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Sample records for macaque dorsal lateral

  1. Manual lateralization in macaques: handedness, target laterality and task complexity.

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    Regaiolli, Barbara; Spiezio, Caterina; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Non-human primates represent models to understand the evolution of handedness in humans. Despite several researches have been investigating non-human primates handedness, few studies examined the relationship between target position, hand preference and task complexity. This study aimed at investigating macaque handedness in relation to target laterality and tastiness, as well as task complexity. Seven pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) were involved in three different "two alternative choice" tests: one low-level task and two high-level tasks (HLTs). During the first and the third tests macaques could select a preferred food and a non-preferred food, whereas by modifying the design of the second test, macaques were presented with no-difference alternative per trial. Furthermore, a simple-reaching test was administered to assess hand preference in a social context. Macaques showed hand preference at individual level both in simple and complex tasks, but not in the simple-reaching test. Moreover, target position seemed to affect hand preference in retrieving an object in the low-level task, but not in the HLT. Additionally, individual hand preference seemed to be affected from the tastiness of the item to be retrieved. The results suggest that both target laterality and individual motivation might influence hand preference of macaques, especially in simple tasks.

  2. Primary afferent terminal sprouting after a cervical dorsal rootlet section in the macaque monkey.

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    Darian-Smith, Corinna

    2004-03-01

    We examined the role of primary afferent neurons in the somatosensory cortical "reactivation" that occurs after a localized cervical dorsal root lesion (Darian-Smith and Brown [2000] Nat. Neurosci. 3:476-481). After section of the dorsal rootlets that enervate the macaque's thumb and index finger (segments C6-C8), the cortical representation of these digits was initially silenced but then re-emerged for these same digits over 2-4 postlesion months. Cortical reactivation was accompanied by the emergence of physiologically detectable input from these same digits within dorsal rootlets bordering the lesion site. We investigated whether central axonal sprouting of primary afferents spared by the rhizotomy could mediate this cortical reactivation. The cortical representation of the hand was mapped electrophysiologically 15-25 weeks after the dorsal rootlet section to define this reactivation. Cholera toxin subunit B conjugated to horseradish peroxidase was then injected into the thumb and index finger pads bilaterally to label the central terminals of any neurons that innervated these digits. Primary afferent terminal proliferation was assessed in the spinal dorsal horn and cuneate nucleus at 7 days and 15-25 postlesion weeks. Labeled terminal bouton distributions were reconstructed and the "lesion" and control sides compared within each monkey. Distributions were significantly larger on the side of the lesion in the dorsal horn and cuneate nucleus at 15-25 weeks after the dorsal rootlet section, than those mapped only 7 days postlesion. Our results provide direct evidence for localized sprouting of spared (uninjured) primary afferent terminals in the dorsal horn and cuneate nucleus after a restricted dorsal root injury. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Effects of obesogenic diet and estradiol on dorsal raphe gene expression in old female macaques.

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    Cynthia L Bethea

    Full Text Available The beneficial effects of bioidentical ovarian steroid hormone therapy (HT during the perimenopause are gaining recognition. However, the positive effects of estrogen (E plus or minus progesterone (P administration to ovariectomized (Ovx lab animals were recognized in multiple systems for years before clinical trials could adequately duplicate the results. Moreover, very large numbers of women are often needed to find statistically significant results in clinical trials of HT; and there are still opposing results being published, especially in neural and cardiovascular systems. One of the obvious differences between human and animal studies is diet. Laboratory animals are fed a diet that is low in fat and refined sugar, but high in micronutrients. In the US, a large portion of the population eats what is known as a "western style diet" or WSD that provides calories from 36% fat, 44% carbohydrates (includes 18.5% sugars and 18% protein. Unfortunately, obesity and diabetes have reached epidemic proportions and the percentage of obese women in clinical trials may be overlooked. We questioned whether WSD and obesity could decrease the positive neural effects of estradiol (E in the serotonin system of old macaques that were surgically menopausal. Old ovo-hysterectomized female monkeys were fed WSD for 2.5 years, and treated with placebo, Immediate E (ImE or Delayed E (DE. Compared to old Ovx macaques on primate chow and treated with placebo or E, the WSD-fed monkeys exhibited greater individual variance and blunted responses to E-treatment in the expression of genes related to serotonin neurotransmission, CRH components in the midbrain, synapse assembly, DNA repair, protein folding, ubiquitylation, transport and neurodegeneration. For many of the genes examined, transcript abundance was lower in WSD-fed than chow-fed monkeys. In summary, an obesogenic diet for 2.5 years in old surgically menopausal macaques blunted or increased variability in E

  4. Morphology of the dorsal and lateral calcaneocuboid ligaments.

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    Dorn-Lange, Nadja V; Nauck, Tanja; Lohrer, Heinz; Arentz, Sabine; Konerding, Moritz A

    2008-09-01

    The dorsolateral calcaneocuboid ligaments have different configurations. In the literature they are only described as either the dorsal or lateral calcaneocuboid ligament. However, recent reconstructive surgical techniques may benefit from a better understanding of the anatomy. The aims of this study were to classify the morphology and attachments of the dorso-lateral calcaneocuboid ligaments and to determine their dimensions. The dorso-lateral aspects of the calcaneocuboid joint of 30 cadaver feet were dissected to expose the associated ligaments. Further, we evaluated possible bony landmarks of the calcaneus that could imply which shape or course the ligament would have in a specific individual. Our findings showed a wide variety of configurations in shape, number, and attachment sites. A constant dorsal ligament and an additional narrower lateral ligament was detectable in half of the cases. The majority of the dorso-lateral calcaneocuboid ligament-complex had an upward course and fanning out from proximal to distal. No bony predictor for the ligaments' shape or course was found. The dorso-lateral ligament-complex of the calcaneocuboid joint revealed a wide variety of configurations. Better understanding of the anatomy of these ligaments may aid in the anatomic reconstruction of these ligaments.

  5. Transcallosal connection patterns of opposite dorsal premotor regions support a lateralized specialization for action and perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoorn, Anouk; Potgieser, Adriaan R. E.; de Jong, Bauke M.

    Lateralization of higher brain functions requires that a dominant hemisphere collects relevant information from both sides. The right dorsal premotor cortex (PMd), particularly implicated in visuomotor transformations, was hypothesized to be optimally located to converge visuospatial information

  6. Ovarian steroid regulation of monoamine oxidase-A and -B mRNAs in the macaque dorsal raphe and hypothalamic nuclei.

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    Gundlah, Chrisana; Lu, Nick Z; Bethea, Cynthia L

    2002-03-01

    The serotonin neural system plays a pivotal role in mood, affective regulation and integrative cognition, as well as numerous autonomic functions. We have shown that ovarian steroids alter the expression of several genes in the dorsal raphe of macaques, which may increase serotonin synthesis and decrease serotonin autoinhibition. Another control point in aminergic neurotransmission involves degradation by MAO. This enzyme occurs in two isoforms, A and B, which have different substrate preferences. We questioned the effect of ovarian steroid hormones on MAO-A and MAO-B mRNA expression in the dorsal raphe nucleus and hypothalamus using in situ hybridization in non-human primates. Rhesus monkeys ( Macaca mulatta; n=5/group) were spayed and either placebo treated (controls), estrogen (E) treated (28 days), progesterone (P) treated (14 days placebo+14 days P), or E+P treated (14 days E+14 days E+P). Perfusion-fixed sections (25 microm) were hybridized with a 233 bp MAO-A, or a 373 bp MAO-B, radiolabeled-antisense monkey specific probes. Autoradiographic films were analyzed by densitometry, which was performed with NIH Image Software. MAO-A and -B mRNAs were detected in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) and in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), preoptic area (POA), paraventricular nucleus (PVN), supraoptic nucleus (SON), lateral hypothalamus (LH) and ventromedial nucleus (VMN). MAO-A mRNA optical density was significantly decreased by E, P, and E+P in the DRN and in the hypothalamic PVN, LH and VMN. Ovarian hormones had no effect on MAO-B mRNA expression in the DRN. However, there was a significant decrease in MAO-B optical density in the hypothalamic POA, LH and VMN with E, P or E+P treatment. Pixel area generally reflected optical density. Ovarian steroids decreased MAO-A, but not B, in the raphe nucleus. However, both MAO-A and B were decreased in discrete hypothalamic nuclei by hormone replacement. These data suggest that the transcriptional regulation of

  7. Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex in typically developing children: Laterality analysis

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    Jue Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to elucidate the dACC laterality in typically developing children and their sex/age-related differences with a sample of 84 right-handed children (6–16 years, 42 boys. We first replicated the previous finding observed in adults that gray matter density asymmetry in the dACC was region-specific: leftward (left > right in its superior part, rightward (left < right in its inferior part. Intrinsic connectivity analysis of these regions further revealed region-specific asymmetric connectivity profiles in dACC as well as their sex and age differences. Specifically, the superior dACC connectivity with frontoparietal network and the inferior dACC connectivity with visual network are rightward. The superior dACC connectivity with the default network (lateral temporal cortex was more involved in the left hemisphere. In contrast, the inferior dACC connectivity with the default network (anterior medial prefrontal cortex was more lateralized towards the right hemisphere. The superior dACC connectivity with lateral visual cortex was more distinct across two hemispheres in girls than that in boys. This connection in boys changed with age from right-prominent to left-prominent asymmetry whereas girls developed the connection from left-prominent to no asymmetry. These findings not only highlight the complexity and laterality of the dACC but also provided insights into dynamical structure–function relationships during the development.

  8. Separate value comparison and learning mechanisms in macaque medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortex

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    Noonan, M. P.; Walton, M. E.; Behrens, T. E. J.; Sallet, J.; Buckley, M. J.; Rushworth, M. F. S.

    2010-01-01

    Uncertainty about the function of orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in guiding decision-making may be a result of its medial (mOFC) and lateral (lOFC) divisions having distinct functions. Here we test the hypothesis that the mOFC is more concerned with reward-guided decision making, in contrast with the lOFC's role in reward-guided learning. Macaques performed three-armed bandit tasks and the effects of selective mOFC lesions were contrasted against lOFC lesions. First, we present analyses that make...

  9. Decoding target distance and saccade amplitude from population activity in the macaque lateral intraparietal area (LIP

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    Frank Bremmer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Primates perform saccadic eye movements in order to bring the image of an interesting target onto the fovea. Compared to stationary targets, saccades towards moving targets are computationally more demanding since the oculomotor system must use speed and direction information about the target as well as knowledge about its own processing latency to program an adequate, predictive saccade vector. In monkeys, different brain regions have been implicated in the control of voluntary saccades, among them the lateral intraparietal area (LIP. Here we asked, if activity in area LIP reflects the distance between fovea and saccade target, or the amplitude of an upcoming saccade, or both. We recorded single unit activity in area LIP of two macaque monkeys. First, we determined for each neuron its preferred saccade direction. Then, monkeys performed visually guided saccades along the preferred direction towards either stationary or moving targets in pseudo-randomized order. LIP population activity allowed to decode both, the distance between fovea and saccade target as well as the size of an upcoming saccade. Previous work has shown comparable results for saccade direction (Graf and Andersen, 2014a, b. Hence, LIP population activity allows to predict any two-dimensional saccade vector. Functional equivalents of macaque area LIP have been identified in humans. Accordingly, our results provide further support for the concept of activity from area LIP as neural basis for the control of an oculomotor brain-machine interface.

  10. Decoding Target Distance and Saccade Amplitude from Population Activity in the Macaque Lateral Intraparietal Area (LIP)

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    Bremmer, Frank; Kaminiarz, Andre; Klingenhoefer, Steffen; Churan, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Primates perform saccadic eye movements in order to bring the image of an interesting target onto the fovea. Compared to stationary targets, saccades toward moving targets are computationally more demanding since the oculomotor system must use speed and direction information about the target as well as knowledge about its own processing latency to program an adequate, predictive saccade vector. In monkeys, different brain regions have been implicated in the control of voluntary saccades, among them the lateral intraparietal area (LIP). Here we asked, if activity in area LIP reflects the distance between fovea and saccade target, or the amplitude of an upcoming saccade, or both. We recorded single unit activity in area LIP of two macaque monkeys. First, we determined for each neuron its preferred saccade direction. Then, monkeys performed visually guided saccades along the preferred direction toward either stationary or moving targets in pseudo-randomized order. LIP population activity allowed to decode both, the distance between fovea and saccade target as well as the size of an upcoming saccade. Previous work has shown comparable results for saccade direction (Graf and Andersen, 2014a,b). Hence, LIP population activity allows to predict any two-dimensional saccade vector. Functional equivalents of macaque area LIP have been identified in humans. Accordingly, our results provide further support for the concept of activity from area LIP as neural basis for the control of an oculomotor brain-machine interface. PMID:27630547

  11. An electrocorticographic electrode array for simultaneous recording from medial, lateral, and intrasulcal surface of the cortex in macaque monkeys.

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    Fukushima, Makoto; Saunders, Richard C; Mullarkey, Matthew; Doyle, Alexandra M; Mishkin, Mortimer; Fujii, Naotaka

    2014-08-15

    Electrocorticography (ECoG) permits recording electrical field potentials with high spatiotemporal resolution over a large part of the cerebral cortex. Application of chronically implanted ECoG arrays in animal models provides an opportunity to investigate global spatiotemporal neural patterns and functional connectivity systematically under various experimental conditions. Although ECoG is conventionally used to cover the gyral cortical surface, recent studies have shown the feasibility of intrasulcal ECoG recordings in macaque monkeys. Here we developed a new ECoG array to record neural activity simultaneously from much of the medial and lateral cortical surface of a single hemisphere, together with the supratemporal plane (STP) of the lateral sulcus in macaque monkeys. The ECoG array consisted of 256 electrodes for bipolar recording at 128 sites. We successfully implanted the ECoG array in the left hemisphere of three rhesus monkeys. The electrodes in the auditory and visual cortex detected robust event related potentials to auditory and visual stimuli, respectively. Bipolar recording from adjacent electrode pairs effectively eliminated chewing artifacts evident in monopolar recording, demonstrating the advantage of using the ECoG array under conditions that generate significant movement artifacts. Compared with bipolar ECoG arrays previously developed for macaque monkeys, this array significantly expands the number of cortical target areas in gyral and intralsulcal cortex. This new ECoG array provides an opportunity to investigate global network interactions among gyral and intrasulcal cortical areas. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Disconnectivity between Dorsal Raphe Nucleus and Posterior Cingulate Cortex in Later Life Depression

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    Toshikazu Ikuta

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN has been repeatedly implicated as having a significant relationship with depression, along with its serotoninergic innervation. However, functional connectivity of the DRN in depression is not well understood. The current study aimed to isolate functional connectivity of the DRN distinct in later life depression (LLD compared to a healthy age-matched population. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI data from 95 participants (33 LLD and 62 healthy were collected to examine functional connectivity from the DRN to the whole brain in voxel-wise fashion. The posterior cingulate cortex (PCC bilaterally showed significantly smaller connectivity in the LLD group than the control group. The DRN to PCC connectivity did not show any association with the depressive status. The findings implicate that the LLD involves disruption of serotoninergic input to the PCC, which has been suggested to be a part of the reduced default mode network in depression.

  13. Honeybees' speed depends on dorsal as well as lateral, ventral and frontal optic flows.

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    Geoffrey Portelli

    Full Text Available Flying insects use the optic flow to navigate safely in unfamiliar environments, especially by adjusting their speed and their clearance from surrounding objects. It has not yet been established, however, which specific parts of the optical flow field insects use to control their speed. With a view to answering this question, freely flying honeybees were trained to fly along a specially designed tunnel including two successive tapering parts: the first part was tapered in the vertical plane and the second one, in the horizontal plane. The honeybees were found to adjust their speed on the basis of the optic flow they perceived not only in the lateral and ventral parts of their visual field, but also in the dorsal part. More specifically, the honeybees' speed varied monotonically, depending on the minimum cross-section of the tunnel, regardless of whether the narrowing occurred in the horizontal or vertical plane. The honeybees' speed decreased or increased whenever the minimum cross-section decreased or increased. In other words, the larger sum of the two opposite optic flows in the horizontal and vertical planes was kept practically constant thanks to the speed control performed by the honeybees upon encountering a narrowing of the tunnel. The previously described ALIS ("AutopiLot using an Insect-based vision System" model nicely matches the present behavioral findings. The ALIS model is based on a feedback control scheme that explains how honeybees may keep their speed proportional to the minimum local cross-section of a tunnel, based solely on optic flow processing, without any need for speedometers or rangefinders. The present behavioral findings suggest how flying insects may succeed in adjusting their speed in their complex foraging environments, while at the same time adjusting their distance not only from lateral and ventral objects but also from those located in their dorsal visual field.

  14. Effects of dorsal and lateral decubitus on peak expiratory flow in healthy subjects

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    Heloisa H. Gianinis

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: One of the measures of the pulmonary function is the peak expiratory flow (PEF that can be defined as the major flow obtained in an expiratory pressure after a complete inspiration to the level of the total lung capacity. This measure depends on the effort and strength of expiratory muscles, the airway diameter and the lung volume. OBJECTIVE: To compare the results of the peak expiratory flow in healthy male and female obtained in a seated position and dorsal decubitus (DD, right lateral decubitus (RLD and left lateral decubitus (LLD. METHOD: Thirty young subjects with mean age 22.7 years, healthy and non-smokers were included at the study, 15 of male sex. They did spirometry and IPAQ questionnaire to check the normal pulmonary function and physical activity level. The measures of PEF were performed in four positions, being performed 3 measures in which position, in a random order. Statistical analysis was performed according to Student's t test, with significance level set at 5%. RESULTS: There was a difference between the values obtained in sitting position(481±117.1 L/min with DD(453.2±116.3 L/min and RLD (454±112.9 L/min (p<0.05, however, did not find a significant difference between the sitting position and LLD (469±83 L/min. CONCLUSIONS: Body position affects the values of PEF, with decreasing values in DD and RLD. The LLD can be an alternative to optimize the expiratory flow in situations of constraint to the sitting position.

  15. Short-term Synaptic Depression in the Feedforward Inhibitory Circuit in the Dorsal Lateral Geniculate Nucleus.

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    Augustinaite, Sigita; Heggelund, Paul

    2018-05-24

    Synaptic short-term plasticity (STP) regulates synaptic transmission in an activity-dependent manner and thereby has important roles in the signal processing in the brain. In some synapses, a presynaptic train of action potentials elicits post-synaptic potentials that gradually increase during the train (facilitation), but in other synapses, these potentials gradually decrease (depression). We studied STP in neurons in the visual thalamic relay, the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN). The dLGN contains two types of neurons: excitatory thalamocortical (TC) neurons, which transfer signals from retinal afferents to visual cortex, and local inhibitory interneurons, which form an inhibitory feedforward loop that regulates the thalamocortical signal transmission. The overall STP in the retino-thalamic relay is short-term depression, but the distinct kind and characteristics of the plasticity at the different types of synapses are unknown. We studied STP in the excitatory responses of interneurons to stimulation of retinal afferents, in the inhibitory responses of TC neurons to stimulation of afferents from interneurons, and in the disynaptic inhibitory responses of TC neurons to stimulation of retinal afferents. Moreover, we studied STP at the direct excitatory input to TC neurons from retinal afferents. The STP at all types of the synapses showed short-term depression. This depression can accentuate rapid changes in the stream of signals and thereby promote detectability of significant features in the sensory input. In vision, detection of edges and contours is essential for object perception, and the synaptic short-term depression in the early visual pathway provides important contributions to this detection process. Copyright © 2018 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Response properties of single units in the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus of decerebrate cats.

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    Davis, Kevin A; Lomakin, Oleg; Pesavento, Michael J

    2007-09-01

    The dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) receives afferent inputs from many brain stem nuclei and, in turn, is a major source of inhibitory inputs to the inferior colliculus (IC). The goal of this study was to characterize the monaural and binaural response properties of neurons in the DNLL of unanesthetized decerebrate cat. Monaural responses were classified according to the patterns of excitation and inhibition observed in contralateral and ipsilateral frequency response maps. Binaural classification was based on unit sensitivity to interaural level differences. The results show that units in the DNLL can be grouped into three distinct types. Type v units produce contralateral response maps that show a wide V-shaped excitatory area and no inhibition. These units receive ipsilateral excitation and exhibit binaural facilitation. The contralateral maps of type i units show a more restricted I-shaped region of excitation that is flanked by inhibition. Type o maps display an O-shaped island of excitation at low stimulus levels that is bounded by inhibition at higher levels. Both type i and type o units receive ipsilateral inhibition and exhibit binaural inhibition. Units that produce type v maps have a low best frequency (BF), whereas type i and type o units have high BFs. Type v and type i units give monotonic rate-level responses for both BF tones and broadband noise. Type o units are inhibited by tones at high levels, but are excited by high-level noise. These results show that the DNLL can exert strong, differential effects in the IC.

  17. Repetitive and retinotopically restricted activation of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus with optogenetics.

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    Alexandre Castonguay

    Full Text Available Optogenetics allows the control of cellular activity using focused delivery of light pulses. In neuroscience, optogenetic protocols have been shown to efficiently inhibit or stimulate neuronal activity with a high temporal resolution. Among the technical challenges associated with the use of optogenetics, one is the ability to target a spatially specific population of neurons in a given brain structure. To address this issue, we developed a side-illuminating optical fiber capable of delivering light to specific sites in a target nucleus with added flexibility through rotation and translation of the fiber and by varying the output light power. The designed optical fiber was tested in vivo in visual structures of ChR2-expressing transgenic mice. To assess the spatial extent of neuronal activity modulation, we took advantage of the hallmark of the visual system: its retinotopic organization. Indeed, the relative position of ganglion cells in the retina is transposed in the cellular topography of both the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN in the thalamus and the primary visual cortex (V1. The optical fiber was inserted in the LGN and by rotating it with a motor, it was possible to sequentially activate different neuronal populations within this structure. The activation of V1 neurons by LGN projections was recorded using intrinsic optical imaging. Increasing light intensity (from 1.4 to 8.9 mW/mm² led to increasing activation surfaces in V1. Optogenetic stimulation of the LGN at different translational and rotational positions was associated with different activation maps in V1. The position and/or orientation of the fiber inevitably varied across experiments, thus limiting the capacity to pool data. With the optogenetic design presented here, we demonstrate for the first time a transitory and spatially-concise activation of a deep neuronal structure. The optogenetic design presented here thus opens a promising avenue for studying the function

  18. Inhibiting PKMζ reveals dorsal lateral and dorsal medial striatum store the different memories needed to support adaptive behavior.

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    Pauli, Wolfgang M; Clark, Alexandra D; Guenther, Heidi J; O'Reilly, Randall C; Rudy, Jerry W

    2012-06-20

    Evidence suggests that two regions of the striatum contribute differential support to instrumental response selection. The dorsomedial striatum (DMS) is thought to support expectancy-mediated actions, and the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) is thought to support habits. Currently it is unclear whether these regions store task-relevant information or just coordinate the learning and retention of these solutions by other brain regions. To address this issue, we developed a two-lever concurrent variable-interval reinforcement operant conditioning task and used it to assess the trained rat's sensitivity to contingency shifts. Consistent with the view that these two regions make different contributions to actions and habits, injecting the NMDA antagonist DL-AP5 into the DMS just prior to the shift impaired the rat's performance but enhanced performance when injected into the DLS. To determine if these regions support memory content, we first trained rats on a biased concurrent schedule (Lever 1: VI 40" and Lever 2: VI 10"). With the intent of "erasing" the memory content stored in striatum, after this training we inhibited the putative memory-maintenance protein kinase C isozyme protein kinase Mζ (PKMζ). Infusing zeta inhibitory peptide (ZIP) into the DLS enhanced the rat's ability to adapt to the contingency shift 2 d later, whereas injecting it into the DMS had the opposite effect. Infusing GluR2(3Y) into the DMS 1 h before ZIP infusions prevented ZIP from impairing the rat's sensitivity to the contingency shift. These results support the hypothesis that the DMS stores information needed to support actions and the DLS stores information needed to support habits.

  19. A Role for the Lateral Dorsal Tegmentum in Memory and Decision Neural Circuitry

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    Redila, Van; Kinzel, Chantelle; Jo, Yong Sang; Puryear, Corey B.; Mizumori, Sheri J.Y.

    2017-01-01

    A role for the hippocampus in memory is clear, although the mechanism for its contribution remains a matter of debate. Converging evidence suggests that hippocampus evaluates the extent to which context-defining features of events occur as expected. The consequence of mismatches, or prediction error, signals from hippocampus is discussed in terms of its impact on neural circuitry that evaluates the significance of prediction errors: Ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine cells burst fire to rewards or cues that predict rewards (Schultz et al., 1997). Although the lateral dorsal tegmentum (LDTg) importantly controls dopamine cell burst firing (Lodge & Grace, 2006) the behavioral significance of the LDTg control is not known. Therefore, we evaluated LDTg functional activity as rats performed a spatial memory task that generates task-dependent reward codes in VTA (Jo et al., 2013; Puryear et al., 2010) and another VTA afferent, the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPTg, Norton et al., 2011). Reversible inactivation of the LDTg significantly impaired choice accuracy. LDTg neurons coded primarily egocentric information in the form of movement velocity, turning behaviors, and behaviors leading up to expected reward locations. A subset of the velocity-tuned LDTg cells also showed high frequency bursts shortly before or after reward encounters, after which they showed tonic elevated firing during consumption of small, but not large, rewards. Cells that fired before reward encounters showed stronger correlations with velocity as rats moved toward, rather than away from, rewarded sites. LDTg neural activity was more strongly regulated by egocentric behaviors than that observed for PPTg or VTA cells that were recorded by Puryear et al. and Norton et al. While PPTg activity was uniquely sensitive to ongoing sensory input, all three regions encoded reward magnitude (although in different ways), reward expectation, and reward encounters. Only VTA encoded reward prediction errors. LDTg

  20. Lateral prefrontal cortex is organized into parallel dorsal and ventral streams along the rostro-caudal axis.

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    Blumenfeld, Robert S; Nomura, Emi M; Gratton, Caterina; D'Esposito, Mark

    2013-10-01

    Anatomical connectivity differences between the dorsal and ventral lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) of the non-human primate strongly suggests that these regions support different functions. However, after years of study, it remains unclear whether these regions are functionally distinct. In contrast, there has been a groundswell of recent studies providing evidence for a rostro-caudal functional organization, along the lateral as well as dorsomedial frontal cortex. Thus, it is not known whether dorsal and ventral regions of lateral PFC form distinct functional networks and how to reconcile any dorso-ventral organization with the medio-lateral and rostro-caudal axes. Here, we used resting-state connectivity data to identify parallel dorsolateral and ventrolateral streams of intrinsic connectivity with the dorsomedial frontal cortex. Moreover, we show that this connectivity follows a rostro-caudal gradient. Our results provide evidence for a novel framework for the intrinsic organization of the frontal cortex that incorporates connections between medio-lateral, dorso-ventral, and rostro-caudal axes.

  1. The endocannabinoid system within the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the vervet monkey

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    Javadi, P.; Bouskila, J.; Bouchard, J. -F.

    2015-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system mainly consists of cannabinoid receptors type 1 (CB1R) and type 2 (CB2R), their endogenous ligands termed endocannabinoids (eCBs), and the enzymes responsible for the synthesis and degradation of eCBs. These cannabinoid receptors have been well characterized in rodent a...... layers may explain some of the behavioral effects of cannabinoids associated with the integrity of the dorsal visual pathway that plays a role in visual-spatial localization and motion perception....

  2. Early involvement in friendships predicts later plasma concentrations of oxytocin and vasopressin in juvenile rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta

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    Tamara Aliza Rachel Weinstein

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The neuropeptides oxytocin (OT and vasopressin (AVP are involved in social bonding in attachment relationships, but their role in friendship is poorly understood. We investigated whether rhesus macaques’ (Macaca mulatta friendships at age one predicted plasma OT and AVP at two later time points. Subjects were 54 rhesus macaques at the California National Primate Research Center. Blood was drawn during a brief capture-and-release in the home cage, and plasma assayed for OT and AVP using an enzyme immunoassay. Separate linear mixed models for each sex tested the effects of dominance rank, age, sampling time point, housing condition, parturition status, two blood draw timing measures, and five friendship types: proximity friendships, play friendships, reciprocal friendships (a preference for a peer that also preferred the subject, multiplex friendships (friendships displayed in more than one behavioral domain, and total number of friendships. Females’ number of reciprocal and play friendships at age one significantly predicted later OT; additionally, these two friendship types interacted with rank, such that high-ranking females with the fewest friendships had the highest OT concentrations. Friendship did not predict later OT levels in males, however proximity, play, reciprocal, and total number of friendships predicted males’ plasma AVP. Play and total number of friendships also tended to predict AVP in females. Our results show that peripheral measures of neuroendocrine functioning in juvenile rhesus monkeys are influenced by early involvement in friendships. Friendships have an especially strong impact on an individual’s psychosocial development, and our data suggest OT and AVP as potential underlying mechanisms. Moreover, sex differences in the functioning of the OT and AVP systems, and their relation to friendship, may have important clinical implications for the use of OT as a therapeutic, as well as informing the social context in

  3. A double dissociation of dorsal and ventral hippocampal function on a learning and memory task mediated by the dorso-lateral striatum.

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    McDonald, Robert J; Jones, Jana; Richards, Blake; Hong, Nancy S

    2006-09-01

    The objectives of this research were to further delineate the neural circuits subserving proposed memory-based behavioural subsystems in the hippocampal formation. These studies were guided by anatomical evidence showing a topographical organization of the hippocampal formation. Briefly, perpendicular to the medial/lateral entorhinal cortex division there is a second system of parallel circuits that separates the dorsal and ventral hippocampus. Recent work from this laboratory has provided evidence that the hippocampus incidentally encodes a context-specific inhibitory association during acquisition of a visual discrimination task. One question that emerges from this dataset is whether the dorsal or ventral hippocampus makes a unique contribution to this newly described function. Rats with neurotoxic lesions of the dorsal or ventral hippocampus were assessed on the acquisition of the visual discrimination task. Following asymptotic performance they were given reversal training in either the same or a different context from the original training. The results showed that the context-specific inhibition effect is mediated by a circuit that includes the ventral but not the dorsal hippocampus. Results from a control procedure showed that rats with either dorso-lateral striatum damage or dorsal hippocampal lesions were impaired on a tactile/spatial discrimination. Taken together, the results represent a double dissociation of learning and memory function between the ventral and dorsal hippocampus. The formation of an incidental inhibitory association was dependent on ventral but not dorsal hippocampal circuitry, and the opposite dependence was found for the spatial component of a tactile/spatial discrimination.

  4. Accumulation of Misfolded SOD1 in Dorsal Root Ganglion Degenerating Proprioceptive Sensory Neurons of Transgenic Mice with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Sábado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is an adult-onset progressive neurodegenerative disease affecting upper and lower motoneurons (MNs. Although the motor phenotype is a hallmark for ALS, there is increasing evidence that systems other than the efferent MN system can be involved. Mutations of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1 gene cause a proportion of familial forms of this disease. Misfolding and aggregation of mutant SOD1 exert neurotoxicity in a noncell autonomous manner, as evidenced in studies using transgenic mouse models. Here, we used the SOD1G93A mouse model for ALS to detect, by means of conformational-specific anti-SOD1 antibodies, whether misfolded SOD1-mediated neurotoxicity extended to neuronal types other than MNs. We report that large dorsal root ganglion (DRG proprioceptive neurons accumulate misfolded SOD1 and suffer a degenerative process involving the inflammatory recruitment of macrophagic cells. Degenerating sensory axons were also detected in association with activated microglial cells in the spinal cord dorsal horn of diseased animals. As large proprioceptive DRG neurons project monosynaptically to ventral horn MNs, we hypothesise that a prion-like mechanism may be responsible for the transsynaptic propagation of SOD1 misfolding from ventral horn MNs to DRG sensory neurons.

  5. Surgical Repair of Bulbar Urethral Strictures: Advantages of Ventral, Dorsal, and Lateral Approaches and When to Choose Them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan Venkatesan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To review the available literature describing the three most common approaches for buccal mucosal graft (BMG augmentation during reconstruction of bulbar urethral strictures. Due to its excellent histological properties, buccal mucosa graft is now routinely used in urethral reconstruction. The best approach for the placement of such a graft remains controversial. Methods. PubMed search was conducted for available English literature describing outcomes of bulbar urethroplasty augmentation techniques using dorsal, ventral, and lateral approaches. Prospective and retrospective studies as well as meta-analyses and latest systematic reviews were included. Results. Most of the studies reviewed are of retrospective nature and majority described dorsal or ventral approaches. Medium- and long-term outcomes of all three approaches were comparable ranging between 80 and 88%. Conclusion. Various techniques of BMG augmentation urethroplasty have been described for repairs of bulbar urethral strictures. In this review, we describe and compare the three most common “competing” approaches for bulbar urethroplasty with utilization of BMG.

  6. Processing of harmonics in the lateral belt of macaque auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Yukiko; Horwitz, Barry; Mishkin, Mortimer; Rauschecker, Josef P

    2014-01-01

    Many speech sounds and animal vocalizations contain components, referred to as complex tones, that consist of a fundamental frequency (F0) and higher harmonics. In this study we examined single-unit activity recorded in the core (A1) and lateral belt (LB) areas of auditory cortex in two rhesus monkeys as they listened to pure tones and pitch-shifted conspecific vocalizations ("coos"). The latter consisted of complex-tone segments in which F0 was matched to a corresponding pure-tone stimulus. In both animals, neuronal latencies to pure-tone stimuli at the best frequency (BF) were ~10 to 15 ms longer in LB than in A1. This might be expected, since LB is considered to be at a hierarchically higher level than A1. On the other hand, the latency of LB responses to coos was ~10 to 20 ms shorter than to the corresponding pure-tone BF, suggesting facilitation in LB by the harmonics. This latency reduction by coos was not observed in A1, resulting in similar coo latencies in A1 and LB. Multi-peaked neurons were present in both A1 and LB; however, harmonically-related peaks were observed in LB for both early and late response components, whereas in A1 they were observed only for late components. Our results suggest that harmonic features, such as relationships between specific frequency intervals of communication calls, are processed at relatively early stages of the auditory cortical pathway, but preferentially in LB.

  7. The Circadian Clock of the Ant Camponotus floridanus Is Localized in Dorsal and Lateral Neurons of the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Janina; Menegazzi, Pamela; Mildner, Stephanie; Roces, Flavio; Helfrich-Förster, Charlotte

    2018-06-01

    The circadian clock of social insects has become a focal point of interest for research, as social insects show complex forms of timed behavior and organization within their colonies. These behaviors include brood care, nest maintenance, foraging, swarming, defense, and many other tasks, of which several require social synchronization and accurate timing. Ants of the genus Camponotus have been shown to display a variety of daily timed behaviors such as the emergence of males from the nest, foraging, and relocation of brood. Nevertheless, circadian rhythms of isolated individuals have been studied in few ant species, and the circadian clock network in the brain that governs such behaviors remains completely uncharacterized. Here we show that isolated minor workers of Camponotus floridanus exhibit temperature overcompensated free-running locomotor activity rhythms under constant darkness. Under light-dark cycles, most animals are active during day and night, with a slight preference for the night. On the neurobiological level, we show that distinct cell groups in the lateral and dorsal brain of minor workers of C. floridanus are immunostained with an antibody against the clock protein Period (PER) and a lateral group additionally with an antibody against the neuropeptide pigment-dispersing factor (PDF). PER abundance oscillates in a daily manner, and PDF-positive neurites invade most parts of the brain, suggesting that the PER/PDF-positive neurons are bona fide clock neurons that transfer rhythmic signals into the relevant brain areas controlling rhythmic behavior.

  8. Strong rightward lateralization of the dorsal attentional network in left-handers with right sighting-eye: an evolutionary advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Laurent; Zago, Laure; Mellet, Emmanuel; Jobard, Gaël; Crivello, Fabrice; Joliot, Marc; Mazoyer, Bernard; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie

    2015-03-01

    Hemispheric lateralization for spatial attention and its relationships with manual preference strength and eye preference were studied in a sample of 293 healthy individuals balanced for manual preference. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to map this large sample while performing visually guided saccadic eye movements. This activated a bilateral distributed cortico-subcortical network in which dorsal and ventral attentional/saccadic pathways elicited rightward asymmetrical activation depending on manual preference strength and sighting eye. While the ventral pathway showed a strong rightward asymmetry irrespective of both manual preference strength and eye preference, the dorsal frontoparietal network showed a robust rightward asymmetry in strongly left-handers, even more pronounced in left-handed subjects with a right sighting-eye. Our findings brings support to the hypothesis that the origin of the rightward hemispheric dominance for spatial attention may have a manipulo-spatial origin neither perceptual nor motor per se but rather reflecting a mechanism by which a spatial context is mapped onto the perceptual and motor activities, including the exploration of the spatial environment with eyes and hands. Within this context, strongly left-handers with a right sighting-eye may benefit from the advantage of having the same right hemispheric control of their dominant hand and visuospatial attention processing. We suggest that this phenomenon explains why left-handed right sighting-eye athletes can outperform their competitors in sporting duels and that the prehistoric and historical constancy of the left-handers ratio over the general population may relate in part on the hemispheric specialization of spatial attention. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Evaluation of the effects of dorsal versus lateral recumbency on the cardiopulmonary system during anesthesia with isoflurane in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Michelle G; Malka, Shachar; Pascoe, Peter J; Solano, Adrian M; Kass, Philip H; Ohmura, Hajime; Jones, James H

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of dorsal versus lateral recumbency on the cardiopulmonary system during isoflurane anesthesia in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis). 6 adult 1.1- to 1.6-kg red-tailed hawks. A randomized, crossover study was used to evaluate changes in respiratory rate, tidal volume, minute ventilation, heart rate, mean arterial and indirect blood pressures, and end-tidal Pco(2) measured every 5 minutes plus Paco(2) and Pao(2) and arterial pH measured every 15 minutes throughout a 75-minute study period. Respiratory rate was higher, tidal volume lower, and minute ventilation not different in lateral versus dorsal recumbency. Position did not affect heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, or indirect blood pressure, although heart rate decreased during the anesthetic period. Birds hypoventilated in both positions and Paco(2) differed with time and position × time interaction. The Petco(2) position × time interaction was significant and Petco(2) was a mean of 7 Torr higher than Paco(2). The Paco(2) in dorsal recumbency was a mean of 32 Torr higher than in lateral recumbency. Birds in both positions developed respiratory acidosis. Differences in tidal volume with similar minute ventilation suggested red-tailed hawks in dorsal recumbency might have lower dead space ventilation. Despite similar minute ventilation in both positions, birds in dorsal recumbency hypoventilated more yet maintained higher Pao(2), suggesting parabronchial ventilatory or pulmonary blood flow distribution changes with position. The results refute the hypothesis that dorsal recumbency compromises ventilation and O(2) transport more than lateral recumbency in red-tailed hawks.

  10. Prior Cocaine Self-Administration Increases Response-Outcome Encoding That Is Divorced from Actions Selected in Dorsal Lateral Striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Amanda C; Bissonette, Gregory B; Zhao, Adam C; Patel, Pooja K; Roesch, Matthew R

    2017-08-09

    Dorsal lateral striatum (DLS) is a highly associative structure that encodes relationships among environmental stimuli, behavioral responses, and predicted outcomes. DLS is known to be disrupted after chronic drug abuse; however, it remains unclear what neural signals in DLS are altered. Current theory suggests that drug use enhances stimulus-response processing at the expense of response-outcome encoding, but this has mostly been tested in simple behavioral tasks. Here, we investigated what neural correlates in DLS are affected by previous cocaine exposure as rats performed a complex reward-guided decision-making task in which predicted reward value was independently manipulated by changing the delay to or size of reward associated with a response direction across a series of trial blocks. After cocaine self-administration, rats exhibited stronger biases toward higher-value reward and firing in DLS more strongly represented action-outcome contingencies independent from actions subsequently taken rather than outcomes predicted by selected actions (chosen-outcome contingencies) and associations between stimuli and actions (stimulus-response contingencies). These results suggest that cocaine self-administration strengthens action-outcome encoding in rats (as opposed to chosen-outcome or stimulus-response encoding), which abnormally biases behavior toward valued reward when there is a choice between two options during reward-guided decision-making. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Current theories suggest that the impaired decision-making observed in individuals who chronically abuse drugs reflects a decrease in goal-directed behaviors and an increase in habitual behaviors governed by neural representations of response-outcome (R-O) and stimulus-response associations, respectively. We examined the impact that prior cocaine self-administration had on firing in dorsal lateral striatum (DLS), a brain area known to be involved in habit formation and affected by drugs of abuse

  11. Electrical stimulation reduces smokers' craving by modulating the coupling between dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex and parahippocampal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-Zhuang; Shi, Bin; Li, Hai; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Ying; Wang, Hongzhi; Zhou, Yanfei; Wang, Ying; Lv, Wanwan; Ji, Xuebing; Hudak, Justin; Zhou, Yifeng; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2017-08-01

    Applying electrical stimulation over the prefrontal cortex can help nicotine dependents reduce cigarette craving. However, the underlying mechanism remains ambiguous. This study investigates this issue with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Thirty-two male chronic smokers received real and sham stimulation over dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) separated by 1 week. The neuroimaging data of the resting state, the smoking cue-reactivity task and the emotion task after stimulation were collected. The craving across the cue-reactivity task was diminished during real stimulation as compared with sham stimulation. The whole-brain analysis on the cue-reactivity task revealed a significant interaction between the stimulation condition (real vs sham) and the cue type (smoking vs neutral) in the left superior frontal gyrus and the left middle frontal gyrus. The functional connectivity between the left DLPFC and the right parahippocampal gyrus, as revealed by both psychophysical interaction analysis and the resting state functional connectivity, is altered by electrical stimulation. Moreover, the craving change across the real and sham condition is predicted by alteration of functional connectivity revealed by psychophysical interaction analysis. The local and long-distance coupling, altered by the electrical stimulation, might be the underlying neural mechanism of craving regulation. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  12. Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortices Differentially Lateralize Prediction Errors and Outcome Valence in a Decision-Making Task

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    Alexander R. Weiss

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC is proposed to facilitate learning by signaling mismatches between the expected outcome of decisions and the actual outcomes in the form of prediction errors. The dACC is also proposed to discriminate outcome valence—whether a result has positive (either expected or desirable or negative (either unexpected or undesirable value. However, direct electrophysiological recordings from human dACC to validate these separate, but integrated, dimensions have not been previously performed. We hypothesized that local field potentials (LFPs would reveal changes in the dACC related to prediction error and valence and used the unique opportunity offered by deep brain stimulation (DBS surgery in the dACC of three human subjects to test this hypothesis. We used a cognitive task that involved the presentation of object pairs, a motor response, and audiovisual feedback to guide future object selection choices. The dACC displayed distinctly lateralized theta frequency (3–8 Hz event-related potential responses—the left hemisphere dACC signaled outcome valence and prediction errors while the right hemisphere dACC was involved in prediction formation. Multivariate analyses provided evidence that the human dACC response to decision outcomes reflects two spatiotemporally distinct early and late systems that are consistent with both our lateralized electrophysiological results and the involvement of the theta frequency oscillatory activity in dACC cognitive processing. Further findings suggested that dACC does not respond to other phases of action-outcome-feedback tasks such as the motor response which supports the notion that dACC primarily signals information that is crucial for behavioral monitoring and not for motor control.

  13. Estudo eletrofisiológico do nervo cutâneo dorsal lateral: aplicabilidade técnica e valores de referência

    OpenAIRE

    DIAS, RAFAEL JOSÉ SOARES; CARNEIRO, ARMANDO PEREIRA

    2000-01-01

    O estudo da condução neural dos segmentos mais distais dos nervos mais longos pode ser capaz de reconhecer mais precocemente as alterações oriundas da maioria das polineuropatias. O objetivo deste estudo, foi verificar a aplicabilidade técnica do exame de condução ortodrômica do ramo cutâneo dorsal do nervo sural (nervo cutâneo dorsal lateral) em pessoas saudáveis, padronizar os valores normais para serem utilizados como referência e comparar seus valores com os do nervo sural na perna. Quare...

  14. Occipital White Matter Tracts in Human and Macaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Hiromasa; Pestilli, Franco; Weiner, Kevin S; Keliris, Georgios A; Landi, Sofia M; Sliwa, Julia; Ye, Frank Q; Barnett, Michael A; Leopold, David A; Freiwald, Winrich A; Logothetis, Nikos K; Wandell, Brian A

    2017-06-01

    We compare several major white-matter tracts in human and macaque occipital lobe using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging. The comparison suggests similarities but also significant differences in the tracts. There are several apparently homologous tracts in the 2 species, including the vertical occipital fasciculus (VOF), optic radiation, forceps major, and inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF). There is one large human tract, the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, with no corresponding fasciculus in macaque. We could identify the macaque VOF (mVOF), which has been little studied. Its position is consistent with classical invasive anatomical studies by Wernicke. VOF homology is supported by similarity of the endpoints in V3A and ventral V4 across species. The mVOF fibers intertwine with the dorsal segment of the ILF, but the human VOF appears to be lateral to the ILF. These similarities and differences between the occipital lobe tracts will be useful in establishing which circuitry in the macaque can serve as an accurate model for human visual cortex. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Morphology, classification, and distribution of the projection neurons in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the rat.

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    Changying Ling

    Full Text Available The morphology of confirmed projection neurons in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN of the rat was examined by filling these cells retrogradely with biotinylated dextran amine (BDA injected into the visual cortex. BDA-labeled projection neurons varied widely in the shape and size of their cell somas, with mean cross-sectional areas ranging from 60-340 µm(2. Labeled projection neurons supported 7-55 dendrites that spanned up to 300 µm in length and formed dendritic arbors with cross-sectional areas of up to 7.0 × 10(4 µm(2. Primary dendrites emerged from cell somas in three broad patterns. In some dLGN projection neurons, primary dendrites arise from the cell soma at two poles spaced approximately 180° apart. In other projection neurons, dendrites emerge principally from one side of the cell soma, while in a third group of projection neurons primary dendrites emerge from the entire perimeter of the cell soma. Based on these three distinct patterns in the distribution of primary dendrites from cell somas, we have grouped dLGN projection neurons into three classes: bipolar cells, basket cells and radial cells, respectively. The appendages seen on dendrites also can be grouped into three classes according to differences in their structure. Short "tufted" appendages arise mainly from the distal branches of dendrites; "spine-like" appendages, fine stalks with ovoid heads, typically are seen along the middle segments of dendrites; and "grape-like" appendages, short stalks that terminate in a cluster of ovoid bulbs, appear most often along the proximal segments of secondary dendrites of neurons with medium or large cell somas. While morphologically diverse dLGN projection neurons are intermingled uniformly throughout the nucleus, the caudal pole of the dLGN contains more small projection neurons of all classes than the rostral pole.

  16. Effects of GABA microinjection into dorsal raphe nucleus on behavior and activity of lateral habenular neurons in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jinyu; Song, Meiying; Li, Fengdan; Liu, Xiaofeng; Anwar, Alinur; Zhao, Hua

    2017-12-01

    The dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) is a key site for 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) synthesis and release. DRN dysfunction has been implicated in several stress-related disorders, including depression and anxiety. The lateral habenular nucleus (LHb) has been shown to inhibit the activity of DRN 5-HT neurons, and thus the LHb-DRN pathway plays an important role in the pathogenesis of depression. Although it is known that the LHb also receives the projection from the 5-HT neuron in the DRN, whether 5-HT neurons in the DRN can influence activity of the LHb in vivo and whether this effect is related to the induced behavioral changes have not been investigated. In the current study, we determined how injecting γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) into the DRN to inhibit 5-HT neurons affected behavior and the changes in the activity of LHb neurons in mice. We found that GABA injection into the DRN induced depression-like behavior in mice, as indicated by increased immobility time, and decreased climbing time in the forced swimming test and the tail suspension test, decreased time spent in the center and total distance moved in the open field test. Using extracellular single unit recording, we showed that the firing rate of LHb neurons decreased after GABA microinjection into the DRN. Further, c-Fos expression in LHb neurons was inhibited. Together our results indicate that inhibition of DRN 5-HT neurons can cause decreased LHb activity and depression-like behavior in mice, however this depression-like behavior could be independent of the LHb activity. The observed decrease in LHb activity is probably due to the presence of a negative feedback loop between the DRN and the LHb, which may play a role in maintaining emotional homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Does site of buccal mucosa graft for bulbar urethra stricture affect outcome? A comparative analysis of ventral, dorso-lateral and dorsal buccal mucosa graft augmentation urethroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Hemant R; Jain, Tarunkumar Prakash; Bhujbal, Sachin A; Meshram, Kunal R; Gadekar, Chetan; Parab, Sandesh

    2017-09-01

    To compare long- term outcomes of buccal mucosa graft (BMG) augmentation urethroplasty for long segment bulbar urethral strictures done by placing the graft ventrally, dorso-laterally and dorsally. We conducted a single institution retrospective study on 112 who underwent BMG augmentation urethroplasty for non-traumatic bulbar urethral strictures between January 2005 to December 2014. The cases were divided into three groups based on the site of placement of BMG graft i.e. (a) Ventral (n=44), (b) Dorso-lateral (n=48) and (c) Dorsal (n=20). Follow-up period was from one year to five years. Patients with failed outcomes underwent urethroscopy or retrograde urethrogram to note the site of recurrence of stricture. Out of 112 cases 91 (81%) were successful and 21 (19%) failed. The success rates for ventral, dorso-lateral and dorsal BMG augmentation procedures were 89%, 79% and 70%, respectively (p=0.18). Among 21 failed cases, 12 cases (57%) had stricture at proximal anastomotic site, 4 cases (19%) at graft and 5 cases (24%) at distal anastomotic site (p=0.01). The overall success rate for BMG augmentation urethroplasty is equal for all techniques. Ventral onlay urethroplasty provides better exposure of proximal anastomotic site thus it is associated with minimum proximal anastomotic site recurrence rates. Patients with extensive spongiofibrosis and long segment strictures had higher rates of failure.

  18. Estudo eletrofisiológico do nervo cutâneo dorsal lateral: aplicabilidade técnica e valores de referência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIAS RAFAEL JOSÉ SOARES

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo da condução neural dos segmentos mais distais dos nervos mais longos pode ser capaz de reconhecer mais precocemente as alterações oriundas da maioria das polineuropatias. O objetivo deste estudo, foi verificar a aplicabilidade técnica do exame de condução ortodrômica do ramo cutâneo dorsal do nervo sural (nervo cutâneo dorsal lateral em pessoas saudáveis, padronizar os valores normais para serem utilizados como referência e comparar seus valores com os do nervo sural na perna. Quarenta e cinco pessoas com idade média de 41,56 anos (19-75 foram avaliadas, com registro de potenciais de ação de nervo sensitivo nos noventa pés. O eletrodo de captação foi colocado inferior e posteriormente ao maléolo lateral e a estimulação realizada 10 cm distalmente na face dorso-lateral dos pés. O valor médio para a velocidade de condução do nervo sural cutâneo dorsal encontrado foi 47,35 ± 4,8 m/s e para a amplitude, 4,19 ± 1,9 miV. A velocidade de condução do segmento distal foi 14% inferior à do proximal. A amplitude média dos potenciais de ação sensitivos do segmento distal foi 73% aquém daquela obtida no segmento proximal. Os resultados confirmam a possibilidade técnica de se estudar o ramo cutâneo dorsal do nervo sural e sugerem que o limite mínimo de normalidade para sua velocidade de condução, após correção para a temperatura de 34ºC, seja 38 m/s. Diferenças na amplitude e velocidade de condução devem ser consideradas entre grupos etários.

  19. Regional Specific Evidence for Memory-Load Dependent Activity in the Dorsal Subiculum and the Lateral Entorhinal Cortex

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    Shih-pi Ku

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The subiculum and the lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC are the main output areas of the hippocampus which contribute to spatial and non-spatial memory. The proximal part of the subiculum (bordering CA1 receives heavy projections from the perirhinal cortex and the distal part of CA1 (bordering the subiculum, both known for their ties to object recognition memory. However, the extent to which the proximal subiculum contributes to non-spatial memory is still unclear. Comparatively, the involvement of the LEC in non-spatial information processing is quite well known. However, very few studies have investigated its role within the frame of memory function. Thus, it is not known whether its contribution depends on memory load. In addition, the deep layers of the EC have been shown to be predictive of subsequent memory performance, but not its superficial layers. Hence, here we tested the extent to which the proximal part of the subiculum and the superficial and deep layers of the LEC contribute to non-spatial memory, and whether this contribution depends on the memory load of the task. To do so, we imaged brain activity at cellular resolution in these areas in rats performing a delayed nonmatch to sample task based on odors with two different memory loads (5 or 10 odors. This imaging technique is based on the detection of the RNA of the immediate-early gene Arc, which is especially tied to synaptic plasticity and behavioral demands, and is commonly used to map activity in the medial temporal lobe. We report for the first time that the proximal part of the subiculum is recruited in a memory-load dependent manner and the deep layers of the LEC engaged under high memory load conditions during the retrieval of non-spatial memory, thus shedding light on the specific networks contributing to non-spatial memory retrieval.

  20. Regional Specific Evidence for Memory-Load Dependent Activity in the Dorsal Subiculum and the Lateral Entorhinal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Shih-Pi; Nakamura, Nozomu H; Maingret, Nicolas; Mahnke, Liv; Yoshida, Motoharu; Sauvage, Magdalena M

    2017-01-01

    The subiculum and the lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC) are the main output areas of the hippocampus which contribute to spatial and non-spatial memory. The proximal part of the subiculum (bordering CA1) receives heavy projections from the perirhinal cortex and the distal part of CA1 (bordering the subiculum), both known for their ties to object recognition memory. However, the extent to which the proximal subiculum contributes to non-spatial memory is still unclear. Comparatively, the involvement of the LEC in non-spatial information processing is quite well known. However, very few studies have investigated its role within the frame of memory function. Thus, it is not known whether its contribution depends on memory load. In addition, the deep layers of the EC have been shown to be predictive of subsequent memory performance, but not its superficial layers. Hence, here we tested the extent to which the proximal part of the subiculum and the superficial and deep layers of the LEC contribute to non-spatial memory, and whether this contribution depends on the memory load of the task. To do so, we imaged brain activity at cellular resolution in these areas in rats performing a delayed nonmatch to sample task based on odors with two different memory loads (5 or 10 odors). This imaging technique is based on the detection of the RNA of the immediate-early gene Arc , which is especially tied to synaptic plasticity and behavioral demands, and is commonly used to map activity in the medial temporal lobe. We report for the first time that the proximal part of the subiculum is recruited in a memory-load dependent manner and the deep layers of the LEC engaged under high memory load conditions during the retrieval of non-spatial memory, thus shedding light on the specific networks contributing to non-spatial memory retrieval.

  1. Regional Specific Evidence for Memory-Load Dependent Activity in the Dorsal Subiculum and the Lateral Entorhinal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Shih-pi; Nakamura, Nozomu H.; Maingret, Nicolas; Mahnke, Liv; Yoshida, Motoharu; Sauvage, Magdalena M.

    2017-01-01

    The subiculum and the lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC) are the main output areas of the hippocampus which contribute to spatial and non-spatial memory. The proximal part of the subiculum (bordering CA1) receives heavy projections from the perirhinal cortex and the distal part of CA1 (bordering the subiculum), both known for their ties to object recognition memory. However, the extent to which the proximal subiculum contributes to non-spatial memory is still unclear. Comparatively, the involvement of the LEC in non-spatial information processing is quite well known. However, very few studies have investigated its role within the frame of memory function. Thus, it is not known whether its contribution depends on memory load. In addition, the deep layers of the EC have been shown to be predictive of subsequent memory performance, but not its superficial layers. Hence, here we tested the extent to which the proximal part of the subiculum and the superficial and deep layers of the LEC contribute to non-spatial memory, and whether this contribution depends on the memory load of the task. To do so, we imaged brain activity at cellular resolution in these areas in rats performing a delayed nonmatch to sample task based on odors with two different memory loads (5 or 10 odors). This imaging technique is based on the detection of the RNA of the immediate-early gene Arc, which is especially tied to synaptic plasticity and behavioral demands, and is commonly used to map activity in the medial temporal lobe. We report for the first time that the proximal part of the subiculum is recruited in a memory-load dependent manner and the deep layers of the LEC engaged under high memory load conditions during the retrieval of non-spatial memory, thus shedding light on the specific networks contributing to non-spatial memory retrieval. PMID:28790897

  2. Brief pup exposure induces Fos expression in the lateral habenula and serotonergic caudal dorsal raphe nucleus of paternally experienced male California mice (Peromyscus californicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, T R; Measor, K R; Chauke, M; Harris, B N; Saltzman, W

    2010-09-01

    Fathers play a substantial role in infant care in a small but significant number of mammalian species, including humans. However, the neural circuitry controlling paternal behavior is much less understood than its female counterpart. In order to characterize brain areas activated by paternal care, male California mice were separated from their female mate and litter for 3 h and then exposed to a pup or a control object (a glass pebble with the approximate size and oblong shape of a newborn pup) for 10 min. All males receiving a pup showed a strong paternal response towards it, whereas males receiving a pebble interacted with it only occasionally. Despite the clear behavioral differences, exposure to a pup did not increase Fos-like immunoreactivity (Fos-LIR) compared to a pebble in brain areas previously found to be associated with parental care, including the medial preoptic nucleus and medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Pup exposure did, however, significantly increase Fos-LIR in the lateral habenula (LHb) and in predominantly serotonergic neurons in the caudal dorsal raphe nucleus (DRC), as compared to pebble exposure. Both the LHb and DRC are known to be involved in the behavioral responses to strong emotional stimuli; therefore, these areas might play a role in controlling parental behavior in male California mice. Copyright (c) 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Role of perineuronal nets in the anterior dorsal lateral hypothalamic area in the acquisition of cocaine-induced conditioned place preference and self-administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacktop, Jordan M; Todd, Ryan P; Sorg, Barbara A

    2017-05-15

    Addiction involves drug-induced neuroplasticity in the circuitry of motivated behavior, which includes the medial forebrain bundle and the lateral hypothalamic area. Emerging at the forefront of neuroplasticity regulation are specialized extracellular matrix (ECM) structures that form perineuronal nets (PNNs) around certain neurons, mainly parvalbumin positive (PV + ), fast-spiking interneurons (FSINs), making them a promising target for the regulation of drug-induced neuroplasticity. Despite the emerging significance of PNNs in drug-induced neuroplasticity and the well-established role of the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) in reward, reinforcement, and motivation, very little is known about how PNN-expressing neurons control drug-seeking behavior. We found that a discrete region of the anterior dorsal LHA (LHAad) exhibited robust PNN and dense ECM expression. Approximately 87% of parvalbumin positive (PV + ) neurons co-expressed the PNN marker Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA), while 62% of WFA positive (WFA + ) neurons co-expressed PV in the LHAad of drug naïve rats. Removal of PNNs within this brain region via chrondroitinase ABC (Ch-ABC) administration abolished acquisition of cocaine-induced CPP and significantly attenuated the acquisition of cocaine self-administration (SA). Removal of LHAad PNNs did not affect locomotor activity, sucrose intake, sucrose-induced CPP, or acquisition of sucrose SA in separate groups of cocaine naïve animals. These data suggest that PNN-dependent neuroplasticity within the LHAad is critical for the acquisition of both cocaine-induced CPP and SA but is not general to all rewards, and that PNN degradation may have utility for the management of drug-associated behavioral plasticity and memory in cocaine addicts. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Spectral composition of concurrent noise affects neuronal sensitivity to interaural time differences of tones in the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siveke, Ida; Leibold, Christian; Grothe, Benedikt

    2007-11-01

    We are regularly exposed to several concurrent sounds, producing a mixture of binaural cues. The neuronal mechanisms underlying the localization of concurrent sounds are not well understood. The major binaural cues for localizing low-frequency sounds in the horizontal plane are interaural time differences (ITDs). Auditory brain stem neurons encode ITDs by firing maximally in response to "favorable" ITDs and weakly or not at all in response to "unfavorable" ITDs. We recorded from ITD-sensitive neurons in the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) while presenting pure tones at different ITDs embedded in noise. We found that increasing levels of concurrent white noise suppressed the maximal response rate to tones with favorable ITDs and slightly enhanced the response rate to tones with unfavorable ITDs. Nevertheless, most of the neurons maintained ITD sensitivity to tones even for noise intensities equal to that of the tone. Using concurrent noise with a spectral composition in which the neuron's excitatory frequencies are omitted reduced the maximal response similar to that obtained with concurrent white noise. This finding indicates that the decrease of the maximal rate is mediated by suppressive cross-frequency interactions, which we also observed during monaural stimulation with additional white noise. In contrast, the enhancement of the firing rate to tones at unfavorable ITD might be due to early binaural interactions (e.g., at the level of the superior olive). A simple simulation corroborates this interpretation. Taken together, these findings suggest that the spectral composition of a concurrent sound strongly influences the spatial processing of ITD-sensitive DNLL neurons.

  5. Effects of dopamine D1 receptor blockade in the prelimbic prefrontal cortex or lateral dorsal striatum on frontostriatal function in Wistar and Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Jamie M; Tassin, David H; Dwoskin, Linda P; Kantak, Kathleen M

    2014-07-15

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with dysfunctional prefrontal and striatal circuitry and dysregulated dopamine neurotransmission. Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR), a heuristically useful animal model of ADHD, were evaluated against normotensive Wistar (WIS) controls to determine whether dopamine D1 receptor blockade of either prelimbic prefrontal cortex (plPFC) or lateral dorsal striatum (lDST) altered learning functions of both interconnected sites. A strategy set shifting task measured plPFC function (behavioral flexibility/executive function) and a reward devaluation task measured lDST function (habitual responding). Prior to tests, rats received bilateral infusions of SCH 23390 (1.0 μg/side) or vehicle into plPFC or lDST. Following vehicle, SHR exhibited longer lever press reaction times, more trial omissions, and fewer completed trials during the set shift test compared to WIS, indicating slower decision-making and attentional/motivational impairment in SHR. After reward devaluation, vehicle-treated SHR responded less than WIS, indicating relatively less habitual responding in SHR. After SCH 23390 infusions into plPFC, WIS expressed the same behavioral phenotype as vehicle-treated SHR during set shift and reward devaluation tests. In SHR, SCH 23390 infusions into plPFC exacerbated behavioral deficits in the set shift test and maintained the lower rate of responding in the reward devaluation test. SCH 23390 infusions into lDST did not modify set shifting in either strain, but produced lower rates of responding than vehicle infusions after reward devaluation in WIS. This research provides pharmacological evidence for unidirectional interactions between prefrontal and striatal brain regions, which has implications for the neurological basis of ADHD and its treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Distribution of glutamatergic, GABAergic, and glycinergic neurons in the auditory pathways of macaque monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, T; Inoue, K; Takada, M

    2015-12-03

    Macaque monkeys use complex communication calls and are regarded as a model for studying the coding and decoding of complex sound in the auditory system. However, little is known about the distribution of excitatory and inhibitory neurons in the auditory system of macaque monkeys. In this study, we examined the overall distribution of cell bodies that expressed mRNAs for VGLUT1, and VGLUT2 (markers for glutamatergic neurons), GAD67 (a marker for GABAergic neurons), and GLYT2 (a marker for glycinergic neurons) in the auditory system of the Japanese macaque. In addition, we performed immunohistochemistry for VGLUT1, VGLUT2, and GAD67 in order to compare the distribution of proteins and mRNAs. We found that most of the excitatory neurons in the auditory brainstem expressed VGLUT2. In contrast, the expression of VGLUT1 mRNA was restricted to the auditory cortex (AC), periolivary nuclei, and cochlear nuclei (CN). The co-expression of GAD67 and GLYT2 mRNAs was common in the ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (VNLL), CN, and superior olivary complex except for the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body, which expressed GLYT2 alone. In contrast, the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus, inferior colliculus, thalamus, and AC expressed GAD67 alone. The absence of co-expression of VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 in the medial geniculate, medial superior olive, and VNLL suggests that synaptic responses in the target neurons of these nuclei may be different between rodents and macaque monkeys. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The roles of pathways in the spinal cord lateral and dorsal funiculi in signaling nociceptive somatic and visceral stimuli in rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paleček, Jiří; Palečková, V.; Willis, W. D.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 96, č. 3 (2002), s. 297-307 ISSN 0304-3959 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : pain * spinothalamic * dorsal column pathway Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 4.829, year: 2002

  8. [Selective cervical dorsal root cutting off part of the vertebral lateral mass fixation combined with exercise therapy for treating spastic cerebral paralysis of the upper limbs caused by cerebral palsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Hu, Wei; Cao, Xu; Xu, Shi-gang; Li, De-kui; Xu, Lin

    2009-10-01

    To explore the feasibility and the result for the surgical treatment of spastic cerebral paralysis of the upper limbs in patients who underwent the selective cervical dorsal root cutting off part of the vertebral lateral mass fixation combined with exercise therapy. From March 2004 to April 2008, 27 patients included 19 boys and 8 girls, aging 13-21 years with an average of 15 years underwent selective cervical dorsal root cutting off part of the vertebral lateral mass fixation with exercise therapy. The AXIS 8 holes titanium plate was inserted into the lateral mass of spinous process through guidance of the nerve stimulator, choosed fasciculus of low-threshold nerve dorsal root and cut off its 1.5 cm. After two weeks, training exercise therapy was done in patients. Training will include lying position, turning body, sitting position, crawling, kneeling and standing position, walking and so on. Spastic Bobath inhibiting abnormal pattern was done in the whole process of training. The muscular tension, motor function (GMFM), functional independence (WeeFIM) were observed after treatment. All patients were followed up from 4 to 16 months with an average of 6 months. Muscular tension score were respectively 3.30 +/- 0.47 and 1.25 +/- 0.44 before and after treatment;GMFM score were respectively 107.82 +/- 55.17 and 131.28 +/- 46.45; WeeFIM score were respectively 57.61 +/- 25.51 and 87.91 +/- 22.39. There was significant improvement before and after treatment (P cerebral paralysis of the upper limbs is safe and effective method, which can decrease muscular tension and improve motor function, which deserves more wide use.

  9. Macaque accessory optic system: I. Definition of the medial terminal nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, H.M.; Baleydier, C.; Magnin, M.

    1990-01-01

    The organization of the accessory optic system (AOS) has been studied in the macaque monkey following intravitreal injections of tritiated amino acids in one eye. Retinal projections to the dorsal (DTN) and the lateral (LTN) terminal nuclei are identical to those previously described in other primate species. We observed an additional group of retinorecipient cells of the AOS, located between the cerebral peduncle and the substantia nigra, which we define as the interstitial nucleus of the superior fasiculus, medial fibers. In this report, we focus our attention on the medial terminal nucleus (MTN). Although a ventral division of this nucleus (MTNv) was not observed in the macaque, the retina projects to a group of cells in the midbrain reticular formation (MRF), which we argue to be homologous to the dorsal division of the MTN (MTNd). To provide evidence in support of this homology, the retinal projection to the MTNv and MTNd was also examined in 21 additional species from 11 orders of mammals including carnivores, marsupials, lagomorphs, rodents, bats, insectivores, tree shrews, hyraxes, pholidotes, edentates, and five additional species of primates. Whereas the retina projects to both ventral and dorsal divisions in all species studied, in haplorhine primates only the projection to the MTNd is conserved. The relative topological position of the MTNd in the MRF, dorsomedial to the substantia nigra and ventrolateral to the red nucleus, remains constant throughout the mammals. The trajectory of fiber paths innervating the MTNd is also similar in all species. In addition, the MTNd has comparable afferent and efferent connections with retina, pretectum, and vestibular nuclei in all species thus far studied. These results support the unequivocal conclusion that the MTNd is an unvarying feature of the mammalian AOS

  10. Is circumferential urethral mobilisation an overdo? A prospective outcome analysis of dorsal onlay and dorso - lateral onlay BMGU for anterior urethral strictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Gaurav; Singh, Bhupendra Pal; Sinha, Rahul Janak; Jhanwar, Ankur; Sankhwar, Satyanarayan

    2018-01-01

    For dorsal onlay graft placement, unilateral urethral mobilization is less invasive than standard circumferential urethral mobilization. Apart from success in terms of patency of urethra, other issues like sexual function, overall quality of life and patient satisfaction remain important issues while comparing outcomes of urethroplasty. To prospectively compare the objective as well as subjective outcomes of two approaches. Between July 2011 and January 2015, 136 adult males having anterior urethral stricture with urethral lumen ≥ 6 Fr. were prospectively assigned between two groups by alternate randomization. Operative time, complications, success rate (no obstructive symptoms, no need of any postoperative intervention, Q max > 15mL/sec), sexual functions (using Brief Male Sexual Function Inventory) were compared. Baseline parameters were similar in both groups (68 in each group). Overall success rate was similar in both groups (89 % and 91 % respectively). Improvement in total LUTS scores was similar in groups. Changes in overall health status (VAS and EQ 5D) was equal in both groups. Erectile function score was significantly decreased in DO than DL group while ejaculatory function and sexual desire remained stable after urethroplasty in both groups. In anterior urethral stricture buccal mucosa graft provides satisfactory results as onlay technique. No technique whether dorsolateral and dorsal techniques is superior to other. Dorsolateral technique needs minimal urethral mobilization and should be preferred whenever feasible. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  11. Macaque accessory optic system: II. Connections with the pretectum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baleydier, C.; Magnin, M.; Cooper, H.M.

    1990-01-01

    Connections of the accessory optic system (AOS) with the pretectum are described in the macaque monkey. Injections of tritiated amino acids in the pretectum demonstrate a major contralateral projection to the dorsal (DTN), lateral (LTN), and medial (MTN) terminal nuclei of the AOS and a sparser projection to the ipsilateral LTN. Injections of retrograde tracers, Fast Blue (FB), or wheat germ agglutinin horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) plus nonconjugated horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in the LTN show that the pretectal-LTN projection originates from two nuclei. The main source of pretectal efferents to the LTN is from the pretectal olivary nucleus (OPN) and is entirely contralateral. This projection, which appears unique to primates, originates from the large multipolar cells of the OPN. In addition to this projection, the nucleus of the optic tract (NOT) projects to the ipsilateral LTN, as in nonprimates. Injection of WGA-HRP in the pretectum shows a reciprocal predominantely ipsilateral projection from the LTN to the pretectum. Retinas were observed after injection of FB in the LTN. The retinal ganglion cells projecting to the AOS are mainly distributed near the fovea and in the nasal region of the contralateral eye, suggesting a nasotemporal pattern of decussation. The demonstration of a direct connection between LTN and OPN forces to a reconsideration of the functional role of the AOS. Previous descriptions of luminance responsive cells in the LTN support a possible participation of this nucleus in the control of the pupillary light reflex

  12. The dorsal shell wall structure of Mesozoic ammonoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Radtke

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of pristine preserved shells of Mesozoic Ammonoidea shows different types of construction and formation of the dorsal shell wall. We observe three major types: (i The vast majority of Ammonoidea, usually planispirally coiled, has a prismatic reduced dorsal shell wall which consists of an outer organic component (e.g., wrinkle layer, which is the first layer to be formed, and the subsequently formed dorsal inner prismatic layer. The dorsal mantle tissue suppresses the formation of the outer prismatic layer and nacreous layer. With the exception of the outer organic component, secretion of a shell wall is omitted at the aperture. A prismatic reduced dorsal shell wall is always secreted immediately after the hatching during early teleoconch formation. Due to its broad distribution in (planispiral Ammonoidea, the prismatic reduced dorsal shell wall is probably the general state. (ii Some planispirally coiled Ammonoidea have a nacreous reduced dorsal shell wall which consists of three mineralized layers: two prismatic layers (primary and secondary dorsal inner prismatic layer and an enclosed nacreous layer (secondary dorsal nacreous layer. The dorsal shell wall is omitted at the aperture and was secreted in the rear living chamber. Its layers are a continuation of an umbilical shell doubling (reinforcement by additional shell layers that extends towards the ventral crest of the preceding whorl. The nacreous reduced dorsal shell wall is formed in the process of ontogeny following a prismatic reduced dorsal shell wall. (iii Heteromorph and some planispirally coiled taxa secrete a complete dorsal shell wall which forms a continuation of the ventral and lateral shell layers. It is formed during ontogeny following a prismatic reduced dorsal shell wall or a priori. The construction is identical with the ventral and lateral shell wall, including a dorsal nacreous layer. The wide distribution of the ability to form dorsal nacre indicates that it is

  13. A neural circuit covarying with social hierarchy in macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, MaryAnn P; Sallet, Jerome; Mars, Rogier B; Neubert, Franz X; O'Reilly, Jill X; Andersson, Jesper L; Mitchell, Anna S; Bell, Andrew H; Miller, Karla L; Rushworth, Matthew F S

    2014-09-01

    Despite widespread interest in social dominance, little is known of its neural correlates in primates. We hypothesized that social status in primates might be related to individual variation in subcortical brain regions implicated in other aspects of social and emotional behavior in other mammals. To examine this possibility we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which affords the taking of quantitative measurements noninvasively, both of brain structure and of brain function, across many regions simultaneously. We carried out a series of tests of structural and functional MRI (fMRI) data in 25 group-living macaques. First, a deformation-based morphometric (DBM) approach was used to show that gray matter in the amygdala, brainstem in the vicinity of the raphe nucleus, and reticular formation, hypothalamus, and septum/striatum of the left hemisphere was correlated with social status. Second, similar correlations were found in the same areas in the other hemisphere. Third, similar correlations were found in a second data set acquired several months later from a subset of the same animals. Fourth, the strength of coupling between fMRI-measured activity in the same areas was correlated with social status. The network of subcortical areas, however, had no relationship with the sizes of individuals' social networks, suggesting the areas had a simple and direct relationship with social status. By contrast a second circuit in cortex, comprising the midsuperior temporal sulcus and anterior and dorsal prefrontal cortex, covaried with both individuals' social statuses and the social network sizes they experienced. This cortical circuit may be linked to the social cognitive processes that are taxed by life in more complex social networks and that must also be used if an animal is to achieve a high social status.

