mapping study of the prevalent models of delivery and their effectiveness



    In October 2008, then Schools Minister Ji, Knight announced that Personal, Social, Health and Economic (PSHE) education would become compulsory (for Key Stages 1-4). Following this, In November 2009, Sheffield Hallam University was contracted by DCSF (now DfE) to conduct a mapping exercise of PSHE education in primary and secondary schools in England. This resulted from a recommendation in the Macdonald Review, whcih identified the need for research to establish and report on the prevalent mo...

  13. Thermal Decomposition of RP-2 with Stabilizing Additives (United States)


    the reactors were removed from the thermostatted block and immediately cooled in room-temperature water . The thermally stressed fuel was then...34 Supercritical Fuel Deposition Mechanisms," Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 32, 3117-3122 (1993). 22. MacDonald, M.E., Davidson, D.F...H.H., and Hatcher, P.G., "Pyrolytic Degradation Studies of a Coal -Derived and a Petroleum-Derived Aviation Jet Fuel," Energy & Fuels 7, 234-243 (1993

  14. Survival after adjuvant chemoradiotherapy or surgery alone in resectable adenocarcinoma at the gastro-esophageal junction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Steen Christian; Muhic, A; Jensen, Lene Bæksgaard;


    Longterm survival after curative resection for adenocarcinoma at the gastro-esophageal junction (GEJ) range between 18% and 50%. In the pivotal Intergroup-0116 Phase III trial by Macdonald et all, adjuvant chemoradiotherapy improved both disease-free and overall survival in curatively resected...... patients with mainly gastric adenocarcinoma. We compared survival data for curatively resected patients with adeno-carcinoma solely at the gastro-esophageal junction (GEJ), treated with surgery alone or surgery and adjuvant chemoradio-therapy....

  15. War on the Cheap: U.S. Military Advisors in Greece, Korea, The Philippines, and Vietnam (United States)


    the conflict helps explain this attitude. Although the conflict was a national crisis that consumed enormous resources, it lacked the life and death...Douglas Macdonald takes issue with a common legend that Lansdale "‘invented’ Magsaysay," calling it "an incorrect, ethnocentric , and rather arrogant...hold Indochina,” since the war was consuming one-eighth of France’s total budget.146 Additionally, Communist China’s victory over Chiang Kai Shek’s

  16. Nutritional Assesment in Cystic Fibrosis Patients( Iran and Newzeland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Moeeni


    Full Text Available Introduction: Patients with Cystic Fibrosis have increased risk of malnutrition. Early detection of nutritional deterioration enables prompt intervention and correction. The aims of this project were to: - Define the nutritional status of CF patients in Iran and New Zealand -    Compare and contrast the MacDonald Nutritional Screening tool  with the Australasian guidelines for Nutrition in Cystic Fibrosis -    Validate these results in comparison with patient’s evaluation by their CF clinical team.   Materials and Methods: 69 CF patients (2-18 years were assessed during routine outpatient visits over one year. Anthropometric measurements were obtained. Both tools were applied for each patient and the results compared to their clinical evaluation (as gold standard with calculation of specificity and sensitivity. Results: Under-nutrition was more frequent in Iranian than NZ patients (39% versus 0%, p=0.0001, whereas over-nutrition was more prevalent in NZ children (9% versus 17%, p=0.05. At the first visit, MacDonald and Australasian guidelines were able to recognize 77% and 61% of under-nourished Iranian patients, respectively. The mean sensitivity and specificity for all visits for the MacDonald tool were 83% & 73% (Iran and 65% & 86% (NZ. Sensitivity and specificity for the Australasian guidelines were 79% & 79% (Iran and 70% & 90% (NZ. Conclusions: Both tools successfully recognised patients at risk of malnutrition. The MacDonald tool had comparable sensitivity and specificity to that described previously, especially in Iranian patients. This tool may be helpful in recognizing at risk CF patients, particularly in developing countries with fewer resources. Key words: Iran, Cystic Fibrosis Patient, Newzeland, Nutritional Assesment.

  17. Level-0 action of $U_{q}(\\widehat{sl}_{n})$ on the q-deformed Fock spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Takemura, K; Takemura, Kouichi; Uglov, Denis


    On the level-1 Fock space modules of the algebra $U_q(\\hat{sl_n})$ we define a level-0 action $U_0$ of the $U_q(\\hat{sl_n})$, and an action of an abelian algebra of conserved Hamiltonians commuting with the $U_0$. An irreducible decomposition of the Fock space with respect to the level-0 action is derived by constructing a base of the Fock space in terms of the Non-symmetric Macdonald Polynomials.

  18. Mass culture in the context of democratic transformations of twentieth century


    Танчер, В. В.; Свиридон, Т. В.


    Analysis of works devoted to mass culture allows us to identify three main groups of this phenomenon.The first group includes scientists who have negative attitudes towards mass culture. English poet T.Eliot claim that mass culture will always "substitute" culture and never reaches the high sample. Canadian theorist D.Makdonald argues that the basis of mass culture is the tendency to homogenization, it means provide all elements and phenomena some of uniformity, similarity. MacDonald points t...

  19. A kicking basis for the two column Garsia-Haiman modules



    International audience; In the early 1990s, Garsia and Haiman conjectured that the dimension of the Garsia-Haiman module $R_{\\mu}$ is $n!$, and they showed that the resolution of this conjecture implies the Macdonald Positivity Conjecture. Haiman proved these conjectures in 2001 using algebraic geometry, but the question remains to find an explicit basis for $R_{\\mu}$ which would give a simple proof of the dimension. Using the theory of Orbit Harmonics developed by Garsia and Haiman, we prese...

  20. Bioaccumulation and Effects on Reproduction in Aquatic Organisms: An Assessment of the Current Literature (United States)


    Macdonald, W. R. Lillie, and A. Lutz. 1983. Joint toxicity of mercury and selenium in salmonid eggs. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 12:415-419. Lagler, K...Neanthes arenaceodentata (Poly- chaeta). Mar. Environ. Res. 5:41-49. Ozoh, P. T. E. and C.-O. Jacobson. 1979. Embryotoxicity and hatchability in...Jr. 1983. Chronic effects of selenite- selenium on Daphnia pulex. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 12:399-404. Richter, J. E., S. F. Peterson, and C. F

  1. Compact Lie groups: Euler constructions and generalized Dyson conjecture

    CERN Document Server

    Cacciatori, S L; Scotti, A


    In this paper we present a very general method to construct generalized Euler parameterizations for compact simple Lie groups w.r.t. maximally symmetrically embedded simple Lie groups. Our construction is based on a detailed analysis of the geometry of these groups, which moreover gives rise to an interesting connection with certain generalized Dyson integrals. In particular, we obtain a geometry based proof of the generalized Macdonald conjecture correspondent to the root systems associated to all irreducible symmetric spaces.

  2. Erosion Control of Scour during Construction. Report 1. Present Design and Construction Practice. (United States)


    eu.Messrs. T. Bruha, R. MacDonald, C. Boutilier, D. Martin , ad G. Berglund. 1OF . ,,,.,, w ,m ..,,,,-,. m m - 1 North Atlantic Division: New York... Martin . Southwest Division: Galveston District: Messrs. E. Schuldt, G. Powledge, D. Krueger, D. Campbell, and C. McClennon. South Pacific Division: Los...not less than 90 percent of the required tensile strength of the imaged fabric in any principal direction. 81. According to the work of Keown and

  3. Environmental Assessment for Enhanced Use Lease of U.S. Air Force Lands to the City of North Las Vegas for Construction and Operation of a Water Reclamation Facility, Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada (United States)


    Geographic Information System ( GIS ) analysis determined that the distance to the nearest residential property from the project boundary (southeast corner...Engineer NewFields International, LLC Anne DuBarton, Project Manager Ken MacDonald, Principal in Charge Ali Baird, GIS Donna Osborne, Technical...progs.webprogs.nonat.scl&_debug=2&geotype=st& geocode =NV&geoname=Nevada&apol=CO&nulmap=0&geofeat=&mapsize=zsc&reqtype= viewmap Greeley and Hansen, LLC 2005. Site

  4. COREnet: The Fusion of Social Network Analysis and Target Audience Analysis (United States)


    be integrated into a HTML5 web-based Target Audience Analysis Worksheet TAAW? D. SCOPE AND METHODOLOGY This is a three-phase capstone project. The...Harrison & S. Huntington (Eds.), Culture matters: How values shape human progress (pp. 98–111). New York: Basic Books Gauchat, J. D., (2012). HTML5 for...networks to inform tactical engagement strategies that will influence the human domain. Small Wars Journal. MacDonald, M. (2012). HTML5 : The

  5. Providing for the Common Defense: Securing the Southwest Border (United States)


    Agua Prieta Mexico.56 Shifting illegal immigration patterns and drug trafficking routes from easily accessible city based routes through Tijauna/San...23 Brian Michael Jenkins, Countering Al Qaeda, ( Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation, 2002), p. 28. 24 MacDonald, “Mexico, the United States and the...York Times. June 18, 2000. Jenkins, Brian Micheal. Countering Al Qaeda. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation, 2002. Jordan, Mary. “Smuggling People is

  6. 凯拉·奈特莉

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Knightley was born on March 22, 1985. She is the daughter of actor Will Knightley and playwright Sharman Macdonald. At 3 years old, she asked her mother for an agent (代理人), feelingjealous (嫉妒的) that she never received the same amount of calls that her parents did. At age 6, the Knightleys agreed to let their daughter have an agent, provided that she'd study every day during summer holidays.

  7. Development of New Methods and Software for Distance Sampling Surveys of Cetacean Populations (United States)


    Zucchini et al., 2007) but these add substantially to the complexity of an already complex model and although they are more flexible, they were not...Project Outputs". Borchers, D.L., S.T. Buckland, and W. Zucchini . 2002. Estimating animal abundance: closed populations. Springer. Borchers, D.L., J.L...coastal waters of British Columbia, Canada. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 9:15-28 33 Zucchini , W., Raubenheimer, D. and MacDonald, I.L

  8. The Effects of EDTA (Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid) and Sonication on the Disaggregation of Oral Bacteria, (United States)


    microbiota of dental plaque has been classified and quantitated by a variety of methods (Rosebury, MacDonald and Clark 1950; Loesche, Hockett and Syed...cultivable microbiota of dental plaque. J. Dent. Res. 53 (Special Issue),106. Loesche, W.J., Hockett, R.N. and Syed, S.A. (1972) The predominant cultivable...gingival sulci with emphasis on the black pigmented Bacteroides and the anaerobic gram positive cocci. University of Maryland. Torriani, A. (1968) Alkaline

  9. Proceedings of the Fiber Optics in the Nuclear Environment Symposium 25-27 March 1980. Volume II. Radiation Physics, (United States)


    Alcaraz, Ernest (JAYCOR) Davis, William ( Sperry Univac) Alfonte, William (GE -TEMPO) Dawson, Larry (SLA) Allas, Richard (NRL) DeKalb, Richard (3MD...James (LMSC) Rogers , Samuel (RDA) Knowles, C.P. (DNA) Rosado, John (IIDL) Kochanski, R. (NOSC) Sandoval, Liberato (EG4*G) Kronenberg, Stanley (ET&iDL...NS/410 P. Lyons ATM: C. Rogers ATTN: C. MacDonald Lovelace iomed. 4 Environ. Rsc. Inst., Inc. ATIN: W. Grahem, Jr. AIIM: R. Fletcher Rockwell

  10. Current options for the treatment of optic neuritis


    Pula JH; MacDonald CJ


    John H Pula,1 Christopher J MacDonald21Division of Neuro-ophthalmology, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, Peoria; 2University of Illinois College of Medicine at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL, USAAbstract: Optic neuritis can be defined as typical (associated with multiple sclerosis, improving independent of steroid treatment), or atypical (not associated with multiple sclerosis, steroid-dependent improvement). Causes of atypical optic neuritis include connective tissue di...

  11. Role of p53 in cdk Inhibitor VMY-1-103-Induced Apoptosis in Prostate Cancer (United States)


    EM, Ringer L, Bulut G, Sajwan KP, Hall MD, Lee YC, Peaceman D, Ozdemirli M, Rodriguez O, Macdonald TJ, Albanese C, Toretsky JA, Uren A. Arsenic ...103 has an enhanced ability to diffuse through the cell membrane, increasing its cytoplasmic bioavailability .4 Cancer...with arsenic trioxide may effec- tively block MB proliferation in culture and in mouse models of MB. In the present report, we describe the effects of

  12. Analyzing Factors to Improve Service Quality of Local Specialties Restaurants: A Comparison with Fast Food Restaurants in Southern Vietnam


    Lai Wang Wang; Thanh Tuyen Tran


    The top fast food restaurant brands like KFC and MacDonald?s have gone global and demonstrated their successful business strategies through providing quick-service and convenience for customers. Meanwhile, local specialty food has recently emerged as a phenomenon attracting customers? attention on traditional value of ethnic food culture. The purpose of this study is to conduct a regional survey in Vietnamese restaurant companies to identify some key factors that make customers interested in ...

  13. CO2 supersaturation and net heterotrophy in a tropical estuary (Cochin, India): Influence of anthropogenic effect - Carbon dynamics in tropical estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gupta, G.V.M.; Thottathil, S.D.; Balachandran, K.K.; Madhu, N.V.; Madeswaran, P.; Nair, S.

    : Role of dissolved organic drawdown, resuspended sediments and terrigenous inputs in carbon balance of Lake Michigan. Ecosystems 5: 431-445. Biswas H, Mukhopadhyay SK, De TK, Sen S, Jana TK. 2004. Biogenic controls on the air-water carbon dioxide...-1319. Chen CTA, Liu KK, Macdonald R. 2003. Continental margin exchanges. Fasham MJR, editor. Ocean biogeochemistry. New York: Springer-Verlag New York. p53–97. Cole JJ, Caraco NF, Kling GW, Kratz TK. 1994. Carbon dioxide supersaturation in the surface...

  14. Recasting the theory of mosquito-borne pathogen transmission dynamics and control. (United States)

    Smith, David L; Perkins, T Alex; Reiner, Robert C; Barker, Christopher M; Niu, Tianchan; Chaves, Luis Fernando; Ellis, Alicia M; George, Dylan B; Le Menach, Arnaud; Pulliam, Juliet R C; Bisanzio, Donal; Buckee, Caroline; Chiyaka, Christinah; Cummings, Derek A T; Garcia, Andres J; Gatton, Michelle L; Gething, Peter W; Hartley, David M; Johnston, Geoffrey; Klein, Eili Y; Michael, Edwin; Lloyd, Alun L; Pigott, David M; Reisen, William K; Ruktanonchai, Nick; Singh, Brajendra K; Stoller, Jeremy; Tatem, Andrew J; Kitron, Uriel; Godfray, H Charles J; Cohen, Justin M; Hay, Simon I; Scott, Thomas W


    Mosquito-borne diseases pose some of the greatest challenges in public health, especially in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Efforts to control these diseases have been underpinned by a theoretical framework developed for malaria by Ross and Macdonald, including models, metrics for measuring transmission, and theory of control that identifies key vulnerabilities in the transmission cycle. That framework, especially Macdonald's formula for R0 and its entomological derivative, vectorial capacity, are now used to study dynamics and design interventions for many mosquito-borne diseases. A systematic review of 388 models published between 1970 and 2010 found that the vast majority adopted the Ross-Macdonald assumption of homogeneous transmission in a well-mixed population. Studies comparing models and data question these assumptions and point to the capacity to model heterogeneous, focal transmission as the most important but relatively unexplored component in current theory. Fine-scale heterogeneity causes transmission dynamics to be nonlinear, and poses problems for modeling, epidemiology and measurement. Novel mathematical approaches show how heterogeneity arises from the biology and the landscape on which the processes of mosquito biting and pathogen transmission unfold. Emerging theory focuses attention on the ecological and social context for mosquito blood feeding, the movement of both hosts and mosquitoes, and the relevant spatial scales for measuring transmission and for modeling dynamics and control.

  15. Bodily tides near the 1:1 spin-orbit resonance: correction to Goldreich's dynamical model (United States)

    Williams, James G.; Efroimsky, Michael


    Spin-orbit coupling is often described in an approach known as " the MacDonald torque", which has long become the textbook standard due to its apparent simplicity. Within this method, a concise expression for the additional tidal potential, derived by MacDonald (Rev Geophys 2:467-541, 1994), is combined with a convenient assumption that the quality factor Q is frequency-independent (or, equivalently, that the geometric lag angle is constant in time). This makes the treatment unphysical because MacDonald's derivation of the said formula was, very implicitly, based on keeping the time lag frequency-independent, which is equivalent to setting Q scale as the inverse tidal frequency. This contradiction requires the entire MacDonald treatment of both non-resonant and resonant rotation to be rewritten. The non-resonant case was reconsidered by Efroimsky and Williams (Cel Mech Dyn Astron 104:257-289, 2009), in application to spin modes distant from the major commensurabilities. In the current paper, we continue this work by introducing the necessary alterations into the MacDonald-torque-based model of falling into a 1-to-1 resonance. (The original version of this model was offered by Goldreich (Astron J 71:1-7, 1996). Although the MacDonald torque, both in its original formulation and in its corrected version, is incompatible with realistic rheologies of minerals and mantles, it remains a useful toy model, which enables one to obtain, in some situations, qualitatively meaningful results without resorting to the more rigorous (and complicated) theory of Darwin and Kaula. We first address this simplified model in application to an oblate primary body, with tides raised on it by an orbiting zero-inclination secondary. (Here the role of the tidally-perturbed primary can be played by a satellite, the perturbing secondary being its host planet. A planet may as well be the perturbed primary, its host star acting as the tide-raising secondary). We then extend the model to a

  16. Advantages of high b-value diffusion-weighted imaging to diagnose pseudo-responses in patients with recurrent glioma after bevacizumab treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamasaki, Fumiyuki; Kurisu, Kaoru [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8551 (Japan); Aoki, Tomokazu [Department of Neurosurgery, National Hospital Organization, Kyoto Medical Center, Kyoto 612-8555 (Japan); Yamanaka, Masami [Department of Neurosurgery, Otagawa Hospital, Hiroshima 732-0009 (Japan); Kajiwara, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Yosuke; Takayasu, Takeshi [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8551 (Japan); Akiyama, Yuji [Department of Clinical Radiology, Hiroshima University Hospital, Hiroshima 734-8551 (Japan); Sugiyama, Kazuhiko, E-mail: [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8551 (Japan)


    Background: The diagnosis of pseudo-responses after bevacizumab treatment is difficult. Because diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is associated with cell density, it may facilitate the differentiation between true- and pseudo-responses. Furthermore, as high b-value DWI is even more sensitive to diffusion, it has been reported to be diagnostically useful in various clinical settings. Materials and methods: Between September 2008 and May 2011, 10 patients (5 males, 5 females; age range 6–65 years) with recurrent glioma were treated with bevacizumab. All underwent pre- and post-treatment MRI including T2- or FLAIR imaging, post-gadolinium contrast T1-weighted imaging, and DWI with b-1000 and b-4000. Response rates were evaluated by MacDonald- and by response assessment in neuro-oncology working group (RANO) criteria. We also assessed the response rate by calculating the size of high intensity areas using high b-value diffusion-weighted criteria. Prognostic factors were evaluated using Kaplan–Meier survival curves (log-rank test). Results: It was easier to identify pseudo-responses with RANO- than MacDonald criteria, however the reduction of edema by bevacizumab rendered the early diagnosis of tumor progression difficult by RANO criteria. In some patients with recurrent glioma treated with bevacizumab, high b-value diffusion-weighted criteria did, while MacDonald- and RANO criteria did not identify pseudo-responses at an early point after the start of therapy. Discussion and conclusion: High b-value DWI reflects cell density more accurately than regular b-value DWI. Our findings suggest that in patients with recurrent glioma, high b-value diffusion-weighted criteria are useful for the differentiation between pseudo- and true responses to treatment with bevacizumab.

  17. Guidelines for Terrestrial Ecosystem Survey. (United States)


    Warblers, U.S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 203 (1953). Blankenship, L. H., A. B. Humphrey and D. MacDonald, "A New Stratifi- cation for Mourning Dove Call-Count Routes...Carr, A., Handbook of Turtles (Ithaca, N.Y.: Comstock, 1952), 542 pp. Cochran, Doris M., Living Amphibians of the World (Garden City, N.Y.:, Inc., 1961). Cochran, Doris M., and Coleman J. Goin, The New Field Book of Reptiles and Amphibians (New York: Putnam, 1970). Collins, J. T., J. F

  18. The Politics of Voice in Duke Ellington’s Beggar’s Holiday (1946)


    O’Leary, James


    Duke Ellington and John Latouche made a number of pointed references to “highbrow” and “lowbrow” art in their 1947 musical Beggar’s Holiday. I argue that this dichotomy did more than classify; it also politicized the consumption and composition of art. Drawing upon the writings of such critics as Clement Greenberg, Dwight MacDonald, and Archibald MacLeish, my paper revives a 1940s aesthetic discourse that imposed strong divisions between highbrow and lowbrow art. By analyzing a number of reco...

  19. Serological evidence of discrete spatial clusters of Plasmodium falciparum parasites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bejon, Philip; Turner, Louise; Lavstsen, Thomas


    Malaria transmission may be considered to be homogenous with well-mixed parasite populations (as in the classic Ross/Macdonald models). Marked fine-scale heterogeneity of transmission has been observed in the field (i.e., over a few kilometres), but there are relatively few data on the degree of ...... of mixing. Since the Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1 (PfEMP1) is highly polymorphic, the host's serological responses may be used to infer exposure to parasite sub-populations....

  20. Fault system and thermal regime in the vicinity of site NGHP-01-10, Krishna-Godavari basin, Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dewangan, P.; Srirama, G.; Ramprasad, T.; Ramana, M.V.; Jaiswal, P.

    driven (Milkov and Sassen, 2002). In structural accumulation gases are transported to the GHSZ through features such as faults and mud 3 volcanoes, e.g. northwestern Gulf of Mexico (Brooks et al., 1986; MacDonald et al., 1994; Milkov and Sassen, 2000... horizons, e.g., Blake ridge (Xu and Ruppel, 1999; Dickens et al., 1997), Gulf of Mexico minibasins (Milkov and Sassen, 2001; Pflaum et al., 1986), Nankai trough (Matsumoto et al., 2001), and Mallik (Dallimore et al., 1999). A combination of both...

  1. Hydrogen Photo-production from Ethanol and Water over Au/TiO2 Rutile Single Crystal (United States)


    Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Hydrogen Photo-production from Ethanol and Water over Au/ TiO2 Rutile Single Crystal The views...production from Ethanol and Water over Au/ TiO2 Rutile Single Crystal Report Title This project in its final form has focused on hydrogen production from...Hydrogen Production from Ethanol over Au/ TiO2 Nanoparticles”, Nature Chemistry, 3 (6) 489-492 ( 2011.) [2] I.R.Macdonald, R.F.Howe, X.Yang, W.Zhou, “In

  2. On the weight distribution in level one Demazure modules of sl2hat

    CERN Document Server

    Bliem, Thomas


    We compute the covariance of the weight distribution in level 1 Demazure modules of sl2hat. The crucial step is to compute the variance of the degree distribution. This also allows us to prove the weak law of large numbers for the degree and weight distribution using Chebyshev's inequality. We give two proofs of our main result, one by induction along Demazure's character formula, and one by using quantum calculus and the fact that Demazure characters are related to Macdonald and Rogers-Szego polynomials.

  3. The Flashing Sword of Vengeance: The Force-Oriented Counterattack from a Historical Perspective with Implications for the AirLand Battle and Combat Aviation. (United States)


    the Western World ( New York: Funk and Wagnalls , Co., 1955), p. 205. 7Ibid. 8Ibid., pp. 206-7. 9LTC France James Soady, Lessons of War as Taught by the...History of the Western World . New York: Funk and Wagnalls , Co., 1955. Heyward, BG P.H.C. Jane’s Dictionary of Military Terms. London: MacDonald and Jane’s...Ernest and COL Trevor N. Dupuy. The Encyclopedia of Military History from 3500 BC to the Present. New York: Harper. and Row, 1970. Eady, BVT MAJ Harold

  4. The Science of Science Policy: A Federal Research Roadmap (United States)


    economists such as Robert Solow (who won the Nobel Prize in Economics for his work on the impact of innova on on economic growth) have developed...Kaye Husbands-Fealing, Former Co-Chair Melanie Roberts Centers for Disease Control and Preven on Vilma Carande-Kulis Central Intelligence Agency H...Agriculture John King Robert MacDonald Sara Mazie U.S. Geological Survey Carl Shapiro U.S. Department of Veterans Aff airs Cheryl Oros T S S P : A

  5. Recommended Reading List for Faculty and Students, Military Qualification Standards (MQS) II Reading List. (United States)


    Nickerson, Hoffman. The Armed Horde, 1793-1939 (1940). U 27 A study of the rise,, and decline of the mass army. N 53 Olan, Charles . A History of...Aeerican military policy from U 5 the Revolutionary War to 1862. Ward, Cristopher . The War of the Revolution, 2 Vols (1952). E 230 A definitive...Africa D3 62.8 (1980). G 72 - A survey of the various kinds of political establishments that can be found in thee vital areas. MacDonald, Charles G

  6. The Individual Effects of Heat Acclimation and Short Term Physical Training on Attenuating the Physiological Strain Resulting from Exercise in the Heat While Wearing a Chemical Defense Ensemble (United States)


    REFERENCES 1. Adams , W. C., R. H. Fox, A. J. Fry, and I. C. MacDonald. Thermoregulation during marathon running in cool, moderate, and hot...environments. J. Appl. Physiol. 38: 1030-1037, 1975. 2. Adams , W. C., G. W. Mack, G. W. Langhans, and E. R. Nadel. Effects of varied air velocity on sweating...21: 107-110, 1966. 189. Wyndham, C. H., N. B. Strydom, A. Munro, R K MacPherson, B. Metz, G. Schaff , and J. Schieber. Heat reactions of Caucasians in

  7. Symmetric products of mixed Hodge modules

    CERN Document Server

    Maxim, Laurentiu; Schuermann, Joerg


    Generalizing a theorem of Macdonald, we show a formula for the mixed Hodge structure on the cohomology of the symmetric products of bounded complexes of mixed Hodge modules by showing the existence of the canonical action of the symmetric group on the multiple external self-products of complexes of mixed Hodge modules. We also generalize a theorem of Hirzebruch and Zagier on the signature of the symmetric products of manifolds to the case of the symmetric products of symmetric parings on bounded complexes with constructible cohomology sheaves where the pairing is not assumed to be non-degenerate.

  8. An Approximate Method for Analysis of Solitary Waves in Nonlinear Elastic Materials (United States)

    Rushchitsky, J. J.; Yurchuk, V. N.


    Two types of solitary elastic waves are considered: a longitudinal plane displacement wave (longitudinal displacements along the abscissa axis of a Cartesian coordinate system) and a radial cylindrical displacement wave (displacements in the radial direction of a cylindrical coordinate system). The basic innovation is the use of nonlinear wave equations similar in form to describe these waves and the use of the same approximate method to analyze these equations. The distortion of the wave profile described by Whittaker (plane wave) or Macdonald (cylindrical wave) functions is described theoretically

  9. Waves in General Relativistic Two-fluid Plasma around a Schwarzschild Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Rahman, M Atiqur


    Waves propagating in the relativistic electron-positron or ions plasma are investigated in a frame of two-fluid equations using the 3+1 formalism of general relativity developed by Thorne, Price and Macdonald (TPM). The plasma is assumed to be freefalling in the radial direction toward the event horizon due to the strong gravitational field of a Schwarzschild black hole. The local dispersion relations for transverse and longitudinal waves have been derived, in analogy with the special relativistic formulation as explained in an earlier paper, to take account of relativistic effects due to the event horizon using WKB approximation

  10. Fuel Containment Concepts - Transport Category Airplanes. (United States)


    inhihi ting adhesive prim.r i’- app 1 d )rlor to bondin1 and they receive, an additional coat at ter bonding. Dense core is provided for stabi I itv in...installation of heat reticulated foam or expanded metal foil have the advantage of being passive systems. They prevent excessive overpressures from...Applicability of Reticulated Foams for the Suppression of Fuel Tank Explosions," AGARD-CP-166, Aircraft Fire Safety, Rome, Italy, April 1975. 45. MacDonald, J

  11. Novel Molecular Imaging Agents to Detect Biomarkers of Metastatic Breast Cancer (United States)


    19) Tsujimoto, T.; Murai A.; Synlett , 2002, 8, 1283-1284. (20) Gisin, B. Anal. Chim. Acta, 1972, 58, 248-249. (21) Fields, C. G.; Lloyd, D. H...New York, 1992, 77-183. (4) Tsujimoto, T.; Murai A.; Synlett , 2002, 8, 1283-1284. (5) Gisin, B. Anal. Chim. Acta, 1972, 58, 248-249 (6) Fields, C...T.; Murai A.; Synlett , 2002, 8, 1283-1284. (5) Gisin, B. Anal. Chim. Acta, 1972, 58, 248-249. (6) Fields, C. G.; Lloyd, D. H.; Macdonald, R. L.; Otteson, K. M.; Noble, R. L. Peptide Res., 1991, 4, 95-101.

  12. The Asphalt Ecosystem of the Gulf of Mexico: Results From the Chapopote III Cruise (United States)

    MacDonald, I. R.; Escobar, E.; Naehr, T.; Joye, S.; Spiess, V.; Cruise Participants, C.


    The Campeche Knolls region of the southern Gulf of Mexico contains numerous diapiric mounds and ridges that are associated with persistent oil slicks and extensive flows of solidified asphalt. Previous investigations1 have documented chemosynthetic communities, gas hydrates, and bubble streams that rise hundreds of meters into the water column. However, only a few of the potential features had previously been investigated. The team2 selected a series of potential sites based on satellite images of oil slicks and geophysical data. These sites were surveyed during a cruise with the Mexican ship JUSTO SIERRA during 11-24 September 2007. Visual surveys using video and digital images were completed over geophysical anomalies. Multi-corer samples of the sediments were then collected based on the visual data. A narrow beam acoustic profiler was used to search for bubble streams. Preliminary results of this expedition are presented. 1 MacDonald, I. R., et al. (2004). "Asphalt volcanism and chemosynthetic life, Campeche Knolls, Gulf of Mexico." Science 304: 999-1002. 2 Chapopote III cruise participants: J. Adams, L. F. Alvarez, J. Bliss, M. Bowells, F. Deng, E. Escobar, O. Garcia, M. M. L. Garduño, A. Gassner, K. Hunter, B. B. Jimenez, A. Leiva, I. MacDonald, T. Naehr, D. Prouty, V. Samarkin, and J. Wood.

  13. Traces of Intertwiners for Quantum Affine sl_2 and Felder-Varchenko Functions (United States)

    Sun, Yi


    We show that the traces of {U_q({widehat{sl}_2)}-intertwiners of [ESV02] valued in the three-dimensional evaluation representation converge in a certain region of parameters and give a representation-theoretic construction of Felder-Varchenko's hypergeometric solutions to the q-KZB heat equation given in [FV02]. This gives the first proof that such a trace function converges and resolves the first case of the Etingof-Varchenko conjecture of [EV00]. As applications, we prove a symmetry property for traces of intertwiners and prove Felder-Varchenko's conjecture in [FV04] that their elliptic Macdonald polynomials are related to the affine Macdonald polynomials defined as traces over irreducible integrable {U_q({widehat{sl}_2)}-modules in [EK95]. In the trigonometric and classical limits, we recover results of [EK94,EV00]. Our method relies on an interplay between the method of coherent states applied to the free field realization of the q-Wakimoto module of [Mat94], convergence properties given by the theta hypergeometric integrals of [FV02], and rationality properties originating from the representation-theoretic definition of the trace function.

  14. Composite Fermion Theory for the Fractional Quantum Hall Wigner Crystal State (United States)

    Narevich, Romanas; Murthy, Ganpathy; Fertig, Herbert


    The low filling fraction Quantum Hall Effect is reexamined using the recent hamiltonian composite fermion theory developed by Shankar and Murthy [SM] (R. Shankar and G. Murthy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79), 4437, (1997); G. Murthy and R. Shankar, Chapter 4 of "Composite Fermions", O. Heinonen, Ed. (World Scientific, Teaneck, NJ, 1998).. Previous studies have either concentrated on Wigner crystal states of electrons in the Hartree-Fock approximation (D. Yoshioka and H. Fukuyama, J. Phys. Soc. Japan 47), 394 (1979); D. Yoshioka and P. A. Lee, Phys. Rev. B 27, 4986 (1983); A. H. MacDonald, Phys. Rev. B 30, 4392 (1984); R. Cote and A. H. MacDonald, Phys. Rev. B 44, 8759 (1991). or studied correlated crystal states numerically (P. K. Lam and S. M. Girvin, Phys. Rev. B 30), 473 (1984); H. Yi and H. A. Fertig, Phys. Rev. B, 58, 4019 (1998).. Using the new SM approach we study the correlated states as Hartree-Fock states of composite fermions, which is known to work reasonably well for translationally invariant composite fermion states. We present the calculation of the gaps for the stable states that we found as well as the dispersion relations of the collective modes.

  15. Matching based on biological categories in Orangutans (Pongo abelii) and a Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). (United States)

    Vonk, Jennifer


    Following a series of experiments in which six orangutans and one gorilla discriminated photographs of different animal species in a two-choice touch screen procedure, Vonk & MacDonald (2002) and Vonk & MacDonald (2004) concluded that orangutans, but not the gorilla, seemed to learn intermediate level category discriminations, such as primates versus non-primates, more rapidly than they learned concrete level discriminations, such as orangutans versus humans. In the current experiments, four of the same orangutans and the gorilla were presented with delayed matching-to-sample tasks in which they were rewarded for matching photos of different members of the same primate species; golden lion tamarins, Japanese macaques, and proboscis monkeys, or family; gibbons, lemurs (Experiment 1), and subsequently for matching photos of different species within the following classes: birds, reptiles, insects, mammals, and fish (Experiment 2). Members of both Great Ape species were rapidly able to match the photos at levels above chance. Orangutans matched images from both category levels spontaneously whereas the gorilla showed effects of learning to match intermediate level categories. The results show that biological knowledge is not necessary to form natural categories at both concrete and intermediate levels.

  16. BOOK REVIEW: New Understanding Physics for Advanced Level (United States)

    Breithaupt, Jim


    Breithaupt's new book is big: at 727 pages, it will be a hefty addition to any student's bag. According to the preface, the book is designed to help students achieve the transition from GCSE to A-level and to succeed well at this level. It also aims to cover the requirements of the compulsory parts of all new syllabuses and to cover most of the optional material, too. The book is organized into seven themes along traditional lines: mechanics, materials, fields, waves, electricity, inside the atom, and physics in medicine. Each theme begins with a colourful title page that outlines what the theme is about, lists the applications that students will meet in their reading, identifies prior learning from GCSE and gives a checklist of what students should be able to do once they have finished their reading of the theme. This is all very useful. The text of the book is illustrated with many colourful photographs, pictures and cartoons, but despite this it looks very dense. There are a lot of words on every page in a small font that makes them seem very unfriendly, and although the book claims to be readable I rather doubt that the layout will encourage voluntary reading of the text. Each chapter ends with a useful summary and a selection of short questions that allow students to test their understanding. Each theme has a set of multiple choice and long questions. Some of the questions have an icon referring the student to the accompanying CD (more of this later). There is much up-to-date material in the book. For example, the section on cosmology gives a brief description of the inflationary scenario within the Big Bang model of the origin of the universe, although no mechanism for the inflation is given, which might prove unsatisfying to some students. I do have some reservations about the presentation of some topics within the book: the discussion of relativistic mass, for example, states that `Einstein showed that the mass ... is given by the formula ...' and quotes

  17. Bodily tides near spin-orbit resonances (United States)

    Efroimsky, Michael


    Spin-orbit coupling can be described in two approaches. The first method, known as the "MacDonald torque", is often combined with a convenient assumption that the quality factor Q is frequency-independent. This makes the method inconsistent, because derivation of the expression for the MacDonald torque tacitly fixes the rheology of the mantle by making Q scale as the inverse tidal frequency. Spin-orbit coupling can be treated also in an approach called "the Darwin torque". While this theory is general enough to accommodate an arbitrary frequency-dependence of Q, this advantage has not yet been fully exploited in the literature, where Q is often assumed constant or is set to scale as inverse tidal frequency, the latter assertion making the Darwin torque equivalent to a corrected version of the MacDonald torque. However neither a constant nor an inverse-frequency Q reflect the properties of realistic mantles and crusts, because the actual frequency-dependence is more complex. Hence it is necessary to enrich the theory of spin-orbit interaction with the right frequency-dependence. We accomplish this programme for the Darwin-torque-based model near resonances. We derive the frequency-dependence of the tidal torque from the first principles of solid-state mechanics, i.e., from the expression for the mantle's compliance in the time domain. We also explain that the tidal torque includes not only the customary, secular part, but also an oscillating part. We demonstrate that the lmpq term of the Darwin-Kaula expansion for the tidal torque smoothly passes zero, when the secondary traverses the lmpq resonance (e.g., the principal tidal torque smoothly goes through nil as the secondary crosses the synchronous orbit). Thus, we prepare a foundation for modeling entrapment of a despinning primary into a resonance with its secondary. The roles of the primary and secondary may be played, e.g., by Mercury and the Sun, correspondingly, or by an icy moon and a Jovian planet. We also

  18. Music, health, and well-being: a review. (United States)

    MacDonald, Raymond A R


    The relationship between arts participation and health is currently very topical. Motivated by a desire to investigate innovative, non-invasive, and economically viable interventions that embrace contemporary definitions of health, practitioners and researchers across the world have been developing and researching arts inventions. One of the key drivers in this vigorous research milieu is the growth of qualitative research within health care contexts and researchers interested in exploring the potential benefits of musical participation have fully embraced the advances that have taken place in health-related qualitative research. The following article presents a number of different types of qualitative research projects focused on exploring the process and outcomes of music interventions. It also presents a new conceptual model for music, health and well-being. This new model develops on a previous version of MacDonald, Kreutz, and Mitchell (2012b) by incorporating new elements and contextualization and providing detailed experimental examples to support the various components.

  19. Music, health, and well-being: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAYMOND A. R. MacDonald


    Full Text Available The relationship between arts participation and health is currently very topical. Motivated by a desire to investigate innovative, non-invasive, and economically viable interventions that embrace contemporary definitions of health, practitioners and researchers across the world have been developing and researching arts inventions. One of the key drivers in this vigorous research milieu is the growth of qualitative research within health care contexts and researchers interested in exploring the potential benefits of musical participation have fully embraced the advances that have taken place in health-related qualitative research. The following article presents a number of different types of qualitative research projects focused on exploring the process and outcomes of music interventions. It also presents a new conceptual model for music, health and well-being. This new model develops on a previous version of MacDonald, Kreutz, and Mitchell (2012b by incorporating new elements and contextualization and providing detailed experimental examples to support the various components.

  20. Six-vertex models and the GUE-corners process

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrov, Evgeni


    In this paper we consider a class of probability distributions on the six-vertex model from statistical mechanics, which originate from the higher spin vertex models of We define operators, inspired by the Macdonald difference operators, which extract various correlation functions, measuring the probability of observing different arrow configurations. The development of our operators is largely based on the properties of a remarkable family of symmetric rational functions, which were previously studied in For the class of models we consider, the correlation functions can be expressed in terms of multiple contour integrals, which are suitable for asymptotic analysis. For a particular choice of parameters we analyze the limit of the correlation functions through a steepest descent method. Combining this asymptotic statement with some new results about Gibbs measures on Gelfand-Tsetlin cones and patterns, we show that the asymptotic behavior of o...

  1. Music, health, and well-being: A review (United States)


    The relationship between arts participation and health is currently very topical. Motivated by a desire to investigate innovative, non-invasive, and economically viable interventions that embrace contemporary definitions of health, practitioners and researchers across the world have been developing and researching arts inventions. One of the key drivers in this vigorous research milieu is the growth of qualitative research within health care contexts and researchers interested in exploring the potential benefits of musical participation have fully embraced the advances that have taken place in health-related qualitative research. The following article presents a number of different types of qualitative research projects focused on exploring the process and outcomes of music interventions. It also presents a new conceptual model for music, health and well-being. This new model develops on a previous version of MacDonald, Kreutz, and Mitchell (2012b) by incorporating new elements and contextualization and providing detailed experimental examples to support the various components. PMID:23930991

  2. Rectangular superpolynomials for the figure-eight knot

    CERN Document Server

    Kononov, Ya


    We rewrite the recently proposed differential expansion formula for HOMFLY polynomials of the knot $4_1$ in arbitrary rectangular representation $R=[r^s]$ as a sum over all Young sub-diagrams $\\lambda$ of $R$ with extraordinary simple coefficients $D_{\\lambda^{tr}}(r)\\cdot D_\\lambda(s)$ in front of the $Z$-factors. Somewhat miraculously, these coefficients are made from quantum dimensions of symmetric representations of the groups $SL(r)$ and $SL(s)$ and restrict summation to diagrams with no more than $s$ rows and $r$ columns. They possess a natural $\\beta$-deformation to Macdonald dimensions and produces positive Laurent polynomials, which can be considered as plausible candidates for the role of the rectangular superpolynomials. Both polynomiality and positivity are non-evident properties of arising expressions, still they are true. This extends the previous suggestions for symmetric and antisymmetric representations (when $s=1$ or $r=1$ respectively) to arbitrary rectangular representations. As usual for ...

  3. Relationship of Life Satisfaction and Job Satisfaction among Pakistani Army Soldiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Summaira Naz


    Full Text Available The present study had two main objectives; first, to discover the relationships between job satisfaction and life satisfaction in Pakistani army soldiers, second, to find out the age, salary, marital status, and education differences on job satisfaction and life satisfaction in Pakistani army soldiers. In the present study two questionnaires; Job Satisfaction Scale JSS (Macdonald & Maclntyre, 1997 and Satisfaction With Life Scale (Diener, et al., 1985; were administered to a sample (N=400 along with a demographic sheet. The results of the study revealed a significant positive correlation between job satisfaction and life satisfaction of Pakistani army soldiers. The findings of the study also showed a significant age, education, salary, and marital status differences in job satisfaction and life satisfaction. Age, marital status, and salary variables had positive correlation with job satisfaction and life satisfaction but education had a negative association with job satisfaction and life satisfaction

  4. A reanalysis of two scales of tolerance of ambiguity. (United States)

    Kirton, M J


    Important reviews of the tolerance of ambiguity literature have shown that the concept has become overextended and its elements remain unsupported by the confused data collected, and scales with inadequate psychometric performance have been used. In the present study 631 subjects responded to Budner's (1962) test of Intolerance of Ambiguity and MacDonald's (1970) revision of Rydell and Rosen's (1966) Tolerance of Ambiguity Scale. These scales were chosen because they seemed somewhat less suspect than others. Tests of other personality dimensions which the literature reviews suggested were likely correlates of intolerance of ambiguity were also included. Initial results were uneven and inconclusive. After using item analysis to reduce the tests, more logical and consistent results were obtained. These help to clarify the concept, differentiating sharply between its supposed primary and secondary elements. Three studies in which the reduced tests were used with desirable results are reported.

  5. Beginning ASP.NET 4.5 in C#

    CERN Document Server

    MacDonald, Matthew


    This book is the most comprehensive and up to date introduction to ASP.NET ever written. Focussing solely on C#, with no code samples duplicated in other languages, award winning author Matthew MacDonald introduces you to the very latest thinking and best practices for the ASP.NET 4.5 technology.Assuming no prior coding experience, you'll be taught everything you need to know from the ground up.  Starting from first principals, you'll learn the skills you need to be an effective ASP.NET developer who is ready to progress to more sophisticated projects and professional work. You'll be taught ho

  6. Beginning ASP.NET 4.5 in VB

    CERN Document Server

    MacDonald, Matthew


    This book is the most comprehensive and up to date introduction to ASP.NET ever written. Focusing solely on Visual Basic, with no code samples duplicated in other languages, award winning author Matthew MacDonald introduces you to the very latest thinking and best practices for the ASP.NET 4.5 technology.Assuming no prior coding experience, you'll be taught everything you need to know from the ground up.  Starting from first principals, you'll learn the skills you need to be an effective ASP.NET developer who is ready to progress to more sophisticated projects and professional work.You'll be t

  7. Analytical solutions of the two-dimensional Dirac equation for a topological channel intersection (United States)

    Anglin, J. R.; Schulz, A.


