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Sample records for macaque monkey prefrontal

  1. Prefrontal and agranular cingulate projections to the dorsal premotor areas F2 and F7 in the macaque monkey.

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    Luppino, Giuseppe; Rozzi, Stefano; Calzavara, Roberta; Matelli, Massimo

    2003-02-01

    The superior sector of Brodmann area 6 (dorsal premotor cortex, PMd) of the macaque monkey consists of a rostral and a caudal architectonic area referred to as F7 and F2, respectively. The aim of this study was to define the origin of prefrontal and agranular cingulate afferents to F7 and F2, in the light of functional and hodological evidence showing that these areas do not appear to be functionally homogeneous. Different sectors of F7 and F2 were injected with neural tracers in seven monkeys and the retrograde labelling was qualitatively and quantitatively analysed. The dorsorostral part of F7 (supplementary eye field, F7-SEF) was found to be a target of strong afferents from the frontal eye field (FEF), from the dorsolateral prefrontal regions located dorsally (DLPFd) and ventrally (DLPFv) to the principal sulcus and from cingulate areas 24a, 24b and 24c. In contrast, the remaining part of F7 (F7-non SEF) is only a target of the strong afferents from DLPFd. Finally, the ventrorostral part of F2 (F2vr), but not the F2 sector located around the superior precentral dimple (F2d), receives a minor, but significant, input from DLPFd and a relatively strong input from the cingulate gyrus (areas 24a and 24b) and area 24d. Present data provide strong hodological support in favour of the idea that areas F7 and F2 are formed by two functionally distinct sectors.

  2. Postnatal Dendritic Growth and Spinogenesis of Layer-V Pyramidal Cells Differ between Visual, Inferotemporal, and Prefrontal Cortex of the Macaque Monkey

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    Oga, Tomofumi; Elston, Guy N.; Fujita, Ichiro

    2017-01-01

    Pyramidal cells in the primate cerebral cortex, particularly those in layer III, exhibit regional variation in both the time course and magnitude of postnatal growth and pruning of dendrites and spines. Less is known about the development of pyramidal cell dendrites and spines in other cortical layers. Here we studied dendritic morphology of layer-V pyramidal cells in primary visual cortex (V1, sensory), cytoarchitectonic area TE in the inferotemporal cortex (sensory association), and granular prefrontal cortex (Walker's area 12, executive) of macaque monkeys at the ages of 2 days, 3 weeks, 3.5 months, and 4.5 years. We found that changes in the basal dendritic field area of pyramidal cells were different across the three areas. In V1, field size became smaller over time (largest at 2 days, half that size at 4.5 years), in TE it did not change, and in area 12 it became larger over time (smallest at 2 days, 1.5 times greater at 4.5 years). In V1 and TE, the total number of branch points in the basal dendritic trees was similar between 2 days and 4.5 years, while in area 12 the number was greater in the adult monkeys than in the younger ones. Spine density peaked at 3 weeks and declined in all areas by adulthood, with V1 exhibiting a faster decline than area TE or area 12. Estimates of the total number of spines in the dendritic trees revealed that following the onset of visual experience, pyramidal cells in V1 lose more spines than they grow, whereas those in TE and area 12 grow more spines than they lose during the same period. These data provide further evidence that the process of synaptic refinement in cortical pyramidal cells differs not only according to time, but also location within the cortex. Furthermore, given the previous finding that layer-III pyramidal cells in all these areas exhibit the highest density and total number of spines at 3.5 months, the current results indicate that pyramidal cells in layers III and V develop spines at different rates.

  3. Macaque monkeys experience visual crowding.

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    Crowder, Erin A; Olson, Carl R

    2015-01-01

    In peripheral vision, objects that are easily discriminated on their own become less discriminable in the presence of surrounding clutter. This phenomenon is known as crowding.The neural mechanisms underlying crowding are not well understood. Better insight might come from single-neuron recording in nonhuman primates, provided they exhibit crowding; however, previous demonstrations of crowding have been confined to humans. In the present study, we set out to determine whether crowding occurs in rhesus macaque monkeys. We found that animals trained to identify a target letter among flankers displayed three hallmarks of crowding as established in humans. First, at a given eccentricity, increasing the spacing between the target and the flankers improved recognition accuracy. Second, the critical spacing, defined as the minimal spacing at which target discrimination was reliable, was proportional to eccentricity. Third, the critical spacing was largely unaffected by object size. We conclude that monkeys, like humans, experience crowding. These findings open the door to studies of crowding at the neuronal level in the monkey visual system.

  4. Action observation activates neurons of the monkey ventrolateral prefrontal cortex

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    Simone, Luciano; Bimbi, Marco; Rodà, Francesca; Fogassi, Leonardo; Rozzi, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Prefrontal cortex is crucial for exploiting contextual information for the planning and guidance of behavioral responses. Among contextual cues, those provided by others’ behavior are particularly important, in primates, for selecting appropriate reactions and suppressing the inappropriate ones. These latter functions deeply rely on the ability to understand others’ actions. However, it is largely unknown whether prefrontal neurons are activated by action observation. To address this issue, we recorded the activity of ventrolateral prefrontal (VLPF) neurons of macaque monkeys during the observation of videos depicting biological movements performed by a monkey or a human agent, and object motion. Our results show that a population of VLPF neurons respond to the observation of biological movements, in particular those representing goal directed actions. Many of these neurons also show a preference for the agent performing the action. The neural response is present also when part of the observed movement is obscured, suggesting that these VLPF neurons code a high order representation of the observed action rather than a simple visual description of it. PMID:28290511

  5. Complementary Patterns of Direct Amygdala and Hippocampal Projections to the Macaque Prefrontal Cortex.

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    Aggleton, John P; Wright, Nicholas F; Rosene, Douglas L; Saunders, Richard C

    2015-11-01

    The projections from the amygdala and hippocampus (including subiculum and presubiculum) to prefrontal cortex were compared using anterograde tracers injected into macaque monkeys (Macaca fascicularis, Macaca mulatta). Almost all prefrontal areas were found to receive some amygdala inputs. These connections, which predominantly arose from the intermediate and magnocellular basal nucleus, were particularly dense in parts of the medial and orbital prefrontal cortex. Contralateral inputs were not, however, observed. The hippocampal projections to prefrontal areas were far more restricted, being confined to the ipsilateral medial and orbital prefrontal cortex (within areas 11, 13, 14, 24a, 32, and 25). These hippocampal projections principally arose from the subiculum, with the fornix providing the sole route. Thus, while the lateral prefrontal cortex essentially receives only amygdala inputs, the orbital prefrontal cortex receives both amygdala and hippocampal inputs, though these typically target different areas. Only in medial prefrontal cortex do direct inputs from both structures terminate in common sites. But, even when convergence occurs within an area, the projections predominantly terminate in different lamina (hippocampal inputs to layer III and amygdala inputs to layers I, II, and VI). The resulting segregation of prefrontal inputs could enable the parallel processing of different information types in prefrontal cortex.

  6. Keep children away from macaque monkeys!

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    Bréhin, Camille; Debuisson, Cécile; Mansuy, Jean-Michel; Niphuis, Henk; Buitendijk, Hester; Mengelle, Catherine; Grouteau, Erick; Claudet, Isabelle

    2016-03-01

    To warn physicians and parents about the risk of macaque bites, we present two pediatric cases (a 4-year-old boy and a 10-year-old girl) of bites sustained while on holiday. The young boy developed febrile dermohypodermitis and was hospitalized for IV antibiotic treatment. He received an initial antirabies vaccine while still in the holiday destination. Except for local wound disinfection and antibiotic ointment, the girl did not receive any specific treatment while abroad. Both were negative for simian herpes PCR. When travelling in countries or cities with endemic simian herpes virus, parents should keep children away from monkeys. Travel agencies, pediatricians and family physicians should better inform families about the zoonotic risk.

  7. Spatial Relational Memory in 9-Month-Old Macaque Monkeys

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    Lavenex, Pierre; Lavenex, Pamela Banta

    2006-01-01

    This experiment assesses spatial and nonspatial relational memory in freely moving 9-mo-old and adult (11-13-yr-old) macaque monkeys ("Macaca mulatta"). We tested the use of proximal landmarks, two different objects placed at the center of an open-field arena, as conditional cues allowing monkeys to predict the location of food rewards hidden in…

  8. Color-detection thresholds in rhesus macaque monkeys and humans

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    Gagin, Galina; Bohon, Kaitlin S.; Butensky, Adam; Gates, Monica A.; Hu, Jiun-Yiing; Lafer-Sousa, Rosa; Pulumo, Reitumetse L.; Qu, Jane; Stoughton, Cleo M.; Swanbeck, Sonja N.; Conway, Bevil R.

    2014-01-01

    Macaque monkeys are a model of human color vision. To facilitate linking physiology in monkeys with psychophysics in humans, we directly compared color-detection thresholds in humans and rhesus monkeys. Colors were defined by an equiluminant plane of cone-opponent color space. All subjects were tested on an identical apparatus with a four-alternative forced-choice task. Targets were 2° square, centered 2° from fixation, embedded in luminance noise. Across all subjects, the change in detection...

  9. Color vision test for dichromatic and trichromatic macaque monkeys.

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    Koida, Kowa; Yokoi, Isao; Okazawa, Gouki; Mikami, Akichika; Widayati, Kanthi Arum; Miyachi, Shigehiro; Komatsu, Hidehiko

    2013-11-01

    Dichromacy is a color vision defect in which one of the three cone photoreceptors is absent. Individuals with dichromacy are called dichromats (or sometimes "color-blind"), and their color discrimination performance has contributed significantly to our understanding of color vision. Macaque monkeys, which normally have trichromatic color vision that is nearly identical to humans, have been used extensively in neurophysiological studies of color vision. In the present study we employed two tests, a pseudoisochromatic color discrimination test and a monochromatic light detection test, to compare the color vision of genetically identified dichromatic macaques (Macaca fascicularis) with that of normal trichromatic macaques. In the color discrimination test, dichromats could not discriminate colors along the protanopic confusion line, though trichromats could. In the light detection test, the relative thresholds for longer wavelength light were higher in the dichromats than the trichromats, indicating dichromats to be less sensitive to longer wavelength light. Because the dichromatic macaque is very rare, the present study provides valuable new information on the color vision behavior of dichromatic macaques, which may be a useful animal model of human dichromacy. The behavioral tests used in the present study have been previously used to characterize the color behaviors of trichromatic as well as dichromatic new world monkeys. The present results show that comparative studies of color vision employing similar tests may be feasible to examine the difference in color behaviors between trichromatic and dichromatic individuals, although the genetic mechanisms of trichromacy/dichromacy is quite different between new world monkeys and macaques.

  10. Auditory artificial grammar learning in macaque and marmoset monkeys.

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    Wilson, Benjamin; Slater, Heather; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Milne, Alice E; Marslen-Wilson, William D; Smith, Kenny; Petkov, Christopher I

    2013-11-27

    Artificial grammars (AG) are designed to emulate aspects of the structure of language, and AG learning (AGL) paradigms can be used to study the extent of nonhuman animals' structure-learning capabilities. However, different AG structures have been used with nonhuman animals and are difficult to compare across studies and species. We developed a simple quantitative parameter space, which we used to summarize previous nonhuman animal AGL results. This was used to highlight an under-studied AG with a forward-branching structure, designed to model certain aspects of the nondeterministic nature of word transitions in natural language and animal song. We tested whether two monkey species could learn aspects of this auditory AG. After habituating the monkeys to the AG, analysis of video recordings showed that common marmosets (New World monkeys) differentiated between well formed, correct testing sequences and those violating the AG structure based primarily on simple learning strategies. By comparison, Rhesus macaques (Old World monkeys) showed evidence for deeper levels of AGL. A novel eye-tracking approach confirmed this result in the macaques and demonstrated evidence for more complex AGL. This study provides evidence for a previously unknown level of AGL complexity in Old World monkeys that seems less evident in New World monkeys, which are more distant evolutionary relatives to humans. The findings allow for the development of both marmosets and macaques as neurobiological model systems to study different aspects of AGL at the neuronal level.

  11. Depth perception from moving cast shadow in macaque monkey.

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    Mizutani, Saneyuki; Usui, Nobuo; Yokota, Takanori; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Taira, Masato; Katsuyama, Narumi

    2015-07-15

    In the present study, we investigate whether the macaque monkey can perceive motion in depth using a moving cast shadow. To accomplish this, we conducted two experiments. In the first experiment, an adult Japanese monkey was trained in a motion discrimination task in depth by binocular disparity. A square was presented on the display so that it appeared with a binocular disparity of 0.12 degrees (initial position), and moved toward (approaching) or away from (receding) the monkey for 1s. The monkey was trained to discriminate the approaching and receding motion of the square by GO/delayed GO-type responses. The monkey showed a significantly high accuracy rate in the task, and the performance was maintained when the position, color, and shape of the moving object were changed. In the next experiment, the change in the disparity was gradually decreased in the motion discrimination task. The results showed that the performance of the monkey declined as the distance of the approaching and receding motion of the square decreased from the initial position. However, when a moving cast shadow was added to the stimulus, the monkey responded to the motion in depth induced by the cast shadow in the same way as by binocular disparity; the reward was delivered randomly or given in all trials to prevent the learning of the 2D motion of the shadow in the frontal plane. These results suggest that the macaque monkey can perceive motion in depth using a moving cast shadow as well as using binocular disparity.

  12. Color-detection thresholds in rhesus macaque monkeys and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagin, Galina; Bohon, Kaitlin S; Butensky, Adam; Gates, Monica A; Hu, Jiun-Yiing; Lafer-Sousa, Rosa; Pulumo, Reitumetse L; Qu, Jane; Stoughton, Cleo M; Swanbeck, Sonja N; Conway, Bevil R

    2014-07-15

    Macaque monkeys are a model of human color vision. To facilitate linking physiology in monkeys with psychophysics in humans, we directly compared color-detection thresholds in humans and rhesus monkeys. Colors were defined by an equiluminant plane of cone-opponent color space. All subjects were tested on an identical apparatus with a four-alternative forced-choice task. Targets were 2° square, centered 2° from fixation, embedded in luminance noise. Across all subjects, the change in detection thresholds from initial testing to plateau performance (“learning”) was similar for +L − M (red) colors and +M − L (bluish-green) colors. But the extent of learning was higher for +S (lavender) than for −S (yellow-lime); moreover, at plateau performance, the cone contrast at the detection threshold was higher for +S than for −S. These asymmetries may reflect differences in retinal circuitry for S-ON and S-OFF. At plateau performance, the two species also had similar detection thresholds for all colors, although monkeys had shorter reaction times than humans and slightly lower thresholds for colors that modulated L/M cones. We discuss whether these observations, together with previous work showing that monkeys have lower spatial acuity than humans, could be accounted for by selective pressures driving higher chromatic sensitivity at the cost of spatial acuity amongst monkeys, specifically for the more recently evolved L − M mechanism.

  13. Economic choices reveal probability distortion in macaque monkeys.

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    Stauffer, William R; Lak, Armin; Bossaerts, Peter; Schultz, Wolfram

    2015-02-18

    Economic choices are largely determined by two principal elements, reward value (utility) and probability. Although nonlinear utility functions have been acknowledged for centuries, nonlinear probability weighting (probability distortion) was only recently recognized as a ubiquitous aspect of real-world choice behavior. Even when outcome probabilities are known and acknowledged, human decision makers often overweight low probability outcomes and underweight high probability outcomes. Whereas recent studies measured utility functions and their corresponding neural correlates in monkeys, it is not known whether monkeys distort probability in a manner similar to humans. Therefore, we investigated economic choices in macaque monkeys for evidence of probability distortion. We trained two monkeys to predict reward from probabilistic gambles with constant outcome values (0.5 ml or nothing). The probability of winning was conveyed using explicit visual cues (sector stimuli). Choices between the gambles revealed that the monkeys used the explicit probability information to make meaningful decisions. Using these cues, we measured probability distortion from choices between the gambles and safe rewards. Parametric modeling of the choices revealed classic probability weighting functions with inverted-S shape. Therefore, the animals overweighted low probability rewards and underweighted high probability rewards. Empirical investigation of the behavior verified that the choices were best explained by a combination of nonlinear value and nonlinear probability distortion. Together, these results suggest that probability distortion may reflect evolutionarily preserved neuronal processing. Copyright © 2015 Stauffer et al.

  14. Serial memory strategies in macaque monkeys: behavioral and theoretical aspects.

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    Orlov, Tanya; Yakovlev, Volodya; Amit, Daniel; Hochstein, Shaul; Zohary, Ehud

    2002-03-01

    Serial memory is the ability to encode and retrieve a list of items in their correct temporal order. To study nonverbal strategies involved in serial memory, we trained four macaque monkeys on a novel delayed sequence-recall task and analysed the mechanisms underlying their performance in terms of a neural network model. Thirty fractal images, divided into 10 triplets, were presented repeatedly in fixed temporal order. On each trial the monkeys viewed three sequentially presented sample images, followed by a test stimulus consisting of the same triplet of images and a distractor image (chosen randomly from the remaining 27). The task was to touch the three images in their original order, avoiding the distractor. The monkeys' most common error was touching the distractor when it had the same ordinal position (in its own triplet) as the correct image. This finding suggests that monkeys naturally categorize images by their ordinal number. Additional, secondary strategies were eventually used to avoid distractor images. These include memory of the sample images (working memory) and associations between triplet members. Further direct evidence for ordinal number categorization was provided by a transfer of learning to untrained images of the same ordinal category, following reassignment of image categories within each triplet. We propose a generic three-tier neuronal framework that can explain the components and complex set of characteristics of the observed behavior. This framework, with its intermediate level representing ordinal categories, can also explain the transfer of learning following category reassignment.

  15. Multimodal convergence within the intraparietal sulcus of the macaque monkey.

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    Guipponi, Olivier; Wardak, Claire; Ibarrola, Danielle; Comte, Jean-Christophe; Sappey-Marinier, Dominique; Pinède, Serge; Ben Hamed, Suliann

    2013-02-27

    The parietal cortex is highly multimodal and plays a key role in the processing of objects and actions in space, both in human and nonhuman primates. Despite the accumulated knowledge in both species, we lack the following: (1) a general description of the multisensory convergence in this cortical region to situate sparser lesion and electrophysiological recording studies; and (2) a way to compare and extrapolate monkey data to human results. Here, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the monkey to provide a bridge between human and monkey studies. We focus on the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and specifically probe its involvement in the processing of visual, tactile, and auditory moving stimuli around and toward the face. We describe three major findings: (1) the visual and tactile modalities are strongly represented and activate mostly nonoverlapping sectors within the IPS. The visual domain occupies its posterior two-thirds and the tactile modality its anterior one-third. The auditory modality is much less represented, mostly on the medial IPS bank. (2) Processing of the movement component of sensory stimuli is specific to the fundus of the IPS and coincides with the anatomical definition of monkey ventral intraparietal area (VIP). (3) A cortical sector within VIP processes movement around and toward the face independently of the sensory modality. This amodal representation of movement may be a key component in the construction of peripersonal space. Overall, our observations highlight strong homologies between macaque and human VIP organization.

  16. Prefrontal dysfunction and a monkey model of schizophrenia.

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    Mao, Ping; Cui, Ding; Zhao, Xu-Dong; Ma, Yuan-Ye

    2015-04-01

    The prefrontal cortex is implicated in cognitive functioning and schizophrenia. Prefrontal dysfunction is closely associated with the symptoms of schizophrenia. In addition to the features typical of schizophrenia, patients also present with aspects of cognitive disorders. Based on these relationships, a monkey model mimicking the cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia has been made using treatment with the non-specific competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, phencyclidine. The symptoms are ameliorated by atypical antipsychotic drugs such as clozapine. The beneficial effects of clozapine on behavioral impairment might be a specific indicator of schizophrenia-related cognitive impairment.

  17. Ultrastructural evidence for impaired mitochondrial fission in the aged rhesus monkey dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

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    Morozov, Yury M; Datta, Dibyadeep; Paspalas, Constantinos D; Arnsten, Amy F T

    2017-03-01

    Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex mediates high-order cognitive functions that are impaired early in the aging process in monkeys and humans. Here, we report pronounced changes in mitochondrial morphology in dendrites of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex neurons from aged rhesus macaques. Electron microscopy paired with 3D reconstruction from serial sections revealed an age-related increase in mitochondria with thin segments that intermingled with enlarged ones, the 'mitochondria-on-a-string' phenotype, similar to those recently reported in patients with Alzheimer's disease. The thin mitochondrial segments were associated with endoplasmic reticulum cisterns, and the mitochondrial proteins Fis1 and Drp1, all of which initiate mitochondrial fission. These data suggest that the 'mitochondria-on-a-string' phenotype may reflect malfunction in mitochondrial dynamics, whereby fission is initiated, but the process is incomplete due to malfunction of subsequent step(s). Thus, aged rhesus monkeys may be particularly helpful in exploring the age-related changes that render higher cortical circuits so vulnerable to degeneration.

  18. Intrasulcal electrocorticography in macaque monkeys with minimally invasive neurosurgical protocols

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    Takeshi eMatsuo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Electrocorticography (ECoG, multichannel brain-surface recording and stimulation with probe electrode arrays, has become a potent methodology not only for clinical neurosurgery but also for basic neuroscience using animal models. The highly evolved primate’s brain has deep cerebral sulci, and both gyral and intrasulcal cortical regions have been implicated in important functional processes. However, direct experimental access is typically limited to gyral regions, since placing probes into sulci is difficult without damaging the surrounding tissues. Here we describe a novel methodology for intrasulcal ECoG in macaque monkeys. We designed and fabricated ultra-thin flexible probes for macaques with micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS technology. We developed minimally invasive operative protocols to implant the probes by introducing cutting edge devices for human neurosurgery. To evaluate the feasibility of intrasulcal ECoG, we conducted electrophysiological recording and stimulation experiments. First, we inserted parts of the Parylene-C-based probe into the superior temporal sulcus to compare visually evoked ECoG responses from the ventral bank of the sulcus with those from the surface of the inferior temporal cortex. Analyses of power spectral density and signal-to-noise ratio revealed that the quality of the ECoG signal was comparable inside and outside of the sulcus. Histological examination revealed no obvious physical damage in the implanted areas. Second, we placed a modified silicone ECoG probe into the central sulcus and also on the surface of the precentral gyrus for stimulation. Thresholds for muscle twitching were significantly lower during intrasulcal stimulation compared to gyral stimulation. These results demonstrate the feasibility of intrasulcal ECoG in macaques. The novel methodology proposed here opens up a new frontier in neuroscience research, enabling the direct measurement and manipulation of electrical activity in the

  19. Intrasulcal electrocorticography in macaque monkeys with minimally invasive neurosurgical protocols.

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    Matsuo, Takeshi; Kawasaki, Keisuke; Osada, Takahiro; Sawahata, Hirohito; Suzuki, Takafumi; Shibata, Masahiro; Miyakawa, Naohisa; Nakahara, Kiyoshi; Iijima, Atsuhiko; Sato, Noboru; Kawai, Kensuke; Saito, Nobuhito; Hasegawa, Isao

    2011-01-01

    Electrocorticography (ECoG), multichannel brain-surface recording and stimulation with probe electrode arrays, has become a potent methodology not only for clinical neurosurgery but also for basic neuroscience using animal models. The highly evolved primate's brain has deep cerebral sulci, and both gyral and intrasulcal cortical regions have been implicated in important functional processes. However, direct experimental access is typically limited to gyral regions, since placing probes into sulci is difficult without damaging the surrounding tissues. Here we describe a novel methodology for intrasulcal ECoG in macaque monkeys. We designed and fabricated ultra-thin flexible probes for macaques with micro-electro-mechanical systems technology. We developed minimally invasive operative protocols to implant the probes by introducing cutting-edge devices for human neurosurgery. To evaluate the feasibility of intrasulcal ECoG, we conducted electrophysiological recording and stimulation experiments. First, we inserted parts of the Parylene-C-based probe into the superior temporal sulcus to compare visually evoked ECoG responses from the ventral bank of the sulcus with those from the surface of the inferior temporal cortex. Analyses of power spectral density and signal-to-noise ratio revealed that the quality of the ECoG signal was comparable inside and outside of the sulcus. Histological examination revealed no obvious physical damage in the implanted areas. Second, we placed a modified silicone ECoG probe into the central sulcus and also on the surface of the precentral gyrus for stimulation. Thresholds for muscle twitching were significantly lower during intrasulcal stimulation compared to gyral stimulation. These results demonstrate the feasibility of intrasulcal ECoG in macaques. The novel methodology proposed here opens up a new frontier in neuroscience research, enabling the direct measurement and manipulation of electrical activity in the whole brain.

  20. A Characterization of Aerosolized Sudan Virus Infection in African Green Monkeys, Cynomolgus Macaques, and Rhesus Macaques

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    Donald K. Nichols

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Filoviruses are members of the genera Ebolavirus, Marburgvirus, and “Cuevavirus”. Because they cause human disease with high lethality and could potentially be used as a bioweapon, these viruses are classified as CDC Category A Bioterrorism Agents. Filoviruses are relatively stable in aerosols, retain virulence after lyophilization, and can be present on contaminated surfaces for extended periods of time. This study explores the characteristics of aerosolized Sudan virus (SUDV Boniface in non-human primates (NHP belonging to three different species. Groups of cynomolgus macaques (cyno, rhesus macaques (rhesus, and African green monkeys (AGM were challenged with target doses of 50 or 500 plaque-forming units (pfu of aerosolized SUDV. Exposure to either viral dose resulted in increased body temperatures in all three NHP species beginning on days 4–5 post-exposure. Other clinical findings for all three NHP species included leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, anorexia, dehydration, and lymphadenopathy. Disease in all of the NHPs was severe beginning on day 6 post-exposure, and all animals except one surviving rhesus macaque were euthanized by day 14. Serum alanine transaminase (ALT and aspartate transaminase (AST concentrations were elevated during the course of disease in all three species; however, AGMs had significantly higher ALT and AST concentrations than cynos and rhesus. While all three species had detectable viral load by days 3-4 post exposure, Rhesus had lower average peak viral load than cynos or AGMs. Overall, the results indicate that the disease course after exposure to aerosolized SUDV is similar for all three species of NHP.

  1. Prevalence of antibodies to 3 retroviruses in a captive colony of macaque monkeys.

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    Daniel, M D; Letvin, N L; Sehgal, P K; Schmidt, D K; Silva, D P; Solomon, K R; Hodi, F S; Ringler, D J; Hunt, R D; King, N W

    1988-04-15

    The prevalence of antibodies to 3 retroviruses in the macaque colony of the New England Regional Primate Research Center (NERPRC) was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay procedures as well as radioimmunoprecipitation-SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and indirect immunofluorescence tests. Out of 848 macaques, 3 (0.35%) had antibodies to simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), 27 (3.2%) had antibodies to simian T-lymphotropic virus type I (STLV-1) and approximately 285 (34%) had antibodies to type D retrovirus. Of 3 macaques infected with SIV, 2 were rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and I was a cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis). STLV-1 and D retrovirus infection occurred in all 4 macaque species examined. SIV, STLV-1 and D retroviruses were isolated from sero-positive macaques. The low prevalence of SIV infection suggests that SIV is not being readily transmitted among macaques at NERPRC; this contrasts markedly with the high SIV prevalence in some captive mangabey colonies. In contrast to African green monkeys from eastern Africa, 160 Caribbean green monkeys examined showed no sign of SIV infection. These results provide a framework for monitoring spontaneous disease associated with infection by these 3 retroviruses and will help in further definition of STLV-1 and SIV infection of non-human primates as animal models for human disease.

  2. Minor contributions of the maxillary sinus to the air-conditioning performance in macaque monkeys.

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    Mori, Futoshi; Hanida, Sho; Kumahata, Kiyoshi; Miyabe-Nishiwaki, Takako; Suzuki, Juri; Matsuzawa, Teruo; Nishimura, Takeshi D

    2015-08-01

    The nasal passages mainly adjust the temperature and humidity of inhaled air to reach the alveolar condition required in the lungs. By contrast to most other non-human primates, macaque monkeys are distributed widely among tropical, temperate and subarctic regions, and thus some species need to condition the inhaled air in cool and dry ambient atmospheric areas. The internal nasal anatomy is believed to have undergone adaptive modifications to improve the air-conditioning performance. Furthermore, the maxillary sinus (MS), an accessory hollow communicating with the nasal cavity, is found in macaques, whereas it is absent in most other extant Old World monkeys, including savanna monkeys. In this study, we used computational fluid dynamics simulations to simulate the airflow and heat and water exchange over the mucosal surface in the nasal passage. Using the topology models of the nasal cavity with and without the MS, we demonstrated that the MS makes little contribution to the airflow pattern and the air-conditioning performance within the nasal cavity in macaques. Instead, the inhaled air is conditioned well in the anterior portion of the nasal cavity before reaching the MS in both macaques and savanna monkeys. These findings suggest that the evolutionary modifications and coetaneous variations in the nasal anatomy are rather independent of transitions and variations in the climate and atmospheric environment found in the habitats of macaques. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Multiple parietal-frontal pathways mediate grasping in macaque monkeys

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    Gharbawie, Omar A.; Stepniewska, Iwona; Qi, Huixin; Kaas, Jon H.

    2011-01-01

    The nodes of a parietal-frontal pathway that mediates grasping in primates are in anterior intraparietal area (AIP) and ventral premotor cortex (PMv). Nevertheless, multiple somatosensory and motor representations of the hand, respectively in parietal and frontal cortex, suggest that additional pathways remain unrealized. We explored this possibility in macaque monkeys by injecting retrograde tracers into grasp zones identified in M1, PMv, and area 2 with long train electrical stimulation. The M1 grasp zone was densely connected with other frontal cortex motor regions. The remainder of the connections originated from somatosensory areas 3a and S2/PV, and from the medial bank and fundus of the intraparietal sulcus (IPS). The PMv grasp zone was also densely connected with frontal cortex motor regions, albeit to a lesser extent than the M1 grasp zone. The remainder of the connections originated from areas S2/PV and aspects of the inferior parietal lobe such as PF, PFG, AIP, and the tip of the IPS. The area 2 grasp zone was densely connected with the hand representations of somatosensory areas 3b, 1, and S2/PV. The remainder of the connections was with areas 3a and 5 and the medial bank and fundus of the IPS. Connections with frontal cortex were relatively weak and concentrated in caudal M1. Thus, the three grasp zones may be nodes of parallel parietal-frontal pathways. Differential points of origin and termination of each pathway suggest varying functional specializations. Direct and indirect connections between those parietal-frontal pathways likely coordinate their respective functions into an accurate grasp. PMID:21832196

  4. Two-item discrimination and Hamilton search learning in infant pigtailed macaque monkeys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ha, J.C.; Mandell, D.J.; Gray, J.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how infant pigtailed macaque monkeys performed on two separate learning assessments, two-object discrimination/reversal and Hamilton search learning. Although the learning tasks have been tested on several species, including non-human primates, there have been no normative

  5. Two-item discrimination and Hamilton search learning in infant pigtailed macaque monkeys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ha, J.C.; Mandell, D.J.; Gray, J.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how infant pigtailed macaque monkeys performed on two separate learning assessments, two-object discrimination/reversal and Hamilton search learning. Although the learning tasks have been tested on several species, including non-human primates, there have been no normative re

  6. [Visually-guided discrimination and preference of sexuality in female macaque monkeys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, M

    1997-04-01

    Visual information about face and body including facial expression and bodily behavioral patterns has been known to play an important role in social and emotional communication in monkeys. Its involvement in sexual activity has also been demonstrated in male monkeys but it is poorly understood in female monkeys. In the present study, visually-guided discrimination and preference of sexuality were investigated in female macaque monkeys performing operant bar-press tasks in an experimental cage which had a transparent panel facing a display. In the sex discrimination task, two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were trained to discriminate sex of a monkey shown in a picture which was randomly selected from six photographs (three males and three females) and was presented on the display. The monkey pressed a right or left bar for male or female monkey, respectively, to get water as a reward. Under this discrimination task, the monkeys could discriminate the sexes of monkeys shown in newly presented pictures. When choice bars were reversed, correct responses significantly decreased below chance level. In the sex preference task, three rhesus monkeys and three Japanese monkeys (M. juscata) were used. The monkeys voluntarily pressed the bar to watch the video movie showing either male or female rhesus monkeys. The movies were presented as long as the subject kept pressing the bar. The same movie was continued when the monkey pressed the bar again within 10s after the previous release of the bar, while it was changed to the other when 10s passed after the subject released the bar. The total duration of the responses in daily sessions was measured. In this visual preference task, four out of six monkeys showed sex preference. Three adult Japanese monkeys (6-8 y) pressed the bar to watch the video movie of male monkeys which was taken in breeding season with longer duration than that of female monkeys taken in the same season. The other two adult rhesus monkeys (7 8 y) did not

  7. Noninvasive scalp recording of cortical auditory evoked potentials in the alert macaque monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Kosuke; Nejime, Masafumi; Konoike, Naho; Nakada, Tsutomu; Nakamura, Katsuki

    2015-09-01

    Scalp-recorded evoked potentials (EP) provide researchers and clinicians with irreplaceable means for recording stimulus-related neural activities in the human brain, due to its high temporal resolution, handiness, and, perhaps more importantly, non-invasiveness. This work recorded the scalp cortical auditory EP (CAEP) in unanesthetized monkeys by using methods that are essentially identical to those applied to humans. Young adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta, 5-7 years old) were seated in a monkey chair, and their head movements were partially restricted by polystyrene blocks and tension poles placed around their head. Individual electrodes were fixated on their scalp using collodion according to the 10-20 system. Pure tone stimuli were presented while electroencephalograms were recorded from up to nineteen channels, including an electrooculogram channel. In all monkeys (n = 3), the recorded CAEP comprised a series of positive and negative deflections, labeled here as macaque P1 (mP1), macaque N1 (mN1), macaque P2 (mP2), and macaque N2 (mN2), and these transient responses to sound onset were followed by a sustained potential that continued for the duration of the sound, labeled the macaque sustained potential (mSP). mP1, mN2 and mSP were the prominent responses, and they had maximal amplitudes over frontal/central midline electrode sites, consistent with generators in auditory cortices. The study represents the first noninvasive scalp recording of CAEP in alert rhesus monkeys, to our knowledge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Central projections of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells in the macaque monkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, J; Kankipati, L; Strang, C E

    2014-01-01

    ). The ipRGCs regulate other nonimage-forming visual functions such as the pupillary light reflex, masking behavior, and light-induced melatonin suppression. To evaluate whether PACAP-immunoreactive retinal projections are useful as a marker for central projection of ipRGCs in the monkey brain, we......-expressing cells characterized as inner and outer stratifying melanopsin RGCs. Two macaque monkeys were anesthetized and received a unilateral intravitreal injection of CtB. Bilateral retinal projections containing colocalized CtB and PACAP immunostaining were identified in the SCN, the lateral geniculate complex...... including the pregeniculate nucleus, the pretectal olivary nucleus, the nucleus of the optic tract, the brachium of the superior colliculus, and the superior colliculus. In conclusion, PACAP-immunoreactive projections with colocalized CtB represent retinal projections of ipRGCs in the macaque monkey...

  9. Evidence for visual cortical area homologs in cat and macaque monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, B R

    1993-01-01

    The maps of visuotopically discrete visual cerebral cortical areas in the cat and the macaque monkey are compared and gaps in knowledge are identified that limit such comparisons. Cat areas 17, 18, and 19 can be equated with macaque areas V1, V2, and V3, respectively, based on criteria of relative position in the cortical mantle, internal organization of visual field representations, and trans- and subcortical connections. Using these same criteria, a visual area on the medial bank of the lateral suprasylvian sulcus (area PMLS) in the cat can be equated with macaque area V5. The equivalences are supported by data on neuronal receptive field properties and the contributions the areas make to visual behavior. Although the data are scanty for most other visual areas, there are enough data tentatively to equate collectively cat areas 20a and 20b with macaque areas TF and TH and to liken cat areas 21a and 21b with macaque area V4. What is not clear is if there is a region in cat that is equivalent to area TE in the macaque monkey. If there is, it likely lies on the banks of the posterior suprasylvian sulcus between areas 20 and 21 and the polysensory cortex of the posterior ectosylvian gyrus. Knowledge gained from prior research on macaque areas V4 and TE can be used to formulate specific additional investigations of cat area 21 and the uncharted posterior suprasylvian sulcus. In addition, prior investigations carried out on cat area 20 can be used to devise specific explorations of macaque areas TF and TH.

  10. Identification of Hepatocystis species in a macaque monkey in northern Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Q

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Qiaocheng Chang1,*, Xiaodong Sun2,*, Jian Wang2,*, Jigang Yin1, Junpeng Song1, Shuai Peng1, Huijun Lu1, Hongning Zhou2, Ning Jiang1, Qijun Chen1,31Key Laboratory of Zoonosis, Jilin University, Changchun; 2Institute for Parasitic Disease Control of Yunnan Province, Puer City, Yunnan; 3Institute of Pathogen Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China *These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Long-tailed and pig-tailed macaque monkeys are natural hosts of Plasmodium knowlesi, which has been identified as a fifth malaria parasite infecting humans. In this study, we investigated possible infection by this Plasmodium parasite in macaque monkeys using a combination of polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing.Methods: Forty-five blood samples were obtained in 2010 from macaques in northern Myanmar near Yunnan Province of China and investigated for possible infection with Plasmodium species using a nested polymerase chain reaction method for amplification of 18S SSU rRNA genes.Results: Positive amplification was obtained from one monkey, and both sequence and phylogenetic analysis indicated that the parasite was of the Hepatocystis species lineage.Conclusion: The results suggest that a combination of polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequence identification would be necessary for detection of Plasmodium knowlesi infection in both humans and its natural hosts.Keywords: Plasmodium knowlesi, monkey, parasite, malaria

  11. Auditory Rehabilitation in Rhesus Macaque Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with Auditory Brainstem Implants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-Min Wang; Zhi-Jun Yang; Fu Zhao; Bo Wang; Xing-Chao Wang; Pei-Ran Qu; Pi-Nan Liu

    2015-01-01

    Background:The auditory brainstem implants (ABIs) have been used to treat deafness for patients with neurofibromatosis Type 2 and nontumor patients.The lack of an appropriate animal model has limited the study of improving hearing rehabilitation by the device.This study aimed to establish an animal model of ABI in adult rhesus macaque monkey (Macaca mulatta).Methods:Six adult rhesus macaque monkeys (M.mulatta) were included.Under general anesthesia,a multichannel ABI was implanted into the lateral recess of the fourth ventricle through the modified suboccipital-retrosigmoid (RS) approach.The electrical auditory brainstem response (EABR) waves were tested to ensure the optimal implant site.After the operation,the EABR and computed tomography (CT) were used to test and verify the effectiveness via electrophysiology and anatomy,respectively.The subjects underwent behavioral observation for 6 months,and the postoperative EABR was tested every two weeks from the 1st month after implant surgery.Result:The implant surgery lasted an average of 5.2 h,and no monkey died or sacrificed.The averaged latencies of peaks Ⅰ,Ⅱ and Ⅳ were 1.27,2.34 and 3.98 ms,respectively in the ABR.One-peak EABR wave was elicited in the operation,and one-or two-peak waves were elicited during the postoperative period.The EABR wave latencies appeared to be constant under different stimulus intensities;however,the amplitudes increased as the stimulus increased within a certain scope.Conclusions:It is feasible and safe to implant ABIs in rhesus macaque monkeys (M.mulatta) through a modified suboccipital RS approach,and EABR and CT are valid tools for animal model establishment.In addition,this model should be an appropriate animal model for the electrophysiological and behavioral study of rhesus macaque monkey with ABI.

  12. No effects of dioxin singly on limb malformations in macaque monkeys through epidemiological and treated studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asaoka, Kazuo; Iida, Hiroko [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Primate Research Insitute, Dept. of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry; Watanabe, Kunio [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Primate Research Institute, Field Research Center; Goda, Hiroshi [Towa Kagaku Co., Ltd. (Japan); Ihara, Toshio; Nagata, Ryoichi [Shin Nippon Biomedical Laboratories, Ltd. (Japan). Safety Research Facility; Yasuda, Mineo [Hiroshima International Univ. (Japan). Fac. of Health Sciences, Dept. of Clinical Engineering; Kubata, Shunichiro [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Life Science, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences

    2004-09-15

    Human populations exposed with highly dioxin were suspected to be caused immunological dysfunctions, carcinogenesis, and developmental and reproductive dysfunctions. Because of species resemblances, the dioxin effects have been investigating using monkeys as a model for assessment of dioxin exposure on human health. Since 1957 the limb malformations of monkeys in Japan have been reported. The higher frequency of them was found in provisional groups of monkeys who were given the same kind of food for human. The chromosomal abnormalities are excluded from the factor for the congenital limb malformations that are still producing in Japan. In this study, the relations between dioxin and the limb malformations of macaque monkeys were estimated by the epidemiological and administered researches. The dioxin levels in monkeys were measured at two districts that one has the provisional groups including monkeys with limb malformations and the other has breeding groups never seeing the malformations for a long time. TEQ was calculated by the levels of dioxin isomers in the monkeys and the values show no difference between the two places and between the individuals with and without the limb malformations. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was administered via subcutaneous to pregnant rhesus monkeys from the day 20 of gestation to the day 90 after birth. The exposed babies, including the offspring and died in neonatal, had observed normal limbs in the range of 30-300 ng TCDD /kg of body weight.

  13. Cerebello-thalamo-cortical projections to the posterior parietal cortex in the macaque monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amino, Y; Kyuhou, S; Matsuzaki, R; Gemba, H

    2001-08-17

    The cerebello-thalamo-posterior parietal cortical projections were investigated electrophysiologically and morphologically in macaque monkeys. In anesthetized monkeys, electrical stimulation of every cerebellar nucleus evoked marked surface-positive, depth-negative (s-P, d-N) cortical field potentials in the superior parietal lobule and the cortical bank of the intraparietal sulcus, but no responses in the inferior parietal lobule. Tract-tracing experiments combining the anterograde method with the retrograde one indicated that the interposed and lateral cerebellar nuclei projected to the posterior parietal cortex mainly through the nucleus ventral lateralis caudalis of the thalamus. The significance of the projections is discussed in connection with cognitive functions.

  14. Metabolic changes in the visual cortex of binocular blindness macaque monkeys: a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingjie Wu

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1H-MRS in a study of cross-modal plasticity in the visual cortex of binocular blindness macaque monkeys. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four healthy neonatal macaque monkeys were randomly divided into 2 groups, with 2 in each group. Optic nerve transection was performed in both monkeys in the experimental group (group B to obtain binocular blindness. Two healthy macaque monkeys served as a control group (group A. After sixteen months post-procedure, (1H-MRS was performed in the visual cortex of all monkeys. We compared the peak areas of NAA, Cr, Cho, Glx and Ins and the ratios of NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, Glx/Cr and Ins/Cr of each monkey in group B with group A. RESULTS: The peak area of NAA and the NAA/Cr ratio in the visual cortex of monkey 4 in group B were found to be dramatically decreased, the peak area of NAA slightly decreased and the NAA/Cr ratio clearly decreased in visual cortex of monkey 3 in group B than those in group A. The peak area of Ins and the Ins/Cr ratio in the visual cortex of monkey 4 in group B slightly increased. The peak area of Cho and the Cho/Cr ratio in the visual cortex of all monkeys in group B dramatically increased compared with group A. The peak area of Glx in the visual cortex of all monkeys in group B slightly increased compared with group A. CONCLUSIONS: (1H-MRS could detect biochemical and metabolic changes in the visual cortex and therefore this technique can be used to provide valuable information for investigating the mechanisms of cross-modal plasticity of binocular blindness in a macaque monkey model.

  15. Grasping-related functional MRI brain responses in the macaque monkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelissen, Koen; Vanduffel, Wim

    2011-01-01

    Research in recent decades has suggested the existence of a dedicated brain network devoted to the organization and execution of grasping, one of the most important and skilled movements of primates. Grasping an object requires the transformation of intrinsic object properties such as size, orientation and shape into an appropriate motor scheme shaping the hand. While electrophysiological recordings in the monkey model have proven invaluable for gaining insights into the neuronal substrate underlying this complex behavior, knowledge concerning the existence and organization of a similar system in the human brain is derived mainly from imaging studies. Here we present for the first time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of brain activity while macaque monkeys performed reaching and grasping movements in a 3 Tesla MR scanner. Grasping-in-the-dark (compared to reaching) yielded significant activations in anterior intraparietal area (AIP) and ventral premotor area F5, in addition to area PFG in the rostral inferior parietal lobule, somatosensory areas (SI, SII, area 5) and the hand field of F1. Whole-brain macaque fMRI motor studies will be instrumental in establishing possible homologies concerning grasping organization in the human and monkey brains, bridging the gap between human imaging and monkey electrophysiology. PMID:21632943

  16. Mapping the hierarchical layout of the structural network of the macaque prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulas, Alexandros; Uylings, Harry B M; Stiers, Peter

    2014-05-01

    A consensus on the prefrontal cortex (PFC) holds that it is pivotal for flexible behavior and the integration of the cognitive, affective, and motivational domains. Certain models have been put forth and a dominant model postulates a hierarchical anterior-posterior gradient. The structural connectivity principles of this model dictate that increasingly anterior PFC regions exhibit more efferent connections toward posterior ones than vice versa. Such hierarchical asymmetry principles are thought to pertain to the macaque PFC. Additionally, the laminar patterns of the connectivity of PFC regions can be used for defining hierarchies. In the current study, we formally tested the asymmetry-based hierarchical principles of the anterior-posterior model by employing an exhaustive dataset on macaque PFC connectivity and tools from network science. On the one hand, the asymmetry-based principles and predictions of the hierarchical anterior-posterior model were not confirmed. The wiring of the macaque PFC does not fully correspond to the principles of the model, and its asymmetry-based hierarchical layout does not follow a strict anterior-posterior gradient. On the other hand, our results suggest that the laminar-based hierarchy seems a more tenable working hypothesis for models advocating an anterior-posterior gradient. Our results can inform models of the human PFC.

  17. A case of polymicrogyria in macaque monkey: impact on anatomy and function of the motor system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouiller Eric M

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polymicrogyria is a malformation of the cerebral cortex often resulting in epilepsy or mental retardation. It remains unclear whether this pathology affects the structure and function of the corticospinal (CS system. The anatomy and histology of the brain of one macaque monkey exhibiting a spontaneous polymicrogyria (PMG monkey were examined and compared to the brain of normal monkeys. The CS tract was labelled by injecting a neuronal tracer (BDA unilaterally in a region where low intensity electrical microstimulation elicited contralateral hand movements (presumably the primary motor cortex in the PMG monkey. Results The examination of the brain showed a large number of microgyri at macro- and microscopic levels, covering mainly the frontoparietal regions. The layered cortical organization was locally disrupted and the number of SMI-32 stained pyramidal neurons in the cortical layer III of the presumed motor cortex was reduced. We compared the distribution of labelled CS axons in the PMG monkey at spinal cervical level C5. The cumulated length of CS axon arbors in the spinal grey matter was not significantly different in the PMG monkey. In the red nucleus, numerous neurons presented large vesicles. We also assessed its motor performances by comparing its capacity to execute a complex reach and grasp behavioral task. The PMG monkey exhibited an increase of reaction time without any modification of other motor parameters, an observation in line with a normal CS tract organisation. Conclusion In spite of substantial cortical malformations in the frontal and parietal lobes, the PMG monkey exhibits surprisingly normal structure and function of the corticospinal system.

  18. Evidence for Mediodorsal Thalamus and Prefrontal Cortex Interactions during Cognition in Macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Philip G F; Chakraborty, Subhojit; Mitchell, Anna S

    2015-11-01

    It is proposed that mediodorsal thalamus contributes to cognition via interactions with prefrontal cortex. However, there is relatively little evidence detailing the interactions between mediodorsal thalamus and prefrontal cortex linked to cognition in primates. This study investigated these interactions during learning, memory, and decision-making tasks in rhesus monkeys using a disconnection lesion approach. Preoperatively, monkeys learned object-in-place scene discriminations embedded within colorful visual backgrounds. Unilateral neurotoxic lesions to magnocellular mediodorsal thalamus (MDmc) impaired the ability to learn new object-in-place scene discriminations. In contrast, unilateral ablations to ventrolateral and orbital prefrontal cortex (PFv+o) left learning intact. A second unilateral MDmc or PFv+o lesion in the contralateral hemisphere to the first operation, causing functional MDmc-PFv+o disconnection across hemispheres, further impaired learning object-in-place scene discriminations, although object discrimination learning remained intact. Adaptive decision-making after reward satiety devaluation was also reduced. These data highlight the functional importance of interactions between MDmc and PFv+o during learning object-in-place scene discriminations and adaptive decision-making but not object discrimination learning. Moreover, learning deficits observed after unilateral removal of MDmc but not PFv+o provide direct behavioral evidence of the MDmc role influencing more widespread regions of the frontal lobes in cognition.

  19. FACIAL ASYMMETRY IS NEGATIVELY RELATED TO CONDITION IN FEMALE MACAQUE MONKEYS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Anthony C; Paukner, Annika; Woodward, Ruth A; Suomi, Stephen J

    2012-09-01

    The face is an important visual trait in social communication across many species. In evolutionary terms there are large and obvious selective advantages in detecting healthy partners, both in terms of avoiding individuals with poor health to minimise contagion and in mating with individuals with high health to help ensure healthy offspring. Many models of sexual selection suggest that an individual's phenotype provides cues to their quality. Fluctuating asymmetry is a trait that is proposed to be an honest indicator of quality and previous studies have demonstrated that rhesus monkeys gaze longer at symmetric faces, suggesting preferences for such faces. The current study examined the relationship between measured facial symmetry and measures of health in a captive population of female rhesus macaque monkeys. We measured asymmetry from landmarks marked on front-on facial photographs and computed measures of health based on veterinary health and condition ratings, number of minor and major wounds sustained, and gain in weight over the first four years of life. Analysis revealed that facial asymmetry was negatively related to condition related health measures, with symmetric individuals being healthier than more asymmetric individuals. Facial asymmetry appears to be an honest indicator of health in rhesus macaques and asymmetry may then be used by conspecifics in mate-choice situations. More broadly, our data support the notion that faces are valuable sources of information in non-human primates and that sexual selection based on facial information is potentially important across the primate lineage.

  20. Preserved number of entorhinal cortex layer II neurons in aged macaque monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzaley, A. H.; Thakker, M. M.; Hof, P. R.; Morrison, J. H.; Bloom, F. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    The perforant path, which consists of the projection from the layer II neurons of the entorhinal cortex to the outer molecular layer of the dentate gyrus, is a critical circuit involved in learning and memory formation. Accordingly, disturbances in this circuit may contribute to age-related cognitive deficits. In a previous study, we demonstrated a decrease in N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 1 immunofluorescence intensity in the outer molecular layer of aged macaque monkeys. In this study, we used the optical fractionator, a stereological method, to determine if a loss of layer II neurons occurred in the same animals in which the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 1 alteration was observed. Our results revealed no significant differences in the number of layer II neurons between juvenile, young adult, and aged macaque monkeys. These results suggest that the circuit-specific decrease in N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 1 reported previously occurs in the absence of structural compromise of the perforant path, and thus may be linked to an age-related change in the physiological properties of this circuit.

  1. Quantitative analysis of postnatal neurogenesis and neuron number in the macaque monkey dentate gyrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabès, Adeline; Lavenex, Pamela Banta; Amaral, David G.; Lavenex, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    The dentate gyrus is one of only two regions of the mammalian brain where substantial neurogenesis occurs postnatally. However, detailed quantitative information about the postnatal structural maturation of the primate dentate gyrus is meager. We performed design-based, stereological studies of neuron number and size, and volume of the dentate gyrus layers in rhesus macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta) of different postnatal ages. We found that about 40% of the total number of granule cells observed in mature 5–10-year-old macaque monkeys are added to the granule cell layer postnatally; 25% of these neurons are added within the first three postnatal months. Accordingly, cell proliferation and neurogenesis within the dentate gyrus peak within the first three months after birth and remain at an intermediate level between three months and at least one year of age. Although granule cell bodies undergo their largest increase in size during the first year of life, cell size and the volume of the three layers of the dentate gyrus (i.e., the molecular, granule cell and polymorphic layers) continue to increase beyond one year of age. Moreover, the different layers of the dentate gyrus exhibit distinct volumetric changes during postnatal development. Finally, we observe significant levels of cell proliferation, neurogenesis and cell death in the context of an overall stable number of granule cells in mature 5–10-year-old monkeys. These data identify an extended developmental period during which neurogenesis might be modulated to significantly impact the structure and function of the dentate gyrus in adulthood. PMID:20074220

  2. Central projections of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells in the macaque monkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannibal, J.; Kankipati, L.; Strang, C.E.; Peterson, B.B.; Dacey, D.; Gamlin, P.D.

    2014-01-01

    Circadian rhythms generated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) are entrained to the environmental light/dark cycle via intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) expressing the photopigment melanopsin and the neuropeptide PACAP. The ipRGCs regulate other non-image-forming visual functions such as the pupillary light reflex, masking behaviour and light induced melatonin suppression. To evaluate whether PACAP immunoreactive retinal projections are useful as a marker for central projection of ipRGCs in the monkey brain, we characterized the occurrence of PACAP in melanopsin expressing ipRGCs and in the retinal target areas in the brain visualized by the anterograde tracer Cholera Toxin subunit B (CtB) in combination with PACAP staining. In the retina, PACAP and melanopsin were found to be co-stored in 99% of melanopsin expressing cells characterized as inner and outer stratifying melanopsin RGCs. Two macaque monkeys were anesthetized and received a unilateral intravitreal injection of CtB. Bilateral retinal projections containing co-localized CtB and PACAP immunostaining were identified in the SCN, the lateral geniculate complex (LGN) including the pregeniculate nucleus (PrGC), the pretectal olivary nucleus (PON), the nucleus of the optic tract (NOT), the brachium of the superior colliculus (BSC), and the superior colliculus (SC). In conclusion, PACAP immunoreactive projections with co-localized CtB represent retinal projections of ipRGCs in the macaque monkey, and support previous retrograde tracer studies demonstrating that melanopsin containing retinal projections reach areas in the primate brain involved in both image and non-image-forming visual processing. PMID:24752373

  3. Central projections of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells in the macaque monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannibal, J; Kankipati, L; Strang, C E; Peterson, B B; Dacey, D; Gamlin, P D

    2014-07-01

    Circadian rhythms generated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) are entrained to the environmental light/dark cycle via intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) expressing the photopigment melanopsin and the neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP). The ipRGCs regulate other nonimage-forming visual functions such as the pupillary light reflex, masking behavior, and light-induced melatonin suppression. To evaluate whether PACAP-immunoreactive retinal projections are useful as a marker for central projection of ipRGCs in the monkey brain, we characterized the occurrence of PACAP in melanopsin-expressing ipRGCs and in the retinal target areas in the brain visualized by the anterograde tracer cholera toxin subunit B (CtB) in combination with PACAP staining. In the retina, PACAP and melanopsin were found to be costored in 99% of melanopsin-expressing cells characterized as inner and outer stratifying melanopsin RGCs. Two macaque monkeys were anesthetized and received a unilateral intravitreal injection of CtB. Bilateral retinal projections containing colocalized CtB and PACAP immunostaining were identified in the SCN, the lateral geniculate complex including the pregeniculate nucleus, the pretectal olivary nucleus, the nucleus of the optic tract, the brachium of the superior colliculus, and the superior colliculus. In conclusion, PACAP-immunoreactive projections with colocalized CtB represent retinal projections of ipRGCs in the macaque monkey, supporting previous retrograde tracer studies demonstrating that melanopsin-containing retinal projections reach areas in the primate brain involved in both image- and nonimage-forming visual processing.

  4. Characteristics of Spontaneous Square-Wave Jerks in the Healthy Macaque Monkey during Visual Fixation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco M Costela

    Full Text Available Saccadic intrusions (SIs, predominantly horizontal saccades that interrupt accurate fixation, include square-wave jerks (SWJs; the most common type of SI, which consist of an initial saccade away from the fixation target followed, after a short delay, by a return saccade that brings the eye back onto target. SWJs are present in most human subjects, but are prominent by their increased frequency and size in certain parkinsonian disorders and in recessive, hereditary spinocerebellar ataxias. SWJs have been also documented in monkeys with tectal and cerebellar etiologies, but no studies to date have investigated the occurrence of SWJs in healthy nonhuman primates. Here we set out to determine the characteristics of SWJs in healthy rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta during attempted fixation of a small visual target. Our results indicate that SWJs are common in healthy nonhuman primates. We moreover found primate SWJs to share many characteristics with human SWJs, including the relationship between the size of a saccade and its likelihood to be part of a SWJ. One main discrepancy between monkey and human SWJs was that monkey SWJs tended to be more vertical than horizontal, whereas human SWJs have a strong horizontal preference. Yet, our combined data indicate that primate and human SWJs play a similar role in fixation correction, suggesting that they share a comparable coupling mechanism at the oculomotor generation level. These findings constrain the potential brain areas and mechanisms underlying the generation of fixational saccades in human and nonhuman primates.

  5. Perseverative Interference with Object-in-Place Scene Learning in Rhesus Monkeys with Bilateral Ablation of Ventrolateral Prefrontal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Mark G.; Browning, Philip G. F.; Mitchell, Anna S.

    2008-01-01

    Surgical disconnection of the frontal cortex and inferotemporal cortex severely impairs many aspects of visual learning and memory, including learning of new object-in-place scene memory problems, a monkey model of episodic memory. As part of a study of specialization within prefrontal cortex in visual learning and memory, we tested monkeys with…

  6. Increased neuronal firing in resting and sleep in areas of the macaque medial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbott, Paul L; Rolls, Edmund T

    2013-06-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of humans and macaques is an integral part of the default mode network and is a brain region that shows increased activation in the resting state. A previous paper from our laboratory reported significantly increased firing rates of neurons in the macaque subgenual cingulate cortex, Brodmann area (BA) 25, during disengagement from a task and also during slow wave sleep [E.T. Rolls et al. (2003) J. Neurophysiology, 90, 134-142]. Here we report the finding that there are neurons in other areas of mPFC that also increase their firing rates during disengagement from a task, drowsiness and eye-closure. During the neurophysiological recording of single mPFC cells (n = 249) in BAs 9, 10, 13 m, 14c, 24b and especially pregenual area 32, populations of neurons were identified whose firing rates altered significantly with eye-closure compared with eye-opening. Three types of neuron were identified: Type 1 cells (28.1% of the total population) significantly increased (mean + 329%; P ≪ 0.01) their average firing rate with eye-closure, from 3.1 spikes/s when awake to 10.2 spikes/s when asleep; Type 2 cells (6.0%) significantly decreased (mean -68%; P areas of mPFC, implicated in the anterior default mode network, there is a substantial population of neurons that significantly increase their firing rates during periods of eye-closure. Such neurons may be part of an interconnected network of distributed brain regions that are more active during periods of relaxed wakefulness than during attention-demanding tasks. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Increased firing irregularity as an emergent property of neural-state transition in monkey prefrontal cortex.

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    Sakamoto, Kazuhiro; Katori, Yuichi; Saito, Naohiro; Yoshida, Shun; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Mushiake, Hajime

    2013-01-01

    Flexible behaviors are organized by complex neural networks in the prefrontal cortex. Recent studies have suggested that such networks exhibit multiple dynamical states, and can switch rapidly from one state to another. In many complex systems such as the brain, the early-warning signals that may predict whether a critical threshold for state transitions is approaching are extremely difficult to detect. We hypothesized that increases in firing irregularity are a crucial measure for predicting state transitions in the underlying neuronal circuits of the prefrontal cortex. We used both experimental and theoretical approaches to test this hypothesis. Experimentally, we analyzed activities of neurons in the prefrontal cortex while monkeys performed a maze task that required them to perform actions to reach a goal. We observed increased firing irregularity before the activity changed to encode goal-to-action information. Theoretically, we constructed theoretical generic neural networks and demonstrated that changes in neuronal gain on functional connectivity resulted in a loss of stability and an altered state of the networks, accompanied by increased firing irregularity. These results suggest that assessing the temporal pattern of neuronal fluctuations provides important clues regarding the state stability of the prefrontal network. We also introduce a novel scheme that the prefrontal cortex functions in a metastable state near the critical point of bifurcation. According to this scheme, firing irregularity in the prefrontal cortex indicates that the system is about to change its state and the flow of information in a flexible manner, which is essential for executive functions. This metastable and/or critical dynamical state of the prefrontal cortex may account for distractibility and loss of flexibility in the prefrontal cortex in major mental illnesses such as schizophrenia.

  8. Functional organization of motor cortex of adult macaque monkeys is altered by sensory loss in infancy.

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    Qi, Hui-Xin; Jain, Neeraj; Collins, Christine E; Lyon, David C; Kaas, Jon H

    2010-02-16

    When somatosensory cortex (S1) is deprived of some of its inputs after section of ascending afferents in the dorsal columns of the spinal cord, it reorganizes to overrepresent the surviving inputs. As somatosensory cortex provides guiding sensory information to motor cortex, such sensory loss and representational reorganization could affect the development of the motor map in primary motor cortex (M1), especially if the sensory loss occurs early in development. To address this possibility, the dorsal columns of the spinal cord were sectioned between cervical levels (C3-5) 3-12 days after birth in five macaque monkeys. After 3-5 years of maturation (young adults), we determined how movements were represented in M1 contralateral to the lesion by using microelectrodes to electrically stimulate sites in M1 to evoke movements. Although the details of the motor maps in these five monkeys varied, the forelimb motor maps were abnormal. The representations of digit movements were reduced and abnormally arranged. Current levels for evoking movements from the forelimb region of M1 were in the normal range, but the lowest mean stimulation thresholds were for wrist or elbow instead of digit movements. Incomplete lesions and bilateral lesions produced fewer abnormalities. The results suggest that the development of normal motor cortex maps in M1 depends on sensory feedback from somatosensory maps.

  9. Prearcuate cortex in the Cebus monkey has cortical and subcortical connections like the macaque frontal eye field and projects to fastigial-recipient oculomotor-related brainstem nuclei.

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    Leichnetz, G R; Gonzalo-Ruiz, A

    1996-01-01

    The cortical and subcortical connections of the prearcuate cortex were studied in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella, albifrons) using the anterograde and retrograde transport capabilities of the horseradish peroxidase technique. The findings demonstrate remarkable similarities to those of the macaque frontal eye field and strongly support their homology. The report then focuses on specific prearcuate projections to oculomotor-related brainstem nuclei that were shown in a companion experiment to entertain connections with the caudal oculomotor portion of the cerebellar fastigial nucleus. The principal corticocortical connections of the cebus prearcuate cortex were with dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, lateral intraparietal sulcal cortex, posterior medial parietal cortex, and superior temporal sulcal cortex, which were for the most part reciprocal and columnar in organization. The connections of the dorsal prearcuate region were heavier to the dorsomedial prefrontal and posterior medial parietal cortices, and those of the ventral region were heavier to the superior temporal sulcal cortex. The prearcuate cortex projects to several brainstem areas which also receive projections from the caudal fastigial nucleus, including the supraoculomotor periaqueductal gray matter, superior colliculus, medial nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis, dorsomedial basilar pontine nucleus, dorsolateral basilar pontine nucleus, nucleus reticularis pontis caudalis, pontine raphe, and nucleus prepositus hypoglossi. The findings define a neuroanatomical framework within which convergence of prearcuate (putative frontal eye field) and caudal fastigial nucleus connections might occur, facilitating their potential interaction in saccadic and smooth pursuit eye movement.

  10. Neural Substrates of Dopamine D2 Receptor Modulated Executive Functions in the Monkey Prefrontal Cortex.

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    Puig, M Victoria; Miller, Earl K

    2015-09-01

    Dopamine D2 receptors (D2R) play a major role in cognition, mood and motor movements. Their blockade by antipsychotic drugs reduces hallucinatory and delusional behaviors in schizophrenia, but often fails to alleviate affective and cognitive dysfunctions. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) expresses D2R and is altered in schizophrenia. We investigated how D2R modulate behavior and PFC function in monkeys. Two monkeys learned new and performed highly familiar visuomotor associations, where each cue was associated with a saccade to a right or left target. We recorded neural spikes and local field potentials from multiple electrodes while injecting the D2R antagonist eticlopride in the lateral PFC. Blocking prefrontal D2R impaired associative learning and cognitive flexibility, reduced motivation, but left the performance of familiar associations intact. Eticlopride reduced saccade-direction selectivity of prefrontal neurons, leading to a decrease in neural information about the associations, and an increase in alpha oscillations. These results, together with our recent study using a D1R antagonist, suggest that D1R and D2R in the primate lateral PFC cooperate to modulate several executive functions. Our findings help to gain insight into why antipsychotic drugs, with strong antagonistic actions on D2R, fail to ameliorate cognitive and emotional deficits in schizophrenia.

  11. Does the macaque monkey provide a good model for studying human executive control? A comparative behavioral study of task switching.

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    Luana Caselli

    Full Text Available The ability to swiftly and smoothly switch from one task set to another is central to intelligent behavior, because it allows an organism to flexibly adapt to ever changing environmental conditions and internal needs. For this reason, researchers interested in executive control processes have often relied on task-switching paradigms as powerful tools to uncover the underlying cognitive and brain architecture. In order to gather fundamental information at the single-cell level, it would be greatly helpful to demonstrate that non-human primates, especially the macaque monkey, share with us similar behavioral manifestations of task-switching and therefore, in all likelihood, similar underlying brain mechanisms. Unfortunately, prior attempts have provided negative results (e.g., Stoet & Snyder, 2003b, in that it was reported that macaques do not show the typical signature of task-switching operations at the behavioral level, represented by switch costs. If confirmed, this would indicate that the macaque cannot be used as a model approach to explore human executive control mechanisms by means of task-switching paradigms. We have therefore decided to re-explore this issue, by conducting a comparative experiment on a group of human participants and two macaque monkeys, whereby we measured and compared performance costs linked to task switching and resistance to interference across the two species. Contrary to what previously reported, we found that both species display robust task switching costs, thus supporting the claim that macaque monkeys provide an exquisitely suitable model to study the brain mechanisms responsible for maintaining and switching task sets.

  12. Does the macaque monkey provide a good model for studying human executive control? A comparative behavioral study of task switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caselli, Luana; Chelazzi, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    The ability to swiftly and smoothly switch from one task set to another is central to intelligent behavior, because it allows an organism to flexibly adapt to ever changing environmental conditions and internal needs. For this reason, researchers interested in executive control processes have often relied on task-switching paradigms as powerful tools to uncover the underlying cognitive and brain architecture. In order to gather fundamental information at the single-cell level, it would be greatly helpful to demonstrate that non-human primates, especially the macaque monkey, share with us similar behavioral manifestations of task-switching and therefore, in all likelihood, similar underlying brain mechanisms. Unfortunately, prior attempts have provided negative results (e.g., Stoet & Snyder, 2003b), in that it was reported that macaques do not show the typical signature of task-switching operations at the behavioral level, represented by switch costs. If confirmed, this would indicate that the macaque cannot be used as a model approach to explore human executive control mechanisms by means of task-switching paradigms. We have therefore decided to re-explore this issue, by conducting a comparative experiment on a group of human participants and two macaque monkeys, whereby we measured and compared performance costs linked to task switching and resistance to interference across the two species. Contrary to what previously reported, we found that both species display robust task switching costs, thus supporting the claim that macaque monkeys provide an exquisitely suitable model to study the brain mechanisms responsible for maintaining and switching task sets.

  13. Performance- and stimulus-dependent oscillations in monkey prefrontal cortex during short-term memory

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    Gordon Pipa

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Short-term memory requires the coordination of sub-processes like encoding, retention, retrieval and comparison of stored material to subsequent input. Neuronal oscillations have an inherent time structure, can effectively coordinate synaptic integration of large neuron populations and could therefore organize and integrate distributed sub-processes in time and space. We observed field potential oscillations (14-95Hz in ventral prefrontal cortex of monkeys performing a visual memory task. Stimulus-selective and performance-dependent oscillations occurred simultaneously at 65-95Hz and 14-50Hz, the latter being phase-locked throughout memory maintenance. We propose that prefrontal oscillatory activity may be instrumental for the dynamical integration of local and global neuronal processes underlying short-term memory.

  14. Morphology and connections of intratrigeminal cells and axons in the macaque monkey

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    Susan eWarren

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Trigeminal primary afferent fibers have small receptive fields and discrete submodalities, but second order trigeminal neurons often display larger receptive fields with complex, multimodal responses. Moreover, while most large caliber afferents terminate exclusively in the principal trigeminal nucleus, and pars caudalis of the spinal trigeminal nucleus receives almost exclusively small caliber afferents, the characteristics of second order neurons do not always reflect this dichotomy. These surprising characteristics may be due to a network of intratrigeminal connections modifying primary afferent contributions. This study characterizes the distribution and morphology of intratrigeminal cells and axons in a macaque monkeys. Tracer injections centered in the principal nucleus and adjacent pars oralis retrogradely labeled neurons bilaterally in pars interpolaris, but only ipsilaterally, in pars caudalis. Labeled axons terminated contralaterally within pars interpolaris and caudalis. Features of the intratrigeminal cells in ipsilateral pars caudalis suggest that both nociceptive and non-nociceptive neurons project to principalis. A commissural projection to contralateral principalis was also revealed. Injections into pars caudalis labeled cells and terminals in the principal nucleus and pars oralis on both sides, indicating the presence of bilateral reciprocal connections. Labeled terminals and cells were also present bilaterally in pars interpolaris and in contralateral pars caudalis. Interpolaris injections produced labeling patterns similar to those of pars caudalis.Thus, the rostral and caudal poles of the macaque trigeminal complex are richly interconnected by ipsilateral ascending and descending connections providing an anatomical substrate for complex analysis of oro-facial stimuli. Sparser reciprocal crossed intratrigeminal connections may be important for conjugate reflex movements, such as the corneal blink reflex.

  15. Coding of shape from shading in area V4 of the macaque monkey

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    Jouffrais Christophe

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The shading of an object provides an important cue for recognition, especially for determining its 3D shape. However, neuronal mechanisms that allow the recovery of 3D shape from shading are poorly understood. The aim of our study was to determine the neuronal basis of 3D shape from shading coding in area V4 of the awake macaque monkey. Results We recorded the responses of V4 cells to stimuli presented parafoveally while the monkeys fixated a central spot. We used a set of stimuli made of 8 different 3D shapes illuminated from 4 directions (from above, the left, the right and below and different 2D controls for each stimulus. The results show that V4 neurons present a broad selectivity to 3D shape and illumination direction, but without a preference for a unique illumination direction. However, 3D shape and illumination direction selectivities are correlated suggesting that V4 neurons can use the direction of illumination present in complex patterns of shading present on the surface of objects. In addition, a vast majority of V4 neurons (78% have statistically different responses to the 3D and 2D versions of the stimuli, while responses to 3D are not systematically stronger than those to 2D controls. However, a hierarchical cluster analysis showed that the different classes of stimuli (3D, 2D controls are clustered in the V4 cells response space suggesting a coding of 3D stimuli based on the population response. The different illumination directions also tend to be clustered in this space. Conclusion Together, these results show that area V4 participates, at the population level, in the coding of complex shape from the shading patterns coming from the illumination of the surface of corrugated objects. Hence V4 provides important information for one of the steps of cortical processing of the 3D aspect of objects in natural light environment.