  14. A neural circuit covarying with social hierarchy in macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MaryAnn P Noonan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite widespread interest in social dominance, little is known of its neural correlates in primates. We hypothesized that social status in primates might be related to individual variation in subcortical brain regions implicated in other aspects of social and emotional behavior in other mammals. To examine this possibility we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, which affords the taking of quantitative measurements noninvasively, both of brain structure and of brain function, across many regions simultaneously. We carried out a series of tests of structural and functional MRI (fMRI data in 25 group-living macaques. First, a deformation-based morphometric (DBM approach was used to show that gray matter in the amygdala, brainstem in the vicinity of the raphe nucleus, and reticular formation, hypothalamus, and septum/striatum of the left hemisphere was correlated with social status. Second, similar correlations were found in the same areas in the other hemisphere. Third, similar correlations were found in a second data set acquired several months later from a subset of the same animals. Fourth, the strength of coupling between fMRI-measured activity in the same areas was correlated with social status. The network of subcortical areas, however, had no relationship with the sizes of individuals' social networks, suggesting the areas had a simple and direct relationship with social status. By contrast a second circuit in cortex, comprising the midsuperior temporal sulcus and anterior and dorsal prefrontal cortex, covaried with both individuals' social statuses and the social network sizes they experienced. This cortical circuit may be linked to the social cognitive processes that are taxed by life in more complex social networks and that must also be used if an animal is to achieve a high social status.

  15. A Neural Circuit Covarying with Social Hierarchy in Macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubert, Franz X.; O'Reilly, Jill X.; Andersson, Jesper L.; Mitchell, Anna S.; Bell, Andrew H.; Miller, Karla L.; Rushworth, Matthew F. S.

    2014-01-01

    Despite widespread interest in social dominance, little is known of its neural correlates in primates. We hypothesized that social status in primates might be related to individual variation in subcortical brain regions implicated in other aspects of social and emotional behavior in other mammals. To examine this possibility we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which affords the taking of quantitative measurements noninvasively, both of brain structure and of brain function, across many regions simultaneously. We carried out a series of tests of structural and functional MRI (fMRI) data in 25 group-living macaques. First, a deformation-based morphometric (DBM) approach was used to show that gray matter in the amygdala, brainstem in the vicinity of the raphe nucleus, and reticular formation, hypothalamus, and septum/striatum of the left hemisphere was correlated with social status. Second, similar correlations were found in the same areas in the other hemisphere. Third, similar correlations were found in a second data set acquired several months later from a subset of the same animals. Fourth, the strength of coupling between fMRI-measured activity in the same areas was correlated with social status. The network of subcortical areas, however, had no relationship with the sizes of individuals' social networks, suggesting the areas had a simple and direct relationship with social status. By contrast a second circuit in cortex, comprising the midsuperior temporal sulcus and anterior and dorsal prefrontal cortex, covaried with both individuals' social statuses and the social network sizes they experienced. This cortical circuit may be linked to the social cognitive processes that are taxed by life in more complex social networks and that must also be used if an animal is to achieve a high social status. PMID:25180883

  16. Desipramine and citalopram attenuate pretest swim-induced increases in prodynorphin immunoreactivity in the dorsal bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the lateral division of the central nucleus of the amygdala in the forced swimming test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sung; Kim, Hee Jeong; Kim, Hyun Ju; Choi, Sun Hye; Cho, Jin Hee; Cho, Yun Ha; Kim, Dong-Hoon; Shin, Kyung Ho

    2014-10-01

    Dynorphin in the nucleus accumbens shell plays an important role in antidepressant-like effect in the forced swimming test (FST), but it is unclear whether desipramine and citalopram treatments alter prodynorphin levels in other brain areas. To explore this possibility, we injected mice with desipramine and citalopram 0.5, 19, and 23 h after a 15-min pretest swim and observed changes in prodynorphin expression before the test swim, which was conducted 24 h after the pretest swim. The pretest swim increased prodynorphin immunoreactivity in the dorsal bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dBNST) and lateral division of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeL). This increase in prodynorphin immunoreactivity in the dBNST and CeL was blocked by desipramine and citalopram treatments. Similar changes in prodynorphin mRNA levels were observed in the dBNST and CeL, but these changes did not reach significance. To understand the underlying mechanism, we assessed changes in phosphorylated CREB at Ser(133) (pCREB) immunoreactivity in the dBNST and central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). Treatment with citalopram but not desipramine after the pretest swim significantly increased pCREB immunoreactivity only in the dBNST. These results suggest that regulation of prodynorphin in the dBNST and CeL before the test swim may be involved in the antidepressant-like effect of desipramine and citalopram in the FST and suggest that changes in pCREB immunoreactivity in these areas may not play an important role in the regulation of prodynorphin in the dBNST and CeA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Lumbar dorsal ramus syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogduk, N

    1980-11-15

    Low back pain, referred pain in the lower limbs, and spasm of the back, gluteal, and hamstring muscles are clinical features which can be induced in normal volunteers by stimulating structures which are innervated by the lumbar dorsal rami. Conversely, they can be relieved in certain patients by selective interruption of conduction along dorsal rami. These facts permit the definition of a lumbar dorsal ramus syndrome, which can be distinguished from the intervertebral disc syndrome and other forms of low back pain. The distinguishing feature is that, in lumbar dorsal ramus syndrome, all the clinical features are exclusively mediated by dorsal rami and do not arise from nerve-root compression. The pathophysiology, pathology, and treatment of this syndrome are described. Recognition of this syndrome, and its treatment with relatively minor procedures, can obviate the need for major surgery which might otherwise be undertaken.

  18. Connectivity between the superior colliculus and the amygdala in humans and macaque monkeys: virtual dissection with probabilistic DTI tractography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Kristin; Bultitude, Janet H.; Mullins, Paul; Ward, Robert; Mitchell, Anna S.; Bell, Andrew H.

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that some cortically blind patients can process the emotional valence of visual stimuli via a fast, subcortical pathway from the superior colliculus (SC) that reaches the amygdala via the pulvinar. We provide in vivo evidence for connectivity between the SC and the amygdala via the pulvinar in both humans and rhesus macaques. Probabilistic diffusion tensor imaging tractography revealed a streamlined path that passes dorsolaterally through the pulvinar before arcing rostrally to traverse above the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle and connect to the lateral amygdala. To obviate artifactual connectivity with crossing fibers of the stria terminalis, the stria was also dissected. The putative streamline between the SC and amygdala traverses above the temporal horn dorsal to the stria terminalis and is positioned medial to it in humans and lateral to it in monkeys. The topography of the streamline was examined in relation to lesion anatomy in five patients who had previously participated in behavioral experiments studying the processing of emotionally valenced visual stimuli. The pulvinar lesion interrupted the streamline in two patients who had exhibited contralesional processing deficits and spared the streamline in three patients who had no deficit. Although not definitive, this evidence supports the existence of a subcortical pathway linking the SC with the amygdala in primates. It also provides a necessary bridge between behavioral data obtained in future studies of neurological patients, and any forthcoming evidence from more invasive techniques, such as anatomical tracing studies and electrophysiological investigations only possible in nonhuman species. PMID:26224780

  19. Dorsal onlay graft bulbar urethroplasty using buccal mucosa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    G. Barbagli

    2015-12-02

    Dec 2, 2015 ... promote the transformation of the urethral mucosa plate into a tube, according to ... Allen stirrups and sequential inflatable compression sleeves. Figure 2 .... the ventral, dorsal or lateral surface of the urethra, we investigated if.

  20. Cyto- and receptor architecture of area 32 in human and macaque brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomero-Gallagher, Nicola; Zilles, Karl; Schleicher, Axel; Vogt, Brent A

    2013-10-01

    Human area 32 plays crucial roles in emotion and memory consolidation. It has subgenual (s32), pregenual (p32), dorsal, and midcingulate components. We seek to determine whether macaque area 32 has subgenual and pregenual subdivisions and the extent to which they are comparable to those in humans by means of NeuN immunohistochemistry and multireceptor analysis of laminar profiles. The macaque has areas s32 and p32. In s32, layer IIIa/b neurons are larger than those of layer IIIc. This relationship is reversed in p32. Layer Va is thicker and Vb thinner in s32. Area p32 contains higher kainate, benzodiazepine (BZ), and serotonin (5-HT)1A but lower N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and α2 receptor densities. Most differences were found in layers I, II, and VI. Together, these differences support the dual nature of macaque area 32. Comparative analysis of human and macaque s32 and p32 supports equivalences in cyto- and receptor architecture. Although there are differences in mean areal receptor densities, there are considerable similarities at the layer level. Laminar receptor distribution patterns in each area are comparable in the two species in layers III-Va for kainate, NMDA, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)B , BZ, and 5-HT1A receptors. Multivariate statistical analysis of laminar receptor densities revealed that human s32 is more similar to macaque s32 and p32 than to human p32. Thus, macaque 32 is more complex than hitherto known. Our data suggest a homologous neural architecture in anterior cingulate s32 and p32 in human and macaque brains. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Illegal trade in Barbary macaques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Uhm, Daan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/380477025

    2014-01-01

    While Morocco is well known as the main port between Africa and the EU for the illegal drugs trade and migration, the illegal trade in wildlife is flourishing as well. Next to the illegal large-scale trafficking of tortoises and birds, it is estimated that as few as 5,000 Barbary macaques remain in

  2. PROJECTIONS OF DORSAL AND MEDIAN RAPHE NUCLEI TO DORSAL AND VENTRAL STRIATUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. Hassanzadeh G. Behzadi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The ascending serotonergic projections are derived mainly from mesencephalic raphe nuclei. Topographical projections from mesencephalic raphe nuclei to the striatum were examined in the rat by the retrograde transport technique of HRP (horseradish peroxidase. In 29 rats stereotaxically injection of HRP enzyme were performed in dorsal and ventral parts of striatum separately. The extent of the injection sites and distribution of retrogradely labeled neuronal cell bodies were drawed on representative sections using a projection microscope. Following ipsilateral injection of HRP into the dorsal striatum, numerous labeled neurons were seen in rostral portion of dorsal raphe (DR nucleus. In the same level the cluster of labeled neurons were hevier through caudal parts of DR. A few neurons were also located in lateral wing of DR. More caudally some labeled neurons were found in lateral, medial line of DR. In median raphe nucleus (MnR the labeled neurons were scattered only in median portion of this nucleus. The ipsilateral injection of HRP into the ventral region of striatum resulted on labeling of numerous neurons in rostral, caudal and lateral portions of DR. Through the caudal extension of DR on 4th ventricle level, a large number of labeled neurons were distributed along the ventrocaudal parts of DR. In MnR, labeled neurons were observed only in median part of this nucleus. These findings suggest the mesencephalic raphe nuclei projections to caudo-putamen are topographically organized. In addition dorsal and median raphe nuclei have a stronger projection to the ventral striatum.

  3. Radiographic changes in rhesus macaques affected by scurvy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, J.P.; Eisele, P.H.

    1992-01-01

    Spontaneous vitamin C deficiency, or scurvy, was recognized in juvenile rhesus monkeys maintained in a research center as a result of being fed a commercial diet for 2 to 3 months with low levels of vitamin C. Most severely affected animals (13) were radiographed repeatedly up to day 300 following detection of the disease. Early radiographic changes consisted of widened, lucent metaphyses with lateral flaring and radiopaque metaphyseal lines at the junction of the metaphyses and physes. Physeal slippage was noted commonly. Following institution of vitamin C therapy, calcification of subperiosteal hemorrhage occurred in the metaphyseal regions. Metaphyses and physes returned to normal radiographic appearance within 15 to 30 days. Initially, the subperiosteal hemorrhage progressed and a longer time was required for solution of the calcified hematomas. The macaques improved clinically and were released from the hospital when fractures were stable at 4-5 weeks after admission. Of the 13 macaques studied, all but one returned as normal members of the colony

  4. Pharmacokinetics of 2 Formulations of Transdermal Fentanyl in Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Amy M; Kelly, Richard; Fetterer, David P; Rico, Pedro J; Bailey, Emily J

    2016-01-01

    Fentanyl is a μ-opioid agonist that often is used as the analgesic component for balanced anesthesia in both human and veterinary patients. Minimal information has been published regarding appropriate dosing, and the pharmacokinetics of fentanyl are unknown in NHP. The pharmacokinetic properties of 2 transdermal fentanyl delivery methods, a solution (2.6 and 1.95 mg/kg) and a patch (25 µg/h), were determined when applied topically to the dorsal scapular area of cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Serum fentanyl concentrations were analyzed by using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Compared with the patch, the transdermal fentanyl solution generated higher drug concentrations over longer time. Adverse reactions occurred in the macaques that received the transdermal fentanyl solution at 2.6 mg/kg. Both preparations showed significant interanimal variability in the maximal serum drug levels, time to achieve maximal fentanyl levels, elimination half-life, and AUC values. Both the maximal concentration and the time at which this concentration occurred were increased in macaques compared with most other species after application of the transdermal fentanyl patch and compared with dogs after application of the transdermal fentanyl solution. The pharmacokinetic properties of transdermal fentanyl in macaques are markedly different from those in other veterinary species and preclude its use as a long-acting analgesic drug in NHP. PMID:27423151

  5. Temporal Lobe Lesions and Perception of Species-Specific Vocalizations by Macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffner, Henry E.; Heffner, Rickye S.

    1984-10-01

    Japanese macaques were trained to discriminate two forms of their coo vocalization before and after unilateral and bilateral ablation of the temporal cortex. Unilateral ablation of the left superior temporal gyrus, including auditory cortex, resulted in an initial impairment in the discrimination, but similar unilateral ablation of the right superior temporal gyrus had no effect. Bilateral temporal lesions including auditory cortex completely abolished the ability of the animals to discriminate their coos. Neither unilateral nor bilateral ablation of cortex dorsal to and sparing the auditory cortex had any effect on the discrimination. The perception of species-specific vocalizations by Japanese macaques seems to be mediated by the temporal cortex, with the left hemisphere playing a predominant role.

  6. Phylogeny and History of the Lost SIV from Crab-Eating Macaques: SIVmfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Kevin R; Johnson, Welkin E; Kirmaier, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    In the 20th century, thirteen distinct human immunodeficiency viruses emerged following independent cross-species transmission events involving simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV) from African primates. In the late 1900s, pathogenic SIV strains also emerged in the United Sates among captive Asian macaque species following their unintentional infection with SIV from African sooty mangabeys (SIVsmm). Since their discovery in the 1980s, SIVs from rhesus macaques (SIVmac) and pig-tailed macaques (SIVmne) have become invaluable models for studying HIV pathogenesis, vaccine design and the emergence of viruses. SIV isolates from captive crab-eating macaques (SIVmfa) were initially described but lost prior to any detailed molecular and genetic characterization. In order to infer the origins of the lost SIVmfa lineage, we located archived material and colony records, recovered its genomic sequence by PCR, and assessed its phylogenetic relationship to other SIV strains. We conclude that SIVmfa is the product of two cross-species transmission events. The first was the established transmission of SIVsmm to rhesus macaques, which occurred at the California National Primate Research Center in the late 1960s and the virus later emerged as SIVmac. In a second event, SIVmac was transmitted to crab-eating macaques, likely at the Laboratory for Experimental Medicine and Surgery in Primates in the early 1970s, and it was later spread to the New England Primate Research Center colony in 1973 and eventually isolated in 1986. Our analysis suggests that SIVmac had already emerged by the early 1970s and had begun to diverge into distinct lineages. Furthermore, our findings suggest that pathogenic SIV strains may have been more widely distributed than previously appreciated, raising the possibility that additional isolates may await discovery.

  7. Phylogeny and History of the Lost SIV from Crab-Eating Macaques: SIVmfa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R McCarthy

    Full Text Available In the 20th century, thirteen distinct human immunodeficiency viruses emerged following independent cross-species transmission events involving simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV from African primates. In the late 1900s, pathogenic SIV strains also emerged in the United Sates among captive Asian macaque species following their unintentional infection with SIV from African sooty mangabeys (SIVsmm. Since their discovery in the 1980s, SIVs from rhesus macaques (SIVmac and pig-tailed macaques (SIVmne have become invaluable models for studying HIV pathogenesis, vaccine design and the emergence of viruses. SIV isolates from captive crab-eating macaques (SIVmfa were initially described but lost prior to any detailed molecular and genetic characterization. In order to infer the origins of the lost SIVmfa lineage, we located archived material and colony records, recovered its genomic sequence by PCR, and assessed its phylogenetic relationship to other SIV strains. We conclude that SIVmfa is the product of two cross-species transmission events. The first was the established transmission of SIVsmm to rhesus macaques, which occurred at the California National Primate Research Center in the late 1960s and the virus later emerged as SIVmac. In a second event, SIVmac was transmitted to crab-eating macaques, likely at the Laboratory for Experimental Medicine and Surgery in Primates in the early 1970s, and it was later spread to the New England Primate Research Center colony in 1973 and eventually isolated in 1986. Our analysis suggests that SIVmac had already emerged by the early 1970s and had begun to diverge into distinct lineages. Furthermore, our findings suggest that pathogenic SIV strains may have been more widely distributed than previously appreciated, raising the possibility that additional isolates may await discovery.

  8. The presence of nuclear cactus in the early Drosophila embryo may extend the dynamic range of the dorsal gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D O'Connell

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In a developing embryo, the spatial distribution of a signaling molecule, or a morphogen gradient, has been hypothesized to carry positional information to pattern tissues. Recent measurements of morphogen distribution have allowed us to subject this hypothesis to rigorous physical testing. In the early Drosophila embryo, measurements of the morphogen Dorsal, which is a transcription factor responsible for initiating the earliest zygotic patterns along the dorsal-ventral axis, have revealed a gradient that is too narrow to pattern the entire axis. In this study, we use a mathematical model of Dorsal dynamics, fit to experimental data, to determine the ability of the Dorsal gradient to regulate gene expression across the entire dorsal-ventral axis. We found that two assumptions are required for the model to match experimental data in both Dorsal distribution and gene expression patterns. First, we assume that Cactus, an inhibitor that binds to Dorsal and prevents it from entering the nuclei, must itself be present in the nuclei. And second, we assume that fluorescence measurements of Dorsal reflect both free Dorsal and Cactus-bound Dorsal. Our model explains the dynamic behavior of the Dorsal gradient at lateral and dorsal positions of the embryo, the ability of Dorsal to regulate gene expression across the entire dorsal-ventral axis, and the robustness of gene expression to stochastic effects. Our results have a general implication for interpreting fluorescence-based measurements of signaling molecules.

  9. The statistical neuroanatomy of frontal networks in the macaque.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno B Averbeck

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We were interested in gaining insight into the functional properties of frontal networks based upon their anatomical inputs. We took a neuroinformatics approach, carrying out maximum likelihood hierarchical cluster analysis on 25 frontal cortical areas based upon their anatomical connections, with 68 input areas representing exterosensory, chemosensory, motor, limbic, and other frontal inputs. The analysis revealed a set of statistically robust clusters. We used these clusters to divide the frontal areas into 5 groups, including ventral-lateral, ventral-medial, dorsal-medial, dorsal-lateral, and caudal-orbital groups. Each of these groups was defined by a unique set of inputs. This organization provides insight into the differential roles of each group of areas and suggests a gradient by which orbital and ventral-medial areas may be responsible for decision-making processes based on emotion and primary reinforcers, and lateral frontal areas are more involved in integrating affective and rational information into a common framework.

  10. Detection thresholds of macaque otolith afferents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiong-Jie; Dickman, J David; Angelaki, Dora E

    2012-06-13

    The vestibular system is our sixth sense and is important for spatial perception functions, yet the sensory detection and discrimination properties of vestibular neurons remain relatively unexplored. Here we have used signal detection theory to measure detection thresholds of otolith afferents using 1 Hz linear accelerations delivered along three cardinal axes. Direction detection thresholds were measured by comparing mean firing rates centered on response peak and trough (full-cycle thresholds) or by comparing peak/trough firing rates with spontaneous activity (half-cycle thresholds). Thresholds were similar for utricular and saccular afferents, as well as for lateral, fore/aft, and vertical motion directions. When computed along the preferred direction, full-cycle direction detection thresholds were 7.54 and 3.01 cm/s(2) for regular and irregular firing otolith afferents, respectively. Half-cycle thresholds were approximately double, with excitatory thresholds being half as large as inhibitory thresholds. The variability in threshold among afferents was directly related to neuronal gain and did not depend on spike count variance. The exact threshold values depended on both the time window used for spike count analysis and the filtering method used to calculate mean firing rate, although differences between regular and irregular afferent thresholds were independent of analysis parameters. The fact that minimum thresholds measured in macaque otolith afferents are of the same order of magnitude as human behavioral thresholds suggests that the vestibular periphery might determine the limit on our ability to detect or discriminate small differences in head movement, with little noise added during downstream processing.

  11. Monkey business : the illegal trade in Barbary macaques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Uhm, D.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/380477025

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the organization, modus operandi and trade route of the illegal trade in Barbary macaques. The Barbary macaque is the most seized CITES mammal in the EU, accounting for almost 25% of live mammalrelated seizures. It is estimated that as few as 5,000-6,000 Barbary macaques

  12. Ambiguity aversion in rhesus macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eHayden

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available People generally prefer risky options, which have fully specified outcome probabilities, to ambiguous options, which have unspecified probabilities. This preference, formalized in economics, is strong enough that people will reliably prefer a risky option to an ambiguous option with a greater expected value. Explanations for ambiguity aversion often invoke uniquely human faculties like language, self-justification, or a desire to avoid public embarrassment. Challenging these ideas, here we demonstrate that a preference for unambiguous options is shared with rhesus macaques. We trained four monkeys to choose between pairs of options that both offered explicitly cued probabilities of large and small juice outcomes. We then introduced occasional trials where one of the options was obscured and examined their resulting preferences; we ran humans in a parallel experiment on a nearly identical task. We found that monkeys reliably preferred risky options to ambiguous ones, even when this bias was costly, closely matching the behavior of humans in the analogous task. Notably, ambiguity aversion varied parametrically with the extent of ambiguity. As expected, ambiguity aversion gradually declined as monkeys learned the underlying probability distribution of rewards. These data indicate that ambiguity aversion reflects fundamental cognitive biases shared with other animals rather than uniquely human factors guiding decisions.

  13. Hydrodynamic function of dorsal fins in spiny dogfish and bamboo sharks during steady swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Anabela; Lauder, George V; Wilga, Cheryl D

    2017-11-01

    A key feature of fish functional design is the presence of multiple fins that allow thrust vectoring and redirection of fluid momentum to contribute to both steady swimming and maneuvering. A number of previous studies have analyzed the function of dorsal fins in teleost fishes in this context, but the hydrodynamic function of dorsal fins in freely swimming sharks has not been analyzed, despite the potential for differential functional roles between the anterior and posterior dorsal fins. Previous anatomical research has suggested a primarily stabilizing role for shark dorsal fins. We evaluated the generality of this hypothesis by using time-resolved particle image velocimetry to record water flow patterns in the wake of both the anterior and posterior dorsal fins in two species of freely swimming sharks: bamboo sharks ( Chiloscyllium plagiosum ) and spiny dogfish ( Squalus acanthias ). Cross-correlation analysis of consecutive images was used to calculate stroke-averaged mean longitudinal and lateral velocity components, and vorticity. In spiny dogfish, we observed a velocity deficit in the wake of the first dorsal fin and flow acceleration behind the second dorsal fin, indicating that the first dorsal fin experiences net drag while the second dorsal fin can aid in propulsion. In contrast, the wake of both dorsal fins in bamboo sharks displayed increased net flow velocity in the majority of trials, reflecting a thrust contribution to steady swimming. In bamboo sharks, fluid flow in the wake of the second dorsal fin had higher absolute average velocity than that for first dorsal fin, and this may result from a positive vortex interaction between the first and second dorsal fins. These data suggest that the first dorsal fin in spiny dogfish has primarily a stabilizing function, while the second dorsal fin has a propulsive function. In bamboo sharks, both dorsal fins can contribute thrust and should be considered as propulsive adjuncts to the body during steady

  14. Visual cortex and auditory cortex activation in early binocularly blind macaques: A BOLD-fMRI study using auditory stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rong; Wu, Lingjie; Tang, Zuohua; Sun, Xinghuai; Feng, Xiaoyuan; Tang, Weijun; Qian, Wen; Wang, Jie; Jin, Lixin; Zhong, Yufeng; Xiao, Zebin

    2017-04-15

    Cross-modal plasticity within the visual and auditory cortices of early binocularly blind macaques is not well studied. In this study, four healthy neonatal macaques were assigned to group A (control group) or group B (binocularly blind group). Sixteen months later, blood oxygenation level-dependent functional imaging (BOLD-fMRI) was conducted to examine the activation in the visual and auditory cortices of each macaque while being tested using pure tones as auditory stimuli. The changes in the BOLD response in the visual and auditory cortices of all macaques were compared with immunofluorescence staining findings. Compared with group A, greater BOLD activity was observed in the bilateral visual cortices of group B, and this effect was particularly obvious in the right visual cortex. In addition, more activated volumes were found in the bilateral auditory cortices of group B than of group A, especially in the right auditory cortex. These findings were consistent with the fact that there were more c-Fos-positive cells in the bilateral visual and auditory cortices of group B compared with group A (p visual cortices of binocularly blind macaques can be reorganized to process auditory stimuli after visual deprivation, and this effect is more obvious in the right than the left visual cortex. These results indicate the establishment of cross-modal plasticity within the visual and auditory cortices. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of visual cortical function in infant macaques: A BOLD fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom J Van Grootel

    Full Text Available Functional brain development is not well understood. In the visual system, neurophysiological studies in nonhuman primates show quite mature neuronal properties near birth although visual function is itself quite immature and continues to develop over many months or years after birth. Our goal was to assess the relative development of two main visual processing streams, dorsal and ventral, using BOLD fMRI in an attempt to understand the global mechanisms that support the maturation of visual behavior. Seven infant macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta were repeatedly scanned, while anesthetized, over an age range of 102 to 1431 days. Large rotating checkerboard stimuli induced BOLD activation in visual cortices at early ages. Additionally we used static and dynamic Glass pattern stimuli to probe BOLD responses in primary visual cortex and two extrastriate areas: V4 and MT-V5. The resulting activations were analyzed with standard GLM and multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA approaches. We analyzed three contrasts: Glass pattern present/absent, static/dynamic Glass pattern presentation, and structured/random Glass pattern form. For both GLM and MVPA approaches, robust coherent BOLD activation appeared relatively late in comparison to the maturation of known neuronal properties and the development of behavioral sensitivity to Glass patterns. Robust differential activity to Glass pattern present/absent and dynamic/static stimulus presentation appeared first in V1, followed by V4 and MT-V5 at older ages; there was no reliable distinction between the two extrastriate areas. A similar pattern of results was obtained with the two analysis methods, although MVPA analysis showed reliable differential responses emerging at later ages than GLM. Although BOLD responses to large visual stimuli are detectable, our results with more refined stimuli indicate that global BOLD activity changes as behavioral performance matures. This reflects an hierarchical development of

  16. Agenesis of the dorsal pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnedl, Wolfgang J; Piswanger-Soelkner, Claudia; Wallner, Sandra J; Krause, Robert; Lipp, Rainer W

    2009-01-01

    During the last 100 years in medical literature, there are only 54 reports, including the report of Pasaoglu et al (World J Gastroenterol 2008; 14: 2915-2916), with clinical descriptions of agenesis of the dorsal pancreas in humans. Agenesis of the dorsal pancreas, a rare congenital pancreatic malformation, is associated with some other medical conditions such as hyperglycemia, abdominal pain, pancreatitis and a few other diseases. In approximately 50% of reported patients with this congenital malformation, hyperglycemia was demonstrated. Evaluation of hyperglycemia and diabetes mellitus in all patients with agenesis of the dorsal pancreas including description of fasting blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, glycated hemoglobin and medical treatment would be a future goal. Since autosomal dominant transmission has been suggested in single families, more family studies including imaging technologies with demonstration of the pancreatic duct system are needed for evaluation of this disease. With this letter to the editor, we aim to increase available information for the better understanding of this rare disease. PMID:19140241

  17. The evolution of the dorsal thalamus of jawed vertebrates, including mammals: cladistic analysis and a new hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, A B

    1994-01-01

    The evolution of the dorsal thalamus in various vertebrate lineages of jawed vertebrates has been an enigma, partly due to two prevalent misconceptions: the belief that the multitude of nuclei in the dorsal thalamus of mammals could be meaningfully compared neither with the relatively few nuclei in the dorsal thalamus of anamniotes nor with the intermediate number of dorsal thalamic nuclei of other amniotes and a definition of the dorsal thalamus that too narrowly focused on the features of the dorsal thalamus of mammals. The cladistic analysis carried out here allows us to recognize which features are plesiomorphic and which apomorphic for the dorsal thalamus of jawed vertebrates and to then reconstruct the major changes that have occurred in the dorsal thalamus over evolution. Embryological data examined in the context of Von Baerian theory (embryos of later-descendant species resemble the embryos of earlier-descendant species to the point of their divergence) supports a new 'Dual Elaboration Hypothesis' of dorsal thalamic evolution generated from this cladistic analysis. From the morphotype for an early stage in the embryological development of the dorsal thalamus of jawed vertebrates, the divergent, sequential stages of the development of the dorsal thalamus are derived for each major radiation and compared. The new hypothesis holds that the dorsal thalamus comprises two basic divisions--the collothalamus and the lemnothalamus--that receive their predominant input from the midbrain roof and (plesiomorphically) from lemniscal pathways, including the optic tract, respectively. Where present, the collothalamic, midbrain-sensory relay nuclei are homologous to each other in all vertebrate radiations as discrete nuclei. Within the lemnothalamus, the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of mammals and the dorsal lateral optic nucleus of non-synapsid amniotes (diapsid reptiles, birds and turtles) are homologous as discrete nuclei; most or all of the ventral nuclear group

  18. Gene targeting in adult rhesus macaque fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Don P

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene targeting in nonhuman primates has the potential to produce critical animal models for translational studies related to human diseases. Successful gene targeting in fibroblasts followed by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT has been achieved in several species of large mammals but not yet in primates. Our goal was to establish the protocols necessary to achieve gene targeting in primary culture of adult rhesus macaque fibroblasts as a first step in creating nonhuman primate models of genetic disease using nuclear transfer technology. Results A primary culture of adult male fibroblasts was transfected with hTERT to overcome senescence and allow long term in vitro manipulations. Successful gene targeting of the HPRT locus in rhesus macaques was achieved by electroporating S-phase synchronized cells with a construct containing a SV40 enhancer. Conclusion The cell lines reported here could be used for the production of null mutant rhesus macaque models of human genetic disease using SCNT technology. In addition, given the close evolutionary relationship and biological similarity between rhesus macaques and humans, the protocols described here may prove useful in the genetic engineering of human somatic cells.

  19. Personality structure and social style in macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mark James; Majolo, Bonaventura; Ostner, Julia; Schülke, Oliver; De Marco, Arianna; Thierry, Bernard; Engelhardt, Antje; Widdig, Anja; Gerald, Melissa S; Weiss, Alexander

    2015-08-01

    Why regularities in personality can be described with particular dimensions is a basic question in differential psychology. Nonhuman primates can also be characterized in terms of personality structure. Comparative approaches can help reveal phylogenetic constraints and social and ecological patterns associated with the presence or absence of specific personality dimensions. We sought to determine how different personality structures are related to interspecific variation in social style. Specifically, we examined this question in 6 different species of macaques, because macaque social style is well characterized and can be categorized on a spectrum of despotic (Grade 1) versus tolerant (Grade 4) social styles. We derived personality structures from adjectival ratings of Japanese (Macaca fuscata; Grade 1), Assamese (M. assamensis; Grade 2), Barbary (M. sylvanus; Grade 3), Tonkean (M. tonkeana; Grade 4), and crested (M. nigra; Grade 4) macaques and compared these species with rhesus macaques (M. mulatta; Grade 1) whose personality was previously characterized. Using a nonparametric method, fuzzy set analysis, to identify commonalities in personality dimensions across species, we found that all but 1 species exhibited consistently defined Friendliness and Openness dimensions, but that similarities in personality dimensions capturing aggression and social competence reflect similarities in social styles. These findings suggest that social and phylogenetic relationships contribute to the origin, maintenance, and diversification of personality. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Project Lifescape - The Macaques of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 9. Project Lifescape - The Macaques of India. Anindya Sinha. Classroom Volume 6 Issue 9 September 2001 pp 94-105. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/09/0094-0105 ...

  1. SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY STUDY OF THE DORSAL SURFACE OF THE TONGUE IN Chaetophractus vellerosus (MAMMALIA, DASYPODIDAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Estecondo, Silvia; Codón, Stella Maris; Casanave, Emma Beatriz

    2001-01-01

    The characteristics of the dorsal surface of Chaetophractus vellerosus tongue were studied by scanning electron microscopy. Simple or branched filiform, fungiform and vallate papillae are described. Simple conical filiform papillae appear in the apex, lateral edges and posterior third, caudally to the circumvallated ones. The branched papillae are densely distributed all over the dorsal surface of the lingual body. Fungiform ones are scattered among the branched filiform papillae. In the post...

  2. Human exposure to herpesvirus B-seropositive macaques, Bali, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Gregory A; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Schillaci, Michael A; Suaryana, Komang Gde; Putra, Artha; Fuentes, Agustin; Henkel, Richard

    2002-08-01

    Herpesvirus B (Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1) has been implicated as the cause of approximately 40 cases of meningoencephalitis affecting persons in direct or indirect contact with laboratory macaques. However, the threat of herpesvirus B in nonlaboratory settings worldwide remains to be addressed. We investigated the potential for exposure to herpesvirus B in workers at a "monkey forest" (a temple that has become a tourist attraction because of its monkeys) in Bali, Indonesia. In July 2000, 105 workers at the Sangeh Monkey Forest in Central Bali were surveyed about contact with macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Nearly half of those interviewed had either been bitten or scratched by a macaque. Prevalence of injury was higher in those who fed macaques. Serum from 31 of 38 Sangeh macaques contained antibodies to herpesvirus B. We conclude that workers coming into contact with macaques at the Sangeh Monkey Forest are at risk for exposure to herpesvirus B.

  3. DORSAL ROOT REGENERATION INTO TRANSPLANTS OF DORSAL OR VENTRAL HALF OF EMBRYONIC SPINAL CORD

    OpenAIRE

    Ohta, Tohru; Itoh, Yasunobu; Tessler, Alan; Mizoi, Kazuo

    2009-01-01

    Adult cut dorsal root axons regenerate into the transplants of embryonic spinal cord (ESC) and form functional synapses within the transplants. It is unknown whether the growth is specific to transplants of dorsal half of ESC, a normal target of most dorsal root axons, or whether it is due to properties shared by transplants of ventral half of ESC. We used calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) immunohistochemistry to label to the subpopulations of regenerated adult dorsal root axons, quantit...

  4. Liposarcome dorsal: aspect clinique rare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbessi, Odry; Arrob, Adil; Fiqhi, Kamal; Khalfi, Lahcen; Nassih, Mohammed; El Khatib, Karim

    2015-01-01

    Décrit la première fois par Virchow en 1860, le liposarcome est une tumeur mésenchymateuse rare. Cette rareté est relative car les liposarcomes représentent quand même 14 à 18% de l'ensemble des tumeurs malignes des parties molles et ils constituent le plus fréquent des sarcomes des parties molles. Pour la majorité des auteurs, il ne se développerait jamais sur un lipome ou une lipomatose préexistant. Nous rapportons un cas de volumineux liposarcome de la face dorsale du tronc. L'histoire de la maladie, l'aspect clinique inhabituel « de tumeur dans tumeur », l'aspect de la pièce opératoire nous fait évoquer la possibilité de la transformation maligne d'un lipome bénin préexistant. PMID:26113914

  5. Identification of dorsal root synaptic terminals on monkey ventral horn cells by electron microscopic autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ralston, H.J.; Ralston, D.D.

    1979-01-01

    The projection of dorsal root fibres to the motor nucleus of the macaque monkey spinal cord has been examined utilizing light and electron microscopic autoradiography. Light microscopy demonstrates a very sparse labelling of primary afferent fibres in the ventral horn. Silver grains overlying radioactive sources are frequently clustered into small groups, often adjacent to dendritic profiles. Under the electron microscope, myelinated axons and a few large synaptic profiles containing rounded synaptic vesicles were overlain by numerous silver grains. These labelled profiles made synaptic contact with dendrites 1 - 3 micrometers in diameter. The labelled profiles did not contact cell bodies or large proximal dendrites of ventral horn neutrons. Frequently, small synaptic profiles containing flattened vesicles were presynaptic to the large labelled terminals and it is suggested that these axoaxonal synapses may mediate presynaptic inhibition of the primary afferent fibres. The relationship of the present findings to previously published physiological and anatomical studies is discussed. (author)

  6. Dorsal skinfold chamber models in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schreiter, Jeannine

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/purpose: The use of dorsal skinfold chamber models has substantially improved the understanding of micro-vascularisation in pathophysiology over the last eight decades. It allows pathophysiological studies of vascularisation over a continuous period of time. The dorsal skinfold chamber is an attractive technique for monitoring the vascularisation of autologous or allogenic transplants, wound healing, tumorigenesis and compatibility of biomaterial implants. To further reduce the animals’ discomfort while carrying the dorsal skinfold chamber, we developed a smaller chamber (the Leipzig Dorsal Skinfold Chamber and summarized the commercial available chamber models. In addition we compared our model to the common chamber. Methods: The Leipzig Dorsal Skinfold Chamber was applied to female mice with a mean weight of 22 g. Angiogenesis within the dorsal skinfold chamber was evaluated after injection of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran with an Axio Scope microscope. The mean vessel density within the dorsal skinfold chamber was assessed over a period of 21 days at five different time points. The gained data were compared to previous results using a bigger and heavier dorsal skinfold model in mice. A PubMed and a patent search were performed and all papers related to “dorsal skinfold chamber” from 1 of January 2006 to 31 of December 2015 were evaluated regarding the dorsal skinfold chamber models and their technical improvements. The main models are described and compared to our titanium Leipzig Dorsal Skinfold Chamber model.Results: The Leipzig Dorsal Skinfold Chamber fulfils all requirements of continuous models known from previous chamber models while reducing irritation to the mice. Five different chamber models have been identified showing substantial regional diversity. The newly elaborated titanium dorsal skinfold chamber may replace the pre-existing titanium chamber model used in Germany so far, as it is smaller and lighter

  7. Fat opacities dorsal to the equine antebrachiocarpal joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietze, A.E.; Rendano, V.T.

    1984-01-01

    Radiolucencies due to fat in the soft tissues dorsal to the equine antebrachiocarpal joint were studied in 12 necropsy specimens. In lateral-to-medial xeroradiographs of these 12 specimens, focal radiolucencies were present in ten, one focal radiolucency was present in one, and no focal radiolucencies were present in ten, one focal radiolucency was present in one, and no focal radiolucencies were in another. These radiolucencies were identified as fat in the antebrachiocarpal joint capsule. The fat was in two locations within this joint capsule. It was associated with the synovial membrane of the extensor carpi radialis tendon sheath and the synovial membrane of the antebrachiocarpal joint

  8. Systemic gene delivery transduces the enteric nervous system of guinea pigs and cynomolgus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombash, S E; Cowley, C J; Fitzgerald, J A; Lepak, C A; Neides, M G; Hook, K; Todd, L J; Wang, G-D; Mueller, C; Kaspar, B K; Bielefeld, E C; Fischer, A J; Wood, J D; Foust, K D

    2017-10-01

    Characterization of adeno-associated viral vector (AAV) mediated gene delivery to the enteric nervous system (ENS) was recently described in mice and rats. In these proof-of-concept experiments, we show that intravenous injections of clinically relevant AAVs can transduce the ENS in guinea pigs and non-human primates. Neonatal guinea pigs were given intravenous injections of either AAV8 or AAV9 vectors that contained a green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression cassette or phosphate-buffered saline. Piglets were euthanized three weeks post injection and tissues were harvested for immunofluorescent analysis. GFP expression was detected in myenteric and submucosal neurons along the length of the gastrointestinal tract in AAV8 injected guinea pigs. GFP-positive neurons were found in dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus and dorsal root ganglia. Less transduction occurred in AAV9-treated tissues. Gastrointestinal tissues were analyzed from young cynomolgus macaques that received systemic injection of AAV9 GFP. GFP expression was detected in myenteric neurons of the stomach, small and large intestine. These data demonstrate that ENS gene delivery translates to larger species. This work develops tools for the field of neurogastroenterology to explore gut physiology and anatomy using emerging technologies such as optogenetics and gene editing. It also provides a basis to develop novel therapies for chronic gut disorders.

  9. A novel function for the IκB inhibitor Cactus in promoting Dorsal nuclear localization and activity in the Drosophila embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Maira Arruda; Fontenele, Marcio; Lim, Bomyi; Bisch, Paulo Mascarello; Shvartsman, Stanislav Y; Araujo, Helena Marcolla

    2017-08-15

    The evolutionarily conserved Toll signaling pathway controls innate immunity across phyla and embryonic patterning in insects. In the Drosophila embryo, Toll is required to establish gene expression domains along the dorsal-ventral axis. Pathway activation induces degradation of the IκB inhibitor Cactus, resulting in a ventral-to-dorsal nuclear gradient of the NFκB effector Dorsal. Here, we investigate how cactus modulates Toll signals through its effects on the Dorsal gradient and on Dorsal target genes. Quantitative analysis using a series of loss- and gain-of-function conditions shows that the ventral and lateral aspects of the Dorsal gradient can behave differently with respect to Cactus fluctuations. In lateral and dorsal embryo domains, loss of Cactus allows more Dorsal to translocate to the nucleus. Unexpectedly, cactus loss-of-function alleles decrease Dorsal nuclear localization ventrally, where Toll signals are high. Overexpression analysis suggests that this ability of Cactus to enhance Toll stems from the mobilization of a free Cactus pool induced by the Calpain A protease. These results indicate that Cactus acts to bolster Dorsal activation, in addition to its role as a NFκB inhibitor, ensuring a correct response to Toll signals. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Dioptrics of the facet lenses in the dorsal rim area of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ukhanov, KY; Leertouwer, HL; Gribakin, FG; Stavenga, DG

    1996-01-01

    1. The optics of the corneal facet lenses from the dorsal rim area (DRA) and from the dorso-lateral areas (DA) of the compound eye of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus were studied. 2. The DRA of the cricket eye contains quite normally shaped facet lenses. The diameter of the facet lens in the DA is

  11. Grooming reciprocity in male Tibetan macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dong-Po; Li, Jin-Hua; Garber, Paul A; Matheson, Megan D; Sun, Bing-Hua; Zhu, Yong

    2013-10-01

    In several primate species, adult males are reported to compete for access to reproductive partners as well as forming affiliative and cohesive social bonds based on the exchange of goods or services. We hypothesized that among a broad set of fitness-maximizing strategies, grooming can be used by individual adult males to enhance social relationships through reciprocity and/or through the interchange of grooming for a different but equivalent good or service. We used focal animal sampling and continuously recorded dyadic grooming and agonistic interactions to test a series of predictions regarding male social interactions in a free-ranging group of Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Huangshan, China. During the non-mating season or between males of similar rank throughout the year, grooming effort given was matched by grooming effort received. However, lower ranking males groomed higher ranking males at a greater rate and/or for a longer duration during both the mating and non-mating periods. We found that higher ranking males directed less aggression towards males with whom they formed a frequent grooming partnership, indicating that grooming received was interchanged for increased social tolerance. These data suggest that individual male Tibetan macaques employ alternative social strategies associated with grooming reciprocity or interchange depending on dominance rank and rates of aggression, and highlight the importance of both biological markets and grooming reciprocity as behavioral mechanisms used by resident adult males to form and maintain affiliative social bonds. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Personal authentication through dorsal hand vein patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chih-Bin; Hao, Shu-Sheng; Lee, Jen-Chun

    2011-08-01

    Biometric identification is an emerging technology that can solve security problems in our networked society. A reliable and robust personal verification approach using dorsal hand vein patterns is proposed in this paper. The characteristic of the approach needs less computational and memory requirements and has a higher recognition accuracy. In our work, the near-infrared charge-coupled device (CCD) camera is adopted as an input device for capturing dorsal hand vein images, it has the advantages of the low-cost and noncontact imaging. In the proposed approach, two finger-peaks are automatically selected as the datum points to define the region of interest (ROI) in the dorsal hand vein images. The modified two-directional two-dimensional principal component analysis, which performs an alternate two-dimensional PCA (2DPCA) in the column direction of images in the 2DPCA subspace, is proposed to exploit the correlation of vein features inside the ROI between images. The major advantage of the proposed method is that it requires fewer coefficients for efficient dorsal hand vein image representation and recognition. The experimental results on our large dorsal hand vein database show that the presented schema achieves promising performance (false reject rate: 0.97% and false acceptance rate: 0.05%) and is feasible for dorsal hand vein recognition.

  13. Opposing dorsal/ventral stream dynamics during figure-ground segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wokke, Martijn E; Scholte, H Steven; Lamme, Victor A F

    2014-02-01

    The visual system has been commonly subdivided into two segregated visual processing streams: The dorsal pathway processes mainly spatial information, and the ventral pathway specializes in object perception. Recent findings, however, indicate that different forms of interaction (cross-talk) exist between the dorsal and the ventral stream. Here, we used TMS and concurrent EEG recordings to explore these interactions between the dorsal and ventral stream during figure-ground segregation. In two separate experiments, we used repetitive TMS and single-pulse TMS to disrupt processing in the dorsal (V5/HMT⁺) and the ventral (lateral occipital area) stream during a motion-defined figure discrimination task. We presented stimuli that made it possible to differentiate between relatively low-level (figure boundary detection) from higher-level (surface segregation) processing steps during figure-ground segregation. Results show that disruption of V5/HMT⁺ impaired performance related to surface segregation; this effect was mainly found when V5/HMT⁺ was perturbed in an early time window (100 msec) after stimulus presentation. Surprisingly, disruption of the lateral occipital area resulted in increased performance scores and enhanced neural correlates of surface segregation. This facilitatory effect was also mainly found in an early time window (100 msec) after stimulus presentation. These results suggest a "push-pull" interaction in which dorsal and ventral extrastriate areas are being recruited or inhibited depending on stimulus category and task demands.

  14. Genetic characterization of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyes, Randall C; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Chalise, Mukesh K; Engel, Gregory; Heidrich, John; Grant, Richard; Bajimaya, Shyam S; McDonough, John; Smith, David Glenn; Ferguson, Betsy

    2006-05-01

    Indian-origin rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) have long served as an animal model for the study of human disease and behavior. Given the current shortage of Indian-origin rhesus, many researchers have turned to rhesus macaques from China as a substitute. However, a number of studies have identified marked genetic differences between the Chinese and Indian animals. We investigated the genetic characteristics of a third rhesus population, the rhesus macaques of Nepal. Twenty-one rhesus macaques at the Swoyambhu Temple in Kathmandu, Nepal, were compared with more than 300 Indian- and Chinese-origin rhesus macaques. The sequence analyses of two mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) loci, from the HVS I and 12 S rRNA regions, showed that the Nepali animals were more similar to Indian-origin than to Chinese-origin animals. The distribution of alleles at 24 short tandem repeat (STR) loci distributed across 17 chromosomes also showed greater similarity between the Nepali and Indian-origin animals. Finally, an analysis of seven major histocompatibility complex (MHC) alleles showed that the Nepali animals expressed Class I alleles that are common to Indian-origin animals, including Mamu-A*01. All of these analyses also revealed a low level of genetic diversity within this Nepali rhesus sample. We conclude that the rhesus macaques of Nepal more closely resemble rhesus macaques of Indian origin than those of Chinese origin. As such, the Nepali rhesus may offer an additional resource option for researchers who wish to maintain research protocols with animals that possess key genetic features characteristic of Indian-origin rhesus macaques. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. A biomechanical comparison of four fixed-angle dorsal plates in a finite element model of dorsally-unstable radius fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knežević, Josip; Kodvanj, Janoš; Čukelj, Fabijan; Pamuković, Frane; Pavić, Arsen

    2017-11-01

    To compare the finite element models of two different composite radius fracture patterns, reduced and stabilised with four different fixed-angle dorsal plates during axial, dorsal and volar loading conditions. Eight different plastic models representing four AO/ASIF type 23-A3 distal radius fractures and four AO/ASIF 23-C2 distal radius fractures were obtained and fixed each with 1 of 4 methods: a standard dorsal non-anatomical fixed angle T-plate (3.5mm Dorsal T-plate, Synthes), anatomical fixed-angle double plates (2.4mm LCP Dorsal Distal Radius, Synthes), anatomical fixed angle T-plate (2.4mm Acu-Loc Dorsal Plate, Acumed) or anatomical variable-angle dorsal T-plate (3.5mm, Dorsal Plate, Zrinski). Composite radius with plate and screws were scanned with a 3D optical scanner and later processed in Abaqus Software to generate the finite element model. All models were axially loaded at 3 points (centrally, volarly and dorsally) with 50 N forces to avoid the appearance of plastic deformations of the models. Total displacements at the end of the bone and the stresses in the bones and plates were determined and compared. Maximal von Mises stress in bone for 3-part fracture models was very similar to that in 2-part fracture models. The biggest difference between models and the largest displacements were seen during volar loading. The stresses in all models were the highest above the fracture gap. The best performance in all parameters tested was with the Zrinski plate and the most modest results were with the Synthes T-plate. There was no significant difference between 2-part (AO/ASIF type 23-A3) and 3-part (AO/ASIF 23-C2) fracture models. Maximal stresses in the plates appeared above the fracture gap; therefore, it is worth considering the development of plates without screw holes above the gap. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The equine flexed lateral fetlock radiographic view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, L.L.

    1993-01-01

    Recommendations for obtaining the flexed lateral radiographic view of the equine fetlock are provided. By tilting the X-ray tube in a 10-degrees dorsal direction, the angle of the flexed lateral fetlock joint is matched. While this view will not be effective on all horses, utilizing the flexed view aids in evaluating those horses that present an abnormal conformation when the fetlock joint is flexed

  17. Vicarious Reinforcement In Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve W. C. Chang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available What happens to others profoundly influences our own behavior. Such other-regarding outcomes can drive observational learning, as well as motivate cooperation, charity, empathy, and even spite. Vicarious reinforcement may serve as one of the critical mechanisms mediating the influence of other-regarding outcomes on behavior and decision-making in groups. Here we show that rhesus macaques spontaneously derive vicarious reinforcement from observing rewards given to another monkey, and that this reinforcement can motivate them to subsequently deliver or withhold rewards from the other animal. We exploited Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning to associate rewards to self (M1 and/or rewards to another monkey (M2 with visual cues. M1s made more errors in the instrumental trials when cues predicted reward to M2 compared to when cues predicted reward to M1, but made even more errors when cues predicted reward to no one. In subsequent preference tests between pairs of conditioned cues, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to M2 over cues paired with reward to no one. By contrast, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to self over cues paired with reward to both monkeys simultaneously. Rates of attention to M2 strongly predicted the strength and valence of vicarious reinforcement. These patterns of behavior, which were absent in nonsocial control trials, are consistent with vicarious reinforcement based upon sensitivity to observed, or counterfactual, outcomes with respect to another individual. Vicarious reward may play a critical role in shaping cooperation and competition, as well as motivating observational learning and group coordination in rhesus macaques, much as it does in humans. We propose that vicarious reinforcement signals mediate these behaviors via homologous neural circuits involved in reinforcement learning and decision-making.

  18. Vicarious reinforcement in rhesus macaques (macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Steve W C; Winecoff, Amy A; Platt, Michael L

    2011-01-01

    What happens to others profoundly influences our own behavior. Such other-regarding outcomes can drive observational learning, as well as motivate cooperation, charity, empathy, and even spite. Vicarious reinforcement may serve as one of the critical mechanisms mediating the influence of other-regarding outcomes on behavior and decision-making in groups. Here we show that rhesus macaques spontaneously derive vicarious reinforcement from observing rewards given to another monkey, and that this reinforcement can motivate them to subsequently deliver or withhold rewards from the other animal. We exploited Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning to associate rewards to self (M1) and/or rewards to another monkey (M2) with visual cues. M1s made more errors in the instrumental trials when cues predicted reward to M2 compared to when cues predicted reward to M1, but made even more errors when cues predicted reward to no one. In subsequent preference tests between pairs of conditioned cues, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to M2 over cues paired with reward to no one. By contrast, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to self over cues paired with reward to both monkeys simultaneously. Rates of attention to M2 strongly predicted the strength and valence of vicarious reinforcement. These patterns of behavior, which were absent in non-social control trials, are consistent with vicarious reinforcement based upon sensitivity to observed, or counterfactual, outcomes with respect to another individual. Vicarious reward may play a critical role in shaping cooperation and competition, as well as motivating observational learning and group coordination in rhesus macaques, much as it does in humans. We propose that vicarious reinforcement signals mediate these behaviors via homologous neural circuits involved in reinforcement learning and decision-making.

  19. Ancestry, Plasmodium cynomolgi prevalence and rhesus macaque admixture in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) bred for export in Chinese breeding farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinjun; Meng, Yuhuan; Houghton, Paul; Liu, Mingyu; Kanthaswamy, Sreetharan; Oldt, Robert; Ng, Jillian; Trask, Jessica Satkoski; Huang, Ren; Singh, Balbir; Du, Hongli; Smith, David Glenn

    2017-04-01

    Most cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) used in the United States as animal models are imported from Chinese breeding farms without documented ancestry. Cynomolgus macaques with varying rhesus macaque ancestry proportions may exhibit differences, such as susceptibility to malaria, that affect their suitability as a research model. DNA of 400 cynomolgus macaques from 10 Chinese breeding farms was genotyped to characterize their regional origin and rhesus ancestry proportion. A nested PCR assay was used to detect Plasmodium cynomolgi infection in sampled individuals. All populations exhibited high levels of genetic heterogeneity and low levels of inbreeding and genetic subdivision. Almost all individuals exhibited an Indochinese origin and a rhesus ancestry proportion of 5%-48%. The incidence of P. cynomolgi infection in cynomolgus macaques is strongly associated with proportion of rhesus ancestry. The varying amount of rhesus ancestry in cynomolgus macaques underscores the importance of monitoring their genetic similarity in malaria research. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. A Comparative Study of Dorsal Buccal Mucosa Graft Substitution Urethroplasty by Dorsal Urethrotomy Approach versus Ventral Sagittal Urethrotomy Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Pahwa, Mrinal; Gupta, Sanjeev; Pahwa, Mayank; Jain, Brig D. K.; Gupta, Manu

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the outcome of dorsal buccal mucosal graft (BMG) substitution urethroplasty by dorsal urethrotomy approach with ventral urethrotomy approach in management of stricture urethra. Methods and Materials. A total of 40 patients who underwent dorsal BMG substitution urethroplasty were randomized into two groups. 20 patients underwent dorsal onlay BMG urethroplasty as described by Barbagli, and the other 20 patients underwent dorsal BMG urethroplasty by ventral urethrotomy as ...

  1. Lateral Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Christopher; Bruun Jensen, casper

    2016-01-01

    This essay discusses the complex relation between the knowledges and practices of the researcher and his/her informants in terms of lateral concepts. The starting point is that it is not the prerogative of the (STS) scholar to conceptualize the world; all our “informants” do it too. This creates...... the possibility of enriching our own conceptual repertoires by letting them be inflected by the concepts of those we study. In a broad sense, the lateral means that there is a many-to-many relation between domains of knowledge and practice. However, each specific case of the lateral is necessarily immanent...... to a particular empirical setting and form of inquiry. In this sense lateral concepts are radically empirical since it locates concepts within the field. To clarify the meaning and stakes of lateral concepts, we first make a contrast between lateral anthropology and Latour’s notion of infra-reflexivity. We end...

  2. Modality-Based Organization of Ascending Somatosensory Axons in the Direct Dorsal Column Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Jingwen; Ding, Long; Li, Jian J.; Kim, Hyukmin; Liu, Jiakun; Li, Haipeng; Moberly, Andrew; Badea, Tudor C.; Duncan, Ian D.; Son, Young-Jin; Scherer, Steven S.

    2013-01-01

    The long-standing doctrine regarding the functional organization of the direct dorsal column (DDC) pathway is the “somatotopic map” model, which suggests that somatosensory afferents are primarily organized by receptive field instead of modality. Using modality-specific genetic tracing, here we show that ascending mechanosensory and proprioceptive axons, two main types of the DDC afferents, are largely segregated into a medial–lateral pattern in the mouse dorsal column and medulla. In addition, we found that this modality-based organization is likely to be conserved in other mammalian species, including human. Furthermore, we identified key morphological differences between these two types of afferents, which explains how modality segregation is formed and why a rough “somatotopic map” was previously detected. Collectively, our results establish a new functional organization model for the mammalian direct dorsal column pathway and provide insight into how somatotopic and modality-based organization coexist in the central somatosensory pathway. PMID:24198362

  3. Kinesthetic working memory and action control within the dorsal stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiehler, Katja; Burke, Michael; Engel, Annerose; Bien, Siegfried; Rösler, Frank

    2008-02-01

    There is wide agreement that the "dorsal (action) stream" processes visual information for movement control. However, movements depend not only on vision but also on tactile and kinesthetic information (=haptics). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, the present study investigates to what extent networks within the dorsal stream are also utilized for kinesthetic action control and whether they are also involved in kinesthetic working memory. Fourteen blindfolded participants performed a delayed-recognition task in which right-handed movements had to be encoded, maintained, and later recognized without any visual feedback. Encoding of hand movements activated somatosensory areas, superior parietal lobe (dorsodorsal stream), anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS) and adjoining areas (ventrodorsal stream), premotor cortex, and occipitotemporal cortex (ventral stream). Short-term maintenance of kinesthetic information elicited load-dependent activity in the aIPS and adjacent anterior portion of the superior parietal lobe (ventrodorsal stream) of the left hemisphere. We propose that the action representation system of the dorsodorsal and ventrodorsal stream is utilized not only for visual but also for kinesthetic action control. Moreover, the present findings demonstrate that networks within the ventrodorsal stream, in particular the left aIPS and closely adjacent areas, are also engaged in working memory maintenance of kinesthetic information.

  4. Auditory properties in the parabelt regions of the superior temporal gyrus in the awake macaque monkey: an initial survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajikawa, Yoshinao; Frey, Stephen; Ross, Deborah; Falchier, Arnaud; Hackett, Troy A; Schroeder, Charles E

    2015-03-11

    The superior temporal gyrus (STG) is on the inferior-lateral brain surface near the external ear. In macaques, 2/3 of the STG is occupied by an auditory cortical region, the "parabelt," which is part of a network of inferior temporal areas subserving communication and social cognition as well as object recognition and other functions. However, due to its location beneath the squamous temporal bone and temporalis muscle, the STG, like other inferior temporal regions, has been a challenging target for physiological studies in awake-behaving macaques. We designed a new procedure for implanting recording chambers to provide direct access to the STG, allowing us to evaluate neuronal properties and their topography across the full extent of the STG in awake-behaving macaques. Initial surveys of the STG have yielded several new findings. Unexpectedly, STG sites in monkeys that were listening passively responded to tones with magnitudes comparable to those of responses to 1/3 octave band-pass noise. Mapping results showed longer response latencies in more rostral sites and possible tonotopic patterns parallel to core and belt areas, suggesting the reversal of gradients between caudal and rostral parabelt areas. These results will help further exploration of parabelt areas. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/354140-11$15.00/0.

  5. A Characterization of Aerosolized Sudan Virus Infection in African Green Monkeys, Cynomolgus Macaques, and Rhesus Macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald K. Nichols

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Filoviruses are members of the genera Ebolavirus, Marburgvirus, and “Cuevavirus”. Because they cause human disease with high lethality and could potentially be used as a bioweapon, these viruses are classified as CDC Category A Bioterrorism Agents. Filoviruses are relatively stable in aerosols, retain virulence after lyophilization, and can be present on contaminated surfaces for extended periods of time. This study explores the characteristics of aerosolized Sudan virus (SUDV Boniface in non-human primates (NHP belonging to three different species. Groups of cynomolgus macaques (cyno, rhesus macaques (rhesus, and African green monkeys (AGM were challenged with target doses of 50 or 500 plaque-forming units (pfu of aerosolized SUDV. Exposure to either viral dose resulted in increased body temperatures in all three NHP species beginning on days 4–5 post-exposure. Other clinical findings for all three NHP species included leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, anorexia, dehydration, and lymphadenopathy. Disease in all of the NHPs was severe beginning on day 6 post-exposure, and all animals except one surviving rhesus macaque were euthanized by day 14. Serum alanine transaminase (ALT and aspartate transaminase (AST concentrations were elevated during the course of disease in all three species; however, AGMs had significantly higher ALT and AST concentrations than cynos and rhesus. While all three species had detectable viral load by days 3-4 post exposure, Rhesus had lower average peak viral load than cynos or AGMs. Overall, the results indicate that the disease course after exposure to aerosolized SUDV is similar for all three species of NHP.

  6. Inhibiting PKM[zeta] Reveals Dorsal Lateral and Dorsal Medial Striatum Store the Different Memories Needed to Support Adaptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli, Wolfgang M.; Clark, Alexandra D.; Guenther, Heidi J.; O'Reilly, Randall C.; Rudy, Jerry W.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence suggests that two regions of the striatum contribute differential support to instrumental response selection. The dorsomedial striatum (DMS) is thought to support expectancy-mediated actions, and the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) is thought to support habits. Currently it is unclear whether these regions store task-relevant information or…

  7. Risk and Resilience: Early Manipulation of Macaque Social Experience and Persistent Behavioral and Neurophysiological Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Hanna E.; Leckman, James F.; Coplan, Jeremy D.; Suomi, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    A literature review on macaque monkeys finds that peer rearing of young macaques and rearing of young macaques by mothers that are undergoing variable foraging conditions result in emotional and neurophysiological disturbance. Certain genotypes contribute to resilience to this disturbance. The findings have implications to child mental health and…

  8. Neuroradiological evaluation of dorsal cyst malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utsunomiya, Hidetsuna; Hayashi, Takashi; Hashimoto, Takeo; Matsuishi, Toyojiro; Okudera, Toshio.

    1988-01-01

    We discussed six cases with dorsal cyst malformations listing their neuroradiological observations and proposed to differentiate between the holosphere and hemisphere as defined by Yokota (1984). The cases were divided into holospheric and hemispheric groups depending on the continuity of their frontal lobe midlines. Cases 1, 2 and 3 were placed in the holospheric group because of their unseparated frontal lobe sbeneath the partially formed anterior interhemispheric fissures. Cases 4, 5 and 6 were grouped in the hemisphere due to the completion of the interhemispheric fissures. There has been a tendency in recent years for most cases of cerebral malformations having an endogenous dorsal cyst with monoventricular configuration to be diagnosed as holoprosencephaly. However, we believe that only patients who have a dorsal cyst in the holospheric brain should be included, and the others in the hemispheric brain, which is capable of completing hemispheric cleavage, should not. Therefore, we emphasize the importance of correctly identifying the holospheric state in the dorsal cyst malformations for diagnosing holoprosencephaly. (author)

  9. A case of dorsal oblique fingertip amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Shinsuke; Tatebe, Masahiro; Morita, Akimasa; Yoneda, Hidemasa; Iwatsuki, Katsuyuki; Hirata, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    This study reports successful finger replantation in a patient with a dorsal oblique fingertip amputation. When repairing this unique type of injury, an evaluation of the remaining vessels is more useful for successful replantation than the anatomical zone classification. We propose that Kasai's classification is appropriate for guiding treatment.

  10. A case of dorsal oblique fingertip amputation

    OpenAIRE

    Takeda, Shinsuke; Tatebe, Masahiro; Morita, Akimasa; Yoneda, Hidemasa; Iwatsuki, Katsuyuki; Hirata, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This study reports successful finger replantation in a patient with a dorsal oblique fingertip amputation. When repairing this unique type of injury, an evaluation of the remaining vessels is more useful for successful replantation than the anatomical zone classification. We propose that Kasai?s classification is appropriate for guiding treatment.

  11. Mapping auditory core, lateral belt, and parabelt cortices in the human superior temporal gyrus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sweet, Robert A; Dorph-Petersen, Karl-Anton; Lewis, David A

    2005-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to determine whether the architectonic criteria used to identify the core, lateral belt, and parabelt auditory cortices in macaque monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) could be used to identify homologous regions in humans (Homo sapiens). Current evidence indicates...

  12. Rotational displacement skills in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Kelly D; Santos, Laurie R

    2012-11-01

    Rotational displacement tasks, in which participants must track an object at a hiding location within an array while the array rotates, exhibit a puzzling developmental pattern in humans. Human children take an unusually long time to master this task and tend to solve rotational problems through the use of nongeometric features or landmarks as opposed to other kinds of spatial cues. We investigated whether these developmental characteristics are unique to humans by testing rotational displacement skills in a monkey species, the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta), using a looking-time method. Monkeys first saw food hidden in two differently colored boxes within an array. The array was then rotated 180° and the boxes reopened to reveal the food in an expected or unexpected location. Our first two experiments explored the developmental time-course of performance on this rotational displacement task. We found that adult macaques looked longer at the unexpected event, but such performance was not mirrored in younger-aged macaques. In a third study, we systematically varied featural information and visible access to the array to investigate which strategies adult macaques used in solving rotational displacements. Our results show that adult macaques need both sets of information to solve the task. Taken together, these results suggest both similarities and differences in mechanisms by which human and nonhuman primates develop this spatial skill.

  13. Analysis of carboxylesterase 2 transcript variants in cynomolgus macaque liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Yasuhiro; Igawa, Yoshiyuki; Tanaka, Maori; Ohura, Kayoko; Hosokawa, Masakiyo; Imai, Teruko

    2018-04-27

    Carboxylesterase (CES) is important for the detoxification of a wide range of drugs and xenobiotics. In this study, the hepatic level of CES2 mRNA was examined in cynomolgus macaques used widely in preclinical studies for drug metabolism. Three CES2 mRNAs were present in cynomolgus macaque liver. The mRNA level was highest for cynomolgus CES2A (formerly CES2v3), much lower for cynomolgus CES2B (formerly CES2v1) and extremely low for cynomolgus CES2C (formerly CES2v2). Most various transcript variants produced from cynomolgus CES2B gene did not contain a complete coding region. Thus, CES2A is the major CES2 enzyme in cynomolgus liver. A new transcript variant of CES2A, CES2Av2, was identified. CES2Av2 contained exon 3 region different from wild-type (CES2Av1). In cynomolgus macaques expressing only CES2Av2 transcript, CES2A contained the sequence of CES2B in exon 3 and vicinity, probably due to gene conversion. On genotyping, this CES2Av2 allele was prevalent in Indochinese cynomolgus macaques, but not in Indonesian cynomolgus or rhesus macaques. CES2Av2 recombinant protein showed similar activity to CES2Av1 protein for several substrates. It is concluded that CES2A is the major cynomolgus hepatic CES2, and new transcript variant, CES2Av2, has similar functions to CES2Av1.