    Numerical simulations in a tight-binding model have shown that an intersection of topologically protected one-dimensional chiral channels can function as a beam splitter for noninteracting fermions on a two-dimensional lattice [Qiao, Jung, and MacDonald, Nano Lett. 11, 3453 (2011), 10.1021/nl201941f; Qiao et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 206601 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.206601]. Here we confirm this result analytically in the corresponding continuum k .p model, by solving the associated two-dimensional Dirac equation, in the presence of a "checkerboard" potential that provides a right-angled intersection between two zero-line modes. The method by which we obtain our analytical solutions is systematic and potentially generalizable to similar problems involving intersections of one-dimensional systems.

  8. An Angus/Argo study of the neovolcanic zone along the East Pacific rise from the Clipperton fracture zone to 12°N (United States)

    Uchupi, E.; Schwab, W. C.; Ballard, R. D.; Cheminee, J. L.; Francheteau, J.; Hekinian, R.; Blackman, D. K.; Sigurdsson, H.


    Still photographs and video images collected along the Neovolcanic Zone of the East Pacific Rise from 10°15'N to 11°53'N show that recent volcanic sheet flows, possibly less than 100 years old, are superimposed on an older sediment-laden pillow terrane. This recent activity is restricted to a narrow zone that crosses two topographic highs at 10°55'N and 11°26'N and diminishes along-axis away from these highs. The association of recent sheet flows with older flows and collapse structures on the overlapping spreading centers at 11°45'N supports the evolutionary model for the occurrence and evolution of overlapping spreading centers by MacDonald and others (1986, 1988).

  9. k-Schur functions and affine Schubert calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Lam, Thomas; Morse, Jennifer; Schilling, Anne; Shimozono, Mark; Zabrocki, Mike


    This book gives an introduction to the very active field of combinatorics of affine Schubert calculus, explains the current state of the art, and states the current open problems. Affine Schubert calculus lies at the crossroads of combinatorics, geometry, and representation theory. Its modern development is motivated by two seemingly unrelated directions. One is the introduction of k-Schur functions in the study of Macdonald polynomial positivity, a mostly combinatorial branch of symmetric function theory. The other direction is the study of the Schubert bases of the (co)homology of the affine Grassmannian, an algebro-topological formulation of a problem in enumerative geometry. This is the first introductory text on this subject. It contains many examples in Sage, a free open source general purpose mathematical software system, to entice the reader to investigate the open problems. This book is written for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, as well as researchers, who want to become familiar with ...

  10. An integral equation method for calculating sound field diffracted by a rigid barrier on an impedance ground. (United States)

    Zhao, Sipei; Qiu, Xiaojun; Cheng, Jianchun


    This paper proposes a different method for calculating a sound field diffracted by a rigid barrier based on the integral equation method, where a virtual boundary is assumed above the rigid barrier to divide the whole space into two subspaces. Based on the Kirchhoff-Helmholtz equation, the sound field in each subspace is determined with the source inside and the boundary conditions on the surface, and then the diffracted sound field is obtained by using the continuation conditions on the virtual boundary. Simulations are carried out to verify the feasibility of the proposed method. Compared to the MacDonald method and other existing methods, the proposed method is a rigorous solution for whole space and is also much easier to understand.

  11. Multivariable q-Racah polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Van Diejen, J F


    The Koornwinder-Macdonald multivariable generalization of the Askey-Wilson polynomials is studied for parameters satisfying a truncation condition such that the orthogonality measure becomes discrete with support on a finite grid. For this parameter regime the polynomials may be seen as a multivariable counterpart of the (one-variable) q-Racah polynomials. We present the discrete orthogonality measure, expressions for the normalization constants converting the polynomials into an orthonormal system (in terms of the normalization constant for the unit polynomial), and we discuss the limit q\\rightarrow 1 leading to multivariable Racah type polynomials. Of special interest is the situation that q lies on the unit circle; in that case it is found that there exists a natural parameter domain for which the discrete orthogonality measure (which is complex in general) becomes real-valued and positive. We investigate the properties of a finite-dimensional discrete integral transform for functions over the grid, whose ...

  12. Three-particle integrable systems with elliptic dependence on momenta and theta function identities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aminov, G., E-mail: [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny (Russian Federation); Mironov, A., E-mail: [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Theory Department, Lebedev Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Morozov, A., E-mail: [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zotov, A., E-mail: [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny (Russian Federation); Steklov Mathematical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    We claim that some non-trivial theta-function identities at higher genus can stand behind the Poisson commutativity of the Hamiltonians of elliptic integrable systems, which were introduced in [1,2] and are made from the theta-functions on Jacobians of the Seiberg–Witten curves. For the case of three-particle systems the genus-2 identities are found and presented in the Letter. The connection with the Macdonald identities is established. The genus-2 theta-function identities provide the direct way to construct the Poisson structure in terms of the coordinates on the Jacobian of the spectral curve and the elements of its period matrix. The Lax representations for the two-particle systems are also obtained.

  13. Three-particle Integrable Systems with Elliptic Dependence on Momenta and Theta Function Identities

    CERN Document Server

    Aminov, G; Morozov, A; Zotov, A


    We claim that some non-trivial theta-function identities at higher genus can stand behind the Poisson commutativity of the Hamiltonians of elliptic integrable systems, which are made from the theta-functions on Jacobians of the Seiberg-Witten curves. For the case of three-particle systems the genus-2 identities are found and presented in the paper. The connection with the Macdonald identities is established. The genus-2 theta-function identities provide the direct way to construct the Poisson structure in terms of the coordinates on the Jacobian of the spectral curve and the elements of its period matrix. The Lax representations for the two-particle systems are also obtained.

  14. Relation of tolerance of ambiguity to global and specific paranormal experience. (United States)

    Houran, J; Williams, C


    We examined the relationship of tolerance of ambiguity to severe global factors and specific types of anomalous or paranormal experience. 107 undergraduate students completed MacDonald's 1970 AT-20 and the Anomalous Experiences Inventory of Kumar, Pekala, and Gallagher. Scores on the five subscales of the Anomalous Experiences Inventory correlated differently with tolerance of ambiguity. Global paranormal beliefs, abilities, experiences, and drug use were positively associated with tolerance of ambiguity, whereas a fear of paranormal experience showed a negative relation. The specific types of anomalous experiences that correlated with tolerance of ambiguity often involved internal or physiological experience, e.g., precognitive dreams, memories of reincarnation, visual apparitions, and vestibular alterations. We generally found no effects of age of sex. These results are consistent with the idea that some paranormal experiences are misattributions of internal experience to external ('paranormal') sources, a process analogous to mechanisms underpinning delusions and hallucinations.

  15. Measurements on irradiated L1 sensor prototypes for the D0 Run IIb silicon detector project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahsan, M.; Bolton, T.; Carnes, K.; /Kansas State U.; Demarteau, M.; /Fermilab; Demina, R.; /Rochester U.; Gray, T.; /Kansas State U.; Korjenevski, S.; /Rochester U.; Lehner, F.; /Zurich U.; Lipton, R.; Mao, H.S.; /Fermilab; McCarthy, R.; /SUNY, Stony Brook /Kansas State U. /Fermilab


    We report on irradiation studies of Hamamatsu prototype silicon microstrip detectors for layer 1 of the D0 upgrade project for Run IIb. The irradiation was carried out with 10 MeV protons up to proton fluence of 10{sup 14} p/cm{sup 2} at the J.R. Macdonald Laboratory, Manhatten, KS. The flux calibration was carefully checked using different dose normalization techniques. The results based on the obtained sensor leakage currents after irradiation show that the NIEL scaling hypothesis for low energy protons has to be applied with great care. We observe 30-40% less radiation damage in silicon for 10 MeV proton exposure than is expected from the predicted NIEL scaling.

  16. Ground-state Properties of Inhomogeneous Graphene Sheets (United States)

    Polini, Marco


    When inter-valley scattering is weak and gauge fields due to e.g. ripples are neglected, doped and gated graphene sheets can be described using an envelope-function Hamiltonian with a new sublattice pseudospin degree-of freedom, an ultrarelativistic massless-Dirac free-fermion term, a pseudospin scalar disorder potential, and a non-relativistic instantaneous Coulombic interaction term. There is considerable evidence from experiment that this simplified description of a honeycomb lattice of Carbon atoms is usually a valid starting point for theories of those observables that depend solely on the electronic properties of π-electrons near the graphene Dirac point [1]. Although the use of this model simplifies the physics considerably it still leaves us with a many-body problem without translational invariance, which we do not know how to solve. In this talk we present a Kohn-Sham-Dirac density-functional-theory (DFT) scheme for graphene sheets that treats slowly-varying inhomogeneous scalar external potentials and electron-electron interactions on an equal footing [2]. The theory is able to account for the unusual property that the exchange-correlation contribution to chemical potential increases with carrier density in graphene [3,4]. Consequences of this property, and advantages and disadvantages of using the DFT approach to describe it, are discussed. The approach is illustrated by solving the Kohn-Sham-Dirac equations self-consistently for a model random potential describing charged point-like impurities located close to the graphene plane. The influence of electron-electron interactions on these non-linear screening calculations is discussed at length, in the light of recent experiments [5,6] reporting evidence for the presence of electron-hole puddles in nearly-neutral graphene sheets. [4pt] [1] A.K. Geim and K.S. Novoselov, Nature Mater. 6, 183 (2007); A.K. Geim and A.H. MacDonald, Phys. Today 60, 35 (2007); A.H. Castro Neto, F. Guinea, N.M.R. Peres, K

  17. Superpolynomials for torus knots from evolution induced by cut-and-join operators (United States)

    Dunin-Barkowski, P.; Mironov, A.; Morozov, A.; Sleptsov, A.; Smirnov, A.


    The colored HOMFLY polynomials, which describe Wilson loop averages in Chern-Simons theory, possess an especially simple representation for torus knots, which begins from quantum R-matrix and ends up with a trivially-looking split W representation familiar from character calculus applications to matrix models and Hurwitz theory. Substitution of MacDonald polynomials for characters in these formulas provides a very simple description of "superpolynomials", much simpler than the recently studied alternative which deforms relation to the WZNW theory and explicitly involves the Littlewood-Richardson coefficients. A lot of explicit expressions are presented for different representations (Young diagrams), many of them new. In particular, we provide the superpolynomial {P}_{{[ 1 ]}}^{{[ {m,km± 1} ]}} for arbitrary m and k. The procedure is not restricted to the fundamental (all antisymmetric) representations and the torus knots.

  18. A combinatorial description of the affine Gindikin-Karpelevich formula of type A_n^(1)

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Seok-Jin; Ryu, Hansol; Salisbury, Ben


    The classical Gindikin-Karpelevich formula appears in Langlands' calculation of the constant terms of Eisenstein series on reductive groups and in Macdonald's work on p-adic groups and affine Hecke algebras. The formula has been generalized in the work of Garland to the affine Kac-Moody case, and the affine case has been geometrically constructed in a recent paper of Braverman, Finkelberg, and Kazhdan. On the other hand, there have been efforts to write the formula as a sum over Kashiwara's crystal basis or Lusztig's canonical basis, initiated by Brubaker, Bump, and Friedberg. In this paper, we write the affine Gindikin-Karpelevich formula as a sum over the crystal of generalized Young walls when the underlying Kac-Moody algebra is of affine type A_n^(1). The coefficients of the terms in the sum are determined explicitly by the combinatorial data from Young walls.

  19. The effects of reverberant self- and overlap-masking on speech recognition in cochlear implant listeners. (United States)

    Desmond, Jill M; Collins, Leslie M; Throckmorton, Chandra S


    Many cochlear implant (CI) listeners experience decreased speech recognition in reverberant environments [Kokkinakis et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 129(5), 3221-3232 (2011)], which may be caused by a combination of self- and overlap-masking [Bolt and MacDonald, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 21(6), 577-580 (1949)]. Determining the extent to which these effects decrease speech recognition for CI listeners may influence reverberation mitigation algorithms. This study compared speech recognition with ideal self-masking mitigation, with ideal overlap-masking mitigation, and with no mitigation. Under these conditions, mitigating either self- or overlap-masking resulted in significant improvements in speech recognition for both normal hearing subjects utilizing an acoustic model and for CI listeners using their own devices.

  20. A New Formulation for General Relativistic Force-Free Electrodynamics and Its Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    We formulate the general relativistic force-free electrodynamics in a new 3+1 language. In this formulation, when we have properly defined electric and magnetic fields, the covariant Maxwell equations could be cast in the traditional form with new vacuum con stitutive constraint equations. The fundamental equation governing a stationary, axisymmet ric force-free black hole magnetosphere is derived using this formulation which recasts the Grad-Shafranov equation in a simpler way. Compared to the classic 3+1 system of Thorne and MacDonald, the new system of 3+1 equations is more suitable for numerical use for it keeps the hyperbolic structure of the electrodynamics and avoids the singularity at the event horizon. This formulation could be readily extended to non-relativistic limit and find applications in flat spacetime. We investigate its application to disk wind, black hole magnetosphere and solar physics in both flat and curved spacetime.

  1. Anti-airborne-molecular-contamination technology in clean rooms; Kukichu no kagaku osen no teigen taisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakata, S.; Sato, K.; Takahashi, H.; Okada, T.


    As for, countermeasures for chemical contaminants in a cleanroom air, the technical development has progressed earnestly since T top phenomenon of photo-amplified resist with basic gas due to atmosphere was pointed out in 1991 by MacDonald. Airborne-Molecular-Contamination (AMC) is classified into acids, bases, condensables, and dopants. According to SEMATECH no 95052812A-TR, condensable are defined as silicones or hydrocarbons with a boiling point greater than or equal to 150 degC. Water-soluble gaseous contaminants in outdoor air coming into cleanrooms are removed with a water spray equipment. AMC originated from circulating air in cleanrooms are prevented using various chemical filters. Conventional chemical filters made of activated charcoal, however, have several defects. Ceramic chemical filters developed by the authors are nonflammable, and consist of inorganic materials without any volatile organic matters and without alkaline metal and so on, and they have high removal efficiencies of condensable. 15 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Hall-Littlewood plane partitions and Gelfand-Dikii integrable hierarchies

    CERN Document Server

    Foda, O


    MacMahon's classic generating function of random plane partitions, which is related to Schur polynomials, was recently extended by Vuletic to a generating function of weighted plane partitions that is related to Hall-Littlewood polynomials and further to one related to Macdonald polynomials. Using Jing's 1-parameter deformation of charged free fermions, we obtain a Fock space derivation of the Hall-Littlewood extension. Setting the deformation parameter to e^{2 pi i/n}, n in N >= 2, we obtain the generating function S_n of weighted plane partitions with horizontal plateaux that are at most (n-1) paths wide, when measured diagonally. We show that S_n is a specialization of a tau function of the n-th Gelfand-Dikii integrable hierarchy.

  3. Sex, Receptors and Attachment: A Review of Individual Factors Influencing Response to Oxytocin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai S Macdonald


    Full Text Available As discussed in the larger review in this special issue (MacDonald and Feifel, intranasal oxytocin (IN OT is demonstrating a growing potential as a therapeutic agent in psychiatry. Importantly, research suggests that a variety of individual factors may influence a person’s response to OT. In this mini-review, I provides a review of three: (1 sex and hormonal status; (2 genetic variation in aspects of the OT system (i.e. OT receptors; and (3 attachment history. Each of these factors will be important to monitor as we strive to develop a richer understanding of OT's role in human development, brain-based disease, and the potential for individualized, OT-targeted treatments.

  4. Proving AGT conjecture as HS duality: Extension to five dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mironov, A., E-mail: [Lebedev Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); ITEP, Moscow (Russian Federation); Morozov, A., E-mail: [ITEP, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shakirov, Sh., E-mail: [Department of Mathematics, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); ITEP, Moscow (Russian Federation); Smirnov, A., E-mail: [ITEP, Moscow (Russian Federation); MIPT, Dolgoprudny (Russian Federation)


    We extend the proof from Mironov et al. (2011) , which interprets the AGT relation as the Hubbard-Stratonovich duality relation to the case of 5d gauge theories. This involves an additional q-deformation. Not surprisingly, the extension turns out to be straightforward: it is enough to substitute all relevant numbers by q-numbers in all the formulas, Dotsenko-Fateev integrals by the Jackson sums and the Jack polynomials by the MacDonald ones. The problem with extra poles in individual Nekrasov functions continues to exist, therefore, such a proof works only for {beta}=1, i.e. for q=t in MacDonald's notation. For {beta}{ne}1 the conformal blocks are related in this way to a non-Nekrasov decomposition of the LMNS partition function into a double sum over Young diagrams.

  5. Editorial: Approaching 125. (United States)

    Goodman, Sherryl


    With this issue, beginning Volume 121, the editorial team shifts from the strong leadership of David Watson to a team under my direction. Approaching 125 years of publication, the Journal of Abnormal Psychology has earned its place as the preeminent outlet for research in psychopathology. With gratitude to the newly assembled team of associate editors (AEs), consulting editors, and ad hoc reviewers, I look forward to guiding the journal through this next term. Nine well-respected scholars have agreed to serve as AEs: Timothy Brown, Laurie Chassin, Jeff Epstein, Jutta Joormann, Pamela Keel, Kate Keenan, Scott Lilienfeld, Angus MacDonald, and Michael Young. The new team is dedicated to working tirelessly to maintain and enhance the journal's esteemed tradition of excellence. Given the well-established strengths of the journal, I will not suggest any fundamental changes.

  6. Mathematical models of human african trypanosomiasis epidemiology. (United States)

    Rock, Kat S; Stone, Chris M; Hastings, Ian M; Keeling, Matt J; Torr, Steve J; Chitnis, Nakul


    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), commonly called sleeping sickness, is caused by Trypanosoma spp. and transmitted by tsetse flies (Glossina spp.). HAT is usually fatal if untreated and transmission occurs in foci across sub-Saharan Africa. Mathematical modelling of HAT began in the 1980s with extensions of the Ross-Macdonald malaria model and has since consisted, with a few exceptions, of similar deterministic compartmental models. These models have captured the main features of HAT epidemiology and provided insight on the effectiveness of the two main control interventions (treatment of humans and tsetse fly control) in eliminating transmission. However, most existing models have overestimated prevalence of infection and ignored transient dynamics. There is a need for properly validated models, evolving with improved data collection, that can provide quantitative predictions to help guide control and elimination strategies for HAT.

  7. Notes on Ding-Iohara algebra and AGT conjecture

    CERN Document Server

    Awata, H; Hoshino, A; Kanai, M; Shiraishi, J; Yanagida, S


    We study the representation theory of the Ding-Iohara algebra $\\calU$ to find $q$-analogues of the Alday-Gaiotto-Tachikawa (AGT) relations. We introduce the endomorphism $T(u,v)$ of the Ding-Iohara algebra, having two parameters $u$ and $v$. We define the vertex operator $\\Phi(w)$ by specifying the permutation relations with the Ding-Iohara generators $x^\\pm(z)$ and $\\psi^\\pm(z)$ in terms of $T(u,v)$. For the level one representation, all the matrix elements of the vertex operators with respect to the Macdonald polynomials are factorized and written in terms of the Nekrasov factors for the $K$-theoretic partition functions as in the AGT relations. For higher levels $m=2,3,...$, we present some conjectures, which imply the existence of the $q$-analogues of the AGT relations.

  8. The State of Water in Proton Conducting Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allcock, Harry R.; Benesi, Alan; Macdonald, Digby D.


    The research carried out under grant No. DE-FG02-07ER46371, "The State of Water in Proton Conducting Membranes", during the period June 1, 2008 - May 31, 2010 was comprised of three related parts. These are: 1. An examination of the state of water in classical proton conduction membranes with the use of deuterium T1 NMR spectroscopy (Allcock and Benesi groups). 2. A dielectric relaxation examination of the behavior of water in classical ionomer membranes (Macdonald program). 3. Attempts to synthesize new proton-conduction polymers and membranes derived from the polyphosphazene system. (Allcock program) All three are closely related, crucial aspects of the design and development of new and improved polymer electrolyte fuel cell membranes on which the future of fuel cell technology for portable applications depends.

  9. Featuring animacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Ritter


    Full Text Available Algonquian languages are famous for their animacy-based grammatical properties—an animacy based noun classification system and direct/inverse system which gives rise to animacy hierarchy effects in the determination of verb agreement. In this paper I provide new evidence for the proposal that the distinctive properties of these languages is due to the use of participant-based features, rather than spatio-temporal ones, for both nominal and verbal functional categories (Ritter & Wiltschko 2009, 2014. Building on Wiltschko (2012, I develop a formal treatment of the Blackfoot aspectual system that assumes a category Inner Aspect (cf. MacDonald 2008, Travis 1991, 2010. Focusing on lexical aspect in Blackfoot, I demonstrate that the classification of both nouns (Seinsarten and verbs (Aktionsarten is based on animacy, rather than boundedness, resulting in a strikingly different aspectual system for both categories. 

  10. ABCD of Beta Ensembles and Topological Strings

    CERN Document Server

    Krefl, Daniel


    We study beta-ensembles with Bn, Cn, and Dn eigenvalue measure and their relation with refined topological strings. Our results generalize the familiar connections between local topological strings and matrix models leading to An measure, and illustrate that all those classical eigenvalue ensembles, and their topological string counterparts, are related one to another via various deformations and specializations, quantum shifts and discrete quotients. We review the solution of the Gaussian models via Macdonald identities, and interpret them as conifold theories. The interpolation between the various models is plainly apparent in this case. For general polynomial potential, we calculate the partition function in the multi-cut phase in a perturbative fashion, beyond tree-level in the large-N limit. The relation to refined topological string orientifolds on the corresponding local geometry is discussed along the way.

  11. Estrogens, obesity, inflammation, and breast cancer-what is the link? (United States)

    Brown, Kristy A; Simpson, Evan R


    It gives me great pleasure to contribute to this special issue of Seminars which honors the career of Bruce Carr. As it happens, Bruce was my first Fellow upon my arrival at the Green Center for Reproductive Biology Sciences at UT Southwestern Medical Center in 1977. At that time, the Center was filled with luminaries of Reproductive Endocrinology, such as John Porter, Jack Johnston, Norman Gant, and of course the Director, Paul MacDonald, so to be given the responsibility of mentoring a new Fellow was a daunting responsibility. However, Bruce quickly rolled up his sleeves and plunged straight in, and we forged a relationship which led to some 36 manuscripts in 4 years. The first of these was entitled "The Role of Serum Lipoproteins in Steroidogenesis by the Human Fetal Adrenal Cortex," published in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, volume 49, pages 146-148, in 1979, and the authors were Simpson ER, Carr BR, Parker CR Jr, Milewich L, Porter JC, and MacDonald PC. Bruce quickly moved up the ranks of the Obstetrics/Gynecology Department to become full Professor and we went our separate ways professionally, but we remain close friends to this day. This special issue is indeed a worthy tribute to an outstanding career and especially to Bruce's role as editor-in-chief of Seminars which he has guided through the rapid evolution of the specialty, always maintaining a strong research focus and thus carrying on the rich tradition of the Green Center and the Obstetrics/Gynecology Department. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  12. Automatic multi-modal MR tissue classification for the assessment of response to bevacizumab in patients with glioblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liberman, Gilad [The Functional Brain Center, The Wohl Institute for Advanced Imaging, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Gonda Multidisciplinary Brain Research Center, Bar Ilan University, Ramat-Gan (Israel); Louzoun, Yoram [Mathematics Department, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan (Israel); Aizenstein, Orna [The Functional Brain Center, The Wohl Institute for Advanced Imaging, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Blumenthal, Deborah T.; Bokstein, Felix [Neuro-Oncology Service, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Palmon, Mika [The Functional Brain Center, The Wohl Institute for Advanced Imaging, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Corn, Benjamin W. [Institute of Radiotherapy, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Ben Bashat, Dafna, E-mail: [The Functional Brain Center, The Wohl Institute for Advanced Imaging, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel)


    Background: Current methods for evaluation of treatment response in glioblastoma are inaccurate, limited and time-consuming. This study aimed to develop a multi-modal MRI automatic classification method to improve accuracy and efficiency of treatment response assessment in patients with recurrent glioblastoma (GB). Materials and methods: A modification of the k-Nearest-Neighbors (kNN) classification method was developed and applied to 59 longitudinal MR data sets of 13 patients with recurrent GB undergoing bevacizumab (anti-angiogenic) therapy. Changes in the enhancing tumor volume were assessed using the proposed method and compared with Macdonald's criteria and with manual volumetric measurements. The edema-like area was further subclassified into peri- and non-peri-tumoral edema, using both the kNN method and an unsupervised method, to monitor longitudinal changes. Results: Automatic classification using the modified kNN method was applicable in all scans, even when the tumors were infiltrative with unclear borders. The enhancing tumor volume obtained using the automatic method was highly correlated with manual measurements (N = 33, r = 0.96, p < 0.0001), while standard radiographic assessment based on Macdonald's criteria matched manual delineation and automatic results in only 68% of cases. A graded pattern of tumor infiltration within the edema-like area was revealed by both automatic methods, showing high agreement. All classification results were confirmed by a senior neuro-radiologist and validated using MR spectroscopy. Conclusion: This study emphasizes the important role of automatic tools based on a multi-modal view of the tissue in monitoring therapy response in patients with high grade gliomas specifically under anti-angiogenic therapy.

  13. A 3-D Finite-Volume Non-hydrostatic Icosahedral Model (NIM) (United States)

    Lee, Jin


    The Nonhydrostatic Icosahedral Model (NIM) formulates the latest numerical innovation of the three-dimensional finite-volume control volume on the quasi-uniform icosahedral grid suitable for ultra-high resolution simulations. NIM's modeling goal is to improve numerical accuracy for weather and climate simulations as well as to utilize the state-of-art computing architecture such as massive parallel CPUs and GPUs to deliver routine high-resolution forecasts in timely manner. NIM dynamic corel innovations include: * A local coordinate system remapped spherical surface to plane for numerical accuracy (Lee and MacDonald, 2009), * Grid points in a table-driven horizontal loop that allow any horizontal point sequence (A.E. MacDonald, et al., 2010), * Flux-Corrected Transport formulated on finite-volume operators to maintain conservative positive definite transport (J.-L, Lee, ET. Al., 2010), *Icosahedral grid optimization (Wang and Lee, 2011), * All differentials evaluated as three-dimensional finite-volume integrals around the control volume. The three-dimensional finite-volume solver in NIM is designed to improve pressure gradient calculation and orographic precipitation over complex terrain. NIM dynamical core has been successfully verified with various non-hydrostatic benchmark test cases such as internal gravity wave, and mountain waves in Dynamical Cores Model Inter-comparisons Projects (DCMIP). Physical parameterizations suitable for NWP are incorporated into NIM dynamical core and successfully tested with multimonth aqua-planet simulations. Recently, NIM has started real data simulations using GFS initial conditions. Results from the idealized tests as well as real-data simulations will be shown in the conference.

  14. BOOK REVIEW: Key Science Physics: New Edition and Key Science Physics for International Schools: Extension File (United States)

    Maybank, Maureen


    When handling , I recalled how one set of sixth-form students that I taught affectionately referred to Jim Breithaupt's large format book Understanding Physics for Advanced Level as `Big Jim'. This package, for GCSE students and teachers, is its younger brother. Key Science Physics was reviewed in this journal over four years ago. Now it is in a new edition with an expanded ring file of teacher resources (a Teacher's Guide and Extension File). It has been expanded for a wider range of students to meet the requirements of all GCSE syllabuses with additional topics for IGCSE and IB. The international bit seems to be among materials in the file of resources and does not appear in the title of the students' textbook. This is not one of those purchases that will only get occasional use and be left in a department library but it is one that contains sufficient excellent material to become central to any GCSE Physics course. For the students there is a single-volume 396-page textbook in full colour (not a heavyweight book). Marginal comments point out places where an Activity or Assignment from the Extension File fits in. All the materials in the teacher's Extension File are cross referenced to the numbering of this textbook, i.e. its Themes, Topics, Checkpoints, Tests etc, not to page numbers. The margin is used in other attractive ways to highlight a summary, propose a first thought or provide a topic summary. The text is fruitful mix of pure physics, applications and personalities. To support the students' practical work the Extension File contains photocopiable sheets. For the activities and assignments a few contain a harder version to give access to the higher levels of attainment. Four alternatives to practical questions are given; there are also exam questions and multiple choice questions for each topic. These all have helpful mark schemes on the teacher's answers pages. What else do you get? A Glossary collection of sheets to photocopy with space to enter a

  15. Tidal torques: a critical review of some techniques (United States)

    Efroimsky, Michael; Williams, James G.


    We review some techniques employed in the studies of torques due to bodily tides, and explain why the MacDonald formula for the tidal torque is valid only in the zeroth order of the eccentricity divided by the quality factor, while its time-average is valid in the first order. As a result, the formula cannot be used for analysis in higher orders of e/ Q. This necessitates some corrections in the current theory of tidal despinning and libration damping (though the qualitative conclusions of that theory may largely remain correct). We demonstrate that in the case when the inclinations are small and the phase lags of the tidal harmonics are proportional to the frequency, the Darwin-Kaula expansion is equivalent to a corrected version of the MacDonald method. The latter method rests on the assumption of existence of one total double bulge. The necessary correction to MacDonald’s approach would be to assert (following Singer, Geophys. J. R. Astron. Soc., 15: 205-226, 1968) that the phase lag of this integral bulge is not constant, but is proportional to the instantaneous synodal frequency (which is twice the difference between the evolution rates of the true anomaly and the sidereal angle). This equivalence of two descriptions becomes violated by a nonlinear dependence of the phase lag upon the tidal frequency. It remains unclear whether it is violated at higher inclinations. Another goal of our paper is to compare two derivations of a popular formula for the tidal despinning rate, and emphasise that both are strongly limited to the case of a vanishing inclination and a certain (sadly, unrealistic) law of frequency-dependence of the quality factor Q—the law that follows from the phase lag being proportional to frequency. One of the said derivations is based on the MacDonald torque, the other on the Darwin torque. Fortunately, the second approach is general enough to accommodate both a finite inclination and the actual rheology. We also address the rheological models

  16. Participatory evaluation in the New Public management La evaluación participativa en la Nueva Gestión Pública

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Trinidad Requena


    Full Text Available Every evaluation process has some effects. The explicit ones will command the attention of the evaluators and those evaluated, while the implicit ones go unnoticed. However, the real power of evaluation lies in its implicit effects. Those being evaluated will adapt their personal and professional behavior to the parameters which the evaluation measures, which is one of the implicit effects of every evaluation. Thus, eventually, the model of intervention or management that underlies each evaluation is imposed, since it is the invisible force behind the review. On occasion, this is used to avoid conflict within public administration, since it permits the imposition of a model of management which otherwise would not be accepted by those involved. In response to such effects, evaluators may choose other perspectives, such as democratic evaluation which B. Macdonald (1991 proposes, since it is more a service to the community involved in the public policy or organization. In this case we will call it participatory evaluation.Todo proceso de evaluación tiene unos efectos, los explícitos son los que acaparan la atención de los evaluados y evaluadores, olvidándose de los efectos implícitos. Sin embargo, el autentico poder de la evaluación está en los efectos implícitos. Los implicado en la evaluación para evitar ser evaluado negativamente adaptaran su comportamiento personal y profesional a los parámetros que mide la evaluación, siendo uno de los efectos implícitos de toda evaluación; de esta manera al final se impondrá el modelo de intervención o gestión que subyace en toda evaluación, siendo la fuerza invisible de la evaluación, y en ocasiones utilizada para evitar conflictos dentro de la Administración pública, al permitir imponer un modelo de gestión que de otra manera no sería aceptado por los implicados. Atendiendo a tales efectos, la evaluación puede optar por otras perspectivas como la evaluación democrática que propone B

  17. Predicting Cumulative Watershed Effects using Spatially Explicit Models (United States)

    MacDonald, L. H.; Litschert, S.


    analyses. Both DeltaQ and FOREST will be demonstrated and can be downloaded at:

  18. Benefit with methylprednisolone in continuous pulsetherapy in progressive primary form of multiple sclerosis: study of 11 cases in 11 years Benefício do uso de pulsoterapia contínua com metilprednisolona na forma primária progressiva da esclerose múltipla: estudo de 11 casos em 11 anos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmar A.S. de Araújo


    Full Text Available Primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS is defined clinically with a progressive course from onset. There is no approved treatment for the PPMS. Methylprednisolone IV (MP hastens the recovery from MS relapses. We studied 11 patients that met the MacDonald's diagnostic criteria for PPMS. The dose of MP was 30 mg/kg in 250 mL of glucose solution in three consecutive days during the first week, two doses during the second and one dose in the third week. One weekly session for eight consecutive weeks was given. After, a once-a week/eight-week interval was maintained. The medium EDSS before treatment was 6.2, and after 11.2 years of treatment, the EDSS was 4.9. Although we studied a small sample of PPMS we may conclude that therapy with IVMP prevents clinical worsening of MS in the majority of patients with improvement in EDSS scores.A forma progressiva da esclerose múltipla (FPEM é definida como progressiva desde o início. Não há tratamento eficaz para esta forma. A metilprednisolona por via endovenosa (MPEV é usada para os surtos de exacerbação da EM. Estudamos 11 pacientes que preenchiam os critérios de MacDonald para FPMS. A dose inicial de MPEV foi de 30 mg/kg em 250 mL de soro glicosado por três dias consecutivos na primeira semana, duas doses na segunda e uma dose na terceira semana. Seguiu-se uma sessão semanal por oito semanas. Após manteve-se uma dose semanal a cada oito semanas. A média do EDDS foi 9,6 antes e 4,9 após 11,2 anos de tratamento. Embora tenhamos estudado número reduzido de casos, podemos dizer que o uso de MPEV impede a progressão da FPEM na maioria dos pacientes estudados com melhora do EDDS.

  19. Tracing recycled volatiles in a heterogeneous mantle with boron isotopes (United States)

    Walowski, Kristina; Kirstein, Linda; de Hoog, Cees-Jan; Elliot, Tim; Savov, Ivan; Devey, Colin


    Recycling of oceanic lithosphere drives the chemical evolution of the Earth's mantle supplying both solids and volatiles to the Earth's interior. Yet, how subducted material influences mantle composition remains unclear. A perfect tracer for slab recycling should be only fractionated at the Earth's surface, have a strong influence on mantle compositions but be resistant to perturbations en route back to the surface. Current understanding suggests that boron concentrations linked to B isotope determinations fulfil all these requirements and should be an excellent tracer of heterogeneity in the deep mantle. Here, we present the trace element, volatile and the B isotope composition of basaltic glasses and melt inclusions in olivine from distinct end-member ocean island basalts (OIB) to track the fate of recycled lithosphere and ultimately document how recycling contributes to mantle heterogeneity. The chosen samples represent the different end member OIB compositions and include: EMI (Pitcairn), EMII (MacDonald), HIMU (St. Helena), and FOZO (Cape Verde & Reunion). The data is derived from both submarine and subaerial deposits, with B isotope determination of both basaltic glass and melt inclusions from each locality. Preliminary results suggest OIB have B isotopic compositions that overlap the MORB array (-7.5‰±0.7; Marschall et al., 2015) but extend to both lighter and heavier values. These results suggest that B isotopes will be useful for resolving mantle source heterogeneity at different ocean islands and contribute to our understanding of the volatile budget of the deep mantle.

  20. Dynamical Non-Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics

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    Giovanni Ciccotti


    Full Text Available In this review, we discuss the Dynamical approach to Non-Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics (D-NEMD, which extends stationary NEMD to time-dependent situations, be they responses or relaxations. Based on the original Onsager regression hypothesis, implemented in the nineteen-seventies by Ciccotti, Jacucci and MacDonald, the approach permits one to separate the problem of dynamical evolution from the problem of sampling the initial condition. D-NEMD provides the theoretical framework to compute time-dependent macroscopic dynamical behaviors by averaging on a large sample of non-equilibrium trajectories starting from an ensemble of initial conditions generated from a suitable (equilibrium or non-equilibrium distribution at time zero. We also discuss how to generate a large class of initial distributions. The same approach applies also to the calculation of the rate constants of activated processes. The range of problems treatable by this method is illustrated by discussing applications to a few key hydrodynamic processes (the “classical” flow under shear, the formation of convective cells and the relaxation of an interface between two immiscible liquids.

  1. Rutherford's curriculum vitae, 1894-1907. (United States)

    Cohen, M


    A single page, handwritten document was discovered when the Macdonald Physics building of McGill University in Montreal was gutted in 1978. This proved to be the draft of Ernest Rutherford's curriculum vitae (C.V.) covering the years 1894-1907, probably written in the autumn of 1906 when Rutherford was preparing to leave McGill. The C.V. contains 21 headings in chronological order, referring to research and other activities of Rutherford and his coauthors (especially Soddy and Barnes), plus a further set of headings relating to the associated investigations of Rutherford's team, including Eve and Hahn. A transcript of the document is provided, although in several places, Rutherford's handwriting is difficult to interpret, and the significance of his abbreviations is not always clear. Each of the items in the C.V. is discussed briefly in this review, in the light both of Rutherford's personal career and of the contribution of his team to the development and understanding of radioactivity. This contribution included the cause and nature of radioactivity (with Soddy), energy aspects of radioactive decay (with Barnes), elucidation of the uranium-radium, thorium and actinium series (Godlewski and Hahn), the radioactivity of the earth and atmosphere (Eve), the nature of the gamma rays (Eve) and, perhaps most important of all, the nature and properties of the alpha particle (Rutherford himself). The latter investigations led directly to Rutherford's later work in Manchester, including the nuclear model of the atom and artificial disintegration of the nucleus.

  2. Does reservoir host mortality enhance transmission of West Nile virus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foppa Ivo M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since its 1999 emergence in New York City, West Nile virus (WNV has become the most important and widespread cause of mosquito-transmitted disease in North America. Its sweeping spread from the Atlantic to the Pacific coast was accompanied by widespread mortality among wild birds, especially corvids. Only sporadic avian mortality had previously been associated with this infection in the Old World. Here, we examine the possibility that reservoir host mortality may intensify transmission, both by concentrating vector mosquitoes on remaining hosts and by preventing the accumulation of "herd immunity". Results Inspection of the Ross-Macdonald expression of the basic reproductive number (R0 suggests that this quantity may increase with reservoir host mortality. Computer simulation confirms this finding and indicates that the level of virulence is positively associated with the numbers of infectious mosquitoes by the end of the epizootic. The presence of reservoir incompetent hosts in even moderate numbers largely eliminated the transmission-enhancing effect of host mortality. Local host die-off may prevent mosquitoes to "waste" infectious blood meals on immune host and may thus facilitate perpetuation and spread of transmission. Conclusion Under certain conditions, host mortality may enhance transmission of WNV and similarly maintained arboviruses and thus facilitate their emergence and spread. The validity of the assumptions upon which this argument is built need to be empirically examined.

  3. Operator identities involving the bivariate Rogers-Szegö polynomials and their applications to the multiple q-series identities (United States)

    Zhang, Zhizheng; Wang, Tianze


    In this paper, we first give several operator identities involving the bivariate Rogers-Szegö polynomials. By applying the technique of parameter augmentation to the multiple q-binomial theorems given by Milne [S.C. Milne, Balanced summation theorems for U(n) basic hypergeometric series, AdvE Math. 131 (1997) 93-187], we obtain several new multiple q-series identities involving the bivariate Rogers-Szegö polynomials. These include multiple extensions of Mehler's formula and Rogers's formula. Our U(n+1) generalizations are quite natural as they are also a direct and immediate consequence of their (often classical) known one-variable cases and Milne's fundamental theorem for An or U(n+1) basic hypergeometric series in Theorem 1E49 of [S.C. Milne, An elementary proof of the Macdonald identities for , Adv. Math. 57 (1985) 34-70], as rewritten in Lemma 7.3 on p. 163 of [S.C. Milne, Balanced summation theorems for U(n) basic hypergeometric series, Adv. Math. 131 (1997) 93-187] or Corollary 4.4 on pp. 768-769 of [S.C. Milne, M. Schlosser, A new An extension of Ramanujan's summation with applications to multilateral An series, Rocky Mountain J. Math. 32 (2002) 759-792].

  4. Competitive mothering and delegated care: Class relationships in nanny and au pair employment

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    Rosie Cox


    Full Text Available This paper uses the idea of 'competitive care' to explore how the mothering projects of nanny and au pair employers and the carers they employ can become inter-twined and yet may also be in conflict or competition. The paper draws on work by Cameron Lynne Macdonald (2010 and Joan Tronto (2006 to make two arguments about the inter-twining of current practices of competitive mothering and the employment of nannies and au pairs. First, practices of competitive mothering can underpin the demand for paid, privatized care in the home (such as nannies and au pairs and involve middle class / advantaged women using their position to raise their children in ways which are specifically designed to ensure and enhance their children's future social status and income. This can be at the cost of the mothering projects (and children of the women they employ. Second, one factor which underlies the prevalence of competitive mothering within certain middle class families is the conflict that working mothers feel about their roles and their strong desire to address these conflicts by showing that their children do not suffer because of their employment. The emphasis on care for children as mothering, rather than parenting – or better still 'care' – underpins this sense of conflict. The idea that it is mothers, rather than parents or society at large, who are delegating care is an important element in the organisation of care, and the relationships with carers that ensue.

  5. Assessing progress and outcome of early intensive behavioral intervention for toddlers with autism. (United States)

    MacDonald, Rebecca; Parry-Cruwys, Diana; Dupere, Sally; Ahearn, William


    Intensive behavioral intervention for young children diagnosed with autism can produce large gains in social, cognitive, and language development. Although several studies have identified behaviors that are possible indicators of best outcome, changes in performance are typically measured using norm-referenced standardized scores referencing overall functioning level rather than via repeated observational measures of autism-specific deficits (i.e., social behavior). In the current study, 83 children with autism (CWA), aged 1, 2 and 3 years, and 58 same-aged typically developing children (TDC) were directly observed in the areas of cognitive skills, joint attention (JA), play, and stereotypic behavior using a measure called the Early Skills Assessment Tool (ESAT; MacDonald et al., 2006). CWA were assessed at entry into an EIBI program and again after 1 year of treatment. Changes in performance were compared pre- and post-treatment as well as to the normative data by age. Results indicate significant gains on the ESAT across all age groups with the greatest gains seen in the children who entered treatment prior to their second birthday. Increases were seen on direct measures of JA, play, imitation and language while decreases were seen in stereotypy regardless of level of performance at entry into EIBI. The ESAT, a direct measurement tool, served as a sensitive tool to measure changes in autism symptomatology following EIBI treatment.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silmy Arizatul Humaira’


    Full Text Available Human being is social creature who needs other people to interact with. One of the ways to interact with others is communication with language. However, communication could be a complicated problem for those who were born with developmental disorder called Asperger Syndrome (AS. The communication challenge of Asperger’s is the difficulty using language appropriately for social purposes or known as pragmatic deficits. Many excellent books about autism are published whereas knowledge on pragmatic deficits are still very limited. Thus, it is expected to be a beneficial reference to understand the pragmatic deficits and to create strategies for them to communicate effectively. Therefore, this study aimed at exploring the kinds of pragmatic deficits of an individual with AS. The verbal language profiles of autism purposed by MacDonald (2004 is used to analyzed the data in depth. The descriptive qualitative method is applied to develop a comprehensive understanding about the AS case in Temple Grandin movie.The finding shows that all of the five types of communication deficits are appearing and the dominant of which is unresponsive.

  7. The transition probability and the probability for the left-most particle's position of the q-totally asymmetric zero range process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korhonen, Marko [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Helsinki, FIN-00014 (Finland); Lee, Eunghyun [Centre de Recherches Mathématiques (CRM), Université de Montréal, Quebec H3C 3J7 (Canada)


    We treat the N-particle zero range process whose jumping rates satisfy a certain condition. This condition is required to use the Bethe ansatz and the resulting model is the q-boson model by Sasamoto and Wadati [“Exact results for one-dimensional totally asymmetric diffusion models,” J. Phys. A 31, 6057–6071 (1998)] or the q-totally asymmetric zero range process (TAZRP) by Borodin and Corwin [“Macdonald processes,” Probab. Theory Relat. Fields (to be published)]. We find the explicit formula of the transition probability of the q-TAZRP via the Bethe ansatz. By using the transition probability we find the probability distribution of the left-most particle's position at time t. To find the probability for the left-most particle's position we find a new identity corresponding to identity for the asymmetric simple exclusion process by Tracy and Widom [“Integral formulas for the asymmetric simple exclusion process,” Commun. Math. Phys. 279, 815–844 (2008)]. For the initial state that all particles occupy a single site, the probability distribution of the left-most particle's position at time t is represented by the contour integral of a determinant.