  16. Spatial choices of macaque monkeys based on the visual representation of the response space: rotation of the stimuli.

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    Nedvidek, Jan; Nekovarova, Tereza; Bures, Jan

    2008-11-21

    In earlier experiments we have demonstrated that macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta) are able to use abstract visual stimuli presented on a computer screen to make spatial choices in the real environment. In those experiments a touch board ("response space") was directly connected to the computer screen ("virtual space"). The goal of the present experiment was to find out whether macaque monkeys are able: (1) To make spatial choices in a response space which is completely separated from the screen where the stimuli (designed as representation of the response space) are presented. (2) To make spatial choices based on visual stimuli representing the configuration of the response space which are rotated with respect to this response space. The monkeys were trained to choose one of the nine "touch holes" on a transparent touch panel situated beside a computer monitor on which the visual stimuli were presented. The visual stimuli were designed as an abstract representation of the response space: the rewarded position was shown as a bright circle situated at a certain position in the rectangle representing the contours of the touch panel. At first, the monkeys were trained with non-rotated spatial stimuli. After this initial training, the visual stimuli were gradually rotated by 20 degrees in each step. In the last phase, the stimulus was suddenly rotated in the opposite direction by 60 degrees in one step. The results of the experiment suggest that the monkeys are able to use successfully abstract stimuli from one spatial frame for spatial choices in another frame. Effective use of the stimuli after their rotation suggested that the monkeys perceived the stimuli as a representation of the configuration of the touch holes in the real space, not only as different geometrical patterns without configuration information.

  17. Behavioral and autonomic responses to peer separation in pigtail macaque monkey infants.

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    Boccia, M L; Reite, M; Kaemingk, K; Held, P; Laudenslager, M

    1989-07-01

    Brief maternal separations of young nonhuman primates have been used extensively to study the behavior and physiology of attachment, loss, and bereavement. The physiological responses to the loss of alternative attachment figures, such as peers, is less well documented in nonhuman primates. This study examined both autonomic and behavioral responses of peer-reared pigtail macaque infants to separation. Eight infants were removed from their mothers at birth and reared in four peer pairs. At 6 months of age, each monkey was implanted with a multichannel biotelemetry device which transmitted heartrate, body temperature, EEG, EMG, and EOG. Blood was collected twice weekly for immunological assessment. Behavioral and physiological data, including sleep, were collected for 1 week of baseline, 2 weeks of separation, and 1 week of reunion. Behavioral and physiological results indicated agitation but not depression following separation from their peer attachment figures. We found reduced mitogenic responses to pokeweed consequent to peer separation, suggestive of altered B-cell function. REM variables were the only sleep measures affected by the separation, and were suggestive of agitation but not depression.

  18. Click train encoding in primary and non-primary auditory cortex of anesthetized macaque monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshurkova, E; Scheich, H; Brosch, M

    2008-06-02

    We studied encoding of temporally modulated sounds in 28 multiunits in the primary auditory cortical field (AI) and in 35 multiunits in the secondary auditory cortical field (caudomedial auditory cortical field, CM) by presenting periodic click trains with click rates between 1 and 300 Hz lasting for 2-4 s. We found that all multiunits increased or decreased their firing rate during the steady state portion of the click train and that all except two multiunits synchronized their firing to individual clicks in the train. Rate increases and synchronized responses were most prevalent and strongest at low click rates, as expressed by best modulation frequency, limiting frequency, percentage of responsive multiunits, and average rate response and vector strength. Synchronized responses occurred up to 100 Hz; rate response occurred up to 300 Hz. Both auditory fields responded similarly to low click rates but differed at click rates above approximately 12 Hz at which more multiunits in AI than in CM exhibited synchronized responses and increased rate responses and more multiunits in CM exhibited decreased rate responses. These findings suggest that the auditory cortex of macaque monkeys encodes temporally modulated sounds similar to the auditory cortex of other mammals. Together with other observations presented in this and other reports, our findings also suggest that AI and CM have largely overlapping sensitivities for acoustic stimulus features but encode these features differently.

  19. Movement-related activity during goal-directed hand actions in the monkey ventrolateral prefrontal cortex.

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    Simone, Luciano; Rozzi, Stefano; Bimbi, Marco; Fogassi, Leonardo

    2015-12-01

    Grasping actions require the integration of two neural processes, one enabling the transformation of object properties into corresponding motor acts, and the other involved in planning and controlling action execution on the basis of contextual information. The first process relies on parieto-premotor circuits, whereas the second is considered to be a prefrontal function. Up to now, the prefrontal cortex has been mainly investigated with conditional visuomotor tasks requiring a learned association between cues and behavioural output. To clarify the functional role of the prefrontal cortex in grasping actions, we recorded the activity of ventrolateral prefrontal (VLPF) neurons while monkeys (Macaca mulatta) performed tasks requiring reaching-grasping actions in different contextual conditions (in light and darkness, memory-guided, and in the absence of abstract learned rules). The results showed that the VLPF cortex contains neurons that are active during action execution (movement-related neurons). Some of them showed grip selectivity, and some also responded to object presentation. Most movement-related neurons discharged during action execution both with and without visual feedback, and this discharge typically did not change when the action was performed with object mnemonic information and in the absence of abstract rules. The findings of this study indicate that a population of VLPF neurons play a role in controlling goal-directed grasping actions in several contexts. This control is probably exerted within a wider network, involving parietal and premotor regions, where the role of VLPF movement-related neurons would be that of activating, on the basis of contextual information, the representation of the motor goal of the intended action (taking possession of an object) during action planning and execution.

  20. Spinogenesis and pruning in the anterior ventral inferotemporal cortex of the macaque monkey: an intracellular injection study of layer III pyramidal cells

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    Guy N. Elston

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Cortical pyramidal cells grow and mature at different rates in visual, auditory and prefrontal cortex of the macaque monkey. In particular, differences across the areas have been reported in both the timing and magnitude of growth, branching, spinogenesis and pruning in the basal dendritic trees of cells in layer III. Presently available data suggest that these different growth profiles reflect the type of functions performed by these cells in the adult brain. However, to date, studies have focussed on only a relatively few cortical areas. In the present investigation we quantified the growth of the dendritic trees of layer III pyramidal cells in the anterior ventral portion of cytoarchitectonic area TE (TEav to better comprehend developmental trends in the cerebral cortex. We quantified the growth and branching of the dendrities, and spinogenesis and pruning of spines, from post-natal day 2 (PND2 to four and a half years of age. We found that the dendritic trees increase in size from PND2 to 7 months of age and thereafter become smaller. The dendritic trees became increasingly more branched from PND2 into adulthood. There was a 2-fold increase in the number of spines in the basal dendritic trees of pyramidal cells from PND2 to 3½ months of age and then a 10% net decrease in spine number into adulthood. Thus, the growth profile of layer III pyramidal cells in the anterior ventral portion of the inferotemporal cortex differs to that in other cortical areas associated with visual processing.

  1. Feature to space conversion during target selection in the dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex of monkeys.

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    Inoue, Masato; Mikami, Akichika

    2010-03-01

    To investigate the neuronal mechanism of the process of selection of a target from an array of stimuli, we analysed neuronal activity of the lateral prefrontal cortex during the response period of a serial probe reproduction task. During the response period of this task, monkeys were trained to select a memorized target object from an array of three objects and make a saccadic eye movement toward it. Of 611 neurons, 74 neurons showed visual response and 56 neurons showed presaccadic activity during the response period. Among visual neurons, 27 showed array- and target-selectivity. All of these array- and target-selective visual responses were recorded from the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). Among 56 neurons with presaccadic activity, nine showed target-selective activity, 17 showed target- and direction-selective activity, and 23 showed direction-selective activity. The target-selective, and the target- and direction-selective activities were recorded from the VLPFC, and the direction-selective activities were recorded from VLPFC and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). The starting time of the activity was earlier for the target-selective, and target- and direction-selective activities in VLPFC, intermediate for the direction-selective activities in VLPFC, and later for the direction-selective activities in DLPFC. These results suggest that VLPFC plays a role in the process of selection of a target object from an array of stimuli, VLPFC and DLPFC play a role in determining the location of the target in space, and DLPFC plays a role in selecting a direction and making a decision to generate a saccadic eye movement.

  2. Desynchronization and rebound of beta oscillations during conscious and unconscious local neuronal processing in the macaque lateral prefrontal cortex.

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    Panagiotaropoulos, Theofanis I; Kapoor, Vishal; Logothetis, Nikos K

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that control mechanisms are not tightly bound to conscious perception since both conscious and unconscious information can trigger control processes, probably through the activation of higher-order association areas like the prefrontal cortex. Studying the modulation of control-related prefrontal signals in a microscopic, neuronal level during conscious and unconscious neuronal processing, and under control-free conditions could provide an elementary understanding of these interactions. Here we performed extracellular electrophysiological recordings in the macaque lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) during monocular physical alternation (PA) and binocular flash suppression (BFS) and studied the local scale relationship between beta (15-30 Hz) oscillations, a rhythmic signal believed to reflect the current sensory, motor, or cognitive state (status-quo), and conscious or unconscious neuronal processing. First, we show that beta oscillations are observed in the LPFC during resting state. Both PA and BFS had a strong impact on the power of this spontaneous rhythm with the modulation pattern of beta power being identical across these two conditions. Specifically, both perceptual dominance and suppression of local neuronal populations in BFS were accompanied by a transient beta desynchronization followed by beta activity rebound, a pattern also observed when perception occurred without any underlying visual competition in PA. These results indicate that under control-free conditions, at least one rhythmic signal known to reflect control processes in the LPFC (i.e., beta oscillations) is not obstructed by local neuronal, and accordingly perceptual, suppression, thus being independent from temporally co-existing conscious and unconscious local neuronal representations. Future studies could reveal the additive effects of motor or cognitive control demands on prefrontal beta oscillations during conscious and unconscious processing.

  3. The influence of chronic exposure to antipsychotic medications on brain size before and after tissue fixation: a comparison of haloperidol and olanzapine in macaque monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorph-Petersen, Karl-Anton; Pierri, Joseph N; Perel, James M

    2005-01-01

    It is unclear to what degree antipsychotic therapy confounds longitudinal imaging studies and post-mortem studies of subjects with schizophrenia. To investigate this problem, we developed a non-human primate model of chronic antipsychotic exposure. Three groups of six macaque monkeys each were...

  4. Decoding the Dopamine Signal in Macaque Prefrontal Cortex: A Simulation Study Using the Cx3Dp Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spühler, Isabelle Ayumi; Hauri, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine transmission in the prefrontal cortex plays an important role in reward based learning, working memory and attention. Dopamine is thought to be released non-synaptically into the extracellular space and to reach distant receptors through diffusion. This simulation study examines how the dopamine signal might be decoded by the recipient neuron. The simulation was based on parameters from the literature and on our own quantified, structural data from macaque prefrontal area 10. The change in extracellular dopamine concentration was estimated at different distances from release sites and related to the affinity of the dopamine receptors. Due to the sparse and random distribution of release sites, a transient heterogeneous pattern of dopamine concentration emerges. Our simulation predicts, however, that at any point in the simulation volume there is sufficient dopamine to bind and activate high-affinity dopamine receptors. We propose that dopamine is broadcast to its distant receptors and any change from the local baseline concentration might be decoded by a transient change in the binding probability of dopamine receptors. Dopamine could thus provide a graduated ‘teaching’ signal to reinforce concurrently active synapses and cell assemblies. In conditions of highly reduced or highly elevated dopamine levels the simulations predict that relative changes in the dopamine signal can no longer be decoded, which might explain why cognitive deficits are observed in patients with Parkinson’s disease, or induced through drugs blocking dopamine reuptake. PMID:23951205

  5. Measurement of neuronal activity in a macaque monkey in response to animate images using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS

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    Masumi Wakita

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS has been used extensively for functional neuroimaging over the past decade, in part because it is considered a powerful tool for investigating brain function in human infants and young children, for whom other neuroimaging techniques are not suitable. In particular, several studies have measured hemodynamic responses in the occipital region in infants upon exposure to visual stimuli. In the present study, we used a multi-channel NIRS to measure neuronal activity in a macaque monkey who was trained to watch videos showing various circus animals performing acrobatic activities without fixing the head position of the monkey. Cortical activity from the occipital region was measured first by placing a probe comprising a 3x5 array of emitters and detectors (2 x 4 cm on the area (area 17, and the robustness and stability of the results were confirmed across sessions. Cortical responses were then measured from the dorsofrontal region. The oxygenated hemoglobin signals increased in area 9 and decreased in area 8b in response to viewing the videos. The results suggest that these regions are involved in cognitive processing of visually presented stimuli. The monkey showed positive responsiveness to the stimuli from the affective standpoint, but its attentional response to them was an inhibitory one.

  6. Measurement of neuronal activity in a macaque monkey in response to animate images using near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakita, Masumi; Shibasaki, Masahiro; Ishizuka, Takashi; Schnackenberg, Joerg; Fujiawara, Michiyuki; Masataka, Nobuo

    2010-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been used extensively for functional neuroimaging over the past decade, in part because it is considered a powerful tool for investigating brain function in human infants and young children, for whom other neuroimaging techniques are not suitable. In particular, several studies have measured hemodynamic responses in the occipital region in infants upon exposure to visual stimuli. In the present study, we used a multi-channel NIRS to measure neuronal activity in a macaque monkey who was trained to watch videos showing various circus animals performing acrobatic activities without fixing the head position of the monkey. Cortical activity from the occipital region was measured first by placing a probe comprising a 3 x 5 array of emitters and detectors (2 x 4 cm) on the area (area 17), and the robustness and stability of the results were confirmed across sessions. Cortical responses were then measured from the dorsofrontal region. The oxygenated hemoglobin signals increased in area 9 and decreased in area 8b in response to viewing the videos. The results suggest that these regions are involved in cognitive processing of visually presented stimuli. The monkey showed positive responsiveness to the stimuli from the affective standpoint, but its attentional response to them was an inhibitory one.

  7. Visual Responsiveness of Neurons in the Secondary Somatosensory Area and its Surrounding Parietal Operculum Regions in Awake Macaque Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hihara, Sayaka; Taoka, Miki; Tanaka, Michio; Iriki, Atsushi

    2015-11-01

    Previous neurophysiological studies performed in macaque monkeys have shown that the secondary somatosensory cortex (SII) is essentially engaged in the processing of somatosensory information and no other sensory input has been reported. In contrast, recent human brain-imaging studies have revealed the effects of visual and auditory stimuli on SII activity, which suggest multisensory integration in the human SII. To determine whether multisensory responses of the SII also exist in nonhuman primates, we recorded single-unit activity in response to visual and auditory stimuli from the SII and surrounding regions in 8 hemispheres from 6 awake monkeys. Among 1157 recorded neurons, 306 neurons responded to visual stimuli. These visual neurons usually responded to rather complex stimuli, such as stimulation of the peripersonal space (40.5%), observation of human action (29.1%), and moving-object stimulation outside the monkey's reach (23.9%). We occasionally applied auditory stimuli to visual neurons and found 10 auditory-responsive neurons that exhibited somatosensory responses. The visual neurons were distributed continuously along the lateral sulcus covering the entire SII, along with other somatosensory neurons. These results highlight the need to investigate novel functional roles-other than somesthetic sensory processing-of the SII.

  8. Comparison of functional recovery of manual dexterity after unilateral spinal cord lesion or motor cortex lesion in adult macaque monkeys

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    Florence eHoogewoud

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In relation to mechanisms involved in functional recovery of manual dexterity from cervical cord injury or from motor cortical injury, our goal was to determine whether the movements that characterize post-lesion functional recovery are comparable to original movement patterns or do monkeys adopt distinct strategies to compensate the deficits depending on the type of lesion? To this aim, data derived from earlier studies, using a skilled finger task (the modified Brinkman board from which pellets are retrieved from vertical or horizontal slots, in spinal cord and motor cortex injured monkeys were analyzed and compared. Twelve adult macaque monkeys were subjected to a hemi-section of the cervical cord (n=6 or to a unilateral excitotoxic lesion of the hand representation in the primary motor cortex (n=6. In addition, in each subgroup, one half of monkeys (n=3 were treated for 30 days with a function blocking antibody against the neurite growth inhibitory protein Nogo-A, while the other half (n=3 represented control animals. The motor deficits, and the extent and time course of functional recovery were assessed.For some of the parameters investigated (wrist angle for horizontal slots and movement types distribution for vertical slots after cervical injury; movement types distribution for horizontal slots after motor cortex lesion, post-lesion restoration of the original movement patterns (true recovery led to a quantitatively better functional recovery. In the motor cortex lesion groups, pharmacological reversible inactivation experiments showed that the peri-lesion territory of the primary motor cortex or re-arranged, spared domain of the lesion zone, played a major role in the functional recovery, together with the ipsilesional intact premotor cortex.

  9. Dynamically Allocated Hub in Task-Evoked Network Predicts the Vulnerable Prefrontal Locus for Contextual Memory Retrieval in Macaques.

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    Takahiro Osada

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging and neurophysiology have revealed that multiple areas in the prefrontal cortex (PFC are activated in a specific memory task, but severity of impairment after PFC lesions is largely different depending on which activated area is damaged. The critical relationship between lesion sites and impairments has not yet been given a clear mechanistic explanation. Although recent works proposed that a whole-brain network contains hubs that play integrative roles in cortical information processing, this framework relying on an anatomy-based structural network cannot account for the vulnerable locus for a specific task, lesioning of which would bring impairment. Here, we hypothesized that (i activated PFC areas dynamically form an ordered network centered at a task-specific "functional hub" and (ii the lesion-effective site corresponds to the "functional hub," but not to a task-invariant "structural hub." To test these hypotheses, we conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments in macaques performing a temporal contextual memory task. We found that the activated areas formed a hierarchical hub-centric network based on task-evoked directed connectivity, differently from the anatomical network reflecting axonal projection patterns. Using a novel simulated-lesion method based on support vector machine, we estimated severity of impairment after lesioning of each area, which accorded well with a known dissociation in contextual memory impairment in macaques (impairment after lesioning in area 9/46d, but not in area 8Ad. The predicted severity of impairment was proportional to the network "hubness" of the virtually lesioned area in the task-evoked directed connectivity network, rather than in the anatomical network known from tracer studies. Our results suggest that PFC areas dynamically and cooperatively shape a functional hub-centric network to reallocate the lesion-effective site depending on the cognitive processes, apart from

  10. Dynamically Allocated Hub in Task-Evoked Network Predicts the Vulnerable Prefrontal Locus for Contextual Memory Retrieval in Macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Takahiro; Adachi, Yusuke; Miyamoto, Kentaro; Jimura, Koji; Setsuie, Rieko; Miyashita, Yasushi

    2015-06-01

    Neuroimaging and neurophysiology have revealed that multiple areas in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are activated in a specific memory task, but severity of impairment after PFC lesions is largely different depending on which activated area is damaged. The critical relationship between lesion sites and impairments has not yet been given a clear mechanistic explanation. Although recent works proposed that a whole-brain network contains hubs that play integrative roles in cortical information processing, this framework relying on an anatomy-based structural network cannot account for the vulnerable locus for a specific task, lesioning of which would bring impairment. Here, we hypothesized that (i) activated PFC areas dynamically form an ordered network centered at a task-specific "functional hub" and (ii) the lesion-effective site corresponds to the "functional hub," but not to a task-invariant "structural hub." To test these hypotheses, we conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments in macaques performing a temporal contextual memory task. We found that the activated areas formed a hierarchical hub-centric network based on task-evoked directed connectivity, differently from the anatomical network reflecting axonal projection patterns. Using a novel simulated-lesion method based on support vector machine, we estimated severity of impairment after lesioning of each area, which accorded well with a known dissociation in contextual memory impairment in macaques (impairment after lesioning in area 9/46d, but not in area 8Ad). The predicted severity of impairment was proportional to the network "hubness" of the virtually lesioned area in the task-evoked directed connectivity network, rather than in the anatomical network known from tracer studies. Our results suggest that PFC areas dynamically and cooperatively shape a functional hub-centric network to reallocate the lesion-effective site depending on the cognitive processes, apart from static anatomical

  11. Mixed-complexity artificial grammar learning in humans and macaque monkeys: evaluating learning strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Benjamin; Smith, Kenny; Petkov, Christopher I

    2015-03-01

    Artificial grammars (AG) can be used to generate rule-based sequences of stimuli. Some of these can be used to investigate sequence-processing computations in non-human animals that might be related to, but not unique to, human language. Previous AG learning studies in non-human animals have used different AGs to separately test for specific sequence-processing abilities. However, given that natural language and certain animal communication systems (in particular, song) have multiple levels of complexity, mixed-complexity AGs are needed to simultaneously evaluate sensitivity to the different features of the AG. Here, we tested humans and Rhesus macaques using a mixed-complexity auditory AG, containing both adjacent (local) and non-adjacent (longer-distance) relationships. Following exposure to exemplary sequences generated by the AG, humans and macaques were individually tested with sequences that were either consistent with the AG or violated specific adjacent or non-adjacent relationships. We observed a considerable level of cross-species correspondence in the sensitivity of both humans and macaques to the adjacent AG relationships and to the statistical properties of the sequences. We found no significant sensitivity to the non-adjacent AG relationships in the macaques. A subset of humans was sensitive to this non-adjacent relationship, revealing interesting between- and within-species differences in AG learning strategies. The results suggest that humans and macaques are largely comparably sensitive to the adjacent AG relationships and their statistical properties. However, in the presence of multiple cues to grammaticality, the non-adjacent relationships are less salient to the macaques and many of the humans.

  12. A preliminary study on activity budget, daily travel distance and feeding behaviour of long-tailed macaques and spectacled dusky leaf monkey in Bangi campus of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Selangor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruslin, Farhani; Yaakop, Salmah; Zain, Badrul Munir Md.

    2014-09-01

    The activity budget, ranging behaviour and feeding behaviour of a multimale-multifemale group of long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) and a multimale-multifemale group of spectacled dusky leaf monkey (Trachypithecus obscurus) were studied. A total of 145 hours and 143 hours have been spent to observe the group of long-tailed macaque and spectacled dusky leaf monkey that ranged the same habitat adjacent to the campus areas. The researchers examined the activity budgets, daily travel length and feeding activity of both species and distinguished how the sympatric species used the same forested habitat. Preliminary study found that the long-tailed macaques spent longer time feeding, moving than resting and other activities. On the other hand, the dusky leaf monkey spent much time in feeding and resting than moving. The differences of daily pattern between these two groups are significant. Macaques have higher daily mean of path length compared to the dusky leaf monkey and spent much time moving compare to the leaf monkey group. The spectacled dusky leaf monkey group also has fully utilized the forested areas where else the long-tailed macaques adopted foraging to the adjacent residential colleges.

  13. Viral vector-based reversible neuronal inactivation and behavioral manipulation in the macaque monkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Juliane Nielsen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Viral vectors are promising tools for the dissection of neural circuits. In principle, they can manipulate neurons at a level of specificity not otherwise achievable. While many studies have used viral vector-based approaches in the rodent brain, only a few have employed this technique in the non-human primate, despite the importance of this animal model for neuroscience research. Here, we report for the first time that a viral vector-based approach can be used to manipulate a monkey’s behavior in a task. For this purpose, we used the allatostatin receptor/allatostatin (AlstR/AL system, which has previously been shown to allow inactivation of neurons in vivo. The AlstR was expressed in neurons in monkey V1 by injection of an AAV1 vector. Two monkeys were trained in a detection task, in which they had to make a saccade to a faint peripheral target. Injection of AL caused a retinotopic deficit in the detection task in one monkey. Specifically, the monkey showed marked impairment for detection targets placed at the visual field location represented at the virus injection site, but not for targets shown elsewhere. We confirmed that these deficits indeed were due to the interaction of AlstR and AL by injecting saline, or AL at a V1 location without AlstR expression. Post-mortem histology confirmed AlstR expression in this monkey. We failed to replicate the behavioral results in a second monkey, as AL injection did not impair the second monkey’s performance in the detection task. However, post-mortem histology revealed a very low level of AlstR expression in this monkey. Our results demonstrate that viral vector-based approaches can produce effects strong enough to influence a monkey’s performance in a behavioral task, supporting the further development of this approach for studying how neuronal circuits control complex behaviors in non-human primates.

  14. Alternative Splicing of AMPA subunits in Prefrontal Cortical Fields of Cynomolgus Monkeys following Chronic Ethanol Self-Administration

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    Glen eAcosta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional impairment of the orbital and medial prefrontal cortex underlies deficits in executive control that characterize addictive disorders, including alcohol addiction. Previous studies indicate that alcohol alters glutamate neurotransmission and one substrate of these effects may be through the reconfiguration of the subunits constituting ionotropic glutamate receptor (iGluR complexes. Glutamatergic transmission is integral to cortico-cortical and cortico-subcortical communication and alcohol-induced changes in the abundance of the receptor subunits and/or their splice variants may result in critical functional impairments of prefrontal cortex in alcohol dependence. To this end, the effects of chronic ethanol self-administration on glutamate receptor ionotropic AMPA (GRIA subunit variant and kainate (GRIK subunit mRNA expression were studied in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC of male cynomolgus monkeys. In DLPFC, total AMPA splice variant expression and total kainate receptor subunit expression were significantly decreased in alcohol drinking monkeys. Expression levels of GRIA3 flip and flop and GRIA4 flop mRNAs in this region were positively correlated with daily ethanol intake and blood ethanol concentrations averaged over the six months prior to necropsy. In OFC, AMPA subunit splice variant expression was reduced in the alcohol treated group. GRIA2 flop mRNA levels in this region were positively correlated with daily ethanol intake and blood ethanol concentrations averaged over the six months prior to necropsy. Results from these studies provide further evidence of transcriptional regulation of iGluR subunits in the primate brain following chronic alcohol self-administration. Additional studies examining the cellular localization of such effects in the framework of primate prefrontal cortical circuitry are warranted.

  15. Snakes elicit earlier, and monkey faces, later, gamma oscillations in macaque pulvinar neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Quan Van; Isbell, Lynne A; Matsumoto, Jumpei; Le, Van Quang; Nishimaru, Hiroshi; Hori, Etsuro; Maior, Rafael S; Tomaz, Carlos; Ono, Taketoshi; Nishijo, Hisao

    2016-02-08

    Gamma oscillations (30-80 Hz) have been suggested to be involved in feedforward visual information processing, and might play an important role in detecting snakes as predators of primates. In the present study, we analyzed gamma oscillations of pulvinar neurons in the monkeys during a delayed non-matching to sample task, in which monkeys were required to discriminate 4 categories of visual stimuli (snakes, monkey faces, monkey hands and simple geometrical patterns). Gamma oscillations of pulvinar neuronal activity were analyzed in three phases around the stimulus onset (Pre-stimulus: 500 ms before stimulus onset; Early: 0-200 ms after stimulus onset; and Late: 300-500 ms after stimulus onset). The results showed significant increases in mean strength of gamma oscillations in the Early phase for snakes and the Late phase for monkey faces, but no significant differences in ratios and frequencies of gamma oscillations among the 3 phases. The different periods of stronger gamma oscillations provide neurophysiological evidence that is consistent with other studies indicating that primates can detect snakes very rapidly and also cue in to faces for information. Our results are suggestive of different roles of gamma oscillations in the pulvinar: feedforward processing for images of snakes and cortico-pulvinar-cortical integration for images of faces.

  16. Fetal sex determination of macaque monkeys by a nested PCR using maternal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsunaga, Fusako; Ueiwa, Miyuki; Kamanaka, Yoshirou; Morimoto, Mayumi; Nakamura, Shin

    2010-01-01

    Non-invasive fetal sex determination is required for biomedical studies, in which some sexual difference would be expected in fetal events, in order to make a choice of male or female fetus. To detect male fetal DNA of the sex-determining region Y gene (SRY) in maternal macaque plasma, nested real-time PCR using the SYBR Green system was developed. In all cases of pregnant macaques with male fetuses, a nested PCR product of SRY was amplified from the mother's plasma, while no amplicon was detected in any case of pregnancy with a female fetus. Interestingly, fetal SRY DNA appeared to be cleared rapidly from the maternal blood after parturition. The current method is sensitive and can be performed with a regular PCR machine.

  17. Transplantation of adult monkey neural stem cells into a contusion spinal cord injury model in rhesus macaque monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nemati, Shiva Nemati; Jabbari, Reza; Hajinasrollah, Mostafa

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Currently, cellular transplantation for spinal cord injuries (SCI) is the subject of numerous preclinical studies. Among the many cell types in the adult brain, there is a unique subpopulation of neural stem cells (NSC) that can self-renew and differentiate into neurons. The study aims......, therefore, to explore the efficacy of adult monkey NSC (mNSC) in a primate SCI model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this experimental study, isolated mNSCs were analyzed by flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry, and RT-PCR. Next, BrdU-labeled cells were transplanted into a SCI model. The SCI animal model...... was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histological analysis. Animals were clinically observed for 6 months. RESULTS: Analysis confirmed homing of mNSCs into the injury site. Transplanted cells expressed neuronal markers (TubIII). Hind limb performance improved in trans- planted animals based...

  18. Evidence for Motor Planning in Monkeys: Rhesus Macaques Select Efficient Grips when Transporting Spoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Eliza L.; Berthier, Neil E.; Metevier, Christina M.; Novak, Melinda A.

    2011-01-01

    McCarty and colleagues (1999) developed the elevated spoon task to measure motor planning in human infants. In this task, a spoon containing food was placed on an elevated apparatus that supported both ends of the spoon. The handle was oriented to the left or right on different trials. We presented naive adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with…

  19. Loss of asymmetric spine synapses in prefrontal cortex of motor-asymptomatic, dopamine-depleted, cognitively impaired MPTP-treated monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsworth, John D; Leranth, Csaba; Redmond, D Eugene; Roth, Robert H

    2013-05-01

    Parkinson's disease is usually characterized as a movement disorder; however, cognitive abilities that are dependent on the prefrontal cortex decline at an early stage of the disease in most patients. The changes that underlie cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease are not well understood. We hypothesize that reduced dopamine signalling in the prefrontal cortex in Parkinson's disease is a harbinger of detrimental synaptic changes in pyramidal neurons in the prefrontal cortex, whose function is necessary for normal cognition. Our previous data showed that monkeys exposed to the neurotoxin, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), but not exhibiting overt motor deficits (motor-asymptomatic), displayed cognitive deficits in prefrontal cortex-dependent tasks. The present results demonstrate that motor-asymptomatic MPTP-treated monkeys have a reduced dopamine concentration and a substantially lower number (50%) of asymmetric (excitatory) spine synapses in layer II/III, but not layer V, of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, compared to controls. In contrast, neither dopamine concentration nor asymmetric synapse number was altered in the entorhinal cortex of MPTP-treated monkeys. Together, these findings suggest that the number of asymmetric spine synapses on dendrites in the prefrontal cortex is dopamine-dependent and that the loss of synapses may be a morphological substrate of the cognitive deficits induced by a reduction in dopamine neurotransmission in this region.

  20. Somato-motor haptic processing in posterior inner perisylvian region (SII/pIC of the macaque monkey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Ishida

    Full Text Available The posterior inner perisylvian region including the secondary somatosensory cortex (area SII and the adjacent region of posterior insular cortex (pIC has been implicated in haptic processing by integrating somato-motor information during hand-manipulation, both in humans and in non-human primates. However, motor-related properties during hand-manipulation are still largely unknown. To investigate a motor-related activity in the hand region of SII/pIC, two macaque monkeys were trained to perform a hand-manipulation task, requiring 3 different grip types (precision grip, finger exploration, side grip both in light and in dark conditions. Our results showed that 70% (n = 33/48 of task related neurons within SII/pIC were only activated during monkeys' active hand-manipulation. Of those 33 neurons, 15 (45% began to discharge before hand-target contact, while the remaining neurons were tonically active after contact. Thirty-percent (n = 15/48 of studied neurons responded to both passive somatosensory stimulation and to the motor task. A consistent percentage of task-related neurons in SII/pIC was selectively activated during finger exploration (FE and precision grasping (PG execution, suggesting they play a pivotal role in control skilled finger movements. Furthermore, hand-manipulation-related neurons also responded when visual feedback was absent in the dark. Altogether, our results suggest that somato-motor neurons in SII/pIC likely contribute to haptic processing from the initial to the final phase of grasping and object manipulation. Such motor-related activity could also provide the somato-motor binding principle enabling the translation of diachronic somatosensory inputs into a coherent image of the explored object.

  1. Somato-motor haptic processing in posterior inner perisylvian region (SII/pIC) of the macaque monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Hiroaki; Fornia, Luca; Grandi, Laura Clara; Umiltà, Maria Alessandra; Gallese, Vittorio

    2013-01-01

    The posterior inner perisylvian region including the secondary somatosensory cortex (area SII) and the adjacent region of posterior insular cortex (pIC) has been implicated in haptic processing by integrating somato-motor information during hand-manipulation, both in humans and in non-human primates. However, motor-related properties during hand-manipulation are still largely unknown. To investigate a motor-related activity in the hand region of SII/pIC, two macaque monkeys were trained to perform a hand-manipulation task, requiring 3 different grip types (precision grip, finger exploration, side grip) both in light and in dark conditions. Our results showed that 70% (n = 33/48) of task related neurons within SII/pIC were only activated during monkeys' active hand-manipulation. Of those 33 neurons, 15 (45%) began to discharge before hand-target contact, while the remaining neurons were tonically active after contact. Thirty-percent (n = 15/48) of studied neurons responded to both passive somatosensory stimulation and to the motor task. A consistent percentage of task-related neurons in SII/pIC was selectively activated during finger exploration (FE) and precision grasping (PG) execution, suggesting they play a pivotal role in control skilled finger movements. Furthermore, hand-manipulation-related neurons also responded when visual feedback was absent in the dark. Altogether, our results suggest that somato-motor neurons in SII/pIC likely contribute to haptic processing from the initial to the final phase of grasping and object manipulation. Such motor-related activity could also provide the somato-motor binding principle enabling the translation of diachronic somatosensory inputs into a coherent image of the explored object.

  2. Neuronal correlates of multiple top-down signals during covert tracking of moving objects in macaque prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushima, Ayano; Tanaka, Masaki

    2012-10-01

    Resistance to distraction is a key component of executive functions and is strongly linked to the prefrontal cortex. Recent evidence suggests that neural mechanisms exist for selective suppression of task-irrelevant information. However, neuronal signals related to selective suppression have not yet been identified, whereas nonselective surround suppression, which results from attentional enhancement for relevant stimuli, has been well documented. This study examined single neuron activities in the lateral PFC when monkeys covertly tracked one of randomly moving objects. Although many neurons responded to the target, we also found a group of neurons that exhibited a selective response to the distractor that was visually identical to the target. Because most neurons were insensitive to an additional distractor that explicitly differed in color from the target, the brain seemed to monitor the distractor only when necessary to maintain internal object segregation. Our results suggest that the lateral PFC might provide at least two top-down signals during covert object tracking: one for enhancement of visual processing for the target and the other for selective suppression of visual processing for the distractor. These signals might work together to discriminate objects, thereby regulating both the sensitivity and specificity of target choice during covert object tracking.

  3. Age-related increase of sI(AHP) in prefrontal pyramidal cells of monkeys: relationship to cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebke, J I; Amatrudo, J M

    2012-06-01

    Reduced excitability, due to an increase in the slow afterhyperpolarization (and its underlying current sI(AHP)), occurs in CA1 pyramidal cells in aged cognitively-impaired, but not cognitively-unimpaired, rodents. We sought to determine whether similar age-related changes in the sI(AHP) occur in pyramidal cells in the rhesus monkey dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were obtained from layer 3 and layer 5 pyramidal cells in dlPFC slices prepared from young (9.6 ± 0.7 years old) and aged (22.3 ± 0.7 years old) behaviorally characterized subjects. The amplitude of the sI(AHP) was significantly greater in layer 3 (but not layer 5) cells from aged-impaired compared with both aged-unimpaired and young monkeys, which did not differ. Aged layer 3, but not layer 5, cells exhibited significantly increased action potential firing rates, but there was no relationship between sI(AHP) and firing rate. Thus, in monkey dlPFC layer 3 cells, an increase in sI(AHP) is associated with age-related cognitive decline; however, this increase is not associated with a reduction in excitability.

  4. Spatial relationship between flavoprotein fluorescence and the hemodynamic response in the primary visual cortex of alert macaque monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevgeniy B Sirotin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Flavoprotein fluorescence imaging (FFI is a novel intrinsic optical signal that is steadily gaining ground as a valuable imaging tool in neuroscience research due to its closer relationship with local metabolism relative to the more commonly used hemodynamic signals. We have developed a technique for FFI imaging in the primary visual cortex (V1 of alert monkeys. Due to the nature of neurovascular coupling, hemodynamic signals are known to spread beyond the locus of metabolic activity. To determine whether FFI signals could provide a more focal measure of cortical activity in alert animals, we compared FFI and hemodynamic point spreads (i.e. responses to a minimal visual stimulus and functional mapping signals over V1 in macaques performing simple fixation tasks. FFI responses were biphasic, with an early and focal fluorescence increase followed by a delayed and spatially broader fluorescence decrease. As expected, the early fluorescence increase, indicating increased local oxidative metabolism, was somewhat narrower than the simultaneously observed hemodynamic response. However, the later FFI decrease was broader than the hemodynamic response and started prior to the cessation of visual stimulation suggesting different mechanisms underlying the two phases of the fluorescence signal. FFI mapping signals were free of vascular artifacts and comparable in amplitude to hemodynamic mapping signals. These results indicate that the FFI response may be a more local and direct indicator of cortical metabolism than the hemodynamic response in alert animals.

  5. Neurofilament protein is differentially distributed in subpopulations of corticocortical projection neurons in the macaque monkey visual pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hof, P. R.; Ungerleider, L. G.; Webster, M. J.; Gattass, R.; Adams, M. M.; Sailstad, C. A.; Morrison, J. H.; Bloom, F. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    Previous studies of the primate cerebral cortex have shown that neurofilament protein is present in pyramidal neuron subpopulations displaying specific regional and laminar distribution patterns. In order to characterize further the neurochemical phenotype of the neurons furnishing feedforward and feedback pathways in the visual cortex of the macaque monkey, we performed an analysis of the distribution of neurofilament protein in corticocortical projection neurons in areas V1, V2, V3, V3A, V4, and MT. Injections of the retrogradely transported dyes Fast Blue and Diamidino Yellow were placed within areas V4 and MT, or in areas V1 and V2, in 14 adult rhesus monkeys, and the brains of these animals were processed for immunohistochemistry with an antibody to nonphosphorylated epitopes of the medium and heavy molecular weight subunits of the neurofilament protein. Overall, there was a higher proportion of neurons projecting from areas V1, V2, V3, and V3A to area MT that were neurofilament protein-immunoreactive (57-100%), than to area V4 (25-36%). In contrast, feedback projections from areas MT, V4, and V3 exhibited a more consistent proportion of neurofilament protein-containing neurons (70-80%), regardless of their target areas (V1 or V2). In addition, the vast majority of feedback neurons projecting to areas V1 and V2 were located in layers V and VI in areas V4 and MT, while they were observed in both supragranular and infragranular layers in area V3. The laminar distribution of feedforward projecting neurons was heterogeneous. In area V1, Meynert and layer IVB cells were found to project to area MT, while neurons projecting to area V4 were particularly dense in layer III within the foveal representation. In area V2, almost all neurons projecting to areas MT or V4 were located in layer III, whereas they were found in both layers II-III and V-VI in areas V3 and V3A. These results suggest that neurofilament protein identifies particular subpopulations of

  6. Neurofilament protein defines regional patterns of cortical organization in the macaque monkey visual system: a quantitative immunohistochemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hof, P. R.; Morrison, J. H.; Bloom, F. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    Visual function in monkeys is subserved at the cortical level by a large number of areas defined by their specific physiological properties and connectivity patterns. For most of these cortical fields, a precise index of their degree of anatomical specialization has not yet been defined, although many regional patterns have been described using Nissl or myelin stains. In the present study, an attempt has been made to elucidate the regional characteristics, and to varying degrees boundaries, of several visual cortical areas in the macaque monkey using an antibody to neurofilament protein (SMI32). This antibody labels a subset of pyramidal neurons with highly specific regional and laminar distribution patterns in the cerebral cortex. Based on the staining patterns and regional quantitative analysis, as many as 28 cortical fields were reliably identified. Each field had a homogeneous distribution of labeled neurons, except area V1, where increases in layer IVB cell and in Meynert cell counts paralleled the increase in the degree of eccentricity in the visual field representation. Within the occipitotemporal pathway, areas V3 and V4 and fields in the inferior temporal cortex were characterized by a distinct population of neurofilament-rich neurons in layers II-IIIa, whereas areas located in the parietal cortex and part of the occipitoparietal pathway had a consistent population of large labeled neurons in layer Va. The mediotemporal areas MT and MST displayed a distinct population of densely labeled neurons in layer VI. Quantitative analysis of the laminar distribution of the labeled neurons demonstrated that the visual cortical areas could be grouped in four hierarchical levels based on the ratio of neuron counts between infragranular and supragranular layers, with the first (areas V1, V2, V3, and V3A) and third (temporal and parietal regions) levels characterized by low ratios and the second (areas MT, MST, and V4) and fourth (frontal regions) levels characterized by

  7. Neurofilament protein defines regional patterns of cortical organization in the macaque monkey visual system: a quantitative immunohistochemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hof, P. R.; Morrison, J. H.; Bloom, F. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    Visual function in monkeys is subserved at the cortical level by a large number of areas defined by their specific physiological properties and connectivity patterns. For most of these cortical fields, a precise index of their degree of anatomical specialization has not yet been defined, although many regional patterns have been described using Nissl or myelin stains. In the present study, an attempt has been made to elucidate the regional characteristics, and to varying degrees boundaries, of several visual cortical areas in the macaque monkey using an antibody to neurofilament protein (SMI32). This antibody labels a subset of pyramidal neurons with highly specific regional and laminar distribution patterns in the cerebral cortex. Based on the staining patterns and regional quantitative analysis, as many as 28 cortical fields were reliably identified. Each field had a homogeneous distribution of labeled neurons, except area V1, where increases in layer IVB cell and in Meynert cell counts paralleled the increase in the degree of eccentricity in the visual field representation. Within the occipitotemporal pathway, areas V3 and V4 and fields in the inferior temporal cortex were characterized by a distinct population of neurofilament-rich neurons in layers II-IIIa, whereas areas located in the parietal cortex and part of the occipitoparietal pathway had a consistent population of large labeled neurons in layer Va. The mediotemporal areas MT and MST displayed a distinct population of densely labeled neurons in layer VI. Quantitative analysis of the laminar distribution of the labeled neurons demonstrated that the visual cortical areas could be grouped in four hierarchical levels based on the ratio of neuron counts between infragranular and supragranular layers, with the first (areas V1, V2, V3, and V3A) and third (temporal and parietal regions) levels characterized by low ratios and the second (areas MT, MST, and V4) and fourth (frontal regions) levels characterized by

  8. Neuronal Responses in Visual Area V2 (V2) of Macaque Monkeys with Strabismic Amblyopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, H.; Zhang, B.; Tao, X.; Harwerth, R. S.; Smith, E. L.

    2011-01-01

    Amblyopia, a developmental disorder of spatial vision, is thought to result from a cascade of cortical deficits over several processing stages beginning at the primary visual cortex (V1). However, beyond V1, little is known about how cortical development limits the visual performance of amblyopic primates. We quantitatively analyzed the monocular and binocular responses of V1 and V2 neurons in a group of strabismic monkeys exhibiting varying depths of amblyopia. Unlike in V1, the relative effectiveness of the affected eye to drive V2 neurons was drastically reduced in the amblyopic monkeys. The spatial resolution and the orientation bias of V2, but not V1, neurons were subnormal for the affected eyes. Binocular suppression was robust in both cortical areas, and the magnitude of suppression in individual monkeys was correlated with the depth of their amblyopia. These results suggest that the reduced functional connections beyond V1 and the subnormal spatial filter properties of V2 neurons might have substantially limited the sensitivity of the amblyopic eyes and that interocular suppression was likely to have played a key role in the observed alterations of V2 responses and the emergence of amblyopia. PMID:21263036

  9. Quantitative determination of acetylshikonin in macaque monkey blood by LC-ESI-MSIMS after precolumn derivatization with 2-mercaptoethanol and its application in pharmacokinetic study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-xiao SUN; Hui-fang TIAN; Zhi-yun MENG; Alicia DU; Dan YUAN; Ruo-lan GU; Zhuo-na WU; Gui-fang DOU

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To develop and validate a novel precolumn derivatization method for the quantitative determination and pharmaeokinetic application of acetylshikonin in macaque monkeys by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Methods: 2-Mereaptoethanol was added to the blood sample as the derivatization reagent. The derivatization reaction formed 1 major derivation product, Which was well correlated with acetyl-shikonin. The acetylshikonin concentrations in the biological samples were cal-culated by quantitative determination of the major derivation product using LC-ESI-MS/MS. Separation was achieved using a C18 column (2 mm×50 mm, 5 μm) at room temperature and a linear gradient elution with a mobile phase containing methanol (1.96% acetic acid) and 10% methanol in water (1.96% acetic acid and 10 mmol/L ammonium acetate) at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. In addition, the major derivative, named derivative Ⅲ, was identified by UV spectra, MS, and the 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectra. Results: Good linearity was obtained within the range of 5 and 2000 ng/mL (r>0.99 using a linear regression model with 1/x2 weighting) for acetylshikonin. The interday and intraday precisions were found to be less than 12.3%, with the exception of the lowest concentration, which was less than 17.2%. The interday and intraday accuracies, which were between -3% and 0.6%, were also observed. After the administration of acetylshikonin (80 mg/kg, po) in macaque monkeys, the pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained through the non-compartmental analysis, where the area under the concentration-time curve to the last measurable concentration, the terminal elimination half-10.2±0.7 h, respectively. Conclusion: The method was validated and applied to the quantitative determination and pharmacokinetic study of aeetylshikonin in the blood samples of macaque monkeys.

  10. The anatomical connections of the macaque monkey orbitofrontal cortex. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavada, C; Compañy, T; Tejedor, J; Cruz-Rizzolo, R J; Reinoso-Suárez, F

    2000-03-01

    The orbitofrontal cortex (OfC) is a heterogeneous prefrontal sector selectively connected with a wide constellation of other prefrontal, limbic, sensory and premotor areas. Among the limbic cortical connections, the ones with the hippocampus and parahippocampal cortex are particularly salient. Sensory cortices connected with the OfC include areas involved in olfactory, gustatory, somatosensory, auditory and visual processing. Subcortical structures with prominent OfC connections include the amygdala, numerous thalamic nuclei, the striatum, hypothalamus, periaqueductal gray matter, and biochemically specific cell groups in the basal forebrain and brainstem. Architectonic and connectional evidence supports parcellation of the OfC. The rostrally placed isocortical sector is mainly connected with isocortical areas, including sensory areas of the auditory, somatic and visual modalities, whereas the caudal non-isocortical sector is principally connected with non-isocortical areas, and, in the sensory domain, with olfactory and gustatory areas. The connections of the isocortical and non-isocortical orbital sectors with the amygdala, thalamus, striatum, hypothalamus and periaqueductal gray matter are also specific. The medial sector of the OfC is selectively connected with the hippocampus, posterior parahippocampal cortex, posterior cingulate and retrosplenial areas, and area prostriata, while the lateral orbitofrontal sector is the most heavily connected with sensory areas of the gustatory, somatic and visual modalities, with premotor regions, and with the amygdala.

  11. [Cellular composition of the lymph nodes of monkeys (rhesus macaque) under normal and experimental conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusina, A K

    1978-01-01

    By means of mathematical methods, quantitative and qualitative changes were studied in different structural components of the mesenteric (ileocecal) lymph nodes in normal monkeys (Macaca rhesus) and under per os administration of Salmonella typhi murium, streptomycin-dependent. Cellular composition was calculated in the cortical plateau, cortical (lymphoid) cords and in follicules. Average percent of every cell type was determined. Vaccine administration, was stated to inhibit cytopoiesis in the cortical plateau and in the follicules with light centers. An inverse correlation was noted between the content of small and medium size lymphocytes. Different reactivity of certain structural components in the lymph nodes was demonstrated. As a response to the vaccine administration, plasmocellular acidophilic and macrophagal reactions were most pronounced in the cortical (lymphoid) cords.

  12. The Franco-American macaque experiment. [bone demineralization of monkeys on Space Shuttle

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    Cipriano, Leonard F.; Ballard, Rodney W.

    1988-01-01

    The details of studies to be carried out jointly by French and American teams on two rhesus monkeys prepared for future experiments aboard the Space Shuttle are discussed together with the equipment involved. Seven science discipline teams were formed, which will study the effects of flight and/or weightlessness on the bone and calcium metabolism, the behavior, the cardiovascular system, the fluid balance and electrolytes, the muscle system, the neurovestibular interactions, and the sleep/biorhythm cycles. New behavioral training techniques were developed, in which the animals were trained to respond to behavioral tasks in order to measure the parameters involving eye/hand coordination, the response time to target tracking, visual discrimination, and muscle forces used by the animals. A large data set will be obtained from different animals on the two to three Space Shuttle flights; the hardware technologies developed for these experiments will be applied for primate experiments on the Space Station.

  13. Presynaptic mitochondrial morphology in monkey prefrontal cortex correlates with working memory and is improved with estrogen treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Yuko; Yuk, Frank; Puri, Rishi; Janssen, William G M; Rapp, Peter R; Morrison, John H

    2014-01-07

    Humans and nonhuman primates are vulnerable to age- and menopause-related decline in working memory, a cognitive function reliant on the energy-demanding recurrent excitation of neurons within Brodmann's Area 46 of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). Here, we tested the hypothesis that the number and morphology (straight, curved, or donut-shaped) of mitochondria in dlPFC presynaptic boutons are altered with aging and menopause in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and that these metrics correlate with delayed response (DR) accuracy, a well-characterized measure of dlPFC-dependent working memory. Although presynaptic bouton density or size was not significantly different across groups distinguished by age or menses status, DR accuracy correlated positively with the number of total and straight mitochondria per dlPFC bouton. In contrast, DR accuracy correlated inversely with the frequency of boutons containing donut-shaped mitochondria, which exhibited smaller active zone areas and fewer docked synaptic vesicles than those with straight or curved mitochondria. We then examined the effects of estrogen administration to test whether a treatment known to improve working memory influences mitochondrial morphology. Aged ovariectomized monkeys treated with vehicle displayed significant working memory impairment and a concomitant 44% increase in presynaptic donut-shaped mitochondria, both of which were reversed with cyclic estradiol treatment. Together, our data suggest that hormone replacement therapy may benefit cognitive aging, in part by promoting mitochondrial and synaptic health in the dlPFC.

  14. Anatomical Connections of the Functionally Defined "Face Patches" in the Macaque Monkey.

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    Grimaldi, Piercesare; Saleem, Kadharbatcha S; Tsao, Doris

    2016-06-15

    The neural circuits underlying face recognition provide a model for understanding visual object representation, social cognition, and hierarchical information processing. A fundamental piece of information lacking to date is the detailed anatomical connections of the face patches. Here, we injected retrograde tracers into four different face patches (PL, ML, AL, AM) to characterize their anatomical connectivity. We found that the patches are strongly and specifically connected to each other, and individual patches receive inputs from extrastriate cortex, the medial temporal lobe, and three subcortical structures (the pulvinar, claustrum, and amygdala). Inputs from prefrontal cortex were surprisingly weak. Patches were densely interconnected to one another in both feedforward and feedback directions, inconsistent with a serial hierarchy. These results provide the first direct anatomical evidence that the face patches constitute a highly specialized system and suggest that subcortical regions may play a vital role in routing face-related information to subsequent processing stages.

  15. Behavioural profiles in captive-bred cynomolgus macaques: towards monkey models of mental disorders?

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    Sandrine M J Camus

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To date, experimental and preclinical studies on neuropsychiatric conditions have almost exclusively been performed in experimentally-induced animal models and have only rarely relied upon an ethological approach where animals have been observed in more naturalistic settings. The laboratory species of choice has been the rodent while the potential of more closely-related non-human primates have remained largely underexplored. METHODS: The present study, therefore, aimed at investigating the possible existence of spontaneous atypical/abnormal behaviours displayed by 40 cynomolgus macaques in captive conditions using an unbiased ethological scan-sampling analysis followed by multifactorial correspondence analysis and a hierarchical clustering. RESULTS: The study identified five distinct profiles (groups A to E that significantly differed on several behaviours, body postures, body orientations, gaze directions and locations in the cage environment. We suggest that animals from the low n groups (D and E present depressive-like and anxious-like symptoms, reminiscent of depressive and generalized anxiety disorders. Inter-individual differences were highlighted through unbiased ethological observations of spontaneous behaviours and associated parameters, although these were not associated with differences in plasma or cerebrospinal fluid levels of either stress-related hormones or monoamines, i.e. in accordance with the human situation. CONCLUSIONS: No interventional behavioural testing was required to discriminate between 3 typical and 2 atypical ethologically-defined behavioural profiles, reminiscent of certain depressive-like and anxiety-like symptoms. The use of unbiased behavioural observations might, thus, allow the identification of animal models of human mental/behavioural disorders and their most appropriate control groups.

  16. Behavioural Profiles in Captive-Bred Cynomolgus Macaques: Towards Monkey Models of Mental Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camus, Sandrine M. J.; Blois-Heulin, Catherine; Li, Qin; Hausberger, Martine; Bezard, Erwan

    2013-01-01

    Background To date, experimental and preclinical studies on neuropsychiatric conditions have almost exclusively been performed in experimentally-induced animal models and have only rarely relied upon an ethological approach where animals have been observed in more naturalistic settings. The laboratory species of choice has been the rodent while the potential of more closely-related non-human primates have remained largely underexplored. Methods The present study, therefore, aimed at investigating the possible existence of spontaneous atypical/abnormal behaviours displayed by 40 cynomolgus macaques in captive conditions using an unbiased ethological scan-sampling analysis followed by multifactorial correspondence analysis and a hierarchical clustering. Results The study identified five distinct profiles (groups A to E) that significantly differed on several behaviours, body postures, body orientations, gaze directions and locations in the cage environment. We suggest that animals from the low n groups (D and E) present depressive-like and anxious-like symptoms, reminiscent of depressive and generalized anxiety disorders. Inter-individual differences were highlighted through unbiased ethological observations of spontaneous behaviours and associated parameters, although these were not associated with differences in plasma or cerebrospinal fluid levels of either stress-related hormones or monoamines, i.e. in accordance with the human situation. Conclusions No interventional behavioural testing was required to discriminate between 3 typical and 2 atypical ethologically-defined behavioural profiles, reminiscent of certain depressive-like and anxiety-like symptoms. The use of unbiased behavioural observations might, thus, allow the identification of animal models of human mental/behavioural disorders and their most appropriate control groups. PMID:23658620

  17. Dynamic and Static Facial Expressions Decoded from Motion-Sensitive Areas in the Macaque Monkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furl, Nicholas; Hadj-Bouziane, Fadila; Liu, Ning; Averbeck, Bruno B.; Ungerleider, Leslie G.

    2012-01-01

    Humans adeptly use visual motion to recognize socially-relevant facial information. The macaque provides a model visual system for studying neural coding of expression movements, as its superior temporal sulcus (STS) possesses brain areas selective for faces and areas sensitive to visual motion. We employed functional magnetic resonance imaging and facial stimuli to localize motion-sensitive areas (Mf areas), which responded more to dynamic faces compared to static faces, and face-selective areas, which responded selectively to faces compared to objects and places. Using multivariate analysis, we found that information about both dynamic and static facial expressions could be robustly decoded from Mf areas. By contrast, face-selective areas exhibited relatively less facial expression information. Classifiers trained with expressions from one motion type (dynamic or static) showed poor generalization to the other motion type, suggesting that Mf areas employ separate and non-confusable neural codes for dynamic and static presentations of the same expressions. We also show that some of the motion sensitivity elicited by facial stimuli was not specific to faces but could also be elicited by moving dots, particularly in FST and STPm/LST, confirming their already well-established low-level motion sensitivity. A different pattern was found in anterior STS, which responded more to dynamic than static faces but was not sensitive to dot motion. Overall, we show that emotional expressions are mostly represented outside of face-selective cortex, in areas sensitive to motion. These regions may play a fundamental role in enhancing recognition of facial expression despite the complex stimulus changes associated with motion. PMID:23136433

  18. Neurophysiology of prehension. III. Representation of object features in posterior parietal cortex of the macaque monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Esther P; Babu, K Srinivasa; Ghosh, Soumya; Sherwood, Adam; Chen, Jessie

    2007-12-01

    Neurons in posterior parietal cortex (PPC) may serve both proprioceptive and exteroceptive functions during prehension, signaling hand actions and object properties. To assess these roles, we used digital video recordings to analyze responses of 83 hand-manipulation neurons in area 5 as monkeys grasped and lifted objects that differed in shape (round and rectangular), size (large and small spheres), and location (identical rectangular blocks placed lateral and medial to the shoulder). The task contained seven stages -- approach, contact, grasp, lift, hold, lower, relax -- plus a pretrial interval. The four test objects evoked similar spike trains and mean rate profiles that rose significantly above baseline from approach through lift, with peak activity at contact. Although representation by the spike train of specific hand actions was stronger than distinctions between grasped objects, 34% of these neurons showed statistically significant effects of object properties or hand postures on firing rates. Somatosensory input from the hand played an important role as firing rates diverged most prominently on contact as grasp was secured. The small sphere -- grasped with the most flexed hand posture -- evoked the highest firing rates in 43% of the population. Twenty-one percent distinguished spheres that differed in size and weight, and 14% discriminated spheres from rectangular blocks. Location in the workspace modulated response amplitude as objects placed across the midline evoked higher firing rates than positions lateral to the shoulder. We conclude that area 5 neurons, like those in area AIP, integrate object features, hand actions, and grasp postures during prehension.

  19. Retrograde analyses of spinothalamic projections in the macaque monkey: input to the ventral lateral nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, A D Bud

    2008-05-10

    The distribution of retrogradely labeled spinothalamic tract (STT) neurons was analyzed in monkeys following variously sized injections of cholera toxin subunit B (CTb) in order to determine whether different STT termination sites receive input from different sets of STT cells. This report focuses on STT input to the ventral lateral nucleus (VL), where prior anterograde tracing studies identified dense or moderately dense STT terminations. Large and very large injections in VL produced large numbers of labeled cells predominantly in laminae V and VII (more than half as many as from massive injections in the entire thalamus). Medium-sized and small injections in VL labeled STT cells almost exclusively in laminae V and VII, in segments consistent with the coarse mediolateral VL topography; few or no cells were labeled in lamina I. All injections labeled the deep cerebellar nuclei (see accompanying article: Evrard and Craig, 2008). Notably, even the most anterior injection in VL that produced dense pallidal labeling still labeled both STT and deep cerebellar cells. These observations indicate that VL receives STT input originating from laminae V and VII neurons that may be coextensive with its cerebellothalamic input. These findings support the role of laminae V and VII STT cells in sensorimotor integration and suggest a significant ongoing influence on both motor and premotor thalamocortical function. Together with the preceding observations of selective STT projections to other thalamic regions, these results provide compelling evidence that the primate STT consists of anatomically and functionally differentiable components. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Audio-vocal interaction in single neurons of the monkey ventrolateral prefrontal cortex.

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    Hage, Steffen R; Nieder, Andreas

    2015-05-06

    Complex audio-vocal integration systems depend on a strong interconnection between the auditory and the vocal motor system. To gain cognitive control over audio-vocal interaction during vocal motor control, the PFC needs to be involved. Neurons in the ventrolateral PFC (VLPFC) have been shown to separately encode the sensory perceptions and motor production of vocalizations. It is unknown, however, whether single neurons in the PFC reflect audio-vocal interactions. We therefore recorded single-unit activity in the VLPFC of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) while they produced vocalizations on command or passively listened to monkey calls. We found that 12% of randomly selected neurons in VLPFC modulated their discharge rate in response to acoustic stimulation with species-specific calls. Almost three-fourths of these auditory neurons showed an additional modulation of their discharge rates either before and/or during the monkeys' motor production of vocalization. Based on these audio-vocal interactions, the VLPFC might be well positioned to combine higher order auditory processing with cognitive control of the vocal motor output. Such audio-vocal integration processes in the VLPFC might constitute a precursor for the evolution of complex learned audio-vocal integration systems, ultimately giving rise to human speech.

  1. The Travelling-Wave Primate System: A New Solution for Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Macaque Monkeys at 7 Tesla Ultra-High Field.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Herrmann

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging of macaques at ultra-high field (UHF is usually conducted by combining a volume coil for transmit (Tx and a phased array coil for receive (Rx tightly enclosing the monkey's head. Good results have been achieved using vertical or horizontal magnets with implanted or near-surface coils. An alternative and less costly approach, the travelling-wave (TW excitation concept, may offer more flexible experimental setups on human whole-body UHF magnetic resonance imaging (MRI systems, which are now more widely available. Goal of the study was developing and validating the TW concept for in vivo primate MRI.The TW Primate System (TWPS uses the radio frequency shield of the gradient system of a human whole-body 7 T MRI system as a waveguide to propagate a circularly polarized B1 field represented by the TE11 mode. This mode is excited by a specifically designed 2-port patch antenna. For receive, a customized neuroimaging monkey head receive-only coil was designed. Field simulation was used for development and evaluation. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR was compared with data acquired with a conventional monkey volume head coil consisting of a homogeneous transmit coil and a 12-element receive coil.The TWPS offered good image homogeneity in the volume-of-interest Turbo spin echo images exhibited a high contrast, allowing a clear depiction of the cerebral anatomy. As a prerequisite for functional MRI, whole brain ultrafast echo planar images were successfully acquired.The TWPS presents a promising new approach to fMRI of macaques for research groups with access to a horizontal UHF MRI system.

  2. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 shows different patterns of localization within the parallel visual pathways in macaque and squirrel monkeys

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    Shostak Y

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Yuri Shostak,1,5 Ashley Wenger,4 Julia Mavity-Hudson,1 Vivien A Casagrande1–3 1Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, 2Department of Psychology, 3Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, 4Undergraduate Neuroscience Program, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA; 5Foreign Trade Unitary Enterprise, Minsk, Belarus Abstract: Glutamate is used as an excitatory neurotransmitter by the koniocellular (K, magnocellular (M, and parvocellular (P pathways to transfer signals from the primate lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN to primary visual cortex (V1. Glutamate acts through both fast ionotropic receptors, which appear to carry the main sensory message, and slower, modulatory metabotropic receptors (mGluRs. In this study, we asked whether mGluR5 relates in distinct ways to the K, M, and P LGN axons in V1. To answer this question, we used light microscopic immunocytochemistry and preembedding electron microscopic immunogold labeling to determine the localization of mGluR5 within the layers of V1 in relation to the K, M, and P pathways in macaque and squirrel monkeys. These pathways were labeled separately via wheat germ agglutinin–horseradish peroxidase (WGA–HRP injections targeting the LGN layers. mGluR5 is of interest because it: 1 has been shown to be expressed in the thalamic input layers; 2 appears to be responsible for some types of oscillatory firing, which could be important in the binding of visual features; and 3 has been associated with a number of sensory-motor gating-related pathologies, including schizophrenia and autism. Our results demonstrated the presence of mGluR5 in the neuropil of all V1 layers. This protein was lowest in IVCa (M input and the infragranular layers. In layer IVC, mGluR5 also was found postsynaptic to about 30% of labeled axons, but the distribution was uneven, such that postsynaptic mGluR5 label tended to occur opposite smaller (presumed P, and not larger (presumed M axon terminals. Only in the K

  3. Prefrontal cell activities related to monkeys' success and failure in adapting to rule changes in a Wisconsin Card Sorting Test analog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Farshad A; Matsumoto, Kenji; Tanaka, Keiji

    2006-03-08

    The cognitive flexibility to select appropriate rules in a changing environment is essential for survival and is assumed to depend on the integrity of prefrontal cortex (PFC). To explore the contribution of the dorsolateral PFC to flexible rule-based behavior, we recorded the activity of cells in this region of monkeys performing a Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) analog. The monkey had to match a sample to one of three test items by either color or shape. Liquid reward and a discrete visual signal (error signal) were given as feedback to correct and incorrect target selections, respectively. The relevant rule and its frequent changes were not cued, and the monkeys could find it only by interpreting the feedback. In one-third of cells, cellular activity was modulated by the relevant rule, both throughout the trial and between trials. The magnitude of the modulation correlated with the number of errors that the monkeys committed after each rule change in the course of reestablishing high performance. Activity of other cells differed between correct and error trials independently from the rule-related modulation. This difference appeared during actual responses and before the monkeys faced the problems. Many PFC cells responded to the error-signal presentation, and, in some of them, the magnitude of response depended on the relevant rule. These results suggest that the dorsolateral PFC contributes to WCST performance by maintaining the relevant rule across trials, assessing behavioral outcomes, and monitoring the processes that could lead to success and failure in individual trials.

  4. Inhibition of adaptive immune responses leads to a fatal clinical outcome in SIV-infected pigtailed macaques but not vervet African green monkeys.

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    Jörn E Schmitz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available African green monkeys (AGM and other natural hosts for simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV do not develop an AIDS-like disease following SIV infection. To evaluate differences in the role of SIV-specific adaptive immune responses between natural and nonnatural hosts, we used SIV(agmVer90 to infect vervet AGM and pigtailed macaques (PTM. This infection results in robust viral replication in both vervet AGM and pigtailed macaques (PTM but only induces AIDS in the latter species. We delayed the development of adaptive immune responses through combined administration of anti-CD8 and anti-CD20 lymphocyte-depleting antibodies during primary infection of PTM (n = 4 and AGM (n = 4, and compared these animals to historical controls infected with the same virus. Lymphocyte depletion resulted in a 1-log increase in primary viremia and a 4-log increase in post-acute viremia in PTM. Three of the four PTM had to be euthanized within 6 weeks of inoculation due to massive CMV reactivation and disease. In contrast, all four lymphocyte-depleted AGM remained healthy. The lymphocyte-depleted AGM showed only a trend toward a prolongation in peak viremia but the groups were indistinguishable during chronic infection. These data show that adaptive immune responses are critical for controlling disease progression in pathogenic SIV infection in PTM. However, the maintenance of a disease-free course of SIV infection in AGM likely depends on a number of mechanisms including non-adaptive immune mechanisms.

  5. Histological features of layers and sublayers in cortical visual areas V1 and V2 of chimpanzees, macaque monkeys, and humans

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    Balaram P

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pooja Balaram, Nicole A Young, Jon H Kaas Department of Psychology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA Abstract: The layers and sublayers of primary visual cortex, or V1, in primates are easily distinguishable compared to those in other cortical areas, and are especially distinct in anthropoid primates – monkeys, apes, and humans – where they also vary in histological appearance. This variation in primate-specific specialization has led to a longstanding confusion over the identity of layer 4 and its proposed sublayers in V1. As the application of different histological markers relate to the issue of defining and identifying layers and sublayers, we applied four traditional and four more recent histological markers to brain sections of V1 and adjoining secondary visual cortex (V2 in macaque monkeys, chimpanzees, and humans in order to compare identifiable layers and sublayers in both cortical areas across these species. The use of Nissl, neuronal nuclear antigen (NeuN, Gallyas myelin, cytochrome oxidase (CO, acetylcholinesterase (AChE, nonphosphorylated neurofilament H (SMI-32, parvalbumin (PV, and vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2 preparations support the conclusion that the most popular scheme of V1 lamination, that of Brodmann, misidentifies sublayers of layer 3 (3Bβ and 3C as sublayers of layer 4 (4A and 4B, and that the specialized sublayer of layer 3 in monkeys, 3Bβ, is not present in humans. These differences in interpretation are important as they relate to the proposed functions of layer 4 in primate species, where layer 4 of V1 is a layer that receives and processes information from the visual thalamus, and layer 3 is a layer that transforms and distributes information to other cortical areas. Keywords: area 17, area 18, cortical layers, histology, immunohistochemistry

  6. Histological features of layers and sublayers in cortical visual areas V1 and V2 of chimpanzees, macaque monkeys, and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaram, Pooja; Young, Nicole A; Kaas, Jon H

    2014-09-01

    The layers and sublayers of primary visual cortex, or V1, in primates are easily distinguishable compared to those in other cortical areas, and are especially distinct in anthropoid primates - monkeys, apes, and humans - where they also vary in histological appearance. This variation in primate-specific specialization has led to a longstanding confusion over the identity of layer 4 and its proposed sublayers in V1. As the application of different histological markers relate to the issue of defining and identifying layers and sublayers, we applied four traditional and four more recent histological markers to brain sections of V1 and adjoining secondary visual cortex (V2) in macaque monkeys, chimpanzees, and humans in order to compare identifiable layers and sublayers in both cortical areas across these species. The use of Nissl, neuronal nuclear antigen (NeuN), Gallyas myelin, cytochrome oxidase (CO), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), nonphosphorylated neurofilament H (SMI-32), parvalbumin (PV), and vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2) preparations support the conclusion that the most popular scheme of V1 lamination, that of Brodmann, misidentifies sublayers of layer 3 (3Bβ and 3C) as sublayers of layer 4 (4A and 4B), and that the specialized sublayer of layer 3 in monkeys, 3Bβ, is not present in humans. These differences in interpretation are important as they relate to the proposed functions of layer 4 in primate species, where layer 4 of V1 is a layer that receives and processes information from the visual thalamus, and layer 3 is a layer that transforms and distributes information to other cortical areas.

  7. Neuronal Correlates of Multiple Top–Down Signals during Covert Tracking of Moving Objects in Macaque Prefrontal Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Matsushima, Ayano; Tanaka, Masaki

    2012-01-01

    Resistance to distraction is a key component of executive functions and is strongly linked to the prefrontal cortex. Recent evidence suggests that neural mechanisms exist for selective suppression of task-irrelevant information. However, neuronal signals related to selective suppression have not yet been identified, whereas nonselective surround suppression, which results from attentional enhancement for relevant stimuli, has been well documented. This study examined single neuron activities ...

  8. Conserved fMRI and LFP signals during new associative learning in the human and macaque monkey medial temporal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Eric L; Mattfeld, Aaron T; Stark, Craig E L; Suzuki, Wendy A

    2012-05-24

    We measured local field potential (LFP) and blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the medial temporal lobes of monkeys and humans, respectively, as they performed the same conditional motor associative learning task. Parallel analyses were used to examine both data sets. Despite significantly faster learning in humans relative to monkeys, we found equivalent neural signals differentiating new versus highly familiar stimuli, first stimulus presentation, trial outcome, and learning strength in the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus of both species. Thus, the use of parallel behavioral tasks and analyses in monkeys and humans revealed conserved patterns of neural activity across the medial temporal lobe during an associative learning task.

  9. Ordered recall in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta: Can monkeys recall the correct order of sequentially presented images?