  14. Intrinsic Connections of the Core Auditory Cortical Regions and Rostral Supratemporal Plane in the Macaque Monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Brian H; Leccese, Paul A; Saleem, Kadharbatcha S; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Mullarkey, Matthew P; Fukushima, Makoto; Mishkin, Mortimer; Saunders, Richard C

    2017-01-01

    In the ventral stream of the primate auditory cortex, cortico-cortical projections emanate from the primary auditory cortex (AI) along 2 principal axes: one mediolateral, the other caudorostral. Connections in the mediolateral direction from core, to belt, to parabelt, have been well described, but less is known about the flow of information along the supratemporal plane (STP) in the caudorostral dimension. Neuroanatomical tracers were injected throughout the caudorostral extent of the auditory core and rostral STP by direct visualization of the cortical surface. Auditory cortical areas were distinguished by SMI-32 immunostaining for neurofilament, in addition to established cytoarchitectonic criteria. The results describe a pathway comprising step-wise projections from AI through the rostral and rostrotemporal fields of the core (R and RT), continuing to the recently identified rostrotemporal polar field (RTp) and the dorsal temporal pole. Each area was strongly and reciprocally connected with the areas immediately caudal and rostral to it, though deviations from strictly serial connectivity were observed. In RTp, inputs converged from core, belt, parabelt, and the auditory thalamus, as well as higher order cortical regions. The results support a rostrally directed flow of auditory information with complex and recurrent connections, similar to the ventral stream of macaque visual cortex. Published by Oxford University Press 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  15. The Effect of Short Moderate Stress on the Midbrain CRF System in a Macaque Model of Functional Hypothalamic Amenorrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethea, Cynthia L; Phu, Kenny; Reddy, Arubala P; Cameron, Judy L

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of moderate stress on CRF components in the serotonergic midbrain region in a monkey model of FHA. Design After characterization of stress sensitivity, monkeys were moved to a novel room and given 20% less chow for 5 days prior to euthanasia. Setting University of Pittsburgh nonhuman primate facility. Animals Female cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) characterized as highly stress resilient (HSR, n=5), medium stress resilient (MSR, N=4) or stress sensitive (SS, n=4). Intervention 5 days of diet in a novel room with unfamiliar conspecifics. Main Outcome Measures Density of CRF axons in the serotonergic dorsal raphe nucleus; the number of UCN1 cells; the density of UCN1 axons; the expression of CRF-R1 and CRF-R2 in the dorsal raphe nucleus. Results CRF innervation was higher in HSR than SS animals; UCN1 cell number was higher in HSR than SS animals and UCN1 axon bouton density was not different, all opposite of non-stressed animals. CRF-R1 was not different between the sensitivity groups, but CRF-R2 was higher in HSR than SS animals. The relative expression of CRF-R1 and R2 was similar to non-stressed animals. Conclusions HSR animals respond to stress with an increase in CRF delivery to serotonin neurons. With stress, UCN1 transport decreases in HSR animals. CRF receptor expression was similar with or without stress. These changes may contribute to resilience in HSR animals. PMID:23849846

  16. Heterologous Protection against Asian Zika Virus Challenge in Rhesus Macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T Aliota

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV; Flaviviridae, Flavivirus was declared a public health emergency of international concern by the World Health Organization (WHO in February 2016, because of the evidence linking infection with ZIKV to neurological complications, such as Guillain-Barre Syndrome in adults and congenital birth defects including microcephaly in the developing fetus. Because development of a ZIKV vaccine is a top research priority and because the genetic and antigenic variability of many RNA viruses limits the effectiveness of vaccines, assessing whether immunity elicited against one ZIKV strain is sufficient to confer broad protection against all ZIKV strains is critical. Recently, in vitro studies demonstrated that ZIKV likely circulates as a single serotype. Here, we demonstrate that immunity elicited by African lineage ZIKV protects rhesus macaques against subsequent infection with Asian lineage ZIKV.Using our recently developed rhesus macaque model of ZIKV infection, we report that the prototypical ZIKV strain MR766 productively infects macaques, and that immunity elicited by MR766 protects macaques against heterologous Asian ZIKV. Furthermore, using next generation deep sequencing, we found in vivo restoration of a putative N-linked glycosylation site upon replication in macaques that is absent in numerous MR766 strains that are widely being used by the research community. This reversion highlights the importance of carefully examining the sequence composition of all viral stocks as well as understanding how passage history may alter a virus from its original form.An effective ZIKV vaccine is needed to prevent infection-associated fetal abnormalities. Macaques whose immune responses were primed by infection with East African ZIKV were completely protected from detectable viremia when subsequently rechallenged with heterologous Asian ZIKV. Therefore, these data suggest that immunogen selection is unlikely to adversely affect the breadth of

  17. Human-wildlife conflict: proximate predictors of aggression between humans and rhesus macaques in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisner, Brianne A; Heagerty, Allison; Seil, Shannon K; Balasubramaniam, Krishna N; Atwill, Edward R; Gupta, Brij K; Tyagi, Praveen C; Chauhan, Netrapal P S; Bonal, B S; Sinha, P R; McCowan, Brenda

    2015-02-01

    Macaques live in close contact with humans across South and Southeast Asia, and direct interaction is frequent. Aggressive contact is a concern in many locations, particularly among populations of rhesus and longtail macaques that co-inhabit urbanized cities and towns with humans. We investigated the proximate factors influencing the occurrence of macaque aggression toward humans as well as human aggression toward macaques to determine the extent to which human behavior elicits macaque aggression and vice versa. We conducted a 3-month study of four free-ranging populations of rhesus macaques in Dehradun, India from October-December 2012, using event sampling to record all instances of human-macaque interaction (N = 3120). Our results show that while human aggression was predicted by the potential for economic losses or damage, macaque aggression was influenced by aggressive or intimidating behavior by humans as well as recent rates of conspecific aggression. Further, adult female macaques participated in aggression more frequently than expected, whereas adult and subadult males participated as frequently as expected. Our analyses demonstrate that neither human nor macaque aggression is unprovoked. Rather, both humans and macaques are responding to one another's behavior. Mitigation of human-primate conflict, and indeed other types of human-wildlife conflict in such coupled systems, will require a holistic investigation of the ways in which each participant is responding to, and consequently altering, the behavior of the other. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Tactile spatial working memory activates the dorsal extrastriate cortical pathway in congenitally blind individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonino, D; Ricciardi, E; Sani, L; Gentili, C; Vanello, N; Guazzelli, M; Vecchi, T; Pietrini, P

    2008-09-01

    In sighted individuals, both the visual and tactile version of the same spatial working memory task elicited neural responses in the dorsal "where" cortical pathway (Ricciardi et al., 2006). Whether the neural response during the tactile working memory task is due to visually-based spatial imagery or rather reflects a more abstract, supramodal organization of the dorsal cortical pathway remains to be determined. To understand the role of visual experience on the functional organization of the dorsal cortical stream, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) here we examined brain response in four individuals with congenital or early blindness and no visual recollection, while they performed the same tactile spatial working memory task, a one-back recognition of 2D and 3D matrices. The blind subjects showed a significant activation in bilateral posterior parietal cortex, dorsolateral and inferior prefrontal areas, precuneus, lateral occipital cortex, and cerebellum. Thus, dorsal occipito-parietal areas are involved in mental imagery dealing with spatial components in subjects without prior visual experience and in response to a non-visual task. These data indicate that recruitment of the dorsal cortical pathway in response to the tactile spatial working memory task is not mediated by visually-based imagery and that visual experience is not a prerequisite for the development of a more abstract functional organization of the dorsal stream. These findings, along with previous data indicating a similar supramodal functional organization within the ventral cortical pathway and the motion processing brain regions, may contribute to explain how individuals who are born deprived of sight are able to interact effectively with the surrounding world.

  19. Spontaneous high-gamma band activity reflects functional organization of auditory cortex in the awake macaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Makoto; Saunders, Richard C; Leopold, David A; Mishkin, Mortimer; Averbeck, Bruno B

    2012-06-07

    In the absence of sensory stimuli, spontaneous activity in the brain has been shown to exhibit organization at multiple spatiotemporal scales. In the macaque auditory cortex, responses to acoustic stimuli are tonotopically organized within multiple, adjacent frequency maps aligned in a caudorostral direction on the supratemporal plane (STP) of the lateral sulcus. Here, we used chronic microelectrocorticography to investigate the correspondence between sensory maps and spontaneous neural fluctuations in the auditory cortex. We first mapped tonotopic organization across 96 electrodes spanning approximately two centimeters along the primary and higher auditory cortex. In separate sessions, we then observed that spontaneous activity at the same sites exhibited spatial covariation that reflected the tonotopic map of the STP. This observation demonstrates a close relationship between functional organization and spontaneous neural activity in the sensory cortex of the awake monkey. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Functional MRI of the vocalization-processing network in the macaque brain

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    Michael eOrtiz-Rios

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in awake behaving monkeys we investigated how species-specific vocalizations are represented in auditory and auditory-related regions of the macaque brain. We found clusters of active voxels along the ascending auditory pathway that responded to various types of complex sounds: inferior colliculus (IC, medial geniculate nucleus (MGN, auditory core, belt, and parabelt cortex, and other parts of the superior temporal gyrus (STG and sulcus (STS. Regions sensitive to monkey calls were most prevalent in the anterior STG, but some clusters were also found in frontal and parietal cortex on the basis of comparisons between responses to calls and environmental sounds. Surprisingly, we found that spectrotemporal control sounds derived from the monkey calls (scrambled calls also activated the parietal and frontal regions. Taken together, our results demonstrate that species-specific vocalizations in rhesus monkeys activate preferentially the auditory ventral stream, and in particular areas of the antero-lateral belt and parabelt.

  1. Mimetic Muscles in a Despotic Macaque (Macaca mulatta) Differ from Those in a Closely Related Tolerant Macaque (M. nigra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Anne M; Waller, Bridget M; Micheletta, Jérôme

    2016-10-01

    Facial displays (or expressions) are a primary means of visual communication among conspecifics in many mammalian orders. Macaques are an ideal model among primates for investigating the co-evolution of facial musculature, facial displays, and social group size/behavior under the umbrella of "ecomorphology". While all macaque species share some social behaviors, dietary, and ecological parameters, they display a range of social dominance styles from despotic to tolerant. A previous study found a larger repertoire of facial displays in tolerant macaque species relative to despotic species. The present study was designed to further explore this finding by comparing the gross morphological features of mimetic muscles between the Sulawesi macaque (Macaca nigra), a tolerant species, and the rhesus macaque (M. mulatta), a despotic species. Five adult M. nigra heads were dissected and mimetic musculature was compared to those from M. mulatta. Results showed that there was general similarity in muscle presence/absence between the species as well as muscle form except for musculature around the external ear. M. mulatta had more musculature around the external ear than M. nigra. In addition, M. nigra lacked a zygomaticus minor while M. mulatta is reported to have one. These morphological differences match behavioral observations documenting a limited range of ear movements used by M. nigra during facial displays. Future studies focusing on a wider phylogenetic range of macaques with varying dominance styles may further elucidate the roles of phylogeny, ecology, and social variables in the evolution of mimetic muscles within Macaca Anat Rec, 299:1317-1324, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Lethal influenza virus infection in macaques is associated with early dysregulation of inflammatory related genes.

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    Cristian Cillóniz

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The enormous toll on human life during the 1918-1919 Spanish influenza pandemic is a constant reminder of the potential lethality of influenza viruses. With the declaration by the World Health Organization of a new H1N1 influenza virus pandemic, and with continued human cases of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus infection, a better understanding of the host response to highly pathogenic influenza viruses is essential. To this end, we compared pathology and global gene expression profiles in bronchial tissue from macaques infected with either the reconstructed 1918 pandemic virus or the highly pathogenic avian H5N1 virus A/Vietnam/1203/04. Severe pathology was observed in respiratory tissues from 1918 virus-infected animals as early as 12 hours after infection, and pathology steadily increased at later time points. Although tissues from animals infected with A/Vietnam/1203/04 also showed clear signs of pathology early on, less pathology was observed at later time points, and there was evidence of tissue repair. Global transcriptional profiles revealed that specific groups of genes associated with inflammation and cell death were up-regulated in bronchial tissues from animals infected with the 1918 virus but down-regulated in animals infected with A/Vietnam/1203/04. Importantly, the 1918 virus up-regulated key components of the inflammasome, NLRP3 and IL-1beta, whereas these genes were down-regulated by A/Vietnam/1203/04 early after infection. TUNEL assays revealed that both viruses elicited an apoptotic response in lungs and bronchi, although the response occurred earlier during 1918 virus infection. Our findings suggest that the severity of disease in 1918 virus-infected macaques is a consequence of the early up-regulation of cell death and inflammatory related genes, in which additive or synergistic effects likely dictate the severity of tissue damage.

  3. Cholinergic control of visual categorisation in macaques

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    Nikolaos C. Aggelopoulos

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine (ACh is a neurotransmitter acting via muscarinic and nicotinic receptors that is implicated in several cognitive functions and impairments, such as Alzheimer’s disease. It is believed to especially affect the acquisition of new information, which is particularly important when behaviour needs to be adapted to new situations and to novel sensory events. Categorisation, the process of assigning stimuli to a category, is a cognitive function that also involves information acquisition. The role of ACh on categorisation has not been previously studied. We have examined the effects of scopolamine, an antagonist of muscarinic ACh receptors, on visual categorisation in macaque monkeys using familiar and novel stimuli. When the peripheral effects of scopolamine on the parasympathetic nervous system were controlled for, categorisation performance was disrupted following systemic injections of scopolamine. This impairment was observed only when the stimuli that needed to be categorised had not been seen before. In other words, the monkeys were not impaired by the central action of scopolamine in categorising a set of familiar stimuli (stimuli which they had categorised successfully in previous sessions. Categorisation performance also deteriorated as the stimulus became less salient by an increase in the level of visual noise. However, scopolamine did not cause additional performance disruptions for difficult categorisation judgements at lower coherence levels. Scopolamine, therefore, specifically affects the assignment of new exemplars to established cognitive categories, presumably by impairing the processing of novel information. Since we did not find an effect of scopolamine in the categorisation of familiar stimuli, scopolamine had no significant central action on other cognitive functions such as perception, attention, memory or executive control within the context of our categorisation task.

  4. Plateau-generating neurones in the dorsal horn in an in vitro preparation of the turtle spinal cord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Russo, R E; Hounsgaard, J

    1996-01-01

    1. In transverse slices of the spinal cord of the turtle, intracellular recordings were used to characterize and analyse the responses to injected current and activation of primary afferents in dorsal horn neurones. 2. A subpopulation of neurones, with cell bodies located laterally in the deep...

  5. Endogenous neurotrophin-3 promotes neuronal sprouting from dorsal root ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu-Yang; Gu, Pei-Yuan; Chen, Shi-Wen; Gao, Wen-Wei; Tian, Heng-Li; Lu, Xiang-He; Zheng, Wei-Ming; Zhuge, Qi-Chuan; Hu, Wei-Xing

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, we investigated the role of endogenous neurotrophin-3 in nerve terminal sprouting 2 months after spinal cord dorsal root rhizotomy. The left L1-5 and L7-S2 dorsal root ganglia in adult cats were exposed and removed, preserving the L6 dorsal root ganglia. Neurotrophin-3 was mainly expressed in large neurons in the dorsal root ganglia and in some neurons in spinal lamina II. Two months after rhizotomy, the number of neurotrophin-3-positive neurons in the spared dorsal root ganglia and the density of neurite sprouts emerging from these ganglia were increased. Intraperitoneal injection of an antibody against neurotrophin-3 decreased the density of neurite sprouts. These findings suggest that endogenous neurotrophin-3 is involved in spinal cord plasticity and regeneration, and that it promotes axonal sprouting from the dorsal root ganglia after spinal cord dorsal root rhizotomy.

  6. Stepping toward a Macaque Model of HIV-1 Induced AIDS

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    Jason T. Kimata

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 exhibits a narrow host range, hindering the development of a robust animal model of pathogenesis. Past studies have demonstrated that the restricted host range of HIV-1 may be largely due to the inability of the virus to antagonize and evade effector molecules of the interferon response in other species. They have also guided the engineering of HIV-1 clones that can replicate in CD4 T-cells of Asian macaque species. However, while replication of these viruses in macaque hosts is persistent, it has been limited and without progression to AIDS. In a new study, Hatziioannou et al., demonstrate for the first time that adapted macaque-tropic HIV-1 can persistently replicate at high levels in pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina, but only if CD8 T-cells are depleted at the time of inoculation. The infection causes rapid disease and recapitulates several aspects of AIDS in humans. Additionally, the virus undergoes genetic changes to further escape innate immunity in association with disease progression. Here, the importance of these findings is discussed, as they relate to pathogenesis and model development.

  7. Evolutionary and biomedical insights from the rhesus macaque genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibbs, Richard A; Rogers, Jeffrey; Katze, Michael G

    2007-01-01

    The rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is an abundant primate species that diverged from the ancestors of Homo sapiens about 25 million years ago. Because they are genetically and physiologically similar to humans, rhesus monkeys are the most widely used nonhuman primate in basic and applied...

  8. Reconciliation and relationship quality in Assamese macaques (Macaca assamensis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cooper, M.A.; Bernstein, I.S.; Hemelrijk, C.K.

    A consistent conclusion in reconciliation research is that animals that reconcile are likely to have strong social bonds. This has led to the hypothesis that reconciliation occurs most often between valuable social partners. We tested this hypothesis in a group of Assamese macaques (Macaca

  9. Molecular characterization and polymorphisms of butyrylcholinesterase in cynomolgus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Yasuhiro; Uehara, Shotaro; Mahadhi, Hassan M D; Ohura, Kayoko; Hosokawa, Masakiyo; Imai, Teruko

    2018-06-01

    Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), an enzyme essential for drug metabolism, has been investigated as antidotes against organophosphorus nerve agents, and the efficacy and safety have been studied in cynomolgus macaques. BChE polymorphisms partly account for variable BChE activities among individuals in humans, but have not been investigated in cynomolgus macaques. Molecular characterization was carried out by analyzing primary sequence, gene, tissue expression, and genetic variants. In cynomolgus and human BChE, phylogenetically closely related, amino acid residues important for enzyme function were conserved, and gene and genomic structure were similar. Cynomolgus BChE mRNA was most abundantly expressed in liver among the 10 tissue types analyzed. Re-sequencing found 26 non-synonymous genetic variants in 121 cynomolgus and 23 rhesus macaques, indicating that macaque BChE is polymorphic, although none of these variants corresponded to the null or defective alleles of human BChE. These results suggest molecular similarities of cynomolgus and human BChE. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Expression of cytochrome P450 regulators in cynomolgus macaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Yasuhiro; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2017-09-11

    1. Cytochrome P450 (P450) regulators including nuclear receptors and transcription factors have not been fully investigated in cynomolgus macaques, an important species used in drug metabolism studies. In this study, we analyzed 17 P450 regulators by sequence and phylogenetic analysis, and tissue expression. 2. Gene and genome structures of 17 P450 regulators were similar to the human orthologs, and the deduced amino acid sequences showed high sequence identities (92-95%) and more closely clustered in a phylogenetic tree, with the human orthologs. 3. Many of the P450 regulator mRNAs were preferentially expressed in the liver, kidney, and/or jejunum. Among the P450 regulator mRNAs, PXR was most abundant in the liver and jejunum, and HNF4α in the kidney. In the liver, the expression of most P450 regulator mRNAs did not show significant differential expression (>2.5-fold) between cynomolgus macaques bred in Cambodia, China, and Indonesia, or rhesus macaques. 4. By correlation analysis, most of the P450 regulators were significantly (p < 0.05) correlated to other P450 regulators, and many of them were also significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with P450s. 5. These results suggest that 17 P450 regulators of cynomolgus macaques had similar molecular characteristics to the human orthologs.

  11. Radiographic Outcomes of Dorsal Distraction Distal Radius Plating for Fractures With Dorsal Marginal Impaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huish, Eric G; Coury, John G; Ibrahim, Mohamed A; Trzeciak, Marc A

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare radiographic outcomes of patients treated with dorsal spanning plates with previously reported normal values of radiographic distal radius anatomy and compare the results with prior publications for both external fixation and internal fixation with volar locked plates. Patients with complex distal radius fractures including dorsal marginal impaction pattern necessitating dorsal distraction plating at the discretion of the senior authors (M.A.T. and M.A.I.) from May 30, 2013, to December 29, 2015, were identified and included in the study. Retrospective chart and radiograph review was performed on 19 patients, 11 male and 8 female, with mean age of 47.83 years (22-82). No patients were excluded from the study. All fractures united prior to plate removal. The average time the plate was in place was 80.5 days (49-129). Follow-up radiographs showed average radial inclination of 20.5° (13.2°-25.5°), radial height of 10.7 mm (7.5-14 mm), ulnar variance of -0.3 mm (-2.1 to 3.1 mm), and volar tilt of 7.9° (-3° to 15°). One patient had intra-articular step-off greater than 2 mm. Dorsal distraction plating of complex distal radius fractures yields good radiographic results with minimal complications. In cases of complex distal radius fractures including dorsal marginal impaction where volar plating is not considered adequate, a dorsal distraction plate should be considered as an alternative to external fixation due to reduced risk for infection and better control of volar tilt.

  12. The nucleus pararaphales in the human, chimpanzee, and macaque monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baizer, Joan S; Weinstock, Nadav; Witelson, Sandra F; Sherwood, Chet C; Hof, Patrick R

    2013-03-01

    The human cerebral cortex and cerebellum are greatly expanded compared to those of other mammals, including the great apes. This expansion is reflected in differences in the size and organization of precerebellar brainstem structures, such as the inferior olive. In addition, there are cell groups unique to the human brainstem. One such group may be the nucleus pararaphales (PRa); however, there is disagreement among authors about the size and location of this nucleus in the human brainstem. The name "pararaphales" has also been used for neurons in the medulla shown to project to the flocculus in the macaque monkey. We have re-examined the existence and status of the PRa in eight humans, three chimpanzees, and four macaque monkeys using Nissl-stained sections as well as immunohistochemistry. In the human we found a cell group along the midline of the medulla in all cases; it had the form of interrupted cell columns and was variable among cases in rostrocaudal and dorsoventral extent. Cells and processes were highly immunoreactive for non-phosphorylated neurofilament protein (NPNFP); somata were immunoreactive to the synthetic enzyme for nitric oxide, nitric oxide synthase, and for calretinin. In macaque monkey, there was a much smaller oval cell group with NPNFP immunoreactivity. In the chimpanzee, we found a region of NPNFP-immunoreactive cells and fibers similar to what was observed in macaques. These results suggest that the "PRa" in the human may not be the same structure as the flocculus-projecting cell group described in the macaque. The PRa, like the arcuate nucleus, therefore may be unique to humans.

  13. Efferent projections of the dorsal ventricular ridge and the striatum in the Tegu lizard. Tupinambis nigropunctatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voneida, T J; Sligar, C M

    1979-07-01

    A H3 proline-leucine mixture was injected into the dorsal ventricular ridge (DVR) and striatum of the Tegu lizard in order to determine their efferent projections. The brains were processed according to standard radioautographic technique, and counterstained with cresyl violet. DVR projections were generally restricted to the telencephalon, while striatal projections were limited to diencephalic and mesencephalic structures. Thus the anterior DVR projects ipsilaterally to nuclei sphericus and lateralis amygdalae, striatum (ipsilateral and contralateral) ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus, nucleus accumbens, anterior olfactory nucleus, nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract and lateral pallium. Posterior DVR projections enter ipsilateral anterior olfactory nucleus, lateral and interstitial amygdalar nuclei, olfactory tubercle and bulb, nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract and a zone surrounding the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus. Labeled axons from striatal injections pass caudally in the lateral forebrain bundle to enter (via dorsal peduncle) nuclei dorsomedialis, medialis posterior, entopeduncularis anterior, and a zone surrounding nucleus rotundus. Others join the ventral peduncle of LFB and enter ventromedial nucleus (thalami), while the remaining fibers continue caudally in the ventral peduncle to the mesencephalic prerubral field, central gray, substantia nigra, nucleus intercollicularis, reticular formation and pretectal nucleus posterodorsalis. These results are discussed in relation to the changing notions regarding terminology, classification and functions of dorsl ventricular ridge and striatum.

  14. Pharmacokinetics of Cefovecin in Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis), Olive Baboons (Papio anubis), and Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatto)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raabe, Brigitte M.; Lovaglio, Jamie A.; Grover, GScott; Brown, Scott A.; Boucher, Joseph F.; Yuan, Yang; Civil, Jacqueline R.; Gillhouse, Kimberly A.; Stubbs, Makeida N.; Hoggatt, Amber F.; Halliday, Lisa C.; Fortman, Jeffrey D.

    2011-05-01

    Cefovecin sodium is a long-acting, third-generation, cephalosporin antibiotic approved for the treatment of skin infections in dogs and cats. The pharmacokinetic properties of cefovecin were evaluated in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), olive baboons (Papio anubis), and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatto) by using a single-dose (8 mg/kg SC) dosing regimen. Plasma cefovecin concentrations were determined by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, and a noncompartmental model was used to determine pharmacokinetic parameters. The half-life of cefovecin was 4.95 {+-} 1.47 h in cynomolgus macaques, 9.17 {+-} 1.84 h in olive baboons, and 8.40 {+-} 2.53 h in rhesus macaques. These values are considerably lower than the half-lives previously published for dogs (133 h) and cats (166 h). The extended half-life of cefovecin in dogs and cats is speculated to be due to active reabsorption of drug in the kidney tubules because plasma clearance is well below the normal glomerular filtration rate. In nonhuman primates, renal clearance rates approximated plasma clearance rates, suggesting that active renal reabsorption of cefovecin does not occur in these species. The pharmacokinetic properties of cefovecin in nonhuman primates are vastly different from the pharmacokinetic properties in dogs and cats, precluding its use as a long-acting antibiotic in nonhuman primates. This study highlights the importance of performing pharmacokinetic studies prior to extralabel drug usage.

  15. Dorsal and ventral streams across sensory modalities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anna Sedda; Federica Scarpina

    2012-01-01

    In this review,we describe the current models of dorsal and ventral streams in vision,audition and touch.Available theories take their first steps from the model of Milner and Goodale,which was developed to explain how human actions can be efficiently carried out using visual information.Since then,similar concepts have also been applied to other sensory modalities.We propose that advances in the knowledge of brain functioning can be achieved through models explaining action and perception patterns independently from sensory modalities.

  16. Re-thinking the role of the dorsal striatum in egocentric/response strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botreau, Fanny; Gisquet-Verrier, Pascale

    2010-01-01

    Rats trained in a dual-solution cross-maze task, which can be solved by place and response strategies, predominantly used a response strategy after extensive training. This paper examines the involvement of the medial and lateral dorsal striatum (mDS and lDS) in the choice of these strategies after partial and extensive training. Our results show that rats with lDS and mDS lesions used mainly a response strategy from the early phase of training. We replicated these unexpected data in rats with lDS lesions and confirmed their tendency to use the response strategy in a modified cross-maze task. When trained in a dual-solution water-maze task, however, control and lesioned rats consistently used a place strategy, demonstrating that lDS and mDS lesioned rats can use a place strategy and that the shift towards a response strategy did not systematically result from extensive training. The present data did not show any clear dissociation between the mDS and lDS in dual solution tasks. They further indicate that the dorsal striatum seems to determine the strategies adopted in a particular context but cannot be considered as a neural support for the response memory system. Accordingly, the role of the lateral and medial part of the dorsal striatum in egocentric/response memory should be reconsidered.

  17. Sheep laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Dean M; Murray, Leigh W

    2013-01-01

    Turning preferences among 309 white-faced ewes were individually evaluated in an enclosed, artificially lit T-maze, followed by each ewe choosing either a right or left return alley to return to peers. Data recorded included time in the start box, time in the T-maze, exit arm chosen to leave the T-maze, and return alley. Right and left arms of the T-maze were chosen 65.7% and 34.3% of the time, respectively, while right and left return alleys were chosen 32.4% and 67.6%, respectively. Exit arm and return alley were not independently chosen (p laterality was not related (α =.05) to time of day the test was administered, ewe's age or genetics, most recent liveweight, or most recent shorn fleece weight. The mean time spent in the start box (21 s) was not related to exit arm (p =.947) or return alley (p =.779). Mean time (15 s) spent in the T-maze was not related to exit arm (p =.086) or return alley (p =.952). More research will be required to understand sheep turning laterality and how it can impact working facilities and research equipment.

  18. Distribution of cortical neurons projecting to the superior colliculus in macaque monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerkevich CM

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Christina M Cerkevich,1 David C Lyon,2 Pooja Balaram,3 Jon H Kaas3 1Department of Neurobiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Systems Neuroscience Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 2Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of California, Irvine, CA, USA; 3Department of Psychology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA Abstract: To better reveal the pattern of corticotectal projections to the superficial layers of the superior colliculus (SC, we made a total of ten retrograde tracer injections into the SC of three macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta. The majority of these injections were in the superficial layers of the SC, which process visual information. To isolate inputs to the purely visual layers in the superficial SC from those inputs to the motor and multisensory layers deeper in the SC, two injections were placed to include the intermediate and deep layers of the SC. In another case, an injection was placed in the medial pulvinar, a nucleus not known to be strongly connected with visual cortex, to identify possible projections from tracer spread past the lateral boundary of the SC. Four conclusions are supported by the results: 1 all early visual areas of cortex, including V1, V2, V3, and the middle temporal area, project to the superficial layers of the SC; 2 with the possible exception of the frontal eye field, few areas of cortex outside of the early visual areas project to the superficial SC, although many do, however, project to the intermediate and deep layers of the SC; 3 roughly matching retinotopy is conserved in the projections of visual areas to the SC; and 4 the projections from different visual areas are similarly dense, although projections from early visual areas appear somewhat denser than those of higher order visual areas in macaque cortex. Keywords: visual cortex, superior colliculus, frontal eye field, posterior parietal cortex, visual system

  19. Scanning electron microscopy of the dorsal vessel of Panstrongylus megistus (Burmeister, 1835 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadir Francisca Sant'Anna Nogueira

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study we analyzed the microanatomy of the dorsal vessel of the triatomine Panstrongylus megistus. The organ is a tuble anatomically divided into an anterior aorta anad a posterior heart, connected to the body wall through 8 pairs of alary muscles. The heart is divided in 3 chambers by means of 2 pairs of cardiac valves. a pair of ostia can be observed in the lateral wall of each chamber. A bundle of nerve fibers was found outside the organ, running dorsally along its major axis. A group of longitudinal muscular fibers was found in the ventral portion of the vessel. The vessel was found to be lined both internally and externally by pericardial cells covered by a thin laminar membrane. Inseide the vessel the pericardial cells were disposed in layers and on the outside they formed clusters or rows.

  20. An amphioxus Msx gene expressed predominantly in the dorsal neural tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharman, A C; Shimeld, S M; Holland, P W

    1999-04-01

    Genomic and cDNA clones of an Msx class homeobox gene were isolated from amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae). The gene, AmphiMsx, is expressed in the neural plate from late gastrulation; in later embryos it is expressed in dorsal cells of the neural tube, excluding anterior and posterior regions, in an irregular reiterated pattern. There is transient expression in dorsal cells within somites, reminiscent of migrating neural crest cells of vertebrates. In larvae, mRNA is detected in two patches of anterior ectoderm proposed to be placodes. Evolutionary analyses show there is little phylogenetic information in Msx protein sequences; however, it is likely that duplication of Msx genes occurred in the vertebrate lineage.

  1. Social conflict resolution regulated by two dorsal habenular subregions in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ming-Yi; Amo, Ryunosuke; Kinoshita, Masae; Cherng, Bor-Wei; Shimazaki, Hideaki; Agetsuma, Masakazu; Shiraki, Toshiyuki; Aoki, Tazu; Takahoko, Mikako; Yamazaki, Masako; Higashijima, Shin-ichi; Okamoto, Hitoshi

    2016-04-01

    When animals encounter conflict they initiate and escalate aggression to establish and maintain a social hierarchy. The neural mechanisms by which animals resolve fighting behaviors to determine such social hierarchies remain unknown. We identified two subregions of the dorsal habenula (dHb) in zebrafish that antagonistically regulate the outcome of conflict. The losing experience reduced neural transmission in the lateral subregion of dHb (dHbL)-dorsal/intermediate interpeduncular nucleus (d/iIPN) circuit. Silencing of the dHbL or medial subregion of dHb (dHbM) caused a stronger predisposition to lose or win a fight, respectively. These results demonstrate that the dHbL and dHbM comprise a dual control system for conflict resolution of social aggression. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. Anatomical variations in dorsal metatarsal arteries with surgical significance: A cadaveric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Shivshankar Awari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Based on angiosome concept to revascularize a particular artery, the microvascular and reconstructive surgeons must know the anatomy and variations in the arteries in that specific region of the body to achieve better results. Nowadays, dorsal metatarsal artery (DMTA perforator flaps and toe grafts are becoming popular which also demand adequate information about normal anatomy and variants in these arteries for fruitful results. Materials and Methods: The authors studied normal anatomy and variations in the origin of DMTAs in 50 lower extremities of 25 embalmed cadavers. Results: The authors found many variations as the absence of DMTAs, origin of the DMTA from the deep plantar arch. The places wherever the arcuate artery was absent the lateral tarsal artery gave rise to dorsal metatarsal arteries. Conclusion: Being familiar with the incidence of anatomical variations in the origin of the DMTAs can increase vigilance in vascular and reconstructive surgeries leading to better prognosis. surgeries leading to better prognosis.

  3. Characterization of 47 MHC class I sequences in Filipino cynomolgus macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kevin J.; Detmer, Ann M.; Karl, Julie A.; Wiseman, Roger W.; Blasky, Alex J.; Hughes, Austin L.; Bimber, Benjamin N.; O’Connor, Shelby L.; O’Connor, David H.

    2009-01-01

    Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) provide increasingly common models for infectious disease research. Several geographically distinct populations of these macaques from Southeast Asia and the Indian Ocean island of Mauritius are available for pathogenesis studies. Though host genetics may profoundly impact results of such studies, similarities and differences between populations are often overlooked. In this study we identified 47 full-length MHC class I nucleotide sequences in 16 cynomolgus macaques of Filipino origin. The majority of MHC class I sequences characterized (39 of 47) were unique to this regional population. However, we discovered eight sequences with perfect identity and six sequences with close similarity to previously defined MHC class I sequences from other macaque populations. We identified two ancestral MHC haplotypes that appear to be shared between Filipino and Mauritian cynomolgus macaques, notably a Mafa-B haplotype that has previously been shown to protect Mauritian cynomolgus macaques against challenge with a simian/human immunodeficiency virus, SHIV89.6P. We also identified a Filipino cynomolgus macaque MHC class I sequence for which the predicted protein sequence differs from Mamu-B*17 by a single amino acid. This is important because Mamu-B*17 is strongly associated with protection against simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) challenge in Indian rhesus macaques. These findings have implications for the evolutionary history of Filipino cynomolgus macaques as well as for the use of this model in SIV/SHIV research protocols. PMID:19107381

  4. Identification and characterization of short tandem repeats in the Tibetan macaque genome based on resequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, San-Xu; Hou, Wei; Zhang, Xue-Yan; Peng, Chang-Jun; Yue, Bi-Song; Fan, Zhen-Xin; Li, Jing

    2018-07-18

    The Tibetan macaque, which is endemic to China, is currently listed as a Near Endangered primate species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Short tandem repeats (STRs) refer to repetitive elements of genome sequence that range in length from 1-6 bp. They are found in many organisms and are widely applied in population genetic studies. To clarify the distribution characteristics of genome-wide STRs and understand their variation among Tibetan macaques, we conducted a genome-wide survey of STRs with next-generation sequencing of five macaque samples. A total of 1 077 790 perfect STRs were mined from our assembly, with an N50 of 4 966 bp. Mono-nucleotide repeats were the most abundant, followed by tetra- and di-nucleotide repeats. Analysis of GC content and repeats showed consistent results with other macaques. Furthermore, using STR analysis software (lobSTR), we found that the proportion of base pair deletions in the STRs was greater than that of insertions in the five Tibetan macaque individuals (Pgenome showed good amplification efficiency and could be used to study population genetics in Tibetan macaques. The neighbor-joining tree classified the five macaques into two different branches according to their geographical origin, indicating high genetic differentiation between the Huangshan and Sichuan populations. We elucidated the distribution characteristics of STRs in the Tibetan macaque genome and provided an effective method for screening polymorphic STRs. Our results also lay a foundation for future genetic variation studies of macaques.

  5. Versatility of the ventral approach in bulbar urethroplasty using dorsal, ventral or dorsal plus ventral oral grafts

    OpenAIRE

    Palminteri, Enzo; Berdondini, Elisa; Fusco, Ferdinando; Nunzio, Cosimo De; Giannitsas, Kostas; Shokeir, Ahmed A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the versatility of the ventral urethrotomy approach in bulbar reconstruction with buccal mucosa (BM) grafts placed on the dorsal, ventral or dorsal plus ventral urethral surface. Patients and methods Between 1999 and 2008, 216 patients with bulbar strictures underwent BM graft urethroplasty using the ventral-sagittal urethrotomy approach. Of these patients, 32 (14.8%; mean stricture 3.2?cm, range 1.5?5) had a dorsal graft urethroplasty (DGU), 121 (56%; mean stricture...

  6. Testosterone correlates with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection in macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koterski James

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Here we briefly report testosterone and cytokine responses to Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV in macaques which were used as part of a larger study conducted by the Department of Defense to better characterize pathological responses to aerosolized VEEV in non-human primates. Serial samples were collected and analyzed for testosterone and cytokines prior to and during infection in 8 captive male macaques. Infected animals exhibited a febrile response with few significant changes in cytokine levels. Baseline testosterone levels were positively associated with viremia following exposure and were significantly higher than levels obtained during infection. Such findings suggest that disease-induced androgen suppression is a reasonable area for future study. Decreased androgen levels during physiological perturbations may function, in part, to prevent immunosuppression by high testosterone levels and to prevent the use of energetic resources for metabolically-expensive anabolic functions.

  7. Molecular and functional aspects of menstruation in the macaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Robert M; Slayden, Ov D

    2012-12-01

    Much of our understanding of the molecular control of menstruation arises from laboratory models that experimentally recapitulate some, but not all, aspects of uterine bleeding observed in women. These models include: in vitro culture of endometrial explants or isolated endometrial cells, transplantation of human endometrial tissue into immunodeficient mice and the induction of endometrial breakdown in appropriately pretreated mice. Each of these models has contributed to our understanding of molecular and cellular mechanisms of menstruation, but nonhuman primates, especially macaques, are the animal model of choice for evaluating therapies for menstrual disorders. In this chapter we review some basic aspects of menstruation, with special emphasis on the macaque model and its relevance to the clinical issues of irregular and heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB).

  8. Astrocyte atrophy and immune dysfunction in self-harming macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kim M; Chiu, Kevin B; Sansing, Hope A; Inglis, Fiona M; Baker, Kate C; MacLean, Andrew G

    2013-01-01

    Self-injurious behavior (SIB) is a complex condition that exhibits a spectrum of abnormal neuropsychological and locomotor behaviors. Mechanisms for neuropathogenesis could include irregular immune activation, host soluble factors, and astrocyte dysfunction. We examined the role of astrocytes as modulators of immune function in macaques with SIB. We measured changes in astrocyte morphology and function. Paraffin sections of frontal cortices from rhesus macaques identified with SIB were stained for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). Morphologic features of astrocytes were determined using computer-assisted camera lucida. There was atrophy of white matter astrocyte cell bodies, decreased arbor length in both white and gray matter astrocytes, and decreased bifurcations and tips on astrocytes in animals with SIB. This was combined with a five-fold increase in the proportion of astrocytes immunopositive for TLR2. These results provide direct evidence that SIB induces immune activation of astrocytes concomitant with quantifiably different morphology.

  9. Evolutionary and biomedical insights from the rhesus macaque genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Richard A; Rogers, Jeffrey; Katze, Michael G; Bumgarner, Roger; Weinstock, George M; Mardis, Elaine R; Remington, Karin A; Strausberg, Robert L; Venter, J Craig; Wilson, Richard K; Batzer, Mark A; Bustamante, Carlos D; Eichler, Evan E; Hahn, Matthew W; Hardison, Ross C; Makova, Kateryna D; Miller, Webb; Milosavljevic, Aleksandar; Palermo, Robert E; Siepel, Adam; Sikela, James M; Attaway, Tony; Bell, Stephanie; Bernard, Kelly E; Buhay, Christian J; Chandrabose, Mimi N; Dao, Marvin; Davis, Clay; Delehaunty, Kimberly D; Ding, Yan; Dinh, Huyen H; Dugan-Rocha, Shannon; Fulton, Lucinda A; Gabisi, Ramatu Ayiesha; Garner, Toni T; Godfrey, Jennifer; Hawes, Alicia C; Hernandez, Judith; Hines, Sandra; Holder, Michael; Hume, Jennifer; Jhangiani, Shalini N; Joshi, Vandita; Khan, Ziad Mohid; Kirkness, Ewen F; Cree, Andrew; Fowler, R Gerald; Lee, Sandra; Lewis, Lora R; Li, Zhangwan; Liu, Yih-Shin; Moore, Stephanie M; Muzny, Donna; Nazareth, Lynne V; Ngo, Dinh Ngoc; Okwuonu, Geoffrey O; Pai, Grace; Parker, David; Paul, Heidie A; Pfannkoch, Cynthia; Pohl, Craig S; Rogers, Yu-Hui; Ruiz, San Juana; Sabo, Aniko; Santibanez, Jireh; Schneider, Brian W; Smith, Scott M; Sodergren, Erica; Svatek, Amanda F; Utterback, Teresa R; Vattathil, Selina; Warren, Wesley; White, Courtney Sherell; Chinwalla, Asif T; Feng, Yucheng; Halpern, Aaron L; Hillier, Ladeana W; Huang, Xiaoqiu; Minx, Pat; Nelson, Joanne O; Pepin, Kymberlie H; Qin, Xiang; Sutton, Granger G; Venter, Eli; Walenz, Brian P; Wallis, John W; Worley, Kim C; Yang, Shiaw-Pyng; Jones, Steven M; Marra, Marco A; Rocchi, Mariano; Schein, Jacqueline E; Baertsch, Robert; Clarke, Laura; Csürös, Miklós; Glasscock, Jarret; Harris, R Alan; Havlak, Paul; Jackson, Andrew R; Jiang, Huaiyang; Liu, Yue; Messina, David N; Shen, Yufeng; Song, Henry Xing-Zhi; Wylie, Todd; Zhang, Lan; Birney, Ewan; Han, Kyudong; Konkel, Miriam K; Lee, Jungnam; Smit, Arian F A; Ullmer, Brygg; Wang, Hui; Xing, Jinchuan; Burhans, Richard; Cheng, Ze; Karro, John E; Ma, Jian; Raney, Brian; She, Xinwei; Cox, Michael J; Demuth, Jeffery P; Dumas, Laura J; Han, Sang-Gook; Hopkins, Janet; Karimpour-Fard, Anis; Kim, Young H; Pollack, Jonathan R; Vinar, Tomas; Addo-Quaye, Charles; Degenhardt, Jeremiah; Denby, Alexandra; Hubisz, Melissa J; Indap, Amit; Kosiol, Carolin; Lahn, Bruce T; Lawson, Heather A; Marklein, Alison; Nielsen, Rasmus; Vallender, Eric J; Clark, Andrew G; Ferguson, Betsy; Hernandez, Ryan D; Hirani, Kashif; Kehrer-Sawatzki, Hildegard; Kolb, Jessica; Patil, Shobha; Pu, Ling-Ling; Ren, Yanru; Smith, David Glenn; Wheeler, David A; Schenck, Ian; Ball, Edward V; Chen, Rui; Cooper, David N; Giardine, Belinda; Hsu, Fan; Kent, W James; Lesk, Arthur; Nelson, David L; O'brien, William E; Prüfer, Kay; Stenson, Peter D; Wallace, James C; Ke, Hui; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Peng; Xiang, Andy Peng; Yang, Fan; Barber, Galt P; Haussler, David; Karolchik, Donna; Kern, Andy D; Kuhn, Robert M; Smith, Kayla E; Zwieg, Ann S

    2007-04-13

    The rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is an abundant primate species that diverged from the ancestors of Homo sapiens about 25 million years ago. Because they are genetically and physiologically similar to humans, rhesus monkeys are the most widely used nonhuman primate in basic and applied biomedical research. We determined the genome sequence of an Indian-origin Macaca mulatta female and compared the data with chimpanzees and humans to reveal the structure of ancestral primate genomes and to identify evidence for positive selection and lineage-specific expansions and contractions of gene families. A comparison of sequences from individual animals was used to investigate their underlying genetic diversity. The complete description of the macaque genome blueprint enhances the utility of this animal model for biomedical research and improves our understanding of the basic biology of the species.

  10. Dorsal raphe nucleus projecting retinal ganglion cells: Why Y cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, Gary E.; So, Kwok-Fai; Pu, Mingliang

    2015-01-01

    Retinal ganglion Y (alpha) cells are found in retinas ranging from frogs to mice to primates. The highly conserved nature of the large, fast conducting retinal Y cell is a testament to its fundamental task, although precisely what this task is remained ill-defined. The recent discovery that Y-alpha retinal ganglion cells send axon collaterals to the serotonergic dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) in addition to the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), medial interlaminar nucleus (MIN), pretectum and the superior colliculus (SC) has offered new insights into the important survival tasks performed by these cells with highly branched axons. We propose that in addition to its role in visual perception, the Y-alpha retinal ganglion cell provides concurrent signals via axon collaterals to the DRN, the major source of serotonergic afferents to the forebrain, to dramatically inhibit 5-HT activity during orientation or alerting/escape responses, which dis-facilitates ongoing tonic motor activity while dis-inhibiting sensory information processing throughout the visual system. The new data provide a fresh view of these evolutionarily old retinal ganglion cells. PMID:26363667

  11. Spontaneous extracutaneous systemic mastocytosis in a cynomolgus macaque ()

    OpenAIRE

    Martina , Z. Zöller; Joachim , Kaspareit

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A uniform cell population of proliferating mast cells with poor cytoplasmic granularity and few eosinophilic infiltrates was observed in hepatic portal tracts and the cecal submucosa of an adult male cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) that was part of a drug safety assessment toxicity study. The proliferating mast cells were positive for Giemsa and toluidine blue staining and had strong immunoreactivity for mast cell tryptase and CD68. Considering size, morphology, i...

  12. Social interactions through the eyes of macaques and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard McFarland

    Full Text Available Group-living primates frequently interact with each other to maintain social bonds as well as to compete for valuable resources. Observing such social interactions between group members provides individuals with essential information (e.g. on the fighting ability or altruistic attitude of group companions to guide their social tactics and choice of social partners. This process requires individuals to selectively attend to the most informative content within a social scene. It is unclear how non-human primates allocate attention to social interactions in different contexts, and whether they share similar patterns of social attention to humans. Here we compared the gaze behaviour of rhesus macaques and humans when free-viewing the same set of naturalistic images. The images contained positive or negative social interactions between two conspecifics of different phylogenetic distance from the observer; i.e. affiliation or aggression exchanged by two humans, rhesus macaques, Barbary macaques, baboons or lions. Monkeys directed a variable amount of gaze at the two conspecific individuals in the images according to their roles in the interaction (i.e. giver or receiver of affiliation/aggression. Their gaze distribution to non-conspecific individuals was systematically varied according to the viewed species and the nature of interactions, suggesting a contribution of both prior experience and innate bias in guiding social attention. Furthermore, the monkeys' gaze behavior was qualitatively similar to that of humans, especially when viewing negative interactions. Detailed analysis revealed that both species directed more gaze at the face than the body region when inspecting individuals, and attended more to the body region in negative than in positive social interactions. Our study suggests that monkeys and humans share a similar pattern of role-sensitive, species- and context-dependent social attention, implying a homologous cognitive mechanism of

  13. Distributed acoustic cues for caller identity in macaque vocalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Makoto; Doyle, Alex M; Mullarkey, Matthew P; Mishkin, Mortimer; Averbeck, Bruno B

    2015-12-01

    Individual primates can be identified by the sound of their voice. Macaques have demonstrated an ability to discern conspecific identity from a harmonically structured 'coo' call. Voice recognition presumably requires the integrated perception of multiple acoustic features. However, it is unclear how this is achieved, given considerable variability across utterances. Specifically, the extent to which information about caller identity is distributed across multiple features remains elusive. We examined these issues by recording and analysing a large sample of calls from eight macaques. Single acoustic features, including fundamental frequency, duration and Weiner entropy, were informative but unreliable for the statistical classification of caller identity. A combination of multiple features, however, allowed for highly accurate caller identification. A regularized classifier that learned to identify callers from the modulation power spectrum of calls found that specific regions of spectral-temporal modulation were informative for caller identification. These ranges are related to acoustic features such as the call's fundamental frequency and FM sweep direction. We further found that the low-frequency spectrotemporal modulation component contained an indexical cue of the caller body size. Thus, cues for caller identity are distributed across identifiable spectrotemporal components corresponding to laryngeal and supralaryngeal components of vocalizations, and the integration of those cues can enable highly reliable caller identification. Our results demonstrate a clear acoustic basis by which individual macaque vocalizations can be recognized.

  14. The issue of ventral versus dorsal approach in bulbar urethral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E. Palminteri

    From surgical point of view, the Barbagli Dorsal Grafting by Dor- sal approach [8] gives a good support for the graft; Barbagli stated that his technique offers a wider augmentation than ventral or dorsal grafting using the ventral approach. The good spongiosum covering seems reduce the risk of fistula; in reality there is a ...

  15. Dorsal finger texture recognition: Investigating fixed-length SURF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartung, Daniel; Kückelhahn, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    We seek to create fixed-length features from dorsal finger skin images extracted by the SURF interest point detector to combine it in the privacy enhancing helper data scheme. The source of the biometric samples is the GUC45 database which features finger vein, fingerprint and dorsal finger skin...

  16. Sunscreen Use on the Dorsal Hands at the Beach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, D. B.; Hobbs, J. B.; Jr, R. F. W.; Riahi, R. R.

    2013-01-01

    Since skin of the dorsal hands is a known site for the development of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, an epidemiologic investigation was needed to determine if beachgoers apply sunscreen to the dorsal aspect of their hands as frequently as they apply it to other skin sites. Aim. The aim of the current study was to compare the use of sunscreen on the dorsal hands to other areas of the body during subtropical late spring and summer sunlight exposure at the beach. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional survey from a convenience sample of beachgoers was designed to evaluate responded understanding and protective measures concerning skin cancer on the dorsal hands in an environment with high natural UVR exposure. Results. A total of 214 surveys were completed and analyzed. Less than half of subjects (105, 49%) applied sunscreen to their dorsal hands. Women applied sunscreen to the dorsal hands more than men (55% women versus 40% men, ρ=0.04 ). Higher Fitzpatrick Skin Type respondents were less likely to protect their dorsal hands from ultraviolet radiation (ρ=0.001 ). Conclusions. More public education focused on dorsal hand protection from ultraviolet radiation damage is necessary to reduce the risk for squamous cell carcinomas of the hands.

  17. An oral form of methylglyoxal-bis-guanylhydrazone reduces monocyte activation and traffic to the dorsal root ganglia in a primate model of HIV-peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakritz, Jessica R; Yalamanchili, Samshita; Polydefkis, Michael J; Miller, Andrew D; McGrath, Michael S; Williams, Kenneth C; Burdo, Tricia H

    2017-08-01

    Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is a major comorbidity of HIV infection that is caused in part by chronic immune activation. HIV-PN is associated with infiltration of monocytes/macrophages to the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) causing neuronal loss and formation of Nageotte nodules. Here, we used an oral form of methylglyoxal-bis-guanylhydrazone (MGBG), a polyamine biosynthesis inhibitor, to specifically reduce activation of myeloid cells. MGBG is selectively taken up by monocyte/macrophages in vitro and inhibits HIV p24 expression and DNA viral integration in macrophages. Here, MGBG was administered to nine SIV-infected, CD8-depleted rhesus macaques at 21 days post-infection (dpi). An additional nine SIV-infected, CD8-depleted rhesus macaques were used as untreated controls. Cell traffic to tissues was measured by in vivo BrdU pulse labeling. MGBG treatment significantly diminished DRG histopathology and reduced the number of CD68+ and CD163+ macrophages in DRG tissue. The number of recently trafficked BrdU+ cells in the DRG was significantly reduced with MGBG treatment. Despite diminished DRG pathology, intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD) did not recover after treatment with MGBG. These data suggest that MGBG alleviated DRG pathology and inflammation.

  18. Simian varicella virus infection of rhesus macaques recapitulates essential features of varicella zoster virus infection in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilhem Messaoudi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Simian varicella virus (SVV, the etiologic agent of naturally occurring varicella in primates, is genetically and antigenically closely related to human varicella zoster virus (VZV. Early attempts to develop a model of VZV pathogenesis and latency in nonhuman primates (NHP resulted in persistent infection. More recent models successfully produced latency; however, only a minority of monkeys became viremic and seroconverted. Thus, previous NHP models were not ideally suited to analyze the immune response to SVV during acute infection and the transition to latency. Here, we show for the first time that intrabronchial inoculation of rhesus macaques with SVV closely mimics naturally occurring varicella (chickenpox in humans. Infected monkeys developed varicella and viremia that resolved 21 days after infection. Months later, viral DNA was detected only in ganglia and not in non-ganglionic tissues. Like VZV latency in human ganglia, transcripts corresponding to SVV ORFs 21, 62, 63 and 66, but not ORF 40, were detected by RT-PCR. In addition, as described for VZV, SVV ORF 63 protein was detected in the cytoplasm of neurons in latently infected monkey ganglia by immunohistochemistry. We also present the first in depth analysis of the immune response to SVV. Infected animals produced a strong humoral and cell-mediated immune response to SVV, as assessed by immunohistology, serology and flow cytometry. Intrabronchial inoculation of rhesus macaques with SVV provides a novel model to analyze viral and immunological mechanisms of VZV latency and reactivation.

  19. Control of viremia and prevention of AIDS following immunotherapy of SIV-infected macaques with peptide-pulsed blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert De Rose

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Effective immunotherapies for HIV are needed. Drug therapies are life-long with significant toxicities. Dendritic-cell based immunotherapy approaches are promising but impractical for widespread use. A simple immunotherapy, reinfusing fresh autologous blood cells exposed to overlapping SIV peptides for 1 hour ex vivo, was assessed for the control of SIV(mac251 replication in 36 pigtail macaques. An initial set of four immunizations was administered under antiretroviral cover and a booster set of three immunizations administered 6 months later. Vaccinated animals were randomized to receive Gag peptides alone or peptides spanning all nine SIV proteins. High-level, SIV-specific CD4 and CD8 T-cell immunity was induced following immunization, both during antiretroviral cover and without. Virus levels were durably approximately 10-fold lower for 1 year in immunized animals compared to controls, and a significant delay in AIDS-related mortality resulted. Broader immunity resulted following immunizations with peptides spanning all nine SIV proteins, but the responses to Gag were weaker in comparison to animals only immunized with Gag. No difference in viral outcome occurred in animals immunized with all SIV proteins compared to animals immunized against Gag alone. Peptide-pulsed blood cells are an immunogenic and effective immunotherapy in SIV-infected macaques. Our results suggest Gag alone is an effective antigen for T-cell immunotherapy. Fresh blood cells pulsed with overlapping Gag peptides is proceeding into trials in HIV-infected humans.

  20. Value of the lateral view in diagnosing pleural plaques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillerdal, G.

    1986-01-01

    To assess the value of the lateral view in the diagnosis of pleural plaques, 2018 chest roentgenograms from the general population were scrutinized for such plaques. The lateral and posterior-anterior (PA) views were read separately and without knowledge of the occupational history or other clinical data. Of the males, 4.8% had pleural plaques in the PA view and 2% had dorsal pleural plaques in the lateral view. A total of 54% of the positive cases in the PA view also showed typical plaques in the PA view. Thus, there remained a number of cases which were diagnosed only in the lateral view; in all, these constituted 18.8%

  1. Versatility of the ventral approach in bulbar urethroplasty using dorsal, ventral or dorsal plus ventral oral grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palminteri, Enzo; Berdondini, Elisa; Fusco, Ferdinando; De Nunzio, Cosimo; Giannitsas, Kostas; Shokeir, Ahmed A

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the versatility of the ventral urethrotomy approach in bulbar reconstruction with buccal mucosa (BM) grafts placed on the dorsal, ventral or dorsal plus ventral urethral surface. Between 1999 and 2008, 216 patients with bulbar strictures underwent BM graft urethroplasty using the ventral-sagittal urethrotomy approach. Of these patients, 32 (14.8%; mean stricture 3.2 cm, range 1.5-5) had a dorsal graft urethroplasty (DGU), 121 (56%; mean stricture 3.7, range 1.5-8) a ventral graft urethroplasty (VGU), and 63 (29.2%; mean stricture 3.4, range 1.5-10) a dorsal plus ventral graft urethroplasty (DVGU). The strictured urethra was opened by a ventral-sagittal urethrotomy and BM graft was inserted dorsally or ventrally or dorsal plus ventral to augment the urethral plate. The median follow-up was 37 months. The overall 5-year actuarial success rate was 91.4%. The 5-year actuarial success rates were 87.8%, 95.5% and 86.3% for the DGU, VGU and DVGU, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences among the three groups. Success rates decreased significantly only with a stricture length of >4 cm. In BM graft bulbar urethroplasties the ventral urethrotomy access is simple and versatile, allowing an intraoperative choice of dorsal, ventral or combined dorsal and ventral grafting, with comparable success rates.

  2. Directed shift of vaginal microbiota induced by vaginal application of sucrose gel in rhesus macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-tao Hu

    2015-04-01

    Conclusions: Rhesus macaques can be used as animal models of bacterial vaginosis to develop drugs and test treatment efficacy. Furthermore, the topical application of sucrose gel induced the shifting of vaginal flora of rhesus macaques from a BV kind of flora to a lactobacilli-dominating flora.

  3. Interindividual Differences in Neonatal Imitation and the Development of Action Chains in Rhesus Macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Pier Francesco; Paukner, Annika; Ruggiero, Angela; Darcey, Lisa; Unbehagen, Sarah; Suomi, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    The capacity to imitate facial gestures is highly variable in rhesus macaques and this variability may be related to differences in specific neurobehavioral patterns of development. This study evaluated the differential neonatal imitative response of 41 macaques in relation to the development of sensory, motor, and cognitive skills throughout the…

  4. Correction of refractive errors in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) involved in visual research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jude F; Boisvert, Chantal J; Reuter, Jon D; Reynolds, John H; Leblanc, Mathias

    2014-08-01

    Macaques are the most common animal model for studies in vision research, and due to their high value as research subjects, often continue to participate in studies well into old age. As is true in humans, visual acuity in macaques is susceptible to refractive errors. Here we report a case study in which an aged macaque demonstrated clear impairment in visual acuity according to performance on a demanding behavioral task. Refraction demonstrated bilateral myopia that significantly affected behavioral and visual tasks. Using corrective lenses, we were able to restore visual acuity. After correction of myopia, the macaque's performance on behavioral tasks was comparable to that of a healthy control. We screened 20 other male macaques to assess the incidence of refractive errors and ocular pathologies in a larger population. Hyperopia was the most frequent ametropia but was mild in all cases. A second macaque had mild myopia and astigmatism in one eye. There were no other pathologies observed on ocular examination. We developed a simple behavioral task that visual research laboratories could use to test visual acuity in macaques. The test was reliable and easily learned by the animals in 1 d. This case study stresses the importance of screening macaques involved in visual science for refractive errors and ocular pathologies to ensure the quality of research; we also provide simple methodology for screening visual acuity in these animals.

  5. Genome sequencing and comparison of two nonhuman primate animal models, the cynomolgus and Chinese rhesus macaques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Guangmei; Zhang, Guojie; Fang, Xiaodong

    2011-01-01

    The nonhuman primates most commonly used in medical research are from the genus Macaca. To better understand the genetic differences between these animal models, we present high-quality draft genome sequences from two macaque species, the cynomolgus/crab-eating macaque and the Chinese rhesus...

  6. High Infection Rates for Adult Macaques after Intravaginal or Intrarectal Inoculation with Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalca, Aysegul; Rossi, Franco D.; Miller, Lynn J.; Wiley, Michael R.; Perez-Sautu, Unai; Washington, Samuel C.; Norris, Sarah L.; Wollen-Roberts, Suzanne E.; Shamblin, Joshua D.; Kimmel, Adrienne E.; Bloomfield, Holly A.; Valdez, Stephanie M.; Sprague, Thomas R.; Principe, Lucia M.; Bellanca, Stephanie A.; Cinkovich, Stephanie S.; Lugo-Roman, Luis; Cazares, Lisa H.; Pratt, William D.; Palacios, Gustavo F.; Bavari, Sina; Pitt, M. Louise; Nasar, Farooq

    2017-01-01

    Unprotected sexual intercourse between persons residing in or traveling from regions with Zika virus transmission is a risk factor for infection. To model risk for infection after sexual intercourse, we inoculated rhesus and cynomolgus macaques with Zika virus by intravaginal or intrarectal routes. In macaques inoculated intravaginally, we detected viremia and virus RNA in 50% of macaques, followed by seroconversion. In macaques inoculated intrarectally, we detected viremia, virus RNA, or both, in 100% of both species, followed by seroconversion. The magnitude and duration of infectious virus in the blood of macaques suggest humans infected with Zika virus through sexual transmission will likely generate viremias sufficient to infect competent mosquito vectors. Our results indicate that transmission of Zika virus by sexual intercourse might serve as a virus maintenance mechanism in the absence of mosquito-to-human transmission and could increase the probability of establishment and spread of Zika virus in regions where this virus is not present. PMID:28548637

  7. High Infection Rates for Adult Macaques after Intravaginal or Intrarectal Inoculation with Zika Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddow, Andrew D; Nalca, Aysegul; Rossi, Franco D; Miller, Lynn J; Wiley, Michael R; Perez-Sautu, Unai; Washington, Samuel C; Norris, Sarah L; Wollen-Roberts, Suzanne E; Shamblin, Joshua D; Kimmel, Adrienne E; Bloomfield, Holly A; Valdez, Stephanie M; Sprague, Thomas R; Principe, Lucia M; Bellanca, Stephanie A; Cinkovich, Stephanie S; Lugo-Roman, Luis; Cazares, Lisa H; Pratt, William D; Palacios, Gustavo F; Bavari, Sina; Pitt, M Louise; Nasar, Farooq

    2017-08-01

    Unprotected sexual intercourse between persons residing in or traveling from regions with Zika virus transmission is a risk factor for infection. To model risk for infection after sexual intercourse, we inoculated rhesus and cynomolgus macaques with Zika virus by intravaginal or intrarectal routes. In macaques inoculated intravaginally, we detected viremia and virus RNA in 50% of macaques, followed by seroconversion. In macaques inoculated intrarectally, we detected viremia, virus RNA, or both, in 100% of both species, followed by seroconversion. The magnitude and duration of infectious virus in the blood of macaques suggest humans infected with Zika virus through sexual transmission will likely generate viremias sufficient to infect competent mosquito vectors. Our results indicate that transmission of Zika virus by sexual intercourse might serve as a virus maintenance mechanism in the absence of mosquito-to-human transmission and could increase the probability of establishment and spread of Zika virus in regions where this virus is not present.

  8. Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta are natural hosts of specific Staphylococcus aureus lineages.

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    Sanne van den Berg

    Full Text Available Currently, there is no animal model known that mimics natural nasal colonization by Staphylococcus aureus in humans. We investigated whether rhesus macaques are natural nasal carriers of S. aureus. Nasal swabs were taken from 731 macaques. S. aureus isolates were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, spa repeat sequencing and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST, and compared with human strains. Furthermore, the isolates were characterized by several PCRs. Thirty-nine percent of 731 macaques were positive for S. aureus. In general, the macaque S. aureus isolates differed from human strains as they formed separate PFGE clusters, 50% of the isolates were untypeable by agr genotyping, 17 new spa types were identified, which all belonged to new sequence types (STs. Furthermore, 66% of macaque isolates were negative for all superantigen genes. To determine S. aureus nasal colonization, three nasal swabs from 48 duo-housed macaques were taken during a 5 month period. In addition, sera were analyzed for immunoglobulin G and A levels directed against 40 staphylococcal proteins using a bead-based flow cytometry technique. Nineteen percent of the animals were negative for S. aureus, and 17% were three times positive. S. aureus strains were easily exchanged between macaques. The antibody response was less pronounced in macaques compared to humans, and nasal carrier status was not associated with differences in serum anti-staphylococcal antibody levels. In conclusion, rhesus macaques are natural hosts of S. aureus, carrying host-specific lineages. Our data indicate that rhesus macaques are useful as an autologous model for studying S. aureus nasal colonization and infection prevention.

  9. Distinct neural patterns enable grasp types decoding in monkey dorsal premotor cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yaoyao; Zhang, Qiaosheng; Controzzi, Marco; Cipriani, Christian; Li, Yue; Li, Juncheng; Zhang, Shaomin; Wang, Yiwen; Chen, Weidong; Chiara Carrozza, Maria; Zheng, Xiaoxiang

    2014-12-01

    Objective. Recent studies have shown that dorsal premotor cortex (PMd), a cortical area in the dorsomedial grasp pathway, is involved in grasp movements. However, the neural ensemble firing property of PMd during grasp movements and the extent to which it can be used for grasp decoding are still unclear. Approach. To address these issues, we used multielectrode arrays to record both spike and local field potential (LFP) signals in PMd in macaque monkeys performing reaching and grasping of one of four differently shaped objects. Main results. Single and population neuronal activity showed distinct patterns during execution of different grip types. Cluster analysis of neural ensemble signals indicated that the grasp related patterns emerged soon (200-300 ms) after the go cue signal, and faded away during the hold period. The timing and duration of the patterns varied depending on the behaviors of individual monkey. Application of support vector machine model to stable activity patterns revealed classification accuracies of 94% and 89% for each of the two monkeys, indicating a robust, decodable grasp pattern encoded in the PMd. Grasp decoding using LFPs, especially the high-frequency bands, also produced high decoding accuracies. Significance. This study is the first to specify the neuronal population encoding of grasp during the time course of grasp. We demonstrate high grasp decoding performance in PMd. These findings, combined with previous evidence for reach related modulation studies, suggest that PMd may play an important role in generation and maintenance of grasp action and may be a suitable locus for brain-machine interface applications.

  10. Transcranial magnetic stimulation of the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex inhibits medial orbitofrontal activity in smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingbao; Sahlem, Gregory L; Badran, Bashar W; McTeague, Lisa M; Hanlon, Colleen A; Hartwell, Karen J; Henderson, Scott; George, Mark S

    2017-12-01

    Several studies have shown that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), applied to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), can reduce cue-elicited craving in smokers. Currently, the mechanism of this effect is unknown. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore the effect of a single treatment of rTMS on cortical and sub-cortical neural activity in non-treatment seeking nicotine-dependent participants. We conducted a randomized, counterbalanced, crossover trial in which participants attended two experimental visits separated by at least 1 week. On the first visit, participants received either active, or sham rTMS (10 Hz, 5 s-on, 10 s-off, 100% motor threshold, 3,000 pulses) over the left DLPFC, and on the second visit they received the opposite condition (active or sham). Cue craving fMRI scans were completed before and after each rTMS session. A total of 11 non-treatment seeking nicotine-dependent cigarette smokers were enrolled in the study [six female, average age 39.7 ± 13.2, average cigarettes per day 17.3 ± 5.9]. Active rTMS decreased activity in the contralateral medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) and ipsilateral nucleus accumbens (NAc) compared to sham rTMS. This preliminary data suggests that one session of rTMS applied to the DLPFC decreases brain activity in the NAc and mOFC in smokers. rTMS may exert its anti-craving effect by decreasing activity in the NAc and mOFC in smokers. Despite a small sample size, these findings warrant future rTMS/fMRI studies in addictions. (Am J Addict 2017;26:788-794). © 2017 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  11. BMPs regulate msx gene expression in the dorsal neuroectoderm of Drosophila and vertebrates by distinct mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Francisco F; Springhorn, Alexander; Kague, Erika; Taylor, Erika; Pyrowolakis, George; Fisher, Shannon; Bier, Ethan

    2014-09-01

    In a broad variety of bilaterian species the trunk central nervous system (CNS) derives from three primary rows of neuroblasts. The fates of these neural progenitor cells are determined in part by three conserved transcription factors: vnd/nkx2.2, ind/gsh and msh/msx in Drosophila melanogaster/vertebrates, which are expressed in corresponding non-overlapping patterns along the dorsal-ventral axis. While this conserved suite of "neural identity" gene expression strongly suggests a common ancestral origin for the patterning systems, it is unclear whether the original regulatory mechanisms establishing these patterns have been similarly conserved during evolution. In Drosophila, genetic evidence suggests that Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) act in a dosage-dependent fashion to repress expression of neural identity genes. BMPs also play a dose-dependent role in patterning the dorsal and lateral regions of the vertebrate CNS, however, the mechanism by which they achieve such patterning has not yet been clearly established. In this report, we examine the mechanisms by which BMPs act on cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) that control localized expression of the Drosophila msh and zebrafish (Danio rerio) msxB in the dorsal central nervous system (CNS). Our analysis suggests that BMPs act differently in these organisms to regulate similar patterns of gene expression in the neuroectoderm: repressing msh expression in Drosophila, while activating msxB expression in the zebrafish. These findings suggest that the mechanisms by which the BMP gradient patterns the dorsal neuroectoderm have reversed since the divergence of these two ancient lineages.

  12. BMPs regulate msx gene expression in the dorsal neuroectoderm of Drosophila and vertebrates by distinct mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco F Esteves

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In a broad variety of bilaterian species the trunk central nervous system (CNS derives from three primary rows of neuroblasts. The fates of these neural progenitor cells are determined in part by three conserved transcription factors: vnd/nkx2.2, ind/gsh and msh/msx in Drosophila melanogaster/vertebrates, which are expressed in corresponding non-overlapping patterns along the dorsal-ventral axis. While this conserved suite of "neural identity" gene expression strongly suggests a common ancestral origin for the patterning systems, it is unclear whether the original regulatory mechanisms establishing these patterns have been similarly conserved during evolution. In Drosophila, genetic evidence suggests that Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs act in a dosage-dependent fashion to repress expression of neural identity genes. BMPs also play a dose-dependent role in patterning the dorsal and lateral regions of the vertebrate CNS, however, the mechanism by which they achieve such patterning has not yet been clearly established. In this report, we examine the mechanisms by which BMPs act on cis-regulatory modules (CRMs that control localized expression of the Drosophila msh and zebrafish (Danio rerio msxB in the dorsal central nervous system (CNS. Our analysis suggests that BMPs act differently in these organisms to regulate similar patterns of gene expression in the neuroectoderm: repressing msh expression in Drosophila, while activating msxB expression in the zebrafish. These findings suggest that the mechanisms by which the BMP gradient patterns the dorsal neuroectoderm have reversed since the divergence of these two ancient lineages.

  13. A Comparative Study of Dorsal Buccal Mucosa Graft Substitution Urethroplasty by Dorsal Urethrotomy Approach versus Ventral Sagittal Urethrotomy Approach

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    Mrinal Pahwa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To compare the outcome of dorsal buccal mucosal graft (BMG substitution urethroplasty by dorsal urethrotomy approach with ventral urethrotomy approach in management of stricture urethra. Methods and Materials. A total of 40 patients who underwent dorsal BMG substitution urethroplasty were randomized into two groups. 20 patients underwent dorsal onlay BMG urethroplasty as described by Barbagli, and the other 20 patients underwent dorsal BMG urethroplasty by ventral urethrotomy as described by Asopa. Operative time, success rate, satisfaction rate, and complications were compared between the two groups. Mean follow-up was 12 months (6–24 months. Results. Ventral urethrotomy group had considerably lesser operative time although the difference was not statistically significant. Patients in dorsal group had mean maximum flow rate of 19.6 mL/min and mean residual urine of 27 mL, whereas ventral group had a mean maximum flow rate of 18.8 and residual urine of 32 mL. Eighteen out of twenty patients voided well in each group, and postoperative imaging study in these patients showed a good lumen with no evidence of leak or extravasation. Conclusion. Though ventral sagittal urethrotomy preserves the blood supply of urethra and intraoperative time was less than dorsal urethrotomy technique, there was no statistically significant difference in final outcome using either technique.

  14. A Comparative Study of Dorsal Buccal Mucosa Graft Substitution Urethroplasty by Dorsal Urethrotomy Approach versus Ventral Sagittal Urethrotomy Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahwa, Mrinal; Gupta, Sanjeev; Pahwa, Mayank; Jain, Brig D K; Gupta, Manu

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the outcome of dorsal buccal mucosal graft (BMG) substitution urethroplasty by dorsal urethrotomy approach with ventral urethrotomy approach in management of stricture urethra. Methods and Materials. A total of 40 patients who underwent dorsal BMG substitution urethroplasty were randomized into two groups. 20 patients underwent dorsal onlay BMG urethroplasty as described by Barbagli, and the other 20 patients underwent dorsal BMG urethroplasty by ventral urethrotomy as described by Asopa. Operative time, success rate, satisfaction rate, and complications were compared between the two groups. Mean follow-up was 12 months (6-24 months). Results. Ventral urethrotomy group had considerably lesser operative time although the difference was not statistically significant. Patients in dorsal group had mean maximum flow rate of 19.6 mL/min and mean residual urine of 27 mL, whereas ventral group had a mean maximum flow rate of 18.8 and residual urine of 32 mL. Eighteen out of twenty patients voided well in each group, and postoperative imaging study in these patients showed a good lumen with no evidence of leak or extravasation. Conclusion. Though ventral sagittal urethrotomy preserves the blood supply of urethra and intraoperative time was less than dorsal urethrotomy technique, there was no statistically significant difference in final outcome using either technique.

  15. Cyto- and chemoarchitecture of the dorsal thalamus of the monotreme Tachyglossus aculeatus, the short beaked echidna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwell, Ken W S; Paxinos, George

    2005-12-01

    We have examined the cyto- and chemoarchitecture of the dorsal thalamus of the short beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus), using Nissl and myelin staining, immunoreactivity for parvalbumin, calbindin, calretinin and non-phosphorylated neurofilament protein (SMI-32 antibody), and histochemistry for acetylcholinesterase and NADPH diaphorase. Immunohistochemical methods revealed many nuclear boundaries, which were difficult to discern with Nissl staining. Parvalbumin immunoreactive somata were concentrated in the ventral posterior, reticular, posterior, lateral and medial geniculate nuclei, while parvalbumin immunoreactivity of the neuropil was present throughout all but the midline nuclei. Large numbers of calbindin immunoreactive somata were also found within the midline thalamic nuclei, and thalamic sensory relay nuclei. Immunoreactivity for calretinin was found in many small somata within the lateral geniculate "a" nucleus, with other labelled somata found in the lateral geniculate "b" nucleus, ventral posterior medial and ventral posterior lateral nuclei. Immunoreactivity with the SMI-32 antibody was largely confined to somata and neuropil within the thalamocortical relay nuclei (ventral posterior medial and lateral nuclei, lateral and medial geniculate nuclei and the posterior thalamic nucleus). In broad terms there were many similarities between the thalamus of this monotreme and that of eutheria (e.g. disposition of somatosensory thalamus, complementarity of parvalbumin and calbindin immunoreactive structures), but there were some unique features of the thalamus of the echidna. These include the relatively small size of the thalamic reticular nucleus and the preponderance of calbindin immunoreactive neurons over parvalbumin immunoreactive neurons in the ventral posterior nucleus.