  8. Minimization principle for non degenerate excited states (independent of orthogonality to lower lying known approximants)

    CERN Document Server

    Bacalis, Naoum C


    The computation of small concise and comprehensible excited state wave functions is needed because many electronic processes occur in excited states. But since the excited energies are saddle points in the Hilbert space of wave functions, the standard computational methods, based on orthogonality to lower lying approximants, resort to huge and incomprehensible wave functions, otherwise, the truncated wave function is veered away from the exact. The presented variational principle for excited states, Fn, is demonstrated to lead to the correct excited eigenfunction in necessarily small truncated spaces. Using Hylleraas coordinates for He 1S 1s2s, the standard method based on the theorem of Hylleraas - Unheim, and MacDonald, yields misleading main orbitals 1s1s' and needs a series expansion of 27 terms to be corrected, whereas minimizing Fn goes directly to the corect main orbitals, 1s2s, and can be adequately improved by 8 terms. Fn uses crude, rather inaccurate, lower lying approximants and does not need ortho...

  9. Research Methods of Takaaki Kajita,the Nobel Prize Winners in Physics 2015%2015年诺贝尔物理学奖获得者梶田隆章研究方法初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈培; 张洪雷


    日本科学家梶田隆章与加拿大科学家阿瑟·麦克唐纳因中微子振荡研究,共同分享了2015年度诺贝尔物理学奖。梶田隆章和麦克唐纳利用两国的大型仪器对中微子做出了重要的测量,二人的研究证明了中微子存在质量,这一发现改变了人类对宇宙的历史、结构和未来的一些认识。本文简单介绍了两位科学家的研究历程,初探其科学研究方法。%The Nobel Prize in Physics 2015 was jointly to Takaaki Kajita and Arthur B .MacDonald for the discovery of neutrino oscillations .The research in turn proved that neutrinos have mass by the im‐portant neutrino measurements of large‐scale instruments .This discovery changed the universe’s his‐tory ,structure and some ideas for the future .In this paper ,the two scientists’ research history will be introduced and the scientific research method will be discussed .

  10. The Absence of the FQHE at High Landau Levels (United States)

    Koulakov, A. A.; Fogler, M. M.


    In our earlier paper (A. A. Koulakov, M. M. Fogler, and B. I. Shklovskii, preprint cond-mat/9508017) we have studied the ground state of a two-dimensional electron liquid in a weak magnetic field using the Hartree-Fock approximation (HFA). We have found that the electron cluster in large ``bubbles'', which form a regular lattice with the period of the order of the cyclotron radius. In this work we numerically compare the energies of the ``bubble'' phase and the Laughlin liquids at Landau level (LL) with indices up to N = 10. In calculations, we take into account the screening of the Coulomb interactions at the upper partially occupied LL by electrons of the lower fully occupied LLs. Using the iterational HFA for the ``bubble'' phase, and ansatz wave-function for FQHE states at N > 0 (A. H. MacDonald and S. M. Girvin, Phys. Rev. B 33), 4009 (1986), we show that 1/3 and 1/5 FQHE states do not withstand the competition with the ``bubble'' phase at N > 1.

  11. Book reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV


    Full Text Available Chie Ikeya, Refiguring women, colonialism, and modernity in Burma (Henk Schulte Nordholt Thomas J. Conners, Mason C. Hoadley, Frank Dhont, Kevin Ko (eds, Pancasila’s contemporary appeal: Relegitimizing Indonesia’s founding ethos (R.E. Elson I Nyoman Darma Putra, A literary mirror: Balinese reflections on modernity and identity in the twentieth century (Dick van der Meij Margaret Jolly. Serge Tcherkézoff and Darrell Tryon (eds, Oceanic encounters: Exchange, desire, violence (H.J.M. Claessen Rudolf Mrázek, A certain age: Colonial Jakarta through the memories of its intellectuals (Lutgard Mutsaers Jan Ovesen and Ing-Britt Trankell, Cambodians and their doctors: A medical anthropology of colonial and post-colonial Cambodia (Vivek Neelakantan Daromir Rudnyckyj, Spiritual economies: Islam, globalization and the afterlife of development (Gabrial Facal Claudine Salmon, Sastra Indonesia awal: Kontribusi orang Tionghoa (Melani Budianta Renate Sternagel, Der Humboldt von Java: Leben und Werk des Naturforschers Franz Wilhelm Junghuhn 1809-1864 (Andreas Weber Wynn Wilcox (ed., Vietnam and the West: New approaches (Hans Hägerdal Zheng Yangwen and Charles J.H Macdonald (eds, Personal names in Asia: History, culture and identity (Rosemary Gianno

  12. Limits to the availability of groundwater in Africa (United States)

    Edmunds, W. Mike


    The recent paper on Africa's groundwater by MacDonald et al (2012) has attracted much attention. This is good news, especially since groundwater has been widely ignored, misunderstood or abused, as a fundamental global resource. This important paper goes a long way to raising the profile of groundwater in Africa by providing first-order estimates of the available storage (taking account of saturated aquifer thickness and porosity) as well as mapping expected water yields (aquifer productivity) in that continent. Reliable estimates of groundwater resources can now be set against the far more widely reported surface water availability. The constraints of the methodology used to compile these maps are duly acknowledged, and are well within the hydrogeological state-of-the-art. The paper is backed by carefully reviewed sources of data and a considerable effort has been made to incorporate the extensive grey literature. It is important that this benchmark study is received with the acclaim it deserves. However, the headline—that groundwater storage is some 100 times the annual renewable surface waters—could be misconstrued as implying that groundwater is an abundant new resource, which it is not. Whilst groundwater is key to sustainable development, renewability and accessibility issues need to be addressed. The paper may therefore be seized upon to justify unsustainable groundwater exploitation, or to provide an argument against funding to NGOs and others, for water provision for needy communities. Some constraints that must be taken into account are elaborated here. The conclusions of the paper (MacDonald et al 2012) demonstrate that modest yields of groundwater are quite widely available at accessible depths and sufficient to sustain small communities and their development, but larger yields (>5 l s-1) suitable for urban development or major agricultural schemes are unlikely outside of the sedimentary terrain. The availability and accessibility of groundwater

  13. What Klein’s semantic gradient does and does not really show: decomposing Stroop interference into task and informational conflict components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia eLevin


    Full Text Available The present study suggests that the idea that Stroop interference originates from multiple components may gain theoretically from integrating two independent frameworks. The first framework is represented by the well-known notion of semantic gradient of interference and the second one is the distinction between two types of conflict – the task and the informational conflict – giving rise to the interference (Goldfarb & Henik, 2007; McLeod & MacDonald, 2000. The proposed integration led to the conclusion that two (i.e., orthographic and lexical components of the four theoretically distinct components represent task conflict, and the other two (i.e., indirect and direct informational conflict components represent informational conflict. The four components were independently estimated in a series of experiments. The results confirmed the contribution of task conflict (estimated by a robust orthographic component and of informational conflict (estimated by a strong direct informational conflict component to Stroop interference. However, the performed critical review of the relevant literature (see General Discussion, as well as the results of the experiments reported, showed that the other two components expressing each type of conflict (i.e., the lexical component of task conflict and the indirect informational conflict were small, and unstable. The present analysis refines our knowledge of the origins of Stroop interference by providing evidence that each type of conflict has its major and minor contributions. The implications for cognitive control of an automatic reading process are also discussed.

  14. Order recall in verbal short-term memory: The role of semantic networks. (United States)

    Poirier, Marie; Saint-Aubin, Jean; Mair, Ali; Tehan, Gerry; Tolan, Anne


    In their recent article, Acheson, MacDonald, and Postle (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 37:44-59, 2011) made an important but controversial suggestion: They hypothesized that (a) semantic information has an effect on order information in short-term memory (STM) and (b) order recall in STM is based on the level of activation of items within the relevant lexico-semantic long-term memory (LTM) network. However, verbal STM research has typically led to the conclusion that factors such as semantic category have a large effect on the number of correctly recalled items, but little or no impact on order recall (Poirier & Saint-Aubin, Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 48A:384-404, 1995; Saint-Aubin, Ouellette, & Poirier, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 12:171-177, 2005; Tse, Memory 17:874-891, 2009). Moreover, most formal models of short-term order memory currently suggest a separate mechanism for order coding-that is, one that is separate from item representation and not associated with LTM lexico-semantic networks. Both of the experiments reported here tested the predictions that we derived from Acheson et al. The findings show that, as predicted, manipulations aiming to affect the activation of item representations significantly impacted order memory.

  15. REST-MapReduce: An Integrated Interface but Differentiated Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Hyuk Park


    Full Text Available With the fast deployment of cloud computing, MapReduce architectures are becoming the major technologies for mobile cloud computing. The concept of MapReduce was first introduced as a novel programming model and implementation for a large set of computing devices. In this research, we propose a novel concept of REST-MapReduce, enabling users to use only the REST interface without using the MapReduce architecture. This approach provides a higher level of abstraction by integration of the two types of access interface, REST API and MapReduce. The motivation of this research stems from the slower response time for accessing simple RDBMS on Hadoop than direct access to RDMBS. This is because there is overhead to job scheduling, initiating, starting, tracking, and management during MapReduce-based parallel execution. Therefore, we provide a good performance for REST Open API service and for MapReduce, respectively. This is very useful for constructing REST Open API services on Hadoop hosting services, for example, Amazon AWS (Macdonald, 2005 or IBM Smart Cloud. For evaluating performance of our REST-MapReduce framework, we conducted experiments with Jersey REST web server and Hadoop. Experimental result shows that our approach outperforms conventional approaches.

  16. Is Ontario Hydro for sale? Provincial commission recommends dissolving Utility`s 90-year monopoly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The possible breakup and privatization of Ontario Hydro was discussed, triggered by the recent release of the Macdonald Commission report which found that `there is no longer a sound economic rationale for allowing a large monopoly to dominate the electricity system`. The essence of the Committee`s recommendation was (1) to allow all electricity generators, including out-of-province suppliers to compete on equal terms for Ontario business;, (2) operate Ontario Hydro`s four nuclear generation plants as separate competing entities and keep them in public ownership, (3) provide open non-discriminatory access to Ontario`s transmission system, (4) move responsibility for managing Ontario Hydro`s high-voltage transmission assets to an independent {sup T}ransmission Grid Company`, (5) reduce the number of distribution utilities from the current total of 307, and (6) create community-based organizations to serve remote communities that are not connected to the transmission system. The expectation is that competition will lead to lower energy prices and more choice for consumers. No action from the Ontario government is expected for several months, and not without extensive consultation with the industry and consumers.

  17. Current options for the treatment of optic neuritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pula JH


    Full Text Available John H Pula,1 Christopher J MacDonald21Division of Neuro-ophthalmology, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, Peoria; 2University of Illinois College of Medicine at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL, USAAbstract: Optic neuritis can be defined as typical (associated with multiple sclerosis, improving independent of steroid treatment, or atypical (not associated with multiple sclerosis, steroid-dependent improvement. Causes of atypical optic neuritis include connective tissue diseases (eg, lupus, vasculitis, sarcoidosis, or neuromyelitis optica. In this manuscript, updated treatment options for both typical and atypical optic neuritis are reviewed. Conventional treatments, such as corticosteroids, therapeutic plasma exchange, and intravenous immunoglobulin therapy are all discussed with commentary regarding evidence-based outcomes. Less commonly used treatments and novel purported therapies for optic neuritis are also reviewed. Special scenarios in the treatment of optic neuritis – pediatric optic neuritis, acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis, and optic neuritis occurring during pregnancy – are specifically examined.Keywords: optic neuritis, optic neuropathy, treatment, neuroophthalmology

  18. Black Holes: The Membrane Viewpoint (United States)

    Thorne, Kip S.

    Contents: I. Introduction: 1. Overview of the membrane viewpoint. 2. History of research on the membrane viewpoint. II. The 3+1 split of spacetime: 1. ZAMOs and the 3+1 split of the metric. 2. Gravitoelectric and gravitomagnetic fields. 3. 3+1 split of electrodynamics. III. Stretching the horizon and black-hole thermodynamics: 1. Macdonald's vibrating magnetic field problem. 2. Stretching the horizon. 3. The entropy of a black hole. 4. The thermodynamics and mechanics of a black hole. IV. Electrodynamics of the stretched horizon: 1. The laws of Gauss, Ampere, Ohm, and charge conservation. 2. Lorentz force and ohmic dissipation in the stretched horizon. V. Some electromagnetic model problems: 1. Charge separation in the stretched horizon. 2. Black hole as a resistor in an electric circuit. 3. Black hole as the rotor in an electric motor. 4. Rotating hole immersed in a time-independent, vacuum magnetic field. 5. Magnetized, rotating hole as a battery for an external circuit. VI. Astrophysical applications of the membrane formalism. VII. Conclusion.

  19. A Brief History of the Department of Archaeology, University of Calgary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G. Forbis


    Full Text Available During the early 1960s, largely as a result of the "baby boom" of the 1940s, large numbers of students of college age surfaced. They demanded a wider scope for higher education in Canada. The period saw not only the expansion of facilities in already established universities, but also the creation of many new institutions, among them the University of Calgary. During the early 1960s, the number of full-time professionals practicing and teaching anthropological archaeology in Canada could be counted on the fingers of two hands. The centre of gravity was the National Museum of Canada in Ottawa; of the three to four research archaeologists there, Dr. James V. Wright and Dr. George MacDonald offered occasional instruction at nearby universities. As for other universities, Dr. J. Norman Emerson held a full-time position at the University of Toronto, as did Dr. William J. Mayer-Oakes at the University of British Columbia. Mayer-Oakes was then able to devote part of his valuable time to archaeology while Dr. Richard G. Forbis of the Glenbow Foundation served as sessional lecturer at the University of Alberta, Calgary Branch.

  20. Visual-tactile integration in speech perception: Evidence for modality neutral speech primitives. (United States)

    Bicevskis, Katie; Derrick, Donald; Gick, Bryan


    Audio-visual [McGurk and MacDonald (1976). Nature 264, 746-748] and audio-tactile [Gick and Derrick (2009). Nature 462(7272), 502-504] speech stimuli enhance speech perception over audio stimuli alone. In addition, multimodal speech stimuli form an asymmetric window of integration that is consistent with the relative speeds of the various signals [Munhall, Gribble, Sacco, and Ward (1996). Percept. Psychophys. 58(3), 351-362; Gick, Ikegami, and Derrick (2010). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 128(5), EL342-EL346]. In this experiment, participants were presented video of faces producing /pa/ and /ba/ syllables, both alone and with air puffs occurring synchronously and at different timings up to 300 ms before and after the stop release. Perceivers were asked to identify the syllable they perceived, and were more likely to respond that they perceived /pa/ when air puffs were present, with asymmetrical preference for puffs following the video signal-consistent with the relative speeds of visual and air puff signals. The results demonstrate that visual-tactile integration of speech perception occurs much as it does with audio-visual and audio-tactile stimuli. This finding contributes to the understanding of multimodal speech perception, lending support to the idea that speech is not perceived as an audio signal that is supplemented by information from other modes, but rather that primitives of speech perception are, in principle, modality neutral.

  1. Does reservoir host mortality enhance transmission of West Nile virus? (United States)

    Foppa, Ivo M; Spielman, Andrew


    Since its 1999 emergence in New York City, West Nile virus (WNV) has become the most important and widespread cause of mosquito-transmitted disease in North America. Its sweeping spread from the Atlantic to the Pacific coast was accompanied by widespread mortality among wild birds, especially corvids. Only sporadic avian mortality had previously been associated with this infection in the Old World. Here, we examine the possibility that reservoir host mortality may intensify transmission, both by concentrating vector mosquitoes on remaining hosts and by preventing the accumulation of "herd immunity". Inspection of the Ross-Macdonald expression of the basic reproductive number (R0) suggests that this quantity may increase with reservoir host mortality. Computer simulation confirms this finding and indicates that the level of virulence is positively associated with the numbers of infectious mosquitoes by the end of the epizootic. The presence of reservoir incompetent hosts in even moderate numbers largely eliminated the transmission-enhancing effect of host mortality. Local host die-off may prevent mosquitoes to "waste" infectious blood meals on immune host and may thus facilitate perpetuation and spread of transmission. Under certain conditions, host mortality may enhance transmission of WNV and similarly maintained arboviruses and thus facilitate their emergence and spread. The validity of the assumptions upon which this argument is built need to be empirically examined.

  2. Advanced transformational analysis applied to e-beam proximity effect correction (United States)

    Barouch, Eytan; Coifman, Ronald R.; Ma, Jimmy T.; Peckerar, Martin C.; Rokhlin, Vladimir


    In this paper we address the problem of dose correction in the data bases consistent with ultra- large-scale integration. It is shown that recent advances in transformation theory provide a natural platform on which to build these dose correctors. Specifically, transformation approaches making use of compactly supported, smooth basis functions are shown to be particularly suitable. This is a natural result of the evolution of mathematically based correctors currently in use. Previous work in Parikh, MacDonald and others employed global transform method to determine the values of 'corrected' dose. In most cases, the mathematical inversion is essentially ill posed, in other words, the exact pattern desired cannot be obtained using a finite Gaussian sum. In this paper a set of smooth basis elements of compact support are employed. The mathematically smooth form of the basis makes it easy to match doses at boundaries without Gibbs phenomenon. Thus the transform field can be partitioned for optimum speed. Consequently, while most transformation complexities are of order N6 (the inversion of an N2 X N2 matrix) where N2 is the number of grid points characterizing the database, we developed an algorithm of complexity N2 log N. A method of dose field bias is employed to stem the requests for negative dose. The heart of the numerical process is essentially based on an adapted fast non-uniform-grid Fourier Transform combined with proper filtering and geometric localization methods. Several examples are given.

  3. Controlling malaria: competition, seasonality and 'slingshotting' transgenic mosquitoes into natural populations. (United States)

    Schaffer, W M; Bronnikova, T V


    Forty years after the World Health Organization abandoned its eradication campaign, malaria remains a public health problem of the first magnitude with worldwide infection rates on the order of 300 million souls. The present paper reviews potential control strategies from the viewpoint of mathematical epidemiology. Following MacDonald and others, we argue in Section 1 that the use of imagicides, i.e., killing, or at least repelling, adult mosquitoes, is inherently the most effective way of combating the pandemic. In Section 2, we model competition between wild-type (WT) and plasmodium-resistant, genetically modified (GM) mosquitoes. Under the assumptions of inherent cost and prevalence-dependant benefit to transgenics, GM introduction can never eradicate malaria save by stochastic extinction of WTs. Moreover, alternative interventions that reduce prevalence have the undesirable consequence of reducing the likelihood of successful GM introduction. Section 3 considers the possibility of using seasonal fluctuations in mosquito abundance and disease prevalence to 'slingshot' GM mosquitoes into natural populations. By introducing GM mosquitoes when natural populations are about to expand, one can 'piggyback' on the yearly cycle. Importantly, this effect is only significant when transgene cost is small, in which case the non-trivial equilibrium is a focus (damped oscillations), and piggybacking is amplified by the system's inherent tendency to oscillate. By way of contrast, when transgene cost is large, the equilibrium is a node and no such amplification is obtained.

  4. Light-induced degradation in compensated p- and n-type Czochralski silicon wafers (United States)

    Geilker, Juliane; Kwapil, Wolfram; Rein, Stefan


    Light-induced degradation (LID) due to boron-oxygen complex formation seriously diminishes the minority carrier lifetime of p-type Czochralski-grown (Cz) wafers. Depending linearly on the boron concentration NA in uncompensated silicon, the boron-oxygen defect density was suggested to depend on the net doping concentration p0 = NA - ND in compensated p-type samples, containing similar amounts of boron and phosphorus [D. Macdonald, F. Rougieux, A. Cuevas, et al., Journal of Applied Physics 105, 093704 (2009)]. However, this dependency contradicts observations of LID in compensated n-type silicon wafers [T. Schutz-Kuchly, J. Veirman, S. Dubois, et al., Applied Physics Letters 96, 1 (2010)], which are confirmed in this study by investigating the boron-oxygen complex formation on a large variety of compensated p- and n-type samples. In spite of their high boron content, compensated n-type samples may show a less pronounced LID than p-type samples containing less boron. Our experiments indicate that in compensated silicon, the defect concentration is only a function of the compensation ratio RC = (NA + ND)/(NA - ND).

  5. Audiovisual bimodal mutual compensation of Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU; Zhi


    [1]Richard, P., Schumeyer, Kenneth E. B., The effect of visual information on word initial consonant perception of dysarthric speech, in Proc. ICSLP'96 October 3-6 1996, Philadephia, Pennsylvania, USA.[2]Goff, B. L., Marigny, T. G., Benoit, C., Read my lips...and my jaw! How intelligible are the components of a speaker's face? Eurospeech'95, 4th European Conference on Speech Communication and Technology, Madrid, September 1995.[3]McGurk, H., MacDonald, J. Hearing lips and seeing voices, Nature, 1976, 264: 746.[4]Duran A. F., Mcgurk effect in Spanish and German listeners: Influences of visual cues in the perception of Spanish and German confliction audio-visual stimuli, Eurospeech'95. 4th European Conference on Speech Communication and Technology, Madrid, September 1995.[5]Luettin, J., Visual speech and speaker recognition, Ph.D thesis, University of Sheffield, 1997.[6]Xu Yanjun, Du Limin, Chinese audiovisual bimodal speech database CAVSR1.0, Chinese Journal of Acoustics, to appear.[7]Zhang Jialu, Speech corpora and language input/output methods' evaluation, Chinese Applied Acoustics, 1994, 13(3): 5.

  6. Affine dual equivalence and k-Schur functions

    CERN Document Server

    Assaf, Sami


    The k-Schur functions were first introduced by Lapointe, Lascoux and Morse (2003) in the hopes of refining the expansion of Macdonald polynomials into Schur functions. Recently, an alternative definition for k-Schur functions was given by Lam, Lapointe, Morse, and Shimozono (2010) as the weighted generating function of starred strong tableaux which correspond with labeled saturated chains in the Bruhat order on the affine symmetric group modulo the symmetric group. This definition has been shown to correspond to the Schubert basis for the affine Grassmannian of type A by Lam (2008), and, at t = 1, it is equivalent to the k-tableaux characterization of Lapointe and Morse (2007). In this paper, we extend Haiman's (1992) dual equivalence relation on standard Young tableaux to all starred strong tableaux. The elementary equivalence relations can be interpreted as labeled edges in a graph which share many of the properties of Assaf's dual equivalence graphs. These graphs display much of the complexity of working w...

  7. Colored knot amplitudes and Hall-Littlewood polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Shakirov, Sh


    The amplitudes of refined Chern-Simons (CS) theory, colored by antisymmetric (or symmetric) representations, conjecturally generate the Lambda^r- (or S^r-) colored triply graded homology of (n,m) torus knots. This paper is devoted to the generalization of Rosso-Jones formula to refined amplitudes, that involves non-trivial Gamma-factors -- expansion coefficients in the Macdonald basis. We derive from refined CS theory a linear recursion w.r.t. transformations (n,m) -> (n, n+m) and (n,m) -> (m,-n) that fully determines these factors. Applying this recursion to (n,nk+1) torus knots colored by antisymmetric representations [1^r] we prove that their amplitudes are rectangular [n^r] Hall-Littlewood polynomials under k units of framing (a.k.a. the Garsia-Haiman nabla) operator. For symmetric representations [r], we find the dual -- q-Whittaker -- polynomials. These results confirm and give a colored extension of the observation of arXiv:1201.3339 that triply graded homology of many torus knots has a strikingly simp...

  8. South African CSP projects under the REIPPP programme - Requirements, challenges and opportunities (United States)

    Relancio, Javier; Cuellar, Alberto; Walker, Gregg; Ettmayr, Chris


    Thus far seven Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) projects have been awarded under the Renewable Energy Independent Power Producer Procurement Programme (REIPPPP), totalling 600MW: one project is in operation, four under construction and two on their way to financial close. This provides an excellent opportunity for analysis of key features of the projects that have contributed to or detracted from the programme's success. The paper draws from Mott MacDonald's involvement as Technical Advisor on the seven CSP projects that have been successful under the REIPPPP to date as well as other global CSP developments. It presents how various programme requirements have affected the implementation of projects, such as the technical requirements, time of day tariff structure, economic development requirements and the renewable energy grid code. The increasingly competitive tariffs offered have encouraged developers to investigate efficiency maximising project configurations and cost saving mechanisms, as well as featuring state of the art technology in their proposals. The paper assesses the role of the project participants (developers, lenders and government) with regards to these innovative technologies and solutions. In our paper we discuss the status of projects and the SA market, analysing the main challenges and opportunities that in turn have influenced various aspects such as technology choice, operational regimes and supply chain arrangements.

  9. On equilibrium real exchange rates in euro area: Special focus on behavioral equilibrium exchange rates in Ireland and Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klára Plecitá


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the intra-euro-area imbalances. Therefore the first aim of this paper is to identify euro-area countries exhibiting macroeconomic imbalances. The subsequent aim is to estimate equilibrium real exchange rates for these countries and to compute their degrees of real exchange rate misalignment. The intra-area balance is assessed using the Cluster Analysis and the Principle Component Analysis; on this basis Greece and Ireland are selected as the two euro-area countries with largest imbalances in 2010. Further the medium-run equilibrium exchange rates for Greece and Ireland are estimated applying the Behavioral Equilibrium Exchange Rate (BEER approach popularised by Clark and MacDonald (1998. In addition, the long-run equilibrium exchange rates are estimated using the Permanent Equilibrium Exchange Rate (PEER model. Employing the BEER and PEER approaches on quarterly time series of real effective exchange rates (REER from 1997: Q1 to 2010: Q4 we identify an undervaluation of the Greek and Irish REER around their entrance to the euro area. For the rest of the period analysed their REER is broadly in line with estimated BEER and PEER levels.

  10. Random matrix theory, the exceptional Lie groups and L-functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keating, J P [School of Mathematics, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TW, UK (United Kingdom); Linden, N [School of Mathematics, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TW, UK (United Kingdom); Rudnick, Z [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Mathematical Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)


    There has recently been interest in relating properties of matrices drawn at random from the classical compact groups to statistical characteristics of number-theoretical L-functions. One example is the relationship conjectured to hold between the value distributions of the characteristic polynomials of such matrices and value distributions within families of L-functions. These connections are extended here to non-classical groups. We focus on an explicit example: the exceptional Lie group G{sub 2}. The value distributions for characteristic polynomials associated with the 7- and 14-dimensional representations of G{sub 2}, defined with respect to the uniform invariant (Haar) measure, are calculated using two of the Macdonald constant term identities. A one-parameter family of L-functions over a finite field is described whose value distribution in the limit as the size of the finite field grows is related to that of the characteristic polynomials associated with the seven-dimensional representation of G{sub 2}. The random matrix calculations extend to all exceptional Lie groups.

  11. Numerical model of characteristics of a particulate debris bed coolability with single phase flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Je Whan


    Designed on the basis of defense-in-depth concept, liquid metal cooled fast reactor, such as KALIMER-600 (Korea Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor) is unlikely to undergo the HCDA (hypothetical core disruptive accident). Because of its inherent safety features, most of the incidents of abnormal operation end with reactor trip and no further progression. Under a postulated, very low probable core meltdown scenario without reactor trip, however, there exists a possibility of re-criticality and vessel melting and the status of debris generated plays an important role. For this reason, the analysis on the ability of post-accident heat removal (PAHR) should be preceded. As a part of this, single phase flow coolability analysis of the particulate debris bed formed at the top of core catcher has been performed to achieve in-vessel fuel retention. The analysis is based on the Ergun equation and Macdonald's work that describe the phenomena of flow through a porous media with Hardee and Nilson's study of temperature relationship of the debris beds. The forming process of particulate debris bed is described and single phase cooling model with numerical results are presented. The analysis was conducted in the condition of three cases, inner and inner+middle and whole core meltdown case. It was proved that the inner and inner+middle core meltdown case could be cooled down with single phase flow. The whole core meltdown case will need some other management. Also, parameter sensitivity test was done.

  12. Targeting youth and concerned smokers: evidence from Canadian tobacco industry documents. (United States)

    Pollay, R W


    To provide an understanding of the targeting strategies of cigarette marketing, and the functions and importance of the advertising images chosen. Analysis of historical corporate documents produced by affiliates of British American Tobacco (BAT) and RJ Reynolds (RJR) in Canadian litigation challenging tobacco advertising regulation, the Tobacco Products Control Act (1987): Imperial Tobacco Limitee & RJR-Macdonald Inc c. Le Procurer General du Canada. Careful and extensive research has been employed in all stages of the process of conceiving, developing, refining, and deploying cigarette advertising. Two segments commanding much management attention are "starters" and "concerned smokers". To recruit starters, brand images communicate independence, freedom and (sometimes) peer acceptance. These advertising images portray smokers as attractive and autonomous, accepted and admired, athletic and at home in nature. For "lighter" brands reassuring health concerned smokers, lest they quit, advertisements provide imagery conveying a sense of well being, harmony with nature, and a consumer's self image as intelligent. The industry's steadfast assertions that its advertising influences only brand loyalty and switching in both its intent and effect is directly contradicted by their internal documents and proven false. So too is the justification of cigarette advertising as a medium creating better informed consumers, since visual imagery, not information, is the means of advertising influence.

  13. Atomic physics with highly charged ions. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, P.


    The study of inelastic collision phenomena with highly charged projectile ions and the interpretation of spectral features resulting from these collisions remain as the major focal points in the atomic physics research at the J.R. Macdonald Laboratory, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas. The title of the research project, ``Atomic Physics with Highly Charged Ions,`` speaks to these points. The experimental work in the past few years has divided into collisions at high velocity using the primary beams from the tandem and LINAC accelerators and collisions at low velocity using the CRYEBIS facility. Theoretical calculations have been performed to accurately describe inelastic scattering processes of the one-electron and many-electron type, and to accurately predict atomic transition energies and intensities for x rays and Auger electrons. Brief research summaries are given for the following: (1) electron production in ion-atom collisions; (2) role of electron-electron interactions in two-electron processes; (3) multi-electron processes; (4) collisions with excited, aligned, Rydberg targets; (5) ion-ion collisions; (6) ion-molecule collisions; (7) ion-atom collision theory; and (8) ion-surface interactions.

  14. "Orphan" $\\gamma$-ray Flares and Stationary Sheaths of Blazar Jets

    CERN Document Server

    MacDonald, Nicholas R; Marscher, Alan P


    Blazars exhibit flares across the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Many $\\gamma$-ray flares are highly correlated with flares detected at longer wavelengths; however, a small subset appears to occur in isolation, with little or no correlated variability at longer wavelengths. These "orphan" $\\gamma$-ray flares challenge current models of blazar variability, most of which are unable to reproduce this type of behavior. Macdonald et al. have developed the Ring of Fire model to explain the origin of orphan $\\gamma$-ray flares from within blazar jets. In this model, electrons contained within a blob of plasma moving relativistically along the spine of the jet inverse-Compton scatter synchrotron photons emanating off of a ring of shocked sheath plasma that enshrouds the jet spine. As the blob propagates through the ring, the scattering of the ring photons by the blob electrons creates an orphan $\\gamma$-ray flare. This model was successfully applied to modeling a prominent orphan $\\gamma$-ray flare observed in the ...

  15. On the equivalence between specific adsorption and kinetic equation descriptions of the admittance response in electrolytic cells. (United States)

    Evangelista, Luiz Roberto; Lenzi, Ervin Kaminski; Barbero, Giovanni; Macdonald, James Ross


    The response of an electrolytic cell, in the shape of a slab, is analyzed in the framework of the Poisson-Nernst-Planck model in the limit of full dissociation. Two different types of boundary conditions on the electrodes are compared. One type describes the exchange of charges between the volume and the external circuit, in the form originally proposed by Chang and Jaffé and later extended to include specific adsorption, where the surface current density is proportional to the variation of the surface bulk density of ions with respect to the value of equilibrium. The other one describes the surface adsorption, in the limit of Langmuir. We show that in the simple case where the ions dissolved in the insulating liquid are identical in all the aspects, except for the sign of the charge, the two models are equivalent only if the phenomenological parameter entering the boundary condition of the Chang-Jaffé model, κ, is frequency dependent, and related to the adsorption coefficient, k(a), in the form κ = iωτ/(1 + iωτ)k(a), where τ is the desorption time and ω the circular frequency of the applied voltage, as proposed long ago by Macdonald.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Dionne


    Full Text Available This article studies the historical representation of the two main national communities in Canada; that is, the English-Canadian and the French-Canadian.Throughout the history of the English Canadian community, one cansee an ambitious national project. The national construction of Canada suggests the existence of a neutral model of government but, when looking at this carefully, it is possible to see something quite different. English-speaking historians from Canada have normally introduced the concept of a unitary federalism as the most perfect form of the Canadian integration project. This integrating federalism, that does not lead to emancipation, stems from thecentralist views of John Macdonald, one of the fathers of Canadian federalism. This approach has been kept for over 140 years of common history and, to this date, continues to be one of the main obstacles for minority nations within Canada. To strengthen their thesis, the authors base their work on an extensive analysis exploring the three big strategies used by the central government to assert its authority on the member States of the Canadian Federation in the long term: using the judicial power, centralizing powers andglobalization. The strategies used have varied depending on the economic scenario, political leaders and the political power relations regarding the links between the Federation and the provinces.

  17. Identifying and quantifying dependencies between time-lagged risks of multiple types (United States)

    Hillier, John K.


    Multiple types of hazard exist (e.g. earthquake, flood, snow), each potentially causing risk. These may be linked, dependent, or interact. Comparing 'events' of different types, however is non-trivial as their extent (e.g. tsunami after earthquake or storm surge during winter storms) (A&B together), iii) cascades and hazard chains (e.g. A->B->C), or iv) mutually underlying cause (i.e. C influences types A and B). This talk will consider how to identify, quantify, and start to understand dependencies between time-lagged risks of multiple types in the context of this last type of interaction, although the methods used may be more generally applicable. Particularly useful are loss data (e.g. £, time, lives), which implicitly make hazards comparable [1], and a number of statistical methods that have been adapted for multi-hazard purposes. Interactions can modify losses with respect to an assumption of independence by (i.e. >£0.3 billion, 26%), be identified in short time-series (10-15 yrs), and give at least some additional insights into physical processes. [1] Hillier, J. K., Macdonald, N., Leckebusch, G., Stavrinides (2015) Interactions between apparently primary weather-driven hazards and their cost. Env. Res. Lett. 10, 104003, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/10/10/104003

  18. Extended abstracts from the eight international meeting on progress in radio-oncology (ICRO/OeGRO 8), Salzburg, May 16-19, 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This part of the journal includes 25 extended abstracts from the Eight International Meeting on Progress in Radio-Oncology ICRO/OeGRO8 in Salzburg, Austria (May 16-19, 2007): adaptive radiotherapy of prostate cancer; homoradiation of prostate cancer; radiation therapy, chemotherapy and combined chemoradiation in the management of malignant glioma; return of high-dose per fraction radiotherapy: paradigm change, lesson from the past; from bench to bedside: enhancing the effects of radiotherapy through biological escalation; gastric cancer: MAGIC or Macdonald; analysis of set-up errors in 70 consecutive patients treated for rectal carcinoma; molecular targeted therapy; teleradiooncology: telematics applications in therapeutic radiology and oncology; in-room guidance technologies for adaptive radiotherapy; dose escalation with photons - emerging technologies; late side-effects after pelvic irradiation; a frameless robotic stereotactic system for highly focused extracranial radiotherapy; altered fractionation in head and neck tumors: an alternative to chemotherapy; integration of molecular targeting with radiotherapy; OGRT pf prostate cancer patients based on CBCT and kV images; hyperfractionation in medulloblastoma; re-irradiation of recurrent prostate cancer; dose reduction of radiotherapy in early-stage testicular semimoma; photons versus protons; randomized clinical trials on postoperative radiotherapy for high-risk head and neck cancer; cardiac risk in multimodal breast cancer treatment; the use of hyperthermia treatment planning in clinical practice; presentation of the ICRU-IAEA Joint Report 'prescribing, recording, and reporting proton-beam therapy'.

  19. A qualitative study exploring the relationship between nursing and health promotion language, theory and practice. (United States)

    Piper, Stewart


    The definitions and meaning qualified nurses employed in an acute NHS hospital setting in the UK gave to health education and health promotion practice and how these fitted established language and theory were investigated qualitatively. These concepts, and the concomitant frameworks and models of practice, have been the subject of considerable debate in the literature. While unresolved both in general and in nursing, a degree of theoretical convergence was established in the 1990s [Bunton, R., Macdonald, G., 1992. Health promotion: disciplines and diversity. Routledge, London; Maben, J.M., Macleod Clark, J. 1995. Health promotion: a concept analysis. Journal of Advanced Nursing 22, 1158-165] helped by The Ottawa Charter [WHO, 1986. Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion.]. For many of the participants in this study however, the meanings given to these concepts and the predominant use of health education were inconsistent with much of the language of the wider debate and this has potential implications for nurse education. For, if the findings are considered transferable then there is a need to develop education strategies and curricula that articulate the ideological foundations of policy and practice and to use mainstream terminology to assist nurses both to understand and contribute to the contemporary health promotion debate.

  20. International Space Station (ISS) S-Band Corona Discharge Anomaly Consultation (United States)

    Kichak, Robert A.; Leidecker, Henning; Battel, Steven; Ruitberg, Arthur; Sank, Victor


    The Assembly and Contingency Radio Frequency Group (ACRFG) onboard the International Space Station (ISS) is used for command and control communications and transmits (45 dBm or 32 watts) and receives at S-band. The system is nominally pressurized with gaseous helium (He) and nitrogen (N2) at 8 pounds per square inch absolute (psia). MacDonald, Dettwiler and Associates Ltd. (MDA) was engaged to analyze the operational characteristics of this unit in an effort to determine if the anomalous behavior was a result of a corona event. Based on this analysis, MDA did not recommend continued use of this ACRFG. The NESC was requested to provide expert support in the area of high-voltage corona and multipactoring in an S-Band RF system and to assess the probability of corona occurring in the ACRFG during the planned EVA. The NESC recommended minimal continued use of S/N 002 ACRFG until a replacement unit can be installed. Following replacement, S/N 002 will be subjected to destructive failure analysis in an effort to determine the proximate and root cause(s) of the anomalous behavior.

  1. Strong Acid Mixture and Sequential Geochemical Arsenic Extractions in Surface Sediments from the Santa Maria La Reforma Coastal Lagoon, Mexico: A Bioavailability Assessment. (United States)

    Rivera-Hernández, José R; Green-Ruiz, Carlos


    Thirty-three sediment samples were collected from the Santa Maria La Reforma coastal lagoon and digested by way of a strong acid mixture and sequential arsenic (As)-extraction method to determine the arsenic (As) content and bioavailability. The As content was determined by atomic fluorescence spectrometry. In addition, grain-size analyses were performed, and organic carbon, carbonate, and iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) concentrations were determined. Fe and Mn determination was performed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. A Pearson correlation matrix and As enrichment factors were calculated. Sediment concentrations from Santa Maria La Reforma ranged from 3.6 to 25 µg As g(-1) with an average of 13.4 ± 7.6 µg As g(-1). The highest values were observed in the northern (Playa Colorada), north-central (Mocorito River discharge zone), and southern zones ("El Tule" agricultural drain). Most samples were classified as exhibiting no or minor As enrichment and were lower than the threshold effect level (TEL; 7.24 µg g(-1)) for biota (MacDonald et al. in Ecotoxicology 5:253-278, 1996). Low bioavailable As values (bioavailability is negligible.

  2. The enigma of Gerstmann's syndrome revisited: a telling tale of the vicissitudes of neuropsychology. (United States)

    Rusconi, Elena; Pinel, Philippe; Dehaene, Stanislas; Kleinschmidt, Andreas


    Eighty years ago, the Austrian neurologist Josef Gerstmann observed in a few patients a concomitant impairment in discriminating their own fingers, writing by hand, distinguishing left from right and performing calculations. He claimed that this tetrad of symptoms constituted a syndromal entity, assigned it to a lesion of the dominant parietal lobe and suggested that it was due to damage of a common functional denominator. Ever since, these claims have been debated and an astute synopsis and sceptical discussion was presented 40 years ago by MacDonald Critchley in this journal. Nonetheless, Gerstmann's syndrome has continued to intrigue both clinical neurologists and researchers in neuropsychology, and more frequently than not is described in textbooks as an example of parietal lobe damage. In this review, we revisit the chequered history of this syndrome, which can be seen as a case study of the dialectic evolution of concepts in neuropsychology. In light of several modern era findings of pure cases we conclude that it is legitimate to label the conjunction of symptoms first described by Gerstmann as a 'syndrome', but that it is very unlikely that damage to the same population of cortical neurons should account for all of the four symptoms. Instead, we propose that a pure form of Gerstmann's syndrome might arise from disconnection, via a lesion, to separate but co-localized fibre tracts in the subcortical parietal white matter, a hypothesis for which we have recently provided evidence using combined imaging of functional and structural organization in the healthy brain.

  3. A Scientific Synthesis and Assessment of the Arctic Carbon Cycle (United States)

    Hayes, Daniel J.; Guo, Laodong; McGuire, A. David


    The Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), along with the Climate and Cryosphere (CliC) Project and the International Arctic Science Committee (IASC), sponsored the Arctic Carbon Cycle Assessment Workshop, at the Red Lion Hotel in Seattle, Wash., between 27 February and 1 March 2007. The workshop was held in a general effort toward the scientific synthesis and assessment of the Arctic system carbon cycle, as well as to generate feedback on the working draft of an assessment document. The initial assessment was prepared by the Arctic carbon cycle assessment writing team, which is led by A. David McGuire (University of Alaska Fairbanks) and includes Leif Anderson (Goteborg University, Sweden), Torben Christensen (Lund University, Sweden), Scott Dallimore (Natural Resources Canada), Laodong Guo (University of Southern Mississippi), Martin Heimann (Max Planck Institute, Germany), Robie MacDonald (Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Canada), and Nigel Roulet (McGill University, Canada). The workshop brought together leading researchers in the fields of terrestrial, marine, and atmospheric science to report on and discuss the current state of knowledge on contemporary carbon stocks and fluxes in the Artie and their potential responses to a changing climate. The workshop was attended by 35 scientists representing institutions from 10 countries in addition to two representatives of the sponsor agencies (John Calder for AMAP and Diane Verseghy for CliC).

  4. Resectable adenocarcinoma of the oesophago-gastric junction care: Which perioperative treatment?; Prise en charge des adenocarcinomes de la jonction oesogastrique resecables: quel traitement perioperatoire?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crehangea, G.; Maingon, P. [Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer Georges-Francois-Leclerc, Dept. de Radiotherapie, 21 - Dijon (France); Bonnetain, F. [Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer Georges-Francois-Leclerc, Dept. de Biostatistiques, 21 - Dijon (France); Chauffert, B. [Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer Georges-Francois-Leclerc, Dept. d' Oncologie Medicale, 21 - Dijon (France); Rat, P. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire le Bocage, Service de Chirurgie Digestive, 21 - Dijon (France); Bedenne, L. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire le Bocage, Service d' Hepatogastroenterologie, 21 - Dijon (France)


    Adenocarcinoma of the oesophago-gastric junction has an ominous prognosis. Until now, oesophageal adenocarcinoma care was close to the squamous cell cancer one whereas adenocarcinoma of the cardia was mixed with gastric cancers. Results from randomized studies mixed them without making distinctions. Nevertheless, context, natural history and clinical outcome differ. Five-year survival rate is around 40 %, all stages included. Results from several phase-III studies or meta-analysis allowed to define three therapeutic strategies applicable to adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus and the oesophago-gastric junction. In Europe, in the case of a resectable tumour, preoperative chemotherapy became a standard treatment since results from the Magic trial. In the United States, post-operative radio chemotherapy according to the 'Macdonald' scheme is used in case of a resected tumour with a R0 surgery. Actually, modern techniques of irradiation could reduce the rate of gastro-intestinal toxicities. The survival benefit from preoperative radio chemotherapy is still very controversial with high rates of postoperative morbidity and mortality. We have performed a review of the literature with a methodological analysis of data with a high level of evidence in order to advise perioperative treatment guidelines for patients with a resectable adenocarcinoma of the lower oesophagus or gastro-oesophageal junction. Results from pre- or postoperative strategies and the role of radiotherapy will need to be analysed in the future through a randomized study. (authors)

  5. A conceptual framework for an ecosystem services-based assessment of the so-called "emergency stabilization" measures following wildfire (United States)

    Valente, Sandra; Prats, Sergio; Ribeiro, Cristina; Verheijen, Frank; Fleskens, Luuk; Keizer, Jacob


    -fire emergency stabilization measure, taking full stock of the field trials by Prats et al. (2012, 2013, 2014) and using existing literature to identify gaps in the data collected by Prats et al. and/or knowledge gaps on the impacts on other ecosystem services than those directly related to overland flow and soil erosion (e.g. biomass production and carbon sequestration). Such an assessment framework will be critical in gathering information on the impacts of post-fire land management, and ultimately in providing data on the cost-benefit ratio of selected emergency stabilization measures. Prats S.A., MacDonald L.H., Monteiro M., Ferreira A.J.D., Coelho C.O.A., Keizer J.J., 2012. Effectiveness of forest residue mulching in reducing post-fire runoff and erosion in a pine and a eucalypt plantation in north-central Portugal. Geoderma 191, 115-125. Prats S.A., Malvar, M.C., Vieira, D.C.S,, MacDonald L.H., Keizer J.J., 2013 (in press. Effectiveness of hydro-mulching to reduce runoff and erosion in a recently burnt pine plantation in central Portugal Land Degradation & Development ( Prats S.A., Martins, M.A.S., Malvar, M.C., Ben-Hur, M., Keizer, J.J., 2014. Polyacrylamide application versus forest residue mulching for reducing post-fire runoff and soil erosion. Science of the Total Environment 468-469, 464-474

  6. A temperature and photographic time-series from a seafloor gas hydrate deposit on the Gulf of Mexico Slope (United States)

    MacDonald, I. R.; Vararo, M.; Bender, L.