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    Heather E O'Neil

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has demonstrated that rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta are capable of identifying sequentially shown images in any order among distractors (i.e. images not part of the list sequence. We investigated ordered recall in rhesus monkeys in which subjects were expected to recognize the correct order of images during a “test” phase (simultaneous presentation of images after they had seen the images presented sequentially in a “presentation” phase (sequential presentation of images. If subjects were successfully able to execute the ordered recall task, the first trial accuracy data would appear close to 100% accuracy and it would only take one day to learn the list since the lists used were short, 3-item lists. While this study did not conclusively demonstrate monkeys are capable of ordered recall of sequentially presented, trial unique images (i.e. a list sequence presented only once per session, the data suggests that when the stimuli are not trial unique the monkeys treat each sequence as a simultaneous chaining task. A simultaneous chaining paradigm entails simultaneous presentation of all items without any previous sequential presentation of the images. It is unclear whether results resembling simultaneous chaining are seen because these animals have previous experience with simultaneous chaining, if the training procedure needs to be modified for the monkeys to understand the task, or if the task is beyond their cognitive abilities. Further research with serial learning will clarify this finding and also seek to prove whether rhesus monkeys are in fact capable of such ordered recall tasks.

  10. Lesions of either anterior orbitofrontal cortex or ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in marmoset monkeys heighten innate fear and attenuate active coping behaviors to predator threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Yoshiro; Kim, Charissa; Santangelo, Andrea M.; Roberts, Angela C.

    2015-01-01

    The ventral prefrontal cortex is an integral part of the neural circuitry that is dysregulated in mood and anxiety disorders. However, the contribution of its distinct sub-regions to the regulation of negative emotion are poorly understood. Recently we implicated both the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC) and anterior orbitofrontal cortex (antOFC) in the regulation of conditioned fear and anxiety responses to a social stimulus, i.e., human intruder, in the marmoset monkey. In the present study we extend our investigations to determine the role of these two regions in regulating innate responses and coping strategies to a predator stimulus, i.e., a model snake. Both the vlPFC and antOFC lesioned groups exhibited enhanced anxiety-related responses to the snake in comparison to controls. Both groups also showed a reduction in active coping behavior. These results indicate that the vlPFC and antOFC contribute independently to the regulation of both innate fear and, as previously reported, conditioned fear, and highlight the importance of these regions in producing stimulus-appropriate coping responses. The finding that dysregulation in two distinct prefrontal regions produces the apparently similar behavioral phenotype of heightened negative emotion provides insight into the varied etiology that may underlie this symptom across a wide variety of neuropsychiatric conditions with implications for personalized treatment strategies. PMID:25653599

  11. Local sensitivity to stimulus orientation and spatial frequency within the receptive fields of neurons in visual area 2 of macaque monkeys.

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    Tao, X; Zhang, B; Smith, E L; Nishimoto, S; Ohzawa, I; Chino, Y M

    2012-02-01

    We used dynamic dense noise stimuli and local spectral reverse correlation methods to reveal the local sensitivities of neurons in visual area 2 (V2) of macaque monkeys to orientation and spatial frequency within their receptive fields. This minimized the potentially confounding assumptions that are inherent in stimulus selections. The majority of neurons exhibited a relatively high degree of homogeneity for the preferred orientations and spatial frequencies in the spatial matrix of facilitatory subfields. However, about 20% of all neurons showed maximum orientation differences between neighboring subfields that were greater than 25 deg. The neurons preferring horizontal or vertical orientations showed less inhomogeneity in space than the neurons preferring oblique orientations. Over 50% of all units also exhibited suppressive profiles, and those were more heterogeneous than facilitatory profiles. The preferred orientation and spatial frequency of suppressive profiles differed substantially from those of facilitatory profiles, and the neurons with suppressive subfields had greater orientation selectivity than those without suppressive subfields. The peak suppression occurred with longer delays than the peak facilitation. These results suggest that the receptive field profiles of the majority of V2 neurons reflect the orderly convergence of V1 inputs over space, but that a subset of V2 neurons exhibit more complex response profiles having both suppressive and facilitatory subfields. These V2 neurons with heterogeneous subfield profiles could play an important role in the initial processing of complex stimulus features.

  12. Determining monkey free choice long before the choice is made: the principal role of prefrontal neurons involved in both decision and motor processes

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    Encarni Marcos

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available When choices are made freely, they might emerge from pre-existing neural activity. However, whether neurons in the prefrontal cortex (PF show this anticipatory effect and, if so, in which part of the process they are involved is still debated. To answer this question, we studied PF activity in monkeys while they performed a strategy task. In this task when the stimulus changed from the previous trial, the monkeys had to shift their response to 1 of 2 spatial goals, excluding the one that had been previously selected. Under this free-choice condition, the prestimulus activity of the same neurons that are involved in decision and motor processes predicted future choices. These neurons developed the same goal preferences during the prestimulus presentation as they did later in the decision phase. In contrast, the same effect was not observed in motor-only neurons and it was present but weaker in decision-only neurons. Overall, our results suggest that the PF neuronal activity predicts upcoming actions mainly through the decision-making network that integrate in time decision and motor task aspects.

  13. Lesions of either anterior orbitofrontal cortex or ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in marmoset monkeys heighten innate fear and attenuate active coping behaviors to predator threat

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    Yoshiro eShiba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The ventral prefrontal cortex is an integral part of the neural circuitry that is dysregulated in mood and anxiety disorders. However, the contribution of its distinct sub-regions to the regulation of negative emotion are poorly understood. Recently we implicated both the ventrolateral PFC (vlPFC and anterior orbitofrontal cortex (antOFC in the regulation of conditioned fear and anxiety responses to a social stimulus, i.e. human intruder, in the marmoset monkey. In the present study we extend our investigations to determine the role of these two regions in regulating innate responses and coping strategies to a predator stimulus, i.e. a model snake. Both the vlPFC and antOFC lesioned groups exhibited enhanced anxiety-related responses to the snake in comparison to controls. Both groups also showed a reduction in active coping behavior. These results indicate that the vlPFC and antOFC contribute independently to the regulation of both innate fear and, as previously reported, conditioned fear, and highlight the importance of these regions in producing stimulus-appropriate coping responses. The finding that dysregulation in two distinct prefrontal regions produces the apparently similar behavioral phenotype of heightened negative emotion provides insight into the varied aetiology that may underlie this symptom across a wide variety of neuropsychiatric conditions with implications for personalized treatment strategies.

  14. Representation of Afferent Signals from Forearm Muscle and Cutaneous Nerves in the Primary Somatosensory Cortex of the Macaque Monkey

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    Yamada, Hiroshi; Yaguchi, Hiroaki; Tomatsu, Saeka; Takei, Tomohiko; Oya, Tomomichi

    2016-01-01

    Proprioception is one’s overall sense of the relative positions and movements of the various parts of one’s body. The primary somatosensory cortex (SI) is involved in generating the proprioception by receiving peripheral sensory inputs from both cutaneous and muscle afferents. In particular, area 3a receives input from muscle afferents and areas 3b and 1 from cutaneous afferents. However, segregation of two sensory inputs to these cortical areas has not been evaluated quantitatively because of methodological difficulties in distinguishing the incoming signals. To overcome this, we applied electrical stimulation separately to two forearm nerves innervating muscle (deep radial nerve) and skin (superficial radial nerve), and examined the spatiotemporal distribution of sensory evoked potentials (SEPs) in SI of anaesthetized macaques. The SEPs arising from the deep radial nerve were observed exclusively at the bottom of central sulcus (CS), which was identified as area 3a using histological reconstruction. In contrast, SEPs evoked by stimulation of the superficial radial nerve were observed in the superficial part of SI, identified as areas 3b and 1. In addition to these earlier, larger potentials, we also found small and slightly delayed SEPs evoked by cutaneous nerve stimulation in area 3a. Coexistence of the SEPs from both deep and superficial radial nerves suggests that area 3a could integrate muscle and cutaneous signals to shape proprioception. PMID:27701434

  15. Oral Administration of Methylphenidate (Ritalin) Affects Dopamine Release Differentially Between the Prefrontal Cortex and Striatum: A Microdialysis Study in the Monkey.

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    Kodama, Tohru; Kojima, Takashi; Honda, Yoshiko; Hosokawa, Takayuki; Tsutsui, Ken-Ichiro; Watanabe, Masataka

    2017-03-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH; trade name Ritalin) is a widely used drug for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and is often used as a cognitive enhancer. Because MPH increases dopamine (DA) release by blocking the DA transporter in the human striatum, MPH is supposed to work on attention and cognition through a DA increase in the striatum. However, ADHD patients show impaired prefrontal cortex (PFC) function and MPH administration is associated with increased neural activity in the PFC. Although MPH is indicated to increase DA release in the rat PFC, there has been no study to examine MPH-induced DA changes in the human PFC because of technical difficulties associated with the low level of PFC DA receptors. Using the microdialysis technique, we examined the effects of oral administration of MPH on DA release in both the PFC and striatum in the monkey. We also tested the effect of MPH on cognitive task performance. As in human studies, in the striatum, both high and low doses of MPH induced consistent increases in DA release ∼30 min after their administrations. In the PFC, a consistent increase in DA release was observed 1 h after a high dose, but not low doses, of MPH. Low doses of MPH improved cognitive task performance, but a high dose of MPH made the monkey drowsy. Therefore, low-dose MPH-induced cognitive enhancement is supported by striatum DA increase.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Methylphenidate (MPH) is a widely used drug for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and is often used as a cognitive enhancer. Although human positron emission tomography studies suggest that MPH works on attention and cognition through dopamine (DA) changes in the striatum, there has been no study to examine MPH-induced DA changes in the human prefrontal cortex (PFC). Using the microdialysis technique in monkeys, we found, for the first time, that low doses of MPH consistently increased DA release in the striatum but did not in the PFC

  16. A macaque model for hantavirus infection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Groen (Jan); M.N. Gerding; J.P. Koeman; P.J.M. Roholl (Paul); G. van Amerongen (Geert); H.G.M. Jordans; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); H.G.M. Niesters (Bert)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractCynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) were experimentally infected with Puumala virus (strain Hallnas), which causes nephropathia epidemica in humans in western Europe. During the first week after intratracheal inoculation, the monkeys exhibited signs of lethargy followed by mild pro

  17. Human Exposure to Herpesvirus B–Seropositive Macaques, Bali, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Gregory A.; Schillaci, Michael A.; Suaryana, Komang Gde; Putra, Artha; Fuentes, Agustin; Henkel, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Herpesvirus B (Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1) has been implicated as the cause of approximately 40 cases of meningoencephalitis affecting persons in direct or indirect contact with laboratory macaques. However, the threat of herpesvirus B in nonlaboratory settings worldwide remains to be addressed. We investigated the potential for exposure to herpesvirus B in workers at a “monkey forest” (a temple that has become a tourist attraction because of its monkeys) in Bali, Indonesia. In July 2000, 105 workers at the Sangeh Monkey Forest in Central Bali were surveyed about contact with macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Nearly half of those interviewed had either been bitten or scratched by a macaque. Prevalence of injury was higher in those who fed macaques. Serum from 31 of 38 Sangeh macaques contained antibodies to herpesvirus B. We conclude that workers coming into contact with macaques at the Sangeh Monkey Forest are at risk for exposure to herpesvirus B. PMID:12141963

  18. Human exposure to herpesvirus B-seropositive macaques, Bali, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Gregory A; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Schillaci, Michael A; Suaryana, Komang Gde; Putra, Artha; Fuentes, Agustin; Henkel, Richard

    2002-08-01

    Herpesvirus B (Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1) has been implicated as the cause of approximately 40 cases of meningoencephalitis affecting persons in direct or indirect contact with laboratory macaques. However, the threat of herpesvirus B in nonlaboratory settings worldwide remains to be addressed. We investigated the potential for exposure to herpesvirus B in workers at a "monkey forest" (a temple that has become a tourist attraction because of its monkeys) in Bali, Indonesia. In July 2000, 105 workers at the Sangeh Monkey Forest in Central Bali were surveyed about contact with macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Nearly half of those interviewed had either been bitten or scratched by a macaque. Prevalence of injury was higher in those who fed macaques. Serum from 31 of 38 Sangeh macaques contained antibodies to herpesvirus B. We conclude that workers coming into contact with macaques at the Sangeh Monkey Forest are at risk for exposure to herpesvirus B.

  19. Effects of antenatal dexamethasone treatment on glucocorticoid receptor and calcyon gene expression in the prefrontal cortex of neonatal and adult common marmoset monkeys

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    Feldon Joram

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synthetic glucocorticoids such as dexamethasone (DEX are commonly used to promote fetal lung maturation in at-risk preterm births, but there is emerging evidence of subsequent neurobehavioral abnormalities in these children e.g. problems with inattention/hyperactivity. However, molecular pathways mediating effects of glucocorticoid overexposure on motor and cognitive development are poorly understood. Methods In this study with common marmoset monkeys, we investigated for neonatal and adulthood effects of antenatal DEX treatment on the expression of the corticosteroid receptors and also calcyon, a risk gene for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, in the prefrontal cortex (PFC. Pregnant marmosets were exposed to DEX (5 mg/kg body weight or vehicle during early (days 42-48 or late (days 90-96 stages of the 144-day pregnancy. Results In neonates, relative to controls, glucocorticoid receptor (GR mRNA levels were significantly reduced after the late DEX treatment in the medial, orbital and dorsal PFC and after the early DEX treatment in the dorsal PFC. The early DEX exposure, specifically, resulted in significant reduction in calcyon mRNA expression in the medial, orbital, dorsal and lateral PFC relative to controls. Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR mRNA levels were not significantly affected by DEX treatment. In adults, PFC GR, calcyon, and MR mRNA levels were not significantly affected by early or late prenatal DEX treatment. Conclusion These findings indicate that antenatal DEX treatment could lead to short-term alterations in PFC expression of the GR and calcyon genes, with possible neurodevelopmental functional consequences.

  20. The Macaque Social Responsiveness Scale (mSRS: A Rapid Screening Tool for Assessing Variability in the Social Responsiveness of Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta.

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    Eric J Feczko

    Full Text Available Understanding the biological mechanisms underlying human neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD, has been hindered by the lack of a robust, translational animal model. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta display many of the same social behaviors that are affected in ASD, making them an excellent animal species in which to model social impairments. However, the social impairments associated with ASD may reflect extreme ends of a continuous distribution of traits. Thus, to validate the rhesus monkey as an animal model for studying social impairments that has strong translational relevance for ASD, researchers need an easily-implemented measurement tool that can quantify variation in social behavior dimensionally. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS is a 65-item survey that identifies both typical and atypical social behaviors in humans that covary with ASD symptom severity. A chimpanzee SRS has already been validated and the current study adapted this tool for use in the rhesus monkey (mSRS. Fifteen raters completed the mSRS for 105 rhesus monkeys living at the Yerkes National Primate Research Center. The mSRS scores showed a unimodal distribution with a positive skew that identified 6 statistical outliers. Inter-rater reliability was very strong, but only 17 of the 36 questions showed positive intra-item reliability. The results of an exploratory factor analysis identified 3 factors that explained over 60% of the variance, with 12 items significantly loading onto the primary factor. These items reflected behaviors associated with social avoidance, social anxiety or inflexibility and social confidence. These initial findings are encouraging and suggest that variability in the social responsiveness of rhesus monkeys can be quantified using the mSRS: a tool that has strong translational relevance for human disorders. With further modification, the mSRS may provide an promising new direction for research on the biological

  1. A macaque model for hantavirus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, J; Gerding, M; Koeman, J P; Roholl, P J; van Amerongen, G; Jordans, H G; Niesters, H G; Osterhaus, A D

    1995-01-01

    Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) were experimentally infected with Puumala virus (strain Hällnäs), which causes nephropathia epidemica in humans in western Europe. During the first week after intratracheal inoculation, the monkeys exhibited signs of lethargy followed by mild proteinuria and

  2. Single neurons in the insular cortex of a macaque monkey respond to skin brushing: preliminary data of the possible representation of pleasant touch

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    Laura Clara Grandi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Pleasant touch may serve as a foundation for affiliative behavior, providing a mechanism for the formation and maintenance of social bonds among conspecifics. In humans, this touch is usually referred to as the caress. Dynamic caressing performed on the hairy skin with a velocity of 1–10 cm/sec is perceived as being pleasant and determines positive cardio-physiological effects. Furthermore, imaging human studies show that affiliative touch activates the posterior insular cortex.Recently, it was demonstrated that pleasant touch in monkeys (i.e. sweeping in a grooming-like manner is performed with velocities similar to those characteristics of human caress (9.31 cm/sec, and causes similarly positive autonomic effects, if performed with velocity of 5 cm/sec and 10 cm/sec, but not lower or higher. Due to similarities between the human caress and non-human primate sweeping, we investigated for the first time whether single neurons of the perisylvian regions (secondary somatosensory cortex and posterior insular cortex of a rhesus monkey can process sweeping touch differently depending on the stimulus speed. We applied stimulation with two speeds: one that optimally induce positive cardio-physiological effects in the monkey who receives it, and includes the real speed of sweep (5-15 cm/sec, sweep fast, and a non-optimal speed (1-5 cm/sec, sweep slow.The results show that single neurons of insular cortex differently encode the stimulus speed. In particular, even the majority of recorded somatosensory neurons (82% did not discriminate the two speeds, a small set of neurons (18% were modulated just during the sweep fast. These findings represent the first evidence that single neurons of the non-human primates insular cortex can code affiliative touch, highlighting the similarity between human and non-human primates’ social touch systems. This study constitutes an important starting point to carry out deeper investigation on neuronal processing of

  3. Disease Progression Patterns of SHIV-KB9 in Rhesus Macaques of Chinese Origin in Comparison with Indian Macaques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIANG LIU; GUI-BO YANG; HUI ZHAO; QIANG WEI; HUI XING; CHUAN QIN; YI-MING SHAO

    2008-01-01

    To develop a model of SHIV-KB9/Chinese origin rhesus (Ch Rh) macaques for vaccine research and to compare the pathogenesis of SHIV-KB9 in Ch Rh macaques with that reported in Indian rhesus (had Rh) macaques. Methods Seven mamu-A*01 negative Ch Rh macaques were inoculated intravenously with 1-10000 MID of SHIV-KB9. The monkeys were monitored for viral load, CD4, CD8, SHIV-specific antibody and virus genetic variation. The results were compared with those previously observed in Ind Rh macaques. Results As compared to that observed in Ind Rh macaques, SHIV-KB9 in Ch Rh macaques displayed three identical disease progression patterns. However, the primary pattern was not identical between the two subspecies. The level of plasma viremia differed in SHIV-KB9-infected Ch Rh macaques which exhibited different outcomes from those in Ind Rh macaques. Generally, the values of viral load and the maintenance of CD4 T cells were associated with humoral responses. Otherwise, the viral genetic distances (divergence, diversity) were larger in animals (M419, M425) with their CD4T cells profoundly depleted. Conclusion The model of SHIV-KB9/Ch Rh macaques displays a relatively slow progression to AIDS compared with Ind Rh macaques, which may more accurately reflect the potential ofcandidate vaccines in humans.

  4. Cerebellar cortex granular layer interneurons in the macaque monkey are functionally driven by mossy fiber pathways through net excitation or inhibition.

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    Jean Laurens

    Full Text Available The granular layer is the input layer of the cerebellar cortex. It receives information through mossy fibers, which contact local granular layer interneurons (GLIs and granular layer output neurons (granule cells. GLIs provide one of the first signal processing stages in the cerebellar cortex by exciting or inhibiting granule cells. Despite the importance of this early processing stage for later cerebellar computations, the responses of GLIs and the functional connections of mossy fibers with GLIs in awake animals are poorly understood. Here, we recorded GLIs and mossy fibers in the macaque ventral-paraflocculus (VPFL during oculomotor tasks, providing the first full inventory of GLI responses in the VPFL of awake primates. We found that while mossy fiber responses are characterized by a linear monotonic relationship between firing rate and eye position, GLIs show complex response profiles characterized by "eye position fields" and single or double directional tunings. For the majority of GLIs, prominent features of their responses can be explained by assuming that a single GLI receives inputs from mossy fibers with similar or opposite directional preferences, and that these mossy fiber inputs influence GLI discharge through net excitatory or inhibitory pathways. Importantly, GLIs receiving mossy fiber inputs through these putative excitatory and inhibitory pathways show different firing properties, suggesting that they indeed correspond to two distinct classes of interneurons. We propose a new interpretation of the information flow through the cerebellar cortex granular layer, in which mossy fiber input patterns drive the responses of GLIs not only through excitatory but also through net inhibitory pathways, and that excited and inhibited GLIs can be identified based on their responses and their intrinsic properties.

  5. Fructosamine reference ranges in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Fritze, Misty J; Smith, Peter C; Zelterman, Daniel; Scholz, Jodi A Carlson

    2011-07-01

    Naturally occurring diabetes mellitus (DM) is common in several species of Old and New World nonhuman primates. Fructosamine values provide important information about recent glycemic control and can be useful in the diagnosis and management of DM. However, despite an abundance of reports in the literature describing spontaneous and induced DM in monkeys, few reference ranges are available for fructosamine. Reference ranges have been published for woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha), cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), and stumptail macaques (Macaca arctoides) but currently are not available for rhesus macaques. At our institution, DM is a common diagnosis in aging rhesus macaques. Here we report a reference range for fructosamine in rhesus macaques. The overall range was 157 to 230 μmol/L, with male rhesus and macaques 10 y or older having significantly higher values than do female rhesus and macaques younger than 10 y, respectively. This range provides clinical veterinarians with an additional tool for evaluating glycemic control in rhesus macaques. Copyright 2011 by the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science

  6. P1-5: Effect of Luminance Contrast on the Color Selective Responses in the Inferior Temporal Cortex Neurons of the Macaque Monkey

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    Tomoyuki Namima

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Although the relationship between color signal and luminance signal is an important problem in visual perception, relatively little is known about how the luminance contrast affects the responses of color selective neurons in the visual cortex. In this study, we examined this problem in the inferior temporal (IT of the awake monkey performing a visual fixation task. Single neuron activities were recorded from the anterior and posterior color selective regions in IT cortex (AITC and PITC identified in previous studies where color selective neurons are accumulated. Color stimuli consisted of 28 stimuli that evenly distribute across the gamut of the CRT display defined on the CIE- xychromaticity diagram at two different luminance levels (5 cd/m 2or 20 cd/m 2 and 2 stimuli at white points. The background was maintained at 10 cd/m 2gray. We found that the effect of luminance contrast on the color selectivity was markedly different between AITC and PITC. When we examined the correlation between the responses to the bright stimuli and those to the dark stimuli with the same chromaticity coordinates, most AITC neurons exhibited high correlation whereas many PITC neurons showed no correlation or only weak correlation. In PITC, the effect was specifically large for neutral colors (white, gray, black and for colors with low saturation. These results indicate that the effect of luminance contrast on the color selective responses differs across different areas and suggest that the separation between color signal and luminance signal involves a higher stage of the cortical color processing.

  7. Effect of habitat quality on diet flexibility in Barbary macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménard, Nelly; Motsch, Peggy; Delahaye, Alexia; Saintvanne, Alice; Le Flohic, Guillaume; Dupé, Sandrine; Vallet, Dominique; Qarro, Mohamed; Tattou, Mohamed Ibn; Pierre, Jean-Sébastien

    2014-07-01

    Barbary macaques live in extreme temperate environments characterized by strongly seasonal resource availability. They are mainly terrestrial while foraging, harvesting food from the herbaceous layer. These monkeys are threatened mainly because of anthropogenic habitat degradation. We studied the adaptive capacities of wild groups of Barbary macaques that lived in different cedar forests undergoing varying extents of grazing pressure from domestic livestock. In all three sites, diet varied seasonally. Heavy grazing led to a significant decrease in herbaceous production and species richness. As a consequence, the monkeys' diet in this poor habitat showed a decreased plant species richness. Moreover, it incorporated fewer above-ground herbaceous resources, and a greater proportion of subterranean resources (especially hypogeous fungi and subterranean invertebrates such as earthworms, eggs and adults of earwigs, and ant's larvae) than the diet of monkeys inhabiting ungrazed forest. Cedar bark, cedar strobiles, earthworms, and earwigs were part of the monkeys' diet only in grazed forest. Monkeys in heavily grazed forest compensated for a lack of herbaceous foods by eating subterranean foods preferentially to tree and shrub products. The foods they consumed take longer to harvest and process than the seeds or leaves consumed by Barbary macaques in less heavily grazed forest habitats. Our results suggest that monkeys do differ in their diets according to the degree of habitat change induced by human activities. They also highlight the dietary flexibility of Barbary macaques as a key element that allows them to cope with degraded habitats. We later compare the dietary adjustments of Barbary macaques facing environmental change to dietary strategies of other macaques and temperate-zone primates. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Vicarious Reinforcement In Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Steve W. C.; Amy A. Winecoff; Platt, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    What happens to others profoundly influences our own behavior. Such other-regarding outcomes can drive observational learning, as well as motivate cooperation, charity, empathy, and even spite. Vicarious reinforcement may serve as one of the critical mechanisms mediating the influence of other-regarding outcomes on behavior and decision-making in groups. Here we show that rhesus macaques spontaneously derive vicarious reinforcement from observing rewards given to another monkey, and that t...

  9. Vicarious Reinforcement in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca Mulatta)

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Steve W. C.; Amy A. Winecoff; Platt, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    What happens to others profoundly influences our own behavior. Such other-regarding outcomes can drive observational learning, as well as motivate cooperation, charity, empathy, and even spite. Vicarious reinforcement may serve as one of the critical mechanisms mediating the influence of other-regarding outcomes on behavior and decision-making in groups. Here we show that rhesus macaques spontaneously derive vicarious reinforcement from observing rewards given to another monkey, and that this...

  10. Performing monkeys of Bangladesh: characterizing their source and genetic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, M Kamrul; Feeroz, M Mostafa; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Engel, Gregory A; Akhtar, Sharmin; Kanthaswamy, Sree; Smith, David Glenn

    2016-04-01

    The acquisition and training of monkeys to perform is a centuries-old tradition in South Asia, resulting in a large number of rhesus macaques kept in captivity for this purpose. The performing monkeys are reportedly collected from free-ranging populations, and may escape from their owners or may be released into other populations. In order to determine whether this tradition involving the acquisition and movement of animals has influenced the population structure of free-ranging rhesus macaques in Bangladesh, we first characterized the source of these monkeys. Biological samples from 65 performing macaques collected between January 2010 and August 2013 were analyzed for genetic variation using 716 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA. Performing monkey sequences were compared with those of free-ranging rhesus macaque populations in Bangladesh, India and Myanmar. Forty-five haplotypes with 116 (16 %) polymorphic nucleotide sites were detected among the performing monkeys. As for the free-ranging rhesus population, most of the substitutions (89 %) were transitions, and no indels (insertion/deletion) were observed. The estimate of the mean number of pair-wise differences for the performing monkey population was 10.1264 ± 4.686, compared to 14.076 ± 6.363 for the free-ranging population. Fifteen free-ranging rhesus macaque populations were identified as the source of performing monkeys in Bangladesh; several of these populations were from areas where active provisioning has resulted in a large number of macaques. The collection of performing monkeys from India was also evident.

  11. Tetanus as cause of mass die-off of captive Japanese macaques, Japan, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Tomomi; Nakamura, Shin-ichi; Yamamoto, Akihiko; Takahashi, Motohide; Une, Yumi

    2012-10-01

    In 2008 in Japan, 15/60 captive Japanese macaques died. Clostridium tetani was isolated from 1 monkey, and 11 had tetanus-specific symptoms. We conclude the outbreak resulted from severe environmental C. tetani contamination. Similar outbreaks could be prevented by vaccinating all monkeys, disinfecting housing areas/play equipment, replacing highly C. tetani-contaminated soil, and conducting epidemiologic surveys.

  12. Representation of spatial- and object-specific behavioral goals in the dorsal globus pallidus of monkeys during reaching movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saga, Yosuke; Hashimoto, Masashi; Tremblay, Léon; Tanji, Jun; Hoshi, Eiji

    2013-10-09

    The dorsal aspect of the globus pallidus (GP) communicates with the prefrontal cortex and higher-order motor areas, indicating that it plays a role in goal-directed behavior. We examined the involvement of dorsal GP neurons in behavioral goal monitoring and maintenance, essential components of executive function. We trained two macaque monkeys to choose a reach target based on relative target position in a spatial goal task or a target shape in an object-goal task. The monkeys were trained to continue to choose a certain behavioral goal when reward volume was constant and to switch the goals when the volume began to decrease. Because the judgment for the next goal was made in the absence of visual signals, the monkeys were required to monitor and maintain the chosen goals during the reaching movement. We obtained three major findings. (1) GP neurons reflected more of the relative spatial position than the shape of the reaching target during the spatial goal task. During the object-goal task, the shape of the reaching object was represented more than the relative position. (2) The selectivity of individual neurons for the relative position was enhanced during the spatial goal task, whereas the object-shape selectivity was enhanced during the object-goal task. (3) When the monkeys switched the goals, the selectivity for either the position or shape also switched. Together, these findings suggest that the dorsal GP is involved in behavioral goal monitoring and maintenance during execution of goal-oriented actions, presumably in collaboration with the prefrontal cortex.

  13. Serotonin transporter genotype modulates social reward and punishment in rhesus macaques.

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    Karli K Watson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Serotonin signaling influences social behavior in both human and nonhuman primates. In humans, variation upstream of the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR has recently been shown to influence both behavioral measures of social anxiety and amygdala response to social threats. Here we show that length polymorphisms in 5-HTTLPR predict social reward and punishment in rhesus macaques, a species in which 5-HTTLPR variation is analogous to that of humans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In contrast to monkeys with two copies of the long allele (L/L, monkeys with one copy of the short allele of this gene (S/L spent less time gazing at face than non-face images, less time looking in the eye region of faces, and had larger pupil diameters when gazing at photos of a high versus low status male macaques. Moreover, in a novel primed gambling task, presentation of photos of high status male macaques promoted risk-aversion in S/L monkeys but promoted risk-seeking in L/L monkeys. Finally, as measured by a "pay-per-view" task, S/L monkeys required juice payment to view photos of high status males, whereas L/L monkeys sacrificed fluid to see the same photos. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data indicate that genetic variation in serotonin function contributes to social reward and punishment in rhesus macaques, and thus shapes social behavior in humans and rhesus macaques alike.

  14. Evolutionary and biomedical insights from the rhesus macaque genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibbs, Richard A; Rogers, Jeffrey; Katze, Michael G

    2007-01-01

    The rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is an abundant primate species that diverged from the ancestors of Homo sapiens about 25 million years ago. Because they are genetically and physiologically similar to humans, rhesus monkeys are the most widely used nonhuman primate in basic and applied biomedi...

  15. Ambiguity aversion in rhesus macaques

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    Benjamin eHayden

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available People generally prefer risky options, which have fully specified outcome probabilities, to ambiguous options, which have unspecified probabilities. This preference, formalized in economics, is strong enough that people will reliably prefer a risky option to an ambiguous option with a greater expected value. Explanations for ambiguity aversion often invoke uniquely human faculties like language, self-justification, or a desire to avoid public embarrassment. Challenging these ideas, here we demonstrate that a preference for unambiguous options is shared with rhesus macaques. We trained four monkeys to choose between pairs of options that both offered explicitly cued probabilities of large and small juice outcomes. We then introduced occasional trials where one of the options was obscured and examined their resulting preferences; we ran humans in a parallel experiment on a nearly identical task. We found that monkeys reliably preferred risky options to ambiguous ones, even when this bias was costly, closely matching the behavior of humans in the analogous task. Notably, ambiguity aversion varied parametrically with the extent of ambiguity. As expected, ambiguity aversion gradually declined as monkeys learned the underlying probability distribution of rewards. These data indicate that ambiguity aversion reflects fundamental cognitive biases shared with other animals rather than uniquely human factors guiding decisions.

  16. Transitions between Multiband Oscillatory Patterns Characterize Memory-Guided Perceptual Decisions in Prefrontal Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Klaus; Ramon, Marc; Pasternak, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal activity in the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) reflects the structure and cognitive demands of memory-guided sensory discrimination tasks. However, we still do not know how neuronal activity articulates in network states involved in perceiving, remembering, and comparing sensory information during such tasks. Oscillations in local field potentials (LFPs) provide fingerprints of such network dynamics. Here, we examined LFPs recorded from LPFC of macaques while they compared the directions or the speeds of two moving random-dot patterns, S1 and S2, separated by a delay. LFP activity in the theta, beta, and gamma bands tracked consecutive components of the task. In response to motion stimuli, LFP theta and gamma power increased, and beta power decreased, but showed only weak motion selectivity. In the delay, LFP beta power modulation anticipated the onset of S2 and encoded the task-relevant S1 feature, suggesting network dynamics associated with memory maintenance. After S2 onset the difference between the current stimulus S2 and the remembered S1 was strongly reflected in broadband LFP activity, with an early sensory-related component proportional to stimulus difference and a later choice-related component reflecting the behavioral decision buildup. Our results demonstrate that individual LFP bands reflect both sensory and cognitive processes engaged independently during different stages of the task. This activation pattern suggests that during elementary cognitive tasks, the prefrontal network transitions dynamically between states and that these transitions are characterized by the conjunction of LFP rhythms rather than by single LFP bands. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Neurons in the brain communicate through electrical impulses and coordinate this activity in ensembles that pulsate rhythmically, very much like musical instruments in an orchestra. These rhythms change with “brain state,” from sleep to waking, but also signal with different oscillation

  17. Prefrontal cortex neurons reflect categorical decisions about ambiguous stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Jefferson E.; Buschman, Timothy J.; Miller, Earl K

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether prefrontal cortex (PFC) neuron activity reflects categorical decisions in monkeys categorizing ambiguous stimuli. A morphing system was used to systematically vary stimulus shape and precisely define category boundaries. Ambiguous stimuli were centered on a category boundary, i.e., they were a mix of 50% of two prototypes and therefore had no category information, so monkeys guessed at their category membership. We found that the monkey's trial-by-trial decision about the ...

  18. Condylomatous genital lesions in cynomolgus macaques from Mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harari, Ariana; Wood, Charles E; Van Doorslaer, Koenraad; Chen, Zigui; Domaingue, Marie Claire; Elmore, David; Koenig, Patricia; Wagner, Janice D; Jennings, Ryan N; Burk, Robert D

    2013-08-01

    Genital condyloma-like lesions were observed on male and female cynomolgus macaque monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) originating from the island of Mauritius. Cytobrush and/or biopsy samples were obtained from lesions of 57 affected macaques. Primary histologic features included eosinophilic, neutrophilic, and lymphoplasmacytic penile and vulvar inflammation, epidermal hyperplasia with acanthosis, and increased collagenous stroma. Polymerase chain reaction-based assays to amplify viral DNA revealed the presence of macaque lymphocryptovirus (LCV) DNA but not papillomavirus or poxvirus DNA. Subsequent DNA analyses of 3 genomic regions of LCV identified isolates associated with lesions in 19/25 (76%) biopsies and 19/57 (33%) cytology samples. Variable immunolabeling for proteins related to the human LCV Epstein Barr Virus was observed within intralesional plasma cells, stromal cells, and epithelial cells. Further work is needed to characterize the epidemiologic features of these lesions and their association with LCV infection in Mauritian-origin macaques.

  19. Can Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) Represent Invisible Displacement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filion, Christine M.; Washburn, David A.; Gulledge, Jonathan P.

    1996-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to assess whether or not rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) could represent the unperceived movements of a stimulus. Subjects were tested on 2 computerized tasks, HOLE (monkeys) and LASER (humans and monkeys), in which subjects needed to chase or shoot at, respectively, a moving target that either remained visible or became invisible for a portion of its path of movement. Response patterns were analyzed and compared between target-visible and target-invisible conditions. Results of Experiments 1, 2, and 3 demonstrated that the monkeys are capable of extrapolating movement. That this extrapolation involved internal representation of the target's invisible movement was suggested but not confirmed. Experiment 4, however, demonstrated that the monkeys are capable of representing the invisible displacements of a stimulus.

  20. [Cycloferon therapy of cytomegalovirus infection in monkeys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezentseva, M V; Agrba, V Z; Karal-ogly, D D; Agumava, A A

    2012-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a wide-spread disease throw humans and monkeys, which and associated with various diseases. The development of this infection in human organism is much like that in rhesus macaque, which makes CMV-infected monkeys adequate model for studying and elaborating prophylactic and therapeutic measures against this disease in humans. This article presents data on the efficiency of cycloferon action on animals with the M. mulatta CMV infection. Cycloferon stimulated an increase in the IFN-alpha production and promoted the period of remission in CMV-infected animals.

  1. Allele frequency of antiretroviral host factor TRIMCyp in wild-caught cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Akatsuki; Kawamoto, Yoshi; Higashino, Atsunori; Yoshida, Tomoyuki; Ikoma, Tomoko; Suzaki, Yuriko; Ami, Yasushi; Shioda, Tatsuo; Nakayama, Emi E.; Akari, Hirofumi

    2012-01-01

    A recent study showed that the frequency of an antiretroviral factor TRIM5 gene-derived isoform, TRIMCyp, in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) varies widely according to the particular habitat examined. However, whether the findings actually reflect the prevalence of TRIMCyp in wild cynomolgus macaques is still uncertain because the previous data were obtained with captive monkeys in breeding and rearing facilities. Here, we characterized the TRIM5 gene in cynomolgus macaques captured in the wild, and found that the frequency of the TRIMCyp allele was comparable to those in captive monkeys. This suggests that the previous results with captive monkeys do indeed reflect the natural allele frequency and that breeding and rearing facilities may not affect the frequency of TRIM5 alleles. Interestingly, the prevalence of a minor haplotype of TRIMCyp in wild macaques from the Philippines was significantly lower than in captive ones, suggesting that it is advantageous for wild monkeys to possess the major haplotype of TRIMCyp. Overall, our results add to our understanding of the geographic and genetic prevalence of cynomolgus macaque TRIMCyp. PMID:22969754

  2. Surrogate Mobility and Orientation Affect the Early Neurobehavioral Development of Infant Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda M Dettmer; Ruggerio, Angela M.; Novak, Melinda A.; Meyer, Jerrold S.; Suomi, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    A biological mother’s movement appears necessary for optimal development in infant monkeys. However, nursery-reared monkeys are typically provided with inanimate surrogate mothers that move very little. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a novel, highly mobile surrogate mother on motor development, exploration, and reactions to novelty. Six infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were reared on mobile hanging surrogates (MS) and compared to six infants reared on standard...

  3. Park Rangers' Behaviors and Their Effects on Tourists and Tibetan Macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Mt. Huangshan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Rie; Sheeran, Lori K; Li, Jin-Hua; Sun, Lixing; Wang, Xi; Pritchard, Alexander J; DuVall-Lash, Alexander S; Wagner, R Steve

    2014-09-15

    Previous studies have reported the negative impacts of tourism on nonhuman primates (NHPs) and tourists and advocated the improvement of tourism management, yet what constitutes good quality management remains unclear. We explored whether rates of macaque aggression and self-directed behaviors (SDBs) differed under the supervision of two park ranger teams at the Valley of the Wild Monkeys (VWM) in Mt. Huangshan, Anhui Province, China. The two ranger teams provisioned and managed a group of macaques on an alternating monthly basis. Monkey, tourist and ranger behaviors were collected from August 16-September 30, 2012. Macaque aggression and SDB rates did not differ significantly under the management of the two teams. Overall, there was little intervention in tourist-macaque interactions by park rangers, and even when rangers discouraged tourists' undesirable behaviors, tourist interactions with monkeys persisted. Furthermore, only one or sometimes two park rangers managed monkeys and tourists, and rangers established dominance over the monkeys to control them. In order to effectively manage tourists and monkeys by a single park ranger, we recommend that rangers: (1) prohibit tourists from feeding; (2) move around the viewing platform more frequently; and (3) limit the number of tourists each visiting session.

  4. Pyramidal Cells in Prefrontal Cortex of Primates: Marked Differences in Neuronal Structure Among Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elston, Guy N.; Benavides-Piccione, Ruth; Elston, Alejandra; Manger, Paul R.; DeFelipe, Javier

    2010-01-01

    The most ubiquitous neuron in the cerebral cortex, the pyramidal cell, is characterized by markedly different dendritic structure among different cortical areas. The complex pyramidal cell phenotype in granular prefrontal cortex (gPFC) of higher primates endows specific biophysical properties and patterns of connectivity, which differ from those in other cortical regions. However, within the gPFC, data have been sampled from only a select few cortical areas. The gPFC of species such as human and macaque monkey includes more than 10 cortical areas. It remains unknown as to what degree pyramidal cell structure may vary among these cortical areas. Here we undertook a survey of pyramidal cells in the dorsolateral, medial, and orbital gPFC of cercopithecid primates. We found marked heterogeneity in pyramidal cell structure within and between these regions. Moreover, trends for gradients in neuronal complexity varied among species. As the structure of neurons determines their computational abilities, memory storage capacity and connectivity, we propose that these specializations in the pyramidal cell phenotype are an important determinant of species-specific executive cortical functions in primates. PMID:21347276

  5. Differential prefrontal white matter development in chimpanzees and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Tomoko; Mikami, Akichika; Tomonaga, Masaki; Matsui, Mie; Suzuki, Juri; Hamada, Yuzuru; Tanaka, Masayuki; Miyabe-Nishiwaki, Takako; Makishima, Haruyuki; Nakatsukasa, Masato; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2011-08-23

    A comparison of developmental patterns of white matter (WM) within the prefrontal region between humans and nonhuman primates is key to understanding human brain evolution. WM mediates complex cognitive processes and has reciprocal connections with posterior processing regions [1, 2]. Although the developmental pattern of prefrontal WM in macaques differs markedly from that in humans [3], this has not been explored in our closest evolutionary relative, the chimpanzee. The present longitudinal study of magnetic resonance imaging scans demonstrated that the prefrontal WM volume in chimpanzees was immature and had not reached the adult value during prepuberty, as observed in humans but not in macaques. However, the rate of prefrontal WM volume increase during infancy was slower in chimpanzees than in humans. These results suggest that a less mature and more protracted elaboration of neuronal connections in the prefrontal portion of the developing brain existed in the last common ancestor of chimpanzees and humans, and that this served to enhance the impact of postnatal experiences on neuronal connectivity. Furthermore, the rapid development of the human prefrontal WM during infancy may help the development of complex social interactions, as well as the acquisition of experience-dependent knowledge and skills to shape neuronal connectivity.

  6. Vicarious reinforcement in rhesus macaques (macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Steve W C; Winecoff, Amy A; Platt, Michael L

    2011-01-01

    What happens to others profoundly influences our own behavior. Such other-regarding outcomes can drive observational learning, as well as motivate cooperation, charity, empathy, and even spite. Vicarious reinforcement may serve as one of the critical mechanisms mediating the influence of other-regarding outcomes on behavior and decision-making in groups. Here we show that rhesus macaques spontaneously derive vicarious reinforcement from observing rewards given to another monkey, and that this reinforcement can motivate them to subsequently deliver or withhold rewards from the other animal. We exploited Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning to associate rewards to self (M1) and/or rewards to another monkey (M2) with visual cues. M1s made more errors in the instrumental trials when cues predicted reward to M2 compared to when cues predicted reward to M1, but made even more errors when cues predicted reward to no one. In subsequent preference tests between pairs of conditioned cues, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to M2 over cues paired with reward to no one. By contrast, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to self over cues paired with reward to both monkeys simultaneously. Rates of attention to M2 strongly predicted the strength and valence of vicarious reinforcement. These patterns of behavior, which were absent in non-social control trials, are consistent with vicarious reinforcement based upon sensitivity to observed, or counterfactual, outcomes with respect to another individual. Vicarious reward may play a critical role in shaping cooperation and competition, as well as motivating observational learning and group coordination in rhesus macaques, much as it does in humans. We propose that vicarious reinforcement signals mediate these behaviors via homologous neural circuits involved in reinforcement learning and decision-making.

  7. Vicarious Reinforcement In Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve W. C. Chang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available What happens to others profoundly influences our own behavior. Such other-regarding outcomes can drive observational learning, as well as motivate cooperation, charity, empathy, and even spite. Vicarious reinforcement may serve as one of the critical mechanisms mediating the influence of other-regarding outcomes on behavior and decision-making in groups. Here we show that rhesus macaques spontaneously derive vicarious reinforcement from observing rewards given to another monkey, and that this reinforcement can motivate them to subsequently deliver or withhold rewards from the other animal. We exploited Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning to associate rewards to self (M1 and/or rewards to another monkey (M2 with visual cues. M1s made more errors in the instrumental trials when cues predicted reward to M2 compared to when cues predicted reward to M1, but made even more errors when cues predicted reward to no one. In subsequent preference tests between pairs of conditioned cues, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to M2 over cues paired with reward to no one. By contrast, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to self over cues paired with reward to both monkeys simultaneously. Rates of attention to M2 strongly predicted the strength and valence of vicarious reinforcement. These patterns of behavior, which were absent in nonsocial control trials, are consistent with vicarious reinforcement based upon sensitivity to observed, or counterfactual, outcomes with respect to another individual. Vicarious reward may play a critical role in shaping cooperation and competition, as well as motivating observational learning and group coordination in rhesus macaques, much as it does in humans. We propose that vicarious reinforcement signals mediate these behaviors via homologous neural circuits involved in reinforcement learning and decision-making.

  8. Problems associated with the seed-trap method when measuring seed dispersal in forests inhabited by Japanese macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujino, Riyou; Yumoto, Takakazu

    2014-04-01

    Despite the widespread use of seed/litter traps in seed dispersal ecology, several problems have arisen when using this method in forests inhabited by semi-terrestrial monkeys. The first issue is the height of the trap relative to the location where macaques spit seeds and/or defecate. For Japanese macaques in the lowland forests of Yakushima Island, southern Japan, 30-50% of the seeds emitted from cheek pouches and faeces will not be caught by seed traps, leading to underestimation of seed fall. The second issue is the attractiveness of seed traps. Macaques sometimes play with the traps, potentially affecting the results of the seed-trap method in complex ways, including both negative and positive effects. To obtain reasonable estimates of total seed dispersal, we recommend that researchers conduct the seed-trap method concurrently with monkey observations, and that they should affix traps more securely to prevent macaques from destroying the traps.

  9. Comparative diffusion tractography of corticostriatal motor pathways reveals differences between humans and macaques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neggers, S.F.W.; Zandbelt, B.B.; Schall, M.S.; Schall, J.D.

    2015-01-01

    The primate corticobasal ganglia circuits are understood to be segregated into parallel anatomically and functionally distinct loops. Anatomical and physiological studies in macaque monkeys are summarized as showing that an oculomotor loop begins with projections from the frontal eye fields (FEF) to

  10. Comparative Pathobiology of Macaque Lymphocryptoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carville, Angela; Mansfield, Keith G

    2008-01-01

    Lymphocryptoviruses (LCVs) have been identified as naturally occurring infections of both Old and New World nonhuman primates. These viruses are closely related to Epstein–Barr virus (EBV, Human herpesvirus 4) and share similar genomic organization and biological properties. Nonhuman primate LCVs have the ability to immortalize host cells and express a similar complement of viral lytic and latent genes as those found in EBV. Recent evidence indicates that nonhuman primate LCVs can immortalize B cells from genetically related species, suggesting a close evolutionary relationship between these viruses and their respective hosts. Early work with EBV in tamarins and owl monkeys revealed that cross species transmission of lymphocryptoviruses from the natural to inadvertent host may be associated with oncogenesis and the development of malignant lymphoma. Moreover, simian LCVs have the ability to induce malignant lymphomas in immunodeficient hosts and have been associated with posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disease in cynomolgus macaques undergoing solid organ transplantation. This review will focus on the comparative pathobiology of lymphocryptoviral infection and discuss the derivation of specific pathogen-free animals. PMID:19793458

  11. Variation in Clitoral Length in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Beatriz; Cabello, Pedro H; Kugelmeier, Tatiana; Pereira, Barbara B; Lopes, Claudia A; Fasano, Daniele M; Andrade, Marcia C; Santos, Joice S; Marinho, Antonio M

    2009-01-01

    Clitoromegaly in the neonatal period is an important morphologic sign that can be useful for sexual determination in aberrant cases. In rhesus monkeys, differentiation of the external genitalia occurs early during gestation (at 55 to 60 d) and is complete by approximately 80 d. Most of the critical steps in genital differentiation in primates occur prenatally. We sought to determine clitoral size in normal rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and possible effects of age and inheritance. Clitoral length was highly variable and had no relationship to fertility. Statistical evaluation revealed no association in the distribution of daughters with and without clitoris between mothers with and without clitoris. However, even when mated with several female monkeys, some male macaques produced primarily daughters without clitoris. PMID:19807967

  12. Social interactions through the eyes of macaques and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard McFarland

    Full Text Available Group-living primates frequently interact with each other to maintain social bonds as well as to compete for valuable resources. Observing such social interactions between group members provides individuals with essential information (e.g. on the fighting ability or altruistic attitude of group companions to guide their social tactics and choice of social partners. This process requires individuals to selectively attend to the most informative content within a social scene. It is unclear how non-human primates allocate attention to social interactions in different contexts, and whether they share similar patterns of social attention to humans. Here we compared the gaze behaviour of rhesus macaques and humans when free-viewing the same set of naturalistic images. The images contained positive or negative social interactions between two conspecifics of different phylogenetic distance from the observer; i.e. affiliation or aggression exchanged by two humans, rhesus macaques, Barbary macaques, baboons or lions. Monkeys directed a variable amount of gaze at the two conspecific individuals in the images according to their roles in the interaction (i.e. giver or receiver of affiliation/aggression. Their gaze distribution to non-conspecific individuals was systematically varied according to the viewed species and the nature of interactions, suggesting a contribution of both prior experience and innate bias in guiding social attention. Furthermore, the monkeys' gaze behavior was qualitatively similar to that of humans, especially when viewing negative interactions. Detailed analysis revealed that both species directed more gaze at the face than the body region when inspecting individuals, and attended more to the body region in negative than in positive social interactions. Our study suggests that monkeys and humans share a similar pattern of role-sensitive, species- and context-dependent social attention, implying a homologous cognitive mechanism of

  13. Malaria in cynomolgus monkeys used in toxicity studies in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Etsuko; Nagayama, Yuko; Koyama, Naoki; Kakiuchi, Dai; Hosokawa, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    Plasmodium spp. protozoa cause malaria and are known to infect humans and a variety of animal species including macaque monkeys. Here we report both our experience with malaria recrudescence in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) in a toxicity study and the results of a survey on Plasmodium infection in cynomolgus monkeys imported to Japan for laboratory use. A cynomolgus monkey from the toxicity study presented with severe anemia and Plasmodium protozoa in erythrocytes on a thin blood smear and was subsequently diagnosed with symptomatic malaria. In this animal, congestion and accumulation of hemozoin (malaria pigment) in macrophages were noted in the enlarged and darkly discolored spleen. As a follow-up for the experience, spleen sections from 800 cynomolgus monkeys in toxicity studies conducted between 2003 and 2013 were retrospectively examined for hemozoin deposition as a marker of Plasmodium infection. The origin of the animals included Cambodia, China, Indonesia, and Vietnam. Hemozoin deposition was confirmed in 44% of all examined monkeys. Monkeys from Indonesia showed the highest incidence of hemozoin deposition (approx. 80%). A high prevalence of Plasmodium infection in laboratory monkeys was also confirmed with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by using Plasmodium genus-specific primers. Although Japan is not a country with endemic malaria, it is important to be aware of the prevalence and potential impact of background infection with Plasmodium spp. and recrudescence of symptomatic malaria in imported laboratory monkeys on pharmaceutical toxicity studies.

  14. Social relevance drives viewing behavior independent of low-level salience in rhesus macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Andrew Solyst

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying attention to social stimuli during the viewing of complex social scenes with eye tracking has proven to be a sensitive method in the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders years before average clinical diagnosis. Rhesus macaques provide an ideal model for understanding the mechanisms underlying social viewing behavior, but to date no comparable behavioral task has been developed for use in monkeys. Using a novel scene-viewing task, we monitored the gaze of three rhesus macaques while they freely viewed well-controlled composed social scenes and analyzed the time spent viewing objects and monkeys. In each of six behavioral sessions, monkeys viewed a set of 90 images (540 unique scenes with each image presented twice. In two-thirds of the repeated scenes, either a monkey or an object was replaced with a novel item (manipulated scenes. When viewing a repeated scene, monkeys made longer fixations and shorter saccades, shifting from a rapid orienting to global scene contents to a more local analysis of fewer items. In addition to this repetition effect, in manipulated scenes, monkeys demonstrated robust memory by spending more time viewing the replaced items. By analyzing attention to specific scene content, we found that monkeys strongly preferred to view conspecifics and that this was not related to their salience in terms of low-level image features. A model-free analysis of viewing statistics found that monkeys that were viewed earlier and longer had direct gaze and redder sex skin around their face and rump, two important visual social cues. These data provide a quantification of viewing strategy, memory and social preferences in rhesus macaques viewing complex social scenes, and they provide an important baseline with which to compare to the effects of therapeutics aimed at enhancing social cognition.

  15. Poster: the macaque genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-13

    The rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) facilitates an extraordinary range of biomedical and basic research, and the publication of the genome only makes it a more powerful model for studies of human disease; moreover, the macaque's position relative to humans and chimpanzees affords the opportunity to learn about the processes that have shaped the last 25 million years of primate evolution. To allow users to explore these themes of the macaque genome, Science has created a special interactive version of the poster published in the print edition of the 13 April 2007 issue. The interactive version includes additional text and exploration, as well as embedded video featuring seven scientists discussing the importance of the macaque and its genome sequence in studies of biomedicine and evolution. We have also created an accompanying teaching resource, including a lesson plan aimed at teachers of advanced high school life science students, for exploring what a comparison of the macaque and human genomes can tell us about human biology and evolution. These items are free to all site visitors.

  16. Serologic host response to Helicobacter pylori and Campylobacter jejuni in socially housed Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienesberger, Sabine; Perez-Perez, Guillermo I; Rivera-Correa, Juan L; Tosado-Acevedo, Rafael; Li, Huilin; Dubois, Andre; Gonzalez-Martinez, Janis A; Dominguez-Bello, Maria Gloria; Blaser, Martin J

    2012-08-24

    Helicobacter pylori are successful colonizers of the human gastric mucosa. Colonization increases the risk of peptic ulcer disease and adenocarcinoma. However, potential benefits of H. pylori colonization include protection against early-onset asthma and against gastrointestinal infections. Campylobacter jejuni are a leading cause of bacterial diarrhea and complications include Guillain-Barré syndrome. Here, we describe the development of reliable serological assays to detect antibodies against those two bacteria in Rhesus macaques and investigated their distribution within a social group of monkeys. Two cohorts of monkeys were analyzed. The first cohort consisted of 30 monkeys and was used to establish an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for H. pylori antibodies detection. To evaluate colonization of those macaques, stomach biopsies were collected and analyzed for the presence of H. pylori by histology and culture. C. jejuni ELISAs were established using human serum with known C. jejuni antibody status. Next, plasma samples of the 89 macaques (Cohort 2) were assayed for antibodies and then statistically analyzed. An H. pylori IgG ELISA, which was 100% specific and 93% sensitive, was established. In contrast, the IgA ELISA was only 82% specific and 61% sensitive. The CagA IgG assay was 100% sensitive and 61% of the macaques were positive. In cohort 2, 62% macaques were H. pylori sero-positive and 52% were CagA positive. The prevalence of H. pylori IgG and CagA IgG increased with monkey age as described for humans. Of the 89 macaques 52% showed IgG against C. jejuni but in contrast to H. pylori, the sero-prevalence was not associated with increasing age. However, there was a drop in the IgG (but not in IgA) mean values between infant and juvenile macaques, similar to trends described in humans. Rhesus macaques have widespread exposure to H. pylori and C. jejuni, reflecting their social conditions and implying that Rhesus macaques might provide a model to

  17. Serologic host response to Helicobacter pylori and Campylobacter jejuni in socially housed Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kienesberger Sabine

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Helicobacter pylori are successful colonizers of the human gastric mucosa. Colonization increases the risk of peptic ulcer disease and adenocarcinoma. However, potential benefits of H. pylori colonization include protection against early-onset asthma and against gastrointestinal infections. Campylobacter jejuni are a leading cause of bacterial diarrhea and complications include Guillain-Barré syndrome. Here, we describe the development of reliable serological assays to detect antibodies against those two bacteria in Rhesus macaques and investigated their distribution within a social group of monkeys. Methods Two cohorts of monkeys were analyzed. The first cohort consisted of 30 monkeys and was used to establish an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for H. pylori antibodies detection. To evaluate colonization of those macaques, stomach biopsies were collected and analyzed for the presence of H. pylori by histology and culture. C. jejuni ELISAs were established using human serum with known C. jejuni antibody status. Next, plasma samples of the 89 macaques (Cohort 2 were assayed for antibodies and then statistically analyzed. Results An H. pylori IgG ELISA, which was 100% specific and 93% sensitive, was established. In contrast, the IgA ELISA was only 82% specific and 61% sensitive. The CagA IgG assay was 100% sensitive and 61% of the macaques were positive. In cohort 2, 62% macaques were H. pylori sero-positive and 52% were CagA positive. The prevalence of H. pylori IgG and CagA IgG increased with monkey age as described for humans. Of the 89 macaques 52% showed IgG against C. jejuni but in contrast to H. pylori, the sero-prevalence was not associated with increasing age. However, there was a drop in the IgG (but not in IgA mean values between infant and juvenile macaques, similar to trends described in humans. Conclusions Rhesus macaques have widespread exposure to H. pylori and C. jejuni, reflecting their social

  18. Monkey Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwood, Christine Horvatis

    2012-01-01

    A ballerina, a gladiator, a camper, a baseball player, a surfer, and a shopper; these are just a few of the amazing monkeys that the author's seventh graders created from papier-mache. This project provided an opportunity for students to express themselves through the creation of sculptural characters based on their own interests, hobbies, and…

  19. Monkey Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwood, Christine Horvatis

    2012-01-01

    A ballerina, a gladiator, a camper, a baseball player, a surfer, and a shopper; these are just a few of the amazing monkeys that the author's seventh graders created from papier-mache. This project provided an opportunity for students to express themselves through the creation of sculptural characters based on their own interests, hobbies, and…

  20. Menace and Management: Power in the Human-Monkey Social Worlds of Delhi and Shimla

    OpenAIRE

    Solomon, Daniel Allen

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is based on ethnographic and textual research among the monkeys and humans of two Indian metropolises, mostly between 2006-2010. The monkeys are rhesus macaques, who have lived alongside humans in South Asia for thousands of years, make their livings in apparently anthropogenic material-symbolic environments. Rhesus participate in the shaping of the space of their interaction with humans; that is, they engage in multispecies world-building. In the context of their relationsh...

  1. Variation in intergroup encounters among two provisioned free-ranging populations of Japanese macaques Macaca fuscata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng ZHANG; Kunio WATANABE

    2012-01-01

    Typically,Japanese macaques are thought to avoid encountering other groups wherever possible.Intergroup relations between macaques on Shodoshima Island,however,appear exceptional.We show that neighboring groups of Shodoshima monkeys spent 32.8% of their active time in proximity to (<100 m) and even foraged simultaneously at the same provisioning site with another group.The average duration and rate of intergroup encounters at Shodoshima (59.8 min,0.33 times/hour,n=269)were approximately ten times longer and 16.5 times more frequent than those at Jigokudani (6.1 min,0.02 times/hour,n=14).Since both populations have similar provisioning and ecological conditions,such variation cannot be explained by the socioecology model alone.Compared with other populations of Japanese macaques,intergroup relations of Shodoshima monkeys are also characterized by more frequent neutral encounters,less frequent agonistic encounters,more frequent unsuccessful displacement,a lower intensity of aggression,and more frequent counter-aggression between groups.These characteristics suggest that intergroup relationships on Shodoshima Island are more tolerant than those in other Japanese macaque populations.This study reveals considerable differences in intergroup encounters within local populations of Japanese macaques living in similar environments,and emphasizes the role of social factors in such intra-specific variation.

  2. Conformational adaptation of Asian macaque TRIMCyp directs lineage specific antiviral activity.

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    Laura M J Ylinen

    Full Text Available TRIMCyps are anti-retroviral proteins that have arisen independently in New World and Old World primates. All TRIMCyps comprise a CypA domain fused to the tripartite domains of TRIM5alpha but they have distinct lentiviral specificities, conferring HIV-1 restriction in New World owl monkeys and HIV-2 restriction in Old World rhesus macaques. Here we provide evidence that Asian macaque TRIMCyps have acquired changes that switch restriction specificity between different lentiviral lineages, resulting in species-specific alleles that target different viruses. Structural, thermodynamic and viral restriction analysis suggests that a single mutation in the Cyp domain, R69H, occurred early in macaque TRIMCyp evolution, expanding restriction specificity to the lentiviral lineages found in African green monkeys, sooty mangabeys and chimpanzees. Subsequent mutations have enhanced restriction to particular viruses but at the cost of broad specificity. We reveal how specificity is altered by a scaffold mutation, E143K, that modifies surface electrostatics and propagates conformational changes into the active site. Our results suggest that lentiviruses may have been important pathogens in Asian macaques despite the fact that there are no reported lentiviral infections in current macaque populations.

  3. Electroretinogram analysis of relative spectral sensitivity in genetically identified dichromatic macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanazawa, A; Mikami, A; Sulistyo Angelika, P; Takenaka, O; Goto, S; Onishi, A; Koike, S; Yamamori, T; Kato, K; Kondo, A; Suryobroto, B; Farajallah, A; Komatsu, H

    2001-07-03

    The retinas of macaque monkeys usually contain three types of photopigment, providing them with trichromatic color vision homologous to that of humans. However, we recently used molecular genetic analysis to identify several macaques with a dichromatic genotype. The affected X chromosome of these animals contains a hybrid gene of long-wavelength-sensitive (L) and middle-wavelength-sensitive (M) photopigments instead of separate genes encoding L and M photopigments. The product of the hybrid gene exhibits a spectral sensitivity close to that of M photopigment; consequently, male monkeys carrying the hybrid gene are genetic protanopes, effectively lacking L photopigment. In the present study, we assessed retinal expression of L photopigment in monkeys carrying the hybrid gene. The relative sensitivities to middle-wavelength (green) and long-wavelength (red) light were measured by electroretinogram flicker photometry. We found the sensitivity to red light to be extremely low in protanopic male monkeys compared with monkeys with the normal genotype. In female heterozygotes, sensitivity to red light was intermediate between the genetic protanopes and normal monkeys. Decreased sensitivity to long wavelengths was thus consistent with genetic loss of L photopigment.

  4. Otoacoustic Estimates of Cochlear Tuning: Testing Predictions in Macaque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shera, Christopher A.; Bergevin, Christopher; Kalluri, Radha; Laughlin, Myles Mc; Michelet, Pascal; van der Heijden, Marcel; Joris, Philip X.

    2013-01-01

    Otoacoustic estimates of cochlear frequency selectivity suggest substantially sharper tuning in humans. However, the logic and methodology underlying these estimates remain untested by direct measurements in primates. We report measurements of frequency tuning in macaque monkeys, Old-World primates phylogenetically closer to humans than the small laboratory animals often taken as models of human hearing (e.g., cats, guinea pigs, and chinchillas). We find that measurements of tuning obtained directly from individual nerve fibers and indirectly using otoacoustic emissions both indicate that peripheral frequency selectivity in macaques is significantly sharper than in small laboratory animals, matching that inferred for humans at high frequencies. Our results validate the use of otoacoustic emissions for noninvasive measurement of cochlear tuning and corroborate the finding of sharper tuning in humans. PMID:24701000

  5. Evolutionary and biomedical insights from the rhesus macaque genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Richard A; Rogers, Jeffrey; Katze, Michael G; Bumgarner, Roger; Weinstock, George M; Mardis, Elaine R; Remington, Karin A; Strausberg, Robert L; Venter, J Craig; Wilson, Richard K; Batzer, Mark A; Bustamante, Carlos D; Eichler, Evan E; Hahn, Matthew W; Hardison, Ross C; Makova, Kateryna D; Miller, Webb; Milosavljevic, Aleksandar; Palermo, Robert E; Siepel, Adam; Sikela, James M; Attaway, Tony; Bell, Stephanie; Bernard, Kelly E; Buhay, Christian J; Chandrabose, Mimi N; Dao, Marvin; Davis, Clay; Delehaunty, Kimberly D; Ding, Yan; Dinh, Huyen H; Dugan-Rocha, Shannon; Fulton, Lucinda A; Gabisi, Ramatu Ayiesha; Garner, Toni T; Godfrey, Jennifer; Hawes, Alicia C; Hernandez, Judith; Hines, Sandra; Holder, Michael; Hume, Jennifer; Jhangiani, Shalini N; Joshi, Vandita; Khan, Ziad Mohid; Kirkness, Ewen F; Cree, Andrew; Fowler, R Gerald; Lee, Sandra; Lewis, Lora R; Li, Zhangwan; Liu, Yih-Shin; Moore, Stephanie M; Muzny, Donna; Nazareth, Lynne V; Ngo, Dinh Ngoc; Okwuonu, Geoffrey O; Pai, Grace; Parker, David; Paul, Heidie A; Pfannkoch, Cynthia; Pohl, Craig S; Rogers, Yu-Hui; Ruiz, San Juana; Sabo, Aniko; Santibanez, Jireh; Schneider, Brian W; Smith, Scott M; Sodergren, Erica; Svatek, Amanda F; Utterback, Teresa R; Vattathil, Selina; Warren, Wesley; White, Courtney Sherell; Chinwalla, Asif T; Feng, Yucheng; Halpern, Aaron L; Hillier, Ladeana W; Huang, Xiaoqiu; Minx, Pat; Nelson, Joanne O; Pepin, Kymberlie H; Qin, Xiang; Sutton, Granger G; Venter, Eli; Walenz, Brian P; Wallis, John W; Worley, Kim C; Yang, Shiaw-Pyng; Jones, Steven M; Marra, Marco A; Rocchi, Mariano; Schein, Jacqueline E; Baertsch, Robert; Clarke, Laura; Csürös, Miklós; Glasscock, Jarret; Harris, R Alan; Havlak, Paul; Jackson, Andrew R; Jiang, Huaiyang; Liu, Yue; Messina, David N; Shen, Yufeng; Song, Henry Xing-Zhi; Wylie, Todd; Zhang, Lan; Birney, Ewan; Han, Kyudong; Konkel, Miriam K; Lee, Jungnam; Smit, Arian F A; Ullmer, Brygg; Wang, Hui; Xing, Jinchuan; Burhans, Richard; Cheng, Ze; Karro, John E; Ma, Jian; Raney, Brian; She, Xinwei; Cox, Michael J; Demuth, Jeffery P; Dumas, Laura J; Han, Sang-Gook; Hopkins, Janet; Karimpour-Fard, Anis; Kim, Young H; Pollack, Jonathan R; Vinar, Tomas; Addo-Quaye, Charles; Degenhardt, Jeremiah; Denby, Alexandra; Hubisz, Melissa J; Indap, Amit; Kosiol, Carolin; Lahn, Bruce T; Lawson, Heather A; Marklein, Alison; Nielsen, Rasmus; Vallender, Eric J; Clark, Andrew G; Ferguson, Betsy; Hernandez, Ryan D; Hirani, Kashif; Kehrer-Sawatzki, Hildegard; Kolb, Jessica; Patil, Shobha; Pu, Ling-Ling; Ren, Yanru; Smith, David Glenn; Wheeler, David A; Schenck, Ian; Ball, Edward V; Chen, Rui; Cooper, David N; Giardine, Belinda; Hsu, Fan; Kent, W James; Lesk, Arthur; Nelson, David L; O'brien, William E; Prüfer, Kay; Stenson, Peter D; Wallace, James C; Ke, Hui; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Peng; Xiang, Andy Peng; Yang, Fan; Barber, Galt P; Haussler, David; Karolchik, Donna; Kern, Andy D; Kuhn, Robert M; Smith, Kayla E; Zwieg, Ann S

    2007-04-13

    The rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is an abundant primate species that diverged from the ancestors of Homo sapiens about 25 million years ago. Because they are genetically and physiologically similar to humans, rhesus monkeys are the most widely used nonhuman primate in basic and applied biomedical research. We determined the genome sequence of an Indian-origin Macaca mulatta female and compared the data with chimpanzees and humans to reveal the structure of ancestral primate genomes and to identify evidence for positive selection and lineage-specific expansions and contractions of gene families. A comparison of sequences from individual animals was used to investigate their underlying genetic diversity. The complete description of the macaque genome blueprint enhances the utility of this animal model for biomedical research and improves our understanding of the basic biology of the species.

  6. Rich club organization of macaque cerebral cortex and its role in network communication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logan Harriger

    Full Text Available Graph-theoretical analysis of brain connectivity data has revealed significant features of brain network organization across a range of species. Consistently, large-scale anatomical networks exhibit highly nonrandom attributes including an efficient small world modular architecture, with distinct network communities that are interlinked by hub regions. The functional importance of hubs motivates a closer examination of their mutual interconnections, specifically to examine the hypothesis that hub regions are more densely linked than expected based on their degree alone, i.e. forming a central rich club. Extending recent findings of rich club topology in the cat and human brain, this report presents evidence for the existence of rich club organization in the cerebral cortex of a non-human primate, the macaque monkey, based on a connectivity data set representing a collation of numerous tract tracing studies. Rich club regions comprise portions of prefrontal, parietal, temporal and insular cortex and are widely distributed across network communities. An analysis of network motifs reveals that rich club regions tend to form star-like configurations, indicative of their central embedding within sets of nodes. In addition, rich club nodes and edges participate in a large number of short paths across the network, and thus contribute disproportionately to global communication. As rich club regions tend to attract and disperse communication paths, many of the paths follow a characteristic pattern of first increasing and then decreasing node degree. Finally, the existence of non-reciprocal projections imposes a net directional flow of paths into and out of the rich club, with some regions preferentially attracting and others dispersing signals. Overall, the demonstration of rich club organization in a non-human primate contributes to our understanding of the network principles underlying neural connectivity in the mammalian brain, and further supports

  7. Is the prefrontal cortex especially enlarged in the human brain allometric relations and remapping factors.

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    Passingham, Richard E; Smaers, Jeroen B

    2014-01-01

    There has been no agreement as to whether the prefrontal cortex is especially enlarged in the human brain. To answer this question, we analyzed the only two datasets that provide information on total prefrontal cortex volume based on cytoarchitectonic criteria. One delineated the prefrontal cortex proper on the basis of cytoarchitectonic criteria; the other used a proxy of the prefrontal cortex based on a cytoarchitectonic delineation of the frontal lobe. To investigate whether all cortical association areas, including the prefrontal cortex, are enlarged in the human brain, we scaled the different areas to a common reference, the primary visual cortex. To investigate whether the prefrontal cortex is more enlarged than other association areas, we scaled it relative to its inputs from and outputs to other nonprimary areas. We carried out separate regression analyses using different data samples as a predictive baseline group: data for monkeys alone informs us on whether great apes are different from monkeys; data for all non-human anthropoids, including great apes, informs us on whether humans are different from all other primates. The analyses show that the value for the human prefrontal cortex is greater than expected, and that this is true even when data for the great apes are included in the analysis. They also show that the chimpanzee prefrontal cortex is greater than expected for a monkey with a similar sized cortex. We discuss possible functional consequences.