  16. A critical period of progesterone withdrawal precedes menstruation in macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slayden, Ov D; Brenner, Robert M

    2006-01-01

    Macaques are menstruating nonhuman primates that provide important animal models for studies of hormonal regulation in the uterus. In women and macaques the decline of progesterone (P) at the end of the cycle triggers endometrial expression of a variety of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) enzymes that participate in tissue breakdown and menstrual sloughing. To determine the minimal duration of P withdrawal required to induce menses, we assessed the effects of adding P back at various time points after P withdrawal on both frank bleeding patterns and endometrial MMP expression. Artificial menstrual cycles were induced by treating the animals sequentially with implants releasing estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P). To assess bleeding patterns, P implants were removed at the end of a cycle and then added back at 12, 24, 30, 36, 40, 48, 60, or 72 hours (h) after the initial P withdrawal. Observational analysis of frank bleeding patterns showed that P replacement at 12 and 24 h blocked menses, replacement at 36 h reduced menses but replacement after 36 h failed to block menses. These data indicate that in macaques, a critical period of P withdrawal exists and lasts approximately 36 h. In other similarly cycled animals, we withdrew P and then added P back either during (12–24 h) or after (48 h) the critical period, removed the uterus 24 h after P add back and evaluated endometrial MMP expression. Immunocytochemistry showed that replacement of P during the critical period suppressed MMP-1, -2 and -3 expression along with menses, but replacement of P at 48 h, which failed to suppress mense, suppressed MMP-1 and MMP-3 but did not block MMP-2. We concluded that upregulation of MMPs is essential to menses induction, but that after the critical period, menses will occur even if some MMPs are experimentally blocked. PMID:17118170

  17. Rapid Expansion of Phenylthiocarbamide Non-Tasters among Japanese Macaques.

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    Nami Suzuki-Hashido

    Full Text Available Bitter taste receptors (TAS2R proteins allow mammals to detect and avoid ingestion of toxins in food. Thus, TAS2Rs play an important role in food choice and are subject to complex natural selection pressures. In our previous study, we examined nucleotide variation in TAS2R38, a gene expressing bitter taste receptor for phenylthiocarbamide (PTC, in 333 Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata from 9 local populations in Japan. We identified a PTC "non-taster" TAS2R38 allele in Japanese macaques that was caused by a loss of the start codon. This PTC non-taster allele was only found in a limited local population (the Kii area, at a frequency of 29%. In this study, we confirmed that this allele was present in only the Kii population by analyzing an additional 264 individuals from eight new populations. Using cellular and behavioral experiments, we found that this allele lost its receptor function for perceiving PTC. The nucleotide sequences of the allele including flanking regions (of about 10 kb from 23 chromosomes were identical, suggesting that a non-taster allele arose and expanded in the Kii population during the last 13,000 years. Genetic analyses of non-coding regions in Kii individuals and neighboring populations indicated that the high allele frequency in the Kii population could not be explained by demographic history, suggesting that positive selection resulted in a rapid increase in PTC non-tasters in the Kii population. The loss-of-function that occurred at the TAS2R38 locus presumably provided a fitness advantage to Japanese macaques in the Kii population. Because TAS2R38 ligands are often found in plants, this functional change in fitness is perhaps related to feeding habit specificity. These findings should provide valuable insights for elucidating adaptive evolutionary changes with respect to various environments in wild mammals.

  18. SPINAL DEFORMITIES AFTER SELECTIVE DORSAL RHIZOTOMY

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    PATRICIO PABLO MANZONE

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: Selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR used for spasticity treatment could worsen or develop spinal deformities. Our goal is to describe spinal deformities seen in patients with cerebral palsy (CP after being treated by SDR. Methods: Retrospective study of patients operated on (SDR between January/1999 and June/2012. Inclusion criteria: spinal Rx before SDR surgery, spinography, and assessment at follow-up. We evaluated several factors emphasizing level and type of SDR approach, spinal deformity and its treatment, final Risser, and follow-up duration. Results: We found 7 patients (6 males: mean age at SDR 7.56 years (4.08-11.16. Mean follow-up: 6.64 years (2.16-13, final age: 14.32 years (7.5-19. No patient had previous deformity. GMFCS: 2 patients level IV, 2 level III, 3 level II. Initial walking status: 2 community walkers, 2 household walkers, 2 functional walkers, 1 not ambulant, at the follow-up, 3 patients improved, and 4 kept their status. We found 4 TL/L laminotomies, 2 L/LS laminectomies, and 1 thoracic laminectomy. Six spinal deformities were observed: 2 sagittal, 3 mixed, and 1 scoliosis. There was no association among the type of deformity, final gait status, topographic type, GMFCS, age, or SDR approach. Three patients had surgery indication for spinal deformity at skeletal maturity, while those patients with smaller deformities were still immature (Risser 0 to 2/3 although with progressive curves. Conclusions: After SDR, patients should be periodically evaluated until they reach Risser 5. The development of a deformity does not compromise functional results but adds morbidity because it may require surgical treatment.

  19. Seroconversion to HCoV-NL63 in Rhesus Macaques

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    Lia van der Hoek

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available HCoV-NL63 is a recently identified respiratory virus. Its pathogenesis has not been fully unraveled because an animal model is currently lacking. Here we examined whether rhesus macaques encounter HCoV-NL63 infections during life, by examining the levels of antibodies to HCoV-NL63 in time. The animals were followed for 7 up till 19 years, and in three animals we observed a steep rise in antibodies during follow up, indicative of a natural infection with HCoV-NL63.

  20. ABO blood group phenotype frequency estimation using molecular phenotyping in rhesus and cynomolgus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanthaswamy, S; Ng, J; Oldt, R F; Valdivia, L; Houghton, P; Smith, D G

    2017-11-01

    A much larger sample (N = 2369) was used to evaluate a previously reported distribution of the A, AB and B blood group phenotypes in rhesus and cynomolgus macaques from six different regional populations. These samples, acquired from 15 different breeding and research facilities in the United States, were analyzed using a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay that targets single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) responsible for the macaque A, B and AB phenotypes. The frequency distributions of blood group phenotypes of the two species differ significantly from each other and significant regional differentiation within the geographic ranges of each species was also observed. The B blood group phenotype was prevalent in rhesus macaques, especially those from India, while the frequencies of the A, B and AB phenotypes varied significantly among cynomolgus macaques from different geographic regions. The Mauritian cynomolgus macaques, despite having originated in Indonesia, showed significant (P ≪ .01) divergence from the Indonesian animals at the ABO blood group locus. Most Mauritian animals belonged to the B blood group while the Indonesian animals were mostly A. The close similarity in blood group frequency distributions between the Chinese rhesus and Indochinese cynomolgus macaques demonstrates that the introgression between these two species extends beyond the zone of intergradation in Indochina. This study underscores the importance of ABO blood group phenotyping of the domestic supply of macaques and their biospecimens. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Functional connectivity of the dorsal striatum in female musicians

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    Shoji eTanaka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The dorsal striatum (caudate/putamen is a node of the cortico-striato-pallido-thalamo-cortical (CSPTC motor circuit, which plays a central role in skilled motor learning, a critical feature of musical performance. The dorsal striatum receives input from a large part of the cerebral cortex, forming a hub in the cortical-subcortical network. This study sought to examine how the functional network of the dorsal striatum differs between musicians and nonmusicians.Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data were acquired from female university students majoring in music and nonmusic disciplines. The data were subjected to graph theoretical analysis and functional connectivity analysis. The graph theoretical analysis of the entire brain revealed that the degree, which represents the number of connections, of the bilateral putamen was significantly lower in musicians than in nonmusicians. The functional connectivity analysis indicated that compared with nonmusicians, musicians had significantly decreased connectivity between the left putamen and bilateral frontal operculum and between the left caudate nucleus and cerebellum. In conclusion, compared with nonmusicians, female musicians have a smaller functional network of the dorsal striatum, with decreased connectivity. These data are consistent with previous anatomical studies reporting a reduced volume of the dorsal striatum in musicians and ballet dancers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study suggesting that long-term musical training results in a less extensive or selective functional network of the dorsal striatum.

  2. Estimation of Shear Wave Speed in the Rhesus Macaques Uterine Cervix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bin; Drehfal, Lindsey C.; Rosado-Mendez, Ivan M.; Guerrero, Quinton W.; Palmeri, Mark L.; Simmons, Heather A.; Feltovich, Helen; Hall, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    Cervical softness is a critical parameter in pregnancy. Clinically, preterm birth is associated with premature cervical softening and post-dates birth is associated with delayed cervical softening. In practice, the assessment of softness is subjective, based on digital examination. Fortunately, objective, quantitative techniques to assess softness and other parameters associated with microstructural cervical change are emerging. One of these is shear wave speed (SWS) estimation. In principle, this allows objective characterization of stiffness because waves travel more slowly in softer tissue. We are studying SWS in humans and rhesus macaques, the latter in order to accelerate translation from bench to bedside. For the current study, we estimated SWS in ex vivo cervices of rhesus macaques, n=24 nulliparous (never given birth) and n=9 multiparous (delivered at least 1 baby). Misoprostol (a prostaglandin used to soften human cervices prior to gynecological procedures) was administered to 13 macaques prior to necropsy (nulliparous: 7, multiparous: 6). SWS measurements were made at predetermined locations from the distal to proximal end of the cervix on both the anterior and posterior cervix, with 5 repeat measures at each location. The intent was to explore macaque cervical microstructure, including biological and spatial variability, to elucidate the similarities and differences between the macaque and the human cervix in order to facilitate future in vivo studies. We found that SWS is dependent on location in the normal nonpregnant macaque cervix, as in the human cervix. Unlike the human cervix, we detected no difference between ripened and unripened rhesus macaque cervix samples, nor nulliparous versus multiparous samples, although we observed a trend toward stiffer tissue in nulliparous samples. We found rhesus macaque cervix to be much stiffer than human, which is important for technique refinement. These findings are useful for guiding study of cervical

  3. Temporal dynamics of 2D motion integration for ocular following in macaque monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthélemy, Fréderic V; Fleuriet, Jérome; Masson, Guillaume S

    2010-03-01

    Several recent studies have shown that extracting pattern motion direction is a dynamical process where edge motion is first extracted and pattern-related information is encoded with a small time lag by MT neurons. A similar dynamics was found for human reflexive or voluntary tracking. Here, we bring an essential, but still missing, piece of information by documenting macaque ocular following responses to gratings, unikinetic plaids, and barber-poles. We found that ocular tracking was always initiated first in the grating motion direction with ultra-short latencies (approximately 55 ms). A second component was driven only 10-15 ms later, rotating tracking toward pattern motion direction. At the end the open-loop period, tracking direction was aligned with pattern motion direction (plaids) or the average of the line-ending motion directions (barber-poles). We characterized the dependency on contrast of each component. Both timing and direction of ocular following were quantitatively very consistent with the dynamics of neuronal responses reported by others. Overall, we found a remarkable consistency between neuronal dynamics and monkey behavior, advocating for a direct link between the neuronal solution of the aperture problem and primate perception and action.

  4. Gene expression profiling in the Cynomolgus macaque Macaca fascicularis shows variation within the normal birth range

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    Vickers Mark H

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although an adverse early-life environment has been linked to an increased risk of developing the metabolic syndrome, the molecular mechanisms underlying altered disease susceptibility as well as their relevance to humans are largely unknown. Importantly, emerging evidence suggests that these effects operate within the normal range of birth weights and involve mechanisms of developmental palsticity rather than pathology. Method To explore this further, we utilised a non-human primate model Macaca fascicularis (Cynomolgus macaque which shares with humans the same progressive history of the metabolic syndrome. Using microarray we compared tissues from neonates in the average birth weight (50-75th centile to those of lower birth weight (5-25th centile and studied the effect of different growth trajectories within the normal range on gene expression levels in the umbilical cord, neonatal liver and skeletal muscle. Results We identified 1973 genes which were differentially expressed in the three tissue types between average and low birth weight animals (P Conclusion These differences in gene expression levels between animals in the upper and lower percentiles of the normal birth weight range may point towards early life metabolic adaptations that in later life result in differences in disease risk.

  5. Response to the Dorsal Anterior Gradient of EGFR Signaling in Drosophila Oogenesis Is Prepatterned by Earlier Posterior EGFR Activation

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    Mariana Fregoso Lomas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Spatially restricted epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR activity plays a central role in patterning the follicular epithelium of the Drosophila ovary. In midoogenesis, localized EGFR activation is achieved by the graded dorsal anterior localization of its ligand, Gurken. Graded EGFR activity determines multiple dorsal anterior fates along the dorsal-ventral axis but cannot explain the sharp posterior limit of this domain. Here, we show that posterior follicle cells express the T-box transcription factors Midline and H15, which render cells unable to adopt a dorsal anterior fate in response to EGFR activation. The posterior expression of Midline and H15 is itself induced in early oogenesis by posteriorly localized EGFR signaling, defining a feedback loop in which early induction of Mid and H15 confers a molecular memory that fundamentally alters the outcome of later EGFR signaling. Spatial regulation of the EGFR pathway thus occurs both through localization of the ligand and through localized regulation of the cellular response.

  6. Dorsal buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty by a ventral sagittal urethrotomy and minimal-access perineal approach for anterior urethral stricture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, N P; Ansari, M S; Dogra, P N; Tandon, S

    2004-06-01

    To present the technique of dorsal buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty through a ventral sagittal urethrotomy and minimal access perineal approach for anterior urethral stricture. From July 2001 to December 2002, 12 patients with a long anterior urethral stricture had the anterior urethra reconstructed, using a one-stage urethroplasty with a dorsal onlay buccal mucosal graft through a ventral sagittal urethrotomy. The urethra was approached via a small perineal incision irrespective of the site and length of the stricture. The penis was everted through the perineal wound. No urethral dissection was used on laterally or dorsally, so as not to jeopardize the blood supply. The mean (range) length of the stricture was 5 (3-16) cm and the follow-up 12 (10-16) months. The results were good in 11 of the 12 patients. One patient developed a stricture at the proximal anastomotic site and required optical internal urethrotomy. Dorsal buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty via a minimal access perineal approach is a simple technique with a good surgical outcome; it does not require urethral dissection and mobilization and hence preserves the blood supply.

  7. Genetic Divergence of the Rhesus Macaque Major Histocompatibility Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daza-Vamenta, Riza; Glusman, Gustavo; Rowen, Lee; Guthrie, Brandon; Geraghty, Daniel E.

    2004-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is comprised of the class I, class II, and class III regions, including the MHC class I and class II genes that play a primary role in the immune response and serve as an important model in studies of primate evolution. Although nonhuman primates contribute significantly to comparative human studies, relatively little is known about the genetic diversity and genomics underlying nonhuman primate immunity. To address this issue, we sequenced a complete rhesus macaque MHC spanning over 5.3 Mb, and obtained an additional 2.3 Mb from a second haplotype, including class II and portions of class I and class III. A major expansion of from six class I genes in humans to as many as 22 active MHC class I genes in rhesus and levels of sequence divergence some 10-fold higher than a similar human comparison were found, averaging from 2% to 6% throughout extended portions of class I and class II. These data pose new interpretations of the evolutionary constraints operating between MHC diversity and T-cell selection by contrasting with models predicting an optimal number of antigen presenting genes. For the clinical model, these data and derivative genetic tools can be implemented in ongoing genetic and disease studies that involve the rhesus macaque. PMID:15289473

  8. Risk Factors for Dystocia in Pigtailed Macaques (Macaca nemestrina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockinger, Diane E; Torrence, Anne E; Hukkanen, Renee R; Vogel, Keith W; Hotchkiss, Charlotte E; Ha, James C

    2011-01-01

    Dystocia (difficult labor) is an important component of the management of nonhuman primates and results in significant fetal and maternal morbidity and increased use of veterinary resources. Dystocias can arise from abnormalities of the maternal pelvis or fetus or uncoordinated uterine activity. Although risk factors for stillbirths have been established in nonhuman primates, risk factors for dystocias have not. The objective of this study was to determine maternal and fetal risk factors for dystocia in macaques. Retrospective data were collected from 83 pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) diagnosed with dystocia. The diagnosis of dystocia was made based on clinical or pathologic evidence. Maternal records of age, reproductive history, experimental history, clinical records, and fetal birth weight and any applicable fetal necropsy reports were reviewed. The gestational age of the fetus, the infant's birth weight, total previous births by the dam, and the proportions of both viable delivery (inverse effect) and surgical pregnancy interventions (direct effect) in the dam's history generated a model that maximized the experimental variance for predicting dystocia in the current pregnancy and explained 24% of the dystocia deliveries. The number of total previous births and proportion of previous cesarean sections accounted for the greatest effect. This model can identify individual dams within a colony that are at risk for dystocias and allow for changes in breeding colony management, more intense monitoring of dams at risk, or allocation of additional resources. PMID:21535929

  9. Caffeine Augments Anesthesia Neurotoxicity in the Fetal Macaque Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Kevin K; Johnson, Stephen A; Manzella, Francesca M; Masuoka, Kobe L; Williams, Sasha L; Martin, Lauren D; Dissen, Gregory A; Ikonomidou, Chrysanthy; Schenning, Katie J; Olney, John W; Brambrink, Ansgar M

    2018-03-28

    Caffeine is the most frequently used medication in premature infants. It is the respiratory stimulant of choice for apnea associated with prematurity and has been called the silver bullet in neonatology because of many proven benefits and few known risks. Research has revealed that sedative/anesthetic drugs trigger apoptotic death of neurons and oligodendrocytes in developing mammalian brains. Here we evaluated the influence of caffeine on the neurotoxicity of anesthesia in developing nonhuman primate brains. Fetal macaques (n = 7-8/group), at a neurodevelopmental age comparable to premature human infants, were exposed in utero for 5 hours to no drug (control), isoflurane, or isoflurane + caffeine and examined for evidence of apoptosis. Isoflurane exposure increased apoptosis 3.3 fold for neurons and 3.4 fold for oligodendrocytes compared to control brains. Isoflurane + caffeine caused neuronal apoptosis to increase 8.0 fold compared to control levels but did not augment oligoapoptosis. Neuronal death was particularly pronounced in the basal ganglia and cerebellum. Higher blood levels of caffeine within the range considered therapeutic and safe for human infants correlated with increased neuroapoptosis. Caffeine markedly augments neurotoxicity of isoflurane in the fetal macaque brain and challenges the assumption that caffeine is safe for premature infants.

  10. Astrocyte atrophy and immune dysfunction in self-harming macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim M Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Self-injurious behavior (SIB is a complex condition that exhibits a spectrum of abnormal neuropsychological and locomotor behaviors. Mechanisms for neuropathogenesis could include irregular immune activation, host soluble factors, and astrocyte dysfunction. METHODS: We examined the role of astrocytes as modulators of immune function in macaques with SIB. We measured changes in astrocyte morphology and function. Paraffin sections of frontal cortices from rhesus macaques identified with SIB were stained for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP and Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2. Morphologic features of astrocytes were determined using computer-assisted camera lucida. RESULTS: There was atrophy of white matter astrocyte cell bodies, decreased arbor length in both white and gray matter astrocytes, and decreased bifurcations and tips on astrocytes in animals with SIB. This was combined with a five-fold increase in the proportion of astrocytes immunopositive for TLR2. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide direct evidence that SIB induces immune activation of astrocytes concomitant with quantifiably different morphology.

  11. Grooming reciprocity in female tibetan macaques macaca thibetana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dongpo; Li, Jinhua; Garber, Paul A; Sun, Lixing; Zhu, Yong; Sun, Binghua

    2012-06-01

    Grooming among nonhuman primates is widespread and may represent an important service commodity that is exchanged within a biological marketplace. In this study, using focal animal sampling methods, we recorded grooming relationships among 12 adult females in a free-ranging group of Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Huangshan, China, to determine the influence of rank and kinship on grooming relationships, and whether females act as reciprocal traders (exchange grooming received for grooming given) or interchange traders (interchange grooming for social tolerance or other commodities). The results showed that: (1) grooming given was positively correlated with grooming received; (2) kinship did not exert a significant influence on grooming reciprocity; and (3) grooming reciprocity occurred principally between individuals of adjacent rank; however, when females of different rank groomed, females tended to groom up the hierarchy (lower ranking individuals groomed higher ranking individuals more than vice versa). Our results support the contention that both grooming reciprocity and the interchange of grooming for tolerance represent important social tactics used by female Tibetan macaques. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Macaques can predict social outcomes from facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Bridget M; Whitehouse, Jamie; Micheletta, Jérôme

    2016-09-01

    There is widespread acceptance that facial expressions are useful in social interactions, but empirical demonstration of their adaptive function has remained elusive. Here, we investigated whether macaques can use the facial expressions of others to predict the future outcomes of social interaction. Crested macaques (Macaca nigra) were shown an approach between two unknown individuals on a touchscreen and were required to choose between one of two potential social outcomes. The facial expressions of the actors were manipulated in the last frame of the video. One subject reached the experimental stage and accurately predicted different social outcomes depending on which facial expressions the actors displayed. The bared-teeth display (homologue of the human smile) was most strongly associated with predicted friendly outcomes. Contrary to our predictions, screams and threat faces were not associated more with conflict outcomes. Overall, therefore, the presence of any facial expression (compared to neutral) caused the subject to choose friendly outcomes more than negative outcomes. Facial expression in general, therefore, indicated a reduced likelihood of social conflict. The findings dispute traditional theories that view expressions only as indicators of present emotion and instead suggest that expressions form part of complex social interactions where individuals think beyond the present.

  13. Sequence of pathogenic events in cynomolgus macaques infected with aerosolized monkeypox virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tree, J A; Hall, G; Pearson, G; Rayner, E; Graham, V A; Steeds, K; Bewley, K R; Hatch, G J; Dennis, M; Taylor, I; Roberts, A D; Funnell, S G P; Vipond, J

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate new vaccines when human efficacy studies are not possible, the FDA's "Animal Rule" requires well-characterized models of infection. Thus, in the present study, the early pathogenic events of monkeypox infection in nonhuman primates, a surrogate for variola virus infection, were characterized. Cynomolgus macaques were exposed to aerosolized monkeypox virus (10(5) PFU). Clinical observations, viral loads, immune responses, and pathological changes were examined on days 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 postchallenge. Viral DNA (vDNA) was detected in the lungs on day 2 postchallenge, and viral antigen was detected, by immunostaining, in the epithelium of bronchi, bronchioles, and alveolar walls. Lesions comprised rare foci of dysplastic and sloughed cells in respiratory bronchioles. By day 4, vDNA was detected in the throat, tonsil, and spleen, and monkeypox antigen was detected in the lung, hilar and submandibular lymph nodes, spleen, and colon. Lung lesions comprised focal epithelial necrosis and inflammation. Body temperature peaked on day 6, pox lesions appeared on the skin, and lesions, with positive immunostaining, were present in the lung, tonsil, spleen, lymph nodes, and colon. By day 8, vDNA was present in 9/13 tissues. Blood concentrations of interleukin 1ra (IL-1ra), IL-6, and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) increased markedly. By day 10, circulating IgG antibody concentrations increased, and on day 12, animals showed early signs of recovery. These results define early events occurring in an inhalational macaque monkeypox infection model, supporting its use as a surrogate model for human smallpox. Bioterrorism poses a major threat to public health, as the deliberate release of infectious agents, such smallpox or a related virus, monkeypox, would have catastrophic consequences. The development and testing of new medical countermeasures, e.g., vaccines, are thus priorities; however, tests for efficacy in humans cannot be performed because it would be unethical and

  14. Function and innervation of the locus ceruleus in a macaque model of Functional Hypothalamic Amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethea, Cynthia L; Kim, Aaron; Cameron, Judy L

    2013-02-01

    A body of knowledge implicates an increase in output from the locus ceruleus (LC) during stress. We questioned the innervation and function of the LC in our macaque model of Functional Hypothalamic Amenorrhea, also known as Stress-Induced Amenorrhea. Cohorts of macaques were initially characterized as highly stress resilient (HSR) or stress-sensitive (SS) based upon the presence or absence of ovulation during a protocol involving 2 menstrual cycles with psychosocial and metabolic stress. Afterwards, the animals were rested until normal menstrual cycles resumed and then euthanized on day 5 of a new menstrual cycle [a] in the absence of further stress; or [b] after 5 days of resumed psychosocial and metabolic stress. In this study, parameters of the LC were examined in HSR and SS animals in the presence and absence of stress (2×2 block design) using ICC and image analysis. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the rate-limiting enzyme for the synthesis of catecholamines; and the TH level was used to assess by inference, NE output. The pixel area of TH-positive dendrites extending outside the medial border of the LC was significantly increased by stress to a similar degree in both HSR and SS animals (p<0.0001). There is a significant CRF innervation of the LC. The positive pixel area of CRF boutons, lateral to the LC, was higher in SS than HSR animals in the absence of stress. Five days of moderate stress significantly increased the CRF-positive bouton pixel area in the HSR group (p<0.02), but not in the SS group. There is also a significant serotonin innervation of the LC. A marked increase in medial serotonin dendrite swelling and beading was observed in the SS+stress group, which may be a consequence of excitotoxicity. The dendrite beading interfered with analysis of axonal boutons. However, at one anatomical level, the serotonin-positive bouton area was obtained between the LC and the superior cerebellar peduncle. Serotonin-positive bouton pixel area was significantly

  15. Lateralization for dynamic facial expressions in human superior temporal sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Winter, François-Laurent; Zhu, Qi; Van den Stock, Jan; Nelissen, Koen; Peeters, Ronald; de Gelder, Beatrice; Vanduffel, Wim; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu

    2015-02-01

    Most face processing studies in humans show stronger activation in the right compared to the left hemisphere. Evidence is largely based on studies with static stimuli focusing on the fusiform face area (FFA). Hence, the pattern of lateralization for dynamic faces is less clear. Furthermore, it is unclear whether this property is common to human and non-human primates due to predisposing processing strategies in the right hemisphere or that alternatively left sided specialization for language in humans could be the driving force behind this phenomenon. We aimed to address both issues by studying lateralization for dynamic facial expressions in monkeys and humans. Therefore, we conducted an event-related fMRI experiment in three macaques and twenty right handed humans. We presented human and monkey dynamic facial expressions (chewing and fear) as well as scrambled versions to both species. We studied lateralization in independently defined face-responsive and face-selective regions by calculating a weighted lateralization index (LIwm) using a bootstrapping method. In order to examine if lateralization in humans is related to language, we performed a separate fMRI experiment in ten human volunteers including a 'speech' expression (one syllable non-word) and its scrambled version. Both within face-responsive and selective regions, we found consistent lateralization for dynamic faces (chewing and fear) versus scrambled versions in the right human posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), but not in FFA nor in ventral temporal cortex. Conversely, in monkeys no consistent pattern of lateralization for dynamic facial expressions was observed. Finally, LIwms based on the contrast between different types of dynamic facial expressions (relative to scrambled versions) revealed left-sided lateralization in human pSTS for speech-related expressions compared to chewing and emotional expressions. To conclude, we found consistent laterality effects in human posterior STS but not

  16. Function Lateralization via Measuring Coherence Laterality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ze; Mechanic-Hamilton, Dawn; Pluta, John; Glynn, Simon; Detre, John A.

    2009-01-01

    A data-driven approach for lateralization of brain function based on the spatial coherence difference of functional MRI (fMRI) data in homologous regions-of-interest (ROI) in each hemisphere is proposed. The utility of using coherence laterality (CL) to determine function laterality was assessed first by examining motor laterality using normal subjects’ data acquired both at rest and with a simple unilateral motor task and subsequently by examining mesial temporal lobe memory laterality in normal subjects and patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. The motor task was used to demonstrate that CL within motor ROI correctly lateralized functional stimulation. In patients with unilateral epilepsy studied during a scene-encoding task, CL in a hippocampus-parahippocampus-fusiform (HPF) ROI was concordant with lateralization based on task activation, and the CL index (CLI) significantly differentiated the right side group to the left side group. By contrast, normal controls showed a symmetric HPF CLI distribution. Additionally, similar memory laterality prediction results were still observed using CL in epilepsy patients with unilateral seizures after the memory encoding effect was removed from the data, suggesting the potential for lateralization of pathological brain function based on resting fMRI data. A better lateralization was further achieved via a combination of the proposed approach and the standard activation based approach, demonstrating that assessment of spatial coherence changes provides a complementary approach to quantifying task-correlated activity for lateralizing brain function. PMID:19345736

  17. Emergent properties during dorsal closure in Drosophila morphogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peralta, X G; Toyama, Y; Edwards, G S; Kiehart, D P

    2008-01-01

    Dorsal closure is an essential stage of Drosophila development that is a model system for research in morphogenesis and biological physics. Dorsal closure involves an orchestrated interplay between gene expression and cell activities that produce shape changes, exert forces and mediate tissue dynamics. We investigate the dynamics of dorsal closure based on confocal microscopic measurements of cell shortening in living embryos. During the mid-stages of dorsal closure we find that there are fluctuations in the width of the leading edge cells but the time-averaged analysis of measurements indicate that there is essentially no net shortening of cells in the bulk of the leading edge, that contraction predominantly occurs at the canthi as part of the process for zipping together the two leading edges of epidermis and that the rate constant for zipping correlates with the rate of movement of the leading edges. We characterize emergent properties that regulate dorsal closure, i.e., a velocity governor and the coordination and synchronization of tissue dynamics

  18. Evidence that emotion mediates social attention in rhesus macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily J Bethell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent work on non-human primates indicates that the allocation of social attention is mediated by characteristics of the attending animal, such as social status and genotype, as well as by the value of the target to which attention is directed. Studies of humans indicate that an individual's emotion state also plays a crucial role in mediating their social attention; for example, individuals look for longer towards aggressive faces when they are feeling more anxious, and this bias leads to increased negative arousal and distraction from other ongoing tasks. To our knowledge, no studies have tested for an effect of emotion state on allocation of social attention in any non-human species. METHODOLOGY: We presented captive adult male rhesus macaques with pairs of adult male conspecific face images - one with an aggressive expression, one with a neutral expression - and recorded gaze towards these images. Each animal was tested twice, once during a putatively stressful condition (i.e. following a veterinary health check, and once during a neutral (or potentially positive condition (i.e. a period of environmental enrichment. Initial analyses revealed that behavioural indicators of anxiety and stress were significantly higher after the health check than during enrichment, indicating that the former caused a negative shift in emotional state. PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: The macaques showed initial vigilance for aggressive faces across both conditions, but subsequent responses differed between conditions. Following the health check, initial vigilance was followed by rapid and sustained avoidance of aggressive faces. By contrast, during the period of enrichment, the macaques showed sustained attention towards the same aggressive faces. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data provide, to our knowledge, the first evidence that shifts in emotion state mediate social attention towards and away from facial cues of emotion in a non-human animal. This work

  19. Use-Wear Patterns on Wild Macaque Stone Tools Reveal Their Behavioural History

    OpenAIRE

    Haslam, Michael; Gumert, Michael D.; Biro, Dora; Carvalho, Susana; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2013-01-01

    Burmese long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis aurea) are one of a limited number of wild animal species to use stone tools, with their tool use focused on pounding shelled marine invertebrates foraged from intertidal habitats. These monkeys exhibit two main styles of tool use: axe hammering of oysters, and pound hammering of unattached encased foods. In this study, we examined macroscopic use-wear patterns on a sample of 60 wild macaque stone tools from Piak Nam Yai Island, Thailand, that...

  20. Function and Innervation of the Locus Ceruleus in a Macaque Model of Functional Hypothalamic Amenorrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Bethea, Cynthia L; Kim, Aaron; Cameron, Judy L

    2012-01-01

    A body of knowledge implicates an increase in output from the locus ceruleus (LC) during stress. We questioned the innervation and function of the LC in our macaque model of Functional Hypothalamic Amenorrhea, also known as Stress-Induced Amenorrhea. Cohorts of macaques were initially characterized as highly stress resilient (HSR) or stress-sensitive (SS) based upon the presence or absence of ovulation during a protocol involving 2 menstrual cycles with psychosocial and metabolic stress. Afte...

  1. Social management of laboratory rhesus macaques housed in large groups using a network approach: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCowan, Brenda; Beisner, Brianne; Hannibal, Darcy

    2017-12-07

    Biomedical facilities across the nation and worldwide aim to develop cost-effective methods for the reproductive management of macaque breeding groups, typically by housing macaques in large, multi-male multi-female social groups that provide monkey subjects for research as well as appropriate socialization for their psychological well-being. One of the most difficult problems in managing socially housed macaques is their propensity for deleterious aggression. From a management perspective, deleterious aggression (as opposed to less intense aggression that serves to regulate social relationships) is undoubtedly the most problematic behavior observed in group-housed macaques, which can readily escalate to the degree that it causes social instability, increases serious physical trauma leading to group dissolution, and reduces psychological well-being. Thus for both welfare and other management reasons, aggression among rhesus macaques at primate centers and facilities needs to be addressed with a more proactive approach.Management strategies need to be instituted that maximize social housing while also reducing problematic social aggression due to instability using efficacious methods for detection and prevention in the most cost effective manner. Herein we review a new proactive approach using social network analysis to assess and predict deleterious aggression in macaque groups. We discovered three major pathways leading to instability, such as unusually high rates and severity of trauma and social relocations.These pathways are linked either directly or indirectly to network structure in rhesus macaque societies. We define these pathways according to the key intrinsic and extrinsic variables (e.g., demographic, genetic or social factors) that influence network and behavioral measures of stability (see Fig. 1). They are: (1) presence of natal males, (2) matrilineal genetic fragmentation, and (3) the power structure and conflict policing behavior supported by this

  2. Glial cell morphological and density changes through the lifespan of rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robillard, Katelyn N; Lee, Kim M; Chiu, Kevin B; MacLean, Andrew G

    2016-07-01

    How aging impacts the central nervous system (CNS) is an area of intense interest. Glial morphology is known to affect neuronal and immune function as well as metabolic and homeostatic balance. Activation of glia, both astrocytes and microglia, occurs at several stages during development and aging. The present study analyzed changes in glial morphology and density through the entire lifespan of rhesus macaques, which are physiologically and anatomically similar to humans. We observed apparent increases in gray matter astrocytic process length and process complexity as rhesus macaques matured from juveniles through adulthood. These changes were not attributed to cell enlargement because they were not accompanied by proportional changes in soma or process volume. There was a decrease in white matter microglial process length as rhesus macaques aged. Aging was shown to have a significant effect on gray matter microglial density, with a significant increase in aged macaques compared with adults. Overall, we observed significant changes in glial morphology as macaques age indicative of astrocytic activation with subsequent increase in microglial density in aged macaques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mycobacterium kansasii Isolated from Tuberculinpositive Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) in the Absence of Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, Steven T; Johnson, David K; Roodgar, Morteza; Smith, David Glenn; Montgomery, Charles A; Lloyd, Steven M; Higgins, James A; Kriel, Edwin H; Klein, Hilton J; Porter, William P; Nazareno, Jerome B; Houghton, Paul W; Panda, Aruna; DeTolla, Louis J

    2017-08-01

    Mycobacterial infections are of primary health concern in NHP colonies in biomedical research. NHP are constantly monitored and screened for Mycobacterium spp. We report 6 Chinese-origin rhesus macaques infected with Mycobacterium kansasii that exhibited positive tuberculin skin tests in the absence of disease. Two of these macaques were being used for research purposes; the remaining 4 macaques were residing at the contract quarantine company. Histopathology and acid-fast staining of fixed tissues from all macaques showed that all were free of disease. Thoracic radiographs were negative for any signs of disease or infection. Samples from bronchial lavage and tissues including lung, spleen, hilar and mesenteric lymph nodes tested negative by PCR assay for Mycobacterium spp. One of the research macaques tested culture-positive for M. kansasii and a poorly characterized M. avium complex organism. One macaque from the contract quarantine facility tested culture positive for M. kansasii. Genomic testing and target gene RNA expression analysis of the 2 M. kansasii isolates were performed to evaluate possible kinship and affected genes that might contribute to susceptibility to mycobacterial infection. Genotyping of the 2 isolates revealed 2 genetically distinct strains (strains 1 and 4). The presence of positive tuberculin skin tests in the absence of disease raises serious concerns regarding diagnostic methods used for infected NHP.

  4. Toxicity and efficacy of 2',3'-dideoxycytidine in clinical trials of pigtailed macaques infected with simian retrovirus type 2.

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, C C; Follis, K E; Yarnall, M; Blakley, G A

    1989-01-01

    Four dosing regimens of 2',3'-dideoxycytidine (ddC) were administered intravenously for 10 to 28 days to 18 pigtailed macaques with simian acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Ten macaques naturally infected with simian acquired immunodeficiency syndrome retrovirus serotype 2 (SRV-2), the etiologic agent of simian acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, received ddC by continuous intravenous infusion or by a daily bolus injection for 10 to 12 days. Another eight macaques that were negative for SRV...

  5. Comparative Pathology of Smallpox and Monkeypox in Man and Macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cann, J. A.; Jahrling, P. B.; Hensley, L. E.; Wahl-Jensen, V.

    2012-01-01

    Summary In the three decades since the eradication of smallpox and cessation of routine vaccination, the collective memory of the devastating epidemics caused by this orthopoxvirus has waned, and the human population has become increasingly susceptible to a disease that remains high on the list of possible bioterrorism agents. Research using surrogate orthopoxviruses in their natural hosts, as well as limited variola virus research in animal models, continues worldwide; however, interpretation of findings is often limited by our relative lack of knowledge about the naturally occurring disease. For modern comparative pathologists, many of whom have no first-hand knowledge of naturally occurring smallpox, this work provides a contemporary review of this historical disease, as well as discussion of how it compares with human monkeypox and the corresponding diseases in macaques. PMID:22884034

  6. Spatial and temporal vision of macaques after central retinal lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merigan, W.H.; Pasternak, T.; Zehl, D.

    1981-01-01

    Spatial contrast and temporal modulation sensitivity of two macaque monkeys were measured at three luminance levels before and after binocular laser coagulation of the fovea. The radius of the lesions ranged from 1.6 to 2.2 degree from the center of the fovea. After placement of the lesions, the visibility of high spatial frequencies was greatly reduced, although sensitivity at middle and low spatial frequencies was unaffected. No loss of spatial resolution was found at the lowest luminance tested. When temporal modulation sensitivity was tested with 4 deg targets, foveal lesions had no effect at any temporal frequency or luminance. However, with a 0.57 degree target, sensitivity to lower temporal frequencies was impaired. Thus visual loss after destruction of the fovea is limited to high luminance, small targets, and the resolution of fine detail

  7. Discovery of a secular trend in Cayo Santiago macaque reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Pacheco, Raisa; Rawlins, Richard G; Kessler, Matthew J; Delgado, Diana L; Ruiz-Lambides, Angelina V; Sabat, Alberto M

    2016-02-01

    Reproductive synchrony and the consequent clustering of births are hypothesized to be regulated by seasonal changes in rainfall and food availability. Such climate-related seasonality is, however, questionable in tropical populations occupying temporally invariant habitats year round. Using the long-term data of the Cayo Santiago rhesus macaques from 1973 to 2013, this study distinguishes synchrony (a greater than chance clustering of births) from seasonality (a cluster of births during a period of the year when abiotic conditions are favorable) and shows that females are highly synchronized (>72% of births in a 3-month period) but the effects of environmental zeitgebers on reproduction are overridden by biological factors. Specifically, biotic and abiotic factors including (i) loss of immature offspring; (ii) population density; (iii) age at delivery; (iv) rainfall; and (v) changes in colony management were modeled in relation to the annual onset of births and the median birth date. Females experiencing loss of immature offspring had an interbirth interval of trend in both the onset of births and the median date of birth is documented and the model predicts that the median birth date will advance across all calendar-based seasons by 2050. The secular trend in reproduction appears to be triggered by changes in the age at delivery of females, the absence of physiological constraints from maternal investment due to offspring loss, shorter interbirth interval, and a higher degree of coordination due to increasing population density. This study challenges the reproductive phenology previously described for rhesus macaques highlighting the importance of long-term studies in addressing the ultimate causes of reproductive synchrony. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Acoustic characteristics used by Japanese macaques for individual discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuyama, Takafumi; Kobayasi, Kohta I; Riquimaroux, Hiroshi

    2017-10-01

    The vocalizations of primates contain information about speaker individuality. Many primates, including humans, are able to distinguish conspecifics based solely on vocalizations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acoustic characteristics used by Japanese macaques in individual vocal discrimination. Furthermore, we tested human subjects using monkey vocalizations to evaluate species specificity with respect to such discriminations. Two monkeys and five humans were trained to discriminate the coo calls of two unfamiliar monkeys. We created a stimulus continuum between the vocalizations of the two monkeys as a set of probe stimuli (whole morph). We also created two sets of continua in which only one acoustic parameter, fundamental frequency ( f 0 ) or vocal tract characteristic (VTC), was changed from the coo call of one monkey to that of another while the other acoustic feature remained the same ( f 0 morph and VTC morph, respectively). According to the results, the reaction times both of monkeys and humans were correlated with the morph proportion under the whole morph and f 0 morph conditions. The reaction time to the VTC morph was correlated with the morph proportion in both monkeys, whereas the reaction time in humans, on average, was not correlated with morph proportion. Japanese monkeys relied more consistently on VTC than did humans for discriminating monkey vocalizations. Our results support the idea that the auditory system of primates is specialized for processing conspecific vocalizations and suggest that VTC is a significant acoustic feature used by Japanese macaques to discriminate conspecific vocalizations. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Development of a Zika Virus Infection Model in Cynomolgus Macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusataka Koide

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Limited availability of Indian rhesus macaques (IRM is a bottleneck to study Zika virus (ZIKV pathogenesis and evaluation of appropriate control measures in non-human primates. To address these issues, we report here the Mauritian cynomolgus macaque (MCM model for ZIKV infection. In brief, six MCMs (seronegative for dengue and ZIKV were subdivided into 3 cohorts with a male and female each and challenged with different doses of Asian PRVABC59 (Puerto Rico or FSS13025 (Cambodia or African (IBH30656 lineage ZIKV isolates. Clinical signs were monitored; and biological fluids (serum, saliva and urine and tissues (testes and brain were assessed for viral load by quantitative RT-PCR and neutralizing antibodies (Nab by 50% Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test (PRNT50 at various times post infection (p.i. PRVABC59 induced viremia detectable up to day 10, with peak viral load at 2 to 3 days p.i. An intermittent viremia spike was observed on day 30 with titers reaching 2.5 ×103 genomes/mL. Moderate viral load was observed in testes, urine and saliva. In contrast, FSS13025 induced viremia lasting only up to 6 days and detectable viral loads in testes but not in urine and saliva. Recurrent viremia was detected but at lower titers compare to PRVABC59. Challenge with either PRVABC59 or FSS13025 resulted in 100% seroconversion; with mean PRNT50 titers ranging from 597 to 5179. IBH30656 failed to establish infection in MCM suggesting that MCM are susceptible to infection with ZIKV isolates of the Asian lineage but not from Africa. Due to the similarity of biphasic viremia and Nab responses between MCM and IRM models, MCM could be a suitable alternative for evaluation of ZIKV vaccine and therapeutic candidates.

  10. Depth perception from moving cast shadow in macaque monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Saneyuki; Usui, Nobuo; Yokota, Takanori; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Taira, Masato; Katsuyama, Narumi

    2015-07-15

    In the present study, we investigate whether the macaque monkey can perceive motion in depth using a moving cast shadow. To accomplish this, we conducted two experiments. In the first experiment, an adult Japanese monkey was trained in a motion discrimination task in depth by binocular disparity. A square was presented on the display so that it appeared with a binocular disparity of 0.12 degrees (initial position), and moved toward (approaching) or away from (receding) the monkey for 1s. The monkey was trained to discriminate the approaching and receding motion of the square by GO/delayed GO-type responses. The monkey showed a significantly high accuracy rate in the task, and the performance was maintained when the position, color, and shape of the moving object were changed. In the next experiment, the change in the disparity was gradually decreased in the motion discrimination task. The results showed that the performance of the monkey declined as the distance of the approaching and receding motion of the square decreased from the initial position. However, when a moving cast shadow was added to the stimulus, the monkey responded to the motion in depth induced by the cast shadow in the same way as by binocular disparity; the reward was delivered randomly or given in all trials to prevent the learning of the 2D motion of the shadow in the frontal plane. These results suggest that the macaque monkey can perceive motion in depth using a moving cast shadow as well as using binocular disparity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Predictors of insubordinate aggression among captive female rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seil, Shannon K; Hannibal, Darcy L; Beisner, Brianne A; McCowan, Brenda

    2017-11-01

    Cercopithicine primates tend to have nepotistic hierarchies characterized by predictable, kinship-based dominance. Although aggression is typically directed down the hierarchy, insubordinate aggression does occur. Insubordination is important to understand because it can precipitate social upheaval and undermine group stability; however, the factors underlying it are not well understood. We test whether key social and demographic variables predict insubordination among captive female rhesus macaques. To identify factors influencing insubordination, multivariate analyses of 10,821 dyadic conflicts among rhesus macaque females were conducted, using data from six captive groups. A segmented regression analysis was used to identify dyads with insubordination. Negative binomial regression analyses and an information theoretic approach were used to assess predictors of insubordination among dyads. In the best models, weight difference (w = 1.0; IRR = 0.930), age (dominant: w = 1.0, IRR = 0.681; subordinate: w = 1.0, IRR = 1.069), the subordinate's total number of allies (w = 0.727, IRR = 1.060) or non-kin allies (w = 0.273, IRR = 1.165), the interaction of the dominant's kin allies and weight difference (w = 0.938, IRR = 1.046), violation of youngest ascendancy (w = 1.0; IRR = 2.727), and the subordinate's maternal support (w = 1.0; IRR = 2.928), are important predictors of insubordination. These results show that both intrinsic and social factors influence insubordinate behavior. This adds to evidence of the importance of intrinsic factors and flexibility in a social structure thought to be rigid and predetermined by external factors. Further, because insubordination can precipitate social overthrow, determining predictors of insubordination will shed light on mechanisms underlying stability in nepotistic societies. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Emotional states after grooming interactions in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Masataka; Yamada, Kazunori; Nakamichi, Masayuki

    2015-11-01

    In animal societies, the effect of grooming interactions on anxiety reduction is unclear. This study examined the effects of giving and receiving grooming on anxiety reduction in free ranging female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) by measuring rates of self-scratching as an index of anxiety. In this study, the authors used a focal-animal sampling method, targeting 17 females at Katsuyama, Okayama prefecture, Japan. They evaluated affiliative relationships, which were defined by standard proximity rates, and found that females' self-scratching rates were lower after grooming affiliated partners than during matched-control periods (occurring on another day, beginning at approximately the same time of day as the corresponding postgrooming period) and not after grooming unaffiliated partners. Moreover, regardless of affiliative relationships, self-scratching rates were lower after receiving grooming than during matched-control periods. These findings did not change after excluding data in which groomer and groomee were in proximity after the grooming interaction. In addition, multivariable analysis showed that affiliative relationships, but not kinship or rank distances, were related to differences in the rates of self-scratching between giving grooming and matched-control periods. In contrast, neither affiliative relationships nor kinship nor rank distances affected differences in self-scratching rates between receiving grooming and matched-control periods. Therefore, individuals' anxiety levels decreased both after giving grooming to affiliated partners and after receiving grooming, regardless of affiliative relationships. This is the first empirical study to support the notion that giving grooming to affiliated partners is self-rewarding in Japanese macaques. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Insights from event-related potentials into the temporal and hierarchical organization of the ventral and dorsal streams of the visual system in selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Loeches, M; Hinojosa, J A; Rubia, F J

    1999-11-01

    The temporal and hierarchical relationships between the dorsal and the ventral streams in selective attention are known only in relation to the use of spatial location as the attentional cue mediated by the dorsal stream. To improve this state of affairs, event-related brain potentials were recorded while subjects attended simultaneously to motion direction (mediated by the dorsal stream) and to a property mediated by the ventral stream (color or shape). At about the same time, a selection positivity (SP) started for attention mediated by both streams. However, the SP for color and shape peaked about 60 ms later than motion SP. Subsequently, a selection negativity (SN) followed by a late positive component (LPC) were found simultaneously for attention mediated by both streams. A hierarchical relationship between the two streams was not observed, but neither SN nor LPC for one property was completely insensitive to the values of the other property.

  14. Running Reduces Uncontrollable Stress-Evoked Serotonin and Potentiates Stress-Evoked Dopamine Concentrations in the Rat Dorsal Striatum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Clark

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence from both the human and animal literature indicates that exercise reduces the negative consequences of stress. The neurobiological etiology for this stress protection, however, is not completely understood. Our lab reported that voluntary wheel running protects rats from expressing depression-like instrumental learning deficits on the shuttle box escape task after exposure to unpredictable and inescapable tail shocks (uncontrollable stress. Impaired escape behavior is a result of stress-sensitized serotonin (5-HT neuron activity in the dorsal raphe (DRN and subsequent excessive release of 5-HT into the dorsal striatum following exposure to a comparatively mild stressor. However, the possible mechanisms by which exercise prevents stress-induced escape deficits are not well characterized. The purpose of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that exercise blunts the stress-evoked release of 5-HT in the dorsal striatum. Changes to dopamine (DA levels were also examined, since striatal DA signaling is critical for instrumental learning and can be influenced by changes to 5-HT activity. Adult male F344 rats, housed with or without running wheels for 6 weeks, were either exposed to tail shock or remained undisturbed in laboratory cages. Twenty-four hours later, microdialysis was performed in the medial (DMS and lateral (DLS dorsal striatum to collect extracellular 5-HT and DA before, during, and following 2 mild foot shocks. We report wheel running prevents foot shock-induced elevation of extracellular 5-HT and potentiates DA concentrations in both the DMS and DLS approximately 24 h following exposure to uncontrollable stress. These data may provide a possible mechanism by which exercise prevents depression-like instrumental learning deficits following exposure to acute stress.

  15. Agenesis of the dorsal mesentery presenting in an adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anith Chacko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Agenesis of the dorsal mesentery is a rare occurrence that usually presents in children. It is associated with proximal small bowel malrotation as well as high jejunal atresia with discontinuity of the small bowel. We present a case report of an adolescent presenting with clinical features of proximal small bowel obstruction (confirmed on imaging as well as acute pancreatitis. At laparotomy, he was found to have no dorsal mesentery, without small bowel atresia, and the duodenum was fixed to the posterior abdominal wall. The patient recovered well and remained symptom-free.

  16. Complete dorsal pancreatic agenesis and unilateral renal agenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Adriana; Carvalho, André; Portugal, Inês; Jesus, José Miguel

    2018-02-01

    Dorsal pancreatic agenesis is a very rare congenital anomaly. Unilateral renal agenesis, on the other hand, is a relatively common congenital anomaly, although its etiology is not fully understood. Renal and pancreatic embryologic development appears to be nonrelated. We report a case of a 34-year-old man who was referred to our hospital for evaluation of cholestasis and microalbuminuria. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging examinations showed empty right renal fossa and absence of the pancreatic neck, body, and tail. Our case report is the second case of a dorsal pancreatic agenesis and unilateral renal agenesis in a young male patient.

  17. Apc1 is required for maintenance of local brain organizers and dorsal midbrain survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paridaen, Judith T M L; Danesin, Catherine; Elas, Abu Tufayal; van de Water, Sandra; Houart, Corinne; Zivkovic, Danica

    2009-07-15

    The tumor suppressor Apc1 is an intracellular antagonist of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway, which is vital for induction and patterning of the early vertebrate brain. However, its role in later brain development is less clear. Here, we examined the mechanisms underlying effects of an Apc1 zygotic-effect mutation on late brain development in zebrafish. Apc1 is required for maintenance of established brain subdivisions and control of local organizers such as the isthmic organizer (IsO). Caudal expansion of Fgf8 from IsO into the cerebellum is accompanied by hyperproliferation and abnormal cerebellar morphogenesis. Loss of apc1 results in reduced proliferation and apoptosis in the dorsal midbrain. Mosaic analysis shows that Apc is required cell-autonomously for maintenance of dorsal midbrain cell fate. The tectal phenotype occurs independently of Fgf8-mediated IsO function and is predominantly caused by stabilization of beta-catenin and subsequent hyperactivation of Wnt/beta-catenin signalling, which is mainly mediated through LEF1 activity. Chemical activation of the Wnt/beta-catenin in wild-type embryos during late brain maintenance stages phenocopies the IsO and tectal phenotypes of the apc mutants. These data demonstrate that Apc1-mediated restriction of Wnt/beta-catenin signalling is required for maintenance of local organizers and tectal integrity.

  18. Morphology of the dorsal lingual papillae in the newborn panther and Asian black bear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emura, S; Hayakawa, D; Chen, H; Shoumura, S

    2001-12-01

    The dorsal lingual surfaces of a newborn panther (Panthera pardus) and two newborn asian black bears (Selenarctos thibetanus) were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The tongues of the panther and asian black bear were about 40 mm in length and about 20 mm in width. Filiform, fungiform and vallate papillae were found. The filiform papillae were distributed over the entire dorsal surface of the tongue. In the panther, the filiform papillae on margin of the lingual apex were divided into two shapes which were horny or club-shaped papillae. The filiform papillae on the midportion were larger than those on the lateral region in size. The fungiform papillae also were divided into two shapes which were hemispherical or club-shaped papillae. In the asian black bear, the filiform papillae on the margin of the lingual apex were larger than those on margin of the panther tongue. The vallate papillae in the animals of two species were located on both sides of the posterior end of the lingual body. Each papilla was surrounded by a groove and crescent pad.

  19. Neural dynamics of event segmentation in music: converging evidence for dissociable ventral and dorsal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Devarajan; Levitin, Daniel J; Chafe, Chris H; Berger, Jonathan; Menon, Vinod

    2007-08-02

    The real world presents our sensory systems with a continuous stream of undifferentiated information. Segmentation of this stream at event boundaries is necessary for object identification and feature extraction. Here, we investigate the neural dynamics of event segmentation in entire musical symphonies under natural listening conditions. We isolated time-dependent sequences of brain responses in a 10 s window surrounding transitions between movements of symphonic works. A strikingly right-lateralized network of brain regions showed peak response during the movement transitions when, paradoxically, there was no physical stimulus. Model-dependent and model-free analysis techniques provided converging evidence for activity in two distinct functional networks at the movement transition: a ventral fronto-temporal network associated with detecting salient events, followed in time by a dorsal fronto-parietal network associated with maintaining attention and updating working memory. Our study provides direct experimental evidence for dissociable and causally linked ventral and dorsal networks during event segmentation of ecologically valid auditory stimuli.

  20. Expression of calcium-binding proteins and selected neuropeptides in the human, chimpanzee, and crab-eating macaque claustrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea ePirone

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The claustrum is present in all mammalian species examined so far and its morphology, chemoarchitecture, physiology, phylogenesis and ontogenesis are still a matter of debate. Several morphologically distinct types of immunostained cells were described in different mammalian species. To date, a comparative study on the neurochemical organization of the human and non-human primates claustrum has not been fully described yet, partially due to technical reasons linked to the postmortem sampling interval. The present study analyzes the localization and morphology of neurons expressing parvalbumin (PV, calretinin (CR, NPY, and somatostatin (SOM in the claustrum of man (# 5, chimpanzee (# 1 and crab-eating monkey (#3. Immunoreactivity for the used markers was observed in neuronal cell bodies and processes distributed throughout the anterior-posterior extent of human, chimpanzee and macaque claustrum. Both CR- and PV-immunoreactive (ir neurons were mostly localized in the central and ventral region of the claustrum of the three species while SOM- and NPY-ir neurons seemed to be equally distributed throughout the ventral-dorsal extent. In the chimpanzee claustrum SOM-ir elements were not observed. No co-localization of PV with CR was found, thus suggesting the existence of two non-overlapping populations of PV and CR-ir interneurons. The expression of most proteins (CR, PV, NPY, was similar in all species. The only exception was the absence of SOM-ir elements in the claustrum of the chimpanzee, likely due to species specific variability. Our data suggest a possible common structural organization shared with the adjacent insular region, a further element that emphasizes a possible common ontogeny of the claustrum and the neocortex.

  1. Local field potential correlates of auditory working memory in primate dorsal temporal pole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, James; Ng, Chi-Wing; Poremba, Amy

    2016-06-01

    Dorsal temporal pole (dTP) is a cortical region at the rostral end of the superior temporal gyrus that forms part of the ventral auditory object processing pathway. Anatomical connections with frontal and medial temporal areas, as well as a recent single-unit recording study, suggest this area may be an important part of the network underlying auditory working memory (WM). To further elucidate the role of dTP in auditory WM, local field potentials (LFPs) were recorded from the left dTP region of two rhesus macaques during an auditory delayed matching-to-sample (DMS) task. Sample and test sounds were separated by a 5-s retention interval, and a behavioral response was required only if the sounds were identical (match trials). Sensitivity of auditory evoked responses in dTP to behavioral significance and context was further tested by passively presenting the sounds used as auditory WM memoranda both before and after the DMS task. Average evoked potentials (AEPs) for all cue types and phases of the experiment comprised two small-amplitude early onset components (N20, P40), followed by two broad, large-amplitude components occupying the remainder of the stimulus period (N120, P300), after which a final set of components were observed following stimulus offset (N80OFF, P170OFF). During the DMS task, the peak amplitude and/or latency of several of these components depended on whether the sound was presented as the sample or test, and whether the test matched the sample. Significant differences were also observed among the DMS task and passive exposure conditions. Comparing memory-related effects in the LFP signal with those obtained in the spiking data raises the possibility some memory-related activity in dTP may be locally produced and actively generated. The results highlight the involvement of dTP in auditory stimulus identification and recognition and its sensitivity to the behavioral significance of sounds in different contexts. This article is part of a Special

  2. A radiologic study on the urinary bladder following dorsal and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pneumocystography and positive contrast cystography using solutrast® were carried out immediately after surgery and on the second operative day following dorsal and ventral cystotomy in 22 adult mongrel dogs. In all the radiographs, there was no contrast observed in the abdominal cavity and the apex of the bladder had ...

  3. Attention modulates the dorsal striatum response to love stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeslag, Sandra J E; van der Veen, Frederik M; Röder, Christian H

    2014-02-01

    In previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies concerning romantic love, several brain regions including the caudate and putamen have consistently been found to be more responsive to beloved-related than control stimuli. In those studies, infatuated individuals were typically instructed to passively view the stimuli or to think of the viewed person. In the current study, we examined how the instruction to attend to, or ignore the beloved modulates the response of these brain areas. Infatuated individuals performed an oddball task in which pictures of their beloved and friend served as targets and distractors. The dorsal striatum showed greater activation for the beloved than friend, but only when they were targets. The dorsal striatum actually tended to show less activation for the beloved than the friend when they were distractors. The longer the love and relationship duration, the smaller the response of the dorsal striatum to beloved-distractor stimuli was. We interpret our findings in terms of reinforcement learning. By virtue of using a cognitive task with a full factorial design, we show that the dorsal striatum is not activated by beloved-related information per se, but only by beloved-related information that is attended. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Dorsal hand coverage with free serratus fascia flap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotopoulos, Peter; Holmer, Per; Leicht, Pernille

    2003-01-01

    in the flap, leaving the long thoracic nerve intact on the serratus muscle. Coverage of the flap with split-thickness skin graft is done immediately. The free serratus fascia flap is an ideal flap for dorsal hand coverage when the extensor tendons are exposed, especially because of low donor-site morbidity....

  5. Expression of interleukin-1 beta in rat dorsal root ganglia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Copray, JCVM; Mantingh, [No Value; Brouwer, N; Biber, K; Kust, BM; Liem, RSB; Huitinga, [No Value; Tilders, FJH; Van Dam, AM; Boddeke, HWGM

    2001-01-01

    The expression of interleukin-lp was examined in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from adult rats using non-radioactive in Situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry. At all spinal levels, approximately 70% of the DRG neurons appeared to express IL-1 beta mRNA: about 80% of these DRG neurons

  6. Slack KNa Channels Influence Dorsal Horn Synapses and Nociceptive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evely, Katherine M; Pryce, Kerri D; Bausch, Anne E; Lukowski, Robert; Ruth, Peter; Haj-Dahmane, Samir; Bhattacharjee, Arin

    2017-01-01

    The sodium-activated potassium channel Slack (Kcnt1, Slo2.2) is highly expressed in dorsal root ganglion neurons where it regulates neuronal firing. Several studies have implicated the Slack channel in pain processing, but the precise mechanism or the levels within the sensory pathway where channels are involved remain unclear. Here, we furthered the behavioral characterization of Slack channel knockout mice and for the first time examined the role of Slack channels in the superficial, pain-processing lamina of the dorsal horn. We performed whole-cell recordings from spinal cord slices to examine the intrinsic and synaptic properties of putative inhibitory and excitatory lamina II interneurons. Slack channel deletion altered intrinsic properties and synaptic drive to favor an overall enhanced excitatory tone. We measured the amplitudes and paired pulse ratio of paired excitatory post-synaptic currents at primary afferent synapses evoked by electrical stimulation of the dorsal root entry zone. We found a substantial decrease in the paired pulse ratio at synapses in Slack deleted neurons compared to wildtype, indicating increased presynaptic release from primary afferents. Corroborating these data, plantar test showed Slack knockout mice have an enhanced nociceptive responsiveness to localized thermal stimuli compared to wildtype mice. Our findings suggest that Slack channels regulate synaptic transmission within the spinal cord dorsal horn and by doing so establishes the threshold for thermal nociception.

  7. Treatment of acute and subacute dorsal perilunate fracture dislocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent Kucuk

    2014-04-01

    Outcomes: Results of the perilunate fracture dislocations treated in acute or subacute phase by open reduction and internal fixation via dorsal approach are satisfactory. There is a strong demand for prospective, randomized studies to compare the results of different treatment modalities. [Hand Microsurg 2014; 3(1.000: 1-7

  8. A study of dorsal vein pattern for biometric security

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nafiisah

    ensure more reliable security, many biometric verification techniques have been developed .... 3.0 HA D DORSAL VEI PATTER AS A BIOMETRIC ... image for the back of the hand, and converted by a computer into a digital image that can be.

  9. Diversity and molecular phylogeny of mitochondrial DNA of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, M Kamrul; Feeroz, M Mostafa; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Engel, Gregory A; Kanthaswamy, Sree; Smith, David Glenn

    2014-11-01

    While studies of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in the eastern (e.g., China) and western (e.g., India) parts of their geographic range have revealed major genetic differences that warrant the recognition of two different subspecies, little is known about genetic characteristics of rhesus macaques in the transitional zone extending from eastern India and Bangladesh through the northern part of Indo-China, the probable original homeland of the species. We analyzed genetic variation of 762 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA from 86 fecal swab samples and 19 blood samples from 25 local populations of rhesus macaque in Bangladesh collected from January 2010 to August 2012. These sequences were compared with those of rhesus macaques from India, China, and Myanmar. Forty-six haplotypes defined by 200 (26%) polymorphic nucleotide sites were detected. Estimates of gene diversity, expected heterozygosity, and nucleotide diversity for the total population were 0.9599 ± 0.0097, 0.0193 ± 0.0582, and 0.0196 ± 0.0098, respectively. A mismatch distribution of paired nucleotide differences yielded a statistically significantly negative value of Tajima's D, reflecting a population that rapidly expanded after the terminal Pleistocene. Most haplotypes throughout regions of Bangladesh, including an isolated region in the southwestern area (Sundarbans), clustered with haplotypes assigned to the minor haplogroup Ind-2 from India reflecting an east to west dispersal of rhesus macaques to India. Haplotypes from the southeast region of Bangladesh formed a cluster with those from Myanmar, and represent the oldest rhesus macaque haplotypes of Bangladesh. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that rhesus macaques first entered Bangladesh from the southeast, probably from Indo-China, then dispersed westward throughout eastern and central India. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Ex-vivo α-galactosylceramide activation of NKT cells in humans and macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Caroline S; Cameron, Garth; Godfrey, Dale I; Kent, Stephen J

    2012-08-31

    NKT cells are key mediators of antiviral and anticancer immunity. Experiments in mice have demonstrated that activation of NKT cells in vivo induces the expression of multiple effector molecules critical to successful immunity. Human clinical trials have shown similar responses, although in vivo activation of NKT cells in humans or primate models are far more limited in number and scope. Measuring ex vivo activation of NKT cells by the CD1d-restricted glycolipid ligand α-Galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) through cytokine expression profiles is a useful marker of NKT cell function, but for reasons that are unclear, this approach does not appear to work as well in humans and non-human primate macaque models in comparison to mice. We performed a series of experiments on human and macaque (Macaca nemestrina) fresh whole blood samples to define optimal conditions to detect NKT cell cytokine (TNF, IFNγ, IL-2) and degranulation marker (CD107a) expression by flow cytometry. We found that conditions previously described for mouse splenocyte NKT cell activation were suboptimal on human or macaque blood NKT cells. In contrast, a 6h incubation with brefeldin A added for the last 4h, in a 96-well plate based assay, and using an α-GalCer concentration of 1 μg/ml were optimal methods to stimulate NKT cells in fresh blood from both humans and macaques. Unexpectedly, we noted that blood NKT cells from macaques infected with SIV were more readily activated by α-GalCer than NKT cells from uninfected macaques, suggesting that SIV infection may have primed the NKT cells. In conclusion, we describe optimized methods for the ex vivo antigen-specific activation of human and macaque blood NKT cells. These assays should be useful in monitoring NKT cells in disease and in immunotherapy studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of mouse dorsal root ganglia: an autoradiographic and quantitative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, S.N.; Biscoe, T.J.

    1979-01-01

    Pulse labelling with tritiated thymidine was used to determine the cell birthdays of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in foetal mice. The peak number of cell birthdays occurred at 11.5 days foetal age in cervical DRGs, and at 12.5 days in lumbar DRGs. The satellite cells were becoming heavily labelled by day 13.5 in lumbar and some hours earlier in cervical regions. A very sharp peak of satellite cell labelling was seen at 13 days in the lumbar region. Evidence for the existence of more than one neuronal cell type is presented. The earliest cells to stop dividing were part of a widely spread distribution which included all the large neurons. The birthdays of the population of small neurons began later and continued for at least 48 h after division of the large cells had ceased. (author)

  12. Dorsal Phalloplasty to Preserve Penis Length after Penile Prosthesis Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Shaeer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Following penile prosthesis implantation (PPI, patients may complain of a decrease in visible penis length. A dorsal phalloplasty defines the penopubic junction by tacking pubic skin to the pubis, revealing the base of the penis. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a dorsal phalloplasty in increasing the visible penis length following PPI. Methods: An inflatable penile prosthesis was implanted in 13 patients with severe erectile dysfunction (ED at the Kamal Shaeer Hospital, Cairo, Egypt, from January 2013 to May 2014. During the surgery, nonabsorbable tacking sutures were used to pin the pubic skin to the pubis through the same penoscrotal incision. Intraoperative penis length was measured before and after the dorsal phalloplasty. Overall patient satisfaction was measured on a 5-point rating scale and patients were requested to subjectively compare their postoperative penis length with memories of their penis length before the onset of ED. Results: Intraoperatively, the dorsal phalloplasty increased the visible length of the erect penis by an average of 25.6%. The average length before and after tacking was 10.2 ± 2.9 cm and 13.7 ± 2.8 cm, respectively (P <0.002. Postoperatively, seven patients (53.8% reported a longer penis, five patients (38.5% reported no change in length and one patient (7.7% reported a slightly shorter penis. The mean overall patient satisfaction score was 4.9 ± 0.3. None of the patients developed postoperative complications. Conclusion: A dorsal phalloplasty during PPI is an effective method of increasing visible penis length, therefore minimising the impression of a shorter penis after implantation.

  13. In vivo bone strain and finite element modeling of a rhesus macaque mandible during mastication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotopoulou, Olga; Iriarte-Diaz, José; Wilshin, Simon; Dechow, Paul C; Taylor, Andrea B; Mehari Abraha, Hyab; Aljunid, Sharifah F; Ross, Callum F

    2017-10-01

    Finite element analysis (FEA) is a commonly used tool in musculoskeletal biomechanics and vertebrate paleontology. The accuracy and precision of finite element models (FEMs) are reliant on accurate data on bone geometry, muscle forces, boundary conditions and tissue material properties. Simplified modeling assumptions, due to lack of in vivo experimental data on material properties and muscle activation patterns, may introduce analytical errors in analyses where quantitative accuracy is critical for obtaining rigorous results. A subject-specific FEM of a rhesus macaque mandible was constructed, loaded and validated using in vivo data from the same animal. In developing the model, we assessed the impact on model behavior of variation in (i) material properties of the mandibular trabecular bone tissue and teeth; (ii) constraints at the temporomandibular joint and bite point; and (iii) the timing of the muscle activity used to estimate the external forces acting on the model. The best match between the FEA simulation and the in vivo experimental data resulted from modeling the trabecular tissue with an isotropic and homogeneous Young's modulus and Poisson's value of 10GPa and 0.3, respectively; constraining translations along X,Y, Z axes in the chewing (left) side temporomandibular joint, the premolars and the m 1 ; constraining the balancing (right) side temporomandibular joint in the anterior-posterior and superior-inferior axes, and using the muscle force estimated at time of maximum strain magnitude in the lower lateral gauge. The relative strain magnitudes in this model were similar to those recorded in vivo for all strain locations. More detailed analyses of mandibular strain patterns during the power stroke at different times in the chewing cycle are needed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  14. Hair cortisol predicts object permanence performance in infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmer, Amanda M; Novak, Matthew F S X; Novak, Melinda A; Meyer, Jerrold S; Suomi, Stephen J

    2009-12-01

    Although high circulating levels of glucocorticoids are associated with impaired cognitive performance in adults, less is known about this relationship in infancy. Furthermore, because studies have relied on acute cortisol measures in blood plasma or saliva, interpretation of the results may be difficult as acute measures may in part reflect emotional responses to testing procedures. In this study we examined whether hair cortisol, an integrated measure of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning, predicted performance of nursery-reared (NR) infant rhesus monkeys (n = 32) on Piagetian object permanence tasks. Testing of NR infants began at 19.8 +/- 2.2 (mean +/- SE) days of age and continued for the next several months. Hair cortisol concentrations from the 32 NR monkeys were compared to those of 20 mother-peer-reared (MPR) infants. Hair was shaved at Day 14, allowed to regrow, and obtained again at month 6, thus representing integrated cortisol over a 5.5-month period of time. NR and MPR infants did not differ in month 6 hair cortisol values (t((50)) = 0.02, p = 0.98). Linear regression revealed that hair cortisol predicted object permanence performance in the NR infants. Infants with higher hair cortisol reached criterion at later ages on the well (p < 0.01), screen (p < 0.05), and A-not-B (p < 0.05) tasks and required more test sessions to complete the well (p < 0.01) and screen tasks (p < 0.05). These data are the first to implicate hair cortisol as a reliable predictor of early cognitive performance in infant macaque monkeys.

  15. Dynamics of viral replication in blood and lymphoid tissues during SIVmac251 infection of macaques

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    Mannioui Abdelkrim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive studies of primary infection are crucial to our understanding of the course of HIV disease. In SIV-infected macaques, a model closely mimicking HIV pathogenesis, we used a combination of three markers -- viral RNA, 2LTR circles and viral DNA -- to evaluate viral replication and dissemination simultaneously in blood, secondary lymphoid tissues, and the gut during primary and chronic infections. Subsequent viral compartmentalization in the main target cells of the virus in peripheral blood during the chronic phase of infection was evaluated by cell sorting and viral quantification with the three markers studied. Results The evolutions of viral RNA, 2LTR circles and DNA levels were correlated in a given tissue during primary and early chronic infection. The decrease in plasma viral load principally reflects a large decrease in viral replication in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT, with viral RNA and DNA levels remaining stable in the spleen and peripheral lymph nodes. Later, during chronic infection, a progressive depletion of central memory CD4+ T cells from the peripheral blood was observed, accompanied by high levels of viral replication in the cells of this subtype. The virus was also found to replicate at this point in the infection in naive CD4+ T cells. Viral RNA was frequently detected in monocytes, but no SIV replication appeared to occur in these cells, as no viral DNA or 2LTR circles were detected. Conclusion We demonstrated the persistence of viral replication and dissemination, mostly in secondary lymphoid tissues, during primary and early chronic infection. During chronic infection, the central memory CD4+ T cells were the major site of viral replication in peripheral blood, but viral replication also occurred in naive CD4+ T cells. The role of monocytes seemed to be limited to carrying the virus as a cargo because there was an observed lack of replication in these cells. These data may have important

  16. Comparative study of 2 commissural dorsal flap techniques for the treatment of congenital syndactyly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallet, Cindy; Ilharreborde, Brice; Jehanno, Pascal; Litzelmann, Estelle; Valenti, Philippe; Mazda, Keyvan; Penneçot, Georges-François; Fitoussi, Franck

    2013-03-01

    Many commissural reconstruction techniques have been described for the treatment of syndactyly. This study is the first to compare long-term results of 2 commissural dorsal flap procedures (T-flap and omega-flap). Fifty-nine web-spaces in 39 patients, operated on between 1991 and 2008, were retrospectively analyzed. Thirty-six T-flap and 23 omega-flap procedures were performed using full-thickness skin graft in every case for digital resurfacing. Factors that could affect the long-term outcome were collected, including development of web-creep, clinodactyly, and flexion contracture. Patients were reviewed with a mean follow-up of 5 years and 8 months. Preoperative complexity of syndactyly influenced the development of clinodactyly and flexion contracture. Among the patients who developed clinodactyly, 96% had surgery for complex syndactyly. No difference was found between the 2 flap methods concerning digital deformation and mobility. However, web-creep occurred more frequently after T-flap than after omega-flap procedures (17% vs. 5%). The combination of either dorsal commissural T-flaps or omega-flaps with full-thickness graft to resurface digits is a reliable technique for the treatment of syndactyly with satisfactory functional and cosmetic results. Long-term results are not influenced by the type of flap. Nevertheless, the omega-flap technique, using 2 triangular lateral-palmar flaps, avoids use of skin graft to cover lateral-palmar aspects of the new commissure, consequently reducing the incidence of web-creep. In cases of syndactyly, the primary prognostic factor is whether the patient has simple or complex syndactyly. In complex syndactyly, the risk of long-term unfavorable results is higher. When complex complicated syndactyly is involved, postoperative complication rates increase. Level III.