    Under laboratory conditions, gas hydrates are highly sensitive to changes in water temperature. MacDonald et al. (1994) and Roberts et al. (1999) have monitored in-situ deposits and recorded rapid changes in gas flux from vents partially plugged with gas hydrate; the changes appear to correlate with fluctuation in bottom temperature over ranges of worms, and a number of mobile species. The temperature probes comprised two autonomous Antares thermistors, one at each end of a 50-cm PVC wand, which recorded temperatures with precision of better than 0.1 C at 30-min intervals over 327 d. One probe was implanted with a tight seal into a drill hole about 7 cm deep in the top of the gas hydrate mound. The second was inserted about 50 cm deep into the adjacent sediments. For each probe, the top thermistor recorded the ambient water temperature while the bottom thermistor recorded the internal temperature of the hydrate or sediment. Photographic results show no dramatic changes in the size, shape, or gas venting from the mound during the 96 day time-series. There were subtle increases in the amount of hydrate exposed to the water between the end of the photographic time series and the recovery of the monitoring array. Mean temperatures (SDEV) and temperature range recorded by the probes were as follows: In-water: 7.87 ( 0.44) and 6.64-9.73 C In-hydrate: 7.81 ( 0.34) and 6.87-9.18 C In-sediment: 7.81 ( 0.16) and 7.79-9.18 C Spectra of the temperature records showed significant high-frequency peaks for in-water data corresponding to K1, M2 and M3 lunar tides. Of these peaks, only the K1 (23.9 h) was evident for in-hydrate records and none of the tidal peaks were evident for in-sediment records. All three records showed significant low-frequency periodicity at about 288 h. In-hydrate temperatures lagged the in-water temperatures by 6 h with high correlation. In-sediment temperatures lagged in-water temperatures by 288 h with weak correlation. These results constrain the

  7. Magma system along fast-spreading centers controlled by ridge segmentation: Evidence from the northern Oman ophiolite (United States)

    Miyashita, Sumio; Adachi, Yoshiko


    Mid-ocean ridges are segmented at various scales with a hierarchy, from the biggest 1st- order to the smallest 4th-order segments. These segment structures control magmatic processes beneath the mid-ocean ridges such as mantle upwelling, partial melting of the upper mantle, and magma delivery system to form the oceanic crust (Macdonald, 1998). However, systematic studies on the segment control for magmatic processes are rare at modern mid-ocean ridges due to the difficulty of obtaining in-situ samples from different crustal-lithospheric depths. Sampling at ocean floors is generally exclusively limited only to the surface (i.e. the seafloor). Furthermore, the samples obtained from the surface of the ocean floor may likely represent the products of off-axis magmatism (Kusano et al., 2012). Therefore, studies of ocean ridge segmentation in ophiolites provide important constraints for the magmatic processes beneath seafloor spreading centers, because the precise 3-D architecture of the upper mantle and the crust (all the way to the uppermost extrusive layer) and their lateral variations could be observed and investigated in ophiolites. We have studied the northern Oman ophiolite where a complete succession from the upper mantle peridotites to the uppermost extrusive rocks is well exposed. Miyashita et al. (2003), Adachi and Miyashita (2003) and Umino et al. (2003) proposed a segment structure in the northern Oman ophiolite; the Wadi Fizh area is regarded as a northward propagating tip of a mid-ocean ridge based on geological evidence (Adachi and Miyashita. 2003). On the other hand, the Wadi Thuqbah area, about 25 km south of Wadi Fizh, is regarded as a segment center based on the thickest Moho transition zone, well developed EW-trending lineations in the MTZ and layered gabbro, and the comparatively primitive compositions of the layered gabbros. Furthermore, the southern margin of the Hilti block (Salahi block), about 40 km south of Wadi Thuqbah, is inferred to be the

  8. What Makes a Difference for Disadvantaged Girls? Investigating the Interplay between Group Composition and Positive Youth Development in Sport

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    Hebe Schaillée


    Full Text Available It has been suggested that group composition can influence the experiences of individual group members in social programmes (Weiss, 1998. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between peer group composition in sports programmes and positive youth development (PYD in disadvantaged girls, as well as to determine whether it was moderated by personal characteristics. Two hundred young women aged between 10 and 24 completed a questionnaire including, among others, the “Youth Experience Survey for Sport” (YES-S (MacDonald, Côté, Eys, & Deakin, 2012 and questions regarding participants’ socio-economic characteristics (i.e., nationality, education, family situation. Multilevel regression analyses were performed to take into account the hierarchical data structure. At the group level, a higher percentage of girls from a low educational track and with a migration background predicted greater PYD, as indicated by higher levels of personal and social skills, cognitive skills and goal setting. Results showed interaction effects between the respondents’ family structures on the participant and team levels. The overall statistical models for the different developmental domains accounted for variance ranging from 14.7% (personal and social skills to 30.3% (cognitive skills. Results indicated that the extent to which disadvantaged girls derive benefits from their participation in sport also depends on the group composition. The interaction effects between the group composition and individual characteristics suggest that when girls participate in a group of similar peers, those from non-intact families will derive more benefits than their counterparts from intact families.

  9. Response assessment of NovoTTF-100A versus best physician's choice chemotherapy in recurrent glioblastoma (United States)

    Wong, Eric T; Lok, Edwin; Swanson, Kenneth D; Gautam, Shiva; Engelhard, Herbert H; Lieberman, Frank; Taillibert, Sophie; Ram, Zvi; Villano, John L


    The NovoTTF-100A device emits frequency-tuned alternating electric fields that interfere with tumor cell mitosis. In phase III trial for recurrent glioblastomas, NovoTTF-100A was shown to have equivalent efficacy and less toxicity when compared to Best Physician's Choice (BPC) chemotherapy. We analyzed the characteristics of responders and nonresponders in both cohorts to determine the characteristics of response and potential predictive factors. Tumor response and progression were determined by Macdonald criteria. Time to response, response duration, progression-free survival (PFS) ± Simon–Makuch correction, overall survival (OS), prognostic factors, and relative hazard rates were compared between responders and nonresponders. Median response duration was 7.3 versus 5.6 months for NovoTTF-100A and BPC chemotherapy, respectively (P = 0.0009). Five of 14 NovoTTF-100A responders but none of seven BPC responders had prior low-grade histology. Mean cumulative dexamethasone dose was 35.9 mg for responders versus 485.6 mg for nonresponders in the NovoTTF-100A cohort (P Makuch-adjusted PFS was longer in responders than in nonresponders treated with NovoTTF-100A (P = 0.0007) or BPC chemotherapy (P = 0.0222). Median OS was longer for responders than nonresponders treated with NovoTTF-100A (P < 0.0001) and BPC chemotherapy (P = 0.0235). Pearson analysis showed strong correlation between response and OS in NovoTTF-100A (P = 0.0002) but not in BPC cohort (P = 0.2900). Our results indicate that the response characteristics favor NovoTTF-100A and data on prior low-grade histology and dexamethasone suggest potential genetic and epigenetic determinants of NovoTTF-100A response. PMID:24574359

  10. Invited review--neuroimaging response assessment criteria for brain tumors in veterinary patients. (United States)

    Rossmeisl, John H; Garcia, Paulo A; Daniel, Gregory B; Bourland, John Daniel; Debinski, Waldemar; Dervisis, Nikolaos; Klahn, Shawna


    The evaluation of therapeutic response using cross-sectional imaging techniques, particularly gadolinium-enhanced MRI, is an integral part of the clinical management of brain tumors in veterinary patients. Spontaneous canine brain tumors are increasingly recognized and utilized as a translational model for the study of human brain tumors. However, no standardized neuroimaging response assessment criteria have been formulated for use in veterinary clinical trials. Previous studies have found that the pathophysiologic features inherent to brain tumors and the surrounding brain complicate the use of the response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST) assessment system. Objectives of this review are to describe strengths and limitations of published imaging-based brain tumor response criteria and propose a system for use in veterinary patients. The widely used human Macdonald and response assessment in neuro-oncology (RANO) criteria are reviewed and described as to how they can be applied to veterinary brain tumors. Discussion points will include current challenges associated with the interpretation of brain tumor therapeutic responses such as imaging pseudophenomena and treatment-induced necrosis, and how advancements in perfusion imaging, positron emission tomography, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy have shown promise in differentiating tumor progression from therapy-induced changes. Finally, although objective endpoints such as MR imaging and survival estimates will likely continue to comprise the foundations for outcome measures in veterinary brain tumor clinical trials, we propose that in order to provide a more relevant therapeutic response metric for veterinary patients, composite response systems should be formulated and validated that combine imaging and clinical assessment criteria.

  11. Problem-Based Learning in Management Accounting Teaching: Report of a Brazilian Experience

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    Daiana Bragueto Martins


    Full Text Available This study aimed to report on the operation of the PBL method in a management accounting discipline in the Accounting course of a Brazilian Higher Education institution. The research technique used was the case study, involving a descriptive approach to PBL classes, whose purpose was to present the properties of the classes, how to act and the profile of the students and teachers. The field research took place in 2013. The data were collected through interviews with teachers, participant observation and document analysis. The empirical analysis in this research rested on the studies by Araújo and Arantes (2009, Dochy, Segers, Bossche and Gijbels (2003, Duch, Groh and Allen (2001, MacDonald and Savin-Baden (2004, Ribeiro (2008, Schmidt (1983, Sockalingam and Schmidt (2011, among others. The results show that the integration between academics and businesses based on the use of practical and real problems the students brought from the work environment offered gains, such as: the student broadens the potential to solve practical and professional problems; and the company is benefited, as it can receive qualified professionals in the future, who are able for research and the proposal of solutions to problems. Teachers also gain as they are exposed to a contemporary setting, providing major updates in terms of use of concepts and theories, because of the contextualization. The PBL helps to engage Generation Y students, given that the desire for participation and communication in an interactive environment using technological tools are the main marks of that generation. The skills developed in the PBL approach are similar to those required from the management accountant.

  12. Epidemiological models for the spread of anti-malarial resistance

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    Antia R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The spread of drug resistance is making malaria control increasingly difficult. Mathematical models for the transmission dynamics of drug sensitive and resistant strains can be a useful tool to help to understand the factors that influence the spread of drug resistance, and they can therefore help in the design of rational strategies for the control of drug resistance. Methods We present an epidemiological framework to investigate the spread of anti-malarial resistance. Several mathematical models, based on the familiar Macdonald-Ross model of malaria transmission, enable us to examine the processes and parameters that are critical in determining the spread of resistance. Results In our simplest model, resistance does not spread if the fraction of infected individuals treated is less than a threshold value; if drug treatment exceeds this threshold, resistance will eventually become fixed in the population. The threshold value is determined only by the rates of infection and the infectious periods of resistant and sensitive parasites in untreated and treated hosts, whereas the intensity of transmission has no influence on the threshold value. In more complex models, where hosts can be infected by multiple parasite strains or where treatment varies spatially, resistance is generally not fixed, but rather some level of sensitivity is often maintained in the population. Conclusions The models developed in this paper are a first step in understanding the epidemiology of anti-malarial resistance and evaluating strategies to reduce the spread of resistance. However, specific recommendations for the management of resistance need to wait until we have more data on the critical parameters underlying the spread of resistance: drug use, spatial variability of treatment and parasite migration among areas, and perhaps most importantly, cost of resistance.

  13. The IGF1 small dog haplotype is derived from Middle Eastern grey wolves

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    Ostrander Elaine A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A selective sweep containing the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1 gene is associated with size variation in domestic dogs. Intron 2 of IGF1 contains a SINE element and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP found in all small dog breeds that is almost entirely absent from large breeds. In this study, we surveyed a large sample of grey wolf populations to better understand the ancestral pattern of variation at IGF1 with a particular focus on the distribution of the small dog haplotype and its relationship to the origin of the dog. Results We present DNA sequence data that confirms the absence of the derived small SNP allele in the intron 2 region of IGF1 in a large sample of grey wolves and further establishes the absence of a small dog associated SINE element in all wild canids and most large dog breeds. Grey wolf haplotypes from the Middle East have higher nucleotide diversity suggesting an origin there. Additionally, PCA and phylogenetic analyses suggests a closer kinship of the small domestic dog IGF1 haplotype with those from Middle Eastern grey wolves. Conclusions The absence of both the SINE element and SNP allele in grey wolves suggests that the mutation for small body size post-dates the domestication of dogs. However, because all small dogs possess these diagnostic mutations, the mutations likely arose early in the history of domestic dogs. Our results show that the small dog haplotype is closely related to those in Middle Eastern wolves and is consistent with an ancient origin of the small dog haplotype there. Thus, in concordance with past archeological studies, our molecular analysis is consistent with the early evolution of small size in dogs from the Middle East. See associated opinion by Driscoll and Macdonald:

  14. Safety in numbers 4: The relationship between exposure to authentic and didactic environments and nursing students' learning of medication dosage calculation problem solving knowledge and skills. (United States)

    Weeks, Keith W; Clochesy, John M; Hutton, B Meriel; Moseley, Laurie


    Advancing the art and science of education practice requires a robust evaluation of the relationship between students' exposure to learning and assessment environments and the development of their cognitive competence (knowing that and why) and functional competence (know-how and skills). Healthcare education translation research requires specific education technology assessments and evaluations that consist of quantitative analyses of empirical data and qualitative evaluations of the lived student experience of the education journey and schemata construction (Weeks et al., 2013a). This paper focuses on the outcomes of UK PhD and USA post-doctorate experimental research. We evaluated the relationship between exposure to traditional didactic methods of education, prototypes of an authentic medication dosage calculation problem-solving (MDC-PS) environment and nursing students' construction of conceptual and calculation competence in medication dosage calculation problem-solving skills. Empirical outcomes from both UK and USA programmes of research identified highly significant differences in the construction of conceptual and calculation competence in MDC-PS following exposure to the authentic learning environment to that following exposure to traditional didactic transmission methods of education (p students exposure to authentic learning environments is an essential first step in the development of conceptual and calculation competence and relevant schemata construction (internal representations of the relationship between the features of authentic dosage problems and calculation functions); and how authentic environments more ably support all cognitive (learning) styles in mathematics than traditional didactic methods of education. Functional competence evaluations are addressed in Macdonald et al. (2013) and Weeks et al. (2013e). Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Consumption metrics of chardonnay wine consumers in Australia

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    Saliba AJ


    Full Text Available Anthony J Saliba,1 Johan Bruwer,2 Jasmine B MacDonald1 1School of Psychology, Charles Sturt University, Bathurst, NSW, 2School of Marketing, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia Abstract: There is a dearth of information in the knowledge base about who the chardonnay consumer is, what their wine-consumption metrics are, what sensory characteristics they associate chardonnay with, and who influenced their perceptions. This study examines the consumer engagement with chardonnay, and contributes evidence-based research to inform future wine-business strategy. A population sample was recruited to be representative of Australian consumers. An online survey of 2,024 Australian wine consumers was conducted, 1,533 (76% of whom actually consumed chardonnay. This paper focuses only on those who consumed chardonnay. Males purchased and consumed larger quantities of chardonnay, although marginally more females consumed it. Chardonnay is considered to be characterized by full, lingering, and fruity flavors, as well as yellow color. Chardonnay is associated with dinner parties and at-home consumption. The vast majority of participants liked and had a positive perception of chardonnay. The target market for chardonnay is not only females; in fact, males appear to be the main consumers of this varietal by volume. Marketing and promotion campaigns should leverage the findings to retain current and win back other consumers. This is the first research to provide empirical explanations of consumer engagement with chardonnay, and to contribute evidence-based research in this regard.Keywords: chardonnay, consumer behavior, wine style, wine consumption, Australia

  16. Clinical deterioration after sildenafil cessation in patients with pulmonary hypertension

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    Anne M Keogh


    Full Text Available Anne M Keogh, Andrew Jabbour, Christopher S Hayward, Peter S MacdonaldHeart Lung Transplant Unit, St Vincent’s Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, AustraliaAbstract: Sildenafil is a selective inhibitor of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5. Its chronic administration has been shown to improve exercise capacity, World Health Organization functional class, and haemodynamics in patients with symptomatic pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH. There is however, no data describing the clinical consequences of sudden cessation of sildenafil treatment. In this series, 9 patients with NYHA Class II–IV PAH who were stable on 2 months of sildenafil monotherapy, had their sildenafil ceased to accommodate a 2-week washout period, required for enrollment in research involving an endothelin receptor antagonist. Six minute walk distance (SMWD and clinical assessments were performed before cessation of sildenafil, and again 2 weeks later. Over the course of this 2-week washout period, 6 of the 9 patients reported increased breathlessness and fatigue, 1 of these was hospitalized with worsening right heart failure. The SMWD fell in 6 patients, with falls of greater than 100 m recorded in 4 patients. This was accompanied by a worsening of NYHA Class from 2.5 ± 0.2 to 3.1 ± 0.1 (mean ± SEM, p = 0.01. These data indicate that sudden cessation of sildenafil monotherapy, in patients with PAH, carries with it a significant and unpredictable risk of rapid clinical deterioration. We recommend that if sildenafil needs to be ceased, it would be more prudent to consider concurrent vasodilator therapy before the gradual cessation of sildenafil.Keywords: sildenafil, pulmonary hypertension, phosphodiesterase inhibitor

  17. The demography of feral alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) populations occurring in roadside habitats in Southern Manitoba, Canada: implications for novel trait confinement. (United States)

    Bagavathiannan, Muthukumar V; Gulden, Robert H; Begg, Graham S; Van Acker, Rene C


    Feral populations of cultivated crops can act as reservoirs for novel genetically engineered (GE) traits and aid in trait movement at the landscape level. However, little information is available on the potential of cultivated crops to become feral. In this study, we investigated the ferality of alfalfa populations (non-GE version) occurring in roadside habitats. Knowledge on the nature of roadside alfalfa populations would be useful for designing efficient trait confinement protocols and coexistence strategies in alfalfa. We investigated roadside alfalfa populations from 2006 to 2009 in three rural municipalities (Hanover, MacDonald, and Springfield) in Southern Manitoba, Canada. We studied the demography of these populations including seedbank, seedling recruitment, and fecundity and examined the impact of road verge mowing on key life stages of these populations. We also compared the growth and reproductive attributes of roadside and cultivated alfalfa populations. Alfalfa is reproductively successful in roadside habitats and capable of establishing self-perpetuating populations. A substantial portion of the alfalfa seeds we extracted from seedbank samples were viable but not germinable, suggesting some degree of seedbank persistence in roadside habitats. In the roadside habitat, alfalfa seedlings recruited successfully, however, seedling mortality was high when seedlings were in close proximity to well-established alfalfa plants. Mowing dramatically reduced the reproductive success of roadside alfalfa. Generally, the growth and reproduction of roadside alfalfa was comparable to cultivated alfalfa except for total fecundity. Considering the long lifespan (>10 years) of alfalfa and the levels of fecundity, seedbank, and seedling survival we observed, long-term persistence of roadside alfalfa populations seems reasonable. In the context of novel trait confinement, our results suggest that feral alfalfa populations required to be managed if there is a desire

  18. Lexical mediation and context effects in sentence processing. (United States)

    Traxler, Matthew J; Tooley, Kristen M


    Studies of syntactic ambiguity resolution have played a central role in resolving questions about when and how contextual information affects parsing processes. These investigations are often couched in terms of modularity versus interaction, with demonstrations of rapid contextual effects being taken as evidence that the mechanisms responsible for structuring sentences are permeable to referential or semantic context, and therefore non-modular. In this paper, we will propose that argument relations are constructed on the basis of lexically stored syntactic representations (as in MacDonald, M.C., Pearlmutter, N.J., and Seidenberg, M.S. (1994). Lexical nature of syntactic ambiguity resolution. Psychological Review, 101, 676-703. Pickering, M.J., and Traxler, M.J. (2004). Grammatical repetition and garden path effects. Paper presented to the CUNY Sentence Processing Conference. College Park, MD., Pickering, M.J., and Traxler, M.J. (2006). Syntactic Priming in Comprehension. Manuscript in preparation. Traxler, M.J., and Pickering, M.J. (2005, March). Syntactic priming in comprehension. Paper presented to the CUNY Sentence Processing Conference. Tucson, AZ), but that other types of structural decisions are made on the basis of general processing principles. This formulation can be tested by looking at how the parser reacts to immediate intra- and inter-sentential factors (short-term context) and how it reacts to patterns of input over longer time scales (long-term context). We begin with a brief review of work on context effects in syntactic disambiguation, sketch our account of parsing, and then provide evidence from two eye-tracking experiments that illustrate some of the processing principles that govern parsing of argument relations.

  19. Art for the Apocalypse: Sculpture by Frink in Losey’s The Damned

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    Susan Felleman


    Full Text Available Blacklisted and exiled, American director Joseph Losey finished The Damned in England in 1961 but Hammer Films did not release it until 1963 (then with severe cuts and it wasn’t seen until 1965 in the U.S., further changed and retitled These Are the Damned. Adapted by Evan Jones from The Children of Light, a novel by H.L. Lawrence, The Damned is a strange hybrid of science fiction, horror and social commentary that in some ways anticipates by a decade Kubrick’s A Clockwork Orange. Beautifully photographed in black-and-white on location in Weymouth, it brings a mysterious American stranger (Macdonald Carey—perhaps a fugitive—into a violent confrontation with a gang of Teddy Boys and ultimately into a deadly, dystopic government experiment with radioactive children. Among the film’s considerable changes to Lawrence’s narrative was the addition of a major character: a sculptor, whose cliff-top studio is a vivid and key location and whose works function as visual omens of a social and technological apocalypse to come. Freya Neilson (Viveca Lindfors was conceived expressly to employ the work of sculptor Elisabeth Frink (1930-1993, whose scarred, distressed figural works of the period included anthropomorphic birds, winged men, fallen men, horse heads and other morbid ciphers of existential dread. In the film these works of plaster and bronze embody the age of anxiety even as they represent art as a redemptive alternative to the cold-bloodedness of both lowbrow Teddy Boy (Oliver Reed and highbrow Government scientist (Alexander Knox. Associated with the postwar structure of feeling that Herbert Read characterized as “the geometry of fear,” Frink’s work performs a major role in The Damned, giving form to psychosocial ills and fears of the postwar generation. 

  20. Insight into the Pacific Sea Surface Temperature- North American Hydroclimate Connection from an Eastern Tropical North Pacific Coral Record (United States)

    Sanchez, S. C.; Charles, C. D.; Carriquiry, J. D.


    The last few years of record-breaking climate anomalies across North America--a resilient atmospheric ridge and extreme drought over the West Coast, and severe winters across the Midwest and East Coast regions--have been linked to anomalous Pacific sea surface temperatures (Seager et al. 2014, Wang et al. 2014, Hartmann 2015). The synoptic associations prompt important questions on the relation between these unusual phenomena and extreme expressions of known Pacific decadal modes, such as the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO). These questions motivate our pursuit to document multiple realizations of decadal variability in the Pacific-North American region through periods of varied radiative forcing. Here we introduce a 178 year, seasonally resolved Porites coral record from Clarion Island (18N, 115W), the westernmost island of the Revillagigedo Archipelago, a region both highly influenced by NPGO SST and SSS variability and critical for NPGO tropical-extratropical communication via the Seasonal Footprinting Mechanism (Vimont et al. 2003). When coupled with tree ring records from the western United States (Griffin and Anchukaitis 2014, MacDonald and Case 2005) and coral records from the central tropical Pacific (Cobb et al. 2001), the δ18O signal from the Clarion coral offers an extended framework of coherent continental hydroclimate and oceanic variability across the Pacific basin beyond the instrumental record. Over the last 200 years, we find clear commonality in the timing, magnitude and spatial expression of variability (illustrated through the NADA Atlas, Cook et al. 2004) amongst the proxy records. The strong relationship between Northeastern Pacific Clarion and the Central Pacific Palmyra record with the North American hydroclimate records can be viewed within the mechanistic framework of the NPGO; this framework is then explored over the last millennium across intervals of varied radiative forcing.

  1. Transmission dynamics of carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and anticipated impact of infection control strategies in a surgical unit.

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    Vana Sypsa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (CPKP has been established as important nosocomial pathogen in many geographic regions. Transmission from patient to patient via the hands of healthcare workers is the main route of spread in the acute-care setting. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Epidemiological and infection control data were recorded during a prospective observational study conducted in a surgical unit of a tertiary-care hospital in Greece. Surveillance culture for CPKP were obtained from all patients upon admission and weekly thereafter. The Ross-Macdonald model for vector-borne diseases was applied to obtain estimates for the basic reproduction number R(0 (average number of secondary cases per primary case in the absence of infection control and assess the impact of infection control measures on CPKP containment in endemic and hyperendemic settings. Eighteen of 850 patients were colonized with CPKP on admission and 51 acquired CPKP during hospilazation. R(0 reached 2 and exceeded unity for long periods of time under the observed hand hygiene compliance (21%. The minimum hand hygiene compliance level necessary to control transmission was 50%. Reduction of 60% to 90% in colonized patients on admission, through active surveillance culture, contact precautions and isolation/cohorting, in combination with 60% compliance in hand hygiene would result in rapid decline in CPKP prevalence within 8-12 weeks. Antibiotics restrictions did not have a substantial benefit when an aggressive control strategy was implemented. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Surveillance culture on admission and isolation/cohorting of colonized patients coupled with moderate hand hygiene compliance and contact precautions may lead to rapid control of CPKP in endemic and hyperendemic healthcare settings.

  2. Clinical features and multidisciplinary approaches to dementia care

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    Full Text Available Jacob HG Grand¹, Sienna Caspar², Stuart WS MacDonald11Department of Psychology, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada; 2Interdisciplinary Graduate Studies, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, CanadaAbstract: Dementia is a clinical syndrome of widespread progressive deterioration of cognitive abilities and normal daily functioning. These cognitive and behavioral impairments pose considerable challenges to individuals with dementia, along with their family members and caregivers. Four primary dementia classifications have been defined according to clinical and research criteria: 1 Alzheimer’s disease; 2 vascular dementias; 3 frontotemporal dementias; and 4 dementia with Lewy bodies/Parkinson’s disease dementia. The cumulative efforts of multidisciplinary healthcare teams have advanced our understanding of dementia beyond basic descriptions, towards a more complete elucidation of risk factors, clinical symptoms, and neuropathological correlates. The characterization of disease subtypes has facilitated targeted management strategies, advanced treatments, and symptomatic care for individuals affected by dementia. This review briefly summarizes the current state of knowledge and directions of dementia research and clinical practice. We provide a description of the risk factors, clinical presentation, and differential diagnosis of dementia. A summary of multidisciplinary team approaches to dementia care is outlined, including management strategies for the treatment of cognitive impairments, functional deficits, and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. The needs of individuals with dementia are extensive, often requiring care beyond traditional bounds of medical practice, including pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic management interventions. Finally, advanced research on the early prodromal phase of dementia is reviewed, with a focus on change-point models, trajectories of cognitive change, and threshold models of

  3. Pitfalls in the Neuroimaging of Glioblastoma in the Era of Antiangiogenic and Immuno/Targeted Therapy - Detecting Illusive Disease, Defining Response

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    Raymond Yi-Kun Huang


    Full Text Available Glioblastoma, the most common malignant primary brain tumor in adults is a devastating diagnosis with an average survival of 14-16 months using the current standard of care treatment. The determination of treatment response and clinical decision making is based on the accuracy of radiographic assessment. Notwithstanding, challenges exist in the neuroimaging evaluation of patients undergoing treatment for malignant glioma.Differentiating treatment response from tumor progression is problematic and currently combines long-term follow-up using standard MRI, with clinical status and corticosteroid-dependency assessments. In the clinical trial setting, treatment with gene therapy, vaccines, immunotherapy, and targeted biologicals similarly produces MRI changes mimicking disease progression. A neuroimaging method to clearly distinguish between pseudoprogression and tumor progression has unfortunately not been found to date. With the incorporation of antiangiogenic therapies, a further pitfall in imaging interpretation is pseudoresponse. The Macdonald Criteria that correlate tumor burden with contrast enhanced imaging proved insufficient and misleading in the context of rapid blood brain barrier normalization following antiangiogenic treatment that is not accompanied by expected survival benefit. Even improved criteria, such as the RANO criteria, that incorporate non-enhancing disease, clinical status, and need for corticosteroid use, fall short of definitively distinguishing tumor progression, pseudoresponse, and pseudoprogression.This review focuses on advanced imaging techniques including perfusion MRI, diffusion MRI, MR spectroscopy, and new PET imaging tracers. The relevant image analysis algorithms and interpretation methods of these promising techniques are discussed in the context of determining response and progression during treatment of glioblastoma both in the standard of care as well as clinical trial context.

  4. The Threat of Mental Epiphenomenalism and Causal Explanation of Action%心理副现象论威胁与行为的因果解释

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    心理因果性问题是当代心灵哲学中的焦点问题之一。心理事件由于与物理事件之间的关系不符合因果关系的法则学判别标准,而被副现象论者认为是一种没有原因作用的副现象。麦克唐纳夫妇根据"共例示"原则和随附性原则说明了,在反击副现象论的攻击中,心理事件的原因地位如何可能得到有效的保护。他们的心理因果相关性学说,不仅促使人们重新认识常识心理因果性,还促使人们重新反思哲学基本问题。%Mental causation is one of the focal questions of mental philosophy.Since the relationship between mental events and physical events is not in accordance with nomological standard of causation,mental events are considered to be epiphenomena which do not have causal role.C.and G.Macdonald have explained how the causal role of mental events can be protected in counter-epiphenomenalism attacks according to "co-instantiation" and supervenience principles.Their theory of causal relevance of mental events makes us reconsider common sense of mental causation and reflect on the basic question of philosophy.

  5. They made you perfect: A test of the Social Reaction Model of Perfectionism. (United States)

    Wilson, Claire; Hunter, Simon C; Rasmussen, Susan; McGowan, Allison


    Perfectionism serves as a mediator in the relationship between difficult life experiences and psychological distress, but to date no research has examined the effect of recalled peer victimization on perfectionism and adult depressive symptomatology (DS). The present study assessed the Social Reaction Model of Perfectionism (SRMP; Flett, Hewitt, Oliver, & Macdonald (2002b). Perfectionism in children and their parents: A developmental analysis. In G. L. Flett and P. L. Hewitt (Eds.), Perfectionism: Theory, research, and treatment (pp. 89-132). Washington: American Psychological Association), which proposes that perfectionism (self-oriented, other-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism) results from harsh experiences. This may include experiences of peer victimization (physical, verbal and indirect). The model was extended to also include adult DS and rumination (brooding and reflection). Self-report questionnaires measuring recalled childhood experiences of peer victimization (Owens, Daly, & Slee (2005). Aggressive Behavior, 31, 1-12. doi: 10.1002/ab.20045), current trait perfectionism (Hewitt & Flett (1991). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 456-470., rumination (Nolen-Hoeksema & Morrow (1991). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 115-121. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.61.1.115) and DS (Radloff (1977). Applied Psychological Measurement, 1, 386-401. were completed by 338 adult participants (54% female). Path-analyses revealed recalled indirect victimization to be associated with adults' self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism. However, only socially prescribed perfectionism mediated the relation between recalled indirect victimization and adult DS. Brooding rumination also mediated the effect of socially prescribed perfectionism upon DS. The findings support the SRMP, and extend the theory to include the effects of perfectionism on

  6. The effects of music on time perception and performance of a driving game. (United States)

    Cassidy, G G; Macdonald, R A R


    There is an established and growing body of evidence highlighting that music can influence behavior across a range of diverse domains (Miell, MacDonald, & Hargreaves 2005). One area of interest is the monitoring of "internal timing mechanisms", with features such as tempo, liking, perceived affective nature and everyday listening contexts implicated as important (North & Hargreaves, 2008). The current study addresses these issues by comparing the effects of self-selected and experimenter-selected music (fast and slow) on actual and perceived performance of a driving game activity. Seventy participants completed three laps of a driving game in seven sound conditions: (1) silence; (2) car sounds; (3) car sounds with self-selected music, and car sounds with experimenter-selected music; (4) high-arousal (70 bpm); (5) high-arousal (130 bpm); (6) low-arousal (70 bpm); and (7) low-arousal (130 bpm) music. Six performance measures (time, accuracy, speed, and retrospective perception of these), and four experience measures (perceived distraction, liking, appropriateness and enjoyment) were taken. Exposure to self-selected music resulted in overestimation of elapsed time and inaccuracy, while benefiting accuracy and experience. In contrast, exposure to experimenter-selected music resulted in poorest performance and experience. Increasing the tempo of experimenter-selected music resulted in faster performance and increased inaccuracy for high-arousal music, but did not impact experience. It is suggested that personal meaning and subjective associations connected to self-selected music promoted increased engagement with the activity, overriding detrimental effects attributed to unfamiliar, less liked and less appropriate experimenter-selected music.

  7. A multicharge ion source (Supernanogan) for the OLIS facility at ISAC/TRIUMF

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    Jayamanna, K.; Wight, G.; Gallop, D.; Dube, R.; Jovicic, V.; Laforge, C.; Marchetto, M.; Leross, M.; Louie, D.; Laplante, R.; Laxdal, R.; McDonald, M.; Wiebe, G. J.; Wang, V.; Yan, F. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2A3 (Canada)


    The Off-Line Ion Source (OLIS) [K. Jayamanna, D. Yuan, T. Kuo, M. MacDonald, P. Schmor, and G. Dutto, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 1061 (1996); K. Jayamanna, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 02711 (2008)] facility consists of a high voltage terminal containing a microwave cusp ion source, either a surface ion source or a hybrid surface-arc discharge ion source [K. Jayamanna and C. Vockenhuber, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 02C712 (2008)], and an electrostatic switch that allows the selection of any one of the sources without mechanical intervention. These sources provide a variety of +1 beams up to mass 30 for Isotope Separator and ACcelerator (ISAC) [R. E. Laxdal, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 204, 400 (2003)] experiments, commissioning the accelerators, setting up the radioactive experiments, and for tuning the beam lines. The radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) [M. Marchetto, Z. T. Ang, K. Jayamanna, R. E. Laxdal, A. Mitra, and V. Zvyagintsev, Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 150, 241 (2005)] injector accelerator is a constant velocity machine designed to accept only 2 keV/u and the source extraction energy is limited to 60 kV. Further stripping is then needed downstream of the RFQ to inject the beam into the drift tube linac [M. Marchetto, Z. T. Ang, K. Jayamanna, R. E. Laxdal, A. Mitra, and V. Zvyagintsev, Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 150, 241 (2005)] accelerator that requires A/q up to 6. Base on this constraints a multicharge ion source capable to deliver beams above mass 30 with A/q up to 6 was needed in order to reach full capability of the ISAC facility. A Supernanogan [C. Bieth et al., Nucleonika 48, S93 (2003)] multicharge ion source was then purchased from Pantechnik and was installed in the OLIS terminal. Commissioning and performance of the Supernanogan with some results such as emittance dependence of the charge states as well as charge state efficiencies are presented.

  8. Clinical efficacy and safety of Zarzio® (EP2006, a biosimilar recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharmarajah S


    Full Text Available Soba Tharmarajah,1,2 Abdulaziz Mohammed,3,4 Alaa Bagalagel,3,4 Karen MacDonald,2 Ivo Abraham2,3,5 1College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA; 2Matrix45, Tucson, AZ, USA; 3Center for Health Outcomes and PharmacoEconomic Research, College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA; 4College of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 5Department of Pharmacy Practice and Science, College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA Abstract: This second review of biosimilar granulocyte colony-stimulating factors approved by the European Medicines Agency evaluates the evidence on the clinical efficacy and safety of prophylaxis of (febrile neutropenia with Zarzio® in chemotherapy-treated cancer patients relative to the originator product filgrastim (Neupogen®. Source documents include: publicly available documents of the European Medicines Agency; a published article reviewing the (preapproval clinical development of EP2006 (Zarzio®; and published (postapproval single-center experience reports on prophylaxis with Zarzio®, including two reports in the cancer setting and one in the setting of autologous peripheral blood stem cell mobilization. Also included is: a pooled analysis of these and other postapproval studies in the cancer setting that includes (interim data from the two single cancer center reports; one additional single-center experience study; one completed study; and one ongoing multicenter postapproval study. Based on the available therapeutic equivalence and safety data, the clinical and safety outcomes of Zarzio® are likely to be similar to those of Neupogen®. Thus, Zarzio® and Neupogen® may be assumed interchangeable. Keywords: biosimilars, biosimilar pharmaceuticals, efficacy, safety, granulocyte colony stimulating factor, recombinant proteins

  9. Overlapping Spreading Centers: Implications from Crack Growth Simulation by the Displacement Discontinuity Method (United States)

    Sempere, Jean-Christophe; MacDonald, Ken C.


    Overlapping spreading centers (OSC's) are a fundamental aspect of accretionary processes at intermediate and fast-spreading centers and typically occur at deep points along the axial depth profile. They have a characteristic geometry consisting of two en echelon overlapping, curving ridges separated by an elongated depression. The length to width ratio of this overlap basin is typically 3∶1. We have been successful in reproducing the overlapping spreading center geometry by modelling the growth of two initially parallel elastic cracks of given length and offset in a tensile stress field at infinity. A boundary element displacement discontinuity method was used to solve this problem. Our calculated results are compared with seafloor observations in terms of the size and shape of the overlap region. For small OSC's, there is a very good agreement between calculations and observations but, for large ones, the overlap basin tends to be longer than our predicted results indicate. This suggests that the assumptions made in the model (i.e., perfectly elastic, isotropic and homogeneous medium) are perhaps valid for the brittle lid above the magma chamber that underlies OSC's with small offsets (OSC's with large offsets. Our modelling shows that the initial interaction of closely spaced surface ruptures along spreading centers is to deflect away from one another as they approach. The deflection will be the greatest for small misalignments of the fracture systems, thus even minor misalignments of the spreading centers may result in the development of OSC's. Where the misalignment is less than the width of the cracking front, the fracture systems may meet head-on creating a saddle point along the axial depth profile. Our results support the hypothesis suggested by Macdonald et al. [1984] in which overlapping spreading centers develop where two magmatic pulses migrate toward each other along the strike of the spreading center following fracture systems and magmatic conduits

  10. Effective theory of rotationally faulted multilayer graphene (United States)

    Kindermann, Markus


    The crystal structure of graphene multilayers with an interlayer twist is characterized by Moir'e patterns with various commensurabilities. Also the electronic structure of the material, which grows for instance epitaxially on SiC, is remarkably rich. In this talk an effective low-energy description of such multilayers will be discussed. In certain limits the theory reduces to a (single-layer) Dirac model with space-dependent potentials and mass term. The consequences of this theory will be explored and comparison with experiment will be made. The discussion of experimental consequences will focus on the Landau quantization in a magnetic field, where much experimental data is available. For instance, a spatially modulated splitting of the zeroth Landau level in the material has been observed through scanning tunneling spectroscopy [1]. That splitting finds a natural explanation in the space-dependent mass term of the presented theory [2]. Also a large low-field splitting of higher Landau levels recently observed in graphene multilayers [3] will be shown to follow from that theory. Finally, a theoretically expected [4] amplitude modulation of the Landau level wavefunctions on the top layer of the material will be discussed. [4pt] [1] D. L. Miller, K. D. Kubista, G. M. Rutter, M. Ruan, W. A. de Heer, M. Kindermann, P. N. First, and J. A. Stroscio, Nature Physics 6, 811 (2010). [0pt] [2] M. Kindermann and P. N. First, Phys. Rev. B 83, 045425 (2010). [0pt] [3] Y. J. Song, A. F. Otte, Y. Kuk, Y. Hu, D. B. Torrance, P. N. First, W. A. de Heer, H. Min, S. Adam, M. D. Stiles, A. H. MacDonald, and J. A. Stroscio, Nature 467, 185 (2010). [0pt] [4] M. Kindermann and E. G. Mele, Phys. Rev. B 84, 161406(R) (2011).

  11. Pāhoehoe, `a`ā, and block lava: an illustrated history of the nomenclature (United States)

    Harris, Andrew J. L.; Rowland, Scott K.; Villeneuve, Nicolas; Thordarson, Thor


    Lava flows occur worldwide, and throughout history, various cultures (and geologists) have described flows based on their surface textures. As a result, surface morphology-based nomenclature schemes have been proposed in most languages to aid in the classification and distinction of lava surface types. One of the first to be published was likely the nine-class, Italian-language description-based classification proposed by Mario Gemmellaro in 1858. By far, the most commonly used terms to describe lava surfaces today are not descriptive but, instead, are merely words, specifically the Hawaiian words `a`ā (rough brecciated basalt lava) and pāhoehoe (smooth glassy basalt lava), plus block lava (thick brecciated lavas that are typically more silicic than basalt). `A`ā and pāhoehoe were introduced into the Western geological vocabulary by American geologists working in Hawai`i during the 1800s. They and other nineteenth century geologists proposed formal lava-type classification schemes for scientific use, and most of them used the Hawaiian words. In 1933, Ruy Finch added the third lava type, block lava, to the classification scheme, with the tripartite system being formalized in 1953 by Gordon Macdonald. More recently, particularly since the 1980s and based largely on studies of lava flow interiors, a number of sub-types and transitional forms of all three major lava types have been defined. This paper reviews the early history of the development of the pāhoehoe, `a`ā, and block lava-naming system and presents a new descriptive classification so as to break out the three parental lava types into their many morphological sub-types.

  12. CADrx for GBM Brain Tumors: Predicting Treatment Response from Changes in Diffusion-Weighted MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S. Brown


    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to develop a computer-aided therapeutic response (CADrx system for early prediction of drug treatment response for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM brain tumors with diffusion weighted (DW MR images. In conventional Macdonald assessment, tumor response is assessed nine weeks or more post-treatment. However, we will investigate the ability of DW-MRI to assess response earlier, at five weeks post treatment. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC map, calculated from DW images, has been shown to reveal changes in the tumor’s microenvironment preceding morphologic tumor changes. ADC values in treated brain tumors could theoretically both increase due to the cell kill (and thus reduced cell density and decrease due to inhibition of edema. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of features that quantify changes from pre- and post-treatment tumor ADC histograms to detect treatment response. There are three parts to this study: first, tumor regions were segmented on T1w contrast enhanced images by Otsu’s thresholding method, and mapped from T1w images onto ADC images by a 3D region of interest (ROI mapping tool using DICOM header information; second, ADC histograms of the tumor region were extracted from both pre- and five weeks post-treatment scans, and fitted by a two-component Gaussian mixture model (GMM. The GMM features as well as standard histogram-based features were extracted. Finally, supervised machine learning techniques were applied for classification of responders or non-responders. The approach was evaluated with a dataset of 85 patients with GBM under chemotherapy, in which 39 responded and 46 did not, based on tumor volume reduction. We compared adaBoost, random forest and support vector machine classification algorithms, using ten-fold cross validation, resulting in the best accuracy of 69.41% and the corresponding area under the curve (Az of 0.70.