  8. Representations of the body surface in areas 3b and 1 of postcentral parietal cortex of Cebus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felleman, D J; Nelson, R J; Sur, M; Kaas, J H

    1983-05-23

    The somatotopic organization of postcentral parietal cortex was determined with microelectrode mapping methods in a New World monkey, Cebus albifrons. As in previous studies in macaque, squirrel and owl monkeys, two separate representations of the body surface were found in regions corresponding to the architectonic fields 3b and 1. The two representations were roughly mirror-images of each other, with receptive field locations matched for recording sites along the common border. As in other monkeys, the glabrous digit tips of the hand and foot pointed rostrally in the Area 3b representation and caudally in the Area 1 representation. Both representations proceeded in parallel from the tail on the medial wall of the cerebral hemisphere to the teeth and tongue in lateral cortex along the Sylvian fissure. Compared with the other monkeys, the tail of the cebus monkey, which is prehensile, was represented in a very large region of cortex in Areas 3b and 1. Like its close relative, the squirrel monkey, the representation of the trunk and parts of the limbs were reversed in orientation in both Area 3b and Area 1 in cebus monkeys as compared to owl and macaque monkeys. The reversals of organization for some but not all parts of the representations in cebus and squirrel monkeys suggest that one line of New World monkeys acquired a unique but functionally adequate pattern of somatotopic organization for the two adjoining fields.

  9. Intersegmental Coordination in the Kinematics of Prehension Movements of Macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Luisa; Camperio-Ciani, Andrea; Bulgheroni, Maria; Castiello, Umberto

    2015-01-01

    The most popular model to explain how prehensile movements are organized assumes that they comprise two “components”, the reaching component encoding information regarding the object’s spatial location and the grasping component encoding information on the object’s intrinsic properties such as size and shape. Comparative kinematic studies on grasping behavior in the humans and in macaques have been carried out to investigate the similarities and differences existing across the two species. Although these studies seem to favor the hypothesis that macaques and humans share a number of kinematic features it remains unclear how the reaching and grasping components are coordinated during prehension movements in free-ranging macaque monkeys. Twelve hours of video footage was filmed of the monkeys as they snatched food items from one another (i.e., snatching) or collect them in the absence of competitors (i.e., unconstrained). The video samples were analyzed frame-by-frame using digitization techniques developed to perform two-dimensional post-hoc kinematic analyses of the two types of actions. The results indicate that only for the snatching condition when the reaching variability increased there was an increase in the amplitude of maximum grip aperture. Besides, the start of a break-point along the deceleration phase of the velocity profile correlated with the time at which maximum grip aperture occurred. These findings suggest that macaques can spatially and temporally couple the reaching and the grasping components when there is pressure to act quickly. They offer a substantial contribution to the debate about the nature of how prehensile actions are programmed. PMID:26176232

  10. Model-observer similarity, error modeling and social learning in rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfardini, Elisabetta; Hadj-Bouziane, Fadila; Meunier, Martine

    2014-01-01

    Monkeys readily learn to discriminate between rewarded and unrewarded items or actions by observing their conspecifics. However, they do not systematically learn from humans. Understanding what makes human-to-monkey transmission of knowledge work or fail could help identify mediators and moderators of social learning that operate regardless of language or culture, and transcend inter-species differences. Do monkeys fail to learn when human models show a behavior too dissimilar from the animals' own, or when they show a faultless performance devoid of error? To address this question, six rhesus macaques trained to find which object within a pair concealed a food reward were successively tested with three models: a familiar conspecific, a 'stimulus-enhancing' human actively drawing the animal's attention to one object of the pair without actually performing the task, and a 'monkey-like' human performing the task in the same way as the monkey model did. Reward was manipulated to ensure that all models showed equal proportions of errors and successes. The 'monkey-like' human model improved the animals' subsequent object discrimination learning as much as a conspecific did, whereas the 'stimulus-enhancing' human model tended on the contrary to retard learning. Modeling errors rather than successes optimized learning from the monkey and 'monkey-like' models, while exacerbating the adverse effect of the 'stimulus-enhancing' model. These findings identify error modeling as a moderator of social learning in monkeys that amplifies the models' influence, whether beneficial or detrimental. By contrast, model-observer similarity in behavior emerged as a mediator of social learning, that is, a prerequisite for a model to work in the first place. The latter finding suggests that, as preverbal infants, macaques need to perceive the model as 'like-me' and that, once this condition is fulfilled, any agent can become an effective model.

  11. Methylphenidate and Atomoxetine Enhance Prefrontal Function through alpha[subscript 2]-Adrenergic and Dopamine D[subscript 1] Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamo, Nao J.; Wang, Min; Arnsten, Amy F. T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the effects of the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder treatments, methylphenidate (MPH) and atomoxetine (ATM), on prefrontal cortex (PFC) function in monkeys and explored the receptor mechanisms underlying enhancement of PFC function at the behavioral and cellular levels. Method: Monkeys performed a working…

  12. Methylphenidate and Atomoxetine Enhance Prefrontal Function through alpha[subscript 2]-Adrenergic and Dopamine D[subscript 1] Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamo, Nao J.; Wang, Min; Arnsten, Amy F. T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the effects of the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder treatments, methylphenidate (MPH) and atomoxetine (ATM), on prefrontal cortex (PFC) function in monkeys and explored the receptor mechanisms underlying enhancement of PFC function at the behavioral and cellular levels. Method: Monkeys performed a working…

  13. Poor immune responses of newborn rhesus macaques to measles virus DNA vaccines expressing the hemagglutinin and fusion glycoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polack, Fernando P; Lydy, Shari L; Lee, Sok-Hyong; Rota, Paul A; Bellini, William J; Adams, Robert J; Robinson, Harriet L; Griffin, Diane E

    2013-02-01

    A vaccine that would protect young infants against measles could facilitate elimination efforts and decrease morbidity and mortality in developing countries. However, immaturity of the immune system is an important obstacle to the development of such a vaccine. In this study, DNA vaccines expressing the measles virus (MeV) hemagglutinin (H) protein or H and fusion (F) proteins, previously shown to protect juvenile macaques, were used to immunize groups of 4 newborn rhesus macaques. Monkeys were inoculated intradermally with 200 μg of each DNA at birth and at 10 months of age. As controls, 2 newborn macaques were similarly vaccinated with DNA encoding the influenza virus H5, and 4 received one dose of the current live attenuated MeV vaccine (LAV) intramuscularly. All monkeys were monitored for development of MeV-specific neutralizing and binding IgG antibody and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses. These responses were poor compared to the responses induced by LAV. At 18 months of age, all monkeys were challenged intratracheally with a wild-type strain of MeV. Monkeys that received the DNA vaccine encoding H and F, but not H alone, were primed for an MeV-specific CD8(+) CTL response but not for production of antibody. LAV-vaccinated monkeys were protected from rash and viremia, while DNA-vaccinated monkeys developed rashes, similar to control monkeys, but had 10-fold lower levels of viremia. We conclude that vaccination of infant macaques with DNA encoding MeV H and F provided only partial protection from MeV infection.

  14. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) map number onto space

    OpenAIRE

    Drucker, Caroline B.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    Humans map number onto space. However, the origins of this association, and particularly the degree to which it depends upon cultural experience, are not fully understood. Here we provide the first demonstration of a number-space mapping in a non-human primate. We trained four adult male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) to select the fourth position from the bottom of a five-element vertical array. Monkeys maintained a preference to choose the fourth position through changes in the appearance...

  15. Mirror Neurons in a New World Monkey, Common Marmoset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Wataru; Banno, Taku; Miyakawa, Naohisa; Abe, Hiroshi; Goda, Naokazu; Ichinohe, Noritaka

    2015-01-01

    Mirror neurons respond when executing a motor act and when observing others' similar act. So far, mirror neurons have been found only in macaques, humans, and songbirds. To investigate the degree of phylogenetic specialization of mirror neurons during the course of their evolution, we determined whether mirror neurons with similar properties to macaques occur in a New World monkey, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). The ventral premotor cortex (PMv), where mirror neurons have been reported in macaques, is difficult to identify in marmosets, since no sulcal landmarks exist in the frontal cortex. We addressed this problem using "in vivo" connection imaging methods. That is, we first identified cells responsive to others' grasping action in a clear landmark, the superior temporal sulcus (STS), under anesthesia, and injected fluorescent tracers into the region. By fluorescence stereomicroscopy, we identified clusters of labeled cells in the ventrolateral frontal cortex, which were confirmed to be within the ventrolateral frontal cortex including PMv after sacrifice. We next implanted electrodes into the ventrolateral frontal cortex and STS and recorded single/multi-units under an awake condition. As a result, we found neurons in the ventrolateral frontal cortex with characteristic "mirror" properties quite similar to those in macaques. This finding suggests that mirror neurons occur in a common ancestor of New and Old World monkeys and its common properties are preserved during the course of primate evolution.

  16. The cortical motor system of the marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakola, Sophia; Burman, Kathleen J; Rosa, Marcello G P

    2015-04-01

    Precise descriptions of the anatomical pathways that link different areas of the cerebral cortex are essential to the understanding of the sensorimotor and association processes that underlie human actions, and their impairment in pathological situations. Many years of research in macaque monkeys have critically shaped how we currently think about cortical motor function in humans. However, it is important to obtain additional understanding about the homologies between cortical areas in human and various non-human primates, and in particular how evolutionary changes in connectivity within specific neural circuits impact on the capacity for different behaviors. Current research has converged on the New World marmoset monkey as an important animal model for cortical function and dysfunction, emphasizing advantages unique to this species. However, the motor repertoire of the marmoset differs from that of the macaque in many ways, including the capacity for skilled use of the hands. Here, we review current knowledge about the cortical frontal areas in marmosets, which are key to the generation and control of motor behaviors, with focus on comparative analyses. We note significant parallels with the macaque monkey, as well as a few potentially important differences, which suggest future directions for work involving architectonic and functional analyses.

  17. Interactions between visitors and Formosan macaques (Macaca cyclopis) at Shou-Shan Nature Park, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Minna J; Kao, Chien-Ching; Agoramoorthy, Govindasamy

    2009-03-01

    Ecotourism involving feeding wildlife has raised public attention and is a controversial issue, especially concerning nonhuman primates. Between July 2002 and April 2005, the behavior of monkeys and tourists was collected through scan samplings, focal samplings and behavior samplings at the Shou-Shan Nature Park located in Taiwan's second largest city--Kaohsiung. In addition, the number of tourists and monkeys was counted in different hours and places within the park. Four hundred visitors were interviewed using a questionnaire to gather data on sex, age, purpose and frequency of visit to the park. The number of tourists was significantly higher during weekends than in weekdays in all locations. Humans dominated in the initiation of interspecies interactions--the overall ratio of human-initiated and monkey-initiated interactions was 2.44:1. Human-monkey conflicts accounted for only 16.4% of the total interactions (n=2,166), and adult human males and adult male macaques participated in higher rates than other age/sex groups in these conflicts. Visitors showed more affiliative behavior (15.9%) than agonistic behavior (8%) toward the macaques. In response to visitors' threat or attack, the Formosan macaques mostly showed submissive behavior with bared teeth, squealed or ran away to avoid confrontation (69.1%)--only few responded with counteraggression (18.7%). This study for the first time provided evidence that food provisioning increased both the frequency and duration of aggression among Formosan macaques (P<0.001). During food provisioning, the average frequency and the duration of agonistic events of macaques were more than 4 times higher compared with those without food provisioning. The average frequency of food provision by tourists was 0.73 times/hr--more than twice the incident that monkeys grabbed the food from tourists (0.34 times/hr). If people refrain from feeding monkeys and destroying the city park's natural vegetation, monkeys can be used to educate

  18. Predicting rhesus monkey eye movements during natural-image search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segraves, Mark A; Kuo, Emory; Caddigan, Sara; Berthiaume, Emily A; Kording, Konrad P

    2017-03-01

    There are three prominent factors that can predict human visual-search behavior in natural scenes: the distinctiveness of a location (salience), similarity to the target (relevance), and features of the environment that predict where the object might be (context). We do not currently know how well these factors are able to predict macaque visual search, which matters because it is arguably the most popular model for asking how the brain controls eye movements. Here we trained monkeys to perform the pedestrian search task previously used for human subjects. Salience, relevance, and context models were all predictive of monkey eye fixations and jointly about as precise as for humans. We attempted to disrupt the influence of scene context on search by testing the monkeys with an inverted set of the same images. Surprisingly, the monkeys were able to locate the pedestrian at a rate similar to that for upright images. The best predictions of monkey fixations in searching inverted images were obtained by rotating the results of the model predictions for the original image. The fact that the same models can predict human and monkey search behavior suggests that the monkey can be used as a good model for understanding how the human brain enables natural-scene search.

  19. Functional MRI of the vocalization-processing network in the macaque brain

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    Michael eOrtiz-Rios

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in awake behaving monkeys we investigated how species-specific vocalizations are represented in auditory and auditory-related regions of the macaque brain. We found clusters of active voxels along the ascending auditory pathway that responded to various types of complex sounds: inferior colliculus (IC, medial geniculate nucleus (MGN, auditory core, belt, and parabelt cortex, and other parts of the superior temporal gyrus (STG and sulcus (STS. Regions sensitive to monkey calls were most prevalent in the anterior STG, but some clusters were also found in frontal and parietal cortex on the basis of comparisons between responses to calls and environmental sounds. Surprisingly, we found that spectrotemporal control sounds derived from the monkey calls (scrambled calls also activated the parietal and frontal regions. Taken together, our results demonstrate that species-specific vocalizations in rhesus monkeys activate preferentially the auditory ventral stream, and in particular areas of the antero-lateral belt and parabelt.

  20. Specialized prefrontal auditory fields: organization of primate prefrontal-temporal pathways

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    Maria eMedalla

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available No other modality is more frequently represented in the prefrontal cortex than the auditory, but the role of auditory information in prefrontal functions is not well understood. Pathways from auditory association cortices reach distinct sites in the lateral, orbital, and medial surfaces of the prefrontal cortex in rhesus monkeys. Among prefrontal areas, frontopolar area 10 has the densest interconnections with auditory association areas, spanning a large antero-posterior extent of the superior temporal gyrus from the temporal pole to auditory parabelt and belt regions. Moreover, auditory pathways make up the largest component of the extrinsic connections of area 10, suggesting a special relationship with the auditory modality. Here we review anatomic evidence showing that frontopolar area 10 is indeed the main frontal auditory field as the major recipient of auditory input in the frontal lobe and chief source of output to auditory cortices. Area 10 is thought to be the functional node for the most complex cognitive tasks of multitasking and keeping track of information for future decisions. These patterns suggest that the auditory association links of area 10 are critical for complex cognition. The first part of this review focuses on the organization of prefrontal-auditory pathways at the level of the system and the synapse, with a particular emphasis on area 10. Then we explore ideas on how the elusive role of area 10 in complex cognition may be related to the specialized relationship with auditory association cortices.

  1. The Thatcher illusion in humans and monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Christoph D; Logothetis, Nikos K; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; Wallraven, Christian

    2010-10-01

    Primates possess the remarkable ability to differentiate faces of group members and to extract relevant information about the individual directly from the face. Recognition of conspecific faces is achieved by means of holistic processing, i.e. the processing of the face as an unparsed, perceptual whole, rather than as the collection of independent features (part-based processing). The most striking example of holistic processing is the Thatcher illusion. Local changes in facial features are hardly noticeable when the whole face is inverted (rotated 180 degrees ), but strikingly grotesque when the face is upright. This effect can be explained by a lack of processing capabilities for locally rotated facial features when the face is turned upside down. Recently, a Thatcher illusion was described in the macaque monkey analogous to that known from human investigations. Using a habituation paradigm combined with eye tracking, we address the critical follow-up questions raised in the aforementioned study to show the Thatcher illusion as a function of the observer's species (humans and macaques), the stimulus' species (humans and macaques) and the level of perceptual expertise (novice, expert).

  2. Acrylamide effects on the macaque visual system. I. Psychophysics and electrophysiology

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    Merigan, W.H.; Barkdoll, E.; Maurissen, J.P.J.; Eskin, T.A.; Lapham, L.W.

    1985-03-01

    Oral acrylamide produces axonal swelling and later degeneration and gliosis in the distal optic tract, especially within the lateral geniculate nucleus, of macaque monkeys. Measures of visual thresholds and cortical-evoked potentials were used to study the time course of visual changes during exposure to acrylamide in macaque monkeys. Contrast sensitivity, visual acuity, and flicker fusion frequency were reduced during exposure, and only flicker fusion recovered rapidly and completely after exposure. Pattern-reversal-evoked responses exhibited increased latency and reduced amplitude during dosing but substantially recovered after exposure. Visual acuity and contrast sensitivity for high spatial frequencies were decreased throughout the 140 days of testing after dosing. These results suggest an acute general depression of visual capacities as the initial effect of acrylamide exposure, whereas later effects were confined to high spatial frequencies. 29 references, 6 figures.

  3. Crossmodal integration of conspecific vocalizations in rhesus macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christa Payne

    Full Text Available Crossmodal integration of audio/visual information is vital for recognition, interpretation and appropriate reaction to social signals. Here we examined how rhesus macaques process bimodal species-specific vocalizations by eye tracking, using an unconstrained preferential looking paradigm. Six adult rhesus monkeys (3M, 3F were presented two side-by-side videos of unknown male conspecifics emitting different vocalizations, accompanied by the audio signal corresponding to one of the videos. The percentage of time animals looked to each video was used to assess crossmodal integration ability and the percentages of time spent looking at each of the six a priori ROIs (eyes, mouth, and rest of each video were used to characterize scanning patterns. Animals looked more to the congruent video, confirming reports that rhesus monkeys spontaneously integrate conspecific vocalizations. Scanning patterns showed that monkeys preferentially attended to the eyes and mouth of the stimuli, with subtle differences between males and females such that females showed a tendency to differentiate the eye and mouth regions more than males. These results were similar to studies in humans indicating that when asked to assess emotion-related aspects of visual speech, people preferentially attend to the eyes. Thus, the tendency for female monkeys to show a greater differentiation between the eye and mouth regions than males may indicate that female monkeys were slightly more sensitive to the socio-emotional content of complex signals than male monkeys. The current results emphasize the importance of considering both the sex of the observer and individual variability in passive viewing behavior in nonhuman primate research.

  4. Mapping visual cortex in monkeys and humans using surface-based atlases

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    Van Essen, D. C.; Lewis, J. W.; Drury, H. A.; Hadjikhani, N.; Tootell, R. B.; Bakircioglu, M.; Miller, M. I.

    2001-01-01

    We have used surface-based atlases of the cerebral cortex to analyze the functional organization of visual cortex in humans and macaque monkeys. The macaque atlas contains multiple partitioning schemes for visual cortex, including a probabilistic atlas of visual areas derived from a recent architectonic study, plus summary schemes that reflect a combination of physiological and anatomical evidence. The human atlas includes a probabilistic map of eight topographically organized visual areas recently mapped using functional MRI. To facilitate comparisons between species, we used surface-based warping to bring functional and geographic landmarks on the macaque map into register with corresponding landmarks on the human map. The results suggest that extrastriate visual cortex outside the known topographically organized areas is dramatically expanded in human compared to macaque cortex, particularly in the parietal lobe.

  5. Development and Characterization of a Macaque Model of Focal Internal Capsular Infarcts.

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    Yumi Murata

    Full Text Available Several studies have used macaque monkeys with lesions induced in the primary motor cortex (M1 to investigate the recovery of motor function after brain damage. However, in human stroke patients, the severity and outcome of motor impairments depend on the degree of damage to the white matter, especially that in the posterior internal capsule, which carries corticospinal tracts. To bridge the gap between results obtained in M1-lesioned macaques and the development of clinical intervention strategies, we established a method of inducing focal infarcts at the posterior internal capsule of macaque monkeys by injecting endothelin-1 (ET-1, a vasoconstrictor peptide. The infarcts expanded between 3 days and 1 week after ET-1 injection. The infarct volume in each macaque was negatively correlated with precision grip performance 3 days and 1 week after injection, suggesting that the degree of infarct expansion may have been a cause of the impairment in hand movements during the early stage. Although the infarct volume decreased and gross movement improved, impairment of dexterous hand movements remained until the end of the behavioral and imaging experiments at 3 months after ET-1 injection. A decrease in the abundance of large neurons in M1, from which the descending motor tracts originate, was associated with this later-stage impairment. The present model is useful not only for studying neurological changes underlying deficits and recovery but also for testing therapeutic interventions after white matter infarcts in primates.

  6. A 22-channel receive array with Helmholtz transmit coil for anesthetized macaque MRI at 3 T.

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    Janssens, Thomas; Keil, Boris; Serano, Peter; Mareyam, Azma; McNab, Jennifer A; Wald, Lawrence L; Vanduffel, Wim

    2013-11-01

    The macaque monkey is an important model for cognitive and sensory neuroscience that has been used extensively in behavioral, electrophysiological, molecular and, more recently, neuroimaging studies. However, macaque MRI has unique technical differences relative to human MRI, such as the geometry of highly parallel receive arrays, which must be addressed to optimize imaging performance. A 22-channel receive coil array was constructed specifically for rapid high-resolution anesthetized macaque monkey MRI at 3 T. A local Helmholtz transmit coil was used for excitation. Signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) and noise amplification for parallel imaging were compared with those of single- and four-channel receive coils routinely used for macaque MRI. The 22-channel coil yielded significant improvements in SNR throughout the brain. Using this coil, the SNR in peripheral brain was 2.4 and 1.7 times greater than that obtained with single- or four-channel coils, respectively. In the central brain, the SNR gain was 1.5 times that of both the single- and four-channel coils. Finally, the performance of the array for functional, anatomical and diffusion-weighted imaging was evaluated. For all three modalities, the use of the 22-channel array allowed for high-resolution and accelerated image acquisition.

  7. Spatial decisions and cognitive strategies of monkeys and humans based on abstract spatial stimuli in rotation test

    OpenAIRE

    Nekovarova, Tereza; Nedvidek, Jan; Klement, Daniel; Bures, Jan

    2009-01-01

    We showed previously that macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta) could orient in real space using abstract visual stimuli presented on a computer screen. They made correct choices according to both spatial stimuli (designed as an abstract representation of a real space) and nonspatial stimuli (pictures lacking any inner configuration information). However, we suggested that there were differences in processing spatial and nonspatial stimuli. In the present experiment we show that monkeys could also...

  8. Acquisition and functional consequences of social knowledge in macaques.

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    Tiddi, Barbara; di Sorrentino, Eugenia Polizzi; Fischer, Julia; Schino, Gabriele

    2017-02-01

    To manoeuvre in complex societies, it is beneficial to acquire knowledge about the social relationships existing among group mates, so as to better predict their behaviour. Although such knowledge has been firmly established in a variety of animal taxa, how animals acquire such knowledge, as well as its functional significance, remains poorly understood. In order to understand how primates acquire and use their social knowledge, we studied kin-biased redirected aggression in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) relying on a large database of over 15 000 aggressive episodes. Confirming previous research, macaques redirected aggression preferentially to the kin of their aggressor. An analysis that controlled for the rate of affiliation between aggressors and targets of redirection showed that macaques identified the relatives of group mates on the basis of the frequency of their ongoing associations. By contrast, having observed group mates interact with their mother as infants did not increase the monkeys' success in correctly identifying kin relationships among third parties. Inter-individual variation in the successful identification of the kin of aggressors and in redirecting aggression accordingly translated into differences in the amount of aggression received, highlighting a selective advantage for those individuals that were better able to acquire and use social knowledge.

  9. Role of vocal tract characteristics in individual discrimination by Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata)

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    Furuyama, Takafumi; Kobayasi, Kohta I.; Riquimaroux, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) exhibits a species-specific communication sound called the “coo call” to locate group members and maintain within-group contact. Monkeys have been demonstrated to be capable of discriminating between individuals based only on their voices, but there is still debate regarding how the fundamental frequencies (F0) and filter properties of the vocal tract characteristics (VTC) contribute to individual discrimination in nonhuman primates. This study was performed to investigate the acoustic keys used by Japanese macaques in individual discrimination. Two animals were trained with standard Go/NoGo operant conditioning to distinguish the coo calls of two unfamiliar monkeys. The subjects were required to continue depressing a lever until the stimulus changed from one monkey to the other. The test stimuli were synthesized by combining the F0s and VTC from each individual. Both subjects released the lever when the VTC changed, whereas they did not when the F0 changed. The reaction times to the test stimuli were not significantly different from that to the training stimuli that shared the same VTC. Our data suggest that vocal tract characteristics are important for the identification of individuals by Japanese macaques. PMID:27550840

  10. Cortical activity influences geniculocortical spike efficacy in the macaque monkey

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    Farran Briggs

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Thalamocortical communication is a dynamic process influenced by both presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms. In this study, we recorded single-unit responses from cortical neurons that received direct input from the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN to address the question of whether prior patterns of cortical activity affect the ability of LGN inputs to drive cortical responses. By examining the ongoing activity that preceded the arrival of electrically evoked spikes from the LGN, we identified a number of activity patterns that were predictive of suprathreshold communication. Namely, cortical neurons were more likely to respond to LGN stimulation when their activity levels increased to 30-40Hz and/or their activity displayed rhythmic patterns (30 ms intervals with increased power in the gamma frequency band. Cortical neurons were also more likely to respond to LGN stimulation when their activity increased 30-40 ms prior to stimulation, suggesting that the phase of gamma activity also contributes to geniculocortical communication. Based on these results, we conclude that ongoing activity in the cortex is not random, but rather organized in a manner that can influence the dynamics of thalamocortical communication.

  11. The human homologue of macaque area V6A.

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    Pitzalis, S; Sereno, M I; Committeri, G; Fattori, P; Galati, G; Tosoni, A; Galletti, C

    2013-11-15

    In macaque monkeys, V6A is a visuomotor area located in the anterior bank of the POs, dorsal and anterior to retinotopically-organized extrastriate area V6 (Galletti et al., 1996). Unlike V6, V6A represents both contra- and ipsilateral visual fields and is broadly retinotopically organized (Galletti et al., 1999b). The contralateral lower visual field is over-represented in V6A. The central 20°-30° of the visual field is mainly represented dorsally (V6Ad) and the periphery ventrally (V6Av), at the border with V6. Both sectors of area V6A contain arm movement-related cells, active during spatially-directed reaching movements (Gamberini et al., 2011). In humans, we previously mapped the retinotopic organization of area V6 (Pitzalis et al., 2006). Here, using phase-encoded fMRI, cortical surface-based analysis and wide-field retinotopic mapping, we define a new cortical region that borders V6 anteriorly and shows a clear over-representation of the contralateral lower visual field and the periphery. As with macaque V6A, the eccentricity increases moving ventrally within the area. The new region contains a non-mirror-image representation of the visual field. Functional mapping reveals that, as in macaque V6A, the new region, but not the nearby area V6, responds during finger pointing and reaching movements. Based on similarity in position, retinotopic properties, functional organization and relationship with the neighboring extrastriate visual areas, we propose that the new cortical region is the human homologue of macaque area V6A.

  12. Effects of age and sex on the hematology and blood chemistry of Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana).

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    Wu, Di; Yi, Yong; Sun, Fei; Zhou, Liang; Yang, Feng; Wang, Hongxing; Zhang, Guodong; Zhang, Yu Alex; Yue, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana), also known as Chinese stump-tailed macaques, are a threatened primate species. Although Tibetan macaques are Old World monkeys in the genus of Macaca, limited age- and sex-related physiologic data are available for this particular species. We used 69 apparently healthy Tibetan male and female macaques to explore the effect of age and sex on physiologic parameters. Somatometric measurements, biochemistry, and hematologic parameters were analyzed. Significant age-related differences were found for weight, BMI, RBC count, Hgb, Hct, neutrophils, eosinophil count, ALT, AST, ALP, GGT, creatine kinase (muscle and brain subtypes), LDH, α-amylase, creatinine, apolipoprotein A1, total protein, albumin, cholesterol, HDL, and potassium. Significant differences by sex were noted for weight, BMI, ALT, total bilirubin, and indirect bilirubin. An interaction between age and sex accounted for statistically significant differences in the values for weight, BMI, and lymphocyte and eosinophil counts. These physiologic data will provide veterinarians and researchers with important age- and sex-specific reference ranges for evaluating experimental results from Tibetan macaques.

  13. Neurotoxic lesions of the medial mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus disrupt reinforcer devaluation effects in rhesus monkeys.

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    Mitchell, Anna S; Browning, Philip G F; Baxter, Mark G

    2007-10-17

    The mediodorsal thalamus is a major input to the prefrontal cortex and is thought to modulate cognitive functions of the prefrontal cortex. Damage to the medial, magnocellular part of the mediodorsal thalamus (MDmc) impairs cognitive functions dependent on prefrontal cortex, including memory. The contribution of MDmc to other aspects of cognition dependent on prefrontal cortex has not been determined. The ability of monkeys to adjust their choice behavior in response to changes in reinforcer value, a capacity impaired by lesions of orbital prefrontal cortex, can be tested in a reinforcer devaluation paradigm. In the present study, rhesus monkeys with bilateral neurotoxic MDmc lesions were tested in the devaluation procedure. Monkeys learned visual discrimination problems in which each rewarded object is reliably paired with one of two different food rewards and then were given choices between pairs of rewarded objects, one associated with each food. Selective satiation of one of the food rewards reduces choices of objects associated with that food in normal monkeys. Monkeys with bilateral neurotoxic lesions of MDmc learned concurrently presented visual discrimination problems as quickly as unoperated control monkeys but showed impaired reinforcer devaluation effects. This finding suggests that the neural circuitry for control of behavioral choice by changes in reinforcer value includes MDmc.

  14. Cholinergic control of visual categorisation in macaques

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    Nikolaos C. Aggelopoulos

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine (ACh is a neurotransmitter acting via muscarinic and nicotinic receptors that is implicated in several cognitive functions and impairments, such as Alzheimer’s disease. It is believed to especially affect the acquisition of new information, which is particularly important when behaviour needs to be adapted to new situations and to novel sensory events. Categorisation, the process of assigning stimuli to a category, is a cognitive function that also involves information acquisition. The role of ACh on categorisation has not been previously studied. We have examined the effects of scopolamine, an antagonist of muscarinic ACh receptors, on visual categorisation in macaque monkeys using familiar and novel stimuli. When the peripheral effects of scopolamine on the parasympathetic nervous system were controlled for, categorisation performance was disrupted following systemic injections of scopolamine. This impairment was observed only when the stimuli that needed to be categorised had not been seen before. In other words, the monkeys were not impaired by the central action of scopolamine in categorising a set of familiar stimuli (stimuli which they had categorised successfully in previous sessions. Categorisation performance also deteriorated as the stimulus became less salient by an increase in the level of visual noise. However, scopolamine did not cause additional performance disruptions for difficult categorisation judgements at lower coherence levels. Scopolamine, therefore, specifically affects the assignment of new exemplars to established cognitive categories, presumably by impairing the processing of novel information. Since we did not find an effect of scopolamine in the categorisation of familiar stimuli, scopolamine had no significant central action on other cognitive functions such as perception, attention, memory or executive control within the context of our categorisation task.

  15. A simpler primate brain: the visual system of the marmoset monkey.

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    Solomon, Samuel G; Rosa, Marcello G P

    2014-01-01

    Humans are diurnal primates with high visual acuity at the center of gaze. Although primates share many similarities in the organization of their visual centers with other mammals, and even other species of vertebrates, their visual pathways also show unique features, particularly with respect to the organization of the cerebral cortex. Therefore, in order to understand some aspects of human visual function, we need to study non-human primate brains. Which species is the most appropriate model? Macaque monkeys, the most widely used non-human primates, are not an optimal choice in many practical respects. For example, much of the macaque cerebral cortex is buried within sulci, and is therefore inaccessible to many imaging techniques, and the postnatal development and lifespan of macaques are prohibitively long for many studies of brain maturation, plasticity, and aging. In these and several other respects the marmoset, a small New World monkey, represents a more appropriate choice. Here we review the visual pathways of the marmoset, highlighting recent work that brings these advantages into focus, and identify where additional work needs to be done to link marmoset brain organization to that of macaques and humans. We will argue that the marmoset monkey provides a good subject for studies of a complex visual system, which will likely allow an important bridge linking experiments in animal models to humans.

  16. Default mode of brain function in monkeys.

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    Mantini, Dante; Gerits, Annelis; Nelissen, Koen; Durand, Jean-Baptiste; Joly, Olivier; Simone, Luciano; Sawamura, Hiromasa; Wardak, Claire; Orban, Guy A; Buckner, Randy L; Vanduffel, Wim

    2011-09-07

    Human neuroimaging has revealed a specific network of brain regions-the default-mode network (DMN)-that reduces its activity during goal-directed behavior. So far, evidence for a similar network in monkeys is mainly indirect, since, except for one positron emission tomography study, it is all based on functional connectivity analysis rather than activity increases during passive task states. Here, we tested whether a consistent DMN exists in monkeys using its defining property. We performed a meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging data collected in 10 awake monkeys to reveal areas in which activity consistently decreases when task demands shift from passive tasks to externally oriented processing. We observed task-related spatially specific deactivations across 15 experiments, implying in the monkey a functional equivalent of the human DMN. We revealed by resting-state connectivity that prefrontal and medial parietal regions, including areas 9/46d and 31, respectively, constitute the DMN core, being functionally connected to all other DMN areas. We also detected two distinct subsystems composed of DMN areas with stronger functional connections between each other. These clusters included areas 24/32, 8b, and TPOC and areas 23, v23, and PGm, respectively. Such a pattern of functional connectivity largely fits, but is not completely consistent with anatomical tract tracing data in monkeys. Also, analysis of afferent and efferent connections between DMN areas suggests a multisynaptic network structure. Like humans, monkeys increase activity during passive epochs in heteromodal and limbic association regions, suggesting that they also default to internal modes of processing when not actively interacting with the environment.

  17. Perception of emotional expressions is independent of face selectivity in monkey inferior temporal cortex.

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    Hadj-Bouziane, Fadila; Bell, Andrew H; Knusten, Tamara A; Ungerleider, Leslie G; Tootell, Roger B H

    2008-04-08

    The ability to perceive and differentiate facial expressions is vital for social communication. Numerous functional MRI (fMRI) studies in humans have shown enhanced responses to faces with different emotional valence, in both the amygdala and the visual cortex. However, relatively few studies have examined how valence influences neural responses in monkeys, thereby limiting the ability to draw comparisons across species and thus understand the underlying neural mechanisms. Here we tested the effects of macaque facial expressions on neural activation within these two regions using fMRI in three awake, behaving monkeys. Monkeys maintained central fixation while blocks of different monkey facial expressions were presented. Four different facial expressions were tested: (i) neutral, (ii) aggressive (open-mouthed threat), (iii) fearful (fear grin), and (iv) submissive (lip smack). Our results confirmed that both the amygdala and the inferior temporal cortex in monkeys are modulated by facial expressions. As in human fMRI, fearful expressions evoked the greatest response in monkeys-even though fearful expressions are physically dissimilar in humans and macaques. Furthermore, we found that valence effects were not uniformly distributed over the inferior temporal cortex. Surprisingly, these valence maps were independent of two related functional maps: (i) the map of "face-selective" regions (faces versus non-face objects) and (ii) the map of "face-responsive" regions (faces versus scrambled images). Thus, the neural mechanisms underlying face perception and valence perception appear to be distinct.

  18. Usefulness of the monkey model to investigate the role soy in postmenopausal women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appt, Susan E

    2004-01-01

    Some of the important health issues for postmenopausal women include cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, breast cancer, and relief of menopausal symptoms. Ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) have many strengths as models for research in this area including a close phylogenetic relationship to humans, similarities in lipid/lipoprotein metabolism and coronary artery anatomy, similar skeletal anatomical and morphological characteristics, mammary glands with similar pathophysiological characteristics, and a 28-day menstrual cycle with similar hormonal fluctuations. Monkeys (macaques) also experience declining ovarian function and irregular menstrual cycles (natural menopause) when they approach 24 to 29 yr of age. However, because of their very short life span after natural menopause, ovariectomized macaques are used to model postmenopausal women. The cynomolgus monkey model has been useful in defining the potential cardiovascular benefits of soy foods and soy supplements; however, it remains unclear whether the observations are generalizable to all women or only to those who, like cynomolgus monkeys, convert the soy isoflavone daidzein to the metabolite equol. Particularly important has been the use of the cynomolgus monkey model to understand the effects of soy on breast health. There is evidence from a cynomolgus monkey trial to suggest that soy/soy phytoestrogens have no estrogen agonist effects for breast. Finally, soy/soy phytoestrogens do not appear to be an adequate alternative to postmenopausal hormone therapy. Nevertheless, important attributes of soy have been identified, and it may have potential as a complementary component to hormone therapy.

  19. Anatomic brain asymmetry in vervet monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fears, Scott C; Scheibel, Kevin; Abaryan, Zvart; Lee, Chris; Service, Susan K; Jorgensen, Matthew J; Fairbanks, Lynn A; Cantor, Rita M; Freimer, Nelson B; Woods, Roger P

    2011-01-01

    Asymmetry is a prominent feature of human brains with important functional consequences. Many asymmetric traits show population bias, but little is known about the genetic and environmental sources contributing to inter-individual variance. Anatomic asymmetry has been observed in Old World monkeys, but the evidence for the direction and extent of asymmetry is equivocal and only one study has estimated the genetic contributions to inter-individual variance. In this study we characterize a range of qualitative and quantitative asymmetry measures in structural brain MRIs acquired from an extended pedigree of Old World vervet monkeys (n = 357), and implement variance component methods to estimate the proportion of trait variance attributable to genetic and environmental sources. Four of six asymmetry measures show pedigree-level bias and one of the traits has a significant heritability estimate of about 30%. We also found that environmental variables more significantly influence the width of the right compared to the left prefrontal lobe.

  20. A potential aphrodisiac for female macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertovaara, Antti; Linnankoski, Ilkka; Artchakov, Denis; Rämä, Pia; Carlson, Synnöve

    2004-09-01

    Earlier studies suggest that alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonists and dopamine receptor agonists may enhance sexual activity in human and nonhuman male primates. It is not known whether these compounds influence the sexual behavior of female primates. We determined whether the administration of a selective alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist (atipamezole), a dopamine receptor agonist (apomorphine), or their combination to female Macaca arctoides (stumptail macaque) monkeys produces changes in sexual behavior of the female with a male. Following the administration of drugs to the female, the behavior of the female with a male stumptail was observed for 30 min. Atipamezole dose dependently (0.03-0.3 mg/kg im) increased short-time mounting behavior of the male and the total number of copulations. Apomorphine alone (0.125-0.25 mg/kg) or in combination with atipamezole had no significant effects on sexual behavior. The result indicates that a selective alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist administered in the female stumptail increases sexual behavior of the male with the female. A plausible explanation for this finding is that a selective alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist increases sexual arousal in female stumptails and this, possibly due to a change in psychosocial behavior of the female, triggers increased sexual activity in males.

  1. Social Suppressive Behavior Is Organized by the Spatiotemporal Integration of Multiple Cortical Regions in the Japanese Macaque.

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    Naoya Oosugi

    Full Text Available Under social conflict, monkeys develop hierarchical positions through social interactions. Once the hierarchy is established, the dominant monkey dominates the space around itself and the submissive monkey tries not to violate this space. Previous studies have shown the contributions of the frontal and parietal cortices in social suppression, but the contributions of other cortical areas to suppressive functions remain elusive. We recorded neural activity in large cortical areas using electrocorticographic (ECoG arrays while monkeys performed a social food-grab task in which a target monkey was paired with either a dominant or a submissive monkey. If the paired monkey was dominant, the target monkey avoided taking food in the shared conflict space, but not in other areas. By contrast, when the paired monkey was submissive, the target monkey took the food freely without hesitation. We applied decoding analysis to the ECoG data to see when and which cortical areas contribute to social behavioral suppression. Neural information discriminating the social condition was more evident when the conflict space was set in the area contralateral to the recording hemisphere. We found that the information increased as the social pressure increased during the task. Before food presentation, when the pressure was relatively low, the parietal and somatosensory-motor cortices showed sustained discrimination of the social condition. After food presentation, when the monkey faced greater pressure to make a decision as to whether it should take the food, the prefrontal and visual cortices started to develop buildup responses. The social representation was found in a sustained form in the parietal and somatosensory-motor regions, followed by additional buildup form in the visual and prefrontal cortices. The representation was less influenced by reward expectation. These findings suggest that social adaptation is achieved by a higher-order self-regulation process

  2. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) map number onto space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drucker, Caroline B; Brannon, Elizabeth M

    2014-07-01

    Humans map number onto space. However, the origins of this association, and particularly the degree to which it depends upon cultural experience, are not fully understood. Here we provide the first demonstration of a number-space mapping in a non-human primate. We trained four adult male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) to select the fourth position from the bottom of a five-element vertical array. Monkeys maintained a preference to choose the fourth position through changes in the appearance, location, and spacing of the vertical array. We next asked whether monkeys show a spatially-oriented number mapping by testing their responses to the same five-element stimulus array rotated ninety degrees into a horizontal line. In these horizontal probe trials, monkeys preferentially selected the fourth position from the left, but not the fourth position from the right. Our results indicate that rhesus macaques map number onto space, suggesting that the association between number and space in human cognition is not purely a result of cultural experience and instead has deep evolutionary roots.

  3. Selective degeneration of the parvocellular-projecting retinal ganglion cells in a New World monkey, Saimiri sciureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, J J; Eskin, T A; Merigan, W H

    1989-10-16

    Selective degeneration of retinal ganglion cells projecting to parvocellular layers of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) was observed in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) exposed to a range of doses of acrylamide monomer. Similar acrylamide-induced neuronal loss has previously been reported in parvocellular-projecting ganglion cells of macaques, but no such selective degeneration has been found in acrylamide-dosed rats, squirrels, rabbits or cats. The extent of ganglion cell loss observed in the present study suggests that in the squirrel monkey, as in the macaque, a majority of ganglion cells project to parvocellular layers of the LGN. The locus of optic tract degeneration suggests that the squirrel monkey parvocellular pathway passes in dorsolateral optic tract, as does that of the macaque. Patterns of decreases in cytochrome oxidase activity confirm that, in both of these primates, geniculocortical pathways driven by these vulnerable neurons project to cortical layers 4A and 4C beta. These results suggest close parallels in the neuroanatomical projections and toxic vulnerability of the parvocellular-projecting pathway in New and Old World monkeys. They indicate that acrylamide intoxication can be used to selectively damage this pathway in order to study the functional roles of parallel visual pathways in both New and Old World monkeys.

  4. A brain MRI atlas of the common squirrel monkey, Saimiri sciureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yurui; Schilling, Kurt G.; Khare, Shweta P.; Panda, Swetasudha; Choe, Ann S.; Stepniewska, Iwona; Li, Xia; Ding, Zhoahua; Anderson, Adam; Landman, Bennett A.

    2014-03-01

    The common squirrel monkey, Saimiri sciureus, is a New World monkey with functional and microstructural organization of central nervous system similar to that of humans. It is one of the most commonly used South American primates in biomedical research. Unlike its Old World macaque cousins, no digital atlases have described the organization of the squirrel monkey brain. Here, we present a multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) atlas constructed from the brain of an adult female squirrel monkey. In vivo MRI acquisitions include high resolution T2 structural imaging and low resolution diffusion tensor imaging. Ex vivo MRI acquisitions include high resolution T2 structural imaging and high resolution diffusion tensor imaging. Cortical regions were manually annotated on the co-registered volumes based on published histological sections.

  5. A brain MRI atlas of the common squirrel monkey, Saimiri sciureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yurui; Khare, Shweta P; Panda, Swetasudha; Choe, Ann S; Stepniewska, Iwona; Li, Xia; Ding, Zhoahua; Anderson, Adam; Landman, Bennett A

    2014-03-13

    The common squirrel monkey, Saimiri sciureus, is a New World monkey with functional and microstructural organization of central nervous system similar to that of humans. It is one of the most commonly used South American primates in biomedical research. Unlike its Old World macaque cousins, no digital atlases have described the organization of the squirrel monkey brain. Here, we present a multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) atlas constructed from the brain of an adult female squirrel monkey. In vivo MRI acquisitions include T2 structural imaging and diffusion tensor imaging. Ex vivo MRI acquisitions include T2 structural imaging and diffusion tensor imaging. Cortical regions were manually annotated on the co-registered volumes based on published histological sections.

  6. Individual and social learning processes involved in the acquisition and generalization of tool use in macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macellini, S.; Maranesi, M.; Bonini, L.; Simone, L.; Rozzi, S.; Ferrari, P. F.; Fogassi, L.

    2012-01-01

    Macaques can efficiently use several tools, but their capacity to discriminate the relevant physical features of a tool and the social factors contributing to their acquisition are still poorly explored. In a series of studies, we investigated macaques' ability to generalize the use of a stick as a tool to new objects having different physical features (study 1), or to new contexts, requiring them to adapt the previously learned motor strategy (study 2). We then assessed whether the observation of a skilled model might facilitate tool-use learning by naive observer monkeys (study 3). Results of study 1 and study 2 showed that monkeys trained to use a tool generalize this ability to tools of different shape and length, and learn to adapt their motor strategy to a new task. Study 3 demonstrated that observing a skilled model increases the observers' manipulations of a stick, thus facilitating the individual discovery of the relevant properties of this object as a tool. These findings support the view that in macaques, the motor system can be modified through tool use and that it has a limited capacity to adjust the learnt motor skills to a new context. Social factors, although important to facilitate the interaction with tools, are not crucial for tool-use learning. PMID:22106424

  7. Pharmacokinetics of tramadol following intravenous and oral administration in male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kristi R.; Pypendop, Bruno H.; Christe, Kari L.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, tramadol and its active metabolite, O-desmethyltramadol (M1), have been studied as analgesic agents in various traditional veterinary species (e.g. dogs, cats, etc.). This study explores the pharmacokinetics of tramadol and M1 after intravenous (IV) and oral (PO) administration in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), a nontraditional veterinary species. Rhesus macaques are Old World monkeys that are commonly used in biomedical research. Effects of tramadol administration to monkeys are unknown, and research veterinarians may avoid inclusion of this drug into pain management programs due to this limited knowledge. Four healthy, socially-housed, adult male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were used in this study. Blood samples were collected prior to, and up to 10 h post tramadol administration. Serum tramadol and M1 were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed. Tramadol clearance was 24.5 (23.4-32.7) mL/min/kg. Terminal half-life of tramadol was 111 (106-127) min IV and 133 (84.9-198) min PO. Bioavailability of tramadol was poor [3.47% (2.14-5.96%)]. Maximum serum concentration of M1 was 2.28 (1.88-2.73) ng/mL IV and 11.2 (9.37-14.9) ng/mL PO. Sedation and pruritus were observed after IV administration (180 words). PMID:25488714

  8. Pharmacokinetics of tramadol following intravenous and oral administration in male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, K R; Pypendop, B H; Christe, K L

    2015-08-01

    Recently, tramadol and its active metabolite, O-desmethyltramadol (M1), have been studied as analgesic agents in various traditional veterinary species (e.g., dogs, cats, etc.). This study explores the pharmacokinetics of tramadol and M1 after intravenous (IV) and oral (PO) administration in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), a nontraditional veterinary species. Rhesus macaques are Old World monkeys that are commonly used in biomedical research. Effects of tramadol administration to monkeys are unknown, and research veterinarians may avoid inclusion of this drug into pain management programs due to this limited knowledge. Four healthy, socially housed, adult male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were used in this study. Blood samples were collected prior to, and up to 10 h post-tramadol administration. Serum tramadol and M1 were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed. Tramadol clearance was 24.5 (23.4-32.7) mL/min/kg. Terminal half-life of tramadol was 111 (106-127) min IV and 133 (84.9-198) min PO. Bioavailability of tramadol was poor [3.47% (2.14-5.96%)]. Maximum serum concentration of M1 was 2.28 (1.88-2.73) ng/mL IV and 11.2 (9.37-14.9) ng/mL PO. Sedation and pruritus were observed after IV administration.

  9. Assessing significant (>30%) alopecia as a possible biomarker for stress in captive rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Melinda A; Menard, Mark T; El-Mallah, Saif N; Rosenberg, Kendra; Lutz, Corrine K; Worlein, Julie; Coleman, Kris; Meyer, Jerrold S

    2017-01-01

    Hair loss is common in macaque colonies. Very little is known about the relationship between psychological stress and hair loss. We initially examined alopecia and hair cortisol concentrations in 198 (89 male) rhesus macaques from three primate centers and demonstrated replicability of our previous finding that extensive alopecia (>30% hair loss) is associated with increased chronic cortisol concentrations and significantly affected by facility. A subset of these monkeys (142 of which 67 were males) were sampled twice approximately 8 months apart allowing us to examine the hypotheses that gaining hair should be associated with decreases in cortisol concentrations and vice versa. Hair loss was digitally scored using ImageJ software for the first sample. Then visual assessment was used to examine the second sample, resulting in three categories of coat condition: (i) monkeys that remained fully haired; (ii) monkeys that remained alopecic (with more than 30% hair loss); or (iii) monkeys that showed more than a 15% increase in hair. The sample size for the group that lost hair was too small to be analyzed. Consistent with our hypothesis, monkeys that gained hair showed a significant reduction in hair cortisol concentrations but this effect only held for females. Coat condition changed little across sampling periods with only 25 (11 male) monkeys showing a greater than 15% gain of hair. Twenty (7 male) monkeys remained alopecic, whereas 97 (49 males) remained fully haired. Hair cortisol was highly correlated across samples for the monkeys that retained their status (remained alopecic or retained their hair). Am. J. Primatol. 79:e22547, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Plasmodium knowlesi in humans, macaques and mosquitoes in peninsular Malaysia

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    NorParina Ismail

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since a large focus of human infection with Plasmodium knowlesi, a simian malaria parasite naturally found in long-tailed and pig tailed macaques, was reported in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo, it was pertinent to study the situation in peninsular Malaysia. A study was thus initiated to screen human cases of Plasmodium malariae using molecular techniques, to determine the presence of P. knowlesi in non- human primates and to elucidate its vectors. Methods Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used to identify all Plasmodium species present in the human blood samples sent to the Parasitology laboratory of Institute for Medical Research. At the same time, non-human primates were also screened for malaria parasites and nested PCR was carried out to determine the presence of P. knowlesi. Mosquitoes were collected from Pahang by human landing collection and monkey-baited-traps situated on three different levels. All mosquitoes were identified and salivary glands and midguts of anopheline mosquitoes were dissected to determine the presence of malaria parasites and nested PCR was carried out on positive glands. Sequencing of the csp genes were carried on P. knowlesi samples from humans, monkeys and mosquitoes, positive by PCR. Results and Discussion Plasmodium knowlesi was detected in 77 (69.37% of the 111 human samples, 10 (6.90% of the 145 monkey blood and in 2 (1.7% Anopheles cracens. Sequence of the csp gene clustered with other P. knowlesi isolates. Conclusion Human infection with Plasmodium knowlesi is occurring in most states of peninsular Malaysia. An. cracens is the main vector. Economic exploitation of the forest is perhaps bringing monkeys, mosquitoes and humans into increased contact. A single bite from a mosquito infected with P. knowlesi is sufficient to introduce the parasite to humans. Thus, this zoonotic transmission has to be considered in the future planning of malaria control.

  11. Interleukin-8 and interleukin-10, brain volume and microstructure, and the influence of calorie restriction in old rhesus macaques

    OpenAIRE

    Willette, A.A.; Coe, C.L.; Birdsill, A. C.; Bendlin, B. B.; Colman, R.J.; Alexander, A.L.; Allison, D. B.; Weindruch, R.H.; Johnson, S.C.

    2013-01-01

    Higher systemic levels of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) were found to be associated with lower gray matter volume and tissue density in old rhesus macaques. This association between IL-6, and these brain indices were attenuated by long-term 30 % calorie restriction (CR). To extend these findings, the current analysis determined if a CR diet in 27 aged rhesus monkeys compared to 17 normally fed controls reduced circulating levels of another proinflammatory cytokine, interle...

  12. The UNC-Wisconsin Rhesus Macaque Neurodevelopment Database: A Structural MRI and DTI Database of Early Postnatal Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jeffrey T.; Shi, Yundi; Niethammer, Marc; Grauer, Michael; Coe, Christopher L.; Lubach, Gabriele R.; Davis, Bradley; Budin, Francois; Knickmeyer, Rebecca C.; Alexander, Andrew L.; Styner, Martin A.

    2017-01-01

    Rhesus macaques are commonly used as a translational animal model in neuroimaging and neurodevelopmental research. In this report, we present longitudinal data from both structural and diffusion MRI images generated on a cohort of 34 typically developing monkeys from 2 weeks to 36 months of age. All images have been manually skull stripped and are being made freely available via an online repository for use by the research community. PMID:28210206

  13. Rhesus monkeys show human-like changes in gaze following across the lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Arre, Alyssa M; Platt, Michael L; Santos, Laurie R

    2016-05-11

    Gaze following, or co-orienting with others, is a foundational skill for human social behaviour. The emergence of this capacity scaffolds critical human-specific abilities such as theory of mind and language. Non-human primates also follow others' gaze, but less is known about how the cognitive mechanisms supporting this behaviour develop over the lifespan. Here we experimentally tested gaze following in 481 semi-free-ranging rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) ranging from infancy to old age. We found that monkeys began to follow gaze in infancy and this response peaked in the juvenile period-suggesting that younger monkeys were especially attuned to gaze information, like humans. After sexual maturity, monkeys exhibited human-like sex differences in gaze following, with adult females showing more gaze following than males. Finally, older monkeys showed reduced propensity to follow gaze, just as older humans do. In a second study (n = 80), we confirmed that macaques exhibit similar baseline rates of looking upwards in a control condition, regardless of age. Our findings indicate that-despite important differences in human and non-human primate life-history characteristics and typical social experiences-monkeys undergo robust ontogenetic shifts in gaze following across early development, adulthood and ageing that are strikingly similar to those of humans.

  14. State dependence of noise correlations in macaque primary visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Alexander S; Berens, Philipp; Cotton, R James; Subramaniyan, Manivannan; Denfield, George H; Cadwell, Cathryn R; Smirnakis, Stelios M; Bethge, Matthias; Tolias, Andreas S

    2014-04-02

    Shared, trial-to-trial variability in neuronal populations has a strong impact on the accuracy of information processing in the brain. Estimates of the level of such noise correlations are diverse, ranging from 0.01 to 0.4, with little consensus on which factors account for these differences. Here we addressed one important factor that varied across studies, asking how anesthesia affects the population activity structure in macaque primary visual cortex. We found that under opioid anesthesia, activity was dominated by strong coordinated fluctuations on a timescale of 1-2 Hz, which were mostly absent in awake, fixating monkeys. Accounting for these global fluctuations markedly reduced correlations under anesthesia, matching those observed during wakefulness and reconciling earlier studies conducted under anesthesia and in awake animals. Our results show that internal signals, such as brain state transitions under anesthesia, can induce noise correlations but can also be estimated and accounted for based on neuronal population activity.

  15. Decoding of visual attention from LFP signals of macaque MT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esghaei, Moein; Daliri, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    The local field potential (LFP) has recently been widely used in brain computer interfaces (BCI). Here we used power of LFP recorded from area MT of a macaque monkey to decode where the animal covertly attended. Support vector machines (SVM) were used to learn the pattern of power at different frequencies for attention to two possible positions. We found that LFP power at both low (<9 Hz) and high (31-120 Hz) frequencies contains sufficient information to decode the focus of attention. Highest decoding performance was found for gamma frequencies (31-120 Hz) and reached 82%. In contrast low frequencies (<9 Hz) could help the classifier reach a higher decoding performance with a smaller amount of training data. Consequently, we suggest that low frequency LFP can provide fast but coarse information regarding the focus of attention, while higher frequencies of the LFP deliver more accurate but less timely information about the focus of attention.

  16. Decoding of visual attention from LFP signals of macaque MT.

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    Moein Esghaei

    Full Text Available The local field potential (LFP has recently been widely used in brain computer interfaces (BCI. Here we used power of LFP recorded from area MT of a macaque monkey to decode where the animal covertly attended. Support vector machines (SVM were used to learn the pattern of power at different frequencies for attention to two possible positions. We found that LFP power at both low (<9 Hz and high (31-120 Hz frequencies contains sufficient information to decode the focus of attention. Highest decoding performance was found for gamma frequencies (31-120 Hz and reached 82%. In contrast low frequencies (<9 Hz could help the classifier reach a higher decoding performance with a smaller amount of training data. Consequently, we suggest that low frequency LFP can provide fast but coarse information regarding the focus of attention, while higher frequencies of the LFP deliver more accurate but less timely information about the focus of attention.

  17. Early experience affects the intergenerational transmission of infant abuse in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestripieri, Dario

    2005-07-01

    Maternal abuse of offspring in macaque monkeys shares some similarities with child maltreatment in humans, including its transmission across generations. This study used a longitudinal design and a cross-fostering experiment to investigate whether abusive parenting in rhesus macaques is transmitted from mothers to daughters and whether transmission occurs through genetic or experiential factors. Nine of 16 females who were abused by their mothers in their first month of life, regardless of whether they were reared by their biological mothers or by foster mothers, exhibited abusive parenting with their firstborn offspring, whereas none of the females reared by nonabusive mothers did. These results suggest that the intergenerational transmission of infant abuse in rhesus monkeys is the result of early experience and not genetic inheritance. The extent to which the effects of early experience on the intergenerational transmission of abusive parenting are mediated by social learning or experience-induced physiological alterations remains to be established.

  18. Functional characterization of the TAS2R38 bitter taste receptor for phenylthiocarbamide in colobine monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purba, Laurentia Henrieta Permita Sari; Widayati, Kanthi Arum; Tsutsui, Kei; Suzuki-Hashido, Nami; Hayakawa, Takashi; Nila, Sarah; Suryobroto, Bambang; Imai, Hiroo

    2017-01-01

    Bitterness perception in mammals is mostly directed at natural toxins that induce innate avoidance behaviours. Bitter taste is mediated by the G protein-coupled receptor TAS2R, which is located in taste cell membranes. One of the best-studied bitter taste receptors is TAS2R38, which recognizes phenylthiocarbamide (PTC). Here we investigate the sensitivities of TAS2R38 receptors to PTC in four species of leaf-eating monkeys (subfamily Colobinae). Compared with macaque monkeys (subfamily Cercopithecinae), colobines have lower sensitivities to PTC in behavioural and in vitro functional analyses. We identified four non-synonymous mutations in colobine TAS2R38 that are responsible for the decreased sensitivity of the TAS2R38 receptor to PTC observed in colobines compared with macaques. These results suggest that tolerance to bitterness in colobines evolved from an ancestor that was sensitive to bitterness as an adaptation to eating leaves. © 2017 The Author(s).

  19. Entamoeba histolytica and E. dispar infections in captive macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Windell L; Yason, John Anthony D L; Adao, Davin Edric V

    2010-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is a protozoan parasite that infects man and animals. This parasite has a global distribution and the disease it causes is usually characterized by diarrhea. In order to detect the parasite, it is necessary to differentiate it from Entamoeba dispar. E. dispar appears morphologically similar to E. histolytica but does not cause disease and tissue invasion. This study reports on the prevalence of E. histolytica and E. dispar among captive macaques in a primate facility in the Philippines. PCR was used to correctly identify both Entamoeba species. Indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) was also performed to determine the seroprevalence of amebiasis in the captive macaques. Based on PCR targeting of the peroxiredoxin gene, of the 96 stool samples collected, 23 (24%) contained E. histolytica while 32 (33%) contained E. dispar. IFAT revealed 26 (27%) serum samples positive for antibodies against E. histolytica. Sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA gene showed that the 23 E. histolytica isolates were identical to human E. histolytica isolates deposited in the GenBank and not Entamoeba nuttalli as found in macaques in other recent reports. The Philippines is a major exporter of monkeys for biomedical research purposes, so screening animals before transporting them to other locations lessens the risk of spreading zoonoses to a wider area. This is the first report of the molecular detection of E. histolytica and E. dispar among macaques in the Philippines. This study complements the limited information available on the animal hosts of E. histolytica in the Philippines.

  20. Methemoglobin and sulfhemoglobin formation due to benzocaine and lidocaine in macaques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, D.G.; Woodard, C.L.; Gold, M.B.; Watson, C.E.; Baskin, S.I.

    1993-05-13

    Benzocaine (BNZ) and lidocaine (LC) are commonly used topical (spray) anesthetics approved for use in humans. BNZ has structural similarities to methemoglobin (MHb) forming drugs that are current candidates for cyanide prophylaxis, while LC has been reported to increase MHb in man. We therefore, compared MHb and sulfhemoglobin (SHb) production in three groups of Macaques (Macaca mulata, Chinese rhesus and Indian rhesus, and Macaca nemistrina, Pig-tailed Macaques) after exposure to BNZ and LC. Formation of SHb, unlike MHb, is not thought to be reversible and is considered to be toxic. MHb and SHb levels were measured periodically on a CO-Oximeter. All rhesus (n=8) were dosed intratrachealy/intranasaly with 56 mg and 280 mg BNZ and with 40 mg of LC in a randomized cross-over design. Pig-tailed macaques (n=6) were dosed with BNZ intranasaly 56 mg and with 40 mg of LC. Since no differences in the peak MHb or time to peak (mean +/- SD) were observed among the three macaque subspecies, the data were pooled. LC did not cause MHb or SHb formation above baseline in any monkey.

  1. Ultra-rapid categorization of fourier-spectrum equalized natural images: macaques and humans perform similarly.

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    Pascal Girard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Comparative studies of cognitive processes find similarities between humans and apes but also monkeys. Even high-level processes, like the ability to categorize classes of object from any natural scene under ultra-rapid time constraints, seem to be present in rhesus macaque monkeys (despite a smaller brain and the lack of language and a cultural background. An interesting and still open question concerns the degree to which the same images are treated with the same efficacy by humans and monkeys when a low level cue, the spatial frequency content, is controlled. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a set of natural images equalized in Fourier spectrum and asked whether it is still possible to categorize them as containing an animal and at what speed. One rhesus macaque monkey performed a forced-choice saccadic task with a good accuracy (67.5% and 76% for new and familiar images respectively although performance was lower than with non-equalized images. Importantly, the minimum reaction time was still very fast (100 ms. We compared the performances of human subjects with the same setup and the same set of (new images. Overall mean performance of humans was also lower than with original images (64% correct but the minimum reaction time was still short (140 ms. CONCLUSION: Performances on individual images (% correct but not reaction times for both humans and the monkey were significantly correlated suggesting that both species use similar features to perform the task. A similar advantage for full-face images was seen for both species. The results also suggest that local low spatial frequency information could be important, a finding that fits the theory that fast categorization relies on a rapid feedforward magnocellular signal.

  2. Experimental transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) to cynomolgus macaques, a non-human primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Fumiko; Terao, Keiji; Tase, Naomi; Hiyaoka, Akio; Ohyama, Atsushi; Tezuka, Yukio; Wada, Naomi; Kurosawa, Asuka; Sato, Yuko; Tobiume, Minoru; Hagiwara, Ken'ichi; Yamakawa, Yoshio; Sata, Tetsutaro

    2011-01-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) was transmitted to three macaques by intracerebral inoculation of a brain homogenate from affected cattle detected in Japan. All monkeys developed abnormal behavioral signs, such as intermittent anorexia and hyperekplexia, around 24 months after inoculation. Neuronal symptoms, such as tremor, myoclonic jerking, and paralysis, appeared 27-44 months after inoculation. These symptoms worsened and total paralysis ensued within a year after onset. The disease duration was approximately 8-12 months. Both the incubation period and the duration of disease were shortened in the secondary transmission experiment to macaques. Heavy accumulation of disease-causing conformer(s) of prion protein (PrP(Sc)), with a similar glycoform profile to the PrP(Sc) contained in the inoculum, and severe spongiform changes in the histology of the brain, confirmed the successful transmission of BSE to monkeys. Florid plaques, a characteristic histological hallmark of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, were prominent in the cerebral cortex, in which a prion antigen was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC). PrP(Sc) was mostly confined to the central nervous system, although small amounts of PrP(Sc) accumulated in the peripheral nerves of monkeys, as detected by Western blotting (WB). Neither IHC nor WB detected PrP(Sc) in the lymphatic organs/tissues, such as the tonsils, spleen, and appendix.

  3. Decoding target distance and saccade amplitude from population activity in the macaque lateral intraparietal area (LIP

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    Frank Bremmer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Primates perform saccadic eye movements in order to bring the image of an interesting target onto the fovea. Compared to stationary targets, saccades towards moving targets are computationally more demanding since the oculomotor system must use speed and direction information about the target as well as knowledge about its own processing latency to program an adequate, predictive saccade vector. In monkeys, different brain regions have been implicated in the control of voluntary saccades, among them the lateral intraparietal area (LIP. Here we asked, if activity in area LIP reflects the distance between fovea and saccade target, or the amplitude of an upcoming saccade, or both. We recorded single unit activity in area LIP of two macaque monkeys. First, we determined for each neuron its preferred saccade direction. Then, monkeys performed visually guided saccades along the preferred direction towards either stationary or moving targets in pseudo-randomized order. LIP population activity allowed to decode both, the distance between fovea and saccade target as well as the size of an upcoming saccade. Previous work has shown comparable results for saccade direction (Graf and Andersen, 2014a, b. Hence, LIP population activity allows to predict any two-dimensional saccade vector. Functional equivalents of macaque area LIP have been identified in humans. Accordingly, our results provide further support for the concept of activity from area LIP as neural basis for the control of an oculomotor brain-machine interface.

  4. Comparative Overview of Visuospatial Working Memory in Monkeys and Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Ken-Ichiro; Oyama, Kei; Nakamura, Shinya; Iijima, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Neural mechanisms of working memory, particularly its visuospatial aspect, have long been studied in non-human primates. On the other hand, rodents are becoming more important in systems neuroscience, as many of the innovative research methods have become available for them. There has been a question on whether primates and rodents have similar neural backgrounds for working memory. In this article, we carried out a comparative overview of the neural mechanisms of visuospatial working memory in monkeys and rats. In monkeys, a number of lesion studies indicate that the brain region most responsible for visuospatial working memory is the ventral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (vDLPFC), as the performance in the standard tests for visuospatial working memory, such as delayed response and delayed alternation tasks, are impaired by lesions in this region. Single-unit studies revealed a characteristic firing pattern in neurons in this area, a sustained delay activity. Further studies indicated that the information maintained in the working memory, such as cue location and response direction in a delayed response, is coded in the sustained delay activity. In rats, an area comparable to the monkey vDLPFC was found to be the dorsal part of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), as the delayed alternation in a T-maze is impaired by its lesion. Recently, the sustained delay activity similar to that found in monkeys has been found in the dorsal mPFC of rats performing the delayed response task. Furthermore, anatomical studies indicate that the vDLPFC in monkeys and the dorsal mPFC in rats have much in common, such as that they are both the major targets of parieto-frontal projections. Thus lines of evidence indicate that in both monkeys and rodents, the PFC plays a critical role in working memory.

  5. Stress Sensitive Female Macaques Have Decreased Fev and Serotonin-Related Gene Expression That Is Not Reversed by Citalopram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Fernanda B.; Centeno, Maria L.; Costa, Maria E.; Reddy, Arubala P.; Cameron, Judy L.; Bethea, Cynthia L.

    2009-01-01

    Female cynomolgus monkeys exhibit different degrees of reproductive dysfunction with moderate metabolic and psychosocial stress. When stressed with a paradigm of relocation and diet for 60 days or 2 menstrual cycles, highly stress resilient monkeys (HSR) continued to ovulate during the stress cycles whereas stress sensitive monkeys (SS) did not. After cessation of stress, monkeys characterized as HSR or SS were administered placebo (PL) or S-citalopram (CIT) for 15 weeks at doses that normalized ovarian steroid secretion in the SS animals and that maintained blood citalopram levels in a therapeutic range. After euthanasia, the brain was perfused with 4% paraformaldehyde. The pontine midbrain was blocked and sectioned at 25μm. The expression of 4 genes pivotal to serotonin neural function was assessed in the 4 groups of monkeys (n=4/group). Fev (fifth Ewing variant) ETS transcription factor, tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2), the serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT), and the 5HT1A autoreceptor were determined at 7–8 levels of the dorsal raphe nucleus with in situ hybridization (ISH) using radiolabeled- and digoxygenin-incorporated riboprobes. Positive pixel area and cell number were measured with Slidebook 4.2 in the digoxigenin assay for Fev. Optical density (OD) and positive pixel area were measured with NIH Image software in the radiolabeled assays for TPH2, SERT and 5HT1A. All data were analyzed with 2-way ANOVA. Stress-sensitive monkeys had significantly fewer Fev-positive cells and lower Fev-positive pixel area in the dorsal raphe than stress-resilient monkeys. Stress-sensitive macaques also had significantly lower levels of TPH2, SERT and 5HT1A mRNAs in the dorsal raphe nucleus than stress-resilient macaques. However, citalopram did not alter the expression of either Fev, TPH2, SERT or 5HT1A mRNAs. These data suggest that stress-sensitive macaques have fewer serotonin neurons than stress-resilient macaques, and that they have deficient Fev expresssion

  6. Inhaled oxytocin amplifies both vicarious reinforcement and self reinforcement in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Steve W C; Barter, Joseph W; Ebitz, R Becket; Watson, Karli K; Platt, Michael L

    2012-01-17

    People attend not only to their own experiences, but also to the experiences of those around them. Such social awareness profoundly influences human behavior by enabling observational learning, as well as by motivating cooperation, charity, empathy, and spite. Oxytocin (OT), a neurosecretory hormone synthesized by hypothalamic neurons in the mammalian brain, can enhance affiliation or boost exclusion in different species in distinct contexts, belying any simple mechanistic neural model. Here we show that inhaled OT penetrates the CNS and subsequently enhances the sensitivity of rhesus macaques to rewards occurring to others as well as themselves. Roughly 2 h after inhaling OT, monkeys increased the frequency of prosocial choices associated with reward to another monkey when the alternative was to reward no one. OT also increased attention to the recipient monkey as well as the time it took to render such a decision. In contrast, within the first 2 h following inhalation, OT increased selfish choices associated with delivery of reward to self over a reward to the other monkey, without affecting attention or decision latency. Despite the differences in species typical social behavior, exogenous, inhaled OT causally promotes social donation behavior in rhesus monkeys, as it does in more egalitarian and monogamous ones, like prairie voles and humans, when there is no perceived cost to self. These findings potentially implicate shared neural mechanisms.

  7. The use of positive reinforcement training to reduce stereotypic behavior in rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Kristine; Maier, Adriane

    2010-05-01

    Stereotypic behavior is a pervasive problem for captive monkeys and other animals. Once this behavior pattern has started, it can be difficult to alleviate. We tested whether or not using positive reinforcement training (PRT) can reduce this undesired behavior. Subjects for this study were 11 adult, female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) with a history of locomotor stereotypy (e.g., pacing, bouncing, and somersaulting). We assessed baseline levels of stereotypic behavior and then utilized PRT to train six animals to touch a target and accept venipuncture. The other five monkeys served as controls. We assessed stereotypic behavior 1 week a month for 4 months, on days in which the monkey was not trained. Trained animals showed a significant reduction in stereotypic behavior after 1 month of training, compared to control monkeys (Mann Whitney U=28.00, P=0.02). These group differences did not persist after the first month (Month 2: Mann Whitney U=19.50, P=0.40, Month 3: Mann Whitney U=17.0, P=0.71, Month 4: Mann Whitney U=17.00, P=0.72). Still, the majority of the trained monkeys (n=4) engaged in less stereotypic behavior at the end of the study compared to baseline. Thus, training may be an effective way to reduce stereotypic behavior, at least for some individuals.