  17. The effect of short moderate stress on the midbrain corticotropin-releasing factor system in a macaque model of functional hypothalamic amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethea, Cynthia L; Phu, Kenny; Reddy, Arubala P; Cameron, Judy L

    2013-10-01

    To study the effect of moderate stress on corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) components in the serotonergic midbrain region in a monkey model of functional hypothalamic amenorrhea. After characterization of stress sensitivity, monkeys were moved to a novel room and given 20% less chow for 5 days before euthanasia. Primate research center. Female cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) characterized as highly stress resilient (HSR, n = 5), medium stress resilient (n = 4), or stress sensitive (SS, n = 4). Five days of diet in a novel room with unfamiliar conspecifics. Density of CRF axons in the serotonergic dorsal raphe nucleus; the number of urocortin 1 (UCN1) cells; the density of UCN1 axons; the expression of CRF receptor 1 (CRF-R1) and CRF-R2 in the dorsal raphe nucleus. The CRF innervation was higher in HSR than in SS animals; UCN1 cell number was higher in HSR than in SS animals and UCN1 axon bouton density was not different; all opposite of nonstressed animals. The CRF-R1 was not different between the sensitivity groups, but CRF-R2 was higher in HSR than in SS animals. The relative expression of CRF-R1 and CRF-R2 was similar to nonstressed animals. The HSR animals respond to stress with an increase in CRF delivery to serotonin neurons. With stress, UCN1 transport decreases in HSR animals. The CRF receptor expression was similar with or without stress. These changes may contribute to resilience in HSR animals. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sensory innervation of the dorsal longitudinal ligament and the meninges in the lumbar spine of the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waber-Wenger, Barbara; Forterre, Franck; Kuehni-Boghenbor, Kathrin; Danuser, Renzo; Stein, Jens Volker; Stoffel, Michael Hubert

    2014-10-01

    Although intervertebral disc herniation is a well-known disease in dogs, pain management for this condition has remained a challenge. The goal of the present study is to address the lack of information regarding the innervation of anatomical structures within the canine vertebral canal. Immunolabeling was performed with antibodies against protein gene product 9.5, Tuj-1 (neuron-specific class III β-tubulin), calcitonin gene-related peptide, and neuropeptide Y in combination with the lectin from Lycopersicon esculentum as a marker for blood vessels. Staining was indicative of both sensory and sympathetic fibers. Innervation density was the highest in lateral areas, intermediate in dorsal areas, and the lowest in ventral areas. In the dorsal longitudinal ligament (DLL), the highest innervation density was observed in the lateral regions. Innervation was lower at mid-vertebral levels than at intervertebral levels. The presence of sensory and sympathetic fibers in the canine dura and DLL suggests that pain may originate from both these structures. Due to these regional differences in sensory innervation patterns, trauma to intervertebral DLL and lateral dura is expected to be particularly painful. The results ought to provide a better basis for the assessment of medicinal and surgical procedures.

  19. Prevention of rectal SHIV transmission in macaques by daily or intermittent prophylaxis with emtricitabine and tenofovir.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gerardo García-Lerma

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In the absence of an effective vaccine, HIV continues to spread globally, emphasizing the need for novel strategies to limit its transmission. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP with antiretroviral drugs could prove to be an effective intervention strategy if highly efficacious and cost-effective PrEP modalities are identified. We evaluated daily and intermittent PrEP regimens of increasing antiviral activity in a macaque model that closely resembles human transmission.We used a repeat-exposure macaque model with 14 weekly rectal virus challenges. Three drug treatments were given once daily, each to a different group of six rhesus macaques. Group 1 was treated subcutaneously with a human-equivalent dose of emtricitabine (FTC, group 2 received orally the human-equivalent dosing of both FTC and tenofovir-disoproxil fumarate (TDF, and group 3 received subcutaneously a similar dosing of FTC and a higher dose of tenofovir. A fourth group of six rhesus macaques (group 4 received intermittently a PrEP regimen similar to group 3 only 2 h before and 24 h after each weekly virus challenge. Results were compared to 18 control macaques that did not receive any drug treatment. The risk of infection in macaques treated in groups 1 and 2 was 3.8- and 7.8-fold lower than in untreated macaques (p = 0.02 and p = 0.008, respectively. All six macaques in group 3 were protected. Breakthrough infections had blunted acute viremias; drug resistance was seen in two of six animals. All six animals in group 4 that received intermittent PrEP were protected.This model suggests that single drugs for daily PrEP can be protective but a combination of antiretroviral drugs may be required to increase the level of protection. Short but potent intermittent PrEP can provide protection comparable to that of daily PrEP in this SHIV/macaque model. These findings support PrEP trials for HIV prevention in humans and identify promising PrEP modalities.

  20. Lateral collateral ligament (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The lateral collateral ligament connects the end of the femur (thigh) to the top of the fibula (the thin bone that runs next to the shin bone). The lateral collateral ligament provides stability against varus stress. Varus stress ...

  1. Expression of Kv3.1b potassium channel is widespread in macaque motor cortex pyramidal cells: A histological comparison between rat and macaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, David; Goldrick, Isabelle; Lemon, Roger N; Kraskov, Alexander; Greensmith, Linda; Kalmar, Bernadett

    2017-06-15

    There are substantial differences across species in the organization and function of the motor pathways. These differences extend to basic electrophysiological properties. Thus, in rat motor cortex, pyramidal cells have long duration action potentials, while in the macaque, some pyramidal neurons exhibit short duration "thin" spikes. These differences may be related to the expression of the fast potassium channel Kv3.1b, which in rat interneurons is associated with generation of thin spikes. Rat pyramidal cells typically lack these channels, while there are reports that they are present in macaque pyramids. Here we made a systematic, quantitative comparison of the Kv3.1b expression in sections from macaque and rat motor cortex, using two different antibodies (NeuroMab, Millipore). As our standard reference, we examined, in the same sections, Kv3.1b staining in parvalbumin-positive interneurons, which show strong Kv3.1b immunoreactivity. In macaque motor cortex, a large sample of pyramidal neurons were nearly all found to express Kv3.1b in their soma membranes. These labeled neurons were identified as pyramidal based either by expression of SMI32 (a pyramidal marker), or by their shape and size, and lack of expression of parvalbumin (a marker for some classes of interneuron). Large (Betz cells), medium, and small pyramidal neurons all expressed Kv3.1b. In rat motor cortex, SMI32-postive pyramidal neurons expressing Kv3.1b were very rare and weakly stained. Thus, there is a marked species difference in the immunoreactivity of Kv3.1b in pyramidal neurons, and this may be one of the factors explaining the pronounced electrophysiological differences between rat and macaque pyramidal neurons. © 2017 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Bipedal locomotion of bonnet macaques after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Rangasamy Suresh; Anand, P; Jeraud, Mathew; Periasamy, P; Namasivayam, A

    2007-10-01

    Experimental studies concerning the analysis of locomotor behavior in spinal cord injury research are widely performed in rodent models. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the degree of functional recovery in reflex components and bipedal locomotor behavior of bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata) after spinal contusive injury. Six monkeys were tested for various reflex components (grasping, righting, hopping, extension withdrawal) and were trained preoperatively to walk in bipedal fashion on the simple and complex locomotor runways (narrow beam, grid, inclined plane, treadmill) of this investigation. The overall performance of the animals'motor behavior and the functional status of limb movements during bipedal locomotion were graded by the Combined Behavioral Score (CBS) system. Using the simple Allen weight-drop technique, a contusive injury was produced by dropping a 13-g weight from a height of 30 cm to the exposed spinal cord at the T12-L1 vertebral level of the trained monkeys. All the monkeys showed significant impairments in every reflex activity and in walking behavior during the early part of the postoperative period. In subsequent periods, the animals displayed mild alterations in certain reflex responses, such as grasping, extension withdrawal, and placing reflexes, which persisted through a 1-year follow-up. The contused animals traversed locomotor runways--narrow beam, incline plane, and grid runways--with more steps and few errors, as evaluated with the CBS system. Eventually, the behavioral performance of all spinal-contused monkeys recovered to near-preoperative level by the fifth postoperative month. The findings of this study reveal the recovery time course of various reflex components and bipedal locomotor behavior of spinal-contused macaques on runways for a postoperative period of up to 1 year. Our spinal cord research in primates is advantageous in understanding the characteristics of hind limb functions only, which possibly

  3. Turnover rates of B cells, T cells, and NK cells in simian immunodeficiency virus-infected and uninfected rhesus macaques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, R.J. de; Mohri, H.; Ho, D.D.; Perelson, A.S.

    2003-01-01

    We determined average cellular turnover rates by fitting mathematical models to 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine measurements in SIV-infected and uninfected rhesus macaques. The daily turnover rates of CD4(+) T cells, CD4(-) T cells, CD20(+) B cells, and CD16(+) NK cells in normal uninfected rhesus macaques

  4. Ultrasonographic evidence of colonic mesenteric vessels as an indicator of right dorsal displacement of the large colon in 13 horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenager, N S; Durham, M G

    2011-08-01

    This report describes the use of ultrasound to diagnose right dorsal displacement of the large colon (RDDLC) in 13 horses prior to surgery. Horses had ultrasonographic examinations performed of the right lateroventral aspect of the abdomen upon admission to the hospital with a 2-5 MHz broadband curvilinear sector scanning transducer after alcohol was used to wet the hair. First, the caecal vessels were identified in the right flank and followed medially and cranially. Next, each intercostal space, from caudal to cranial, was scanned from dorsal to ventral evaluating for abnormally-located mesenteric vessels associated with the large colon. Abnormally-located mesenteric vessels associated with the large colon, distinct from the caecal vessels, were identified in 13 of 23 horses with a diagnosis of RDDLC obtained at exploratory laparotomy. In horses, ultrasonographic visualisation of mesenteric vessels along the right lateral abdomen, dorsal to the costochondral junction in at least 2 intercostal spaces, distinct from the caecal vessels, is consistent with a surgical diagnosis of RDDLC. © 2011 EVJ Ltd.

  5. The dorsal striatum and ventral striatum play different roles in the programming of social behaviour: a tribute to Lex Cools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bos, Ruud

    2015-02-01

    Early work by Lex Cools suggested that the caudate nucleus (dorsal striatum) plays a role in programming social behaviour: enhanced activity in the caudate nucleus increased the extent to which ongoing behaviour is controlled by the individual's own behaviour (internal control) rather than by that of its partners (external control). Interestingly, later studies by others have indicated that the ventral striatum plays a role in external rather than internal control. Here, I discuss the role of these different striatal areas - and the emotional (ventral striatum) and cognitive control (dorsal striatum) system in which they are embedded - in the organization of social behaviour in the context of locus of control. Following on from this discussion, I will pay particular attention to individual differences in social behaviour (individuals with more internal or external control), focusing on the role of dopamine, serotonin and the effects of stress-related challenges in relation to their different position in a dominance hierarchy. I will subsequently allude to potential psychological and behavioural problems in the social domain following on from these differences in locus of control ['social obliviousness' (dorsal stratum) and 'social impulsivity' (ventral striatum)]. In doing so, I provide as a tribute a historical account of the early research by Lex Cools.

  6. Serotonin transporter genotype modulates social reward and punishment in rhesus macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karli K Watson

    Full Text Available Serotonin signaling influences social behavior in both human and nonhuman primates. In humans, variation upstream of the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR has recently been shown to influence both behavioral measures of social anxiety and amygdala response to social threats. Here we show that length polymorphisms in 5-HTTLPR predict social reward and punishment in rhesus macaques, a species in which 5-HTTLPR variation is analogous to that of humans.In contrast to monkeys with two copies of the long allele (L/L, monkeys with one copy of the short allele of this gene (S/L spent less time gazing at face than non-face images, less time looking in the eye region of faces, and had larger pupil diameters when gazing at photos of a high versus low status male macaques. Moreover, in a novel primed gambling task, presentation of photos of high status male macaques promoted risk-aversion in S/L monkeys but promoted risk-seeking in L/L monkeys. Finally, as measured by a "pay-per-view" task, S/L monkeys required juice payment to view photos of high status males, whereas L/L monkeys sacrificed fluid to see the same photos.These data indicate that genetic variation in serotonin function contributes to social reward and punishment in rhesus macaques, and thus shapes social behavior in humans and rhesus macaques alike.

  7. Survey of prevalence of overweight body condition in laboratory-housed cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Sharon A; Leslie, Ken E; Pearl, David L; Fournier, Jocelyn; Turner, Patricia V

    2010-07-01

    Excessive weight gain has been reported to occur in captive cynomolgus macaques with little to no change in diet. Overweight body condition can result in development of hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes and should be avoided. The purpose of this survey was to assess the prevalence of overweight cynomolgus macaques in North American research facilities, including breeding colonies and short-term and long-term facilities, and to describe current methods used to assess body condition. The survey consisted of 51 questions covering animal population demographics, body weight and body condition scoring, feeding, and behavior. Voluntary participants included veterinarians and animal care managers. Respondents from 13 facilities completed the survey, and information was collected on 17,500 cynomolgus macaques. The majority of surveyed facilities housed juvenile and young adult macaques. The reported prevalence of overweight (greater than 10% of ideal body weight) animals ranged between 0% and 20% and reportedly was more frequent in animals younger than 10 y. Most facilities had weight reduction strategies in place. Despite these programs, a significant proportion of animals were reported as being overweight. The results of this survey demonstrate that most North American facilities housing cynomolgus macaques recognize the importance of tracking body condition regularly. However, implementing effective weight reduction programs may be difficult in captive housing environments. Because of the potential for adverse health effects, facilities should have a means of regularly tracking body weight as well as an action plan for managing overweight animals.

  8. The genetic composition of populations of cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) used in biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanthaswamy, S; Ng, J; Satkoski Trask, J; George, D A; Kou, A J; Hoffman, L N; Doherty, T B; Houghton, P; Smith, D G

    2013-06-01

    The genetic composition of cynomolgus macaques used in biomedical research is not as well-characterized as that of rhesus macaques. Populations of cynomolgus macaques from Sumatra, Corregidor, Mauritius, Singapore, Cambodia, and Zamboanga were analyzed using 24 STRs. The Sumatran and Cambodian populations exhibited the highest allelic diversity, while the Mauritian population exhibited the lowest. Sumatran cynomolgus macaques were the most genetically similar to all others, consistent with an Indonesian origin of the species. The high diversity among Cambodian animals may result from interbreeding with rhesus macaques. The Philippine and Mauritian samples were the most divergent from other populations, the former due to separation from the Sunda Shelf by deepwater and the latter due to anthropogenic translocation and extreme founder effects. Investigators should verify their research subjects' origin, ancestry, and pedigree to minimize risks to biomedical experimentation from genetic variance stemming from close kinship and mixed ancestry as these can obscure treatment effects. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Conformational adaptation of Asian macaque TRIMCyp directs lineage specific antiviral activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M J Ylinen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available TRIMCyps are anti-retroviral proteins that have arisen independently in New World and Old World primates. All TRIMCyps comprise a CypA domain fused to the tripartite domains of TRIM5alpha but they have distinct lentiviral specificities, conferring HIV-1 restriction in New World owl monkeys and HIV-2 restriction in Old World rhesus macaques. Here we provide evidence that Asian macaque TRIMCyps have acquired changes that switch restriction specificity between different lentiviral lineages, resulting in species-specific alleles that target different viruses. Structural, thermodynamic and viral restriction analysis suggests that a single mutation in the Cyp domain, R69H, occurred early in macaque TRIMCyp evolution, expanding restriction specificity to the lentiviral lineages found in African green monkeys, sooty mangabeys and chimpanzees. Subsequent mutations have enhanced restriction to particular viruses but at the cost of broad specificity. We reveal how specificity is altered by a scaffold mutation, E143K, that modifies surface electrostatics and propagates conformational changes into the active site. Our results suggest that lentiviruses may have been important pathogens in Asian macaques despite the fact that there are no reported lentiviral infections in current macaque populations.

  10. Development and degeneration of dorsal root ganglia in the absence of the HMG-domain transcription factor Sox10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenberg-Riethmacher, Eva; Miehe, Michaela; Stolt, Claus C.

    2001-01-01

    neurogenesis seemed initially normal. A degeneration of motoneurons and sensory neurons occurred later in development. The mechanism that leads to the dramatic effects on the neural crest derived cell lineages in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG), however, has not been examined up to now. Here, we provide...... a detailed analysis of proliferation and apoptosis in the DRG during the time of their generation and lineage segregation (between E 9.5 and E 11.5). We show that both increased apoptosis as well as decreased proliferation of neural crest cells contribute to the observed hypomorphism....

  11. Evaluation of postoperative patient satisfaction after covering the nasal dorsum with upper lateral cartilage: "upper lateral closing".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çağıcı, Can Alper

    2017-11-16

    Following nasal hump removal during septorhinoplasty, the middle vault should be reconstructed to avoid functional and esthetic problems. Middle vault reconstruction, however, may result in widening of the middle vault and may need a camouflage graft to cover dorsal irregularities. To present the results of reconstructing the middle vault with a technique that covers the nasal dorsum with upper lateral cartilage, from the viewpoint of patient satisfaction. Retrospective study of patients who underwent septorhinoplasty that included nasal dorsum closure with upper lateral cartilage from December 1, 2014 to January 31, 2016. Those with postoperative follow-up of less than 3 months were excluded. The final study group included 39 patients. The same surgeon performed all septorhinoplasties. The dorsum was closed using an "upper lateral closing" technique that approximated upper lateral cartilages to each other over the septum. Postoperative patient satisfaction was determined using a visual analog scale and the rhinoplasty outcomes evaluation questionnaire. The questionnaire evaluates patient esthetic and functional satisfaction with the operated nose. High scores indicate improved esthetic results. No dorsal irregularities were seen at postoperative follow-up evaluation of the patients. For esthetic nasal appearance, the median visual analogue scale scores was 86%, and the mean for the questionnaire was 77.03%. The natural dome-shaped anatomy of the nasal dorsum was achieved by approximating the upper lateral cartilages to each other. Closing the dorsum with this technique also covers any dorsal irregularities and results in a smooth dorsum. Patients expressed satisfaction with the esthetic and functional aspects of the smooth, attractive nasal dorsum. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Predicting Early Reading Skills from Pre-Reading Measures of Dorsal Stream Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevan, Alison; Pammer, Kristen

    2009-01-01

    It is well documented that good reading skills may be dependent upon adequate dorsal stream processing. However, the degree to which dorsal stream deficits play a causal role in reading failure has not been established. This study used coherent motion and visual frequency doubling to examine whether dorsal stream sensitivity measured before the…

  13. Anisomycin administered in the olfactory bulb and dorsal hippocampus impaired social recognition memory consolidation in different time-points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, R R; Pereira-Caixeta, A R; Moraes, M F D; Pereira, G S

    2014-10-01

    To identify an individual as familiar, rodents form a specific type of memory named social recognition memory. The olfactory bulb (OB) is an important structure for social recognition memory, while the hippocampus recruitment is still controversial. The present study was designed to elucidate the OB and the dorsal hippocampus contribution to the consolidation of social memory. For that purpose, we tested the effect of anisomycin (ANI), which one of the effects is the inhibition of protein synthesis, on the consolidation of social recognition memory. Swiss adult mice with cannulae implanted into the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus or into the OB were exposed to a juvenile during 5 min (training session; TR), and once again 1.5 h or 24 h later to test social short-term memory (S-STM) or social long-term memory (S-LTM), respectively. To study S-LTM consolidation, mice received intra-OB or intra-CA1 infusion of saline or ANI immediately, 3, 6 or 18 h after TR. ANI impaired S-LTM consolidation in the OB, when administered immediately or 6h after TR. In the dorsal hippocampus, ANI was amnesic only if administered 3 h after TR. Furthermore, the infusion of ANI in either OB or CA1, immediately after training, did not affect S-STM. Moreover, ANI administered into the OB did not alter the animal's performance in the buried food-finding task. Altogether, our results suggest the consolidation of S-LTM requires both OB and hippocampus participation, although in different time points. This study may help shedding light on the specific roles of the OB and dorsal hippocampus in social recognition memory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Selective functional dysconnectivity of the dorsal-anterior subregion of the precuneus in drug-naive major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiajia; Lin, Xiaodong; Lin, Chongguang; Zhuo, Chuanjun; Yu, Yongqiang

    2018-01-01

    Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) have shown altered resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the precuneus; however, it is unknown whether rsFC of the precuneus subregions is differentially affected in this disorder. In this study, we aimed to clarify this issue by comparing rsFC of each precuneus subregion between patients with MDD and healthy controls. Forty-seven drug-naive patients with MDD and 47 sex-, age- and education-matched healthy controls underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The precuneus was divided into PCun-1 (dorsal-central portion; medial area 7), PCun-2 (dorsal-anterior portion; medial area 5), PCun-3 (dorsal-posterior portion; dorsomedial parietooccipital sulcus) and PCun-4 (ventral portion; area 31). The rsFC of each precuneus subregion was compared between the two groups. Compared with healthy controls, patients with MDD exhibited increased rsFC between the left PCun-2 and the right fusiform gyrus, lateral prefrontal cortex, sensorimotor cortex and supramarginal gyrus. No significant inter-group difference was observed in the rsFC of other precuneus subregions. In addition, there was no difference in gray matter volume of all the precuneus subregions between patients with MDD and healthy controls. Some of the patients had chronic MDD and relevant neuropsychological data were not collected. These findings suggest a selective functional dysconnectivity of the precuneus subregions in drug-naive MDD, characterized by the hyperconnnectivity between the dorsal-anterior subregion and regions involved in visual, executive control, sensorimotor and bottom-up attention functions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Attention and normalization circuits in macaque V1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanayei, M; Herrero, J L; Distler, C; Thiele, A

    2015-01-01

    Attention affects neuronal processing and improves behavioural performance. In extrastriate visual cortex these effects have been explained by normalization models, which assume that attention influences the circuit that mediates surround suppression. While normalization models have been able to explain attentional effects, their validity has rarely been tested against alternative models. Here we investigate how attention and surround/mask stimuli affect neuronal firing rates and orientation tuning in macaque V1. Surround/mask stimuli provide an estimate to what extent V1 neurons are affected by normalization, which was compared against effects of spatial top down attention. For some attention/surround effect comparisons, the strength of attentional modulation was correlated with the strength of surround modulation, suggesting that attention and surround/mask stimulation (i.e. normalization) might use a common mechanism. To explore this in detail, we fitted multiplicative and additive models of attention to our data. In one class of models, attention contributed to normalization mechanisms, whereas in a different class of models it did not. Model selection based on Akaike's and on Bayesian information criteria demonstrated that in most cells the effects of attention were best described by models where attention did not contribute to normalization mechanisms. This demonstrates that attentional influences on neuronal responses in primary visual cortex often bypass normalization mechanisms. PMID:25757941

  16. Economic choices reveal probability distortion in macaque monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, William R; Lak, Armin; Bossaerts, Peter; Schultz, Wolfram

    2015-02-18

    Economic choices are largely determined by two principal elements, reward value (utility) and probability. Although nonlinear utility functions have been acknowledged for centuries, nonlinear probability weighting (probability distortion) was only recently recognized as a ubiquitous aspect of real-world choice behavior. Even when outcome probabilities are known and acknowledged, human decision makers often overweight low probability outcomes and underweight high probability outcomes. Whereas recent studies measured utility functions and their corresponding neural correlates in monkeys, it is not known whether monkeys distort probability in a manner similar to humans. Therefore, we investigated economic choices in macaque monkeys for evidence of probability distortion. We trained two monkeys to predict reward from probabilistic gambles with constant outcome values (0.5 ml or nothing). The probability of winning was conveyed using explicit visual cues (sector stimuli). Choices between the gambles revealed that the monkeys used the explicit probability information to make meaningful decisions. Using these cues, we measured probability distortion from choices between the gambles and safe rewards. Parametric modeling of the choices revealed classic probability weighting functions with inverted-S shape. Therefore, the animals overweighted low probability rewards and underweighted high probability rewards. Empirical investigation of the behavior verified that the choices were best explained by a combination of nonlinear value and nonlinear probability distortion. Together, these results suggest that probability distortion may reflect evolutionarily preserved neuronal processing. Copyright © 2015 Stauffer et al.

  17. Attention and normalization circuits in macaque V1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanayei, M; Herrero, J L; Distler, C; Thiele, A

    2015-04-01

    Attention affects neuronal processing and improves behavioural performance. In extrastriate visual cortex these effects have been explained by normalization models, which assume that attention influences the circuit that mediates surround suppression. While normalization models have been able to explain attentional effects, their validity has rarely been tested against alternative models. Here we investigate how attention and surround/mask stimuli affect neuronal firing rates and orientation tuning in macaque V1. Surround/mask stimuli provide an estimate to what extent V1 neurons are affected by normalization, which was compared against effects of spatial top down attention. For some attention/surround effect comparisons, the strength of attentional modulation was correlated with the strength of surround modulation, suggesting that attention and surround/mask stimulation (i.e. normalization) might use a common mechanism. To explore this in detail, we fitted multiplicative and additive models of attention to our data. In one class of models, attention contributed to normalization mechanisms, whereas in a different class of models it did not. Model selection based on Akaike's and on Bayesian information criteria demonstrated that in most cells the effects of attention were best described by models where attention did not contribute to normalization mechanisms. This demonstrates that attentional influences on neuronal responses in primary visual cortex often bypass normalization mechanisms. © 2015 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience published by Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Distress prevention by grooming others in crested black macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aureli, Filippo; Yates, Kerrie

    2010-02-23

    Allogrooming is probably one of the most common and most studied social behaviours in a variety of animals. Whereas the short-term benefits for the groomee have often been investigated, little is known about the effects for the groomer. Our study focused on the short-term effects of grooming another group member in seven adult female crested black macaques (Macaca nigra). We found reductions in self-directed behaviour, an indicator of anxiety, and aggressive tendencies soon after grooming, when compared to matched-control periods. These findings can be interpreted as evidence of distress prevention, possibly mediated by an increase in tolerance. Indeed, a former groomee was more likely to be the nearest neighbour of the former groomer in the 10 min after grooming ended. Thus, the role of grooming in short-term distress alleviation can be applicable to the groomer as well as the groomee. These short-term effects, together with the longer-term effects of large and/or strong grooming networks confirm that grooming, as well as receiving grooming, has great importance for social dynamics.

  19. The late blink reflex response abnormality due to lesion of the lateral tegmental field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aramideh, M.; Ongerboer de Visser, B.W.; Koelman, J.H.T.M.; Majoie, C.B.L.; Holstege, G.

    We report on a blink reflex abnormality observed in two patients, which provides additional information on the central pathways mediating this reflex. Autopsy was performed in one patient and MRI in the other: In the first patient there was a small lesion at the dorsal middle third of the lateral

  20. The late blink reflex response abnormality due to lesion of the lateral tegmental field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aramideh, M.; Ongerboer de Visser, B. W.; Koelman, J. H.; Majoie, C. B.; Holstege, G.

    1997-01-01

    We report on a blink reflex abnormality observed in two patients, which provides additional information on the central pathways mediating this reflex. Autopsy was performed in one patient and MRI in the other. In the first patient there was a small lesion at the dorsal middle third of the lateral

  1. Dorsal onlay (Barbagli technique) versus dorsal inlay (Asopa technique) buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty for anterior urethral stricture: a prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldaqadossi, Hussein; El Gamal, Samir; El-Nadey, Mohamed; El Gamal, Osama; Radwan, Mohamed; Gaber, Mohamed

    2014-02-01

    To compare both the dorsal onlay technique of Barbagli and the dorsal inlay technique of Asopa for the management of long anterior urethral stricture. From January 2010 to May 2012, a total of 47 patients with long anterior urethral strictures were randomized into two groups. The first group included 25 patients who were managed by dorsal onlay buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty. The second group included 22 patients who were managed by dorsal inlay buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty. Different clinical parameters, postoperative complications and success rates were compared between both groups. The overall success rate in the dorsal onlay group was 88%, whereas in the dorsal inlay group the success rate was 86.4% during the follow-up period. The mean operative time was significantly longer in the dorsal onlay urethroplasty group (205 ± 19.63 min) than in the dorsal inlay urethroplasty group (128 ± 4.9 min, P-value <0.0001). The average blood loss was significantly higher in the dorsal onlay urethroplasty group (228 ± 5.32 mL) than in the dorsal inlay urethroplasty group (105 ± 12.05 mL, P-value <0.0001). The dorsal onlay technique of Barbagli and the dorsal inlay technique of Asopa buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty provide similar success rates. The Asopa technique is easy to carry out, provides shorter operative time and less blood loss, and it is associated with fewer complications for anterior urethral stricture repair. © 2013 The Japanese Urological Association.

  2. Dorsal approaches to intradural extramedullary tumors of the craniovertebral junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Refai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumors of the craniovertebral junction (CVJ pose significant challenges to cranial and spine surgeons. Familiarity with the complex anatomy and avoidance of injury to neurologic and vascular structures are essential to success. Multiple surgical approaches to address lesions at the CVJ have been promoted, including ventral and dorsal-based trajectories. However, optimal selection of the surgical vector to manage the pathology requires a firm understanding of the limitations and advantages of each approach. The selection of the best surgical trajectory must include several factors, such as obtaining the optimal exposure of the region of interest, avoiding injury to critical neurologic or vascular structures, identification of normal anatomical landmarks, the familiarity and comfort level of the surgeon to the approach, and the need for fixation. This review article focuses on dorsal approaches to the CVJ and the advantages and limitations in managing intradural extramedullary tumors.

  3. Dorsal and ventral changes of the occipital vertebrae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banki, Z.

    1981-01-01

    Based on his own observation and on the literature, the author discusses various types of calcification in the occipital-cervical region, beginning with those situated dorsally and followed by ventral forms. An attempt is made to classify these changes, depending on their morphology and situation, from an embryological point of view. The pro-atlantal and ante pro-atlanto origin of the occipital vertebrae is discussed. Differentiation depends on appearances. (orig.) [de

  4. Mixed-complexity artificial grammar learning in humans and macaque monkeys: evaluating learning strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Benjamin; Smith, Kenny; Petkov, Christopher I

    2015-03-01

    Artificial grammars (AG) can be used to generate rule-based sequences of stimuli. Some of these can be used to investigate sequence-processing computations in non-human animals that might be related to, but not unique to, human language. Previous AG learning studies in non-human animals have used different AGs to separately test for specific sequence-processing abilities. However, given that natural language and certain animal communication systems (in particular, song) have multiple levels of complexity, mixed-complexity AGs are needed to simultaneously evaluate sensitivity to the different features of the AG. Here, we tested humans and Rhesus macaques using a mixed-complexity auditory AG, containing both adjacent (local) and non-adjacent (longer-distance) relationships. Following exposure to exemplary sequences generated by the AG, humans and macaques were individually tested with sequences that were either consistent with the AG or violated specific adjacent or non-adjacent relationships. We observed a considerable level of cross-species correspondence in the sensitivity of both humans and macaques to the adjacent AG relationships and to the statistical properties of the sequences. We found no significant sensitivity to the non-adjacent AG relationships in the macaques. A subset of humans was sensitive to this non-adjacent relationship, revealing interesting between- and within-species differences in AG learning strategies. The results suggest that humans and macaques are largely comparably sensitive to the adjacent AG relationships and their statistical properties. However, in the presence of multiple cues to grammaticality, the non-adjacent relationships are less salient to the macaques and many of the humans. © 2015 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience published by Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Impact of menstruation on select hematology and clinical chemistry variables in cynomolgus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perigard, Christopher J; Parrula, M Cecilia M; Larkin, Matthew H; Gleason, Carol R

    2016-06-01

    In preclinical studies with cynomolgus macaques, it is common to have one or more females presenting with menses. Published literature indicates that the blood lost during menses causes decreases in red blood cell mass variables (RBC, HGB, and HCT), which would be a confounding factor in the interpretation of drug-related effects on clinical pathology data, but no scientific data have been published to support this claim. This investigation was conducted to determine if the amount of blood lost during menses in cynomolgus macaques has an effect on routine hematology and serum chemistry variables. Ten female cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), 5 to 6.5 years old, were observed daily during approximately 3 months (97 days) for the presence of menses. Hematology and serum chemistry variables were evaluated twice weekly. The results indicated that menstruation affects the erythrogram including RBC, HGB, HCT, MCHC, MCV, reticulocyte count, RDW, the leukogram including neutrophil, lymphocyte, and monocyte counts, and chemistry variables, including GGT activity, and the concentrations of total proteins, albumin, globulins, and calcium. The magnitude of the effect of menstruation on susceptible variables is dependent on the duration of the menstrual phase. Macaques with menstrual phases lasting ≥ 7 days are more likely to develop changes in variables related to chronic blood loss. In preclinical toxicology studies with cynomolgus macaques, interpretation of changes in several commonly evaluated hematology and serum chemistry variables requires adequate clinical observation and documentation concerning presence and duration of menses. There is a concern that macaques with long menstrual cycles can develop iron deficiency anemia due to chronic menstrual blood loss. © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  6. Laboratory rhesus macaque social housing and social changes: Implications for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannibal, Darcy L; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Vandeleest, Jessica; McCowan, Brenda; Capitanio, John

    2017-01-01

    Macaque species, specifically rhesus (Macaca mulatta), are the most common nonhuman primates (NHPs) used in biomedical research due to their suitability as a model of high priority diseases (e.g., HIV, obesity, cognitive aging), cost effective breeding and housing compared to most other NHPs, and close evolutionary relationship to humans. With this close evolutionary relationship, however, is a shared adaptation for a socially stimulating environment, without which both their welfare and suitability as a research model are compromised. While outdoor social group housing provides the best approximation of a social environment that matches the macaque behavioral biology in the wild, this is not always possible at all facilities, where animals may be housed indoors in small groups, in pairs, or alone. Further, animals may experience many housing changes in their lifetime depending on project needs, changes in social status, management needs, or health concerns. Here, we review the evidence for the physiological and health effects of social housing changes and the potential impacts on research outcomes for studies using macaques, particularly rhesus. We situate our review in the context of increasing regulatory pressure for research facilities to both house NHPs socially and mitigate trauma from social aggression. To meet these regulatory requirements and further refine the macaque model for research, significant advances must be made in our understanding and management of rhesus macaque social housing, particularly pair-housing since it is the most common social housing configuration for macaques while on research projects. Because most NHPs are adapted for sociality, a social context is likely important for improving repeatability, reproducibility, and external validity of primate biomedical research. Am. J. Primatol. 79:e22528, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Bulbar urethroplasty using the dorsal approach: current techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbagli Guido

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The use of flaps or grafts is mandatory in patients with longer and complex strictures. In 1995-96 we described a new dorsal onlay graft urethroplasty. Over time, our original technique was better defined and changed. Now this procedure (also named Barbagli technique has been greeted with a fair amount of enthusiasm in Europe and in the United States. SURGICAL TECHNIQUE: The patient is placed in normal lithotomy position, and a midline perineo-scrotal incision is made. The bulbar urethra is then free from the bulbo-cavernous muscles, and is dissected from the corpora cavernosa. The urethra is completely mobilized from the corpora cavernosa, it is rotated 180 degrees, and is incised along its dorsal surface. The graft (preputial skin or buccal mucosa or the flap is fixed and quilted to the tunica albuginea of the corporal bodies. The right mucosal margin of the opened urethra is sutured to the right side of the patch-graft. The urethra is rotated back into its original position. The left urethral margin is sutured to the left side of the patch graft and to the corporal bodies, and the grafted area is entirely covered by the urethral plate. The bulbo-cavernous muscles are approximated over the grafted area. A 16F silicone Foley catheter is left in place. COMMENTS: Dorsal onlay graft urethroplasty is a versatile procedure that may be combined with various substitute materials like preputial skin, buccal mucosa grafts or pedicled flaps.

  8. Diagnosis of dorsal inter osseous pseudotumours by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peh, W.C.G.; Wong, L.L.S.; Ip, W.Y.

    1999-01-01

    Two middle-aged-patients each presenting with a progressively enlarging mass in the first dorsal web space of their hands are reported. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated the cause to be a hypertrophic first dorsal inter osseous muscle, with normal T1, T2 and post-gadopentetate dimeglumine signal characteristics. The ability of MRI to diagnose anatomical variants of hand muscles is important in the clinical management of patients with these pseudotumours. The usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in evaluation of soft tissue tumours of the musculoskeletal system is now widely accepted. Its ability to maximize contrast between tumour and adjacent normal tissue in a multiplanar manner makes it the imaging modality of choice in pre-operative staging of soft tissue masses. In the hand and wrist, where benign tumours predominate, MRI may provide a specific diagnosis. We describe two cases in which MRI demonstrated the cause of a hand pseudotumour to be due to hypertrophy of the first dorsal inter osseous muscle. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  9. Diagnosis of dorsal inter osseous pseudotumours by magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peh, W.C.G.; Wong, L.L.S. [The University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, (Hong Kong). Hand Surgery Division, Department of Diagnotic Radiology; Ip, W.Y. [The University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, (Hong Kong). Hand Surgery Division, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery

    1999-08-01

    Two middle-aged-patients each presenting with a progressively enlarging mass in the first dorsal web space of their hands are reported. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated the cause to be a hypertrophic first dorsal inter osseous muscle, with normal T1, T2 and post-gadopentetate dimeglumine signal characteristics. The ability of MRI to diagnose anatomical variants of hand muscles is important in the clinical management of patients with these pseudotumours. The usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in evaluation of soft tissue tumours of the musculoskeletal system is now widely accepted. Its ability to maximize contrast between tumour and adjacent normal tissue in a multiplanar manner makes it the imaging modality of choice in pre-operative staging of soft tissue masses. In the hand and wrist, where benign tumours predominate, MRI may provide a specific diagnosis. We describe two cases in which MRI demonstrated the cause of a hand pseudotumour to be due to hypertrophy of the first dorsal inter osseous muscle. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd 20 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Compound dorsal dislocation of lunate with trapezoid fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong-Sung Kim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We report about a dorsal dislocation of the lunate accompanied by a trapezoid fracture in a 41-year old male patient after a motorcycle accident. The lunate dislocation with no dorsal or volar intercalated segment instability (DISI, VISI was diagnosed by x-ray whereas the trapezoid fracture was only diagnosable by computed tomography. A closed reduction and internal fixation of the lunate by two Kirschner wires was performed, the trapezoid fracture was conservatively treated. Surgery was followed by immobilization, intense physiotherapy and close follow-up. Even though complaints such as swelling and pain subsided during the course of rehabilitation, partial loss of strength and range of motion remained even after 16 months. In conclusion, a conservative treatment of trapezoid fractures seems to be sufficient in most cases. Closed reduction with Kwire fixation led to an overall satisfactory result in our case. For dorsal lunate dislocations in general, open reduction should be performed when close reduction is unsuccessful or DISI/VISI are observed in radiographs after attempted close reduction.

  11. Alzheimer disease: functional abnormalities in the dorsal visual pathway.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bokde, Arun L W

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate whether patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) have altered activation compared with age-matched healthy control (HC) subjects during a task that typically recruits the dorsal visual pathway. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was performed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki, with institutional ethics committee approval, and all subjects provided written informed consent. Two tasks were performed to investigate neural function: face matching and location matching. Twelve patients with mild AD and 14 age-matched HC subjects were included. Brain activation was measured by using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Group statistical analyses were based on a mixed-effects model corrected for multiple comparisons. RESULTS: Task performance was not statistically different between the two groups, and within groups there were no differences in task performance. In the HC group, the visual perception tasks selectively activated the visual pathways. Conversely in the AD group, there was no selective activation during performance of these same tasks. Along the dorsal visual pathway, the AD group recruited additional regions, primarily in the parietal and frontal lobes, for the location-matching task. There were no differences in activation between groups during the face-matching task. CONCLUSION: The increased activation in the AD group may represent a compensatory mechanism for decreased processing effectiveness in early visual areas of patients with AD. The findings support the idea that the dorsal visual pathway is more susceptible to putative AD-related neuropathologic changes than is the ventral visual pathway.

  12. Dorsal onlay vaginal graft urethroplasty for female urethral stricture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manmeet Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Female urethral stricture is an underdiagnosed and overlooked cause of female bladder outlet obstruction. The possible etiologies may be infection, prior dilation, difficult catheterization with subsequent fibrosis, urethral surgery, trauma, or idiopathic. We present our technique and results of dorsal onlay full thickness vaginal graft urethroplasty for female urethral stricture. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review was performed on 16 female patients with mid-urethral stricture who underwent dorsal onlay vaginal graft urethroplasty from January 2007 to June 2011.Of these, 13 patients had previously undergone multiple Hegar dilatations, three had previous internal urethrotomies. The preoperative work up included detailed voiding history, local examination, uroflowmetry, calibration, and micturating cystourethrogram. Results: All patients had mid-urethral stricture. Mean age was 47.5 years. Mean Q max improved from 6.2 to 27.6 ml/s. Mean residual volume decreased from 160 to 20 ml. Mean duration of follow-up was 24.5 months (6 months to 3 years. Only one patient required self-calibration for 6 months after which her stricture stabilized. None of the patient was incontinent. Conclusion: Dorsal vaginal onlay graft urethroplasty could be considered as an effective way to treat female urethral stricture.

  13. Harmane inhibits serotonergic dorsal raphe neurons in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touiki, Khalid; Rat, Pascal; Molimard, Robert; Chait, Abderrahman; de Beaurepaire, Renaud

    2005-11-01

    Harmane and norharmane (two beta-carbolines) are tobacco components or products. The effects of harmane and norharmane on serotonergic raphe neurons remain unknown. Harmane and norharmane are inhibitors of the monoamine oxidases A (MAO-A) and B (MAO-B), respectively. To study the effects of harmane, norharmane, befloxatone (MAOI-A), and selegiline (MAOI-B) on the firing of serotonergic neurons. To compare the effects of these compounds to those of nicotine (whose inhibitory action on serotonergic neurons has been previously described). The effects of cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine known to interact with serotonergic systems, are also tested. In vivo electrophysiological recordings of serotonergic dorsal raphe neurons in the anaesthetized rat. Nicotine, harmane, and befloxatone inhibited serotonergic dorsal raphe neurons. The other compounds had no effects. The inhibitory effect of harmane (rapid and long-lasting inhibition) differed from that of nicotine (short and rapidly reversed inhibition) and from that of befloxatone (slow, progressive, and long-lasting inhibition). The inhibitory effects of harmane and befloxatone were reversed by the 5-HT1A antagonist WAY 100 635. Pretreatment of animals with p-chlorophenylalanine abolished the inhibitory effect of befloxatone, but not that of harmane. Nicotine, harmane, and befloxatone inhibit the activity of raphe serotonergic neurons. Therefore, at least two tobacco compounds, nicotine and harmane, inhibit the activity of serotonergic neurons. The mechanism by which harmane inhibits serotonergic dorsal raphe neurons is likely unrelated to a MAO-A inhibitory effect.

  14. Grooming-related feeding motivates macaques to groom and affects grooming reciprocity and episode duration in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Kenji; Yamada, Kazunori; Nakamichi, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    Allogrooming is considered as an altruistic behavior wherein primates exchange grooming as a tradable commodity for reciprocal grooming or other commodities such as support during aggression and tolerance during co-feeding. First, we report a case of the grooming relationships of the lowest-ranking adult female in a group of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). The female (Lp) had lost a portion of the fur and was groomed by higher-ranking individuals without providing reciprocal grooming or other commodities. The groomers probably fed on lice eggs from the fur of Lp more frequently than from that of other adult groomees. This suggests that grooming-related feeding (GRF) motivated many individuals to groom Lp and influenced grooming reciprocity in dyads. Second, we investigated quantitative grooming data for adult females. A high GRF rate was found to lengthen the duration of grooming, suggesting that GRF motivates groomers to groom. From these results, we proposed 2 possible reasons for groomers' sensitivity to GRF rate: (1) the nutritional benefit from GRF compensates for part of the cost of giving grooming and facilitates giving grooming and (2) groomer's sensitivity to the GRF rate maintains the efficiency of removing lice eggs and ensures the groomee's hygienic benefit in receiving grooming. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Dissociated α-band modulations in the dorsal and ventral visual pathways in visuospatial attention and perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capilla, Almudena; Schoffelen, Jan-Mathijs; Paterson, Gavin; Thut, Gregor; Gross, Joachim

    2014-02-01

    Modulations of occipito-parietal α-band (8-14 Hz) power that are opposite in direction (α-enhancement vs. α-suppression) and origin of generation (ipsilateral vs. contralateral to the locus of attention) are a robust correlate of anticipatory visuospatial attention. Yet, the neural generators of these α-band modulations, their interdependence across homotopic areas, and their respective contribution to subsequent perception remain unclear. To shed light on these questions, we employed magnetoencephalography, while human volunteers performed a spatially cued detection task. Replicating previous findings, we found α-power enhancement ipsilateral to the attended hemifield and contralateral α-suppression over occipito-parietal sensors. Source localization (beamforming) analysis showed that α-enhancement and suppression were generated in 2 distinct brain regions, located in the dorsal and ventral visual streams, respectively. Moreover, α-enhancement and suppression showed different dynamics and contribution to perception. In contrast to the initial and transient dorsal α-enhancement, α-suppression in ventro-lateral occipital cortex was sustained and influenced subsequent target detection. This anticipatory biasing of ventro-lateral extrastriate α-activity probably reflects increased receptivity in the brain region specialized in processing upcoming target features. Our results add to current models on the role of α-oscillations in attention orienting by showing that α-enhancement and suppression can be dissociated in time, space, and perceptual relevance.

  16. Crossmodal integration of conspecific vocalizations in rhesus macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christa Payne

    Full Text Available Crossmodal integration of audio/visual information is vital for recognition, interpretation and appropriate reaction to social signals. Here we examined how rhesus macaques process bimodal species-specific vocalizations by eye tracking, using an unconstrained preferential looking paradigm. Six adult rhesus monkeys (3M, 3F were presented two side-by-side videos of unknown male conspecifics emitting different vocalizations, accompanied by the audio signal corresponding to one of the videos. The percentage of time animals looked to each video was used to assess crossmodal integration ability and the percentages of time spent looking at each of the six a priori ROIs (eyes, mouth, and rest of each video were used to characterize scanning patterns. Animals looked more to the congruent video, confirming reports that rhesus monkeys spontaneously integrate conspecific vocalizations. Scanning patterns showed that monkeys preferentially attended to the eyes and mouth of the stimuli, with subtle differences between males and females such that females showed a tendency to differentiate the eye and mouth regions more than males. These results were similar to studies in humans indicating that when asked to assess emotion-related aspects of visual speech, people preferentially attend to the eyes. Thus, the tendency for female monkeys to show a greater differentiation between the eye and mouth regions than males may indicate that female monkeys were slightly more sensitive to the socio-emotional content of complex signals than male monkeys. The current results emphasize the importance of considering both the sex of the observer and individual variability in passive viewing behavior in nonhuman primate research.

  17. Functional organization of area V2 in the alert macaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterhans, E; von der Heydt, R

    1993-05-01

    We studied the relation between anatomical structure and functional properties of cells in area V2 of the macaque. Visual function was assessed in the alert animal during fixation of gaze. Recording sites were reconstructed with respect to cortical lamination and the cytochrome oxidase pattern. We measured orientation and direction selectivity, end-stopping, sensitivity to binocular disparity and ocular dominance, and determined more complex functions like sensitivity to anomalous contours and lines defined by coherent motion. Orientation selectivity was found in all parts of area V2, with high frequencies in the pale and thick stripes of the cytochrome oxidase pattern, and with lower frequency in the thin stripes. Representations of anomalous contours were found in the pale and thick stripes with similar frequencies, but generally not in the thin stripes, which have been thought to process colour. Lines defined by coherent motion were most frequently represented in the thick stripes; they were less frequent in the pale stripes, and (as with anomalous contours) were not found in the thin stripes. Sensitivity to binocular disparity was found in all types of stripes, but more frequently in the thick stripes, where the exclusively binocular neurons were also concentrated. By contrast, no segregation was found for direction selectivity and end-stopping. All neuronal properties were distributed evenly across cortical laminae. We conclude that mechanisms for figure-ground segregation involve the pale and the thick stripes of the cytochrome oxidase pattern, perhaps with greater emphasis on 'shape from motion' and 'stereoscopic depth' in the thick stripes, while more elementary neuronal properties are distributed almost evenly across the stripe pattern.

  18. Polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6) in cynomolgus and rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Yasuhiro; Uehara, Shotaro; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2018-02-22

    Cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6) is an important drug-metabolizing enzyme and is expressed in liver. Although human CYP2B6 variants account for variable enzyme properties among individuals and populations, CYP2B6 genetic variants have not been investigated in cynomolgus macaques, widely used in drug metabolism studies. CYP2B6 was resequenced in 120 cynomolgus macaques and 23 rhesus macaques by direct sequencing. Twenty-three non-synonymous variants were found, of which 12 and 3 were unique to cynomolgus macaques and rhesus macaques, respectively. By functional characterization using the 14 variant proteins, 8 variants (V114I, R253C, M435I, V459M, L465P, C475S, R487C, and R487H) showed different rate (>1.5-fold) of testosterone 16β-hydroxylation to wild type. However, the four variants (M435I, L465P, C475S, and R487H) were analyzed in liver microsomes, and the catalytic rates were not substantially different from wild type. Macaque CYP2B6 was polymorphic, and the genotype could partly account for variable enzyme activities of macaque CYP2B6. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Human behavior and opportunities for parasite transmission in communities surrounding long-tailed macaque populations in Bali, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane-DeGraaf, Kelly E; Putra, I G A Arta; Wandia, I Nengah; Rompis, Aida; Hollocher, Hope; Fuentes, Agustin

    2014-02-01

    Spatial overlap and shared resources between humans and wildlife can exacerbate parasite transmission dynamics. In Bali, Indonesia, an agricultural-religious temple system provides sanctuaries for long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis), concentrating them in areas in close proximity to humans. In this study, we interviewed individuals in communities surrounding 13 macaque populations about their willingness to participate in behaviors that would put them at risk of exposure to gastrointestinal parasites to understand if age, education level, or occupation are significant determinants of exposure behaviors. These exposure risk behaviors and attitudes include fear of macaques, direct contact with macaques, owning pet macaques, hunting and eating macaques, and overlapping water uses. We find that willingness to participate in exposure risk behaviors are correlated with an individual's occupation, age, and/or education level. We also found that because the actual risk of infection varies across populations, activities such as direct macaque contact and pet ownership, could be putting individuals at real risk in certain contexts. Thus, we show that human demographics and social structure can influence willingness to participate in behaviors putting them at increased risk for exposure to parasites. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Population-averaged macaque brain atlas with high-resolution ex vivo DTI integrated into in vivo space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lei; Jeon, Tina; Yu, Qiaowen; Ouyang, Minhui; Peng, Qinmu; Mishra, Virendra; Pletikos, Mihovil; Sestan, Nenad; Miller, Michael I; Mori, Susumu; Hsiao, Steven; Liu, Shuwei; Huang, Hao

    2017-12-01

    Animal models of the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta), the most widely used nonhuman primate, have been irreplaceable in neurobiological studies. However, a population-averaged macaque brain diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) atlas, including comprehensive gray and white matter labeling as well as bony and facial landmarks guiding invasive experimental procedures, is not available. The macaque white matter tract pathways and microstructures have been rarely recorded. Here, we established a population-averaged macaque brain atlas with high-resolution ex vivo DTI integrated into in vivo space incorporating bony and facial landmarks, and delineated microstructures and three-dimensional pathways of major white matter tracts in vivo MRI/DTI and ex vivo (postmortem) DTI of ten rhesus macaque brains were acquired. Single-subject macaque brain DTI template was obtained by transforming the postmortem high-resolution DTI data into in vivo space. Ex vivo DTI of ten macaque brains was then averaged in the in vivo single-subject template space to generate population-averaged macaque brain DTI atlas. The white matter tracts were traced with DTI-based tractography. One hundred and eighteen neural structures including all cortical gyri, white matter tracts and subcortical nuclei, were labeled manually on population-averaged DTI-derived maps. The in vivo microstructural metrics of fractional anisotropy, axial, radial and mean diffusivity of the traced white matter tracts were measured. Population-averaged digital atlas integrated into in vivo space can be used to label the experimental macaque brain automatically. Bony and facial landmarks will be available for guiding invasive procedures. The DTI metric measurements offer unique insights into heterogeneous microstructural profiles of different white matter tracts.

  1. A long-acting integrase inhibitor protects female macaques from repeated high-dose intravaginal SHIV challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Chasity D; Yueh, Yun Lan; Spreen, William R; St Bernard, Leslie; Boente-Carrera, Mar; Rodriguez, Kristina; Gettie, Agegnehu; Russell-Lodrigue, Kasi; Blanchard, James; Ford, Susan; Mohri, Hiroshi; Cheng-Mayer, Cecilia; Hong, Zhi; Ho, David D; Markowitz, Martin

    2015-01-14

    Long-acting GSK1265744 (GSK744 LA) is a strand transfer inhibitor of the HIV/SIV (simian immunodeficiency virus) integrase and was shown to be an effective preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) agent in a low-dose intrarectal SHIV (simian-human immunodeficiency virus) rhesus macaque challenge model. We examined the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of GSK744 LA as PrEP against repeat high-dose intravaginal SHIV challenge in female rhesus macaques treated with Depo-Provera (depot medroxyprogesterone acetate), which promotes viral transmission vaginally. When Depo-Provera-treated female rhesus macaques were dosed with GSK744 LA (50 mg/kg) monthly, systemic and tissue drug concentrations were lower than previously observed in male rhesus macaques. GSK744 concentrations were fivefold lower on average in cervical tissues than in rectal tissues. Eight female rhesus macaques were treated with GSK744 LA at week 0, and four female rhesus macaques served as controls. All animals received a high-dose challenge of SHIV162P3 at week 1. No infection was detected in GSK744 LA-treated rhesus macaques, whereas viremia was detected 1 to 2 weeks after SHIV challenge in all control animals. The GSK744 LA-treated rhesus macaques were given a second administration of drug at week 4 and further challenged at weeks 5 and 7. GSK744 LA treatment protected six of eight female rhesus macaques against three high-dose SHIV challenges, whereas all control animals became infected after the first challenge (P = 0.0003, log-rank test). These results support further clinical development of GSK744 LA for PrEP. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. Changes in the dominance hierarchy of captive female Japanese macaques as a consequence of merging two previously established groups.

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    Anderson, Emily J; Weladji, Robert B; Paré, Patrick

    2016-11-01

    Dominance hierarchies play an important role in reducing competition and aggression in social animals. In zoos, changes in group composition are often required due to management protocols, but these changes may have long lasting effects on dominance hierarchies, and, consequently, the wellbeing of the animals. We studied the changes in the female dominance hierarchy that occurred both during and after the formation of a group of 10 adult Japanese macaques at the Zoo de Granby by combining members from two previously established groups. There was no significant correlation between individual ranks in the old groups (groups A and B) and their ranks in the new group (group AB), indicating a significant change in the hierarchy. Alliances between kin appeared to be important in determining rank; when the sister of the dominant female was removed from group AB, the hierarchy changed significantly a second time. The average standardized rank of individuals added later in the formation process of group AB was not different from those added earlier. Ranks in the group AB did correlate with age of individual at the beginning of the field season, but not at the end, after the shift in hierarchy occurred. Zoo management must be aware of the consequences small changes in a social group can have when removing and transferring individuals in both primates and in other social species. Zoo Biol. 35:505-512, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Intra-amniotic Ureaplasma parvum-Induced Maternal and Fetal Inflammation and Immune Responses in Rhesus Macaques.

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    Senthamaraikannan, Paranthaman; Presicce, Pietro; Rueda, Cesar M; Maneenil, Gunlawadee; Schmidt, Augusto F; Miller, Lisa A; Waites, Ken B; Jobe, Alan H; Kallapur, Suhas G; Chougnet, Claire A

    2016-11-15

     Although Ureaplasma species are the most common organisms associated with prematurity, their effects on the maternal and fetal immune system remain poorly characterized.  Rhesus macaque dams at approximately 80% gestation were injected intra-amniotically with 10 7 colony-forming units of Ureaplasma parvum or saline (control). Fetuses were delivered surgically 3 or 7 days later. We performed comprehensive assessments of inflammation and immune effects in multiple fetal and maternal tissues.  Although U. parvum grew well in amniotic fluid, there was minimal chorioamnionitis. U. parvum colonized the fetal lung, but fetal systemic microbial invasion was limited. Fetal lung inflammation was mild, with elevations in CXCL8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α, and CCL2 levels in alveolar washes at day 7. Inflammation was not detected in the fetal brain. Significantly, U. parvum decreased regulatory T cells (Tregs) and activated interferon γ production in these Tregs in the fetus. It was detected in uterine tissue by day 7 and induced mild inflammation and increased expression of connexin 43, a gap junction protein involved with labor.  U. parvum colonized the amniotic fluid and caused uterine inflammation, but without overt chorioamnionitis. It caused mild fetal lung inflammation but had a more profound effect on the fetal immune system, decreasing Tregs and polarizing them toward a T-helper 1 phenotype. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. The developing dorsal ganglion of the salp Thalia democratica, and the nature of the ancestral chordate brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.Lacalli, T.

    1998-01-01

    The development of the dorsal ganglion of the salp, Thalia democratica, is described from electron microscope reconstructions up to the stage of central neuropile formation. The central nervous system (CNS) rudiment is initially tubular with an open central canal. Early developmental events include: (i) the formation of a thick dorsal mantle of neuroblasts from which paired dorsal paraxial neuropiles arise; (ii) the differentiation of clusters of primary motor neurons along the ventral margin of the mantle; and (iii) the development from the latter of a series of peripheral nerves. The dorsal paraxial neuropiles ultimately connect to the large central neuropile, which develops later. Direct contact between neuroblasts and muscle appears to be involved in the development of some anterior nerves. The caudal nerves responsible for innervating more distant targets in the posterior part of the body develop without such contacts, which suggests that a different patterning mechanism may be employed in this part of the neuromuscular system. The results are compared with patterns of brain organization in other chordates. Because the salp CNS is symmetrical and generally less reduced than that of ascidian larvae, it is more easily compared with the CNS of amphioxus and vertebrates. The dorsal paraxial centres in the salp resemble the dorsolateral tectal centres in amphioxus in both position and organization; the central neuropile in salps likewise resembles the translumenal system in amphioxus. The neurons themselves are similar in that many of their neurites appear to be derived from the apical surface instead of the basal surface of the cell. Such neurons, with extensively developed apical neurites, may represent a new cell type that evolved in the earliest chordates in conjunction with the formation of translumenal or intralumenal integrative centres. In comparing the salp ganglion with vertebrates, we suggest that the main core of the ganglion is most like the mes

  5. Rare patterns of dorsal puncture in Pterostichus oblongopunctatus (Coleoptera: Carabidae

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    Axel Schwerk

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background The carabid beetle species Pterostichus oblongopunctatus is common in different types of forests in Poland and Europe. With respect to this species, some unclarities exist concerning the morphological feature of punctures on the elytra. P. oblongopunctatus has dorsal pits in the third interval of the elytra, the available identification keys, however, provide inconsistent information concerning the puncture in other intervals. During long-term studies at different study sites in Poland, the first author rarely but regularly discovered individuals with unusual dorsal puncture patterns, i.e., pits in the fifth and even in the seventh interval of the elytra. Since such rare patterns might be connected with special habitat characteristics, and thus have a potential as an indicator, the aim of the study was to test if they are connected with specific subpopulations (interaction groups, if they are related to the sex or size of the beetles, and if they are related to specific habitat conditions. Material and Methods We counted the pits on the elytra, determined the sex, and measured the length of the right elytron of individuals of P. oblongopunctatus collected at numerous study sites located within the borders of the Regional Directory of National Forests in Piła (Western Poland over the period 2014–2016. Results Altogether, 1,058 individuals of P. oblongopunctatus were subjected to statistical analysis. Almost 19% of the individuals had a dorsal puncture in the fifth interval of the elytra and about 0.7% had a dorsal puncture in the seventh interval of the elytra. In 2014 and 2015, significantly more females exhibited such unusual patterns of dorsal puncture than males. Even if not statistically significant, in 2016 also relatively more females showed such a pattern. Neither males nor females of the analysed individuals with usual puncture patterns showed a significant difference in the length of the right elytron from those with

  6. No costly prosociality among related long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterck, Elisabeth H M; Olesen, Caroline U; Massen, Jorg J M

    2015-08-01

    Altruism, benefiting another at a cost to the donor, may be achieved through prosocial behavior. Studies of nonhuman animals typically investigate prosocial behavior with paradigms in which the donor can choose to give a recipient a food item, and the choice does not affect the donor's reward (which is either present or absent). In such tasks, long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) show prosocial behavior, especially toward kin. Here, we tested captive long-tailed macaques with related recipients in an alternative task, in which the donor had to give up a preferred reward to benefit the recipient; that is, they had to choose a lower valued reward for themselves to provide food to their kin. Overall, the macaques did not provide their kin with food. The task forced the donor to balance its prosocial behavior with its selfish choice for a higher value reward, a balance that turned out to favor selfish motives. Consequently, our study shows that a prosocial tendency is not sufficient to elicit costly prosocial behavior in long-tailed macaques. Subsequently, we feel that tasks in which the donor must choose a lower value reward to benefit another individual may allow the titration of the strength of prosocial behavior, and thus provides interesting possibilities for future comparative studies. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Hair loss and hair-pulling in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Corrine K; Coleman, Kristine; Worlein, Julie; Novak, Melinda A

    2013-07-01

    Alopecia is a common problem in rhesus macaque colonies. A possible cause of this condition is hair-pulling; however the true relationship between hair-pulling and alopecia is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between hair loss and hair-pulling in 1258 rhesus macaques housed in 4 primate colonies across the United States. Alopecia levels ranged from 34.3% to 86.5% (mean, 49.3%) at the primate facilities. At facilities reporting a sex-associated difference, more female macaques were reported to exhibit alopecia than were males. In contrast, more males were reported to hair-pull. Animals reported to hair-pull were significantly more likely to have some amount of alopecia, but rates of hair-pulling were substantially lower than rates of alopecia, ranging from 0.6% to 20.5% (mean, 7.7%) of the populations. These results further demonstrate that hair-pulling plays only a small role in alopecia in rhesus macaques.

  8. Effects of Transportation on Antioxidant Status in Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xueying; Lu, Liang; Zeng, Xiancheng; Chang, Yan; Hua, Xiuguo

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of transportation on oxidative stress in cynomolgus monkeys, we measured serum levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde, and protein carbonyl (PC) and the activities of total antioxidant capacity (TAOC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and catalase in cynomolgus macaques before transportation (day 0), on the day of arrival (day 1), and on days 7, 14, and 21 after transportation. Compared with that on day 0, TAOC and catalase activities on days 1, 7, and 14 after transportation were significantly decreased, reached their nadirs on day 7, and increased thereafter to reach their pretransportation levels by day 21 after transportation. Compared with day 0 levels, mean SOD activity and GSH concentration were decreased significantly on day 1; they thereafter increased to reach their pretransportation measures by day 7 after transportation. In contrast, PC and malondialdehyde concentrations in serum and the activity of GSH-Px were increased on day 1 compared with day 0 and thereafter decreased to reach their pretransportation levels by day 14 after transportation. In summary, GSH, TAOC, catalase, and SOD levels decreased and malondialdehyde, PC, and GSH-Px concentrations increased in cynomolgus macaques after transportation. These results suggest that transportation might imbalance oxidant and antioxidant levels to create excess oxidative stress in cynomolgus macaques. Therefore, cynomolgus macaques should have at least 21 d to recover after transportation and regain their healthy status.

  9. Resource use of Japanese macaques in heavy snowfall areas: implications for habitat management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enari, Hiroto; Sakamaki-Enari, Haruka

    2013-07-01

    Populations of Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) that inhabit the northernmost distribution of any nonhuman primates have been listed as endangered in Japan; however, macaques are widely known for being pests that cause agricultural damage. This study identified priority areas for the conservation and management of macaque habitats, by comparing the resource use of troops occupying remote mountains (montane troops) against troops inhabiting disturbed forests adjacent to settlements (rural troops). We collected species presence data across 2 years by radio-tracking two montane troops and two rural troops in the Shirakami Mountains. We developed seasonal utilization distributions by using the kernel method, and identified habitat characteristics by using ecological-niche factor analysis (ENFA). Our results indicate that environmental factors influencing the potential habitat varied widely with season in montane troops as compared with that in rural troops. ENFA results demonstrated that rural troops exhibited more biased resource use and narrower niche breadths than montane troops. Based on our findings, we propose that (1) primary broadleaf forests are the spring habitat conservation priority of montane troops; (2) the habitat unit--the product of habitat suitability index and its surface area--for montane troops is enhanced by removing old conifer plantations from the forest edge at low elevations; (3) such removal around settlements may also contribute toward removing a frontline refuge for rural troops intruding farmlands; and (4) intensive prevention measures against macaque intrusions into settlements during the bottleneck snowy season contribute toward reducing the habitat unit of rural troops.

  10. A single gp120 residue can affect HIV-1 tropism in macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Q Del Prete

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Species-dependent variation in proteins that aid or limit virus replication determines the ability of lentiviruses to jump between host species. Identifying and overcoming these differences facilitates the development of animal models for HIV-1, including models based on chimeric SIVs that express HIV-1 envelope (Env glycoproteins, (SHIVs and simian-tropic HIV-1 (stHIV strains. Here, we demonstrate that the inherently poor ability of most HIV-1 Env proteins to use macaque CD4 as a receptor is improved during adaptation by virus passage in macaques. We identify a single amino acid, A281, in HIV-1 Env that consistently changes during adaptation in macaques and affects the ability of HIV-1 Env to use macaque CD4. Importantly, mutations at A281 do not markedly affect HIV-1 Env neutralization properties. Our findings should facilitate the design of HIV-1 Env proteins for use in non-human primate models and thus expedite the development of clinically relevant reagents for testing interventions against HIV-1.

  11. Temporary hindlimb paresis following dystocia due to foetal macrosomia in a Celebes crested macaque (Macaca nigra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debenham, John James; Bettembourg, Vanessa; Østevik, Liv; Modig, Michaela; Jâderlund, Karin Hultin; Lervik, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    A multiparous Celebes crested macaque presented with dystocia due to foetal macrosomia, causing foetal mortality and hindlimb paresis. After emergency caesarean section, recovery of motor function took 1 month before hindlimbs were weight bearing and 2 months before re-integration with the troop. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Ranking network of a captive rhesus macaque society: a sophisticated corporative kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fushing, Hsieh; McAssey, Michael P; Beisner, Brianne; McCowan, Brenda

    2011-03-15

    We develop a three-step computing approach to explore a hierarchical ranking network for a society of captive rhesus macaques. The computed network is sufficiently informative to address the question: Is the ranking network for a rhesus macaque society more like a kingdom or a corporation? Our computations are based on a three-step approach. These steps are devised to deal with the tremendous challenges stemming from the transitivity of dominance as a necessary constraint on the ranking relations among all individual macaques, and the very high sampling heterogeneity in the behavioral conflict data. The first step simultaneously infers the ranking potentials among all network members, which requires accommodation of heterogeneous measurement error inherent in behavioral data. Our second step estimates the social rank for all individuals by minimizing the network-wide errors in the ranking potentials. The third step provides a way to compute confidence bounds for selected empirical features in the social ranking. We apply this approach to two sets of conflict data pertaining to two captive societies of adult rhesus macaques. The resultant ranking network for each society is found to be a sophisticated mixture of both a kingdom and a corporation. Also, for validation purposes, we reanalyze conflict data from twenty longhorn sheep and demonstrate that our three-step approach is capable of correctly computing a ranking network by eliminating all ranking error.

  13. Delineating the Macroscale Areal Organization of the Macaque Cortex In Vivo

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    Ting Xu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Complementing long-standing traditions centered on histology, fMRI approaches are rapidly maturing in delineating brain areal organization at the macroscale. The non-human primate (NHP provides the opportunity to overcome critical barriers in translational research. Here, we establish the data requirements for achieving reproducible and internally valid parcellations in individuals. We demonstrate that functional boundaries serve as a functional fingerprint of the individual animals and can be achieved under anesthesia or awake conditions (rest, naturalistic viewing, though differences between awake and anesthetized states precluded the detection of individual differences across states. Comparison of awake and anesthetized states suggested a more nuanced picture of changes in connectivity for higher-order association areas, as well as visual and motor cortex. These results establish feasibility and data requirements for the generation of reproducible individual-specific parcellations in NHPs, provide insights into the impact of scan state, and motivate efforts toward harmonizing protocols. : Noninvasive fMRI in macaques is an essential tool in translation research. Xu et al. establish the individual functional parcellation of the macaque cortex and demonstrate that brain organization is unique, reproducible, and valid, serving as a fingerprint for an individual macaque. Keywords: macaque, parcellation, cortical areas, gradient, functional connectivity

  14. Plasticity of Ability to Form Cross-Modal Representations in Infant Japanese Macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Ikuma; Kuwahata, Hiroko; Fujita, Kazuo; Tomonaga, Masaki; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2009-01-01

    In a previous study, Adachi, Kuwahata, Fujita, Tomonaga & Matsuzawa demonstrated that infant Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) form cross-modal representations of conspecifics but not of humans. However, because the subjects in the experiment were raised in a large social group and had considerably less exposure to humans than to…

  15. An SIV/macaque model targeted to study HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Sarah E; Queen, Suzanne E; Metcalf Pate, Kelly A; Mangus, Lisa M; Abreu, Celina M; Gama, Lucio; Witwer, Kenneth W; Adams, Robert J; Zink, M Christine; Clements, Janice E; Mankowski, Joseph L

    2018-04-01

    Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of pigtailed macaques is a highly representative and well-characterized animal model for HIV neuropathogenesis studies that provides an excellent opportunity to study and develop prognostic markers of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) for HIV-infected individuals. SIV studies can be performed in a controlled setting that enhances reproducibility and offers high-translational value. Similar to observations in HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), ongoing neurodegeneration and inflammation are present in SIV-infected pigtailed macaques treated with suppressive ART. By developing quantitative viral outgrowth assays that measure both CD4+ T cells and macrophages harboring replication competent SIV as well as a highly sensitive mouse-based viral outgrowth assay, we have positioned the SIV/pigtailed macaque model to advance our understanding of latent cellular reservoirs, including potential CNS reservoirs, to promote HIV cure. In addition to contributing to our understanding of the pathogenesis of HAND, the SIV/pigtailed macaque model also provides an excellent opportunity to test innovative approaches to eliminate the latent HIV reservoir in the brain.