  13. Patterns of Failure After Concurrent Bevacizumab and Hypofractionated Stereotactic Radiation Therapy for Recurrent High-Grade Glioma

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    Shapiro, Lauren Q. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Beal, Kathryn, E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Goenka, Anuj [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Karimi, Sasan [Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Iwamoto, Fabio M. [Department of Neurology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Yamada, Yoshiya [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Zhang, Zhigang [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Lassman, Andrew B.; Abrey, Lauren E. [Department of Neurology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Gutin, Philip H. [Department of Neurosurgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)


    Purpose: Concurrent bevacizumab with hypofractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (HSRT) is safe and effective for the treatment of recurrent high-grade gliomas (HGG). The objective of this study was to characterize the patterns of failure after this treatment regimen. Methods and Materials: Twenty-four patients with recurrent enhancing HGG were previously treated on an institutional review board-approved protocol of concurrent bevacizumab and reirradiation. Patients received 30 Gy in 5 fractions to the recurrent tumor with HSRT. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed every 2 cycles, and bevacizumab was continued until clinical or radiographic tumor progression according to the criteria of Macdonald et al. MRI at the time of progression was fused to the HSRT treatment plan, and the location of recurrence was classified on the basis of volume within the 95% isodose line. Outcomes based on patient characteristics, tumor grade, recurrence pattern, and best response to treatment were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Twenty-two patients experienced either clinical or radiographic progression. Recurrent tumor was enhancing in 15 (71.4%) and nonenhancing in 6 (28.6%) patients. Eleven patients (52.4%) had recurrence within the radiation field, 5 patients (23.8%) had marginal recurrence, and 5 patients had recurrence outside the radiation field. Pattern of enhancement and location of failure did not correlate with overall survival or progression-free survival. Radiographic response was the only variable to significantly correlate with progression-free survival. Conclusions: Despite the promising initial response seen with the addition of HSRT to bevacizumab as salvage treatment for recurrent HGG, approximately half of patients ultimately still experience failure within the radiation field. The rate of local failure with the addition of HSRT seems to be lower than that seen with bevacizumab alone in the salvage setting. Our data underscore the

  14. TH-A-BRF-09: Integration of High-Resolution MRSI Into Glioblastoma Treatment Planning

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    Schreibmann, E; Cordova, J; Shu, H; Crocker, I; Curran, W; Holder, C; Shim, H [Department of Radiation Oncology and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States)


    Purpose: Identification of a metabolite signature that shows significant tumor cell infiltration into normal brain in regions that do not appear abnormal on standard MRI scans would be extremely useful for radiation oncologists to choose optimal regions of brain to treat, and to quantify response beyond the MacDonald criteria. We report on integration of high-resolution magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (HR-MRSI) with radiation dose escalation treatment planning to define and target regions at high risk for recurrence. Methods: We propose to supplement standard MRI with a special technique performed on an MRI scanner to measure the metabolite levels within defined volumes. Metabolite imaging was acquired using an advanced MRSI technique combining 3D echo-planar spectroscopic imaging (EPSI) with parallel acquisition (GRAPPA) using a multichannel head coil that allows acquisition of whole brain metabolite maps with 108 μl resolution in 12 minutes implemented on a 3T MR scanner. Elevation in the ratio of two metabolites, choline (Cho, elevated in proliferating high-grade gliomas) and N-acetyl aspartate (NAA, a normal neuronal metabolite), was used to image infiltrating high-grade glioma cells in vivo. Results: The metabolite images were co-registered with standard contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MR images using in-house registration software and imported into the treatment-planning system. Regions with tumor infiltration are identified on the metabolic images and used to create adaptive IMRT plans that deliver a standard dose of 60 Gy to the standard target volume and an escalated dose of 75 Gy (or higher) to the most suspicious regions, identified as areas with elevated Cho/NAA ratio. Conclusion: We have implemented a state-of-the-art HR-MRSI technology that can generate metabolite maps of the entire brain in a clinically acceptable scan time, coupled with introduction of an imaging co-registration/ analysis program that combines MRSI data with standard imaging

  15. Evaluation of early imaging response criteria in glioblastoma multiforme

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    Millar Barbara-Ann


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early and accurate prediction of response to cancer treatment through imaging criteria is particularly important in rapidly progressive malignancies such as Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM. We sought to assess the predictive value of structural imaging response criteria one month after concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy (RT in patients with GBM. Methods Thirty patients were enrolled from 2005 to 2007 (median follow-up 22 months. Tumor volumes were delineated at the boundary of abnormal contrast enhancement on T1-weighted images prior to and 1 month after RT. Clinical Progression [CP] occurred when clinical and/or radiological events led to a change in chemotherapy management. Early Radiologic Progression [ERP] was defined as the qualitative interpretation of radiological progression one month post-RT. Patients with ERP were determined pseudoprogressors if clinically stable for ≥6 months. Receiver-operator characteristics were calculated for RECIST and MacDonald criteria, along with alternative thresholds against 1 year CP-free survival and 2 year overall survival (OS. Results 13 patients (52% were found to have ERP, of whom 5 (38.5% were pseudoprogressors. Patients with ERP had a lower median OS (11.2 mo than those without (not reached (p 25% in volume or > 15% in area were most predictive of OS. Conclusions We show that while a subjective interpretation of early radiological progression from baseline is generally associated with poor outcome, true progressors cannot be distinguished from pseudoprogressors. In contrast, the magnitude of early imaging volumetric response may be a predictive and quantitative metric of favorable outcome.

  16. Evaluation of ADC mapping as an early predictor for tumor response to chemotherapy in recurrent glioma treated with bevacizumab/irinotecan. Proof of principle; Evaluation des ADC-Mappings als Praediktor fuer ein Ansprechen von Glioblastomrezidiven auf eine Therapie mit Avastin

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    Ringelstein, A.; Saleh, A.; Lanzman, R.S.; Mathys, C.; Moedder, U. [Universitaetsklinikum Duesseldorf (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische Radiologie; Turowski, B. [Universitaetsklinikum Duesseldorf (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische Radiologie/Neuroradiologie; Gizewski, E.R. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie und Neuroradiologie; Schroeteler, J.; Rapp, M.; Sabel, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Duesseldorf (Germany). Neurochirurgische Klinik


    Purpose: The assessment of the radiological response of recurrent glioma is based on the Macdonald or RECIST criteria 8 to 10 weeks from the start of treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging using an apparent diffusion coefficient map may provide an earlier measure for predicting the response to therapy of recurrent glioma. Materials and Methods: Twelve patients with recurrent high-grade glioma were enrolled in a feasibility study of pretreatment MRI on day 1, intra-treatment MRI in week 3, and post-treatment MRI in week 12. Prognostically relevant ADC values (ADCprog) of each recurrent glioma at 3 weeks were calculated as a function of their pre- and intra-therapy ADC values (ADCpre - ADCintra = ADCprog). Because we hypothesized that smaller ADC values correlate with less Brownian motion of water molecules in the extracellular space and that a higher cell density may restrain this water diffusion, we set smaller ADC values at a second time point as 'progressive disease' (PD) and higher ADC values as 'partial response' (PR). A change in ADCprog of less than 10 x 10{sup 6} mm{sup 2}/sec was set as 'stable disease' (SD). The ADCprog values were always calculated before the final scan after 3 months was performed. The readers were blinded to the future development of the tumor. Results: In 10 of the 12 patients we could correctly predict the tumor response to chemotherapy. One patient died before the three-month control, and one recurrent glioma did not develop as predicted. ADC mapping is found to predict patient response at 3 weeks from the start of treatment, revealing that early changes in tumor diffusion values could be used as a prognostic indicator also for chemotherapeutically treated recurrences of high-grade glioma. (orig.)

  17. What Makes a Difference for Disadvantaged Girls? Investigating the Interplay between Group Composition and Positive Youth Development in Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebe Schaillée


    Full Text Available It has been suggested that group composition can influence the experiences of individual group members in social programmes (Weiss, 1998. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between peer group composition in sports programmes and positive youth development (PYD in disadvantaged girls, as well as to determine whether it was moderated by personal characteristics. Two hundred young women aged between 10 and 24 completed a questionnaire including, among others, the “Youth Experience Survey for Sport” (YES-S (MacDonald, Côté, Eys, & Deakin, 2012 and questions regarding participants’ socio-economic characteristics (i.e., nationality, education, family situation. Multilevel regression analyses were performed to take into account the hierarchical data structure. At the group level, a higher percentage of girls from a low educational track and with a migration background predicted greater PYD, as indicated by higher levels of personal and social skills, cognitive skills and goal setting. Results showed interaction effects between the respondents’ family structures on the participant and team levels. The overall statistical models for the different developmental domains accounted for variance ranging from 14.7% (personal and social skills to 30.3% (cognitive skills. Results indicated that the extent to which disadvantaged girls derive benefits from their participation in sport also depends on the group composition. The interaction effects between the group composition and individual characteristics suggest that when girls participate in a group of similar peers, those from non-intact families will derive more benefits than their counterparts from intact families.

  18. Clinical efficacy and safety of Tevagrastim® (XM02, a biosimilar recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor

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    Bagalagel A


    Full Text Available Alaa Bagalagel,1,2 Abdulaziz Mohammed,1,2 Karen MacDonald,3 Ivo Abraham1,3–5 1Center for Health Outcomes and PharmacoEconomic Research, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA; 2College of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 3Matrix45, Tucson, AZ, USA; 4Department of Pharmacy Practice and Science, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA; 5Department of Family and Community Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA Abstract: Since the expiration of the patent for filgrastim in Europe in 2006, the European Medicines Agency has approved three biosimilar granulocyte colony-stimulating factors, while the US Food and Drug Administration has approved one of these agents. Using the European Medicines Agency’s and the Food and Drug Administration’s regulatory reports and scientific publications, we review the evidence about the clinical efficacy and safety of XM02 (Tevagrastim® relative to the originator product filgrastim (Neupogen®. Clinical efficacy is assessed in terms of equivalence of XM02 and Neupogen®, while safety is evaluated in terms of immunogenicity, bone pain, splenomegaly, allergic reactions, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and mortality. Three Phase III studies in breast cancer patients treated with docetaxel/doxorubicin chemotherapy, lung cancer patients receiving platinum-based chemotherapy, and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma receiving chemotherapy are reviewed. Also included is a postapproval, single-center experience study on peripheral blood stem mobilization. Based on the available therapeutic equivalence and safety data, the clinical and safety outcomes of XM02 are likely to be similar to those of Neupogen®. XM02 and Neupogen® can be considered interchangeable in the approved indications. Patients previously on Neupogen® and converted to XM02 can be expected to show similar efficacy and safety outcomes. Keywords: biosimilars, biosimilar pharmaceuticals, efficacy, safety


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Nayibe Cárdenas Soler


    Full Text Available Diferentes autores (Akerlind, 2008; Bozeman y Gaughan, 2011; Feixas, 2002; García, Guerra, González y Álvarez, 2010; Grossman y MacDonald, 2008; Paul y Phua, 2011 muestran la importancia que actualmente tienen los estudios sobre cómo los profesionales de la educación superior participan y se implican en la titulación en la que trabajan como docentes. En esta dirección, el presente estudio analiza las características profesionales del profesorado de los 13 programas de Licenciatura en Música existentes en todas las instituciones de educación superior de Colombia que cuentan con esta titulación, encargada de formar educadores musicales para los niveles de educación básica secundaria y media en este país sudamericano. El trabajo realizado se centra en el análisis de dimensiones como la experiencia profesional, la formación académica y la participación de los docentes en diferentes actividades de sus respectivos programas de Licenciatura. 175 profesores cumplimentaron un cuestionario adaptado del empleado en el proyecto europeo ALFA II-0448-A. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que el hecho de que un amplio número de los participantes cuente con contrato temporal influye especialmente en su grado de participación e implicación en las diferentes actividades educativas relacionadas con el plan de estudios y su sentido profesional de pertenencia institucional.

  20. A look at CMAJ: A misty image indeed

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    Ajai R. Singh


    Full Text Available The date: Feb 20, 2006. Medical publishing was rocked by the sudden dismissal of the Editor In Chief of the CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal, John Hoey, and a Senior Deputy Editor Anne Mary Todkill. The Editor appointed in the interim, Stephen Choe and another Deputy Editor Sally Murray, also resigned in a week's time, on 28 Feb to be precise. Along with them also went Jerome Kassirer, a former CMAJ editorial board member and a former editor of the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM, appointed to frame regulations or governance plans about editorial independence. All these are well-respected professionals in the field of biomedical publication and there has been a huge outcry, both in the medical as well as popular press, at their abrupt sacking. If this were not enough, fifteen out of the nineteen members of the editorial board of the CAMJ also resigned, precipitating a grave crisis. In the meanwhile, the CMA, in an attempt at damage control, appointed an interim Editor, Noni Macdonald, along with an Editor Emeritus, Bruce Squires, who has been an earlier editor of CMAJ , and a founder member of WAME. A retired Chief Justice of the Canadian Supreme Court has been appointed to chalk out a Governance Plan for Editorial independence. Changes are also envisaged in the JOC (Journal Oversight Committee. The CMA President is exhorting everyone concerned to move on, and has assured a policy of editorial independence. The atmosphere, at the time of writing this, is combative and smoldering, and a distinct unease prevails. [No abstract available.

  1. Radio telemetry equipment and applications for carnivores (United States)

    Fuller, Mark R.; Fuller, Todd K.; Boitani, Luigi; Powell, Roger A.


    Radio-telemetry was not included in the first comprehensive manual of wildlife research techniques (Mosby 1960) because the first published papers were about physiological wildlife telemetry (LeMunyan et al. 1959) and because research using telemetry in field ecology was just being initiated (Marshall et al. 1962; Cochran and Lord 1963). Among the first uses of telemetry to study wildlife, however, was a study of carnivores (Craighead et al. 1963), and telemetry has become a common method for studying numerous topics of carnivore biology. Our goals for this chapter are to provide basic information about radio-telemetry equipment and procedures. Although we provide many references to studies using telemetry equipment and methods, we recommend Kenward's (2001) comprehensive book, A manual of wildlife radio tagging for persons who are unfamiliar with radio-telemetry, Fuller et al. (2005), and Tomkiewicz et al. (2010). Compendia of uses of radio-telemetry in animal research appear regularly as chapters in manuals (Cochran 1980; Samuel and Fuller 1994), in books about equipment, field procedures, study design, and applications (Amlaner and Macdonald 1980; Anderka 1987; Amlaner 1989; White and Garrott 1990; Priede and Swift 1992; Kenward 2001; Millspaugh and Marzluff 2001; Mech and Barber 2002), and in reviews highlighting new developments (Cooke et al. 2004; Rutz and Hays 2009; Cagnacci et al. 2010). Some animal telemetry products and techniques have remained almost unchanged for years, but new technologies and approaches emerge and replace previously available equipment at an increasing pace. Here, we emphasize recent studies for which telemetry was used with carnivores.

  2. Spin-Transfer-Torques at a Ferromagnet/Antiferromagnet Interface (United States)

    Tsoi, Maxim


    Spintronics in ferromagnetic systems is built on a complementary set of phenomena in which the magnetic configuration of the system influences its transport properties and vice versa. Giant magnetoresistance (GMR) [1] and spin- transfer-torque (STT) [2] phenomena are typical examples of such interconnections. Recently, MacDonald and co-workers [3] predicted that corresponding effects ought to occur in systems where ferromagnetic (F) components are replaced by antiferromagnets (AFM). I will present our experimental search for these new AFM effects which may potentially lead to a new all-antiferromagnetic spintronics where antiferromagnets are used in place of ferromagnets. In particular I will focus on our experiments with exchange-biased spin valves [4] where extreme current densities were found to affect the exchange bias at F/AFM interface [5-7]. As exchange bias is known to be associated with interfacial AFM magnetic moments, our observation can be taken as the first evidence of STT effect in AFM materials. [4pt] [1] M. N. Baibich et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2472 (1988); G. Binasch et al., Phys. Rev. B 39, 4828 (1989). [0pt] [2] J. C. Slonczewski, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 159, L1 (1996); L. Berger, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 4880 (1997); M. Tsoi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4281 (1998). [0pt] [3] A. S. N'uñez et al., Phys. Rev. B 73, 214426 (2006); [0pt] [4] Z. Wei et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 116603 (2007). [0pt] [5] S. Urazhdin and N. Anthony, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 046602 (2007). [0pt] [6] X-L.Tang et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 122504 (2007). [0pt] [7] N. V. Dai et al., Phys. Rev. B77, 132406 (2008).

  3. Retractions in orthopaedic research (United States)

    Yan, J.; MacDonald, A.; Baisi, L-P.; Evaniew, N.; Bhandari, M.


    Objectives Despite the fact that research fraud and misconduct are under scrutiny in the field of orthopaedic research, little systematic work has been done to uncover and characterise the underlying reasons for academic retractions in this field. The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of retractions and identify the reasons for retracted publications in the orthopaedic literature. Methods Two reviewers independently searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library (1995 to current) using MeSH keyword headings and the ‘retracted’ filter. We also searched an independent website that reports and archives retracted scientific publications ( Two reviewers independently extracted data including reason for retraction, study type, journal impact factor, and country of origin. Results One hundred and ten retracted studies were included for data extraction. The retracted studies were published in journals with impact factors ranging from 0.000 (discontinued journals) to 13.262. In the 20-year search window, only 25 papers were retracted in the first ten years, with the remaining 85 papers retracted in the most recent decade. The most common reasons for retraction were fraudulent data (29), plagiarism (25) and duplicate publication (20). Retracted articles have been cited up to 165 times (median 6; interquartile range 2 to 19). Conclusion The rate of retractions in the orthopaedic literature is increasing, with the majority of retractions attributed to academic misconduct and fraud. Orthopaedic retractions originate from numerous journals and countries, indicating that misconduct issues are widespread. The results of this study highlight the need to address academic integrity when training the next generation of orthopaedic investigators. Cite this article: J. Yan, A. MacDonald, L-P. Baisi, N. Evaniew, M. Bhandari, M. Ghert. Retractions in orthopaedic research: A systematic review. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:263–268. DOI: 10

  4. Application of Ion and Electron Momentum Imaging to Atomic Collisions (United States)

    Cocke, C. L.


    COLTRIMS (COLd Target Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy) combines fast imaging detectors with a supersonically cooled gas target to allow the charged particles from any ionizing collision, including both recoil ions and electrons, to be collected with extremely high efficiency and with fully measured vector momenta. Since all particles are measured in event mode, the full multi-dimensional momentum space is mapped. We will review several examples of the use of this technique to study two- , three- and four-body final states created in ionizing interactions of photons and charged particles with He and D2 . The momentum spectra of electrons ejected from these targets by slow projectiles reveal the stucture of the molecular orbitals which are promoted into the continuum. Double photoionization of the same targets reveals patterns which can be interpreted in terms of collective coordinates. Two-electron removal from D2 by Xe ^26+ reveals the influence of the projectile field on the dissociation process. A recent application of the technique to ionization by high intensity laser fields will be discussed. Work performed in collaboration with M.A.Abdallah^1, I.Ali^1, Matthias Achler^2, H.Braeuning^2,3, Angela Braeuning-Deminian^2, Achim Czasch^2,3, R.Doerner^2,3, R.DuBois^6, A. Landers^1,5, V.Mergel^2, R.E.Olson^6, T.Osipov^1, M.Prior^3, H.Schmidt-Boecking^2, M.Singh^1, A.Staudte^2,3, T.Weber^2, W.Wolff^4, and H.E.Wolf^4 ^1J.R.Macdonald Laboratory, Physics Department, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506; ^2 Institut fuer Kernphysik, Univ. Frankfurt, August-Euler-Str.6,D-60486 Frankfurt, Germany ; ^3Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720; ^4Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Caixa Postal 68.528, 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; ^5Physics Dept., Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008; ^6Physics Dept., Univ. Missouri Rolla, Rolla, MO 65409 Work supported by the Division of Chemical Sciences, Office of Basic

  5. A global model of malaria climate sensitivity: comparing malaria response to historic climate data based on simulation and officially reported malaria incidence. (United States)

    Edlund, Stefan; Davis, Matthew; Douglas, Judith V; Kershenbaum, Arik; Waraporn, Narongrit; Lessler, Justin; Kaufman, James H


    The role of the Anopheles vector in malaria transmission and the effect of climate on Anopheles populations are well established. Models of the impact of climate change on the global malaria burden now have access to high-resolution climate data, but malaria surveillance data tends to be less precise, making model calibration problematic. Measurement of malaria response to fluctuations in climate variables offers a way to address these difficulties. Given the demonstrated sensitivity of malaria transmission to vector capacity, this work tests response functions to fluctuations in land surface temperature and precipitation. This study of regional sensitivity of malaria incidence to year-to-year climate variations used an extended Macdonald Ross compartmental disease model (to compute malaria incidence) built on top of a global Anopheles vector capacity model (based on 10 years of satellite climate data). The predicted incidence was compared with estimates from the World Health Organization and the Malaria Atlas. The models and denominator data used are freely available through the Eclipse Foundation's Spatiotemporal Epidemiological Modeller (STEM). Although the absolute scale factor relating reported malaria to absolute incidence is uncertain, there is a positive correlation between predicted and reported year-to-year variation in malaria burden with an averaged root mean square (RMS) error of 25% comparing normalized incidence across 86 countries. Based on this, the proposed measure of sensitivity of malaria to variations in climate variables indicates locations where malaria is most likely to increase or decrease in response to specific climate factors. Bootstrapping measures the increased uncertainty in predicting malaria sensitivity when reporting is restricted to national level and an annual basis. Results indicate a potential 20x improvement in accuracy if data were available at the level ISO 3166-2 national subdivisions and with monthly time sampling. The

  6. Chevkinite-group minerals from granulite-facies metamorphic rocks and associated pegmatites of East Antarctica and South India (United States)

    Belkin, H.E.; Macdonald, R.; Grew, E.S.


    Electron microprobe data are presented for chevkinite-group minerals from granulite-facies rocks and associated pegmatites of the Napier Complex and Mawson Station charnockite in East Antarctica and from the Eastern Ghats, South India. Their compositions conform to the general formula for this group, viz. A4BC2D2Si4O22 where, in the analysed specimens A = (rare-earth elements (REE), Ca, Y, Th), B = Fe2+, Mg, C = (Al, Mg, Ti, Fe2+, Fe3+, Zr) and D = Ti and plot within the perrierite field of the total Fe (as FeO) (wt.%) vs. CaO (wt.%) discriminator diagram of Macdonald and Belkin (2002). In contrast to most chevkinite-group minerals, the A site shows unusual enrichment in the MREE and HREE relative to the LREE and Ca. In one sample from the Napier Complex, Y is the dominant cation among the total REE + Y in the A site, the first reported case of Y-dominance in the chevkinite group. The minerals include the most Al-rich yet reported in the chevkinite group (49.15 wt.% Al2O3), sufficient to fill the C site in two samples. Conversely, the amount of Ti in these samples does not fill the D site, and, thus, some of the Al could be making up the deficiency at D, a situation not previously reported in the chevkinite group. Fe abundances are low, requiring Mg to occupy up to 45% of the B site. The chevkinite-group minerals analysed originated from three distinct parageneses: (1) pegmatites containing hornblende and orthopyroxene or garnet; (2) orthopyroxene-bearing gneiss and granulite; (3) highly aluminous paragneisses in which the associated minerals are relatively magnesian or aluminous. Chevkinite-group minerals from the first two parageneses have relatively high FeO content and low MgO and Al2O3 contents; their compositions plot in the field for mafic and intermediate igneous rocks. In contrast, chevkinite-group minerals from the third paragenesis are notably more aluminous and have greater Mg/Fe ratios. ?? 2009 The Mineralogical Society.

  7. 持续性疾病流行和血吸虫病在多个脊椎动物宿主中的瞬时振动%Sustained Epidemic and Transient Oscillations of Schistosome Infection in Multiple Vertebrate Hosts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Schistosomes are parasitic worms, related to the flatworm, which live in the digestive tract or vascular system of their vertebrate hosts. They have a complex life cycle, which includes both an intermediate molluscan (or snail) and a vertebrate host. We derive a dynamical model based on the early work of MacDonald and of May and incorporated more time delays to account for various times required during the life cycle of a schistosome. Our model involves a mating function proposed by May and Woolhouse, and our work shows that varying a parameter in the mating function,which represents a disputed aspect of schistosome behavior, can change the structure of equilibria and the transmission dynamics from sustained epidemic to extinction of the infe ction. We also show that long lasting transient oscillations of the transmis sion can be observed by varying the initial average load of paired schistosomes arid the initial number of infected and shedding snails. In particular, we illustrate that the average load of paired schistosomes can remain well below its epidemic level for quite a long time before it rises and monotonically approaches the epidemi level. This suggests that prediction of the infection extinction should not be based on the level of paired schistosomes over a short priod of time.%血吸虫是一种寄生在脊椎动物上有助于消化的地方或血管中的寄生虫.它们具有复杂的生活史,其中包括中间阶段的软体动物和一个脊椎动物宿主.根据MacDonald和May的工作,我们研究了一个基于血吸虫生活史的多个时滞的动力学模型,并且包含了一个由May和Wollhouse提出的交配函数.当我们改变交配函数中的一个参数,血吸虫病的动力学行为从一个持久的疾病传播变成了疾病消失.如果增加雌性血吸虫的成熟周期,或交配周期和产卵周期,我们能够观察到长时间疾病传播的瞬时振动.这说明了对疾病的预测不依赖在一个特定时间的疾

  8. And the last word ... (United States)


    Considerable coverage appeared in the national media in April following a talk by Averil Macdonald at the Institute of Physics Annual Congress in Salford. Averil, who recently received the 1999 Bragg Medal of the Institute for her contributions to physics education, notably advocated single-sex science classes for all school students over the age of 11 and flashy cars for physics teachers! This would, she hoped, go a long way towards encouraging girls to take up careers in science and engineering. It is well known that girls from single-sex schools do better at science than those in mixed schools, whereas boys perform better when both boys and girls are present. Averil wondered whether we should be prepared to sacrifice girls' potential achievements just so that boys can do better in mixed classes, as well as the latter benefiting from the `civilizing' influence of their female counterparts. Teaching styles could also be adding to the problem since boys prefer the model of an explanation followed by a test of understanding adopted by most teachers. Girls, however, benefit most from a more cooperative teaching style and also get better results with continuous assessment - so Averil wondered why we are still using a qualifications system in which most marks are given for examination performance. Science, and particularly physics, needs to be seen as a rewarding, high prestige career - hence the mention of the expensive car! In addition, girls need to be reassured that they can cope well with physics, even when it forms part of a `science' syllabus, since everyone should have their work in each science properly recognized and rewarded more fairly. Averil concluded that if some of the factors that hinder girls' success could be removed then more women might share the challenges of a science-based career and the UK's scientific and technical achievements would undoubtedly benefit. Shortly before Averil's talk, a new resource became available for girls and women seeking

  9. Disability Surveillance in multiple sclerosis patients before and after methylprednisolone treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghabaae M


    Full Text Available Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system resulting from demyelination and axonal loss. Although treatment of MS has progressed, patients continue to have attacks and treatment for such episodes remains a subject of ongoing study. The object of this study is to determine the effect of intravenous methylprednisolone (IVMP on the degree of disability in MS patients."nMethods: This cross-sectional study involved 63 patients with a definite diagnosis of MS, based on the MacDonald criteria, at the Iranian Center for Neurological Research at Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from March 2004 through March 2005. After obtaining informed consent, investigators gathered data including each patient's age, gender, pyramidal activity status, cortical, cerebellar and brain stem activity status, sensory signals in the extremities, including vibration, touch, pain, position, visual status, as well as bladder and intestinal activity, and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS score. SPSS version 11 was used for data analysis."nResults: A five-day regimen of IVMP (5g significantly reduced the immediate post-treatment score from 4.595 to 3.635, which represents a 96% improvement in the EDSS. The greatest change in functional system disability was seen in the pyramidal system with a mean score of 1.13. After treatment, the rate of disability reduction in the sensory system, cerebellum, vision, bladder and intestinal activity was 0.57, 0.49, 0.46, 0.4, and 0.38, respectively. Patients who had experienced fewer relapses responded better to treatment. There was no statistically significant relationship between patient age and the level of response to treatment. However, the rate of disability reduction after treatment was greater in males than females (p=0.05."nConclusion: These results show that IVMP treatment induces an immediate post-treatment effect that could partly account for clinical and

  10. The crust and upper mantle of central East Greenland - implications for continental accretion and rift evolution (United States)

    Schiffer, Christian; Balling, Niels; Ebbing, Jörg; Holm Jacobsen, Bo; Bom Nielsen, Søren


    .B., 2015. The East Greenland Caledonides - teleseismic signature, gravity and isostasy. Geophysical Journal International, 203, 1400-1418. 2) Schiffer, C., Stephenson, R.A., Petersen, K.D., Nielsen, S.B., Jacobsen, B.H., Balling, N. and Macdonald, D.I.M., 2015. A sub-crustal piercing point for North Atlantic reconstructions and tectonic implications. Geology, 43, 1087-1090.

  11. Flood-rich and flood-poor periods in Spain in 1942-2009 (United States)

    Mediero, Luis; Santillán, David; Garrote, Luis


    Several studies to detect trends in flood series at either national or trans-national scales have been conducted. Mediero et al. (2015) studied flood trends by using the longest streamflow records available in Europe. They found a decreasing trend in the Atlantic, Continental and Scandinavian regions. More specifically, Mediero et al. (2014) found a general decreasing trend in flood series in Spain in the period 1959-2009. Trends in flood series are usually detected by the Mann-Kendall test applied to a given period. However, the result of the Mann-Kendall test can change in terms of the starting and ending year of the series. Flood oscillations can occur and flood-rich and flood-poor periods could condition the results, especially when they are located at the beginning or end of the series. A methodology to identify statistically significant flood-rich and flood-poor periods is developed, based on the comparison between the expected sampling variability of floods when stationarity is assumed and the observed variability of floods in a given series. The methodology is applied to the longest series of annual maximum floods, peaks over threshold and counts of annual occurrences in peaks over threshold series observed in Spain in the period 1942-2009. A flood-rich period in 1950-1970 and a flood-poor period in 1970-1990 are identified in most of the selected sites. The generalised decreasing trend in flood series found by Mediero et al. (2014) could be explained by a flood-rich period placed at the beginning of the series and a flood-poor period located at the end of the series. References: Mediero, L., Kjeldsen, T.R., Macdonald, N., Kohnova, S., Merz, B., Vorogushyn, S., Wilson, D., Alburquerque, T., Blöschl, G., Bogdanowicz, E., Castellarin, A., Hall, J., Kobold, M., Kriauciuniene, J., Lang, M., Madsen, H., Onuşluel Gül, G., Perdigão, R.A.P., Roald, L.A., Salinas, J.L., Toumazis, A.D., Veijalainen, N., Óðinn Þórarinsson. Identification of coherent flood

  12. Editor's welcome, PORTAL, Vol. 4, No. 1, January 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Allatson


    Full Text Available PORTAL Journal of Multidisciplinary International Studies enters its fourth year with the journal’s first special Chinese-language issue. Organised under the rubric of ‘The Revival of Chinese Cultural Nationalism,’ the issue has been guest edited by Dr Yingjie Guo of the Institute for International Studies, University of Technology Sydney, and features the work of scholars based in China and Australia. As Guo says in his introductory essay to the special issue, debates over cultural nationalism in China have been on the rise since the events in Tiananmen Square on June 4, 1989; indeed, the post-Tiananmen era in China may be witnessing what Guo calls an unparalleled cultural-political movement in the country’s history. The various contributors to this special issue explore the ramifications and manifestations of that broad cultural-political movement in film production, television drama, literary texts, cultural essays, regional entrepreneurship, and contemporary debates on nationalism and liberalism. This issue of PORTAL also features four non-special issue essays: a study of feminist ethics in the work of Filipino-Australian writer and dramatist Merlinda Bobis, by Dolores Herrero (Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain; a taut critique of the discourse that regards the twentieth century as the bloodiest and most atrocious in human history, by David B. MacDonald (Otago University, New Zealand; a trenchant analysis, by Ramzi Nasser and Kamal Abouchedid (Notre Dame University, Lebanon, of what the authors call the rise of “academic apartheid” in the university sector throughout the Arab world; and a fascinating exploration of the feminism and environmentalism pioneered by the Australian author, mountaineer, solicitor and Buddhist Marie Byles (1900-1979, by Allison Cadzow (University of Technology Sydney. Finally, it is a huge pleasure to also include in PORTAL’s cultural works section a selection of poems by the Chinese poet Yang Lian

  13. 3-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging at 3 Tesla for Early Response Assessment of Glioblastoma Patients During External Beam Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muruganandham, Manickam; Clerkin, Patrick P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Smith, Brian J. [Department of Biostatistics, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Anderson, Carryn M.; Morris, Ann [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Capizzano, Aristides A.; Magnotta, Vincent [Department of Radiology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); McGuire, Sarah M.; Smith, Mark C.; Bayouth, John E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Buatti, John M., E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, Iowa (United States)


    Purpose: To evaluate the utility of 3-dimensional magnetic resonance (3D-MR) proton spectroscopic imaging for treatment planning and its implications for early response assessment in glioblastoma multiforme. Methods and Materials: Eighteen patients with newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed glioblastoma had 3D-MR proton spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) along with T2 and T1 gadolinium-enhanced MR images at simulation and at boost treatment planning after 17 to 20 fractions of radiation therapy. All patients received standard radiation therapy (RT) with concurrent temozolomide followed by adjuvant temozolomide. Imaging for response assessment consisted of MR scans every 2 months. Progression-free survival was defined by the criteria of MacDonald et al. MRSI images obtained at initial simulation were analyzed for choline/N-acetylaspartate ratios (Cho/NAA) on a voxel-by-voxel basis with abnormal activity defined as Cho/NAA ≥2. These images were compared on anatomically matched MRSI data collected after 3 weeks of RT. Changes in Cho/NAA between pretherapy and third-week RT scans were tested using Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank tests and correlated with progression-free survival, radiation dose and location of recurrence using Cox proportional hazards regression. Results: After a median follow-up time of 8.6 months, 50% of patients had experienced progression based on imaging. Patients with a decreased or stable mean or median Cho/NAA values had less risk of progression (P<.01). Patients with an increase in mean or median Cho/NAA values at the third-week RT scan had a significantly greater chance of early progression (P<.01). An increased Cho/NAA at the third-week MRSI scan carried a hazard ratio of 2.72 (95% confidence interval, 1.10-6.71; P=.03). Most patients received the prescription dose of RT to the Cho/NAA ≥2 volume, where recurrence most often occurred. Conclusion: Change in mean and median Cho/NAA detected at 3 weeks was a significant predictor of

  14. Clinical efficacy and safety of HX575, a biosimilar recombinant human erythropoietin, in the management of anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham I


    Full Text Available Ivo Abraham,1,2,3 Karen MacDonald21Department of Pharmacy Practice and Science, and Center for Health Outcomes and PharmoEconomic Research, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona; 2Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona; 3Matrix45, Tucson, Arizona, USAAbstract: Since the expiration of the patent for epoetin alfa in Europe in 2004, the European Medicines Agency has approved three biosimilar erythropoietins. Using the European Medicines Agency’s European Public Assessment Reports and scientific publications, we review the evidence regarding the clinical efficacy and safety of HX575 (Sandoz/Novartis relative to the originator product Eprex/Erypo (Johnson & Johnson. Clinical efficacy is assessed as a function of therapeutic equivalence of a biosimilar and originator product, while safety is evaluated in terms of immunogenicity, venous thromboembolism, and mortality. Five studies that examined chronic renal failure and oncology populations are reviewed. In the renal setting, these studies include a randomized controlled trial on Hb maintenance in patients receiving long-term hemodialysis, a randomized safety trial in patients with chronic kidney disease not yet requiring renal replacement therapy, and a post-approval saftey commitment study. Studies in the cancer setting include a clinical validation study in patients with solid tumors receiving antineoplastic chemotherapy and a retrospective clinical audit of Binocrit in routine clinical practice. Based on available therapeutic equivalence and safety data, the clinical and safety outcomes of treatment with HX575 are likely to be similar to those of the originator product Eprex/Erypo. Both products can be considered interchangeable in the management of anemia in the approved indications, and patients transferred from the reference product to the biosimilar product are expected to show the same efficacy and safety outcomes. There is no evidence of the

  15. Determinants of cyanuric acid and melamine assembly in water. (United States)

    Ma, Mingming; Bong, Dennis


    While the recognition of cyanuric acid (CA) by melamine (M) and their derivatives has been known to occur in both water and organic solvents for some time, analysis of CA/M assembly in water has not been reported (Ranganathan, A.; Pedireddi, V. R.; Rao, C. N. R. J. Am. Chem. Soc.1999, 121, 1752-1753; Mathias, J. P.; Simanek, E. E.; Seto, C. T.; Whitesides, G. M. Macromol. Symp.1994, 77, 157-166; Zerkowski, J. A.; MacDonald, J. C.; Seto, C. T.; Wierda, D. A.; Whitesides, G. M. J. Am. Chem. Soc.1994, 116, 2382-2391; Mathias, J. P.; Seto, C. T.; Whitesides, G. M. Polym. Prepr.1993, 34, 92-93; Seto, C. T.; Whitesides, G. M. J. Am. Chem. Soc.1993, 115, 905-916; Zerkowski, J. A.; Seto, C. T.; Whitesides, G. M. J. Am. Chem. Soc.1992, 114, 5473-5475; Seto, C. T.; Whitesides, G. M. J. Am. Chem. Soc.1990, 112, 6409-6411; Wang, Y.; Wei, B.; Wang, Q. J. Chem. Cryst.1990, 20, 79-84; ten Cate, M. G. J.; Huskens, J.; Crego-Calama, M.; Reinhoudt, D. N. Chem.-Eur. J.2004, 10, 3632-3639). We have examined assembly of CA/M, as well as assembly of soluble trivalent CA and M derivatives (TCA/TM), in aqueous solvent, using a combination of solution phase NMR, isothermal titration and differential scanning calorimetry (ITC/DSC), cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), and synthetic chemistry. While the parent heterocycles coprecipitate in water, the trivalent system displays more controlled and cooperative assembly that occurs at lower concentrations than the parent and yields a stable nanoparticle suspension. The assembly of both parent and trivalent systems is rigorously 1:1 and proceeds as an exothermic, proton-transfer coupled process in neutral pH water. Though CA and M are considered canonical hydrogen-bonding motifs in organic solvents, we find that their assembly in water is driven in large part by enthalpically favorable surface-area burial, similar to what is observed with nucleic acid recognition. There are currently few synthetic systems capable of robust molecular

  16. Lower body positive pressure: an emerging technology in the battle against knee osteoarthritis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takacs J


    Full Text Available Judit Takacs,1 Judy E Anderson,1,3 Jeff RS Leiter,1,2,4 Peter B MacDonald,2,4 Jason D Peeler1,4 1Department of Human Anatomy and Cell Science, 2Department of Surgery, 3Department of Biological Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada; 4Pan Am Clinic, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada Background: Knee osteoarthritis (OA is the most prevalent medical condition in individuals over the age of 65 years, and is a progressive joint degenerative condition with no known cure. Research suggests that there is a strong relationship between knee pain and loss of physical function. The resulting lifestyle modifications negatively impact not only disease onset and progression but also overall health, work productivity, and quality of life of the affected individual. Purpose: The goal of this investigation was to examine the feasibility of using an emerging technology called lower body positive pressure (LBPP to simulate weight loss and reduce acute knee pain during treadmill walking exercise in overweight individuals with radiographically confirmed symptomatic knee OA. Design: Prospective case series. Methods: Twenty-two overweight individuals with knee OA completed two 20-minute treadmill walking sessions (one full weight bearing and one LBPP supported at a speed of 3.1 mph, 0% incline. Acute knee pain was assessed using a visual analog scale, and the percentage of LBPP support required to minimize knee pain was evaluated every 5 minutes. Knee Osteoarthritis Outcome Scores were used to quantify knee pain and functional status between walking sessions. The order of testing was randomized, with sessions occurring a minimum of 1 week apart. Results: A mean LBPP of 12.4% of body weight provided participants with significant pain relief during walking, and prevented exacerbation of acute knee pain over the duration of the 20-minute exercise session. Patients felt safe and confident walking with LBPP support on the treadmill, and demonstrated no change

  17. HyFlux - Part II: Subsurface sequestration of methane-derived carbon in gas-hydrate- bearing marine sediments (United States)

    Naehr, T. H.; Asper, V. L.; Garcia, O.; Kastner, M.; Leifer, I.; MacDonald, I. R.; Solomon, E. A.; Yvon-Lewis, S.; Zimmer, B.


    The recently funded DOE/NETL study "HyFlux: Remote sensing and sea-truth measurements of methane flux to the atmosphere" (see MacDonald et al.: HyFlux - Part I) will combine sea surface, water column and shallow subsurface observations to improve our estimates of methane flux from submarine seeps and associated gas hydrate deposits to the water column and atmosphere along the Gulf of Mexico continental margin and other selected areas world-wide. As methane-rich fluids rise towards the sediment-water interface, they will interact with sulfate-rich pore fluids derived from overlying bottom water, which results in the formation of an important biogeochemical redox boundary, the so-called sulfate-methane interface, or SMI. Both methane and sulfate are consumed within the SMI and dissolved inorganic carbon, mostly bicarbonate (HCO3-) and hydrogen sulfide are produced, stimulating authigenic carbonate precipitation at and immediately below the SMI. Accordingly, the formation of authigenic carbonates in methane- and gas-hydrate-rich sediments will sequester a portion of the methane-derived carbon. To date, however, little is known about the quantitative aspects of these reactions. Rates of DIC production are not well constrained, but recent biogeochemical models indicate that CaCO3 precipitation rates may be as high as 120 μmol cm-2a-1. Therefore, AOM-driven carbonate precipitation must be considered when assessing the impact of gas-hydrate-derived methane on the global carbon cycle. As part of HyFlux, we will conduct pore water analyses (DOC, DIC, CH4, δ13CDIC, δ13CDOC, δ13CCH4, δ18O, and δD isotope ratios) to evaluate the importance of authigenic carbonate precipitation as a sequestration mechanism for methane- derived carbon. In addition, sediment and seafloor carbonate samples will be analyzed for bulk sedimentary carbonate (δ13C and δ18O) and bulk sedimentary organic matter (δ13C and δ15N), as well as sulfur, bulk mineralogy, texture and morphological

  18. Increasing the frequency of hand washing by healthcare workers does not lead to commensurate reductions in staphylococcal infection in a hospital ward

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    Kerr Kevin G


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hand hygiene is generally considered to be the most important measure that can be applied to prevent the spread of healthcare-associated infection (HAI. Continuous emphasis on this intervention has lead to the widespread opinion that HAI rates can be greatly reduced by increased hand hygiene compliance alone. However, this assumes that the effectiveness of hand hygiene is not constrained by other factors and that improved compliance in excess of a given level, in itself, will result in a commensurate reduction in the incidence of HAI. However, several researchers have found the law of diminishing returns to apply to hand hygiene, with the greatest benefits occurring in the first 20% or so of compliance, and others have demonstrated that poor cohorting of nursing staff profoundly influences the effectiveness of hand hygiene measures. Collectively, these findings raise intriguing questions about the extent to which increasing compliance alone can further reduce rates of HAI. Methods In order to investigate these issues further, we constructed a deterministic Ross-Macdonald model and applied it to a hypothetical general medical ward. In this model the transmission of staphylococcal infection was assumed to occur after contact with the transiently colonized hands of HCWs, who, in turn, acquire contamination only by touching colonized patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of imperfect hand cleansing on the transmission of staphylococcal infection and to identify, whether there is a limit, above which further hand hygiene compliance is unlikely to be of benefit. Results The model demonstrated that if transmission is solely via the hands of HCWs, it should, under most circumstances, be possible to prevent outbreaks of staphylococcal infection from occurring at a hand cleansing frequencies Conclusion Although our study confirmed hand hygiene to be an effective control measure, it demonstrated that the law of

  19. PREFACE: 19th International Conference on the Application of High Magnetic Fields in Semiconductor Physics and Nanotechnology (HMF-19) (United States)

    Muraki, Koji; Takeyama, Shojiro


    This volume contains invited and contributed papers from the 19th International Conference on the Application of High Magnetic Fields in Semiconductor Physics and Nanotechnology (HMF-19) held in Fukuoka, Japan, from 1-6 August 2010. This conference was mainly sponsored by the Tokyo University-'Horiba International fund', which was donated by Dr Masao Horiba, the founder of Horiba Ltd. The scientific program of HMF-19 consisted of 37 invited talks, 24 contributed talks, and 83 posters, which is available from the conference homepage Each manuscript submitted for publication in this volume has been independently reviewed. The Editor is very grateful to all the reviewers for their quick responses and helpful reports and to all the authors for their submissions and patience for the delay in the editorial process. Finally, the Editor would like to express his sincere gratitude to all the individuals involved in the conference organization and all the attendees, who made this conference so successful. Koji Muraki Conference photograph Committees Chair Conference chairS Takeyama(ISSP-UT) Conference secretary T Machida (IIS-UT) Program chair K Muraki (NTT) Local organizing chair K Oto (Chiba Univ.) Advisory Committee International Domestic L Brey (ES) T Ando (TIT) Z H Chen (CN) Y Hirayama (Tohoku Univ.) S Das Sarma (US) G Kido (NIMS) L Eaves (GB) N Miura (JP) J P Eisenstein (US) J Nitta (Tohoku Univ.) K Ensslin (CH) T Takamasu (NIMS) J Furdyna (US) G M Gusev (BR) I Kukushkin (RU) Z D Kvon (RU) G Landwehr (DE) J C Maan (NL) A H MacDonald (US) N F Oliveira Jr (BR) A Pinczuk (US) J C Portal (FR) A Sachrajda (CA) M K Sanyal(IN) R Stepniewski(PL) Program Committee Chair: K Muraki(NTT) International Domestic G Bauer (AU) H Ajiki (Osaka Univ.) G Boebinger (US) H Aoki (Hongo, UT) S Ivanov (RU) K Nomura (RIKEN) K von Klitzing (DE) T Okamoto (Hongo, UT) R Nicholas (GB) T Osada (ISSP-UT ) M Potemski (FR) N Studart (BR) U Zeitler (NL

  20. Millimeter-Scale Chemistry of Observable Endmembers with the Mars Science Laboratory Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer and Mars Hand Lens Imager (United States)

    VanBommel, Scott; Gellert, Ralf; Thompson, Lucy; Berger, Jeff; Campbell, Iain; Edgett, Ken; McBride, Marie; Minitti, Michelle; Desouza, Elstan; Boyd, Nick


    The Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) is a bulk chemistry instrument conducting high-precision in-situ measurements of Martian rocks and soils onboard both active NASA rovers [1]. Mounted at the end of the Curiosity rover arm, the APXS can conduct multi-spot (raster) investigations in a single morning or evening. Combining APXS raster spectra and Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) images, a modeled terrain is developed in which the positions of APXS field of views (FOV) can be localized, thereby mitigating arm placement uncertainty. An acquired APXS spectrum is the result of the weighted sum of the signals from within the FOV. The spatial sensitivity of the APXS consists of an off-nadir contribution in addition to a vertical separation (standoff with respect to the APXS detector) contribution [2, 3]. MAHLI images and focus merge (MFM) products facilitate a 3D surface model of the target [4] compensating for the effects of sample relief in an APXS spectrum. Employing a MFM relief map, APXS placement is modeled in three-dimensions, permitting variable APXS docking (standoff, deployment angle). Through minimization, we arrive at millimeter-scale chemistry of veins, diagenetic features and dust-free rock endmembers of Martian targets. Several rasters have been conducted with Curiosity's APXS on Mars including a study of the Garden City outcrop. The area is characterized by its contrasting light and dark veins of cm-scale surface relief. Three-dimensional localization and minimization indicated calcium sulfate as the major component of the light vein while the dark vein is enriched in CaO (without accompanying SO3), MnO, Ni and Zn, with respect to average Mars composition. References: [1] Gellert et al. (2014), LPSC XLV, #1876. [2] VanBommel et al. (2015), LPSC XLVI, #2049. [3] VanBommel et al. (2016), XRS #2681. [4] Edgett et al. (2015), MAHLI Tech Rept 0001. Acknowledgements: The MSL APXS is financed and managed by the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) with MacDonald

  1. Analytical solution for tension-saturated and unsaturated flow from wicking porous pipes in subsurface irrigation: The Kornev-Philip legacies revisited (United States)

    Kacimov, A. R.; Obnosov, Yu. V.