  8. Explicit information reduces discounting behavior in monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John ePearson

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Animals are notoriously impulsive in common laboratory experiments, preferring smaller, sooner rewards to larger, delayed rewards even when this reduces average reward rates. By contrast, the same animals often engage in natural behaviors that require extreme patience, such as food caching, stalking prey, and traveling long distances to high quality food sites. One possible explanation for this discrepancy is that standard laboratory delay discounting tasks artificially inflate impulsivity by subverting animals’ common learning strategies. To test this idea, we examined choices made by rhesus macaques in two variants of a standard delay discounting task. In the conventional variant, post-reward delays were uncued and adjusted to render total trial length constant; in the second, all delays were cued explicitly. We found that measured discounting was significantly reduced in the cued task, with discount rates well below those reported in studies using the standard uncued design. When monkeys had complete information, their decisions were more consistent with a strategy of reward rate maximization. These results indicate that monkeys, and perhaps other animals, are more patient than is normally assumed, and that laboratory measures of delay discounting may overstate impulsivity.

  9. Kenya's Monkeys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐天麒

    2004-01-01

    It's difficult to get close to patas monkeys(花脸猴). Clever and nervous, they run away at the sight of humans. The long-legged monkeys, clocked ( 记录 [ 速度 ] ) at 34 miles an hour, easily escaped from the zoologist Lynne Isbell when she arrived in Kenya in 1992.

  10. Illegal trade in Barbary macaques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Uhm, Daan

    2014-01-01

    While Morocco is well known as the main port between Africa and the EU for the illegal drugs trade and migration, the illegal trade in wildlife is flourishing as well. Next to the illegal large-scale trafficking of tortoises and birds, it is estimated that as few as 5,000 Barbary macaques remain in

  11. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids modulate large-scale systems organization in the rhesus macaque brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, David S; Kroenke, Christopher D; Neuringer, Martha; Fair, Damien A

    2014-02-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids are essential for healthy brain and retinal development and have been implicated in a variety of neurodevelopmental disorders. This study used resting-state functional connectivity MRI to define the large-scale organization of the rhesus macaque brain and changes associated with differences in lifetime ω-3 fatty acid intake. Monkeys fed docosahexaenoic acid, the long-chain ω-3 fatty acid abundant in neural membranes, had cortical modular organization resembling the healthy human brain. In contrast, those with low levels of dietary ω-3 fatty acids had decreased functional connectivity within the early visual pathway and throughout higher-order associational cortex and showed impairment of distributed cortical networks. Our findings illustrate the similarity in modular cortical organization between the healthy human and macaque brain and support the notion that ω-3 fatty acids play a crucial role in developing and/or maintaining distributed, large-scale brain systems, including those essential for normal cognitive function.

  12. Macaque cardiac physiology is sensitive to the valence of passively viewed sensory stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza Bliss-Moreau

    Full Text Available Autonomic nervous system activity is an important component of affective experience. We demonstrate in the rhesus monkey that both the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system respond differentially to the affective valence of passively viewed video stimuli. We recorded cardiac impedance and an electrocardiogram while adult macaques watched a series of 300 30-second videos that varied in their affective content. We found that sympathetic activity (as measured by cardiac pre-ejection period increased and parasympathetic activity (as measured by respiratory sinus arrhythmia decreased as video content changes from positive to negative. These findings parallel the relationship between autonomic nervous system responsivity and valence of stimuli in humans. Given the relationship between human cardiac physiology and affective processing, these findings suggest that macaque cardiac physiology may be an index of affect in nonverbal animals.

  13. Neural representations of faces and body parts in macaque and human cortex: a comparative FMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsk, Mark A; Arcaro, Michael; Weiner, Kevin S; Kalkus, Jan F; Inati, Souheil J; Gross, Charles G; Kastner, Sabine

    2009-05-01

    Single-cell studies in the macaque have reported selective neural responses evoked by visual presentations of faces and bodies. Consistent with these findings, functional magnetic resonance imaging studies in humans and monkeys indicate that regions in temporal cortex respond preferentially to faces and bodies. However, it is not clear how these areas correspond across the two species. Here, we directly compared category-selective areas in macaques and humans using virtually identical techniques. In the macaque, several face- and body part-selective areas were found located along the superior temporal sulcus (STS) and middle temporal gyrus (MTG). In the human, similar to previous studies, face-selective areas were found in ventral occipital and temporal cortex and an additional face-selective area was found in the anterior temporal cortex. Face-selective areas were also found in lateral temporal cortex, including the previously reported posterior STS area. Body part-selective areas were identified in the human fusiform gyrus and lateral occipitotemporal cortex. In a first experiment, both monkey and human subjects were presented with pictures of faces, body parts, foods, scenes, and man-made objects, to examine the response profiles of each category-selective area to the five stimulus types. In a second experiment, face processing was examined by presenting upright and inverted faces. By comparing the responses and spatial relationships of the areas, we propose potential correspondences across species. Adjacent and overlapping areas in the macaque anterior STS/MTG responded strongly to both faces and body parts, similar to areas in the human fusiform gyrus and posterior STS. Furthermore, face-selective areas on the ventral bank of the STS/MTG discriminated both upright and inverted faces from objects, similar to areas in the human ventral temporal cortex. Overall, our findings demonstrate commonalities and differences in the wide-scale brain organization between

  14. Oct-4 expression in pluripotent cells of the rhesus monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitalipov, Shoukhrat M; Kuo, Hung-Chih; Hennebold, Jon D; Wolf, Don P

    2003-12-01

    The POU (Pit-Oct-Unc)-domain transcription factor, Oct-4, has become a useful marker of pluripotency in the mouse. It is found exclusively in mouse preimplantation-stage embryos after embryonic genome activation and is a characteristic of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, and its absence in knockout mice precludes inner cell mass (ICM) formation in blastocysts. Expression of Oct-4 has also been associated with pluripotency in primate cells. Here, we undertook a systematic study of Oct-4 expression in rhesus macaque preimplantation embryos produced by intracytoplasmic sperm injection and in ES cells before and after exposure to differentiating conditions in vitro. We also evaluated Oct-4 expression as a means of monitoring the extent of reprogramming following somatic cell nuclear transfer. Oct-4 was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemistry with a monoclonal antibody. Monkey pronuclear-stage zygotes and cleaving embryos up to the 8-cell stage showed no detectable Oct-4. Nuclear staining for Oct-4 first became obvious at the 16-cell stage, and a strong signal was observed in morula and compact morula stages. Both ICM and trophectodermal cell nuclei of monkey early blastocysts were positive for Oct-4. However, the signal was diminished in trophectodermal cells of expanded blastocysts, whereas expression remained high in ICM nuclei. Similar to the mouse, hatched monkey blastocysts showed strong Oct-4 expression in the ICM, with no detectable signal in the trophectoderm. Undifferentiated monkey ES cells derived from the ICM of in vitro-produced blastocysts expressed Oct-4, consistent with their pluripotent nature, whereas ES cell differentiation was associated with signal loss. Therefore, Oct-4 expression in the monkey, as in the mouse, provides a useful marker for pluripotency after activation of the embryonic genome. Finally, the observed lack or abnormal expression of Oct-4 in monkey nuclear transfer embryos suggests

  15. Positive reinforcement training in squirrel monkeys using clicker training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Timothy E; Janes, Amy C; Kaufman, Marc J

    2012-08-01

    Nonhuman primates in research environments experience regular stressors that have the potential to alter physiology and brain function, which in turn can confound some types of research studies. Operant conditioning techniques such as positive reinforcement training (PRT), which teaches animals to voluntarily perform desired behaviors, can be applied to improve behavior and reactivity. PRT has been used to train rhesus macaques, marmosets, and several other nonhuman primate species. To our knowledge, the method has yet to be used to train squirrel monkeys to perform complex tasks. Accordingly, we sought to establish whether PRT, utilizing a hand-box clicker (which emits a click sound that acts as the conditioned reinforcer), could be used to train adult male squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis, N = 14). We developed and implemented a training regimen to elicit voluntary participation in routine husbandry, animal transport, and injection procedures. Our secondary goal was to quantify the training time needed to achieve positive results. Squirrel monkeys readily learned the connection between the conditioned reinforcer (the clicker) and the positive reinforcer (food). They rapidly developed proficiency on four tasks of increasing difficulty: target touching, hand sitting, restraint training, and injection training. All subjects mastered target touching behavior within 2 weeks. Ten of 14 subjects (71%) mastered all tasks in 59.2 ± 2.6 days (range: 50-70 days). In trained subjects, it now takes about 1.25 min per monkey to weigh and administer an intramuscular injection, one-third of the time it took before training. From these data, we conclude that clicker box PRT can be successfully learned by a majority of squirrel monkeys within 2 months and that trained subjects can be managed more efficiently. These findings warrant future studies to determine whether PRT may be useful in reducing stress-induced experimental confounds in studies involving squirrel monkeys.

  16. Stereopsis and disparity vergence in monkeys with subnormal binocular vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwerth, R S; Smith, E L; Crawford, M L; von Noorden, G K

    1997-02-01

    The surgical treatment for strabismus in infants generally results in microtropia or subnormal binocular vision. Although the clinical characteristics of these conditions are well established, there are important questions about the mechanisms of binocular vision in these patients that can best be investigated in an appropriate animal model. In the present psychophysical investigations, spatial frequency response functions for disparity-induced fusional vergence and for local stereopsis were studied in macaque monkeys, who demonstrated many of the major visual characteristics of patients whose eyes were surgically aligned during infancy. In six rhesus monkeys, unilateral esotropia was surgically induced at various ages (30-184 days of age). However, over the next 12 months, all of the monkeys recovered normal eye alignment. Behavioral measurements at 4-6 years of age showed that the monkeys' prism-induced fusional vergence responses were indistinguishable from those of control monkeys or humans with normal binocular vision. Investigations of stereo-depth discrimination demonstrated that each of the experimental monkeys also had stereoscopic vision, but their stereoacuities varied from being essentially normal to severely stereo-deficient. The degree of stereo-deficiency was not related to the age at which surgical esotropia was induced, or to the presence or absence of amblyopia, and was not dependent on the spatial frequency of the test stimulus. Altogether, these experiments demonstrate that a temporary, early esotropia can affect the binocular disparity responses of motor and sensory components of binocular vision differently, probably because of different sensitive periods of development for the two components.

  17. Abstract Context Representations in Primate Amygdala and Prefrontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saez, A; Rigotti, M; Ostojic, S; Fusi, S; Salzman, C D

    2015-08-19

    Neurons in prefrontal cortex (PFC) encode rules, goals, and other abstract information thought to underlie cognitive, emotional, and behavioral flexibility. Here we show that the amygdala, a brain area traditionally thought to mediate emotions, also encodes abstract information that could underlie this flexibility. Monkeys performed a task in which stimulus-reinforcement contingencies varied between two sets of associations, each defining a context. Reinforcement prediction required identifying a stimulus and knowing the current context. Behavioral evidence indicated that monkeys utilized this information to perform inference and adjust their behavior. Neural representations in both amygdala and PFC reflected the linked sets of associations implicitly defining each context, a process requiring a level of abstraction characteristic of cognitive operations. Surprisingly, when errors were made, the context signal weakened substantially in the amygdala. These data emphasize the importance of maintaining abstract cognitive information in the amygdala to support flexible behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Looking ahead? Computerized maze task performance by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), and human children (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J; Parrish, Audrey E; Futch, Sara E; Evans, Theodore A; Perdue, Bonnie M

    2015-05-01

    Human and nonhuman primates are not mentally constrained to the present. They can remember the past and-at least to an extent-anticipate the future. Anticipation of the future ranges from long-term prospection such as planning for retirement to more short-term future-oriented cognition such as planning a route through a maze. Here we tested a great ape species (chimpanzees), an Old World monkey species (rhesus macaques), a New World monkey species (capuchin monkeys), and human children on a computerized maze task. All subjects had to move a cursor through a maze to reach a goal at the bottom of the screen. For best performance on the task, subjects had to "plan ahead" to the end of the maze to move the cursor in the correct direction, avoid traps, and reverse directions if necessary. Mazes varied in difficulty. Chimpanzees were better than both monkey species, and monkeys showed a particular deficit when moving away from the goal or changing directions was required. Children showed a similar pattern to monkeys regarding the effects of reversals and moves away from the goal, but their overall performance in terms of correct maze completion was similar to the chimpanzees. The results highlight similarities as well as differences in planning across species and the role that inhibitory control may play in future-oriented cognition in primates.

  19. Transient inactivation of orbitofrontal cortex blocks reinforcer devaluation in macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Elizabeth A; DesJardin, Jacqueline T; Gale, Karen; Malkova, Ludise

    2011-10-19

    The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and its interactions with the basolateral amygdala (BLA) are critical for goal-directed behavior, especially for adapting to changes in reward value. Here we used a reinforcer devaluation paradigm to investigate the contribution of OFC to this behavior in four macaques. Subjects that had formed associations between objects and two different primary reinforcers (foods) were presented with choices of objects overlying the two different foods. When one of the two foods was devalued by selective satiation, the subjects shifted their choices toward the objects that represented the nonsated food reward (devaluation effect). Transient inactivation of OFC by infusions of the GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol into area 13 blocked the devaluation effect: the monkeys did not reduce their selection of objects associated with the devalued food. This effect was observed when OFC was inactivated during both satiation and the choice test, and during the choice test only. This supports our hypothesis that OFC activity is required during the postsatiety object choice period to guide the selection of objects. This finding sharply contrasts with the role of BLA in the same devaluation process (Wellman et al., 2005). Whereas activity in BLA was required during the selective satiation procedure, it was not necessary for guiding the subsequent object choice. Our results are the first to demonstrate that transient inactivation of OFC is sufficient to disrupt the devaluation effect, and to document a role for OFC distinct from that of BLA for the conditioned reinforcer devaluation process in monkeys.

  20. Short-term costs and benefits of grooming in Japanese macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schino, Gabriele; Alessandrini, Alessandro

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the short-term consequences of giving grooming in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in order to obtain information on its immediate costs and benefits. Giving grooming was associated with increased aggression received from groomees and decreased aggression received from third parties (but only as long as the groomer maintained proximity to the groomee). Grooming was also associated with decreased scratching rates. These results emphasize the unpredictable outcome of individual grooming interactions and the difficulties of social decision-making for monkeys living in despotic societies.

  1. Prefrontal-temporal disconnection impairs recognition memory but not familiarity discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Philip G F; Baxter, Mark G; Gaffan, David

    2013-06-05

    Neural mechanisms in the temporal lobe are essential for recognition memory. Evidence from human functional imaging and neuropsychology, and monkey neurophysiology and neuropsychology also suggests a role for prefrontal cortex in recognition memory. To examine the interaction of these cortical regions in support of recognition memory we tested rhesus monkeys with prefrontal-inferotemporal (PFC-IT) cortical disconnection on two recognition memory tasks, a "constant negative" task, and delayed nonmatching-to-sample (DNMS). In the constant negative task monkeys were presented with sets of 100 discrimination problems. In each problem one unrewarded object was presented once every day, and became familiar over the course of several days testing. The other, rewarded object was always novel. In this task monkeys learned to avoid the familiar constant negatives and choose the novel objects, so performance on this task is guided by a sense of familiarity for the constant negatives. Following PFC-IT disconnection monkeys were severely impaired at reacquiring the rule (to avoid familiar items) but were subsequently unimpaired at acquiring new constant negative problems, thus displaying intact familiarity recognition. The same monkeys were impaired in the acquisition of the DNMS task, as well as memory for lists of objects. This dissociation between two tests of recognition memory is best explained in terms of our general hypothesis that PFC-IT interactions support the representation of temporally complex events, which is necessary in DNMS but not in constant negative. These findings, furthermore, indicate that stimulus familiarity can be represented in temporal cortex without input from prefrontal cortex.

  2. Evolution of a TRIM5-CypA splice isoform in old world monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi M Newman

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The TRIM family proteins share a conserved arrangement of three adjacent domains, an N-terminal RING domain, followed by one or two B-boxes and a coiled-coil, which constitutes the tripartite-motif for which the family is named. However, the C-termini of TRIM proteins vary, and include at least nine evolutionarily distinct, unrelated protein domains. Antiviral restriction factor TRIM5alpha has a C-terminal B30.2/SPRY domain, which is the major determinant of viral target specificity. Here, we describe the evolution of a cyclophilin-A encoding exon downstream of the TRIM5 locus of Asian macaques. Alternative splicing gives rise to chimeric transcripts encoding the TRIM motif fused to a C-terminal CypA domain (TRIM5-CypA. We detected TRIM5-CypA chimeric transcripts in primary lymphocytes from two macaque species. These were derived in part from a CypA pseudogene in the TRIM5 locus, which is distinct from the previously described CypA insertion in TRIM5 of owl monkeys. The CypA insertion is linked to a mutation in the 3' splice site upstream of exon 7, which may prevent or reduce expression of the alpha-isoform. All pig-tailed macaques (M. nemestrina screened were homozygous for the CypA insertion. In contrast, the CypA-containing allele was present in 17% (17/101 of rhesus macaques (M. mulatta. The block to HIV-1 infection in lymphocytes from animals bearing the TRIM5-CypA allele was weaker than that in cells from wild type animals. HIV-1 infectivity remained significantly lower than SIV infectivity, but was not rescued by treatment with cyclosporine A. Thus, unlike owl monkey TRIMCyp, expression of the macaque TRIM5-CypA isoform does not result in increased restriction of HIV-1. Despite its distinct evolutionary origin, Macaca TRIM5-CypA has a similar domain arrangement and shares approximately 80% amino-acid identity with the TRIMCyp protein of owl monkeys. The independent appearance of TRIM5-CypA chimeras in two primate lineages constitutes a

  3. Regulating prefrontal cortex activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aznar, Susana; Klein, Anders Bue

    2013-01-01

    of emotion-based actions, such as addiction and other impulse-related behaviors. In this review, we give an overview of the 5-HT2A receptor distribution (neuronal, intracellular, and anatomical) along with its functional and physiological effect on PFC activation, and how that relates to more recent findings......The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in mediating important higher-order cognitive processes such as decision making, prompting thereby our actions. At the same time, PFC activation is strongly influenced by emotional reactions through its functional interaction with the amygdala...... is highly expressed in the prefrontal cortex areas, playing an important role in modulating cortical activity and neural oscillations (brain waves). This makes it an interesting potential pharmacological target for the treatment of neuropsychiatric modes characterized by lack of inhibitory control...

  4. Neuropsychology of prefrontal cortex

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The history of clinical frontal lobe study is long and rich which provides valuable insights into neuropsychologic determinants of functions of prefrontal cortex (PFC). PFC is often classified as multimodal association cortex as extremely processed information from various sensory modalities is integrated here in a precise fashion to form the physiologic constructs of memory, perception, and diverse cognitive processes. Human neuropsychologic studies also support the notion of different funct...

  5. X-ray crystallographic characterization of rhesus macaque MHC Mamu-A*02 complexed with an immunodominant SIV-Gag nonapeptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Youjun [Laboratory of Molecular Immunology and Molecular Virology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Qi, Jianxun [Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Zhang, Huimin; Wang, Jinzi [Laboratory of Molecular Immunology and Molecular Virology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Liu, Jinhua [College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Jiang, Fan [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Gao, Feng, E-mail: gaofeng@im.ac.cn [Laboratory of Molecular Immunology and Molecular Virology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China)

    2006-01-01

    X-ray crystallographic characterization of rhesus macaque MHC Mamu-A*02 complexed with an immunodominant SIV-Gag nonapeptide. Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in the rhesus macaque is regarded as a classic animal model, playing a crucial role in HIV vaccine strategies and therapeutics by characterizing various cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses in macaque monkeys. However, the availability of well documented structural reports focusing on rhesus macaque major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) molecules remains extremely limited. Here, a complex of the rhesus macaque MHC I molecule (Mamu-A*02) with human β{sub 2}m and an immunodominant SIV-Gag nonapeptide, GESNLKSLY (GY9), has been crystallized. The crystal diffracts X-rays to 2.7 Å resolution and belongs to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 124.11, b = 110.45, c = 100.06 Å, and contains two molecules in the asymmetric unit. The availability of the structure, which is being solved by molecular replacement, will provide new insights into rhesus macaque MHC I (Mamu-A*02) presenting pathogenic SIV peptides.

  6. Characterization of single-nucleotide variation in Indian-origin rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wheeler David A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhesus macaques are the most widely utilized nonhuman primate model in biomedical research. Previous efforts have validated fewer than 900 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in this species, which limits opportunities for genetic studies related to health and disease. Extensive information about SNPs and other genetic variation in rhesus macaques would facilitate valuable genetic analyses, as well as provide markers for genome-wide linkage analysis and the genetic management of captive breeding colonies. Results We used the available rhesus macaque draft genome sequence, new sequence data from unrelated individuals and existing published sequence data to create a genome-wide SNP resource for Indian-origin rhesus monkeys. The original reference animal and two additional Indian-origin individuals were resequenced to low coverage using SOLiD™ sequencing. We then used three strategies to validate SNPs: comparison of potential SNPs found in the same individual using two different sequencing chemistries, and comparison of potential SNPs in different individuals identified with either the same or different sequencing chemistries. Our approach validated approximately 3 million SNPs distributed across the genome. Preliminary analysis of SNP annotations suggests that a substantial number of these macaque SNPs may have functional effects. More than 700 non-synonymous SNPs were scored by Polyphen-2 as either possibly or probably damaging to protein function and these variants now constitute potential models for studying functional genetic variation relevant to human physiology and disease. Conclusions Resequencing of a small number of animals identified greater than 3 million SNPs. This provides a significant new information resource for rhesus macaques, an important research animal. The data also suggests that overall genetic variation is high in this species. We identified many potentially damaging non-synonymous coding SNPs

  7. Live-social-video reward maintains joystick task performance in bonnet macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, M W; Rosenblum, L A

    1993-12-01

    A number of studies have now indicated that monkeys of several species will perform hundreds of food-rewarded joystick tasks on a daily basis. Our goal in this study was to identify the level of joystick task performance that could be maintained by 10 sec. of live, color video of a conspecific social group contingent upon the completion of a joystick task. The subjects were five individually housed bonnet macaques that were highly experienced on joystick tasks. Performance with social-video reward was compared to that maintained by a 190-mg banana-flavored pellet reward and to a nonreward condition. Comparable levels of task activity were maintained by both video and pellet reward, whereas task activity nearly ceased in the absence of reward. Four of the five monkeys increased their levels of task activity between the first and second weeks of social-video reward.

  8. Relation between phylogeny of African green monkey CD4 genes and their respective simian immunodeficiency virus genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomsgaard, Anders; Müller-Trutwin, Michaela C.; Diop, Ousmane

    1997-01-01

    An apparent species-specific relatedness of SIVagm suggests a coevolution with their natural hosts. However, the exact species or subspecies classification of African green monkeys, AGM, is uncertain because current classification schemes rely on phenotype markers, while more definitive genetic...... data are lacking. In this study, the CD4 protein involved in tissue type recognition was gentically cloned and sequence from PBMC RNA from all AGM species, including Barbados green monkeys (BGM). Phylogenetic trees were constructed that also included genomic CD4 nucleotide sequences from patas, sooty...... mangabeys, rhesus and pig-tail macaques, chimpanzees, and humans. Chimpanzees and humans consistently clustered together. Monkeys within the Cercopithecus genus formed a separate cluster which included pata monkeys, supporting its grouping as a member of Cercopithecus. Surprisingly, sooty mangabeys were...

  9. The monkey selfie: copyright lessons for originality in photographs and internet jurisdiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Guadamuz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, a macaque monkey used a camera belonging to British photographer David Slater in Indonesia to take a self-portrait. The selfie picture became famous worldwide after it was published in the British media. In 2014 Slater sent a removal request to Wikimedia Commons, which indicated that the picture was in the public domain because it had been taken by the monkey and animals cannot own copyright works. While most of the legal analysis so far has been centred around US law, this article takes a completely different approach. Re-assessing jurisdictional issues, I examine the case from a UK and European perspective. The monkey selfie is of importance to internet policy: it has a lot to teach us about online jurisdiction. Under current originality rules, David Slater has a good copyright claim for ownership of the picture.

  10. Social Status in Monkeys: Effects of Social Confrontation on Brain Function and Cocaine Self-Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Robert W; Czoty, Paul W; Porrino, Linda J; Nader, Michael A

    2017-04-01

    Individual differences in response to social stress and environmental enrichment may contribute to variability in response to behavioral and pharmacological treatments for drug addiction. In monkeys, social status influences the reinforcing effects of cocaine and the effects of some drugs on cocaine self-administration. In this study, we used male cynomolgus macaques (n=15) living in established social groups to examine the effects of social confrontation on the reinforcing effects of cocaine using a food-drug choice procedure. On the test day, a dominant or subordinate monkey was removed from his homecage and placed into another social pen; 30 min later he was studied in a cocaine-food choice paradigm. For the group, following social confrontation, sensitivity to cocaine reinforcement was significantly greater in subordinate monkeys compared with dominant animals. Examining individual-subject data revealed that for the majority of monkeys (9/15), serving as an intruder in another social group affected cocaine self-administration and these effects were dependent on the social rank of the monkey. For subordinate monkeys, sensitivity to the reinforcing effects of cocaine increased while sensitivity decreased in dominant monkeys. To investigate potential mechanisms mediating these effects, brain glucose metabolism was studied in a subset of monkeys (n=8) using [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([(18)F]FDG) with positron emission tomography. Dominant and subordinate monkeys displayed distinctly different patterns of brain glucose metabolism in their homecage, including areas associated with vigilance and stress/anxiety, respectively, and during social confrontation. These data demonstrate that, depending on an individual's social status, the same social experience can have divergent effects on brain function and cocaine self-administration. These phenotypic differences in response to social conditions support a personalized treatment approach to cocaine addiction.

  11. Depressive-like behavioural profiles in captive-bred single- and socially-housed rhesus and cynomolgus macaques: a species comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine MJ Camus

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: To unravel the causes of major depressive disorder (MDD, the third leading cause of disease burden around the world, ethological animal models have recently been proposed. Our previous studies highlighted a depressive-like profile among single- and socially-housed farm-bred cynomolgus macaques. Although phylogenetically close, cynomolgus and rhesus macaques, the two most commonly used macaque species in biomedical research, differ on several levels such as patterns of aggression, reconciliation, temperament or dominance styles. The question of whether one captive macaque species was more vulnerable than another in the development of a pathological profile reminiscent of MDD symptoms was explored.Methods: Behavioural data (including body postures, orientations, gaze directions, inter-individual distances and locations in the cage were collected in farming conditions. Using an unbiased validated ethological scan-sampling method, followed by multiple correspondence and hierarchical clustering analyses, 40 single- and 35 socially-housed rhesus macaques were assessed. Independently, for each housing condition, inter-species comparisons were made with previously acquired data on farm-bred cynomolgus monkeys.Results: Consistent with our previous studies, we found depressive-like characteristics (e.g. inactivity, low level of investigation and maintenance, long time spent inactive while facing the wall among single- and socially-housed rhesus macaques. Species-specificities were reported in non-depressive time budgets and in the prevalence of the pathological profiles.Conclusions: Our results suggest that rhesus may be more vulnerable to developing a despair-like state than cynomolgus macaques, both in single- and in social-housing conditions. Therefore, rhesus macaques are more suitable for use as a spontaneous model of depressive disorders.

  12. Depressive-like behavioral profiles in captive-bred single- and socially-housed rhesus and cynomolgus macaques: a species comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camus, Sandrine M. J.; Rochais, Céline; Blois-Heulin, Catherine; Li, Qin; Hausberger, Martine; Bezard, Erwan

    2014-01-01

    Background: To unravel the causes of major depressive disorder (MDD), the third leading cause of disease burden around the world, ethological animal models have recently been proposed. Our previous studies highlighted a depressive-like profile among single- and socially-housed farm-bred cynomolgus macaques. Although phylogenetically close, cynomolgus and rhesus macaques, the two most commonly used macaque species in biomedical research, differ on several levels such as patterns of aggression, reconciliation, temperament, or dominance styles. The question of whether one captive macaque species was more vulnerable than another in the development of a pathological profile reminiscent of MDD symptoms was explored. Methods: Behavioral data (including body postures, orientations, gaze directions, inter-individual distances, and locations in the cage) were collected in farming conditions. Using an unbiased validated ethological scan-sampling method, followed by multiple correspondence and hierarchical clustering analyses, 40 single- and 35 socially-housed rhesus macaques were assessed. Independently, for each housing condition, inter-species comparisons were made with previously acquired data on farm-bred cynomolgus monkeys. Results: Consistent with our previous studies, we found depressive-like characteristics (e.g., inactivity, low level of investigation and maintenance, long time spent inactive while facing the wall) among single- and socially-housed rhesus macaques. Species-specificities were reported in non-depressive time budgets and in the prevalence of the pathological profiles. Conclusions: Our results suggest that rhesus may be more vulnerable to developing a despair-like state than cynomolgus macaques, both in single- and in social-housing conditions. Therefore, rhesus macaques are more suitable for use as a “spontaneous” model of depressive disorders. PMID:24600363

  13. Informative Cues Facilitate Saccadic Localization in Blindsight Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Masatoshi; Hafed, Ziad M; Isa, Tadashi

    2017-01-01

    Patients with damage to the primary visual cortex (V1) demonstrate residual visual performance during laboratory tasks despite denying having a conscious percept. The mechanisms behind such performance, often called blindsight, are not fully understood, but the use of surgically-induced unilateral V1 lesions in macaque monkeys provides a useful animal model for exploring such mechanisms. For example, V1-lesioned monkeys localize stimuli in a forced-choice condition while at the same time failing to report awareness of identical stimuli in a yes-no detection condition, similar to human patients. Moreover, residual cognitive processes, including saliency-guided eye movements, bottom-up attention with peripheral non-informative cues, and spatial short-term memory, have all been demonstrated in these animals. Here we examined whether post-lesion residual visuomotor processing can be modulated by top-down task knowledge. We tested two V1-lesioned monkeys with a visually guided saccade task in which we provided an informative foveal pre-cue about upcoming target location. Our monkeys fixated while we presented a leftward or rightward arrow (serving as a pre-cue) superimposed on the fixation point (FP). After various cue-target onset asynchronies (CTOAs), a saccadic target (of variable contrast across trials) was presented either in the affected (contra-lesional) or seeing (ipsi-lesional) hemifield. Critically, target location was in the same hemifield that the arrow pre-cue pointed towards in 80% of the trials (valid-cue trials), making the cue highly useful for task performance. In both monkeys, correct saccade reaction times were shorter during valid than invalid trials. Moreover, in one monkey, the ratio of correct saccades towards the affected hemifield was higher during valid than invalid trials. We replicated both reaction time and correct ratio effects in the same monkey using a symbolic color cue. These results suggest that V1-lesion monkeys can use informative

  14. Informative Cues Facilitate Saccadic Localization in Blindsight Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Masatoshi; Hafed, Ziad M.; Isa, Tadashi

    2017-01-01

    Patients with damage to the primary visual cortex (V1) demonstrate residual visual performance during laboratory tasks despite denying having a conscious percept. The mechanisms behind such performance, often called blindsight, are not fully understood, but the use of surgically-induced unilateral V1 lesions in macaque monkeys provides a useful animal model for exploring such mechanisms. For example, V1-lesioned monkeys localize stimuli in a forced-choice condition while at the same time failing to report awareness of identical stimuli in a yes-no detection condition, similar to human patients. Moreover, residual cognitive processes, including saliency-guided eye movements, bottom-up attention with peripheral non-informative cues, and spatial short-term memory, have all been demonstrated in these animals. Here we examined whether post-lesion residual visuomotor processing can be modulated by top-down task knowledge. We tested two V1-lesioned monkeys with a visually guided saccade task in which we provided an informative foveal pre-cue about upcoming target location. Our monkeys fixated while we presented a leftward or rightward arrow (serving as a pre-cue) superimposed on the fixation point (FP). After various cue-target onset asynchronies (CTOAs), a saccadic target (of variable contrast across trials) was presented either in the affected (contra-lesional) or seeing (ipsi-lesional) hemifield. Critically, target location was in the same hemifield that the arrow pre-cue pointed towards in 80% of the trials (valid-cue trials), making the cue highly useful for task performance. In both monkeys, correct saccade reaction times were shorter during valid than invalid trials. Moreover, in one monkey, the ratio of correct saccades towards the affected hemifield was higher during valid than invalid trials. We replicated both reaction time and correct ratio effects in the same monkey using a symbolic color cue. These results suggest that V1-lesion monkeys can use informative

  15. Age-related gene expression change of GABAergic system in visual cortex of rhesus macaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chenghong; Han, Qian; Ma, Yuanye; Su, Bing

    2016-09-30

    Degradation of visual function is a common phenomenon during aging and likely mediated by change in the impaired central visual pathway. Treatment with GABA or its agonist could recover the ability of visual neurons in the primary visual cortex of senescent macaques. However, little is known about how GABAergic system change is related to the aged degradation of visual function in nonhuman primate. With the use of quantitative PCR method, we measured the expression change of 24 GABA related genes in the primary visual cortex (Brodmann's 17) of different age groups. In this study, both of mRNA and protein of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) were measured by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. Results revealed that the level of GAD65 message was not significantly altered, but the proteins were significantly decreased in the aged monkey. As GAD65 plays an important role in GABA synthesis, the down-regulation of GAD65 protein was likely the key factor leading to the observed GABA reduction in the primary visual cortex of the aged macaques. In addition, 7 of 14 GABA receptor genes were up-regulated and one GABA receptor gene was significantly reduced during aging process even after Banjamini correction for multiple comparisons (Pvisual dysfunctions and most of GABA receptor genes induce a clear indication of compensatory effect for the reduced GABA release in the healthy aged monkey cortex.

  16. Social network size affects neural circuits in macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallet, J; Mars, R B; Noonan, M P; Andersson, J L; O'Reilly, J X; Jbabdi, S; Croxson, P L; Jenkinson, M; Miller, K L; Rushworth, M F S

    2011-11-04

    It has been suggested that variation in brain structure correlates with the sizes of individuals' social networks. Whether variation in social network size causes variation in brain structure, however, is unknown. To address this question, we neuroimaged 23 monkeys that had been living in social groups set to different sizes. Subject comparison revealed that living in larger groups caused increases in gray matter in mid-superior temporal sulcus and rostral prefrontal cortex and increased coupling of activity in frontal and temporal cortex. Social network size, therefore, contributes to changes both in brain structure and function. The changes have potential implications for an animal's success in a social context; gray matter differences in similar areas were also correlated with each animal's dominance within its social network.

  17. The Genial Monkeys of Emei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAOHONG

    2004-01-01

    MANY of China's beautiful mountainous areas are home to monkeys,the most famous monkey resort being Emei Mountain. Perhaps affected by the mountain's Buddhist atmosphere, Emei's monkeys are gentle and often approach tourists for food and play. Cute and impish, these delightful creatures are the main attraction for many visitors.

  18. Constitutive Release of IFNγ and IL2 from Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) Infected with Simian T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, JoAnn L; Montiel, Nestor A; Ardeshr, Amir; Lerche, Nicholas W

    2013-01-01

    Simian T-cell lymphotropic viruses (STLV), the nonhuman primate counterparts of human T-cell lymphotropic viruses (HTLV), are endemic in many populations of African and Asian monkeys and apes. Although an etiologic link between STLV1 infection and lymphoproliferative disorders such as malignant lymphomas has been suggested in some nonhuman primate species, most STLV infections are inapparent, and infected animals remain clinically healthy. The retroviral transactivator, tax, is well known to increase transcription of viral and cellular genes, resulting in altered cytokine profiles. This study compared the cytokine profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures from 25 STLV1-seropositive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) with those of age- and sex-matched seronegative controls. IFNγ, TNFα, IL10, and IL2 levels in unstimulated PBMC culture supernatants were measured at 24, 48, and 72 h by using enzyme immunoassays. IFNγ concentrations were found significantly higher in the supernatants of PBMC cultures of seropositive monkeys as compared with seronegative controls. In addition, although IL2 concentrations were not significantly elevated in the supernatants of PBMC cultures of all seropositive monkeys as compared with all seronegative controls, IL2 levels were increased in a subset of 5 pairs. Increased constitutive cytokine release occurred in the absence of spontaneous proliferation. The increased constitutive release of IFNγ and IL2 suggests that STLV1 alters immune functions in infected but clinically healthy rhesus macaques and further characterizes STLV1 infection of rhesus macaques as a potential model for human HTLV1 infection. PMID:24326227

  19. Paucity of horizontal connections for binocular vision in V1 of naturally strabismic macaques: Cytochrome oxidase compartment specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tychsen, Lawrence; Wong, Agnes Ming-Fong; Burkhalter, Andreas

    2004-06-21

    To describe the structural basis for lack of binocular fusion in strabismic primates, we investigated intrinsic horizontal connections within striate cortex (area V1) of normal and strabismic, adult macaque monkeys. The strabismic animals had early-onset natural esotropia (the visual axes deviated nasally), normal visual acuity in each eye, and the constellation of ocular motor deficits that typify human infantile strabismus. Horizontal patchy connections and synaptic boutons were labeled by injections of the neuronal tracer biotinylated dextran amine. Ocular dominance columns (ODCs), and blob vs. interblob compartments, were revealed by using cytochrome oxidase (CO). In layers 2/3 and 4B of the strabismic monkeys, patchy projections and boutons terminated much more frequently in same-eye (73%) as opposed to opposite-eye (27%) ODCs (normal monkeys 58% and 42%, respectively). The deficiency of binocular connections in the strabismic cortex was evident qualitatively as a "skip" pattern, in which every other row of ODCs had labeled patches. Analysis of V1 in normal monkeys revealed that the deficits in strabismic V1 were due mainly to a loss of binocular connections between neurons in CO-interblob compartments. In both normal and strabismic monkeys: (1) CO-blob compartment neurons showed a more pronounced bias for monocular connectivity, and (2) commitment of connections to the same CO-compartment as the injection site (blob-to-blob, or interblob-to-interblob) was moderately strong (64%) but far from absolute. These findings help elucidate the relative roles of visual experience vs. innate mechanisms in the development of axonal connections between ocular dominance domains and compartments within macaque V1. They also provide the first detailed description of the V1 maldevelopments associated with unrepaired natural, infantile-onset strabismus in primates.

  20. Simian varicella virus infection of rhesus macaques recapitulates essential features of varicella zoster virus infection in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilhem Messaoudi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Simian varicella virus (SVV, the etiologic agent of naturally occurring varicella in primates, is genetically and antigenically closely related to human varicella zoster virus (VZV. Early attempts to develop a model of VZV pathogenesis and latency in nonhuman primates (NHP resulted in persistent infection. More recent models successfully produced latency; however, only a minority of monkeys became viremic and seroconverted. Thus, previous NHP models were not ideally suited to analyze the immune response to SVV during acute infection and the transition to latency. Here, we show for the first time that intrabronchial inoculation of rhesus macaques with SVV closely mimics naturally occurring varicella (chickenpox in humans. Infected monkeys developed varicella and viremia that resolved 21 days after infection. Months later, viral DNA was detected only in ganglia and not in non-ganglionic tissues. Like VZV latency in human ganglia, transcripts corresponding to SVV ORFs 21, 62, 63 and 66, but not ORF 40, were detected by RT-PCR. In addition, as described for VZV, SVV ORF 63 protein was detected in the cytoplasm of neurons in latently infected monkey ganglia by immunohistochemistry. We also present the first in depth analysis of the immune response to SVV. Infected animals produced a strong humoral and cell-mediated immune response to SVV, as assessed by immunohistology, serology and flow cytometry. Intrabronchial inoculation of rhesus macaques with SVV provides a novel model to analyze viral and immunological mechanisms of VZV latency and reactivation.

  1. Alzheimer's disease and methanol toxicity (part 2): lessons from four rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) chronically fed methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Meifeng; Miao, Junye; Rizak, Joshua; Zhai, Rongwei; Wang, Zhengbo; Huma, Tanzeel; Li, Ting; Zheng, Na; Wu, Shihao; Zheng, Yingwei; Fan, Xiaona; Yang, Jianzhen; Wang, Jianhong; Yang, Shangchuan; Ma, Yuanye; Lü, Longbao; He, Rongqiao; Hu, Xintian

    2014-01-01

    A recently established link between formaldehyde, a methanol metabolite, and Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology has provided a new impetus to investigate the chronic effects of methanol exposure. This paper expands this investigation to the non-human primate, rhesus macaque, through the chronic feeding of young male monkeys with 3% methanol ad libitum. Variable Spatial Delay Response Tasks of the monkeys found that the methanol feeding led to persistent memory decline in the monkeys that lasted 6 months beyond the feeding regimen. This change coincided with increases in tau protein phosphorylation at residues T181 and S396 in cerebrospinal fluid during feeding as well as with increases in tau phosphorylated aggregates and amyloid plaques in four brain regions postmortem: the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, temporal lobe, and the hippocampus. Tau phosphorylation in cerebrospinal fluid was found to be dependent on methanol feeding status, but phosphorylation changes in the brain were found to be persistent 6 months after the methanol feeding stopped. This suggested the methanol feeding caused long-lasting and persistent pathological changes that were related to AD development in the monkey. Most notably, the presence of amyloid plaque formations in the monkeys highlighted a marked difference in animal systems used in AD investigations, suggesting that the innate defenses in mice against methanol toxicity may have limited previous investigations into AD pathology. Nonetheless, these findings support a growing body of evidence that links methanol and its metabolite formaldehyde to AD pathology.

  2. Divergent Simian Arteriviruses Cause Simian Hemorrhagic Fever of Differing Severities in Macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Wahl-Jensen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Simian hemorrhagic fever (SHF is a highly lethal disease in captive macaques. Three distinct arteriviruses are known etiological agents of past SHF epizootics, but only one, simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV, has been isolated in cell culture. The natural reservoir(s of the three viruses have yet to be identified, but African nonhuman primates are suspected. Eleven additional divergent simian arteriviruses have been detected recently in diverse and apparently healthy African cercopithecid monkeys. Here, we report the successful isolation in MARC-145 cell culture of one of these viruses, Kibale red colobus virus 1 (KRCV-1, from serum of a naturally infected red colobus (Procolobus [Piliocolobus] rufomitratus tephrosceles sampled in Kibale National Park, Uganda. Intramuscular (i.m. injection of KRCV-1 into four cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis resulted in a self-limiting nonlethal disease characterized by depressive behavioral changes, disturbance in coagulation parameters, and liver enzyme elevations. In contrast, i.m. injection of SHFV resulted in typical lethal SHF characterized by mild fever, lethargy, lymphoid depletion, lymphoid and hepatocellular necrosis, low platelet counts, increased liver enzyme concentrations, coagulation abnormalities, and increasing viral loads. As hypothesized based on the genetic and presumed antigenic distance between KRCV-1 and SHFV, all four macaques that had survived KRCV-1 injection died of SHF after subsequent SHFV injection, indicating a lack of protective heterotypic immunity. Our data indicate that SHF is a disease of macaques that in all likelihood can be caused by a number of distinct simian arteriviruses, although with different severity depending on the specific arterivirus involved. Consequently, we recommend that current screening procedures for SHFV in primate-holding facilities be modified to detect all known simian arteriviruses.

  3. THE CLEVER MONKEYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付惠娟

    2004-01-01

    A man was walking through a forest. He had a few caps in his hands. In the forest there were a lot of monkeys. The day was hot, so he decided to have a rest under a tree. I-le put one cap on his head and lay down to sleep.

  4. Monkey drumming reveals common networks for perceiving vocal and nonvocal communication sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remedios, Ryan; Logothetis, Nikos K; Kayser, Christoph

    2009-10-20

    Salient sounds such as those created by drumming can serve as means of nonvocal acoustic communication in addition to vocal sounds. Despite the ubiquity of drumming across human cultures, its origins and the brain regions specialized in processing such signals remain unexplored. Here, we report that an important animal model for vocal communication, the macaque monkey, also displays drumming behavior, and we exploit this finding to show that vocal and nonvocal communication sounds are represented by overlapping networks in the brain's temporal lobe. Observing social macaque groups, we found that these animals use artificial objects to produce salient periodic sounds, similar to acoustic gestures. Behavioral tests confirmed that these drumming sounds attract the attention of listening monkeys similarly as conspecific vocalizations. Furthermore, in a preferential looking experiment, drumming sounds influenced the way monkeys viewed their conspecifics, suggesting that drumming serves as a multimodal signal of social dominance. Finally, by using high-resolution functional imaging we identified those brain regions preferentially activated by drumming sounds or by vocalizations and found that the representations of both these communication sounds overlap in caudal auditory cortex and the amygdala. The similar behavioral responses to drumming and vocal sounds, and their shared neural representation, suggest a common origin of primate vocal and nonvocal communication systems and support the notion of a gestural origin of speech and music.

  5. Dietary Gluten-Induced Gut Dysbiosis Is Accompanied by Selective Upregulation of microRNAs with Intestinal Tight Junction and Bacteria-Binding Motifs in Rhesus Macaque Model of Celiac Disease

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The composition of the gut microbiome reflects the overall health status of the host. In this study, stool samples representing the gut microbiomes from 6 gluten-sensitive (GS) captive juvenile rhesus macaques were compared with those from 6 healthy, age- and diet-matched peers. A total of 48 samples representing both groups were studied using V4 16S rRNA gene DNA analysis. Samples from GS macaques were further characterized based on type of diet administered: conventional monkey chow, i.e., ...

  6. Effect of prolonged ketamine exposure on cardiovascular physiology in pregnant and infant rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotchkiss, Charlotte E; Wang, Cheng; Slikker, William

    2007-11-01

    Physiologic measurements in nonhuman primates usually are collected from animals that are chemically or physically restrained. Both types of restraint may affect the parameters measured, and those effects can vary with age. Heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, expired CO2, blood pressure, temperature, blood glucose, hematocrit, and venous blood gasses were measured in rhesus monkeys that were either infused intravenously with ketamine for 24 h or were cage-housed and physically restrained for sample collection. The subjects were pregnant monkeys at gestational day 120 to 123, infants 5 to 6 d old, and infants 35 to 37 d old. Heart rate and blood pressure were lower in ketamine-treated monkeys than physically restrained monkeys. Heart rate was higher in infants than adults, whereas blood pressure was lower in infants. Respiratory rate was higher in infants than adults and higher in physically restrained infants than ketamine-sedated infants but was not affected by ketamine in pregnant adults. Hematocrit was decreased in older infants. In summary, both physical restraint and ketamine sedation altered several physiologic parameters in pregnant and infant rhesus macaques. Investigators should consider these effects when designing experiments and evaluating experimental outcomes in monkeys.

  7. The elusive illusion: Do children (Homo sapiens) and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) see the Solitaire illusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Audrey E; Agrillo, Christian; Perdue, Bonnie M; Beran, Michael J

    2016-02-01

    One approach to gaining a better understanding of how we perceive the world is to assess the errors that human and nonhuman animals make in perceptual processing. Developmental and comparative perspectives can contribute to identifying the mechanisms that underlie systematic perceptual errors often referred to as perceptual illusions. In the visual domain, some illusions appear to remain constant across the lifespan, whereas others change with age. From a comparative perspective, many of the illusions observed in humans appear to be shared with nonhuman primates. Numerosity illusions are a subset of visual illusions and occur when the spatial arrangement of stimuli within a set influences the perception of quantity. Previous research has found one such illusion that readily occurs in human adults, the Solitaire illusion. This illusion appears to be less robust in two monkey species, rhesus macaques and capuchin monkeys. We attempted to clarify the ontogeny of this illusion from a developmental and comparative perspective by testing human children and task-naïve capuchin monkeys in a computerized quantity judgment task. The overall performance of the monkeys suggested that they perceived the numerosity illusion, although there were large differences among individuals. Younger children performed similarly to the monkeys, whereas older children more consistently perceived the illusion. These findings suggest that human-unique perceptual experiences with the world might play an important role in the emergence of the Solitaire illusion in human adults, although other factors also may contribute.

  8. Squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) infected with the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy develop tau pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccardo, P; Cervenak, J; Yakovleva, O; Gregori, L; Pomeroy, K; Cook, A; Muhammad, F S; Seuberlich, T; Cervenakova, L; Asher, D M

    2012-07-01

    Squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) were infected experimentally with the agent of classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Two to four years later, six of the monkeys developed alterations in interactive behaviour and cognition and other neurological signs typical of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE). At necropsy examination, the brains from all of the monkeys showed pathological changes similar to those described in variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) of man, except that the squirrel monkey brains contained no PrP-amyloid plaques typical of that disease. Constant neuropathological features included spongiform degeneration, gliosis, deposition of abnormal prion protein (PrP(TSE)) and many deposits of abnormally phosphorylated tau protein (p-Tau) in several areas of the cerebrum and cerebellum. Western blots showed large amounts of proteinase K-resistant prion protein in the central nervous system. The striking absence of PrP plaques (prominent in brains of cynomolgus macaques [Macaca fascicularis] with experimentally-induced BSE and vCJD and in human patients with vCJD) reinforces the conclusion that the host plays a major role in determining the neuropathology of TSEs. Results of this study suggest that p-Tau, found in the brains of all BSE-infected monkeys, might play a role in the pathogenesis of TSEs. Whether p-Tau contributes to development of disease or appears as a secondary change late in the course of illness remains to be determined.

  9. Saccade-related activity in the prefrontal cortex: its role in eye movement control and cognitive functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shintaro eFunahashi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Prefrontal neurons exhibit saccade-related activity and pre-saccadic memory-related activity often encodes the directions of forthcoming eye movements, in line with demonstrated prefrontal contribution to flexible control of voluntary eye movements. However, many prefrontal neurons exhibit post-saccadic activity that is initiated well after the initiation of eye movement. Although post-saccadic activity has been observed in the frontal eye field, this activity is thought to be a corollary discharge from oculomotor centers, because this activity shows no directional tuning and is observed whenever the monkeys perform eye movements regardless of goal-directed or not. However, prefrontal post-saccadic activities exhibit directional tunings similar as pre-saccadic activities and show context dependency, such that post-saccadic activity is observed only when monkeys perform goal-directed saccades. Context-dependency of prefrontal post-saccadic activity suggests that this activity is not a result of corollary signals from oculomotor centers, but contributes to other functions of the prefrontal cortex. One function might be the termination of memory-related activity after a behavioral response is done. This is supported by the observation that the termination of memory-related activity coincides with the initiation of post-saccadic activity in population analyses of prefrontal activities. The termination of memory-related activity at the end of the trial ensures that the subjects can prepare to receive new and updated information. Another function might be the monitoring of behavioral performance, since the termination of memory-related activity by post-saccadic activity could be associated with informing the correctness of the response and the termination of the trial. However, further studies are needed to examine the characteristics of saccade-related activities in the prefrontal cortex and their functions in eye movement control and a variety of

  10. Medicinal management of corneal opacity in free ranging rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta of Shivalik hills in Western Himalayas, Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kumar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Corneal opacification was diagnosed in 17 free ranging rhesus macaques during detailed ophthalmic examination as a part of clinical health examination, at the monkey rescue sterilization centre in Hamirpur Himachal Pradesh, India. The cornea was completely opaque permitting only a little vision with respect to the affected eye. Medical management with topical ciprofloxacin and prednisolone along with ketoprofen and vitamin A was instituted. The corneal lesions subsided completely within one week following treatment. The treatment protocol successfully eliminated the discomfort and intraocular lesions with no serious subsequent irritation due to the treatment in these animals.

  11. Tamoxifen-DNA adduct formation in monkey and human reproductive organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Ramon, Elena E; Sandoval, Nicole A; John, Kaarthik; Cline, J Mark; Wood, Charles E; Woodward, Ruth A; Poirier, Miriam C

    2014-05-01

    The estrogen analog tamoxifen (TAM), used for adjuvant therapy of breast cancer, induces endometrial and uterine tumors in breast cancer patients. Proliferation stimulus of the uterine endometrium is likely involved in tumor induction, but genotoxicity may also play a role. Formation of TAM-DNA adducts in human tissues has been reported but remains controversial. To address this issue, we examined TAM-DNA adducts in uteri from two species of monkeys, Erythrocebus patas (patas) and Macaca fascicularis (macaque), and in human endometrium and myometrium. Monkeys were given 3-4 months of chronic TAM dosing scaled to be equivalent to the daily human dose. In the uteri, livers and brains from the patas (n = 3), and endometrium from the macaques (n = 4), TAM-DNA adducts were measurable by TAM-DNA chemiluminescence immunoassay. Average TAM-DNA adduct values for the patas uteri (23 adducts/10(8) nucleotides) were similar to those found in endometrium of the macaques (19 adducts/10(8) nucleotides). Endometrium of macaques exposed to both TAM and low-dose estradiol (n = 5) averaged 34 adducts/10(8) nucleotides. To examine TAM-DNA persistence in the patas, females (n = 3) were exposed to TAM for 3 months and to no drug for an additional month, resulting in low or non-detectable TAM-DNA in livers and uteri. Human endometrial and myometrial samples from women receiving (n = 8) and not receiving (n = 8) TAM therapy were also evaluated. Women receiving TAM therapy averaged 10.3 TAM-DNA adducts/10(8) nucleotides, whereas unexposed women showed no detectable TAM-DNA. The data indicate that genotoxicity, in addition to estrogen agonist effects, may contribute to TAM-induced human endometrial cancer.

  12. Cerebromalacia with epilepsy and cortical blindness in a laboratory Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Nakao, Kazuko; Habiro, Mayu; Hayashi, Kazuko; Kuwata, Maki; Uehara, Norihisa; Yuri, Takashi; Nakamura, Kae; Tsubura, Airo

    2010-12-01

    The authors performed a pathological examination of a 5-year-old female laboratory Japanese monkey who developed cortical blindness and epileptic seizures. Generalized, tonic-clonic seizures started to occur during behavioral training to get the animal to enter a carrying cage for future psychological experiments. Blindness was suspected because of a lack of approaching behavior toward foods such as fruits. Although the monkey was extensively treated with anticonvulsants, the clinical signs did not improve. An increased serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK) level and bilateral occipital brain atrophy were detected. Histopathologically, a severe degree of cerebromalacia was detected bilaterally in the occipital lobe, and necrosis and gliosis were seen mainly in the temporal lobe. Focal inflammation was found in the meninges. No other changes were observed in other nervous tissues or organs, and no signs of a parasitic or viral infection were found in the systemic organs. Spontaneously occurring lesions in the central nervous system have been rarely reported in laboratory monkeys. In the present case, the cause of cerebromalacia could not be confirmed, but the relationship between symptoms such as abnormal vision and the presence of brain lesions was distinct. The authors believe that this case is a valuable historical control case for the laboratory Japanese macaque.

  13. Corticospinal neurons in macaque ventral premotor cortex with mirror properties: a potential mechanism for action suppression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraskov, Alexander; Dancause, Numa; Quallo, Marsha M; Shepherd, Samantha; Lemon, Roger N

    2009-12-24

    The discovery of "mirror neurons" in area F5 of the ventral premotor cortex has prompted many theories as to their possible function. However, the identity of mirror neurons remains unknown. Here, we investigated whether identified pyramidal tract neurons (PTNs) in area F5 of two adult macaques exhibited "mirror-like" activity. About half of the 64 PTNs tested showed significant modulation of their activity while monkeys observed precision grip of an object carried out by an experimenter, with somewhat fewer showing modulation during precision grip without an object or grasping concealed from the monkey. Therefore, mirror-like activity can be transmitted directly to the spinal cord via PTNs. A novel finding is that many PTNs (17/64) showed complete suppression of discharge during action observation, while firing actively when the monkey grasped food rewards. We speculate that this suppression of PTN discharge might be involved in the inhibition of self-movement during action observation. 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Surrogate mobility and orientation affect the early neurobehavioral development of infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmer, Amanda M; Ruggiero, Angela M; Novak, Melinda A; Meyer, Jerrold S; Suomi, Stephen J

    2008-05-01

    A biological mother's movement appears necessary for optimal development in infant monkeys. However, nursery-reared monkeys are typically provided with inanimate surrogate mothers that move very little. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a novel, highly mobile surrogate mother on motor development, exploration, and reactions to novelty. Six infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were reared on mobile hanging surrogates (MS) and compared to six infants reared on standard stationary rocking surrogates (RS) and to 9-15 infants reared with their biological mothers (MR) for early developmental outcome. We predicted that MS infants would develop more similarly to MR infants than RS infants. In neonatal assessments conducted at Day 30, both MS and MR infants showed more highly developed motor activity than RS infants on measures of grasping (p = .009), coordination (p = .038), spontaneous crawl (p = .009), and balance (p = .003). At 2-3 months of age, both MS and MR infants displayed higher levels of exploration in the home cage than RS infants (p = .016). In a novel situation in which only MS and RS infants were tested, MS infants spent less time near their surrogates in the first five minutes of the test session than RS infants (p = .05), indicating a higher level of comfort. Collectively, these results suggest that when nursery-rearing of infant monkeys is necessary, a mobile hanging surrogate may encourage more normative development of gross motor skills and exploratory behavior and may serve as a useful alternative to stationary or rocking surrogates.

  15. GABAA-mediated inhibition of basolateral amygdala blocks reward devaluation in macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Laurie L; Gale, Karen; Malkova, Ludise

    2005-05-04

    Amygdala ablation disrupts reinforcer "devaluation" in monkeys (Malkova et al., 1997). Here, we tested the hypothesis that transient inactivation of amygdala by the GABA(A) agonist muscimol (MUS), specifically during the period of reward satiation, would have a similar effect. Six pigtail macaques were trained on a visual object discrimination task in which 60 objects were associated with one of two specific food rewards. Subsequently, we evaluated the selective satiation-induced change (devaluation) in object preference in probe sessions. We also examined the effect of the amygdala inactivation during the probe sessions to determine whether the inactivation limited to the testing period (and not during the satiation period) is sufficient to impair the expression of reinforcer devaluation. MUS infusions were aimed at basolateral amygdala (BLA) in a pseudorandomized design; each monkey received MUS or saline either before or after selective satiation with each of the two food rewards (six infusions total). Under the control (saline) condition, the monkeys significantly shifted their preference from objects representing the sated food rewards to those representing the nonsated rewards (30% change). When BLA was inactivated during selective satiation (i.e., MUS infused before satiation), this devaluation effect was blocked. In contrast, MUS infusion after satiation, so that it was present just during the testing period, did not impair the shift in object preference (27% change). Thus, BLA is necessary for the appropriate registration of the change in the reinforcer value but not for the subsequent expression of the devaluation involving its transfer to secondary reinforcers.

  16. Tonal frequency affects amplitude but not topography of rhesus monkey cranial EEG components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichert, Tobias

    2016-06-01

    The rhesus monkey is an important model of human auditory function in general and auditory deficits in neuro-psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia in particular. Several rhesus monkey studies have described homologs of clinically relevant auditory evoked potentials such as pitch-based mismatch negativity, a fronto-central negativity that can be observed when a series of regularly repeating sounds is disrupted by a sound of different tonal frequency. As a result it is well known how differences of tonal frequency are represented in rhesus monkey EEG. However, to date there is no study that systematically quantified how absolute tonal frequency itself is represented. In particular, it is not known if frequency affects rhesus monkey EEG component amplitude and topography in the same way as previously shown for humans. A better understanding of the effect of frequency may strengthen inter-species homology and will provide a more solid foundation on which to build the interpretation of frequency MMN in the rhesus monkey. Using arrays of up to 32 cranial EEG electrodes in 4 rhesus macaques we identified 8 distinct auditory evoked components including the N85, a fronto-central negativity that is the presumed homolog of the human N1. In line with human data, the amplitudes of most components including the N85 peaked around 1000 Hz and were strongly attenuated above ∼1750 Hz. Component topography, however, remained largely unaffected by frequency. This latter finding may be consistent with the known absence of certain anatomical structures in the rhesus monkey that are believed to cause the changes in topography in the human by inducing a rotation of generator orientation as a function of tonal frequency. Overall, the findings are consistent with the assumption of a homolog representation of tonal frequency in human and rhesus monkey EEG.

  17. TRIMe7-CypA, an alternative splicing isoform of TRIMCyp in rhesus macaque, negatively modulates TRIM5α activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Lei [Harbin Veterinary Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin 150001 (China); Tang, Yan-Dong [Harbin Veterinary Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin 150001 (China); Biotechnology Institute of Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515 (China); Liu, Jian-Dong; Yu, Chang-Qing; Sun, Liu-Ke; Lin, Yue-Zhi; Wang, Xue-Feng [Harbin Veterinary Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang, Xiaojun, E-mail: xjw@hvri.ac.cn [Harbin Veterinary Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhou, Jian-Hua, E-mail: jianhua_uc@126.com [Harbin Veterinary Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin 150001 (China); Harbin Pharmaceutical Group Biovaccine Company, Harbin 150069 (China)

    2014-04-04

    Highlights: • TRIMe7-CypA expresses in rhesus and pig-tailed, but not long-tailed macaques. • TRIMe7-CypA does not show the restriction to a HIV-GFP report virus in vitro. • It acts as a negative modulator to TRIM5α likely by competitive inhibition. - Abstract: The existence of innate, host-specific restriction factors is a major obstacle to the development of nonhuman primate models for AIDS studies, and TRIM5α is one of the most important of these restriction factors. In recent years, a TRIM5 chimeric gene that was retrotransposed by a cyclophilin A (CypA) cDNA was identified in certain macaque species. The TRIM5α-CypA fusion protein, TRIMCyp, which was expressed in these monkeys, had lost its restriction ability toward HIV-1. We previously found that TRIMe7-CypA, an alternative splicing isoform of the TRIMCyp transcripts, was expressed in pig-tailed and rhesus macaques but absent in long-tailed macaques. In this study, the anti-HIV-1 activity of TRIMe7-CypA in the rhesus macaque (RhTRIMe7-CypA) was investigated. The over-expression of RhTRIMe7-CypA in CrFK, HeLa and HEK293T cells did not restrict the infection or replication of an HIV-1-GFP reporter virus in these cells. As a positive control, rhesus (rh)TRIM5α strongly inhibited the reporter virus. Intriguingly, the anti-HIV-1 activity of RhTRIM5α was significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner by the co-repression of RhTRIMe7-CypA. Our data indicate that although the RhTRIMe7-CypA isoform does not appear to restrict HIV-1, it may act as a negative modulator of TRIM family proteins, presumably by competitive inhibition.

  18. An aerosol challenge model of tuberculosis in Mauritian cynomolgus macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, S. A.; White, A. D.; Sibley, L.; Gleeson, F.; Hall, G. A.; Basaraba, R. J.; McIntyre, A.; Clark, S. O.; Gooch, K.; Marsh, P. D.; Williams, A.; Dennis, M. J.

    2017-01-01

    Background New interventions for tuberculosis are urgently needed. Non-human primate (NHP) models provide the most relevant pre-clinical models of human disease and play a critical role in vaccine development. Models utilising Asian cynomolgus macaque populations are well established but the restricted genetic diversity of the Mauritian cynomolgus macaques may be of added value. Methods Mauritian cynomolgus macaques were exposed to a range of doses of M. tuberculosis delivered by aerosol, and the outcome was assessed using clinical, imaging and pathology-based measures. Results All macaques developed characteristic clinical signs and disease features of tuberculosis (TB). Disease burden and the ability to control disease were dependent on exposure dose. Mauritian cynomolgus macaques showed less variation in pulmonary disease burden and total gross pathology scores within exposure dose groups than either Indian rhesus macaques or Chinese cynomolgus macaques Conclusions The genetic homogeneity of Mauritian cynomolgus macaques makes them a potentially useful model of human tuberculosis. PMID:28273087

  19. Do monkey F5 mirror neurons show changes in firing rate during repeated observation of natural actions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilner, J M; Kraskov, A; Lemon, R N

    2014-03-01

    Mirror neurons were first discovered in area F5 of macaque monkeys. In humans, noninvasive studies have demonstrated an increased blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal in homologous motor areas during action observation. One approach to demonstrating that this indicates the existence of mirror neurons in humans has been to employ functional (f)MRI adaptation to test whether the same population of neurons is active during both observation and execution conditions. Although a number of human studies have reported fMRI adaptation in these areas, a recent study has shown that macaque mirror neurons do not attenuate their firing rate with two repetitions. Here we investigated whether mirror neurons modulate their firing rate when monkeys observed the same repeated natural action multiple times. We recorded from 67 mirror neurons in area F5 of two macaque monkeys while they observed an experimenter perform a reach-to-grasp action on a small food reward using a precision grip. Although no changes were detectable for the first two repetitions, we show that both the firing rate and the latency at which mirror neurons discharged during observation were subtly modulated by the repetition of the observed action over 7-10 trials. Significant adaption was mostly found in the period immediately before the grasp was performed. We also found that the local field potential activity in F5 (beta-frequency range, 16-23 Hz), which is attenuated during action observation, also showed systematic changes with repeated observation. These LFP changes occurred well in advance of the mirror neuron adaptation. We conclude that macaque mirror neurons can show intra-modal adaptation, but whether this is related to fMRI adaptation of the BOLD signal requires further investigation.

  20. The Elephant and the Monkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱妤

    2009-01-01

    @@ Once an Elephant met a Monkey."Look how big and strong I am!"he said."I can break a tree.Can you break a tree?" "Look how quickly I can run and climb!"said the Monkey."Can you climb a tree?" The elephant was proud because he was so strong,and the Monkey Was proud because she was so quick.

  1. 基因修饰中国猕猴技术的研究进展%Advances in Genetically Modified Chinese Macaques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马云瀚; 杨世华

    2014-01-01

    实验动物是人类疾病研究的终身伴侣.由于在遗传进化、生理生化及病理方面与人类接近,猕猴成为不可或缺的实验动物.基因修饰猕猴(或称基因工程猕猴)是从基因和基因调控角度在机体整体发育水平上认识人类生理和病理分子机制的重要实验材料和高等模型动物.目前,高效的猕猴辅助生殖技术(assisted reproductive technologies,ARTs)和精确的基因编辑技术成为研制基因修饰猕猴的唯一途径.在中国猕猴(或恒河猴)的ARTs方面,已经完成了精液采集与冷冻保存、超数排卯、体外受精和胚胎培养、胚胎移植和妊娠管理,高效完成了“试管猴”.在基因编辑技术方面,最近创建了ZFN (zinc-finger nucleases)、TALEN (transcription activator-like effector nucleases)、CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9)载体,为制作基因修饰猕猴创造了条件.我国已经成功研制了转基因和基因敲除的中国猕猴.随着基因编辑技术的突破和发展,结合我国现有丰富的实验猕猴资源,研究避免猕猴的生殖生理障碍,我国有望成为国际化的、重要的基因修饰猕猴研发和生产基地.%Experimental animals and human disease research are a symbiotic relationship in life science field.Due to the proximity with humans in the aspects of genetic evolution,physiology,biochemistry and pathology,macaque monkeys become indispensable experimental animals in biomedicine research.Genetically modified macaques (also known as genetic engineering macaques) could be important experimental materials and advanced animal models for understanding molecular mechanisms of human physiology and pathology under observation of expression and being regulation of the targeted gene modified in the whole life of animals.Currently,combination of high-efficient assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) in macaques with precise gene editing technologies is the only way of

  2. Closing the loop in primate prefrontal cortex: Inter-laminar processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan eOpris

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Prefrontal cortical activity in the primate brain emerging from minicolumnar microcircuits plays a critical role in cognitive processes dealing with executive control of behavior. However, the specific operations of columnar laminar processing in prefrontal cortex are not completely understood. Here we show via implementation of unique microanatomical recording and stimulating arrays, that minicolumns in prefrontal cortex are involved in the executive control of behavior in rhesus macaque nonhuman primates performing a delayed match-to-sample (DMS task. Prefrontal cortical (PFC neurons demonstrate functional interactions between pairs of putative pyramidal cells within specified cortical layers via anatomically oriented minicolumns. Results reveal target-specific, spatially tuned firing between inter-laminar (layer 2/3 and layer 5 pairs of neurons participating in the gating of information during the decision making phase of the task with differential correlations between activity in layer 2/3 and layer 5 in the integration of spatial vs. object-specific information for correct task performance. Such inter-laminar processing was exploited by the interfacing of an online model which delivered stimulation to layer 5 locations in a pattern associated with successful performance thereby closing the columnar loop externally in a manner that mimicked normal processing in the same task. These unique technologies demonstrate that PFC neurons encode and process information via minicolumns which provides a closed loop form of executive function, hence disruption of such inter-laminar processing could form the bases for cognitive dysfunction in primate brain.

  3. Unique pattern of enzootic primate viruses in Gibraltar macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Gregory A; Pizarro, Mark; Shaw, Eric; Cortes, John; Fuentes, Agustin; Barry, Peter; Lerche, Nicholas; Grant, Richard; Cohn, Douglas; Jones-Engel, Lisa

    2008-07-01

    Because Gibraltar's macaques (Macaca sylvanus) have frequent contact with humans, we assayed 79 macaques for antibodies to enzootic primate viruses. All macaques were seronegative for herpesvirus B, simian T-cell lymphotropic virus, simian retrovirus, simian immunodeficiency virus, and rhesus cytomegalovirus. Seroprevalence of simian foamy virus reached 88% among adult animals.

  4. Nectin-4 Interactions Govern Measles Virus Virulence in a New Model of Pathogenesis, the Squirrel Monkey (Saimiri sciureus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpeut, Sébastien; Sawatsky, Bevan; Wong, Xiao-Xiang; Frenzke, Marie; Cattaneo, Roberto; von Messling, Veronika

    2017-06-01

    In addition to humans, only certain nonhuman primates are naturally susceptible to measles virus (MeV) infection. Disease severity is species dependent, ranging from mild to moderate for macaques to severe and even lethal for certain New World monkey species. To investigate if squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus), which are reported to develop a course of disease similar to humans, may be better suited than macaques for the identification of virulence determinants or the evaluation of therapeutics, we infected them with a green fluorescent protein-expressing MeV. Compared to cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) infected with the same virus, the squirrel monkeys developed more-severe immunosuppression, higher viral load, and a broader range of clinical signs typical for measles. In contrast, infection with an MeV unable to interact with the epithelial receptor nectin-4, while causing immunosuppression, resulted in only a mild and transient rash and a short-lived elevation of the body temperature. Similar titers of the wild-type and nectin-4-blind MeV were detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and lymph node homogenates, but only the wild-type virus was found in tracheal lavage fluids and urine. Thus, our study demonstrates the importance of MeV interactions with nectin-4 for clinical disease in the new and better-performing S. sciureus model of measles pathogenesis.IMPORTANCE The characterization of mechanisms underlying measles virus clinical disease has been hampered by the lack of an animal model that reproduces the course of disease seen in human patients. Here, we report that infection of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) fulfills these requirements. Comparative infection with wild-type and epithelial cell receptor-blind viruses demonstrated the importance of epithelial cell infection for clinical disease, highlighting the spread to epithelia as an attractive target for therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  5. [Features of the structure of the regional lymph nodes of the duodenum in monkeys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusina, A K

    1980-05-01

    By means of morphometric methods, duodenal regional lymph nodes were studied in rhesus and lapunder macaques. It was demonstrated that in monkeys the connective tissue framework, cortical plateau, medullary substance, cortical substance, sinuses and follicles are expressed differently. Cellular elements in the lymph nodes analysed in the monkeys subjected to a comparative investigation demonstrated their uneven distribution in the same structural components. Small lymphocytes were predominate cellular elements. There were rather essential differences in the number of plasmic cells, mitotically dividing cells, acidophilic granulocytes, mast cells and macrophages. Certain species differences were demonstrated to exist both in structure and cell composition of the lymph nodes that seemed to depend on some local peculiarities of immunogenic reactions.