  16. Ranking network of a captive rhesus macaque society: a sophisticated corporative kingdom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsieh Fushing

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We develop a three-step computing approach to explore a hierarchical ranking network for a society of captive rhesus macaques. The computed network is sufficiently informative to address the question: Is the ranking network for a rhesus macaque society more like a kingdom or a corporation? Our computations are based on a three-step approach. These steps are devised to deal with the tremendous challenges stemming from the transitivity of dominance as a necessary constraint on the ranking relations among all individual macaques, and the very high sampling heterogeneity in the behavioral conflict data. The first step simultaneously infers the ranking potentials among all network members, which requires accommodation of heterogeneous measurement error inherent in behavioral data. Our second step estimates the social rank for all individuals by minimizing the network-wide errors in the ranking potentials. The third step provides a way to compute confidence bounds for selected empirical features in the social ranking. We apply this approach to two sets of conflict data pertaining to two captive societies of adult rhesus macaques. The resultant ranking network for each society is found to be a sophisticated mixture of both a kingdom and a corporation. Also, for validation purposes, we reanalyze conflict data from twenty longhorn sheep and demonstrate that our three-step approach is capable of correctly computing a ranking network by eliminating all ranking error.

  17. New-Onset Diabetes Mellitus After Transplantation in a Cynomolgus Macaque (Macaca fasicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Kristin A; Tonsho, Makoto; Madsen, Joren C

    2015-08-01

    A 5.5-y-old intact male cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fasicularis) presented with inappetence and weight loss 57 d after heterotopic heart and thymus transplantation while receiving an immunosuppressant regimen consisting of tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and methylprednisolone to prevent graft rejection. A serum chemistry panel, a glycated hemoglobin test, and urinalysis performed at presentation revealed elevated blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels (727 mg/dL and 10.1%, respectively), glucosuria, and ketonuria. Diabetes mellitus was diagnosed, and insulin therapy was initiated immediately. The macaque was weaned off the immunosuppressive therapy as his clinical condition improved and stabilized. Approximately 74 d after discontinuation of the immunosuppressants, the blood glucose normalized, and the insulin therapy was stopped. The animal's blood glucose and HbA1c values have remained within normal limits since this time. We suspect that our macaque experienced new-onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation, a condition that is commonly observed in human transplant patients but not well described in NHP. To our knowledge, this report represents the first documented case of new-onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation in a cynomolgus macaque.

  18. Survey of Treponemal Infections in Free-Ranging and Captive Macaques, 1999–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klegarth, Amy R.; Ezeonwu, Chigozie A.; Rompis, Aida; Lee, Benjamin P.Y.-H.; Aggimarangsee, Nantiya; Chalise, Mukesh; Cortes, John; Feeroz, M.; Molini, Barbara J.; Godornes, Bess C.; Marks, Michael; Schillaci, Michael; Engel, Gregory; Knauf, Sascha; Lukehart, Sheila A.

    2017-01-01

    Survey results showed treponemal infection among pet macaques in Southeast Asia, a region with a high prevalence of human yaws. This finding, along with studies showing treponemal infection in nonhuman primates in Africa, should encourage a One Health approach to yaws eradication and surveillance activities, possibly including monitoring of nonhuman primates in yaws-endemic regions. PMID:28418297

  19. Diet of the Assamese macaque Macaca assamensis in lime-stone habitats of Nonggang, China

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    Qihai ZHOU, Hua WEI, Zhonghao HUANG, Chengming HUANG

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available To enhance our understanding of dietary adaptations in macaques we studied the diet of the Assamese macaque Macaca assamensis in limestone seasonal rain forests at Nonggang Nature Reserve, China from September 2005 to August 2006. Our results show that although macaques fed on many plant species, 85.2% of the diet came from only 12 species, of which a bamboo species, Indocalamus calcicolus contributed to 62% of the diet. Young leaves were staple food items (74.1% of the diet for Assamese macaques at Nonggang, and constituted the bulk of monthly diets almost year-round, ranging from 44.9% (July to 92.9% (May. Young parts of Indocalamus calcicolus unexpanded leaves contributed to a large proportion of the young leaf diet in most months. Fruit accounted for only 17.4% of the diet, with a peak of consumption in July. We suggest that this highly folivorous diet may be related to the long lean season of fruit availability in limestone habitats as well as the utilization of cliffs of low fruit availability [Current Zoology 57 (1: 18–25, 2011].

  20. Young macaques (Macaca fascicularis) preferentially bias attention towards closer, older, and better tool users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Amanda W Y; Hemelrijk, Charlotte K; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda; Gumert, Michael D

    2018-05-12

    Examining how animals direct social learning during skill acquisition under natural conditions, generates data for examining hypotheses regarding how transmission biases influence cultural change in animal populations. We studied a population of macaques on Koram Island, Thailand, and examined model-based biases during interactions by unskilled individuals with tool-using group members. We first compared the prevalence of interactions (watching, obtaining food, object exploration) and proximity to tool users during interactions, in developing individuals (infants, juveniles) versus mature non-learners (adolescents, adults), to provide evidence that developing individuals are actively seeking information about tool use from social partners. All infants and juveniles, but only 49% of mature individuals carried out interacted with tool users. Macaques predominantly obtained food by scrounging or stealing, suggesting maximizing scrounging opportunities motivates interactions with tool users. However, while interactions by adults was limited to obtaining food, young macaques and particularly infants also watched tool users and explored objects, indicating additional interest in tool use itself. We then ran matrix correlations to identify interaction biases, and what attributes of tool users influenced these. Biases correlated with social affiliation, but macaques also preferentially targeted tool users that potentially increase scrounging and learning opportunities. Results suggest that social structure may constrain social learning, but the motivation to bias interactions towards tool users to maximize feeding opportunities may also socially modulate learning by facilitating close proximity to better tool users, and further interest in tool-use actions and materials, especially during development.

  1. ON Bipolar Cells in Macaque Retina: Type-Specific Synaptic Connectivity with Special Reference to OFF Counterparts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Yoshihiko; Omi, Naoko

    2016-01-01

    To date, 12 macaque bipolar cell types have been described. This list includes all morphology types first outlined by Polyak (1941) using the Golgi method in the primate retina and subsequently identified by other researchers using electron microscopy (EM) combined with the Golgi method, serial section transmission EM (SSTEM), and immunohistochemical imaging. We used SSTEM for the rod-dense perifoveal area of macaque retina, reconfirmed ON (cone) bipolar cells to be classified as invaginating midget bipolar (IMB), diffuse bipolar (DB)4, DB5, DB6, giant bipolar (GB), and blue bipolar (BB) types, and clarified their type-specific connectivity. DB4 cells made reciprocal synapses with a kind of ON-OFF lateral amacrine cell, similar to OFF DB2 cells. GB cells contacted rods and cones, similar to OFF DB3b cells. Retinal circuits formed by GB and DB3b cells are thought to substantiate the psychophysical finding of fast rod signals in mesopic vision. DB6 cell output synapses were directed to ON midget ganglion (MG) cells at 70% of ribbon contacts, similar to OFF DB1 cells that directed 60% of ribbon contacts to OFF MG cells. IMB cells contacted medium- or long-wavelength sensitive (M/L-) cones but not short-wavelength sensitive (S-) cones, while BB cells contacted S-cones but not M/L-cones. However, IMB and BB dendrites had similar morphological architectures, and a BB cell contacting a single S-cone resembled an IMB cell. Thus, both IMB and BB may be the ON bipolar counterparts of the OFF flat midget bipolar (FMB) type, likewise DB4 of DB2, DB5 of DB3a, DB6 of DB1, and GB of DB3b OFF bipolar type. The ON DB plus GB, and OFF DB cells predominantly contacted M/L-cones and their outputs were directed mainly to parasol ganglion (PG) cells but also moderately to MG cells. BB cells directed S-cone-driven outputs almost exclusively to small bistratified ganglion (SBG) cells. Some FMB cells predominantly contacted S-cones and their outputs were directed to OFF MG cells. Thus, two

  2. Automatic phoneme category selectivity in the dorsal auditory stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevillet, Mark A; Jiang, Xiong; Rauschecker, Josef P; Riesenhuber, Maximilian

    2013-03-20

    Debates about motor theories of speech perception have recently been reignited by a burst of reports implicating premotor cortex (PMC) in speech perception. Often, however, these debates conflate perceptual and decision processes. Evidence that PMC activity correlates with task difficulty and subject performance suggests that PMC might be recruited, in certain cases, to facilitate category judgments about speech sounds (rather than speech perception, which involves decoding of sounds). However, it remains unclear whether PMC does, indeed, exhibit neural selectivity that is relevant for speech decisions. Further, it is unknown whether PMC activity in such cases reflects input via the dorsal or ventral auditory pathway, and whether PMC processing of speech is automatic or task-dependent. In a novel modified categorization paradigm, we presented human subjects with paired speech sounds from a phonetic continuum but diverted their attention from phoneme category using a challenging dichotic listening task. Using fMRI rapid adaptation to probe neural selectivity, we observed acoustic-phonetic selectivity in left anterior and left posterior auditory cortical regions. Conversely, we observed phoneme-category selectivity in left PMC that correlated with explicit phoneme-categorization performance measured after scanning, suggesting that PMC recruitment can account for performance on phoneme-categorization tasks. Structural equation modeling revealed connectivity from posterior, but not anterior, auditory cortex to PMC, suggesting a dorsal route for auditory input to PMC. Our results provide evidence for an account of speech processing in which the dorsal stream mediates automatic sensorimotor integration of speech and may be recruited to support speech decision tasks.

  3. Shape representations in the primate dorsal visual stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom eTheys

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The primate visual system extracts object shape information for object recognition in the ventral visual stream. Recent research has demonstrated that object shape is also processed in the dorsal visual stream, which is specialized for spatial vision and the planning of actions. A number of studies have investigated the coding of 2D shape in the anterior intraparietal area (AIP, one of the end-stage areas of the dorsal stream which has been implicated in the extraction of affordances for the purpose of grasping. These findings challenge the current understanding of area AIP as a critical stage in the dorsal stream for the extraction of object affordances. The representation of three-dimensional (3D shape has been studied in two interconnected areas known to be critical for object grasping: area AIP and area F5a in the ventral premotor cortex (PMv, to which AIP projects. In both areas neurons respond selectively to 3D shape defined by binocular disparity, but the latency of the neural selectivity is approximately 10 ms longer in F5a compared to AIP, consistent with its higher position in the hierarchy of cortical areas. Furthermore F5a neurons were more sensitive to small amplitudes of 3D curvature and could detect subtle differences in 3D structure more reliably than AIP neurons. In both areas, 3D-shape selective neurons were co-localized with neurons showing motor-related activity during object grasping in the dark, indicating a close convergence of visual and motor information on the same clusters of neurons.

  4. Directed shift of vaginal microbiota induced by vaginal application of sucrose gel in rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kai-tao; Zheng, Jin-xin; Yu, Zhi-jian; Chen, Zhong; Cheng, Hang; Pan, Wei-guang; Yang, Wei-zhi; Wang, Hong-yan; Deng, Qi-wen; Zeng, Zhong-ming

    2015-04-01

    Sucrose gel was used to treat bacterial vaginosis in a phase III clinical trial. However, the changes of vaginal flora after treatment were only examined by Nugent score in that clinical trial, While the vaginal microbiota of rhesus macaques is characterized by anaerobic, Gram-negative bacteria, few lactobacilli, and pH levels above 4.6, similar to the microbiota of patients with bacterial vaginosis. This study is aimed to investigate the change of the vaginal microbiota of rehsus macaques after topical use of sucrose gel to reveal more precisely the bacterial population shift after the topical application of sucrose gel. Sixteen rhesus macaques were treated with 0.5 g sucrose gel vaginally and three with 0.5 g of placebo gel. Vaginal swabs were collected daily following treatment. Vaginal pH levels and Nugent scores were recorded. The composition of the vaginal micotbiota was tested by V3∼V4 16S rDNA metagenomic sequencing. Dynamic changes in the Lactobacillus genus were analyzed by qPCR. The vaginal microbiota of rhesus macaques are dominated by anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria, with few lactobacilli and high pH levels above 4.6. After five days' treatment with topical sucrose gel, the component percentage of Lactobacillus in vaginal microbiota increased from 1.31% to 81.59%, while the component percentage of Porphyromonas decreased from 18.60% to 0.43%, Sneathia decreased from 15.09% to 0.89%, Mobiluncus decreased from 8.23% to 0.12%, etc.. The average vaginal pH values of 16 rhesus macaques of the sucrose gel group decreased from 5.4 to 3.89. There were no significant changes in microbiota and vaginal pH observed in the placebo group. Rhesus macaques can be used as animal models of bacterial vaginosis to develop drugs and test treatment efficacy. Furthermore, the topical application of sucrose gel induced the shifting of vaginal flora of rhesus macaques from a BV kind of flora to a lactobacilli-dominating flora. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by

  5. Covering the Dorsal Finger Defect with Reverse Cross Finger Flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaan Gurbuz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Reconstruction of finger extensor zone defects with or without tendon gaps still remains a challenge for surgeons. Although surgical treatments may differ, and range from the use of local, regional, to free flaps, the outcomes for all cases are not satisfactory. In this case report, we present a case of a 3rd finger extensor side crush injury including a defect of Dd (Digit Dorsal 1, Dd2 and Dd3 defects of extensor zones with tendon gap. Tendon gap was reconstructed using m. palmaris longus tendon graft and the defect was covered with reversed cross-finger flap (random pattern with good cosmetic and excellent functional results.

  6. Posture And Dorsal Shape At A Sitted Workstation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepoutre, F. X.; Cloup, P.; Guerra, T. M.

    1986-07-01

    The ergonomic analysis of a control or a supervision workstation for a vehicle or a process, necessitates to take into account the biomecanical visuo-postural system. The measurements, which are necessary to do, must give informations about the spatial direction of the limbs, the dorsal shape, eventually the eyes direction, and the postural evolution during the working time. More, the smallness of the work station, the backrest and sometime a vibratory environment made use specific, strong and small devices wich do not disturb the operator. The measurement system which we propose is made of an optical device. This system is studied in relation with the french "Institute de Recherche pour les Transports" for an ergonomic analysis of a truck cabin. The optical device consists on placing on the body of the driver on particular places materializing specially members and trunck joint points, some drops which reflect the infra-red raies coming from a specific light. Several cameras whose relative positions depend on the experiment site, transmit video signals to the associated treatment systems which extract the coordinates (Xi, Yi) of each drop in the observation scope of any camera. By regrouping the informations obtained from every view, it is possible to obtain the spatial drop position and then to restore the individual's posture in three dimensions. Therefore, this device doesn't enable us, in consideration of the backrest, to analyse the dorsal posture, which is important with regard to dorsal pains frequency. For that reason, we complete the measurements by using a "curvometer". This device consists of a flexible stick fixed upon the individual back with elastic belts, whose distorsions (curvature in m-1) are measured, in the individual's sagittal plane, with 4 strain gauges pairs; located approximately at the level of vertebra D1, D6, D10 and L3. A fifth measurement, concerning the inclination (in degree) of the lower part of the stick, makes it is possible to

  7. Adaptive evolution of simian immunodeficiency viruses isolated from two conventional progressor macaques with neuroaids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, Brian T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Korber, Bette T [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Simian immunodeficiency virus infection of macaques may result in neuroAIDS, a feature more commonly observed in macaques with rapid progressive disease than in those with conventional disease. This is the first report of two conventional progressors (H631 and H636) with encephalitis in rhesus macaques inoculated with a derivative of SIVsmES43-3. Phylogenetic analyses of viruses isolated from the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) and plasma from both animals demonstrated tissue compartmentalization. Additionally, virus from the central nervous system (CNS) was able to infect primary macaque monocyte-derived macrophages more efficiently than virus from plasma. Conversely, virus isolated from plasma was able to replicate better in peripheral blood mononuclear cells than virus from CNS. We speculate that these viruses were under different selective pressures in their separate compartments. Furthermore, these viruses appear to have undergone adaptive evolution to preferentially replicate in their respective cell targets. Analysis of the number of potential N-linked glycosylation sites (PNGS) in gp160 showed that there was a statistically significant loss of PNGS in viruses isolated from CNS in both macaques compared to SIVsmE543-3. Moreover, virus isolated from the brain in H631, had statistically significant loss of PNGS compared to virus isolated from CSF and plasma of the same animal. It is possible that the brain isolate may have adapted to decrease the number of PNGS given that humoral immune selection pressure is less likely to be encountered in the brain. These viruses provide a relevant model to study the adaptations required for SIV to induce encephalitis.

  8. Beneficial effect of hot spring bathing on stress levels in Japanese macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Rafaela S C; Bercovitch, Fred B; Kinoshita, Kodzue; Huffman, Michael A

    2018-05-01

    The ability of animals to survive dramatic climates depends on their physiology, morphology and behaviour, but is often influenced by the configuration of their habitat. Along with autonomic responses, thermoregulatory behaviours, including postural adjustments, social aggregation, and use of trees for shelter, help individuals maintain homeostasis across climate variations. Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) are the world's most northerly species of nonhuman primates and have adapted to extremely cold environments. Given that thermoregulatory stress can increase glucocorticoid concentrations in primates, we hypothesized that by using an available hot spring, Japanese macaques could gain protection against weather-induced cold stress during winter. We studied 12 adult female Japanese macaques living in Jigokudani Monkey Park, Japan, during the spring birth season (April to June) and winter mating season (October to December). We collected faecal samples for determination of faecal glucocorticoid (fGC) metabolite concentrations by enzyme immunoassay, as well as behavioural data to determine time spent in the hot springs, dominance rank, aggression rates, and affiliative behaviours. We used nonparametric statistics to examine seasonal changes in hot spring bathing, and the relationship between rank and air temperature on hot spring bathing. We used general linear mixed-effect models to examine factors impacting hormone concentrations. We found that Japanese macaques use hot spring bathing for thermoregulation during the winter. In the studied troop, the single hot spring is a restricted resource favoured by dominant females. High social rank had both costs and benefits: dominant females sustained high fGC levels, which were associated with high aggression rates in winter, but benefited by priority of access to the hot spring, which was associated with low fGC concentrations and therefore might help reduce energy expenditure and subsequent body heat loss. This unique

  9. Efficient generation of monoclonal antibodies from single rhesus macaque antibody secreting cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Weixu; Li, Leike; Xiong, Wei; Fan, Xuejun; Deng, Hui; Bett, Andrew J; Chen, Zhifeng; Tang, Aimin; Cox, Kara S; Joyce, Joseph G; Freed, Daniel C; Thoryk, Elizabeth; Fu, Tong-Ming; Casimiro, Danilo R; Zhang, Ningyan; A Vora, Kalpit; An, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Nonhuman primates (NHPs) are used as a preclinical model for vaccine development, and the antibody profiles to experimental vaccines in NHPs can provide critical information for both vaccine design and translation to clinical efficacy. However, an efficient protocol for generating monoclonal antibodies from single antibody secreting cells of NHPs is currently lacking. In this study we established a robust protocol for cloning immunoglobulin (IG) variable domain genes from single rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) antibody secreting cells. A sorting strategy was developed using a panel of molecular markers (CD3, CD19, CD20, surface IgG, intracellular IgG, CD27, Ki67 and CD38) to identify the kinetics of B cell response after vaccination. Specific primers for the rhesus macaque IG genes were designed and validated using cDNA isolated from macaque peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Cloning efficiency was averaged at 90% for variable heavy (VH) and light (VL) domains, and 78.5% of the clones (n = 335) were matched VH and VL pairs. Sequence analysis revealed that diverse IGHV subgroups (for VH) and IGKV and IGLV subgroups (for VL) were represented in the cloned antibodies. The protocol was tested in a study using an experimental dengue vaccine candidate. About 26.6% of the monoclonal antibodies cloned from the vaccinated rhesus macaques react with the dengue vaccine antigens. These results validate the protocol for cloning monoclonal antibodies in response to vaccination from single macaque antibody secreting cells, which have general applicability for determining monoclonal antibody profiles in response to other immunogens or vaccine studies of interest in NHPs.

  10. A MIV-150/zinc acetate gel inhibits SHIV-RT infection in macaque vaginal explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnable, Patrick; Calenda, Giulia; Ouattara, Louise; Gettie, Agegnehu; Blanchard, James; Jean-Pierre, Ninochka; Kizima, Larisa; Rodríguez, Aixa; Abraham, Ciby; Menon, Radhika; Seidor, Samantha; Cooney, Michael L; Roberts, Kevin D; Sperling, Rhoda; Piatak, Michael; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Fernandez-Romero, Jose A; Zydowsky, Thomas M; Robbiani, Melissa; Teleshova, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    To extend our observations that single or repeated application of a gel containing the NNRTI MIV-150 (M) and zinc acetate dihydrate (ZA) in carrageenan (CG) (MZC) inhibits vaginal transmission of simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)-RT in macaques, we evaluated safety and anti-SHIV-RT activity of MZC and related gel formulations ex vivo in macaque mucosal explants. In addition, safety was further evaluated in human ectocervical explants. The gels did not induce mucosal toxicity. A single ex vivo exposure to diluted MZC (1∶30, 1∶100) and MC (1∶30, the only dilution tested), but not to ZC gel, up to 4 days prior to viral challenge, significantly inhibited SHIV-RT infection in macaque vaginal mucosa. MZC's activity was not affected by seminal plasma. The antiviral activity of unformulated MIV-150 was not enhanced in the presence of ZA, suggesting that the antiviral activity of MZC was mediated predominantly by MIV-150. In vivo administration of MZC and CG significantly inhibited ex vivo SHIV-RT infection (51-62% inhibition relative to baselines) of vaginal (but not cervical) mucosa collected 24 h post last gel exposure, indicating barrier effect of CG. Although the inhibitory effect of MZC (65-74%) did not significantly differ from CG (32-45%), it was within the range of protection (∼75%) against vaginal SHIV-RT challenge 24 h after gel dosing. Overall, the data suggest that evaluation of candidate microbicides in macaque explants can inform macaque efficacy and clinical studies design. The data support advancing MZC gel for clinical evaluation.

  11. Noninvasive scalp recording of cortical auditory evoked potentials in the alert macaque monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Kosuke; Nejime, Masafumi; Konoike, Naho; Nakada, Tsutomu; Nakamura, Katsuki

    2015-09-01

    Scalp-recorded evoked potentials (EP) provide researchers and clinicians with irreplaceable means for recording stimulus-related neural activities in the human brain, due to its high temporal resolution, handiness, and, perhaps more importantly, non-invasiveness. This work recorded the scalp cortical auditory EP (CAEP) in unanesthetized monkeys by using methods that are essentially identical to those applied to humans. Young adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta, 5-7 years old) were seated in a monkey chair, and their head movements were partially restricted by polystyrene blocks and tension poles placed around their head. Individual electrodes were fixated on their scalp using collodion according to the 10-20 system. Pure tone stimuli were presented while electroencephalograms were recorded from up to nineteen channels, including an electrooculogram channel. In all monkeys (n = 3), the recorded CAEP comprised a series of positive and negative deflections, labeled here as macaque P1 (mP1), macaque N1 (mN1), macaque P2 (mP2), and macaque N2 (mN2), and these transient responses to sound onset were followed by a sustained potential that continued for the duration of the sound, labeled the macaque sustained potential (mSP). mP1, mN2 and mSP were the prominent responses, and they had maximal amplitudes over frontal/central midline electrode sites, consistent with generators in auditory cortices. The study represents the first noninvasive scalp recording of CAEP in alert rhesus monkeys, to our knowledge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Cabotegravir long acting injection protects macaques against intravenous challenge with SIVmac251.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Chasity D; Bernard, Leslie St; Poon, Amanda Yee; Mohri, Hiroshi; Gettie, Natanya; Spreen, William R; Gettie, Agegnehu; Russell-Lodrigue, Kasi; Blanchard, James; Hong, Zhi; Ho, David D; Markowitz, Martin

    2017-02-20

    We evaluated the effectiveness of cabotegravir (CAB; GSK1265744 or GSK744) long acting as preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) against intravenous simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) challenge in a model that mimics blood transfusions based on the per-act probability of infection. CAB long acting is an integrase strand transfer inhibitor formulated as a 200 mg/ml injectable nanoparticle suspension that is an effective PrEP agent against rectal and vaginal simian/human immunodeficiency virus transmission in macaques. Three groups of rhesus macaques (n = 8 per group) were injected intramuscularly with CAB long acting and challenged intravenously with 17 animal infectious dose 50% SIVmac251 on week 2. Group 1 was injected with 50 mg/kg on week 0 and 4 to evaluate the protective efficacy of the CAB long-acting dose used in macaque studies mimicking sexual transmission. Group 2 was injected with 50 mg/kg on week 0 to evaluate the necessity of the second injection of CAB long acting for protection against intravenous challenge. Group 3 was injected with 25 mg/kg on week 0 and 50 mg/kg on week 4 to correlate CAB plasma concentrations at the time of challenge with protection. Five additional macaques remained untreated as controls. CAB long acting was highly protective with 21 of the 24 CAB long-acting-treated macaques remaining aviremic, resulting in 88% protection. The plasma CAB concentration at the time of virus challenge appeared to be more important for protection than sustaining therapeutic plasma concentrations with the second CAB long acting injection. These results support the clinical investigation of CAB long acting as PrEP in people who inject drugs.

  13. A MIV-150/zinc acetate gel inhibits SHIV-RT infection in macaque vaginal explants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Barnable

    Full Text Available To extend our observations that single or repeated application of a gel containing the NNRTI MIV-150 (M and zinc acetate dihydrate (ZA in carrageenan (CG (MZC inhibits vaginal transmission of simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV-RT in macaques, we evaluated safety and anti-SHIV-RT activity of MZC and related gel formulations ex vivo in macaque mucosal explants. In addition, safety was further evaluated in human ectocervical explants. The gels did not induce mucosal toxicity. A single ex vivo exposure to diluted MZC (1∶30, 1∶100 and MC (1∶30, the only dilution tested, but not to ZC gel, up to 4 days prior to viral challenge, significantly inhibited SHIV-RT infection in macaque vaginal mucosa. MZC's activity was not affected by seminal plasma. The antiviral activity of unformulated MIV-150 was not enhanced in the presence of ZA, suggesting that the antiviral activity of MZC was mediated predominantly by MIV-150. In vivo administration of MZC and CG significantly inhibited ex vivo SHIV-RT infection (51-62% inhibition relative to baselines of vaginal (but not cervical mucosa collected 24 h post last gel exposure, indicating barrier effect of CG. Although the inhibitory effect of MZC (65-74% did not significantly differ from CG (32-45%, it was within the range of protection (∼75% against vaginal SHIV-RT challenge 24 h after gel dosing. Overall, the data suggest that evaluation of candidate microbicides in macaque explants can inform macaque efficacy and clinical studies design. The data support advancing MZC gel for clinical evaluation.

  14. Laterally loaded masonry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun Gottfredsen, F.

    In this thesis results from experiments on mortar joints and masonry as well as methods of calculation of strength and deformation of laterally loaded masonry are presented. The strength and deformation capacity of mortar joints have been determined from experiments involving a constant compressive...... stress and increasing shear. The results show a transition to pure friction as the cohesion is gradually destroyed. An interface model of a mortar joint that can take into account this aspect has been developed. Laterally loaded masonry panels have also been tested and it is found to be characteristic...... that laterally loaded masonry exhibits a non-linear load-displacement behaviour with some ductility....

  15. Frontoparietal Tracts Linked to Lateralized Hand Preference and Manual Specialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howells, Henrietta; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Beyh, Ahmad; Zappalà, Giuseppe; Leslie, Anoushka; Simmons, Andrew; Murphy, Declan G; Catani, Marco

    2018-04-21

    Humans show a preference for using the right hand over the left for tasks and activities of everyday life. While experimental work in non-human primates has identified the neural systems responsible for reaching and grasping, the neural basis of lateralized motor behavior in humans remains elusive. The advent of diffusion imaging tractography for studying connectional anatomy in the living human brain provides the possibility of understanding the relationship between hemispheric asymmetry, hand preference, and manual specialization. In this study, diffusion tractography was used to demonstrate an interaction between hand preference and the asymmetry of frontoparietal tracts, specifically the dorsal branch of the superior longitudinal fasciculus, responsible for visuospatial integration and motor planning. This is in contrast to the corticospinal tract and the superior cerebellar peduncle, for which asymmetry was not related to hand preference. Asymmetry of the dorsal frontoparietal tract was also highly correlated with the degree of lateralization in tasks requiring visuospatial integration and fine motor control. These results suggest a common anatomical substrate for hand preference and lateralized manual specialization in frontoparietal tracts important for visuomotor processing.

  16. Asymmetric Dichoptic Masking in Visual Cortex of Amblyopic Macaque Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shooner, Christopher; Hallum, Luke E; Kumbhani, Romesh D; García-Marín, Virginia; Kelly, Jenna G; Majaj, Najib J; Movshon, J Anthony; Kiorpes, Lynne

    2017-09-06

    In amblyopia, abnormal visual experience leads to an extreme form of eye dominance, in which vision through the nondominant eye is degraded. A key aspect of this disorder is perceptual suppression: the image seen by the stronger eye often dominates during binocular viewing, blocking the image of the weaker eye from reaching awareness. Interocular suppression is the focus of ongoing work aimed at understanding and treating amblyopia, yet its physiological basis remains unknown. We measured binocular interactions in visual cortex of anesthetized amblyopic monkeys (female Macaca nemestrina ), using 96-channel "Utah" arrays to record from populations of neurons in V1 and V2. In an experiment reported recently (Hallum et al., 2017), we found that reduced excitatory input from the amblyopic eye (AE) revealed a form of balanced binocular suppression that is unaltered in amblyopia. Here, we report on the modulation of the gain of excitatory signals from the AE by signals from its dominant fellow eye (FE). Using a dichoptic masking technique, we found that AE responses to grating stimuli were attenuated by the presentation of a noise mask to the FE, as in a normal control animal. Responses to FE stimuli, by contrast, could not be masked from the AE. We conclude that a weakened ability of the amblyopic eye to modulate cortical response gain creates an imbalance of suppression that favors the dominant eye. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In amblyopia, vision in one eye is impaired as a result of abnormal early visual experience. Behavioral observations in humans with amblyopia suggest that much of their visual loss is due to active suppression of their amblyopic eye. Here we describe experiments in which we studied binocular interactions in macaques with experimentally induced amblyopia. In normal monkeys, the gain of neuronal response to stimulation of one eye is modulated by contrast in the other eye, but in monkeys with amblyopia the balance of gain modulation is altered so that

  17. Lateral Nail Fold Incision Technique for Venous Anastomosis in Fingertip Replantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Byung-Joon; Yang, Jae-Won; Roh, Si Young; Ki, Sae Hwi; Lee, Dong Chul; Kim, Jin Soo

    2016-01-01

    Successful venous anastomosis is one of the most important factors in fingertip replantation. Volar veins in the fingertip course proximally in a random pattern, which makes it difficult to find out the exact locations. Although dorsal veins in the lateral nail fold have constant location and adequate diameter for anastomosis, they have been known as hard to dissect from the immobile subcutaneous tissue. The authors present a new lateral nail fold incision technique for venous anastomosis in the fingertip amputations. From February 2010 to October 2010, 9 replantations using the new incision and venous anastomosis technique were performed in 9 patients. The levels of amputations were from the nail base to half of the nail bed. After repairing the proper digital arteries, a skin incision was made along the junction between the lateral nail fold and nail bed. Careful dissection was performed to isolate the veins in the lateral nail fold. After evaluation of the suitability of the vessel, venous anastomosis was performed. Seven male and 2 female patients were enrolled in this study. Appropriate dorsal veins for anastomosis could be found in 8 of 9 patients. All the replanted stumps survived without venous congestion and following additional procedures. A sizable volar or dorsal vein could not be found in 1 patient. The salvage technique was required in this patient. Dorsal veins in the lateral nail fold can be found easily because of the constant anatomical location. The new incision on the lateral nail fold provides not only sufficient operative field for anastomosis but also additional opportunity of successful venous anastomosis in the selected cases. The authors, therefore, propose this technique as an effective method for an alternative venous anastomosis in the zone I replantation.

  18. Later zaaien kost opbrengst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alblas, J.

    2000-01-01

    Onderzoek naar de gevolgen van het uitstellen van het zaaitijdstip op de gewasproductie en op opbrengstderving, bijvoorbeeld doordat de grond later bewerkt kan worden door een hogere grondwaterstand als gevolg van peilverhoging

  19. Synaptically evoked glutamate transporter currents in Spinal Dorsal Horn Astrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dougherty Patrick M

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Removing and sequestering synaptically released glutamate from the extracellular space is carried out by specific plasma membrane transporters that are primarily located in astrocytes. Glial glutamate transporter function can be monitored by recording the currents that are produced by co-transportation of Na+ ions with the uptake of glutamate. The goal of this study was to characterize glutamate transporter function in astrocytes of the spinal cord dorsal horn in real time by recording synaptically evoked glutamate transporter currents. Results Whole-cell patch clamp recordings were obtained from astrocytes in the spinal substantia gelatinosa (SG area in spinal slices of young adult rats. Glutamate transporter currents were evoked in these cells by electrical stimulation at the spinal dorsal root entry zone in the presence of bicuculline, strychnine, DNQX and D-AP5. Transporter currents were abolished when synaptic transmission was blocked by TTX or Cd2+. Pharmacological studies identified two subtypes of glutamate transporters in spinal astrocytes, GLAST and GLT-1. Glutamate transporter currents were graded with stimulus intensity, reaching peak responses at 4 to 5 times activation threshold, but were reduced following low-frequency (0.1 – 1 Hz repetitive stimulation. Conclusion These results suggest that glutamate transporters of spinal astrocytes could be activated by synaptic activation, and recording glutamate transporter currents may provide a means of examining the real time physiological responses of glial cells in spinal sensory processing, sensitization, hyperalgesia and chronic pain.

  20. High plasticity in epithelial morphogenesis during insect dorsal closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen A. Panfilio

    2013-09-01

    Insect embryos complete the outer form of the body via dorsal closure (DC of the epidermal flanks, replacing the transient extraembryonic (EE tissue. Cell shape changes and morphogenetic behavior are well characterized for DC in Drosophila, but these data represent a single species with a secondarily reduced EE component (the amnioserosa that is not representative across the insects. Here, we examine DC in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, providing the first detailed, functional analysis of DC in an insect with complete EE tissues (distinct amnion and serosa. Surprisingly, we find that differences between Drosophila and Tribolium DC are not restricted to the EE tissue, but also encompass the dorsal epidermis, which differs in cellular architecture and method of final closure (zippering. We then experimentally manipulated EE tissue complement via RNAi for Tc-zen1, allowing us to eliminate the serosa and still examine viable DC in a system with a single EE tissue (the amnion. We find that the EE domain is particularly plastic in morphogenetic behavior and tissue structure. In contrast, embryonic features and overall kinetics are robust to Tc-zen1RNAi manipulation in Tribolium and conserved with a more distantly related insect, but remain substantially different from Drosophila. Although correct DC is essential, plasticity and regulative, compensatory capacity have permitted DC to evolve within the insects. Thus, DC does not represent a strong developmental constraint on the nature of EE development, a property that may have contributed to the reduction of the EE component in the fly lineage.

  1. Patella dislocation with vertical axis rotation: the "dorsal fin" patella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, David; Otto, Quentin; Carrothers, Andrew D; Khanduja, Vikas

    2015-01-01

    A 44-year-old woman presented following minor trauma to her right knee. While dancing she externally rotated around a planted foot and felt sudden pain in her right knee. She presented with her knee locked in extension with a "dorsal fin" appearance of the soft tissues tented over the patella. This was diagnosed as a rare case of an intraarticular patella dislocation, which was rotated 90 degrees about the vertical axis. Closed reduction in the emergency room was unsuccessful but was achieved in theatre under general anaesthetic with muscle relaxation. Postreduction arthroscopy demonstrated that no osteochondral or soft tissue damage to the knee had been sustained. In patients presenting with a knee locked in extension with tenting of skin over the patella (the "dorsal fin" appearance), intra-articular patella dislocation should be suspected. Attempts to reduce vertical patella dislocations under sedation with excessive force or repeatedly without success should be avoided to prevent unnecessary damage to the patellofemoral joint. In this clinical situation we recommend closed reduction under general anaesthetic followed by immediate knee arthroscopy under the same anaesthetic to ensure that there is no chondral damage to the patella or femoral trochlea and to rule out an osteochondral fracture.

  2. Retinal glia promote dorsal root ganglion axon regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Lorber

    Full Text Available Axon regeneration in the adult central nervous system (CNS is limited by several factors including a lack of neurotrophic support. Recent studies have shown that glia from the adult rat CNS, specifically retinal astrocytes and Müller glia, can promote regeneration of retinal ganglion cell axons. In the present study we investigated whether retinal glia also exert a growth promoting effect outside the visual system. We found that retinal glial conditioned medium significantly enhanced neurite growth and branching of adult rat dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRG in culture. Furthermore, transplantation of retinal glia significantly enhanced regeneration of DRG axons past the dorsal root entry zone after root crush in adult rats. To identify the factors that mediate the growth promoting effects of retinal glia, mass spectrometric analysis of retinal glial conditioned medium was performed. Apolipoprotein E and secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC were found to be present in high abundance, a finding further confirmed by western blotting. Inhibition of Apolipoprotein E and SPARC significantly reduced the neuritogenic effects of retinal glial conditioned medium on DRG in culture, suggesting that Apolipoprotein E and SPARC are the major mediators of this regenerative response.

  3. LATERAL ANKLE INJURY

    OpenAIRE

    Pollard, Henry; Sim, Patrick; McHardy, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Background: Injury to the ankle joint is the most common peripheral joint injury. The sports that most commonly produce high ankle injury rates in their participating athletes include: basketball, netball, and the various codes of football. Objective: To provide an up to date understanding of manual therapy relevant to lateral ligament injury of the ankle. A discussion of the types of ligament injury and common complicating factors that present with lateral ankle pain is presented along with ...

  4. Environmental enrichment increases transcriptional and epigenetic differentiation between mouse dorsal and ventral dentate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tie-Yuan; Keown, Christopher L; Wen, Xianglan; Li, Junhao; Vousden, Dulcie A; Anacker, Christoph; Bhattacharyya, Urvashi; Ryan, Richard; Diorio, Josie; O'Toole, Nicholas; Lerch, Jason P; Mukamel, Eran A; Meaney, Michael J

    2018-01-19

    Early life experience influences stress reactivity and mental health through effects on cognitive-emotional functions that are, in part, linked to gene expression in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus. The hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) is a major site for experience-dependent plasticity associated with sustained transcriptional alterations, potentially mediated by epigenetic modifications. Here, we report comprehensive DNA methylome, hydroxymethylome and transcriptome data sets from mouse dorsal and ventral DG. We find genome-wide transcriptional and methylation differences between dorsal and ventral DG, including at key developmental transcriptional factors. Peripubertal environmental enrichment increases hippocampal volume and enhances dorsal DG-specific differences in gene expression. Enrichment also enhances dorsal-ventral differences in DNA methylation, including at binding sites of the transcription factor NeuroD1, a regulator of adult neurogenesis. These results indicate a dorsal-ventral asymmetry in transcription and methylation that parallels well-known functional and anatomical differences, and that may be enhanced by environmental enrichment.

  5. [Lateral epicondylitis: conservative - operative].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, Burak; Greiner, Stefan

    2016-10-01

    Lateral epicondylitis is a common disease of the common extensor origin at the lateral humerus. Despite its common self-limitation it can lead to chronic therapy-resistant pain with remarkable functional disability of the affected arm. Different conservative and operative treatment options of lateral epicondylitis are described and compared regarding benefits and risks. Additionally, recent surgical techniques and their complications are mentioned. Based on the current literature, it is shown which treatment option can be recommended. This review was based on the literature analysis in PubMed regarding "conservative and operative therapy of lateral epicondylitis" as well as the clinical experience of the authors. Conservative treatment is the primary choice for the treatment of lateral epicondylitis if concomitant pathologies such as instability among others can be excluded. It should include strengthening against resistance with eccentric stretching of the extensor group. In persistent cases, operative treatment is warranted. Resection of the pathologic tissue at the extensor origin with debridement and refixation of the healthy tendinous tissue yields good results. Most patients with lateral epicondylitis can be treated conservatively with success. Radiological evaluation should be performed in therapy-resistant cases. In the case of partial or complete rupture of the extensor origin, operative therapy is indicated.

  6. Right hemisphere dominance during spatial selective attention and target detection occurs outside the dorsal fronto-parietal network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Gordon L.; Pope, Daniel L. W.; Astafiev, Serguei V.; McAvoy, Mark P.; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Corbetta, Maurizio

    2010-01-01

    Spatial selective attention is widely considered to be right hemisphere dominant. Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies, however, have reported bilateral blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) responses in dorsal fronto-parietal regions during anticipatory shifts of attention to a location (Kastner et al., 1999; Corbetta et al., 2000; Hopfinger et al., 2000). Right-lateralized activity has mainly been reported in ventral fronto-parietal regions for shifts of attention to an unattended target stimulus (Arrington et al., 2000; Corbetta et al., 2000). However, clear conclusions cannot be drawn from these studies because hemispheric asymmetries were not assessed using direct voxel-wise comparisons of activity in left and right hemispheres. Here, we used this technique to measure hemispheric asymmetries during shifts of spatial attention evoked by a peripheral cue stimulus and during target detection at the cued location. Stimulus-driven shifts of spatial attention in both visual fields evoked right-hemisphere dominant activity in temporo-parietal junction (TPJ). Target detection at the attended location produced a more widespread right hemisphere dominance in frontal, parietal, and temporal cortex, including the TPJ region asymmetrically activated during shifts of spatial attention. However, hemispheric asymmetries were not observed during either shifts of attention or target detection in the dorsal fronto-parietal regions (anterior precuneus, medial intraparietal sulcus, frontal eye fields) that showed the most robust activations for shifts of attention. Therefore, right hemisphere dominance during stimulus-driven shifts of spatial attention and target detection reflects asymmetries in cortical regions that are largely distinct from the dorsal fronto-parietal network involved in the control of selective attention. PMID:20219998

  7. Pair housing for female longtailed and rhesus macaques in the laboratory: behavior in protected contact versus full contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kate C; Crockett, Carolyn M; Lee, Grace H; Oettinger, Brooke C; Schoof, Valérie; Thom, Jinhee P

    2012-01-01

    Pair housing for caged macaques in the laboratory generally allows unrestricted tactile contact but, less commonly, may involve limited contact via grooming-contact bars or perforated panels. The purpose of using this protected contact housing, which prevents entry into pair-mates' cages, typically is to accommodate research and management requirements. The study used behavioral data collected on 12 pairs of female longtailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) at the Washington National Primate Research Center and 7 pairs of female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) housed at the Tulane National Primate Research Center to assess the relative benefits of protected versus full protected contact. The study collected data in stable pairs housed first in protected contact followed by full contact. Species combined, the study found the presence of the panel was associated with lower levels of social grooming and higher levels of self-grooming, abnormal behavior, and tension-related behavior. Within species, only the protected- versus full-contact contrasts for abnormal and tension were statistically significant-and only for rhesus macaques. Results suggest that for female rhesus macaques, potential disadvantages or inconveniences of full contact should be balanced against the improved behavioral profile in comparison to protected contact. The use of protected contact among female longtailed macaques does not appear to require the same cost-benefit analysis. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  8. Dorsal lateral geniculate substructure in the Long-Evans rat: A cholera toxin B-subunit study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire B. Discenza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The pigmented rat is an increasingly important model in visual neuroscience research, yet the lamination of retinal projections in the dLGN has not been examined in sufficient detail. From previous studies it was known that most of the rat dLGN receives monocular input from the contralateral eye, with a small island receiving predominantly ipsilateral projections. Here we revisit the question using cholera toxin B subunit (CTB, a tracer that efficiently fills retinal terminals after intra-ocular injection. We imaged retinal termini throughout the dLGN at 0.5 um resolution and traced areas of ipsilateral and contralateral terminals to obtain a high resolution 3D reconstruction of the projection pattern. Retinal termini in the dLGN are well segregated by eye of origin, as expected. We find, however, that the ipsilateral projections form multiple discrete projection zones in three dimensions, not the single island previously described. It remains to be determined whether these subdomains represent distinct functional sublaminae, as is the case in other mammals.

  9. THE FATE OF MDACH1-EXPRESSING CELLS IN THE DORSAL PART OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLES FOLLOWING FOCAL CEREBRAL ISCHEMIA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Butenko, Olena; Benešová, Jana; Mikešová, M.; Honsa, Pavel; Džamba, Dávid; Kriška, Ján; Rusňáková, Vendula; Kubista, Mikael; Anděrová, Miroslava

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 61, Supplement 1 (2013), S207-S207 ISSN 0894-1491. [European Meeting on Glia l Cell Function in Health and Disease /11./. 03.07.2013-06.07.2013, Berlin] Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : neuroscience * astrocyte Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  10. THE FATE OF MDACH1-EXPRESSING CELLS IN THE DORSAL PART OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLES FOLLOWING FOCAL CEREBRAL ISCHEMIA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Anděrová, Miroslava; Pivoňková, Helena; Honsa, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 61, Supplement 1 (2013), S125-S126 ISSN 0894-1491. [European Meeting on Glia l Cell Function in Health and Disease /11./. 03.07.2013-06.07.2013, Berlin] Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : cerebral ischemia * neuroscience * MDACH1 Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  11. [The crooked nose: correction of dorsal and caudal septal deviations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, H M T

    2010-09-01

    The deviated nose represents a complex cosmetic and functional problem. Septal surgery plays a central role in the successful management of the externally deviated nose. This study included 800 patients seeking rhinoplasty to correct external nasal deviations; 71% of these suffered from variable degrees of nasal obstruction. Septal surgery was necessary in 736 (92%) patients, not only to improve breathing, but also to achieve a straight, symmetric external nose. A graduated surgical approach was adopted to allow correction of the dorsal and caudal deviations of the nasal septum without weakening its structural support to the nasal dorsum or nasal tip. The approach depended on full mobilization of deviated cartilage, followed by straightening of the cartilage and its fixation in the corrected position by using bony splinting grafts through an external rhinoplasty approach.

  12. Direct dorsal hippocampal-prelimbic cortex connections strengthen fear memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiaojing; Kapeller-Libermann, Dana; Travaglia, Alessio; Inda, M Carmen; Alberini, Cristina M

    2017-01-01

    The ability to regulate the consolidation and strengthening of memories for threatening experiences is critical for mental health, and its dysregulation may lead to psychopathologies. Re-exposure to the context in which the threat was experienced can either increase or decrease fear response through distinct processes known, respectively, as reconsolidation or extinction. Using a context retrieval-dependent memory-enhancement model in rats, we report that memory strengthens through activation of direct projections from dorsal hippocampus to prelimbic (PL) cortex and activation of critical PL molecular mechanisms that are not required for extinction. Furthermore, while sustained PL brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression is required for memory consolidation, retrieval engages PL BDNF to regulate excitatory and inhibitory synaptic proteins neuroligin 1 and neuroligin 2, which promote memory strengthening while inhibiting extinction. Thus, context retrieval-mediated fear-memory enhancement results from a concerted action of mechanisms that strengthen memory through reconsolidation while suppressing extinction.

  13. Dorsal Raphe Dopamine Neurons Represent the Experience of Social Isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Gillian A.; Nieh, Edward H.; Vander Weele, Caitlin M.; Halbert, Sarah A.; Pradhan, Roma V.; Yosafat, Ariella S.; Glober, Gordon F.; Izadmehr, Ehsan M.; Thomas, Rain E.; Lacy, Gabrielle D.; Wildes, Craig P.; Ungless, Mark A.; Tye, Kay M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The motivation to seek social contact may arise from either positive or negative emotional states, as social interaction can be rewarding and social isolation can be aversive. While ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neurons may mediate social reward, a cellular substrate for the negative affective state of loneliness has remained elusive. Here, we identify a functional role for DA neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), in which we observe synaptic changes following acute social isolation. DRN DA neurons show increased activity upon social contact following isolation, revealed by in vivo calcium imaging. Optogenetic activation of DRN DA neurons increases social preference but causes place avoidance. Furthermore, these neurons are necessary for promoting rebound sociability following an acute period of isolation. Finally, the degree to which these neurons modulate behavior is predicted by social rank, together supporting a role for DRN dopamine neurons in mediating a loneliness-like state. PaperClip PMID:26871628

  14. Spinal dorsal horn astrocytes: New players in chronic itch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Tsuda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic itch is a debilitating symptom of inflammatory skin conditions, such as atopic dermatitis, and systemic diseases, for which existing treatment is largely ineffective. Recent studies have revealed the selective neuronal pathways that are involved in itch sensations; however, the mechanisms by which itch turns into a pathological chronic state are poorly understood. Recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms producing chronic itch have been made by defining causal roles for astrocytes in the spinal dorsal horn in mouse models of chronic itch including atopic dermatitis. Understanding the key roles of astrocytes may provide us with exciting insights into the mechanisms for itch chronicity and lead to a previously unrecognized target for treating chronic itch.

  15. Preventing Errors in Laterality

    OpenAIRE

    Landau, Elliot; Hirschorn, David; Koutras, Iakovos; Malek, Alexander; Demissie, Seleshie

    2014-01-01

    An error in laterality is the reporting of a finding that is present on the right side as on the left or vice versa. While different medical and surgical specialties have implemented protocols to help prevent such errors, very few studies have been published that describe these errors in radiology reports and ways to prevent them. We devised a system that allows the radiologist to view reports in a separate window, displayed in a simple font and with all terms of laterality highlighted in sep...

  16. Inputs to the dorsal striatum of the mouse conserve the parallel circuit architecture of the forebrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weixing X Pan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The basal ganglia play a critical role in the regulation of voluntary action in vertebrates. Our understanding of the function of the basal ganglia relies heavily upon anatomical information, but continued progress will require an understanding of the specific functional roles played by diverse cell types and their connectivity. An increasing number of mouse lines allow extensive identification, characterization, and, manipulation of specified cell types in the basal ganglia. Despite the promise of genetically modified mice for elucidating the functional roles of diverse cell types, there is relatively little anatomical data obtained directly in the mouse. Here we have characterized the retrograde labeling obtained from a series of tracer injections throughout the dorsal striatum of adult mice. We found systematic variations in input along both the medial-lateral and anterior-posterior neuraxes in close agreement with canonical features of basal ganglia anatomy in the rat. In addition to the canonical features we have provided experimental support for the importance of non-canonical inputs to the striatum from the raphe nuclei and the amygdala. To look for organization at a finer scale we have analyzed the correlation structure of labeling intensity across our entire dataset. Using this analysis we found substantial local heterogeneity within the large-scale order. From this analysis we conclude that individual striatal sites receive varied combinations of cortical and thalamic input from multiple functional areas, consistent with some earlier studies in the rat that have suggested the presence of a combinatorial map.

  17. Inputs to the dorsal striatum of the mouse reflect the parallel circuit architecture of the forebrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Weixing X; Mao, Tianyi; Dudman, Joshua T

    2010-01-01

    The basal ganglia play a critical role in the regulation of voluntary action in vertebrates. Our understanding of the function of the basal ganglia relies heavily upon anatomical information, but continued progress will require an understanding of the specific functional roles played by diverse cell types and their connectivity. An increasing number of mouse lines allow extensive identification, characterization, and manipulation of specified cell types in the basal ganglia. Despite the promise of genetically modified mice for elucidating the functional roles of diverse cell types, there is relatively little anatomical data obtained directly in the mouse. Here we have characterized the retrograde labeling obtained from a series of tracer injections throughout the dorsal striatum of adult mice. We found systematic variations in input along both the medial-lateral and anterior-posterior neuraxes in close agreement with canonical features of basal ganglia anatomy in the rat. In addition to the canonical features we have provided experimental support for the importance of non-canonical inputs to the striatum from the raphe nuclei and the amygdala. To look for organization at a finer scale we have analyzed the correlation structure of labeling intensity across our entire dataset. Using this analysis we found substantial local heterogeneity within the large-scale order. From this analysis we conclude that individual striatal sites receive varied combinations of cortical and thalamic input from multiple functional areas, consistent with some earlier studies in the rat that have suggested the presence of a combinatorial map.

  18. The role of the transcription factor Rbpj in the development of dorsal root ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jia-Yin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dorsal root ganglion (DRG is composed of well-characterized populations of sensory neurons and glia derived from a common pool of neural crest stem cells (NCCs, and is a good system to study the mechanisms of neurogenesis and gliogenesis. Notch signaling is known to play important roles in DRG development, but the full scope of Notch functions in mammalian DRG development remains poorly understood. Results In the present study, we used Wnt1-Cre to conditionally inactivate the transcription factor Rbpj, a critical integrator of activation signals from all Notch receptors, in NCCs and their derived cells. Deletion of Rbpj caused the up-regulation of NeuroD1 and precocious neurogenesis in DRG early development but led to an eventual deficit of sensory neurons at later stages, due to reduced cell proliferation and abnormal cell death. In addition, gliogenesis was delayed initially, but a near-complete loss of glia was observed finally in Rbpj-deficient DRG. Furthermore, we found P75 and Sox10, which are normally expressed exclusively in neuronal and glial progenitors of the DRG after the NCCs have completed their migration, were co-expressed in many cells of the DRG of Rbpj conditional knock-out mice. Conclusions Our data indicate that Rbpj-mediated canonical Notch signaling inhibits DRG neuronal differentiation, possibly by regulating NeuroD1 expression, and is required for DRG gliogenesis in vivo.

  19. Direct Neuronal Glucose Uptake Is Required for Contextual Fear Acquisition in the Dorsal Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Kong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The metabolism of glucose is a nearly exclusive source of energy for maintaining neuronal survival, synaptic transmission and information processing in the brain. Two glucose metabolism pathways have been reported, direct neuronal glucose uptake and the astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle (ANLS, which can be involved in these functions simultaneously or separately. Although ANLS in the dorsal hippocampus (DH has been proved to be required for memory consolidation, the specific metabolic pathway involved during memory acquisition remains unclear. The DH and amygdala are two key brain regions for acquisition of contextual fear conditioning (CFC. In 2-NBDG experiments, we observed that 2-NBDG-positive neurons were significantly increased during the acquisition of CFC in the DH. However, in the amygdala and cerebellum, 2-NBDG-positive neurons were not changed during CFC training. Strikingly, microinjection of a glucose transporter (GLUT inhibitor into the DH decreased freezing values during CFC training and 1 h later, while injection of a monocarboxylate transporter (MCT inhibitor into the amygdala also reduced freezing values. Therefore, we demonstrated that direct neuronal glucose uptake was the primary means of energy supply in the DH, while ANLS might supply energy in the amygdala during acquisition. Furthermore, knockdown of GLUT3 by a lentivirus in the DH impaired the acquisition of CFC. Taken together, the results indicated that there were two different glucose metabolism pathways in the DH and amygdala during acquisition of contextual fear memory and that direct neuronal glucose uptake in the DH may be regulated by GLUT3.

  20. Interlimb Dynamic after Unilateral Focal Lesion of the Cervical Dorsal Corticospinal Tract with Endothelin-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walther A. Carvalho

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Handedness is one of the most recognized lateralized behavior in humans. Usually, it is associated with manual superiority regarding performance proficiency. For instance, more than 90% of the human population is considered more skilled with the right hand, which is controlled by the left hemisphere, than with the left. However, during the performance of bimanual tasks, the two hands usually assume asymmetric roles, with one hand acting on objects while the other provides support, stabilizing the object. Traditionally, the role of the two hands is viewed as fixed. However, several studies support an alternate view with flexible assignments for the two hands depending on the task. The supporting role of the hand depends on a closed loop pathway based on proprioceptive inputs from the periphery. The circuit’s efferent arm courses through the dorsal corticospinal tract (dCST in rodents and terminate on spinal cord interneurons which modulate the excitability of motoneurons in the ventral horn. In the present work, we developed an experimental model of unilateral lesion targeting the cervical dCST with microinjections of the vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 (ET-1 to evaluate the degree of flexibility of forelimb assignment during a food manipulation task. Our results show that just 3 days after unilateral corticospinal tract (CST injury in the cervical region, rats display severe motor impairment of the ipsilateral forepaw together with a remarkable reversal of motor assignment between the forelimbs.

  1. The time-course of activation in the dorsal and ventral visual streams during landmark cueing and perceptual discrimination tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Anthony J; Wootton, Adrienne

    2017-08-01

    Different patterns of high density EEG activity were elicited by the same peripheral stimuli, in the context of Landmark Cueing and Perceptual Discrimination tasks. The C1 component of the visual event-related potential (ERP) at parietal - occipital electrode sites was larger in the Landmark Cueing task, and source localisation suggested greater activation in the superior parietal lobule (SPL) in this task, compared to the Perceptual Discrimination task, indicating stronger early recruitment of the dorsal visual stream. In the Perceptual Discrimination task, source localisation suggested widespread activation of the inferior temporal gyrus (ITG) and fusiform gyrus (FFG), structures associated with the ventral visual stream, during the early phase of the P1 ERP component. Moreover, during a later epoch (171-270ms after stimulus onset) increased temporal-occipital negativity, and stronger recruitment of ITG and FFG were observed in the Perceptual Discrimination task. These findings illuminate the contrasting functions of the dorsal and ventral visual streams, to support rapid shifts of attention in response to contextual landmarks, and conscious discrimination, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Lack of body positional effects on paresthesias when stimulating the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in the treatment of chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Jeffery; Liem, Liong; Russo, Marc; Smet, Iris; Van Buyten, Jean-Pierre; Huygen, Frank

    2015-01-01

    One prominent side effect from neurostimulation techniques, and in particular spinal cord stimulation (SCS), is the change in intensity of stimulation when moving from an upright (vertical) to a recumbent or supine (horizontal) position and vice versa. It is well understood that the effects of gravity combined with highly conductive cerebrospinal fluid provide the mechanism by which changes in body position can alter the intensity of stimulation-induced paresthesias. While these effects are well established for leads that are placed within the more medial aspects of the spinal canal, little is known about these potential effects in leads placed in the lateral epidural space and in particular within the neural foramina near the dorsal root ganglion (DRG). We prospectively validated a newly developed paresthesia intensity rating scale and compared perceived paresthesia intensities when subjects assumed upright vs. supine bodily positions during neuromodulation of the DRG. On average, the correlation coefficient between stimulation intensity (pulse amplitude) and perceived paresthesia intensity was 0.83, demonstrating a strong linear relationship. No significant differences in paresthesia intensities were reported within subjects when moving from an upright (4.5 ± 0.14) to supine position 4.5 (± 0.12) (p > 0.05). This effect persisted through 12 months following implant. Neuromodulation of the DRG produces paresthesias that remain consistent across body positions, suggesting that this paradigm may be less susceptible to positional effects than dorsal column stimulation. © 2014 International Neuromodulation Society.

  3. The dorsal tectal longitudinal column (TLCd): a second longitudinal column in the paramedian region of the midbrain tectum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, M-Auxiliadora; Saldaña, Enrique

    2014-03-01

    The tectal longitudinal column (TLC) is a longitudinally oriented, long and narrow nucleus that spans the paramedian region of the midbrain tectum of a large variety of mammals (Saldaña et al. in J Neurosci 27:13108-13116, 2007). Recent analysis of the organization of this region revealed another novel nucleus located immediately dorsal, and parallel, to the TLC. Because the name "tectal longitudinal column" also seems appropriate for this novel nucleus, we suggest the TLC described in 2007 be renamed the "ventral tectal longitudinal column (TLCv)", and the newly discovered nucleus termed the "dorsal tectal longitudinal column (TLCd)". This work represents the first characterization of the rat TLCd. A constellation of anatomical techniques was used to demonstrate that the TLCd differs from its surrounding structures (TLCv and superior colliculus) cytoarchitecturally, myeloarchitecturally, neurochemically and hodologically. The distinct expression of vesicular amino acid transporters suggests that TLCd neurons are GABAergic. The TLCd receives major projections from various areas of the cerebral cortex (secondary visual mediomedial area, and granular and dysgranular retrosplenial cortices) and from the medial pretectal nucleus. It densely innervates the ipsilateral lateral posterior and laterodorsal nuclei of the thalamus. Thus, the TLCd is connected with vision-related neural centers. The TLCd may be unique as it constitutes the only known nucleus made of GABAergic neurons dedicated to providing massive inhibition to higher order thalamic nuclei of a specific sensory modality.

  4. Selective resection of dorsal nerves of penis for premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G-X; Yu, L-P; Bai, W-J; Wang, X-F

    2012-12-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is one of the most prevalent male sexual dysfunctions. Selective resection of the dorsal nerve (SRDN) of penis has recently been used for the treatment of PE and has shown some efficacy. To further clarify the efficacy and safety of SRDN on PE, we performed a preliminary, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical observational study. Persons with the complaints of rapid ejaculation, asking for circumcision because of redundant foreskin, intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) within 2 min, not responding to antidepressant medication or disliking oral medication were randomly enrolled in two groups. From April 2007 to August 2010, a total of 101 eligible persons were enrolled, 40 of them received SRDN which dorsal nerves of the penis were selectively resected, and those (n = 61) enrolled in the control group were circumcised only. IELT and the Brief Male Sexual Function Inventory (BMSFI) questionnaire were implemented pre- and post-operatively for the evaluation of the effect and safety of the surgery. There are no statistically significant differences in the baseline data including mean ages, mean IELTs, perceived control abilities and the BMSFI mean scores between the two groups. With regard to the post-operative data of the surgery, both IELTs and perceived control abilities were significantly increased after SRDN (1.1 ± 0.9 min vs. 3.8 ± 3.1 min for pre- and post-operative IELT, respectively, p 0.05). Also, there were no statistically significant differences both in BMSFI composite and subscale scores between the two groups after surgery. Hence, we conclude that SRDN is effective in delaying ejaculation and improving ejaculatory control, whereas erectile function is not affected. The results imply that SRDN may be an alternative method for the treatment of PE for some patients. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Andrology © 2012 European Academy of Andrology.

  5. The lateral crural rein flap: a novel technique for management of tip rotation in primary rhinoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuran, Ismail; Öreroğlu, Ali Rıza; Efendioğlu, Kamran

    2014-09-01

    An important consideration in rhinoplasty is maintenance of the applied tip rotation. Different techniques have been proposed to accomplish this. Loss of rotation after surgery not only results in a derotated tip but also can create a supratip deformity. As a supplement to dorsal reconstruction, the authors introduced and applied the lateral crural rein flap technique, whereby cartilage flaps are created from the cephalic portion of the lateral crura to control and stabilize tip rotation. Eleven patients underwent primary open-approach rhinoplasty that included the lateral crural rein technique; the mean follow-up time was 18 months. Excess cephalic portions of the lateral crura were prepared as medial crura-based cartilaginous flaps and were incorporated into the nasal dorsum (similar to spreader grafts) and stabilized to achieve the desired tip rotation. The lateral crural rein flap technique provided stability to the nasal tip while minimizing derotation in the postoperative period. Long-term follow-up revealed maintenance of the nasal tip rotation and symmetric dorsal aesthetic lines. The lateral crural rein flap technique is effective for controlling nasal tip rotation while reducing lateral crural cephalic excess. Longevity of the applied tip rotation is reinforced by secure attachment of the lower nasal cartilage complex to the midvault structures. 4. © 2014 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc.

  6. Lateral flow assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthuma-Trumpie, G.A.; Amerongen, van A.

    2012-01-01

    A simple version of immunochemical-based methods is the Lateral Flow Assay (LFA). It is a dry chemistry technique (reagents are included); the fluid from the sample runs through a porous membrane (often nitrocellulose) by capillary force. Typically the membrane is cut as a strip of 0.5*5 cm. In most

  7. Stamina in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colerick, E J

    1985-01-01

    Patterns of aging raise a number of important questions concerning the paths to successful adaptation. What gives some older individuals their staying power in the face of misfortune? What causes others to function less effectively when stressed, to resist change? Clearly, the margin of safety, the degree of elasticity and resilience varies across individuals in the later years. This study focuses on event histories and current behavior of 62 elderly men and women (Phase I) and reports by their confidants (N = 62; Phase II). A central proposition, that stamina in later life depends, in part, on the appraisal of previous events involving loss is investigated using a model that incorporates aspects of earlier life, cognitive appraisal and clinically judged dimensions of stamina in old age. Multivariate (particularly path analytic) techniques are used to test the links between variable foci. Results suggest that antecedents of stamina involve the interaction of social resources and cognitive orientations. Specifically, stamina in later life is contingent, for the most part, on a triumphant, positive outlook during periods of adversity. Elderly so oriented are also those with robust health histories and marked educational accomplishments. Conversely, persons who view situations involving loss as threatening, overwhelming and potentially defeating experience no such outcome; low levels of stamina mark their later years. Interestingly, quality childhood ties matter for stamina in old age only by increasing the likelihood of perceptions of a supportive environment during hard times. The findings corroborate the general pattern of research documenting the importance of cognitive orientations in adaptive processes.

  8. The lateral angle revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgan, Jeannie; Lynnerup, Niels; Hoppa, R.D.

    2013-01-01

    measurements taken from computed tomography (CT) scans. Previous reports have observed that the lateral angle size in females is significantly larger than in males. The method was applied to an independent series of 77 postmortem CT scans (42 males, 35 females) to validate its accuracy and reliability...... method appears to be of minimal practical use in forensic anthropology and archeology....

  9. Laterally situated sinus pericranii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshu, K.; Takahashi, S.

    1981-01-01

    Sinus pericranii has been reported to be situated usually along the midline. Two cases of laterally situated sinus pericranii are presented. Venous blood was obtained by puncturing the tumors directly. Injection of contrast medium into the tumors demonstrated a communication between the tumors and the intracranial venous sinuses through marked diploic veins. (orig.)

  10. Brain Macrophages in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected, Antiretroviral-Suppressed Macaques: a Functional Latent Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalos, Claudia R; Abreu, Celina M; Queen, Suzanne E; Li, Ming; Price, Sarah; Shirk, Erin N; Engle, Elizabeth L; Forsyth, Ellen; Bullock, Brandon T; Mac Gabhann, Feilim; Wietgrefe, Stephen W; Haase, Ashley T; Zink, M Christine; Mankowski, Joseph L; Clements, Janice E; Gama, Lucio

    2017-08-15

    A human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection cure requires an understanding of the cellular and anatomical sites harboring virus that contribute to viral rebound upon treatment interruption. Despite antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are reported in HIV-infected individuals on ART. Biomarkers for macrophage activation and neuronal damage in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of HIV-infected individuals demonstrate continued effects of HIV in brain and suggest that the central nervous system (CNS) may serve as a viral reservoir. Using a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)/macaque model for HIV encephalitis and AIDS, we evaluated whether infected cells persist in brain despite ART. Eight SIV-infected pig-tailed macaques were virally suppressed with ART, and plasma and CSF viremia levels were analyzed longitudinally. To assess whether virus persisted in brain macrophages (BrMΦ) in these macaques, we used a macrophage quantitative viral outgrowth assay (MΦ-QVOA), PCR, and in situ hybridization (ISH) to measure the frequency of infected cells and the levels of viral RNA and DNA in brain. Viral RNA in brain tissue of suppressed macaques was undetectable, although viral DNA was detected in all animals. The MΦ-QVOA demonstrated that the majority of suppressed animals contained latently infected BrMΦ. We also showed that virus produced in the MΦ-QVOAs was replication competent, suggesting that latently infected BrMΦ are capable of reestablishing productive infection upon treatment interruption. This report provides the first confirmation of the presence of replication-competent SIV in BrMΦ of ART-suppressed macaques and suggests that the highly debated issue of viral latency in macrophages, at least in brain, has been addressed in SIV-infected macaques treated with ART. IMPORTANCE Resting CD4 + T cells are currently the only cells that fit the definition of a latent reservoir. However, recent evidence suggests that HIV

  11. An intravaginal ring that releases the NNRTI MIV-150 reduces SHIV transmission in macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Rachel; Mawson, Paul; Derby, Nina; Rodriguez, Aixa; Kizima, Larisa; Menon, Radhika; Goldman, Daniel; Kenney, Jessica; Aravantinou, Meropi; Seidor, Samantha; Gettie, Agegnehu; Blanchard, James; Piatak, Michael; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Fernández-Romero, José A; Robbiani, Melissa; Zydowsky, Thomas M

    2012-09-05

    Microbicides may prevent HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in women; however, determining the optimal means of delivery of active pharmaceutical ingredients remains a major challenge. We previously demonstrated that a vaginal gel containing the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor MIV-150 partially protected macaques from SHIV-RT (simian/HIV reverse transcriptase) infection, and the addition of zinc acetate rendered the gel significantly protective. We test the activity of MIV-150 without the addition of zinc acetate when delivered from either ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) or silicone intravaginal rings (IVRs). MIV-150 was successfully delivered, because it was detected in vaginal fluids and tissues by radioimmunoassay in pharmacokinetic studies. Moreover, EVA IVRs significantly protected macaques from SHIV-RT infection. Our results demonstrate that MIV-150-containing IVRs have the potential to prevent HIV infection and highlight the possible use of IVRs for delivering drugs that block HIV and other STIs.

  12. High resolution karyotype of Thai crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Xiaobo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative chromosome banding analysis and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH studies are established approaches to compare human and ape chromosomes. FISH banding is a relatively new and not routinely applied method very well suited to provide to a better understanding of the evolutionary history of primate and human phylogeny. Here multicolor banding (MCB-applying probes derived from Homo sapiens were used to analyze the chromosomes of Thai crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis. The results agree with those of previous studies in other macaques, e.g. Macaca sylvanus or Macaca nemestrina. This result highlights that morphological differences within the Cercopithecoidea must be found rather in subchromosomal changes or even in epigenetics than in gross structural alterations.

  13. Do infant Japanese macaques ( Macaca fuscata) categorize objects without specific training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, Chizuko; Tomonaga, Masaki; Kamegai, Kimi; Terazawa, Naoko; Yamaguchi, Masami K

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, we examined whether infant Japanese macaques categorize objects without any training, using a similar technique also used with human infants (the paired-preference method). During the familiarization phase, subjects were presented twice with two pairs of different objects from one global-level category. During the test phase, they were presented twice with a pair consisting of a novel familiar-category object and a novel global-level category object. The subjects were tested with three global-level categories (animal, furniture, and vehicle). It was found that they showed significant novelty preferences as a whole, indicating that they processed similarities between familiarization objects and novel familiar-category objects. These results suggest that subjects responded distinctively to objects without training, indicating the possibility that infant macaques possess the capacity for categorization.

  14. Macaque cardiac physiology is sensitive to the valence of passively viewed sensory stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza Bliss-Moreau

    Full Text Available Autonomic nervous system activity is an important component of affective experience. We demonstrate in the rhesus monkey that both the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system respond differentially to the affective valence of passively viewed video stimuli. We recorded cardiac impedance and an electrocardiogram while adult macaques watched a series of 300 30-second videos that varied in their affective content. We found that sympathetic activity (as measured by cardiac pre-ejection period increased and parasympathetic activity (as measured by respiratory sinus arrhythmia decreased as video content changes from positive to negative. These findings parallel the relationship between autonomic nervous system responsivity and valence of stimuli in humans. Given the relationship between human cardiac physiology and affective processing, these findings suggest that macaque cardiac physiology may be an index of affect in nonverbal animals.

  15. Vocal tract length and formant frequency dispersion correlate with body size in rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, W T

    1997-08-01

    Body weight, length, and vocal tract length were measured for 23 rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) of various sizes using radiographs and computer graphic techniques. linear predictive coding analysis of tape-recorded threat vocalizations were used to determine vocal tract resonance frequencies ("formants") for the same animals. A new acoustic variable is proposed, "formant dispersion," which should theoretically depend upon vocal tract length. Formant dispersion is the averaged difference between successive formant frequencies, and was found to be closely tied to both vocal tract length and body size. Despite the common claim that voice fundamental frequency (F0) provides an acoustic indication of body size, repeated investigations have failed to support such a relationship in many vertebrate species including humans. Formant dispersion, unlike voice pitch, is proposed to be a reliable predictor of body size in macaques, and probably many other species.

  16. Zika Virus Tissue and Blood Compartmentalization in Acute Infection of Rhesus Macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Lark L; Pesavento, Patricia A; Keesler, Rebekah I; Singapuri, Anil; Watanabe, Jennifer; Watanabe, Rie; Yee, JoAnn; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Cruzen, Christina; Christe, Kari L; Reader, J Rachel; von Morgenland, Wilhelm; Gibbons, Anne M; Allen, A Mark; Linnen, Jeff; Gao, Kui; Delwart, Eric; Simmons, Graham; Stone, Mars; Lanteri, Marion; Bakkour, Sonia; Busch, Michael; Morrison, John; Van Rompay, Koen K A

    2017-01-01

    Animal models of Zika virus (ZIKV) are needed to better understand tropism and pathogenesis and to test candidate vaccines and therapies to curtail the pandemic. Humans and rhesus macaques possess similar fetal development and placental biology that is not shared between humans and rodents. We inoculated 2 non-pregnant rhesus macaques with a 2015 Brazilian ZIKV strain. Consistent with most human infections, the animals experienced no clinical disease but developed short-lived plasma viremias that cleared as neutralizing antibody developed. In 1 animal, viral RNA (vRNA) could be detected longer in whole blood than in plasma. Despite no major histopathologic changes, many adult tissues contained vRNA 14 days post-infection with highest levels in hemolymphatic tissues. These observations warrant further studies to investigate ZIKV persistence and its potential clinical implications for transmission via blood products or tissue and organ transplants.