    The Russian engineer Kornev in his 1935 book raised perspectives of subsurface "negative pressure" irrigation, which have been overlooked in modern soil science. Kornev's autoirrigation utilizes wicking of a vacuumed water from a porous pipe into a dry adjacent soil. We link Kornev's technology with a slightly modified Philip (1984)'s analytical solutions for unsaturated flow from a 2-D cylindrical pipe in an infinite domain. Two Darcian flows are considered and connected through continuity of pressure along the pipe-soil contact. The first fragment is a thin porous pipe wall in which water seeps at tension saturation; the hydraulic head is a harmonic function varying purely radially across the wall. The Thiem solution in this fragment gives the boundary condition for azimuthally varying suction pressure in the second fragment, ambient soil, making the exterior of the pipe. The constant head, rather than Philip's isobaricity boundary condition, along the external wall slightly modifies Philip's formulae for the Kirchhoff potential and pressure head in the soil fragment. Flow characteristics (magnitudes of the Darcian velocity, total flow rate, and flow net) are explicitly expressed through series of Macdonald's functions. For a given pipe's external diameter, wall thickness, position of the pipe above a free water datum in the supply tank, saturated conductivities of the wall and soil, and soil's sorptive number, a nonlinear equation with respect to the total discharge from the pipe is obtained and solved by a computer algebra routine. Efficiency of irrigation is evaluated by computation of the moisture content within selected zones surrounding the porous pipe.Plain Language SummarySubsurface irrigation by "automatic" gadgets like pitchers or porous pipes is a water saving technology which minimizes evaporative losses and deep percolation. Moisture is emitted by capillary suction of a relatively dry soil and "thirsty" roots just in "right quantities", spontaneously

  2. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy predicts radiotherapy response and time-to-progression in high-grade gliomas after surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Jin-rong; JIANG Tao; DAI Jian-ping; LI Hai-liang; LUO Jun-peng; LI Shao-wu; AI Lin; JIANG Tian-zi


    Background Reliable early prediction response to therapy and time-to-progression (TTP) remain an important goal of high-grade gliomas (HGGs) research.Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) has been applied with variable success in clinical application,and we hypothesize that 1H-MRS in predictive value should perform well as a marker of TTP in patients treated with radiotherapy (RT) after surgery.Methods 1H-MRS was performed before surgery on 25 patients who had undergone resection of HGGs; then the ratios of lipid/creatine (Lip/Cr) and myo-inositol/creatine (ml/Cr) were determined in the solid tumor.RT response was classified as follows:complete resolution (CR),partial response (PR),stable disease (SD),and progressive disease (PD) by comparison of pre-treatment and post-radiotherapy scans.TTP was defined at the time to radiographic progression by MacDonald criteria.Correlation was evaluated between the ratios of Lip/Cr,ml/Cr and treatment response,TTP.The chi-square test and Pearson correlation test were used for data analyses.Results Multivariate analysis revealed that the prognostic value of spectroscopic variables was independent of age,sex,WHO histologic grade,extent of surgery,and Karnofsky score (KPS).The correlation between the ratios of lipid/Cr and TTP was significant (r=0.894,P=0.000),and between the ratios of ml/Cr and TTP was also significant (r=0.891,P=0.000).As predicted,RT response correlated significantly with TTP (r=0.59,P=0.002):median TTP was 49.9 days for patients with PD compared with 202.7 days for SD,208.0 days for PR,and 234.5 days for CR.Conclusion The ratios of Lip/Cr and ml/Cr of the solid tumor region before surgery could provide important information in predicting RT response and TTP in patients with HGGs treated by radiation alone after surgery.

  3. Tectonic imprint in magnetic fabrics in sediments from the Central Andes (United States)

    Roperch, P.; Arriagada, C.; Chauvin, A.; Carlotto, V.


    Magnetic fabrics recorded by continental sediments from the Central Andes were systematically measured for about 200 sites also studied for tectonic rotation. Most sediments of Cenozoic age are fine-grained red beds with a significant content of magnetite of volcanoclastic origine. 80 sites were collected in the Puna and Argentinan Andes, 40 sites in the Bolivian Altiplano, 63 sites in the Abancay- Cusco region of Southern Peru and 27 sites in the Moquegua basin in the forearc of southern Peru. In the Moquegua basin where the sedimentary beds are nearly horizontal, samples from the Eocene - Oligocene Moquegua formation have an oblate magnetic fabrics parallel to bedding and scaterred lineations. In contast, to the east within the Altiplano and Puna Plateaus, a triaxial ellipsoid with a well-defined magnetic lineation is usually recorded. At most localities, the orientation of the magnetic lineation correlates with the orientation of fold axes. Along the Central Andes from north to south, the orientation of magnetic lineations rotates from NW-SE to NE-SW. Compaction and tectonic strain appear to be the two main factors controlling AMS in these continental red beds. The information related to the hydrodynamic conditions acting when the sediments were deposited appears to be fully overprinted. Incipient tectonic strain is recorded during the early stages of deformation. When the sediments are not strongly deformed, the magnetic lineation behaves apparently like a passive marker recording tectonic rotations about vertical and horizontal axes. In most paleomagnetic studies applied to tectonics, tilted sedimentary beds are assumed to have been rotated around an horizontal axis. Without a detailed local structural study, the classic tilt correction leads to an apparent rotation when a possible plunge of the fold axis is not detected (MacDonald, 1980). Non-horizontal magnetic lineation suggests either non-cylindrical folding and/or interference of two phases of compressive

  4. Shakespeare revived in contemporary canadian drama Shakespeare à l’honneur dans le théâtre canadien contemporain

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    Rüdiger Ahrens


    Full Text Available L’une des preuves de l’universalité « de tous les temps » (Ben Jonson de Shakespeare est que ses pièces ont aussi été adaptées dans presque tous les pays de ce monde, que ce soit sous leur forme quasi-historique ou au cours d’un échange intertextuel libre de versions hybrides. L’émergence d’une conscience post-coloniale dans de nombreux points du monde a produit une ré-interprétation critique de ses œuvres dans le sens d’une réévaluation émancipatrice qui transforme les prétextes shakespeariens de façon le plus souvent créatrice en tentant d’attirer l’attention du public. La variété des interprétations possibles peut être illustrée par le cas du Canada, qui n’est pas tant un pays post-colonial mais plutôt un pays de colons, au moyen de trois exemples de pièces contemporaines : Ken Mitchell, Cruel Tears (1977, Anne-Marie MacDonald, Goodnight Desdemona (Good Night Juliet (1990, et Ken Grass, Claudius (1993. Ces pièces illustrent la variété de l’influence shakespearienne sur la scène canadienne qui peut se vanter d’autres pièces remarquables comme Fortune and Men’s Eyes de John Herbert (1967, qui reprend le sujet des relations hommes-femmes avec ses références aux Sonnets et à The Taming of the Shrew, la comédie de John Murrel Gertrude and Ophelia (1987, qui est fondée sur les répercussions psychologiques et sociales du féminisme et du racisme, comme c’est le cas dans Harlem Duet de Jane Sears (1997. Toutes ces adaptations rendent compte aussi des innombrables possibilités de références intertextuelles fournies par les pièces originales de Shakespeare.

  5. Problem-Based Learning no Ensino de Contabilidade Gerencial: Relato de uma Experiência Brasileira

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    Daiana Bragueto Martins


    Full Text Available A presente pesquisa teve por objetivo relatar a operacionalizaçãodo método PBL em uma disciplina Contabilidade Gerencial nocurso de Ciências Contábeis de uma Instituição de Ensino Superiorbrasileira. A técnica de pesquisa utilizada foi o estudo de casoque envolveu uma abordagem descritiva das aulas de PBL, cujopropósito foi apresentar as propriedades das aulas, a forma de agire o perfil dos discentes e dos professores. A pesquisa de campoocorreu em 2013. A coleta de dados é proveniente das entrevistasrealizadas com professores, da observação participante e da análisedocumental. A análise empírica da presente pesquisa teve poralicerce os estudos de Araújo e Arantes (2009, Dochy, Segers,Bossche e Gijbels (2003, Duch, Groh e Allen (2001, MacDonald eSavin-Baden (2004, Ribeiro (2008, Schmidt (1983, Sockalingame Schimidt (2011, entre outros. Os resultados evidenciamque a integração entre os acadêmicos e as empresas a partir dautilização dos problemas práticos e reais trazidos pelos alunos doambiente de trabalho proporciona ganhos, tais como: o discenteamplia o potencial de resolução de problemas de ordem prática eprofissional; e a empresa é beneficiada, tendo em vista que poderáreceber, futuramente, profissionais qualificados, aptos à pesquisae à proposição de solução de problemas. Os professores tambémganham, pois são expostos a um ambiente contemporâneo, queproporcionam maior atualização em termos de utilização deconceitos e teorias, devido a sua contextualização. O PBL ajuda aabarcar os estudantes da geração Y, tendo em vista que o desejo departicipação e comunicação em ambiente interativo com utilizaçãode ferramentas tecnológicas são as grandes marcas dessa geração.Constatou-se que as competências desenvolvidas na abordagem doPBL são similares àquelas exigidas do contador gerencial.

  6. Adjuvant chemo-radiation for gastric adenocarcinoma: an institutional experience

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    Ghosn Marwan G


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown that surgery alone is less than satisfactory in the management of early gastric cancer, with cure rates approaching 40%. The role of adjuvant therapy was indefinite until three large, randomized controlled trials showed the survival benefit of adjuvant therapy over surgery alone. Chemoradiation therapy has been criticized for its high toxicity. Methods 24 patients diagnosed between September 2001 and July 2007 were treated with adjuvant chemoradiation. 18 patients had the classical MacDonald regimen of 4500 cGy of XRT and chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil (5FU and leucovorin, while chemotherapy consisted of 5FU/Cisplatin for 6 patients. Results This series consisted of non-metastatic patients, 17 females and 7 males with a median age of 62.5 years. 23 patients (96% had a performance status of 0 or 1. The full course of radiation therapy (4500 cGy was completed by 22 patients (91.7%. Only 7 patients (36.8% completed the total planned courses of chemotherapy. 2 local relapses (10%, 2 regional relapses (10% and 2 distant relapses (10% were recorded. Time to progression has not been reached. 9 patients (37.5% died during follow-up with a median overall survival of 75 months. Patients lost a mean of 4 Kgs during radiation therapy. We recorded 6 episodes of febrile neutropenia and the most frequent toxicity was gastro-intestinal in 17 patients (70.8% with 9 (36% patients suffering grade 3 or 4 toxicity and 5 patients (20% suffering from grade 3 or 4 neutropenia. 4 (17% patients required total parenteral nutrition for a mean duration of 20 days. 4 patients suffered septic shock (17% and 1 patient developed a deep venous thrombosis and a pulmonary embolus. Conclusions Adjuvant chemo-radiation for gastric cancer is a standard at our institution and has resulted in few relapses and an interesting median survival. Toxicity rates were serious and this remains a harsh regimen with only 36.8% of patients completing the

  7. Molecular analysis of polimorphisms in HLA-CLASS II DRB1* and IL7Rα possibly associated with multiple sclerosis susceptibility in a population sample of Rio de Janeiro

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    André Luis dos Santos Figueiredo


    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is an inflammatory and degenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS that affects mainly young adults. MS seems to be a polygenic and multifactorial disease, and genetic susceptibility has been associated mainly with the major histocompatibility complex (MHC, which in humans is the human leukocyte antigen (HLA. Among non-HLA genes is the alpha chain of interleukin 7 receptor gene (IL7Rα at the 5p12-14 locus, also known as CD127. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlations between polymorphism in the IL7Rα (rs6897932C gene, HLA-class II DRB1* haplotypes and susceptibility to multiple sclerosis in patients with Recurrent Remitting form (RRMS. METHOD: In this study, peripheral blood samples were taken from 50 patients diagnosed using the diagnostic criteria for MS according to Polman (MacDonald et al (2011. The patients were monitored at the Clinic of Neurology, Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho, along with 100 healthy control subjects matched for ancestry, sex and age. After DNA extraction by organic method, polymorphism +244 *C (rs6897932 was assessed by PCR followed by capillary electrophoresis on the ABI PRISM® 3500 Genetic Analyzer (Applied Biosystems, USA platform. RESULTS: The results indicated a significant association between the CC haplotype and RRMS (p=0.02 , OR=2.14, as well as an association between the *C allele (CC and CT and RRMS (p=0.042, OR=2.15. The same C allele was more frequent in the sample, both in patients (0.82, and in the control group (0.71. The sample, control group and patients included, was in Hardy- Weinberg equilibrium. The correlation between the presence of the CC genotype and HLA-DRB1* 15:01 was significant (OR=3.6, p=0.034. CONCLUSION: These results reinforce the polygenic/multifactorial characteristic or genetic heterogeneity of MS, indicating a relationship between putative polymorphism +244*C (CC genotype in the IL7Rα gene and susceptibility to MS

  8. Larval source management for malaria control in Africa: myths and reality

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    Fillinger Ulrike


    Full Text Available Abstract As malaria declines in many African countries there is a growing realization that new interventions need to be added to the front-line vector control tools of long-lasting impregnated nets (LLINs and indoor residual spraying (IRS that target adult mosquitoes indoors. Larval source management (LSM provides the dual benefits of not only reducing numbers of house-entering mosquitoes, but, importantly, also those that bite outdoors. Large-scale LSM was a highly effective method of malaria control in the first half of the twentieth century, but was largely disbanded in favour of IRS with DDT. Today LSM continues to be used in large-scale mosquito abatement programmes in North America and Europe, but has only recently been tested in a few trials of malaria control in contemporary Africa. The results from these trials show that hand-application of larvicides can reduce transmission by 70-90% in settings where mosquito larval habitats are defined but is largely ineffectual where habitats are so extensive that not all of them can be covered on foot, such as areas that experience substantial flooding. Importantly recent evidence shows that LSM can be an effective method of malaria control, especially when combined with LLINs. Nevertheless, there are a number of misconceptions or even myths that hamper the advocacy for LSM by leading international institutions and the uptake of LSM by Malaria Control Programmes. Many argue that LSM is not feasible in Africa due to the high number of small and temporary larval habitats for Anopheles gambiae that are difficult to find and treat promptly. Reference is often made to the Ross-Macdonald model to reinforce the view that larval control is ineffective. This paper challenges the notion that LSM cannot be successfully used for malaria control in African transmission settings by highlighting historical and recent successes, discussing its potential in an integrated vector management approach working towards

  9. Dielectric properties of conductive ionomers (United States)

    Klein, Robert James

    Ion and polymer dynamics of ion-containing polymers were investigated, with the majority of results obtained from application of a physical model of electrode polarization (EP) to dielectric spectroscopy data. The physical model of MacDonald, further developed by Coelho, was extended for application to tan delta (the ratio of dielectric loss to dielectric constant) as a function of frequency. The validity of this approach was confirmed by plotting the characteristic EP time as a function of thickness and comparing the actual and predicted unrelaxed dielectric constant for a poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-based ionomer neutralized by lithium, sodium, and cesium. Results were obtained for ion mobility and mobile ion concentration for a neat PEO-based ionomer, two (methoxyethoxy-ethoxy phosphazene) (MEEP) -based ionomers, two MEEP-based salt-doped polymers, sulfonated polystyrene (SPS) neutralized by sodium with a high sulfonation fraction, and SPS neutralized by zinc with a low sulfonation fraction. Additionally, the conductivity parameters of six plasticized forms of a neat PEO-based ionomer were characterized, but the method apparently failed to correctly evaluate bulk ionic behavior. In all cases except the SPS ionomers ion mobility follows a Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann (VFT) temperature dependence. In all cases, mobile ion concentration follows an Arrhenius temperature dependence. Fitting parameters from these two relationships yielded direct information about the state of ionic diffusion and ion pairing in each system. Combination of these two functionalities predicts a relationship for conductivity that is significantly different than the VFT relation typically used in the literature to fit conductivity. The most outstanding result was the extremely small fraction of ions found to be mobile. For ionomers it can be concluded that the primary reason for low conductivities arises from the low fraction of mobile ions. The local and segmental dynamics of the neat and

  10. Clinical efficacy and safety of SB309, a biosimilar recombinant human erythropoietin, in the management of anemia

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    Bagalagel A


    Full Text Available Alaa Bagalagel,1,2 Abdulaziz Mohammed,1,2 Karen MacDonald,3 Ivo Abraham1,3–5 1Center for Health Outcomes and PharmacoEconomic Research, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA; 2College of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 3Matrix45, Tucson, AZ, USA; 4Department of Pharmacy Practice and Science, College of Pharmacy, 5Department of Family and Community Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA Abstract: In this second part of a series of three reviews of approved biosimilar erythropoietins, we review the evidence pertaining to the clinical efficacy and safety of SB309 relative to the originator product Eprex®/Erypo®. As in the first review, clinical efficacy is assessed with respect to the therapeutic equivalence of the biosimilar and originator product, while safety is evaluated in terms of immunogenicity, venous thromboembolism, and mortality. Seven studies in chronic renal failure and oncology populations are reviewed. In the renal setting, these include two randomized controlled trials on hemoglobin correction and maintenance in patients receiving long-term hemodialysis; open extension safety studies from both trials analyzed as a pooled database; a post hoc analysis on biosimilar and originator switching; a therapeutic equivalence study of subcutaneously administered SB309 and Eprex/Erypo; and a single-center experience study. In the cancer setting, one open-label non-controlled study is reported. Based on the available therapeutic equivalence and safety data, the clinical and safety outcomes of treatment with SB309 are likely to be similar to those of the originator product Eprex/Erypo. Both products can be considered interchangeable in the management of anemia for the approved indications. Patients transferred from reference product to biosimilar can be expected to show the same efficacy and safety outcomes. There is no evidence of the interchangeability of SB309 with other biosimilar

  11. Dietary intervention in the management of phenylketonuria: current perspectives

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    Rocha JC


    Full Text Available Júlio César Rocha,1-3 Anita MacDonald4 1Centro de Genética Médica, Centro Hospitalar do Porto – CHP, 2Faculdade de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Fernando Pessoa, 3Center for Health Technology and Services Research (CINTESIS, Porto, Portugal; 4The Children’s Hospital, Birmingham, UK Abstract: Phenylketonuria (PKU is a well-described inborn error of amino acid metabolism that has been treated for >60 years. Enzyme deficiency causes accumulation of phenylalanine (Phe and if left untreated will lead to profound and irreversible intellectual disability in most children. Traditionally, it has been managed with a low-Phe diet supplemented with a Phe-free protein substitute although newer treatment options mainly in combination with diet are available for some subgroups of patients with PKU, for example, sapropterin, large neutral amino acids, and glycomacropeptide. The diet consists of three parts: 1 severe restriction of dietary Phe; 2 replacement of non-Phe L-amino acids with a protein substitute commonly supplemented with essential fatty acids and other micronutrients; and 3 low-protein foods from fruits, some vegetables, sugars, fats and oil, and special low-protein foods (SLPF. The prescription of diet is challenging for health professionals. The high-carbohydrate diet supplied by a limited range of foods may program food preferences and contribute to obesity in later life. Abnormal tasting and satiety-promoting protein substitutes are administered to coincide with peak appetite times to ensure their consumption, but this practice may impede appetite for other important foods. Intermittent dosing of micronutrients when combined with L-amino acid supplements may lead to their poor bioavailability. Much work is required on the ideal nutritional profiling for special SLPF and Phe-free L-amino acid supplements. Although non-diet treatments are being studied, it is important to continue to fully understand all the consequences of diet

  12. Exploring older adults’ perceptions of a patient-centered education manual for hip fracture recovery: “everything in one place”

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    Tsui K


    Full Text Available Karen Tsui,1,2,* Lena Fleig,1,3,4,* Dolores P Langford,2,5 Pierre Guy,1,2,6 Valerie MacDonald,7,8 Maureen C Ashe1,31Centre for Hip Health and Mobility, The University of British Columbia, 2Vancouver Coastal Health, 3Department of Family Practice, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 4Health Psychology, Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany; 5Department of Physical Therapy, The University of British Columbia, 6Department of Orthopaedics, 7School of Nursing, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 8Fraser Health Authority, Surrey, BC, Canada*These authors contributed equally to this workPurpose: To describe older adults’ perspectives on a new patient education manual for the recovery process after hip fracture.Materials and methods: The Fracture Recovery for Seniors at Home (FReSH Start manual is an evidence-based manual for older adults with fall-related hip fracture. The manual aims to support the transition from hospital to home by facilitating self-management of the recovery process. We enrolled 31 community-dwelling older adults with previous fall-related hip fracture and one family member. We collected data using a telephone-based questionnaire with eight five-point Likert items and four semi-structured open-ended questions to explore participants’ perceptions on the structure, content, and illustration of the manual. The questionnaire also asked participants to rate the overall utility (out of 10 points and length of the manual. We used content analysis to describe main themes from responses to the open-ended interview questions.Results: Participants’ ratings for structure, content, and illustrations ranged from 4 to 5 (agree to highly agree, and the median usefulness rating was 9 (10th percentile: 7, 90th percentile: 10. Main themes from the content analysis included: ease of use and presentation; health literacy; illustration utility; health care team delivery; general impression, information

  13. Evaluation of sediment contamination by trace elements and the zooplankton community analysis in area affected by gold exploration in Southeast (SE of the Iron Quadrangle, Alto Rio Doce, (MG Brazil

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    Cláudia de Lima e Silva


    Full Text Available AIM: The aim was to verify the geochemical composition of sediments samples (riverbed and bank and the relationship of the following elements: Al, As, Cd. Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn with the zooplankton community. METHODS: Bank and riverbed sediments were collected in four sampling points along the studied area, in June/2010 (dry season and March/2011 (rainy season. Three types of analysis were performed: granulometric, mineralogical (by X-Ray diffractometer and geochemical (by ICPOES, where for the last two types, only a fraction of silt/clay (<0.062 mm was used, and the results were compared with the following reference values: Local Reference Value (Costa et al., 2010, Quality Reference Values (São Paulo, 2005, PEC and TEC values (MacDonald et al., 2000. For identification of the zooplankton community, riverbed and bank samples were collected in polyethylene bottles, suspended with deionized water (bank sample only, stained with Rose Bengal and preserved in formalin at 4%. RESULTS: As concentrations at Col sampled point were 18 times greater than the Local Reference Value (3.84 Cd concentrations were greater than the values established by the QRV (<0.5 and PEC (4.98 in almost all the sampled points, regarding seasonality. The following zooplanktonic species were identified: Arcella costata (Ehrenberg, 1847, Arcella discoides (Ehrenberg, 1843, Arcella vulgaris (Ehrenberg, 1830, Centropyxis aculeata (Ehrenberg, 1838, Centropyxis ecornis (Ehrenberg, 1841, Difflugia sp., Difflugia acuminata (Ehrenberg, 1838, Euglypha laevis (Perty, 1849, Trynema enchelys (Ehrenberg, 1938, Asplanchna priodonta (Gosse, 1850, and Bedelloida, with, approximately 81% belonging to the Protozoa group. CONCLUSIONS: The studied area, with the exception of the Tripuí point, was found to be impacted by historical gold exploration in the region, as well as by the growing urbanization. Within the elements considered to be the most toxic to the biota

  14. Experiences and perspectives on the GIST patient journey

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    Macdonald N


    Full Text Available Nancy Macdonald1, Ari Shapiro1, Christina Bender2, Marc Paolantonio2, John Coombs21Flince Research + Design, New York, NY, 2Novartis Pharmaceuticals, East Hanover, NJ, USAPurpose: The tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI imatinib has improved outcomes for patients with unresectable or metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST, and for patients receiving adjuvant therapy following GIST resection. This qualitative study explored the experiences and emotions of patients through GIST diagnosis, treatment initiation, disease control, and in some patients, loss of response and therapy switch.Patients and methods: Ethnographic investigations were conducted, including semi-structured qualitative interviews of patients with resected or metastatic/unresectable GIST and their caregivers, from Canada (n = 15; the United States (n = 10; and Brazil, France, Germany, Russia, and Spain (n = 5 each. Some interviewees also kept 7-day photo journals. Responses were qualitatively analyzed to identify gaps and unmet needs where communication about disease, treatments, and adherence could be effective.Results: Patients shared common experiences during each stage of disease management (crisis, hope, adaptation, new normal, and uncertainty. Patients felt a sense of crisis during diagnosis, followed by hope upon TKI therapy initiation. Over time, they came to adapt to their new lives (new normal with cancer. With each follow-up, patients confronted the uncertainty of becoming TKI resistant and the possible need to switch therapy. During uncertainty many patients sought new information regarding GIST. Cases of disease progression and drug switching caused patients to revert to crisis and restart their emotional journey. Patients with primary or unresectable/metastatic GIST shared similar journeys, especially regarding uncertainty, although differences in the scope and timing of phases were observed. Strategies patients used to remain adherent included obtaining family

  15. HyFlux - Part I: Regional Modeling of Methane Flux From Near-Seafloor Gas Hydrate Deposits on Continental Margins (United States)

    MacDonald, I. R.; Asper, V.; Garcia, O. P.; Kastner, M.; Leifer, I.; Naehr, T.; Solomon, E.; Yvon-Lewis, S.; Zimmer, B.


    HyFlux - Part I: Regional modeling of methane flux from near-seafloor gas hydrate deposits on continental margins MacDonald, I.R., Asper, V., Garcia, O., Kastner, M., Leifer, I., Naehr, T.H., Solomon, E., Yvon-Lewis, S., and Zimmer, B. The Dept. of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) has recently awarded a project entitled HyFlux: "Remote sensing and sea-truth measurements of methane flux to the atmosphere." The project will address this problem with a combined effort of satellite remote sensing and data collection at proven sites in the Gulf of Mexico where gas hydrate releases gas to the water column. Submarine gas hydrate is a large pool of greenhouse gas that may interact with the atmosphere over geologic time to affect climate cycles. In the near term, the magnitude of methane reaching the atmosphere from gas hydrate on continental margins is poorly known because 1) gas hydrate is exposed to metastable oceanic conditions in shallow, dispersed deposits that are poorly imaged by standard geophysical techniques and 2) the consumption of methane in marine sediments and in the water column is subject to uncertainty. The northern GOM is a prolific hydrocarbon province where rapid migration of oil, gases, and brines from deep subsurface petroleum reservoirs occurs through faults generated by salt tectonics. Focused expulsion of hydrocarbons is manifested at the seafloor by gas vents, gas hydrates, oil seeps, chemosynthetic biological communities, and mud volcanoes. Where hydrocarbon seeps occur in depths below the hydrate stability zone (~500m), rapid flux of gas will feed shallow deposits of gas hydrate that potentially interact with water column temperature changes; oil released from seeps forms sea-surface features that can be detected in remote-sensing images. The regional phase of the project will quantify verifiable sources of methane (and oil) the Gulf of Mexico continental margin and selected margins (e.g. Pakistan Margin, South China Sea

  16. Pattern recognition model to estimate intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) at crevices and pit sites of 304 SS in BWR environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urquidi-Macdonald, Mirna [Penn State University, 212 Earth-Engineering Science Building, University Park, PA 16801 (United States)


    Many publications have shown that crack growth rates (CGR) due to intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of metals is dependent on many parameters related to the manufacturing process of the steel and the environment to which the steel is exposed. Those parameters include, but are not restricted to, the concentration of chloride, fluoride, nitrates, and sulfates, pH, fluid velocity, electrochemical potential (ECP), electrolyte conductivity, stress and sensitization applied to the steel during its production and use. It is not well established how combinations of each of these parameters impact the CGR. Many different models and beliefs have been published, resulting in predictions that sometimes disagree with experimental observations. To some extent, the models are the closest to the nature of IGSCC, however, there is not a model that fully describes the entire range of observations, due to the difficulty of the problem. Among the models, the Fracture Environment Model, developed by Macdonald et al., is the most physico-chemical model, accounting for experimental observations in a wide range of environments or ECPs. In this work, we collected experimental data on BWR environments and designed a data mining pattern recognition model to learn from that data. The model was used to generate CGR estimations as a function of ECP on a BWR environment. The results of the predictive model were compared to the Fracture Environment Model predictions. The results from those two models are very close to the experimental observations of the area corresponding to creep and IGSCC controlled by diffusion. At more negative ECPs than the potential corresponding to creep, the pattern recognition predicts an increase of CGR with decreasing ECP, while the Fracture Environment Model predicts the opposite. The results of this comparison confirm that the pattern recognition model covers 3 phenomena: hydrogen embrittlement at very negative ECP, creep at intermediate ECP, and IGSCC

  17. Proton and carbon ion radiotherapy for primary brain tumors delivered with active raster scanning at the Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center (HIT: early treatment results and study concepts

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    Rieken Stefan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Particle irradiation was established at the University of Heidelberg 2 years ago. To date, more than 400 patients have been treated including patients with primary brain tumors. In malignant glioma (WHO IV patients, two clinical trials have been set up-one investigating the benefit of a carbon ion (18 GyE vs. a proton boost (10 GyE in addition to photon radiotherapy (50 Gy, the other one investigating reirradiation with escalating total dose schedules starting at 30 GyE. In atypical meningioma patients (WHO °II, a carbon ion boost of 18 GyE is applied to macroscopic tumor residues following previous photon irradiation with 50 Gy. This study was set up in order to investigate toxicity and response after proton and carbon ion therapy for gliomas and meningiomas. Methods 33 patients with gliomas (n = 26 and meningiomas (n = 7 were treated with carbon ion (n = 26 and proton (n = 7 radiotherapy. In 22 patients, particle irradiation was combined with photon therapy. Temozolomide-based chemotherapy was combined with particle therapy in 17 patients with gliomas. Particle therapy as reirradiation was conducted in 7 patients. Target volume definition was based upon CT, MRI and PET imaging. Response was assessed by MRI examinations, and progression was diagnosed according to the Macdonald criteria. Toxicity was classified according to CTCAE v4.0. Results Treatment was completed and tolerated well in all patients. Toxicity was moderate and included fatigue (24.2%, intermittent cranial nerve symptoms (6% and single episodes of seizures (6%. At first and second follow-up examinations, mean maximum tumor diameters had slightly decreased from 29.7 mm to 27.1 mm and 24.9 mm respectively. Nine glioma patients suffered from tumor relapse, among these 5 with infield relapses, causing death in 8 patients. There was no progression in any meningioma patient. Conclusions Particle radiotherapy is safe and feasible in patients with primary brain

  18. Geodetic Imaging of the Coseismic and Postseismic deformation from the 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha Earthquake and Mw 7.3 Aftershock in Nepal with SAR and GPS (United States)

    Fielding, E. J.; Liang, C.; Agram, P. S.; Sangha, S. S.; Huang, M. H.; Samsonov, S. V.; Owen, S. E.; Moore, A. W.; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, F.; Minchew, B. M.


    The 25th of April 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha Earthquake in Nepal affected a large area of central Nepal and adjacent parts of India and Tibet. It was followed by a number of large aftershocks, with the largest so far an Mw 7.3 aftershock on the 12th of May 2015. We integrate geodetic measurements from Global Positioning System (GPS) data and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellite images to image the three-dimensional vector field of coseismic surface deformation for these two large events. We analyze SAR data from the Copernicus Sentinel-1A satellite operated by the European Space Agency; the RADARSAT-2 satellite operated by MacDonald, Dettwiler and Associates (MDA); and the Advanced Land Observation Satellite-2 (ALOS-2) satellite operated by the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency. We combine less precise analysis of large scale displacements from the SAR images of the three satellites by pixel offset tracking or sub-pixel correlation, including the along-track component of surface motion, with the more precise SAR interferometry (InSAR) measurements in the radar line-of-sight direction to estimate all three components of the surface displacement for the mainshock and large aftershock. A large area of central Nepal was pushed southward, due to thrust slip on the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT) at depth extending about 170 km along-strike. The InSAR measurements show that there was no detectable slip on the shallower part of the MHT up-dip from the large coseismic slip or on other thrust faults in the Himalayas, except for one area of very shallow triggered slip of up to 5 cm on a thrust to the north of the Himalayan Frontal Thrust, during the two event. We also image postseismic deformation after these earthquakes with ongoing continuous GPS measurements and InSAR analysis of the SAR satellite data. Initial analysis of the GPS measurements indicates the most likely process in the first months is afterslip down-dip from the main coseismic slip. Large atmospheric effects in

  19. A 500-year overview and analysis of flood changes in Europe: preliminary results (United States)

    Kiss, Andrea


    Long-term flood series can be gained by combining evidence and systematic hydrological observations. Following various already existing local and regional studies, an important aim of the present work is to create a broad European database of long flood chronologies and to use them for detecting changes in flood regimes with respect to common break points. Another aim of the investigations is to reveal the main causes (e.g. atmospheric, human) of these changes and study spatial and temporal variability of floods on a European scale. In the presentation we provide an overview on the current stage of these Europe-wide investigations, including the available source types (i.e. documentary and instrumental), geographical coverage, temporal and spatial distribution of long-term flood series applied in the study. The first research results concerns basic information on magnitude, frequency and seasonality of floods (with special consideration of detectable changes). Full list of authors in alphabetic order: Mariano Barriendos (1), Günter Blöschl (2), Rudolf Brázdil (3), Gerardo Benito (4), Chiara Bertolin (5), Dario Camuffo (5), Gaston Demarée (6), Líbor Elleder (7), Silvi Enzi (8), Rüdiger Glaser (9), Julia Hall (2), Andrea Kiss (2), Oldrich Kotyza (10), Carmen Maria del Llasat (1), Neil MacDonald (11), Rui Perdigao (2), Dag Retsö (12), Lars Roald (13), Josep Luis Ruiz Bellet (1), Johannes Schönbeim (9), Petra Schmocker-Fackel (14), Lothar Schulte (1), Hubert Valasek (15), Oliver Wetter (16) (1) Faculty of Geography and History, University of Barcelona, Spain (2) Institute of Hydrological Engineering and Water Resources Management, TU Wien (3) Institute of Geography, Masaryk University Brno, Czech Republic (4) Laboratory of Hydrology and Geomorphology, Center of Env. Sciences, Madrid, Spain (5) Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, National Research Council, Rome, Italy (6) Royal Meteorological Institute, Brussels, Belgium (7) Research Group of

  20. The REDIH experience: an emerging design to develop an effective training program for graduate students in reproductive science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacDonald CJ


    Full Text Available Colla J MacDonald,1 Douglas Archibald,2 Jay M Baltz,3 Gerald M Kidder4 1Faculty of Education, 2Department of Family Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 3Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 4Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada Background: A training program in Reproduction, Early Development, and the Impact on Health (REDIH was initiated in 2009 by researchers specializing in biomedical, clinical, population health, and ethics research from seven collaborating universities in Quebec and Ontario, and Health Canada. This paper reports the findings from the first three years of the 6-year program. Objectives: The objective of the REDIH program is to provide increased opportunities for excellent training in reproduction and early development for graduate students and fellows, in order to build research, clinical, regulatory, decision-making, and industry capacity in Canada. Methods: A mixed methods approach was used to evaluate the REDIH training program, so as to combine the strengths of both qualitative and quantitative studies. A total of four focus groups (two with mentors and two with trainees were run during the June 2012 REDIH meeting. Surveys were administered directly after each training module. The W(eLearn framework was used as a guide to design and evaluate the program and answer the research questions. Results: The data from the analysis of the focus group interviews, in corroboration with the survey data, suggested trainees enjoyed and benefited from the REDIH experience. Trainees provided several examples of new knowledge and skills they had acquired from REDIH sessions, regarding reproductive and early developmental biology, and health. A few trainees who had been in the program for over a year provided examples of knowledge and skills acquired during the REDIH session that they were using in their place of work. Next steps will include

  1. Preliminary materials selection issues for the next generation nuclear plant reactor pressure vessel.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.; Majumdar, S.; Shankar, P. S.; Shah, V. N.; Nuclear Engineering Division


    In the coming decades, the United States and the entire world will need energy supplies to meet the growing demands due to population increase and increase in consumption due to global industrialization. One of the reactor system concepts, the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR), with helium as the coolant, has been identified as uniquely suited for producing hydrogen without consumption of fossil fuels or the emission of greenhouse gases [Generation IV 2002]. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has selected this system for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project, to demonstrate emissions-free nuclear-assisted electricity and hydrogen production within the next 15 years. The NGNP reference concepts are helium-cooled, graphite-moderated, thermal neutron spectrum reactors with a design goal outlet helium temperature of {approx}1000 C [MacDonald et al. 2004]. The reactor core could be either a prismatic graphite block type core or a pebble bed core. The use of molten salt coolant, especially for the transfer of heat to hydrogen production, is also being considered. The NGNP is expected to produce both electricity and hydrogen. The process heat for hydrogen production will be transferred to the hydrogen plant through an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX). The basic technology for the NGNP has been established in the former high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) and demonstration plants (DRAGON, Peach Bottom, AVR, Fort St. Vrain, and THTR). In addition, the technologies for the NGNP are being advanced in the Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) project, and the South African state utility ESKOM-sponsored project to develop the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR). Furthermore, the Japanese HTTR and Chinese HTR-10 test reactors are demonstrating the feasibility of some of the planned components and materials. The proposed high operating temperatures in the VHTR place significant constraints on the choice of material selected for the reactor pressure vessel for

  2. Resultados gestacionais e perinatais de gestações com insuficiência cervical submetidas a circlagem eletiva Gestational and perinatal outcomes of pregnancies with cervical incompetence submitted to elective cerclage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Luís Nomura


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: descrever os resultados gestacionais de uma série de gestantes submetidas a circlagem cervical eletiva. MÉTODOS: estudo retrospectivo descritivo de 123 gestações em 116 pacientes submetidas a circlagem eletiva por insuficiência cervical, pelas técnicas de Espinosa-Bahamondes, Palmer ou MacDonald, e acompanhadas no Ambulatório de Pré-Natal Especializado do CAISM/UNICAMP. As variáveis foram analisadas por meio frequência, média e desvio-padrão e comparadas pelo teste de c² ou o teste exato de Fisher. RESULTADOS: 73% das pacientes apresentavam pelo menos um abortamento prévio, 17,9% tinham 3 ou mais abortamentos anteriores e 48% tinham antecedente de parto prematuro. A idade gestacional média de realização da circlagem foi 16 semanas. Houve predomínio de utilização da técnica cirúrgica de Espinosa modificada por Bahamondes (94,3%. A incidência de complicações durante a gestação foi de 69%; a do trabalho de parto prematuro (31,7% foi a mais freqüente, seguido de vaginites/vaginose (26%, ruptura prematura pré-termo de membranas (10,5% e óbito fetal (8,7%, As principais intercorrências clínicas associadas foram infecção do trato urinário (5,6%, síndromes hipertensivas (4% e diabete gestacional (2,4%. O índice de perdas gestacionais foi de 8,9% (11 óbitos fetais. Houve 18% de partos prematuros e o antecedente de parto prematuro associou-se à ocorrência de partos prematuros na gestação em estudo. CONCLUSÕES: os antecedentes obstétricos compatíveis com insuficiência istmocervical foram freqüentes e o antecedente de parto prematuro associou-se a ocorrência de partos prematuros na gestação em estudo. A utilização de circlagem a Espinosa-Bahamondes resultou em taxa de 18% de partos prematuros e de 104 em mil de morte perinatal. São necessários estudos prospectivos controlados para avaliar o real benefício da circlagem cervical durante a gravidez.PURPOSE: to describe the pregnancy outcome of

  3. What has happened in about the last 20 years in the Canyoles watershed? (United States)

    Ángel González Peñaloza, Félix; Cerdà, Artemi; Díaz del Olmo, Fernando


    Along history, the Mediterranean arid lands have undergone widespread land use transformation, especially in recent decades (Piqueras, 2012). There are changes driven by socio-economic conditions, such as European Agricultural Policies (MacDonald et al., 2000; Keenleyside and Tucker, 2010; Renwick et al., 2013), which have caused land degradation processes (soil erosion, soil sealing, water pollution, salinization, wildfires, land abandonment, urban sprawl and intensive agricultural practices). Land degradation is the results of a complex Socio Ecological System (SES) which should be addressed using the Geographical Information System (GIS) to identify and assess the spatial variation of land use change. Therefore, the aim of this work has been to describe and assess the land use change by human activities in a typical Mediterranean watershed (Cànyoles Valley) located at South-East of Iberian Peninsula as a part of the Land Ecosystem and Degradation Desertification Response Assessment (LEDDRA) project, which has undergone a quick land use change in last two decades (1986 - 2005). Results reveal that the surface area devoted to rainfed crops (e.g., olive crops (47 %) and vineyards (28 %) and forestry have decline significantly; while the citrus orchards (irrigated crops) and unproductive areas (e.g., roads and railways, urban areas) have been increasing its surface in just about last 20 years in 45 % and 67 %, respectively. According to the literature review (Cerdà, 1994; Cerdá et al., 1999, 2007; Cerdà, 2007; Bodí et al., 2012; González-Peñaloza, 2012) these recent changes, in the study site, have caused many environmental disturbances mainly due to the lack control strategies plans of land degradation. Acknowledgements This research is being conducted by the EU project "Land Ecosystem and Degradation Desertification: Assessing the Fit of Responses" LEDDRA 243857 CONSORTIUM AGREEMENT. TR07 - VII PROGRAMA MARCO - ENERGÍA FP7-ENERGY-2007-2-TREN. - European

  4. Impedance spectroscopy analysis on electrical properties of serpentine at high pressure and high temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU; Maoxu; (


    [1]Stesky, R. M., Brace, W. F., Electrical conductivity of serpentinized rocks to 6 kilobar, J. Geophys. Res., 1973, 78 (32): 7614-7621.[2]Zhu Maoxu, Xie Hongsen, Experimental studies on electrical properties of materials in the earth's interior, Advancement in Geosciences (in Chinese), 1998, 13(5): 438-446.[3]Roberts, J. J., Tyburczy, J. A., Frequency dependent electrical properties of polycrystalline olivine compacts, J. Geophys. Res., 1991, 96 (B10): 16205-16222.[4]Roberts, J. J., Tyburczy, J. A., Frequency dependent electrical properties of minerals and partial-melts, Surv. Geophys., 1994, 15: 239-262.[5]Huebner, I. S., Dillenburg, R. G., Impedance spectra of hot, dry silicate minerals and rock: Qualitative interpretation of spectra, Amer. Mineral, 1995, 80: 46-64.[6]Kavner, A., Li, X-Y, Jeanloz, R., Electrical conductivity of a natural (Mg, Fe)SiO3 majorite garnet, Geophys. Res. Lett., 1995, 22 (22): 3103-3106.[7]Hicks, T. L., Secco, R., Dehydration and decomposition of pyrophyllite at high pressure: Electrical conductivity and X-ray diffraction studies to 5 Gpa, Can. J. Earth Sci., 1997, 34: 875-882.[8]Li, X-Y, Jeanloz, R., Effect of iron content on the electrical conductivity of perovskite and magnesiowustite assemblages at lower mantle condition, J. Geophys. Res., 1991, 96(B4): 6113-6120.[9]Xie Hongsen, Introduction to the Materials in the Earth's Interior (in Chinese), Beijing: Science Press, 1997, 42-53.[10] Tatsurmi, Y., Migration of fluid phase and genesis of basalt magmas in subduction zone, J. Geophys. Res., 1989, 94: 4697-4707.[11] Duba, A., Huenges, G., Nover, E. et al., Impedance of black shale from munsterland 1 borehole: An anomalously good conductor? Geophys. J., 1988, 94: 413-419.[12] Watanabe, T., Kurita, K., The relationship between electrical conductivity and melt fraction in a partially molten simple system: Archies's law behavior, Phys. Earth Planet Inter., 1993, 78: 9-17.[13] Macdonald

  5. In situ Rumen Degradation Kinetics of High-Protein Forage Crops in Temperate Climates Cinética de Degradación Ruminal in situ en Forrajes de Alto Contenido Proteico en Clima Templado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Valderrama L.