  6. In Vitro Interleukin-1 and 2 Production and Interleukin 2 Receptor Expression in the Rhesus Monkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Didier A.; Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Husson, David; Tkaczuk, Jean; Andre, Eric; Schaffar, Laurance

    1996-01-01

    Anti-human monoclonal antibodies were used to detect and quantify interleukins-1 and 2 and interleukin-2 receptor expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a rhesus monkey. Interleukin-1 production could be induced by phorbol esters (PMA) and was potentiated by phytohemagglutinin (PHA). Interleukin-2 secretion could also be induced by the combination of PHA and PMA, but only weakly with PHA alone. Interleukin-2 receptor expression was present in a subpopulation of unstimulated lymphocytes and could be enhanced by PHA or PMA. These data show once again that the rhesus monkey immune system is cross-reactive with the human one and that rhesus macaque could be a good model to study interleukin therapy.

  7. Campylobacter pylori isolated from the stomach of the monkey, Macaca nemestrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronsdon, M A; Schoenknecht, F D

    1988-09-01

    Campylobacter pylori was isolated from the gastric mucosa in 6 of 24 pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) examined by gastric biopsy and culture; 3 isolates were recovered during gastroendoscopy, and 3 were recovered at necropsy. The isolates were morphologically and biochemically similar to the human type strain NCTC 11638, differing only in colony diameter, pigmentation, and rate of growth. Identity of the isolates was confirmed by whole-genomic DNA-DNA hybridization with the type strain. Colonization of the monkey stomachs was associated with hypochlorhydria and histologic features resembling type B chronic gastritis in humans. Host animals exhibited no morbid clinical effects of colonization, although endoscopy revealed inflammation, erythema, and friable tissue in some animals. The discovery of C. pylori occurring spontaneously in M. nemestrina extends the known range of the hosts of the organism and offers the possibility of a natural or experimental model of the infection in monkeys.

  8. Cognitive performance of juvenile monkeys after chronic fluoxetine treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari S. Golub

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Potential long term effects on brain development are a concern when drugs are used to treat depression and anxiety in childhood. In this study, male juvenile rhesus monkeys (three-four years of age were dosed with fluoxetine or vehicle (N = 16/group for two years. Histomorphometric examination of cortical dendritic spines conducted after euthanasia at one year postdosing (N = 8/group suggested a trend toward greater dendritic spine synapse density in prefrontal cortex of the fluoxetine-treated monkeys. During dosing, subjects were trained for automated cognitive testing, and evaluated with a test of sustained attention. After dosing was discontinued, sustained attention, recognition memory and cognitive flexibility were evaluated. Sustained attention was affected by fluoxetine, both during and after dosing, as indexed by omission errors. Response accuracy was not affected by fluoxetine in post-dosing recognition memory and cognitive flexibility tests, but formerly fluoxetine-treated monkeys compared to vehicle controls had more missed trial initiations and choices during testing. Drug treatment also interacted with genetic and environmental variables: MAOA genotype (high- and low transcription rate polymorphisms and testing location (upper or lower tier of cages. Altered development of top-down cortical regulation of effortful attention may be relevant to this pattern of cognitive test performance after juvenile fluoxetine treatment.

  9. Reticulospinal neurons in the pontomedullary reticular formation of the monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, S T; Davidson, A G; Buford, J A

    2009-11-10

    Recent neurophysiological studies indicate a role for reticulospinal neurons of the pontomedullary reticular formation (PMRF) in motor preparation and goal-directed reaching in the monkey. Although the macaque monkey is an important model for such investigations, little is known regarding the organization of the PMRF in the monkey. In the present study, we investigated the distribution of reticulospinal neurons in the macaque. Bilateral injections of wheat germ agglutinin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) were made into the cervical spinal cord. A wide band of retrogradely labeled cells was found in the gigantocellular reticular nucleus (Gi) and labeled cells continued rostrally into the caudal pontine reticular nucleus (PnC) and into the oral pontine reticular nucleus (PnO). Additional retrograde tracing studies following unilateral cervical spinal cord injections of cholera toxin subunit B revealed that there were more ipsilateral (60%) than contralateral (40%) projecting cells in Gi, while an approximately 50:50 ratio contralateral to ipsilateral split was found in PnC and more contralateral projections arose from PnO. Reticulospinal neurons in PMRF ranged widely in size from over 50 microm to under 25 microm across the major somatic axis. Labeled giant cells (soma diameters greater than 50 microm) comprised a small percentage of the neurons and were found in Gi, PnC and PnO. The present results define the origins of the reticulospinal system in the monkey and provide an important foundation for future investigations of the anatomy and physiology of this system in primates.

  10. Within-Host Evolution of Simian Arteriviruses in Crab-Eating Macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncla, Louise H; Weiler, Andrea M; Barry, Gabrielle; Weinfurter, Jason T; Dinis, Jorge M; Charlier, Olivia; Lauck, Michael; Bailey, Adam L; Wahl-Jensen, Victoria; Nelson, Chase W; Johnson, Joshua C; Caì, Yíngyún; Goldberg, Tony L; O'Connor, David H; Jahrling, Peter B; Kuhn, Jens H; Friedrich, Thomas C

    2017-02-15

    Simian arteriviruses are a diverse clade of viruses infecting captive and wild nonhuman primates. We recently reported that Kibale red colobus virus 1 (KRCV-1) causes a mild and self-limiting disease in experimentally infected crab-eating macaques, while simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV) causes lethal viral hemorrhagic fever. Here we characterize how these viruses evolved during replication in cell culture and in experimentally infected macaques. During passage in cell culture, 68 substitutions that were localized in open reading frames (ORFs) likely associated with host cell entry and exit became fixed in the KRCV-1 genome. However, we did not detect any strong signatures of selection during replication in macaques. We uncovered patterns of evolution that were distinct from those observed in surveys of wild red colobus monkeys, suggesting that these species may exert different adaptive challenges for KRCV-1. During SHFV infection, we detected signatures of selection on ORF 5a and on a small subset of sites in the genome. Overall, our data suggest that patterns of evolution differ markedly among simian arteriviruses and among host species. Certain RNA viruses can cross species barriers and cause disease in new hosts. Simian arteriviruses are a diverse group of related viruses that infect captive and wild nonhuman primates, with associated disease severity ranging from apparently asymptomatic infections to severe, viral hemorrhagic fevers. We infected nonhuman primate cell cultures and then crab-eating macaques with either simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV) or Kibale red colobus virus 1 (KRCV-1) and assessed within-host viral evolution. We found that KRCV-1 quickly acquired a large number of substitutions in its genome during replication in cell culture but that evolution in macaques was limited. In contrast, we detected selection focused on SHFV ORFs 5a and 5, which encode putative membrane proteins. These patterns suggest that in addition to diverse

  11. Genomic plasticity of the immune-related Mhc class I B region in macaque species

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    Bontrop Ronald E

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In sharp contrast to humans and great apes, the expanded Mhc-B region of rhesus and cynomolgus macaques is characterized by the presence of differential numbers and unique combinations of polymorphic class I B genes per haplotype. The MIB microsatellite is closely linked to the single class I B gene in human and in some great apes studied. The physical map of the Mhc of a heterozygous rhesus monkey provides unique material to analyze MIB and Mamu-B copy number variation and then allows one to decipher the compound evolutionary history of this region in primate species. Results In silico research pinpointed 12 MIB copies (duplicons, most of which are associated with expressed B-genes that cluster in a separate clade in the phylogenetic tree. Generic primers tested on homozygous rhesus and pedigreed cynomolgus macaques allowed the identification of eight to eleven MIB copies per individual. The number of MIB copies present per haplotype varies from a minimum of three to six in cynomolgus macaques and from five to eight copies in rhesus macaques. Phylogenetic analyses highlight a strong transpecific sharing of MIB duplicons. Using the physical map, we observed that, similar to MIB duplicons, highly divergent Mamu-B genes can be present on the same haplotype. Haplotype variation as reflected by the copy number variation of class I B loci is best explained by recombination events, which are found to occur between MIBs and Mamu-B. Conclusion The data suggest the existence of highly divergent MIB and Mamu-B lineages on a given haplotype, as well as variable MIB and B copy numbers and configurations, at least in rhesus macaque. Recombination seems to occur between MIB and Mamu-B loci, and the resulting haplotypic plasticity at the individual level may be a strategy to better cope with pathogens. Therefore, evolutionary inferences based on the multiplicated MIB loci but also other markers close to B-genes appear to be promising for

  12. Social change and access to a palatable diet produces differences in reward neurochemistry and appetite in female monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Diaz, Maylen Perez; Wilson, Mark E

    2016-08-01

    Understanding factors that contribute to the etiology of obesity is critical for minimizing the effects of obesity-related adverse physical health outcomes. Emotional eating or the inability to control intake of calorically dense diets (CDD) under conditions of psychosocial stress exposure is a potential risk factor for the development of obesity in people. Decreases in dopamine 2 receptors (D2R) availability have been documented in substance abuse and obesity in humans, as well as animal models of chronic stressor exposure. Social subordination in macaques is a well-established animal model of a chronic psychogenic stressor that results in stress axis dysregulation, attenuated striatal D2R levels, and stress-induced hyperphagia in complex dietary environment. However, it remains unclear how these phenotypes emerge as the stressor becomes chronic during the formation of new social groups. Thus, the goal of the current study was to assess how the imposition of social subordination over a four-month period would affect food intake, socioemotional behavior, and D2R binding potential (D2R-BP) in female rhesus monkeys maintained on a typical laboratory chow diet (LCD) compared with those having a choice between a LCD and a CDD. Results showed that access to a CDD leads to increased total caloric intake and preference for a CDD over a LCD. For the dietary choice condition, females directing less aggression towards group mates during the four-month period, a characteristic of lower social status, consumed progressively more calories over the four-month period than more aggressive females. This relation between agonistic behavior and appetite was not observed for females in LCD-only condition. Finally, decreased D2R-BP in the orbitofrontal cortex was predictive of increased overall caloric intake in all females regardless of dietary environment, suggesting that reduced availability of D2R within the prefrontal cortex is associated with unrestrained eating. Studies are

  13. Molecular identification and characterization of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in free living non-human primate (Rhesus macaques) from North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S V; Singh, A V; Singh, P K; Kumar, A; Singh, B

    2011-05-01

    In recent years, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) has emerged as major animal pathogen with significant zoonotic concerns, worldwide. MAP infection is endemic in domestic and wild ruminant population in India. However, information on MAP infection in free ranging animal species and non human primates is limited. Present study aimed to estimate the status of MAP infection in free living Rhesus macaques suffering with multiple clinical conditions (coughing and loose stool). A total of 25 stool samples were collected from six colonies of Rhesus macaques from Mathura region (North India) and screened for the presence of MAP, using microscopic examination and IS900 PCR, directly from stool samples. PCR positive DNA samples were further genotyped using IS1311 PCR-restriction enzyme analysis. Of the 25 stool samples, 10 (40.0%) and 2 (8.0%) were positive for MAP using microscopic examination and direct IS900 PCR, respectively. IS900 PCR positive DNA samples were genotyped as 'Indian Bison type', which is a major MAP genotype infecting domestic and wild ruminant species and human beings in India. Prevalence of MAP in Rhesus macaques (Indian monkeys) was moderately high and confirmed interspecies sharing of MAP between domestic livestock and non-human primates. Presence of MAP in non-human primates, support the etiological role of MAP in inflammatory bowel disease patients. Indian monkeys may serve as model for understanding the role of non-human primates in sustenance, transmission and pathogenesis of MAP infection.

  14. Seeing the experimenter influences the response to pointing cues in long-tailed macaques.

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    Vanessa Schmitt

    Full Text Available Methodological variations in experimental conditions can strongly influence animals' performances in cognitive tests. Specifically, the procedure of the so-called object-choice task has been controversially discussed; here, a human experimenter indicates the location of hidden food by pointing or gazing at one of two or more containers. Whereas dogs usually succeed, results for nonhuman primates are ambiguous. In the standard version of the task the majority of subjects do not respond appropriately to human pointing. However, modifying the task setup, such as placing the containers further apart, seems to improve subjects' performances, suggesting that cue salience may be an important variable. Here we investigated whether the visibility of the experimenter inhibits long-tailed macaques' (Macaca fascicularis usage of the pointing cue. In our baseline condition, with the experimenter fully visible, the monkeys chose the correct container in 61% of the trials. The performance increased significantly, however, when the experimenter was hidden behind a curtain and only the arm of the experimenter, a doll's arm, or a stick was visible. Furthermore, the monkeys performed significantly better when the tip of the pointing finger or device was close to the target compared to the more distant condition. Intriguingly, after these experiments the monkeys' performance was also significantly improved in the baseline condition (70%. Apparently, the monkeys were first distracted by the presence of the experimenter, but then learned to use the cue. These findings highlight the importance of the test conditions, and question some of the assumptions about species-specific differences in the object-choice task.

  15. Top-down spatial categorization signal from prefrontal to posterior parietal cortex in the primate

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    Hugo eMerchant

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we characterized the strength and time course of category-selective responses in prefrontal cortex and area 7a of the posterior parietal cortex during a match-to-sample spatial categorization task. A monkey was trained to categorize whether the height of a horizontal sample bar, presented in rectangular frame at one of three vertical locations, was "high" or "low", depending on whether its position was above or below the frame’s midline. After the display of this sample bar, and after a delay, choice bars were sequentially flashed in two locations: at the top and at the bottom of the frame (‘choice’ epoch. If the monkey timed its response to the display of the choice bar that matched the sample bar, he was rewarded. We found that cells in prefrontal cortex discriminated category early after the initial sample bar was shown, and continued to differentiate up from down trials throughout the delay and choice periods. In contrast, parietal cells did not differentiate category until the choice period. Therefore, our results support the notion of a top-down categorical signal that originates in prefrontal cortex and that is only represented in parietal cortex when it is necessary to express the categorical decision through a movement.

  16. Effect of mating activity and dominance rank on male masturbation among free-ranging male rhesus macaques.

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    Dubuc, Constance; Coyne, Sean P; Maestripieri, Dario

    2013-11-01

    The adaptive function of male masturbation is still poorly understood, despite its high prevalence in humans and other animals. In non-human primates, male masturbation is most frequent among anthropoid monkeys and apes living in multimale-multifemale groups with a promiscuous mating system. In these species, male masturbation may be a non-functional by-product of high sexual arousal or be adaptive by providing advantages in terms of sperm competition or by decreasing the risk of sexually transmitted infections. We investigated the possible functional significance of male masturbation using behavioral data collected on 21 free-ranging male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) at the peak of the mating season. We found some evidence that masturbation is linked to low mating opportunities: regardless of rank, males were most likely to be observed masturbating on days in which they were not observed mating, and lower-ranking males mated less and tended to masturbate more frequently than higher-ranking males. These results echo the findings obtained for two other species of macaques, but contrast those obtained in red colobus monkeys (Procolobus badius) and Cape ground squirrels (Xerus inauris). Interestingly, however, male masturbation events ended with ejaculation in only 15% of the observed masturbation time, suggesting that new hypotheses are needed to explain masturbation in this species. More studies are needed to establish whether male masturbation is adaptive and whether it serves similar or different functions in different sexually promiscuous species.

  17. Face Detection and the Development of Own-Species Bias in Infant Macaques.

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    Simpson, Elizabeth A; Jakobsen, Krisztina V; Damon, Fabrice; Suomi, Stephen J; Ferrari, Pier F; Paukner, Annika

    2017-01-01

    In visually complex environments, numerous items compete for attention. Infants may exhibit attentional efficiency-privileged detection, attention capture, and holding-for face-like stimuli. However, it remains unknown when these biases develop and what role, if any, experience plays in this emerging skill. Here, nursery-reared infant macaques' (Macaca mulatta; n = 10) attention to faces in 10-item arrays of nonfaces was measured using eye tracking. With limited face experience, 3-week-old monkeys were more likely to detect faces and looked longer at faces compared to nonfaces, suggesting a robust face detection system. By 3 months, after peer exposure, infants looked faster to conspecific faces but not heterospecific faces, suggesting an own-species bias in face attention capture, consistent with perceptual attunement. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  18. Establishment of an appropriate animal model for lacritin studies: cloning and characterization of lacritin in monkey eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, T; Walkup, R D; Tochigi, A; Shearer, T R; Azuma, M

    2007-11-01

    Lacritin is a mitogen of human salivary gland cells as well as a stimulator of human corneal epithelial cells. It is expected to be an important factor in maintaining the surrounding ocular surface. The monkey would be a relevant animal model in which to study the role of lacritin in ophthalmic physiology and pathology. However, to our knowledge, no cDNA cloning or functional analysis of monkey lacritin has been performed. Thus, the purposes of this study were: (1) to clone the monkey ortholog of lacritin; (2) to characterize lacritin in tears from several species; and (3) to determine the tissues where lacritin is produced and secreted. cDNA for lacritin from rhesus macaque contained 547 bp, with 411 bp in an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein of 137 amino acids. Monkey lacritin showed 89% amino acid homology with human lacritin; one amino acid was deleted in all three monkey strains. The predicted MW of mature lacritin was 12.2 kDa, and the isoelectric point was 4.99. Lacritin showed anomalous migration at approximately 21.0 kDa on SDS-PAGE, as confirmed by immunoblotting and amino acid sequencing. Similar to native lacritin in monkey tears, a 21 kDa band was also detected in human tears. In contrast, no lacritin was observed at a similar position on SDS-PAGE in rat, rabbit and dog tears. In the monkey, lacritin mRNA was expressed highly in the lacrimal gland, moderately in the conjunctiva and the meibomian gland, and weakly in corneal epithelium. In primates, lacritin was produced in the lacrimal gland and secreted into tear fluid. These results suggest that lacritin might be important for the maintenance of the ocular surface in higher animals, such as monkeys and humans.

  19. Retrosplenial Cortical Contributions to Anterograde and Retrograde Memory in the Monkey.

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    Buckley, Mark J; Mitchell, Anna S

    2016-06-01

    Primate retrosplenial cortex (RSC) is important for memory but patient neuropathologies are diffuse so its key contributions to memory remain elusive. This study provides the first causal evidence that RSC in macaque monkeys is crucial for postoperative retention of preoperatively and postoperatively acquired memories. Preoperatively, monkeys learned 300 object-in-place scene discriminations across sessions. After RSC removal, one-trial postoperative retention tests revealed significant retrograde memory loss for these 300 discriminations relative to unoperated control monkeys. Less robust evidence was found for a deficit in anterograde memory (new postoperative learning) after RSC lesions as new learning to criterion measures failed to reveal any significant learning impairment. However, after achieving ≥90% learning criterion for the postoperatively presented novel 100 object-in-place scene discriminations, short-term retention (i.e., measured after 24 h delay) of this well-learnt set was impaired in the RSC monkeys relative to controls. A further experiment assessed rapid "within" session acquisition of novel object-in-place scene discriminations, again confirming that new learning per se was unimpaired by bilateral RSC removal. Primate RSC contributes critically to memory by supporting normal retention of information, even when this information does not involve an autobiographical component.

  20. [Studies on virulence of HIV and development of non-virulent live AIDS vaccine using monkeys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayami, Masanori; Horiuchi, Reii

    2004-06-01

    A great effort for developing AIDS vaccine has been carried out in the world, designed by various new ideas based on basic research information obtained in recent virology and immunology. Withall it, to obtain effective AIDS vaccine is considered skeptical. One of the reasons of its difficulty is a lack of experimental animals susceptible to HIV-1. In our laboratory, we have succeeded in developing chimeric SIV having 3' half of HIV-1 genome including env (SHIV), which is infectious to macaque monkeys. One of SHIVs has been proved nonpathogenic in monkeys from various aspects and it afforded protective immunity to monkeys against pathogenic SHIV challenge infection. Now, we are trying to develop anti-HIV live attenuated vaccines using the nonpathogenic SHIV as a starting material. In the history of virus vaccine, live attenuated vaccines have been proved most effective in measles and polio-myelitis. However, it is not clear whether nonpathogenic HIV exists or not. Futhermore, even if nonpathogenic HIV could be obtained, there is possibility that it will easily mutate to pathogenic one. Therefore, to develop live attenuated AIDS vaccine is considered dangerous. In this article, We will introduce our research on SHIV pathogenicity using monkeys and hypothesize possibility to obtain nonpathogenic HIV which is speculated from the origin and evolution of HIV/SIV. To clarify virulence and nonvirulence of HIV and to obtain nonpathogenic virus are not only applied research but also basic science to dissolve the fundemental question why HIV can induce the disease.

  1. Space representation for eye movements is more contralateral in monkeys than in humans.

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    Kagan, Igor; Iyer, Asha; Lindner, Axel; Andersen, Richard A

    2010-04-27

    Contralateral hemispheric representation of sensory inputs (the right visual hemifield in the left hemisphere and vice versa) is a fundamental feature of primate sensorimotor organization, in particular the visuomotor system. However, many higher-order cognitive functions in humans show an asymmetric hemispheric lateralization--e.g., right brain specialization for spatial processing--necessitating a convergence of information from both hemifields. Electrophysiological studies in monkeys and functional imaging in humans have investigated space and action representations at different stages of visuospatial processing, but the transition from contralateral to unified global spatial encoding and the relationship between these encoding schemes and functional lateralization are not fully understood. Moreover, the integration of data across monkeys and humans and elucidation of interspecies homologies is hindered, because divergent findings may reflect actual species differences or arise from discrepancies in techniques and measured signals (electrophysiology vs. imaging). Here, we directly compared spatial cue and memory representations for action planning in monkeys and humans using event-related functional MRI during a working-memory oculomotor task. In monkeys, cue and memory-delay period activity in the frontal, parietal, and temporal regions was strongly contralateral. In putative human functional homologs, the contralaterality was significantly weaker, and the asymmetry between the hemispheres was stronger. These results suggest an inverse relationship between contralaterality and lateralization and elucidate similarities and differences in human and macaque cortical circuits subserving spatial awareness and oculomotor goal-directed actions.

  2. Reciprocation and interchange of grooming, agonistic support, feeding tolerance, and aggression in semi-free-ranging Barbary macaques.

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    Carne, Charlotte; Wiper, Sue; Semple, Stuart

    2011-11-01

    Evidence from a range of primate species indicates that grooming can be exchanged either for itself or for other rank-related "commodities," such as agonistic support, feeding tolerance, or reduced aggression. Patterns of exchange behavior have been found to vary considerably between species, and understanding the causes of this variation is central to the study of the evolution of primate social systems. It is, therefore, essential that exchange behavior is examined in a wide range of species and settings. This article is the first to explore the reciprocation and interchange of grooming in the Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus). We collected focal data on semi-free-ranging adult female Barbary macaques at Trentham Monkey Forest, England, and analyzed dyadic data using Generalized Linear Mixed Models. We found evidence for the reciprocal exchange of grooming and for the interchange of grooming for agonistic support and tolerance while feeding. There was no evidence that grooming was traded for a reduction in aggression; indeed, we found a positive relationship between aggression given and grooming received. This may reflect the "extortion" of grooming from subordinates by dominant animals. These results will facilitate comparative analyses of exchange behavior by adding to the current database a new species, characterized by a different social style from those macaque species previously investigated.

  3. Atypical L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy (L-BSE) transmission to cynomolgus macaques, a non-human primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Fumiko; Tase, Naomi; Kurosawa, Asuka; Hiyaoka, Akio; Ohyama, Atsushi; Tezuka, Yukio; Wada, Naomi; Sato, Yuko; Tobiume, Minoru; Hagiwara, Ken'ichi; Yamakawa, Yoshio; Terao, Keiji; Sata, Tetsutaro

    2011-01-01

    A low molecular weight type of atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (L-BSE) was transmitted to two cynomolgus macaques by intracerebral inoculation of a brain homogenate of cattle with atypical BSE detected in Japan. They developed neurological signs and symptoms at 19 or 20 months post-inoculation and were euthanized 6 months after the onset of total paralysis. Both the incubation period and duration of the disease were shorter than those for experimental transmission of classical BSE (C-BSE) into macaques. Although the clinical manifestations, such as tremor, myoclonic jerking, and paralysis, were similar to those induced upon C-BSE transmission, no premonitory symptoms, such as hyperekplexia and depression, were evident. Most of the abnormal prion protein (PrP(Sc)) was confined to the tissues of the central nervous system, as determined by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. The PrP(Sc) glycoform that accumulated in the monkey brain showed a similar profile to that of L-BSE and consistent with that in the cattle brain used as the inoculant. PrP(Sc) staining in the cerebral cortex showed a diffuse synaptic pattern by immunohistochemistry, whereas it accumulated as fine and coarse granules and/or small plaques in the cerebellar cortex and brain stem. Severe spongiosis spread widely in the cerebral cortex, whereas florid plaques, a hallmark of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, were observed in macaques inoculated with C-BSE but not in those inoculated with L-BSE.

  4. Cashing out: The decisional flexibility of uncertainty responses in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) and humans (Homo sapiens).

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    Zakrzewski, Alexandria C; Perdue, Bonnie M; Beran, Michael J; Church, Barbara A; Smith, J David

    2014-10-01

    Researchers are exploring whether animals share with humans something like a metacognitive capacity. Though some results point to human-animal continuities in this domain, they face the dominant criticism that animals' performances might be associative. A persistent problem is that animal-metacognition paradigms present static environments of risk and reward that may foster inflexible and conditioned responding. Those environments do not challenge animals to show the flexibility in their decision strategies that could indicate an antecedent capacity to metacognition. Accordingly, we tested macaques and humans on an uncertainty-monitoring paradigm in which risk changed dynamically. Participants classified stimuli of different difficulties while also choosing when to use a cashout response to collect the accumulated rewards that would be forfeit on a discrimination error. Macaques (Macaca mulatta) and humans flexibly adjusted their decision criteria to achieve appropriate protection against the cost of error that could differ depending on trial difficulty and the number of rewards at risk. In particular, monkeys widened their cashout-response region as their accumulated rewards increased, providing more protection against a more costly error. These findings demonstrate a new continuity between humans' and animals' uncertainty systems. They reveal a calibration by macaques of present risk to trial difficulty tolerated. They show that animals' uncertainty-monitoring and risk-management systems have substantial trial-by-trial flexibility.

  5. The development of an instrument to measure global dimensions of maternal care in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

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    McCormack, K; Howell, B R; Guzman, D; Villongco, C; Pears, K; Kim, H; Gunnar, M R; Sanchez, M M

    2015-01-01

    One of the strongest predictors of healthy child development is the quality of maternal care. Although many measures of observation and self-report exist in humans to assess global aspects of maternal care, such qualitative measures are lacking in nonhuman primates. In this study, we developed an instrument to measure global aspects of maternal care in rhesus monkeys, with the goal of complementing the individual behavioral data collected using a well-established rhesus macaque ethogram during the first months postpartum. The 22 items of the instrument were adapted from human maternal sensitivity assessments and a maternal Q-sort instrument already published for macaques. The 22 items formed four dimensions with high levels of internal reliability that represented major constructs of maternal care: (1) Sensitivity/Responsivity, (2) Protectiveness, (3) Permissiveness, and (4) Irritability. These dimensions yielded high construct validity when correlated with mother-infant frequency and duration behavior that was collected from focal observations across the first 3 postnatal months. In addition, comparisons of two groups of mothers (Maltreating vs. Competent mothers) showed significant differences across the dimensions suggesting that this instrument has strong concurrent validity, even after controlling for focal observation variables that have been previously shown to significantly differentiate these groups. Our findings suggest that this Instrument of Macaque Maternal Care has the potential to capture global aspects of the mother-infant relationship that complement individual behaviors collected through focal observations.

  6. Utility functions predict variance and skewness risk preferences in monkeys.

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    Genest, Wilfried; Stauffer, William R; Schultz, Wolfram

    2016-07-26

    Utility is the fundamental variable thought to underlie economic choices. In particular, utility functions are believed to reflect preferences toward risk, a key decision variable in many real-life situations. To assess the validity of utility representations, it is therefore important to examine risk preferences. In turn, this approach requires formal definitions of risk. A standard approach is to focus on the variance of reward distributions (variance-risk). In this study, we also examined a form of risk related to the skewness of reward distributions (skewness-risk). Thus, we tested the extent to which empirically derived utility functions predicted preferences for variance-risk and skewness-risk in macaques. The expected utilities calculated for various symmetrical and skewed gambles served to define formally the direction of stochastic dominance between gambles. In direct choices, the animals' preferences followed both second-order (variance) and third-order (skewness) stochastic dominance. Specifically, for gambles with different variance but identical expected values (EVs), the monkeys preferred high-variance gambles at low EVs and low-variance gambles at high EVs; in gambles with different skewness but identical EVs and variances, the animals preferred positively over symmetrical and negatively skewed gambles in a strongly transitive fashion. Thus, the utility functions predicted the animals' preferences for variance-risk and skewness-risk. Using these well-defined forms of risk, this study shows that monkeys' choices conform to the internal reward valuations suggested by their utility functions. This result implies a representation of utility in monkeys that accounts for both variance-risk and skewness-risk preferences.

  7. Derivation and characterization of monkey embryonic stem cells

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    Wolf Don P

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Embryonic stem (ES cell based therapy carries great potential in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. However, before clinical application is realized, the safety, efficacy and feasibility of this therapeutic approach must be established in animal models. The rhesus macaque is physiologically and phylogenetically similar to the human, and therefore, is a clinically relevant animal model for biomedical research, especially that focused on neurodegenerative conditions. Undifferentiated monkey ES cells can be maintained in a pluripotent state for many passages, as characterized by a collective repertoire of markers representing embryonic cell surface molecules, enzymes and transcriptional factors. They can also be differentiated into lineage-specific phenotypes of all three embryonic germ layers by epigenetic protocols. For cell-based therapy, however, the quality of ES cells and their progeny must be ensured during the process of ES cell propagation and differentiation. While only a limited number of primate ES cell lines have been studied, it is likely that substantial inter-line variability exists. This implies that diverse ES cell lines may differ in developmental stages, lineage commitment, karyotypic normalcy, gene expression, or differentiation potential. These variables, inherited genetically and/or induced epigenetically, carry obvious complications to therapeutic applications. Our laboratory has characterized and isolated rhesus monkey ES cell lines from in vitro produced blastocysts. All tested cell lines carry the potential to form pluripotent embryoid bodies and nestin-positive progenitor cells. These ES cell progeny can be differentiated into phenotypes representing the endodermal, mesodermal and ectodermal lineages. This review article describes the derivation of monkey ES cell lines, characterization of the undifferentiated phenotype, and their differentiation into lineage-specific, particularly neural, phenotypes

  8. Effects of the macrolide drug tylosin on chronic diarrhea in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwood, Rebecca S; Tarara, Ross P; Christe, Kari L; Spinner, Abigail; Lerche, Nicholas W

    2008-02-01

    Diarrhea is the gastrointestinal disease most frequently encountered in captive rhesus macaques. The precise pathogenic mechanisms underlying chronic diarrhea in nonhuman primates are not well understood, but a persistent inflammatory component has been implicated strongly. This study evaluated the inflammatory changes in the colon of macaques with diarrhea and assessed the efficacy of a 10-d course of tylosin in a cohort of 21 animals with chronic diarrhea. Stool quality was evaluated daily, and fecal consistency was scored. Colonoscopies were performed; biopsy samples were characterized histologically and assayed for expression of TNFalpha mRNA. Blood samples collected pre-, mid-, and post-treatment were assayed for C-reactive protein (CRP). The results indicated that 63% of the animals receiving tylosin showed improvement in stool quality, compared with 10% in the sham-treated group. Histologically, 82% of animals in the tylosin-treated group had a reduction in the severity of colonic lesions post-treatment, compared with 40% of animals in the sham group. The amount of TNFalpha mRNA before treatment did not differ from that afterward in either tylosin- or sham-treated animals. CRP levels serially decreased in tylosin-treated monkeys; the average post-treatment CRP value for tylosin-treated animals was 11.96 +/- 3.86 microg/ml compared with 26.48 +/- 4.86 microg/ml for sham-treated controls. In conclusion, tylosin significantly improved the fecal consistency score, significantly decreased colonic inflammation, and significantly decreased serum CRP levels post-treatment in rhesus macaques with chronic diarrhea.

  9. Characterization and phylogenetic epitope mapping of CD38 ADPR cyclase in the cynomolgus macaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titti Fausto

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The CD38 transmembrane glycoprotein is an ADP-ribosyl cyclase that moonlights as a receptor in cells of the immune system. Both functions are independently implicated in numerous areas related to human health. This study originated from an inherent interest in studying CD38 in the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis, a species closely related to humans that also represents a cogent animal model for the biomedical analysis of CD38. Results A cDNA was isolated from cynomolgus macaque peripheral blood leukocytes and is predicted to encode a type II membrane protein of 301 amino acids with 92% identity to human CD38. Both RT-PCR-mediated cDNA cloning and genomic DNA PCR surveying were possible with heterologous human CD38 primers, demonstrating the striking conservation of CD38 in these primates. Transfection of the cDNA coincided with: (i surface expression of cynomolgus macaque CD38 by immunofluorescence; (ii detection of ~42 and 84 kDa proteins by Western blot and (iii the appearance of ecto-enzymatic activity. Monoclonal antibodies were raised against the cynomolgus CD38 ectodomain and were either species-specific or cross-reactive with human CD38, in which case they were directed against a common disulfide-requiring conformational epitope that was mapped to the C-terminal disulfide loop. Conclusion This multi-faceted characterization of CD38 from cynomolgus macaque demonstrates its high genetic and biochemical similarities with human CD38 while the immunological comparison adds new insights into the dominant epitopes of the primate CD38 ectodomain. These results open new prospects for the biomedical and pharmacological investigations of this receptor-enzyme.

  10. Efficacy of antibiotic-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate beads in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) with osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kristi R; Kapatkin, Amy R; Zwingenberger, Allison L; Christe, Kari L

    2012-08-01

    Here we describe the successful surgical implementation of antibiotic-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate beads in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) with marked osteomyelitis. The macaque presented to the veterinary clinic with grossly contaminated bite wounds in the left ankle secondary to conspecific trauma. Radiographic findings were highly suggestive of osteomyelitis. Additional differential diagnoses included bony infarct, fracture, and cellulitis. In light of the location of the lesion and extensive tissue trauma, the animal had a poor prognosis. Systemic, broad-spectrum antibiotics were instituted. After 2 wk of care, lesions did not respond to empirical therapies. On consultation, a veterinary orthopedic surgeon at another facility recommended placement of antibiotic-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate beads at the sites of osteomyelitis. The animal underwent minor surgery in which beads were introduced into the wound. The monkey had a positive response to therapy. The animal regained full function and was returned to outdoor social housing. Veterinarians are encouraged to consider using antibiotic-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate beads when treating osteomyelitis in other nonhuman primates and in other traditional laboratory animal species.

  11. The adult macaque spinal cord central canal zone contains proliferative cells and closely resembles the human.

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    Alfaro-Cervello, Clara; Cebrian-Silla, Arantxa; Soriano-Navarro, Mario; Garcia-Tarraga, Patricia; Matías-Guiu, Jorge; Gomez-Pinedo, Ulises; Molina Aguilar, Pilar; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo; Luquin, Maria-Rosario; Garcia-Verdugo, Jose Manuel

    2014-06-01

    The persistence of proliferative cells, which could correspond to progenitor populations or potential cells of origin for tumors, has been extensively studied in the adult mammalian forebrain, including human and nonhuman primates. Proliferating cells have been found along the entire ventricular system, including around the central canal, of rodents, but little is known about the primate spinal cord. Here we describe the central canal cellular composition of the Old World primate Macaca fascicularis via scanning and transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry and identify central canal proliferating cells with Ki67 and newly generated cells with bromodeoxyuridine incorporation 3 months after the injection. The central canal is composed of uniciliated, biciliated, and multiciliated ependymal cells, astrocytes, and neurons. Multiciliated ependymal cells show morphological characteristics similar to multiciliated ependymal cells from the lateral ventricles, and uniciliated and biciliated ependymal cells display cilia with large, star-shaped basal bodies, similar to the Ecc cells described for the rodent central canal. Here we show that ependymal cells with one or two cilia, but not multiciliated ependymal cells, proliferate and give rise to new ependymal cells that presumably remain in the macaque central canal. We found that the infant and adult human spinal cord contains ependymal cell types that resemble those present in the macaque. Interestingly, a wide hypocellular layer formed by bundles of intermediate filaments surrounded the central canal both in the monkey and in the human, being more prominent in the stenosed adult human central canal.

  12. Lipsmacking imitation skill in newborn macaques is predictive of social partner discrimination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Simpson

    Full Text Available Newborn rhesus macaques imitate facial gestures even after a delay, revealing the flexible nature of their early communicative exchanges. In the present study we examined whether newborn macaques are also sensitive to the identities of the social partners with whom they are interacting. We measured infant monkeys' (n = 90 lipsmacking and tongue protrusion gestures in a face-to-face interaction task with a human experimenter in the first week of life. After a one-minute delay, the same person who previously presented gestures or a different person returned and presented a still face to infants. We had two primary predictions: (1 infants would demonstrate higher rates of overall gesturing, and especially lipsmacking--an affiliative gesture--to a familiar person, compared to a novel person, and (2 infants' imitative skills would positively correlate with gestures to familiar, but not unfamiliar, social partners, as both abilities may reflect a strong general social interest. We found that overall infants did not produce more gestures or more lipsmacking when approached by a familiar person compared to a novel person; however, we did find individual differences in infants' social responsiveness: lipsmacking imitation was positively correlated with lipsmacking during the return period when the person was the same (p = .025, but not when the person was novel (p = .44. These findings are consistent with the notion that imitative skill is reflective of infants' more general interest in social interactions.

  13. Comparative anatomy of the arterial system of the foot in primates. 1. Macaque.

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    Matsumoto, S; Ikeda, A

    1990-01-01

    Using stereoscopic angiography, the entire arterial system of the foot of the macaque was analyzed. The arteria saphena, instead of the a. tibialis anterior, reaches the dorsum of the foot, and its branches supply most of the foot. The dorsal arteries are dominant as far as the metatarsal spaces of the lateral four toes. The a. metatarsea dorsalis II showed a tendency to be the single dominant artery and to give rise to even the a. digitalis communis plantaris IV through the catella plantaris distalis. This tendency was observed more clearly in other macaques species than the Japanese monkey. The perforating branch at the second proximal metatarsal space forms the arcus plantaris profundus, which is accompanied by the deep branch of the nervus plantaris lateralis. Beneath the arch, the catella plantaris proximalis is formed on the metatarsal bones among the perforating branches of the aa. metatarseae dorsales. The a. tibialis posterior forms the arcus plantaris superficialis, whose thin branches commonly enter the aa. digitales communes plantares.

  14. Positive reinforcement training as enrichment for singly housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, K C; Bloomsmith, M A; Neu, K; Griffis, C; Maloney, M

    2010-08-01

    Positive reinforcement training is one component of behavioural management employed to improve psychological well-being. There has been regulatory promotion to compensate for restricted social housing in part by providing human interaction to singly caged primates, implying an efficacy standard for evaluating human interaction. The effect of positive reinforcement training on the behaviour of 61 singly housed laboratory rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) was evaluated at two large primate facilities. Training involved body part presentation and basic control behaviours. Baseline data were compared to two treatment phases presented in varying order across individuals, six minutes per week of positive reinforcement training and six minutes per week of unstructured human interaction. While a MANOVA involving behavioural categories and study conditions across study subjects was significant, univariate ANOVAs found no effect of phase within any behavioural category. Categorising subjects according to rearing, housing facility, or baseline levels of abnormal behaviour did not reveal changes in behaviour with positive reinforcement training or human interaction. This study failed to detect, to any degree, the types of behavioural changes documented in the scientific literature to result from pairing singly housed monkeys. Implementing short durations of positive reinforcement training across large numbers of singly housed animals may not be the most effective manner for incorporating positive reinforcement training in the behavioural management of laboratory macaques. Rather, directing efforts toward individuals with specific behavioural, management, clinical, research or therapeutic needs may represent a more fruitful approach to improving psychological well-being with this technique.

  15. Lower respiratory tract infection in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) infected with group A Streptococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Randall J; Ashraf, Madiha; Gonulal, Vedia E; Ayeras, Ara A; Cantu, Concepcion; Shea, Patrick R; Carroll, Ronan K; Humbird, Tammy; Greaver, Jamieson L; Swain, Jody L; Chang, Ellen; Ragasa, Willie; Jenkins, Leslie; Lally, Kevin P; Blasdel, Terry; Cagle, Philip; Musser, James M

    2010-12-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS), a human-specific pathogen, is best known for causing pharyngitis ("strep-throat") and necrotizing fasciitis ("flesh-eating disease"). However, the organism is also an uncommon but important cause of community-acquired bronchopneumonia, an infection with an exceptionally high mortality rate. Inasmuch as little is known about the molecular pathogenesis of GAS lower respiratory tract infection, we sought to develop a relevant human infection model. Nine cynomolgus macaques were infected by intra-bronchial instillation of either sterile saline or GAS (10(5) or 10(7) CFU). Animals were continuously monitored and sacrificed at five days post-inoculation. Serial bronchial alveolar lavage specimens and tissues collected at necropsy were used for histologic and immunohistochemical examination, quantitative microbial culture, lung and blood biomarker analysis, and in vivo GAS gene expression studies. The lower respiratory tract disease observed in cynomolgus macaques mimicked the clinical and pathological features of severe GAS bronchopneumonia in humans. This new monkey model will be useful for testing hypotheses bearing on the molecular pathogenesis of GAS in the lower respiratory tract.

  16. The role of Branhamella catarrhalis in the "bloody-nose syndrome" of cynomolgus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VandeWoude, S J; Luzarraga, M B

    1991-10-01

    During a 15-month period, 25 cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) at the Johns Hopkins University were observed to have nasal discharge. Fifteen (60%) of these animals had positive nasal cultures for Branhamella catarrhalis. Clinical signs associated with infection by this bacterium were sneezing, epistaxis, and mucohemorrhagic nasal discharge. Treatment with antibiotics resulted in prompt resolution of clinical signs. Post-therapeutic nasal cultures were negative for B. catarrhalis. Two groups of clinically normal, culture-negative, cynomolgus macaques were inoculated with natural isolates of B. catarrhalis which had been passaged in culture for various amounts of time. Five of the eight animals inoculated became culture-positive and had mild nasal discharge. Presence of blood on nasal swabs was indicative of infection with B. catarrhalis. Three of the inoculated animals had post-swabbing epistaxis. This report documents the role of B. catarrhalis as an upper respiratory pathogen in the cynomolgus monkey which causes mild self-limiting disease reminiscent of the so-called "Bloody-Nose Syndrome." In addition to the obvious clinical significance of this finding to primate clinicians, development of an animal model for human disease caused by this organism may be possible.

  17. Dietary Gluten-Induced Gut Dysbiosis Is Accompanied by Selective Upregulation of microRNAs with Intestinal Tight Junction and Bacteria-Binding Motifs in Rhesus Macaque Model of Celiac Disease.

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    Mohan, Mahesh; Chow, Cheryl-Emiliane T; Ryan, Caitlin N; Chan, Luisa S; Dufour, Jason; Aye, Pyone P; Blanchard, James; Moehs, Charles P; Sestak, Karol

    2016-10-28

    The composition of the gut microbiome reflects the overall health status of the host. In this study, stool samples representing the gut microbiomes from 6 gluten-sensitive (GS) captive juvenile rhesus macaques were compared with those from 6 healthy, age- and diet-matched peers. A total of 48 samples representing both groups were studied using V4 16S rRNA gene DNA analysis. Samples from GS macaques were further characterized based on type of diet administered: conventional monkey chow, i.e., wheat gluten-containing diet (GD), gluten-free diet (GFD), barley gluten-derived diet (BOMI) and reduced gluten barley-derived diet (RGB). It was hypothesized that the GD diet would lower the gut microbial diversity in GS macaques. This is the first report illustrating the reduction of gut microbial alpha-diversity (p gluten in GS macaques. Selected bacterial families (e.g., Streptococcaceae and Lactobacillaceae) were enriched in GS macaques while Coriobacteriaceae was enriched in healthy animals. Within several weeks after the replacement of the GD by the GFD diet, the composition (beta-diversity) of gut microbiome in GS macaques started to change (p = 0.011) towards that of a normal macaque. Significance for alpha-diversity however, was not reached by the day 70 when the feeding experiment ended. Several inflammation-associated microRNAs (miR-203, -204, -23a, -23b and -29b) were upregulated (p < 0.05) in jejunum of 4 biopsied GS macaques fed GD with predicted binding sites on 16S ribosomal RNA of Lactobacillus reuteri (accession number: NR_025911), Prevotella stercorea (NR_041364) and Streptococcus luteciae (AJ297218) that were overrepresented in feces. Additionally, claudin-1, a validated tight junction protein target of miR-29b was significantly downregulated in jejunal epithelium of GS macaques. Taken together, we predict that with the introduction of effective treatments in future studies the diversity of gut microbiomes in GS macaques will approach those of healthy

  18. Dietary Gluten-Induced Gut Dysbiosis Is Accompanied by Selective Upregulation of microRNAs with Intestinal Tight Junction and Bacteria-Binding Motifs in Rhesus Macaque Model of Celiac Disease

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    Mohan, Mahesh; Chow, Cheryl-Emiliane T.; Ryan, Caitlin N.; Chan, Luisa S.; Dufour, Jason; Aye, Pyone P.; Blanchard, James; Moehs, Charles P.; Sestak, Karol

    2016-01-01

    The composition of the gut microbiome reflects the overall health status of the host. In this study, stool samples representing the gut microbiomes from 6 gluten-sensitive (GS) captive juvenile rhesus macaques were compared with those from 6 healthy, age- and diet-matched peers. A total of 48 samples representing both groups were studied using V4 16S rRNA gene DNA analysis. Samples from GS macaques were further characterized based on type of diet administered: conventional monkey chow, i.e., wheat gluten-containing diet (GD), gluten-free diet (GFD), barley gluten-derived diet (BOMI) and reduced gluten barley-derived diet (RGB). It was hypothesized that the GD diet would lower the gut microbial diversity in GS macaques. This is the first report illustrating the reduction of gut microbial alpha-diversity (p < 0.05) following the consumption of dietary gluten in GS macaques. Selected bacterial families (e.g., Streptococcaceae and Lactobacillaceae) were enriched in GS macaques while Coriobacteriaceae was enriched in healthy animals. Within several weeks after the replacement of the GD by the GFD diet, the composition (beta-diversity) of gut microbiome in GS macaques started to change (p = 0.011) towards that of a normal macaque. Significance for alpha-diversity however, was not reached by the day 70 when the feeding experiment ended. Several inflammation-associated microRNAs (miR-203, -204, -23a, -23b and -29b) were upregulated (p < 0.05) in jejunum of 4 biopsied GS macaques fed GD with predicted binding sites on 16S ribosomal RNA of Lactobacillus reuteri (accession number: NR_025911), Prevotella stercorea (NR_041364) and Streptococcus luteciae (AJ297218) that were overrepresented in feces. Additionally, claudin-1, a validated tight junction protein target of miR-29b was significantly downregulated in jejunal epithelium of GS macaques. Taken together, we predict that with the introduction of effective treatments in future studies the diversity of gut microbiomes in GS

  19. Dietary Gluten-Induced Gut Dysbiosis Is Accompanied by Selective Upregulation of microRNAs with Intestinal Tight Junction and Bacteria-Binding Motifs in Rhesus Macaque Model of Celiac Disease

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    Mahesh Mohan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the gut microbiome reflects the overall health status of the host. In this study, stool samples representing the gut microbiomes from 6 gluten-sensitive (GS captive juvenile rhesus macaques were compared with those from 6 healthy, age- and diet-matched peers. A total of 48 samples representing both groups were studied using V4 16S rRNA gene DNA analysis. Samples from GS macaques were further characterized based on type of diet administered: conventional monkey chow, i.e., wheat gluten-containing diet (GD, gluten-free diet (GFD, barley gluten-derived diet (BOMI and reduced gluten barley-derived diet (RGB. It was hypothesized that the GD diet would lower the gut microbial diversity in GS macaques. This is the first report illustrating the reduction of gut microbial alpha-diversity (p < 0.05 following the consumption of dietary gluten in GS macaques. Selected bacterial families (e.g., Streptococcaceae and Lactobacillaceae were enriched in GS macaques while Coriobacteriaceae was enriched in healthy animals. Within several weeks after the replacement of the GD by the GFD diet, the composition (beta-diversity of gut microbiome in GS macaques started to change (p = 0.011 towards that of a normal macaque. Significance for alpha-diversity however, was not reached by the day 70 when the feeding experiment ended. Several inflammation-associated microRNAs (miR-203, -204, -23a, -23b and -29b were upregulated (p < 0.05 in jejunum of 4 biopsied GS macaques fed GD with predicted binding sites on 16S ribosomal RNA of Lactobacillus reuteri (accession number: NR_025911, Prevotella stercorea (NR_041364 and Streptococcus luteciae (AJ297218 that were overrepresented in feces. Additionally, claudin-1, a validated tight junction protein target of miR-29b was significantly downregulated in jejunal epithelium of GS macaques. Taken together, we predict that with the introduction of effective treatments in future studies the diversity of gut microbiomes

  20. P1-27: Localizing Regions Activated by Surface Gloss in Macaque Visual Cortex by fMRI

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    Gouki Okazawa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Surface properties of objects such as gloss provide important information about the states or materials of objects in our visual experiences. Previous studies have shown that there are cortical regions responding to shapes, colors, faces etc. in the macaque visual cortex. However, we still lack the information about where the surface properties are processed in the macaque visual cortex. In this study, we examined whether there are regions activated by surface gloss, an important surface property, in the macaque visual cortex by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. We trained two monkeys to fixate on a small spot on the screen in MRI scanner, while the images of glossy and matte objects were presented. As a control condition for low-level image features, such as spatial frequency or luminance contrast, we generated scrambled images by locally randomizing the luminance phases of images using wavelet filters. By contrasting the responses to glossy images to those to matte and scrambled images, we found the activation in wide regions along the ventral visual pathway including V1, V2, V3, V4, and the posterior part of the inferior temporal (IT cortex. In one monkey, we also found the activations in the central part of IT cortex. In another control experiment, we manipulated the image contrasts and found that the responses in these regions cannot be explained simply by the image contrasts. These results suggest that surface gloss is processed along the ventral pathway and, in the IT cortex there are distinct regions processing surface gloss.

  1. Multiple antibody targets on herpes B glycoproteins B and D identified by screening sera of infected rhesus macaques with peptide microarrays.

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    Sven-Kevin Hotop

    Full Text Available Herpes B virus (or Herpesvirus simiae or Macacine herpesvirus 1 is endemic in many populations of macaques, both in the wild and in captivity. The virus elicits only mild clinical symptoms (if any in monkeys, but can be transmitted by various routes, most commonly via bites, to humans where it causes viral encephalitis with a high mortality rate. Hence, herpes B constitutes a considerable occupational hazard for animal caretakers, veterinarians and laboratory personnel. Efforts are therefore being made to reduce the risk of zoonotic infection and to improve prognosis after accidental exposure. Among the measures envisaged are serological surveillance of monkey colonies and specific diagnosis of herpes B zoonosis against a background of antibodies recognizing the closely related human herpes simplex virus (HSV. 422 pentadecapeptides covering, in an overlapping fashion, the entire amino acid sequences of herpes B proteins gB and gD were synthesized and immobilized on glass slides. Antibodies present in monkey sera that bind to subsets of the peptide collection were detected by microserological techniques. With 42 different rhesus macaque sera, 114 individual responses to 18 different antibody target regions (ATRs were recorded, 17 of which had not been described earlier. This finding may pave the way for a peptide-based, herpes B specific serological diagnostic test.

  2. Spontaneous obesity-linked type 2 diabetes in the absence of islet amyloid in a cynomolgus monkey infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

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    Strom, A; Yutzy, B; Kruip, C; Völker, I; Schloot, N C; Roden, M; Scott, F W; Löwer, J; Holznagel, E

    2013-09-01

    A 9-year-old cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) infected orally with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) was presented for necropsy following euthanasia 4 years post infection (p.i.). This macaque R984 was exposed to a BSE dose that causes a simian form of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) within 5 years p.i. in other macaques. All orally BSE-infected macaques developed a significant weight gain within the first 2 years p.i. compared with non-BSE-infected age- and sex-matched control animals, suggesting increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). In contrast, macaque R984 developed rapid weight loss, hyperglycemia, and glucosuria and had to be euthanatized 4 years p.i. before clinical signs of vCJD. Pancreas histopathological evaluation revealed severe islet degeneration but, remarkably, no islet amyloid deposits were present. Immunostaining of pancreas sections for insulin and glucagon confirmed the loss of endocrine cells. In addition, prions were present in the adenohypophysis but not in other areas of the brain, indicating centripetal prion spread from the gut during the preclinical phase of BSE infection. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations of macaque R984 became abnormal with age and resembled T2D. This unusual case of spontaneous T2D in the absence of islet amyloid deposits could have been due to early prion spread from the periphery to the endocrine system or could have occurred spontaneously.

  3. Watering holes: The use of arboreal sources of drinking water by Old World monkeys and apes.

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    Sharma, Narayan; Huffman, Michael A; Gupta, Shreejata; Nautiyal, Himani; Mendonça, Renata; Morino, Luca; Sinha, Anindya

    2016-08-01

    Water is one of the most important components of an animal's diet, as it is essential for life. Primates, as do most animals, procure water directly from standing or free-flowing sources such as pools, ponds and rivers, or indirectly by the ingestion of certain plant parts. The latter is frequently described as the main source of water for predominantly arboreal species. However, in addition to these, many species are known to drink water accumulated in tree-holes. This has been commonly observed in several arboreal New World primate species, but rarely reported systematically from Old World primates. Here, we report observations of this behaviour from eight great ape and Old World monkey species, namely chimpanzee, orangutan, siamang, western hoolock gibbon, northern pig-tailed macaque, bonnet macaque, rhesus macaque and the central Himalayan langur. We hypothesise three possible reasons why these primates drink water from tree-holes: (1) coping with seasonal or habitat-specific water shortages, (2) predator/human conflict avoidance, and (3) potential medicinal benefits. We also suggest some alternative hypotheses that should be tested in future studies. This behaviour is likely to be more prevalent than currently thought, and may have significant, previously unknown, influences on primate survival and health, warranting further detailed studies.

  4. The evolution of social cognition: goal familiarity shapes monkeys' action understanding.

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    Rochat, Magali J; Serra, Elisabetta; Fadiga, Luciano; Gallese, Vittorio

    2008-02-12

    What is the evolutionary origin of the human ability to understand and predict the behavior of others? Recent studies suggest that human infants' early capacity for understanding others' goal-directed actions relies on nonmentalistic strategies [1-8]. However, there is no consensus about the nature of the mechanisms underpinning these strategies and their evolutionary history. Comparative studies can shed light on these controversial issues. We carried out three preferential looking-time experiments on macaques, modeled on previous work on human infants [1-5], to test whether macaques are sensitive to the functional efficacy of familiar goal-related hand motor acts performed by an experimenter in a given context and to examine to which extent this sensitivity also is present when observing non-goal-related or unusual goal-related motor acts. We demonstrate that macaque monkeys, similar to human infants, do indeed detect action efficacy by gazing longer at less efficient actions. However, they do so only when the observed behavior is directed to a perceptible and familiar goal. Our results show that the direct detection of the functional fitness of action, in relation to goals that have become familiar through previous experience, is the phylogenetic precursor of intentional understanding.

  5. Gene targeting in adult rhesus macaque fibroblasts

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    Wolf Don P

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene targeting in nonhuman primates has the potential to produce critical animal models for translational studies related to human diseases. Successful gene targeting in fibroblasts followed by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT has been achieved in several species of large mammals but not yet in primates. Our goal was to establish the protocols necessary to achieve gene targeting in primary culture of adult rhesus macaque fibroblasts as a first step in creating nonhuman primate models of genetic disease using nuclear transfer technology. Results A primary culture of adult male fibroblasts was transfected with hTERT to overcome senescence and allow long term in vitro manipulations. Successful gene targeting of the HPRT locus in rhesus macaques was achieved by electroporating S-phase synchronized cells with a construct containing a SV40 enhancer. Conclusion The cell lines reported here could be used for the production of null mutant rhesus macaque models of human genetic disease using SCNT technology. In addition, given the close evolutionary relationship and biological similarity between rhesus macaques and humans, the protocols described here may prove useful in the genetic engineering of human somatic cells.

  6. Timing of moderate level prenatal alcohol exposure influences gene expression of sensory processing behavior in rhesus monkeys

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    Mary L Schneider

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Sensory processing disorder (SPD, characterized by over- or under-responsivity to non-noxious environmental stimuli, is a common but poorly understood disorder. We examined the role of prenatal alcohol exposure, serotonin transporter gene polymorphic region variation (rh5-HTTLPR, and striatal dopamine (DA function on behavioral measures of sensory responsivity to repeated non-noxious sensory stimuli in macaque monkeys. Results indicated that early gestation alcohol exposure induced behavioral under-responsivity to environmental stimuli in monkeys carrying the short (s rh5-HTTLPR allele compared to both early-exposed monkeys homozygous for the long (l allele and monkeys from middle-to-late exposed pregnancies and controls, regardless of genotype. Moreover, prenatal timing of alcohol exposure altered the relationship between sensory scores and DA D2R availability. In early-exposed monkeys, a positive relationship was shown between sensory scores and DA D2R availability, with low or blunted DA function associated with under-responsive sensory function. The opposite pattern was found for the middle-to-late gestation alcohol-exposed group. These findings raise questions about how the timing of prenatal perturbation and genotype contributes to effects on neural processing and possibly alters neural connections.

  7. Spatial decisions and cognitive strategies of monkeys and humans based on abstract spatial stimuli in rotation test.

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    Nekovarova, Tereza; Nedvidek, Jan; Klement, Daniel; Bures, Jan

    2009-09-08

    We showed previously that macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta) could orient in real space using abstract visual stimuli presented on a computer screen. They made correct choices according to both spatial stimuli (designed as an abstract representation of a real space) and nonspatial stimuli (pictures lacking any inner configuration information). However, we suggested that there were differences in processing spatial and nonspatial stimuli. In the present experiment we show that monkeys could also use as a cue abstract spatial stimuli rotated with respect to the real response space. We studied the ability of monkeys to decode abstract spatial information provided in one spatial frame (computer screen) and to perform spatial choices in another spatial frame (touch panel separated from the screen). We analyzed how the monkeys were affected by the type of training, whether they perceived the stimuli as "spatial" or "nonspatial," and which cues they used to decode them. We compared humans to monkeys in a similar test to find out which cognitive strategy they used and whether they perceive spatial stimuli in the same way. We demonstrated that there were two possible strategies to solve the task, simple "fitting" ignoring rotations and "remapping," when the stimulus was represented as an "abstract space" per se.

  8. Social rank and cortisol among female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

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    Dong-Dong QIN; Joshua Dominic Rizak; Xiao-Li FENG; Xun-Xun CHU; Shang-Chuan YANG; Chun-Lu LI; Long-Bao LV; Yuan-Ye MA; Xin-Tian HU

    2013-01-01

    In animal societies,some stressful events can lead to higher levels of physiological stress.Such stressors,like social rank,also predict an increased vulnerability to an array of diseases.However,the physiological relationship between social rank and stress varies between different species,as well as within groups of a single species.For example,dominant individuals are more socially stressed at times,while at other times it is the subordinate ones who experience this stress.Together,these variations make it difficult to assess disease vulnerability as connected to social interactions.In order to leam more about how physiological rank relationships vary between groups of a single species,cortisol measurements from hair samples were used to evaluate the effects of dominance rank on long-term stress levels in despotic and less stringent female rhesus macaque hierarchal groups.In despotic groups,cortisol levels were found not to be correlated with social rank,but a negative correlation was found between social rank and cortisol levels in less stringent hierarchies.Low ranking monkeys in less stringent groups secreted elevated levels of cortisol compared to higher ranking animals.These data suggest that variations in the strictness of the dominance hierarchy are determining factors in rank related stress physiology.The further consideration of nonhuman primate social system diversity and the linear degree of their hierarchies may allow for the development of valid rank-related stress models that will help increase our understanding and guide the development of new therapeutics for diseases related to human socioeconomic status.

  9. Clinical monitoring and correlates of nephropathy in SIV-infected macaques during high-dose antiretroviral therapy

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    Hebblewaite Diane

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many preclinical AIDS research studies, antiretroviral therapy (ART is administered to experimentally simian immunodeficiency (SIV-infected rhesus macaques for reduction of viral load to undetectable levels. Prolonged treatment of macaques with a high dose of PMPA (9-[2-(r-(phosphonomethoxy propyl] adenine or tenofovir; 30 mg/kg of body weight subcutaneously once daily can result in proximal renal tubular dysfunction, a Fanconi-like syndrome characterized by glucosuria, aminoaciduria, hypophosphatemia, and bone pathology. In contrast, chronic administration of a low dose of PMPA (10 mg/kg subcutaneously once daily starting at birth does not seem to be associated with any adverse health effects within 3 years of treatment. In contrast to PMPA, limited information on systemic toxicity in rhesus monkeys is available for FTC (5-fluoro-1-(2R,5S-[2-(hydroxymethyl-1,3-oxathiolan-5-yl]cytosine; emtricitabine and stavudine (d4T. Results In this study, the clinical and biochemical correlates of tubular nephrosis in SIV-infected rhesus macaques associated with systemic administration of high-dose ART consisting of the three nucleoside analog inhibitors PMPA, FTC, and d4T were investigated. It was found that acute renal failure was uncommon (7.1% of treated animals and that morphologic evidence of nephropathy, which persisted for more than 300 days following discontinuation of the drug cocktail, was more frequent (52.4% of treated animals. While parameters from single time points lacked predictive value, biochemical alterations in Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN and phosphorus were frequently identified longitudinally in the blood of ART-treated animals that developed evidence of nephropathy, and these longitudinal changes correlated with disease severity. Conclusions Recommendations are proposed to limit the impact of drug-induced renal disease in future SIV macaque studies.

  10. Association of TLR7 variants with AIDS-like disease and AIDS vaccine efficacy in rhesus macaques.

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    Roman A Siddiqui

    Full Text Available In HIV infection, TLR7-triggered IFN-α production exerts a direct antiviral effect through the inhibition of viral replication, but may also be involved in immune pathogenesis leading to AIDS. TLR7 could also be an important mediator of vaccine efficacy. In this study, we analyzed polymorphisms in the X-linked TLR7 gene in the rhesus macaque model of AIDS. Upon resequencing of the TLR7 gene in 36 rhesus macaques of Indian origin, 12 polymorphic sites were detected. Next, we identified three tightly linked single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP as being associated with survival time. Genotyping of 119 untreated, simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV-infected male rhesus macaques, including an 'MHC adjusted' subset, revealed that the three TLR7 SNPs are also significantly associated with set-point viral load. Surprisingly, this effect was not observed in 72 immunized SIV-infected male monkeys. We hypothesize (i that SNP c.13G>A in the leader peptide is causative for the observed genotype-phenotype association and that (ii the underlying mechanism is related to RNA secondary structure formation. Therefore, we investigated a fourth SNP (c.-17C>T, located 17 bp upstream of the ATG translation initiation codon, that is also potentially capable of influencing RNA structure. In c.13A carriers, neither set-point viral load nor survival time were related to the c.-17C>T genotype. In c.13G carriers, by contrast, the c.-17C allele was significantly associated with prolonged survival. Again, no such association was detected among immunized SIV-infected macaques. Our results highlight the dual role of TLR7 in immunodeficiency virus infection and vaccination and imply that it may be important to control human AIDS vaccine trials, not only for MHC genotype, but also for TLR7 genotype.

  11. Independent coding of absolute duration and distance magnitudes in the prefrontal cortex.

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    Marcos, Encarni; Tsujimoto, Satoshi; Genovesio, Aldo

    2017-01-01

    The estimation of space and time can interfere with each other, and neuroimaging studies have shown overlapping activation in the parietal and prefrontal cortical areas. We used duration and distance discrimination tasks to determine whether space and time share resources in prefrontal cortex (PF) neurons. Monkeys were required to report which of two stimuli, a red circle or blue square, presented sequentially, were longer and farther, respectively, in the duration and distance tasks. In a previous study, we showed that relative duration and distance are coded by different populations of neurons and that the only common representation is related to goal coding. Here, we examined the coding of absolute duration and distance. Our results support a model of independent coding of absolute duration and distance metrics by demonstrating that not only relative magnitude but also absolute magnitude are independently coded in the PF.

  12. Neural connections of the posteromedial cortex in the macaque

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    Parvizi, Josef; Van Hoesen, Gary W.; Buckwalter, Joseph; Damasio, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    The posterior cingulate and the medial parietal cortices constitute an ensemble known as the posteromedial cortex (PMC), which consists of Brodmann areas 23, 29, 30, 31, and 7m. To understand the neural relationship of the PMC with the rest of the brain, we injected its component areas with four different anterograde and retrograde tracers in the cynomolgus monkey and found that all PMC areas are interconnected with each other and with the anterior cingulate, the mid-dorsolateral prefrontal, the lateral parietal cortices, and area TPO, as well as the thalamus, where projections from some of the PMC areas traverse in an uninterrupted bar-like manner, the dorsum of this structure from the posteriormost nuclei to its rostralmost tip. All PMC regions also receive projections from the claustrum and the basal forebrain and project to the caudate, the basis pontis, and the zona incerta. Moreover, the posterior cingulate areas are interconnected with the parahippocampal regions, whereas the medial parietal cortex projects only sparsely to the presubiculum. Although local interconnections and shared remote connections of all PMC components suggest a functional relationship among them, the distinct connections of each area with different neural structures suggests that distinct functional modules may be operating within the PMC. Our study provides a large-scale map of the PMC connections with the rest of the brain, which may serve as a useful tool for future studies of this cortical region and may contribute to elucidating its intriguing pattern of activity seen in recent functional imaging studies. PMID:16432221

  13. Myocarditis in CD8-depleted SIV-infected rhesus macaques after short-term dual therapy with nucleoside and nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors.

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    Lakshmanan Annamalai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has dramatically reduced the morbidity and mortality associated with HIV infection, a number of antiretroviral toxicities have been described, including myocardial toxicity resulting from the use of nucleotide and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs. Current treatment guidelines recommend the use of HAART regimens containing two NRTIs for initial therapy of HIV-1 positive individuals; however, potential cardiotoxicity resulting from treatment with multiple NRTIs has not been addressed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined myocardial tissue from twelve CD8 lymphocyte-depleted adult rhesus macaques, including eight animals infected with simian immunodeficiency virus, four of which received combined antiretroviral therapy (CART consisting of two NRTIs [(9-R-2-Phosphonomethoxypropyl Adenine (PMPA and (+/--beta-2',3'-dideoxy-5-fluoro-3'-thiacytidine (RCV] for 28 days. Multifocal infiltrates of mononuclear inflammatory cells were present in the myocardium of all macaques that received CART, but not untreated SIV-positive animals or SIV-negative controls. Macrophages were the predominant inflammatory cells within lesions, as shown by immunoreactivity for the macrophage markers Iba1 and CD68. Heart specimens from monkeys that received CART had significantly lower virus burdens than untreated animals (p<0.05, but significantly greater quantities of TNF-α mRNA than either SIV-positive untreated animals or uninfected controls (p<0.05. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ, IL-1β and CXCL11 mRNA were upregulated in heart tissue from SIV-positive monkeys, independent of antiretroviral treatment, but CXCL9 mRNA was only upregulated in heart tissue from macaques that received CART. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that short-term treatment with multiple NRTIs may be associated with myocarditis, and demonstrate that the CD8-depleted SIV-positive rhesus monkey is a useful

  14. A general role for medial prefrontal cortex in event prediction

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    William H Alexander

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A recent computational neural model of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, namely the PRO model (Alexander & Brown, 2011, suggests that mPFC learns to predict the outcomes of actions. The model accounted for a wide range of data on the mPFC. Nevertheless, numerous recent findings suggest that mPFC may signal predictions and prediction errors even when the predicted outcomes are not contingent on prior actions. Here we show that the existing PRO model can learn to predict outcomes in a general sense, and not only when the outcomes are contingent on actions. A series of simulations show how this generalized PRO model can account for an even broader range of findings in the mPFC, including human ERP, fMRI, and macaque single-unit data. The results suggest that the mPFC learns to predict salient events in general and provides a theoretical framework that links mPFC function to model-based reinforcement learning, Bayesian learning, and theories of cognitive control.

  15. A neural circuit covarying with social hierarchy in macaques.

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    MaryAnn P Noonan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite widespread interest in social dominance, little is known of its neural correlates in primates. We hypothesized that social status in primates might be related to individual variation in subcortical brain regions implicated in other aspects of social and emotional behavior in other mammals. To examine this possibility we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, which affords the taking of quantitative measurements noninvasively, both of brain structure and of brain function, across many regions simultaneously. We carried out a series of tests of structural and functional MRI (fMRI data in 25 group-living macaques. First, a deformation-based morphometric (DBM approach was used to show that gray matter in the amygdala, brainstem in the vicinity of the raphe nucleus, and reticular formation, hypothalamus, and septum/striatum of the left hemisphere was correlated with social status. Second, similar correlations were found in the same areas in the other hemisphere. Third, similar correlations were found in a second data set acquired several months later from a subset of the same animals. Fourth, the strength of coupling between fMRI-measured activity in the same areas was correlated with social status. The network of subcortical areas, however, had no relationship with the sizes of individuals' social networks, suggesting the areas had a simple and direct relationship with social status. By contrast a second circuit in cortex, comprising the midsuperior temporal sulcus and anterior and dorsal prefrontal cortex, covaried with both individuals' social statuses and the social network sizes they experienced. This cortical circuit may be linked to the social cognitive processes that are taxed by life in more complex social networks and that must also be used if an animal is to achieve a high social status.