  17. Zika Virus Tissue and Blood Compartmentalization in Acute Infection of Rhesus Macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lark L Coffey

    Full Text Available Animal models of Zika virus (ZIKV are needed to better understand tropism and pathogenesis and to test candidate vaccines and therapies to curtail the pandemic. Humans and rhesus macaques possess similar fetal development and placental biology that is not shared between humans and rodents. We inoculated 2 non-pregnant rhesus macaques with a 2015 Brazilian ZIKV strain. Consistent with most human infections, the animals experienced no clinical disease but developed short-lived plasma viremias that cleared as neutralizing antibody developed. In 1 animal, viral RNA (vRNA could be detected longer in whole blood than in plasma. Despite no major histopathologic changes, many adult tissues contained vRNA 14 days post-infection with highest levels in hemolymphatic tissues. These observations warrant further studies to investigate ZIKV persistence and its potential clinical implications for transmission via blood products or tissue and organ transplants.

  18. Radiographic measurement of the cardiothoracic ratio in pet macaques from Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schillaci, Michael A. [Department of Social Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, 1265 Military Trail, Toronto, Ontario M1C 1A4 (Canada)], E-mail: schillaci@utsc.utoronto.ca; Parish, Stephanie [Department of Social Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, 1265 Military Trail, Toronto, Ontario M1C 1A4 (Canada); Jones-Engel, Lisa [National Primate Research Center, University of Washington, 1705 N.E. Pacific Street, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    The relative size of the heart, as measured by the cardiothoracic ratio, is often used as an index of ventricular hypertrophy-an important measure of myocardial pathophysiology in human primates. Despite its widespread use in human medicine, use of the cardiothoracic ratio in nonhuman primate veterinary medicine has been poorly documented. This report describes the results of our radiographic study of the cardiothoracic ratio in a sample of pet monkeys from Sulawesi, Indonesia. We assessed the effects of age and sex on cardiothoracic ratios, and compared our estimates with those presented in the literature for the Formosan macaque (Macaca cyclopis). Our results indicated a significant difference between the Sulawesi macaque species groupings in cardiothoracic ratios. Sex and age-related differences were not significant. Comparisons of cardiothoracic ratios with published ratios indicated similarity between M. cyclopis and Macaca nigra, but not between M. cyclopis and Macaca tonkeana.

  19. Radiographic measurement of the cardiothoracic ratio in pet macaques from Sulawesi, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schillaci, Michael A.; Parish, Stephanie; Jones-Engel, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    The relative size of the heart, as measured by the cardiothoracic ratio, is often used as an index of ventricular hypertrophy-an important measure of myocardial pathophysiology in human primates. Despite its widespread use in human medicine, use of the cardiothoracic ratio in nonhuman primate veterinary medicine has been poorly documented. This report describes the results of our radiographic study of the cardiothoracic ratio in a sample of pet monkeys from Sulawesi, Indonesia. We assessed the effects of age and sex on cardiothoracic ratios, and compared our estimates with those presented in the literature for the Formosan macaque (Macaca cyclopis). Our results indicated a significant difference between the Sulawesi macaque species groupings in cardiothoracic ratios. Sex and age-related differences were not significant. Comparisons of cardiothoracic ratios with published ratios indicated similarity between M. cyclopis and Macaca nigra, but not between M. cyclopis and Macaca tonkeana.

  20. Changes in galanin immunoreactivity in rat lumbosacral spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvarova, K; Murray, E; Vizzard, M A

    2004-08-02

    Alterations in the expression of the neuropeptide galanin were examined in micturition reflex pathways 6 weeks after complete spinal cord transection (T8). In control animals, galanin expression was present in specific regions of the gray matter in the rostral lumbar and caudal lumbosacral spinal cord, including: (1) the dorsal commissure; (2) the superficial dorsal horn; (3) the regions of the intermediolateral cell column (L1-L2) and the sacral parasympathetic nucleus (L6-S1); and (4) the lateral collateral pathway in lumbosacral spinal segments. Densitometry analysis demonstrated significant increases (P < or = 0.001) in galanin immunoreactivity (IR) in these regions of the S1 spinal cord after spinal cord injury (SCI). Changes in galanin-IR were not observed at the L4-L6 segments except for an increase in galanin-IR in the dorsal commissure in the L4 segment. In contrast, decreases in galanin-IR were observed in the L1 segment. The number of galanin-IR cells increased (P < or = 0.001) in the L1 and S1 dorsal root ganglia (DRG) after SCI. In all DRG examined (L1, L2, L6, and S1), the percentage of bladder afferent cells expressing galanin-IR significantly increased (4-19-fold) after chronic SCI. In contrast, galanin expression in nerve fibers in the urinary bladder detrusor and urothelium was decreased or eliminated after SCI. Expression of the neurotrophic factors nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was altered in the spinal cord after SCI. A significant increase in BDNF expression was present in spinal cord segments after SCI. In contrast, NGF expression was only increased in the spinal segments adjacent and rostral to the transection site (T7-T8), whereas spinal segments (T13-L1; L6-S1), distal to the transection site exhibited decreased NGF expression. Changes in galanin expression in micturition pathways after SCI may be mediated by changing neurotrophic factor expression, particularly BDNF. These changes may contribute to

  1. Tlx controls proliferation and patterning of lateral telencephalic progenitor domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenman, Jan M; Wang, Bei; Campbell, Kenneth

    2003-11-19

    We showed previously that the orphan nuclear receptor Tlx is required for the correct establishment of the pallio-subpallial boundary. Loss of Tlx results in a dorsal expansion of ventral markers (e.g., the homeodomain protein GSH2) into the ventralmost pallial region, i.e., the ventral pallium. We also observed a disproportionate reduction in the size of the Tlx mutant lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE) from embryonic day 14.5 onward. Here we show that this reduction is caused, at least in large part, by a proliferation defect. Interestingly, in Tlx mutants, the LGE derivatives are differentially affected. Although the development of the Tlx mutant striatum is compromised, an apparently normal number of olfactory bulb interneurons are observed. Consistent with this observation, we found that Tlx is required for the normal establishment of the ventral LGE that gives rise to striatal projection neurons. This domain is reduced by the dorsal and ventral expansion of molecular markers normally confined to progenitor domains flanking the ventral LGE. Finally, we investigated possible genetic interactions between Gsh2 and Tlx in lateral telencephalic development. Our results show that, although Gsh2 and Tlx have additive effects on striatal development, they differentially regulate the establishment of ventral pallial identity.

  2. Canine degenerative myelopathy: a model of human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardone, Raffaele; Höller, Yvonne; Taylor, Alexandra C; Lochner, Piergiorgio; Tezzon, Frediano; Golaszewski, Stefan; Brigo, Francesco; Trinka, Eugen

    2016-02-01

    Canine degenerative myelopathy (CDM) represents a unique naturally occurring animal model for human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) because of similar clinical signs, neuropathologic findings, and involvement of the superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mutation. A definitive diagnosis can only be made postmortem through microscopic detection of axonal degeneration, demyelination and astroglial proliferation, which is more severe in the dorsal columns of the thoracic spinal cord and in the dorsal portion of the lateral funiculus. Interestingly, the muscle acetylcholine receptor complexes are intact in CDM prior to functional impairment, thus suggesting that muscle atrophy in CDM does not result from physical denervation. Moreover, since sensory involvement seems to play an important role in CDM progression, a more careful investigation of the sensory pathology in ALS is also warranted. The importance of SOD1 expression remains unclear, while oxidative stress and denatured ubiquinated proteins appear to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of CDM. In this updated narrative review we performed a systematic search of the published studies on CDM that may shed light on the pathophysiological mechanisms of human ALS. A better understanding of the factors that determine the disease progression in CDM may be beneficial for the development of effective treatments for ALS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Motor deficits following dorsal corticospinal tract transection in rats: voluntary versus skilled locomotion readouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Bieler

    2018-02-01

    The functional relevance of the dorsal CST in locomotion of rats is not as prominent as compared to in humans and thus challenging the motor execution is mandatory to reliably investigate CST function. A detailed analysis of voluntary walking using the CatWalk XT is not adequate to detect deficits following dorsal CST lesion in rats.

  4. The function of the long dorsal sacroiliac ligament : its implications for understanding low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool-Goudzwaard, A.L.; Vleeming, A; Hammudoghlu, D; Stoeckart, R.; Snijders, C.; Mens, Jan M A

    1996-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: In embalmed human bodies the tension of the long dorsal sacroiliac ligament was measured during incremental loading of anatomical structures that are biomechanically relevant. OBJECTIVES: To assess the function of the long dorsal sacroiliac ligament. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: In many

  5. Role of the right dorsal anterior insula in the urge to tic in Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinaz, Sule; Malone, Patrick; Hallett, Mark; Horovitz, Silvina G

    2015-08-01

    The mid-posterior part of the insula is involved in processing bodily sensations and urges and is activated during tic generation in Tourette syndrome. The dorsal anterior part of the insula, however, integrates sensory and emotional information with cognitive valuation and is implicated in interoception. The right dorsal anterior insula also participates in urge suppression in healthy subjects. This study examined the role of the right dorsal anterior insula in the urge to tic in Tourette syndrome. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 13 adult Tourette patients and 13 matched controls. The role of the right dorsal anterior insula within the urge-tic network was investigated using graph theory-based neural network analysis. The functional connectivity of the right dorsal anterior insula was also correlated with urge and tic severity. Even though the patients did not exhibit any overt tics, the right dorsal anterior insula demonstrated higher connectivity, especially with the frontostriatal nodes of the urge-tic network in patients compared with controls. The functional connectivity between the right dorsal anterior insula and bilateral supplementary motor area also correlated positively with urge severity in patients. These results suggest that the right dorsal anterior insula is part of the urge-tic network and could influence the urge- and tic-related cortico-striato-thalamic regions even during rest in Tourette syndrome. It might be responsible for heightened awareness of bodily sensations generating premonitory urges in Tourette syndrome. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  6. The ventral stream offers more affordance and the dorsal stream more memory than believed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Albert; van der Lubbe, Robert Henricus Johannes; Zuidhoek, Sander

    2002-01-01

    Opposed to Norman's proposal, processing of affordance is likely to occur not solely in the dorsal stream but also in the ventral stream. Moreover, the dorsal stream might do more than just serve an important role in motor actions. It supports egocentric location coding as well. As such, it would

  7. Monosynaptic connections between primary afferents and giant neurons in the turtle spinal dorsal horn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández, A; Radmilovich, M; Russo, R E

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports the occurrence of monosynaptic connections between dorsal root afferents and a distinct cell type-the giant neuron-deep in the dorsal horn of the turtle spinal cord. Light microscope studies combining Nissl stain and transganglionic HRP-labeling of the primary afferents have...

  8. Prior Exposure to Zika Virus Significantly Enhances Peak Dengue-2 Viremia in Rhesus Macaques

    OpenAIRE

    George, Jeffy; Valiant, William G.; Mattapallil, Mary J.; Walker, Michelle; Huang, Yan-Jang S.; Vanlandingham, Dana L.; Misamore, John; Greenhouse, Jack; Weiss, Deborah E.; Verthelyi, Daniela; Higgs, Stephen; Andersen, Hanne; Lewis, Mark G.; Mattapallil, Joseph J.

    2017-01-01

    Structural and functional homologies between the Zika and Dengue viruses? envelope proteins raise the possibility that cross-reactive antibodies induced following Zika virus infection might enhance subsequent Dengue infection. Using the rhesus macaque model we show that prior infection with Zika virus leads to a significant enhancement of Dengue-2 viremia that is accompanied by neutropenia, lympocytosis, hyperglycemia, and higher reticulocyte counts, along with the activation of pro-inflammat...

  9. PET CT Identifies Reactivation Risk in Cynomolgus Macaques with Latent M. tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philana Ling Lin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection presents across a spectrum in humans, from latent infection to active tuberculosis. Among those with latent tuberculosis, it is now recognized that there is also a spectrum of infection and this likely contributes to the variable risk of reactivation tuberculosis. Here, functional imaging with 18F-fluorodeoxygluose positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET CT of cynomolgus macaques with latent M. tuberculosis infection was used to characterize the features of reactivation after tumor necrosis factor (TNF neutralization and determine which imaging characteristics before TNF neutralization distinguish reactivation risk. PET CT was performed on latently infected macaques (n = 26 before and during the course of TNF neutralization and a separate set of latently infected controls (n = 25. Reactivation occurred in 50% of the latently infected animals receiving TNF neutralizing antibody defined as development of at least one new granuloma in adjacent or distant locations including extrapulmonary sites. Increased lung inflammation measured by PET and the presence of extrapulmonary involvement before TNF neutralization predicted reactivation with 92% sensitivity and specificity. To define the biologic features associated with risk of reactivation, we used these PET CT parameters to identify latently infected animals at high risk for reactivation. High risk animals had higher cumulative lung bacterial burden and higher maximum lesional bacterial burdens, and more T cells producing IL-2, IL-10 and IL-17 in lung granulomas as compared to low risk macaques. In total, these data support that risk of reactivation is associated with lung inflammation and higher bacterial burden in macaques with latent Mtb infection.

  10. Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance in Shigella flexneri Isolated From Macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J. Mannion

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Non-human primates (NHPs for biomedical research are commonly infected with Shigella spp. that can cause acute dysentery or chronic episodic diarrhea. These animals are often prophylactically and clinically treated with quinolone antibiotics to eradicate these possible infections. However, chromosomally- and plasmid-mediated antibiotic resistance has become an emerging concern for species in the family Enterobacteriaceae. In this study, five individual isolates of multi-drug resistant Shigella flexneri were isolated from the feces of three macaques. Antibiotic susceptibility testing confirmed resistance or decreased susceptibility to ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cephalosporins, gentamicin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, levofloxacin, and nalidixic acid. S. flexneri isolates were susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and this drug was used to eradicate infection in two of the macaques. Plasmid DNA from all isolates was positive for the plasmid-encoded quinolone resistance gene qnrS, but not qnrA and qnrB. Conjugation and transformation of plasmid DNA from several S. flexneri isolates into antibiotic-susceptible Escherichia coli strains conferred the recipients with resistance or decreased susceptibility to quinolones and beta-lactams. Genome sequencing of two representative S. flexneri isolates identified the qnrS gene on a plasmid-like contig. These contigs showed >99% homology to plasmid sequences previously characterized from quinolone-resistant Shigella flexneri 2a and Salmonella enterica strains. Other antibiotic resistance genes and virulence factor genes were also identified in chromosome and plasmid sequences in these genomes. The findings from this study indicate macaques harbor pathogenic S. flexneri strains with chromosomally- and plasmid-encoded antibiotic resistance genes. To our knowledge, this is the first report of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance in S. flexneri isolated from NHPs and warrants

  11. Directed shift of vaginal microbiota induced by vaginal application of sucrose gel in rhesus macaques

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Kai-tao; Zheng, Jin-xin; Yu, Zhi-jian; Chen, Zhong; Cheng, Hang; Pan, Wei-guang; Yang, Wei-zhi; Wang, Hong-yan; Deng, Qi-wen; Zeng, Zhong-ming

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Sucrose gel was used to treat bacterial vaginosis in a phase III clinical trial. However, the changes of vaginal flora after treatment were only examined by Nugent score in that clinical trial, While the vaginal microbiota of rhesus macaques is characterized by anaerobic, Gram-negative bacteria, few lactobacilli, and pH levels above 4.6, similar to the microbiota of patients with bacterial vaginosis. This study is aimed to investigate the change of the vaginal microbiota of rehsus...

  12. Vocalizations during post-conflict affiliations from victims toward aggressors based on uncertainty in Japanese macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsu, Noriko; Yamada, Kazunori; Nakamichi, Masayuki

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the use of vocalizations called "grunts," "girneys," and "coos" accompanied by post-conflict affiliative interaction between former opponents (reconciliation) in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). Although reconciliation functions to repair bonds, such interactions sometimes entail risks of receiving further aggression. Vocalizations can be used at a distance from the former opponent; thus, we predict that vocalizations are used particularly by victims of a conflict, and are frequently used in situations of uncertainty when it is difficult for them to estimate whether the former opponent will resume aggression. In addition, we predict that vocalizations are effective in preventing further aggression. To test these hypotheses, we conducted observations of post-conflict and matched-control situations in female Japanese macaques living in a free-ranging group. We found that former opponents tended to be attracted to each other within the first minute following a conflict, thus demonstrating reconciliation behavior. Vocalizations were more frequently used by the victims in post-conflict interactions than under control situations; however, this tendency was not found in aggressors. When affiliation with the former opponent occurred, victims were more likely to use vocalizations towards less familiar opponents. These findings suggest that Japanese macaques used vocalizations more often when interacting with less predictable former opponents. Victims were more likely to receive aggression from former aggressors when engaged in affiliations with them than under no such affiliations. No significant differences were found in the probability of the victims receiving aggression, regardless of whether they used vocalizations; thus, whether the victim benefits from using vocalizations in these contexts remains unclear. Japanese macaques form despotic societies and therefore, further aggression was inevitable, to some degree, after a conflict. The use of

  13. Vocalizations during post-conflict affiliations from victims toward aggressors based on uncertainty in Japanese macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriko Katsu

    Full Text Available We investigated the use of vocalizations called "grunts," "girneys," and "coos" accompanied by post-conflict affiliative interaction between former opponents (reconciliation in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata. Although reconciliation functions to repair bonds, such interactions sometimes entail risks of receiving further aggression. Vocalizations can be used at a distance from the former opponent; thus, we predict that vocalizations are used particularly by victims of a conflict, and are frequently used in situations of uncertainty when it is difficult for them to estimate whether the former opponent will resume aggression. In addition, we predict that vocalizations are effective in preventing further aggression. To test these hypotheses, we conducted observations of post-conflict and matched-control situations in female Japanese macaques living in a free-ranging group. We found that former opponents tended to be attracted to each other within the first minute following a conflict, thus demonstrating reconciliation behavior. Vocalizations were more frequently used by the victims in post-conflict interactions than under control situations; however, this tendency was not found in aggressors. When affiliation with the former opponent occurred, victims were more likely to use vocalizations towards less familiar opponents. These findings suggest that Japanese macaques used vocalizations more often when interacting with less predictable former opponents. Victims were more likely to receive aggression from former aggressors when engaged in affiliations with them than under no such affiliations. No significant differences were found in the probability of the victims receiving aggression, regardless of whether they used vocalizations; thus, whether the victim benefits from using vocalizations in these contexts remains unclear. Japanese macaques form despotic societies and therefore, further aggression was inevitable, to some degree, after a conflict

  14. Speech-like orofacial oscillations in stump-tailed macaque (Macaca arctoides) facial and vocal signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Aru; Maruhashi, Tamaki; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda; Koda, Hiroki

    2017-10-01

    Speech is unique to humans and characterized by facial actions of ∼5 Hz oscillations of lip, mouth or jaw movements. Lip-smacking, a facial display of primates characterized by oscillatory actions involving the vertical opening and closing of the jaw and lips, exhibits stable 5-Hz oscillation patterns, matching that of speech, suggesting that lip-smacking is a precursor of speech. We tested if facial or vocal actions exhibiting the same rate of oscillation are found in wide forms of facial or vocal displays in various social contexts, exhibiting diversity among species. We observed facial and vocal actions of wild stump-tailed macaques (Macaca arctoides), and selected video clips including facial displays (teeth chattering; TC), panting calls, and feeding. Ten open-to-open mouth durations during TC and feeding and five amplitude peak-to-peak durations in panting were analyzed. Facial display (TC) and vocalization (panting) oscillated within 5.74 ± 1.19 and 6.71 ± 2.91 Hz, respectively, similar to the reported lip-smacking of long-tailed macaques and the speech of humans. These results indicated a common mechanism for the central pattern generator underlying orofacial movements, which would evolve to speech. Similar oscillations in panting, which evolved from different muscular control than the orofacial action, suggested the sensory foundations for perceptual saliency particular to 5-Hz rhythms in macaques. This supports the pre-adaptation hypothesis of speech evolution, which states a central pattern generator for 5-Hz facial oscillation and perceptual background tuned to 5-Hz actions existed in common ancestors of macaques and humans, before the emergence of speech. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Intergroup variation in robbing and bartering by long-tailed macaques at Uluwatu Temple (Bali, Indonesia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotcorne, Fany; Giraud, Gwennan; Gunst, Noëlle; Fuentes, Agustín; Wandia, I Nengah; Beudels-Jamar, Roseline C; Poncin, Pascal; Huynen, Marie-Claude; Leca, Jean-Baptiste

    2017-10-01

    Robbing and bartering (RB) is a behavioral practice anecdotally reported in free-ranging commensal macaques. It usually occurs in two steps: after taking inedible objects (e.g., glasses) from humans, the macaques appear to use them as tokens, returning them to humans in exchange for food. While extensively studied in captivity, our research is the first to investigate the object/food exchange between humans and primates in a natural setting. During a 4-month study in 2010, we used both focal and event sampling to record 201 RB events in a population of long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis), including four neighboring groups ranging freely around Uluwatu Temple, Bali (Indonesia). In each group, we documented the RB frequency, prevalence and outcome, and tested the underpinning anthropogenic and demographic determinants. In line with the environmental opportunity hypothesis, we found a positive qualitative relation at the group level between time spent in tourist zones and RB frequency or prevalence. For two of the four groups, RB events were significantly more frequent when humans were more present in the environment. We also found qualitative partial support for the male-biased sex ratio hypothesis [i.e., RB was more frequent and prevalent in groups with higher ratios of (sub)adult males], whereas the group density hypothesis was not supported. This preliminary study showed that RB is a spontaneous, customary (in some groups), and enduring population-specific practice characterized by intergroup variation in Balinese macaques. As such, RB is a candidate for a new behavioral tradition in this species.

  16. Amblyomma maculatum Feeding Augments Rickettsia parkeri Infection in a Rhesus Macaque Model: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banajee, Kaikhushroo H.; Embers, Monica E.; Langohr, Ingeborg M.; Doyle, Lara A.; Hasenkampf, Nicole R.; Macaluso, Kevin R.

    2015-01-01

    Rickettsia parkeri is an emerging eschar-causing human pathogen in the spotted fever group of Rickettsia and is transmitted by the Gulf coast tick, Amblyomma maculatum. Tick saliva has been shown to alter both the cellular and humoral components of the innate and adaptive immune systems. However, the effect of this immunomodulation on Rickettsia transmission and pathology in an immunocompetent vertebrate host has not been fully examined. We hypothesize that, by modifying the host immune response, tick feeding enhances infection and pathology of pathogenic spotted fever group Rickettsia sp. In order to assess this interaction in vivo, a pilot study was conducted using five rhesus macaques that were divided into three groups. One group was intradermally inoculated with low passage R. parkeri (Portsmouth strain) alone (n = 2) and another group was inoculated during infestation by adult, R. parkeri-free A. maculatum (n = 2). The final macaque was infested with ticks alone (tick feeding control group). Blood, lymph node and skin biopsies were collected at several time points post-inoculation/infestation to assess pathology and quantify rickettsial DNA. As opposed to the tick-only animal, all Rickettsia-inoculated macaques developed inflammatory leukograms, elevated C-reactive protein concentrations, and elevated TH1 (interferon-γ, interleukin-15) and acute phase inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6) post-inoculation, with greater neutrophilia and interleukin-6 concentrations in the tick plus R. parkeri group. While eschars formed at all R. parkeri inoculation sites, larger and slower healing eschars were observed in the tick feeding plus R. parkeri group. Furthermore, dissemination of R. parkeri to draining lymph nodes early in infection and increased persistence at the inoculation site were observed in the tick plus R. parkeri group. This study indicates that rhesus macaques can be used to model R. parkeri rickettsiosis, and suggests that immunomodulatory factors

  17. Social object play among young Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in Arashiyama, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Masaki

    2006-10-01

    Social object play (SOP), i.e., social play using portable object(s), among young Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata; 0-4 years old) in the Arashiyama E troop was studied using a modified sequence sampling method from July to October 2000. SOP was a relatively common activity for most of the young macaques and often continued for long periods. Participants used many kinds of object, including edible natural objects and artificial objects, such as plastic bottles, but they never used provisioned food or wild fruit in SOP bouts. An analysis of long bouts (>/=0.5 min) revealed the following interactive SOP features: (1) at any given time, participants used only one object, and only one participant held the object; (2) during SOP play-chasing, the object holder was likely to be chased by others; (3) during long bouts, the object changed hands frequently; and (4) agonistic competition for an object among young macaques was rare. Combinations of sexes, ages, relative ranks, or matrilines of the object holder and non-holder did not affect the tendency that the holder was chased by non-holder(s) during play-chasing. Even when there was a change in object holders, the repetitiveness of this interactive pattern, i.e., that the holder would be chased during SOP bouts, distinguished the SOP structure from that of other types of social play without object(s). General proximate social play mechanisms, such as self-handicapping or role taking, were associated with SOP. Other mechanisms that affected SOP included the following: (1) young macaques treated an object as a target in play competition, and (2) 'being the holder of a target object' was associated with the 'role of the chasee.'

  18. Dynamic Interaction of Enterovirus 71 and Dendritic Cells in Infected Neonatal Rhesus Macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ting; Zhang, Zhixiao; Zhang, Ying; Feng, Min; Fan, Shengtao; Wang, Lichun; Liu, Longding; Wang, Xi; Wang, Qinglin; Zhang, Xiaolong; Wang, Jingjing; Liao, Yun; He, Zhanlong; Lu, Shuaiyao; Yang, Huai; Li, Qihan

    2017-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the main pathogens responsible for hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). Infection with EV71 can lead to severe clinical disease via extensive infections of either the respiratory or alimentary tracts in children. Based on the previous pathological study of EV71 infections in neonatal rhesus macaques, our work using this animal model and an EV71 chimera that expresses enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP-EV71) primarily explored where EV71 localizes and proliferates, and the subsequent initiation of the pathological process. The chimeric EGFP-EV71 we constructed was similar to the wild-type EV71 (WT-EV71) virus in its biological characteristics. Similar clinical manifestations and histo-pathologic features were equally displayed in neonatal rhesus macaques infected with either WT-EV71 or EGFP-EV71 via the respiratory route. Fluorescent signal tracing in tissues from the animals infected with EGFP-EV71 showed that EV71 proliferated primarily in the respiratory tract epithelium and the associated lymphoid tissues. Immunofluorescence and flow cytometry analyses revealed that EV71 was able to enter a pre-conventional dendritic cell (DC) population at the infection sites. The viremia identified in the macaques infected by WT-EV71 or EGFP-EV71 was present even in the artificial presence of a specific antibody against the virus. Our results suggest that EV71 primarily proliferates in the respiratory tract epithelium followed by subsequent entry into a pre-cDC population of DCs. These cells are then hijacked by the virus and they can potentially transmit the virus from local sites to other organs through the blood circulation during the infection process. Our results suggest that the EV71 infection process in this DC population does not interfere with the induction of an independent immune response against the EV71 infection in the neonatal macaques.

  19. WE-EF-BRA-11: Precision Partial-Tumor Irradiation of Dorsal Rodent Mammary Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malcolm, J [Duke Medical Physics Graduate Program, Durham, NC (United States); Boss, K [Department of Comparative Biomedical Sciences, North Carolina State University (United States); Dewhirst, M [Dpt of Radiation and Cancer Biology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Oldham, M [Dpt of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To introduce a pre-clinical treatment technique on a micro-irradiator to treat specific volumes of dorsal mammary tumors in BALB/c mice while sparing lungs and spine. This technique facilitates pre-clinical investigation of tumor response to sub-optimal radiation treatments in which a portion of the tumor is unirradiated, known as a “marginal miss”. In-vitro data suggests that partial tumor radiations trigger a more aggressive phenotype in non-irradiated, regional tumor cells via bystander effects. As the lung tissue is spared, the impact of marginal miss on the development of pulmonary metastasis may be assessed. Methods: End to end test was performed on three BALB/c mice as proof of concept for larger studies. 1Gy was delivered on the micro-irradiator employing previously unexplored lateral parallel-opposed diamond and/or triangle-shaped beams. The margins of the treatment beam were defined using a combination of tumor palpation, barium fiducial markers, and real-time fluoroscopic images. The dose distribution was independently verified with kilovoltage beam Monte Carlo dose calculations with 7% statistical uncertainty and double exposure images. As a final step, the technique was used in a larger pre-clinical study (15Gy, 36 BALB/c mice) and lung metastasis in response to tumor irradiation of 100%, 50% and 0% was quantified. Results: For the Monte-Carlo dose calculations, the dose volume histograms established a maximum dose within the un-irradiated and radiated portions of the mammary tumor of 0.3Gy and 1.5Gy respectively, with a sharp gradient at the boundary. 100% of the lung volume received less than 0.5Gy. This technique proved suitable for a pre-clinical marginal miss study with 50% more lung metastases in partially-radiated mouse models compared to completely. Conclusion: We have developed a novel treatment technique for partial or full irradiation of dorsal mammary tumors incorporating lung sparing.The technique will be useful for exploring

  20. Progression of pathogenic events in cynomolgus macaques infected with variola virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Wahl-Jensen

    Full Text Available Smallpox, caused by variola virus (VARV, is a devastating human disease that affected millions worldwide until the virus was eradicated in the 1970 s. Subsequent cessation of vaccination has resulted in an immunologically naive human population that would be at risk should VARV be used as an agent of bioterrorism. The development of antivirals and improved vaccines to counter this threat would be facilitated by the development of animal models using authentic VARV. Towards this end, cynomolgus macaques were identified as adequate hosts for VARV, developing ordinary or hemorrhagic smallpox in a dose-dependent fashion. To further refine this model, we performed a serial sampling study on macaques exposed to doses of VARV strain Harper calibrated to induce ordinary or hemorrhagic disease. Several key differences were noted between these models. In the ordinary smallpox model, lymphoid and myeloid hyperplasias were consistently found whereas lymphocytolysis and hematopoietic necrosis developed in hemorrhagic smallpox. Viral antigen accumulation, as assessed immunohistochemically, was mild and transient in the ordinary smallpox model. In contrast, in the hemorrhagic model antigen distribution was widespread and included tissues and cells not involved in the ordinary model. Hemorrhagic smallpox developed only in the presence of secondary bacterial infections - an observation also commonly noted in historical reports of human smallpox. Together, our results support the macaque model as an excellent surrogate for human smallpox in terms of disease onset, acute disease course, and gross and histopathological lesions.

  1. Changes in Circulating B Cell Subsets Associated with Aging and Acute SIV Infection in Rhesus Macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, W L William; Gonzalez, Denise F; Kieu, Hung T; Castillo, Luis D; Messaoudi, Ilhem; Shen, Xiaoying; Tomaras, Georgia D; Shacklett, Barbara L; Barry, Peter A; Sparger, Ellen E

    2017-01-01

    Aging and certain viral infections can negatively impact humoral responses in humans. To further develop the nonhuman primate (NHP) model for investigating B cell dynamics in human aging and infectious disease, a flow cytometric panel was developed to characterize circulating rhesus B cell subsets. Significant differences between human and macaque B cells included the proportions of cells within IgD+ and switched memory populations and a prominent CD21-CD27+ unswitched memory population detected only in macaques. We then utilized the expanded panel to analyze B cell alterations associated with aging and acute simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in the NHP model. In the aging study, distinct patterns of B cell subset frequencies were observed for macaques aged one to five years compared to those between ages 5 and 30 years. In the SIV infection study, B cell frequencies and absolute number were dramatically reduced following acute infection, but recovered within four weeks of infection. Thereafter, the frequencies of activated memory B cells progressively increased; these were significantly correlated with the magnitude of SIV-specific IgG responses, and coincided with impaired maturation of anti-SIV antibody avidity, as previously reported for HIV-1 infection. These observations further validate the NHP model for investigation of mechanisms responsible for B cells alterations associated with immunosenescence and infectious disease.

  2. Fading Perceptual Resemblance: A Path for Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) to Conceptual Matching?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. David; Flemming, Timothy M.; Boomer, Joseph; Beran, Michael J.; Church, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive, comparative, and developmental psychologists have long been intrigued by humans’ and animals’ capacity to respond to abstract relations like sameness and difference, because this capacity may underlie crucial aspects of cognition like analogical reasoning. Recently, this capacity has been explored in higher-order, relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) tasks in which humans and animals try to complete analogies of sameness and difference between disparate groups of items. The authors introduced a new paradigm to this area, by yoking the relational-matching cue to a perceptual-matching cue. Then, using established algorithms for shape distortion, the perceptual cue was weakened and eliminated. Humans’ RMTS performance easily transcended the elimination of perceptual support. In contrast, RMTS performance by six macaques faltered as they were weaned from perceptual support. No macaque showed evidence of mature RMTS performance, even given more than 260,000 training trials during which we tried to coax a relational-matching performance from them. It is an important species difference that macaques show so hesitant a response to conceptual relations when humans respond to them so effortlessly. It raises theoretical questions about the emergence of this crucial capacity during humans’ cognitive evolution and during humans’ cognitive development. PMID:24076537

  3. A comparative study of middle cerebral pressure in dogs and macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symon, Lindsay

    1967-01-01

    1. A comparison has been made of the pressures recorded from pial branches of the middle cerebral artery in dogs and macaques. This pressure has been shown to be between 88 and 95% of femoral arterial pressure in dogs under chloralose anaesthesia, and between 80 and 90% of femoral arterial pressure in macaques similarly anaesthetized. 2. The effect of occlusion of the main vessels in the neck is shown to differ considerably in the two species. Blood pressure within the forebrain of the dog is shown to be largely dependent upon the integrity of the external carotid artery, whereas in the monkey the external carotid artery is without effect in the maintenance of forebrain blood pressure. Occlusion of the four major arteries in the neck is shown to produce a greater effect in the macaque and to be accompanied by signs of medullary ischaemia in this species. 3. After occlusion of the main middle cerebral artery, arterial pressure measured distal to the occlusion depends upon the integrity of collateral vessels from the other cerebral arteries. When only a branch of the middle cerebral artery is occluded, the greater part of the residual blood pressure depends upon anastomoses from other branches of the middle cerebral artery itself. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:4963869

  4. Attenuated Disease in SIV-Infected Macaques Treated with a Monoclonal Antibody against FasL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria S. Salvato

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute SIVmac infection in macaques is accompanied by high levels of plasma viremia that decline with the appearance of viral immunity and is a model for acute HIV disease in man. Despite specific immune responses, the virus establishes a chronic, persistent infection. The destruction of CD4+ and CD4- lymphocyte subsets in macaques contributes to viral persistence and suggests the importance of mechanisms for depleting both infected and uninfected (bystander cells. Bystander cell killing can occur when FasL binds the Fas receptor on activated lymphocytes, which include T and B cell subpopulations that are responding to the infection. Destruction of specific immune cells could be an important mechanism for blunting viral immunity and establishing persistent infection with chronic disease. We inhibited the Fas pathway in vivo with a monoclonal antibody against FasL (RNOK203. Here we show that treatment with anti-FasL reduced cell death in circulating T and B cells, increased CTL and antibody responses to viral proteins, and lowered the setpoint viremia. By blocking FasL during only the first few weeks after infection, we attenuated SIVmac disease and increased the life span for infected and treated macaques.

  5. Acute-phase responses in healthy and diseased rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Anne Kirstine Havnsøe; Lundsgaard, Jo F. H.; Bakker, Jaco

    2014-01-01

    Five acute-phase reactants—serum amyloid A (SAA), C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin, albumin, and iron—were measured using commercially available assays in 110 healthy rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), and reference intervals were established for future use in health monitoring of this species....... Reference intervals established were as follows: SAA, 29.5–87.7 mg/L; CRP, 0–17.5 mg/L; haptoglobin, 354.3–2,414.7 mg/L; albumin, 36.1–53.0 g/L; and iron, 13.3–40.2 lmol/L. Furthermore, changes in the acute-phase reactants were studied in two additional groups of animals: eight rhesus macaques suffering...... from acute traumatic injuries and nine rhesus macaques experimentally infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis reflecting a chronic active inflammation. In animals with inflammation, SAA and haptoglobin concentrations were moderately increased, while CRP increased more than 200-fold. In addition, marked...

  6. Vaccination of rhesus macaques with a vif-deleted simian immunodeficiency virus proviral DNA vaccine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparger, Ellen E.; Dubie, Robert A.; Shacklett, Barbara L.; Cole, Kelly S.; Chang, W.L.; Luciw, Paul A.

    2008-01-01

    Studies in non-human primates, with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) have demonstrated that live-attenuated viral vaccines are highly effective; however these vaccine viruses maintain a low level of pathogenicity. Lentivirus attenuation associated with deletion of the viral vif gene carries a significantly reduced risk for pathogenicity, while retaining the potential for virus replication of low magnitude in the host. This report describes a vif-deleted simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)mac239 provirus that was tested as an attenuated proviral DNA vaccine by inoculation of female rhesus macaques. SIV-specific interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunospot responses of low magnitude were observed after immunization with plasmid containing the vif-deleted SIV provirus. However, vaccinated animals displayed strong sustained virus-specific T cell proliferative responses and increasing antiviral antibody titers. These immune responses suggested either persistent vaccine plasmid expression or low level replication of vif-deleted SIV in the host. Immunized and unvaccinated macaques received a single high dose vaginal challenge with pathogenic SIVmac251. A transient suppression of challenge virus load and a greater median survival time was observed for vaccinated animals. However, virus loads for vaccinated and unvaccinated macaques were comparable by twenty weeks after challenge and overall survival curves for the two groups were not significantly different. Thus, a vif-deleted SIVmac239 proviral DNA vaccine is immunogenic and capable of inducing a transient suppression of pathogenic challenge virus, despite severe attenuation of the vaccine virus

  7. Postexposure protection of macaques from vaginal SHIV infection by topical integrase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobard, Charles; Sharma, Sunita; Parikh, Urvi M; West, Rolieria; Taylor, Andrew; Martin, Amy; Pau, Chou-Pong; Hanson, Debra L; Lipscomb, Jonathan; Smith, James; Novembre, Francis; Hazuda, Daria; Garcia-Lerma, J Gerardo; Heneine, Walid

    2014-03-12

    Coitally delivered microbicide gels containing antiretroviral drugs are important for HIV prevention. However, to date, microbicides have contained entry or reverse transcriptase inhibitors that block early steps in virus infection and thus need to be given as a preexposure dose that interferes with sexual practices and may limit compliance. Integrase inhibitors block late steps after virus infection and therefore are more suitable for post-coital dosing. We first determined the kinetics of strand transfer in vitro and confirmed that integration begins about 6 hours after infection. We then used a repeat-challenge macaque model to assess efficacy of vaginal gels containing integrase strand transfer inhibitors when applied before or after simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) challenge. We showed that gel containing the strand transfer inhibitor L-870812 protected two of three macaques when applied 30 min before SHIV challenge. We next evaluated the efficacy of 1% raltegravir gel and demonstrated its ability to protect macaques when applied 3 hours after SHIV exposure (five of six protected; P infections showed no evidence of drug resistance in plasma or vaginal secretions despite continued gel dosing after infection. We documented rapid vaginal absorption reflecting a short pharmacological lag time and noted that vaginal, but not plasma, virus load was substantially reduced in the breakthrough infection after raltegravir gel treatment. We provide a proof of concept that topically applied integrase inhibitors protect against vaginal SHIV infection when administered shortly before or 3 hours after virus exposure.

  8. Comparison of the vaginal environment in rhesus and cynomolgus macaques pre- and post-lactobacillus colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daggett, Gregory J; Zhao, Chunxia; Connor-Stroud, Fawn; Oviedo-Moreno, Patricia; Moon, Hojin; Cho, Michael W; Moench, Thomas; Anderson, Deborah J; Villinger, Francois

    2017-10-01

    Rhesus and cynomologus macaques are valuable animal models for the study of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention strategies. However, for such studies focused on the vaginal route of infection, differences in vaginal environment may have deterministic impact on the outcome of such prevention, providing the rationale for this study. We tested the vaginal environment of rhesus and cynomolgus macaques longitudinally to characterize the normal microflora based on Nugent scores and pH. This evaluation was extended after colonization of the vaginal space with Lactobacilli in an effort to recreate NHP models representing the healthy human vaginal environment. Nugent scores and pH differed significantly between species, although data from both species were suggestive of stable bacterial vaginosis. Colonization with Lactobacilli was successful in both species leading to lower Nugent score and pH, although rhesus macaques appeared better able to sustain Lactobacillus spp over time. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Natural and cross-inducible anti-SIV antibodies in Mauritian cynomolgus macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhao Li

    Full Text Available Cynomolgus macaques are an increasingly important nonhuman primate model for HIV vaccine research. SIV-free animals without pre-existing anti-SIV immune responses are generally needed to evaluate the effect of vaccine-induced immune responses against the vaccine epitopes. Here, in order to select such animals for vaccine studies, we screened 108 naïve female Mauritian cynomolgus macaques for natural (baseline antibodies to SIV antigens using a Bio-Plex multiplex system. The antigens included twelve 20mer peptides overlapping the twelve SIV protease cleavage sites (-10/+10, respectively (PCS peptides, and three non-PCS Gag or Env peptides. Natural antibodies to SIV antigens were detected in subsets of monkeys. The antibody reactivity to SIV was further confirmed by Western blot using purified recombinant SIV Gag and Env proteins. As expected, the immunization of monkeys with PCS antigens elicited anti-PCS antibodies. However, unexpectedly, antibodies to non-PCS peptides were also induced, as shown by both Bio-Plex and Western blot analyses, while the non-PCS peptides do not share sequence homology with PCS peptides. The presence of natural and vaccine cross-inducible SIV antibodies in Mauritian cynomolgus macaques should be considered in animal selection, experimental design and result interpretation, for their best use in HIV vaccine research.

  10. Ocular and uteroplacental pathology in a macaque pregnancy with congenital Zika virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Laurel M.; Koenig, Michelle; Semler, Matthew; Breitbach, Meghan E.; Zeng, Xiankun; Weiler, Andrea M.; Barry, Gabrielle L.; Thoong, Troy H.; Wiepz, Gregory J.; Dudley, Dawn M.; Simmons, Heather A.; Mejia, Andres; Morgan, Terry K.; Salamat, M. Shahriar; Kohn, Sarah; Antony, Kathleen M.; Mohns, Mariel S.; Hayes, Jennifer M.; Schultz-Darken, Nancy; Schotzko, Michele L.; Peterson, Eric; Capuano, Saverio; Osorio, Jorge E.; O’Connor, Shelby L.; O’Connor, David H.; Golos, Thaddeus G.

    2018-01-01

    Congenital Zika virus (ZIKV) infection impacts fetal development and pregnancy outcomes. We infected a pregnant rhesus macaque with a Puerto Rican ZIKV isolate in the first trimester. The pregnancy was complicated by preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM), intraamniotic bacterial infection and fetal demise 49 days post infection (gestational day 95). Significant pathology at the maternal-fetal interface included acute chorioamnionitis, placental infarcts, and leukocytoclastic vasculitis of the myometrial radial arteries. ZIKV RNA was disseminated throughout fetal tissues and maternal immune system tissues at necropsy, as assessed by quantitative RT-PCR for viral RNA. Replicating ZIKV was identified in fetal tissues, maternal uterus, and maternal spleen by fluorescent in situ hybridization for viral replication intermediates. Fetal ocular pathology included a choroidal coloboma, suspected anterior segment dysgenesis, and a dysplastic retina. This is the first report of ocular pathology and prolonged viral replication in both maternal and fetal tissues following congenital ZIKV infection in a rhesus macaque. PPROM followed by fetal demise and severe pathology of the visual system have not been described in macaque congenital ZIKV infection previously. While this case of ZIKV infection during pregnancy was complicated by bacterial infection with PPROM, the role of ZIKV on this outcome cannot be precisely defined, and further nonhuman primate studies will determine if increased risk for PPROM or other adverse pregnancy outcomes are associated with congenital ZIKV infection. PMID:29381706

  11. Fetal demise and failed antibody therapy during Zika virus infection of pregnant macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnani, Diogo M; Rogers, Thomas F; Maness, Nicholas J; Grubaugh, Nathan D; Beutler, Nathan; Bailey, Varian K; Gonzalez-Nieto, Lucas; Gutman, Martin J; Pedreño-Lopez, Núria; Kwal, Jaclyn M; Ricciardi, Michael J; Myers, Tereance A; Julander, Justin G; Bohm, Rudolf P; Gilbert, Margaret H; Schiro, Faith; Aye, Pyone P; Blair, Robert V; Martins, Mauricio A; Falkenstein, Kathrine P; Kaur, Amitinder; Curry, Christine L; Kallas, Esper G; Desrosiers, Ronald C; Goldschmidt-Clermont, Pascal J; Whitehead, Stephen S; Andersen, Kristian G; Bonaldo, Myrna C; Lackner, Andrew A; Panganiban, Antonito T; Burton, Dennis R; Watkins, David I

    2018-04-24

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infection of pregnant women is associated with pathologic complications of fetal development. Here, we infect pregnant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) with a minimally passaged ZIKV isolate from Rio de Janeiro, where a high rate of fetal development complications was observed. The infection of pregnant macaques with this virus results in maternal viremia, virus crossing into the amniotic fluid (AF), and in utero fetal deaths. We also treated three additional ZIKV-infected pregnant macaques with a cocktail of ZIKV-neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies (nmAbs) at peak viremia. While the nmAbs can be effective in clearing the virus from the maternal sera of treated monkeys, it is not sufficient to clear ZIKV from AF. Our report suggests that ZIKV from Brazil causes fetal demise in non-human primates (NHPs) without additional mutations or confounding co-factors. Treatment with a neutralizing anti-ZIKV nmAb cocktail is insufficient to fully stop vertical transmission.

  12. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Hepatic Tissue of T2DM Rhesus Macaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingfu Du

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a metabolic disorder that severely affects human health, but the pathogenesis of the disease remains unknown. The high-fat/high-sucrose diets combined with streptozotocin- (STZ- induced nonhuman primate animal model of diabetes are a valuable research source of T2DM. Here, we present a study of a STZ rhesus macaque model of T2DM that utilizes quantitative iTRAQ-based proteomic method. We compared the protein profiles in the liver of STZ-treated macaques as well as age-matched healthy controls. We identified 171 proteins differentially expressed in the STZ-treated groups, about 70 of which were documented as diabetes-related gene in previous studies. Pathway analyses indicated that the biological functions of differentially expressed proteins were related to glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, fatty acid metabolism, complements, and coagulation cascades. Expression change in tryptophan metabolism pathway was also found in this study which may be associations with diabetes. This study is the first to explore genome-wide protein expression in hepatic tissue of diabetes macaque model using HPLC-Q-TOF/MS technology. In addition to providing potential T2DM biomarkers, this quantitative proteomic study may also shed insights regarding the molecular pathogenesis of T2DM.

  13. Individual and social learning processes involved in the acquisition and generalization of tool use in macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macellini, S.; Maranesi, M.; Bonini, L.; Simone, L.; Rozzi, S.; Ferrari, P. F.; Fogassi, L.

    2012-01-01

    Macaques can efficiently use several tools, but their capacity to discriminate the relevant physical features of a tool and the social factors contributing to their acquisition are still poorly explored. In a series of studies, we investigated macaques' ability to generalize the use of a stick as a tool to new objects having different physical features (study 1), or to new contexts, requiring them to adapt the previously learned motor strategy (study 2). We then assessed whether the observation of a skilled model might facilitate tool-use learning by naive observer monkeys (study 3). Results of study 1 and study 2 showed that monkeys trained to use a tool generalize this ability to tools of different shape and length, and learn to adapt their motor strategy to a new task. Study 3 demonstrated that observing a skilled model increases the observers' manipulations of a stick, thus facilitating the individual discovery of the relevant properties of this object as a tool. These findings support the view that in macaques, the motor system can be modified through tool use and that it has a limited capacity to adjust the learnt motor skills to a new context. Social factors, although important to facilitate the interaction with tools, are not crucial for tool-use learning. PMID:22106424

  14. Hierarchical ordering with partial pairwise hierarchical relationships on the macaque brain data sets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woosang Lim

    Full Text Available Hierarchical organizations of information processing in the brain networks have been known to exist and widely studied. To find proper hierarchical structures in the macaque brain, the traditional methods need the entire pairwise hierarchical relationships between cortical areas. In this paper, we present a new method that discovers hierarchical structures of macaque brain networks by using partial information of pairwise hierarchical relationships. Our method uses a graph-based manifold learning to exploit inherent relationship, and computes pseudo distances of hierarchical levels for every pair of cortical areas. Then, we compute hierarchy levels of all cortical areas by minimizing the sum of squared hierarchical distance errors with the hierarchical information of few cortical areas. We evaluate our method on the macaque brain data sets whose true hierarchical levels are known as the FV91 model. The experimental results show that hierarchy levels computed by our method are similar to the FV91 model, and its errors are much smaller than the errors of hierarchical clustering approaches.

  15. [Disseminated metastatic tumor at dorsal surface of medulla oblongata presenting intractable hiccups. A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arishima, Hidetaka; Kikuta, Ken-ichirou

    2011-04-01

    We report the case of disseminated metastatic tumor at dorsal surface of medulla oblongata presenting intractable hiccups. A 73-year-old man has a history of for metastatic lung tumor of the left tempral lobe. Although 3 surgeries and 4 radiotherapies were performed in the last 8 years, residual tumor grew slowly. He presented with intractable hiccups. His hiccups continued for 30 minutes, sometimes for 3 hours with obstruction of eating. Contrast-enhanced Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging demonstrated the dissemination of metastatic lung tumor at dorsal surface of medulla oblongata and ventral surface of midbrain. Some literatures reported the patients with intractable hiccups caused by dorsal medullary lesions. Therefore, we thought that the small disseminated tumor at dorsal surface of medulla oblongata caused the hiccups. Evaluation of dorsal medullay area by MR imaging is important to reveal the cause of intractable hiccups.

  16. Amnioserosa cell constriction but not epidermal actin cable tension autonomously drives dorsal closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasakarnis, Laurynas; Frei, Erich; Caussinus, Emmanuel; Affolter, Markus; Brunner, Damian

    2016-11-01

    Tissue morphogenesis requires coordination of multiple force-producing components. During dorsal closure in fly embryogenesis, an epidermis opening closes. A tensioned epidermal actin/MyosinII cable, which surrounds the opening, produces a force that is thought to combine with another MyosinII force mediating apical constriction of the amnioserosa cells that fill the opening. A model proposing that each force could autonomously drive dorsal closure was recently challenged by a model in which the two forces combine in a ratchet mechanism. Acute force elimination via selective MyosinII depletion in one or the other tissue shows that the amnioserosa tissue autonomously drives dorsal closure while the actin/MyosinII cable cannot. These findings exclude both previous models, although a contribution of the ratchet mechanism at dorsal closure onset remains likely. This shifts the current view of dorsal closure being a combinatorial force-component system to a single tissue-driven closure event.

  17. Topical tenofovir protects against vaginal simian HIV infection in macaques coinfected with Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, Natalia; Henning, Tara; Taylor, Andrew; Dinh, Chuong; Lipscomb, Jonathan; Aubert, Rachael; Hanson, Debra; Phillips, Christi; Papp, John; Mitchell, James; McNicholl, Janet; Garcia-Lerma, Gerardo J; Heneine, Walid; Kersh, Ellen; Dobard, Charles

    2017-03-27

    Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis, two prevalent sexually transmitted infections, are known to increase HIV risk in women and could potentially diminish preexposure prophylaxis efficacy, particularly for topical interventions that rely on local protection. We investigated in macaques whether coinfection with Chlamydia trachomatis/Trichomonas vaginalis reduces protection by vaginal tenofovir (TFV) gel. Vaginal TFV gel dosing previously shown to provide 100 or 74% protection when applied either 30 min or 3 days before simian HIV(SHIV) challenge was assessed in pigtailed macaques coinfected with Chlamydia trachomatis/Trichomonas vaginalis and challenged twice weekly with SHIV162p3 for up to 10 weeks (two menstrual cycles). Three groups of six macaques received either placebo or 1% TFV gel 30 min or 3 days before each SHIV challenge. We additionally assessed TFV and TFV diphosphate concentrations in plasma and vaginal tissues in Chlamydia trachomatis/Trichomonas vaginalis coinfected (n = 4) and uninfected (n = 4) macaques. Chlamydia trachomatis/Trichomonas vaginalis coinfections were maintained during the SHIV challenge period. All macaques that received placebo gel were SHIV infected after a median of seven challenges (one menstrual cycle). In contrast, no infections were observed in macaques treated with TFV gel 30 min before SHIV challenge (P vaginal lymphocytes were significantly higher in Chlamydia trachomatis/Trichomonas vaginalis coinfected compared with Chlamydia trachomatis/Trichomonas vaginalis uninfected macaques. Our findings in this model suggest that Chlamydia trachomatis/Trichomonas vaginalis coinfection may have little or no impact on the efficacy of highly effective topical TFV modalities and highlight a significant modulation of TFV pharmacokinetics.

  18. Lateral Attitude Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Tina; Dickel, Nina; Liersch, Benjamin; Rees, Jonas; Süssenbach, Philipp; Bohner, Gerd

    2015-08-01

    The authors propose a framework distinguishing two types of lateral attitude change (LAC): (a) generalization effects, where attitude change toward a focal object transfers to related objects, and (b) displacement effects, where only related attitudes change but the focal attitude does not change. They bring together examples of LAC from various domains of research, outline the conditions and underlying processes of each type of LAC, and develop a theoretical framework that enables researchers to study LAC more systematically in the future. Compared with established theories of attitude change, the LAC framework focuses on lateral instead of focal attitude change and encompasses both generalization and displacement. Novel predictions and designs for studying LAC are presented. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  19. Organizations Utilize Lateral Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Jacqueline C.

    2017-01-01

    The structures that subscribe to different organization play a major role and determine how information flows throughout an organization as well as the reporting structure within the organization. In some organization, decision making rely with the top management, and in other organizations, decision making responsibilities may be distributed within the organization. The latter part is what mainly constitutes a lateral structural arrangement where various departments work hand in hand in achi...

  20. Advantages of later motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrskylä, M; Barclay, K; Goisis, A

    2017-01-01

    In high-income countries childbearing has been increasingly postponed since the 1970s and it is crucial to understand the consequences of this demographic shift. The literature has tended to characterize later motherhood as a significant health threat for children and parents. We contribute to this debate by reviewing recent evidence suggesting that an older maternal age can also have positive effects. Literature linking the age at parenthood with the sociodemographic characteristics of the parents, with macrolevel interactions, and with subjective well-being. Comprehensive review of the existing literature. Recent studies show that there can also be advantages associated with later motherhood. First, whilst in past older mothers had low levels of education and large families, currently older mothers tend to have higher education and smaller families than their younger peers. Consequently, children born to older mothers in the past tended to have worse outcomes than children born to younger mothers, whilst the opposite is true in recent cohorts. Second, postponement of childbearing means that the child is born at a later date and in a later birth cohort, and may benefit from secular changes in the macroenvironment. Evidence shows that when the positive trends in the macroenvironment are strong they overweigh the negative effects of reproductive ageing. Third, existing studies show that happiness increases around and after childbirth among older mothers, whereas for younger mothers the effect does not exist or is short-lived. There are important sociodemographic pathways associated with postponement of childbearing which might compensate or even more than compensate for the biological disadvantages associated with reproductive ageing.

  1. Dorsal clitoral nerve injury following transobturator midurethral sling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moss CF

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Chailee F Moss,1 Lynn A Damitz,2 Richard H Gracely,3 Alice C Mintz,3 Denniz A Zolnoun,2–4 A Lee Dellon5 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ohio State University School of Medicine, Columbus, OH, USA; 2Department of Surgery, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 3Department of Endodontics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 5Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Introduction: Transobturator slings can be successfully used to treat stress urinary incontinence and improve quality of life through a minimally invasive vaginal approach. Persistent postoperative pain can occur and pose diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas. Following a sling procedure, a patient complained of pinching clitoral and perineal pain. Her symptoms of localized clitoral pinching and pain became generalized over the ensuing years, eventually encompassing the entire left vulvovaginal region.Aim: The aim of this study was to highlight the clinical utility of conventional pain management techniques used for the evaluation and management of patients with postoperative pain following pelvic surgery. Methods: We described a prototypical patient with persistent pain in and around the clitoral region complicating the clinical course of an otherwise successful sling procedure. We specifically discussed the utility of bedside sensory assessment techniques and selective nerve blocks in the evaluation and management of this prototypical patient. Results: Neurosensory assessments and a selective nerve block enabled us to trace the source of the patient’s pain to nerve entrapment along the dorsal nerve of the clitoris. We then utilized a nerve stimulator-guided hydrodissection technique to release the scar contracture Conclusion: This case

  2. Electrophysiological Assessment of Serotonin and GABA Neuron Function in the Dorsal Raphe during the Third Trimester Equivalent Developmental Period in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Russell A; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Valenzuela, C Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in the development of the serotonin system can have prolonged effects, including depression and anxiety disorders later in life. Serotonin axonal projections from the dorsal raphe undergo extensive refinement during the first 2 weeks of postnatal life in rodents (equivalent to the third trimester of human pregnancy). However, little is known about the functional properties of serotonin and GABA neurons in the dorsal raphe during this critical developmental period. We assessed the functional properties and synaptic connectivity of putative serotoninergic neurons and GABAergic neurons in the dorsal raphe during early [postnatal day (P) P5-P7] and late (P15-P17) stages of the third trimester equivalent period using electrophysiology. Our studies demonstrate that GABAergic neurons are hyperexcitable at P5-P7 relative to P15-P17. Furthermore, putative serotonin neurons exhibit an increase in both excitatory and GABAA receptor-mediated spontaneous postsynaptic currents during this developmental period. Our data suggest that GABAergic neurons and putative serotonin neurons undergo significant electrophysiological changes during neonatal development.

  3. [Posttrial injections of corticosterone in dorsal hippocampus of the BALB/c mouse facilitate extinction of appetitive operant conditioning in the Skinner box].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheau, J; Destrade, C; Soumireu-Mourat, B

    1982-06-28

    Corticosterone was injected bilaterally into the dorsal hippocampus of BALB/c Mice immediately after the first extinction session of an operant conditioning in a Skinner box. Compared with the control animals the Mice that received 1 or 0.1 microgram corticosterone exhibited 24 hrs. later, faster extinction of this conditioning. With a 0.01 microgram dose of corticosterone in each hippocampus we obtained an accelerated extinction during the session. These data suggest that corticosterone modulates hippocampal mechanisms involved in memory processes.

  4. Symptomatic laterality and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the putamen in striatonigral degeneration (SND)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagihara, Chie; Ichikawa, Keiji; Kageyama, Yasufumi; Satou, Mutsumi; Hoshino, Masataka (Hyogo Prefectural Amagasaki Hospital (Japan))

    1994-04-01

    The relationship between sympatomatic laterality and lesions of the putamen was investigated by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in 6 patients with striatonigral degeneration (SND). According to Yahr's classification, one patient had I, III, and V each, and 3 had IV. All patients had asymmetric onset of parkinsonism. They developed variable cerebellar ataxia and/or autonomic failure. T1-weighted imaging was most superior in delineating atrophy of the putamen and laterality. The atrophy and lateral difference of the putamen were associated with progression of symptoms. Both the area and the maximum transverse diameter of the putamen were significantly decreased. Atophied putamen extended from the dorsal to the abdominal sides with symptom progression. Attention should be paid to the dorsal side of the putamen in delineating the atrophy and bilateral difference. The measurement of the maximum transverse diameter of the dorsal atrophy of the putamen was a simple, useful means for assessing the atrophy of the putamen. The diameter 7.4 mm or less of the putamen suggested the presence of atrophy. (N.K.).

  5. Surgical treatment of lumbosacral foraminal stenosis using a lateral approach in twenty dogs with degenerative lumbosacral stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gödde, Thomas; Steffen, Frank

    2007-10-01

    To describe clinical signs, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and surgical findings using a lateral approach to the lumbosacral intervertebral foramen and to evaluate clinical outcomes in dogs with or without concurrent dorsal decompression and annulectomy. Retrospective study. Dogs (n=20) with degenerative lumbosacral stenosis (DLSS). Medical records (2002-2006) of dogs that had lumbosacral lateral foraminotomy alone or in combination with dorsal decompression were reviewed. Degree of dysfunction was assessed separately for each pelvic limb; dogs with unilateral signs were included in group A, those with bilateral signs in group B. Retrieved data were: signalment, history, neurologic status on admission, 3 days, 6 weeks, and 6 months postoperatively, duration of clinical signs, results of MRI, surgical site(s), intraoperative findings, and outcome. Based on the clinical and MRI findings unilateral foraminotomy was performed in 8 dogs, bilateral foraminotomy in 1 dog, unilateral foraminotomy with concurrent dorsal decompression in 7 dogs, and bilateral foraminotomy with concomitant dorsal decompression in 4 dogs. Surgery confirmed the presence of foraminal stenosis in all dogs, with osteophyte formation and soft tissue proliferations being the most common lesions. Outcome was good to excellent in 19 dogs and poor in 1 dog. Mean follow-up was 15.2 months (range, 6-42 months). Lateral foraminotomy addresses compressive lesions within exit and middle zones of the lumbosacral foramen. Successful surgical management of DLSS is dependent on recognition and correction of each of the compressive lesions within the lumbosacral junction.

  6. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of rhesus macaque CD8αα homodimer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zong, Lili; Chen, Yong; Yan, Jinghua; Zhang, Jianhua

    2010-01-01

    CD8α exodomain protein, a crucial immune-system factor in rhesus macaque (M. mulatta), one of the best animal models for vaccine design, was assembled and crystallized. The full structure data will contribute to future studies of immune responses in rhesus macaques. As a T-cell co-receptor, CD8 binds to MHC class I molecules and plays a pivotal role in the activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. To date, structures of CD8 have been solved for two different mammals: human and mouse. The infection of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) by simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) is the best animal model for studying HIV. In this study, the rhesus macaque CD8 (rCD8) αα homodimer was obtained and rCD8α exodomain protein crystals were successfully obtained for further structural analysis. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.4 Å. The crystal belonged to space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 46.52, b = 56.28, c = 82.40 Å. These data will facilitate further studies on the structural differences between these CD8 structures and the cellular immune responses of rhesus macaque

  7. Variation in hair δ13C and δ15N values in long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) from Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, Michael A.; Castellini, J. Margaret; Stricker, Craig A.; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Lee, Benjamin P.Y.-H.

    2014-01-01

    Much of the primatology literature on stable isotope ratios of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) has focused on African and New World species, with comparatively little research published on Asian primates. Here we present hair δ13C and δ15N isotope values for a sample of 33 long-tailed macaques from Singapore. We evaluate the suggestion by a previous researcher that forest degradation and biodiversity loss in Singapore have led to a decline in macaque trophic level. The results of our analysis indicated significant spatial variability in δ13C but not δ15N. The range of variation in δ13C was consistent with a diet based on C3 resources, with one group exhibiting low values consistent with a closed canopy environment. Relative to other macaque species from Europe and Asia, the macaques from Singapore exhibited a low mean δ13C value but mid-range mean δ15N value. Previous research suggesting a decline in macaque trophic level is not supported by the results of our study.

  8. Do dorsal raphe 5-HT neurons encode "beneficialness"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Minmin; Li, Yi; Zhong, Weixin

    2016-11-01

    The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) affects numerous behavioral and physiological processes. Drugs that alter 5-HT signaling treat several major psychiatric disorders and may lead to widespread abuse. The dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) in the midbrain provides a majority of 5-HT for the forebrain. The importance of 5-HT signaling propels the search for a general theoretical framework under which the diverse functions of the DRN 5-HT neurons can be interpreted and additional therapeutic solutions may be developed. However, experimental data so far support several seeming irreconcilable theories, suggesting that 5-HT neurons mediate behavioral inhibition, aversive processing, or reward signaling. Here, we review recent progresses and propose that DRN 5-HT neurons encode "beneficialness" - how beneficial the current environmental context represents for an individual. Specifically, we speculate that the activity of these neurons reflects the possible net benefit of the current context as determined by p·R-C, in which p indicates reward probability, R the reward value, and C the cost. Through the widespread projections of these neurons to the forebrain, the beneficialness signal may reconfigure neural circuits to bias perception, boost positive emotions, and switch behavioral choices. The "beneficialness" hypothesis can explain many conflicting observations, and at the same time raises new questions. We suggest additional experiments that will help elucidate the exact computational functions of the DRN 5-HT neurons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Dorsal bridge plating or transarticular screws for Lisfranc fracture dislocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirzner, N; Zotov, P; Goldbloom, D; Curry, H; Bedi, H

    2018-04-01

    Aims The aim of this retrospective study was to compare the functional and radiological outcomes of bridge plating, screw fixation, and a combination of both methods for the treatment of Lisfranc fracture dislocations. Patients and Methods A total of 108 patients were treated for a Lisfranc fracture dislocation over a period of nine years. Of these, 38 underwent transarticular screw fixation, 45 dorsal bridge plating, and 25 a combination technique. Injuries were assessed preoperatively according to the Myerson classification system. The outcome measures included the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score, the validated Manchester Oxford Foot Questionnaire (MOXFQ) functional tool, and the radiological Wilppula classification of anatomical reduction. Results Significantly better functional outcomes were seen in the bridge plate group. These patients had a mean AOFAS score of 82.5 points, compared with 71.0 for the screw group and 63.3 for the combination group (p bridge plate group, 38.1 in the screw group, and 45.5 in the combination group (p bridge plating have better functional and radiological outcomes than those treated with transarticular screws or a combination technique. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2018;100-B:468-74.

  10. The Molecular Fingerprint of Dorsal Root and Trigeminal Ganglion Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas M. Lopes

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The dorsal root ganglia (DRG and trigeminal ganglia (TG are clusters of cell bodies of highly specialized sensory neurons which are responsible for relaying information about our environment to the central nervous system. Despite previous efforts to characterize sensory neurons at the molecular level, it is still unknown whether those present in DRG and TG have distinct expression profiles and therefore a unique molecular fingerprint. To address this question, we isolated lumbar DRG and TG neurons using fluorescence-activated cell sorting from Advillin-GFP transgenic mice and performed RNA sequencing. Our transcriptome analyses showed that, despite being overwhelmingly similar, a number of genes are differentially expressed in DRG and TG neurons. Importantly, we identified 24 genes which were uniquely expressed in either ganglia, including an arginine vasopressin receptor and several homeobox genes, giving each population a distinct molecular fingerprint. We compared our findings with published studies to reveal that many genes previously reported to be present in neurons are in fact likely to originate from other cell types in the ganglia. Additionally, our neuron-specific results aligned well with a dataset examining whole human TG and DRG. We propose that the data can both improve our understanding of primary afferent biology and help contribute to the development of drug treatments and gene therapies which seek targets with unique or restricted expression patterns.

  11. Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Dorsal Hand: An Update and Comprehensive Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Tiffany Y; Rubin, Ashley G; Brian Jiang, Shang I

    2016-04-01

    Excessive ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure is the primary predisposing factor for basal cell carcinoma (BCC). However, surprisingly, BCCs occur very rarely on the dorsal hand, which is subject to intense sun exposure, and their infrequent presentation in this location suggests that other factors besides UVR may play a role in BCC pathogenesis. Because dorsal hand BCCs are uncommon, knowledge of their characteristics is limited, and more data are needed to describe their clinical presentation and treatment. To perform an updated review of the literature on the management of dorsal hand BCCs. The authors conducted a comprehensive literature review by searching the PubMed database with the key phrases "basal cell carcinoma dorsal hand," "basal cell carcinoma hand," and "basal cell carcinoma finger," and "basal cell carcinoma thumb." The authors identified 176 cases of dorsal hand BCCs in the literature, 120 of which had sufficient data for analysis. Only 4 cases were treated with Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS). The authors present 14 additional cases of dorsal hand BCCs treated with MMS. Basal cell carcinomas on the dorsal hand occur infrequently, and potential risk factors include being a male of white descent and personal history of skin cancer. Mohs micrographic surgery seems to be an effective treatment method.

  12. Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Dorsal Foot: An Update and Comprehensive Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Tiffany Y; Rubin, Ashley G; Jiang, Shang I Brian

    2017-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation is a well-known risk factor for basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Therefore, the high incidence of BCCs in sun-exposed areas such as the head and neck is unsurprising. However, unexpectedly, BCCs on the sun-protected dorsal foot have also been reported, and tumor occurrence here suggests that other factors besides ultraviolet radiation may play a role in BCC pathogenesis. Because only few dorsal foot BCCs have been reported, data on their clinical features and management are limited. To perform an updated review of the literature on clinical characteristics and treatment of dorsal foot BCCs. We conducted a comprehensive literature review by searching the PubMed database with the key phrases "basal cell carcinoma dorsal foot," "basal cell carcinoma foot," and "basal cell carcinoma toe." We identified 20 cases of dorsal foot BCCs in the literature, 17 of which had sufficient data for analysis. Only 1 case was treated with Mohs micrographic surgery. We present 8 additional cases of dorsal foot BCCs treated with Mohs micrographic surgery. Basal cell carcinomas on the dorsal foot are rare, and potential risk factors include Caucasian descent and personal history of skin cancer. Mohs micrographic surgery seems to be an effective treatment option.

  13. Responses of spinal dorsal horn neurons to foot movements in rats with a sprained ankle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Hyo; Kim, Hee Young; Chung, Kyungsoon

    2011-01-01

    Acute ankle injuries are common problems and often lead to persistent pain. To investigate the underlying mechanism of ankle sprain pain, the response properties of spinal dorsal horn neurons were examined after ankle sprain. Acute ankle sprain was induced manually by overextending the ankle of a rat hindlimb in a direction of plantarflexion and inversion. The weight-bearing ratio (WBR) of the affected foot was used as an indicator of pain. Single unit activities of dorsal horn neurons in response to plantarflexion and inversion of the foot or ankle compression were recorded from the medial part of the deep dorsal horn, laminae IV-VI, in normal and ankle-sprained rats. One day after ankle sprain, rats showed significantly reduced WBRs on the affected foot, and this reduction was partially restored by systemic morphine. The majority of deep dorsal horn neurons responded to a single ankle stimulus modality. After ankle sprain, the mean evoked response rates were significantly increased, and afterdischarges were developed in recorded dorsal horn neurons. The ankle sprain-induced enhanced evoked responses were significantly reduced by morphine, which was reversed by naltrexone. The data indicate that movement-specific dorsal horn neuron responses were enhanced after ankle sprain in a morphine-dependent manner, thus suggesting that hyperactivity of dorsal horn neurons is an underlying mechanism of pain after ankle sprain. PMID:21389306

  14. Laparoscopic Puestow: lateral pancreaticojejunostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biteman, Benjamin R; Harr, Jeffrey N; Brody, Fred

    2016-12-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is a painful inflammatory disease that leads to progressive and irreversible destruction of pancreatic parenchyma [1]. A lateral pancreaticojejunostomy, also known as the Puestow procedure, is performed for symptomatic chronic pancreatitis associated with a dilated pancreatic duct secondary to calcifications or strictures [4]. An open approach is used traditionally due to the complexity of the case, and there have only been a handful of laparoscopic case reports [2]. This video depicts a laparoscopic lateral pancreaticojejunostomy for chronic pancreatitis. A 45-year-old gentleman with a 20-year history of chronic alcohol abuse presented with diffuse abdominal pain. His pain was worse postprandially and associated with loose stools. A computed tomography scan revealed multiple calcified deposits within the body and tail of the pancreas, and a dilated pancreatic duct measuring 1.4 cm with a proximal obstructing calcified stone. A 5-port foregut technique was used, and a 15-cm pancreatic ductotomy was performed with an ultrasonic scalpel. Calcified stones were cleared from the duct, and a roux-en-y pancreaticojejunostomy was performed using a hand-sewn technique. The patient had a relatively uncomplicated hospital course with return of bowel function on postoperative day 4. His patient-controlled analgesic device was discontinued on post operative day 3. He was ambulating, tolerating a regular diet and discharged home on postoperative day 5. At 12- and 26-month follow-up, he remains off narcotics, but still requires 1-2 tabs of pancreatic enzyme replacement per meal. Most importantly, he has not had any alcohol for over 2 years. The two primary goals in treating chronic pancreatitis include long-term pain relief and improvements in quality of life [3]. For patients with chronic pancreatitis and a dilated pancreatic duct, a laparoscopic lateral pancreaticojejunostomy may be an effective approach to decrease pain and improve quality of life.