    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the nutritional value and in situ degradation kinetics of eight high protein forage crops: alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., forage oat (Avena sativa L., mixed pasture, and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. pasture in early vegetative stages, two forage lupins (Lupinus albus L. in early bloom stages, sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. and kale (Brassica napus var. pabularia (DC. Rchb. leaves at root maturity. Dry matter (DM and crude protein (CP degradation kinetics were evaluated by the nylon bag technique through the in situ procedure described by 0rskov and MacDonald (1979 using three ruminally cannulated sheep. Chemical composition of the forage crops showed on average 13.7% DM; 21.4% CP; 31.5% neutral detergent fiber (NDF; 17.7% crude fiber (CF, 80.6% digestibility of organic matter (DOMD and 12.13 MJ kg-1 metabolizable energy (ME. The high total degradability of forage crops reported here (> 87% DM; > 93% CP can be associated with the presence of large quantities of fraction a (> 34% DMa; > 29% CPa and high degradability of fraction b, resulting in low amounts of undegradable fraction (U (7.02% DM and 3.55% CP. Correlations between CPb and DMb degradability (r = 0.79 and CPc and DMc degradation rates (r = 0.78 were high, however differences in c were not explained by differences in CP or NDF contents, nor by the amounts of a or b fractions. Degradation for DM and CP during the first 6 h of incubation was strongly and inversely correlated to b (36 h (r = 0.93 (P El presente estudio se desarrolló con el objetivo de evaluar el valor nutricional y la cinética de degradación in situ de ocho forrajes de alto valor proteico: alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., avena (Avena sativa L., pastos mixtos y pastos de ballica (Lolium multiflorum Lam., en las primeras etapas vegetativas, dos lupinos forrajeros (Lupinus albus L. en etapas inicio de la floración, hojas de remolacha azucarera (Beta vulgaris L. y de col (Brassica

  6. Investigating Reaction-Driven Cracking (United States)

    Kelemen, P. B.; Hirth, G.; Savage, H. M.


    for constant volume replacement. Natural examples have fracture energy densities due to strain energy density of 100's of MPa [2]. Despite theory and observation, until now lab experiments on peridotite hydration and carbonation have not produced reaction-driven cracking. Slow kinetics and limited reactive surface area in low porosity samples may be the cause. Also, maximum stress may be limited by 'disjoining pressure', above which nano-films along grain boundaries collapse, and crystal growth essentially ceases [7]. To address these issues, we've begun experiments on analog materials with fast reaction rates, e.g., CaO + H2O = Ca(OH)2, to efficiently investigate the role of confining pressure and other factors on reaction-driven fracture events. Intriguingly, commercially available 'demolition mortar', largely CaO, produces stresses of 70 MPa or more around 1 inch bore holes at room T and P [8], even though there is a free surface at the top of the borehole, and hydration in a 'closed' system creates ~ 40% air-filled pore space. [1] Jamtveit et al EPSL 08 [2] Kelemen & Hirth EPSL 12 [3] Kelemen et al AREPS 11 [4] Aharonov et al JGR 98 [5] Fletcher & Merino GCA 01 [6] Macdonald & Fyfe T'phys 85 [7] Espinosa-Marzal & Scherer GSL Special Papers 10 [8] Laefer et al Mag Concrete Res 10

  7. Enhancing international earth science competence in natural hazards through 'geoNatHaz (United States)

    Giardino, Marco; Clague, John J.


    Research Institute on Hydrogeological Hazards; Simon Fraser University Centre for Natural Hazard Research; Civil Protection of Regione Piemonte; Dipartimento Difesa del Suolo of Regione Valle d'Aosta; Environmental Protection, Civil Protection and Geological Survey of Regione Emilia-Romagna; Alberta Geological Survey), non-governmental and non-profit organizations (Fondazione Vaiont; Fondation Montaine Sure; Comitato Glaciologico Italiano; Tele-Rilevamento Europa; IMAGEO), and companies (MacDonald, Detwiller and Associates; TRE-Canada; BC Hydro; CVA). Support programs to ensure that students fully benefit from their exchanges are in place in each of the participating universities. Exchanges of faculty and technicians will ensure that students' educational experiences are challenging, rich, and intellectually rewarding. The exchanges also will facilitate development of up-to-date natural hazard courses shared by the seven partner universities and will catalyze collaborations among scientists participating in the project. The centrepiece of the project is field-based courses in natural hazards and risk in high mountain environments. Six field courses will be offered over the three-year period of the project - three in Europe and three in Canada. Course topics include (1) impacts of climate change on natural hazards in high mountains, (2) deep-seated rock-slope deformation, (3) mitigation of landslide hazards in mountain valleys, (4) applications of new technologies in natural hazard research, (5) frequency-magnitude relations and risk assessment, and (6) earthquake hazards and risk in mountain regions. The courses are taught by faculty from each of the partner universities, with the assistance of graduate students and technicians. The field courses support and extend existing programs in geology, geomorphology, and engineering geology offered by the partner universities.

  8. EDITORIAL: Announcing the 2005 Measurement Science and Technology Outstanding Paper Awards (United States)

    Foss, John; Dewhurst, Richard; Fujii, Kenichi; Regtien, Paul


    displacements are grouped around integer pixel values. Background subtraction can help reduce the tendency for peak locking, but does not completely remove the bias. Other techniques for eliminating the bias are available, but require time-consuming, iterative processing. The paper of Chen and Katz describes a processing technique that removes this 'peak locking' bias by avoiding the curve fitting process altogether. Instead, the displacement necessary to map the first exposure into the second exposure is determined via a correlation mapping operation. Several example cases using synthetic data and actual PIV data are presented. The new approach is also compatible with the Subregion Image Distortion technique to further improve the quality of the PIV displacement estimates. 2005 Award Winners—Measurement Science The 2005 Measurement Science and Technology Outstanding Paper Award in the Measurement Science category has been awarded to M E Webber, T MacDonald, M B Pushkarsky (Pranalytica, Inc., USA), C K N Patel (UCLA, USA), Y Zhao, N Marcillac and F M Mitloehner (University of California, Davis, USA) for the article 'Agricultural ammonia sensor using diode lasers and photoacoustic spectroscopy', published in volume 16, issue 8, pp 1547 1553. In making their recommendation the Measurement Science working group chaired by Professor Richard Dewhurst gave the following endorsement: This paper provides an excellent description of a novel instrumentation system used to detect agricultural ammonia. The sensor system has been designed for use in dusty and humid conditions, and a portable prototype was field-tested on several days over an eight-week period, with encouraging results. In this paper, a short theoretical section is followed by instrumentation details, with a description of the optical system, the electronics, embedded programming and algorithm development. An erbium-doped fibre amplifier was used to enhance the photoacoustic signal by boosting the laser's output power

  9. Evaluation of the toxicity of sediments from the Anniston PCB Site to the mussel Lampsilis siliquoidea (United States)

    Schein, Allison; Sinclair, Jesse A.; MacDonald, Donald D.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Kemble, Nile E.; Kunz, James L.


    concentrations of PCBs were associated with the highest concentrations of PAHs, PCDDs/PCDFs, and organochlorine pesticides. Specifically, sediments 08, 18, and 19 exceeded probable effect concentration quotients (PEC-Qs) of 1.0 for all organic classes of contaminants. These three sediment samples also had high concentrations of mercury and lead, which were the only metals found at elevated concentrations (i.e., above the probable effect concentration [PEC]) in the samples collected. Many sediment samples were highly contaminated with mercury, based on comparisons to samples collected from reference locations. The whole-sediment laboratory toxicity tests conducted with L. siliquoidea met the test acceptability criteria (e.g., control survival was greater than or equal to 80%). Survival of mussels was high in most samples, with 4 of 23 samples (17%) classified as toxic based on the survival endpoint. Biomass and weight were more sensitive endpoints for the L. siliquoidea toxicity tests, with both endpoints classifying 52% of the samples as toxic. Samples 19 and 30 were most toxic to L. siliquoidea, as they were classified as toxic according to all four endpoints (survival, biomass, weight, and length). Mussels were less sensitive in toxicity tests conducted with sediments from the Anniston PCB Site than Hyalella azteca and Chironomus dilutus. Biomass of L. siliquoidea was less sensitive compared to biomass of H. azteca or biomass of larval C. dilutus. Based on the most sensitive endpoint for each species, 52% of the samples were toxic to L. siliquoidea, whereas 67% of sediments were toxic to H. azteca (based on reproduction) and 65% were toxic to C. dilutus (based on adult biomass). The low-risk toxicity threshold (TTLR) was higher for L. siliquoidea biomass (e.g., 20,400 µg/kg dry weight [DW]) compared to that for H. azteca reproduction (e.g., 499 µg/kg DW) or C. dilutus adult biomass (e.g., 1,140 µg/kg DW; MacDonald et al. 2014). While mussels such as L. sili

  10. Accommodation in pediatric oncology: parental experiences, preferences and unmet needs. (United States)

    Daniel, Gunar; Wakefield, Claire E; Ryan, Barbara; Fleming, Catharine Ak; Levett, Nicole; Cohn, Richard J


    For families of children diagnosed with cancer, proximity to the treatment center and staying close to immediate family members are essential for proper patient management. Accommodation services are therefore a key consideration in pediatric oncology. This descriptive study explored the accommodation used, and preferred, by parents of pediatric cancer patients at Sydney Children's Hospital, Randwick (SCH), Australia, and investigated their accommodation and practical needs. Forty-two parents from 25 families participated in individual semi-structured telephone interviews. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded line-by-line. Coding was facilitated by data analysis software QSR NVivo v8 ( Emergent themes were numerically assessed to minimize the potential for researcher bias. Nine families (36%) lived near SCH and were able to stay at their own residence during treatment (mean distance of 15.4 km from SCH). The remaining families were categorized 'local, but requiring accommodation' (n=3 families represented by five parent interviews; mean distance of 82.22 km from SCH),'inner regional' (IR) (n=8 families, 15 parent interviews; mean distance of 396.75 km from SCH) or 'outer regional' (OR) (n=3 families, 5 interviews; mean distance of 547.4 km from SCH) according to the Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC) remoteness ratings. Accommodation provided for families from both IR and OR areas was mixed, with several families using multiple accommodation options during treatment, including Ronald Macdonald House (RMH), private accommodation or a rental property close to the hospital for the duration of the treatment. Six IR and one OR family utilized hotel or motel accommodation as an alternative to RMH due to unavailability of rooms. The majority of parents (37/42) preferred to stay on the hospital campus, near their child. Seven out of 11 IR and OR mothers preferred self-contained accommodation, while three out


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Bailey


    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors examine developments in the Canadian access to justice dialogue from Macdonald’s seminal 2005 analysis to the recent reports of the National Action Committee on Access to Justice in Civil and Family Matters [NAC].   They draw on the NAC’s call for an “expansive vision” of access to justice as the basis for critically evaluating examples of particular technologies used or proposed as responses to the access to justice crisis in Canada. In so doing, they illustrate the importance of conscious consideration of deliverables and beneficiaries in prioritizing technologies for deployment, in determining how the technology ought to be deployed, and in evaluating the potential of a technology to facilitate access to justice. The authors argue that nuanced accounts of the relationships between justice deliverables, technological mechanisms for delivery and intended justice beneficiaries are essential to developing good decision-making mechanisms with respect to access to justice and technology.   Dans le présent article, les auteurs examinent l’évolution du dialogue canadien sur l’accès à la justice, depuis l’analyse fondamentale de Macdonald en 2005 jusqu’aux récents rapports du Comité national d’action sur l’accès à la justice en matière civile et familiale (CNA. Ils se fondent sur la « vision élargie » de l’accès à la justice réclamée par le CNA pour évaluer de façon critique les exemples de technologies particulières utilisées ou proposées pour répondre à la crise de l’accès à la justice au Canada. Ce faisant, ils illustrent l’importance d’examiner de façon consciente les livrables et les bénéficiaires pour classer par ordre de priorité les technologies à déployer, pour déterminer comment la technologie devrait être déployée et pour évaluer le potentiel d’une technologie de faciliter l’accès à la justice. Les auteurs soutiennent que des comptes rendus

  12. Landing Marine-derived Renewable Energy: Optimising Power Cable Routing in the Nearshore Environment (United States)

    Turner, Rosalind, ,, Dr.; Keane, Tom; Mullins, Brian; Phipps, Peter


    Numerous studies have demonstrated that a vast unexploited source of energy can be derived from the marine environment. Recent evolution of the energy market and looming EU renewable energy uptake targets for 2020 have driven a huge explosion of interest in exploiting this resource, triggering both governments and industry to move forward in undertaking feasibility assessments and demonstration projects for wave, tidal and offshore wind farms across coastlines. The locations which naturally lend themselves to high yield energy capture, are by definition, exposed and may be remote, located far from the end user of the electricity generated. A fundamental constraint to successfully exploiting these resources will be whether electricity generated in high energy, variable and constantly evolving environments can be brought safely and reliably to shore without the need for constant monitoring and maintenance of the subsea cables and landfall sites. In the case of riverine cable crossings superficial sediments would typically be used to trench and bury the cable. High energy coastal environments may be stripped of soft sediments. Any superficial sediments present at the site may be highly mobile and subject to re-suspension throughout the tidal cycle or under stormy conditions. EirGrid Plc. and Mott MacDonald Ireland Ltd. have been investigating the potential for routing a cable across the exposed Shannon estuary in Ireland. Information regarding the geological ground model, meteo-oceanographic and archaeological conditions of the proposed site was limited, necessitating a clear investigation strategy. The investigation included gathering site information on currents, bathymetry and geology through desk studies, hydrographic and geophysical surveys, an intrusive ground investigation and coastal erosion assessments at the landfall sites. The study identified a number of difficulties for trenching and protecting a cable through an exposed environment such as the Shannon

  13. Research Experiences in Community College Science Programs (United States)

    Beauregard, A.


    The benefits of student access to scientific research opportunities and the use of data in curriculum and student inquiry-driven approaches to teaching as effective tools in science instruction are compelling (i.e., Ledley, et al., 2008; Gawel & Greengrove, 2005; Macdonald, et al., 2005; Harnik & Ross. 2003). Unfortunately, these experiences are traditionally limited at community colleges due to heavy faculty teaching loads, a focus on teaching over research, and scarce departmental funds. Without such hands-on learning activities, instructors may find it difficult to stimulate excitement about science in their students, who are typically non-major and nontraditional. I present two different approaches for effectively incorporating research into the community college setting that each rely on partnerships with other institutions. The first of these is a more traditional approach for providing research experiences to undergraduate students, though such experiences are limited at community colleges, and involves student interns working on a research project under the supervision of a faculty member. Specifically, students participate in a water quality assessment study of two local bayous. Students work on different aspects of the project, including water sample collection, bio-assay incubation experiments, water quality sample analysis, and collection and identification of phytoplankton. Over the past four years, nine community college students, as well as two undergraduate students and four graduate students from the local four-year university have participated in this research project. Aligning student and faculty research provides community college students with the unique opportunity to participate in the process of active science and contribute to "real" scientific research. Because students are working in a local watershed, these field experiences provide a valuable "place-based" educational opportunity. The second approach links cutting-edge oceanographic

  14. Implications of a Caldera Origin of the Lunar Crater Copernicus (United States)

    Green, J.


    The forthcoming renaissance in lunar exploration will focus on many objectives such as Copernicus. Copernicus appears to be a caldera for at least 8 reasons. If a caldera we see (1) transient activity (2) no overturned impact flap at the crater margins (3) internal sinuous leveed lava flow channels (4) a lava covered floor (5) terraces of different ages (6) multiple central volcanoes, one showing a directed volcanic blast (7) olivine-rich komatiitic lavas on central volcanoes and (8) magmatic inflation/deflation on caldera flanks localizing craterlets and extinct fumaroles in "loop" patterns. Regarding (6), directed volcanic blasts can remove a segment of the volcano wall as evidenced in terrestrial analogs at Mt. St. Helens and Bezymianny. Impact mechanisms to produce this feature in Copernicus are contrived. For (7) Clementine spectral data show a high olivine content of the central mountains on Copernicus which I interpret as forsteritic spinifex mineralization in komatiitic lavas and not as impact rebound of olivine-rich deep seated rocks. (8) MacDonald (1956) documented loop patterns on the flank of Halemaumau in Hawaii defining arcuate fractures localizing fumaroles and craterlets. Inflation/deflation of subjacent magma bodies are interpreted as the cause for these loops. Inflation/deflation mechanisms on caldera flanks are common around terrestrial calderas. "Loop" patterns on the flank of Copernicus localizing "gouge" craterlets have been interpreted as ballistic features resulting from the meteorite impact of this crater. Questioned is the logic of a linear N26E trending array of fragments within Copernicus to serve as a source of ballistic projectiles to form the loops localizing conjugate craterlets. The fused craterlet axes on the lunar loops do not point back to a presumed impact center in Copernicus. The axes are oriented parallel to a regional northwest (N35-60W) fracture zone. Implications for an endogenic origin of Copernicus would involve

  15. Enigmatic Post-Glacial Degradation and Aggradation of Rivers on the Alberta Plains (United States)

    Malowany, K. S.; osborn, G.; Wu, P. P.


    Rockies by Jackson et al. (1982). Our model confirms that river gradients generally decreased through post-glacial time, favoring increased sediment deposition. However, the subsequent return to degradation cannot be explained by decreasing river gradients, so a pulse of paraglacial sedimentation must have been the primary cause of aggradation. The second episode of incision of rivers was underway by early Holocene time. We agree with Jackson et al. (1982) that the reincision resulted from decline of paraglacial sediment supply into the mountain headwaters of the rivers. Incision was episodic and resulted in a series of terraces, and there is some evidence for minor fill episodes punctuating the general downcutting. There are no obvious reasons for this erratic behavior, which may have resulted from instabilities inherent in the system. Jackson, L., MacDonald, G., Wilson, M., 1982, Canadian Jr. Earth Sci. 19:2219-2231. Kellerhals, R. and Shaw, J., 1982, Alberta Research Council Bulletin 41. Peltier, W., 1994, Science 265:195-201. Wang, H., Wu, P., Van der Wal, 2008, Jr. Geodynamics 46:104-117.

  16. Investigations of the Application of CFD to Flow Expected in the Lower Plenum of the Prismatic VHTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard W.Johnson; Tara Gallaway; Donna P. Guillen


    The Generation IV (Gen IV) very high temperature reactor (VHTR) will either be a prismatic (block) or pebble bed design. However, a prismatic VHTR reference design, based on the General Atomics Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) [General Atomics, 1996] has been developed for preliminary analysis purposes [MacDonald, et al., 2003]. Numerical simulation studies reported herein are based on this reference design. In the lower plenum of the prismatic reference design, the flow will be introduced by dozens of turbulent jets from the core above. The jet flow will encounter rows of columns that support the core. The flow from the core will have to turn ninety degrees and flow toward the exit duct as it passed through the forest of support columns. Due to the radial variation of the power density in the core, the jets will be at various temperatures at the inlet to the lower plenum. This presents some concerns, including that local hot spots may occur in the lower plenum. This may have a deleterious effect on the materials present as well as cause a variation in temperature to be present as the flow enters the power conversion system machinery, which could cause problems with the operation of the machinery. In the past, systems analysis codes have been used to model flow in nuclear reactor systems. It is recognized, however, that such codes are not capable of modeling the local physics of the flow to be able to analyze for local mixing and temperature variations. This has led to the determination that computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes be used, which are generally regarded as having the capability of accurately simulating local flow physics. Accurate flow modeling involves determining appropriate modeling strategies needed to obtain accurate analyses. These include determining the fineness of the grid needed, the required iterative convergence tolerance, which numerical discretization method to use, and which turbulence model and wall treatment should be

  17. Source Identification of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Diagnostic Ratios and Positive Matrix Factorization (United States)

    Dvorska, A.; Jarkovsky, J.; Lammel, G.; Klanova, J.


    by a single, well defined PAH source. By determination of the total PAH concentrations (sum of gas and particulate phases) the propagation of sampling artefacts related to PAH partitioning into statistical errors is avoided. The main results are: Major PAH source categories exhibit a significant seasonality, coronene as a marker for traffic (Bi et al., 2003) should be used with care. Long-term trends of the major PAH sources are insignificant. Literature: Bi X.H., Sheng G.Y., Peng P., Chen Y.J., Zhang Z.Q., Fu J.M., 2003. Distribution of particulate- and vapor-phase n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban atmosphere of Guangzhou, China. Atmos. Environ. 37, 289-298. Paatero P. (1997): Least square formulation of robust non-negative factor analysis, Chemometrics Intelligent Lab. Systems 37, 23-35. Readman J.W., Mantoura R.F., Rhead M.M., 1987. A record of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution obtained from accreting sediments of the Tamar estuary, UK: evidence for non-equilibrium behaviour of PAH. Sci. Total Environ. 66, 73-94. Tauler R., Paatero P., Hopke P., Henry R.C., Spiegelman C., Park E.S., Poirot R.L., 2006. State of the art in methods and software for the identification, resolution and apportionment of contamination sources In: Summit on Environmental Modelling and Software (Proceedings of the iEMSs 3rd Biennial Meeting; Voinov A., Jakeman A.J., Rizzoli A.E., eds.), International Environmental Modelling and Software Society, Burlington, USA. WHO (2003) - World Health Organization: Health risks of persistent organic pollutants from long-range transboundary air pollution. WHO Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, 252 pp. Yunker M.B., Macdonald R.W., Vingarzan R., Mitchell R.H., Goyette D., Sylvestre S., 2002. PAHs in the Fraser River basin: a critical appraisal of PAH ratios as indicators of PAH source and composition. Org. Geochem. 33, 489-515.

  18. Applied Analytical Methods for Solving Some Problems of Wave Propagation in the Coastal Areas (United States)

    Gagoshidze, Shalva; Kodua, Manoni


    practically applicable solutions (obtained by MacDonald and Kelland) only for triangular channels whose lateral slopes to the horizon are 30°and 45°. For the fourth problem, a number of unique results are obtained by the correct linearization of shallow water equations. These results include in particular the following: the wave propagation against the flow is blocked by a stream with a Froude number Fr >2/3, but not with Fr > 1, as thought previously. New relations are derived for the conjugate depths of all types of hydraulic jumps and discontinuous roll-waves. References: 1.Stoker,J.J.1957 Water waves.The mathematical theory with application. New York: Interscience Publ., 567 p., (Figures 5.6.2, 5.6.3 and 5.6.5). 2.Hodgins,D.O., Le Blond, P.H. and Huntley, D.A., 1985, Shallow-water wave calculations. Canadian Contractor Report of Hydrography and Ocean Sciences, 10,75 p.,(Figure 3.5). The work supported by Grant Do/77/3-109/14 of the Georgian National Science Foundation

  19. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV


    Full Text Available Benedict Anderson; Under three flags; Anarchism and the anticolonial imagination (Greg Bankoff Leakthina Chau-Pech Ollier, Tim Winter (eds; Expressions of Cambodia; The politics of tradition, identity and change (David Chandler Ying Shing Anthony Chung; A descriptive grammar of Merei (Vanuatu (Alexandre François Yasuyuki Matsumoto; Financial fragility and instability in Indonesia (David C. Cole Mason C. Hoadley; Public administration; Indonesian norms versus Western forms (Jan Kees van Donge Samuel S. Dhoraisingam; Peranakan Indians of Singapore and Melaka (Joseph M. Fernando Vatthana Pholsena; Post-war Laos; The politics of culture, history and identity (Volker Grabowksy Gert Oostindie; De parels en de kroon; Het koningshuis en de koloniën (Hans Hägerdal Jean-Luc Maurer; Les Javanais du Caillou; Des affres de l’exil aux aléas de l’intégration; Sociologie historique de la communauté indonésienne de Nouvelle-Calédonie (Menno Hecker Richard Stubbs; Rethinking Asia’s economic miracle; The political economy of war, prosperity and crisis (David Henley Herman Th. Verstappen; Zwerftocht door een wereld in beweging (Sjoerd R. Jaarsma Klokke, A.H. (ed. and transl.; Fishing, hunting and headhunting in the former culture of the Ngaju Dayak in Central Kalimantan; Notes from the manuscripts of the Ngaju Dayak authors Numan Kunum and Ison Birim; from the Legacy of Dr. H. Schaerer; With a recent additional chapter on hunting by Katuah Mia (Monica Janowski Ian Proudfoot; Old Muslim calendars of Southeast Asia (Nico J.G. Kaptein Garry Rodan; Transparency and authoritarian rule in Southeast Asia (Soe Tjen Marching Greg Fealy, Virginia Hooker (eds; Voices of Islam in Southeast Asia; A contemporary sourcebook (Dick van der Meij Eko Endarmoko; Tesaurus Bahasa Indonesia (Don van Minde Charles J.-H. Macdonald; Uncultural behavior; An anthropological investigation of suicide in the southern Philippines

  20. Experimental Evidence for Polybaric Intracrustal Differentiation of Primitive Arc Basalt beneath St. Vincent, Lesser Antilles (United States)

    Blundy, Jon; Melekhova, Lena; Robertson, Richard


    We present experimental phase equilibria for a primitive, high-Mg basalt from St. Vincent, Lesser Antilles. Experimental details were presented in Melekhova et al (Nature Geosci, 2013); the objective here is to compare experimental phase compositions to those of erupted lavas and cumulates from St. Vincent. Starting material with 4.5 wt% H2O is multiply-saturated with a lherzolite assemblage at 1.3 GPa and 1180 ° C, consistent with mantle wedge derivation. Experimental glasses from our study, in addition to those of Pichavant et al (GCA, 2002) and Pichavant & Macdonald (CMP 2007) on a similar high-Mg basalt, encompass a compositional range from high-magnesian basalt to dacite, with a systematic dependence on H2O content, temperature and pressure. We are able to match the glasses from individual experiments to different lava types, so as to constrain the differentiation depths at which these magmas could be generated from a high-Mg parent, as follows: Composition wt% H2OP (GPa) T (° C) High-Mg basalt 3.9-4.8 1.45-1.751180-1200 Low-Mg basalt 2.3-4.5 1.0-1.3 1065-1150 High alumina basalt 3.0-4.5 0.4 1050-1080 Basaltic andesite 0.6-4.5 0.7-1.0 1050-1130 Andesite 0.6 1.0 1060-1080 The fact that St. Vincent andesites (and some basaltic andesites) appear to derive from a low-H2O (0.6 wt%) parent suggest that they are products of partial melting of older, high-Mg gabbroic rocks, as 0.6 wt% H2O is approximately the amount that can be stored in amphibole-bearing gabbros. The higher H2O contents of parents for the other lava compositions is consistent with derivation by crystallization of basalts with H2O contents that accord with those of olivine-hosted melt inclusions from St. Vincent (Bouvier et al, J Petrol, 2008). The generation of evolved melts both by basalt crystallization and gabbro melting is consistent with the hot zone concept of Annen et al (J Petrol, 2006) wherein repeated intrusion of mantle-derived basalt simultaneously crystallize by cooling and melt

  1. Nanostructured Columns from Self-assembly of Complementary Molecular Components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; Wen-sheng


    [1]Lehn, J. M. , Supramolecular Chemistry, VCH, Weinheim, 139(1995)[2]Lehn, J. M., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.,29, 1 304(1990)[3]Whitesides, G. M. , Mathias, J. P. , and Seto, C. T. , Science, 254, 1 312(1991)[4]Whitesides, G. M., Simanek, E. E. , Mathias, J. P. , et al. , Acc. Chem. Res. , 28, 37(1995)[5]Lehn, J. M. , Makromol. Chem. , Makromol. Sym. , 69, 1(1993)[6]Lindsey, J. S., New. J. Chem., 15, 153(1991)[7]Ghadiri, M. R. , Granja, J. R. , Milligan, R. A. , et al. , Nature, 366, 324(1993)[8]Zerkowski, J. A. , Mathias, J. P. , and Whitesides, G. M. , J. Am. Chem. Soc. , 116, 4 305(1994)[9].Wyler, R. , de Mendoza, J. , and Rebek, Jr. , J. , Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. , 32, 1 699(1993)[10]Alivisatos, A. P. , Science, 271, 933(1996)[11]Stupp, S. I. , LeBonheur, V. , Walker, K. , et al. , Science, 276, 384(1997)[12]de Heer, W. A. ,Chatelain, A. , and Ugarte, D. , Science, 270, 1 179(1995)[13]Simon, U. , Schon, G. , and Schmid, G. , Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. , 32, 250(1993)[14]Cao, Y. , Chen, S. , Chai, X. , et al. , Synth. Met. , 71, 1 733(1995)[15]Yang, W. , Lu, R. , Chai, X. , et al. , Chem. J. Chinese Universities, 16, 75(1995)[16]Yang, W. , Chai, X. , Tian, Y. , et al. , Liquid Crystals, 22, 579(1997)[17]Kimizuka, N.,Kawasaki, T. and Kunitake, T. , J. Am. Chem. Soc. , 115, 4 378(1993)[18]Lehn, J. M. , Mascal, M. , DeCian, A. , et al. , J. Chem. Soc. , Perkin Trans Ⅱ , 461(1992)[19]Zerkowski, J. A. , MacDonald, J. C. , Seto, C. T. , et al. , J. Am. Chem. Soc. , 116, 2 382(1994)[20]Gulik-Krzywicki, T., Fouquey, C. , and Lehn, J. M. , Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 90, 163(1993)[21]Kimizuka, N.,Kawasaki, T. , Hirata, K. , J. Am. Chem. Soc. , 117, 6 360(1995)[22]Kimizuka, N. , Fujikawa, S. , and Kuwahara, H. , J. Chem. Soc. , Chem. Commun. , 2 103(1995)[23]Susi, H. , J. Am. Chem. Soc. , 81, 1 535(1959)[24]Peng, X. G. , Guan, S. Q. , Chai, X. D. , et al. , J. Phys

  2. Geologic Map of the State of Hawai`i (United States)

    Sherrod, David R.; Sinton, John M.; Watkins, Sarah E.; Brunt, Kelly M.


    About This Map The State's geology is presented on eight full-color map sheets, one for each of the major islands. These map sheets, the illustrative meat of the publication, can be downloaded in pdf format, ready to print. Map scale is 1:100,000 for most of the islands, so that each map is about 27 inches by 36 inches. The Island of Hawai`i, largest of the islands, is depicted at a smaller scale, 1:250,000, so that it, too, can be shown on 36-inch-wide paper. The new publication isn't limited strictly to its map depictions. Twenty years have passed since David Clague and Brent Dalrymple published a comprehensive report that summarized the geology of all the islands, and it has been even longer since the last edition of Gordon Macdonald's book, Islands in the Sea, was revised. Therefore the new statewide geologic map includes an 83-page explanatory pamphlet that revisits many of the concepts that have evolved in our geologic understanding of the eight main islands. The pamphlet includes simplified page-size geologic maps for each island, summaries of all the radiometric ages that have been gathered since about 1960, generalized depictions of geochemical analyses for each volcano's eruptive stages, and discussion of some outstanding topics that remain controversial or deserving of additional research. The pamphlet also contains a complete description of map units, which enumerates the characteristics for each of the state's many stratigraphic formations shown on the map sheets. Since the late 1980s, the audience for geologic maps has grown as desktop computers and map-based software have become increasingly powerful. Those who prefer the convenience and access offered by Geographic Information Systems (GIS) can also feast on this publication. An electronic database, suitable for most GIS software applications, is available for downloading. The GIS database is in an Earth projection widely employed throughout the State of Hawai`i, using the North American datum of

  3. Real-world effectiveness of valsartan on hypertension and total cardiovascular risk: review and implications of a translational research program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham I


    Full Text Available Ivo Abraham1,2, Karen MacDonald2, Christine Hermans3, Ann Aerts3, Christopher Lee2,4, Heidi Brié3, Stefaan Vancayzeele31Center for Health Outcomes and Pharmacoeconomic Research, and Department of Pharmacy Practice and Science, College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA; 2Matrix45, Earlysville, VA, USA; 3Novartis Pharma, Vilvoorde, Belgium; 4School of Nursing, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, USAAbstract: The pharmacological efficacy of various monotherapy, single pill, and combination therapies of the angiotensin II receptor blocker valsartan have been established, mainly through randomized controlled trials that used similar methodological and statistical platforms and thus enabled synthesis of evidence. The real world effectiveness of valsartan has been studied extensively, but the relative lack of scientific and technical congruence of these studies render synthesis virtually impossible. To date, all have focused on blood pressure outcomes, despite evidence-based calls to grade antihypertensive treatment to patients' total cardiovascular risk. We review a T3 translational research program of seven studies involving valsartan monotherapy as well as single and separate pill combinations, and the determinants and effect on blood pressure and total cardiovascular risk outcomes. All seven studies examined not only the impact of valsartan-based regimens on blood pressure values and control, but also, within a statistical hierarchical approach, the physician- and patient-related determinants of these blood pressure outcomes. Two studies also investigated the determinants and outcomes of valsartan-based treatment on total cardiovascular risk – among the first studies to use this risk coefficient as an outcome rather than only a determinant. These seven studies included a total of 19,533 patients, contributed by 3434 physician-investigators in Belgium – a country particularly well-suited for observational

  4. Representative composition of the Murray Formation, Gale Crater, Mars, as refined through modeling utilizing Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer observations (United States)

    VanBommel, Scott; Gellert, Ralf; Berger, Jeff; Desouza, Elstan; O'Connell-Cooper, Catherine; Thompson, Lucy; Boyd, Nicholas


    increasing Fe/Mn ratio (by decreasing Mn with near-constant FeO) all stand out from this modeling. The constant CaO, after the impact of CaSO4 is removed, as well as the steady SiO2, TiO2, and FeO, aside from Buckskin, are also clearly visible. Along the traverse up Mount Sharp, there also is an apparent downward trend in Mn and Zn and an increasing trend in Cl and Br. The chemical homogeneity of the Murray formation encountered at Gale Crater provides an opportunity to test existing algorithms in new ways. This homogeneity along the traverse is a major finding in itself, however, removing signals of known additions and deriving a composition representative of the Murray formation, is important as it permits the potential to detect and quantify faint variations within the Murray formation as Curiosity continues up Mount Sharp. References: [1] Grotzinger et al. (2015) Science, 350 (6257). [2] Gellert and Clark (2015) Elements, 11, 39-44. [3] VanBommel et al. (2016) XRS, 45(3), 155-161. [4] Berger et al. (2016) GRL, 43 67-75. [5] Thompson et al. (2017) LPSC XLVIII 3020. Acknowledgements: This work has been supported by the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) under contract 9F052-14-0592. The MSL APXS is financed and managed by the CSA with MacDonald Dettwiler and Associates as the primary contractor to build the instrument. Funding is provided by the CSA and NASA. Much appreciation goes to JPL for their support, dedication, and invaluable expertise.

  5. Toward Obtaining Reliable Particulate Air Quality Information from Satellites (United States)

    Strawa, A. W.; Chatfield, R. B.; Legg, M.; Esswein, R.; Justice, E.


    factor. The relationships between the predictor and the response are discussed. Al-Saadi, J., J. Szykman, R.B. Pierce, C. Kittaka, D. Neil, D.A. Chu, L. Remer, L. Gumley, E. Prins, L. Weinstock, C. MacDonald, R. Wayland, F. Dimmick, and J. Fishman, Imporving national air quality forecasts with satellite aerosol observations, Bull. Amer, Met. Soc. (Sept), 1249-1261, 2005. Engle-Cox, J.A., C.H. Holloman, B.W. Coutant, and R.M. Hoff, Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of MODIS satellite sensor data for regional and urban scale air quality, Atmos. En., 38, 2495-2509, 2004. Hsu, N.C., S.-C. Tsay, M.D. King, and J.R. Herman, Deep blue retrievals of Asian Aerosol properties during ACE-Asia, IEEE Trans. on Geosci.a nd Remote Sensing, 44 (11), 3180, 2006. Pelletier, B., R. Santer, and J. Vidot, Retrieving of particulate matter from optical measurements: A semi-parametric approach, J. Geophys. Res., 112 (D06208), 2007.

  6. Deep-tow studies of the overlapping spreading centers at 9°03&primeN on the East Pacific Rise (United States)

    Sempere, Jean-Christophe; MacDonald, Ken C.


    the magmatic conduits resulted in the propagation of the two spreading centers past each other and the development of the ensuing OSC geometry. Independent lines of evidence derived from the three-dimensional inversion of the magnetic field at the 9°03'N OSC (Sempere et al., 1984), from numerical modelling of the growth of two en echelon elastic cracks in a tensile stress field (Sempere and Macdonald, 1986) and from geochemical data (Langmuir et al., 1986) support our interpretation of the Deep-Tow data. We suggest that deviations from axial linearity of the spreading centers (DEVALs; Langmuir et al., 1986) and small nonoverlapping offsets (SNOOs; Batiza and Margolis, 1986) are simply local lows or saddle points along the axial depth profile that arise when two magmatic pulses propagating toward one another meet head on. OSCs and some saddle points (i.e., DEVALs, SNOOs) are all small, rapidly evolving ridge axis discontinuities which may represent the surficial expression of the distal ends of small scale longitudinal convection cells beneath the East Pacific Rise.

  7. Remobilization and degradation of Muostakh Island (Laptev Sea) as part of the collapsing Arctic coastal ice complex (United States)

    Sánchez-García, L.; Vonk, J.; Charkin, A.; Kosmach, D.; Dudarev, O.; Semiletov, I.; Gustafsson, Ö.


    (~35 000 y) and C-depleted (OC~0.7%) components at the land-sea boundary. Different biomarker ratios, indicative of microbial degradation or loss of functional groups, suggested higher extent of degradation at the low part of the island. The on-site measurements of CO2 registered the largest fluxes on the land-sea boundary, supporting a more intense degradation signal at the low locations of the sampling transects. The presence of older OC in the lower parts of the island, more exposed to wave impact and coastal erosion, suggests that nearly fossil C forms (>35,000 years) could be remobilized and are therewith bioavailable to be degraded to CO2. The larger CO2fluxes of Muostakh (~5 μm m-2 sec-1), compared to those measured on Sphagnum-dominated tundra at the continental coasts (0.1-1.1 μm m-2 sec-1), manifest the more intense biodegradation undergone by the eroding Muostakh Island. References [1] Tarnocai et al, 2009. Global Biogechem. Cycles 23, doi:10.1029/2008GB003327. [2] Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 2007. Pachauri, R.K. and Reisinger, A., 104 pp. IPCC, Geneva, Suiza. [3] Stein, R. and MacDonald, R.W., 2004. The organic carbon cycle in the Arctic Ocean 363 pp, Springer, Berlin.

  8. Quantifying Preferential Flow and Seasonal Storage in an Unsaturated Fracture-Facial Domain (United States)

    Nimmo, J. R.; Malek-Mohammadi, S.


    unsaturated zones [Pruess, 1999]. Lewis, M.A., H.K. Jones, D.M.J. Macdonald, M. Price, J.A. Barker, T.R. Shearer, A.J. Wesselink, and D.J. Evans (1993), Groundwater storage in British aquifers--Chalk, National Rivers Authority R&D Note, 169, Bristol, UK. Nimmo, J.R. (2010), Theory for Source-Responsive and Free-Surface Film Modeling of Unsaturated Flow, Vadose Zone Journal, 9(2), 295-306, doi:10.2136/vzj2009.0085. Price, M., R.G. Low, and C. McCann (2000), Mechanisms of water storage and flow in the unsaturated zone of the Chalk aquifer, Journal of Hydrology, 233(1-4), 54-71. Pruess, K. (1999), A mechanistic model for water seepage through thick unsaturated zones in fractured rocks of low matrix permeability, Water Resources Research, 35(4), 1039-1051.

  9. Nornahraun lava morphology and mode of emplacement (United States)

    Pedersen, Gro B. M.; Höskuldsson, Armann; Riishuus, Morten S.; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg; Gudmundsson, Magnús T.; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Óskarsson, Birgir V.; Drouin, Vincent; Gallagher, Catherine; Askew, Rob; Moreland, William M.; Dürig, Tobias; Dumont, Stephanie; Þórdarson, Þór


    and the flow front came to halt on 12 SEPT 18 km from the source vent. Subsequently, a new lobe broke out S of the first lobe and migrated eastward until it came to a halt at a slightly shorter distance from the fissure. This mode of gradual clockwise propagation of new frontal lobes continued from mid-SEPT to end-NOV. Around 15 OCT, a ~0.8 km2 lava pond developed and persists into 2015. As the activity on the southern front dwindled toward end-NOV, verti-cal stacking of insulated flows had commenced and reached the edge of northern front on 26 NOV. Prior to that the entire northern flow front had hardly advanced for two weeks. The main lava channel partly crusted over and by end-NOV a series of insulated flows were overriding the previous emplaced flows, changing transport system to include closed/insultaed pathways in addition to open channels. Resultantly, the area now covered by the flow field has undergone several topographic inversions due to stacking of lava lobes. [1] Macdonald (1967) NY Wiley, 1-61. [2] Swanson (1973) GSAB, 84, 615-626. [3] Thordarson (2000) Surtsey Res. Prog. Rep., XI, 125-142. [4] Guilbaud et al. (2005) Geol. Soc. Am. Spec. Pap., 396, 81-102. [5] Keszthelyi et al. (2004) GGG, 5, Q11014.

  10. Soils derived from Pieniny andesite, Wdżar hill, Outer Carpathians (Poland) (United States)

    Kajdas, Bartlomiej; Zaleski, Tomasz; Mazurek, Ryszard


    of hydrothermal alteration, mainly the presence of clay minerals developed at the expense of primary plagioclases. In investigated soils it is possible to distinguish two generations of clay minerals. Coarse clays (< 2.0 μm), which were developed during hydrothermal alteration of andesite, contain mainly vermiculite. In fine clays (< 0.2 μm), derived during weathering of rocks and development of soil, smectite is the main component. Quartz, which is present in investigated soil is eolian in origin. References Michalik M., Ladenberger A., Skublicki Ł ., Warzecha M., Zych B. 2004. Petrological characteristics of the Pieniny andesite. Mineralogia Polonica - Special Papers, 24, 283-286. Nejbert K., Jurewicz E., Macdonald R. 2012. Potassium-rich magmatism in the Western Outer Carpathians: Magmagenesis in the transitional zone between the European Plate and Carpathian-Pannonian region. Lithos, 146-147, 34-47.