  16. Persistence of Borrelia burgdorferi in rhesus macaques following antibiotic treatment of disseminated infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica E Embers

    Full Text Available The persistence of symptoms in Lyme disease patients following antibiotic therapy, and their causes, continue to be a matter of intense controversy. The studies presented here explore antibiotic efficacy using nonhuman primates. Rhesus macaques were infected with B. burgdorferi and a portion received aggressive antibiotic therapy 4-6 months later. Multiple methods were utilized for detection of residual organisms, including the feeding of lab-reared ticks on monkeys (xenodiagnosis, culture, immunofluorescence and PCR. Antibody responses to the B. burgdorferi-specific C6 diagnostic peptide were measured longitudinally and declined in all treated animals. B. burgdorferi antigen, DNA and RNA were detected in the tissues of treated animals. Finally, small numbers of intact spirochetes were recovered by xenodiagnosis from treated monkeys. These results demonstrate that B. burgdorferi can withstand antibiotic treatment, administered post-dissemination, in a primate host. Though B. burgdorferi is not known to possess resistance mechanisms and is susceptible to the standard antibiotics (doxycycline, ceftriaxone in vitro, it appears to become tolerant post-dissemination in the primate host. This finding raises important questions about the pathogenicity of antibiotic-tolerant persisters and whether or not they can contribute to symptoms post-treatment.

  17. A decade of theory of mind research on Cayo Santiago: Insights into rhesus macaque social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drayton, Lindsey A; Santos, Laurie R

    2016-01-01

    Over the past several decades, researchers have become increasingly interested in understanding how primates understand the behavior of others. One open question concerns whether nonhuman primates think about others' behavior in psychological terms, that is, whether they have a theory of mind. Over the last ten years, experiments conducted on the free-ranging rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) living on Cayo Santiago have provided important insights into this question. In this review, we highlight what we think are some of the most exciting results of this body of work. Specifically we describe experiments suggesting that rhesus monkeys may understand some psychological states, such as what others see, hear, and know, but that they fail to demonstrate an understanding of others' beliefs. Thus, while some aspects of theory of mind may be shared between humans and other primates, others capacities are likely to be uniquely human. We also discuss some of the broader debates surrounding comparative theory of mind research, as well as what we think may be productive lines for future research with the rhesus macaques of Cayo Santiago. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Surgical technique for allogeneic uterus transplantation in macaques

    OpenAIRE

    Hideaki Obara; Iori Kisu; Yojiro Kato; Yohei Yamada; Kentaro Matsubara; Katsura Emoto; Masataka Adachi; Yusuke Matoba; Kiyoko Umene; Yuya Nogami; Kouji Banno; Hideaki Tsuchiya; Iori Itagaki; Ikuo Kawamoto; Takahiro Nakagawa

    2016-01-01

    No study has reported an animal model of uterus transplantation (UTx) using cynomolgus macaques. We aimed to establish a surgical technique of allogeneic UTx assuming the recovery of a uterus from a deceased donor in cynomolgus macaques. Four allogeneic UTxs were performed in female cynomolgus macaques. Donor surgeries comprised en bloc recovery of organs with iliac vessels on both sides, and/or abdominal aorta/vena cava after sufficient perfusion from one femoral artery or external iliac art...

  19. A comparative neuroanatomical study of the red nucleus of the cat, macaque and human.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Onodera

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The human red nucleus (Nr is comparatively less well-studied than that of cats or monkeys. Given the functional importance of reticular and midbrain structures in control of movement and locomotion as well as from an evolutionary perspective, we investigated the nature and extent of any differences in Nr projections to the olivary complex in quadrupedal and bipedal species. Using neuroanatomical tract-tracing techniques we developed a "neural sheet" hypothesis allowing us to propose how rubro-olivary relations differ among the three species. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase staining supports findings that the cat's nucleus accessories medialis of Bechtrew (NB projects mainly to the lateral bend of the principal olive. We clarified boundaries among nucleus of Darkschewitsch (ND, NB and parvicellular red nucleus (pNr of the cat's neural sheet. The macaque's ND-medial accessory olivary projection is rostro-caudally organized and the dorsomedial and ventrolateral parts of the macaque's pNr may project to the principal olive's rostral and caudal dorsal lamella; in cat it projects as well to pNr. Myelin- and Nissl-stained sections show that a well-developed dorsomedial part of the human Nr consists of densely packed cells, deriving small myelinated fibers that continue into the medial central tegmental tract. CONCLUSIONS: Based on these findings we suggest there are distinct bipedal-quadrupedal differences for Nr projections to the olivary complex. We propose the Nr of cats and monkeys comprise the ND, NB and pNr in a zonal sheet-like structure, retaining clear nuclear boundaries and an isolated, well-developed mNr. The human NB may be distinguished from its more specialised ND (ND lies alongside a well-developed pNr in the human central gray. Phylogenetically, the NB may have been translocated into a roll-shaped Nr in the reticular formation, the dorsomedial portion of which might correspond to the cat

  20. Old world monkeys compare to apes in the primate cognition test battery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Schmitt

    Full Text Available Understanding the evolution of intelligence rests on comparative analyses of brain sizes as well as the assessment of cognitive skills of different species in relation to potential selective pressures such as environmental conditions and social organization. Because of the strong interest in human cognition, much previous work has focused on the comparison of the cognitive skills of human toddlers to those of our closest living relatives, i.e. apes. Such analyses revealed that apes and children have relatively similar competencies in the physical domain, while human children excel in the socio-cognitive domain; in particular in terms of attention sharing, cooperation, and mental state attribution. To develop a full understanding of the evolutionary dynamics of primate intelligence, however, comparative data for monkeys are needed. We tested 18 Old World monkeys (long-tailed macaques and olive baboons in the so-called Primate Cognition Test Battery (PCTB (Herrmann et al. 2007, Science. Surprisingly, our tests revealed largely comparable results between Old World monkeys and the Great apes. Single comparisons showed that chimpanzees performed only better than the macaques in experiments on spatial understanding and tool use, but in none of the socio-cognitive tasks. These results question the clear-cut relationship between cognitive performance and brain size and--prima facie--support the view of an accelerated evolution of social intelligence in humans. One limitation, however, is that the initial experiments were devised to tap into human specific skills in the first place, thus potentially underestimating both true nonhuman primate competencies as well as species differences.

  1. A MATLAB-based eye tracking control system using non-invasive helmet head restraint in the macaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luna, Paolo; Mohamed Mustafar, Mohamed Faiz Bin; Rainer, Gregor

    2014-09-30

    Tracking eye position is vital for behavioral and neurophysiological investigations in systems and cognitive neuroscience. Infrared camera systems which are now available can be used for eye tracking without the need to surgically implant magnetic search coils. These systems are generally employed using rigid head fixation in monkeys, which maintains the eye in a constant position and facilitates eye tracking. We investigate the use of non-rigid head fixation using a helmet that constrains only general head orientation and allows some freedom of movement. We present a MATLAB software solution to gather and process eye position data, present visual stimuli, interact with various devices, provide experimenter feedback and store data for offline analysis. Our software solution achieves excellent timing performance due to the use of data streaming, instead of the traditionally employed data storage mode for processing analog eye position data. We present behavioral data from two monkeys, demonstrating that adequate performance levels can be achieved on a simple fixation paradigm and show how performance depends on parameters such as fixation window size. Our findings suggest that non-rigid head restraint can be employed for behavioral training and testing on a variety of gaze-dependent visual paradigms, reducing the need for rigid head restraint systems for some applications. While developed for macaque monkey, our system of course can work equally well for applications in human eye tracking where head constraint is undesirable. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Dynamics of visual receptive fields in the macaque frontal eye field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, J Patrick; DiTomasso, Amie R; Sommer, Marc A; Smith, Matthew A

    2015-12-01

    Neuronal receptive fields (RFs) provide the foundation for understanding systems-level sensory processing. In early visual areas, investigators have mapped RFs in detail using stochastic stimuli and sophisticated analytical approaches. Much less is known about RFs in prefrontal cortex. Visual stimuli used for mapping RFs in prefrontal cortex tend to cover a small range of spatial and temporal parameters, making it difficult to understand their role in visual processing. To address these shortcomings, we implemented a generalized linear model to measure the RFs of neurons in the macaque frontal eye field (FEF) in response to sparse, full-field stimuli. Our high-resolution, probabilistic approach tracked the evolution of RFs during passive fixation, and we validated our results against conventional measures. We found that FEF neurons exhibited a surprising level of sensitivity to stimuli presented as briefly as 10 ms or to multiple dots presented simultaneously, suggesting that FEF visual responses are more precise than previously appreciated. FEF RF spatial structures were largely maintained over time and between stimulus conditions. Our results demonstrate that the application of probabilistic RF mapping to FEF and similar association areas is an important tool for clarifying the neuronal mechanisms of cognition.

  3. Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus, Pig-Tailed Macaque (Macaca nemestrina and Tiger (Panthera tigris Populations at Tourism Venues in Thailand and Aspects of Their Welfare.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Schmidt-Burbach

    Full Text Available This study focused on determining the size and welfare aspects of Asian elephant, pig-tailed macaque and tiger populations at facilities open to tourists in Thailand. Data were gathered from 118 venues through direct observations and interviews with staff. A score sheet-based welfare assessment was used to calculate scores between 1 and 10, indicating each venue's welfare situation. Factors such as freedom of movement for the animals, access to veterinary care, environmental noise quality, hygiene standards and work intensity were included in the score sheet. 1688 elephants, 371 macaques and 621 tigers were found at the venues. 89 venues exclusively kept elephants, 9 designated 'Monkey schools' offered macaque shows, 4 venues kept primarily tigers, mostly for petting and photo opportunities, and the remaining venues kept a mix of these animals. A strong imbalance in female to male gender ratios was recorded with about 4:1 for adult elephants and 1:4 for adult macaques. Severely inadequate welfare conditions were common, with 75% of macaques and 99% of tigers being kept at venues with scores less than 5. 86% of elephants were kept in inadequate conditions at venues with scores between 3 and 5, but a significant number of venues with scores above 5 were found. 4.6% of elephants were provided commendable conditions, reaching assessment scores of 8 and above. 71% of venues did not offer any sort of education about animals to visitors. This study is the first to assess welfare aspects of captive wild animals at tourism venues across Thailand. It concludes that significant concerns exist about the welfare of wild animals in the tourism sector of Thailand. Urgent attention needs to be given to address these concerns and prevent further suffering. But also to ensure the demand for wild animals doesn't have a negative impact on wild populations.

  4. Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus), Pig-Tailed Macaque (Macaca nemestrina) and Tiger (Panthera tigris) Populations at Tourism Venues in Thailand and Aspects of Their Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Burbach, Jan; Ronfot, Delphine; Srisangiam, Rossukon

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on determining the size and welfare aspects of Asian elephant, pig-tailed macaque and tiger populations at facilities open to tourists in Thailand. Data were gathered from 118 venues through direct observations and interviews with staff. A score sheet-based welfare assessment was used to calculate scores between 1 and 10, indicating each venue's welfare situation. Factors such as freedom of movement for the animals, access to veterinary care, environmental noise quality, hygiene standards and work intensity were included in the score sheet. 1688 elephants, 371 macaques and 621 tigers were found at the venues. 89 venues exclusively kept elephants, 9 designated 'Monkey schools' offered macaque shows, 4 venues kept primarily tigers, mostly for petting and photo opportunities, and the remaining venues kept a mix of these animals. A strong imbalance in female to male gender ratios was recorded with about 4:1 for adult elephants and 1:4 for adult macaques. Severely inadequate welfare conditions were common, with 75% of macaques and 99% of tigers being kept at venues with scores less than 5. 86% of elephants were kept in inadequate conditions at venues with scores between 3 and 5, but a significant number of venues with scores above 5 were found. 4.6% of elephants were provided commendable conditions, reaching assessment scores of 8 and above. 71% of venues did not offer any sort of education about animals to visitors. This study is the first to assess welfare aspects of captive wild animals at tourism venues across Thailand. It concludes that significant concerns exist about the welfare of wild animals in the tourism sector of Thailand. Urgent attention needs to be given to address these concerns and prevent further suffering. But also to ensure the demand for wild animals doesn't have a negative impact on wild populations.

  5. Ultrasensitive detection of PrP(Sc) in the cerebrospinal fluid and blood of macaques infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy prion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Yuichi; Masujin, Kentaro; Imamura, Morikazu; Ono, Fumiko; Shibata, Hiroaki; Tobiume, Minoru; Yamamura, Tomoaki; Shimozaki, Noriko; Terao, Keiji; Yamakawa, Yoshio; Sata, Tetsutaro

    2014-11-01

    Prion diseases are characterized by the prominent accumulation of the misfolded form of a normal cellular protein (PrP(Sc)) in the central nervous system. The pathological features and biochemical properties of PrP(Sc) in macaque monkeys infected with the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) prion have been found to be similar to those of human subjects with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD). Non-human primate models are thus ideally suited for performing valid diagnostic tests and determining the efficacy of potential therapeutic agents. In the current study, we developed a highly efficient method for in vitro amplification of cynomolgus macaque BSE PrP(Sc). This method involves amplifying PrP(Sc) by protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) using mouse brain homogenate as a PrP(C) substrate in the presence of sulfated dextran compounds. This method is capable of amplifying very small amounts of PrP(Sc) contained in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and white blood cells (WBCs), as well as in the peripheral tissues of macaques that have been intracerebrally inoculated with the BSE prion. After clinical signs of the disease appeared in three macaques, we detected PrP(Sc) in the CSF by serial PMCA, and the CSF levels of PrP(Sc) tended to increase with disease progression. In addition, PrP(Sc) was detectable in WBCs at the clinical phases of the disease in two of the three macaques. Thus, our highly sensitive, novel method may be useful for furthering the understanding of the tissue distribution of PrP(Sc) in non-human primate models of CJD.

  6. Habit Learning by Naive Macaques Is Marked by Response Sharpening of Striatal Neurons Representing the Cost and Outcome of Acquired Action Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrochers, Theresa M; Amemori, Ken-ichi; Graybiel, Ann M

    2015-08-19

    Over a century of scientific work has focused on defining the factors motivating behavioral learning. Observations in animals and humans trained on a wide range of tasks support reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms as accounting for the learning. Still unknown, however, are the signals that drive learning in naive, untrained subjects. Here, we capitalized on a sequential saccade task in which macaque monkeys acquired repetitive scanning sequences without instruction. We found that spike activity in the caudate nucleus after each trial corresponded to an integrated cost-benefit signal that was highly correlated with the degree of naturalistic untutored learning by the monkeys. Across learning, neurons encoding both cost and outcome gradually acquired increasingly sharp phasic trial-end responses that paralleled the development of the habit-like, repetitive saccade sequences. Our findings demonstrate an integrated cost-benefit signal by which RL and its neural correlates could drive naturalistic behaviors in freely behaving primates.

  7. Metaphase yields from staphylococcal enterotoxin A stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes of unirradiated and irradiated aged rhesus monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, F. S.; Cox, A. B.; Salmon, Y. L.; Cantu, A. O.; Lucas, J. N.

    1994-01-01

    The mitogen phytohemagglutinin (PHA) works well in both human and cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) lymphocyte cultures to stimulate T cell proliferation. T cells from rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) are less responsive than human cells, producing few metaphases when thousands are required, e.g. in biological dosimetry studies. We show that staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA), one of the most potent mitogens known, at a concentration of 0.5 microgram/ml stimulated peripheral lymphocytes to grow with a mitotic index (MI) averaging 0.13 metaphases/cell in old, irradiated rhesus macaques. This was significantly greater (p < 0.001) than that produced by PHA (MI < 0.01) in lymphocytes from the same animals. Whole blood was cultured for 96, 120 and 144 h for five irradiated individuals and for two controls. All cells cultured with SEA produced a high MI with a peak response at 120 h whereas the same cultures showed low MI for each PHA stimulated culture.

  8. Gravity orientation tuning in macaque anterior thalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurens, Jean; Kim, Byounghoon; Dickman, J David; Angelaki, Dora E

    2016-12-01

    Gravity may provide a ubiquitous allocentric reference to the brain's spatial orientation circuits. Here we describe neurons in the macaque anterior thalamus tuned to pitch and roll orientation relative to gravity, independently of visual landmarks. We show that individual cells exhibit two-dimensional tuning curves, with peak firing rates at a preferred vertical orientation. These results identify a thalamic pathway for gravity cues to influence perception, action and spatial cognition.

  9. Age-related effects of estrogen on the expression of estrogen receptor (ER) α and β mRNA in the ovariectomized (OVX) monkey hypothalamus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, we reported distribution of ERα and ER β mRNAs in the hypothalamus of young and old ovariectomized (OVX) rhesus macaques. The ERα were detected in all six major vestiblular nuclei which included arcuate nucleus (ARC) , paraventricularis nucleus (PVN) , periventricular nucleus (PeriV) , supraoptic nucleus (SON) ,medial prioptic nucleus (MPN) and lateral hypothalamus area (LHA). However, the ERβ mRNA can also detected in those nuclei excerpt SON, but the signals of ERβ mRNA were weaker than those of ERα mRNA. We observed that the degree of expression of ERs mRNA were different in most nucleus of old and young monkeys. The ERα mRNAs were highly expressed in ARC and SON in young monkeys compared with old monkeys. Moderate amount of ERα mRNAs hybridization signals and weak signals were observed in LHA, and MPN both in young and old monkeys. In contrast, only lower level of ERα hybridization signal were observed in PVN and PeriV in young monkeys, and the signals of ERα were very low in those nucleus of old monkeys. In general, the expression of ERβ mRNA were weaker than that of ERα mRNA in above nucleus excerpt LHA. The relatively higher density of ERβ hybridization signals have been observed in the LHA in young monkey compared with old monkeys. Low amount of ERβ mRNA hybridization signals were observed in the ARC, PVN and MPN, and no age differences were seen in PVN and MPN of those monkeys. In PeriV, we observed some signals in young monkey and a few signals in old monkeys. It was different from the rodent in which we did not found ERβ hybridization signal in SON. This study showed that both of the two estrogen receptors not only had the same pattern of expression but also had many different patterns of expression. The different expression of ERα and ERβ mRNAs in the young and old monkey brain may imply diverse functions in different regions of the monkey brain.

  10. Inhalational Monkeypox Virus Infection in Cynomolgus Macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy eBarnewall

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available An inhalation exposure system was characterized to deliver aerosolized monkeypox virus (MPXV, and a nonhuman primate (NHP inhalation monkeypox model was developed in cynomologus macaques. A head-only aerosol exposure system was characterized, and two sampling methods were evaluated: liquid impingement via an impinger and impaction via a gelatin filter. The aerosol concentrations obtained with the gelatin filter and impinger were virtually identical, indicating that either method is acceptable for sampling aerosols containing MPXV. The mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD was for individual aerosol tests in the aerosol system characterization and the NHP study ranged from 1.08 to 1.15 µm, indicating that the aerosol particles were of a sufficient size to reach the alveoli. Six cynomolgus macaques (four male and two female were used on study. The animals were aerosol exposed with MPXV and received doses between 2.51 x 104 to 9.28 x 105 plaque forming units (pfu inhaled. Four of the six animals died or were euthanized due to their moribund conditions. Both animals that received the lowest exposure doses survived to the end of the observation period. The inhalation LD50 was determined to be approximately 7.8 x 104 pfu inhaled. These data demonstrate that an inhalation MPXV infection model has been developed in the cynomolgus macaque with disease course and lethal dose similar to previously published data.

  11. Spontaneous Metacognition in Rhesus Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Santos, Laurie R

    2016-09-01

    Metacognition is the ability to think about thinking. Although monitoring and controlling one's knowledge is a key feature of human cognition, its evolutionary origins are debated. In the current study, we examined whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta; N = 120) could make metacognitive inferences in a one-shot decision. Each monkey experienced one of four conditions, observing a human appearing to hide a food reward in an apparatus consisting of either one or two tubes. The monkeys tended to search the correct location when they observed this baiting event, but engaged in information seeking-by peering into a center location where they could check both potential hiding spots-if their view had been occluded and information seeking was possible. The monkeys only occasionally approached the center when information seeking was not possible. These results show that monkeys spontaneously use information about their own knowledge states to solve naturalistic foraging problems, and thus provide the first evidence that nonhumans exhibit information-seeking responses in situations with which they have no prior experience.

  12. Bilinearity, rules, and prefrontal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Dayan

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Humans can be instructed verbally to perform computationally complex cognitive tasks; their performance then improves relatively slowly over the course of practice. Many skills underlie these abilities; in this paper, we focus on the particular question of a uniform architecture for the instantiation of habitual performance and the storage, recall, and execution of simple rules. Our account builds on models of gated working memory, and involves a bilinear architecture for representing conditional input-output maps and for matching rules to the state of the input and working memory. We demonstrate the performance of our model on two paradigmatic tasks used to investigate prefrontal and basal ganglia function.

  13. Neuronal discharges and gamma oscillations explicitly reflect visual consciousness in the lateral prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotaropoulos, Theofanis I; Deco, Gustavo; Kapoor, Vishal; Logothetis, Nikos K

    2012-06-07

    Neuronal discharges in the primate temporal lobe, but not in the striate and extrastriate cortex, reliably reflect stimulus awareness. However, it is not clear whether visual consciousness should be uniquely localized in the temporal association cortex. Here we used binocular flash suppression to investigate whether visual awareness is also explicitly reflected in feature-selective neural activity of the macaque lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC), a cortical area reciprocally connected to the temporal lobe. We show that neuronal discharges in the majority of single units and recording sites in the LPFC follow the phenomenal perception of a preferred stimulus. Furthermore, visual awareness is reliably reflected in the power modulation of high-frequency (>50 Hz) local field potentials in sites where spiking activity is found to be perceptually modulated. Our results suggest that the activity of neuronal populations in at least two association cortical areas represents the content of conscious visual perception.

  14. Rhesus monkey heart rate during exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorge, J.; Thach, J. S., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Various schedules of reinforcement and their relation to heart rates of rhesus monkeys during exercise are described. All the reinforcement schedules produced 100 per cent or higher increments in the heart rates of the monkeys during exercise. Resting heart rates were generally much lower than those previously reported, which was attributed to the lack of physical restraint of the monkeys during recording.

  15. Monkeys Match and Tally Quantities across Senses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Kerry E.; MacLean, Evan L.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2008-01-01

    We report here that monkeys can actively match the number of sounds they hear to the number of shapes they see and present the first evidence that monkeys sum over sounds and sights. In Experiment 1, two monkeys were trained to choose a simultaneous array of 1-9 squares that numerically matched a sample sequence of shapes or sounds. Monkeys…

  16. Get the Monkey off Your Back

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciabattini, David; Custer, Timothy J.

    2008-01-01

    Monkeys are the problems that need solutions, the tasks that need to be accomplished, the decisions that need to be made, and the actions that need to be taken. According to a theory, people carry monkeys around on their backs until they can successfully shift their burden to someone else and the monkey leaps from one back to the next. Managers…

  17. Social and asocial prefrontal cortex neurons: a new look at social facilitation and the social brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demolliens, Marie; Isbaine, Faiçal; Takerkart, Sylvain; Huguet, Pascal; Boussaoud, Driss

    2017-08-01

    A fundamental aspect of behavior in many animal species is 'social facilitation', the positive effect of the mere presence of conspecifics on performance. To date, the neuronal counterpart of this ubiquitous phenomenon is unknown. We recorded the activity of single neurons from two prefrontal cortex regions, the dorsolateral part and the anterior cingulate cortex in monkeys as they performed a visuomotor task, either in the presence of a conspecific (Presence condition) or alone. Monkeys performed better in the presence condition than alone (social facilitation), and analyses of outcome-related activity of 342 prefrontal neurons revealed that most of them (86%) were sensitive to the performance context. Two populations of neurons were discovered: 'social neurons', preferentially active under social presence and 'asocial neurons', preferentially active under social isolation. The activity of these neurons correlated positively with performance only in their preferred context (social neurons under social presence; asocial neurons under social isolation), thereby providing a potential neuronal mechanism of social facilitation. More generally, the fact that identical tasks recruited either social or asocial neurons depending on the presence or absence of a conspecific also brings a new look at the social brain hypothesis. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  18. Object-based attention in the primary visual cortex of the macaque monkey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamme, V.A.F.; Roelfsema, P.R.; Spekreijse, H.

    1998-01-01

    Typical natural visual scenes contain many objects, which need to be segregated from each other and from the background. Present theories subdivide the processes responsible for this segregation into a pre-attentive and attentive system. The pre-attentive system segregates image regions that 'pop ou

  19. No Monkeying Around : Clonal Tracking of Stem Cells and Progenitors in the Macaque

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dykstra, Brad; Bystrykh, Leonid V.

    2014-01-01

    Clonal tracking of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) has proven valuable for studying their behavior in murine recipients. Now in Cell Stem Cell, Kim et al. (2014) and Wu et al. (2014) extend these analyses to nonhuman primates, providing insights into dynamics of HSPC expansion and li

  20. Breeding monkeys for biomedical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, G. H.; Golarzdebourne, M. N.; Keeling, M. E.

    1973-01-01

    Captive bred rhesus monkeys show much less pathology than wild born animals. The monkeys may be bred in cages or in an outdoor compound. Cage bred animals are not psychologically normal which makes then unsuited for some types of space related research. Compound breeding provides contact between mother and infant and an opportunity for the infants to play with their peers which are important requirements to help maintain their behavioral integrity. Offspring harvested after a year in the compound appear behaviorally normal and show little histopathology. Compound breeding is also an economical method for the rapid production of young animals. The colony can double its size about every two and a half years.

  1. Effects of tourists on Barbary macaques at Gibraltar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, H; Fa, J E

    1993-01-01

    Interactions between tourists and Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) at Queen's Gate, Gibraltar, are described. Interaction rates are high, with 99.6 interactions/h at peak times. Macaques spend 13.2% of their day interacting with tourists and 41.9% inactive. An overall ratio of 3.2:1 between human-initiated and macaque-initiated interactions was found. Of interactions involving humans, 85% concerned tourists. Diurnal activity patterns of the macaques were adapted to tourist visitation patterns. Old animals initiated more food-related interactions than younger ones. Infants/juveniles were the commonest class in contacts with humans and vehicles. Interactions involving more than one macaque were rare. High interaction rates were recorded for mothers and babies.

  2. Mapping Prefrontal Cortex Functions in Human Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    It has long been thought that the prefrontal cortex, as the seat of most higher brain functions, is functionally silent during most of infancy. This review highlights recent work concerned with the precise mapping (localization) of brain activation in human infants, providing evidence that prefrontal cortex exhibits functional activation much…

  3. White-cheeked macaque (Macaca leucogenys): A new macaque species from Medog, southeastern Tibet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng; Zhao, Chao; Fan, Peng-Fei

    2015-07-01

    We describe a newly discovered Macaca species from the Medog, in southeastern Tibet, China, Macaca leucogenys sp. nov or the "white-cheeked macaque". Based on 738 photos taken during direct observations and captured by camera traps this new species appears to be distinct from the Macaca sinica species group. Moreover, the species is distinguished from all potential sympatric macaque species (M. mulatta, M. thibetana, M. assamensis, and M. munzala) in exhibiting a suite of pelage characteristics including relatively uniform dorsal hair pattern, hairy ventral pelage, relative hairless short tail, prominent pale to white side- and chin-whiskers creating a white cheek and round facial appearance, dark facial skin on the muzzle, long and thick hairs on its neck, and a round rather than arrow-shaped male genitalia. This new macaque species was found to exploit a diverse set of habitat types from tropical forest at 1395 m, to primary and secondary evergreen broad-leaved forest at 2000 m, as well as mixed broadleaf-conifer forest at 2700 m. Its range may extend to neighboring counties in Tibet and the part of southeastern Tibet controlled by India. The white-cheeked macaque is threatened by illegal hunting and the construction of hydropower stations. Discovery of this new primate species further highlights the high value for biodiversity conservation of southeastern Tibet and calls for more intensive surveys, studies, and environmental protection in this area.

  4. Protection of Macaques against pathogenic simian/human immunodeficiency virus 89.6PD by passive transfer of neutralizing antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascola, J R; Lewis, M G; Stiegler, G; Harris, D; VanCott, T C; Hayes, D; Louder, M K; Brown, C R; Sapan, C V; Frankel, S S; Lu, Y; Robb, M L; Katinger, H; Birx, D L

    1999-05-01

    The role of antibody in protection against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) has been difficult to study in animal models because most primary HIV-1 strains do not infect nonhuman primates. Using a chimeric simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) based on the envelope of a primary isolate (HIV-89.6), we performed passive-transfer experiments in rhesus macaques to study the role of anti-envelope antibodies in protection. Based on prior in vitro data showing neutralization synergy by antibody combinations, we evaluated HIV immune globulin (HIVIG), and human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) 2F5 and 2G12 given alone, compared with the double combination 2F5/2G12 and the triple combination HIVIG/2F5/2G12. Antibodies were administered 24 h prior to intravenous challenge with the pathogenic SHIV-89.6PD. Six control monkeys displayed high plasma viremia, rapid CD4(+)-cell decline, and clinical AIDS within 14 weeks. Of six animals given HIVIG/2F5/2G12, three were completely protected; the remaining three animals became SHIV infected but displayed reduced plasma viremia and near normal CD4(+)-cell counts. One of three monkeys given 2F5/2G12 exhibited only transient evidence of infection; the other two had marked reductions in viral load. All monkeys that received HIVIG, 2F5, or 2G12 alone became infected and developed high-level plasma viremia. However, compared to controls, monkeys that received HIVIG or MAb 2G12 displayed a less profound drop in CD4(+) T cells and a more benign clinical course. These data indicate a general correlation between in vitro neutralization and protection and suggest that a vaccine that elicits neutralizing antibody should have a protective effect against HIV-1 infection or disease.

  5. Neuronal categorization and discrimination of social behaviors in primate prefrontal cortex.

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    Joji Tsunada

    Full Text Available It has been implied that primates have an ability to categorize social behaviors between other individuals for the execution of adequate social-interactions. Since the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC is involved in both the categorization and the processing of social information, the primate LPFC may be involved in the categorization of social behaviors. To test this hypothesis, we examined neuronal activity in the LPFC of monkeys during presentations of two types of movies of social behaviors (grooming, mounting and movies of plural monkeys without any eye- or body-contacts between them (no-contacts movies. Although the monkeys were not required to categorize and discriminate the movies in this task, a subset of neurons sampled from the LPFC showed a significantly different activity during the presentation of a specific type of social behaviors in comparison with the others. These neurons categorized social behaviors at the population level and, at the individual neuron level, the majority of the neurons discriminated each movie within the same category of social behaviors. Our findings suggest that a fraction of LPFC neurons process categorical and discriminative information of social behaviors, thereby contributing to the adaptation to social environments.

  6. Pigtail macaque performance on a challenging joystick task has important implications for enrichment and anxiety within a captive environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, H; Andrews, M W; Rosenblum, L A

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend previous findings on joystick task engagement by a group of pigtail macaques. The goals were to determine the influence of task difficulty on daily levels of task activity and to test the hypothesis that previously identified preferences among identical devices at different locations derived largely from the level of anxiety induced at each location. It was found that the number of daily trials decreased when the task was made more difficult, with more time required to complete each trial with the difficult task. Preferences among locations became more pronounced with the more difficult task. Analysis of errors made on devices at different locations supported the view that preferences did derive, at least in part, from levels of induced anxiety. Locations of enrichment devices may influence not only amount of use but also levels of anxiety in captive monkeys.

  7. The utility of rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta and other non-human primate models for preclinical testing of Leishmania candidate vaccines

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    Gabriel Grimaldi Jr

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis causes significant morbidity and mortality, constituting an important global health problem for which there are few effective drugs. Given the urgent need to identify a safe and effective Leishmania vaccine to help prevent the two million new cases of human leishmaniasis worldwide each year, all reasonable efforts to achieve this goal should be made. This includes the use of animal models that are as close to leishmanial infection in humans as is practical and feasible. Old world monkey species (macaques, baboons, mandrills etc. have the closest evolutionary relatedness to humans among the approachable animal models. The Asian rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta are quite susceptible to leishmanial infection, develop a human-like disease, exhibit antibodies to Leishmania and parasite-specific T-cell mediated immune responses both in vivo and in vitro, and can be protected effectively by vaccination. Results from macaque vaccine studies could also prove useful in guiding the design of human vaccine trials. This review summarizes our current knowledge on this topic and proposes potential approaches that may result in the more effective use of the macaque model to maximize its potential to help the development of an effective vaccine for human leishmaniasis.

  8. Parthenogenetic activation of rhesus monkey oocytes and reconstructed embryos.

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    Mitalipov, S M; Nusser, K D; Wolf, D P

    2001-07-01

    This study determines the efficiency of sequential calcium treatments (electroporation or ionomycin) combined with protein synthesis (cycloheximide) or phosphorylation inhibitors (6-dimethylaminopurine) or the specific maturation promoting factor (MPF) inhibitor, roscovitine, in inducing artificial activation and development of rhesus macaque parthenotes or nuclear transfer embryos. Exposure of oocytes arrested at metaphase II (MII) to ionomycin followed by 6-dimethylaminopurine or to electroporation followed by cycloheximide and cytochalasin B induced pronuclear formation and development to the blastocyst stage at a rate similar to control embryos produced by intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Parthenotes did not complete meiosis or extrude a second polar body, consistent with their presumed diploid status. In contrast, oocytes treated sequentially with ionomycin and roscovitine extruded the second polar body and formed a pronucleus at a rate higher than that observed in controls. Following reconstruction by nuclear transfer, activation with ionomycin/6-dimethylaminopurine resulted in embryos that contained a single pronucleus and no polar bodies. All nuclear transfer embryos activated with ionomycin/roscovitine contained one large pronucleus. However, a third of these embryos emitted one or two polar bodies, clearly containing chromatin material. In summary, we have identified simple yet effective methods of oocyte or cytoplast activation in the monkey, ionomycin/6-dimethylaminopurine, electroporation/cycloheximide/cytochalasin B, and ionomycin/roscovitine, which are applicable to parthenote or nuclear transfer embryo production.

  9. Thalamic, brainstem, and cerebellar glucose metabolism in the hemiplegic monkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoyama, I.; Dauth, G.W.; Gilman, S.; Frey, K.A.; Penney, J.B. Jr.

    1988-12-01

    Unilateral ablation of cerebral cortical areas 4 and 6 of Brodmann in the macaque monkey results in a contralateral hemiplegia that resolves partially with time. During the phase of dense hemiplegia, local cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (1CMRG1c) is decreased significantly in most of the thalamic nuclei ipsilateral to the ablation, and there are slight contralateral decreases. The lCMRGlc is reduced bilaterally in most of the brainstem nuclei and bilaterally in the deep cerebellar nuclei, but only in the contralateral cerebellar cortex. During the phase of partial motor recovery, lCMRGlc is incompletely restored in many of the thalamic nuclei ipsilateral to the ablation and completely restored in the contralateral nuclei. In the brainstem and deep cerebellar nuclei, poor to moderate recovery occurs bilaterally. Moderate recovery occurs in the contralateral cerebellar cortex. The findings demonstrate that a unilateral cerebral cortical lesion strongly affects lCMRGlc in the thalamus ipsilaterally and in the cerebellar cortex contralaterally, but in the brainstem bilaterally. Partial recovery of lCMRGlc accompanies the progressive motor recovery. The structures affected include those with direct, and also those with indirect, connections to the areas ablated.

  10. Audiovisual integration facilitates monkeys' short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, James; Poremba, Amy

    2016-07-01

    Many human behaviors are known to benefit from audiovisual integration, including language and communication, recognizing individuals, social decision making, and memory. Exceptionally little is known about the contributions of audiovisual integration to behavior in other primates. The current experiment investigated whether short-term memory in nonhuman primates is facilitated by the audiovisual presentation format. Three macaque monkeys that had previously learned an auditory delayed matching-to-sample (DMS) task were trained to perform a similar visual task, after which they were tested with a concurrent audiovisual DMS task with equal proportions of auditory, visual, and audiovisual trials. Parallel to outcomes in human studies, accuracy was higher and response times were faster on audiovisual trials than either unisensory trial type. Unexpectedly, two subjects exhibited superior unimodal performance on auditory trials, a finding that contrasts with previous studies, but likely reflects their training history. Our results provide the first demonstration of a bimodal memory advantage in nonhuman primates, lending further validation to their use as a model for understanding audiovisual integration and memory processing in humans.

  11. Monkeys in a prisoner's dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ju; Uchida, Naoshige

    2015-03-12

    Haroush and Williams trained pairs of monkeys to play in a prisoner's dilemma game, a model of social interactions. Recording from the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), they find neurons whose activity reflects the anticipation of the opponent's yet unknown choice, which may be important in guiding animals' performance in the game.

  12. Modelling Social Learning in Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendal, Jeremy R.

    2008-01-01

    The application of modelling to social learning in monkey populations has been a neglected topic. Recently, however, a number of statistical, simulation and analytical approaches have been developed to help examine social learning processes, putative traditions, the use of social learning strategies and the diffusion dynamics of socially…

  13. Rhesus macaque theta defensins suppress inflammatory cytokines and enhance survival in mouse models of bacteremic sepsis.

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    Justin B Schaal

    Full Text Available Theta-defensins (θ-defensins are macrocyclic antimicrobial peptides expressed in leukocytes of Old World monkeys. The peptides are broad spectrum microbicides in vitro and numerous θ-defensin isoforms have been identified in granulocytes of rhesus macaques and Olive baboons. Several mammalian α- and β-defensins, genetically related to θ-defensins, have proinflammatory and immune-activating properties that bridge innate and acquired immunity. In the current study we analyzed the immunoregulatory properties of rhesus θ-defensins 1-5 (RTDs 1-5. RTD-1, the most abundant θ-defensin in macaques, reduced the levels of TNF, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 secreted by blood leukocytes stimulated by several TLR agonists. RTDs 1-5 suppressed levels of soluble TNF released by bacteria- or LPS-stimulated blood leukocytes and THP-1 monocytes. Despite their highly conserved conformation and amino acid sequences, the anti-TNF activities of RTDs 1-5 varied by as much as 10-fold. Systemically administered RTD-1 was non-toxic for BALB/c mice, and escalating intravenous doses were well tolerated and non-immunogenic in adult chimpanzees. The peptide was highly stable in serum and plasma. Single dose administration of RTD-1 at 5 mg/kg significantly improved survival of BALB/c mice with E. coli peritonitis and cecal ligation-and-puncture induced polymicrobial sepsis. Peptide treatment reduced serum levels of several inflammatory cytokines/chemokines in bacteremic animals. Collectively, these results indicate that the anti-inflammatory properties of θ-defensins in vitro and in vivo are mediated by the suppression of numerous proinflammatory cytokines and blockade of TNF release may be a primary effect.

  14. Effect of feature-selective attention on neuronal responses in macaque area MT.

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    Chen, X; Hoffmann, K-P; Albright, T D; Thiele, A

    2012-03-01

    Attention influences visual processing in striate and extrastriate cortex, which has been extensively studied for spatial-, object-, and feature-based attention. Most studies exploring neural signatures of feature-based attention have trained animals to attend to an object identified by a certain feature and ignore objects/displays identified by a different feature. Little is known about the effects of feature-selective attention, where subjects attend to one stimulus feature domain (e.g., color) of an object while features from different domains (e.g., direction of motion) of the same object are ignored. To study this type of feature-selective attention in area MT in the middle temporal sulcus, we trained macaque monkeys to either attend to and report the direction of motion of a moving sine wave grating (a feature for which MT neurons display strong selectivity) or attend to and report its color (a feature for which MT neurons have very limited selectivity). We hypothesized that neurons would upregulate their firing rate during attend-direction conditions compared with attend-color conditions. We found that feature-selective attention significantly affected 22% of MT neurons. Contrary to our hypothesis, these neurons did not necessarily increase firing rate when animals attended to direction of motion but fell into one of two classes. In one class, attention to color increased the gain of stimulus-induced responses compared with attend-direction conditions. The other class displayed the opposite effects. Feature-selective activity modulations occurred earlier in neurons modulated by attention to color compared with neurons modulated by attention to motion direction. Thus feature-selective attention influences neuronal processing in macaque area MT but often exhibited a mismatch between the preferred stimulus dimension (direction of motion) and the preferred attention dimension (attention to color).

  15. Early life exposure to allergen and ozone results in altered development in adolescent rhesus macaque lungs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herring, M.J.; Putney, L.F.; St George, J.A. [California National Primate Research Center, Davis, CA (United States); Avdalovic, M.V. [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Schelegle, E.S.; Miller, L.A. [California National Primate Research Center, Davis, CA (United States); Hyde, D.M., E-mail: dmhyde@ucdavis.edu [California National Primate Research Center, Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-02-15

    In rhesus macaques, previous studies have shown that episodic exposure to allergen alone or combined with ozone inhalation during the first 6 months of life results in a condition with many of the hallmarks of asthma. This exposure regimen results in altered development of the distal airways and parenchyma (Avdalovic et al., 2012). We hypothesized that the observed alterations in the lung parenchyma would be permanent following a long-term recovery in filtered air (FA) housing. Forty-eight infant rhesus macaques (30 days old) sensitized to house dust mite (HDM) were treated with two week cycles of FA, house dust mite allergen (HDMA), ozone (O{sub 3}) or HDMA/ozone (HDMA + O{sub 3}) for five months. At the end of the five months, six animals from each group were necropsied. The other six animals in each group were allowed to recover in FA for 30 more months at which time they were necropsied. Design-based stereology was used to estimate volumes of lung components, number of alveoli, size of alveoli, distribution of alveolar volumes, interalveolar capillary density. After 30 months of recovery, monkeys exposed to HDMA, in either group, had significantly more alveoli than filtered air. These alveoli also had higher capillary densities as compared with FA controls. These results indicate that early life exposure to HDMA alone or HDMA + O{sub 3} alters the development process in the lung alveoli. - Highlights: • Abnormal lung development after postnatal exposure to ozone and allergen • This remodeling is shown as smaller, more numerous alveoli and narrower airways. • Allergen appears to have more of an effect than ozone during recovery. • These animals also have continued airway hyperresponsiveness (Moore et al. 2014)

  16. Ulcerative cheilitis in a rhesus macaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, C C; Miller, A D

    2012-03-01

    A 2-year-old, female, simian immunodeficiency virus E543-infected rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) was presented for necropsy following euthanasia due to a history of diarrhea, weight loss, and a small, round ulcer along the left labial commissure. Histopathologic examination of the ulcer revealed infiltration by large numbers of degenerate and nondegenerate neutrophils and macrophages admixed with syncytial epithelial cells. Rare epithelial cells contained herpetic inclusion bodies. These cells stained positive for Human herpesvirus 1 via immunohistochemistry, and DNA sequencing confirmed the presence of closely related Macacine herpesvirus 1 (B virus).

  17. A semi-automated pipeline for the segmentation of rhesus macaque hippocampus: validation across a wide age range.

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    Michael R Hunsaker

    Full Text Available This report outlines a neuroimaging pipeline that allows a robust, high-throughput, semi-automated, template-based protocol for segmenting the hippocampus in rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta monkeys ranging from 1 week to 260 weeks of age. The semiautomated component of this approach minimizes user effort while concurrently maximizing the benefit of human expertise by requiring as few as 10 landmarks to be placed on images of each hippocampus to guide registration. Any systematic errors in the normalization process are corrected using a machine-learning algorithm that has been trained by comparing manual and automated segmentations to identify systematic errors. These methods result in high spatial overlap and reliability when compared with the results of manual tracing protocols. They also dramatically reduce the time to acquire data, an important consideration in large-scale neuroradiological studies involving hundreds of MRI scans. Importantly, other than the initial generation of the unbiased template, this approach requires only modest neuroanatomical training. It has been validated for high-throughput studies of rhesus macaque hippocampal anatomy across a broad age range.

  18. A semi-automated pipeline for the segmentation of rhesus macaque hippocampus: validation across a wide age range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsaker, Michael R; Amaral, David G

    2014-01-01

    This report outlines a neuroimaging pipeline that allows a robust, high-throughput, semi-automated, template-based protocol for segmenting the hippocampus in rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) monkeys ranging from 1 week to 260 weeks of age. The semiautomated component of this approach minimizes user effort while concurrently maximizing the benefit of human expertise by requiring as few as 10 landmarks to be placed on images of each hippocampus to guide registration. Any systematic errors in the normalization process are corrected using a machine-learning algorithm that has been trained by comparing manual and automated segmentations to identify systematic errors. These methods result in high spatial overlap and reliability when compared with the results of manual tracing protocols. They also dramatically reduce the time to acquire data, an important consideration in large-scale neuroradiological studies involving hundreds of MRI scans. Importantly, other than the initial generation of the unbiased template, this approach requires only modest neuroanatomical training. It has been validated for high-throughput studies of rhesus macaque hippocampal anatomy across a broad age range.

  19. Development of a monkey model for the study of primate genomic imprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, A; Mitalipov, S M; Clepper, L L; Wolf, D P

    2005-06-01

    An understanding of the role of imprinted genes in primate development requires the identification of suitable genetic markers that allow analysis of allele-specific expression and methylation status. Four genes, NDN (Necdin), H19, SNRPN and IGF2, known to be imprinted in mice and humans, were selected for study in rhesus monkeys along with two imprinting centres (ICs) associated with the regulation of H19/IGF2, NDN and SNRPN. GAPD was employed as a non-imprinted control gene. Primers designed to amplify polymorphic regions in these genes and ICs were based on human sequences. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood leukocytes of 93 rhesus macaques of Indian or Chinese-origin. Sequence analysis of amplicons resulted in the identification of 32 unique SNPs. Country-of-origin related differences in SNP distributions were evident. Since disruptions in imprinted gene expression and associated developmental abnormalities may result from in vitro embryo manipulation, we also examined imprinting in NDN, H19, SNRPN and IGF2 in rhesus monkey infants produced by natural mating or by ICSI. Muscle biopsies followed by RT-PCR and sequence analysis were performed in four heterozygous animals produced by natural mating and all four genes were expressed monoallelically supporting the conclusion that these genes are normally imprinted in monkeys. In the case of ICSI, five informative infants were selected based on parental analysis. Allele-specific studies indicated that the expected uniparental expression patterns were retained in animals produced from manipulated embryos. Moreover, methylation analysis revealed that CpG islands within H19/IGF2 and SNURF/SNRPN ICs were differentially methylated. The approach described here will allow examination of imprinting in the embryos and embryonic stem cells of the monkey.

  20. Persistence of the dark-background-contingent gaze upshift during visual fixations of rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak, Oleg; Thier, Peter; Barash, Shabtai

    2014-10-15

    During visual fixations, the eyes are directed so that the image of the target (object of interest) falls on the fovea. An exception to this rule was described in macaque monkeys (though not in humans): dark background induces a gaze shift upwards, sometimes large enough to shift the target's image off the fovea. In this article we address an aspect not previously rigorously studied, the time course of the upshift. The time course is critical for determining whether the upshift is indeed an attribute of visual fixation or, alternatively, of saccades that precede the fixation. These alternatives lead to contrasting predictions regarding the time course of the upshift (durable if the upshift is an attribute of fixation, transient if caused by saccades). We studied visual fixations with dark and bright background in three monkeys. We confined ourselves to a single upshift-inducing session in each monkey so as not to study changes in the upshift caused by training. Already at their first sessions, all monkeys showed clear upshift. During the first 0.5 s after the eye reached the vicinity of the target, the upshift was on average larger, but also more variable, than later in the trial; this initial high value 1) strongly depended on target location and was maximal at locations high on the screen, and 2) appears to reflect mostly the intervals between the primary and correction saccades. Subsequently, the upshift stabilized and remained constant, well above zero, throughout the 2-s fixation interval. Thus there is a persistent background-contingent upshift genuinely of visual fixation.

  1. Influence on Monkeys Generative Physiology after Terminating Early Pregnancy by Focused Ultrasound Beams%聚焦声束超声终止猴早孕对生殖生理的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜永洪; 邹建中; 白晋; 贺正才; 王智彪

    2003-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this paper is to study the influence on monkey, s generative physiology after terminating early pregnancy by focused ultrasound beams. Methods Five early pregnancy Macaque monkeys were treated with focused ultrasound beams, observing the recovery of menstruation and the change of skin after treatment, which show the hormone level. Two circles after the coming of menstruation, we estimated the shape and size of uterus and determined if there are some injuries on adjacent organs , by color Doppler ultrasonography (CDFI). Results Menstruation of these Macaque monkeys came 40 days after being treated with focused ultrasound beams to terminate the pregnancy, the volume and lasting period were normal, CDFI shows that the size and shape of uterus were normal, the endometrial line was clear to be observed, and there are no injuries on adjacent organs. Conclusion it is safe to terminate an early pregnancy of monkey model by Focused Ultrasound Beams, and there is no influence on the generative physiology, it has a potential prospect of being applied in clinics.

  2. Kyasanur forest disease virus: viremia and challenge studies in monkeys with evidence of cross-protection by Langat virus infection [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/UiWGcy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keerti V Shah

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Kyasanur Forest Disease Virus (KFDV, discovered in 1957, is a member of the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV complex. Diseases caused by members of the TBEV complex occur in many parts of the world. KFDV produces a hemorrhagic fever in humans in South India and fatal illnesses in both species of monkeys in the area, the black faced langur (Presbytis entellus and the bonnet macaque (Macaca radiata. Experimental infection of the langur and the bonnet macaque with early mouse passage KFDV strain P9605 resulted in a viremia of up to 11 days duration, peak viremia titers as high as 109, and death in 82 = 100% of the animals. Prolonged passage of the KFDV strain P9605 in monkey kidney tissue culture resulted in a markedly reduced virulence of the virus for both species; peak viremia titers in monkeys decreased by 2.5 to 4.0 log LD 50 (p= 0.001, and the mortality decreased to 10% (p= 0.001. In challenge experiments, monkeys previously infected with tissue-culture-adapted KFDV, or with the related Langat virus from Malaysia, were fully protected against virulent KFDV. These studies in non-human primates lend support to the idea that a live virus vaccine from a member of the TBEV complex may be broadly protective against infections by other members of the TBEV complex.

  3. Seroprevalence of Zika Virus in Wild African Green Monkeys and Baboons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buechler, Connor R.; Bailey, Adam L.; Weiler, Andrea M.; Barry, Gabrielle L.; Breitbach, Meghan E.; Stewart, Laurel M.; Jasinska, Anna J.; Freimer, Nelson B.; Apetrei, Cristian; Phillips-Conroy, Jane E.; Jolly, Clifford J.; Rogers, Jeffrey; Friedrich, Thomas C.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Zika virus (ZIKV) has recently spread through the Americas and has been associated with a range of health effects, including birth defects in children born to women infected during pregnancy. Although the natural reservoir of ZIKV remains poorly defined, the virus was first identified in a captive “sentinel” macaque monkey in Africa in 1947. However, the virus has not been reported in humans or nonhuman primates (NHPs) in Africa outside Gabon in over a decade. Here, we examine ZIKV infection in 239 wild baboons and African green monkeys from South Africa, the Gambia, Tanzania, and Zambia using combinations of unbiased deep sequencing, quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR), and an antibody capture assay that we optimized using serum collected from captive macaque monkeys exposed to ZIKV, dengue virus, and yellow fever virus. While we did not find evidence of active ZIKV infection in wild NHPs in Africa, we found variable ZIKV seropositivity of up to 16% in some of the NHP populations sampled. We anticipate that these results and the methodology described within will help in continued efforts to determine the prevalence, natural reservoir, and transmission dynamics of ZIKV in Africa and elsewhere. IMPORTANCE Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne virus originally discovered in a captive monkey living in the Zika Forest of Uganda, Africa, in 1947. Recently, an outbreak in South America has shown that ZIKV infection can cause myriad health effects, including birth defects in the children of women infected during pregnancy. Here, we sought to investigate ZIKV infection in wild African primates to better understand its emergence and spread, looking for evidence of active or prior infection. Our results suggest that up to 16% of some populations of nonhuman primate were, at some point, exposed to ZIKV. We anticipate that this study will be useful for future studies that examine the spread of infections from wild animals to humans in general and

  4. MicroRNA expression and regulation in human, chimpanzee, and macaque brains.

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    Hai Yang Hu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Among other factors, changes in gene expression on the human evolutionary lineage have been suggested to play an important role in the establishment of human-specific phenotypes. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these expression changes are largely unknown. Here, we have explored the role of microRNA (miRNA in the regulation of gene expression divergence among adult humans, chimpanzees, and rhesus macaques, in two brain regions: prefrontal cortex and cerebellum. Using a combination of high-throughput sequencing, miRNA microarrays, and Q-PCR, we have shown that up to 11% of the 325 expressed miRNA diverged significantly between humans and chimpanzees and up to 31% between humans and macaques. Measuring mRNA and protein expression in human and chimpanzee brains, we found a significant inverse relationship between the miRNA and the target genes expression divergence, explaining 2%-4% of mRNA and 4%-6% of protein expression differences. Notably, miRNA showing human-specific expression localize in neurons and target genes that are involved in neural functions. Enrichment in neural functions, as well as miRNA-driven regulation on the human evolutionary lineage, was further confirmed by experimental validation of predicted miRNA targets in two neuroblastoma cell lines. Finally, we identified a signature of positive selection in the upstream region of one of the five miRNA with human-specific expression, miR-34c-5p. This suggests that miR-34c-5p expression change took place after the split of the human and the Neanderthal lineages and had adaptive significance. Taken together these results indicate that changes in miRNA expression might have contributed to evolution of human cognitive functions.

  5. Seven years of recording from monkey cortex with a chronically implanted multiple microelectrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Krüger

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A brush of 64 microwires was chronically implanted in the ventral premotor cortex of a macaque monkey. Contrary to common approaches, the wires were inserted from the white matter side. This approach, by avoiding mechanical pressure on the dura and pia mater during penetration, disturbed only minimally the cortical recording site. With this approach isolated potentials and multiunit activity were recorded for more than seven years in about one third of electrodes. The indirect insertion method also provided an excellent stability within each recording session, and in some cases even allowed recording from the same neurons for several years. Histological examination of the implanted brain region shows only a very marginal damage the recording area. Advantages and problems related to long-term recording are discussed.

  6. Sensory Processing in Rhesus Monkeys: Developmental Continuity, Prenatal Treatment, and Genetic Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Mary L; Moore, Colleen F; Adkins, Miriam; Barr, Christina S; Larson, Julie A; Resch, Leslie M; Roberts, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Neonatal sensory processing (tactile and vestibular function) was tested in 78 rhesus macaques from two experiments. At ages 4-5 years, striatal dopamine D2 receptor binding was examined using positron emission tomography. At ages 5-7 years, adult sensory processing was assessed. Findings were: (a) prenatal stress exposure yielded less optimal neonatal sensory processing; (b) animals carrying the short rh5-HTTLPR allele had less optimal neonatal sensory scores than monkeys homozygous for the long allele; (c) neonatal sensory processing was significantly related to striatal D2 receptor binding for carriers of the short allele, but not for animals homozygous for the long allele; and (d) there was moderate developmental continuity in sensory processing from the neonatal period to adulthood.

  7. No strings attached: Physiological Monitoring of Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta with Thermal Imaging.

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    Stephanos eIoannou

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Methodological challenges make physiological affective observations very restrictive as in many cases they take place in a laboratory setting rather than the animals’ natural habitat. In the current study using Infrared Thermal Imaging we examine the physiological thermal imprints of 5 macaques. The monkeys were exposed in 3 different experimental scenarios. Playing with a toy, food teasing as well as feeding. It was observed that during teasing the temperature of the region surrounding the eyes was higher than play as a result of rapid saccades directed at the food. Compared to play and teasing, a lower temperature accompanied feeding on the upper lip, nose and orbital region suggesting elevated levels of distress. These findings prove that thermal imaging is a reliable method of physiological monitoring the subject at a distance while preserving a semi-experimental setting.

  8. Serum Cobalamin (Vitamin B12) Concentrations in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) and Pigtailed Macaques (Macaca nemestrina) with Chronic Idiopathic Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzi, Jessica M; Beck, Sarah E; Adams, Robert J; Metcalf Pate, Kelly A; Hutchinson, Eric K

    2016-01-01

    Chronic diarrhea poses a significant threat to the health of NHP research colonies, and its primary etiology remains unclear. In macaques, the clinical presentation of intractable diarrhea and weight loss that are accompanied by inflammatory infiltrates within the gastrointestinal tract closely resembles inflammatory bowel disease of humans, dogs, and cats, in which low serum and tissue cobalamin (vitamin B12) levels are due to intestinal malabsorption. We therefore hypothesized that macaques with chronic idiopathic diarrhea (CID) have lower serum cobalamin concentrations than do healthy macaques. Here we measured serum cobalamin concentrations in both rhesus and pigtailed macaques with CID and compared them with those of healthy controls. Serum cobalamin levels were 2.5-fold lower in pigtailed macaques with CID than control animals but did not differ between rhesus macaques with CID and their controls. This finding supports the use of serum cobalamin concentration as an adjunct diagnostic tool in pigtailed macaques that present with clinical symptoms of chronic gastrointestinal disease. This use of serum vitamin B12 levels has implications for the future use of parenteral cobalamin supplementation to improve clinical outcomes in this species.

  9. Grooming reciprocity in male Tibetan macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dong-Po; Li, Jin-Hua; Garber, Paul A; Matheson, Megan D; Sun, Bing-Hua; Zhu, Yong

    2013-10-01

    In several primate species, adult males are reported to compete for access to reproductive partners as well as forming affiliative and cohesive social bonds based on the exchange of goods or services. We hypothesized that among a broad set of fitness-maximizing strategies, grooming can be used by individual adult males to enhance social relationships through reciprocity and/or through the interchange of grooming for a different but equivalent good or service. We used focal animal sampling and continuously recorded dyadic grooming and agonistic interactions to test a series of predictions regarding male social interactions in a free-ranging group of Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Huangshan, China. During the non-mating season or between males of similar rank throughout the year, grooming effort given was matched by grooming effort received. However, lower ranking males groomed higher ranking males at a greater rate and/or for a longer duration during both the mating and non-mating periods. We found that higher ranking males directed less aggression towards males with whom they formed a frequent grooming partnership, indicating that grooming received was interchanged for increased social tolerance. These data suggest that individual male Tibetan macaques employ alternative social strategies associated with grooming reciprocity or interchange depending on dominance rank and rates of aggression, and highlight the importance of both biological markets and grooming reciprocity as behavioral mechanisms used by resident adult males to form and maintain affiliative social bonds.

  10. Behavioral sleep in captive owl monkey (Aotus azarae) and squirrel monkey (Saimiri boliviensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sri Kantha, Sachi; Suzuki, Juri; Hirai, Yuriko; Hirai, Hirohisa

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that activity-behavioral sleep parameters differ between nocturnallyactive owl monkeys and diurnally-active squirrel monkeys which are sympatric and of Bolivian origin. The total sleep time (TST) and sleep episode length (SEL) of 7 adult owl monkey siblings and 4 adult squirrel monkeys were quantitated by actigraphy for 7 days under captive conditions. The higher TST/24 h values and longer SEL/12 h quiescent phase quantitated for owl monkeys in comparison to that of squirrel monkeys clearly indicate that the behavioral sleep is markedly different between these two groups, though they are sympatric in wild. Significant differences noted in the sleep architecture between squirrel monkeys and owl monkeys can be attributed to the influences in the selected sleep niche, threat perception from predators, and disturbances from natural elements (especially rain) in the natural habitat.

  11. A web-based brain atlas of the vervet monkey, Chlorocebus aethiops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Roger P; Fears, Scott C; Jorgensen, Matthew J; Fairbanks, Lynn A; Toga, Arthur W; Freimer, Nelson B

    2011-02-01

    Vervet monkeys are a frequently studied animal model in neuroscience research. Although equally distantly related to humans, the ancestors of vervets diverged from those of macaques and baboons more than 11 million years ago, antedating the divergence of the ancestors of humans, chimpanzees and gorillas. To facilitate anatomic localization in the vervet brain, two linked on-line electronic atlases are described, one based on registered MRI scans from hundreds of vervets (http://www.loni.ucla.edu/Research/Atlases/Data/vervet/vervetmratlas/vervetmratlas.html) and the other based on a high-resolution cryomacrotome study of a single vervet (http://www.loni.ucla.edu/Research/Atlases/Data/vervet/vervetatlas/vervetatlas.html). The averaged MRI atlas is also available as a volume in Neuroimaging Informatics Technology Initiative format. In the cryomacrotome atlas, various sulcal and subcortical structures have been anatomically labeled and surface rendered views are provided along the primary planes of section. Both atlases simultaneously provide views in all three primary planes of section, rapid navigation by clicking on the displayed images, and stereotaxic coordinates in the averaged MRI atlas space. Despite the extended time period since their divergence, the major sulcal and subcortical landmarks in vervets are highly conserved relative to those described in macaques.

  12. Reach–to-grasp movements in macaca fascicularis monkeys: the Isochrony Principle at work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa eSartori

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Humans show a spontaneous tendency to increase the velocity of their movements depending on the linear extent of their trajectory in order to keep execution time approximately constant. Termed the isochrony principle, this compensatory mechanism refers to the observation that the velocity of voluntary movements increases proportionally with their linear extension. Although there is a wealth of psychophysical data regarding isochrony in humans, there is none regarding non-human primates. The present study attempts to fill that gap by investigating reach-to-grasp movement kinematics in free-ranging macaques. Video footage of monkeys grasping objects located at different distances was analyzed frame-by-frame using digitalization techniques. The amplitude of arm peak velocity was found to be correlated with the distance to be covered, and total movement duration remained invariant although target distances varied. Like in humans, the ‘isochrony principle’ seems to be operative as there is a gearing down/up of movement velocity that is proportional to the distance to be covered in order to allow for a relatively constant movement duration. Based on a centrally generated temporal template, this mode of motor programming could be functional in macaques given the high speed and great instability of posture and joint kinematics characterizing their actions. The data presented here take research in the field of comparative motor control a step forward as they are based on precise measurements of spontaneous grasping movements by animals living/acting in their natural environment.

  13. Genotyping of TRIM5 locus in northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina, a primate species susceptible to Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Xue-Long

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pig-tailed macaques are the only Old World monkeys known to be susceptible to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection. We have previously reported that the TRIM5-Cyclophilin A (TRIMCyp fusion in pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina is dysfunctional in restricting HIV-1, which may explain why pig-tailed macaques are susceptible to HIV-1 infection. Similar results have also been reported by other groups. However, according to the current primate taxonomy, the previously reported M. nemestrina are further classified into three species, which all belong to the Macaca spp. This calls for the need to look into the previous studies in more details. Results The local species Northern pig-tailed macaque (M. leonina was analyzed for the correlation of TRIM5 structure and HIV-1 infection. Eleven M. leonina animals were analyzed, and all of them were found to possess TRIM5-CypA fusion at the TRIM5 locus. The transcripts encoding the dysfunctional TRIM5-CypA should result from the G-to-T mutation in the 3'-splicing site of intron 6. Polymorphism in the putative TRIMCyp recognition domain was observed. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of M. leonina were susceptible to HIV-1 infection. Consistent with the previous results, expression of the M. leonina TRIMCyp in HeLa-T4 cells rendered the cells resistant to HIV-2ROD but not to SIVmac239 infection. Conclusion The susceptibility of M. leonina to HIV-1 infection is due to the dysfunctional TRIM5-CypA fusion in the TRIM5 locus. This finding should broaden our perspective in developing better HIV/AIDS non-human primate animal models.

  14. An evaluation of istradefylline treatment on Parkinsonian motor and cognitive deficits in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated macaque models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Wai Kin D; Camus, Sandrine M; Li, Qin; Yang, Jianzhong; McGuire, Steve; Pioli, Elsa Y; Bezard, Erwan

    2016-11-01

    Istradefylline (KW-6002), an adenosine A2A receptor antagonist, is used adjunct with optimal doses of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) to extend on-time in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients experiencing motor fluctuations. Clinical application of istradefylline for the management of other l-DOPA-induced complications, both motor and non-motor related (i.e. dyskinesia and cognitive impairments), remains to be determined. In this study, acute effects of istradefylline (60-100 mg/kg) alone, or with optimal and sub-optimal doses of l-DOPA, were evaluated in two monkey models of PD (i) the gold-standard 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated macaque model of parkinsonian and dyskinetic motor symptoms and (ii) the chronic low dose (CLD) MPTP-treated macaque model of cognitive (working memory and attentional) deficits. Behavioural analyses in l-DOPA-primed MPTP-treated macaques showed that istradefylline alone specifically alleviated postural deficits. When combined with an optimal l-DOPA treatment dose, istradefylline increased on-time, enhanced therapeutic effects on bradykinesia and locomotion, but exacerbated dyskinesia. Istradefylline treatment at specific doses with sub-optimal l-DOPA specifically alleviated bradykinesia. Cognitive assessments in CLD MPTP-treated macaques showed that the attentional and working memory deficits caused by l-DOPA were lowered after istradefylline administration. Taken together, these data support a broader clinical use of istradefylline as an adjunct treatment in PD, where specific treatment combinations can be utilised to manage various l-DOPA-induced complications, which importantly, maintain a desired anti-parkinsonian response.

  15. Molecular Analysis of a Novel Simian Virus 40 (SV40) Type in Rhesus Macaques and Evidence for Double Infections with the Classical SV40 Type▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagrouch, Zahra; Karremans, Kevin; Deuzing, Ilona; van Gessel, Sabine; Niphuis, Henk; Bogers, Willy; Verschoor, Ernst J.

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of simian virus 40 (SV40) infections in rhesus macaques infected with simian-human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIV) and in uninfected animals was determined using PCR. Rates varied from 5% in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of uninfected monkeys to 19.6% in SHIV-infected macaques. Much higher detection rates, up to 75%, were found in lymph nodes and spleen samples of SHIV-infected animals. Sequence analysis of PCR amplicons revealed that they form two genetic clusters, one containing the majority of known SV40 strains and the other formed by variants with 7% genetic difference. Based on this difference, we propose two SV40 types: “type 1” or “classical type” for the majority of SV40 strains and “type 2” for the novel SV40 variants. The genome of one variant, SV40-Ri257, was completely sequenced and analyzed. The agnogene of SV40-Ri257 extends into the VP2 open reading frame and encodes a typical agnoprotein fused to a C-terminal hydrophobic region. The transcriptional control region (TCR) of SV40-Ri257 is the least conserved region compared to type 1 viruses. Particularly, the 3′ end of the TCR, containing the early promoter and enhancer region, exhibits considerable variation. Further analysis of SHIV-infected macaques with type-specific PCRs revealed that the TCR of type 1 was completely conserved, whereas this region in type 2 varied considerably within the early enhancer region. We provide evidence here for the existence of a novel SV40 type in rhesus macaques and show that double infections with both types frequently occur. PMID:21307214

  16. Molecular analysis of a novel simian virus 40 (SV40) type in rhesus macaques and evidence for double infections with the classical SV40 type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagrouch, Zahra; Karremans, Kevin; Deuzing, Ilona; van Gessel, Sabine; Niphuis, Henk; Bogers, Willy; Verschoor, Ernst J

    2011-04-01

    The incidence of simian virus 40 (SV40) infections in rhesus macaques infected with simian-human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIV) and in uninfected animals was determined using PCR. Rates varied from 5% in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of uninfected monkeys to 19.6% in SHIV-infected macaques. Much higher detection rates, up to 75%, were found in lymph nodes and spleen samples of SHIV-infected animals. Sequence analysis of PCR amplicons revealed that they form two genetic clusters, one containing the majority of known SV40 strains and the other formed by variants with 7% genetic difference. Based on this difference, we propose two SV40 types: "type 1" or "classical type" for the majority of SV40 strains and "type 2" for the novel SV40 variants. The genome of one variant, SV40-Ri257, was completely sequenced and analyzed. The agnogene of SV40-Ri257 extends into the VP2 open reading frame and encodes a typical agnoprotein fused to a C-terminal hydrophobic region. The transcriptional control region (TCR) of SV40-Ri257 is the least conserved region compared to type 1 viruses. Particularly, the 3' end of the TCR, containing the early promoter and enhancer region, exhibits considerable variation. Further analysis of SHIV-infected macaques with type-specific PCRs revealed that the TCR of type 1 was completely conserved, whereas this region in type 2 varied considerably within the early enhancer region. We provide evidence here for the existence of a novel SV40 type in rhesus macaques and show that double infections with both types frequently occur.

  17. An Attention-Sensitive Memory Trace in Macaque MT Following Saccadic Eye Movements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Yao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We experience a visually stable world despite frequent retinal image displacements induced by eye, head, and body movements. The neural mechanisms underlying this remain unclear. One mechanism that may contribute is transsaccadic remapping, in which the responses of some neurons in various attentional, oculomotor, and visual brain areas appear to anticipate the consequences of saccades. The functional role of transsaccadic remapping is actively debated, and many of its key properties remain unknown. Here, recording from two monkeys trained to make a saccade while directing attention to one of two spatial locations, we show that neurons in the middle temporal area (MT, a key locus in the motion-processing pathway of humans and macaques, show a form of transsaccadic remapping called a memory trace. The memory trace in MT neurons is enhanced by the allocation of top-down spatial attention. Our data provide the first demonstration, to our knowledge, of the influence of top-down attention on the memory trace anywhere in the brain. We find evidence only for a small and transient effect of motion direction on the memory trace (and in only one of two monkeys, arguing against a role for MT in the theoretically critical yet empirically contentious phenomenon of spatiotopic feature-comparison and adaptation transfer across saccades. Our data support the hypothesis that transsaccadic remapping represents the shift of attentional pointers in a retinotopic map, so that relevant locations can be tracked and rapidly processed across saccades. Our results resolve important issues concerning the perisaccadic representation of visual stimuli in the dorsal stream and demonstrate a significant role for top-down attention in modulating this representation.

  18. Electrostatic potential of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 and rhesus macaque simian immunodeficiency virus capsid proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna eBozek

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2 and simian immunodeficiency virus isolated from a macaque monkey (SIVmac are assumed to have originated from simian immunodeficiency virus isolated from sooty mangabey (SIVsm. Despite their close similarity in genome structure, HIV-2 and SIVmac show different sensitivities to TRIM5α, a host restriction factor against retroviruses. The replication of HIV-2 strains is potently restricted by rhesus (Rh monkey TRIM5α, while that of SIVmac strain 239 (SIVmac239 is not. Viral capsid protein is the determinant of this differential sensitivity to TRIM5α, as the HIV-2 mutant carrying SIVmac239 capsid protein evaded Rh TRIM5α-mediated restriction. However, the molecular determinants of this restriction mechanism are unknown. Electrostatic potential on the protein-binding site is one of the properties regulating protein-protein interactions. In this study, we investigated the electrostatic potential on the interaction surface of capsid protein of HIV-2 strain GH123 and SIVmac239. Although HIV-2 GH123 and SIVmac239 capsid proteins share more than 87% amino acid identity, we observed a large difference between the two molecules with the HIV-2 GH123 molecule having predominantly positive and SIVmac239 predominantly negative electrostatic potential on the surface of the loop between α-helices 4 and 5 (L4/5. As L4/5 is one of the major determinants of Rh TRIM5α sensitivity of these viruses, the present results suggest that the binding site of the Rh TRIM5α may show complementarity to the HIV-2 GH123 capsid surface charge distribution.

  19. Cooperation and competition in two forest monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Eckardt, Winnie; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Putty-nosed monkeys, Cercopithecus nictitans stampflii, occur at various sites in West Africa, particularly in the transition zone between rainforest and savannah. The species is sometimes seen in primary rainforest, although at a curiously low density compared with that of other monkey species. We conducted a 24-month field study in the tropical rainforest of Taï National Park, Ivory Coast, and found that putty-nosed monkeys require an ecological niche almost identical to that of the Diana m...

  20. Amygdala Contributions to Stimulus–Reward Encoding in the Macaque Medial and Orbital Frontal Cortex during Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averbeck, Bruno B.