  15. Hemispheric asymmetries in dorsal language pathway white-matter tracts: A magnetic resonance imaging tractography and functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Guilherme; Citterio, Alberto

    2017-10-01

    Introduction Previous studies have shown that the arcuate fasciculus has a leftward asymmetry in right-handers that could be correlated with the language lateralisation defined by functional magnetic resonance imaging. Nonetheless, information about the asymmetry of the other fibres that constitute the dorsal language pathway is scarce. Objectives This study investigated the asymmetry of the white-matter tracts involved in the dorsal language pathway through the diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) technique, in relation to language hemispheric dominance determined by task-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods We selected 11 patients (10 right-handed) who had been studied with task-dependent fMRI for language areas and DTI and who had no language impairment or structural abnormalities that could compromise magnetic resonance tractography of the fibres involved in the dorsal language pathway. Laterality indices (LI) for fMRI and for the volumes of each tract were calculated. Results In fMRI, all the right-handers had left hemispheric lateralisation, and the ambidextrous subject presented right hemispheric dominance. The arcuate fasciculus LI was strongly correlated with fMRI LI ( r = 0.739, p = 0.009), presenting the same lateralisation of fMRI in seven subjects (including the right hemispheric dominant). It was not asymmetric in three cases and had opposite lateralisation in one case. The other tracts presented predominance for rightward lateralisation, especially superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) II/III (nine subjects), but their LI did not correlate (directly or inversely) with fMRI LI. Conclusion The fibres that constitute the dorsal language pathway have an asymmetric distribution in the cerebral hemispheres. Only the asymmetry of the arcuate fasciculus is correlated with fMRI language lateralisation.

  16. Modified puestow lateral pancreaticojejunostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceppa, Eugene P; Pappas, Theodore N

    2009-05-01

    There are various surgical options for the treatment of pain associated with chronic pancreatitis. The modified Puestow lateral pancreaticojejunostomy has been proven to be effective in ameliorating symptoms and expediting return to normal lifestyle while maintaining a low rate of morbidity and mortality. However, the debate regarding which surgical treatment provides the best outcomes is controversial. The aims of this manuscript are to identify the patient population for which the Puestow benefits the most and discuss the pertinent technical aspects of the surgical procedure.

  17. Persistent dorsal ophthalmic artery arising from the internal carotid artery: Report of three cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jae Hwan; Lee, Ghi Jai; Shim, Jae Chan; Lee, Kyoung Eun; Kim, Ho Kyun; Suh, Jung Ho [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Normally, the ophthalmic artery (OA) arises from the supraclinoid segment of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and enters the orbit via the optic canal. A persistent dorsal OA is a rare variation that originates from the cavernous segment of the ICA and enters the orbit via the superior orbital fissure. To the best of our knowledge, persistent dorsal OA has not been described in the Korean literature. In this paper, we report three cases of persistent dorsal OA with review of the literature on embryogenesis and other origins of the OA.

  18. Spontaneous lateral temporal encephalocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncbilek, Gokhan; Calis, Mert; Akalan, Nejat

    2013-01-01

    A spontaneous encephalocele is one that develops either because of embryological maldevelopment or from a poorly understood postnatal process that permits brain herniation to occur. We here report a rare case of lateral temporal encephalocele extending to the infratemporal fossa under the zygomatic arch. At birth, the infant was noted to have a large cystic mass in the right side of the face. After being operated on initially in another center in the newborn period, the patient was referred to our clinic with a diagnosis of temporal encephalocele. He was 6 months old at the time of admission. Computerized tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed a 8 × 9 cm fluid-filled, multiloculated cystic mass at the right infratemporal fossa. No intracranial pathology or connection is seen. The patient was operated on to reduce the distortion effect of the growing mass. The histopathological examination of the sac revealed well-differentiated mature glial tissue stained with glial fibrillary acid protein. This rare clinical presentation of encephaloceles should be taken into consideration during the evaluation of the lateral facial masses in the infancy period, and possible intracranial connection should be ruled out before surgery to avoid complications.

  19. Effect of dorsal hippocampal lesion compared to dorsal hippocampal blockade by atropine on reference memory in vision deprived rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhume, R A; Noronha, A; Nagwekar, M D; Mascarenhas, J F

    1989-10-01

    In order to study the primacy of the hippocampus in place learning function 24 male adult albino rats were hippocampally-lesioned in dorsal hippocampus involving fornical damage (group I); sham operated for comparison with group I (group II); cannulated for instillation of atropine sulphate in the same loci as group I (group III); and cannulated for instillation of saline which served as control for group III (group IV). All the animals were enucleated and their reference memory (long-term memory) was tested, using open 4-arm radial maze. There was loss of reference memory in groups I and III. However, hippocampally-lesioned animals, showed recovery of reference memory deficit within a short period of 10 days or so. Whereas atropinized animals showed persistent reference memory deficit as long as the instillation effect continued. The mechanism involved in the recovery of reference memory in hippocampally-lesioned animals and persistent deficit of reference memory in atropinized animals has been postulated to explain the primacy of hippocampus in the place learning function under normal conditions.

  20. Food resources, distribution and seasonal variations in ranging in lion-tailed macaques, Macaca silenus in the Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erinjery, Joseph J; Kavana, T S; Singh, Mewa

    2015-01-01

    The distribution and availability of food was examined to see how it influenced ranging patterns and sleeping site selection in a group of lion-tailed macaques. The home range and core area were 130.48 ha (95% kernel) and 26.68 ha (50% kernel) respectively. The lion-tailed macaques had a longer day range, had a greater number of sleeping sites and used more core areas in the summer as compared to the monsoon and the post-monsoon seasons. The ranging patterns and sleeping site use were influenced by the major food resources used in a particular season. The ranging was mainly influenced by Artocarpus heterophyllus in monsoon, Cullenia exarillata and Toona ciliata in post- monsoon, and Artocarpus heterophyllus and Ficus amplissima in summer. The distribution of these four plant species is, therefore, critical to ranging, and thus to conservation of the lion-tailed macaque.

  1. Differential activation of amygdala, dorsal and ventral hippocampus following an exposure to a reminder ofunderwater trauma

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    Gilad eRitov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recollection of emotional memories is attributed in part to the activation of the amygdala and the hippocampus. Recent hypothesis suggest a pivotal role for the ventral hippocampus in traumatic stress processing and emotional memory retrieval. Persistent re-experiencing and intrusive recollections are core symptoms in acute and posttraumatic stress disorders (ASD; PTSD. Such intrusive recollections are often triggered by reminders associated with the trauma.We examined the impact of exposure to a trauma reminder (under water trauma on the activation of the basolateral amygdala (BLA, dorsal and ventral hippocampus. Rats were exposed to underwater trauma and 24 hours later were re-exposed to the context of the trauma. Phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK was used as a marker for level of activation of these regions. Significant increase in ERK activation was found in the ventral hippocampus and BLA. Such pattern of activation was not found in animals exposed only to the trauma or in animals exposed only to the trauma reminder. Additionally, the dissociative pattern of activation of the ventral hippocampus sub-regions positively correlated with the activation of the BLA.Our findings suggest a specific pattern of neural activation during recollection of a trauma reminder, with a unique contribution of the ventral hippocampus. Measured 24 hrs after the exposure to the traumatic experience, the current findings relate to relatively early stages of traumatic memory consolidation. Understanding the neural mechanisms underlying these initial stages may contribute to developing intervention strategies that could reduce the risk of eventually developing PTSD.

  2. Key role for spinal dorsal horn microglial kinin B1 receptor in early diabetic pain neuropathy

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    Couture Réjean

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pro-nociceptive kinin B1 receptor (B1R is upregulated on sensory C-fibres, astrocytes and microglia in the spinal cord of streptozotocin (STZ-diabetic rat. This study aims at defining the role of microglial kinin B1R in diabetic pain neuropathy. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were made diabetic with STZ (65 mg/kg, i.p., and 4 days later, two specific inhibitors of microglial cells (fluorocitrate, 1 nmol, i.t.; minocycline, 10 mg/kg, i.p. were administered to assess the impact on thermal hyperalgesia, allodynia and mRNA expression (qRT-PCR of B1R and pro-inflammatory markers. Spinal B1R binding sites ((125I-HPP-desArg10-Hoe 140 were also measured by quantitative autoradiography. Inhibition of microglia was confirmed by confocal microscopy with the specific marker Iba-1. Effects of intrathecal and/or systemic administration of B1R agonist (des-Arg9-BK and antagonists (SSR240612 and R-715 were measured on neuropathic pain manifestations. Results STZ-diabetic rats displayed significant tactile and cold allodynia compared with control rats. Intrathecal or peripheral blockade of B1R or inhibition of microglia reversed time-dependently tactile and cold allodynia in diabetic rats without affecting basal values in control rats. Microglia inhibition also abolished thermal hyperalgesia and the enhanced allodynia induced by intrathecal des-Arg9-BK without affecting hyperglycemia in STZ rats. The enhanced mRNA expression (B1R, IL-1β, TNF-α, TRPV1 and Iba-1 immunoreactivity in the STZ spinal cord were normalized by fluorocitrate or minocycline, yet B1R binding sites were reduced by 38%. Conclusion The upregulation of kinin B1R in spinal dorsal horn microglia by pro-inflammatory cytokines is proposed as a crucial mechanism in early pain neuropathy in STZ-diabetic rats.

  3. Different implications of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus on contextual memory retrieval after stress.

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    Pierard, C; Dorey, R; Henkous, N; Mons, N; Béracochéa, D

    2017-09-01

    This study assessed the relative contributions of dorsal (dHPC) and ventral (vHPC) hippocampus regions in mediating the rapid effects of an acute stress on contextual memory retrieval. Indeed, we previously showed that an acute stress (3 electric footschocks; 0.9 mA each) delivered 15 min before the 24 h-test inversed the memory retrieval pattern in a contextual discrimination task. Specifically, mice learned in a four-hole board two successive discriminations (D1 and D2) varying by the color and texture of the floor. Twenty-four hours later, nonstressed animals remembered accurately D1 but not D2 whereas stressed mice showed an opposite memory retrieval pattern, D2 being more accurately remembered than D1. We showed here that, at the time of memory testing in that task, stressed animals exhibited no significant changes neither in pCREB activity nor in the time-course evolution of corticosterone into the vHPC; in contrast, a significant decrease in pCREB activity and a significant increase in corticosterone were observed in the dHPC as compared to nonstressed mice. Moreover, local infusion of the anesthetic lidocaine into the vHPC 15 min before the onset of the stressor did not modify the memory retrieval pattern in nonstress and stress conditions whereas lidocaine infusion into the dHPC induced in nonstressed mice an memory retrieval pattern similar to that observed in stressed animals. The overall set of data shows that memory retrieval in nonstress condition involved primarily the dHPC and that the inversion of memory retrieval pattern after stress is linked to a dHPC but not vHPC dysfunction. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Vascularization and odontode structure of a dorsal ridge spine of Romundina stellina Ørvig 1975.

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    Anna Jerve

    Full Text Available There are two types of dermal skeletons in jawed vertebrates: placoderms and osteichthyans carry large bony plates (macromery, whereas chondrichthyans and acanthodians are covered by small scales (micromery. Fin spines are one of the last large dermal structures found on micromeric taxa and offer a potential source of histology and morphology that can be compared to those found on macromeric groups. Dermal fin spines offer a variety of morphology but aspects of their growth modes and homology are unclear. Here, we provide detailed descriptions of the microstructure and growth of a dorsal ridge spine from the acanthothoracid placoderm, Romundina stellina, using virtual three-dimensional paleohistological datasets. From these data we identify several layers of dentine ornamentation covering the lateral surfaces of the spine and reconstructed their growth pattern. We show that this spine likely grew posteriorly and proximally from a narrow portion of bone located along the leading edge of the spine. The spine is similarly constructed to the scales with a few exceptions, including the absence of polarized fibers distributed throughout the bone and the presence of a thin layer of perichondral bone. The composition of the spine (semidentine odontodes, dermal bone, perichondral bone is identical to that of the Romundina dermal plates. These results illustrate the similarities and differences between the dermal tissues in Romundina and indicate that the spine grew differently from the dentinous fin spines from extant and fossil chondrichthyans. The morphology and histology of Romundina is most similar to the fin spine of the probable stem osteichthyan Lophosteus, with a well-developed inner cellular bony base and star-shaped odontodes on the surface. Results from these studies will undoubtedly have impact on our understanding of fossil fin spine histology and evolution, contributing to the on-going revision of early gnathostome phylogeny.

  5. Neurochemical differences between target-specific populations of rat dorsal raphe projection neurons.

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    Prouty, Eric W; Chandler, Daniel J; Waterhouse, Barry D

    2017-11-15

    Serotonin (5-HT)-containing neurons in the dorsal raphe (DR) nucleus project throughout the forebrain and are implicated in many physiological processes and neuropsychiatric disorders. Diversity among these neurons has been characterized in terms of their neurochemistry and anatomical organization, but a clear sense of whether these attributes align with specific brain functions or terminal fields is lacking. DR 5-HT neurons can co-express additional neuroactive substances, increasing the potential for individualized regulation of target circuits. The goal of this study was to link DR neurons to a specific functional role by characterizing cells according to both their neurotransmitter expression and efferent connectivity; specifically, cells projecting to the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), a region implicated in cognition, emotion, and responses to stress. Following retrograde tracer injection, brainstem sections from Sprague-Dawley rats were immunohistochemically stained for markers of serotonin, glutamate, GABA, and nitric oxide (NO). 98% of the mPFC-projecting serotonergic neurons co-expressed the marker for glutamate, while the markers for NO and GABA were observed in 60% and less than 1% of those neurons, respectively. To identify potential target-specific differences in co-transmitter expression, we also characterized DR neurons projecting to a visual sensory structure, the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN). The proportion of serotonergic neurons co-expressing NO was greater amongst cells targeting the mPFC vs LGN (60% vs 22%). The established role of 5-HT in affective disorders and the emerging role of NO in stress signaling suggest that the impact of 5-HT/NO co-localization in DR neurons that regulate mPFC circuit function may be clinically relevant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Withdrawal and restoration of central vagal afferents within the dorsal vagal complex following subdiaphragmatic vagotomy.

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    Peters, James H; Gallaher, Zachary R; Ryu, Vitaly; Czaja, Krzysztof

    2013-10-15

    Vagotomy, a severing of the peripheral axons of the vagus nerve, has been extensively utilized to determine the role of vagal afferents in viscerosensory signaling. Vagotomy is also an unavoidable component of some bariatric surgeries. Although it is known that peripheral axons of the vagus nerve degenerate and then regenerate to a limited extent following vagotomy, very little is known about the response of central vagal afferents in the dorsal vagal complex to this type of damage. We tested the hypothesis that vagotomy results in the transient withdrawal of central vagal afferent terminals from their primary central target, the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). Sprague-Dawley rats underwent bilateral subdiaphragmatic vagotomy and were sacrificed 10, 30, or 60 days later. Plastic changes in vagal afferent fibers and synapses were investigated at the morphological and functional levels by using a combination of an anterograde tracer, synapse-specific markers, and patch-clamp electrophysiology in horizontal brain sections. Morphological data revealed that numbers of vagal afferent fibers and synapses in the NTS were significantly reduced 10 days following vagotomy and were restored to control levels by 30 days and 60 days, respectively. Electrophysiology revealed transient decreases in spontaneous glutamate release, glutamate release probability, and the number of primary afferent inputs. Our results demonstrate that subdiaphragmatic vagotomy triggers transient withdrawal and remodeling of central vagal afferent terminals in the NTS. The observed vagotomy-induced plasticity within this key feeding center of the brain may be partially responsible for the response of bariatric patients following gastric bypass surgery. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Long-term outcomes five years after selective dorsal rhizotomy

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    Lagergren Jan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR is a well accepted neurosurgical procedure performed for the relief of spasticity interfering with motor function in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP. The goal is to improve function, but long-term outcome studies are rare. The aims of this study were to evaluate long-term functional outcomes, safety and side effects during five postoperative years in all children with diplegia undergoing SDR combined with physiotherapy. Methods This study group consisted of 35 children, consecutively operated, with spastic diplegia, of which 26 were Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS levels III–V. Mean age was 4.5 years (range 2.5–6.6. They were all assessed by the same multidisciplinary team at pre- and at 6, 12, 18 months, 3 and 5 years postoperatively. Clinical and demographic data, complications and number of rootlets cut were prospectively registered. Deep tendon reflexes and muscle tone were examined, the latter graded with the modified Ashworth scale. Passive range of motion (PROM was measured with a goniometer. Motor function was classified according to the GMFCS and measured with the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-88 and derived into GMFM-66. Parent's opinions about the children's performance of skills and activities and the amount of caregiver assistance were measured with Pediatric Evaluation Disability Inventory (PEDI. Results The mean proportion of rootlets cut in S2-L2 was 40%. Muscle tone was immediately reduced in adductors, hamstrings and dorsiflexors (p Conclusion SDR is a safe and effective method for reducing spasticity permanently without major negative side effects. In combination with physiotherapy, in a group of carefully selected and systematically followed young children with spastic diplegia, it provides lasting functional benefits over a period of at least five years postoperatively.

  8. Neurochemical characterization of the tree shrew dorsal striatum

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    MATTHEW W RICE

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The striatum is a major component of the basal ganglia and is associated with motor and cognitive functions. Striatal pathologies have been linked to several disorders, including Huntington's, Tourette's syndrome, obsessive-compulsive disorders and schizophrenia. For the study of these striatal pathologies different animal models have been used, including rodents and non-human primates. Rodents lack on morphological complexity (for example, the lack of well defined caudate and putamen nuclei, which makes it difficult to translate data to the human paradigm. Primates, and especially higher primates, are the closest model to humans, but there are ever-increasing restrictions to the use of these animals for research. In our search for a non-primate animal model with a striatum that anatomically (and perhaps functionally can resemble that of humans, we turned our attention to the tree shrew. Evolutionary genetic studies have provided strong data supporting that the tree shrews (Scadentia are one of the closest groups to primates, although their brain anatomy has only been studied in detail for specific brain areas. Morphologically, the tree shrew striatum resembles the primate striatum with the presence of an internal capsule separating the caudate and putamen, but little is known about its neurochemical composition. Here we analyzed the expression of calcium-binding proteins, the presence and distribution of the striosome and matrix compartments (by the use of calbindin, tyrosine hydroxylase and acetylcholinesterase immunohistochemistry, and the GABAergic system by immunohistochemistry against glutamic acid decarboxylase and Golgi impregnation. In summary, our results show that when compared to primates, the tree shrew dorsal striatum presents striking similarities in the distribution of most of the markers studied, while presenting some marked divergences when compared to the rodent striatum.

  9. Dorsal hippocampus is necessary for visual categorization in rats.

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    Kim, Jangjin; Castro, Leyre; Wasserman, Edward A; Freeman, John H

    2018-02-23

    The hippocampus may play a role in categorization because of the need to differentiate stimulus categories (pattern separation) and to recognize category membership of stimuli from partial information (pattern completion). We hypothesized that the hippocampus would be more crucial for categorization of low-density (few relevant features) stimuli-due to the higher demand on pattern separation and pattern completion-than for categorization of high-density (many relevant features) stimuli. Using a touchscreen apparatus, rats were trained to categorize multiple abstract stimuli into two different categories. Each stimulus was a pentagonal configuration of five visual features; some of the visual features were relevant for defining the category whereas others were irrelevant. Two groups of rats were trained with either a high (dense, n = 8) or low (sparse, n = 8) number of category-relevant features. Upon reaching criterion discrimination (≥75% correct, on 2 consecutive days), bilateral cannulas were implanted in the dorsal hippocampus. The rats were then given either vehicle or muscimol infusions into the hippocampus just prior to various testing sessions. They were tested with: the previously trained stimuli (trained), novel stimuli involving new irrelevant features (novel), stimuli involving relocated features (relocation), and a single relevant feature (singleton). In training, the dense group reached criterion faster than the sparse group, indicating that the sparse task was more difficult than the dense task. In testing, accuracy of both groups was equally high for trained and novel stimuli. However, both groups showed impaired accuracy in the relocation and singleton conditions, with a greater deficit in the sparse group. The testing data indicate that rats encode both the relevant features and the spatial locations of the features. Hippocampal inactivation impaired visual categorization regardless of the density of the category-relevant features for

  10. Origin, course, and laterality of spinocerebellar axons in the North American opossum, Didelphis virginiana.

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    Terman, J R; Wang, X M; Martin, G F

    1998-08-01

    Spinocerebellar axons have been studied extensively in placental mammals, but there have been no full reports on their origin, laterality, or spinal course in any marsupial. We have used the North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana) to obtain such information and to ask whether any spinocerebellar neurons innervate both the anterior and posterior lobes of the cerebellum through axonal collaterals. To identify spinal neurons that project to the cerebellum, we employed the retrograde transport of Fluoro-Gold (FG) from the anterior lobe, the main target of spinocerebellar axons. In some cases, cerebellar injections of FG were combined with hemisections of the rostral cervical or midthoracic spinal cord, so that laterality of spinocerebellar connections could be established. To determine whether single neurons project to both the anterior lobe and the posterior lobe, injections of Fast Blue (FB) into the anterior lobe were combined with injections of Diamidino yellow (DY) or rhodamine B dextran (RBD) into the posterior lobe, or vice versa. Following injections of FG into the anterior lobe, neurons were labeled throughout the length of the spinal cord, which differed in laminar distribution and laterality of their projections. Among other areas, neurons were labeled in the central cervical nucleus, the nucleus centrobasalis, Clarke's nucleus, the dorsal horn dorsal spinocerebellar tract area, the spinal border region, and Stilling's nucleus. When anterior lobe injections of FB were combined with injections of RBD or DY into the posterior lobe, or vice versa, some double-labeled neurons were present in all major spinocerebellar groups. Cerebellar injections of FG also retrogradely labeled spinocerebellar axons, allowing us to document their locations in the gray matter as well as within the periphery of the lateral and ventral funiculi at all spinal levels. A few spinocerebellar axons also were found in the dorsal funiculus (a dorsal column-spinocerebellar tract

  11. Vitiligo Lateral Lower Lip

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    Sahoo Antaryami

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitiligo characteristically affecting the lateral lower lip (LLL is a common presentation in South Orissa. This type of lesion has rarely been described in literature. One hundred eighteen such cases were studied during the period from October 1999 to September, 2000. LLL vitiligo constituted 16.39% of all vitiligo patients. Both sexes were affected equally. The peak age of onset was in the 2nd decade, mean duration of illness 21.46 months. Fifty six patients had unilateral lesion (38 on the left and 18 on the right. Among the 62 patients having bilateral lesions, the onset was more frequent on the left (38 than either the right (8 or both sides together (16. All the patients were right handed. Association with local factors like infection, trauma, cheilitis, FDE etc were associated in 38.98% of cases, but systemic or autoimmune diseases were not associated. Positive family history was found in 22% of cases.

  12. Agenesis of dorsal pancreas with eventration of diaphragm and intrapancreatic pseudocyst: a rare entity

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    Poras Chaudhary

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A case of acute pancreatitis in a 43-year-old male patient, which was eventually diagnosed as agenesis of dorsal pancreas with eventration of left hemidiaphragm and intrapancreatic pseudocyst is being reported.

  13. Calcium activity of upper thoracic dorsal root ganglion neurons in zucker diabetic Fatty rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghorbani, Marie Louise; Nyborg, Niels C B; Fjalland, Bjarne

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the calcium activity of C8-T5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from Zucker diabetic fatty rats. In total, 8 diabetic ZDF fatty animals and 8 age-matched control ZDF lean rats were employed in the study. C8-T5 dorsal root ganglia were isolated bilatera......The aim of the present study was to examine the calcium activity of C8-T5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from Zucker diabetic fatty rats. In total, 8 diabetic ZDF fatty animals and 8 age-matched control ZDF lean rats were employed in the study. C8-T5 dorsal root ganglia were isolated...... in calcium activity of the DRG neurons were found, potentially indicating altered neuronal responses during myocardial ischemia....

  14. Human dorsal striatum encodes prediction errors during observational learning of instrumental actions.

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    Cooper, Jeffrey C; Dunne, Simon; Furey, Teresa; O'Doherty, John P

    2012-01-01

    The dorsal striatum plays a key role in the learning and expression of instrumental reward associations that are acquired through direct experience. However, not all learning about instrumental actions require direct experience. Instead, humans and other animals are also capable of acquiring instrumental actions by observing the experiences of others. In this study, we investigated the extent to which human dorsal striatum is involved in observational as well as experiential instrumental reward learning. Human participants were scanned with fMRI while they observed a confederate over a live video performing an instrumental conditioning task to obtain liquid juice rewards. Participants also performed a similar instrumental task for their own rewards. Using a computational model-based analysis, we found reward prediction errors in the dorsal striatum not only during the experiential learning condition but also during observational learning. These results suggest a key role for the dorsal striatum in learning instrumental associations, even when those associations are acquired purely by observing others.

  15. The dorsal thoracic fascia: anatomic significance with clinical applications in reconstructive microsurgery.

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    Kim, P S; Gottlieb, J R; Harris, G D; Nagle, D J; Lewis, V L

    1987-01-01

    The anatomic distribution and potential arterial flow patterns of the circumflex scapular artery were investigated by Microfil injection. These studies demonstrated that the circumflex scapular artery lies within the dorsal thoracic fascia, which plays a significant role in the circulation of the overlying skin and subcutaneous tissue. We conclude that scapular/parascapular flaps are fasciocutaneous flaps, the dorsal thoracic fascia can be transferred as a free flap without its overlying skin and subcutaneous tissue, and intercommunication exists between the myocutaneous perforators of the latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap and the vascular plexus of the dorsal thoracic fascia. We present microvascular cases in which the vascular properties of the dorsal thoracic fascia facilitated wound closure with free fascia flaps or expanded cutaneous or myocutaneous flaps.

  16. The rhesus macaque is three times as diverse but more closely equivalent in damaging coding variation as compared to the human

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    Yuan Qiaoping

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a model organism in biomedicine, the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta is the most widely used nonhuman primate. Although a draft genome sequence was completed in 2007, there has been no systematic genome-wide comparison of genetic variation of this species to humans. Comparative analysis of functional and nonfunctional diversity in this highly abundant and adaptable non-human primate could inform its use as a model for human biology, and could reveal how variation in population history and size alters patterns and levels of sequence variation in primates. Results We sequenced the mRNA transcriptome and H3K4me3-marked DNA regions in hippocampus from 14 humans and 14 rhesus macaques. Using equivalent methodology and sampling spaces, we identified 462,802 macaque SNPs, most of which were novel and disproportionately located in the functionally important genomic regions we had targeted in the sequencing. At least one SNP was identified in each of 16,797 annotated macaque genes. Accuracy of macaque SNP identification was conservatively estimated to be >90%. Comparative analyses using SNPs equivalently identified in the two species revealed that rhesus macaque has approximately three times higher SNP density and average nucleotide diversity as compared to the human. Based on this level of diversity, the effective population size of the rhesus macaque is approximately 80,000 which contrasts with an effective population size of less than 10,000 for humans. Across five categories of genomic regions, intergenic regions had the highest SNP density and average nucleotide diversity and CDS (coding sequences the lowest, in both humans and macaques. Although there are more coding SNPs (cSNPs per individual in macaques than in humans, the ratio of dN/dS is significantly lower in the macaque. Furthermore, the number of damaging nonsynonymous cSNPs (have damaging effects on protein functions from PolyPhen-2 prediction in the macaque is more

  17. MLH1-rheMac hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer syndrome in rhesus macaques.

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    Brammer, David W; Gillespie, Patrick J; Tian, Mei; Young, Daniel; Raveendran, Muthuswamy; Williams, Lawrence E; Gagea, Mihai; Benavides, Fernando J; Perez, Carlos J; Broaddus, Russell R; Bernacky, Bruce J; Barnhart, Kirstin F; Alauddin, Mian M; Bhutani, Manoop S; Gibbs, Richard A; Sidman, Richard L; Pasqualini, Renata; Arap, Wadih; Rogers, Jeffrey; Abee, Christian R; Gelovani, Juri G

    2018-03-13

    Over the past two decades, 33 cases of colonic adenocarcinomas have been diagnosed in rhesus macaques ( Macaca mulatta ) at the nonhuman primate colony of the Keeling Center for Comparative Medicine and Research at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. The distinctive feature in these cases, based on PET/computed tomography (CT) imaging, was the presence of two or three tumor lesions in different locations, including proximal to the ileocecal juncture, proximal to the hepatic flexure, and/or in the sigmoid colon. These colon carcinoma lesions selectively accumulated [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([ 18 F]FDG) and [ 18 F]fluoroacetate ([ 18 F]FACE) at high levels, reflecting elevated carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism in these tumors. In contrast, the accumulation of [ 18 F]fluorothymidine ([ 18 F]FLT) was less significant, reflecting slow proliferative activity in these tumors. The diagnoses of colon carcinomas were confirmed by endoscopy. The expression of MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6 proteins and the degree of microsatellite instability (MSI) was assessed in colon carcinomas. The loss of MLH1 protein expression was observed in all tumors and was associated with a deletion mutation in the MLH1 promoter region and/or multiple single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mutations in the MLH1 gene. All tumors exhibited various degrees of MSI. The pedigree analysis of this rhesus macaque population revealed several clusters of affected animals related to each other over several generations, suggesting an autosomal dominant transmission of susceptibility for colon cancer. The newly discovered hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer syndrome in rhesus macaques, termed MLH1 -rheMac, may serve as a model for development of novel approaches to diagnosis and therapy of Lynch syndrome in humans. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  18. Tracing the phylogeographic history of Southeast Asian long-tailed macaques through mitogenomes of museum specimens.

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    Yao, Lu; Li, Hongjie; Martin, Robert D; Moreau, Corrie S; Malhi, Ripan S

    2017-11-01

    The biogeographical history of Southeast Asia is complicated due to the continuous emergences and disappearances of land bridges throughout the Pleistocene. Here, we use long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis), which are widely distributed throughout the mainland and islands of Southeast Asia, asa model for better understanding the biogeographical patterns of diversification in this geographically complex region. A reliable intraspecific phylogeny including individuals from localities on oceanic islands, continental islands, and the mainland is needed to trace relatedness along with the pattern and timing of colonization in this region. We used high-throughput sequencing techniques to sequence mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) from 95 Southeast Asian M. fascicularis specimens housed at natural history museums around the world. To achieve a comprehensive picture, we more than tripled the mitogenome sample size for M. fascicularis from previous studies, and for the first time included documented samples from the Philippines and several small Indonesian islands. Confirming the result from a previous, recent intraspecific phylogeny for M. fascicularis, the newly reconstructed phylogeny of 135 specimens divides the samples into two major clades: Clade A includes haplotypes from the mainland and some from northern Sumatra, while Clade B includes all insular haplotypes along with lineages from southern Sumatra. This study resolves a previous disparity by revealing a disjunction in the origin of Sumatran macaques, with separate lineages originating within the two major clades, suggesting that at least two major migrations to Sumatra occurred. However, our dated phylogeny reveals that the two major clades split ∼1.88Ma, which is earlier than in previously published phylogenies. Our new data reveal that most Philippine macaque lineages diverged from the Borneo stock within the last ∼0.06-0.43Ma. Finally, our study provides insight into successful sequencing of DNA

  19. Histopathological observation of immunized rhesus macaques with plague vaccines after subcutaneous infection of Yersinia pestis.

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    Guang Tian

    Full Text Available In our previous study, complete protection was observed in Chinese-origin rhesus macaques immunized with SV1 (20 µg F1 and 10 µg rV270 and SV2 (200 µg F1 and 100 µg rV270 subunit vaccines and with EV76 live attenuated vaccine against subcutaneous challenge with 6×10(6 CFU of Y. pestis. In the present study, we investigated whether the vaccines can effectively protect immunized animals from any pathologic changes using histological and immunohistochemical techniques. In addition, the glomerular basement membranes (GBMs of the immunized animals and control animals were checked by electron microscopy. The results show no signs of histopathological lesions in the lungs, livers, kidneys, lymph nodes, spleens and hearts of the immunized animals at Day 14 after the challenge, whereas pathological alterations were seen in the corresponding tissues of the control animals. Giemsa staining, ultrastructural examination, and immunohistochemical staining revealed bacteria in some of the organs of the control animals, whereas no bacterium was observed among the immunized animals. Ultrastructural observation revealed that no glomerular immune deposits on the GBM. These observations suggest that the vaccines can effectively protect animals from any pathologic changes and eliminate Y. pestis from the immunized animals. The control animals died from multi-organ lesions specifically caused by the Y. pestis infection. We also found that subcutaneous infection of animals with Y. pestis results in bubonic plague, followed by pneumonic and septicemic plagues. The histopathologic features of plague in rhesus macaques closely resemble those of rodent and human plagues. Thus, Chinese-origin rhesus macaques serve as useful models in studying Y. pestis pathogenesis, host response and the efficacy of new medical countermeasures against plague.

  20. Comparison of feeding behavior between two different-sized groups of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui).

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    Kurihara, Yosuke; Hanya, Goro

    2015-05-13

    Group-living animals face intragroup scramble and intergroup contest competitions. Many studies have shown that larger groups bear the costs of intragroup scramble competition, which negatively affects the reproductive success of females. Unlike most primate species, Japanese macaques in the Yakushima coastal forest show increased reproductive success with group size. However, it remains unclear how group size affects the behavior of macaques. The present study examined the effects of group size on the feeding behavior of Japanese macaques in the Yakushima coastal forest. We investigated 9-13 adult females from two different-sized groups via focal animal sampling during October 2012-August 2013. We compared the feeding behavior, including patch use, between the two groups. The larger group had a larger home range and spent more time feeding, especially on mature leaves. This suggests that intragroup feeding competition should be more intense in the larger group than in the smaller group. The feeding of mature leaves might enable the larger group to increase the number of co-feeding individuals. Contrary to the predictions that the larger group travels longer distances and spends more time moving, the smaller group traveled longer distances, and spent more time moving, although the number of visited patches did not differ between the two groups. The immediate consequences of the loss of inter-group encounters could accumulate as daily travel costs, considering that group size is associated with inter-group dominance and that intergroup aggressive encounters occur frequently in the Yakushima coastal forest. This suggests that the smaller group has increased travel costs as a result of intergroup contest competition, which leads to decline in reproductive success. Am. J. Primatol. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Cortico-cortical connections of areas 44 and 45B in the macaque monkey.

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    Frey, Stephen; Mackey, Scott; Petrides, Michael

    2014-04-01

    In the human brain, areas 44 and 45 constitute Broca's region, the ventrolateral frontal region critical for language production. The homologues of these areas in the macaque monkey brain have been established by direct cytoarchitectonic comparison with the human brain. The cortical areas that project monosynaptically to areas 44 and 45B in the macaque monkey brain require clarification. Fluorescent retrograde tracers were placed in cytoarchitectonic areas 44 and 45B of the macaque monkey, as well as in the anterior part of the inferior parietal lobule and the superior temporal gyrus. The results demonstrate that ipsilateral afferent connections of area 44 arise from local frontal areas, including rostral premotor cortical area 6, from secondary somatosensory cortex, the caudal insula, and the cingulate motor region. Area 44 is strongly linked with the anterior inferior parietal lobule (particularly area PFG and the adjacent anterior intraparietal sulcus). Input from the temporal lobe is limited to the fundus of the superior temporal sulcus extending caudal to the central sulcus. There is also input from the sulcal part of area Tpt in the upper bank of the superior temporal sulcus. Area 45B shares some of the connections of area 44, but can be distinguished from area 44 by input from the caudal inferior parietal lobule (area PG) and significant input from the part of the superior temporal sulcus that extends anterior to the central sulcus. Area 45B also receives input from visual association cortex that is not observed in area 44. The results have provided a clarification of the relative connections of areas 44 and 45B of the ventrolateral frontal region which, in the human brain, subserves certain aspects of language processing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Social play among juvenile wild Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) strengthens their social bonds.

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    Shimada, Masaki; Sueur, Cédric

    2018-01-01

    Social play and grooming are typical affiliative interactions for many primate species, and are thought to have similar biological functions. However, grooming increases with age, whereas social play decreases. We proposed the hypothesis that both social grooming and social play in juveniles strengthen their social bonds in daily activities. We carried out field research on the social relationships among juvenile wild Japanese macaques in a troop in Kinkazan, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan, from fall 2007 to spring 2008 to investigate this hypothesis. We evaluated three relationships among juveniles, play indices (PI), grooming indices (GI), and 3-m-proximity indices (3mI) of each dyad (i.e., interacting pair), and compared these social networks based on the matrices of the indices. The play and grooming networks were correlated with the association network throughout the two research periods. The multiple network level measurements of the play network, but not the grooming network, resembled those of the association network. Using a causal step approach, we showed that social play and grooming interactions in fall seem to predict associations in the following spring, controlling for the PI and GI matrix in spring, respectively. Social play and grooming for each juvenile were negatively correlated. The results partially support our predictions; therefore, the hypothesis that the biological function of social play among immature Japanese macaques is to strengthen their social bonds in the near future and develop their social life appears to be correct. For juvenile macaques, social play, rather than grooming, functions as an important social mechanism to strengthen affiliative relationships. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Alpha male replacements and delayed dispersal in crested macaques (Macaca nigra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Pascal R; Hodges, Keith; Agil, Muhammad; Engelhardt, Antje

    2017-07-01

    In species with a high male reproductive skew, competition between males for the top dominant position is high and escalated fights are common between competitors. As a consequence, challenges incur potentially high costs. Selection should favor males who time an alpha male challenge to maximize chances of a successful outcome minimizing costs. Despite the importance of alpha male replacements for individual males, we know little about the timing of challenges and the condition of the challenger. We investigated the timing and process of alpha male replacements in a species living in multi-male groups with high male reproductive skew, the crested macaque. We studied four wild groups over 6 years in the Tangkoko Reserve, North Sulawesi, Indonesia, during which 16 alpha male replacements occurred. Although unusual for cercopithecines, male crested macaques delayed their natal dispersal until they attained maximum body mass and therefore fighting ability whereupon they emigrated and challenged the alpha male in another group. Accordingly, all observed alpha male replacements were from outside males. Ours is the first report of such a pattern in a primate species living in multi-male groups. Although the majority of alpha male replacements occurred through direct male-male challenges, many also took place opportunistically (i.e., after the alpha male had already been injured or had left the group). Furthermore, alpha male tenures were very short (averaging ca. 12 months). We hypothesize that this unusual pattern of alpha male replacements in crested macaques is related to the species-specific combination of high male reproductive skew with a large number of males per group. Am. J. Primatol. 79:e22448, 2017. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Primatology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Primatology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Naltrexone treatment reverses astrocyte atrophy and immune dysfunction in self-harming macaques.

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    Lee, Kim M; Chiu, Kevin B; Didier, Peter J; Baker, Kate C; MacLean, Andrew G

    2015-11-01

    The role of glia in the development and treatment of behavioral abnormalities is understudied. Recent reports have observed glial activation in several disorders, including depression, autism spectrum disorders and self-injurious behaviors (SIB). In the current study, we examined SIB in the physiologically and anatomically relevant nonhuman primate (NHP) model. At the Tulane National Primate Research Center (TNPRC), approximately 5% of singly housed macaques develop symptoms of SIB. We have previously demonstrated that naltrexone hydrochloride can be effective in reducing SIB. We have also demonstrated that the astrocytes of animals with SIB are distinctly atrophic and display heightened innate immune activation compared with control animals. We have added a third group of animals (five macaques identified with SIB and treated with oral naltrexone at a dose of 3.2mg/kg) to the previous cohort (six macaques with a history of SIB but not treated, and nine animals with no history of SIB) for this study. Gray and white matter astrocytes from frontal cortical tissue were examined following necropsy. Innate immune activation of astrocytes, which was increased in SIB animals, was markedly decreased in animals receiving naltrexone, as was atrophy of both grey and white matter astrocytes. This was concomitant with improved behavioral correlates. Preventing astrocyte activation in select areas of the brain to reduce injurious behavior is an innovative concept with implications for mental health studies. Differences in multiple areas of primate brain would help determine how self-injurious behavior develops. These studies suggest a stronger role for astrocytes in the cellular events associated with self-injurious behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Social relevance drives viewing behavior independent of low-level salience in rhesus macaques

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    James Andrew Solyst

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying attention to social stimuli during the viewing of complex social scenes with eye tracking has proven to be a sensitive method in the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders years before average clinical diagnosis. Rhesus macaques provide an ideal model for understanding the mechanisms underlying social viewing behavior, but to date no comparable behavioral task has been developed for use in monkeys. Using a novel scene-viewing task, we monitored the gaze of three rhesus macaques while they freely viewed well-controlled composed social scenes and analyzed the time spent viewing objects and monkeys. In each of six behavioral sessions, monkeys viewed a set of 90 images (540 unique scenes with each image presented twice. In two-thirds of the repeated scenes, either a monkey or an object was replaced with a novel item (manipulated scenes. When viewing a repeated scene, monkeys made longer fixations and shorter saccades, shifting from a rapid orienting to global scene contents to a more local analysis of fewer items. In addition to this repetition effect, in manipulated scenes, monkeys demonstrated robust memory by spending more time viewing the replaced items. By analyzing attention to specific scene content, we found that monkeys strongly preferred to view conspecifics and that this was not related to their salience in terms of low-level image features. A model-free analysis of viewing statistics found that monkeys that were viewed earlier and longer had direct gaze and redder sex skin around their face and rump, two important visual social cues. These data provide a quantification of viewing strategy, memory and social preferences in rhesus macaques viewing complex social scenes, and they provide an important baseline with which to compare to the effects of therapeutics aimed at enhancing social cognition.

  6. Serotonin Decreases the Gain of Visual Responses in Awake Macaque V1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seillier, Lenka; Lorenz, Corinna; Kawaguchi, Katsuhisa; Ott, Torben; Nieder, Andreas; Pourriahi, Paria; Nienborg, Hendrikje

    2017-11-22

    Serotonin, an important neuromodulator in the brain, is implicated in affective and cognitive functions. However, its role even for basic cortical processes is controversial. For example, in the mammalian primary visual cortex (V1), heterogenous serotonergic modulation has been observed in anesthetized animals. Here, we combined extracellular single-unit recordings with iontophoresis in awake animals. We examined the role of serotonin on well-defined tuning properties (orientation, spatial frequency, contrast, and size) in V1 of two male macaque monkeys. We find that in the awake macaque the modulatory effect of serotonin is surprisingly uniform: it causes a mainly multiplicative decrease of the visual responses and a slight increase in the stimulus-selective response latency. Moreover, serotonin neither systematically changes the selectivity or variability of the response, nor the interneuronal correlation unexplained by the stimulus ("noise-correlation"). The modulation by serotonin has qualitative similarities with that for a decrease in stimulus contrast, but differs quantitatively from decreasing contrast. It can be captured by a simple additive change to a threshold-linear spiking nonlinearity. Together, our results show that serotonin is well suited to control the response gain of neurons in V1 depending on the animal's behavioral or motivational context, complementing other known state-dependent gain-control mechanisms. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Serotonin is an important neuromodulator in the brain and a major target for drugs used to treat psychiatric disorders. Nonetheless, surprisingly little is known about how it shapes information processing in sensory areas. Here we examined the serotonergic modulation of visual processing in the primary visual cortex of awake behaving macaque monkeys. We found that serotonin mainly decreased the gain of the visual responses, without systematically changing their selectivity, variability, or covariability. This

  7. No-scalpel vasectomy by electrocauterization in free range rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta

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    A. Raj

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to standardize a new method of vasectomy in male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta. A total of 208 free range male rhesus macaques captured from different locations in Shivalik Hills in a population control programme of the rhesus macaques in India. General anaesthesia was achieved by using a combination of ketamine hydrochloride at 8 mg/kg body weight and xylazine hydrochloride at 2mg/kg body weight intramuscularly in squeeze cage. Surgical procedure of vasectomy was carried out by single-hole no-scalpel technique using a single pre-scrotal skin incision above the median raphae. Spermatic cord was grasped with ringed forceps and was pulled out through the single-hole incision. Vas deferens was separated from the artery-vein complexus and about 3-4 cm portion of vas deferens was resected. Cauterization of both ends of the vas deferens was achieved with electrocautery. The induction time for anaesthesia was 1.40±0.18 min while surgical time for vasectomy was found to be 5.09±0.22 min. Recovery from general anaesthesia was without side-effects after a mean duration of 36.07±1.22 min, whereas the duration of anaesthesia was observed to be 82.27±4.96 min. There were no major complications following the surgery and recovery of animals was smooth. Animals were kept in postoperative care for five days and released at the same capturing site.

  8. Intermittent pair-housing, pair relationship qualities, and HPA activity in adult female rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannibal, Darcy L; Cassidy, Lauren C; Vandeleest, Jessica; Semple, Stuart; Barnard, Allison; Chun, Katie; Winkler, Sasha; McCowan, Brenda

    2018-05-02

    Laboratory rhesus macaques are often housed in pairs and may be temporarily or permanently separated for research, health, or management reasons. While both long-term social separations and introductions can stimulate a stress response that impacts inflammation and immune function, the effects of short-term overnight separations and whether qualities of the pair relationship mediate these effects are unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of overnight separations on the urinary cortisol concentration of 20 differentially paired adult female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) at the California National Primate Research Center. These females were initially kept in either continuous (no overnight separation) or intermittent (with overnight separation) pair-housing and then switched to the alternate pair-housing condition part way through the study. Each study subject was observed for 5 weeks, during which we collected measures of affiliative, aggressive, anxious, abnormal, and activity-state behaviors in both pair-housing conditions. Additionally, up to three urine samples were collected from each subject per week and assayed for urinary free cortisol and creatinine. Lastly, the behavioral observer scored each pair on four relationship quality attributes ("Anxious," "Tense," "Well-meshed," and "Friendly") using a seven-point scale. Data were analyzed using a generalized linear model with gamma distribution and an information theoretic approach to determine the best model set. An interaction between the intermittent pairing condition and tense pair adjective rating was in the top three models of the best model set. Dominance and rates of affiliation were also important for explaining urinary cortisol variation. Our results suggest that to prevent significant changes in HPA-axis activation in rhesus macaque females, which could have unintended effects on research outcomes, pairs with "Tense" relationships and overnight separations preventing tactile contact

  9. Responses of spinal dorsal horn neurons to foot movements in rats with a sprained ankle

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jae Hyo; Kim, Hee Young; Chung, Kyungsoon; Chung, Jin Mo

    2011-01-01

    Acute ankle injuries are common problems and often lead to persistent pain. To investigate the underlying mechanism of ankle sprain pain, the response properties of spinal dorsal horn neurons were examined after ankle sprain. Acute ankle sprain was induced manually by overextending the ankle of a rat hindlimb in a direction of plantarflexion and inversion. The weight-bearing ratio (WBR) of the affected foot was used as an indicator of pain. Single unit activities of dorsal horn neurons in res...

  10. Dorsal buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty for anterior urethral stricture by Asopa technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisapati, V L N Murthy; Paturi, Srimannarayana; Bethu, Suresh; Jada, Srikanth; Chilumu, Ramreddy; Devraj, Rahul; Reddy, Bhargava; Sriramoju, Vidyasagar

    2009-07-01

    Buccal mucosal graft (BMG) substitution urethroplasty has become popular in the management of intractable anterior urethral strictures with good results. Excellent long-term results have been reported by both dorsal and ventral onlay techniques. Asopa reported a successful technique for dorsal placement of BMG in long anterior urethral strictures through a ventral sagittal approach. To evaluate prospectively the results and advantages of dorsal BMG urethroplasty for recurrent anterior urethral strictures by a ventral sagittal urethrotomy approach (Asopa technique). From December 2002 to December 2007, a total of 58 men underwent dorsal BMG urethroplasty by a ventral sagittal urethrotomy approach for recurrent urethral strictures. Forty-five of these patients with a follow-up period of 12-60 mo were prospectively evaluated, and the results were analysed. The urethra was split twice at the site of the stricture both ventrally and dorsally without mobilising it from its bed, and the buccal mucosal graft was secured in the dorsal urethral defect. The urethra was then retubularised in one stage. The overall results were good (87%), with a mean follow-up period of 42 mo. Seven patients developed minor wound infection, and five patients developed fistulae. There were six recurrences (6:45, 13%) during the follow-up period of 12-60 mo. Two patients with a panurethral stricture and four with bulbar or penobulbar strictures developed recurrences and were managed by optical urethrotomy and self-dilatation. The medium-term results were as good as those reported with the dorsal urethrotomy approach. Long-term results from this and other series are awaited. More randomised trials and meta-analyses are needed to establish this technique as a procedure of choice in future. The ventral sagittal urethrotomy approach is easier to perform than the dorsal urethrotomy approach, has good results, and is especially useful in long anterior urethral strictures.

  11. Thermal effects of dorsal head immersion in cold water on nonshivering humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesbrecht, Gordon G; Lockhart, Tamara L; Bristow, Gerald K; Steinman, Allan M

    2005-11-01

    Personal floatation devices maintain either a semirecumbent flotation posture with the head and upper chest out of the water or a horizontal flotation posture with the dorsal head and whole body immersed. The contribution of dorsal head and upper chest immersion to core cooling in cold water was isolated when the confounding effect of shivering heat production was inhibited with meperidine (Demerol, 2.5 mg/kg). Six male volunteers were immersed four times for up to 60 min, or until esophageal temperature = 34 degrees C. An insulated hoodless dry suit or two different personal floatation devices were used to create four conditions: 1) body insulated, head out; 2) body insulated, dorsal head immersed; 3) body exposed, head (and upper chest) out; and 4) body exposed, dorsal head (and upper chest) immersed. When the body was insulated, dorsal head immersion did not affect core cooling rate (1.1 degrees C/h) compared with head-out conditions (0.7 degrees C/h). When the body was exposed, however, the rate of core cooling increased by 40% from 3.6 degrees C/h with the head out to 5.0 degrees C/h with the dorsal head and upper chest immersed (P immersed (approximately 10%). The exaggerated core cooling during dorsal head immersion (40% increase) may result from the extra heat loss affecting a smaller thermal core due to intense thermal stimulation of the body and head and resultant peripheral vasoconstriction. Dorsal head and upper chest immersion in cold water increases the rate of core cooling and decreases potential survival time.

  12. Propagation of a dorsal cortical fracture of the third metacarpal bone in two horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurlock, G.H.

    1988-01-01

    Seemingly, propagation of a dorsal cortical fracture in the third metacarpal bone developed after continued race performance in 2 horses. Historically, both horses had intermittent lameness that had responded to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and brief rest periods. However, lameness in both horses had increased in severity. Radiography revealed a dorsal cortical fracture of the third metacarpal bone, with propagation of the fracture plane proximally. Fractures were incomplete and healed with stall rest in both horses

  13. Heterotaxy syndrome with associated agenesis of dorsal pancreas and polysplenia: A case report

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    Syed Althaf Ali1

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterotaxy syndrome is a rare embryological disorder comprising of polysplenia, partial agenesis of dorsal pancreas, malrotation of gut, cardiac and vascular anomalies resulting from failure of development of the usual left–right asymmetry of organs. We report a rare case of heterotaxy syndrome with polysplenia, partial agenesis of dorsal pancreas and malrotation of gut in a 28 year female presenting with subacute intestinal obstruction along with imaging illustrations, brief discussion and thorough review of literature.

  14. Macaque homologs of EBV and KSHV show uniquely different associations with simian AIDS-related lymphomas.

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    A Gregory Bruce

    Full Text Available Two gammaherpesviruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV (Lymphocryptovirus genus and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV (Rhadinovirus genus have been implicated in the etiology of AIDS-associated lymphomas. Homologs of these viruses have been identified in macaques and other non-human primates. In order to assess the association of these viruses with non-human primate disease, archived lymphoma samples were screened for the presence of macaque lymphocryptovirus (LCV homologs of EBV, and macaque rhadinoviruses belonging to the RV1 lineage of KSHV homologs or the more distant RV2 lineage of Old World primate rhadinoviruses. Viral loads were determined by QPCR and infected cells were identified by immunolabeling for different viral proteins. The lymphomas segregated into three groups. The first group (n = 6 was associated with SIV/SHIV infections, contained high levels of LCV (1-25 genomes/cell and expressed the B-cell antigens CD20 or BLA.36. A strong EBNA-2 signal was detected in the nuclei of the neoplastic cells in one of the LCV-high lymphomas, indicative of a type III latency stage. None of the lymphomas in this group stained for the LCV viral capsid antigen (VCA lytic marker. The second group (n = 5 was associated with D-type simian retrovirus-2 (SRV-2 infections, contained high levels of RV2 rhadinovirus (9-790 genomes/cell and expressed the CD3 T-cell marker. The third group (n = 3 was associated with SIV/SHIV infections, contained high levels of RV2 rhadinovirus (2-260 genomes/cell and was negative for both CD20 and CD3. In both the CD3-positive and CD3/CD20-negative lymphomas, the neoplastic cells stained strongly for markers of RV2 lytic replication. None of the lymphomas had detectable levels of retroperitoneal fibromatosis herpesvirus (RFHV, the macaque RV1 homolog of KSHV. Our data suggest etiological roles for both lymphocryptoviruses and RV2 rhadinoviruses in the development of simian AIDS-associated lymphomas and indicate that

  15. Primary Generators of Visually Evoked Field Potentials Recorded in the Macaque Auditory Cortex

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    Smiley, John F.; Schroeder, Charles E.

    2017-01-01

    Prior studies have reported “local” field potential (LFP) responses to faces in the macaque auditory cortex and have suggested that such face-LFPs may be substrates of audiovisual integration. However, although field potentials (FPs) may reflect the synaptic currents of neurons near the recording electrode, due to the use of a distant reference electrode, they often reflect those of synaptic activity occurring in distant sites as well. Thus, FP recordings within a given brain region (e.g., auditory cortex) may be “contaminated” by activity generated elsewhere in the brain. To determine whether face responses are indeed generated within macaque auditory cortex, we recorded FPs and concomitant multiunit activity with linear array multielectrodes across auditory cortex in three macaques (one female), and applied current source density (CSD) analysis to the laminar FP profile. CSD analysis revealed no appreciable local generator contribution to the visual FP in auditory cortex, although we did note an increase in the amplitude of visual FP with cortical depth, suggesting that their generators are located below auditory cortex. In the underlying inferotemporal cortex, we found polarity inversions of the main visual FP components accompanied by robust CSD responses and large-amplitude multiunit activity. These results indicate that face-evoked FP responses in auditory cortex are not generated locally but are volume-conducted from other face-responsive regions. In broader terms, our results underscore the caution that, unless far-field contamination is removed, LFPs in general may reflect such “far-field” activity, in addition to, or in absence of, local synaptic responses. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Field potentials (FPs) can index neuronal population activity that is not evident in action potentials. However, due to volume conduction, FPs may reflect activity in distant neurons superimposed upon that of neurons close to the recording electrode. This is

  16. Sexual signalling in female crested macaques and the evolution of primate fertility signals.

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    Higham, James P; Heistermann, Michael; Saggau, Carina; Agil, Muhammad; Perwitasari-Farajallah, Dyah; Engelhardt, Antje

    2012-06-18

    Female signals of fertility have evolved in diverse taxa. Among the most interesting study systems are those of multimale multifemale group-living primates, where females signal fertility to males through multiple signals, and in which there is substantial inter-specific variation in the composition and reliability of such signals. Among the macaques, some species display reliable behavioural and/or anogenital signals while others do not. One cause of this variation may be differences in male competitive regimes: some species show marked sexual dimorphism and reproductive skew, with males fighting for dominance, while others show low dimorphism and skew, with males queuing for dominance. As such, there is variation in the extent to which rank is a reliable proxy for male competitiveness, which may affect the extent to which it is in females' interest to signal ovulation reliably. However, data on ovulatory signals are absent from species at one end of the macaque continuum, where selection has led to high sexual dimorphism and male reproductive skew. Here we present data from 31 cycles of 19 wild female crested macaques, a highly sexually dimorphic species with strong mating skew. We collected measures of ovarian hormone data from faeces, sexual swelling size from digital images, and male and female behaviour. We show that both sexual swelling size and female proceptivity are graded-signals, but relatively reliable indicators of ovulation, with swelling size largest and female proceptive behaviours most frequent around ovulation. Sexual swelling size was also larger in conceptive cycles. Male mating behaviour was well timed to female ovulation, suggesting that males had accurate information about this. Though probabilistic, crested macaque ovulatory signals are relatively reliable. We argue that in species where males fight over dominance, male dominance rank is surrogate for competitiveness. Under these circumstances it is in the interest of females to increase

  17. Sexual signalling in female crested macaques and the evolution of primate fertility signals

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    Higham James P

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Female signals of fertility have evolved in diverse taxa. Among the most interesting study systems are those of multimale multifemale group-living primates, where females signal fertility to males through multiple signals, and in which there is substantial inter-specific variation in the composition and reliability of such signals. Among the macaques, some species display reliable behavioural and/or anogenital signals while others do not. One cause of this variation may be differences in male competitive regimes: some species show marked sexual dimorphism and reproductive skew, with males fighting for dominance, while others show low dimorphism and skew, with males queuing for dominance. As such, there is variation in the extent to which rank is a reliable proxy for male competitiveness, which may affect the extent to which it is in females’ interest to signal ovulation reliably. However, data on ovulatory signals are absent from species at one end of the macaque continuum, where selection has led to high sexual dimorphism and male reproductive skew. Here we present data from 31 cycles of 19 wild female crested macaques, a highly sexually dimorphic species with strong mating skew. We collected measures of ovarian hormone data from faeces, sexual swelling size from digital images, and male and female behaviour. Results We show that both sexual swelling size and female proceptivity are graded-signals, but relatively reliable indicators of ovulation, with swelling size largest and female proceptive behaviours most frequent around ovulation. Sexual swelling size was also larger in conceptive cycles. Male mating behaviour was well timed to female ovulation, suggesting that males had accurate information about this. Conclusion Though probabilistic, crested macaque ovulatory signals are relatively reliable. We argue that in species where males fight over dominance, male dominance rank is surrogate for competitiveness. Under these

  18. Shigella flexneri infection in a newly acquired rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta)

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jae-Il; Kim, Sang-Joon; Park, Chung-Gyu

    2011-01-01

    A 3.4 year-old rhesus macaque weighing 4.5 kg, was suffering from anorexia, acute mucous and bloody diarrhea. On physical examination, the monkey showed a loss of activity, hunched posture, abdominal pain, dehydration, mild gingivitis and unclean anus with discharge. Whole blood was collected for the examination of electrolytes, hematology and serum chemistry; fresh stool was also collected for bacterial culture. Blood profiles showed leukocytosis (14.5 K/?L) and neutrophilia (11.0 K/?L) on c...

  19. Short-term costs and benefits of grooming in Japanese macaques.

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    Schino, Gabriele; Alessandrini, Alessandro

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the short-term consequences of giving grooming in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in order to obtain information on its immediate costs and benefits. Giving grooming was associated with increased aggression received from groomees and decreased aggression received from third parties (but only as long as the groomer maintained proximity to the groomee). Grooming was also associated with decreased scratching rates. These results emphasize the unpredictable outcome of individual grooming interactions and the difficulties of social decision-making for monkeys living in despotic societies.

  20. Periostite metacarpiana dorsal: incidência e fatores pré-disponentes

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    Flávio Gomes de Oliveira

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Forty two 2-year-old thoroughbreds were examined clinically at intervals of 15 days during their training for the first race to determine the incidence and the predisposing factors of dorsal metacarpal disease. During the first year 25 horses were followed during 2 months and in the second year the follow up was done for 4 months in 17 . Horses' data like gender, average speed, speed exercise work and trainer were also collected. Dorsal metacarpal disease was diagnosed in 28% and 70,6% of the 2 year-old thoroughbreds in the first and second year of the study, respectively. Total incidence was 45%. The incidence and average speed was not affected by gender. The average speed achieved by affected and none affected horses remained between 16 and 18m/s. On 500 and 700m speed exercise, the average speed of affected horses was higher than of none affected ones (p<0,05. Ten out of 19 horses showed dorsal metacarpal disease signs at the distance of 700m. There was significant difference between trainers regarding the incidence of dorsal metacarpal disease and average speed of their horses. 2-year-olds under care of trainers whose horses had the highest incidence o dorsal metacarpal disease also were the fastest one's. Therefore, fast speed associated with longer distances (700m and trainer are factors that predispose young horses to dorsal metacarpal disease.

  1. The human dorsal action control system develops in the absence of vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiehler, Katja; Burke, Michael; Bien, Siegfried; Röder, Brigitte; Rösler, Frank

    2009-01-01

    The primate dorsal pathway has been proposed to compute vision for action. Although recent findings suggest that dorsal pathway structures contribute to somatosensory action control as well, it is yet not clear whether or not the development of dorsal pathway functions depends on early visual experience. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the pattern of cortical activation in congenitally blind and matched blindfolded sighted adults while performing kinesthetically guided hand movements. Congenitally blind adults activated similar dorsal pathway structures as sighted controls. Group-specific activations were found in the extrastriate cortex and the auditory cortex for congenitally blind humans and in the precuneus and the presupplementary motor area for sighted humans. Dorsal pathway activity was in addition observed for working memory maintenance of kinesthetic movement information in both groups. Thus, the results suggest that dorsal pathway functions develop in the absence of vision. This favors the idea of a general mechanism of movement control that operates regardless of the sensory input modality. Group differences in cortical activation patterns imply different movement control strategies as a function of visual experience.

  2. Dorsal stream involvement in recognition of objects with transient onset but not with ramped onset

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    Lourenco Tomas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the ventral visual stream is understood to be responsible for object recognition, it has been proposed that the dorsal stream may contribute to object recognition by rapidly activating parietal attention mechanisms, prior to ventral stream object processing. Methods To investigate the relative contribution of the dorsal visual stream to object recognition a group of tertiary students were divided into good and poor motion coherence groups and assessed on tasks classically assumed to rely on ventral stream processing. Participants were required to identify simple line drawings in two tasks, one where objects were presented abruptly for 50 ms followed by a white-noise mask, the other where contrast was linearly ramped on and off over 325 ms and replaced with a mask. Results Although both groups only differed in motion coherence performance (a dorsal stream measure, the good motion coherence group showed superior contrast sensitivity for object recognition on the abrupt, but not the ramped presentation tasks. Conclusions We propose that abrupt presentation of objects activated attention mechanisms fed by the dorsal stream, whereas the ramped presentation had reduced transience and thus did not activate dorsal attention mechanisms as well. The results suggest that rapid dorsal stream activation may be required to assist with ventral stream object processing.

  3. The usefulness of contrast material injection at the dorsal vein of the hand in 64-detecter row helical CT coronary angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Youji; Yakabe, Kazuaki; Urata, Jungo; Eto, Miyuki; Yamaguchi, Hiroichiro

    2011-01-01

    In 315 cases of multi detector row CT (MDCT) coronary angiography contrast material were injected at the dorsal vein of the hand. Early 168 cases were used 80 ml of 370 mgI/ml contrast material and later 147 cases were used 350-480 mgI/kg contrast material. In all cases contrast material was injected by 4 ml/sec with post injection of 30-40 ml physiologic saline. The attenuation of RCA No.3 and other coronary arteries or coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) graft was measured. In later cases the usefulness of above 300 HU was 95.2%. In all cases the usefulness was 92.6%. (author)

  4. Dorsal Medial Habenula Regulation of Mood-Related Behaviors and Primary Reinforcement by Tachykinin-Expressing Habenula Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yun-Wei A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Animal models have been developed to investigate aspects of stress, anxiety, and depression, but our understanding of the circuitry underlying these models remains incomplete. Prior studies of the habenula, a poorly understood nucleus in the dorsal diencephalon, suggest that projections to the medial habenula (MHb) regulate fear and anxiety responses, whereas the lateral habenula (LHb) is involved in the expression of learned helplessness, a model of depression. Tissue-specific deletion of the transcription factor Pou4f1 in the dorsal MHb (dMHb) results in a developmental lesion of this subnucleus. These dMHb-ablated mice show deficits in voluntary exercise, a possible correlate of depression. Here we explore the role of the dMHb in mood-related behaviors and intrinsic reinforcement. Lesions of the dMHb do not elicit changes in contextual conditioned fear. However, dMHb-lesioned mice exhibit shorter immobility time in the tail suspension test, another model of depression. dMHb-lesioned mice also display increased vulnerability to the induction of learned helplessness. However, this effect is not due specifically to the dMHb lesion, but appears to result from Pou4f1 haploinsufficiency elsewhere in the nervous system. Pou4f1 haploinsufficiency does not produce the other phenotypes associated with dMHb lesions. Using optogenetic intracranial self-stimulation, intrinsic reinforcement by the dMHb can be mapped to a specific population of neurokinin-expressing habenula neurons. Together, our data show that the dMHb is involved in the regulation of multiple mood-related behaviors, but also support the idea that these behaviors do not reflect a single functional pathway. PMID:27482535

  5. Task-related modulation of effective connectivity during perceptual decision making: Dissociation between dorsal and ventral prefrontal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rei eAkaishi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The dorsal and ventral parts of the lateral prefrontal cortex have been thought to play distinct roles in decision making. Although its dorsal part such as the frontal eye field (FEF is shown to play roles in accumulation of sensory information during perceptual decision making, the role of the ventral prefrontal cortex (PFv is not well-documented. Previous studies have suggested that the PFv is involved in selective attention to the task-relevant information and is associated with accuracy of the behavioral performance. It is unknown, however, whether the accumulation and selection processes are anatomically dissociated between the FEF and PFv. Here we show that, by using concurrent TMS and EEG recording, the short-latency (20 – 40 ms TMS-evoked potentials after stimulation of the FEF change as a function of the time to behavioral response, whereas those after stimulation of the PFv change depending on whether the response is correct or not. The potentials after stimulation of either region did not show significant interaction between time to response and performance accuracy, suggesting dissociation between the processes subserved by the FEF and PFv networks. The results are consistent with the idea that the network involving the FEF plays a role in information accumulation, whereas the network involving the PFv plays a role in selecting task relevant information. In addition, stimulation of the FEF and PFv induced activation in common regions in the dorsolateral and medial frontal cortices, suggesting convergence of information processed in the two regions. Taken together, the results suggest dissociation between the FEF and PFv networks for their computational roles in perceptual decision making. The study also highlights the advantage of TMS-EEG technique in investigating the computational processes subserved by the neural network in the human brain with a high temporal resolution.

  6. Task-related modulation of effective connectivity during perceptual decision making: dissociation between dorsal and ventral prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaishi, Rei; Ueda, Naoko; Sakai, Katsuyuki

    2013-01-01

    The dorsal and ventral parts of the lateral prefrontal cortex have been thought to play distinct roles in decision making. Although its dorsal part such as the frontal eye field (FEF) is shown to play roles in accumulation of sensory information during perceptual decision making, the role of the ventral prefrontal cortex (PFv) is not well-documented. Previous studies have suggested that the PFv is involved in selective attention to the task-relevant information and is associated with accuracy of the behavioral performance. It is unknown, however, whether the accumulation and selection processes are anatomically dissociated between the FEF and PFv. Here we show that, by using concurrent TMS and EEG recording, the short-latency (20-40 ms) TMS-evoked potentials after stimulation of the FEF change as a function of the time to behavioral response, whereas those after stimulation of the PFv change depending on whether the response is correct or not. The potentials after stimulation of either region did not show significant interaction between time to response and performance accuracy, suggesting dissociation between the processes subserved by the FEF and PFv networks. The results are consistent with the idea that the network involving the FEF plays a role in information accumulation, whereas the network involving the PFv plays a role in selecting task relevant information. In addition, stimulation of the FEF and PFv induced activation in common regions in the dorsolateral and medial frontal cortices, suggesting convergence of information processed in the two regions. Taken together, the results suggest dissociation between the FEF and PFv networks for their computational roles in perceptual decision making. The study also highlights the advantage of TMS-EEG technique in investigating the computational processes subserved by the neural network in the human brain with a high temporal resolution.

  7. Dorsal premotor cortex is involved in switching motor plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Bernier, Alexandre; Tremblay, Elsa; Cisek, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that neural activity in primate dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) can simultaneously represent multiple potential movement plans, and that activity related to these movement options is modulated by their relative subjective desirability. These findings support the hypothesis that decisions about actions are made through a competition within the same circuits that guide the actions themselves. This hypothesis further predicts that the very same cells that guide initial decisions will continue to update their activities if an animal changes its mind. For example, if a previously selected movement option suddenly becomes unavailable, the correction will be performed by the same cells that selected the initial movement, as opposed to some different group of cells responsible for online guidance. We tested this prediction by recording neural activity in the PMd of a monkey performing an instructed-delay reach selection task. In the task, two targets were simultaneously presented and their border styles indicated whether each would be worth 1, 2, or 3 juice drops. In a random subset of trials (FREE), the monkey was allowed a choice while in the remaining trials (FORCED) one of the targets disappeared at the time of the GO signal. In FORCED-LOW trials the monkey was forced to move to the less valuable target and started moving either toward the new target (Direct) or toward the target that vanished and then curved to reach the remaining one (Curved). Prior to the GO signal, PMd activity clearly reflected the monkey's subjective preference, predicting his choices in FREE trials even with equally valued options. In FORCED-LOW trials, PMd activity reflected the switch of the monkey's plan as early as 100 ms after the GO signal, well before movement onset (MO). This confirms that the activity is not related to feedback from the movement itself, and suggests that PMd continues to participate in action selection even when the animal changes its mind on

  8. Bereitschaftspotentials recorded from the lateral part of the superior frontal gyrus in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Shinji; Ikeda, Akio; Matsuhashi, Masao; Satow, Takeshi; Kunieda, Takeharu; Mikuni, Nobuhiro; Baba, Koichi; Mihara, Tadahiro; Miyamoto, Susumu; Shibasaki, Hiroshi

    2006-05-15

    To demonstrate the Bereitschaftspotentials (BPs) over the high lateral convexity in the superior frontal gyrus, movement-related cortical potentials with respect to the middle finger extension were recorded in seven patients with refractory epilepsy who underwent subdural implantation of platinum electrode grids and/or strips covering the high lateral frontal convexity. In two out of the seven patients, BPs were recorded from the electrodes placed on the superior frontal gyrus in the vicinity of the border between the medial and lateral frontal lobes, which were distinct from those recorded from the primary sensorimotor cortex. The results suggest the possible contribution of either the lateral dorsal non-primary motor area or the SMA to the generation of the BPs.

  9. Robotic lateral pancreaticojejunostomy (Puestow).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, John J; Sawin, Robert

    2011-06-01

    A lateral pancreaticojejunostomy (LPJ), also known as the Puestow procedure, is a complex procedure performed for chronic pancreatitis when the pancreatic duct is dilated and unable to drain properly. Traditionally, these procedures are performed with open surgery. A minimally invasive approach to the LPJ using rigid handheld nonarticulating instruments is tedious and rarely performed. In fact, there are no prior laparoscopic case reports for LPJ in children and only a small handful of cases in the adult literature. This lack of laparoscopic information may be an indication of the difficulty in performing this complex operation with nonarticulating laparoscopic instruments. The advantages of robotic surgery may help overcome these difficulties. We present the first robotic LPJ ever reported in a 14-year-old child with idiopathic chronic pancreatitis. This case demonstrates the utility of this advanced surgical technology and may lead to a new minimally invasive option for both adults and children with chronic pancreatitis requiring surgical intervention. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Lateral loadings on snubber assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raphael, L.S.

    1981-01-01

    This paper examines the installation of snubber assemblies in power plants with respect to transverse or lateral loads as well as axial loads. Evaluation of the effects of low level, lateral loads was performed by analytical means. At higher loadings, the snubber assembly could no longer be treated as a column; therefore, the effects of lateral loadings was determined by test. The test consisted of applying both lateral and axial loads simultaneously. Results of both the analysis and the test showed that the application of lateral loads had a considerable effect on the snubber assemblies

  11. It takes two-skilled recognition of objects engages lateral areas in both hemispheres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merim Bilalić

    Full Text Available Our object recognition abilities, a direct product of our expe