  11. Real-world variability in ranibizumab treatment and associated clinical, quality of life, and safety outcomes over 24 months in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration: the HELIOS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakic JM


    Full Text Available Jean-Marie Rakic,1 Anita Leys,2 Heidi Brié,3 Kris Denhaerynck,4 Christy Pacheco,4 Stefaan Vancayzeele,3 Christine Hermans,3 Karen MacDonald,4 Ivo Abraham4,5 1Department of Ophthalmology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Liège, Site du Sart Tilman, Liège, Belgium; 2Leuven University Eye Hospital, Leuven, Belgium; 3Novartis Pharma, Vilvoorde, Belgium; 4Matrix45, Tucson, AZ, USA; 5Center for Health Outcomes and Pharmacoeconomic Research, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA Introduction: The aim of this study was to examine ranibizumab treatment patterns in "real-world" practice and clinical settings, as well as to assess quality of life outcomes over a 24-month period. Materials and methods: This was a prospective, observational, multicenter, open-label study of 0.5 mg of ranibizumab administered intravitreally. Patients were followed over 24 ± 3 months with intermediate data points at 6 ± 2 months and 12 ± 2 months, and a limited data point at 2.5 ± 1 month that coincided with the end of the loading phase. Outcomes included visual acuity (Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study, visual function (National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire-25 [NEI VFQ-25], quality of life (Health Utilities Index Mark III [HUI3], and safety. Results: A total of 267 patients with wet age-related macular degeneration (mean ± standard deviation [SD] age = 78.5 ± 7.3 years; 62.4% were female; 34.5% with dual eye involvement; 74.9% were treatment-naïve were treated (309 eyes were treated. The mean ± SD Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study score at baseline was 56.3 ± 14.3 letters. The mean ± SD number of injections over 24 months was 7.6 ± 4.1, including 2.5 ± 0.7 and 5.9 ± 3.6 during the loading and maintenance phases, respectively, with corresponding treatment intervals of 4.8 ± 1.4 weeks and 11.5 ± 9.5 weeks, respectively. Improvements in visual acuity over baseline were reached at 2.5 months and maintained at 6 months (both P

  12. The Payun-Matru lava field: a source of analogues for Martian long lava flows (United States)

    Giacomini, L.; Pasquarè, G.; Massironi, M.; Frigeri, A.; Bistacchi, A.; Frederico, C.


    this hypothesis. According to this view some linear features at the flow surface can be interpreted as squeeze-ups. They can be generated by vertical growth and fracturing of the sealing crust followed by effusion of hot lava continuously injected beneath the flow surface. In addition some lava tubes were also detected thanks to several aligned pits produced by partial tube collapse. Tumuli are certainly one of the most representative features of inflation mechanism [5], but their unambiguous detection is very difficult for the inadequate resolution of the available images. Nonetheless some tumuli like features has been already detected by Glaze and co-workers (2005) [10] in the regions surroundings Elysium Mons and in this work we have detect similar features in the Tharsis region, at Ascraeus Mons lava field. Finally Zephyria and Elysium Planitia show particular platy flows that can be compared with flat topped lava rise found on Payun flows. In addition in Zephyria flows as well in the Payun ones elongated narrow ridges can be observed near the border of the sheetflow and especially near the isolated pre-existent hills surrounded by the lava flow. Their spatial arrangements suggests that they originated from lateral compression inside the visco-elastic deformation of lava crust under the influence of the above mentioned obstacles. In this case these features should correspond to pressure ridges in the sense of MacDonald (1972) [11]. All these examples suggest that inflation. spreading mechanism is present also for some Martian flows. By contrast, the Olympus Mons slopes are mainly covered by lava flows with lobes, tubes (often partially collapsed) and numerous channels that are very similar to channelized flows developed from Carbonilla Fault during the last eruption cycles of Payun Matru complex. References [1]Pasquarè G., Bistacchi A., Mottana A., 2005. Gigantic individual lava flows in the Andean foothills near Malargüe (Mendoza, Argentina). Rendiconti dell

  13. Fire-induced risk in Andisols: An State-of-the-Art (United States)

    Neris, Jonay; Cerdà, Artemi; Santamarta, Juan C.; Doerr, Stefan


    -152. Mataix-Solera, J., Doerr, S.H. 2004. Hydrophobic and aggregate stability in calcareous topsoils from fire-affected pine forest in southeastern Spain. Geoderma 118, 77-88. Neris, J., Jiménez, C., Fuentes, J., Morillas, G., Tejedor, M., 2012. Vegetation and land-use effects on soil properties and water infiltration of Andisols in Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain). Catena 98(0), 55-62. Neris, J., Tejedor, M., Fuentes, J., Jiménez, C., 2013. Infiltration, runoff and soil loss in Andisols affected by forest fire (Canary Islands, Spain). Hydrological Processes 27(19), 2814-2824. Pausas, J.G. 2004. Changes in fire and climate in the eastern Iberian Peninsula (Mediterranean basin). Climatic Change 63: 337-350. Pereira, P., Cerdà, A., Úbeda, X., Mataix-Solera, J., Martin, D., Jordán, A., Burguet, M. 2013. Spatial models for monitoring the spatio-temporal evolution of ashes after fire - a case study of a burnt grassland in Lithuania. Solid Earth, 4: 153-165. Poulenard, J., Podwojewski, P., Janeau, J.L., Collinet, J., 2001. Runoff and soil erosion under rainfall simulation of Andisols from the Ecuadorian Páramo: Effect of tillage and burning. Catena 45(3), 185-207. Prats, S.A., Malvar, M.C., Simões-Vieira, D.C., MacDonald, L., and Keizer, J.J. 2013. Effectiveness of hydromulching to reduce runoff and erosion in a recently burnt pine plantation in central Portugal. Land Degradation & Development, DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2236. Prats, S.A., Malvar, M.C., Simões-Vieira, D.C., MacDonald, L., and Keizer, J.J. 2013. Effectiveness of hydromulching to reduce runoff and erosion in a recently burnt pine plantation in central Portugal. Land Degradation & Development, DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2236. Shakesby, R.A. 2011. Post-wildfire soil erosion in the Mediterranean: Review and future research directions. Earth Science Reviews, 105, 71-100.

  14. Adjuvant treatment of gastric cancer in a long term follow-up Tratamento adjuvante no câncer gástrico em seguimento a longo prazo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Honda Federico


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Advanced gastric cancer carries a poor-prognosis. The best extent of the node dissection and the value of postoperative adjuvant treatments remain open questions. AIM: To study the efficacy of adjuvant chemoradiation and the prognostic value of some clinico-pathological variables in gastric cancer previously submitted to surgery. METHODS: Retrospective single institution study of 69 patients with histological diagnoses of gastric adenocarcinoma, consecutively submitted to radical surgery with curative intent in a five years period. Lymph node dissection was either D1 or D2 at the surgeon's description. All patients were submitted to adjuvant chemoradiation according to MacDonald et al.². Treatment discontinuation and early deaths were considered as serious toxic events. Clinical-pathological variables (the extent D level of the node dissection, T/N-stage, histological subtype, margin status, number of the dissected nodes were correlated to the results. Overall survival was estimated according to the Kaplan-Meier method and the curves were compared by the log-rank test. RESULTS: Patients characteristics: 48 male/21 female, median age 56,4 y (30-79. In 25 patients, the extent of node dissection was D1, in 41 was D2 and D0 in 3. Staging (n: T2 (16; T3 (49; T4 (4; No (11; N1 (29; N2 (20; N3 (8; Nx (1. Histological subtype: intestinal (45, diffuse (19 and unknown (5. Margins were free in 57 patients, the median number of dissected nodes was 31 (0-120. They were treated with linear acelerator 6 MV photons, AP/PA fields with 45Gy in 5 weeks in 90% of the patients and the treatment was done in a mean time of 19,2 weeks. In the median follow-up of 19,3mo (8-52,5mo, 52 patients with more than 24 months of follow-up occurred 38 deaths. The median overall survival for all patients was 22,2 months. Seven (10% patients presented serious toxic events and treatment was discontinued. Six (8,6% refused to continue the treatment. The acute toxicity

  15. Boundary issues (United States)

    Townsend, Alan R.; Porder, Stephen


    -centric boundary (Filippelli 2008, Handoh and Lenton 2003). However, human alteration of the P cycle has multiple potential boundaries (figure 1), including P-driven freshwater eutrophication (Smith and Schindler 2009), the potential for world P supply to place an ultimate limit on food production (Smil 2000, Childers et al 2011), and depletion of soil P stocks in some world regions (MacDonald et al 2011). Carpenter and Bennett revisit the P boundary from the freshwater eutrophication perspective. Given the extraordinary variation in freshwater ecosystems across the globe, this is a challenging task, but the authors strengthen their analysis by using three different boundaries with relevance to eutrophication, along with two water quality targets and a range of estimates of P flow to the sea. In doing so, they make a compelling case that if freshwater eutrophication is indeed a Rubicon, we have already crossed it. Importantly, Carpenter and Bennett go beyond the calculation of new boundaries to make broader points about humanity's relationship with the P cycle. Disruptions of both the P and N cycles are mostly about our need for food (Galloway et al 2008, Cordell et al 2009), but unlike N, P supplies are finite and irreplaceable. Environmental concerns aside, we can fix all the N2 from the atmosphere we want—but deplete our economically viable P reserves and we're in trouble. Figure 1 Figure 1. Human alteration of the global P cycle has multiple possible boundaries. These include the environmental risks posed by freshwater eutrophication and marine anoxic events, and the food security risks that come from depletion of soil P stocks in some world regions, as well as finite global supplies of high-value mineral P reserves. Photo credits beyond authors: upper left, Shelby Riskin; upper right, Pedro Sanchez. In effect, Carpenter and Bennett argue that among P's multiple boundaries, the one for freshwaters is less forgiving of our current activities (but no less important) than is

  16. Market power in the United States red meatpacking industry. (United States)

    Koontz, Stephen R


    infer conduct from spatial price linkages rather than from concentration as do SCP studies or estimation of conduct parameters as do NEIO studies. Second, to study the dynamics of the competitive process, making use of data describing changes at the firm and plant level, to better understand the effect of market and technologic forces on the evolution of firm behavior and industry structure. After discussing existing research quality and future research needs, two practical things remain to do. The first centers on the following question: How important are the relatively small measures of market power? Most believable price distortions are found to be 3% or less. These distortions are below the 5% regulatory standards related to mergers used by the US Department of Justice and US Federal Trade Commission [70]. These standards, however, are guidelines and not law. Antitrust laws state that the exercise of market power is illegal. Courts and regulatory agencies also have not defined how much market power is significant and for how long a firm or firms must maintain significant market power [71]. From the viewpoint of public welfare, small impacts on price make a substantial difference to livestock producers and rival meatpacking firms. In relatively low-profit commodity businesses, small degrees of market power have significant profit implications. Small price or percentage impacts represent large total dollar amounts, especially over long time periods. To some, the evidence of market power provides clear reasons for antitrust lawsuits, conclusive evidence of weak and disinterested antitrust enforcement, and undeniable grounds for corrective legislation. If we conclude that action is needed, then the second issue emerges: What should be done and will our actions result in a net improvement? The research reviewed in the article by MacDonald elsewhere in this issue clearly shows the economic benefits of large meat processing firms. Likewise, some of the research reviewed

  17. Analyzing the vegetation response under different treatments after wildfires in NE Spain (United States)

    León, Javier; Cerdà, Artemi; Badía, David; Echeverría, Maite; Martí, Clara


    effects of ash type, thickness and rainfall events. Geoderma 209-210, 143-152. Mataix-Solera, J., Cerdà, A., Arcenegui, V., Jordán, A., Zavala, L.M., 2011. Fire effects on soil aggregation: a review. Earth-Science Reviews, 109: 44-60. Neary, D.G., Klopatek, C.C., DeBano, L.F., Ffolliot, P. 1999. Fire effects on belowground sustainability: a review and synthesis. Forest Ccol. Manag., 122: 51-71. Pereira, P., Cerdà, A., Úbeda, X., Mataix-Solera, J., Martin, D., Jordán, A., Burguet, M. 2013. Spatial models for monitoring the spatio-temporal evolution of ashes after fire - a case study of a burnt grassland in Lithuania. Solid Earth, 4: 153-165. Prats, S.A., Malvar, M.C., Simões-Vieira, D.C., MacDonald, L., and Keizer, J.J. 2013. Effectiveness of hydromulching to reduce runoff and erosion in a recently burnt pine plantation in central Portugal. Land Degradation & Development, DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2236. Shakesby, R.A. 2011. Post-wildfire soil erosion in the Mediterranean: Review and future research directions. Earth Science Reviews, 105, 71-100.

  18. U.S. Geological Survey scientific activities in the exploration of Antarctica: 1946-2006 record of personnel in Antarctica and their postal cachets: U.S. Navy (1946-48, 1954-60), International Geophysical Year (1957-58), and USGS (1960-2006) (United States)

    Meunier, Tony K.; Williams, Richard S.; Ferrigno, Jane G.


    Antarctica, a vast region encompassing 13.2 million km2 (5.1 million mi2), is considered to be one of the most important scientific laboratories on Earth. During the past 60 years, the USGS, in collaboration and with logistical support from the National Science Foundation's Office of Polar Programs, has sent 325 USGS scientists to Antarctica to work on a wide range of projects: 169 personnel from the NMD (mostly aerial photography, surveying, and geodesy, primarily used for the modern mapping of Antarctica), 138 personnel from the GD (mostly geophysical and geological studies onshore and offshore), 15 personnel from the WRD (mostly hydrological/glaciological studies in the McMurdo Dry Valleys), 2 personnel from the BRD (microbiological studies in the McMurdo Dry Valleys), and 1 person from the Director's Office (P. Patrick Leahy, Acting Director, 2005–06 austral field season). Three GD scientists and three NMD scientists have carried out field work in Antarctica 9 or more times: John C. Behrendt (15), who started in 1956–57 and published two memoirs (Behrendt, 1998, 2005), Arthur B. Ford (10), who started in 1960–61, and Gary D. Clow (9), who started in 1985–86; Larry D. Hothem (12), who began as a winter-over geodesist at Mawson Station in 1968–69, and Jerry L. Mullins (12), who started in 1982–83 and followed in the legendary footsteps of his NMD predecessor, William R. MacDonald (9), who started in 1960–61 and supervised the acquisition of more than 1,000,000 square miles of aerial photography of Antarctica. This report provides a record as complete as possible, of USGS and non-USGS collaborating personnel in Antarctica from 1946–2006, the geographic locations of their work, and their scientific/engineering disciplines represented. Postal cachets for each year follow the table of personnel and scientific activities in the exploration of Antarctica during those 60 years. To commemorate special events and projects in Antarctica, it became an

  19. Investigation of the possible connection of rock and soil geochemistry to the occurrence of high rates of neurodegenerative diseases on Guam and a hypothesis for the cause of the diseases (United States)

    Miller, William R.; Sanzolone, Richard F.


    have neurotoxic effects (MacDonald and Martin, 1988), and aluminum has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease and similar dementia by Perl and others (1982). Studies of soils developed on volcanic rocks on Guam and other islands by McLachlan and others (1989) found that soils on Guam averaged 42-fold higher yield of elutable aluminum than soils developed on volcanic rocks on Jamaica or Palau. They did not detect unusually high dietary aluminum or low dietary calcium, but concluded that the soils and possibly the dusts of Guam might be a major source of aluminum entering the body of the inhabitants. This study was conducted to investigate the geochemistry of the soils and rocks of the volcanic southern part of the island of Guam, particularly in the vicinity of the three southern villages (Umatac, Merizo, and Inarajan) with high incidences of the diseases. In addition to total chemical analyses of the soils and rocks, various extractions of soils were carried out. Both excesses and deficiencies of various elements were looked for. Because soluble aluminum in the soil was shown by McLachlan and others (1989) to be unusually high, water-soluble extractions as well as sequential extractions of the soils were carried out. In addition, elements such as aluminum found in dust can traverse the nose-brain barrier in experimental animals (Sunderman, 2000) and respiratory epithelium is known to contain the highest concentration of aluminum in the human body (Tipton and others, 1957). The availability of elements, particularly aluminum from human inhalation of dust, derived from soil, was investigated. The available elements were determined by extractions of soils using a simulated lung-fluid extraction.In order to compare the results of the chemical data of rocks and soils from Guam to other rocks and soils elsewhere, samples of similar rocks and soils were collected in the western United States and similar analyses to those for the Guam samples carried out

  20. U.S. Geological Survey scientific activities in the exploration of Antarctica: 1946-2006 record of personnel in Antarctica and their postal cachets: U.S. Navy (1946-48, 1954-60), International Geophysical Year (1957-58), and USGS (1960-2006) (United States)

    Meunier, Tony K.; Williams, Richard S.; Ferrigno, Jane G.


    Antarctica, a vast region encompassing 13.2 million km2 (5.1 million mi2), is considered to be one of the most important scientific laboratories on Earth. During the past 60 years, the USGS, in collaboration and with logistical support from the National Science Foundation's Office of Polar Programs, has sent 325 USGS scientists to Antarctica to work on a wide range of projects: 169 personnel from the NMD (mostly aerial photography, surveying, and geodesy, primarily used for the modern mapping of Antarctica), 138 personnel from the GD (mostly geophysical and geological studies onshore and offshore), 15 personnel from the WRD (mostly hydrological/glaciological studies in the McMurdo Dry Valleys), 2 personnel from the BRD (microbiological studies in the McMurdo Dry Valleys), and 1 person from the Director's Office (P. Patrick Leahy, Acting Director, 2005–06 austral field season). Three GD scientists and three NMD scientists have carried out field work in Antarctica 9 or more times: John C. Behrendt (15), who started in 1956–57 and published two memoirs (Behrendt, 1998, 2005), Arthur B. Ford (10), who started in 1960–61, and Gary D. Clow (9), who started in 1985–86; Larry D. Hothem (12), who began as a winter-over geodesist at Mawson Station in 1968–69, and Jerry L. Mullins (12), who started in 1982–83 and followed in the legendary footsteps of his NMD predecessor, William R. MacDonald (9), who started in 1960–61 and supervised the acquisition of more than 1,000,000 square miles of aerial photography of Antarctica. This report provides a record as complete as possible, of USGS and non-USGS collaborating personnel in Antarctica from 1946–2006, the geographic locations of their work, and their scientific/engineering disciplines represented. Postal cachets for each year follow the table of personnel and scientific activities in the exploration of Antarctica during those 60 years. To commemorate special events and projects in Antarctica, it became an

  1. Rapid high-silica magma generation in basalt-dominated rift settings (United States)

    Berg, Sylvia E.; Troll, Valentin R.; Burchardt, Steffi; Deegan, Frances M.; Riishuus, Morten S.; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Harris, Chris; Freda, Carmela; Ellis, Ben S.; Krumbholz, Michael; Gústafsson, Ludvik E.


    crustal recycling as a key process. Our results therefore provide a mechanism and a time-scale for rapid, voluminous silicic magma generation in modern and ancient basalt-dominated rift setting, such as Afar, Taupo, and potentially early Earth. The Neogene plume-related rift flank setting of NE-Iceland may thus constitute a plausible geodynamic and compositional analogue for generating silicic (continental) crust in the subduction-free setting of a young Earth (e.g. ≥3 Ga [14]). [1] Bunsen, R. 1851. Ann. Phys. Chem. 159, 197-272. [2] MacDonald R., et al., 1987. Mineral. Mag. 51, 183-202. [3] Jonasson, K., 2007. J. Geodyn. 43, 101-117. [4] Martin, E., et al., 2011. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 311, 28-38. [5] Charreteur, G., et al., 2013.Contrib. Mineral. Petr. 166, 471- 490. [6] Willbold, E., et al., 2009. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 279, 44-52. [7] Reimink, J.R., et al., 2014. Nat. Geosci. 7, 529-533. [8] Gústafsson, L.E., et al., 1989. Jökull 39, 75-89. [9] Meade, F.C., et al., 2014. Nat. comm. 5. [10] Óskarsson, B.V., Riishuus, M.S., 2013. J. Volcanol. Geoth. Res. 267, 92-118. [11] Carley, T.L., et al., 2014. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 405, 85-97. [12] Trail, D., et al., 2007. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst.8, Q06014. [13] Harrison, T.M. et al., 2008. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett.268, 476-486. [14] Kamber, B. S., et al., 2005. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 240, 276-290.

  2. The significance of late-stage processes in lava flow emplacement: squeeze-ups in the 2001 Etna flow field (United States)

    Applegarth, L. J.; Pinkerton, H.; James, M. R.


    texture to that of the surrounding `a`ā flow surface. The appearance of the squeeze-up material in this flow is similar to that of the plastic lava forcibly drained from the front of the Parícutin flow. The squeeze-up features demonstrate marked morphological variation, which was found to reflect the rheology of the material being extruded, the volume of material being extruded, the extrusion rate and the geometry of the source bocca. We describe the final morphology of squeeze-ups from the 2001 flow field, which ranges from relatively fluid flows to extrusions of high-strength material that accumulated above the source bocca, forming features more akin to tumuli. Although tumulus-like in overall shape and dimensions, the morphology and inferred growth mechanisms for these structures leads to them being dubbed ‘exogenous tumuli', to distinguish them from the more familiar tumuli resulting from inflation processes, which are described elsewhere (e.g. Macdonald 1972; Walker 1991; Duncan et al. 2004). The morphological data are then used together with observations of lava surface textures and squeeze-up locations to build up a picture of flow structure and flow dynamics at the time of squeeze-up formation. The structure of the crust underlying the clinker cover can be elucidated by examining the locations in which squeeze-ups occur, as extrusions exploit zones of crustal weakness. It is found that the flow crust plays an increasingly important role in determining the locus of squeeze-ups as the flow evolves. Squeeze-ups that clearly had a high strength upon extrusion formed as a result of high overpressures in the flow interior. The extrusion of such material may represent the latter stages of activity of a long-lived bocca, or the new development of a bocca in a part of the flow that had been stagnant for some time. Examination of squeeze-up textures may help determine whether the material was transported to the extrusion site in an open or closed system, or if it was

  3. Wood textures in Jinman copper deposit in western Yunnan and their genetic implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Jiajun


    with English abstract), 1992, 17(4): 8-15.[13]Dai Jinxing, Carbon isotopic composition characteristics and origin of natural gases at Liuhuangtang, Tengchong County, Yunnan Province, Chinese Science Bulletin, 1988, 33(15): 1168-1170.[14]Dai Jinxing, Chen Ying, Carbon isotopic characteristics of alkane fraction in biogenic gases in China and their discrimi-nating indicators, Science in China (in Chinese), Ser. B, 1993, 23(3): 303-456.[15]Liu Jianming, Liu Jiajun, Basinal fluid genetic model of fine disseminated gold deposits in the golden triangle area be-tween Yunnan, Guizhou and Guangxi, Acta Mineralogica Sinica (in Chinese with English abstract), 1997, 17(4): 448-456.[16]Liu Jianming, Liu Jiajun, Gu Xuexiang, Fluid activity and its involvement in metallogenesis in sedimentary basin, Journal of Mineralogy and Petrology (in Chinese with English abstract), 1997, 16(4): 341-352.[17]Macdonald, G. A., Abbott, A. T., Perterson, F. L. ,Volcanoes in the Sea, the Geology of Hawaii, 2nd ed., Honolulu: Uni-versity of Hawaii Press, 1983, 517.[18]Lyon, G. L., Hulston, J. R., Carbon and hydrogen isotopic compositions of New Zealand geothermal gases, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 1984, 48(6): 1161-1171.[19]Faur, G., Principles of Isotope Geology, 2nd ed., New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1986, 227-247.[20]Zorikin, L. M., Starobinets, I. S., Stadnik, E. V., Natural Gas Geochemistry of Petroliferous Basins (in Russian), Moscow: Nedra, 1984, 125-164.[21]Friedman, I., O'Neil, J. R., Compilation of stable isotope fractionation factors of geochemical interest, in Data Geochem-istry, 6th ed., Washington, 1977, 61.

  4. 不同自尊水平者的注意偏向%Attentional Bias in Individuals with Different Level of Self-Esteem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海江; 杨娟; 贾磊; 张庆林


    本研究分别从外显自尊和内隐自尊角度出发,以大学生情绪面孔(高兴,中性,愤怒)图片为实验材料,采用“空间线索任务”实验范式,探讨不同自尊水平个体注意偏向的特点及其内在机制.结果表明,在无效线索条件下,低外显自尊个体对以愤怒为提示线索的靶刺激的反应时显著长于高兴和中性,说明低外显自尊个体对负性情绪信息(愤怒)的注意偏向是一种注意的解脱困难;高内隐自尊个体在无效线索条件下,对以高兴和愤怒为提示线索的靶刺激的反应时显著长于中性,说明高内隐自尊个体更易受到情绪性信息(愤怒和高兴)的吸引,是一种选择性的注意维持倾向,表现为注意的解脱困难.%There is a wealth of evidence demonstrating attentional bias for negative (angry) stimuli in low self-esteem (LSE) participants, but the components of the bias (vigilance versus difficulty in disengagement) remains unclear. Researchers have demonstrated that individuals with high self-esteem (HSE) were able to successfully engage in negative mood regulation by recruiting positive thoughts and memories to assuage the dysphoria caused by the negative mood manipulation. By contrast, individuals with low self-esteem were either unmotivated or unable to engage in mood regulation and thus were negatively affected by the sad moodmanipulation (MacDonald & Martineau, 2002). Wood and her colleagues (1990) have shown that negative moods can increase self-focus. For persons with low self-esteem, focusing on the self may prime feelings of general negativity about the self, thereby leading to global negative self-evaluations. Such feelings of inadequacy may be hard to escape. Smith and Petty (1995) have demonstrated that individuals with low self-esteem are less motivated or able than individuals with high self-esteem to engage in cognitive strategies to counteract negative mood states. All these evidences suggested that attentional

  5. PREFACE: 13th International Conference on Muon Spin Rotation, Relaxation and Resonance (United States)


    submitted 227 contributions, which were intensively discussed during day and evening sessions. The scientific program was centered around invited talks from speakers outside the μSR community, who presented lectures on topics where μSR is giving or expected to give significant contributions. The invited speakers, covering various fields of interest, included Radu Coldea (Oxford, Quantum Magnetism), Claude- Henri Delmas (Bordeaux, Electro- and Solid State Chemistry), Dirk Johrendt (Munich, Iron Based Materials), Marc-Henri Julien (Grenoble, Cuprate Superconductors), Manfred Fiebig (Zürich, Multiferroics), Allan MacDonald (Austin, Topological Electronic States), Hidenori Takagi (Stuttgart and Tokyo, Transition Metal Oxides), and Jean-Marc Triscone (Geneva, Oxide Heterostructures). In addition to an overview about status and progress of the existing facilities in Europe, Canada and Japan, future projects and new ideas for μSR facilities in South Korea, China and the USA were presented. A special evening session was held to discuss about muon site and muon states calculations by DFT and other techniques. Several talks and posters can be found on the conference web page In a ceremony at the beginning of the conference, Roberto De Renzi from the University of Parma was awarded the 2014 Yamazaki Prize for muon science by the International Society for Muon Spin Spectroscopy (ISMS) for his sustained and exceptional contributions to the development of the muon spin relaxation technique to investigate magnetism and superconductivity and for promoting synergies between μSR and NMR. In the closing session Rob Kie (UBC Vancouver and TRIUMF) very effectively summarized the five days of meeting, while giving an enlightening personal impression. In the same session five best poster prizes were awarded and ISMS gave two prizes to young researchers presenting outstanding work at the conference. The conference organizers also on behalf of the entire μSR community are

  6. Rapid Retrieval and Assimilation of Ground Based GPS-Met Observations at the NOAA Forecast Systems Laboratory: Impact on Weather Forecasts (United States)

    Gutman, S.


    This year, 2003, marks the tenth anniversary of ground-based Global Positioning System meteorology. GPS-Met as we now know it started in 1992 with the definition of the essential techniques to retrieve integrated (total column) precipitable water vapor (IPW) from zenith-scaled neutral atmospheric signal delays (Bevis et al., 1992). It culminated with the GPS/Storm experiment in 1993, which demonstrated the ability to make IPW measurements with about the predicted accuracy under warm-weather conditions (Rocken et al., 1995). Since then, most of the major advances in GPS-Met data processing have been in the form of improved mapping functions (Niell, 1996), the estimation of GPS signal delays in an absolute (Duan et al., 1996) versus a relative sense (Rocken et al., 1993), and improved GPS satellite orbit accuracy with reduced latency (Fang et al., 1998). Experiments with other GPS-Met data processing techniques, such as the estimation of line-of-sight GPS signal delays using a double-difference to zero-difference technique described by Alber et al. (2000) and Braun et al. (2001) are noted, but lingering questions about the validity of this approach (Gutman, 2002), and not the potential value of a slant-path measurements per se, (as enumerated by MacDonald and Xie, 2001 or Ha et al., 2002) have thus far precluded its routine implementation at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Forecast Systems Laboratory (NOAA/FSL). Since 1994, NOAA/FSL has concentrated on evaluating the scientific and engineering bases of ground-based GPS-Met and assessing its utility for operational weather forecasting, climate monitoring, satellite calibration and validation, and improved differential GPS positioning and navigation. The term “rapid” in the title of this paper is defined as “available in time to be used for a specific application.” The requirement for high accuracy GPS-Met retrievals with lower latency is primarily driven by two factors: the trend toward

  7. PREFACE: Geometrically frustrated magnetism Geometrically frustrated magnetism (United States)

    Gardner, Jason S.


    Oren Ofer, Amit Keren, Jess H Brewer, Tianheng H Han and Young S Lee Classical topological order in kagome ice Andrew J Macdonald, Peter C W Holdsworth and Roger G Melko Magnetic phase diagrams of classical triangular and kagome antiferromagnets M V Gvozdikova, P-E Melchy and M E Zhitomirsky The ordering of XY spin glasses Hikaru Kawamura Dynamic and thermodynamic properties of the generalized diamond chain model for azurite Andreas Honecker, Shijie Hu, Robert Peters and Johannes Richter Classical height models with topological order Christopher L Henley A search for disorder in the spin glass double perovskites Sr2CaReO6 and Sr2MgReO6 using neutron diffraction and neutron pair distribution function analysis J E Greedan, Shahab Derakhshan, F Ramezanipour, J Siewenie and Th Proffen Order and disorder in the local and long-range structure of the spin-glass pyrochlore, Tb2Mo2O7 Yu Jiang, Ashfia Huq, Corwin H Booth, Georg Ehlers, John E Greedan and Jason S Gardner The magnetic phase diagram of Gd2Sn2O7 R S Freitas and J S Gardner Calculation of the expected zero-field muon relaxation rate in the geometrically frustrated rare earth pyrochlore Gd2Sn2O7 antiferromagnet P A McClarty, J N Cosman, A G Del Maestro and M J P Gingras Magnetic frustration in the disordered pyrochlore Yb2GaSbO7 J A Hodges, P Dalmas de Réotier, A Yaouanc, P C M Gubbens, P J C King and C Baines Titanium pyrochlore magnets: how much can be learned from magnetization measurements? O A Petrenko, M R Lees and G Balakrishnan Local susceptibility of the Yb2Ti2O7 rare earth pyrochlore computed from a Hamiltonian with anisotropic exchange J D Thompson, P A McClarty and M J P Gingras Slow and static spin correlations in Dy2 + xTi2 - xO7 - δ J S Gardner, G Ehlers, P Fouquet, B Farago and J R Stewart The spin ice Ho2Ti2O7 versus the spin liquid Tb2Ti2O7: field-induced magnetic structures A P Sazonov, A Gukasov and I Mirebeau Magnetic monopole dynamics in spin ice L D C Jaubert and P C W Holdsworth

  8. Geologic map of the northeast flank of Mauna Loa volcano, Island of Hawai'i, Hawaii (United States)

    Trusdell, Frank A.; Lockwood, John P.


    SummaryMauna Loa, the largest volcano on Earth, has erupted 33 times since written descriptions became available in 1832. Some eruptions were preceded by only brief seismic unrest, while others followed several months to a year of increased seismicity.The majority of the eruptions of Mauna Loa began in the summit area (>12,000-ft elevation; Lockwood and Lipman, 1987); yet the Northeast Rift Zone (NERZ) was the source of eight flank eruptions since 1843 (table 1). This zone extends from the 13,680-ft-high summit towards Hilo (population ~60,000), the second largest city in the State of Hawaii. Although most of the source vents are farther than 30 km away, the 1880 flow from one of the vents extends into Hilo, nearly reaching Hilo Bay. The city is built entirely on flows erupted from the NERZ, most older than that erupted in 1843.Once underway, Mauna Loa's eruptions can produce lava flows that reach the sea in less than 24 hours, severing roads and utilities in their path. For example, lava flows erupted from the Southwest Rift Zone (SWRZ) in 1950 advanced at an average rate of 9.3 km per hour, and all three lobes reached the ocean within approximately 24 hours (Finch and Macdonald, 1953). The flows near the eruptive vents must have traveled even faster.In terms of eruption frequency, pre-eruption warning, and rapid flow emplacement, Mauna Loa poses an enormous volcanic-hazard threat to the Island of Hawai‘i. By documenting past activity and by alerting the public and local government officials of our findings, we can anticipate the volcanic hazards and substantially mitigate the risks associated with an eruption of this massive edifice.From the geologic record, we can deduce several generalized facts about the geologic history of the NERZ. The middle to the uppermost section of the rift zone were more active in the past 4,000 years than the lower part, perhaps due to buttressing of the lower east rift zone by Mauna Kea and Kīlauea volcanoes. The historical flows

  9. Subsidence history and forming mechanism of anomalous tectonic subsidence in the Bozhong depression, Bohaiwan basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE; XiNong


    [1]Li D S.Tectonic framework of the Bohai Gulf and coastal basins.Mar Sci,1982,1:82-93[2]Li S T.Basin geodynamics background of formation of huge petroleum systems (in Chinese).Earth Sci-J China Univ Geosci,2004,29(5):505-512[3]Allen M B,Macdonald D I M,Zhao X,et al.Early Cenozoic two-phase extension and late Cenozoic thermal subsidence and inversion of the Bohai basin,northern China.Mar Petrol Geol,1997,14(7/8):951-972[4]Gong Z S,Wang G C.Neotectonism and late hydrocarbon accumulation in Bohai Sea.Acta Pet Sin (in Chinese),2001,22(2):1-8[5]Hu S B,O'Sullivan P B,Raza A,et al.Thermal history and tectonic subsidence of the Bohai Basin,northern China:a Cenozoic rifted and local pull-apart basin.Phys Earth Planet Int,2001,126:221-235[6]Ren J Y,Tamaki K,Li S T,et al.Late Mesozoic and Cenozoic rifting and its dynamic setting in Eastern China and adjacent areas.Tectonophysics,2002,344:175-205[7]Li D S.Tectonics of Petroliferous Basins in China (in Chinese).Beijing:Petroleum Industry Press,2002.674[8]Xu J,Ma Z J,Deng Q D,et al.Regional tectonic conditions for intensive subsidence of the middle Bohai Sea since Oligocene.Acta Pet Sin (in Chinese),2004,25(5):11-16[9]Sclater J G,Christie P A F.Continental stretching:an explanation of the post Mid-Cretaceous subsidence of the central North Sea basin.J Geophys Res,1980,85:3711-3739[10]Xie X N,Müller R D,Li S T,et al.Origin of anomalous tectonic subsidence along the northern South China Sea Margin and its relationship to dynamic topography.Mar Pet Geol,2006,23(7):745-765[11]White N.Recovery of strain-rate variation from inversion of subsidence data.Nature,1993,366(6454):449-452[12]White N.An inverse method for determining lithosphere strain rate variation on geological time scales.Earth Planet Sci Lett,1994,122:351-371[13]Xie X N,Bethke C M,Li S T,et al.Overpressure and Petroleum generation and accumulation in the Dongying Depression of the Bohaiwan Basin,China.Geofluids,2001,1(4):257-271[14]Hall R.Reconstructing Cenozoic SE

  10. Post-fire changes in sediment transport connectivity from pedon to watershed scale. The Navalón wildfire in Eastern Spain (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Bodí, Merche B.; González, Óscar; Mataix Solera, Jorge; Doerr, Stefan Helmut


    ., Sheridan, G. J., Smith, H. G., Lane, P. N. J. (2012). Surface runoff and erosion after prescribed burning and the effect of different fire regimes in forests and shrublands: a review. International Journal of Wildland Fire, 21(7), 857-872. Cerdà, A., Lasanta, A. 2005. Long-term erosional responses after fire in the Central Spanish Pyrenees: 1. Water and sediment yield. Catena, 60, 59-80. Doerr, S., Cerdà, A. 2005. Fire effects on soil system functioning: new insights and future challenges International Journal of Wildland Fire Preface. International Journal of Wildland Fire 14(4) 339-342 Guénon, R., Vennetier, M., Dupuy, N., Roussos, S., Pailler, A., Gros, R. 2013. Trends in recovery of Mediterranean soil chemical properties and microbial activities after infrequent and frequent wildfires. Land Degradation & Development, 24: 115- 128. DOI 10.1002/ldr.1109 Kaiho, K., Yatsu, S., Oba, M., Gorjan, P., Casier, J. G., Ikeda, M. (2013). A forest fire and soil erosion event during the Late Devonian mass extinction. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 392, 272-280. Lasanta, A., Cerdà, A. 2005. Long-term erosional responses after fire in the Central Spanish Pyrenees: 2. Solute release. Catena, 60, 80-101. Pérez-Cabello, F., Cerdà, A., de la Riva, J., Echeverría, M.T., García-Martín, A., Ibarra, P., Lasanta, T., Montorio, R., Palacios, V. 2012. Micro-scale post-fire surface cover changes monitored using high spatial resolution photography in a semiarid environment: A useful tool in the study of post-fire soil erosion processes, Journal of Arid Environments, 76: 88-96. 10.1016/j.jaridenv.2011.08.007 Prats, S.A., Malvar, M.C., Simões-Vieira, D.C., MacDonald, L., Keizer, J.J. 2015. Effectiveness of hydro- mulching to reduce runoff and erosion in a recently burnt pine plantation in central Portugal. Land Degradation & Development, DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2236.

  11. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV


    : University of Tennessee Press, 1992. xx + 254 pp. -O. Nigel Bolland, Michael Havinden ,Colonialism and development: Britain and its tropical colonies, 1850-1960. New York: Routledge, 1993. xv + 420 pp., David Meredith (eds -Luis Martínez-Fernández, Luis Navarro García, La independencia de Cuba. Madrid: MAPFRE, 1992. 413 pp. -Pedro A. Pequeño, Guillermo J. Grenier ,Miami now! : Immigration, ethnicity, and social change. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1992. 219 pp., Alex Stepick III (eds -George Irving, Alistair Hennessy ,The fractured blockade: West European-Cuban relations during the revolution. London: Macmillan Caribbean, 1993. xv + 358 pp., George Lambie (eds -George Irving, Donna Rich Kaplowitz, Cuba's ties to a changing world. Boulder CO: Lynne Rienner, 1993, xii + 263 pp. -G.B. Hagelberg, Scott B. MacDonald ,The politics of the Caribbean basin sugar trade. New York: Praeger, 1991. vii + 164 pp., Georges A. Fauriol (eds -Bonham C. Richardson, Trevor W. Purcell, Banana Fallout: Class, color, and culture among West Indians in Costa Rica. Los Angeles: UCLA Center for Afro-American studies, 1993. xxi + 198 pp. -Gertrude Fraser, George Gmelch, Double Passage: The lives of Caribbean migrants abroad and back home. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1992. viii + 335 pp. -Gertrude Fraser, John Western, A passage to England: Barbadian Londoners speak of home. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1992. xxii + 309 pp. -Trevor W. Purcell, Harry G. Lefever, Turtle Bogue: Afro-Caribbean life and culture in a Costa Rican Village. Cranbury NJ: Susquehanna University Press, 1992. 249 pp. -Elizabeth Fortenberry, Virginia Heyer Young, Becoming West Indian: Culture, self, and nation in St. Vincent. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1993. x + 229 pp. -Horace Campbell, Dudley J. Thompson ,From Kingston to Kenya: The making of a Pan-Africanist lawyer. Dover MA: The Majority Press, 1993. xii + 144 pp., Margaret Cezair Thompson (eds -Kumar Mahabir, Samaroo

  12. PREFACE: International Conference on Magnetism (ICM 2009) (United States)

    Goll, Gernot; Löhneysen, Hilbert v.; Loidl, Alois; Pruschke, Thomas; Richter, Manuel; Schultz, Ludwig; Sürgers, Christoph; Wosnitza, Jochen


    helped to run the conference. We are grateful for financial support to Universität Karlsruhe (TH) and Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (both institutions merged to form the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) as of 1 October 2009), International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP), the City of Karlsruhe, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German National Science Foundation) and the European Commission through COST MPNS Action P16. Hilbert v Löhneysen Karlsruhe Institute of Technology Email address: Logo Conference Organization Chairperson Hilbert v Löhneysen, Karlsruhe Members of IUPAP Commission 9 Magnetism C Chang, TaipeiD Kaczorowski, Wroclaw khrouhou, SfaxP H Kes, Leiden M A Continentino, NiteróiS Maekawa, Sendai D E Dahlberg, MinnesotaI Mertig, Halle D Fiorani, RomaD McMorow, London M R Freeman, EdmontonS Rezende, Recife D Givord, GrenobleS Sanvito, Dublin A Granovsky, MoscowJ Xiaofeng, Shanghai International Advisory Board G Aeppli, UKM Gingras, Canada I Affleck, CanadaJ C Gomez Sal, Spain J Akimitsu, JapanP A Grünberg, Germany D Awschalom, USAB Heinrich, Canada S D Bader, USAT J Hicks, Australia E Baggio-Saitovitch, BrazilM R Ibarra, Spain M N Baibich, BrazilY H Jeong, Korea G Baskaran, IndiaB Keimer, Germany E Bauer, AustriaG Kotliar, USA R J Birgeneau, USAR B Laughlin, USA P Bruno, GermanyP A Lee, USA J Chapman, UKG G Lonzarich, UK Y Endoh, JapanA MacDonald, USA A Fert, FranceM B Maple, USA J Fink, GermanyA J Millis, USA Z Fisk, USAL W Molenkamp, Germany J Flouquet, FranceJ A Mydosh, Germany A J Freeman, USAY Maeno, Japan H Fukuyama, JapanK Miyake, Japan P Fulde, GermanyP Nordblad, Sweden H Ohno, JapanF Steglich, Germany H R Ott, SwitzerlandT Takabatake, Japan Y Onuki, JapanJ L Tholence, France S S P Parkin, USAY Tokura, Japan A P Ramirez, USAK Ueda, Japan T M Rice, SwitzerlandD Vollhardt, Germany Z X Shen, USAE F Wassermann, Germany S -C Shin, KoreaM K Wu, Taiwan T Shinjo, JapanD Y Xing, China J C Slonczewski, USAY D Yao

  13. Fire as a natural and human factor shaping the Mediterranean Ecosystems. The Montgó forest fire and the teaching for the Geograns (older than 55) students (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; González Pelayo, Óscar; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Arcenegui, Victoria; Jordán, Antonio; Úbeda, Xavier; Pereira, Paulo


    ., Zavala, L. M. 2015. Modelling the impacts of wildfire on ash in a short-term period. Land Degradation & Development.| DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2195 Pérez-Cabello, F., Cerdà, A., de la Riva, J., Echeverría, M.T., García-Martín, A., Ibarra, P., Lasanta, T., Montorio, R., Palacios, V. 2012. Micro-scale post-fire surface cover changes monitored using high spatial resolution photography in a semiarid environment: A useful tool in the study of post-fire soil erosion processes, Journal of Arid Environments, 76: 88-96. 10.1016/j.jaridenv.2011.08.007 Pérez-Cabello, F., Cerdà, A., de la Riva, J., Echeverría, M.T., García-Martín, A., Ibarra, P., Lasanta, T., Montorio, R., Palacios, V. 2012. Micro-scale post-fire surface cover changes monitored using high spatial resolution photography in a semiarid environment: A useful tool in the study of post-fire soil erosion processes, Journal of Arid Environments, 76: 88-96. 10.1016/j.jaridenv.2011.08.007 Prats, S.A., Malvar, M.C., Simões-Vieira, D.C., MacDonald, L., Keizer, J.J. 2015. Effectiveness of hydro- mulching to reduce runoff and erosion in a recently burnt pine plantation in central Portugal. Land Degradation & Development, DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2236. Roebroeks, W., Villa, P. 2011. On the earliest evidence for habitual use of fire in Europe. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108(13), 5209-5214. Romme, W. H., Boyce, M. S., Gresswell, R., Merrill, E. H., Minshall, G. W., Whitlock, C., Turner, M. G. 2011. Twenty years after the 1988 Yellowstone fires: lessons about disturbance and ecosystems. Ecosystems, 14(7), 1196-1215. Zumbrunnen, T., Menéndez, P., Bugmann, H., Conedera, M., Gimmi, U., Bürgi, M. 2012. Human impacts on fire occurrence: a case study of hundred years of forest fires in a dry alpine valley in Switzerland. Regional Environmental Change, 12(4), 935-949.