    2017-01-01

    Orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), medial frontal cortex (MFC), and amygdala mediate stimulus–reward learning, but the mechanisms through which they interact are unclear. Here, we investigated how neurons in macaque OFC and MFC signaled rewards and the stimuli that predicted them during learning with and without amygdala input. Macaques performed a task that required them to evaluate two stimuli and then choose one to receive the reward associated with that option. Four main findings emerged. First, amygdala lesions slowed the acquisition and use of stimulus–reward associations. Further analyses indicated that this impairment was due, at least in part, to ineffective use of negative feedback to guide subsequent decisions. Second, the activity of neurons in OFC and MFC rapidly evolved to encode the amount of reward associated with each stimulus. Third, amygdalectomy reduced encoding of stimulus–reward associations during the evaluation of different stimuli. Reward encoding of anticipated and received reward after choices were made was not altered. Fourth, amygdala lesions led to an increase in the proportion of neurons in MFC, but not OFC, that encoded the instrumental response that monkeys made on each trial. These correlated changes in behavior and neural activity after amygdala lesions strongly suggest that the amygdala contributes to the ability to learn stimulus–reward associations rapidly by shaping encoding within OFC and MFC. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Altered functional interactions among orbital frontal cortex (OFC), medial frontal cortex (MFC), and amygdala are thought to underlie several psychiatric conditions, many related to reward learning. Here, we investigated the causal contribution of the amygdala to the development of neuronal activity in macaque OFC and MFC related to rewards and the stimuli that predict them during learning. Without amygdala inputs, neurons in both OFC and MFC showed decreased encoding of stimulus–reward associations. MFC also

  1. Amygdala Contributions to Stimulus-Reward Encoding in the Macaque Medial and Orbital Frontal Cortex during Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudebeck, Peter H; Ripple, Joshua A; Mitz, Andrew R; Averbeck, Bruno B; Murray, Elisabeth A

    2017-02-22

    Orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), medial frontal cortex (MFC), and amygdala mediate stimulus-reward learning, but the mechanisms through which they interact are unclear. Here, we investigated how neurons in macaque OFC and MFC signaled rewards and the stimuli that predicted them during learning with and without amygdala input. Macaques performed a task that required them to evaluate two stimuli and then choose one to receive the reward associated with that option. Four main findings emerged. First, amygdala lesions slowed the acquisition and use of stimulus-reward associations. Further analyses indicated that this impairment was due, at least in part, to ineffective use of negative feedback to guide subsequent decisions. Second, the activity of neurons in OFC and MFC rapidly evolved to encode the amount of reward associated with each stimulus. Third, amygdalectomy reduced encoding of stimulus-reward associations during the evaluation of different stimuli. Reward encoding of anticipated and received reward after choices were made was not altered. Fourth, amygdala lesions led to an increase in the proportion of neurons in MFC, but not OFC, that encoded the instrumental response that monkeys made on each trial. These correlated changes in behavior and neural activity after amygdala lesions strongly suggest that the amygdala contributes to the ability to learn stimulus-reward associations rapidly by shaping encoding within OFC and MFC.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Altered functional interactions among orbital frontal cortex (OFC), medial frontal cortex (MFC), and amygdala are thought to underlie several psychiatric conditions, many related to reward learning. Here, we investigated the causal contribution of the amygdala to the development of neuronal activity in macaque OFC and MFC related to rewards and the stimuli that predict them during learning. Without amygdala inputs, neurons in both OFC and MFC showed decreased encoding of stimulus-reward associations. MFC also showed

  2. Visual motion integration by neurons in the middle temporal area of a New World monkey, the marmoset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Selina S; Tailby, Chris; Gharaei, Saba; Camp, Aaron J; Bourne, James A; Solomon, Samuel G

    2011-12-01

    The middle temporal area (MT/V5) is an anatomically distinct region of primate visual cortex that is specialized for the processing of image motion. It is generally thought that some neurons in area MT are capable of signalling the motion of complex patterns, but this has only been established in the macaque monkey. We made extracellular recordings from single units in area MT of anaesthetized marmosets, a New World monkey. We show through quantitative analyses that some neurons (35 of 185; 19%) are capable of signalling pattern motion ('pattern cells'). Across several dimensions, the visual response of pattern cells in marmosets is indistinguishable from that of pattern cells in macaques. Other neurons respond to the motion of oriented contours in a pattern ('component cells') or show intermediate properties. In addition, we encountered a subset of neurons (22 of 185; 12%) insensitive to sinusoidal gratings but very responsive to plaids and other two-dimensional patterns and otherwise indistinguishable from pattern cells. We compared the response of each cell class to drifting gratings and dot fields. In pattern cells, directional selectivity was similar for gratings and dot fields; in component cells, directional selectivity was weaker for dot fields than gratings. Pattern cells were more likely to have stronger suppressive surrounds, prefer lower spatial frequencies and prefer higher speeds than component cells. We conclude that pattern motion sensitivity is a feature of some neurons in area MT of both New and Old World monkeys, suggesting that this functional property is an important stage in motion analysis and is likely to be conserved in humans.

  3. Genetic analysis of captive proboscis monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Mitsuaki; Seino, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    Information on the genetic relationships of captive founders is important for captive population management. In this study, we investigated DNA polymorphisms of four microsatellite loci and the mitochondrial control region sequence of five proboscis monkeys residing in a Japanese zoo as captive founders, to clarify their genetic relationship. We found that two of the five monkeys appeared to be genetically related. Furthermore, the haplotypes of the mitochondrial control region of the five monkeys were well differentiated from the haplotypes previously reported from wild populations from the northern area of Borneo, indicating a greater amount of genetic diversity in proboscis monkeys than previously reported. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Prefrontal cortex glutamate and extraversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Simone; Schubert, Florian; Jaedke, Maren; Gallinat, Jürgen; Bajbouj, Malek

    2012-10-01

    Extraversion is considered one of the core traits of personality. Low extraversion has been associated with increased vulnerability to affective and anxiety disorders. Brain imaging studies have linked extraversion, approach behaviour and the production of positive emotional states to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and glutamatergic neurotransmission. However, the relationship between extraversion and glutamate in the DLPFC has not been investigated so far. In order to address this issue, absolute glutamate concentrations in the DLPFC and the visual cortex as a control region were measured by 3-Tesla proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in 29 subjects with high and low extraversion. We found increased glutamate levels in the DLPFC of introverts as compared with extraverts. The increased glutamate concentration was specific for the DLPFC and negatively associated with state anxiety. Although preliminary, results indicate altered top-down control of DLPFC due to reduced glutamate concentration as a function of extraversion. Glutamate measurement with 1H-MRS may facilitate the understanding of biological underpinnings of personality traits and psychiatric diseases associated with dysfunctions in approach behaviour and the production of positive emotional states.

  5. Artificial Nursing Procedure Establishment for Infant Rhesus Monkeys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Hong; Si Wei; Zhou Yin; Chen Lixian

    2015-01-01

    Rhesus monkey can not achieve natural delivery due to various reasons,and cesarean section becomes an important midwifery to get infant monkeys. After caesarean section,the pregnant monkey is weak and postoperative wound pain,so it can not personally feed infant monkeys which must be artificially fed. Thus,establishing suitable feeding management program is very important for improving survival rate of infant rhesus monkey and maintaining good health. We summarized food preparation method for infant rhesus monkeys as well as temperature setting and light control,and established the nursing program for newborn infant monkey and daily management process for infant monkeys.

  6. Purification and functional characterization of mucosal IgA from vaccinated and SIV-infected rhesus macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musich, Thomas; Demberg, Thorsten; Morgan, Ian L.; Estes, Jacob D.; Franchini, Genoveffa; Robert-Guroff, Marjorie

    2015-01-01

    Vaccine-induced mucosal antibodies are often evaluated using small volumes of secretory fluids. However, fecal matter containing mucosal IgA is abundant. We purified fecal IgA from five SIV-vaccinated and five SIV-infected rhesus macaques by sequential affinity chromatography. The purified IgA was dimeric by native PAGE, contained secretory component, and was analogous to IgA in colostrum and vaginal fluid by western blot. IgA from one infected and four vaccinated animals neutralized H9-derived SIVmac251 with IC50s as low as 1µg/mL. Purified IgAs inhibited transcytosis and exhibited phagocytic activity, the latter significantly correlated with SIVmac251 Env-specific IgA in the purified samples. Among different affinity resins, peptide M was optimal compared to jacalin, anti-monkey IgA and SSL7 for IgA purification, as confirmed using tandem peptide M/anti-monkey IgA columns. Fecal IgA provided material sufficient for several assays relevant to protective efficacy, and was shown to be multifunctional. Our approach is potentially applicable to human clinical studies. PMID:25840105

  7. A 52-week safety study in cynomolgus macaques for genetically modified rice expressing Cry1Ab/1Ac protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jie; Sun, Xing; Cheng, Jian-Hua; Shi, Yong-Jie; Wang, Xin-Zheng; Qin, Jun-Jie; Sang, Zhi-Hong; He, Kun; Xia, Qing

    2016-09-01

    A 52-week feeding study in cynomolgus macaques was carried out to evaluate the safety of Bt rice Huahui 1 (HH1), a transgenic rice line expressing Cry1Ab/1Ac protein. Monkeys were fed a diet with 20% or 60% HH1 rice, 20% or 60% parental rice (Minghui 63, MH63), normal diet, normal diet spiked with purified recombinant Cry1Ab/1Ac fusion protein or bovine serum albumin (BSA) respectively. During the feeding trail, clinical observations were conducted daily, and multiple parameters, including body weight, body temperature, electrocardiogram, hematology, blood biochemistry, serum metabolome and gut microbiome were examined at regular intervals. Upon sacrifice, the organs were weighted, and the macroscopic, microscopic and electron microscopic examinations were performed. The results show no adverse or toxic effects of Bt rice HH1 or Cry1Ab/1Ac fusion protein on monkeys. Therefore, the present 52-week primate feeding study suggests that the transgenic rice containing Cry 1Ab/1Ac is equivalent to its parental rice line MH63.

  8. Purification and functional characterization of mucosal IgA from vaccinated and SIV-infected rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musich, Thomas; Demberg, Thorsten; Morgan, Ian L; Estes, Jacob D; Franchini, Genoveffa; Robert-Guroff, Marjorie

    2015-06-01

    Vaccine-induced mucosal antibodies are often evaluated using small volumes of secretory fluids. However, fecal matter containing mucosal IgA is abundant. We purified fecal IgA from five SIV-vaccinated and five SIV-infected rhesus macaques by sequential affinity chromatography. The purified IgA was dimeric by native PAGE, contained secretory component, and was analogous to IgA in colostrum and vaginal fluid by western blot. IgA from one infected and four vaccinated animals neutralized H9-derived SIV(mac)251 with IC(50)s as low as 1 μg/mL. Purified IgAs inhibited transcytosis and exhibited phagocytic activity, the latter significantly correlated with SIV(mac)251 Env-specific IgA in the purified samples. Among different affinity resins, peptide M was optimal compared to jacalin, anti-monkey IgA and SSL7 for IgA purification, as confirmed using tandem peptide M/anti-monkey IgA columns. Fecal IgA provided material sufficient for several assays relevant to protective efficacy, and was shown to be multifunctional. Our approach is potentially applicable to human clinical studies.

  9. Functional properties of GABA synaptic inputs onto GABA neurons in monkey prefrontal cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.C. Rotaru (Diana C.); C. Olezene (Cameron); T. Miyamae (Takeaki); N.V. Povysheva (Nadezhda V.); A.V. Zaitsev (Aleksey V.); D.A. Lewis (David A.); G. Gonzalez-Burgos (Guillermo)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIn rodent cortex GABAA receptor (GABAAR)-mediated synapses are a significant source of input onto GABA neurons, and the properties of these inputs vary among GABA neuron subtypes that differ in molecular markers and firing patterns. Some features of cortical interne

  10. Cognition in aged rhesus monkeys: effect of DHEA and correlation with steroidogenic gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorwell, K G; Renner, L; Weiss, A R; Neuringer, M; Kohama, S G; Urbanski, H F

    2017-03-01

    Estradiol supplementation has been shown to enhance cognitive performance in old ovariectomized rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). To determine if similar benefits could be achieved in perimenopausal animals using alternative hormonal supplements, we administered dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to old ovary-intact female rhesus macaques for ∼2.5 months. Using computerized touch screen memory tasks, including delayed response (DR) and delayed matching-to-sample (DMS), we observed improved performance with time in all of the animals but failed to detect a significant effect of DHEA. On the other hand, gene expression profiling disclosed a significant correlation between cognitive performance and the expression of several steroidogenic and steroid-responsive genes. The DR performance was positively correlated with hippocampal expression of AKR1C3 and STAR and negatively correlated with the expression of SDRD5A1. A positive correlation was also found between DMS performance and prefrontal cortical expression of AKR1C3 and a negative correlation with STAR, as well as a negative correlation with the hippocampal expression of HSD11B1 and NR3C1. Taken together, the results suggest that steroidogenic gene regulation within the brain may help to maintain cognitive function during the perimenopausal transition period, despite a decline in sex-steroid levels in the circulation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  11. Co-transplantation of macaque autologous Schwann cells and human embryonic nerve stem cells in treatment of macaque Parkinson's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Xia; Chengchuan Jiang; Zuowei Cao; Keshan Shi; Yang Wang

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the therapeutic effects of co-transplantation with Schwann cells (SCs) and human embryonic nerve stem cells (NSCs) on macaque Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods:Macaque autologous SCs and human embryonic NSCs were adopted for the treatment of macaque PD. Results: Six months after transplantation, positron emission computerized tomography showed that 18F-FP-β-CIT was significantly concentrated in the injured striatum in the co-transplanted group. Immunohistochemical staining of transplanted area tissue showed migration of tyroxine hydroxylase positive cells from the transplant area to the surrounding area was significantly increased in the co-transplanted group. Conclusions: Co-transplantation of SCs and NSCs could effectively cure PD in macaques. SCs harvested from the autologous peripheral nerves can avoid rejection and the ethics problems, so it is expected to be applied clinically.

  12. The effect of harp music on heart rate, mean blood pressure, respiratory rate, and body temperature in the African green monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinds, Sarah Bro; Raimond, Susan; Purcell, Bret K

    2007-04-01

    The effectiveness of recorded harp music as a tool for relaxation for non-human primates is explored in this study. Konigsberg Instruments Model T27F-1B cardiovascular telemetry devices were implanted into nine African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops). After post-surgical recovery, animals were exposed to recorded harp music. Telemetry data were collected on heart rate, mean blood pressure, respiratory rate, and body temperature for a 30-minute baseline period before music exposure; a 90-minute period of music exposure; and a 90-minute post-exposure period, where no music was played. No statistical differences were noted in heart rate, mean blood pressure, respiratory rate, and body temperature between pre-exposure, exposure, and post-exposure periods. The lack of response in these African green monkeys may be attributable to their generally calm demeanor in captivity; experiments with a more excitable species such as the rhesus macaque might demonstrate a significant relaxation response to music.

  13. Cup tool use by squirrel monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckmaster, Christine L; Hyde, Shellie A; Parker, Karen J; Lyons, David M

    2015-12-01

    Captive-born male and female squirrel monkeys spontaneously 'invented' a cup tool use technique to Contain (i.e., hold and control) food they reduced into fragments for consumption and to Contain water collected from a valve to drink. Food cup use was observed more frequently than water cup use. Observations indicate that 68% (n = 39/57) of monkeys in this population used a cup (a plastic slip cap) to Contain food, and a subset of these monkeys, 10% (n = 4/39), also used a cup to Contain water. Cup use was optional and did not replace, but supplemented, the hand/arm-to-mouth eating and direct valve drinking exhibited by all members of the population. Strategies monkeys used to bring food and cups together for food processing activity at preferred upper-level perching areas, in the arboreal-like environment in which they lived, provides evidence that monkeys may plan food processing activity with the cups. Specifically, prior to cup use monkeys obtained a cup first before food, or obtained food and a cup from the floor simultaneously, before transporting both items to upper-level perching areas. After food processing activity with cups monkeys rarely dropped the cups and more often placed the cups onto perching. Monkeys subsequently returned to use cups that they previously placed on perching after food processing activity. The latter behavior is consistent with the possibility that monkeys may keep cups at preferred perching sites for future food processing activity and merits experimental investigation. Reports of spontaneous tool use by squirrel monkeys are rare and this is the first report of population-level tool use. These findings offer insights into the cognitive abilities of squirrel monkeys and provide a new context for behavior studies with this genus and for comparative studies with other primates.

  14. Training pair-housed Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) using a combination of negative and positive reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wergård, Eva-Marie; Temrin, Hans; Forkman, Björn; Spångberg, Mats; Fredlund, Hélène; Westlund, Karolina

    2015-04-01

    When training animals, time is sometimes a limiting factor hampering the use of positive reinforcement training (PRT) exclusively. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a combination of negative and positive reinforcement training (NPRT). Twenty naïve female Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were trained in 30 sessions with either PRT (n=8) or NPRT (n=12) to respond to a signal, move into a selected cage section and accept confinement. In the NPRT-group a signal preceded the presentation of one or several novel, and thus aversive, stimuli. When the correct behaviour was performed, the novel stimulus was removed and treats were given. As the animal learned to perform the correct behaviour, the use of novel stimuli was decreased and finally phased out completely. None of the PRT-trained animals finished the task. Ten out of 12 monkeys in the NPRT-group succeeded to perform the task within the 30 training sessions, a significant difference from the PRT-group (p=0.0007). A modified approach test showed no significant difference between the groups (p=0.67) in how they reacted to the trainer. The results from this study suggest that carefully conducted NPRT can be an alternative training method to consider, especially when under a time constraint.

  15. Behavioral and anatomical consequences of early versus late symbol training in macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srihasam, Krishna; Mandeville, Joseph B; Morocz, Istvan A; Sullivan, Kevin J; Livingstone, Margaret S

    2012-02-09

    Distinct brain regions, reproducible from one person to the next, are specialized for processing different kinds of human expertise, such as face recognition and reading. Here, we explore the relationship between age of learning, learning ability, and specialized brain structures. Specifically, we ask whether the existence of reproducible cortical domains necessarily means that certain abilities are innate, or innately easily learned, or whether reproducible domains can be formed, or refined, by interactions between genetic programs and common early experience. Functional MRI showed that intensive early, but not late, experience caused the formation of category-selective regions in macaque temporal lobe for stimuli never naturally encountered by monkeys. And behaviorally, early training produced more fluent processing of these stimuli than the same training in adults. One explanation for these results is that in higher cortical areas, as in early sensory areas, experience drives functional clustering and functional clustering determines how that information is processed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Communication and the primate brain: insights from neuroimaging studies in humans, chimpanzees and macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Benjamin; Petkov, Christopher I

    2011-04-01

    Considerable knowledge is available on the neural substrates for speech and language from brain-imaging studies in humans, but until recently there was a lack of data for comparison from other animal species on the evolutionarily conserved brain regions that process species-specific communication signals. To obtain new insights into the relationship of the substrates for communication in primates, we compared the results from several neuroimaging studies in humans with those that have recently been obtained from macaque monkeys and chimpanzees. The recent work in humans challenges the longstanding notion of highly localized speech areas. As a result, the brain regions that have been identified in humans for speech and nonlinguistic voice processing show a striking general correspondence to how the brains of other primates analyze species-specific vocalizations or information in the voice, such as voice identity. The comparative neuroimaging work has begun to clarify evolutionary relationships in brain function, supporting the notion that the brain regions that process communication signals in the human brain arose from a precursor network of regions that is present in nonhuman primates and is used for processing species-specific vocalizations. We conclude by considering how the stage now seems to be set for comparative neurobiology to characterize the ancestral state of the network that evolved in humans to support language.

  17. UNC-Emory Infant Atlases for Macaque Brain Image Analysis: Postnatal Brain Development through 12 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yundi; Budin, Francois; Yapuncich, Eva; Rumple, Ashley; Young, Jeffrey T.; Payne, Christa; Zhang, Xiaodong; Hu, Xiaoping; Godfrey, Jodi; Howell, Brittany; Sanchez, Mar M.; Styner, Martin A.

    2017-01-01

    Computational anatomical atlases have shown to be of immense value in neuroimaging as they provide age appropriate reference spaces alongside ancillary anatomical information for automated analysis such as subcortical structural definitions, cortical parcellations or white fiber tract regions. Standard workflows in neuroimaging necessitate such atlases to be appropriately selected for the subject population of interest. This is especially of importance in early postnatal brain development, where rapid changes in brain shape and appearance render neuroimaging workflows sensitive to the appropriate atlas choice. We present here a set of novel computation atlases for structural MRI and Diffusion Tensor Imaging as crucial resource for the analysis of MRI data from non-human primate rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) data in early postnatal brain development. Forty socially-housed infant macaques were scanned longitudinally at ages 2 weeks, 3, 6, and 12 months in order to create cross-sectional structural and DTI atlases via unbiased atlas building at each of these ages. Probabilistic spatial prior definitions for the major tissue classes were trained on each atlas with expert manual segmentations. In this article we present the development and use of these atlases with publicly available tools, as well as the atlases themselves, which are publicly disseminated to the scientific community. PMID:28119564

  18. Working Memory in the Prefrontal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shintaro Funahashi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The prefrontal cortex participates in a variety of higher cognitive functions. The concept of working memory is now widely used to understand prefrontal functions. Neurophysiological studies have revealed that stimulus-selective delay-period activity is a neural correlate of the mechanism for temporarily maintaining information in working memory processes. The central executive, which is the master component of Baddeley’s working memory model and is thought to be a function of the prefrontal cortex, controls the performance of other components by allocating a limited capacity of memory resource to each component based on its demand. Recent neurophysiological studies have attempted to reveal how prefrontal neurons achieve the functions of the central executive. For example, the neural mechanisms of memory control have been examined using the interference effect in a dual-task paradigm. It has been shown that this interference effect is caused by the competitive and overloaded recruitment of overlapping neural populations in the prefrontal cortex by two concurrent tasks and that the information-processing capacity of a single neuron is limited to a fixed level, can be flexibly allocated or reallocated between two concurrent tasks based on their needs, and enhances behavioral performance when its allocation to one task is increased. Further, a metamemory task requiring spatial information has been used to understand the neural mechanism for monitoring its own operations, and it has been shown that monitoring the quality of spatial information represented by prefrontal activity is an important factor in the subject's choice and that the strength of spatially selective delay-period activity reflects confidence in decision-making. Although further studies are needed to elucidate how the prefrontal cortex controls memory resource and supervises other systems, some important mechanisms related to the central executive have been identified.

  19. Social learning as a way to overcome choice-induced preferences? Insights from humans and rhesus macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELISABETTA eMONFARDINI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Much theoretical attention is currently devoted to social learning. Yet, empirical studies formally comparing its effectiveness relative to individual learning are rare. Here, we focus on free choice, which is at the heart of individual reward-based learning, but absent in social learning. Choosing among two equally valued options is known to create a preference for the selected option in both humans and monkeys. We thus surmised that social learning should be more helpful when choice-induced preferences retard individual learning than when they optimize it. To test this prediction, the same task requiring to find which among two items concealed a reward was applied to rhesus macaques and humans. The initial trial was individual or social, rewarded or unrewarded. Learning was assessed on the second trial. Choice-induced preference strongly affected individual learning. Monkeys and humans performed much more poorly after an initial negative choice than after an initial positive choice. Comparison with social learning verified our prediction. For negative outcome, social learning surpassed or at least equaled individual learning in all subjects. For positive outcome, the predicted superiority of individual learning did occur in a majority of subjects (5/6 monkeys and 6/12 humans. A minority kept learning better socially though, perhaps due to a more dominant/aggressive attitude toward peers. Poor learning from errors due to over-valuation of personal choices is among the decision-making biases shared by humans and animals. The present study suggests that choice-immune social learning may help curbing this potentially harmful tendency. Learning from successes is an easier path. The present data suggest that whether one tends to walk it alone or with a peer's help might depend on the social dynamics within the actor/observer dyad.

  20. Effects of Vitrectomy and Lensectomy on Older Rhesus Macaques: Oxygen Distribution, Antioxidant Status, and Aqueous Humor Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegfried, Carla J; Shui, Ying-Bo; Tian, Baohe; Nork, T Michael; Heatley, Gregg A; Kaufman, Paul L

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate effects of vitrectomy (PPV) and lens extraction with intraocular lens implantation (PE/IOL) on molecular oxygen (pO2) distribution, aqueous humor antioxidant-oxidant balance, aqueous humor dynamics, and histopathologic changes in the trabecular meshwork (TM) in the older macaque monkey. Six rhesus monkeys underwent PPV followed by PE/IOL. pO2, outflow facility, and intraocular pressure (IOP) were measured. Aqueous and vitreous humor specimens were analyzed for antioxidant status and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a marker of oxidative damage. TM specimens were obtained for immunohistochemical and quantitative PCR analysis. pO2 at baseline revealed steep gradients in the anterior chamber and low levels in the posterior chamber (PC) and around the lens. Following PPV and PE/IOL, pO2 significantly increased in the PC, around the IOL, and angle. IOP increased following both surgical interventions, with no change in outflow facility. Histopathologic analysis did not show changes in TM cell quantification, but there was an increase in 8-OHdG. Quantitative PCR did not reveal significant differences in glaucoma-related gene expression. Aqueous and vitreous humor analysis revealed decreased ascorbate and total reactive antioxidant potential and increased 8-OHdG in the aqueous humor only in the surgical eyes. Oxygen distribution in the older rhesus monkey is similar to humans at baseline and following surgical interventions. Our findings of histopathologic changes of TM oxidative damage and alterations in the oxidant-antioxidant balance suggest a potential correlation of increased oxygen exposure with oxidative stress/damage and the development of open angle glaucoma.

  1. Moving evidence into practice: cost analysis and assessment of macaques' sustained behavioral engagement with videogames and foraging devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Allyson J; Perkins, Chaney M; Tenpas, Parker D; Reinebach, Alma L; Pierre, Peter J

    2016-12-01

    Environmental enrichment plans for captive nonhuman primates often include provision of foraging devices. The rationale for using foraging devices is to promote species-typical activity patterns that encourage physical engagement and provide multi-sensory stimulation. However, these devices have been shown to be ineffective at sustaining manipulation over long periods of time, and often produce minimal cognitive engagement. Here we use an evidence-based approach to directly compare the amount of object-directed behavior with a foraging device and a computer-based videogame system. We recorded 11 adult male rhesus monkeys' interactions with a foraging device and two tasks within a joystick videogame cognitive test battery. Both techniques successfully produced high levels of engagement during the initial 20 min of observation. After 1 hr the monkeys manipulated the foraging device significantly less than the joystick, F(2,10) = 43.93, P < 0.0001. Subsequent testing showed that the monkeys engaged in videogame play for the majority of a 5 hr period, provided that they received a 94 mg chow pellet upon successful completion of trials. Using a model approach, we developed previously as a basis for standardized cost:benefit analysis to inform facility decisions, we calculated the comprehensive cost of incorporating a videogame system as an enrichment strategy. The videogame system has a higher initial cost compared to widely-used foraging devices, however, the ongoing labor and supply costs are relatively low. Our findings add to two decades of empirical studies by a number of laboratories that have demonstrated the successful use of videogame-based systems to promote sustained non-social cognitive engagement for macaques. The broader significance of the work lies in the application of a systematic approach to compare and contrast enrichment strategies and encourage evidence-based decision making when choosing an enrichment strategy in a manner that

  2. High immune activation and abnormal expression of cytokines contribute to death of SHIV89.6-infected Chinese rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ren-Rong; Zhang, Ming-Xu; Zhang, Lin-Tao; Zhang, Xiao-Liang; Zheng, Hong-Yi; Zhu, Lin; Pang, Wei; Zhang, Gao-Hong; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2015-08-01

    Chinese rhesus macaques (CRMs) are ideal experimental animals for studying the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and for vaccine research. SHIV89.6 has been reported to be an attenuated virus because, in most cases, SHIV89.6 infection only causes limited alteration of immune cells and tissues, and it has been used commonly for vaccine research. After two serial passages in vivo, SHIV (SHIV-89.6P) induces CD4 lymphopenia and an AIDS-like disease with wasting and opportunistic infections. However, the pathogenic ability of SHIV89.6 is not well understood. In this study, we found that 6 of 14 SHIV89.6-infected CRMs died within 127 weeks after infection. We found especially high immune activation, low IFN-α expression, and distinctive cytokine expression profiles in the infected and dead (ID) group of monkeys, while there was only few change in the CD4(+) T counts and distribution of T cell subsets in the ID group monkeys. Also, there was a similar dynamic of viral load between infected and surviving (IS) and ID group monkeys. Furthermore, we found various correlations among immune activation, IFN-α expression, and frequencies of cytokine-secreting cells. These results suggest that SHIV89.6 infections have pathogenic potential in CRMs and that high immune activation and abnormal expression of cytokines contribute to death of SHIV89.6-infected CRMs. This also implies that high immune activation may be relevant to dysfunction of immune cells. It is proposed that high immune activation and dysfunction of immune cells may be good predictors for disease progression and markers for therapy.

  3. Neurodynamics of cognitive set shifting in monkey frontal cortex and its causal impact on behavioral flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamigaki, Tsukasa; Fukushima, Tetsuya; Tamura, Keita; Miyashita, Yasushi

    2012-11-01

    Flexible behavior depends on the ability to shift an internal cognitive set as soon as external demand changes. According to neuropsychological studies in human and nonhuman primates, selective lesion to the PFC impairs flexible behavioral shifting. Our previous fMRI study demonstrated that the prefrontal regions showed transient activation related to set shifting in humans and monkeys. To investigate the underlying neural processing, we recorded single-unit activities while monkeys performed a cognitive-set-shifting task, which required shifting between shape-matching and color-matching behaviors. We identified a group of neurons in the inferior arcuate region that exhibited selective activity when the monkeys were required to shift their cognitive set. These shift-related neurons were localized in the focal area along the posterior bank of the inferior arcuate sulcus. Reversible inactivation of this area ipsilateral to the response hand with a small volume of muscimol (even with 0.5 μl) selectively impaired the performance of behavioral shifting. Moreover, this selective behavioral impairment strongly correlated with the dose of muscimol. These results demonstrated localized neural processing for cognitive set shifting and its causal role for behavioral flexibility in primates.

  4. Regional age-related effects in the monkey brain measured with 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronen, Itamar; Fan, Xiaoying; Schettler, Steve; Jain, Sahil; Murray, Donna; Kim, Dae-Shik; Killiany, Ronald; Rosene, Douglas

    2011-06-01

    The rhesus monkey is a useful model for examining age-related effects on the brain, because of the extensive neuroanatomical homology between the monkey and the human brain, the tight control for neurological diseases as well as the possibility of obtaining relevant behavioral data and post-mortem tissue for histological analyses. Here, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) was used together with high-resolution anatomical MRI images to carefully assess regional concentrations of brain metabolites in a group of 20 rhesus monkeys. In an anterior volume of interest (VOI) that covered frontal and prefrontal areas, significant positive correlations of myo-inositol and of total creatine concentrations with age were detected, whereas N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) and choline compounds (Cho) were not significantly correlated with age. In an occipito-parietal VOI, all metabolites showed no statistically significant age-dependent trend. Strong correlations were found between NAA concentration and gray matter fraction in the VOIs as well as between choline compounds and white matter fraction.

  5. Assisted reproductive technologies in rhesus macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Don P

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs have been used in the production of rhesus monkey offspring at the Oregon National Primate Research Center (ONPRC and that experience is summarized here. Additionally these technologies serve as a source of oocytes/embryos for monozygotic twinning, embryonic stem (ES cell derivation and cloning. High fertilization efficiencies were realized with conventional insemination or following the use of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI and approximately 50% of the resulting embryos grew in vitro to blastocysts. Both fresh and frozen sperm were employed in fertilization by ICSI and the resulting embryos could be low temperature stored for subsequent thawing and transfer when a synchronized recipient female was available or after shipment to another facility. Following the transfer of up to 3 embryos, an overall pregnancy rate of 30% was achieved with increasing rates dependent upon the number of embryos transferred. Singleton pregnancy outcomes following the transfer of ART produced embryos were similar to those observed in a control group of animals in the timed mated breeding colony at ONPRC. ICSI produced embryos were used in efforts to create monozygotic twins by blastomere separation or blastocyst splitting. While pregnancies were achieved following the transfer of demi-embryos, only one was a twin and it was lost to spontaneous abortion. ICSI produced embryos have also served as the source of blastocysts for the derivation of embryonic stem cells. These pluripotent cells hold potential for cell based therapies and we consider the monkey an important translational model in which to evaluate safety, efficacy and feasibility of regenerative medicine approaches based on the transplantation of stem cell-derived progeny. Finally, efforts to produce genetically-identical monkeys by nuclear transfer have been briefly summarized.

  6. Motivational Shifts in Aging Monkeys and the Origins of Social Selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeling, Laura; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Sennhenn-Reulen, Holger; Freund, Alexandra M; Fischer, Julia

    2016-07-11

    As humans age, they become more selective regarding their personal goals [1] and social partners [2]. Whereas the selectivity in goals has been attributed to losses in resources (e.g., physical strength) [3], the increasing focus on emotionally meaningful partners is, according to socioemotional selectivity theory, driven by the awareness of one's decreasing future lifetime [2]. Similar to humans, aging monkeys show physical losses [4] and reductions in social activity [2, 5-7]. To disentangle a general resource loss and the awareness of decreasing time, we combined field experiments with behavioral observations in a large age-heterogeneous population of Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) at La Forêt des Singes. Novel object tests revealed a loss of interest in the nonsocial environment in early adulthood, which was modulated by the availability of a food reward. Experiments using vocal and visual representations of social partners indicated that monkeys maintained an interest in social stimuli and a preferential interest in friends and socially important individuals into old age. Old females engaged in fewer social interactions, although other group members continued to invest in relationships with them. Consequently, reductions in sociality were not due to a decrease in social interest. In conclusion, some of the motivational shifts observed in aging humans, particularly the increasing focus on social over nonsocial stimuli, may occur in the absence of a limited time perspective and are most likely deeply rooted in primate evolution. Our findings highlight the value of nonhuman primates as valuable models for understanding human aging [8, 9].

  7. Spatial and viewpoint selectivity for others' observed actions in monkey ventral premotor mirror neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranesi, Monica; Livi, Alessandro; Bonini, Luca

    2017-08-15

    The spatial location and viewpoint of observed actions are closely linked in natural social settings. For example, actions observed from a subjective viewpoint necessarily occur within the observer's peripersonal space. Neurophysiological studies have shown that mirror neurons (MNs) of the monkey ventral premotor area F5 can code the spatial location of live observed actions. Furthermore, F5 MN discharge can also be modulated by the viewpoint from which filmed actions are seen. Nonetheless, whether and to what extent MNs can integrate viewpoint and spatial location of live observed actions remains unknown. We addressed this issue by comparing the activity of 148 F5 MNs while macaque monkeys observed an experimenter grasping in three different combinations of viewpoint and spatial location, namely, lateral view in the (1) extrapersonal and (2) peripersonal space and (3) subjective view in the peripersonal space. We found that the majority of MNs were space-selective (60.8%): those selective for the peripersonal space exhibited a preference for the subjective viewpoint both at the single-neuron and population level, whereas space-unselective neurons were view invariant. These findings reveal the existence of a previously neglected link between spatial and viewpoint selectivity in MN activity during live-action observation.

  8. Metacognition in Monkeys during an Oculomotor Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlebrooks, Paul G.; Sommer, Marc A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether rhesus monkeys show evidence of metacognition in a reduced, visual oculomotor task that is particularly suitable for use in fMRI and electrophysiology. The 2-stage task involved punctate visual stimulation and saccadic eye movement responses. In each trial, monkeys made a decision and then made a bet. To earn…

  9. Metacognition in Monkeys during an Oculomotor Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlebrooks, Paul G.; Sommer, Marc A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether rhesus monkeys show evidence of metacognition in a reduced, visual oculomotor task that is particularly suitable for use in fMRI and electrophysiology. The 2-stage task involved punctate visual stimulation and saccadic eye movement responses. In each trial, monkeys made a decision and then made a bet. To earn…

  10. Prototype Abstraction by Monkeys ("Macaca Mulatta")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. David; Redford, Joshua S.; Haas, Sarah M.

    2008-01-01

    The authors analyze the shape categorization of rhesus monkeys ("Macaca mulatta") and the role of prototype- and exemplar-based comparison processes in monkeys' category learning. Prototype and exemplar theories make contrasting predictions regarding performance on the Posner-Homa dot-distortion categorization task. Prototype theory--which…

  11. On Loss Aversion in Capuchin Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberberg, Alan; Roma, Peter G.; Huntsberry, Mary E.; Warren-Boulton, Frederick R.; Sakagami, Takayuki; Ruggiero, Angela M.; Suomi, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    Chen, Lakshminarayanan, and Santos (2006) claim to show in three choice experiments that monkeys react rationally to price and wealth shocks, but, when faced with gambles, display hallmark, human-like biases that include loss aversion. We present three experiments with monkeys and humans consistent with a reinterpretation of their data that…

  12. Spatial information processing in humans and monkeys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oleksiak, A.

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis a series of experiments are described on human volunteers and rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in the context of spatial information processing. In the first single-unit recording experiments in monkeys a spatial summation algorithm was investigated. The responses of single neurons to

  13. A dynamic code for economic object valuation in prefrontal cortex neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Ken-Ichiro; Grabenhorst, Fabian; Kobayashi, Shunsuke; Schultz, Wolfram

    2016-09-13

    Neuronal reward valuations provide the physiological basis for economic behaviour. Yet, how such valuations are converted to economic decisions remains unclear. Here we show that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) implements a flexible value code based on object-specific valuations by single neurons. As monkeys perform a reward-based foraging task, individual DLPFC neurons signal the value of specific choice objects derived from recent experience. These neuronal object values satisfy principles of competitive choice mechanisms, track performance fluctuations and follow predictions of a classical behavioural model (Herrnstein's matching law). Individual neurons dynamically encode both, the updating of object values from recently experienced rewards, and their subsequent conversion to object choices during decision-making. Decoding from unselected populations enables a read-out of motivational and decision variables not emphasized by individual neurons. These findings suggest a dynamic single-neuron and population value code in DLPFC that advances from reward experiences to economic object values and future choices.

  14. Neuronal population coding of perceived and memorized visual features in the lateral prefrontal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Halliday, Diego; Martinez-Trujillo, Julio C.

    2017-01-01

    The primate lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) encodes visual stimulus features while they are perceived and while they are maintained in working memory. However, it remains unclear whether perceived and memorized features are encoded by the same or different neurons and population activity patterns. Here we record LPFC neuronal activity while monkeys perceive the motion direction of a stimulus that remains visually available, or memorize the direction if the stimulus disappears. We find neurons with a wide variety of combinations of coding strength for perceived and memorized directions: some neurons encode both to similar degrees while others preferentially or exclusively encode either one. Reading out the combined activity of all neurons, a machine-learning algorithm reliably decode the motion direction and determine whether it is perceived or memorized. Our results indicate that a functionally diverse population of LPFC neurons provides a substrate for discriminating between perceptual and mnemonic representations of visual features. PMID:28569756

  15. Representation of abstract quantitative rules applied to spatial and numerical magnitudes in primate prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiselt, Anne-Kathrin; Nieder, Andreas

    2013-04-24

    Processing quantity information based on abstract principles is central to intelligent behavior. Neural correlates of quantitative rule selectivity have been identified previously in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). However, whether individual neurons represent rules applied to multiple magnitude types is unknown. We recorded from PFC neurons while monkeys switched between "greater than/less than" rules applied to spatial and numerical magnitudes. A majority of rule-selective neurons responded only to the quantitative rules applied to one specific magnitude type. However, another population of neurons generalized the magnitude principle and represented the quantitative rules related to both magnitudes. This indicates that the primate brain uses rule-selective neurons specialized in guiding decisions related to a specific magnitude type only, as well as generalizing neurons that respond abstractly to the overarching concept "magnitude rules."

  16. Comparative ultrastructural features of excitatory synapses in the visual and frontal cortices of the adult mouse and monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Alexander; Luebke, Jennifer I; Medalla, Maria

    2017-03-03

    The excitatory glutamatergic synapse is the principal site of communication between cortical pyramidal neurons and their targets, a key locus of action of many drugs, and highly vulnerable to dysfunction and loss in neurodegenerative disease. A detailed knowledge of the structure of these synapses in distinct cortical areas and across species is a prerequisite for understanding the anatomical underpinnings of cortical specialization and, potentially, selective vulnerability in neurological disorders. We used serial electron microscopy to assess the ultrastructural features of excitatory (asymmetric) synapses in the layers 2-3 (L2-3) neuropil of visual (V1) and frontal (FC) cortices of the adult mouse and compared findings to those in the rhesus monkey (V1 and lateral prefrontal cortex [LPFC]). Analyses of multiple ultrastructural variables revealed four organizational features. First, the density of asymmetric synapses does not differ between frontal and visual cortices in either species, but is significantly higher in mouse than in monkey. Second, the structural properties of asymmetric synapses in mouse V1 and FC are nearly identical, by stark contrast to the significant differences seen between monkey V1 and LPFC. Third, while the structural features of postsynaptic entities in mouse and monkey V1 do not differ, the size of presynaptic boutons are significantly larger in monkey V1. Fourth, both presynaptic and postsynaptic entities are significantly smaller in the mouse FC than in the monkey LPFC. The diversity of synaptic ultrastructural features demonstrated here have broad implications for the nature and efficacy of glutamatergic signaling in distinct cortical areas within and across species.

  17. [Prefrontal cortex in memory and attention processes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegri, R F; Harris, P

    The role of the prefrontal cortex still remains poorly understood. Only after 1970, the functions of the frontal lobes have been conceptualized from different points of view (behaviorism, cognitivism). Recently,different parallel circuits connecting discrete cortical and subcortical regions of the frontal lobes have been described. Three of these circuits are the most relevant to understanding of behavior: the dorsolateral prefrontal circuit, that mediates executive behavior; the orbitofrontal prefrontal circuit, mediating social behavior, and the medial frontal circuit, involved in motivation. Damage to the frontal cortex impairs planning, problem solving, reasoning, concept formation, temporal ordering of stimuli, estimation, attention, memory search, maintaining information in working memory, associative learning,certain forms of skilled motor activities, image generation and manipulation of the spatial properties of a stimulus, metacognitive thinking, and social cognition. Several theories have been proposed to explain the functions of the prefrontal cortex. Currently,the most influential cognitive models are: the Norman and Shallice supervisory attentional system, involved in non-routine selection; the Baddeley working memory model with the central executive as a supervisory controlling system, in which impairment leads to a 'dysexecutive syndrome'; and the Grafman's model of managerial knowledge units, stored as macrostructured information in the frontal cortex. The prefrontal cortex is essential for attentional control, manipulation of stored knowledge and modulation of complex actions, cognition, emotion and behavior.

  18. Seed dispersal by rhesus macaques Macaca mulatta in Northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Asmita; McConkey, Kim R; Radhakrishna, Sindhu

    2014-12-01

    Frugivorous primates are important seed dispersers and their absence from forest patches is predicted to be detrimental to tropical forest regeneration and recruitment. With the reduction of primate populations globally, ecologically resilient primate species, characterized by dietary flexibility and the ability to thrive in a variety of habitats, assume new importance as seed dispersers. The most widely distributed non-human primate, the rhesus macaque Macaca mulatta has been intensively studied but little is known about its role in maintaining ecosystem structure and functions. Due to their frugivorous diet, large group sizes, large home ranges and tolerance to disturbance, rhesus macaques may be effective seed dispersers. We studied seed dispersal by rhesus macaques at the Buxa Tiger Reserve, India, through a combination of behavioural observations and germination experiments. Rhesus macaques dispersed 84% of the 49 species they fed on either through spitting or defecation. Nearly 96% of the handled seeds were undamaged and 61% of the species for which germination tests were performed had enhanced germination. Almost 50% of the monitored seeds among those deposited in situ germinated and 22% established seedlings, suggesting that rhesus macaques are important seed dispersers in tropical forests. Due to their widespread distribution and large populations, rhesus macaques are perceived as common and are categorized as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List, effectively excluding them from any conservation plans. Based on the results of our study, we argue that rhesus macaques fulfill critical ecological functions in their habitat and that this parameter must be taken into consideration when they are reviewed for conservation priorities.

  19. Distinct neural patterns enable grasp types decoding in monkey dorsal premotor cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yaoyao; Zhang, Qiaosheng; Controzzi, Marco; Cipriani, Christian; Li, Yue; Li, Juncheng; Zhang, Shaomin; Wang, Yiwen; Chen, Weidong; Chiara Carrozza, Maria; Zheng, Xiaoxiang

    2014-12-01

    Objective. Recent studies have shown that dorsal premotor cortex (PMd), a cortical area in the dorsomedial grasp pathway, is involved in grasp movements. However, the neural ensemble firing property of PMd during grasp movements and the extent to which it can be used for grasp decoding are still unclear. Approach. To address these issues, we used multielectrode arrays to record both spike and local field potential (LFP) signals in PMd in macaque monkeys performing reaching and grasping of one of four differently shaped objects. Main results. Single and population neuronal activity showed distinct patterns during execution of different grip types. Cluster analysis of neural ensemble signals indicated that the grasp related patterns emerged soon (200-300 ms) after the go cue signal, and faded away during the hold period. The timing and duration of the patterns varied depending on the behaviors of individual monkey. Application of support vector machine model to stable activity patterns revealed classification accuracies of 94% and 89% for each of the two monkeys, indicating a robust, decodable grasp pattern encoded in the PMd. Grasp decoding using LFPs, especially the high-frequency bands, also produced high decoding accuracies. Significance. This study is the first to specify the neuronal population encoding of grasp during the time course of grasp. We demonstrate high grasp decoding performance in PMd. These findings, combined with previous evidence for reach related modulation studies, suggest that PMd may play an important role in generation and maintenance of grasp action and may be a suitable locus for brain-machine interface applications.

  20. Maxillary nerve compression in cynomolgus monkey Macaca fascicularis: altered somatic sensation and peripheral nerve firing

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    Guo Ning

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trigeminal nerve is a major source of the sensory input of the face, and trigeminal neuropathology models have been reported in rodents with injury to branches of the maxillary or mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. Non-human primates are neuroanatomically more closely related to human than rodents; however, nerve injury studies in non-human primates are limited. Results We describe here a nerve injury model of maxillary nerve compression (MNC in the cynomolgus macaque monkey, Macaca fascicularis, and the initial characterization of the consequences of damage to this trigeminal nerve branch. The nerve injury from the compression appeared to be mild, as we did not observe overt changes in home-cage behavior in the monkeys. When mechanical stimulation was applied to the facial area, monkeys with MNC displayed increased mechanical sensitivity, as the avoidance response scores were lower than those from the control animals. Such a change in mechanical sensitivity appeared to be somewhat bilateral, as the contralateral side also showed increased mechanical sensitivity, although the change on the ipsilateral side was more robust. Multiple-unit recording of the maxillary nerve showed a general pattern of increasing responsiveness to escalating force in mechanical stimulation on the contralateral side. Ipsilateral side of the maxillary nerve showed a lack of responsiveness to escalating force in mechanical stimulation, possibly reflecting a maximum stimulation threshold effect from sensitized nerve due to MNC injury. Conclusions These results suggest that MNC may produce increased sensitivity of the ipsilateral maxillary nerve, and that this model may serve as a non-human primate model to evaluate the effect of injury to trigeminal nerve branches.

  1. Effect of mother's dominance rank on offspring temperament in infant rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Jimenez, Benjamin; Hathaway, Amanda; Waters, Carlos; Vaughan, Kelli; Suomi, Stephen J; Noble, Pamela L; Pine, Daniel S; Fox, Nathan A; Nelson, Eric E

    2013-01-01

    In humans, temperament plays an important role in socialization and personality. Some temperaments, such as behavioral inhibition are associated with an increased risk for psychopathology. Nonhuman primates can serve as a model for neurobiological and developmental contributions to emotional development and several recent studies have begun to investigate temperament in nonhuman primates. In rhesus monkeys, dominance rank is inherited from the mother and is associated with social and emotional tendencies that resemble differences in temperament. The current study assessed differences in temperament in infant rhesus monkeys as a function of maternal dominance rank. Temperament was assessed in 26 infants (13 males) from birth until 6 months of age with a battery that included Brazelton test, human intruder test, human intruder-startle, cortisol stress reactivity, and home cage observations of interactions with peers and the mother. Throughout testing, infants lived with their mothers and a small group of other monkeys in indoor/outdoor runs. Dominance rank of the mothers within each run was rated as either low/middle (N = 18, 9 male) or high/alpha (N = 8, 4 female). Infants of high-ranking mothers displayed more intruder-directed aggression and reduced startle potentiation in the human intruder tests. Dominant offspring also had reduced levels cortisol and startle across development and spent more time away from mothers in the interaction tests. These results suggest that dominance of the mother may be reflected in behavioral reactivity of infants early in life. These findings set up future studies, which may focus on contributing factors to both dominance and temperament such as genetics, rearing, and socialization. Such factors are likely to interact across development in meaningful ways. These results also suggest future human-based studies of a similar relationship may be warranted, although social dominance is clearly more complex in human than macaque societies.

  2. Examining the species-specificity of rhesus macaque cytomegalovirus (RhCMV in cynomolgus macaques.

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    Angie K Marsh

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus (CMV is a highly species-specific virus that has co-evolved with its host over millions of years and thus restricting cross-species infection. To examine the extent to which host restriction may prevent cross-species research between closely related non-human primates, we evaluated experimental infection of cynomolgus macaques with a recombinant rhesus macaque-derived CMV (RhCMV-eGFP. Twelve cynomolgus macaques were randomly allocated to three groups: one experimental group (RhCMV-eGFP and two control groups (UV-inactivated RhCMV-eGFP or media alone. The animals were given two subcutaneous inoculations at week 0 and week 8, and a subset of animals received an intravenous inoculation at week 23. No overt clinical or haematological changes were observed and PBMCs isolated from RhCMV-eGFP inoculated animals had comparable eGFP- and IE-1-specific cellular responses to the control animals. Following inoculation with RhCMV-eGFP, we were unable to detect evidence of infection in any blood or tissue samples up to 4 years post-inoculation, using sensitive viral co-culture, qPCR, and Western blot assays. Co-culture of urine and saliva samples demonstrated the presence of endogenous cynomolgus CMV (CyCMV cytopathic effect, however no concomitant eGFP expression was observed. The absence of detectable RhCMV-eGFP suggests that the CyCMV-seropositive cynomolgus macaques were not productively infected with RhCMV-eGFP under these inoculation conditions. In a continued effort to develop CMV as a viral vector for an HIV/SIV vaccine, these studies demonstrate that CMV is highly restricted to its host species and can be highly affected by laboratory cell culture. Consideration of the differences between lab-adapted and primary viruses with respect to species range and cell tropism should be a priority in evaluating CMV as vaccine vector for HIV or other pathogens at the preclinical development stage.

  3. [Monkey malaria (Plasmodium knowlesi infection) after travelling to Thailand].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroidl, Inge; Seilmaier, Michael; Berens-Riha, Nicole; Bretzel, Gisela; Wendtner, Clemens; Löscher, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    A case of malaria caused by Plasmodium knowlesi is described in a 52-year-old female German traveler after returning from Thailand. P. knowlesi is a parasite of macaques in Southeast Asia and has been recognized in recent years as an important and probably increasing cause of human malaria in some areas. At least 16 cases in international travelers have been published so far. This includes four cases imported to Germany. All German patients visited forested areas in Southern Thailand inhabited by the natural monkey host prior to their illness. Most cases diagnosed in endemic areas present as mild disease. However in some patients P. knowlesi may take a severe and life-threatening course. Diagnosis is usually is based on microscopy whereas rapid tests are not reliable. However, microscopic differentiation of P. knowlesi from other plasmodium species (eg, P. malariae, P. falciparum) is difficult, especially when parasitemia is low. Thus PCR methods are required for definite species determination. Changing endemicity as well as changing tourism patterns such as the trend towards eco-tourism might increase the risk of infection for travelers even in areas which are considered as low endemic for malaria. Malaria has to be considered in all febrile patients returning from endemic areas. In Southeast Asia this has to include Plasmodium knowlesi infection. Especially if microscopy suggests P. falciparum/P. malariae double infection, or when results indicate P. malariae but the clinical presentation differs from that of quartan malaria (eg, daily fever), diagnostic procedures for P. knowlesi should be initiated. Currently available rapid diagnostic tests are not reliable for the detection of P. knowlesi. The definite diagnosis of P. knowlesi infection usually requires PCR techniques Changing tourism patterns such as the trend towards eco-tourism might increase the risk of infection for travelers even in low prevalence areas. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) immunoglobulin heavy chain locus description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guo-Yun; Mate, Suzanne; Garcia, Karla; Ward, Michael D; Brueggemann, Ernst; Hall, Matthew; Kenny, Tara; Sanchez-Lockhart, Mariano; Lefranc, Marie-Paule; Palacios, Gustavo

    2016-07-01

    Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) have become an important animal model for biomedical research. In particular, it is the animal model of choice for the development of vaccine candidates associated with emerging dangerous pathogens. Despite their increasing importance as animal models, the cynomolgus macaque genome is not fully characterized, hindering molecular studies for this model. More importantly, the lack of knowledge about the immunoglobulin (IG) locus organization directly impacts the analysis of the humoral response in cynomolgus macaques. Recent advances in next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies to analyze IG repertoires open the opportunity to deeply characterize the humoral immune response. However, the IG locus organization for the animal is required to completely dissect IG repertoires. Here, we describe the localization and organization of the rearranging IG heavy (IGH) genes on chromosome 7 of the cynomolgus macaque draft genome. Our annotation comprises 108 functional genes which include 63 variable (IGHV), 38 diversity (IGHD), and 7 joining (IGHJ) genes. For validation, we provide RNA transcript data for most of the IGHV genes and all of the annotated IGHJ genes, as well as proteomic data to validate IGH constant genes. The description and annotation of the rearranging IGH genes for the cynomolgus macaques will significantly facilitate scientific research. This is particularly relevant to dissect the immune response during vaccination or infection with dangerous pathogens such as Ebola, Marburg and other emerging pathogens where non-human primate models play a significant role for countermeasure development.

  5. Craniodental variation among Macaques (Macaca, nonhuman primates

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    Pan Ruliang

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In terms of structure and function, the skull is one of the most complicated organs in the body. It is also one of the most important parts in terms of developmental and evolutionary origins. This complexity makes it difficult to obtain evolutionary assessments if, as is usually the case with fossils, only part of the skull is available. For this reason this study involves a set of comparisons whereby the smallest functional units are studied first, and these built up, through a triple-nested hierarchical design, into more complex anatomical regions and eventually into the skull-as-a-whole. This design has been applied to macaques (Macaca in order to reveal patterns of variation at the different levels. The profiles of such variation have been obtained both within and between species. This has lead to a search for the skull parts that have undergone similar selection pressures during evolution and comparable development patterns in both ontogeny and phylogeny. Results Morphometric analysis (Principal Components was used to obtain these profiles of species and sex separations based on 77 cranial variables from 11 species of macaques. The results showed that 7 functional units could be aggregated into three functionally reasonable anatomical regions on the basis of similarities in profiles. These were: the masticatory apparatus containing mandible, lower teeth and upper teeth, the face as a whole combining maxilla (actually lower face and upper face, and the cranium as a whole involving cranium and calvaria. Twenty-six variables were finally selected for analyzing the morphology of the whole skull. This last showed an overall profile similar to that revealed in the masticatory apparatus but also contained additional information pertaining to individual species and species-groups separations. Conclusions The study provides a model for carrying out analysis of species separations and sex variation simultaneously. Through this

  6. Pluripotent hybrid stem cells from transgenic Huntington's disease monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laowtammathron, Chuti; Chan, Anthony W S

    2013-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a devastating disease that currently has no cure. Transgenic HD monkeys have developed key neuropathological and cognitive behavioral impairments similar to HD patients. Thus, pluripotent stem cells derived from transgenic HD monkeys could be a useful comparative model for clarifying HD pathogenesis and developing novel therapeutic approaches, which could be validated in HD monkeys. In order to create personal pluripotent stem cells from HD monkeys, here we present a tetraploid technique for deriving pluripotent hybrid HD monkey stem cells.

  7. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in owl monkeys (Aotus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlen, Grant G; Weller, Richard E; Perry, Ruby L; Baer, Janet F; Gozalo, Alfonso S

    2013-06-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is a common postmortem finding in owl monkeys. In most cases the animals do not exhibit clinical signs until the disease is advanced, making antemortem diagnosis of subclinical disease difficult and treatment unrewarding. We obtained echocardiograms, electrocardiograms, and thoracic radiographs from members of a colony of owl monkeys that previously was identified as showing a 40% incidence of gross myocardial hypertrophy at necropsy, to assess the usefulness of these modalities for antemortem diagnosis. No single modality was sufficiently sensitive and specific to detect all monkeys with cardiac hypertrophy. Electrocardiography was the least sensitive method for detecting owl monkeys with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Thoracic radiographs were more sensitive than was electrocardiography in this context but cannot detect animals with concentric hypertrophy without an enlarged cardiac silhouette. Echocardiography was the most sensitive method for identifying cardiac hypertrophy in owl monkeys. The most useful parameters suggestive of left ventricular hypertrophy in our owl monkeys were an increased average left ventricular wall thickness to chamber radius ratio and an increased calculated left ventricular myocardial mass. Parameters suggestive of dilative cardiomyopathy were an increased average left ventricular myocardial mass and a decreased average ratio of left ventricular free wall thickness to left ventricular chamber radius. When all 4 noninvasive diagnostic modalities (physical examination, echocardiography, electrocardiography, and thoracic radiography) were used concurrently, the probability of detecting hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in owl monkeys was increased greatly.

  8. Sensitive Dependence of Mental Function on Prefrontal Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Alen J Salerian

    2015-01-01

    This study offers evidence to suggest that both normalcy and psychiatric illness are sensitively dependent upon prefrontal cortex function. In general, the emergence of psychiatric symptoms coincide with diminished influence of prefrontal cortex function. The mediating influence of prefrontal cortex may be independent of molecular and regional brain dysfunctions contributory to psychiatric illness.

  9. MaqFACS (Macaque Facial Action Coding System) can be used to document facial movements in Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julle-Danière, Églantine; Micheletta, Jérôme; Whitehouse, Jamie; Joly, Marine; Gass, Carolin; Burrows, Anne M; Waller, Bridget M

    2015-01-01

    Human and non-human primates exhibit facial movements or displays to communicate with one another. The evolution of form and function of those displays could be better understood through multispecies comparisons. Anatomically based coding systems (Facial Action Coding Systems: FACS) are developed to enable such comparisons because they are standardized and systematic and aid identification of homologous expressions underpinned by similar muscle contractions. To date, FACS has been developed for humans, and subsequently modified for chimpanzees, rhesus macaques, orangutans, hylobatids, dogs, and cats. Here, we wanted to test whether the MaqFACS system developed in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) could be used to code facial movements in Barbary macaques (M. sylvanus), a species phylogenetically close to the rhesus macaques. The findings show that the facial movement capacity of Barbary macaques can be reliably coded using the MaqFACS. We found differences in use and form of some movements, most likely due to specializations in the communicative repertoire of each species, rather than morphological differences.

  10. Retinotopy versus face selectivity in macaque visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajimehr, Reza; Bilenko, Natalia Y; Vanduffel, Wim; Tootell, Roger B H

    2014-12-01

    Retinotopic organization is a ubiquitous property of lower-tier visual cortical areas in human and nonhuman primates. In macaque visual cortex, the retinotopic maps extend to higher-order areas in the ventral visual pathway, including area TEO in the inferior temporal (IT) cortex. Distinct regions within IT cortex are also selective to specific object categories such as faces. Here we tested the topographic relationship between retinotopic maps and face-selective patches in macaque visual cortex using high-resolution fMRI and retinotopic face stimuli. Distinct subregions within face-selective patches showed either (1) a coarse retinotopic map of eccentricity and polar angle, (2) a retinotopic bias to a specific location of visual field, or (3) nonretinotopic selectivity. In general, regions along the lateral convexity of IT cortex showed more overlap between retinotopic maps and face selectivity, compared with regions within the STS. Thus, face patches in macaques can be subdivided into smaller patches with distinguishable retinotopic properties.

  11. Lemurs and macaques show similar numerical sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sarah M.; Pearson, John; DeWind, Nicholas K.; Paulsen, David; Tenekedjieva, Ana-Maria; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the precision of the approximate number system (ANS) in three lemur species (Lemur catta, Eulemur mongoz, and Eulemur macaco flavifrons), one Old World monkey species (Macaca mulatta) and humans (Homo sapiens). In Experiment 1, four individuals of each nonhuman primate species were trained to select the numerically larger of two visual arrays on a touchscreen. We estimated numerical acuity by modeling Weber fractions (w) and found quantitatively equivalent performance among all four nonhuman primate species. In Experiment 2, we tested adult humans in a similar procedure, and they outperformed the four nonhuman species but showed qualitatively similar performance. These results indicate that the ANS is conserved over the primate order. PMID:24068469

  12. Neural modeling of prefrontal executive function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, D.S. [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Brain executive function is based in a distributed system whereby prefrontal cortex is interconnected with other cortical. and subcortical loci. Executive function is divided roughly into three interacting parts: affective guidance of responses; linkage among working memory representations; and forming complex behavioral schemata. Neural network models of each of these parts are reviewed and fit into a preliminary theoretical framework.

  13. Human prefrontal cortex: evolution, development, and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teffer, Kate; Semendeferi, Katerina

    2012-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex is critical to many cognitive abilities that are considered particularly human, and forms a large part of a neural system crucial for normal socio-emotional and executive functioning in humans and other primates. In this chapter, we survey the literature regarding prefrontal development and pathology in humans as well as comparative studies of the region in humans and closely related primate species. The prefrontal cortex matures later in development than more caudal regions, and some of its neuronal subpopulations exhibit more complex dendritic arborizations. Comparative work suggests that the human prefrontal cortex differs from that of closely related primate species less in relative size than it does in organization. Specific reorganizational events in neural circuitry may have taken place either as a consequence of adjusting to increases in size or as adaptive responses to specific selection pressures. Living in complex environments has been recognized as a considerable factor in the evolution of primate cognition. Normal frontal lobe development and function are also compromised in several neurological and psychiatric disorders. A phylogenetically recent reorganization of frontal cortical circuitry may have been critical to the emergence of human-specific executive and social-emotional functions, and developmental pathology in these same systems underlies many psychiatric and neurological disorders, including autism and schizophrenia.

  14. Type 2 diabetes mellitus non-genetic Rhesus monkey model induced by high fat and high sucrose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shuai-yao; Qi, Su-dong; Zhao, Yuan; Li, Yan-yan; Yang, Feng-mei; Yu, Wen-hai; Jin, Ma; Chen, Li-Xiong; Wang, Jun-bin; He, Zhan-long; Li, Hong-jun

    2015-01-01

    To build an ideal animal model for studying the mechanism of occurrence, developing and treating of diabetes become a more important issue, facing with the fact that the big threat of diabetes to human health has been worsen. First, we used the normal control diets or the high-fat/high-sucrose diets to feed the adult rhesus monkeys and the macaques induced by the high-fat/high-sucrose diets in the high-fat/high-sucrose group and the type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) group developed the hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia at 6 months in accordance with the precious researches that reported that minipigs, rats and mice could develop hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperlipidemia and obesity after being induced with high-fat/high-carbohydrate diets. Second, the rhesus monkeys in T2DM group were injected STZ at a low dosage of 35 mg/kg BW to induce glucose persistent elevation which maintained pretty well after 12 months. Third, we took the assay of glucose tolerance test and insulin resistance index, assessed the changing tendency of serum resistin and analysed the pathological characteristics of the tissues like pancreas and liver by staining in different ways. The results indicate the rhesus monkeys in T2DM group have lots of clinical features of T2DM. The experimental non-genetic T2DM rhesus monkeys model not only contribute to simulating of clinical manifestations and pathological features of human T2DM, but also may be a good kind of model for research on the treatment of T2DM and for new drugs evaluation.

  15. Cell-poor septa separate representations of digits in the ventroposterior nucleus of the thalamus in monkeys and prosimian galagos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Hui-Xin; Gharbawie, Omar A; Wong, Peiyan; Kaas, Jon H

    2011-03-01

    The architectonic features of the ventroposterior nucleus (VP) were visualized in coronal brain sections from two macaque monkeys, two owl monkeys, two squirrel monkeys, and three galagos that were processed for cytochrome oxidase, Nissl bodies, or the vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (vGluT2). The traditional ventroposterior medial (VPM) and ventroposterior lateral (VPL) subnuclei were easily identified, as well as the forelimb and hindlimb compartments of VPL, as they were separated by poorly staining, cell-poor septa. Septa also separated other cell groups within VPM and VPL, specifically in the medial compartment of VPL representing the hand (hand VPL). In one squirrel monkey and one galago we demonstrated that these five groups of cells represent digits 1-5 in a mediolateral sequence by injecting tracers into the cortical representation of single digits, defined by microelectrode recordings, and relating concentrations of labeled neurons to specific cell groups in hand VPL. The results establish the existence of septa that isolate the representation of the five digits in VPL of primates and demonstrate that the isolated cell groups represent digits 1-5 in a mediolateral sequence. The present results show that the septa are especially prominent in brain sections processed for vGluT2, which is expressed in the synaptic terminals of excitatory neurons in most nuclei of the brainstem and thalamus. As vGluT2 is expressed in the synaptic terminations from dorsal columns and trigeminal brainstem nuclei, the effectiveness of vGluT2 preparations in revealing septa in VP likely reflects a lack of synapses using glutamate in the septa.

  16. Human-wildlife conflict: proximate predictors of aggression between humans and rhesus macaques in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisner, Brianne A; Heagerty, Allison; Seil, Shannon K; Balasubramaniam, Krishna N; Atwill, Edward R; Gupta, Brij K; Tyagi, Praveen C; Chauhan, Netrapal P S; Bonal, B S; Sinha, P R; McCowan, Brenda

    2015-02-01

    Macaques live in close contact with humans across South and Southeast Asia, and direct interaction is frequent. Aggressive contact is a concern in many locations, particularly among populations of rhesus and longtail macaques that co-inhabit urbanized cities and towns with humans. We investigated the proximate factors influencing the occurrence of macaque aggression toward humans as well as human aggression toward macaques to determine the extent to which human behavior elicits macaque aggression and vice versa. We conducted a 3-month study of four free-ranging populations of rhesus macaques in Dehradun, India from October-December 2012, using event sampling to record all instances of human-macaque interaction (N = 3120). Our results show that while human aggression was predicted by the potential for economic losses or damage, macaque aggression was influenced by aggressive or intimidating behavior by humans as well as recent rates of conspecific aggression. Further, adult female macaques participated in aggression more frequently than expected, whereas adult and subadult males participated as frequently as expected. Our analyses demonstrate that neither human nor macaque aggression is unprovoked. Rather, both humans and macaques are responding to one another's behavior. Mitigation of human-primate conflict, and indeed other types of human-wildlife conflict in such coupled systems, will require a holistic investigation of the ways in which each participant is responding to, and consequently altering, the behavior of the other.

  17. Heterologous Protection against Asian Zika Virus Challenge in Rhesus Macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T Aliota

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV; Flaviviridae, Flavivirus was declared a public health emergency of international concern by the World Health Organization (WHO in February 2016, because of the evidence linking infection with ZIKV to neurological complications, such as Guillain-Barre Syndrome in adults and congenital birth defects including microcephaly in the developing fetus. Because development of a ZIKV vaccine is a top research priority and because the genetic and antigenic variability of many RNA viruses limits the effectiveness of vaccines, assessing whether immunity elicited against one ZIKV strain is sufficient to confer broad protection against all ZIKV strains is critical. Recently, in vitro studies demonstrated that ZIKV likely circulates as a single serotype. Here, we demonstrate that immunity elicited by African lineage ZIKV protects rhesus macaques against subsequent infection with Asian lineage ZIKV.Using our recently developed rhesus macaque model of ZIKV infection, we report that the prototypical ZIKV strain MR766 productively infects macaques, and that immunity elicited by MR766 protects macaques against heterologous Asian ZIKV. Furthermore, using next generation deep sequencing, we found in vivo restoration of a putative N-linked glycosylation site upon replication in macaques that is absent in numerous MR766 strains that are widely being used by the research community. This reversion highlights the importance of carefully examining the sequence composition of all viral stocks as well as understanding how passage history may alter a virus from its original form.An effective ZIKV vaccine is needed to prevent infection-associated fetal abnormalities. Macaques whose immune responses were primed by infection with East African ZIKV were completely protected from detectable viremia when subsequently rechallenged with heterologous Asian ZIKV. Therefore, these data suggest that immunogen selection is unlikely to adversely affect the breadth of

  18. Heterologous Protection against Asian Zika Virus Challenge in Rhesus Macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Christina M.; Mohr, Emma L.; Gellerup, Dane D.; Breitbach, Meghan E.; Buechler, Connor R.; Rasheed, Mustafa N.; Mohns, Mariel S.; Weiler, Andrea M.; Barry, Gabrielle L.; Weisgrau, Kim L.; Eudailey, Josh A.; Rakasz, Eva G.; Vosler, Logan J.; Post, Jennifer; Capuano, Saverio; Golos, Thaddeus G.; Permar, Sallie R.; Osorio, Jorge E.; Friedrich, Thomas C.; O’Connor, Shelby L.; O’Connor, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Zika virus (ZIKV; Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) was declared a public health emergency of international concern by the World Health Organization (WHO) in February 2016, because of the evidence linking infection with ZIKV to neurological complications, such as Guillain-Barre Syndrome in adults and congenital birth defects including microcephaly in the developing fetus. Because development of a ZIKV vaccine is a top research priority and because the genetic and antigenic variability of many RNA viruses limits the effectiveness of vaccines, assessing whether immunity elicited against one ZIKV strain is sufficient to confer broad protection against all ZIKV strains is critical. Recently, in vitro studies demonstrated that ZIKV likely circulates as a single serotype. Here, we demonstrate that immunity elicited by African lineage ZIKV protects rhesus macaques against subsequent infection with Asian lineage ZIKV. Methodology/Principal Findings Using our recently developed rhesus macaque model of ZIKV infection, we report that the prototypical ZIKV strain MR766 productively infects macaques, and that immunity elicited by MR766 protects macaques against heterologous Asian ZIKV. Furthermore, using next generation deep sequencing, we found in vivo restoration of a putative N-linked glycosylation site upon replication in macaques that is absent in numerous MR766 strains that are widely being used by the research community. This reversion highlights the importance of carefully examining the sequence composition of all viral stocks as well as understanding how passage history may alter a virus from its original form. Conclusions/Significance An effective ZIKV vaccine is needed to prevent infection-associated fetal abnormalities. Macaques whose immune responses were primed by infection with East African ZIKV were completely protected from detectable viremia when subsequently rechallenged with heterologous Asian ZIKV. Therefore, these data suggest that immunogen selection

  19. Testing for localized stimulus enhancement and object movement reenactment in pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) and young children (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigamonti, Marco M; Custance, Deborah M; Previde